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Title: Montessori Elementary Materials - The Advanced Montessori Method
Author: Montessori, Maria, 1870-1952
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Montessori Elementary Materials - The Advanced Montessori Method" ***

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produced from scanned images of public domain material

[Transcriber's Notes: Bold text is surrounded by =equal signs= and
italic text by _underscores_. Superscripted text will be precede by a ^
and surrounded by {braces}.

Two symbols were used to show stressed and unstressed syllables. These
have been represented by U and --.]


[Illustration: The first Montessori Elementary Class in America, opened
in Rivington Street, New York, May, 1916.]










    _Copyright, 1917, by_

    _All rights reserved, including that of translation into
    foreign languages._


The patent rights in the Montessori apparatus and material are
controlled, in the United States and Canada, by The House of Childhood,
Inc., 16 Horatio Street, New York. The publishers are indebted to them
for the photographs showing the Grammar Boxes.


So far as Dr. Montessori's experiments contain the affirmation of a new
doctrine and the illustration of a new method in regard to the teaching
of Grammar, Reading and Metrics, the following pages are, we hope, a
faithful rendition of her work. But it is only in these respects that
the chapters devoted to these subjects are to be considered a
translation. It will be observed that Dr. Montessori's text is not only
a theoretical treatise but also an actual text-book for the teaching of
Italian grammar, Italian reading and Italian metrics to young pupils.
Her exercises constitute a rigidly "tested" material: her Italian word
lists are lists which, in actual practise, have accomplished their
purpose; her grammatical categories with their relative illustration are
those actually mastered by her Italian students; her reading selections
and her metrical analyses are those which, from an offering doubtless
far more extensive, actually survived the experiment of use in class.

It is obvious that no such value can be claimed for any "translation" of
the original material. The categories of Italian grammar are not exactly
the categories of English grammar. The morphology and, to a certain
extent, the syntax of the various parts of speech differ in the two
languages. The immediate result is that the Montessori material offers
much that is inapplicable and fails to touch on much that is essential
to the teaching of English grammar. The nature and extent of the
difficulties thus arising are more fully set forth in connection with
specific cases in our text. Suffice it here to indicate that the
English material offered below is but approximately "experimental,"
approximately scientific. The constitution of a definitive Montessori
material for English grammar and the definitive manner and order of its
presentment must await the results of experiments in actual use. For the
clearer orientation of such eventual experiments we offer, even for
those parts of Italian grammar which bear no relation to English, a
virtually complete translation of the original text; venturing meanwhile
the suggestion that such studies as Dr. Montessori's treatise on the
teaching of Italian noun and adjective inflections--entirely foreign to
English--may prove valuable to all teachers of modern languages. While
it might seem desirable to isolate such superfluous material from the
"English grammar" given below, we decided to retain the relative
paragraphs in their actual position in the Italian work, in order to
preserve the literal integrity of the original method. Among our
additions to the text we may cite the exercises on the possessive
pronouns--identified by Dr. Montessori with the possessive
adjectives--the interrogatives and the comparison of adjectives and

Even where, as regards morphology, a reasonably close adaptation of the
Italian material to English uses has been possible, it by no means
follows that the pedagogical problems involved remain the same. The
teaching of the relative pronoun, for instance, is far more complicated
in English than in Italian; in the sense that the steps to be taken by
the child are for English more numerous and of a higher order. Likewise
for the verb, if Italian is more difficult as regards variety of forms,
it is much more simple as regards negation, interrogation and
progressive action. We have made no attempt to be consistent in adapting
the translation to such difficulties. In general we have treated the
parts of speech in the order in which they appear in the Italian text,
though actual experiment may prove that some other order is desirable
for the teaching of English grammar. The English material given below is
thus in part a translation of the original exercises in Italian, in part
new. In cases where it proved impossible to utilize any of the Italian
material, an attempt has been made to find sentences illustrating the
same pedagogical principle and involving the same number and character
of mental processes as are required by the original text.

The special emphasis laid by Dr. Montessori upon selections from Manzoni
is due simply to the peculiar conditions surrounding the teaching of
language in Italy, where general concepts of the national language are
affected by the existence of powerful dialects and the unstable nature
of the grammar, vocabulary and syntax of the national literature. We
have made no effort to find a writer worthy of being set up as a like
authority, since no such problem exists for the American and English
public. Our citations are drawn to a large extent from the "Book of
Knowledge" and from a number of classics. Occasionally for special
reasons we have translated the Italian original. The chapter on Italian
metrics has been translated entire as an illustration of method; whereas
the portion relating to English is, as explained below, entirely of
speculative character.

To Miss Helen Parkhurst and Miss Emily H. Greenman thanks are due for
the translation of the chapters on Arithmetic, Geometry, and Drawing.




  TRANSLATOR'S NOTE                                               vii

  CHAPTER                                                        PAGE

  I. The Transition from the Mechanical to the Intellectual
        Development of Language                                     3

  II. WORD STUDY                                                   12
    Suffixes and Prefixes                                          13
      Suffixes                                                     13
      Prefixes                                                     17
      Compound Words                                               18
      Word-Families                                                20

  III. ARTICLE AND NOUN                                            22
    Singular and Plural                                            25
    Masculine and Feminine                                         27
    Singular and Plural in English                                 33

  IV. LESSONS--COMMANDS                                            39
    Nouns                                                          40
    Commands on Nouns                                              48

  V. ADJECTIVES                                                    51
    Analyses                                                       51
    Descriptive Adjectives                                         51
    Permutations                                                   55
    Inflection of Adjectives                                       56
    Logical and Grammatical Agreement of Nouns and Adjectives      59
    Descriptive Adjectives                                         61
    Adjectives of Quantity                                         63
    Ordinals                                                       64
    Demonstrative Adjectives                                       64
    Possessive Adjectives                                          65
    Comparison of Adjectives                                       65

  VI. VERBS                                                        66
    Analyses                                                       66
    Permutations                                                   68
    Lessons and Commands on the Verb                               69
    Lessons with Experiments                                       74

  VII. PREPOSITIONS                                                77
    Analyses                                                       77
    Permutations                                                   80
    Lessons and Commands on Prepositions                           81

  VIII. ADVERBS                                                    85
    Analyses                                                       85
    Permutations                                                   87
    Lessons and Commands on Adverbs                                90
    A Burst of Activity: the Future of the Written Language in
         Popular Education                                         93
    Commands Improvised by the Children                            96

  IX. PRONOUNS                                                     98
    Analyses                                                       98
      Personals                                                    98
      Demonstratives                                               99
      Relatives and Interrogatives                                 99
      Possessives                                                 101
    Permutations                                                  101
    Lessons and Commands on the Pronoun                           102
    Paradyms                                                      106
    Agreement of Pronoun and Verb                                 108
    Conjugation of Verbs                                          110

  X. CONJUNCTIONS                                                 113
    Analyses                                                      113
      Coordinates                                                 113
      Subordinates                                                114
    Permutations                                                  115
    Lessons and Commands on the Conjunction                       115
    Comparison of Adjectives                                      117

  XI. INTERJECTIONS                                               120
    Analyses                                                      120
    Classification                                                122

  XII. SENTENCE ANALYSIS                                          124
    Simple Sentences                                              124
    The Order of Elements in the Sentence: Permutations           132
    Compound and Complex Sentences                                136
    Test Cards                                                    140
    The Order of Clauses in the Sentence: Sentence Forms
        in Prose and Verse                                        144
    Permutations                                                  147
    Test Cards                                                    151
    Coordinating and Subordinating Conjunctions                   155
    Sequence of Tenses                                            157
    Punctuation                                                   160

  XIII. WORD CLASSIFICATION                                       164
    Kinds of Words                                                164
    Classified According to Formation                             164
    Classified According to Inflection                            165
    Classified According to Their Use                             165



  I. EXPRESSION AND INTERPRETATION                                171
    Mechanical Processes                                          171
    Analysis                                                      173
    Experimental Section: Reading Aloud                           179
    Interpretations                                               182
    Audition                                                      196
    The Most Popular Books                                        198



  I. ARITHMETICAL OPERATIONS                                      205
    Numbers 1-10                                                  205
    Tens, Hundreds and Thousands                                  208
    Counting-frames                                               210

  II. THE MULTIPLICATION TABLE                                    217

  III. DIVISION                                                   223

  IV. OPERATIONS IN SEVERAL FIGURES                               225
    Addition                                                      225
    Subtraction                                                   227
    Multiplication                                                228
    Multiplying on Ruled Paper                                    235
    Long Division                                                 237

  V. EXERCISES WITH NUMBERS                                       241
    Multiples, Prime Numbers and Factoring                        241

  VI. SQUARE AND CUBE OF NUMBERS                                  251



  I. PLANE GEOMETRY                                               259

  II. DIDACTIC MATERIAL USED FOR GEOMETRY                         265
    Squares and Divided Figures                                   265
    Fractions                                                     267
    Reduction of Common Fractions to Decimal Fractions            273
    Equivalent Figures                                            277
    Some Theorems Based on Equivalent Figures                     282
    Division of a Triangle                                        289
    Inscribed and Concentric Figures                              290

  III. SOLID GEOMETRY                                             292
    The Powers of Numbers                                         294
    The Cube of a Binomial                                        295
    Weights and Measures                                          295



  I. LINEAR GEOMETRIC DESIGN DECORATION                           301
    Artistic Composition with the Insets                          305

  II. FREE-HAND DRAWING: STUDIES FROM LIFE                        307



  I. THE SCALE                                                    319

  II. THE READING AND WRITING OF MUSIC                            326
    Treble and Bass Clefs                                         328

  III. THE MAJOR SCALES                                           333

  IV. EXERCISES IN RHYTHM                                         341
    Singing                                                       365
    Musical Phrases for Rhythmic Exercises                        367

  V. MUSICAL AUDITIONS                                            376



    Stanza and line                                               384
    Rhyme                                                         384
    Tonic accents (stresses)                                      385
    Parisyllabic lines                                            386
    Imparisyllabic lines                                          388
    The cæsura                                                    391
    Metrical analyses                                             392
    Translator's note on English metrics                          395
    Material for nomenclature                                     404

  APPENDIX I                                                      409

  APPENDIX II                                                     423


  The first Montessori Elementary Class in America        _Frontispiece_

  One of the first steps in grammar                                  24

  Grammar Boxes, showing respectively two and three parts of
     speech                                                          25

  Grammar Boxes, showing respectively four and five parts of
     speech                                                          78

  Grammar Boxes, showing respectively six and seven parts of
     speech                                                          79

  Grammar Boxes, showing respectively eight and nine parts of
     speech                                                         114

  The children working at their various occupations in complete
     freedom                                                        115

  Interpreted reading: "Smile and clap your hands"                  174

  Interpreted reading: "Take off your hat and make a low bow"       175

  Interpreted reading: "Whisper to him"                             188

  Interpreting the pose and expression of a picture                 189

  Interpreted reading: "She was sleepy; she leaned her arms on
     the table, her head on her arms, and went to sleep"            200

  Exercises in interpreted reading and in arithmetic                201

  The bead material used for addition and subtraction               214

  Counting and calculating by means of the bead chains              214

  The bead chain, square, and cube                                  215

  The first bead frame                                              215

  The second counting-frame used in arithmetic                      226

  Working out problems in seven figures                             227

  Solving a problem in long division                                238

  Bead squares and cubes; and the arithmetic-board for
     multiplication and division                                    239

  The bead number cubes built into a tower                          282

  The decagon and the rectangle composed of the same
     triangular insets                                              283

  The triangular insets fitted into their metal plates              283

  Showing that the two rhomboids are equal to the two rectangles    288

  Showing that the two rhomboids are equal to the two squares       289

  Hollow geometric solids                                           296

  Designs formed by arranging sections of the insets within the
     frames                                                         297

  Making decorative designs with the aid of geometric insets        312

  Water-color paintings from nature                                 313

  The monocord                                                      334

  Material for indicating the intervals of the major scale          334

  The music bars                                                    335

  The children using the music bells and the wooden keyboards       352

  Analyzing the beat of a measure while walking on a line           353






In the "Children's Houses" we had reached a stage of development where
the children could write words and even sentences. They read little
slips on which were written different actions which they were to
execute, thus demonstrating that they had understood them. The material
for the development of writing and reading consisted of two alphabets: a
larger one with vowels and consonants in different colors, and a smaller
one with all the letters in one color.

(In English, to diminish the phonetic difficulties of the language,
combinations of vowels and consonants, known as phonograms, are used.
The phonograms with few exceptions have constant sounds and little
attention is paid to the teaching of the separate values of the
different letters: not until the child has built up his rules
inductively does he realize the meaning of separate vowel symbols.)

However, the actual amount of progress made was not very precisely
ascertained. We could be sure only that the children had acquired the
mechanical technique of writing and reading and were on the way to a
greater intellectual development along these lines. Their progress,
however extensive it may have been, could be called little more than a
foundation for their next step in advance, the elementary school. What
beyond all question was accomplished with the little child in the first
steps of our method was to establish the psycho-motor mechanism of the
written word by a slow process of maturation such as takes place in the
natural growth of articulate speech; in other words, by methodically
exercising psycho-motor paths.

Later on the child's mind is able to make use of the successive
operations performed with the written language which has been thus built
up by the child as a matter of mechanical execution (writing) and to a
certain extent of intelligent interpretation (reading). Normally this is
an established fact at the age of five. When the child begins to think
and to make use of the written language to express his rudimentary
thinking, he is ready for elementary work; and this fitness is a
question not of age or other incidental circumstance but of mental

We have said, of course, that the children stayed in the "Children's
House" up to the age of seven; nevertheless they learned to write, to
count, to read, and even to do a certain amount of simple composition.
It is clear, accordingly, that they had gone some distance in the
elementary grade as regards both age and educational development.
However, what they had actually accomplished beyond the mechanical
technique of writing was more or less difficult to estimate. We can now
say that our later experiments have not only clarified this situation,
but enabled us to take the children much farther along than

This only proves, however, that on beginning elementary grade work we
did not depart from the "Children's House" idea; on the contrary we
returned to it to give distinct realization to the nebulous hopes with
which our first course concluded. Hence the "Children's House" and the
lower grades are not two distinct things as is the case with the Fröbel
Kindergarten and the ordinary primary school--in fact, they are one and
the same thing, the continuation of an identical process.

Let us return then to the "Children's House" and consider the child of
five and one-half years. To-day in those "Children's Houses" which have
kept up with the improvements in our method the child is actually
started on his elementary education. From the second alphabet of the
"Children's House" we go on to a third alphabet. Here the movable
letters are a great deal smaller and are executed in model hand-writing.
There are twenty specimens of each letter, whereas formerly there were
but four; furthermore, there are three complete alphabets, one white,
one black, and one red. There are, therefore, sixty copies of each
letter of the alphabet. We include also all the punctuation marks:
period, comma, accents (for Italian), apostrophe, interrogation and
exclamation points. The letters are made of plain glazed paper.

The uses of this alphabet are many; so before we stop to examine them
let us look somewhat ahead. Everybody has recognized the naturalness of
the exercise, used in the "Children's House," where the children placed
a card bearing the name of an object on the object referred to. This was
the first lesson in reading. We could see that the child knew how to
read as soon as he was able to identify the object indicated on the
card. In schools all over the world a similar procedure would, I
imagine, be considered logical. I suppose that in all the schools where
the objective method is used much the same thing is done; and this is
found to be not a hindrance but a help to the child in learning the
names of objects. As regards the teaching of the noun, accordingly, we
have been using methods already in use--the objective method, with
practical exercises. But why should we restrict such methods to the
noun? Is the noun not just as truly a _part of speech_ as the adjective,
or the verb? If there is a method by which the knowledge of a noun is
made easy, may there not be similar ways of facilitating the learning of
all the other parts of speech (article, adjective, verb, pronoun,
adverb, interjection, conjunction, and preposition)?

When a slip with the interpreted word is placed on the object
corresponding to it, the children are actually distinguishing the noun
from all the other parts of speech. They are learning intuitively to
define it. The first step has thus been taken into the realm of grammar.
But if this "reading" has brought the child directly into word
_classification_, the transition has not been for him so abrupt as might
at first appear. The child has built _all_ his words with the movable
alphabet, and he has, in addition, _written_ them. He has thus traversed
a two-fold preparatory exercise involving, first, the analysis of the
sounds and, second, the analysis of the words in their meaning. In fact,
we have seen that, as the child reads, it is his discovery of the tonic
accent that brings him to recognize the word. The child has begun to
analyze not only the sounds and accent but also the form of the word.[1]

How absurd it would seem to suggest a study of phonology and morphology
in a nursery with four-year-old children as investigators! Yet our
children have accomplished this very thing! The analysis was the means
of attaining the word. It was what made the child able to write without
effort. Why should such a procedure be useful for single words and not
so for connected discourse? Proceeding to the classification of words by
distinguishing the noun from all other words, we have really advanced
into the analysis of connected speech, just as truly as, by having the
sand-papered letters "touched" and the word pronounced, we took the
first step into the analysis of words. We have only to carry the process
farther and perhaps we shall succeed in getting the analysis of whole
sentences, just as we succeeded in getting at the composition of
words--discovering meanwhile a method which will prove efficacious in
leading the child to write his thoughts more perfectly than would seem
possible at such a tender age.

For some time, then, we have been actually in the field of grammar. It
is a question simply of continuing along the same path. The undertaking
may indeed seem hazardous. Never mind! That "awful grammar," that
horrible bugaboo, no less terrible than the frightful method, once in
use, of learning to read and write, may perhaps become a delightful
exercise, a loving guide to lead the child along pleasant pathways to
the _discovery_ of things he has _actually performed_. Yes, the child
will suddenly find himself, one day, in possession of a little
composition, a little "work of art," that has issued from his own pen!
And he will be as happy over it as he was when for the first time words
were formed by his tiny hands!

How different grammar will seem to the young pupil, if, instead of being
the cruel assassin that tears the sentence to pieces so that nothing can
be understood, it becomes the amiable and indispensable help to "the
construction of connected discourse"! It used to be so easy to say: "The
sentence is written! Please leave it alone!" Why put asunder what God
has joined? Why take away from a sentence its meaning, the very thing
which gave it life? Why make of it a mere mass of senseless words? Why
spoil something already perfect just for the annoyance of plunging into
an analysis which has no apparent purpose? Indeed, to impose upon people
who can already read the task of reducing every word to its primal
sounds, would be to demand of them an effort of will so gigantic that
only a professional philologist could apply himself to it with the
necessary diligence, and then only because he has his own particular
interests and aims involved in such work. Yet the four-year-old child,
when he passes from those meaningless sounds to the composition of a
whole, which corresponds to an idea and represents a useful and
wonderful conquest, is just as attentive as the philologist and perhaps
even more enthusiastic. He will find the same joy in grammar, if,
starting from analyses, it gains progressively in significance,
acquiring, step by step, a greater interest, working finally up to a
climax, up to the moment, that is, when the finished sentence is before
him, its meaning clear and _felt_ in its subtlest essences. The child
has created something beautiful, full grown and perfect at its birth,
not now to be tampered with by anybody!

The analysis of sounds which, in our method, leads to spontaneous
writing, is not, to be sure, adapted to all ages. It is when the child
is four or four and a half, that he shows the characteristically
childlike passion for such work, which keeps him at it longer than at
any other age, and leads him to develop perfection in the mechanical
aspect of writing. Similarly the analytical study of parts of speech,
the passionate lingering over words, is not for children of all ages. It
is the children between five and seven who are the _word-lovers_. It is
they who show a predisposition toward such study. Their undeveloped
minds can not yet grasp a complete idea with distinctness. They do,
however, understand _words_. And they may be entirely carried away by
their ecstatic, their tireless interest in the _parts_ of speech.

It is true that our whole method was born of heresy. The first departure
from orthodoxy was in holding that the child can best learn to write
between the ages of four and five. We are now constrained to advance
another heretical proposition: children should begin the study of
grammar between the ages of five and a half and seven and a half, or

The idea that analysis must be preceded by construction was a matter of
mere prejudice. Only things produced by nature must be analyzed before
they can be understood. The violet, for instance, is found perfect in
nature. We have to tear off the petals, cut the flower into sections to
see how it grew. But in making an artificial violet we do just the
opposite. We prepare the stems piece by piece; then we work out the
petals, cutting, coloring, and ironing them one by one. The preparation
of the stamens, even of the glue with which we put the whole together,
is a distinct process. A few simple-minded people, with a gift for
light manual labor, take unbounded delight in these single operations,
these wonderfully varied steps which all converge to the creation of a
pretty flower; the beauty of which depends on the amount of patience and
skill applied to the work on the individual parts.

Analysis, furthermore, is involved quite as much in building as in
taking to pieces. The building of a house is an analytical process. The
stones are treated one by one from cellar to roof. The person who puts
the house together knows it in its minutest details and has a far more
accurate idea of its construction than the man who tears it down. This
is true, first, because the process of construction lasts much longer
than that of demolition: more time is spent on the study of the
different parts. But besides this, the builder has a point of view
different from that of the man who is destroying. The sensation of
seeing a harmonious whole fall into meaningless bits has nothing in
common with the alternating impulses of hope, surprise or satisfaction
which come to a workman as he sees his edifice slowly assuming its
destined form.

For these and still other reasons, the child, when interested in words
at a certain age, can utilize grammar to good purpose, dwelling
analytically upon the various parts of speech according as the processes
of his inner spiritual growth determine. In this way he comes to own his
language perfectly, and to acquire some appreciation of its qualities
and power.

Our grammar is not a book. The nouns (names), which the child was to
place on the objects they referred to as soon as he understood their
meaning, were written on cards. Similarly the words, belonging to all
the other parts of speech, are written on cards. These cards are all of
the same dimensions: oblongs (5 × 3-1/2 cmm.) of different colors: black
for the noun; tan for the article; brown for the adjective; red for the
verb; pink for the adverb; violet for the preposition; yellow for the
conjunction; blue for the interjection.

These cards go in special boxes, eight in number. The first box has two
compartments simply; the second, however, three; the third, four; and so
on down to the eighth, which is divided into nine. One wall in each
section is somewhat higher than the others. This is to provide space for
a card with a title describing the contents of the section. It bears,
that is, the name of the relative part of speech. The title-card,
furthermore, is of the same color as that used for the part of speech to
which it refers. The teacher is expected to arrange these boxes so as to
provide for the study of two or more parts of speech. However, our
experiments have enabled us to make the exercises very specific in
character; so that the teacher has at her disposal not only a thoroughly
prepared material but also something to facilitate her work and to check
up the accuracy of it.


[1] The process of learning to read has been more fully set forth in
_The Montessori Method_; the child at first pronounces the sounds
represented by the individual letters (phonograms), without
understanding what they mean. As he repeats the word several times he
comes to read more rapidly. Eventually he discovers the tonic accent of
the word, which is then immediately identified.



When a little child begins to read he shows a keen desire to learn
words, words, words! Indeed in the "Children's House" we had that
impressive phenomenon of the children's tireless reading of the little
slips of paper upon which were written the names of objects.

The child must acquire his word-store for himself. The peculiar
characteristic of the child's vocabulary is its meagerness. But he is
nearing the age when he will need to express his thoughts and he must
now acquire the material necessary for that time. Many people must have
noticed the intense attention given by children to the conversation of
grown-ups when they cannot possibly be understanding a word of what they
hear. They are trying to get hold of _words_, and they often demonstrate
this fact by repeating joyously some word which they have been able to
grasp. We should second this tendency in the child by giving him an
abundant material and by organizing for him such exercises as his
reactions clearly show us are suitable for him.

The material used in our system not only is very abundant, but it has
been dictated to us by rigid experimentation on every detail. However,
the same successive choices of material do not appear among the children
as a whole. Indeed their individual differences begin to assert
themselves progressively at this point in their education. The
exercises are easy for some children and very hard for others, nor is
the order of selection the same among all the children. The teacher
should know this material thoroughly. She should be able to recognize
the favorable moment for presenting the material to the child. As a
matter of fact, a little experience with the material is sufficient to
show the teacher that the educational facts develop spontaneously and in
such a way as to simplify the teacher's task in a most surprising


Here we use charts with printed lists of words which may be hung on the
wall. The children can look at them and also take them in their hands.



      _buono_ (_good_): buonuccio, buonino, buonissimo

      _casa_ (_house_): casona, casetta, casettina,
      casuccia, casaccia, casettaccia

      _formica_ (_ant_): formicona, formicuccia, formicola,

      _ragazzo_ (_boy_): ragazzone, ragazzino, ragazaccio,

      _lettera_ (_letter_): letterina, letterona,
      letteruccia, letteraccia

      _campana_ (_bell_): campanone, campanello,
      campanellino, campanino, campanaccio

      _giovane_ (_youth_): giovanetto, giovincello,

      _fiore_ (_flower_): fioretto, fiorellino, fioraccio,

      _tavolo_ (_board_): tavolino, tavoletta, tavolone,

      _seggiola_ (_chair_): seggiolone, seggiolina,

      _pietra_ (_stone_): pietruzza, pietrina, pietrone,

      _sasso_ (_rock_): sassetto, sassolino, sassettino,
      sassone, sassaccio

      _cesto_ (_basket_): cestino, cestone, cestello,

      _piatto_ (_plate_): piattino, piattello, piattone

      _pianta_ (_plant_ or _tree_): piantina, pianticella,
      pianticina, pianterella, piantona, piantaccia

      _fuoco_ (_fire_): fuochetto, fuochino, fuocherello,
      fuocone, fuochettino

      _festa_ (_festival_): festicciola, festona, festaccia

      _piede_ (_foot_): piedino, piedone, pieduccio,

      _mano_ (_hand_): manina, manona, manaccia, manuccia

      _seme_ (_seed_): semino, semetto, semone, semaccio,

      _semplice_ (_simple person_): semplicino, semplicetto,
      sempliciotto, semplicione

      _ghiotto_ ("_sweet-tooth_"): ghiottone, ghiottoncello,
      ghiottaccio, ghiottissimo

      _vecchio_ (_old man_): vecchietto, vecchione,
      vecchiaccio, vecchissimo

      _cieco_ (_blind_): ciechino, ciechetto, ciecolino,
      ciecone, ciecaccio

Note:--The rôle of augmentative and diminutive suffixes in English is
vastly less important than in Italian. Here are a few specimens:


The child's exercise is as follows: he composes the first word in any
line with the alphabet of a single color (e.g., black). Next underneath
and using the alphabet of the same color, he repeats the letters in the
second word which he sees also in the first. But just as soon as a
letter changes he uses the alphabet of another color (e.g., red). In
this way the root is always shown by one color, the suffixes by another;
for example:--


_For English:_


Then the child chooses another word and repeats the same exercise. Often
he finds for himself words not included in the list which is given him.

In the following chart the suffixes are constant while the root varies.
Here the suffix changes the meaning of the word. From the original
meaning is derived the word for a trade, a place of business, an action,
a collective or an abstract idea. Naturally, the child does not realize
all this at first but limits himself merely to building the words
mechanically with the two alphabets. Later on, however, as grammar is
developed, he may return to the reading of these charts, which are
always at his disposal, and begin to realize the value of the


  macello (slaughter)       macellaio (butcher)
  sella (saddle)            sellaio (saddler)
  forno (oven)              fornaio (baker)
  cappello (hat)            capellaio (hatter)
  vetro (glass)             vetreria (glaziery)
  calzolaio (shoe-maker)    calzoleria (shoe-shop)
  libro (book)              libreria (book-store)
  oste (host)               osteria (inn)
  pane (bread)              panetteria (bakery)
  cera (wax)                cereria (chandler's shop)
  dente (tooth)             dentista (dentist)
  farmacia (pharmacy)       farmacista (druggist)
  elettricita (electricity) elettricista (electrician)
  telefono (telephone)      telefonista (telephone operator)
  arte (art)                artista (artist)
  bestia (beast)            bestiame (cattle)
  osso (bone)               ossame (bones, _collective_)
  corda (string)            cordame (strings, _collective_)
  foglia (leaf)             fogliame (foliage)
  pollo (chicken)           pollame (poultry)
  grato (grateful)          gratitudine (gratitude)
  beato (blessed)           beatitudine (blessedness)
  inquieto (uneasy)         inquietudine (uneasiness)
  grano (grain)             granaio (barn)
  colombo (dove)            colombaio (dove-cote)
  paglia (straw)            pagliaio (hay-stack)
  frutto (fruit)            frutteto (orchard)
  canna (reed)              canneto (brake)
  oliva (olive)             oliveto (olive-grove)
  quercia (oak)             querceto (oak-grove)


  teach           teacher
  sing            singer
  work            worker
  cater           caterer
  wring           wringer
  conduct         conductor
  direct          director
  launder         laundry
  seam            seamstress
  song            songstress
  priest          priestess
  mister          mistress
  cow             cowherd
  piano           pianist
  art             artist
  pharmacy        pharmacist
  drug            druggist
  physic          physician
  prison          prisoner
  house           household
  earl            earldom
  king            kingdom
  count           county
  real            reality
  modern          modernness
  good            goodness
  sad             sadness
  aloof           aloofness

The child's exercise with the two alphabets will be as follows:

    frutto     frutt_eto_
    canna      cann_eto_
    oliva      oliv_eto_
    quercia    querc_eto_

_For English_:

  song        song_ster_      song_stress_
  art         art_ist_        art_less_    art_ful_



      _nodo_ (_knot_): annodare, snodare, risnodare

      _scrivere_ (_write_): riscrivere, trascrivere,
      sottoscrivere, descrivere

      _coprire_ (_cover_): scoprire, riscoprire

      _gancio_ (_hook_): agganciare, sganciare, riagganciare

      _legare_ (_bind_): collegare, rilegare, allegare,

      _bottone_ (_button_): abbottonare, sbottonare,

      _macchiare_ (_spot_): smacchiare, rismacchiare

      _chiudere_ (_close_): socchiudere, schiudere,
      richiudere, rinchiudere

      _guardare_ (_look at_): riguardare, traguardare,

      _vedere_ (_see_): travedere, rivedere, intravedere

      _perdere_ (_lose_): disperdere, sperdere, riperdere

      _mettere_ (_put_, _place_): smettere, emettere,
      rimettere, permettere, commettere, promettere,

      _vincere_ (_overcome_): rivincere, avvincere,
      convincere, stravincere

_For English:_

      _cover_: uncover, discover, recover

      _pose_: impose, compose, dispose, repose, transpose

      _do_: undo, overdo

      _place_: displace, replace, misplace

      _submit_: remit, commit, omit, permit

      _close_: disclose, foreclose, reclose

      _arrange_: rearrange, disarrange

The child's exercise with the two alphabets will be as follows:


_For English:_




  cartapecora (parchment)
  cartapesta (papier maché)
  falsariga (guide)
  madreperla (mother-of-pearl)
  melagrana (pomegranate)
  melarancia (orange)
  biancospino (hawthorn)
  ficcanaso (busybody)
  lavamano (wash-stand)
  mezzogiorno (noon)
  passatempo (pastime)
  ragnatela (cobweb)
  madrevite (vine)
  guardaportone (doorkeeper)
  capoluogo (capital)
  capomaestro ("boss")
  capofila (pivot-soldier)
  capopopolo (demagogue)
  caposquadra (commodore)
  capogiro (dizziness)
  capolavoro (masterpiece)
  giravolta (whirl)
  mezzaluna (half-moon)
  mezzanotte (midnight)
  palcoscenico (stage)
  acchiappacani (dog-catcher)
  cantastorie (story-teller)
  guardaboschi (forester)
  lustrascarpe (boot-black)
  portalettere (letter-carrier)
  portamonete (pocketbook)
  portasigari (cigar-case)
  portalapis (pencil-case)
  portabandiera (standard bearer)
  guardaroba (wardrobe)
  asciugamano (towel)
  cassapanca (wooden bench)
  arcobaleno (rainbow)
  terrapieno (rampart, terrace)
  bassorilievo (bas-relief)
  granduca (grand-duke)
  pianoforte (piano)
  spazzacamino (chimney-sweep)
  pettorosso (redbreast)

_For English:_


The children read one word at a time and try to reproduce it from
memory, distinguishing through the two alphabets the two words of which
each one is composed:

    carta _pecora_
    bianco _spino_
    piano _forte_
    spazza _camino_
    lava _mano_

_For English:_

    moon _light_
    work _man_

In the following chart the words are grouped in families. This chart may
be used by children who are already well advanced in the identification
of the parts of speech. All the words are derived from some other more
simple word which is a root and of which the other words, either by
suffix or prefix, are made up. All these roots are primitive words which
some day the child may look for in a group of derivatives; and when he
finds them he will realize that the primitive word is a noun,
adjective, or a verb, as the case may be, that it is the word which
contains the simplest idea, and so the derivatives may be nouns,
adjectives, verbs or adverbs.

On these charts appear various word-families. The teacher is thus spared
the trouble of looking them up. Furthermore the child will some day be
able to use them by himself. The exercises based on these are still
performed with two different alphabets of different color so that the
child can tell at a glance which is the root word.


      _terra_ (_earth_): terrazzo, terremoto, terrapieno,
      atterrare, terreno, terriccio, terricciola,
      territorio, conterraneo, terreo, terroso,

      _ferro_ (_iron_): ferraio, ferriera, ferrata,
      ferrigno, ferrugginoso, ferrare, sferrare, inferriata

      _soldo_ (_penny_): assoldare, soldato, soldatesca,

      _grande_ (_great_): ingrandire, grandiosità,
      grandioso, grandiosamente, grandeggiare

      _scrivere_ (_write_): scrittura, scritto, scritturare,
      scrittore, inscrizione, trascrivere, sottoscrivere,

      _beneficio_ (_benefit_): beneficare, benefattore,
      beneficato, beneficenza, beneficamente

      _benedizione_ (_benediction_): benedire, benedicente,
      benedetto, ribenedire

      _felicità_ (_happiness_): felice, felicemente,
      felicitare, felicitazione

      _fiamma_ (_flame_): fiammante, fiammeggiante,
      fiammeggiare, fiammelle, fiammiferi, infiammare

      _bagno_ (_bath_): bagnante, bagnino, bagnarola,
      bagnatura, bagnare, ribagnare

      _freddo_ (_cold_): freddolose, infreddatura,
      freddamente, raffreddore, raffreddare, sfreddare

      _polvere_ (_dust_): spolverare, impolverare,
      polverino, polverizzare, polverone, polveroso,
      polveriera, polverizzatore

      _pesce_ (_fish_): pescare, pescatore, ripescare,
      pescabile, ripescabile

      _opera_ (_work_): operaio, operare, operazione,
      operoso, operosamente, cooperare, cooperazione,

      _canto_ (_song_): cantore, cantante, cantare,
      cantarellare, cantiochiare ricantare

      _gioco_ (_game_): giocare, giocattolo, giocarellare,
      giocatore, giocoso, giocosamente

      _dolore_ (_pain_): doloroso, dolorosamente, dolente,
      addolorare, dolersi, condolersi, condoglianza,

      _pietra_ (_stone_): pietrificare, pietrificazione,
      pietroso, impietrire, pietraio

      _sole_ (_sun_): assolato, soleggiante, soleggiare

      _festa_ (_festival_): festeggiare, festino,
      festeggiatore, festeggiato, festaiolo, festante,
      festevole, festevolmente, festosamente

      _allegro_ (_happy_): allegria, allegramente,
      rallegrare, rallegramento

      _seme_ (_seed_): semina, semenze, seminare, semenzaio,
      seminatore, riseminare, seminazione, disseminare,

_For English:_

      _wood_: wooden, woodworker, woody, woodsman, woodland

      _earth_: earthen, earthy, earthly, earthborn,
      earthward, earthquake, earthling

      _fish_: fishing, fisherman, fishery, fishy,
      fishmonger, fishnet

      _well_: welcome, wellmeaning, wellknit

      _war_: warrior, warlike, warship, warhorse, war-whoop,
      warsong, war-cry

      _play_: player, playful, playhouse, playmate

      _politic_: politics, politician, political, polity,

      _hard_: hardly, harden, hardness, hardship, hardy,
      hardihood, hardware

      _turn_: return, turner, turnstile

      _close_: disclose, closet, unclose, closure, foreclose

The child sees that the mother word is always the shortest. The _root_
remains in one color.



      [Note:--The English language presents a far simpler
      situation than the Italian as regards the agreement of
      article and adjectives. Gender itself being, in the
      case of English nouns, more a matter of logical theory
      than of word-ending, adjectival agreement in the
      formal sense in practically unknown to English
      grammar. Likewise the formation of the plural is much
      simpler in English than in Italian, where the singular
      and plural word-endings are closely associated with
      gender. It is a question, in fact, whether the whole
      subject of the gender of English nouns should not be
      taken up somewhat later in connection with the
      pronouns, where English shows three singular forms
      masculine, feminine, neuter (him, her, it) as against
      the Italian two, masculine and feminine (_lo_, _la_,
      plural _li_, _le_, etc.). Signora Montessori's
      discussion of the situation in Italian still remains
      instructive to the teacher of English as an
      illustration of method. We retain her text,
      accordingly, in its entirety.--TR.]

As we have already said, the words chosen for grammatical study are all
printed on small rectangular pieces of cardboard. The little cards are
held together in packages by an elastic band and are kept in their
respective boxes. The first box which we present has two compartments.
In the holders at the back of each compartment are placed the cards
which show the part of speech to be studied, in this case _article_ and
_noun_. The article cards are placed in the article compartment and the
nouns in the noun compartment. When the children have finished their
exercise they replace the cards--the nouns in the place for the nouns
and the articles in the place for the articles. If the words _article_
and _noun_ are not a sufficient guide for the child, the color at least
will make the task easy. In fact the child will place the black cards
for the noun in the compartment indicated by the black guide-card
(marked _noun_); the tan cards for the article with the tan guide-card
(marked _article_). This exercise recalls the child's experience with
the alphabet boxes, where one copy of each letter is pasted to the
bottom of the box as a guide for the child in replacing the other
letters. The child begins to speak of the _article-section_, the
_noun-section_, and the _article-cards_ and _noun-cards_. In so doing he
begins to _distinguish_ between the parts of speech. The material must
be prepared very accurately and in a definitely determined quantity. For
the first exercise, the children are given boxes with the articles and
nouns shuffled together in their respective compartments. But there must
be just enough articles of each gender to go with the respective nouns.
The child's task is to put the right article in front of the right
noun--a long and patient research, which, however, is singularly
fascinating to him.

We have prepared the following words. We should recall, however, that
the cards are not found in the boxes in this order, but are mixed
together--the articles shuffled in their box-section and the nouns in

    il fazzoletto (the handkerchief)
    il libro (the book)
    il vestito (the dress)
    il tavolino (the little table)
    lo specchio (the mirror)
    lo zucchero (the sugar)
    lo zio (the uncle)
    lo stivale (the boot)
    i colori (the colors)
    i fiori (the flowers)
    i disegni (the drawings)
    i compagni (the companions)
    gli zoccoli (the wooden shoes)
    gli uomini (the men)
    gli articoli (the articles)
    le sedie (the chairs)
    la stoffa (the cloth)
    la perla (the pearl)
    la piramide (the pyramid)
    la finestra (the window)
    le scarpe (the shoes)
    le addizioni (the sums)
    le piante (the plants, the trees)
    l'occhio (the eye)
    l'amico (the friend)
    l'acqua (the water)
    l'albero (the tree)
    gl'invitati (the guests)
    gl'incastri (the insets)
    gl'italiani (the Italians)
    gl'insetti (the insects)

(We suggest as a corresponding English exercise the introduction of the
_indefinite_ article. This substitution involves four processes against
the eight of the Italian exercise. The use of _an_ before a vowel is
quite analogous to the problem of the Italian _l'_ and _gl'_. However
the theoretical distinction between the definite and indefinite article,
as regards meaning, is reserved by Signora Montessori to a much later
period, though the practical distinction appear in the earliest _Lessons
and Commands_.--Tr.)

    the handkerchief
    the book
    the dress
    the table
    the mirror
    the sugar

    the colors
    the flowers
    the drawings
    the children
    the shoes
    the men

    a man
    a pearl
    a prism
    a card
    a window
    a chair
    a tree

    an orange
    an apple
    an uncle
    an eye
    an insect
    an American
    an aunt

[Illustration: One of the first steps in grammar. The children are
deeply interested in placing the correct articles and nouns together.
(_A Montessori School in Italy._)]

The child tries to combine article and noun and puts them side by side
on his little table. In this exercise he is guided by sound just as
he was in building words with the movable alphabet. There the child's
first step was to find relationships between real objects and the
linguistic sounds corresponding to them. Now he sees suddenly revealed
to him hitherto unsuspected relationships between these sounds, these
words. To have an empirical way of demonstrating and testing these
relationships, to practise very thoroughly on two kinds of words,
suddenly brought forth into systematic distinctness from the chaos of
words in his mind, offers the child not only a necessary exercise but
the sensation of relief which comes from satisfying an inner spiritual
need. With the most intense attention he persists to the very end of the
exercise and takes great pride in his success. The teacher as she passes
may glance about to see if all the cards are properly placed, but the
child, doubtless, will call her to admire or verify the work that he has
done, before he begins to gather together, first, all the articles,
then, all the nouns, to return them to their boxes.

[Illustration: Grammar Boxes. The one on the left is for articles and
nouns only; the one on the right, for articles, nouns, and adjectives.]

This is the first step; but he proceeds with increasing enthusiasm to
set the words in his mind "in order," thereby enriching his vocabulary
by placing new acquisitions in an already determined place. Thus he
continues to construct, with respect to exterior objects, an inner
spiritual system, which had already been begun by his sensory exercises.


The exercises on the number and gender of nouns are done without the
help of the boxes. The child already knows that those words are articles
and nouns, so we give him now small groups of forty cards (nouns and
articles) held together by an elastic band. In each one, the group
(tied separately) of the ten singular nouns serves as the guide for the
exercise. These nouns are arranged in a column on the table, one beneath
the other, and the other cards, which are shuffled, must be placed
around this first group in the right order. There are two more cards of
different colors on which the words _singular_ and _plural_ respectively
are written; and these are placed at the top of the respective columns.
We have prepared four series of ten nouns in alphabetical order. In this
way four children may do the exercise at the same time and by exchanging
material they come in contact with a very considerable number of words.

This is the way the cards should finally be arranged in the four
different exercises:

  _Singolare_   _Plurale_       _Singular_           _Plural_
  il bambino    i bambini       the child           the children, etc.
  il berretto   i berretti      the cap
  la bocca      le bocche       the mouth
  il calamaio   i calamai       the inkstand
  la calza      le calze        the stocking
  la casa       le case         the house
  il cappello   i cappelli      the hat

  _Singolare_   _Plurale_       _Singular_           _Plural_
  la maestra    le maestre      the teacher         the teachers, etc.
  la mano       le mani         the hand
  la matita     le matite       the pencil
  il naso       i nasi          the nose
  il nastro     i nastri        the ribbon
  l'occhio      gli occhi       the eye
  l'orologio    gli orologi     the clock (watch)
  il panchetto  i panchetti     the bench

  _Singolare_   _Plurale_       _Singular_           _Plural_
  il dente      i denti         the tooth           the teeth, etc.
  l'elastico    gli elastici    the elastic
  il fagiolo    i fagioli       the bean
  la fava       le fave         the bean
  la gamba      le gambe        the leg
  il gesso      i gessi         the plaster
  la giacca     le giacche      the coat
  il grembiale  i grembiali     the apron

  _Singolare_   _Plurale_       _Singular_           _Plural_
  il piede      i piedi         the foot            the feet, etc.
  il quaderno   i quaderni      the copy book
  la rapa       i rape          the turnip
  la scarpa     le scarpe       the shoe
  la tasca      le tasche       the pocket
  il tavolino   i tavolini      the table
  la testa      le teste        the head
  l'unghia      le unghie       the nail (finger)

Like material has been prepared for the masculine and feminine forms:
The masculine group is kept by itself, while the feminines are shuffled.

  _Maschile_         _Femminile_         _Masculine_       _Feminine_

  il conte         la contessa      the count        the countess, etc.
  l'amico          l'amica          the friend
  l'asino          l'asina          the donkey
  il babbo         la mamma         the father
  il benefattore   la benefattrice  the benefactor
  il bottegaio     la bottegaia     the shop-keeper
  il cugino        la cugina        the cousin
  il cuoco         la cuoca         the cook
  il cacciatore    la cacciatrice   the hunter
  il cavallo       la cavalla       the horse

  _Maschile_         _Femminile_        _Masculine_        _Feminine_

  il duca          la duchessa      the duke         the duchess, etc.
  il canarino      la canarina      the canary
  il dottore       la dottoressa    the doctor
  il dattilografo  la dattilografa  the stenographer
  l'elefante       l'elefantessa    the elephant
  il figlio        la figlia        the son
  il fratello      la sorella       the brother
  il gallo         la gallina       the cock
  il gatto         la gatta         the cat

  _Maschile_         _Femminile_        _Masculine_        _Feminine_

  il leone         la leonessa      the lion         the lioness, etc.
  l'ispettore      l'ispettrice     the inspector
  il lupo          la lupa          the wolf
  il lettore       la lettrice      the reader
  il maestro       la maestra       the schoolmaster
  il marchese      la marchesa      the marquis
  il mulo          la mula          the mule
  il nonno         la nonna         the grandfather
  il nemico        la nemica        the enemy
  l'oste           l'ostessa        the host         the hostess, etc.
  l'orologiaio     l'orologiaia     the watch-maker
  il poeta         la poetessa      the poet
  il pellicciaio   la pellicciaia   the furrier
  il padre         la madre         the father
  il re            la regina        the king
  il ranocchio     la ranocchia     the frog
  lo sposo         la sposa         the husband
  il servo         la serva         the man-servant
  il somaro        la somara        the ass

Finally there are three series of nouns in four forms: Singular and
Plural, Masculine and Feminine. Each group has eighty cards counting
both nouns and articles, and the ten singular masculines in the guiding
group are kept together, apart from the others. The title cards (twelve
in number) are _singular_ and _plural_ and for each of them is a card
marked _masculine_ and a card marked _feminine_. The following is the
order of the material when properly arranged by the child:

  SINGOLARE                                         SINGULAR
  _Maschile_      _Femminile_          _Masculine_        _Feminine_
  l'amico          l'amica             the friend      the friend, etc.
  il bambino       la bambina          the child
  il burattinaio   la burattinaia      the puppet-player
  il contadino     la contadina        the peasant
  il cavallo       la cavalla          the horse
  il compagno      la compagna         the companion
  il disegnatore   la disegnatrice     the designer
  il dattilografo  la dattilografa     the stenographer
  l'ebreo          l'ebrea             the Jew
  il fanciullo     la fanciulla        the boy

  PLURALE                                    PLURAL
  _Maschile_    _Femminile_     _Masculine_           _Feminine_
  gli amici     le amiche       the friends         the friends, etc.
  i bambini     le bambine      the children
  i burattinai  le burattinaie  the puppet-players
  i contadini   le contadine    the peasants
  i cavalli     le cavalle      the horses
  i compagni    le compagne     the companions

  PLURALE                          PLURAL
  _Maschile_        _Femminile_        _Masculine_         _Feminine_
  i disegnatori   le disegnatrici  the designers
  i dattilografi  le dattilografe  the stenographers
  gli ebrei       l'ebree          the Jews
  i fanciulli     le fanciulle     the boys

  SINGOLARE                        SINGULAR
  _Maschile_     _Femminile_        _Masculine_       _Feminine_
  il gatto        la gatta         the cat         the cat, etc.
  il giardiniere  la giardiniera   the gardener
  il giovinetto   la giovinetta    the youth
  l'infermiere    l'infermiera     the nurse
  l'italiano      l'italiana       the Italian
  il lavoratore   la lavoratrice   the worker
  il medico       la medichessa    the physician
  il materassaio  la materassaia   the mattress-maker
  l'operaio       l'operaia        the workman
  il pittore      la pittrice      the painter

  PLURALE                           PLURAL
  _Maschile_      _Femminile_       _Masculine_       _Feminine_
  i gatti         le gatte          the cats        the cats, etc.
  i giardinieri   le giardiniere    the gardeners
  i giovinetti    le giovinette     the youths
  gl'infermieri   le infermiere     the nurses
  gl'italiani     le italiane       the Italians
  i lavoratori    le lavoratrici    the workers
  i medici        le medichesse     the physicians
  i materassai    le materassaie    the mattress-makers
  gli operai      le operaie        the workmen
  i pittori       le pittrici       the painters

  SINGOLARE                         SINGULAR
  _Maschile_      _Femminile_       _Masculine_     _Feminine_
  il ragazzo      la ragazza        the boy       the girl, etc.
  il romano       la romana         the Roman
  lo scolare      la scolara        the scholar
  il sarto        la sarta          the tailor
  il santo        la santa          the saint
  il tagliatore   la tagliatrice    the cutter
  l'uomo          la donna          the man
  il vecchio      la vecchia        the old man
  il visitatore   la visitatrice    the visitor
  lo zio          la zia            the uncle

               PLURALE                           PLURAL
  _Maschile_          _Femminile_        _Masculine_   _Feminine_
  i ragazzi           le ragazze         the boys     the girls, etc.
  i romani            le romane          the Romans
  gli scolari         le scolare         the scholars
  i sarti             le sarte           the tailors
  i santi             le sante           the saints
  i tagliatori        le tagliatrici     the cutters
  gli uomini          le donne           the men
  i vecchi            le vecchie         the old men
  i visitatori        le visitatrici     the visitors
  gli zii             le zie             the uncles

Occasionally class exercises are used in our schools for the four forms
of the Italian noun, masculine and feminine, singular and plural. They
take the form almost of a game, which the children find amusing. A child
for instance distributes around the class all the plural nouns. Then he
reads aloud a noun in the singular. The child who holds the
corresponding plural answers immediately. The same thing is next done
for masculine and feminine, and, finally, for all four forms at once.

When these exercises have become familiar to the child, others somewhat
more difficult may be presented. These new ones comprise: nouns which
change form completely as they change gender and of which, so far, only
the most familiar examples (_babbo_, "father," _mamma_, "mother," etc.)
have been given (Series A); nouns in which the form is the same in the
singular of both genders (Series B); those in which both genders have a
common form in the singular and a common form in the plural (Series C);
nouns which have only one form for both singular and plural (Series D);
nouns where the same form appears in both genders but with a different
meaning (Series E); finally, nouns which change gender as they pass from
the singular to the plural (Series F).


          SINGOLARE                               SINGULAR
  _Maschile_      _Femminile_        _Masculine_        _Feminine_
  il babbo        la mamma         the father       the mother
  il becco        la capra         the he-goat      the she-goat
  il frate        la suora         the friar        the nun
  il fratello     la sorella       the brother      the sister
  il genero       la nuora         the son-in-law   the daughter-in-law
  il montone      la pecora        the ram          the ewe
  il maschio      la femmina       the male         the female
  il marito       la moglie        the husband      the wife
  il padre        la madre         the father       the mother
  il padrino      la madrina       the godfather    the godmother
  il porco        la scrofa        the hog          the sow
  il toro         la vacca         the bull         the cow
  l'uomo          la donna         the man          the woman
  il re           la regina        the king         the queen

          PLURALE                              PLURAL
  _Maschile_       _Femminile_        _Masculine_        _Feminine_
  i babbi          le mamme         the fathers      the mothers, etc.
  i becchi         le capre         the he-goats
  i frati          le suore         the friars
  i fratelli       le sorelle       the brothers
  i generi         le nuore         the sons-in-law
  i montoni        le pecore        the rams
  i maschi         le femmine       the males
  i mariti         le mogli         the husbands
  i padri          le madri         the fathers
  i padrini        le madrine       the godfathers
  i porci          le scrofe        the hogs
  i tori           le vacche        the bulls
  gli uomini       le donne         the men
  i re             le regine        the kings


          SINGOLARE                              SINGULAR
  _Maschile_         _Femminile_        _Masculine_        _Feminine_
  l'artista        l'artista        the artist       the artist, etc.
  il collega       la collega       the colleague
  il dentista      la dentista      the dentist
  il pianista      la pianista      the pianist
  il telefonista   la telefonista   the telephone operator
  il telegrafista  la telegrafista  the telegraph operator
  il violinista    la violinista    the violinist
  gli artisti      le artiste       the artists      the artists, etc.
  i colleghi       le colleghe      the colleagues
  i dentisti       le dentiste      the dentists
  i pianisti       le pianiste      the pianists
  i telefonisti    le telefoniste   the telephone operators
  i telegrafisti   le telegrafiste  the telegraph operators
  i violinisti     le violiniste    the violinists


  SINGOLARE                                SINGULAR
  _Maschile_      _Femminile_        _Masculine_        _Feminine_
  il consorte     la consorte        the husband      the wife, etc.
  il custode      la custode         the keeper
  il cantante     la cantante        the singer
  l'erede         l'erede            the heir
  il giovane      la giovane         the youth
  l'inglese       l'inglese          the Englishman
  il nipote       la nipote          the nephew

  PLURALE                                  PLURAL
  _Maschile_       _Femminile_       _Masculine_        _Feminine_
  i consorti      le consorti        the husbands     the wives, etc.
  i custodi       le custodi         the guards
  i cantanti      le cantanti        the singers
  gli eredi       l'eredi            the heirs
  i giovani       le giovani         the youths
  gl'inglesi      le inglesi         the Englishmen
  i nipoti        le nipoti          the nephews


  _Singolare_     _Plurale_       _Singular_         _Plural_
  il bazar        i bazar         the bazaar       the bazaars, etc.
  il caffè        i caffè         the coffee
  il gas          i gas           the gas
  la gru          le gru          the crane
  il lapis        i lapis         the pencil
  la libertà      le libertà      the liberty
  l'omnibus       gli omnibus     the omnibus
  la virtù        le virtù        the virtue


  SINGOLARE                           SINGULAR
  _Maschile_         _Femminile_         _Masculinr_       _Feminine_
  il melo              la mela            the apple tree    the apple
  il pesco             la pesca           the peach tree    the peach
  l'ulivo              l'uliva            the olive tree    the olive
  il pugno             la pugna           the blow (punch)  the battle
  il manico            la manica          the handle        the sleeve
  il suolo             la suola           the floor         the sole

  PLURALE                           PLURAL
  _Maschile_       _Femminile_       _Masculine_        _Feminine_
  i meli             le mele          the apple tree       the apples
  i peschi           le pesche        the peach tree       the peaches
  gli ulivi          le ulive         the olive trees      the olives
  i pugni            le pugne         the blows (punches)  the battles
  i manichi          le maniche       the handles          the sleeves
  i suoli            le suole         the floors           the soles


  _Singolare_    _Plurale_         _Singular_         _Plural_
  il centinalo   le centinala     the hundred    the hundreds, etc.
  il dito        le dita          the finger
  la eco         gli echi         the echo
  il paio        le paia          the pair
  il riso        le risa          the smile (laugh)
  l'uovo         le uova          the egg


TRANSLATOR'S NOTE:--While the formation of the English plural does not
present the complications of gender that appear in Italian, the phonetic
adaptations required by the plural ending -s along with certain
orthographical caprices and historical survivals of the language, result
in a situation somewhat more complex than treated by Signora Montessori.
In fact, her analysis of the Italian plural requires eight word-lists,
while English requires at least fourteen, not including the question of
foreign nouns. The special stress on the article is hardly necessary in
English. An analogous treatment for English would be somewhat as


(Simple plurals in _-s_)

    _Singular_   _Plural_

    book                 books
    bed                  beds
    desk                 desks
    street               streets
    tree                 trees
    card                 cards
    prism                prisms
    lamp                 lamps
    cow                  cows
    cat                  cats
    train                trains
    ticket               tickets
    car                  cars
    floor                floors
    chairs               chairs
    pin                  pins
    shoe                 shoes
    wagon                wagons
    bean                 beans
    counter              counters


(Plurals in _-es_, including _-s_ pronounced like _-es_)

    LIST A

    _Singular_   _Plural_

    house                houses
    horse                horses
    prize                prizes
    judge                judges
    cage                 cages
    case                 cases
    sausage              sausages
    wedge                wedges
    edge                 edges
    ledge                ledges

    LIST B

    _Singular_   _Plural_

    bush                 bushes
    church               churches
    box                  boxes
    fox                  foxes
    glass                glasses
    watch                watches
    topaz                topazes
    class                classes
    wretch               wretches


(Plurals of Nouns in _-o_)

    LIST A

    _Singular_   _Plural_
    potato               potatoes
    negro                negroes
    volcano              volcanoes
    tomato               tomatoes


(Plurals of Nouns in _-o_)

    LIST A

    hero       heroes
    mosquito   mosquitoes
    motto      mottoes
    domino     dominoes

    LIST B

    _Singular_   _Plural_
    piano                pianos
    soprano              sopranos
    zero                 zeros
    banjo                banjos
    halo                 halos
    dynamo               dynamos
    canto                cantos
    solo                 solos
    memento              mementos
    chromo               chromos


(Nouns in _-f_ or _-fe_)

    LIST A

    _Singular_  _Plural_
    calf                calves
    elf                 elves
    half                halves
    loaf                loaves
    wolf                wolves
    shelf               shelves
    thief               thieves
    leaf                loaves
    self                selves

    LIST B

    _Singular_   _Plural_
    knife                knives
    wife                 wives
    life                 lives

    LIST C

    _Singular_   _Plural_
    staff                staffs
    wharf                wharfs
    puff                 puffs
    cliff                cliffs
    scarf                scarfs
    chief                chiefs
    fife                 fifes


(Nouns in _-y_)

    LIST A

    _Singular_          _Plural_
    body                 bodies
    sky                  skies
    gipsy                gipsies
    berry                berries
    penny                pennies
    soliloquy            soliloquies
    sty                  sties
    Mary                 Maries
    ferry                ferries
    country              countries

    LIST B

    _Singular_           _Plural_
    boy                  boys
    valley               valleys
    day                  days
    derby                derbys


(Plurals in _-en_)

    _Singular_           _Plural_
    child                children
    ox                   oxen
    brother              brethren (brothers)


(Plurals with internal change (umlaut))

    _Singular_           _Plural_
    foot                 feet
    tooth                teeth
    goose                geese
    louse                lice
    mouse                mice
    man                  men
    woman                women


(Singular and Plural identical)

    _Singular_           _Plural_
    sheep                sheep
    fish                 fish
    deer                 deer
    swine                swine


(Compound words)

    LIST A

    _Singular_             _Plural_
    black-bird           black-birds
    steamboat            steamboats
    redcoat              redcoats
    redbreast            redbreasts
    forget-me-not        forget-me-nots
    spoonful             spoonfuls
    mouthful             mouthfuls

    LIST B

    _Singular_             _Plural_
    brother-in-law       brothers-in-law
    mother-in-law        mothers-in-law
    court-martial        courts-martial
    attorney-general     attorneys-generals
    general-in-chief     generals-in-chief
    Knight-Templar       Knights-Templar

All these groups of words in their order are reproduced in special
booklets which the children may take home and read. In actual practise
such books have proved both convenient and necessary. The children
generally spend much time on them and delight in reading the words over
and over in the order in which they themselves have discovered them in
the card exercise. This recalls and fixes their own ideas, inducing a
sort of inner maturation which is often followed by the spontaneous
discovery of grammatical laws on the relations of nouns, or by a lively
interest which throws the children into exclamations or laughter as they
observe what great differences of meaning are sometimes caused by a very
slight change in the word. At the same time these simple exercises, so
fruitful in results, may be used for work at home and well meet the
demands for something to do with which children are continually
assailing their parents. For homework we have prepared alphabets where
the letters are printed in type-writing order. With them the child can
compose words, or later, sentences, at the same time becoming familiar
with the alphabet arrangement of standard typewriters.



The first lessons in grammar which I gave to children go back fully
sixteen years. I first attempted the education of defectives in the
"Scuola Magistrale Ortofrenica" in Rome in the year 1899 following a
course of lectures I had given to teachers in the normal school of our
capital. In this experiment I went far enough with primary work to
prepare some of the defective children for successful examinations in
the public schools. A very brief and incomplete summary of my
pedagogical studies delivered in the teacher's courses is given in the
appendix to this volume.

The teaching of grammar was not at that time so complete as it has since
been made in my work with normal children; even so it was a marked
success. Grammar was actually _lived_ by the children, who became deeply
interested in it. Even those wretched children who came, like rubbish
thrown out of the public schools, directly off the street or from the
insane asylums, passed delightful half hours of joyous laughter over
their exercises in grammar. Here are some excerpts from the old pamphlet
of 1900 giving an idea of the didactic material which was then used and
some notion of a lesson on nouns. "As each word is read or written for
every object-lesson, for every action, printed cards are being assembled
which will later be used to make clauses and sentences with words that
may be moved about just as the individual letters were moved about in
making the words themselves. The simple clauses or sentences should
refer to actions performed by the children. The first step should be to
bring two or more words together: e.g., _red-wool_, _sweet-candy_,
_four-footed dog_, etc. Then we may go on to the sentence itself: _The
wool is red_; _the soup is hot_; _the dog has four feet_; _Mary eats the
candy_, etc. The children first compose the sentences with their cards;
then they copy them in their writing books. To facilitate the choice of
the cards, they may be arranged in special boxes: for instance, one box
may be labeled _noun_; or the boxes may be distinguished thus: _food_,
_clothing_, _animals_, _people_, etc. There should be a box for
_adjectives_ with compartments for colors, shapes, qualities, etc. There
should be another for _particles_, with compartments for articles,
conjunctions, prepositions, etc. A box should be reserved for _actions_,
with the label _verbs_ above it, containing compartments for the
infinitive, present, past and future. The children gradually learn by
practise to take their cards from the boxes and put them back in their
proper places. They soon learn to know their "word boxes" and they
readily find the cards they want among the _colors_, _shapes_,
_qualities_, etc., or among _animals_, _foods_, etc. Ultimately the
teacher will find occasion to explain the meaning of the big words
written at the top of the drawers, _noun_, _adjective_, _verb_, etc.,
and this will be the first step into the subject of _grammar_.


We may call persons and objects by their _name_, their _noun_. People
answer if we call them, so do animals. Inanimate objects, however,
never answer, because they cannot; but if they could they would. For
example, if I say _Mary_, Mary answers; if I say _peas_, the peas do not
answer, because they cannot. You children _do_ understand when I call an
object and you _bring_ it to me. I say, for example, _book_, _beans_,
_peas_. If I don't tell you the name of the object, you don't understand
what I am talking about; because every object has a different name. This
_name_ is the word that stands for the object. This name is a _noun_.

Whenever I mention a noun to you, you understand immediately the object
which the noun represents: tree, chair, pen, book, lamb, etc. If I do
not give this noun, you don't know what I am talking about; for, if I
say simply _bring me ... at once, I want it_, you do not know what I
want, unless I tell you the name of the object. Unless I give you the
_noun_, you do not understand. Thus every object is represented by a
word which is its _name_; and this name is a _noun_. To understand
whether a word is a noun or not, you simply ask: _Is it a thing? Would
it answer if I spoke to it?_ or _Could I carry it to the teacher?_ For
instance, _bread_: yes, bread is an object; _table_: yes, it is an
object; _conductor_: yes, the conductor would answer, if I were to speak
to him.

Let us look through our cards now. I take several cards from different
boxes and shuffle them. Here is the word _sweet_. Bring me _sweet_! Is
there anything to answer when I call _sweet_? But you are bringing me a
piece of candy! I didn't say _candy_: I said _sweet_. And now you have
given me _sugar_! I said _sweet_! _Sweet_, you see, is not an object You
cannot guess what I have in mind when I say _sweet_. If I say _candy_,
_sugar_, then you understand what I want, what object I am thinking
about, because the words _candy_, _sugar_, stand for objects. Those
words are _nouns_."[2]

This summary, however, fails to give a real idea of the success of these
lessons. When I said with a tone of decision, as if I could not think of
the necessary word, "Bring me--bring me--bring me--," the children would
gather round me, looking fixedly at my lips, like so many little dogs,
waiting for me to throw something for them to fetch. They were in fact
ready to run and get what I wanted. But the word refused to come. "Bring
me--, bring me--." Finally in great impatience I cried, "But bring it to
me quick--I want it." Then their faces lit up and they would laughingly
cry, "But bring you what? What is it you want? What shall we bring you?"

This was the real lesson on the noun, and when, after great difficulty,
the word "_sweet_" came out, the children would run and bring me every
possible object that was sweet. I would refuse each one in turn. "No, I
didn't ask for candy! No, I didn't ask for sugar!" The children would
look at the object they had in their hands, half laughing, half puzzled
and beginning to realize that _sweet_ was not a _name_, that it was not
a _noun_. These first lessons, which seemed something like commands that
needed the help of the children to express themselves, brought the
children to understand some part of speech, while evoking, at the same
time, vivid and interesting scenes. They furnished the original impulse
to the development we have reached to-day in our lessons on grammar. For
such lessons we have adopted the term "commands." But with normal
children these "commands" were gradually multiplied and evolved. They
are no longer entrusted to the teacher's ingenuity; nor are they
dependent solely upon her dramatic sense--something essential if she is
to stimulate the weak nervous reactions of little defectives and so gain
and hold their attention. The "commands" to-day are written and may be
read. They are combined with the card-exercises where the cards are read
in silence and interpreted through actions--a method which grew
spontaneously and with such great success from the work in the
"Children's House." That is why, to-day, we speak in the elementary
courses of "reading commands" or even of "writing commands."

The study of grammar has finally been arranged in a methodical series of
exercises and the material has been prepared after careful and rigid
experiment. Those who read this method will get a clear idea of the
teacher's task. She has a material ready for use. She need not bother to
compose a single sentence nor to consult a single program. The objects
at her disposal contain all that is necessary. She need know simply what
they are and how they are to be used. The lessons which she must give
are so simple, and require so few words, that they become lessons rather
of gesture and action than of words. It must be borne in mind, further,
that the work is not as uninteresting as would appear from this arid
summary. The actual school is a real intellectual laboratory, where the
children work all the time and by themselves. After the material has
been presented to them, they _recognize_ it and like to hunt for it.
They know how to find for themselves the precious objects which they
want to use. They often exchange materials and even lessons with other
children. The few lessons the teacher gives connect, as it were, a
system of live wires, which set in motion activities quite
disproportionate to the energy expended in the simple act she performs.
She pushes, so to speak, a button and here a bell rings, there a light
goes on, there a machine begins to buzz. Very often the teacher sees a
whole week go by without any need of intervention on her part.

And yet what delicacy and tact are necessary properly to "offer" this
material, to give in an interesting way a lesson calculated to exert a
direct action upon the child's spiritual activity! How skilful we must
be to leave all the child's spontaneous impulses free to develop
themselves, to keep careful watch over so many different individual
impulses! This we must do if we are to "keep the lamp burning"! When,
for example, on passing a table where the child has analyzed a sentence
with the colored cards, the teacher shifts about, as if in play, one of
the little slips, not only must she be possessed of the psychological
insight necessary for intervening in this child's work at the proper
time, but she must also have in mind the grammatical rule of which she
wishes to give the child his first intuition. It follows that every
single act of the teacher, however insignificant apparently, is, like
the acts of the priest in the service, of the greatest importance, and
should come from a consciousness thoroughly awake, and full of
potentiality. Instead of giving out what she has in herself, the teacher
must bring out the full possibilities of the children.

The teacher's extrinsic preparation is a matter of thorough acquaintance
with the material. It should be so much a part of her that she knows at
once what is needed for each individual case as soon as it arises.
Actual practise soon develops this skill.

The exercises are performed with these little packages of specially
prepared cards. The most important problem (for Italian grammar) is in
the _agreements_; the agreement of article and noun, as we have already
shown, the agreement of noun and adjective, and later on of pronoun and
verb, and pronoun and noun. There are two kinds of exercises, which we
have termed respectively "analyses" and "commands."

The _commands_ involve both work done by the teacher and exercises
performed by the children. The purpose here is to clarify the meanings
of words and often to suggest a _practical_ interpretation of them. This
_explanation_ is followed by an exercise of the children themselves, who
in turn practically interpret the meaning of one or more sentences
written on a card which they read just as they did in the first
exercises of reading in the "Children's House." On this card are the
words which the teacher has just explained. In our experiments we gave
these lessons immediately after "silence" just as we did for reading in
the "Children's House." All the children, however, do not necessarily
take part in these executions--oftenest it is only a group of children,
sometimes one child alone, again, at other times, almost all of them. If
possible the commands are given in another room, while the other
children continue their work in the large hall. If this is not possible
it takes place in the same room. These commands might be called "an
introduction to dramatic art," for right there little dramatic scenes
full of vivacity and interest are "acted out." The children are
singularly delighted in working for the one exact "interpretation" which
a given word requires.

The _analyses_, on the other hand, are of quite different character.
"Analysis" is done at the table. It is work which requires quiet and
concentration. While the command gives the _intuition_, the analysis
provides for the _maturation_ of the idea. The grammar boxes are used
in these exercises. In a larger compartment which each box contains,
are placed several slips bearing a printed sentence; for example, _Throw
down your handkerchief_. The child draws a slip and places it to one
side on the table. Then he takes from the different boxes the colored
slips corresponding to the different words in the sentence and places
them side by side one after the other. In this way he composes the
entire sentence: _Throw down your handkerchief_. The child is actually
doing here a very simple thing: he is merely translating into colored
cards the sentence which is printed on his slip. He composes this
sentence in the same way in which he has already composed words with the
moveable alphabet. But here the exercise is even more simple because the
child need not remember the sentence, for it is there right before his
eyes. His attention must be concentrated on other facts, so that all
intellectual effort in the composition of the sentence itself is
eliminated. The child has to note the colors and the position of the
cards in the different boxes, since he must take the cards now from the
noun box, now from the adverb box, now from that of the preposition,
etc.; and the colors together with the position (each section has a
title, as we have already seen) strengthen his consciousness of a
_classification_ of words according to _grammar_.

But what really makes this exercise in analysis so interesting is the
teacher's repeated permutation of the different cards. As she goes by a
table she changes, as though in fun, the position of a card, and in this
way provokes the intuition of grammatical rules and definitions. Indeed,
when she takes out the card, which refers to some new part of the
exercise, the remaining sentence with its changed meaning emphasizes the
function of the part of speech which has been moved. The effect shows a
distant analogy to the light that pathology and vivisection throw on
physiology. An organ which fails in its function illustrates exactly
that function, for never does one realize the precise use of an organ
more clearly than when it has lost its power of functioning. Furthermore
the removal of the words demonstrates that the meaning of the sentence
is not given by the word alone but by the _order_ of the word in the
sentence, and this makes a great impression on the child. He sees the
same cards first in a chaotic mass and then in an orderly arrangement.
What was first a collection of meaningless words has suddenly become the
expression of a _thought_.

From now on the child begins to experience a keen interest in the
_order_ of words. The meaning, the only thing the child is after, is no
longer hidden in confusion. He begins to enjoy subtle permutations,
changes which, without destroying the expression of a thought, obscure
its clarity, complicate it, or make it "sound wrong." It is here that
the teacher must have at her fingertips the rules governing the position
of the various parts of speech. This will give her the necessary
"lightness of touch," perhaps even the opportunity of making some
brilliant little explanation, some casual observation, which may
suddenly develop in the child a profound "grammatical insight." When the
child has understood this he will become a deep "strategist" in
mobilizing, disposing and moving about these cards which express
_thought_; and if he really succeeds in mastering this secret, he will
not be easily satiated with so fascinating an exercise. No one but a
child would ever have the patience to study grammar so profoundly and at
such length. This subtle work is, after all, not so easy for the
teacher. That is why the material must be such as to suggest each step
in detail. The teacher should be relieved as much as possible of the
labor of preparation and research: for her delicate work of
_intervention_ is a task hard enough in itself. In preparing this
material we have worked for her: we have acted as the workmen who
produce the various objects necessary to life; she has but to "live" and
"make live." This will show still more clearly how far from truth is the
modern conception of pedagogy which attempts to realize its desire for
freedom in the school by saying to the teacher, "Try to respond to the
needs of the pupils without being conscious of your authority over
them." When we ask a teacher to respond to the needs of the inner life
of man, we are asking a great deal of her. She will never be able to
accomplish it, unless we have first done something for her by giving her
all that is necessary to that end. Here is our material:--



  Call loudly:
    Mary! Lucy! Ethel!

  Later call again:
    Blonde! Beautiful! Good!

    Peter! bring a chair.
    George! bring a cube.
    Louis! get a frame.
    Charles! Charles! quick! bring me the ... bring it to me,
      quick, quick.

  Call slowly this way:
    Come! Come! give me a kiss--please, come!

  Then say:
    Mary! come! give me a kiss!

These commands lend themselves to a little dramatic scene. It is really
a sort of play, which the children recite.

The tendency to recitation and to imitation is very strong and often
well developed at the age of five years. Little children experience a
singular fascination in pronouncing the words with sentiment and in
accompanying them with gestures. One can hardly imagine the simplicity
of the little dramatic acts which interest the five year old child.
Nothing but actual experiment could possibly have revealed it to us. One
day, in fact, our little children were invited to be present at a
dramatic entertainment given by the older children of the Public
Schools. They followed it with really surprising interest. However, they
remembered only three words of the play they had heard; but with these
three words they made up a little dramatic action of their own, which
they repeated over and over again the following day.

The commands of these "call" cards are, accordingly, real plays for our
little ones. The child calls, pronouncing the name with a sort of
sustained drawl; the child who is called comes forward; then the same
thing is done with the other names, and each child obeys as he is
called. Then the incomplete calls begin: _blonde!_ _blonde!_
_beautiful!_ And no one moves! This makes a great impression on the
children. Imperative commands, like requests, lend themselves to active
dramatic action. Peter has been called and has brought his chair; George
has brought the cube; Louis has taken out a frame; but Charles sits
there intent, expectant, while the child calls out,--_But bring it to
me, bring it to me quickly!_ And how expressive we found the vain
request,--_Come, come! please give me a kiss,--come, come!_ At last the
cry,--_Mary! come!_ brings the resulting action and Mary runs to give
the kiss which has been so long invoked!

These little "plays" require a real study of the parts, and the children
rehearse their different rôles over and over again.


[2] See pp. 446-448.




  MATERIAL: _Grammar box._
          _Various objects already familiar to the children._
          _New objects._

The material for word analysis consists of small cards for articles
(tan), nouns (black) and adjectives (brown). There is one box with three
compartments, each section marked with a card bearing the respective
title: _article_, _noun_, _adjective_. At the front of the box is a
space for other cards containing printed sentences to be analyzed.


The child is to read the sentences, find the objects described in them,
and finally build the sentences with his cards as follows: suppose the
card reads:

    il colore verde       the green color
    il colore turchino    the blue color
    il colore rosso       the red color

The child finds the three colored tablets used in the familiar exercise
of the "Children's House" for the education of the sense of color. He
places these tablets on his table. Then he builds the phrases out of his
word cards:

  +----+  +--------+  +-------+  +-----+  +-------+   +-------+
  | il |  | colore |  | verde |  | the |  | green |   | color |
  +----+  +--------+  +-------+  +-----+  +-------+   +-------+

Beside the completed expression he places the green color-tablet.
Passing to the next phrase, he does not disturb the words _the_ and
_color_. He removes only the word _green_ and substitutes for it the
adjective _blue_, at the same time removing the green tablet and
substituting for it the blue. Similarly, for the third phrase, he
changes the adjective, putting the red tablet at the end. Thus the
_three different objects_ were distinguished _only_ by the adjective:

                 { verde            { green}
    _il colore_  { turchino   _the_ { blue } _color_
                 { rosso            { red  }

All the phrases and sentences refer to objects used in the previous
educational material. Occasionally the teacher will have to prepare
something herself (e.g., hot, cold, warm, or iced water; clear water;
colored water). For this exercise on _water_, the box contains six slips
with the six printed phrases. In the box-sections, the child finds the
corresponding word-cards which are exactly in the number needed for the
exercise (not corresponding, that is, to the number of words in the
phrases, since the articles and nouns are not repeated). There are five
groups of such exercises, dealing with various kinds of sensation.


    il colore rosa                     the pink color
    il colore rosa scuro               the dark pink color
    il colore rosa chiaro              the light pink color

    il prisma azzurro                  the blue prism
    il prisma marrone                  the brown prism

    il colore verde                    the green color
    il colore turchino                 the blue color
    il colore rosso                    the red color

    i lapis neri                       the black pencils
    i lapis colorati                   the colored pencils

    l'acqua colorata                   the colored water
    l'acqua incolora                   the clear water

    il colore giallo                   the yellow color
    il colore arancione                the orange color


    l'asta lunga                       the long staff
    l'asta corta                       the short staff

    il cubo grande                     the large cube
    il cubo piccolo                    the small cube

    il cilindro alto                   the tall cylinder
    il cilindro basso                  the short cylinder

    il prisma marrone grosso           the thick brown prism
    il prisma marrone fino             the thin brown prism

    il rettangolo largo                the broad rectangle
    il rettangolo stretto              the narrow rectangle

    l'incastro solido                  the solid inset
    l'incastro piano                   the plane inset


  il triangolo equilatero            the equilateral triangle
  il triangolo isocele               the isoceles triangle
  il triangolo scaleno               the scalene triangle

  il triangolo acutangolo            the acute-angled triangle
  il triangolo ottusangolo           the obtuse-angled triangle
  il triangolo rettangolo            the right-angled triangle

  l'incastro circolare               the circular inset
  l'incastro quadrato                the square inset
  l'incastro rettangolare            the rectangular inset

  la piramide quadrangolare          the quadrangular pyramid
  la piramide triangolare            the triangular pyramid
  il prisma azzurro rettangolare     the blue rectangular prism
  il prisma azzurro quadrangolare    the blue quadrangular prism

  la scatola cilindrica              the cylindrical box
  la scatola prismatica              the prismatic box


  la superfice piana              the flat surface
  la superfice curva              the curved surface

  la stoffa ruvida                the rough cloth
  la stoffa liscia                the smooth cloth

  l'acqua calda                   the hot water
  l'acqua fredda                  the cold water
  l'acqua tiepida                 the warm water

  l'acqua fredda                  the cold water
  l'acqua ghiacciata              the iced water

  la tavoletta pesante            the heavy black-board
  la tavoletta leggera            the light black-board

  la stoffa morbida               the soft cloth
  la stoffa dura                  the hard cloth

  il rumore forte                 the loud noise
  il rumore leggero               the faint noise

  il suono acuto                  the sharp sound
  il suono basso                  the deep sound

  l'acqua odorosa                 the fragrant water
  l'acqua inodora                 the odorless water

  l'odore buono                   the good smell
  l'odore cattivo                 the bad smell

  il sapore amaro                 the bitter taste
  il sapore dolce                 the sweet taste

  il sapore acido                 the sour taste
  il sapore salso                 the salty taste

The teacher who is observing notices whether the child has taken the
right objects; if so, she proceeds to the permutations.


At this point, the teacher should recall (in dealing with Italian) the
grammatical rules for the position of adjectives, some of which (the
fundamental ones) will certainly be very useful to her in executing
these first permutations:--

I. In general, the adjective follows the noun. If placed before the
noun, it is less conspicuous; if placed after, it assumes more
importance and has a different force.

II. When the adjective is used to signify the exclusive superlative of a
quality, it is not only placed after the noun, but is preceded by the
article. (_Umberto il buono_, "Humbert the Good.")

Example:--The child has composed the following phrase with his cards:
_il triangolo rettangolo_ "the right-angled triangle." The teacher can
interchange the words thus: _il rettangolo triangolo_, "the triangle
right-angled." Similarly also, for other phrases:--

  il prisma rettangolare azzurro    the rectangular blue prism
  il rettangolare azzurro prisma    the prism, rectangular, blue
  i lapis neri                      the black pencils
  i neri lapis                      the pencils black
  il colore rosso                   the red color
  il rosso colore                   the color red

Both the meaning and the child's habits show him the normal position of
the adjective. In some phrases, such as,

    il rumore leggero    the faint sound
    il sapore dolce      the sweet taste

the placing of the adjective before the noun renders the meaning vague,
figurative, emotional, or generic, whereas it would be clearly
descriptive and precise were the adjective in its normal position:

    il dolce sapore      the taste sweet
    il leggero rumore    the noise faint

(In English the normal position of the adjective is before the noun. The
permutation develops a strong rhetorical flavor, of which the child will
become conscious later in his studies on poetic inversions.--Tr.)

After the teacher has made these changes, if they have interested the
child, she may say for example: "The adjective comes after its noun"
(for Italian); "The adjective comes before its noun" (for English). In
this way she will have given a lesson in _theoretical_ grammar.


(Exclusively for the Italian language)

Another exercise to be done at the table deals with the formation of the
singular and plural of adjectives in the two genders. This exercise
brings the child in contact with a great many adjectives of quality. Two
series, one of twenty masculine, the other of twenty feminine adjectives
(in the two numbers) and two other series, twenty singulars and twenty
plurals (in the two genders), form four groups of cards, one-half of
which (tied separately) serves to direct the placing of the other half.
Here are the words in their groups:

  _Singolare_           _Plurale_
  acuto                  acuti                 sharp
  allegro                allegri               joyous
  attenta                attente               careful, attentive
  basso                  bassi                 low
  buona                  buone                 good
  caldo                  caldi                 hot
  cattiva                cattive               bad
  dolce                  dolci                 sweet
  duro                   duri                  hard
  educata                educate               educated, well mannered
  felice                 felici                happy
  fredda                 fredde                cold
  grande                 grandi                large
  grazioso               graziosi              graceful, pretty
  gioiosa                gioiose               merry
  gentile                gentili               kind
  italiano               italiani              Italian
  rabbioso               rabbiosi              angry
  largo                  larghi                broad
  lento                  lenti                 slow
  malata                 malate                ill
  odorosa                odorose               fragrant
  arioso                 ariose                airy
  prezioso               preziosi              precious
  piena                  piene                 full
  pesante                pesanti               heavy
  pulito                 puliti                clean
  rozza                  rozze                 rough, uncouth
  rosso                  rossi                 red
  robusta                robuste               robust
  sincero                sinceri               sincere
  studioso               studiosi              studious
  stretto                stretti               narrow
  stupida                stupide               stupid
  vecchia                vecchie               old
  morbido                morbide               soft
  leggiera               leggiere              light (weight)
  lunga                  lunghe                long
  grosso                 grossi                thick
  colorita               colorite              colored

  _Maschile_           _Femminile_
  alti                  alte               tall
  bello                 bella              beautiful
  brevi                 brevi              short, brief
  biondo                bionda             blonde
  chiaro                chiara             clear, light (of color)
  corto                 corta              short
  coraggiosi            coraggiose         courageous
  disordinato           disordinata        disorderly
  dolce                 dolce              sweet
  debole                debole             feeble
  esatto                esatta             accurate
  freddo                fredda             cold
  grazioso              graziosa           graceful
  grande                grande             large
  garbati               garbate            polite
  gentili               gentili            kind
  italiani              italiane           Italian
  inglese               inglese            English
  lento                 lenta              slow
  svelto                svelta             lithe
  ottimo                ottima             best, excellent
  ordinato              ordinata           orderly
  pigri                 pigre              lazy
  pallido               pallida            pale
  piccolo               piccola            small
  ruvidi                ruvide             rough
  serio                 seria              serious, honest
  suo                   sua                his, her, your
  sgarbato              sgarbata           rude
  tuo                   tua                thy
  timido                timida             timid
  ultimo                ultima             last
  vostro                vostra             yours
  zoppi                 zoppe              lame
  zitto                 zitta              silent
  carino                carina             dear
  liscio                liscia             smooth
  obbediente            obbediente        obedient
  contenti              contente          content, happy
  allegro               allegra           joyous

Here, just as with the four noun forms (masculine, feminine, singular
and plural), class games may be found useful. The plural forms may be
dealt out to the class, while one child reads aloud the singulars, one
after the other. The child, who, in a given case, has the proper plural,
reads his card in answer. Similarly, for masculine and feminine.


(For Italian Exclusively)

Another table exercise consists in arranging two groups of fifty cards,
of which twenty-five are nouns (constituting the directing group), while
the other twenty-five are adjectives. The nouns are put in a row and the
child looks among the adjectives (which have been thoroughly shuffled)
for those which are best suited to the different nouns. As he finds them
he places them by the nouns with which they belong. Sometimes the nouns
and adjectives placed together cause a great deal of merriment by the
amusing contrasts that arise. The children try to put as many adjectives
as possible with the same noun and develop in this way the most
interesting combinations. Here are two groups which come prepared with
the material:

  _Nome_        _Aggettivo_    _Adjective_           _Noun_
  contadina     allegra         happy                 peasant-girl
  casa          bella           beautiful             house
  zia           brava           good                  aunt
  mamma         cara            dear                  mother
  professore    alto            tall                  professor
  meastra       magra           thin (lean)           teacher
  lavandaia     pulita          neat                  washerwoman
  marinaio      robusto         strong                sailor
  carrettiere   abbronzato      sunburnt              wagon-driver
  bambino       buono           good                  child
  lavagnetta    rettangolare    square                slate
  foglio        bianco          white                 paper (sheet of)
  panchetto     basso           low                   bench
  prisma        grosso          thick                 prism
  vaso          largo           broad                 vase
  foglia        verde           green                 leaf
  circolo       perfetto        perfect               circle
  pizzicagnolo  grosso          fat                   butcher
  testa         unta            oily (dirty)          head
  gomma         densa           hard, dense           rubber
  fanciullo     stizzito        cross, angry          child
  figlio        obbediente      obedient              son
  pietra        nera            black                 rock, stone
  latte         bianco          white                 milk
  formaggio     tenero          soft, tender          cheese
  carne         fresca          fresh                 meat
  vino          rosso           red                   wine
  disegno       grazioso        pretty                drawing
  perla         lucente         shining               pearl
  vetro         trasparente     transparent           glass
  ragazzina     impertinente    impertinent           lass
  asino         paziente        patient               donkey
  gallina       grassa          fat                   hen
  topo          agile           quick, nimble         mouse
  acqua         limpida         clear                 water
  saponetta     odorosa         perfumed, fragrant    soap
  medico        bravo           good                  doctor
  giardiniere   bizzarro        surly                 gardener
  cane          arrabbiato      mad                   dog
  manicotto     morbido         soft                  muff
  gatto         arruffato       ruffled               cat
  colombo       viaggiatore     travelling (carrier)  pigeon
  uomo          brontolone      grumbling             man
  ragno         pericoloso      dangerous             spider
  serpente      velenoso        poisonous             snake
  medicina      amara           bitter                medicine
  nonna         indulgente      indulgent, kind       grandmother
  babbo         severo          strict                father
  vespa         maligna         cruel                 wasp
  cassetto      ordinato        orderly               box

For a class game with these lists, the nouns may be placed on one table
and the adjectives on another. Moving as during the "silence" lesson,
each child selects first a noun, and then an adjective. When the
selections have all been made, the pairs are read one after the other
amid general enthusiasm.


COMMANDS (_Individual Lessons_)

The study of the adjective may furnish occasion for giving the child a
knowledge of physical properties (of substances) so far unknown to him.
For example, the teacher may present a piece of transparent glass; a
piece of black glass (or any opaque screen); a sheet of white paper with
an oil stain. The child will see that through the _transparent_ glass
objects may be seen distinctly; that through the oil stain only the
light is visible; that nothing at all can be seen through the _opaque_
screen. Or she may take a small glass funnel and put into it a piece of
filter paper, then a sponge, then a piece of waterproof cloth. The child
observes that the water passes through the filter paper, that the sponge
absorbs water, and that the water clings to the surface of the
waterproof. Or take two glass graduators and fill them with water to
different heights. In the case of the graduator filled to the very top,
the surface of the water is _convex_; in the other, it is _concave_.

The commands are printed on little slips of paper which are folded and
all held together by an elastic band with a series of brown cards
containing the adjectives used in the commands. Here is the material

      --Fill one graduator with water to the point of
      over-flowing, and another not so full. Notice the form
      assumed by the surface of the water in each case and
      apply the proper adjective: _convex_, _concave_.

      --Take various objects such as filter paper, cloth, a
      sponge, and see whether water can pass through them,
      applying the adjectives: _permeable_, _impermeable_,

      --Take a piece of clear glass, a sheet of black paper,
      a sheet of oiled paper; look at the light through
      them, applying the adjectives: _transparent_,
      _opaque_, _translucent_.

Object lessens demonstrating comparative weights may also be given by
putting successively into a glass of water, oil, alcohol colored with
aniline, a piece of cork, a little leaden ball (to be dropped). Then the
command would be:

      --Compare the weights of water and of colored alcohol;
      water and oil; water and cork; and water and lead.
      Then tell which is _heavier_ and which is _lighter_
      than the other.

As an answer the child should give a little written exercise something
like the following: _Water is heavier than oil_, etc. The children
actually perform these little experiments, learning to handle
graduators, funnels, filters, etc., and to pour the last drops of water
very carefully so as to obtain the concave and convex surfaces. They
acquire a very delicate touch in pouring the colored alcohol and oil on
the water. Thus they take the first step into the field of practical

To continue the study of adjectives of quality, there is a series of
commands relating to the comparative and superlative. An example of the
comparative crept into these experiments on weight. Here are additional
commands where the little slip and the brown cards are kept together.

      --Take the blue stairs or any other objects and put
      with each object the proper adjectives from the
      following list: _thick_, _thin_, _thickest_ (Ital.
      grossissimo), _thinnest_ (Ital. finissimo).

      --Take the eight tablets of the color you like best,
      arrange them according to shades and apply the proper
      adjectives of quality from the following: _light_,
      _lightest_, _dark_, _darkest_.

      --Take the series of circles in the plane insets, and
      pick out the circles which correspond to these
      adjectives: _large_, _small_, _intermediate_.

      --Take the cloths or other objects adapted to these
      adjectives: _smooth_, _smoothest_, _rough_,
      _roughest_, _soft_, _softest_.

      --Take the cubes of the pink tower or any other
      objects adapted to these adjectives: _large_,
      _largest_, _small_, _smallest_.

      --Grade a number of objects according to weight so as
      to fit these adjectives to them: _heavy_, _heaviest_,
      _light_, _lightest_.


COMMANDS (_Individual Lessons_)

Just as above, the slip is tied with the series of brown cards by an
elastic band. Thus a group is formed. In our material the following
three groups are available:

      --Take the counters and make little piles which
      correspond in quantity to these adjectives: _one_,
      _two_, _three_, _four_, _five_, _six_, etc.

      --Take the beads and make little piles of them to fit
      these adjectives: _few_, _none_, _many_, _some_.

      --Decide first of all on some definite number of beads
      (two) and then make other little piles to fit these
      adjectives: _double_, _triple_, _quadruple_,
      _quintuple_, _sextuple_, _tenfold_, _half_, _equal_.


(_Individual Commands_)

      --Build the blue stair and on each step place the
      proper adjective from the following: _first_,
      _second_, _third_, _fourth_, _fifth_, _sixth_,
      _seventh_, _eighth_, _ninth_, _tenth_.

      --Place the following adjectives on the different
      drawers of the cabinet, beginning with the top drawer:
      _first_, _second_, _third_, _fourth_, _fifth_.

      --Differentiate between the drawers of the cabinet by
      the following adjectives, beginning with the lowest:
      _first_, _second_, _third_, _fourth_, _fifth_.


(_Class Lessons_)

As occasion may offer, the teacher may assemble a group of children and
give them a few simple explanations on the meaning of certain words:
_questo_, "this" (near us); _cotesto_, "that" (near you); _quello_,
"that" (over there away from both of us). (Note: English lacks the
demonstrative of the second person.)

Then she can distribute these commands which require collective actions
of the class:--

      --Gather in _that_ (codesto) corner of the room near
      you; then all of you come over to _this_ (questo)
      corner near me; then all of you run over to that
      (_quello_) corner over there.

      --Choose one of your school-mates and tell him to put
      a box on _this_ (questo) table; a small plate on
      _that_ (quello) table over there.

      --Tell one of your companions, pointing at the place,
      to put a green bead in _this_ (questo) vase; a blue
      one in _that_ (codesto) vase; a white one in _that_
      (quello) vase over there.

Arrange the children in groups in three different places in the room,
and then give this command:

--Let _that_ (quello) group over there take the place of _this_ (questo)
group. Let _that_ (codesto) group break up, the children going back to
their tables.


(_Class Lessons_)

In like manner the teacher explains the meaning of the words _my_,
_your_, _his_, _her_, etc. She may do this with a simple gesture. Here
are the commands:

      --Point out various objects saying: This is _my_
      slate; that is _your_ slate; that (over there) is
      _her_ slate.

      --Point at the different seats, saying: That (over
      there) is _his_ place, that is _your_ place, and this
      is _my_ place.

      --Pass around the little baskets, saying: This is _my_
      basket. Whose is that other basket? Is it _your_
      basket? And this one? Ah, this one is _his_ basket.

      --Let us take a turn around the room and then return
      to _our_ seats. _You_ go to _your_ seat and _they_
      will go to _their_ seats. Then we will divide up our
      things. Let us put _our_ things here and _their_
      things there. We will go to _your_ seats and you go to
      _their_ seats. Meanwhile they will get up and then
      come over here to take _our_ places.

[Signora Montessori does not differentiate between the possessive
_adjective_ and the possessive _pronoun_; perhaps because there is in
Italian no characteristic pronominal form. Strictly speaking the Italian
predicate form _mio_ (e.g., _Questo libra è mio_) is adjectival, while
the form _il mio_ (i.e., with the definite article) is pronominal (e.g.,
_Questo è il mio_). English has, however, the pronominal possessives:
_mine_, _yours_ (thine), _his_, _hers_, _ours_, _yours_, _theirs_, used
also as predicate adjectives. The above exercise should therefore he
repeated later under the subject of pronouns in a slightly different



When I gave the first grammar lessons to defective children I put
special emphasis on nouns and verbs. The noun (= object), and the verb
(= action) were distinguished with the greatest clearness, much as we
distinguish matter from energy, chemistry from physics. _Condition_ and
_motion_, as potential and kinetic energy, are both expressed by verbs.
Whereas formerly the child took the objects in his hands and studied
their name and attributes, here he must _perform_ actions. In the
execution of actions he must necessarily receive some help, for he is
not always capable of interpreting the word with the precise action
which corresponds to it. On the contrary, the study of the verb is
necessary to initiate him into a series of "object lessons" upon the
different actions he must perform. The teacher therefore must give
individual lessons teaching the child to interpret the verb.


In the usual manner we present a box which has four compartments, for
the article, the noun, the adjective, and the verb. The sections are
designated by the usual title cards: tan, black, brown, and red. In the
compartment at the back of the box there are six slips for each
exercise, and for every written word there is a card, except for such
words as are repeated in successive sentences. For example: if the
following sentences are written on the cards:

    Close the door!
    Lock the door!

on the corresponding cards will be found the words:

    Lock  }
    Close }  the door.

And so the child after he has composed his first sentence needs to
change only one card (_lock_ for _close_) for the second sentence. This
brings out the force of the verb, showing that one sentence may be
changed into another by indicating an entirely different action. The
child performs the action and then on his table he builds the sentences
with the cards. In the series we have prepared, the verbs are either
synonyms or antonyms. Here is the material:


    --Close the door
      Lock the door

    --Tie a knot
      Untie a knot

    --Spread your beads
      Collect your beads

    --Fold the paper
      Unfold the paper

    --Open the book
      Shut the book

    --Speak a word
      Whisper a word


    --Raise your hands
      Lower your hands

    --Toss the ball
      Throw the ball

    --Show your right hand
      Hide your right hand

    --Touch the velvet
      Feel the velvet

    --Write a short word
      Erase a short word

    --Draw a circle
      Fill a circle


    --Bring a chair
      Drag a chair

    --Lace a frame
      Unlace a frame

    --Raise your head
      Bow your head

    --Fill a glass
      Empty a glass

    --Arrange the brown cards
      Mix the brown cards

    --Roll the white handkerchief
      Twist the white handkerchief


    --Embrace your nearest schoolmate
      Kiss your nearest schoolmate

    --Gather your prisms
      Separate your prisms

    --Borrow a black pencil
      Lend a black pencil

    --Cover your face
      Uncover your face

    --Lift the red counter
      Drop the red counter

    --Smooth the white paper
      Crumple the white paper


    --Clench your two hands
      Open your two hands

    --Spread the large carpet
      Fold the large carpet

    --Bend your left arm
      Straighten your left arm

    --Rub the table
      Scratch the table

    --Pour the water
      Spill the water

    --Comb your hair
      Part your hair


The teacher should have in mind the grammatical rules for the position
of the verb in the sentence, to give the child a clear idea of its
normal location before the direct object: "first the verb, then the
object upon which it acts."


    Smooth the white paper.

The verb should, for the first permutation, be transferred to the end:

    the white paper smooth.

Or, if you wish,

    Arrange the brown cards.
    the brown cards arrange.

When the verb is taken away entirely the action vanishes:

    Lift }  the red counter.
    Drop }
    the red counter.

Making all possible permutations, the child sees that only one order of
words is capable of bringing a meaning out of the confusion:

    Roll the white handkerchief.
    the white handkerchief roll.
    white the handkerchief roll.
    white roll handkerchief the.


The children take considerable delight in our verb lessons which develop
through interpretations of actions. We use packs of red cards, tied with
an elastic, each pack containing ten cards. The child executes the
actions indicated on each card, one after the other. He may afterward
copy the cards--an exercise specially attractive to very young children.


      --walk, sing, jump, dance, bow, sit, sleep, wake,
      pray, sigh.

      --write, erase, weep, laugh, hide, draw, read, speak,
      listen, run.

      --arrange, clean, dust, sweep, button, lace, tie,
      hook, greet, brush.

      --comb, wash, wipe, embrace, kiss, smile, yawn, scowl,
      stare, breathe.

These are fairly common words, representing actions more or less
familiar to the pupils. But this exercise is only an introduction to the
real verb-lessons. For these the teacher selects, as subject for a
lesson, a series of synonymous verbs. Their shades of meaning are
taught to the children by translating them into action, the teacher
executing the action herself. She then distributes around the class
commands making use of the verbs in question. There may be several
copies of a given command if the pupils are very numerous. The child
reads by himself the card he has received, executing the action from
memory of what he has seen the teacher do. We have tested experimentally
the Italian material (_i.e._, the verbs in parentheses), as follows:


      lay, throw, toss, hurl (posare, gettare, lanciare,


      --Take a counter and _lay_ it on the floor. Pick it up
      again and _throw_ it on the floor.

      --Roll your handkerchief into a ball. _Toss_ it into
      the air. Pick it up again and _hurl_ it against the

      --_Lay_ your handkerchief carefully, very carefully,
      on the floor. Pick it up again and _throw_ it on the
      floor. Make a ball of it and _hurl_ it across the
      room. Pick it up and _toss_ it into the air.


      lie, crouch, sit, rise (sollevare, alzare, levare).


      --Go to the sofa and _lie_ with your face to the wall.
      Now _rise_, go to your table and _sit_ with head

      --_Rise_ from your chair and _crouch_ behind the
      table, as though you were playing hide-and-seek.
      _Rise_ and go back to the sofa.


      open, close, lock, unlock (aprire, spalancare,
      chiudere, socchiudere, serrare, disserrare).


      --Go to a window and _open_ it a little; wait a moment
      and then _close_ it again. _Open_ the window as wide
      as you can and _close_ it immediately.

      --Go to the door and _open_ it wide. Then _close_ the
      door gently. If the key is in the key-hole _lock_ the
      door; but before you go away, _unlock_ it again, so
      that everything is left just as you found it.


      breathe, inhale, exhale (respirare, sospirare,
      inspirare, espirare).


      --Go to the window, open it, and _inhale_ and _exhale_
      the fresh air five times. Then after a moment _inhale_
      once and hold your breath as long as you can. When you
      can hold your breath no longer, _exhale_ as slowly as
      you can.

      --Take a hand mirror and _breathe_ upon the glass.
      What happens?


      hang, attach (appendere, affiggere, sospendere).


      --_Hang_ one of your best drawings on a hook in the

      --_Attach_ the drawing you like best with two pins to
      the wall near the door.


      cover, wrap, tie, undo (avvolgere, involgere,


      --Take a book, a string and a large piece of cloth.
      Lay the book on your table and _cover_ it with the

      --Take the cloth and _wrap_ it around the book so that
      the book cannot be seen.

      --_Tie_ a string around the cloth so that the book
      will not fall out.

      --_Undo_ the bundle, and return each object to the
      place where you found it.


      turn, invert, revolve, whirl, reverse (volgere,
      capovolgere, rovesciare).


      --_Turn_ a picture toward one of your school-mates so
      that he can see it clearly.

      --_Invert_ the picture, so that it will be upside

      --_Reverse_ the picture so that the back only can be
      seen by your school-mate.

      --_Revolve_ the seat of the piano-stool as rapidly as
      you can.

      --Stand with your back to the window and _turn_ slowly
      on your heel till you face the window. _Whirl_ on your
      heel completely around till you again face the window.


      breathe, blow, puff, pant (sbuffare, soffiare,


      --Tear a large piece of paper into tiny bits on your
      table. _Blow_ steadily upon the table till the pieces
      of paper are all on the floor.

      --Pick up the pieces of paper and place them on the
      table. _Puff_ three times upon them and see if they
      all fall to the floor. Gather up the pieces and throw
      them into the waste-basket.

      --_Breathe_ softly upon the back of your hand. What do
      you feel?

      --_Blow_ upon the back of your hand. What do you feel?

      --_Puff_ upon the back of your band. What do you feel?

      --_Pant_ noisily as though you had been running a long


      murmur, mutter, whisper, speak, grumble (mormorare,
      sussurrare, brontolare).


      --Ask one of your school-mates to listen carefully to
      what you say; then _murmur_ a short sentence as though
      you were speaking to yourself.

      --_Mutter_ the same words in a louder voice and see
      whether he understands.

      --_Whisper_ the same words in the ear of one of two
      children. Then ask the other whether he has heard.

      --_Grumble_ the same words and watch how the two
      children look at you.

      --_Speak_ the same words aloud and as distinctly as
      you can. Do the children understand?


      touch, rub, graze (toccare, tastare, palpare,


      --Go to your table and with your eyes shut _touch_ it
      as though to recognize it.

      --_Rub_ the table with the tips of your fingers,
      bearing down as hard as you can. What do you feel?

      --_Graze_ the table with the tips of your fingers,
      trying not to touch it.


      spread, sprinkle, collect, scatter (spargere,
      spruzzare, aspergere).


      --Take a box full of beads and _spread_ them evenly
      around the center of your table. Then _collect_ them
      in a pile in the center of the table.

      --Take a handful of the beads and _scatter_ them over
      the table. Return all the beads to the box.

      --Take a glass of water and _sprinkle_ two or three
      handfuls on a plant in the room.


      walk, stagger, march (barcollare, dondolare,


      --_Walk_ naturally to the end of the room farthest
      from your table.

      --_March_ back to your seat as though you were keeping
      time to music.

      --_Stagger_ across the room as though you were very


      take, seize, catch (acchiappare, acciuffare,


      --Walk to the cabinet and _take_ a box of counters in
      your hands.

      --Run to the sofa, _seize_ the sofa-pillow, and run
      around the room with it, holding it in your arms.

      --Roll your handkerchief into a ball, toss it into the
      air and try to _catch_ it before it falls to the


The function of the verb can be still more interestingly emphasized by
suggesting actions designed to increase the child's knowledge in the
direction of elementary science. Here the teacher, instead of executing
simple movements, performs experiments, which on the same day or on
succeeding days the child can imitate guided by the directions in the


      stir, mix, beat, flavor (mescolare, emulsionare,


      --Take a bowl half full of water and drop into it a
      half cup of flour; _stir_ with a spoon until the
      mixture is thick.

      --Place a table-spoonful of vinegar and a
      table-spoonful of olive-oil in a clean bowl; _beat_
      them together until an emulsion is formed.

      --Place a tea-spoonful of chocolate and a tea-spoonful
      of sugar in a cup and _mix_ them thoroughly. What
      color was the chocolate? What color was the sugar?
      What color is the mixture?

      --Take a little milk in a cup and taste of it; add a
      drop of vanilla extract. Then taste of the milk again.
      Do you taste the vanilla? In the same way _flavor_ a
      glass of water with the vanilla. _Flavor_ another
      glass of water with vinegar.


      dissolve, saturate, be in suspension (sciogliere, fare
      la sospensiona, saturare).


      --Place a spoonful of sugar in a glass of warm water
      and _dissolve_ the sugar by stirring with a spoon. Is
      the water still clear?

      --_Saturate_ the water with sugar by continuing to add
      sugar and stirring till you can see the sugar at the
      bottom of the glass. Allow the water to rest a moment.
      Is the water still clear?

      --Mix a spoonful of starch in the water. The water
      becomes white, since the starch does not _dissolve_
      but remains _in suspension_ in the water.


      strain, filter (decantare, filtrare).


      --Take the glass containing the water saturated with
      sugar and the one with the starch in suspension, and
      allow the starch and sugar to settle for some time,
      until the water is clear. Taste the water in each
      glass, and then _strain_ each glass of water

      --_Filter_ the water saturated with sugar and the
      water with the suspended starch. Then taste of each.

By the time all these commands have been executed, the child will have
developed a keen desire to go on, becoming so interested in the meaning
of verbs as not to require further commands to stimulate his study of
these words. The most frequent question now is "How many verbs are there
in the language?" "Are there more in other languages?" etc. To satisfy
this new curiosity of the children we have dictionaries of synonyms and
antonyms, and word-charts. But meantime they have been building their
own dictionaries. One by one they begin to own copy books (rubrics) with
illuminated letters of the alphabet. Under the proper letter the child
copies his words as fast as he learns them. We are still experimenting
on the question of the exact amount of information that may successfully
be offered to elementary school children of various ages and stages of
development, with the word material required for the notions of natural
history, physics and chemistry they may be expected to acquire. We can
say, at this moment, simply that each experiment involves the use of a
certain number of new words (nouns, adjectives and verbs), which are
copied into the word-books (rubrics) as fast as they occur.




Here also the first exercise is to compose sentences analyzed with the
colored cards. This grammar box has five compartments, each with a small
title card of the color corresponding to the different parts of speech,
red for the verb, black for the noun, brown for the adjective, tan for
the article and _violet_ for the _preposition_. In the compartment at
the rear of the box are six cards with printed sentences. The colored
cards do not correspond exactly to the number of words used in the
sentences because the words of one sentence which are repeated in the
next are not duplicated in the cards. In this case it is the change in
preposition only which alters the meaning of the sentence. Here are the
series of sentences, some of which the teacher may have used already in
previous lessons (commands).


(Prepositions of space relations)

      --Take the box _with_ the colored beads. (con, senza,
      insieme con). Take the box _without_ the colored
      beads. Take the box _together_ with the colored beads.

      --Place the prism _under_ the cylinder. (sotto a,
      sopra a). Place the prism _upon_ the cylinder.

      --Lay the pen _in front of_ the ink-well. (avanti a,
      dietro a, a lato di). Lay the pen _behind_ the
      ink-well. Lay the pen _beside_ the ink-well.

      --Put the green bead _into_ the box. (in, dentro). Put
      the green bead _inside_ the box.

      --Arrange a few beads _between_ the red counters. (in
      mezzo a, tra). Arrange a few beads _among_ the red

      --Set one chair _opposite_ another chair. (dirimpetto
      a, accanto a). Set one chair _next_ to another chair.

[Illustration: Grammar Boxes, showing respectively four and five parts
of speech. (Note: The cards forming the sentence, "Place the blue cone
against the pink cube," should have been arranged in one continuous
line, not in two lines.)]


(Space relations continued)

      --Lay the counter _inside_ the box. (dentro, fuori,
      di). Lay the counter _outside_ the box.

      --Place a chair _on this side of_ the door. (di là da,
      di qua da, oltre). Place a chair _on that side of_ the
      door. Place a chair _beyond_ the door.

      --Stand _in front of_ the blackboard. (di fronte a, di
      fianco a). Stand _to one side of_ the blackboard.
      Stand _to the other side of_ the blackboard.

      --Arrange the chairs _along_ the wall. (lungo,
      contro). Arrange the chairs _against_ the wall.

      --Place the blue cone _near_ the pink cube. (vicino a,
      accosto a). Place the blue cone _against_ the pink


(Possession, material, use, purpose)

[NOTE:--Such relationships are expressed in English preferably by
adjectives: _cloth of cotton_ = _cotton cloth_; or by the possessive
inflection with _-s_: _the drawing of George = George's drawing_. In
Italian they are expressed by the prepositions _di_, _per_, _da_, etc.:
_stoffa di cotone_ "cotton cloth," _piattino di vetro_ "glass saucer."
For Signora Montessori's simple exercise we suggest for English the
following definitions (TR.)].

[Illustration: Grammar Boxes, containing respectively six and seven
parts of speech. (Note: In the sentence on the right, the cards should
be in one line, not two.)]

      --Cotton cloth is cloth _of_ cotton. Woollen cloth is
      cloth _of_ wool. Silk cloth is cloth _of_ silk.

      --The iron triangle is a triangle _of_ iron. The
      wooden triangle is a triangle _of_ wood.

      --The glass saucer is a saucer _of_ glass. The china
      saucer is a saucer _of_ china.

      --A shoe-brush is a brush _for_ shoes. A clothes-brush
      is a brush _for_ clothes.

      --George's hat is the hat _of_ George; George's hat
      belongs _to_ George. Mary's hat is the hat _of_ Mary;
      Mary's hat belongs _to_ Mary.

      --A drinking-cup is a cup _for_ drinking. A copy-book
      is a book _for_ copying.


(Direction and source of motion)

    --Turn _from_ the right _to_ the left. (da ... a, a ... da)
      Turn _from_ the left _to_ the right.

    --Draw a line _from_ the bottom of the paper _to_ the top.
      Draw a line _from_ the top of the paper _to_ the bottom.

    --Go _from_ your seat _to_ the cabinet.
      Go _from_ the cabinet _to_ your seat.

    --Change the pen _from_ your right hand _to_ your left hand.
      Change the pen _from_ your left hand _to_ your right hand.


The child has built the first sentences on each of the slips with his
cards, and he has reproduced the others by changing simply the
preposition cards. In this way he has seen how the position of objects
relative to each other is determined wholly and only by the use of the
preposition. The preposition, therefore, determines the _relation of
words_, the relation of a _noun_ to some other word, here to another
_noun_ or to a _verb_. In the phrase,

Set one chair opposite another chair,

if we take away the preposition, leaving,

Set one chair another chair,

the relation that formerly existed between the words _chair_ and
_another chair_ is lost. The teacher must not forget the rules for the
position of the preposition. The preposition must always precede its
object and no other word can come between it and the word or words it

Here are some examples of sentences in the above exercises from which
the preposition has been taken away by the teacher:

Go from your seat the cabinet.

Place a chair the door.

Lay the counter the box.

Place the prism the cylinder.

The china saucer is made china.

To give the child an idea of the normal position of prepositions a
series of permutations may be made leaving the preposition and its
object in their normal positions. In this case some meaning is still
left to the sentence:

Stretch a string from the door to the window.

From the door to the window stretch a string.

Stretch from the door a string to the window.

From the door to the window a string stretch.

From the door stretch to the window a string.

But the child will recognize that the right sentence is the simplest and
the clearest:

Stretch a string from the door to the window.

On the other hand if we separate the preposition from its object or
invert their normal position, the meaning is entirely lost:

Stretch a string the door from the window to.

Stretch a string from the door window to the.

String from the stretch door to the a window.

And likewise with these other sentences:

Run from the wash-stand to the table.

Run wash-stand table (_definition of motion lacking_).

Run wash-stand from the table to the.

From the run wash-stand to the table.

Wash-stand from the to the run table.


The teacher may also take groups of children and give them short lessons
on the preposition to explain the meaning, selecting if possible two or
three synonyms or antonyms each time. The lessons should always he
practical and full of action. The child should come to understand in
this case the relationship established by this or that preposition
between the object (noun) and the action (verb) to be performed. As soon
as this has been made clear by the teacher the commands are distributed
to the children who put them into execution. Here is the material that
we use:


Of (di).


--Go and get a boxful _of_ counters. Go and get a glass _of_ water.
Bring me a piece _of_ cloth.


near (to), next (to), beside, far away from (vicino, accosto, lontano).


--One of you boys stand in the middle of the room. Now you others go and
stand _near_ him. One of you stand _next_ to him on the right, another
_beside_ him on the left. Now all go _far away from_ him.


in, into, inside, out of (in, dentro, fuori).


--Rise from your chairs and go _into_ the next room. Stay _in_ that room
a moment and then come back _into_ this one. Go back on tip-toe and lock
yourselves _inside_ the next room. Come _out of_ the next room _into_
this one.


On this side of, on that side of, beyond (di là da, di qua da, oltre).


--Leave your places and form a circle _on that side of_ the door; form a
circle then _on this side of_ the door. All of you go and stand
somewhere _beyond_ the door.


except, save (tranne, eccetto).


--All the children, _except_ George and Mary, walk on tip-toe around the

--All the children, _save_ George and Mary, walk on tip-toe around the


side by side with, opposite, in front of, along (di fianco, di fronte,


--Form a line _side by side_ with each other.

--Form a line _along_ the wall _opposite_ the door.

--Form two lines _in front of_ the piano.


before, behind (dirimpetto, dietro).


--Two of you come and stand _before_ me.

--The rest of you go and stand _behind_ me.


on, about, along (su, secondo, lungo).


--Each of you place one counter on the table. Now arrange the same
counters _along_ the far edge of the table. Now scatter the same
counters _about_ the center of the table.


between, among (fra, in mezzo a).


--One of you go and stand _between_ the door and the piano.

--Place ten white counters on the table. Now go and scatter two or three
red counters _among_ the white ones.


from, to, as far as (da, a, fino a).


--Rise and walk _from_ your places _to_ the piano; wait a moment and
then continue _as far as_ the door of the next room.


around, about (attorno, intorno).


--Walk in couples, arm in arm, _around_ the room twice; when you reach
the piano on the second round, form a circle _about_ the piano.


toward, against (verso, contro).


--Take your chairs and move them three steps _toward_ the wall in front
of you. Next, arrange your chairs in a row with their backs _against_
the wall behind you.


across, through (attraverso, per).


--Roll your handkerchiefs into balls and throw them _across_ the room.

--Pick them up as they lie and try to throw them _through_ the door into
the hall.


With, without (con, senza).


--Walk around the room _with_ your chairs in your hands.

--Walk around the room _without_ your chairs.


to, in order to, so as to (per).


--Wash your hands _in order_ not _to_ soil the cloth. Then close your
eyes and feel this cloth _so as to_ recognize it.




Again the exercise consists of sentences analyzed by means of colored
cards and commands. The grammar box contains six compartments having,
like the others, the names of the different parts of speech on title
cards of proper color. The card for the adverb is pink. In the rear
compartment are six slips for each exercise, and in the sections the
usual number of corresponding colored cards for the necessary words.


(Adverbs of Manner)

    --Walk _slowly_ to the window.
      Walk _rapidly_ to the window.

    --Rise _silently_ from your seat.
      Rise _noisily_ from your seat.

    --Speak _softly_ into the ear of your nearest comrade.
      Speak _loudly_ into the ear of your nearest comrade.

    --Take five steps toward the door; turn _abruptly_ to the left.
      Take five steps toward the door; turn _gradually_ to the left.

    --Take your nearest comrade _lightly_ by the arm.
      Take your nearest comrade _roughly_ by the arm.

    --Look _smilingly_ into the mirror.
      Look _scowlingly_ into the mirror.


(Adverbs of place and time)

    --Place your pencil _there_.
      Place your pencil _here_.

    --Lay your book _somewhere_ on the table.
      Lay your book _elsewhere_ on the table.

    --Walk to the window _constantly_ clapping your hands.
      Walk to the window _occasionally_ clapping your hands.

    --Drink the water in the glass _now_.
      Drink the water in the glass _by and by_.

    --Carry the pink tower _upstairs_.
      Carry the pink tower _downstairs_.

    --Write a word on the blackboard _immediately_.
      Write a word on the blackboard _soon_.


(Adverbs of quantity, comparison)

    --Walk along the hall swinging your arms _somewhat_.
      Walk along the hall swinging your arms _a great deal_.

    --Bend your head a _little_.
      Bend your head _much_.

    --Walk _slowly_ to the window.
      Walk _less slowly_ to the window.
      Walk _more slowly_ to the window.

    --Place on the table your _most_ beautiful drawing.
    --Place on the table your beautiful drawing.

    --Make a broad mark on the blackboard.
      Make a _very_ broad mark on the blackboard.


(Adverbs of comparison, correlative adverbs)

    --Look for a piece of cloth softer _than_ velvet.
    --Look for a piece of cloth _as_ soft as velvet.

    --Find among your colors a shade _as_ black _as_ the blackboard.
    --Find a piece of cloth _not so_ shiny _as_ satin.
    --Find among the plane insets a rectangle _as_ broad _as_ half
          the square.
    --Bring a rod longer _than_ your copy-book.
    --Bring a rod _as_ long _as_ your copy-book.
    --Bring a rod _not so_ long _as_ your copy-book.
    --Find a piece of cloth _less_ rough _than_ the canvas.


The sentences to be analyzed are reproduced as usual by building the
first sentence on each slip; and then, by changing the adverb, the child
gets the second or third sentence. One of the first permutations is to
remove the adverb from those sentences where it performs the function of
an _adjective to the verb_, thereby causing one action to be changed
into another. For example take the two sentences:

    Walk slowly to the window.
    Walk rapidly to the window.

Taking away the adverb we have:

    Walk to the window.

The child can perform the action which, now, is a simple one. The
adverb, however, changes, _modifies_, the action. If the teacher in play
puts the two adverbs together in the same sentence the child has the
problem of interpreting two contrary movements. That is, he is to go to
the window _slowly_ and _rapidly_ at the same time. Taking away the
adverb cards the sentence left is _Go to the window_. This action the
child can perform. But how shall he perform it, in what way? With the
help of adverbs! Similarly in the following sentences:

    Bend your head _a little_.
    Bend your head _much_.

Written without the adverb they indicate one action. What slight changes
in the position of the head can be brought about by these adverbs! It is
the _adverb_ which really shows fine differentiations in movement!

In other sentences also where the adverb is, so to speak, an _adjective_
to an _adjective_ and therefore really affects the object (noun),
similar permutations may be made.

    Make a broad mark on the blackboard.
    Make a _very_ broad mark on the blackboard.

Here by the use of an adverb two different _objects_ (nouns) are
distinguished which, though they have the same quality (breadth) differ
in degree (broad, very broad). Take, for instance, two objects belonging
to the same series:

    Place on your table the prism which is most thick.
    Place on your table the prism which is least thick.

If the adverbs are taken away the factor determining the degree of
quality (thickness) disappears and we have sentences which are far less
precise in their meaning:

    Place on your table the prism which is thick.

As the teacher proceeds to make permutations in the different sentences
she should remember (for Italian) that the normal position of the adverb
is after the verb (in the compound tenses it comes between the auxiliary
and the participle).

(Note: In English the position of the adverb is much freer than in
Italian; it often stands at the end of the sentence and even between
subject and verb,--something quite foreign to normal Italian usage. We
retain the text entire.)

In the sentences analyzed by the child it is sufficient to recall that
the adverb modifies the verb and follows the verb it modifies. Take the

    Bend your head a little as you write.

If the adverb is placed after the second verb the meaning changes:

    Bend your head as you write a little.

The same is true in the following:

    Walk along the hall swinging your arms somewhat.
    Walk somewhat along the hall swinging your arms.

General shifting of position would give results as follows:

    Bend a little your head as you write.
    A little bend your head as you write, etc., etc.
    Somewhat walk along the hall swinging your arms.
    Walk along somewhat the hall swinging your arms, etc., etc.

The child is quick to recognize by ear the accurate, the normal position
of the adverb.

On the other hand, adverbs of quantity and comparison precede the

    Make a very broad mark on the blackboard.
    Place on your table the prism that is least thick.

Permutation gives the following results:

    Make a broad very mark on the blackboard.
    Place on your table the prism which thick least is, etc., etc.

Adverbs of time and place often ring like trumpet calls to attention at
the beginning of the sentence:

    Drink the water in the glass now.
    Now drink the water in the glass.

(Note: In English the adverb of time, placed at the end of the sentence,
gains quite as much emphasis. So for adverbs of place.)



    straight, zig-zag (diritto, a zig-zag).


    --Run _straight_ into the other room; return to your place
            walking _zig-zag_.


    lightly, heavily, sedately (leggermente, gravemente,


      --Walk _lightly_ into the other room; return to your
      place walking _sedately_ as though you were a very
      important person; walk across the room and back again
      resting _heavily_ on each step as though it were
      hurting you to walk.


    suddenly, gradually (ad un tratto, gradatamente).


      --Form in line and walk forward beginning _suddenly_
      to stamp with your left foot. Return to your places
      letting the stamping _gradually_ cease.


    meanwhile, frequently, occasionally (sempre, spesso, raramente).


    --Form in line and march slowly into the next room, stopping
            _frequently_. Return to your places stopping
    --Walk into the next room and back again, _meanwhile_ keeping
            your eyes closed.


    back, forward, to and fro (avanti, indietro, su e giù).


    --Form in line and walk _forward_ to the other side of the
            room; then come _back_ to your places.
    --Walk _to and fro_ across the room with your heads lowered
            and your hands behind your back.


    forwards, backwards.


      --Stand in the middle of the room; then walk
      _backwards_ to the window, being careful to walk in a
      straight line. Return to your places walking


    slowly, abruptly (lentamente, bruscamente).


    --Rise _slowly_ from your seats.
    --Rise _abruptly_ from your seats.


    politely, cordially (gentilmente, garbatamente).


    --Offer your chair _politely_ to your nearest neighbor.
    --Shake hands _cordially_ with your nearest neighbor.


    alternately, in succession, simultaneously (successivamente,
            alternativamente, simultaneamente).


    --Raise your two hands _alternately_ above your heads.
    --Raise your two hands _simultaneously_ above your heads.
    --One of you children walk around the room bowing to each pupil
            _in succession_.


    Well, badly, fairly, best, worst (bene, male, meglio, peggio,
            così così, benino, maluccio, benissimo, malissimo).


      --One of you call the children to the end of the room,
      carefully observing how they walk; judge their
      carriage without speaking and distribute the following
      cards where they belong: _well_, _badly_, _fairly_,
      _best_, _worst_.


    away, back (via).


      --One of you stand in the center of the room; the
      others gather round him. Suddenly all of you run
      _away_ from him. Then come _back_ to him again.


    here, there, somewhere, elsewhere (qui, qua, costì, costà,
            lì, là, altrove).


      --Form in line and the first four children come to me
      _here_; the rest go and stand _there_ by the window.
      Now go and stand _somewhere_ in the other room. Remain
      where you are a moment, then go and stand _elsewhere_.
      Finally all come back _here_ to me.


    thus, likewise (così).


    --One of you walk around the room holding his arms in a certain
            position. The rest of you do _likewise_.
    --All of you hold your hands _thus_, as I am doing.


    up, down, upward, downward.


    --Roll your handkerchiefs into balls and throw them _up_
            to the ceiling.
    --Pick them up and throw them _down_ again to the floor.
    --Look _upward_ to the ceiling. Now look _downward_ to
            the floor.


    crosswise, lengthwise.


    --Lay two rods _crosswise_ on the table. Then lay them
            _lengthwise_ on the table.


    sharply, sullenly, gently, kindly.


    --_Sharply_ order your nearest neighbor to rise from his seat.
    --Ask him _gently_ to sit down again.
    --Sit _sullenly_ in your chair with your eyes lowered.
    --Smile _kindly_ at your nearest neighbor.



In our own private experiments when we reached the adverb there occurred
among the children a veritable explosion into a new kind of activity.
They insisted on making up commands themselves. They invented them and
then read them aloud to their companions or had their companions
interpret the slips which they had written. All were most enthusiastic
in performing these commands and they were rigorously scrupulous in
acting them out down to the minutest detail. The executions came to be a
literal, intensely real dramatisation: if a word was inexact or
incorrect, the interpretation of the command threw the error into noisy
relief, and the child who has written it saw before him an action quite
different from what he had in mind. Then he realized that he had
expressed his thought wrongly or inadequately and immediately set to
work to correct his mistake. The revelation seemed to redouble his
energy. He would hunt among his numerous words for the one necessary to
translate his idea into a living scene before his eyes. Suppose a child
had written the following sentence involving the use of the adverb
_sempre_ "always":

    Walk about the room (sempre) _always_ on tip-toe.

meaning that the child should _all the while_ go on tip-toe; if the
child began to walk on tip-toe and continued to do so for a long time,
trying to express _sempre_ (always--forever) he would find himself
facing a serious problem. Hence the spontaneous query: "What must I do
to express myself correctly?"

A little girl once wrote "Walk around the tables," meaning that the
children should form a line and walk in and out around each table.
Instead she saw her companions form a line and walk round the entire
group of tables. Red in the face and out of breath she kept calling:
"Stop, stop. That isn't the way," just as if this difference between the
thought she actually had in mind and the way it was being executed were
hurting her intolerably.

This is only a passing suggestion of something which, I think, will
merit much further development later on, after more thorough experiment.
It will suffice, however, to bring to the teacher a notion of a most
fertile field for the development of the written language in its most
rigorous purity. It is evident that the experiment shows the possibility
not only of having spontaneous compositions without grammatical errors
(just as the mechanical writing was spontaneous and without errors), but
of developing a love for clearness and purity of speech which will be a
potent factor in improving the literary appreciation of the masses, and
popular culture generally.

When the children are seized with this passion for accurate expression
of their thoughts in writing, when, spontaneously, clearness becomes the
goal of their efforts, they follow the hunt for words with the keenest
enthusiasm. They feel that there are never too many words to build with
exactness the delicate edifice of thought. Problems of language come to
them as a revelation. "How many words are there?" they ask. "How many
nouns, how many verbs, how many adjectives? Is there any way for us to
learn them all?" They are no longer content with their little copy-books
of words. They ask for a wealth of word material which they now enjoy
with all the delight of attractive and orderly interpretation. They
never get tired of it.

These developments in our work suggested to us the idea of giving the
children a large vocabulary comprising a sufficient number of nouns,
verbs, and adjectives and containing _all_ the words of the other parts
of speech. The difference in bulk between the real content of language
(substance and modification, that is, nouns with their adjectives, and
verbs with their adverbs) and the other words which serve to establish
relations and consolidate this content, is something very impressive to
children of eight. It is for them that we tried to prepare our word
charts and the dictionaries of synonyms for nouns, verbs, and
adjectives. Here, meanwhile, are some of the commands which the children
wrote themselves--things which they improvised all of a sudden, by an
explosion of energy, as it were, developed as the result of inner
maturity. Compare the aridity and uniformity of the commands we invented
ourselves with the variety and richness of ideas appearing in the
children's commands! We very evidently show the weariness the
preparation of the material caused us. They, on the contrary, reveal an
ardent, vivacious spirit, a life full of exuberance.


      --Build the pink tower very _badly_.

      --Make _accurately_ a pose for each of the pictures in
      the room.

      --Pretend you were two old men: speak _softly_ as if
      you were very sad; and one of you say this: "Too bad
      poor Pancrazio is dead!" And the other say: "Shall we
      have to wear our black clothes to-morrow?" Then walk
      along _silently_.

      --Walk along limping _heavily_; then _suddenly_ fall
      _prostrate_ on your faces as though you were
      exhausted. Return tripping _lightly_ to your places,
      without falling and without limping.

      --Walk _slowly_ with lowered heads as though you were
      very sad; return then _joyfully_ and walking

      --Take a flower and run _eagerly_ and give it to the

      --Go half way round the room limping; the rest of the
      way _on all fours_.

      --Silence _immediately_; _silently_ act out poses for
      the pictures in the room.

      --Go from your seats to the door _on all fours_;
      _then_ rise and limp _lightly_ half way round the
      room; do the other half back to the door _on all
      fours_; _there_ rise and run _lightly back_ to your

      --Walk _silently_ into the next room; walk three times
      around the big table and _then_ return to your places.

      --Go into the next room running _quite fast_; come
      back _gradually_ reducing speed until you reach your

      --Go to the cabinet _immediately_; take a
      letter-chart, and walk twice around the room with the
      chart on your head, trying _never_ to let it fall; go
      back to your places _in the same way_.

      --Walk around the large hall, walking _wearily_; sit
      down, as though you were tired, and fall asleep; wake
      up _shortly after_ and go back to your places.

      --Form in line and march forward till you reach a
      clear space; _there_ form a circle; _next_ a rhombus;
      _then_ a square; _finally_ a trapezium. Go into the
      big hall conversing _softly_; _suddenly_ fall to the
      floor _lightly_ and go to sleep; then wake up and look
      around, saying, "Where are we?" Then go back to your




Material:--The box has seven compartments marked with the colored title
slips; tan for the article, black for the noun, brown for the adjective,
red for the verb, violet for the preposition, pink for the adverb, and
_green_ for the _pronoun_. In the rear space are the slips for the
sentences to be analyzed. There are, as usual, fewer cards than words.
The exercise is to substitute the pronouns for nouns.


(Personal Pronouns)

    --George's sister was weeping. George soothed his sister with a
      George's sister was weeping. _He_ soothed _her_ with a kiss.

    --The book fell to the floor. Emma replaced the book on the table.
            The book fell to the floor. _She_ replaced _it_ on the table.

    --The children gave their mother a surprise. The children wrote a
            letter to their mother.
      The children gave their mother a surprise. _They_ wrote _her_ a

    --The teacher said: The drawing is beautiful! Will _you_ give the
            drawing to the teacher?
      The teacher said: _It_ is beautiful! Will _you_ give _it_ to

    --Charles has gone into the other room. Can you find Charles?
      Charles has gone into the other room. Can you find _him_?


(Demonstratives (questo, cotesto, quello) "this, that, these, those,
this one, that one)

(As already noted for the adjective English lacks the demonstrative of
the second person: that _near you_.)

    --Show a child the prisms of the brown stair; _this_ prism is
            thicker than _that_ prism; _that_ prism is thinner than
            _these_ prisms.
      Show a child the prisms of the brown stair; _this_ is thicker
            than _that_; _that_ is thinner than _these_.

    --Let us look at the children: _this_ child is taller than _that_
            child; _that_ child is shorter than _this_ child.
      Let us look at the children: _this one_ is taller than _that
            one_; _that one_ is shorter than _this one_.

    --Here is a cone on top of a cylinder: try to put the cylinder on
            top of the cone.
      Here is a cone on top of a cylinder: try to put _this_ on top
            of _that_.

    --Let us show the cubes of the pink tower to a little girl: _this_
            cube is the largest; _those_ cubes are the smallest of the
      Let us show the cubes of the pink tower to a little girl: _this
            one_ is the largest; _those_ are the smallest of the


(Relatives and Interrogatives: (che, il quale, cui, chi? quale?) who,
whom, whose, which, that, who? whose? whom? what? which? where, when?)

      Note: The situation with the relatives is different in
      English: _who_ refers to persons; _which_ to things;
      _that_ to either persons or things; whereas _che_ and
      _il quale_ are interchangeable referring to both
      persons and things, _il quale_ having special
      rhetorical advantages over _che_, in addition to
      showing gender and number. _Cui_ is used after
      prepositions; and, for the possessive Italian has _il
      cui_, _la cui_, etc., "whose".

    --Ask the children: Which child wants to see my drawing?
      Ask the children: _Who_ wants to see my drawing?

    --Ask Charles for the pencil; Charles put the pencil into the
      Ask Charles for the pencil _which_ Charles put into the drawer.
      Ask Charles for the pencil _that_ he put into the drawer.

    --Thank Charles. Charles gave you the pencil.
      Thank Charles _who_ gave you the pencil.

    --Look at the children. You hear the children in the next room.
      Look at the children _whom_ you hear in the next room.

    --Yesterday you put the flowers into a vase: change the water in
            the vase.
      Change the water in the vase into _which_ you put the flowers
      Change the water in the vase _where_ you put the flowers
      Change the water in the vase _that_ you put the flowers into

    --Choose among the pieces of cloth the cloth most like your dress.
      Choose among the pieces of cloth _the one which_ is most like
            your dress.
      Choose among the pieces of cloth _the one that_ is most like
            your dress.

    --Here is the little girl. We found her pocketbook.
      Here is the little girl _whose_ pocketbook we found.

    --Here is the boy. We saw him yesterday.
      Here is the boy _whom_ we saw yesterday.

    --Select an inset from the insets used for drawing.
      Select an inset from _those which_ are used for drawing.
      Select an inset from _those that_ are used for drawing.


(Possessives: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs)

    --This book is my book
      This book is _mine_

    --This book is your book
      This book is _yours_

    --Those pencils are his pencils
      Those pencils are _his_

    --Those pencils are her pencils
      Those pencils are _hers_

    --That house is our house
      That house is _ours_

    --This money is your money
      This money is _yours_

    --Those seats are their seats
      Those seats are _theirs_

    --This place is its place
      This place is _its_


The function of the pronoun as a substitute for a noun has been made
clear in the analysis of the above sentences. After the children
themselves have composed the first sentence with the colored cards they
form the second sentence by taking away the noun card and substituting
the corresponding pronoun. In the work done by the teacher to give the
child an idea of the normal position of the pronoun, let her remember
that in Italian personal pronouns precede the verb except in
interrogation (where the subject may follow) and in cases where the
subject is specially emphasized and where the pronouns appear as a
suffix (infinitive, participle and imperative).

    He soothed her with a kiss.
    He her soothed with a kiss, etc., etc.

[It will become apparent that in English the personal pronoun takes the
position of the noun, whereas for Italian the pronoun shifts to a
position in front of the verb. Considerable variety develops in English
when the noun is replaced by a relative pronoun. However, the different
problems arising in connection with pronouns generally are so complex
that we return to this subject, especially to the question of subject
and object forms, in dealing with sentence-analysis later.]



    Subjective Personal Pronouns: I, you, he, she, we, you, they
            (io, tu, egli, essa, noi, voi, loro, etc.).

Explain these pronouns as briefly and practically as possible from the
point of view of speaker and listener, etc., one child commanding the
others while they _execute_ the command along with him. Example: The
teacher, named for instance Anna Fedeli, explains in this way: "I don't
say _Anna Fedeli_; I say _I_." "To Carlino here I don't say Carlino; I
say, _you_." "Of Gigino, over there, I don't say Gigino; I say _he_,"
etc., etc.


      The command is given by a child; but he himself
      executes the first personal form along with the other

    --_I_ walk around the table
    --_You_ walk around the table
    --_She_ walks around the table
    --_He_ walks around the table
    --_We_ walk around the table
    --_You_ walk around the table
    --_They_ walk around the table

    --_I_ raise my arms
    --_You_ raise your arms
    --_She_ raises her arms
    --_He_ raises his arms
    --_We_ raise our arms
    --_You_ raise your arms
    --_They_ raise their arms

    --_I_ lift the chair
    --_You_ lift the chair
    --_He_ lifts the chair, etc., etc.

    --_I_ take the ink-stand
    --_You_ take the ink-stand
    --_He_ takes the ink-stand, etc., etc.

    --_I_ wave my handkerchief
    --_You_ wave your handkerchief, etc., etc.

From these exercises the notion gradually develops that:

    the _first person_ is the one who _speaks_;
    the _second person_ is the one who _listens_;
    the _third person_ is the one spoken of.

Other commands may be dramatized by small groups as follows:

      --The first person must put a question the second must
      answer, and the third from a distance must try to hear
      both of them.

      --Let the first one write, the second one watch, and
      the third one say "That is not right."

The following commands may be read aloud by the child:

      --_I_ ask you a question very softly. _You_ answer
      _me_; and _he_, over there, must try to hear both of

      --_I_ shall write; _you_ must act as if you were
      trying to read what I am writing; and then _he_, over
      there, will call out: "That is not right."


      Direct Objective Personal Pronouns: me, you, him, her,
      us, you, them (mi, ti, si, lo, la, ci, vi, si, li,

      Reflexives and reciprocals: myself, yourself, etc.,
      each other.


      (Here too one child commands executing the first
      personal forms, while the others act out the second
      and third):

      --I touch the oil-cloth on the table; I touch
      _myself_; I touch _you_; you touch _yourself_; I touch
      _him_; you touch _her_; let us touch _each other_; you
      touch _me_.

      --Charles, take the whisk-broom and brush the table;
      Charles, brush _me_; Charles, brush _him_; Charles,
      brush _her_; Charles, brush _yourself_.

      --Mary and I bow to the teacher; now we bow to _you_;
      now we bow to _him_; now we bow to _her_; now we bow
      to _each other_.

      --I lead George by the hand to the window; I lead
      _you_ by the hand to the window; I lead _him_ by the
      hand to the window; he leads _us_ by the hand to the
      window; we lead _her_ by the hand to the window.


      Indirect object personal pronouns: me, te, se, mi, ti,
      si, le, gli, lui, lei, noi, voi, ci, vi, loro (the
      disjunctive pronouns, used after prepositions, etc.,
      do not differ in English from the simple direct object

      (The commands are still executed as above):


      --I am going to distribute these pencils: one to
      _you_, one to _him_, one to _her_; one to _myself_.

      --Louis, give _me_ a command; give _him_ a command;
      give _her_ a command; give _yourself_ a command.

      --Attention! Charles, give _her_ a blue bead! Mary,
      give _him_ a red bead!

      --Alfred, give a white bead to _me_; give _me_ also a
      yellow bead!


      Demonstratives for persons (questi, costui, colui; the
      second person, "that one near you," is lacking in
      English, which also fails to distinguish between
      persons and things and between genders).

When the distinctions in space represented by these pronouns have been
taught as above the children read and execute as follows:


      Distribute the pronouns to different children in the
      class; _questi_, "this one (near me)," _costei_
      (feminine); _costui_, "that one (near you)," _costei_
      (fem.); _colui_, "that one (over there)," _colei_
      (fem.); when the children are in their proper places,
      give to each child a different command.

      --Call to you a boy and a girl, and then command:
      _that one_ (_costui_) go and get a case; _that one_
      (_costei_) go and get a counter; _those_ (_costoro_)
      keep far away and preserve complete silence.

      --Point to two children, one standing near you and one
      far away; then command: _that one_ (_colui_) go and
      fetch an armchair for _that one_ (fem. _costei_) and a
      chair for _this one_ (_questo_); then have him return
      to his place. Then have all the children execute the
      commands which _those_ (_costoro_) will now give.

In case the class is made up entirely of girls or entirely of boys, the
children find considerable amusement in trying to imitate the manners of
whichever opposite sex is missing.


      Demonstratives of things (questo, cotesto, quello,
      ciò, ne); here also English has no pronoun of the
      second person (_that near you_), nor does it possess
      the general indefinite _ciò_ (referring to a general
      idea: _that_ (ciò) _is true_).

      When the meaning of these words, in terms of space
      location, has been taught, the children execute as


      --You children divide into three groups; then go and
      occupy three different places; change places as
      follows: you leave _that_ (_cotesto_) and occupy
      _that_ over there; the others leave _that_ (_quello_)
      and occupy this (_questo_).


    Possessives: mine, yours (thine), his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs.


      --Point out various objects, saying: This is my slate;
      that one is _yours_, that is _hers_, and this one is

      --Point at the different seats, saying: Here are our
      places, that is _mine_ and this is _yours_. Those over
      there are _theirs_.

      --Pass around little baskets, saying: This is my
      basket. Whose is that? Is that _yours_? Is this
      _hers_? Are these _ours_? Is this one _his_?

We dealt with the relatives only incidentally in the analyses (Group C
above); we do not treat them here, postponing the study of them in
detail to the chapter on sentence-analysis.


In teaching the declension of the pronouns we use the method employed by
us in teaching all inflections: bundles of cards, of which one group is
tied separately and serves as a guide. The child arranges the cards on
the table, working first on the guiding group and putting the pronouns
in order of persons: first, second, third.


(Personal Pronouns)

                         _Masculine_      _Feminine_
    I          we         io    noi        io    noi
    you, thou  you        tu    voi        tu    voi
    he         they       egli  loro       ella  loro
    she        they       esso  essi       essa esse
    it         they       lo    li         la   le
    me         us         lui              lei
    you, thee  you        gli              le
    him        them
    her        them
    it         them


(Demonstratives of Person)

                         _Masculine_       _Feminine_
    this         these     questi           costei
    that         those     costui           costei
    this one     these     colui            colei
    that one     those     costoro          costoro
                           coloro           coloro


(Demonstratives of Things)

                              _Masculine_              _Feminine_
  this           these        questo   questi        questa   queste
  that           those        cotesto  cotesti       cotesta  coteste
  this one       these        quel(lo) quegli, quei  quella   quelle
  that one       those        ciò                    ciò
                              ne                     ne



  _Persons_                  _Persons and Things_
                           _Masculine_          _Feminine_
  who                  il quale  i quali     la quale  le quali
  whose                che                   che
  whom                 chi                   chi
  that                 cui                   cui

  which                chi (compound = "he who")

  what (compound = that which)



    mine           its
    yours (thine)  ours
    his            yours
    hers           theirs



    _Persons_               _Persons_
    who?                      chi?
    whom?                     quale?


    _Things_          _Things_

    what?               cosa?
                        che cosa?

    which?              quale?


The cards given to the child for this work are green for the personal
pronoun subjects, and red for the verb forms of the three simple tenses,
present, past, and future. There are, for Italian, three groups
corresponding to the three conjugations: _amare_, _temere_, _sentire_.
The child's work is to place the pronouns in the proper order of person
(first, second, third, singular and plural) and to put after each
pronoun the corresponding verb form. Each child corrects his work by his
own sense of the language; however, the teacher looks it over to verify
it. The resulting exercises when correctly performed are as follows:


  io amo ("I love"     Io amavo ("I was        io amerò ("I shall
      etc.)               loving")               love")
  tu ami               tu amavi                tu amerai
  egli ama             egli amava              egli amerà
  noi amiamo           noi amavamo             noi ameremo
  voi amate            voi amavate             voi amerete
  essi amano           essi amavano            essi ameranno


  io temo ("I fear")   io temevo ("I was      io temerò ("I shall
                          fearing")             fear")
  tu temi              tu temevi              tu temerai
  egli teme            egli temeva            egli temerà
  noi temiamo          noi temevamo           noi temeremo
  voi temete           voi temevate           voi temerete
  essi temono          essi temevano          essi temeranno


  io sento ("I hear")    io sentivo ("I was    io sentirò ("I shall
                             hearing")            hear")
  tu senti               tu sentivi            tu sentirai
  egli sente             egli sentiva          egli sentirà
  noi sentiamo           noi sentivamo         noi sentiremo
  voi sentite            voi sentivate         voi sentirete
  essi sentono           essi sentivano        essi sentiranno



(Simple Tenses)

    I love       I loved      I shall love
    you love     you loved    you will love
    he loves     he loved     he will love
    we love      we loved     we shall love
    you love     you loved    you will love
    they love    they loved   they will love


(Progressive Forms)

    I am loving       I was loving       I shall be loving
    you are loving    you were loving    you will be loving
    he is loving      he was loving      he will be loving
    we are loving     we were loving     we shall be loving
    you are loving    you were loving    you will be loving
    they are loving   they were loving   they will be loving


(Interrogative Forms)

    do I love?         did I love?        will I love?
    do you love?       did you love?      shall you love?
    does he love?      did he love?       will he love?
    do we love?        did we love?       will we love?
    do you love?       did you love?      shall you love?
    do they love?      did they love?     will they love?


(Intensive and Negative Forms)

    I do (not) love   I did (not) love    I shall (not) love
    etc.              etc.                etc.

The child can shuffle his cards in various ways, mixing the verb forms
of the three different Italian verbs, or the four tense forms of the
English verb; passing then to a reconstruction of the different tenses
according to the pronouns, the order of which has by this time become
familiar to him.

The next step is to conjugate properly.



In our material we offer (for Italian) the conjugation of the two
auxiliary verbs (_essere_ "to be," _avere_ "to have") and the model
verbs of the first, second and third conjugations. The colors used for
the five verbs are all different, yellow for _essere_ "to be," black for
_avere_ "to have," pink for _amare_ "to love," green for _temere_ "to
fear," light blue for _sentire_ "to hear." Each card has both pronoun
and verb form. This is not only to simplify and expedite the exercise
but also to make sure of auto-exercise, since the pronoun guides the
order of the forms in each tense. These verb forms of a given verb
preceded by the pronouns are, accordingly, made into a little package.
Here, however, the groups are not so simple as in other cases. For the
verb, the cards are kept in a sort of red envelope tied with a ribbon.
The infinitive of the verb is written on the outside of the envelope,
which, though very simple, is most attractive. When the whole verb is
wrapped in its package and tied with the ribbon, it forms a small red
prism of the following dimensions: cmm. 35 X 4 X 5.5. On untying the
ribbon and opening the envelope the child finds inside ten little
"volumes" with red covers. These volumes represent the _moods_ of the
verb and they have the following titles inscribed on the first page:

    Indicative Mood
    Conditional Mood (for Italian)
    Subjunctive Mood
    Imperative Mood

To facilitate replacing these materials in an orderly way and to be sure
that this order is recognized, the child finds in the corner of each
envelope a Roman numeral (I, II, III, IV, V); and besides that, an
Arabic numeral indicating the number of tenses in the given mood. On
opening the little volume and taking off the cover we find many other
tiny volumes with red covers. These are the tenses. In the middle of
each cover is written the name and, to one side, the number indicating
the relative position of the tenses in the following manner: the
_simple_ tense is marked with the letter _S_ and the _compound_ tense
with the letter _C_. The titles, then, of the eight booklets contained
in the little volume for a given mood are:

    Present Tense 1s
    Past Tense 2s
    Future Tense 3s
    Perfect Tense 1c
    Pluperfect Tense 2c
    Future Perfect Tense 3c

(For Italian the tenses are: Present, 1s, Imperfect 2s, Remote Past 3s,
Future 4s, Perfect 1c, Pluperfect 2c, Past Anterior 3c, Future Perfect

Finally, on opening each of these little booklets (which, by the way,
are 3.5 X 4 cmm. and only a bare millimeter thick) we have the cards
with the verb forms preceded by the corresponding pronoun.

This rather resembles the famous egg in which a number of smaller and
smaller eggs were enclosed. For this beautiful package forming as a
whole the entire conjugation of the verb contains the booklets of the
different moods, which in their turn contain the smaller booklets of the
tenses. The orderly enumeration of the moods and tenses, together with
the pronouns which serve to show the order of the verb forms, allows the
child to conjugate the entire verb by himself and to study the
classification of the different forms that make it up. In fact the
children need no help in this exercise. Once they have this attractive,
complicated, and mysterious little red package, they evolve on their
little tables in an orderly way the entire conjugation of the verb.
Having learned the verb forms little by little they shuffle the cards of
the different tenses in various ways and then try to put them in their
regular order. At length they are able to shuffle all the cards in the
entire verb as the children in the "Children's House" did with the
sixty-four colors; and to reconstruct correctly the whole conjugation by
tense and by mood. They themselves finally ask to write the verb and
they prepare of their own accord new booklets writing out the new verbs
as they meet them.

For this purpose we have included in our materials many booklets
likewise covered in red and filled with _blank_ cards of a variety of
colors. The children themselves fill out these cards in conjugating
their new verbs.

The exercises both of working out the conjugation of the verb and of
writing out new verbs may be performed at home.




Material: This box has eight compartments for the title cards, which are
tan (article), black (noun), brown (adjective), red (verb), violet
(preposition), pink (adverb), green (pronoun), and _yellow_
(_conjunction_). It also has the usual place for the sentences that are
to be analyzed. These again are given in groups.


Coordinate Conjunctions

(Copulative, Disjunctive, Illative, Adversative)

    --Put away the pen _and_ the ink-stand.
      Put away the pen _or_ the ink-stand.
      Put away _neither_ the pen _nor_ the ink-stand, _but_ the paper.

    --The table, therefore, is bare _and_ in order.
      _For_ all your things are in their places.

    --Do not leave the objects you use here and there about the room,
            _but_ put them all back in their places.

    --Speak to your nearest school-mate not aloud _but_ in a whisper.

    --Move your table forward a little, _but_ only a little _and_
            without making any noise.

[Illustration: Grammar Boxes, showing respectively eight and nine parts
of speech.]


Subordinate Conjunctions

(Time, condition, cause, purpose)

      --You can push down a key of the piano without making
      any sound _if_ you push it down slowly.

      --You could write with your left hand _if_ you
      "touched" the letters with that hand.

      --You will get silence from the children _as soon as_
      you write "silence" on the blackboard.

      --That child is happy: he always sings _while_ he

      --Always shut the door _when_ you go from one room to

      --Everybody must be orderly _in order that_ the
      "Children's House" may look neat.


Subordinate conjunctions, _continued_

(Cause, concession, alternative)

      --The "Children's House" is attractive _because_ it is
      pretty and _because_ it is so easy to keep busy all
      the time.

      --I shall give it to you _since_ you have asked me for
      it very politely.

      --We shall go to walk in the park rather _than_ in the
      crowded streets.

      --I shall give you that toy _although_ I should have
      preferred to let you have a beautiful book.

      --You may promise to go and visit him to-morrow
      _provided_ you keep your promise.

[Illustration: The children are permitted to work at their various
occupations in complete freedom. (_The Lenox School, Montessori
Elementary Class, New York._)]


The removal of the conjunction destroys the relationship between the
words, and this brings out its function in the sentence:

    Put away the pen and the ink-stand.
    Put away the pen the ink-stand.

    Put away the pen or the ink-stand.
    Put away the pen the ink-stand.

    You could write with your left hand if you touched the letters
            with that hand.
    You could write with your left hand you touched the letters with
            that hand.

The conjunction must be placed between the words it connects: otherwise
the meaning is changed or destroyed:

    Put away the pen and the ink-stand.
    Put and away the pen the ink-stand.

    The "Children's House" is attractive because it is pretty.
    The "Children's House" is attractive it is pretty.



      Coordinate conjunctions: and, or, neither, nor (e, o,


      --Come to "silence" where you are _and_ move only at
      my call.

      --Come to "silence" where you are _or else_ move
      silently among the chairs.

      --Walk on tip-toe about the room, being careful
      _neither_ to meet _nor_ to follow one another.


      Declarative: that (che).


      --Tell two of your schoolmates _that_ you know a


      Adversatives: but, however, instead (ma, invece).


      --Form two lines; now one line face about turning from
      left to right; the other line, _instead_, turn in
      opposite direction.

      --Form in one long line and advance; when you reach
      the end of the room, do not stop, _but_ turn to the


      Condition: if (se).


      --You will be able to hear this drop of water fall,
      _if_ you remain for a moment in absolute silence.


      Time: while, when, as soon as (mentre, quando,


      --A few of you walk about among the tables; then stop
      in the center of the room, _while_ the others gather
      round you and try to cover your eyes with their hands.

      --One of you start to leave the room. _When_ you are
      about to cross the threshold, the others will block
      the way compelling you to stop.

      --All of you ready! _As soon as_ I say "Go!" run to
      the other end of the room.


      Purpose: so that, in order that (affinchè, perchè).


      --One of you stand in the middle of the room; the
      others try to pass near him quickly _so that_ he
      cannot touch you.

      --I am going to whisper a command: listen in perfect
      silence _in order that_ you may hear what I command.


      Alternative: rather than (piuttostochè, anzichè).


      --Those children who would _rather_ work _than_ go out
      of doors rise from their places.


      Cause: because, since (perchè, poichè).


      --Before beginning to work let us become entirely
      quiet, _because_ then we can think about what we are
      going to do.


      Exception: except, save (fuorchè, salvochè).


      --Get the counters and place one on every table in the
      room _except_ on this one. Gather up all the counters
      _save_ the red ones. Return all the counters to their



    --Of these two long rods, this one is the _longer_.
      Of these three rods, which is the _longest_?

    --This rod is _longer_ than that.
      That rod in the _longest_ of the three.
      Which is the _longest_ of the series?

    --This cloth is _smoother_ than that.
      This cloth is _smoothest_ of all.

    --Of these two shades of red which is the _darker_?
      Of all these shades of red which is the _darkest_?

    --Of these two prisms which is the _thicker_?
      This prism is _thicker_ than that.
      Of these three prisms, which is _thickest_?

    --Which of these two children is the _taller_?
      Which is the _tallest_ child in the room?


    --Which of these two pictures is the _more_ beautiful?
      This picture is _more_ beautiful than that.

    --Which of these three pictures is _most_ beautiful?
      Which is the _most_ beautiful picture in the room?

    --Which of these two games is the _more_ amusing?
      This game is _more_ amusing than that.
      This game is _most_ amusing of all.

    --This drawing is good.
      That drawing is _better_.
      That drawing is _best_.

    --There are some beads on this table.
      There are _more_ beads on that table.
      There are _most_ beads on that table.

    --There is a little water in this glass.
      There is _less_ water in that glass.
      There is _least_ water in that glass.

    --Of these two children John is the _elder_.
      Of these three children Mary is the _eldest_.
      Mary is _older_ than John.
      John is _older_ than Laura.

A set of exercises may be arranged to bring out the paradymns of
comparison by means of suffixes (_-er_, _-est_) and of adverbs (_more_,
_most_). Here the series of cards for the positive adjectival forms are,
as usual, brown, the phonograms for _-er_ and _-est_ in lighter and
darker shades of brown respectively. The cards for _more_ and _most_ as
adverbs are colored pink. When properly arranged, the cards appear as

  long           tall           thick           smooth
  long _er_      tall _er_      thick _er_      smooth _er_
  long _est_     tall _est_     thick _est_     smooth _est_

  short           dark           light          rough
  short _er_      dark _er_      light _er_     rough _er_
  short _est_     dark _est_     light _est_    rough _est_

       beautiful            amusing            interesting
  _more_ beautiful       _more_ amusing       _more_ interesting
  _most_ beautiful       _most_ amusing       _most_ interesting

A second exercise contains cards for each of the forms for these same
words. There are three colors: brown, light brown and dark brown
(superlative). There are in addition similar cards for the adjectives of
irregular comparisons, and three title cards: _Positive_, _Comparative_,
_Superlative_. The exercise results as follows:

    _Positive_       _Comparative_        _Superlative_
    long              longer               longest
    tall              taller               tallest
    thick             thicker              thickest
    smooth            smoother             smoothest
    short             shorter              shortest
    dark              darker               darkest
    light             lighter              lightest
    rough             rougher              roughest
    beautiful         more beautiful       most beautiful
    amusing           more amusing         most amusing
    interesting       more interesting     most interesting
    old               elder                eldest
    many              more                 most
    good              better               best
    bad               worse                worst
    little            less                 least



Since this is the last part of speech to be studied the children are now
able to recognize _all_ the different parts of speech and it is no
longer necessary to make sentences containing only parts of speech which
the children know. Therefore in our Italian lessons we choose henceforth
sentences from the classic authors (mostly from Manzoni). Since the
interjection is really a thought expressed in an abbreviated form it
lends itself readily to dramatic interpretation. With the same sentence
the children accordingly can now perform the two-fold exercise of
general analysis and "interpretative reading." They now recite sentences
which they have picked out and studied instead of the commands. At this
time also they are given a chart containing the complete classification
of interjections. The children read them, interpreting each as they go
along by voice and gesture. This is the first table of classification to
be presented. Later on all the parts of speech will be given on charts
with their definitions and classification.


Material: The grammar box is complete. It now has nine separate
compartments for the colored cards, article (tan), noun (black),
adjective (brown), verb (red), preposition (violet), adverb (pink),
pronoun (green), conjunction (yellow), and _interjection_ (_blue_). In
the compartment for the sentence slips are groups of cards which
correspond exactly to the number of the words contained in the


(Per amor del cielo! oibò! addio! ehm! misericordia! ah!)

      _Please!_ Don't make so much noise!

      _Shame on you!_ exclaimed Henry, much shocked at those

      _Good-by!_ We shall see you to-morrow.

      _Look out!_ If you drop that vase, you will break it.

      _Mercy on us!_ What is the matter with the poor man?

      _Aha!_ now I understand!


(Eh via! bravo! bene! ehi! poh! per carità! oh!)

      _Come, come!_ Do you think I am going to believe all
      that nonsense?

      _Goodness!_ I hope the child is not going to fall.

      _Thanks!_ It was kind of you to help me put my objects

      _Cockadoodledoo!_ sang the rooster in the yard!

      _Ding-dong, ding-dong!_ The engines were passing by.
      There was a fire!

      _Cheer up!_ There is no harm done!


(Ohè! ih! toh! poveretto! ahi! ohi! eh! animo! uh! ton!)

      _Farewell!_ The ship gradually drew away from the
      shore! The houses faded from view one by one. The
      hills formed a low line on the horizon. _Farewell!_ It
      would be months, years perhaps, before George would
      see the old familiar town again. _Farewell!_

      _Help! Help!_ came a voice through the fog! A man was

      _Hush!_ Do you hear that bird singing in the distance?

      _Alas!_ It was too late! When the doctor came, the
      poor man was dead!

      _Hurrah! Hurrah!_ The soldiers were now almost at the
      top of the hill. _Hurrah! hurrah!_ The
      red-white-and-blue was waving at last where the enemy
      had held out so long!

      _Bang!_ In the still night the sound of a gun roused
      the sleeping inhabitants.


(For interpretative reading)


      _Pain_: ahi! ohi! ohimè! ahimè! ah! oh! poveretto!

      _Prayer_: deh! mercè! aiuto! per carità! per amor di

      _Surprise_, _wonder_: Oh! ih! nientedimeno! poh! toh!
      eh! corbezzoli! bazzecole! caspita! cospetto! uh!
      oooh! misericordia! diavolo! bubbole!

      _Threat_: ehm! guai!

      _Disgust_, _horror_: puh! puah! brr!

      _Anger_: oibò! vergogna!

      _Doubt_: uhm!

      _Weariness_: auf! auff!

      _Calls_, _silence_: ehi! ohè! olà! alto là! pss! st!

      _Demonstratives_: ecco! riecco! eccomi! eccoci!

      _Encouragement_: orsù! via! suvvia! animo! coraggio!
      arri là! hop hop!

      _Greeting_: salve! vale! addio! arrivederci! ave!

      _Applause_: bene! bravo! viva! evviva! gloria! osanna!

      _Onomatapoetic_: crac! patatrac! piff paff! din don!
      ton ton! zum zum! bum bum!

      _Animal sounds_: gnau! chicchirichì! coccodè! cra cra
      cra! uè uè uè! glu glu glu! pi pi pi! cri cri! fron
      fron! bu bu!

      _Curses_: accidenti! accidempoli! perbacco! canchero!


      _Pain_: oh! alas! ah! ouch! my!

      _Joy_: oh! ah! oh my! good! splendid!

      _Surprise_: ha! aha! oh! really! you don't say!
      indeed! well, well! upon my word!

      _Contempt_: fudge! pshaw! fie! nonsense! bother!

      _Hesitation_: hum!

      _Resolution_: by Jove!

      _Silence_: hush! hist! listen! shh!

      _To animals_: whoa! gee! haw! geddap! kitty-kitty!

      _Onomatapoetic_: ding-dong! bang! whiz! bing! crack!
      snap! etc., etc.

(In general the use of interjections, especially of capricious
character, is much more characteristic of the best Italian writing and
speech than it is of English.)





The material for logical analysis consists of little rolls of fairly
stiff paper, on which are printed simple, compound and complex
sentences, in carefully prepared series.

There is also a chart, divided into two columns of rectangular spaces,
with the name of one sentence element printed in each space. The
sentence read on the roll can be torn off part by part, and each of
these parts is placed in one of the rectangles, according to the name
printed on it. This is another application of the compartment box method
used to analyze first the alphabet, then the sounds which go to make up
the word, finally the words as parts of speech. Here, the compartments
are reduced to a simple design.

The charts for logical analysis are on colored paper and are
artistically drawn and decorated. We have charts of four different kinds
as regards ornament and color, for such details exert a considerable
influence upon the work of the children. On the following page is a
sample of the charts with its "sections."


    |          VERB            |       Who is it that?      |
    |                          |       What is it that?     |
    | (The verbal or nominal   |                            |
    |      predicate.)         |          SUBJECT           |
    |      Who? What?          |      To whom? To what?     |
    |   (Direct object.)       |     (Indirect object.)     |
    |    By Whom? By What?     |     Of whom? Of what?      |
    |      (Agent.)            |   (Possessive, material.)  |
    |         When?            |          Where?            |
    |        (Time.)           |          (Place.)          |
    |       Whence?            |           How?             |
    |      (Source.)           |         (Manner.)          |
    |         Why?             |         What for?          |
    |       (Cause.)           |         (Purpose.)         |
    |    By means of whom?     |         With whom?         |
    |    By means of what?     |         With what?         |
    |      (Instrument.)       |     (Accompaniment.)       |
    | (Attributive (phrases).) | (Vocative.)                |

The two spaces at the top, subject and predicate, are somewhat larger
and are more conspicuously decorated than the other rectangles below.
The words _subject_ and _verb_ are printed entirely in large capitals.
The other spaces, however, are much more simply decorated and the
words are in small letters. This helps to distinguish the principal from
the secondary elements in the sentences. The names of the parts of
speech, and the questions which bring out the meaning of these names,
are in different colors: for instance, the names may be black and the
questions red, or the names may be in red and the questions in green.
And the letters of the questions are larger than the letters of the
names, except in the two upper spaces, where the words _subject_ and
_verb_ are in the largest type.

The child begins to see what a sentence is: that is, he begins to
_concentrate_ on this particular question. How many times he has read
sentences, pronounced sentences, composed sentences! But now he is
examining them in detail, _studying_ them. The simple sentence is a
short proposition, with completed meaning, which expresses an action or
a situation, organizing its different parts around a _verb_.

The first exercise for the child must be to find the verb, a task not
very difficult after the preceding exercises on the parts of speech have
been performed. When he has found the verb, it becomes essential for him
to find the subject. The subject may be found by asking the question:
_Who is it that_--? For example:

    The child reads.

The word _reads_ is the verb. The section of the roll where the word
_reads_ appears is torn off and placed in the space marked _Verb_. Then
ask: "_Who is it that_ reads?" The answer is, "_The child_ reads." The
section containing the word _the child_ is torn off and placed in the
space marked _Subject_.

Another sentence: on the roll the child finds written:

    _The glass is broken._

The teacher can briefly explain that the verb taken by itself, has no
special meaning. _Is_ means nothing! "_Is?_ Is _what_?" Some attribute
must be added: "Is _broken_!" Here we get a _nominal predicate_. When
the verb contains some definite meaning in terms of action, for instance
_reads_, we get a _verbal predicate_. The section of the roll containing
_is broken_ is torn off, accordingly, and placed in the space of the
verb. But _what_ is broken? _The glass!_ The section containing the
words _the glass_ is placed in the space of the subject. All of this can
be copied off by the child by hand, as follows:

    Simple sentence: The child reads.
    The child: Subject.
    Reads: Predicate (verbal).


(Simple Sentences)

The first roll contains the following simple sentences without modifiers
of any kind:

    --The child reads.
    --The glass is broken.
    --Charles is tall.
    --The trees are blossoming.
    --The blackboard is clean.
    --Who has come?
    --The pencil is broken.
    --The sky is blue.
    --I am reading.
    --I am studying.
    --The children are playing.
    --Time flies.
    --The teacher sings.


(Simple Sentences, containing a few modifiers)

The roll contains the following sentences, written one after another:

    --The mother loves her child dearly.
    --Johnny brought his teacher a rose.
    --You may keep the book for some days, Louis.
    --Mary, give the poor man a penny.
    --Where have you been, Mary?
    --I will do it, mother.
    --Little Harry, only three years old, has cleaned the whole
    --Who drew the pretty picture?
    --Last night I showed the letter to father.
    --In the yard a red white and blue flag is waving.
    --Did you go to the theater last night?
    --The rain was beating against the window panes.
    --The dog is barking at the cat.
    --The poor deaf-mutes talk with their hands.

Example of application: The section containing the first sentence,

    The mother loves her child dearly.

is first torn off from the roll. Then the section containing the word
_loves_ is placed in the space marked _verb_. _Who_ loves?--_the
mother_. The section containing the words _the mother_ is placed in the
space marked _subject_. The mother loved _whom_? _Her child._ The
section containing _her child_ is torn off and placed in the space
marked _direct object_. By thus reading the names printed in the spaces
of the chart the child learns to classify the various kinds of
modifiers. _How_ does the mother love her child? _In what manner?_
_Dearly._ The section containing the word _dearly_ is placed in the
space marked _Manner_ and the sentence is completed.

Now the child can copy off these analyses immediately or make others, as
he thinks best. The copy may be as follows:

    The mother loves her child dearly.
    The mother: Subject.
    Loves: Predicate (verbal).
    Her child: Direct object.
    Dearly: Adverb, manner.

In classifying the vocatives and attributives, a little help from the
teacher may be required. Example:

    You may keep the book for some days, Louis.

The word _Louis_ can be dramatized somewhat into a kind of invocation,
as--_O Louis, you may keep the book_ and so on. Vocatives can almost
always be identified by trying the exclamatory _O_ before them.

In the sentence,

      Little Harry, only three years old, has cleaned the
      whole blackboard.

_only three years old_ is an attributive of Harry. It should be torn off
and placed in the space marked _Attributive_.


(Simple sentences with two or more modifiers of the same kind)

The roll contains the following sentences in sections which may be read
and torn off one after the other as the child unrolls the strip:

    --The child sleeps and dreams.
    --Everybody likes fruit and flowers.
    --He took paper, pen and ink to write to his friends.
    --Charles opened and closed the book.
    --The doctor and the father left the sick child's room.
    --The women recommended calmness, patience and prudence.
    --In the beginning God created heaven and earth.
    --He will always have money and friends.
    --In the street we could see crowds of men and a few women.


(Elliptical sentences with subject understood)

[This situation does not however arise in English, which, save in the
imperative, always requires at least a pronominal subject for the verb.]

Here, the child interprets the sentence, completing it and finding the
element that is lacking.

    --La ringrazio (_I_ thank you).
    --Verrete? (Will _you_ come?)
    --Sono stanco (_I_ am tired).
    --Non mi sento bene oggi (_I_ don't feel well to-day).
    --Com'è andata? (How did _it_ turn out?)
    --Dico la verità (_I_ will tell you all about it).
    --Siamo contentissimi (_We_ are delighted).
    --Vi saluto (_I_ bid you good-by).
    --Vado a casa (_I_ am going home).
    --Lampeggia (_It_ is lightening).
    --M'impose silenzio (_He_ told me to say nothing).
    --Ascolto (_I_ am listening).


(Elliptical sentences where the predicate is understood)

    --Why all this noise?
    --After me, the deluge!
    --The sooner the better!
    --Good luck to you, sir!
    --What nasty weather!
    --What an attractive school!
    --O for a calm, a thankful heart!
    --A horse, a horse, my kingdom for a horse!
    --Away with him!
    --Fire! Fire!
    --Here, here, quick!
    --Honor to the brave!


(Elliptical sentences where the direct object is understood: _incomplete

    --They drove away.
    --He spends like a millionaire.
    --He drinks like a fish.
    --The farmer's boy had just milked.
    --Do you understand?
    --The cavalry spurred across the field at full speed.
    --Did you see?
    --The child did not hear.


(Sentences with numerous modifiers and of increased difficulty)

    --The poor boy came home that night, all tired out, covered
            with mud from head to foot, with his coat torn and
            with a black and blue lump on his forehead.
    --Ethel hurried home as fast as possible.
    --We heard the clatter of horse's hoofs on the pavement.
    --And so through the night went his cry of alarm
      To every Middlesex village and farm.
    --The beautiful child with the black hair is here on the lawn.
    --And yet through the gloom and the night
      The fate of a nation was riding that night.
    --The woman walked along in front of me with the child in her
    --The girl's voice sounded distinctly above all the others.
    --To-morrow I shall come to town on foot.
    --He spent the summer every year with his parents in their old
            home on the mountain side.
    --That evening the old house was more lonely than ever.
    --They are very busy this morning.
    --I never did such a thing in my life!
    --Every now and then a group of people hurriedly crossed the
    --The doctor whispered something into the Mayor's ear.
    --Just then some one knocked at the door.
    --Here I am back again at my work.
    --Mary had a little lamb
      With fleece as white as snow.



The English (the Italian) language tends to follow the direct order in
prose, inversion being very rare.

In poetry, inversion is very common.

The direct order consists in placing: first, the subject, then the
predicate, then the objects, direct and indirect; then the modifiers
follow according to the importance they derive from the meaning of the

These ideas are after all so simple and clear that the child rarely has
any difficulty in understanding them. Nevertheless, it is much easier to
give the child a vivid impression of them by the permutation of parts
than by explanation. This permutation is made very convenient by the
sentences being printed in sections which may be moved about and
combined at will. Just as the sequence of the various parts of speech
was made clear by transposing the parts, here the same result can be
accomplished by transposing the sections of the printed slip. Example:

    We         heard         the clatter       of the horse's hoofs
    (subject)  (predicate)   (direct object)   (attribute)

    on the pavement.
    (place: adverb)

The following combinations are possible results of permutation:

      We--heard--the clatter--of the horse's hoofs--on the

      We--the clatter--heard--on the pavement--of the
      horse's hoofs.

      We--of the horse's hoofs--on the pavement--the

      Of the horse's hoofs--on the pavement--heard--the
      clatter--we, etc., etc.


(The inverted order)

The effect of direct and inverted order can be shown in every sentence.
But it is better to try examples of inversion from poetic language. In
this series, all the sentences show inversion of one type or another:

    --Meanwhile, impatient to mount and ride,
      Booted and spurred, with a heavy stride
      On the opposite shore walked Paul Revere.

    --Upon the roof we sat that night!
      The noise of bells went sweeping by;
      Awesome bells they were to me.

    --Still sits the school-house by the road.

    --Before them under the garden-wall
      Forward and back
      Went drearily singing the chore-girl small.

    --And day by day more holy grew
      Each spot of the sacred ground.

    --There thronged the citizens with terror dumb.

Exercises on the putting together of sentence elements can lead to
practise in the identification and use of grammatical forms as parts of
speech, which the study of single words would not at first permit; as
for instance, forms of the verbs used as nouns (infinitive and gerund as
subject and object), the difference between personal pronouns used as
direct or indirect objects, and so on.


(The forms of the verb)

The roll contains the two forms of the verb, active and passive, in
sections. The analysis is conducted on the chart for the simple


  (Action performed by      (Action performed by   (_Middle Voice_)
  subject)                  agent)                 (Subject is direct

  Mary dresses the little   The little girl is     The little girl
  girl.                     dressed by Mary.        dresses herself.

  The teacher praised       Charles was praised    Charles praised
  Charles for the           by the teacher for     himself for the
  drawing.                  the drawing.           drawing.

  The little girl excused   George was excused     George excuses
  George for his            for his roughness by   himself for his
  roughness.                the little girl.       roughness.

  The janitor accused       The boy was accused    The boy accused
  the boy.                  by the janitor.        himself.

  The old man liked Albert  Albert was very much   Albert liked himself
  very much.                liked by the old man.  very much.

  The nurse tucked the      The child was tucked   The child tucked
  child into the warm       into the warm bed      himself into the
  bed.                      by the nurse.          warm bed.

  The girl rocked her       The little friend was  Her little friend
  little friend to sleep    rocked to sleep in     rocked herself to
  in the rocking-chair.     the rocking-chair by   sleep in the
                            the little girl.       rocking-chair.

  The teacher saw Henry     Henry was seen in the  Henry saw himself in
  in the large mirror.      large mirror by the    the large mirror.

  The angry boy hurt        Louis was hurt by the  Louis hurt himself.
  Louis.                    angry boy.


(Use of the personal pronoun)

The sentences previously given for analysis in teaching the personal
pronouns can be used over again at this point for analysis on the

    --The children wrote a letter to their mother
      The children wrote her a letter
      They wrote it to her

    --They gave their mother a surprise
      They gave her a surprise

    --I told father all about it
      I told him all about it

    --Charles soothed his sister with a kiss
      He soothed her with a kiss

    --Will you give your drawing to the teacher?
      Will you give her your drawing?
      Will you give it to her?

    --Don't think badly of your schoolmates
      Don't think badly of them

    --Show those dirty hands to the teacher
      Show her those dirty hands
      Show them to her

    --Tell the story to the children in the other room
      Tell it to the children in the other room
      Tell it to them there

The exercise in permutation brings out the relative positions of the
direct and indirect objects; as also the conditions under which the
preposition _to_ is required before the indirect object.



Here we are dealing with a number of propositions (clauses) which
combine into one complete meaning. The clauses fit together in the
sentences just as did the various elements in the simple sentence. The
material for the analysis is therefore analogous to that used in the
analysis of the simple sentence: strips of paper in rolls on which are
written the sentences to be analyzed, and a chart with spaces where the
detached pieces may be placed, according to the designation of these

The principal space on the chart is reserved for the main clause, around
which the other clauses are arranged, as coordinate or subordinate.

Since the work of logical analysis of the complex sentence is
sufficiently interesting to attract the attention of the child to
various forms of study, the material contains in addition to the rolls
and the chart, a number of test-cards where the analysis is completed
and logically demonstrated. These cards serve as tests of the accuracy
of the work done by the children, and as actual charts for analytical
study. Of course, when the child is doing his exercise with the strips
of paper and the chart, he does not have these test-cards before him. He
should, however, always have free access to them. His interest in the
game is to succeed by himself in placing the different propositions
where they belong.


  |                          PRINCIPAL CLAUSE                         |
  |           INCIDENTAL CLAUSES (Parenthetical clauses)              |
  |  SUBORDINATE ATTRIBUTIVE CLAUSE (Adjective or Relative clauses)   |
  |  who is it that...?            |      whom...? what...?           |
  |                                |                                  |
  | subordinate _subject_ clause   |   subordinate _object_ clause    |
  |      (subject clause)          |         (object clause)          |
  |          when...?              |             where...?            |
  |                                |                                  |
  | subordinate clause of _time_   | subordinate clause of _place_    |
  |       (temporal clause)        |          (locative clause)       |
  |    for what purpose...?        |      why...? for what cause?     |
  |                                |                                  |
  | subordinate clause of _purpose_| subordinate clause of _cause_    |
  | (purpose clause)               | (causal clause)                  |
  |     how...? than what?         |       on what condition...?      |
  |                                |                                  |
  | subordinate clause of _manner_ | subordinate clause of _condition_|
  |        or comparison           |        (conditional clause)      |
  |      (modal clauses)           |                                  |
  |     in spite of what...?       |       with what result...?       |
  |     subordinate clause of      |                                  |
  |         _concession_           | subordinate clause of _result_   |
  |     (concessive clause)        |         (result clause)          |


(Compound Sentences)

The clauses are independent of each other. Each contains a complete
meaning, and each therefore could stand alone. It is a question of
simple sentences _coordinated_ with each other.

    --I hunted carefully everywhere and at last I found it.
    --She started in fear, lifted her face and shaded it from the
            strong sun.
    --The bees hummed in the warm sunshine and the cat sat purring
            at her side.
    --She dropped her sewing and went to the door.
    --The girl covered her eyes with her hands and wept.
    --They looked into each other's faces: each of them had a question
            to ask and neither dared to speak.
    --I am a lowly peasant and you are a gallant knight.
    --They all looked at the speaker, and crowded round him and waited
            for his next word to attack him.
    --Then he began to weep and he tore his hair in anguish.
    --Louis clapped his hands for joy and began to dance around the
    --He looked into the mirror, straightened his tie, smoothed his
            hair and went out to greet his two friends.
    --She went to the window and looked out over the stormy sea.

The child divides these sentences into clauses, analyzing each
separately. Then, placing one under the other, he is impressed by the
fact that each has a complete meaning and can stand by itself; save that
in English the subject of the first clause is often carried over to the

    I hunted carefully everywhere.
    And at last I found it.

    I am a lowly peasant.
    And you are a gallant knight.

    Louis clapped his hands for joy.
          began to dance around the room.

    He looked into the mirror.
         straightened his tie.
         smoothed his hair.
    _and_ went out to meet his two friends.

    The bees hummed in the warm sunshine.
    And the cat sat purring at her side.

    Then he began to weep.
    And he tore his hair in anguish.

    The girl covered her face with her hands.
         _and_ wept.

    They looked at the speaker.
           crowded around him.
     _and_ waited for his next word to attack him.


(The Complex Sentence)

Here only the main clause has a complete meaning. The other clauses make
sense only when they are united with the main clause. On this roll, the
subordinate clauses are attributes of one of the elements of the main
clause (relative clauses).

    --The gold ring which you found yesterday on the stairs belongs
            to my mother.
    --The man who brought me to school this morning was my uncle.
    --He was educated by his sister who taught him many beautiful
    --The colors which Aunt Anna gave me Christmas are very good.
    --A little girl who was at a party sat looking with longing eyes
            at a plate of sandwiches.
    --The knife with which you sharpened my pencil was very dull.
    --Bees don't care about the snow!
      I can tell you why it's so:
      Once I caught a little bee
      Who was much too warm for me.--(F. D. SHERMAN)
    --We have at home the prettiest cat you ever saw.
    --Here are the pennies my mother gave me.
    --The children I play with did not come to school to-day.
    --The house we live in is beautiful and airy.
    --Stars are the little daisies white
      That dot the meadow of the night.--(SHERMAN)


  (The words modified by the relative   (Relative or Adjective Clauses)
  clause are in _italics_).             (The clause has no meaning until
                                        united with some noun in the
                                        main clause).

  The gold _ring_ belongs to            which you found on the stairs
  mother                                yesterday

  The _man_ was my uncle                who brought me to school this

  He was educated by his _sister_       who taught him many beautiful

  The _colors_ are very good            which Aunt Anna gave me

  A little _girl_ sat looking with      who was at a party
  longing eyes at a plate of

  Once I caught a little _bee_          who was much too warm for

  Stars are the little _daisies_        that dot the meadow of the
  white                                 night


                                            _What word is omitted?_

  Here are the _pennies_                     --my mother gave me

  The _children_ did not come to             with--I play
  school to-day

  The _house_ is beautiful and               in--we live


In the preceding roll, the subordinate clauses completed the meaning and
constituted an attribute of _one word_ of the principal clause. Here,
however, the subordinate clauses refer to the whole content of the main
clause and complete _the whole thought_ of the main clause. They have,
therefore, a logical dependence on the main clause. The child will be
guided in finding the place of the different subordinate clauses and in
classifying them according to the designations of the spaces by the
questions which appear in the analytical chart. It is presupposed that
he can readily identify the main clause itself.

The following sentences come one after the other on the rolled strip of

    --Do not forget that your objects are not in their places.
    --Will you play with me when you have finished your work?
    --When the sun is low our shadows are longer.
    --I hope that you will write me a long letter as soon as you
            arrive in Europe.
    --The little girl stood on tiptoe so that she could see the queen
            as the procession went by.
    --Brer Rabbit thought it was the worst time he had had in all his
    --All is well that ends well, says the proverb.
    --The people mourned when the good President died.
    --It is not right that the big boys should have all the candy.
    --As she sat there reading, a beautiful red bird flew in through
            the window.
    --They could not play in the yard because the ground was too wet.
    --Remember that you must thank the lady who gave you the book.


  CLAUSES                                           CLAUSES

  Do not forget                     what?     that your objects are not
                                                    in their places.

  Will you play with me             when?     when you have finished
                                                    your work?

  Our shadows are longer            when?     when the sun is low.

  I hope                            what?     that you will write me a
                                                    long letter.

                                    when?     as soon as you arrive in

  The little girl stood on tip-toe  why?      so that she could see the

                                    when?     as the procession went by.

  Brer Rabbit thought               what?     (that) it was the worst
                                                _time_ he had had in all
                                                his life (_attributive,
                                                relative pronoun

  All is well                                  that ends well
  says the proverb (incidental                    (_attributive_).

  The people mourned                  when?   the good President died.

  It is not right                     what?   that the big boys should
                                                have all the candy.

  A beautiful red bird flew           when?   as she sat there
  in through the window                         reading.

  They could not play in the          why?    because the ground was
  yard                                            too wet.

  Remember                            what?   that you must thank the
                                                 _lady_ who gave you the
                                                 book (_attributive_).


Here we have sentences both compound and complex, containing both
coordinate and subordinate clauses.

    --As he said this, he rose from his chair and left the room.
    --The two friends shook hands and said they would always be
            faithful to each other.
    --When the wolf came out, Brer Rabbit threw the stone on him and
    --When the lady knocked on the door, a smiling old man appeared
            and asked what he might do for her.
    --The children walked along in the forest and became very hungry
            because they had had nothing to eat since morning.
    --The king's face grew very red and he angrily ordered that the
            deceitful general be put to death.
    --Since the wind was blowing hard, the captain told the children
            to keep off the deck and a sailor carried them to their
    --The dogs began to bark and the people all ran out into the
            streets as the uproar of the combat increased.
    --Where that tree now stands, there was once a beautiful house
            and a fine road led up to it.
    --He had left the village and mounted the steep,
      And under the alders that skirt its edge,
      Now soft on the sand, now loud on the ledge,
      Is heard the tramp of his steed as he rides.


                                                     SUBORDINATE AND

    He rose from his      and left the      when?     as he said this
      chair                 room

    The two friends       and said          what?     that they would
      shook hands                                       always be faithful
                                                        to each other

    Brer Rabbit threw     and laughed       when?     when the wolf came
      the stone on him                                  out

    A smiling old man     and asked         what?     what he might do for
      appeared                                          her

                                            when?     when the lady
                                                        knocked on the

    The children walked   and became very   why?      because they had had
      along in the          hungry                      nothing to eat
      forest                                            since morning

    The king's face grew  and he angrily    what?     that the deceitful
      very red              ordered                     general be put to

    The captain told the  and a sailor      why?      because the wind was
      children to keep      carried them                blowing hard
      off the deck          to their

    The dogs began to     and the people    when?     as the uproar of the
      bark                  all ran into                combat increased
                             the streets

    There was once a      and a fine road   where?    where that tree now
      beautiful house       led up to it                stands

    He had left the       and mounted the
      village               steep

                          under the                   that skirt its edge
                            _alders_ now                (attributive).
                            soft on the
                            sand, now loud
                            on the ledge,
                            is heard the
                            tramp of his
                            steed           when?     as he rides


(Correlative Sentences)

The clauses are here dependent upon each other:

    --The flowers were so beautiful that we picked them all.
    --That day he was so lazy that he did not get his work done.
    --She sings much better than she plays.
    --The more one studies, the more one learns.
    --Either you return your objects to their places or some one
            else must do it.
    --Not only was the man very cross, but he actually punished
            the little boy.



  The flowers were so   with what result?  that we picked them all.

  That day he was so    with what result?  that he did not get his
    lazy                                     work done.

  She sings much        than what?         than she plays.

  The more one          with what result?  the more one learns.

  Either you return     with what result?  or some one else must do
    your objects to                          it.
    their places

  Not only was the man  with what result?  but he actually punished
    very cross                                the little boy.


(The Order of Clauses in Sentences: Sentence Forms in Prose and Verse)

Our material makes it very easy for the children to understand the
mutual dependence of the subordinate clauses. We take the commonest
cases within easy reach of the children. There are clauses of the first
degree of subordination, dependent directly on the principal clause.
There are others of the second degree of subordination which depend on a
subordinate clause (clause subordinate to a subordinate). We have the
same situation in coordinates. We have the first degree of coordination
when the clause is parallel with the principal clause, and the second
degree when the clause is parallel with a subordinate clause.

Since the slips have as many sections as there are clauses, the clauses
may be arranged on the table in the order of their subordination,
keeping, for example, the principal clause to the left, and arranging
the subordinate clauses downward and downward to the right. Take, for
instance, the sentence:

      --The old man liked to tell stories; and he would
      laugh heartily when the women were frightened at the
      terrible things that he had to relate.

As the different clauses are torn off they are placed on a chart marked
into sections by vertically placed arrows: the principal clause to the
right of the first arrow; the first subordinate clause to the right of
the second; the subordinate to the subordinate to the right of the
third, and so on. The above sentence results as follows:

  Principal and Coordinate   1st subordinate     subordinate to

  The old man liked to
  tell stories
  and he would laugh

                             when the women were
                             frightened at the
                             terrible things

                                                that he had to tell.


  /|\ Principal and    1st subordinate            subordinate to
   |    coordinate     and its coordinates          subordinate
   |   (incidental)
   |  I shall feel
   |     better      /|\ if you will let me sit
   |                  |  next to the window
   |                  |                          /|\ where there is more
   |                  |                           |  air.

Here is another example:

    --I often sit and wish that I
      Could be a kite up in the sky,
      And ride upon the breeze, and go
      Whatever way it chanced to blow.

  /|\ Principal and     1st subordinate and        subordinate to
   |  Coordinates          coordinate                subordinate
   |  I often sit
   |  and wish
   |                 /|\ that I could be a kite
   |                  |  up in the sky
   |                  |  and ride upon the
   |                  |  breeze
   |                  |  and go whatever way
   |                  |                        /|\ it chanced to blow.
   |                  |                         |

Here, finally, is another:

-- I was a bad boy, I admit, but no one ever paid any attention to me,
unless I was to be blamed for something wrong that I had done, or was
accused of doing.

  /|\ I was a bad boy
   |  I admit (incidental)
   |  but no one ever paid
   |  any attention to me
   |                    /|\ unless I was to be
   |                     |  blamed
   |                     |  for something wrong
   |                     |                     /|\ that I had done,
   |                     |                      |  or was accused of
   |                     |                      |  doing.
   |                     |                      |  (coordinate of second
   |                     |                      |  subordinate)

In using this material, the child tears off the clause-slips using the
analytical sentence-chart (Chart B). This gives him the classification
of the clauses. The strips are then to be placed on the dependence chart
(Chart C) according to the indications of the arrows. This brings out
the mutual relation of the clauses.


The preceding exercises have created in the child a notion of sentence
construction and of the position of the clauses which make it up. Our
material permits, of course, as an exercise supplementary to the
analyses, dislocations and translocations of parts just as was true with
the simple sentence. To derive the full benefit of this possibility, the
teacher should have in mind the general rules for location of clauses:

Adjective clauses (relative, attributive) always follow, and most often
directly, the noun they modify.

Subject subordinate clauses may stand either before or after the
principal clause. If the subject clause follows, it is usually
anticipated before the verb by the pronoun it (just as a following noun
subject is anticipated by _there_).

(In Italian, if the object clause precedes the main clause, it is
usually repeated before the noun by a conjunctive object personal

The position of the other clauses depends on considerations of emphasis.

The direct order for complex sentences is in general similar to that for
simple sentences:

    subject clause
    principal clause
    object clause
    adverbial clauses.

Coordination is possible with subordinate as well as with principal

The special exercises on the complex sentence conclude with some
practise in turning simple inversions as found in poetry into direct
sentence order.


The detachable strips are used here also. The exercise should be
conducted with reference to the sentence charts.


  --Just where the tide of battle    Old John Burns stood, erect and
      turns,                            lonely just where the tide of
    Erect and lonely stood old          battle turns....
      John Burns ...                 A bright blue coat, with a rolling
    And buttoned over his manly         collar, was buttoned over his
      breast                            manly breast.
    Was a bright blue coat with a
      rolling collar.


  --It was terrible: on the right        It was terrible: the deadly
    Raged for hours the deadly           fight raged for hours on the
        fight,                           right; the battery's double bass
    Thundered the battery's double       thundered,--difficult music for
        bass,                            men to face; while round shot
    Difficult music for men to face;     ploughed the upland glades on
    While on the left, where now         the left, where now the graves
        the graves                       undulate like the living waves
    Undulate like the living waves       that swept unceasing all that
    That all that day unceasing          day up to the pits the rebels
        swept                            kept.
    Up to the pits the rebels kept,
    Round shot ploughed the upland
      BRET HARTE.--_John Burns
           of Gettysburg._


  --Merrily rang the bridle reins,     The bridle reins rang merrily
       and scarf and plume steamed     and scarf and plume streamed
       gay,                            gay, as the riders, held their
    As fast beside her father's        way fast by her father's gate.
      gate the riders held their
      way ...

    "Now break your shield asunder     Now break your shield asunder
      and shatter your sign            and shatter across your knightly
      and boss,                        knee your sign and boss unmeet
    Unmeet for peasant-wedded          for peasant-wedded arms.
      warms, your knightly
      knee across.
        WHITTIER.--_King Volmer._


  The breaking waves dashed high     The breaking waves dashed
  On a stern and rock bound coast;   high on a stern and rock-bound
  And the woods against a stormy     coast; and the woods tossed their
      sky                            giant branches against a stormy
  Their giant branches tossed.       sky.
  And the heavy night hung dark      The heavy night hung dark
  The hills and waters o'er,         over (o'er) the hills and waters,
  When a band of Pilgrims moored     when a band of Pilgrims moored
      their bark                     their bark on the wild New England
  On the wild New England shore.     shore.

  Not as the conqueror comes         They, the true hearted, came
  They the true hearted came,        not as the conqueror comes, not
  Not with the roll of the stirring  with the roll of the stirring
      drums                          drums and the trumpet that
  And the trumpet that sings of      sings of fame.
                   MRS. HEMANS.


  My golden spurs now bring to me   Bring to me now my golden
  And bring to me my richest mail,  spurs and bring to me my richest
  For tomorrow I go over land and   mail; for I go in search of the
      sea                           Holy Grail tomorrow over land
  In search of the Holy Grail.      and sea; a bed shall never be
  Shall never a bed for me be       spread for me, nor shall a pillow
  spread.                           be under my head till I begin to
  Nor shall a pillow be under my    keep my vow; I will sleep here
      head,                         on the rushes, and perchance a
  Till I begin my vow to keep;      true vision will come _before_ (ere)
  Here on the rushes will I sleep.  day creates the world anew.
  And perchance there may come a
      vision true
  Ere day create the world anew.


  Glad tidings of great joy I bring  I bring to you and all mankind
  To you and all mankind:            glad tidings of great joy. The
  To you, in David's town this day   Saviour, who is Christ the Lord,
  Is born of David's line            is born to you this day in David's
  The Saviour, who is Christ the     town, of David's line; and this
      Lord,                          shall be the sign: you shall find
  And this shall be the sign:        the heavenly Babe there displayed
  The heavenly Babe you there        to human view, all meanly wrapt
      shall find                     in swaddling clothes and laid in
  To human view displayed,           a manger.
  All meanly wrapt in swaddling
  And in a manger laid.
        TATE.--_While Shepherds


  The harp that once through      The harp, that once shed the
      Tara's halls                soul of music through Tara's
  The soul of music shed,         halls, now hangs on Tara's walls,
  Now hangs on Tara's walls       as though that soul were fled.
  As if that soul were fled.      So the pride of former days
  So sleeps the pride of former   sleeps, so glory's thrill is over,
      days,                       and hearts that once beat high
  So glory's thrill is o'er,      for praise now feel that pulse no
  And hearts that once beat high  more. The harp of Tara swells
      for praise                  no more to chiefs and bright ladies:
  Now feel that pulse no more.    the chord alone, that breaks
                                  at night, tells its tale of ruin.
  No more to chiefs and ladies    Thus Freedom now wakes so seldom
      bright                      (that) the only throb she
  The harp of Tara swells;        gives is when some indignant
  The chord alone that breaks at  heart breaks to show that she
      night                       still lives.
  Its tale of ruin tells.
  Thus Freedom now so seldom
  The only throb she gives,
  Is when some heart indignant
  To show that still she lives.
                 THOMAS MOORE.


  Childhood is the bough where          Childhood is the bough where
    slumbered                           many numbered birds and blossoms
  Birds and blossoms many numbered;     slumbered; Age encumbered
  Age that bough with snow encumbered.  that bough with snow.



  Just where the tide of battle     subordinate of place (locative)
  Erect and lonely stood old John   principal
  And, buttoned over his manly      (verbal attributive phrase)
  Was a bright blue coat with a     coordinate of principal
      rolling collar


  It was terrible                   principal
                  on the right
  raged for hours the deadly fight  coordinate of principal

  thundered the battery's double    coordinate of principal
  Difficult music for men to face   (verbal attributive phrase in
  While on the left (round shot     subordinate of time (temporal)
      ploughed, etc.)                 begun
                      where now     (_While_ may be considered as
       the graves                     adversative coordinate)
  Undulate like the living waves    subordinate to subordinate
                                      (locative) 2d degree
  That all that day unceasing
      swept                         attributive subordinate (relative
  up to the pits                      adjectival clause modifying
                                      _waves_) of 3d degree
                  the rebels kept     attributive subordinate (relative
                                      pronoun omitted) of 4th degree
  Round shot ploughed the upland      subordinate of time (concluded).


  Merrily rang the bridle reins      principal

      and scarf and plume            coordinate
      streamed gay

  As fast beside her father's gate
      the riders held their way      subordinate of time

  Now break your shield asunder      principal

                      and shatter
      your sign and boss             coordinate
  Unmeet for peasant-wedded arms
      your knightly knee across


  The breaking waves dashed high
  On a stern and rock-bound coast     principal

  And the woods against a stormy
  Their giant branches tossed         coordinate

  And the heavy night hung dark
  The hills and waters o'er           principal (coordinated in
  When a band of pilgrims moored
      their bark
  On a wild New England shore         subordinate temporal

  Not                                 principal begun
      as the conqueror comes          subordinate of manner (modal)
  They the true hearted came          principal concluded
  Not with the roll of the stirring
  and the trumpet                     coordinate (elipsis of verb _they_
                                        _came_ continued from principal)
                that sings of fame      attributive (relative)
                                        subordinate to coordinate.


  My golden spurs now bring to me   principal

  And bring to me my richest mail   coordinate

  For tomorrow I go over land and   subordinate of cause (causal):
      sea                             may be considered coordinate
  In search of the Holy Grail         of _reason_

  Shall never a bed for me be
      spread                        principal

  Nor shall a pillow be under my
      head                          coordinate

  Till I begin my vow to keep       subordinate of time (temporal)

  Here on the rushes will I sleep   principal

  And perchance there may come a
      vision true                   coordinate

  Ere day create the world anew     subordinate temporal.


  Great tidings of great joy I
  To you and all mankind             principal

  To you in David's town this day
  Is born of David's line
  The Saviour                        principal

            who is Christ the Lord   attributive (relative) subordinate

  And this shall be the sign         coordinate

  The heavenly Babe you there
      shall find
  To human view displayed
  All meanly wrapped in swaddling
  And in a manger laid.              simple sentence with three
                                       coordinate verbal phrases.


  The harp                          principal begun
          that once through
                      Tara's hall
  The soul of music shed            attributive subordinate (relative)

  Now hangs on Tara's walls         principal concluded

  As if that soul were fled         subordinate of manner (modal)

  So sleeps the pride of former
  days                              principal

  So glory's thrill is o'er         coordinate

  And hearts                        coordinate begun
            that once beat high     attributive relative subordinate
                for praise

  Now feel that pulse no more       coordinate concluded.

  No more to chiefs and ladies
  The harp of Tara swells           principal

  The chord alone                   coordinate begun

              that breaks at night  attributive relative subordinate

  Its tale of ruin tells            coordinate concluded.

  Thus freedom now so seldom
      wakes                         principal

  The only throb                    subordinate result begun
                                      (conjunction _that_ omitted)

               she gives            subordinate to subordinate (2d
                                      degree; relative omitted)

  Is when some heart indignant
  To show                           subordinate result concluded

          that still she lives      subordinate object (noun) clause
                                      of 2d degree.


  Childhood is the bough              principal
                  where slumbered
  Birds and blossoms many-numbered    subordinate locative (of place)

  Age that bow with snows encumbered  coordinate.

(Note: the best English poetry makes far less use of inversion than does
Italian. Such exercises as the above could be profitably applied to the
analysis of the different kinds of phrases (adjective, adverbial, etc.).
It should be noted that Dr. Montessori in her own exercises treats
verbal phrases (participles and infinitives) as subordinate


This study of the complex sentence leads the child to a more precise
comprehension of the values of certain parts of speech as, notably, the
conjunction. We have found, in fact, that little difficulty is
experienced in realizing the distinction between the terms
_coordinating_ and _subordinating_ as applied to conjunctions which
_unite_ clauses but in different ways. The following charts serve to
cover the vast majority of cases that the child is likely to meet. We
may add that at this point it may be found useful to have the child
analyze the complex sentences which appeared in the commands and
readings already familiar to him (see below under _Reading_).


_Copulatives_: and, also, too, besides, moreover, further, furthermore,

_Disjunctives_: or else, otherwise, rather.

_Adversatives_: but, nevertheless, however, notwithstanding, yet, still,
while, only, instead.

_Declaratives_: namely, in other words, that is.

_Asseverative_: in fact, assuredly, really.

_Illative_: hence, therefore, then, accordingly, so.




  |                            PRINCIPAL CLAUSE                        |
  |                  Incidental (parenthetical) clause                 |
  |               Adjective (relative, attributive) clause             |
  |                    who, which, that, whose, whom                   |
  |   Subordinate subject clause   |     Subordinate object clause     |
  |              that              |                that               |
  |   Subordinate clause of time   |    Subordinate clause of place    |
  |          (temporal)            |            (locative)             |
  |    when, while, as soon as,    | where, whence, wherever, whither  |
  |   before, after, till, until   |                                   |
  | Subordinate clause of purpose  |    Subordinate clause of cause    |
  |    (final, purpose clause)     |          (casual clause)          |
  | that, in order that, so that   |     as, because, for, since,      |
  |                                |           in as much as           |
  |     Subordinate clause of      | Subordinate clause of condition   |
  |     manner and comparison      |                                   |
  |        (modal clause)          |      (conditional clause)         |
  | as (manner), than (comparison) |      if, unless, provided,        |
  |                                |          provided that            |
  |      Subordinate clause of     |       Subordinate clause of       |
  |          concession            |      result and correlatives      |
  |       (concessive clause)      |       that, so that (result)      |
  |    though, although, even if,  |       so ... as, so ... that      |
  | however, notwithstanding that  |       (correlative, degree)       |


A special series of exercises on the relations of the subordinate to the
principal clause brings out the changes in tense made necessary in the
subordinate clause as the tense of the principal clause varies.


Sequence of Tenses


(Causal Clauses)

    --I am writing to you because I have some important news.
      "    wrote    "  "     "    " had   "       "       "

    --I shall not go because I must attend to my work.
      " did    "   "    "    " had to  "    "  "   "

    --I am glad that you have done so well.
      " was  "    "   "  had    "   "   "

    --I will give it to you since you insist on having it.
      " gave       "  "  "    "    "  insisted "  "     "

    --He does not answer because your letter is insulting.
       " did   "    "       "     "      "   was    "


(Miscellaneous Clauses)

    --I shall be proud of you if you become a fine scholar.
      " should "   "    "  "   "  "  became "   "     "

    --I believe that only the rich can be happy.
      " believed  "    "   "    "  could "   "

    --I am waiting here till my father returns from town.
      "    waited    "    "   "   "    returned  "    "

    --They expect that something will happen before long.
        "  expected  "     "     would   "      "     "

    --He is doing that for you, in order that you may   go to school.
       "    did     "   "   "    "   "     "   "  might  "  "    "

    --He will let you know where he has been.
       "    let    "    "    "    " had   "


(Object Clauses)

    --They are  telling me what they have been doing.
        "  were    "     "   "    "  had    "    "

    --I promise  you that I will  do everything punctually.
      " promised  "    "  " would  "     "           "

    --I think   he will  not be back before Wednesday.
      " thought  " would  "   "   "     "       "

    --Do  you know that your friend has gone away?
      Did  "    "    "    "    "    had   "    "

    --I assure  you that I will  take good care of it.
      " assured  "    "  " would   "    "    "   "  "

    --I repeat   that you ought to be        ashamed of yourself.
      " repeated   "   "    "    " have been    "     "     "


(Conditional Sentences)

    --I would      read this book too, if I could.
      "   "   have read   "    "   "    " " had been able.

    --If I see him, I shall  tell him what you say.
       " " saw  "   " should   "   "    "   "  said.

    --I will  finish this work, if you can   wait.
      " would    "     "    "    "  "  could   "

    --I shall  come sooner if I can.
      " should   "     "    " " could.

    --He would      give  it to you if you     asked him for it.
       "   "   have given  "  "  "   "  "  had asked  "   "   "

    --He would   give it to you if you should ask him for it.

    --I shall       go   there if I        have time.
      " should       "     "    " "        had    "
      " shall        "     "    " " should have   "
      " should have gone   "    " "    had had    "



The permutations of clauses permitted by our materials give empirical
evidence of the pauses and accordingly of the functions of the
orthographical signs of suspense in the sentence. These signs are
included also in our alphabets. All the exercises hitherto given require
more or less spontaneous attention to punctuation. We offer, however, in
addition, several series of sentences for analysis in illustration of
the principal rules for the use of punctuation points. Almost all of our
Italian sentences are taken from Manzoni, a writer especially noteworthy
for his care in punctuation. (The majority of the sentences below are
taken from the _Book of Knowledge_, by special permission of the


The comma may separate coordinate elements.

      --The mother took a glowing pride in the beauty of her
      children's faces, the grace and strength of their
      bodies, their reckless daring and unflinching courage.

      --The little star fell plump into the middle of a big
      puddle, and there it lay sad and shaken and quaking
      with fright.

      --It was dumb and half blind, it had a soiled face,
      and could give no more light.

      --A mouse was just then peeping from its hole to see
      whether it was going to rain, and whether it would be
      safe to cross the fields.

      --The mouse started running again, and ran until it
      was tired out and had to sit down.

      --The little star poured a flood of bright light over
      the poor woman, and made her bright and cheerful and
      strong again, and then the little girl became very


A comma isolates vocatives and incidental clauses.

      --"Cæsar, let your men go forward," said the guide.

      --Why do you want to find your father, Mora?

      --"No," said he, "I shall be very well presently."

      --"Boys," said our host, "I know whose hand it is."

      --That, excuse me for saying so, is not the way to
      speak to a friend.

      --"Come with us, you handsome young huntsman," he


A comma separates clauses, especially for clearness, when the elements
of one clause might seem to apply equally well to another clause, and
when one clause is interpolated between the essential elements of

      --Mohammed taught that men should pray at stated
      times, wherever they are.

      --George, who was only five years old, could not go
      with his father to fight.

      --The tribemen, after quarreling a long time, decided
      to march away.

      --He went that evening, as he had planned, to the
      doctor's house.

      --The poor Indian had been kept moving, ever since he
      was born, to regions farther and farther north.

      --The child crept to the bed, and, taking his little
      fan, stood over his father all night fanning him.


A comma indicates a pause caused by the ellipsis of some word or idea
(in such cases longer suspense can be indicated by a colon or a

      --Very well, what of it?

      --Good-by, all you nice people!

      --Just what I wanted: a plate of wild strawberries
      with real cream!

      --Please, mother, just a little more, a very little

      --Silence, obedience, and everybody at work!

      --Enough said; I know exactly what the matter is!


A semi-colon marks a considerable halt between clauses. In some special
cases, a colon is used. The dash. Quotations.

      --The knight mounted a superb steed; the old huntsman
      did the same.

      --Some carriages opened at the back, with the driver
      sitting perched high above the door; others had the
      driver's seat at the side, and in all sorts of queer

      --The first trams were drawn, usually, by horses;
      though many people can remember when London
      street-cars were drawn by mules--two big ones or three
      little ones for each car.

      --The letter began: "I hope you will let me know if
      this letter does not reach you."

      --Patrick Henry said: "Give me liberty, or give me

      --The boy's mind was full of love and romance but not
      of sadness for--

    Singing he was and fluting all the day:
    He was as fresh as in the month of May.

      --The king will ask you three questions: "How old are
      you?" "How long have you been in his service?" "Are
      you satisfied with your food and lodgings?"

      --How happy they were: all kinds of toys to play with;
      all sorts of good things to eat; and a kind old father
      to satisfy their every want!

      --Slowly one of the dialects of English--the language
      of London--came to be regarded as standard English.

      --Washington is called "the Father of his Country."

      --When he got home, he said to his wife: "See, I have
      brought you a present."

      --He shouted gleefully: "I am a lion--a terrible


(Other Punctuation Points)

The period, the question mark, exclamation point and other signs of

In this series should be given dialogues, interesting stories, passages
which express emotional states of mind vividly portrayed. Such
selections, as is true also of our shorter passages, ought to be taken
from the best writers, distinguished by the naturalness and vivacity of
their style and the use of an accurate orthographical technique. At this
point we make use of the selections used for our "interpretations,"
since the question of punctuation coincides with the problems of text
interpretation itself.




In doing the work outlined thus far, the children have acquired
considerable resources in vocabulary. They have seen all the articles,
prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, interjections, many of the
adverbs; and they know many nouns, adjectives, and verbs, which will be
increased in number as their culture is widened. They know something
also of the use of the parts of speech and their functions in the
expression of thought. This is the natural place for a classification in
retrospect of those words which the children have in writing before them
on the cards and slips of different colors. Separate tables should be
used for these exercises in word grouping.

This new step is preparatory to a _theoretical study_ of language to be
developed in later courses in the second period of their education.


    Root        }
    Derived[3]  } words
    Compound[4] }


There are two kinds of words, thus considered: variable and invariable:

                /               /
                | preposition   | They may be simple or
  INVARIABLES: <  conjunction  <  compound, made up,
                | interjection  | that is, of one word or more.
                \               \

               /                               / may be of masculine,
               |               \              |   feminine, neuter or
               |    in gender  |              |   common gender.
               |  and number    >   nouns    <  form their plurals by
               |               |              |   adding -s or by
               |               /              |   changing the root
               |                               \   vowel (umlaut)
               |                   \            / have special
               |                   |            |  words for
               | in gender, number  > pronouns <    each form: e.g. he,
               | person and case   |            |  him, who, whom, I,
               |                   /            \  me, etc.
               |                   } adjectives { -er for comparative
               | in degree         } adverbs    { -est for superlative
               |                             / show third person
               |                             |  singular by adding -s,
  VARIABLES   <                              |  and old second person
               |                             |  singular by adding
               |                             |  -st
               |                             | show moods by adding
               |                             |  -ing, -ed or by vowel
               | in person, number,}  verbs <  change for participles:
               | tense and mood    }         |  or by special
               |                             |  forms (I be, he be,
               |                             |  etc.) for subjunctive.
               |                             | show tense by suffix
               |                             |  -ed, -t: or by vowel
               |                             |  change (I go, I
               |                             |  went).
               |                             \ show irregular forms.
               |                               / _the_ has two
               |                 \ definite    | pronunciations
               |        for      | article    <  according to
               | phonetic reasons >            | the following word.
               |                 |             \
               |                 |             { _a_ becomes _an_ before
               \                 / indefinite  { a vowel.


(Parts of Speech)

    Article               Verb                 Pronoun
    Noun                  Adverb               Conjunction
    Adjective             Preposition          Interjection

NOTE: In actual usage the parts of speech perform not only their own
functions, but also the functions of other parts of speech, for
instance, the adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, etc., may be used as
nouns. The participles, etc., may be used as adjectives, or as clauses,


    Proper               Common
    Concrete             Abstract
    Collective           Individual


    Indefinite--a, an


Descriptive: Properties, qualities of things and living beings.

                               / _cardinal_: one, two, three, four, etc.
                               | _ordinal_: first, second, third,
                 / Definite    |   fourth, last, etc.
                 | (numeral)  <  _multiple_: single, double, triple,
                 |             |   quadruple, etc.
                 |             \ _fractional_: half, third, etc.
  Quantitative: <
                 |             / many, all, some, much, enough, no,
                 |             |   more, most, other, little, few,
                 \ Indefinite <|   whatever, each, every, certain,
                               |   several, somewhat, etc.

Demonstrative (position in space): this, that, these, those, such, same.

Possessive: my, thy, his, her, its, our, your, their.

Interrogative: what? which?


The verb indicates:

    existence: _to be_.
    state or condition: _nominal predicate_ (copular): e.g., She _is_
    action: _verbal predicate_: e.g., I _run_.

                           / lay, throw, toss, hurl, roll, raise,
                           | lower, attach, touch, tie, cover, uncover,
  Transitive (action upon  | undo, invert, rub, spread, collect,
  an object different     <  scatter, sprinkle, stir, beat, mix,
  from subject)            | dissolve, flavor, arrange, clean, dust,
                           | sweep, button, lace, hook,
                           \ brush, wash, wipe, embrace, etc., etc.

                   / grow, die, smile, laugh, stare, walk, stagger,
  Intransitive     | march, sing, whistle, speak, hum, dance,
  (action remains <  shout, dine, bark, think, burst, blossom,
  in subject)      | remain, stand, rise, go, run, breathe, sigh,
                   \ hesitate, weep, sleep, etc., etc.

      Note: Certain verbs may be by nature both transitive
      and intransitive (incomplete predication).

  Impersonals (the        /
  subject is _it_         | rain, snow, hail, dawn, lighten, thunder,
  without reference to a <  etc.
  specific object):       |


                   / slowly, rapidly, silently, noisily, abruptly,
                   | loudly, strongly, weakly, moderately, well, ill,
  of Manner:      <  better, worse, otherwise, differently, thus, so,
                   | lightly, heavily, etc., etc.

  of Place:        { here, there, elsewhere, up, down, forward,
                   { backward, upstairs, downstairs, etc., etc.

                   | always, ever, never, again, still, yesterday,
  of Time:        <  tomorrow, today, now, occasionally, before,
                   | afterwards, soon, etc., etc.

  of Quantity:     { much, little, enough, nothing, more, less,
                   { least, most, about, only, too, very, etc.

  of Comparison:     more, less, than, etc.

  of Affirmation:  { yes, certainly, precisely, indeed, surely,
                   { assuredly, truly, even, etc.

  of Negation:       no, never, not, at all, etc.

  of Doubt:          perhaps, perchance, almost, probably, etc.


                 | of, to, by, from, in, with, on, among, above,
  Simple:       <  through, under, around, beside, behind, save,
                 | except, near, next, like, during, off, etc.

  Compound       { in place of, out of, away from, as to, on board,
  (preposition   { with regard to, etc.


                  | subject:       { I, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they
  Personal       <                 { me, thee, him, her, it, us, you,
                  | object:        { them

                  | definite:      { this, this one, that, that one,
                  |                {  these, those
  Demonstrative  <
                  |                /
                  |                | one, ones, some, somebody,
                  | indefinite:   <  everyone, each, each one, no one,
                  \                | nobody, none, nothing, etc.

                  |              /
                  |              | subject: who, that
                  | of person:  <  possessive: whose
                  |              | object: whom, that
                  |              \
                  | of thing:    which, that
  Relative       <
                  | indefinite:  whoever, which ever
                  | compound (antecedent understood): what (that
                  |   which), whereof, wherewith, etc.

                                 | who
                  /              | whose
                  | of person   <  whom
                  |              | which
                  |              \
  Interrogative  <
                  | of thing    { what
                  \             { which

  Possessive: mine, yours (thine), his, hers, ours, yours, theirs.


  Disjunctive:  or, or else, otherwise, rather.

  Copulative:   { and, also, too, besides, moreover, further,
                { furthermore, nor, etc.

  Adversative:  { but, nevertheless, notwithstanding, yet, still,
                { while, however, only, on the contrary, instead, etc.

  Declarative:  namely, in other words, that is, etc.

  Relative: that.

  Illative:     { hence, therefore, wherefore, then, accordingly, so,
                { with the result that, etc.

  Temporal:     { while, when, as soon as, after, before, until, till,
                { hardly, etc.

  Concessive: though, although, even if.

  Purpose (Final): that, in order that, to the end that, etc.

  Conditional: if, unless, provided, provided that, etc.

  Causal: as, because, for, since, seeing that, etc.

  Result: that, so that, etc.

  Locative: where, whence, whither, whereto, wherefrom, etc.

  Degree and Comparison: as, than.


See list already given on pp. 122-123.


[3] Under this heading we include all derivations by suffix: some
suffixes change one part of speech into another: _love_ (verb),
_lovable_ (adj.), etc.; others, such as _diminutives_, _peggioratives_,
_augmentatives_, etc., change the quality of a word's meaning. In
adjectives we have suffixes of degree (comparison: _-er_, _-est_).

[4] Under this heading we include all words formed by the union of two
words or by prefixes.






Reading begins in the "Children's House" as soon as the children
_reread_ the word they have already composed with the movable alphabet.
This early effort is not indeed the true reading of the word, since
interpretation is lacking. The children, it has been seen, know the word
because they have actually put it together. They have not gained an
understanding of it from the simple recognition of the graphic symbols.
What they have done is, nevertheless, an important contribution to real
reading. As one considers all of the details of this period of
development, it is apparent that its mechanism is closely allied with
that of the spoken language.

When the child's attention has been intensively applied to the
recognition of the written word, it can easily be fixed on the analysis
of the sounds which make up the word. At a certain age the child's
interest was aroused by "touching" the letter. He can now be interested
in hearing the sounds of the word when pronounced by others and in
pronouncing it himself. We have shown that the work on the written
language in the exercises with the alphabet was _necessary_ for
developing and perfecting the spoken language. It is by so doing that we
make it possible to correct defects in speech and to pass naturally over
the period when such defects are formed.

We now aim at finding an _exercise_ in the actual mechanism of
pronunciation which can be started at the moment of its natural
development in such a way that its growth to perfection will follow as a
matter of course. It is a question of bringing the children rapidly to
pronounce without hesitation. In so pronouncing well, in performing
extensive exercises in hearing words and in the interpretation of them
from graphic signs, the child brings together in a unit of effect the
basic processes of reading and writing.

A good pronunciation of the word read is of great importance. We may say
that in the elementary schools of our day this is the principal purpose
of reading. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to obtain a good
pronunciation when defects have been allowed to develop and become
habitual in the child's previous work. In fact, the elimination of these
defects, which have been the result of a fundamental error in education,
comes to absorb all of the energies of the reading class in ordinary
primary schools. So far along as the fifth grade we see teachers
struggling to make the children read, that they may acquire a good
"pronunciation," and in our reading books there are graduated exercises
constructed on the basis of "Difficulties in Pronunciation." It is
apparent that all of this stress on the _physiological mechanics_ of
pronunciation is foreign to _true reading_. It is, rather, an impediment
to the development of true reading. Such reading exercises constitute,
as it were, a foreign body, which operates like a disease to prevent the
development of the high intellectual activity which interprets the
mysterious language of written symbols and arouses the child's
enthusiasm with the fascinating revelations they can give. The eagerness
of the child to learn is curbed and cheated when he is compelled to
stop his mind from working because his tongue refuses to act properly
and must be laboriously trained to work right. This training, if begun
at the proper time, when the child's whole psychic and nervous organism
yearns for the perfection of the mechanism of speech, would have been a
fascinating task; and once started along the right path, the pupil would
have continued to follow it with alacrity and confidence. When the time
comes for the intelligence to try its wings, its wings should be ready.
What would happen to a painter, if at the moment of inspiration, he had
to sit down and manufacture his brushes!


Our first publication on the methods used in the "Children's House" made
clear two distinct operations involved in reading: the interpretation of
the meaning and the pronunciation aloud of the "word." The stress we
laid on that analysis as a guide to the development of reading was the
result of actual experience. Those who followed this work during its
initial stages saw how the children, when they read for the first time,
interpreting the meaning of the words before them, did so without
speaking,--reading, that is, mentally. Interpretation, in fact, is a
question of mental concentration. Reading is an affair of the
_intelligence_. The pronunciation aloud is quite a different thing, not
only distinguished from the first process, but secondary to it. Talking
aloud is a question of speech, involving first hearing and then the
mechanical reproduction of sounds in articulate language. Its function
is to bring into immediate communication two or more people, who thus
exchange the thoughts which they have already perfected in the secret
places of their minds.

[Illustration: Interpreted reading: "Smile and clap your hands." The
child reads silently an order written on a slip of paper; then proves
that she understands by acting the direction given. (_A Montessori
School in Italy._)]

But reading stands in a direct relation with writing. Here there are no
sounds to be heard or pronounced. The individual, all by himself, can
put himself into communication not only with human beings actually alive
on the earth, but also with those who lived centuries and centuries ago
down to the dawn of history. Such communication is made possible not by
sound but by the written symbol. The mind takes in these symbols in
silence. Books are mute, as far as sound is concerned.

It follows that reading aloud is a combination of two distinct
operations, of two "languages." It is something far more complex than
speaking and reading taken separately by themselves. In reading aloud
the child speaks not to express his own thoughts, but thoughts revealed
by the written symbol. The "word" in this case no longer has that
natural stimulus from within which creation gives it. In fact, it is
something forced and monotonous, something like the language of the
deaf-mute. Words which are the product of the interpretation of
individual alphabetical symbols come with effort, and the meaning which
comes from the interpretation of the entire sentence, as the eye reads
word by word, and translates into sound, is apprehended and reduced to
expression with great difficulty. To give a fairly intelligible
expression to the meaning, the eyes have been obliged rapidly to
traverse the sentence as a whole, while the tongue has been laboriously
and monotonously pronouncing one word after another. Just imagine adding
to such a complex problem for the child of the primary schools the
additional task of correcting his pronunciation! It is no wonder that
reading is one of the rocks on which the rudderless ship of elementary
education inevitably runs aground.

[Illustration: Interpreted reading: "Take off your hat and make a low
bow." (_A Montessori School in Italy._)]

                  /          | mechanical
                  | writing <  grammatical (controlled by translation
                  |          | into action)
                  |          \ narration and description
  Composition of  |
    words (with  <           /
    movable       |          | mechanical
    alphabet)     |          |                 /
                  |          |                 | grammatical
                  |          |                 |   (translations
                  | reading <  interpretative <    into action)[5]
                  \          |                 | declamatory
                             |                 |   (elocution)
                             | expressed       \
                             |   (aloud)

The experiments we have succeeded in conducting on the subject of
reading are perhaps among the most complete we have made. We found the
key to the problem when we discovered that the child passed from the
mental reading of the words written on the cards directly to
interpretation in action. This interpretation, ready and facile, as all
the acts of children are, reveals to us what the child has understood
and accordingly what he is capable of understanding. We have thus been
able to obtain an experimental graduation of passages for reading, which
on being gathered together, show the nature of the difficulties which
successively present themselves to the child. The children have made for
themselves specimen clauses and sentences which an expert grammarian
could not have devised better for facilitating the study of language. As
we went on with this work, we became more and more convinced that the
study of grammar may be made a help in the up-building of the child's
language and that it makes its influence felt in reading and in the
written composition. The table (p. 175) may be useful in showing the
successive steps actually traversed by the child in the phenomena of

The fundamental point to realize is that _interpretation_ alone
constitutes true reading. Reading aloud, on the other hand, is a
combination of reading and articulate expression, in other words, a
combination involving the two great mechanisms of the spoken language
and the written language. Reading aloud permits an audience to take part
in the reading communicated to it by means of articulate speech. Even
here, the mental effort required to listen to the voice of a man
passionately interested in the narration of things which he himself has
experienced is not the same as that demanded in listening to a reading
of the same things by a person who has not experienced them, and who, to
narrate them, must perform the rapid and intense effort of
interpretation. In this reading, so to speak, by "transmission," the
most serious difficulties are encountered. We all know by experience how
difficult it is to endure a reading, and how rare an endowment the "gift
of reading" is. However, the person who is thus gifted can get a hearing
almost as well as the person who speaks. The teaching of reading, then,
in this sense, is not merely the teaching of the interpretation of the
meaning,--all that would be necessary, if the sole function of reading
were to gain new ideas for the reader. Reading, thus conceived,
represents really the addition of an _art of expression_ to simple
reading, and since this expressive art is purely dramatic, the _teaching
of reading_ involves the development of _dramatic art_. Only through
dramatic art can the transmission of reading to a group of people be
made possible.

It is clear that the oftener the exercise of identifying oneself with
what is read is repeated and perfected, the greater the possibility of
expression becomes. It follows that in the perfection of this art we
should be less concerned with _timbre_, with tone of voice and gestures,
all extrinsic aspects of this art, than with intense vivid
_interpretation_ which brings the child to an identification of himself
with what he reads. And this interpretation will realize its objects if
it is practised as a habit and as _a form of reading_.

The proof of correct interpretation was the child's ability to reproduce
in action what was described in the words he read. Similarly, the proof
of the interpretation in reading aloud is the repetition of the things
heard by means of the spoken language. That is, the children, in order
to prove to us that they have understood something read aloud, should be
able to repeat in narrative form what they have heard.

The practical results of our efforts in this direction were very
interesting to watch. Some children can say nothing. Others offer to
tell the whole story. Their story is not clear or perhaps it is
defective in some respect. Immediately other children are ready to
correct the ones telling the story: "No, no, that's not what happened,
that's not what happened," or, "Wait, you have forgotten something," and
so on. In fact, to understand and to be able to narrate what has been
understood is not the same thing. In telling a story there is a
successive unfolding of very complex mental activities which are based
on and added to the primal activity of "having understood." It is a
question again of the three different stages noted by us in the first
lessons given to children:

_First stage_, the causing of the perception: (_That is red, that is

_Second stage_, the perfection of recognition: (_What is red or blue?_);

_Third stage_, the provocation of expression: (_What about this or

Thus, the child who succeeds in expressing, even in an imperfect way,
what he has understood of the passage he has read, is in a more advanced
state of development than other children who are unable to tell the
story. However, these children who are not able to relate what they have
heard said may very well be in the preceding stage in which they are
capable of "recognition." These latter are the relentless critics, the
constant "hecklers" of those who are trying to relate--"No, no,--that's
not so," "You have forgotten this, or that." Let one of us teachers try
to tell the story in the most perfect and complete manner, and these
tiny impetuous hecklers listen to us in ecstasy, showing their approval
in every form of approbation of which they are capable. By studying such
manifestations in the children, we can get sufficient psychological data
for determining what reading is adapted to children of different ages,
the best ways of reading aloud, and the line of development followed by
each child in that hidden mental world of his which is cut off from our
gaze. But to derive these benefits from reading, it is perfectly clear
that the children must be left absolutely _free_ in the expression of
what goes on in their minds.

According to the method used in ordinary schools a child is called upon
to read aloud, and the teacher herself continually interrupts, either to
correct the pronunciation, or to assist by explanations and suggestions
in the interpretation of the meaning. This is all useless for
experimental purposes. We have no certain means of determining whether
the pupil has understood either what he has read or the explanations of
the teacher. Furthermore the corrections of pronunciation have centered
the child's attention on this detail which is entirely without relation
to the meaning of the text he is interpreting. Another situation not
infrequently arises. A child is selected at random to tell in his own
words what he has been read. Often the selection is not made at random,
but some pupil is called on because he has shown himself the most
inattentive, the least interested in what is being done--the recitation
thus becoming correctional in character! While the child is telling his
story, there is a constant suppression of interruptions: "Hush, I did
not call on you," "Wait till you are called on," "It is not polite to
interrupt some one who is talking," etc. It is clear that the teacher
will never learn anything about her pupils in this way.

This explains why, from the psychological point of view, our present-day
schools have not been able to contribute anything new to a reformed
scientific pedagogy of reading.


Although we lay all possible stress on interpretative reading, we
nevertheless put into the hands of the child a little reading book which
he can go over by himself first in a low voice, and then, when he has
grasped the meaning, aloud, provided he can express himself clearly and

The simplicity of these texts occasions surprise when one observes how
completely and enthusiastically absorbed in them the children become.
They find them so delightful that the books get literally worn out with
the reading and rereading to which they are subjected. Sometimes a book
is read from beginning to end. Again the child opens it by chance and
reads the page he happens on. Some children like to read the whole book
over and over. Others prefer to read some particular page a great many
times. One frequently sees these tiny things suddenly rise with great
decision and read aloud one of the pages which has been so seriously

The little book was composed very carefully on the basis of rigid
experimentation. As the book is opened only one page of print appears,
the tergo of the right hand page being always blank. Nor does the text
always cover the entire page. The spaces above and below the print are
decorated with designs.

The twenty pages of this beginners book are as follows:

      Page 1. My school is the "Children's House."

      Page 2. In the "Children's House" there are ever so
      many little chairs and tables for us.

      Page 3. There are also some pretty cabinets. Each
      child has his own drawer.

      Page 4. There are green plants and beautiful bouquets
      of flowers everywhere about the rooms in our school.

      Page 5. I often stop to look at the pictures which are
      hanging on the walls.

      Page 6. We are busy all the time. We wash our faces
      and hands. We keep everything where it belongs. We
      dust the furniture. We study and try to learn all we

      Page 7. Can you guess how we learned to dress
      ourselves? We kept our fingers busy working on the
      canvas frames, lacing and unlacing, fastening and
      unfastening the hooks and eyes, buttoning and
      unbuttoning, tying and untying knots.

      Page 8. Then are ten blocks for this tower, all of
      different sizes. First I spread them around on this
      carpet. It is great fun to put them together again,
      taking one after the other and choosing the largest
      each time.

      Page 9. I use the tower too in a balancing game. Just
      try to carry the tower around the room without letting
      it fall to pieces! Sometimes I succeed and then again
      I sometimes fail.

      Page 10. I like the long rods, too! I must put the
      rods near each other according to their length. I must
      be careful to place the blue sections near the blue
      ones and the red ones near the red. Thus, I build some
      pretty stairs with red and blue steps.

      Page 11. But to get a real stair case I use the brown
      prisms. These prisms are of different size, and I get
      some fine stairs with ten steps.

      Page 12. I have also some solid insets of wood into
      which I fit little cylinders of different dimensions.
      They differ in length and breadth. The game is to put
      these cylinders in their places after looking at them
      and touching them carefully.

      Page 13. We often make mistakes in working with the
      insets. When we put a cylinder where it doesn't
      belong, we find that at the end of the game we have
      one cylinder left over and it won't fit in anywhere.
      Then the exercise becomes very exciting. We look at
      the inset carefully; we find the mistake and begin all
      over again. The most skilful pupils work the insets
      with their eyes closed.

      Page 14. These colors are called: red, black, green,
      yellow, blue, brown, pink and violet.

      Page 15. I amuse myself by picking out and pulling
      together pieces of the same color from the collection
      spread out over my table. I get thus a long strip of
      different colors.

      Page 16. We learn to arrange sixty-four different
      colors by graduations. We get eight beautiful blends
      of colors, each formed by eight tints of different
      tones. When we become skilful we can make a pretty rug
      with blending strips.

      Page 17. We also have two little chests full of pieces
      of cloth. The cloths are of all kinds from the
      roughest and hardest to the smoothest and softest:
      canvas, cotton, linen, wool, flannel, velvet, etc. If
      we keep our hands clean, we can learn to recognize all
      sorts of things with the tips of our fingers!

      Page 18. A child is blindfolded. He mixes the pieces
      of cloth with his little hands. He feels about among
      the pieces of cloth. At last he smiles and holds up
      his hands with two pieces of cloth, both alike. Though
      he could not see, the child has found out, just by
      using his fingers, that the two pieces were of the
      same cloth.

      Page 19. These are my plane insets. Here are the blue
      tablets. I must fit them into the frames, which have
      just enough room for them. I run two fingers, the
      fore-finger and the middle-finger, around the edge of
      the tablet, and then around the edge of the frames.
      Next I fit the tablet into its proper place. After a
      little practise I can put the six tablets in their
      places even with my eyes blindfolded.

      Page 20. With the plane insets I have learned to
      recognize many figures: the square, the circle, the
      rectangle, the ellipse, the triangle, the oval, the
      pentagon, the hexagon, the heptagon, the octagon, the
      enneagon, the decagon. I learned all these hard names
      very easily because the insets are so amusing!


Reading with the object of interpretation is conducted as in the first
experiments of the "Children's House," with cards. From the graduated
series we have prepared the child selects a card. He reads it mentally
and then executes the action indicated on the card. Our later
experiments became very interesting when they were based upon a more
rigorous method. When we gave a card describing two actions to a child
of five years, he would execute only one of the actions. Take the
following for example:

    --She leaned over the back of a chair.
    --She covered her face with her hands and wept.

The child would act out either the first sentence (_She leaned over the
back of the chair_) or the second (_She covered her face with, her hands
and wept_). In spite of the fact that this child seemed extraordinarily
eager to get the cards into his hands and to interpret them, those
containing two sentences always aroused in him less enthusiasm than
those containing a single sentence or indicating a single action (for
instance, _The boy ran away as fast as he could_). In this latter case
the enthusiasm of the little ones, their care in interpreting the action
vividly, their eagerness to repeat it, their flushed faces and shining
eyes, told us that at last we had the reading adapted to their

Our _first series_ of readings accordingly is entirely "tested" or
_experimental_. It is made up of simple sentences something like those
analyzed in the lessons on grammar (Verb to Pronoun).


    --She gazed slowly around the room.
    --He looked at them out of the corners of his eyes.
    --The boy ran away as fast as he could.
    --She threw herself on her knees before him.
    --The man paced slowly up and down the room.
    --The little girl stood with lowered head.
    --The teacher nodded her approval.
    --The little child sat with folded arms.
    --He started rapidly toward the door.
    --He began to walk to and fro about the room.
    --His mother tenderly stroked his head.
    --She motioned to him to keep away.
    --He whispered in her ear.
    --She placed her hand on his shoulder.
    --They knocked at the door.
    --The little girl frowned.

The children carry out the indicated action after they have read
mentally, but they put what amounts to artistic expression into their
interpretations, which are never executed listlessly. For them it
becomes a real "interpretation." They often "study" the action, trying
it over and over again, as though rehearsing for a play. Their aptitude
for this is something remarkable. Furthermore the words have, for the
most part, already been studied in the grammatical exercises, so that
the meaning of each word is becoming more and more clear. This helps in
the interpretation. For example, the sentence _The little girl stood
with lowered head_ does not mean simply "she lowered her head." If the
child has understood he will stand for some time with lowered head in an
attitude more or less expressive according to the vividness of his
feeling of the situation. In the sentence _She threw herself on her
knees before him_ there will not be a simple act of kneeling, but
something more dramatic. The child will assume the kneeling posture with
some indication of emotion. The children take no end of interest in each
other's interpretations.

In a _second series_ of readings we have two coordinated clauses, the
children executing two consecutive actions instead of one.


    --He opened the door and came in.
    --He left the room and locked the door behind him.
    --He went on tiptoe to the door and carefully opened it.
    --She covered her face with her hands and began to sob violently.
    --She gave a cry of joy and ran to the door.
    --She burst into a laugh and clapped her hands.
    --He took off his cap and made a low bow.
    --She shook her head sadly and smiled.
    --He threw the window wide open and looked into the garden.
    --He hurried to the table and rang the bell.
    --With a sigh of relief he stretched himself out on the sofa, and
            lay there looking at the ceiling with his mouth open.
    --He shut his eyes and fell asleep.

In the _third series_, there are sentences with one or more coordinate


      --She opened the door, smoothed her hair slowly and
      came in.

      --He went to the window, opened it a little and peered
      into the street.

      --He closed the window, went back to his desk and then
      began to walk hurriedly up and down the room.

      --The doctor bent over the sick man, felt his pulse
      with one hand and placed the other on his forehead.

      --He took a key out of his pocket, opened the door and
      came in.

      --She uttered a cry of joy, ran to her mother and sank
      on her knees before her.

      --He put his left elbow on his knee, rested his
      forehead in his left hand and began to stroke his
      beard with his right.

      --She leaned over the back of the chair, covered her
      face with her hands and wept.

      --He went to the table, found the picture and joyfully
      took it in his hands.

      --She took her handkerchief out of her pocket,
      unfolded it and wiped the tears from her eyes.

      --The child was sleepy. He rested his head on his arms
      on the table and went to sleep.

      --He looked toward the door fixedly, with an
      expression of terror on his face and waited for the
      man to come in.


(Complex sentences with one subordinate clause)

      --While he was making the drawing, he kept examining
      the flower very carefully.

      --She covered her eyes with her hands, as if she were
      trying to collect her thoughts.

      --She closed her eyes so that she could feel more
      intensely the softness of the piece of velvet.

      --She looked tenderly after the little boy, till he
      disappeared through the door.

      --When he had succeeded in turning the knob without
      making any noise, he stealthily opened the door and
      peered into the room.

      --George held the book before his face so that no one
      could see him laughing.

      --She walked slowly across the room and with bowed
      head, as though she were in great sorrow.

      --The old man stroked the little boy's head as though
      he were much amused.

      --After she had motioned to the child to be silent,
      the lady smilingly approached and took him by the

      --They stopped suddenly and listened, as though
      wondering what it could be.

      --When Mary opened the door, George went to meet her
      with a cheery smile of welcome.


(Sentences somewhat more involved; descriptions more complex; an exact
interpretation sometimes requires the pronunciation of words aloud)

      --The child rose from her seat, and with her face
      buried in her handkerchief, walked slowly, sadly,
      toward the window.

      --He lay back in his chair, his head sunk between his
      shoulders, while his arms were pressed tightly across
      his breast, as though he were cold.

      [Illustration: Interpreted reading: "Whisper to him."
      (_The Lenox School, Montessori Elementary Class, New

      --He dropped wearily into a chair and sat there
      looking at the floor, his right elbow on his knee and
      his chin resting on his hand.

      --He stood at the open window, with figure erect, and
      his hands resting on the window-sill, while in deep
      breaths he took into his lungs the delicious fresh air
      that was coming into the room.

      --The boy lowered his head, and rubbed his forehead
      with his hands as though he were trying to collect his

      --There she knelt, her face turned heavenward, her
      hands crossed in her lap, while her body drooped
      gently as though she were very, very tired.

      --When he reached the door of his house, he hastily
      unlocked the door, opened it, went in, and carefully
      locked the door again behind him; and in his eagerness
      to confide his secret to some one he could trust, he
      went down the hall calling "Mother, Mother!"

      --His eyes filled with tears as he went to the wall
      where the picture of his father hung, and there with
      his head resting on his arm against the wall, he
      sobbed bitterly.

      --Rizpah spread the cloth on the ground at the foot of
      the tree, seated herself upon it, and with her arms
      resting limp upon her knees, her eyes set in
      unutterable woe, watched the birds and thought about
      her lost children.

      --The man was lying, sprawling, on the couch, but he
      jumped up and ran to the door and angrily motioned to
      his servant to come to him.

      --The old lady sat shivering near the stove, holding
      out her hands to get the warmth and nervously opening
      and closing them so that the tips of her fingers kept
      rubbing her palms.

      --"I see," thought the boy as he stood with folded
      arms looking fixedly at the floor.

      --He took the handkerchief, examined it a moment and
      said: "It doesn't belong to me!"

      --He stooped over and picked up a pencil that was
      lying on the floor: "Pshaw," said he, "it is broken!"

      --Pecopin, feeling that all was over, threw himself
      face downward on the ground, and moaned: "I shall
      never see her again!"

      --On waking, Rip Van Winkle rubbed his eyes and looked
      around for his gun; as he rose to walk he found
      himself stiff in the joints and wanting in his usual

      --The clergyman folded his hands before his breast
      and, bending his head above them, prayed fervently.

      --The girl knelt beside the fallen soldier, while with
      her right hand she waved her handkerchief to and fro
      in the air.

      --As the door opened, Florence ran to meet him,
      crying, "Oh, dear, dear papa!" and she held out her
      arms to him; but, as he paid no attention to her, she
      put her handkerchief to her face and burst into tears.

      --Beatrice came through the door holding her skirt
      with one beautiful arm, while with the other she held
      a candlestick above her head, so that the light shone
      upon her face.

      --She advanced holding forward her head as if she
      would have him kiss her as he used to when she was a
      child; but then remembering herself, she made him a
      deep curtsy, sweeping down to the ground almost,
      looking up meanwhile with the sweetest smile.

      --She closed the door very carefully behind her, and
      then leant back against it, her hands folded before
      her, looking at the boy who was kneeling beside his
      trunk to pack it.

      --He took the paper and stepped to the window; then
      holding the sheet so that the light fell full upon it,
      he examined it carefully, folded it as though musing
      on its contents and put it into his vest pocket.

      --My Lord was lifting the glass to his lips, when
      Esmond entered; but at the sight of the familiar face,
      the movement of his arm ceased when the glass was on a
      level with his chin; he held it there a moment in
      astonishment, then, suddenly setting it on the table
      he rushed toward Esmond with outstretched arms, and
      would almost have embraced him: "I thought you were in
      France," he exclaimed.

      --The Prince was lying on the bed, but at the sound of
      the footsteps, he rose on his elbow in alarm, while he
      reached under the pillow for his pistols: "Who goes
      there?" he shouted sternly.

      [Illustration: In a similar manner, the children set
      out or interpret poses and expressions in pictures.
      (_A Montessori School in Italy._)]

      --The child playfully drew his cap down over his eyes
      as though he were a very fierce bandit, and rushed
      into the room holding out his arm and pointing his
      fore-finger like a pistol.

      --As the ladies rode up, the old gentleman raised his
      hat and stood with bowed head till they had passed.

      --The young man picked up the glove from the floor,
      pressed it fervently to his lips and clasped it
      tenderly against his bosom, as though it were a
      priceless treasure.


(More difficult interpretations with occasional speaking)

      --Dunsey threw himself into a chair by the window,
      drew another chair before him, threw one leg over it,
      and began to beat on the window sill with the points
      of his fingers.

      --Godfrey stood with his back to the fire, moving his
      fingers uneasily among the contents of his
      side-pockets and looking at the floor.

      --Aaron replied by rubbing his head against his
      mother's skirt, passing the backs of his hands over
      his eyes and peeping through his fingers at Master

      --Mr. Macey screwed up his mouth, leaned his head
      further on one side and twirled his thumbs rapidly,
      with his two hands resting on his lap and touching at
      the finger-tips.

      --Silas sat with his elbows on his knees, his forehead
      pressed rigidly into his two palms, his eyes closed,
      deep sighs that were almost groans shaking his slender

      --The little tot squatted on the coat and spread out
      her hands to the fire; but the little eyes refused to
      stay open, and finally the golden head sank down upon
      the floor fast asleep.

      --Presently the child slipped from his knee and began
      to walk about; but suddenly she fell into a sitting
      posture and began to pull at her little boots, as
      though she were trying to get at her toes.

      --"At last," he said, stretching back in the arm
      chair, crossing his legs and joining his hands behind
      his head: "I can now have a minute to myself!"

      --"Ssshh," said the boy, frowning, and waving his
      right arm with hand outspread towards his companion.


(Interpretation requiring more than one person)

      --As Rip Van Winkle approached the town, the people
      all stared at him with marks of surprise and
      invariably stroked their chins, so that Rip was
      induced involuntarily to do likewise: his beard was a
      foot long.

      --A self-important old gentleman pushed through the
      crowd, shoving the people to the right and left with
      his elbows as he passed; and planting himself before
      Van Winkle, with one hand on his side, the other
      resting on his cane, he demanded with an austere tone:
      "What are you doing here?"

      --As Rip Van Winkle told his story, the bystanders
      began to look at each other, nod, and wink
      significantly and tap their fingers against their

      --An old woman came tottering forward, put her hand to
      her brow and peering under it into his face for a
      moment, exclaimed: "Sure enough, it is Rip Van

      --As the Emperor stepped into the court-yard, the
      ladies were all so busy crowding about the young
      prince, holding his hands and counting the kisses,
      that they did not see the old gentleman: "What's all
      this, what's all this?" he shouted in rage; and they
      all scampered off in every direction.

      --Trotty sat down in his chair and beat his knees and
      laughed; he sat down in his chair and beat his knees
      and cried; he got out of his chair and hugged Med; he
      got out of his chair and hugged Richard; he got out of
      his chair and hugged them both at once. He was
      constantly getting up and sitting down, never stopping
      in his chair a single minute, being beside himself
      with joy.

      --"Here, little girl, can you tell us the way to
      town?" "That's not the way. The town is over in this
      direction!" But as the little girl was turning to
      point out the road, one of the men seized her by the
      waist and lifted her from the ground. Lucia looked
      back over her shoulder terrified and gave a shriek.

      (The children were delighted with this little action
      and rehearsed it over and over again.)

      --With a start, Evangeline looked wildly about her:
      "Where is Gabriel?" she asked dazedly. "Where is
      Gabriel? Where is Gabriel?" "He is on that ship that
      is just sailing out of the harbor!" some one answered.
      For a few moments Evangeline stood shading her eyes
      with her palm, gazing after the vessel, fast
      disappearing into the horizon. At last she spoke half
      aloud: "I will follow you and find you wherever they
      may take you, Gabriel," she said, as though taking a
      vow. Then she turned to the soldier and said: "Lead on
      to the boat, I am coming. I am coming."

      --"Give me the bow," said Tell. Tell chose two arrows:
      one he fitted to the bow-string, the other he thrust
      into his girdle. Then for a moment he stood, a little
      bowed of shoulder, with his eyes downward: he was
      praying. You might have heard a leaf fall, so still
      was the place. Then Tell raised his head; his eyes
      were steady, his hands had become still; his face was
      like iron; he brought the cross bow to his shoulder
      and laid his eye to the feather of the shaft: "Twang,"
      the apple fell. A cheer arose from the crowd. Tell
      laid his hand upon the arrow in his girdle. "If the
      first had hurt my child," he said, "this one by now
      would have been through your heart, O Gessler!"

The children by no means restrict themselves to acting out these little
scenes and poses. In a second stage they read aloud all these slips
which they have interpreted, and in view of the preparation they have
had, their reading shows considerable power of expression. They tend to
read the slips over and over again, many times, and not infrequently
commit them to memory. To take advantage of this new activity we got
together a number of poems, making up a little book of children's verse.
The pupils read them both mentally and aloud, ultimately committing them
to memory and reciting them. Here are some specimens of our Italian

  IL BACIO                              THE KISS

  Dormiva nella cuna un bel bambino,    "A pretty child was sleeping
  E la mamma lo stava a rimirare;       in his cradle; its mother was
  Voleva dargli il bacio del mattino,   looking at it. She wanted to
  Ma il bacio lo poteva risvegliare;    give it the morning kiss; but the
  Svegliarlo non voleva, e con la mano  kiss might awaken it. To avoid
  Gli buttò cento baci da lontano.      this, she threw it a thousand
                                        kisses with her hand."

  UN SOGNO                              A DREAM

  Vidi una fata un giorno               I saw a fairy one day, with
  Che avea le trecce d'oro              golden hair and a dress of
  E un abito di perle                   pearls, richer than a treasure.
  Più ricco d'un tesoro

  "Vieni con me," mi disse,             "Come with me," the fairy
  "Che ti farò regina."                 said, "and I'll make you a
  "Non vengo, bella fata;               queen." "I cannot, pretty
  Io sto con la mammina."               fairy," I replied, "I must stay
                                        with mother."

  LA NEVE                                      THE SNOW

  Lenta la neve fiocca, fiocca,         The flakes of snow are falling,
      fiocca,                           falling, falling. Listen, a
  Senti, una culla dondola pian         cradle is gently, gently
      piano.                            rocking; a baby cries, his
  Un bimbo piange, il piccol dito       finger in his mouth; the old
      in bocca,                         nurse sings, her chin in her
  Canta la vecchia, il mento in         hand.
      su la mano.

  LA GALLINA                            THE HEN

  Io vi domando se si può trovare       I leave it to you: is there a
  Un più bravo animal della gallina.    nicer animal than the hen? If
  Se non avesse il vizio di raspare     only she wouldn't scratch, I
                                        would like to have one with me
  Ne vorrei sempre aver una vicina.     all the time. Every day, at a
  Tutti i giorni a quell'ora:           certain hour:
      "Coccodè!"                        "Cut-cut-cut-cut-cadakut!"
  Corri a guardar nel covo e l'ovo      Run and look in the nest, and
      "Coccodè!"                        an egg is there!


  Disse: "Mia madre è morta!            She said: "My mother is
      Io son digiuna                    dead; I have nothing to eat; the
    E la stagion è cruda:               weather is cold. There is no one
  In terra a me non pensa anima         left to think of me. I am a
     alcuna:                            ragged orphan girl."
    Sono orfanella e ignuda."

  IL PESCE                              THE FISH

  Un dì fuor della vasca del giardino   One day a little fish jumped
  Guizzò imprudentemente un             imprudently out of the garden
     pesciolino.                        pool. Gigi saw it and all
  Gigi lo vide, e tutto disperato       excitedly cried out: "Mamma,
  Gridò alla mamma: un pesce s'è        mamma, a fish has drowned
     annegato!                          himself."


  Due piedi lesti lesti per correre     Two little lively feet to run
      e saltare.                             and jump with.
  Due mani sempre in moto per           Two busy hands to take and do
      prendere e per fare.                   things.
  La bocca piccolina per tutto          One little mouth to ask
      domandare.                            questions with.
  Due orecchie sempre all'erta          Two ears always awake to hear
      intente ad ascoltare.                 everything with.
  Due occhioni spalancati per tutto     Two bright eyes always open to
     investigare.                           see everything with.
  E un cuoricino buono per molto,       One little heart to love with.
     molto amare.

  IL BUON ODORE                         THE FLOWER'S FRAGRANCE

  "Ma, bimbo mio, perchè                "Why spoil that pretty flower,
  Sciupar questo bel fiore?"            my child?"
  "Cercavo il buon odore,               "I was looking for the sweet
  Non so capir dov'è."                  smell and I haven't been able to
             LINA SCHWARZ.              find it."


  Ninna-nanna, gelato è il focolare;    Lullaby, the fire is out, my
    fanciul, non ti svegliare.          child, do not awaken. To keep
  Per coprirti dal freddo, o mio        you warm, my little child, I
    bambino,                            must make you a little dress
  Cucio in un vecchio scialle un        from this old shawl.

  Ma il lucignolo trema e l'occhio       But the lamp is dim and my
    è stanco,                            eyes are tired, O child of the
    bimbo dal viso bianco.               white face. Who knows if even
  Chi sa se per domani avrò finito       by tomorrow I can have this
  Questo che aspetti povero vestito!     poor dress for you.
                          ADA NEGRI.

A corresponding book of English verse might include something like the


    A child should always say what's true,
    And speak when he is spoken to,
    And behave mannerly at table--
    At least so far as he is able.


    The rain is raining all around,
    It falls on field and tree,
    It rains on the umbrella here
    And on the ships at sea.


    Thank you, pretty cow, that made
    Pleasant milk to soak my bread,
    Every day and every night
    Warm and fresh and sweet and white.
                             ANN TAYLOR.


    The rain is raining all around,
    Kittens to shelter fly,
    But human folk wear over-shoes
    To keep their hind-paws dry.
                            O. HERFORD.


    How very pleasant it must be
    For little fishes in the sea!
    They never learn to swim at all:
    It came to them when they were small.
    "Swim out like this," their mother cried,
    "Straight through the water, foam and tide."
    They waved their fins and writhed their scales,
    And steered their little rudder tails.
    Already they know what to do--
    I wish that I could do it too!
                          ALICE FARWELL BROWN.


    A little cock-sparrow sat on a green tree,
    And he chirruped, he chirruped, so merry was he;
    A naughty boy came with his wee bow and arrow,
    Determined to shoot this little cock-sparrow.

    "This little cock-sparrow shall make me a stew,
    And his giblets shall make me a little pie too."
    "Oh, no!" said the sparrow, "I won't make a stew";
    So he flapped his wings and away he flew.
                                     BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE.


    What do we do when we plant the tree?
    We plant the houses for you and me;
    We plant the rafters, the shingle, the floors,
    We plant the studding, the laths, the doors,
    The beams and siding--all parts that be!
    We plant the house when we plant the tree.
                                   HENRY ABBEY.


    Little lamb, who made thee?
    Dost thou know who made thee,
    Gave thee life and bade thee feed
    By the stream and o'er the mead;
    Gave thee clothing of delight,
    Softest clothing woolly bright;
    Gave thee such a tender voice,
    Making all the vales rejoice?
    Little lamb who made thee?
    Dost thou know who made thee?
                              W. BLAKE.

    Let dogs delight to bark and bite,
    For God hath made them so;
    Let bears and lions growl and fight,
    For 'tis their nature too.
    But, children, you should never let
    Such angry passions rise:
    Your little hands were never made
    To tear each others' eyes.

    The sunshine flickers through the lace
    Of leaves above my head,
    And kisses me upon the face
    Like Mother before bed.

    The wind comes stealing o'er the grass
    To whisper pretty things;
    And though I cannot see him pass
    I feel his careful wings.

After this preparation the children are able to "understand" what they
read. All their difficulties in grasping the sentences and their most
complicated constructions have been overcome. They have an insight into
the grammatical form of language; and the construction of a sentence,
as well as the meaning of the words in it, interests them. There has
been created within them a fund of suppressed energy which will very
soon break forth into intense activity. In fact, in our school, after
these exercises the passion for reading began to show itself. The
children wanted "reading, reading, more reading." We got together
hastily a few books but never enough to satisfy the eagerness of the
children. We found a surprising lack of reading for little children in
Italian. The American system of opening special rooms in public
libraries for the use of little readers seems to me an excellent thing.

But to take full advantage of this awakened enthusiasm for reading and
to cultivate at the same time the art of reading aloud we must not
neglect another element in reading: audition.


When the child has advanced to some extent in the exercises of
interpretation, the teacher may begin reading aloud. This should be done
as artistically as possible. We recommend for the training of teachers
not only a considerable artistic education in general but special
attention to the art of reading. One of the differences between the
traditional teacher of the past and the teachers we should like to
create is that the former used to speak of an "art of teaching," which
consisted of various devices to make the child learn, in spite of
itself, what the teacher wanted to teach. Our teachers, rather, should
be _cultivators_ of the fine arts. For in our method art is considered a
_means to life_. It is beauty in all its forms which helps the inner man
to grow. We have repeatedly emphasized that both in the environment at
school and in the materials used, everything should be carefully
considered in its artistic bearings, to provide ample room for
development for all the phenomena of attention and persistence in work
which are the secret keys of self-education. The Montessori teacher
should be a cultivator of music, drawing and elocution, responsive to
the harmony of things; she must, that is, have sufficient "good taste"
to be able to lay out the school plant and keep it in condition; and
sufficient delicacy of manner--the product of a sensitive nature--to be
alive to all the manifestations of the child spirit.

In the matter of reading aloud the teacher has an important task to
accomplish. We found the drawing hour best adapted for this work. It was
our experience that it is easier to gain a hearing when the children are
busy with something which does not require great concentration and which
is not sustained by any particular inspiration. During the drawing
lesson, in the placid silence which comes from work, and while the
children are intent on their designs, the teacher may begin her reading
aloud. It sometimes happens that the substance of what she reads will be
sufficient to engage the interest of the whole school. But this is not
always an easy task. It is more often the musical quality of the
teacher's execution which will attract the little ones with a sense for
art and bring them to that motionless attention which is the evidence of
eager enjoyment. Possibly a really perfect reader might be able so to
hold the whole group of children with some absorbing selection.

The readings we used were numerous and of great variety: fairy tales,
short stories, anecdotes, novels, historical episodes. Specifically
there were the tales of Andersen, some of the short stories of Capuana,
the _Cuore_ of De Amicis, episodes of the life of Jesus, _Uncle Tom's
Cabin_, _The Betrothed_ (_I promessi sposi_ of Manzoni), _Fabiola_,
stories from the Italian wars for independence (Nineteenth Century),
Itard's _Education of the Young Savage of Aveyron_.


In general the child will listen to anything that is really interesting.
But certainly some surprises will be occasioned by our discovery that
the children liked above everything else the readings on Italian history
and the _Education of the Savage of Aveyron_. The phenomenon is
sufficiently curious to merit further consideration. The history we used
was not one commonly thought adapted to young readers. Quite the
contrary: it was Pasquale de Luca's _I Liberatori_ (_Makers of Freedom_,
Bergamo, 1909), written to arouse a feeling of patriotism among the
Italian emigrants of Argentina. The special feature of this publication
is its contemporary documents reprinted in _fac-simile_. There are, for
instance, telegrams, notices in cipher published on the walls of the
towns on the eve of uprisings, commemorative medals, a receipt given by
an executioner for whipping publicly an Italian patriot, etc. Patriotic
songs are given with the music (these the children learned by heart,
following the piano); there are also copious illustrations.

This documented history was so absorbing that the children became
entirely possessed by the situations. They started animated discussions
on various subjects, arguing and deciding. They were particularly
outraged at an edict of the king of Naples which was intended to mislead
the public. They raged at unjust persecutions, applauded heroic deeds,
and ended by insisting on acting out some of the scenes. They formed
little companies of three or four and "acted" the episodes with a most
impressive dramatic sense. One little girl was moved to bring to school
a collection of all the Italian patriotic songs. It fascinated many of
the children, who learned several by heart and sang them in chorus. In a
word, the Italian Risorgimento came to live in those little hearts with
a freshness it has long since lost in the souls of their elders. Many of
the children wrote down their impressions of their own accord, often
giving surprisingly original judgments. Finally they began to "take
notes." They asked the teacher to give an outline of the principal
events, which they took down in their copy-books. This whole experience
corrected many of my own ideas on the teaching of history. I had thought
of preparing moving-picture films and giving historical representations.
But that, naturally, being beyond my resources, I had been compelled to
give up the plan. The reading of De Luca's book was a revelation. To
teach history to children it is sufficient to give a _living documented
truth_. We need, not more cinematographs, but different school books.
Children are much more sensible to the true and beautiful than we. They
suggest fact and situation. De Luca, moved by affection for his distant
brothers, tried to write a book flaming both with truth and with love,
which would awaken them and bring them back to live among us as
Italians. Our task is the same. We must be filled with a similarly
intense human zeal: we must call back to us the distant souls of the
children. They too are brothers living far away in a distant country. We
must arouse them, bring them back to us as partners in our own life.

After our readings from Itard's _Savage_, the parents of the children
kept coming to us with inquiries: "What have you been reading to our
children? We should like to hear it ourselves." The little ones had told
of hearing an extraordinary story about a child who had lived with the
animals, beginning little by little to understand, to feel, to live like
us. All the psychological details of his study, his attempts at
education, seemed to have touched the children deeply. It occurred to us
to take the older of such children to a "Children's House" and show them
our educational method. They took the greatest interest in it, and some
of them are now collaborators in the foundation of other "Children's
Houses." Such children are able to follow the development of the child
mind with extraordinary sympathy. However, if we reflect that the best
teachers for children are children themselves, and that little tots like
the company of another child much better than that of an adult, we need
not be surprised at the downfall of another prejudice.

[Illustration: Interpreted reading: "She was sleepy; she leaned her arms
on the table, her head on her arms, and went to sleep." Notice the slip
of paper which the child has just read. (_The Lenox School, Montessori
Elementary Class, New York._)]

We have conceived of children according to a fantastic idea of our own,
making of them a sort of human species distinct from that to which
adults belong. As a matter of fact, they are our children, more purely
human than we ourselves. The beautiful and the true have for them an
intense fascination, into which they plunge as into something actually
necessary for their existence.

The results here witnessed led us to many a reflection. We succeeded in
teaching history and even pedagogy by means of "reading." And, in truth,
does not reading embrace everything? Travel stories teach geography;
insect stories lead the child into natural science; and so on. The
teacher, in short, can use reading to introduce her pupils to the most
varied subjects; and the moment they have been thus started, they can go
on to any limit guided by the single passion for reading. Our task is
to offer the child the instruments of education, to keep pure within him
the springs of his intellectual growth, of his life of feeling. The rest
follows as a matter of course. As the ancients said: "_Necessary_
education is the three 'r's': reading, writing and arithmetic," for
these are things which the child cannot discover by himself. We can only
add that "method" must be scientifically determined only at the points
where it becomes necessary to assist the "formation of man," that he may
develop his activities by strengthening them and not by repressing them,
that he may receive essential help without losing any pure freshness of
his interior activities. But this does not mean that "a rigorous method
must guide the child at all times and in every step that he takes." When
he has become strong and is in possession of his tools for discovery, he
will be able to uncover many of life's secrets by himself. We tied the
child to the materials in his sensory exercises, but we left him free to
explore his environment. This must be the method for all his later steps
in advance: he must be given the instrument and the strength to use it,
and then left free to find things out for himself.

[Illustration: Exercises in interpreted reading and arithmetic. (_The
Rivington Street Montessori School, New York._)]

The fondness of children for reading and their preference for the "true"
is something already demonstrated by experiments conducted elsewhere. I
may refer here to the investigations on readings for children conducted
by the "Education" section of the Federation for School Libraries of the
province of Emilia (Italy). The questionnaire was as follows:

      Do you remember what books you have read and which you
      liked best?

      How did you get them?

      Do you know the title of some book you would like to

      Do you prefer fairy-tales, or rather stories of true
      or probable facts? Why?

      Do you prefer sad or humorous stories?

      Do you like poetry?

      Do you like stories of travel and adventure?

      Do you subscribe to any weekly or monthly newspaper?
      If so, to which?

      If your mother were to offer you a choice between a
      subscription to a weekly or monthly and an illustrated
      book, which would you take? And why?

The answers, very carefully sifted, showed that the vast majority of
children preferred readings which dealt with fact. Here are some of the
reasons alleged by the children in support for their preference for
"truth": "Facts teach me something; fairy-tales are too improbable; true
stories don't upset my thinking; true stories teach me history; true
stories always convey some good idea; fairy-stories give me desires
impossible to satisfy; many good ideas come from actual experiences;
fantastic tales make me think too much about supernatural things"; etc.,
etc. In favor of the fairy-tales we find: "They amuse me in hours free
from work; I like to be in the midst of fairies and enchantments"; etc.
Those who preferred sad or serious stories justified themselves as
follows: "I feel that I am a better person, and realize better the wrong
I do; I feel that my disposition becomes more kindly; they arouse in me
feelings of kindness and pity." Many supported their preference for
humorous tales on the ground that "when I read them, I am able to forget
my own little troubles." In general, a great majority denied any
educational value to joy and humor. In this conviction--or rather this
feeling--so widely diffused among children, have we not evidence that
something must be wrong in the kind of education we have been giving


[5] The first readings consist of a special grammar and a dictionary.






The children already had performed the four arithmetical operations in
their simplest forms, in the "Children's Houses," the didactic material
for these having consisted of the rods of the long stair which gave
empirical representation of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
By means of its divisions into sections of alternating colors, red and
blue, each rod represented the quantity of unity for which it stood; and
so the entrance into the complex and arduous field of numbers was thus
rendered easy, interesting, and attractive by the conception that
collective number can be represented by a _single_ object containing
signs by which the relative quantity of unity can be recognized, instead
of by _a number of different_ units, represented by the figure in
question. For instance, the fact that five may be represented by a
single object with five distinct and equal parts instead of by five
distinct objects which the mind must reduce to a concept of number,
saves mental effort and clarifies the idea.

It was through the application of this principle by means of the rods
that the children succeeded so easily in accomplishing the first
arithmetical operations: 7 + 3 = 10; 2 + 8 = 10; 10 - 4 = 6; etc.

The long stair material is excellent for this purpose. But it is too
limited in quantity and is too large to be handled easily and used to
good advantage in meeting the demands of a room full of children who
already have been initiated into arithmetic. Therefore, keeping to the
same fundamental concepts, we have prepared smaller, more abundant
material, and one more readily accessible to a large number of children
working at the same time.

This material consists of beads strung on wires: i.e., bead bars
representing respectively 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. The beads are
of different colors. The 10-bead bar is orange; 9, dark blue; 8,
lavender; 7, white; 6, gray; 5, light blue; 4, yellow; 3, pink; 2,
green; and there are separate beads for unity.[6] The beads are
opalescent; and the white metal wire on which they are strung is bent at
each end, holding the beads rigid and preventing them from slipping.

There are five sets of these attractive objects in each box; and so each
child has at his disposal the equivalent of five sets of the long stairs
used for his numerical combinations in the earliest exercise. The fact
that the rods are small and so easily handled permits of their being
used at the small tables.

This very simple and easily prepared material has been extraordinarily
successful with children of five and a half years. They have worked with
marked concentration, doing as many as sixty successive operations and
filling whole copybooks within a few days' time. Special quadrille paper
is used for the purpose; and the sheets are ruled in different colors:
some in black, some in red, some in green, some in blue, some in pink,
and some in orange. The variety of colors helps to hold the child's
attention: after filling a sheet lined in red, he will enjoy filling one
lined in blue, etc.

Experience has taught us to prepare a large number of the ten-bead bars;
for the children will choose these from all the others, in order to
count the tens in succession: 10, 20, 30, 40, etc. To this first bead
material, therefore, we have added boxes filled with nothing but
ten-bead bars. There are also small cards on which are written 10, 20,
etc. The children put together two or more of the ten-bead bars to
correspond with the number on the cards. This is an initial exercise
which leads up to the multiples of 10. By superimposing these cards on
that for the number 100 and that for the number 1000, such numbers as
_1917_ can be obtained.

The "bead work" became at once an established element in our method,
scientifically determined as a conquest brought to maturity by the child
in the very act of making it. Our success in amplifying and making more
complex the early exercises with the rods has made the child's mental
calculation more rapid, more certain, and more comprehensive. Mental
calculation develops spontaneously, as if by a law of conservation
tending to realize the "minimum of effort." Indeed, little by little the
child ceases counting the beads and recognizes the numbers by their
color: the dark blue he knows is 9, the yellow 4, etc. Almost without
realizing it he comes now to count by _colors_ instead of by
_quantities_ of beads, and thus performs actual operations in mental
arithmetic. As soon as the child becomes conscious of this power, he
joyfully announces his transition to the higher plane, exclaiming, "I
can count in my head and I can do it more quickly!" This declaration
indicates that he has conquered the first bead material.


MATERIAL: I have had a chain made by joining ten ten-bead bars end to
end. This is called the "hundred chain." Then, by means of short and
very flexible connecting links I had ten of these "hundred chains" put
together, making the "thousand chain."

These chains are of the same color as the ten-bead bars, all of them
being constructed of orange-colored beads. The difference in their
reciprocal length is very striking. Let us first put down a single bead;
then a ten-bead bar, which is about seven centimeters long; then a
hundred-bead chain, which is about seventy centimeters long; and finally
the thousand-bead chain, which is about seven meters long. The great
length of this thousand-bead chain leads directly to another idea of
quantity; for whereas the 1, the 10, and the 100 can be placed on the
table for convenient study, the entire length of the room will hardly
suffice for the thousand-bead chain! The children find it necessary to
go into the corridor or an adjoining room; they have to form little
groups to accomplish the patient work of stretching it out into a
straight line. And to examine the whole extent of this chain, they have
to walk up and down its entire length. The realization they thus obtain
of the relative values of quantity is in truth an event for them. For
days at a time this amazing "thousand chain" claims the child's entire

The flexible connections between the different hundred lengths of the
thousand-bead chain permit of its being folded so that the "hundred
chains" lie one next to the other, forming in their entirety a long
rectangle. The same quantity which formerly impressed the child by its
length is now, in its broad, folded form, presented as a _surface_

Now all may be placed on a small table, one below the other: first the
single bead, then the ten-bead bar, then the "hundred chain," and
finally the broad strip of the "thousand chain."

Any teacher who has asked herself how in the world a child may be taught
to express in numerical terms quantitative proportions perceived through
the eye, has some idea of the problem that confronts us. However, our
children set to work patiently counting bead by bead from 1 to 100. Then
they gathered in two's and three's about the "thousand chain," as if to
help one another in counting it, undaunted by the arduous undertaking.
They counted on hundred; and after one hundred, what? One hundred one.
And finally two hundred, two hundred one. One day they reached seven
hundred. "I am tired," said the child. "I'll mark this place and come
back tomorrow."

"Seven hundred, seven hundred--Look!" cried another child. "There are
seven--_seven_ hundreds! Yes, yes; count the chains! Seven hundred,
eight hundred, nine hundred, one thousand. Signora, signora, the
'thousand chain' has ten 'hundred chains'! Look at it!" And other
children, who had been working with the "hundred chain," in turn called
the attention of _their_ comrades: "Oh, look, look! The 'hundred chain'
has ten ten-bead bars!"

Thus we realized that the numerical concept of tens, hundreds, and
thousands was given by presenting these chains to the child's
intelligent curiosity and by respecting the spontaneous endeavors of his
free activities.

And since this was our experience with most of the children, one easily
can see how simple a suggestion would be necessary if the deduction did
not take place in the case of some exceptional child. In fact, to make
the idea of decimal relations apparent to a child, it is sufficient to
direct his attention to the material he is handling. The teacher
experienced in this method knows how to wait; she realizes that the
child needs to exercise his mind constantly and slowly; and if the inner
maturation takes place naturally, "intuitive explosions" are bound to
follow as a matter of course. The more we allow the children to follow
the interests which have claimed their fixed attention, the greater will
be the value of the results.


The direct assistance of the teacher, her clear and brief explanation,
is, however, essential when she presents to the child another new
material, which may be considered "symbolic" of the decimal relations.
This material consists of two very simple bead counting-frames, similar
in size and shape to the dressing-frames of the first material. They are
light and easily handled and may be included in the individual
possessions of each child. The frames are easily made and are

One frame is arranged with the longest side as base, and has four
parallel metal wires, each of which is strung with ten beads. The three
top wires are equidistant but the fourth is separated from the others by
a greater distance, and this separation is further emphasized by a brass
nail-head fixed on the left hand side of the frame. The frame is painted
one color above the nail-head and another color below it; and on this
side of the frame, also, numerals corresponding to each wire are marked.
The numeral opposite the top wire is 1, the next 10, then 100, and the
lowest, 1000.

We explain to the child that each bead of the first wire is assumed to
stand for one, or unity, as did the separate beads they have had before;
but each bead of the second wire stands for ten (or for one of the
ten-bead bars); the value of each bead of the third wire is one hundred
and represents the "hundred chain"; and each bead on the last wire
(which is separated from the others by the brass nail-head) has the same
value as a "thousand chain."[7]

At first it is not easy for the child to understand this symbolism, but
it will be less difficult if he previously has worked over the chains,
counting and studying them without being hurried. When the concept of
the relationship between unity, tens, hundreds, and thousands has
matured spontaneously, he more readily will be able to recognize and use
the symbol.

Specially lined paper is designed for use with these frames. This paper
is divided lengthwise into two equal parts, and on both sides of the
division are vertical lines of different colors: to the right a green
line, then a blue, and next a red line. These are parallel and
equidistant. A vertical line of dots separates this group of three lines
from another line which follows. On the first three lines from right to
left are written respectively the units, tens, and hundreds; on the
inner line the thousands.

The right half of the page is used entirely and exclusively to clarify
this idea and to show the relationship of written numbers to the decimal
symbolism of the counting-frame.

With this object in view, we first count the beads on each wire of the
frame; saying for the top wire, one unit, two units, three units, four
units, five units, six units, seven units, eight units, nine units, ten
units. The ten units of this top wire are equal to one bead on the
second wire.

The beads on the second wire are counted in the same way: one ten, two
tens, three tens, four tens, five tens, six tens, seven tens, eight
tens, nine tens, ten tens. The ten ten-beads are equal to one bead on
the third wire.

The beads on this third wire then are counted one by one: one hundred,
two hundreds, three hundreds, four hundreds, five hundreds, six
hundreds, seven hundreds, eight hundreds, nine hundreds, ten hundreds.
These ten hundred-beads are equal to one of the thousand-beads.

There also are ten thousand-beads: one thousand, two thousands, three
thousands, four thousands, five thousands, six thousands, seven
thousands, eight thousands, nine thousands, ten thousands. The child can
picture ten separate "thousand chains"; this symbol is in direct
relation, therefore, to a tangible idea of quantity.

Now we must transcribe all these acts by which we have in succession
counted, ten units, ten tens, ten hundreds, and ten thousands. On the
first vertical line to the extreme right (the green line) we write the
units, one beneath the other; on the second line (blue) we write the
tens; on the third line (red) the hundreds; and, finally, on the line
beyond the dots we write the thousands. There are sufficient horizontal
lines for all the numbers, including one thousand.

Having reached 9, we must leave the line of the units and pass over to
that of the tens; in fact, ten units make one ten. And, similarly, when
we have written 9 in the tens line we must of necessity pass to the
hundreds line, because ten tens equal one hundred. Finally, when 9 in
the hundreds line has been written, we must pass to the thousands line
for the same reason.

The units from 1 to 9 are written on the line farthest to the right; on
the next line to the left are written the tens (from 1 to 9); and on the
third line, the hundreds (from 1 to 9). Thus always we have the numbers
1 to 9; and it cannot be otherwise, for any more would cause the figure
itself to change position. It is this fact that the child must quietly
ponder over and allow to ripen in his mind.

It is the nine numbers that change position in order to form all the
numbers that are possible. Therefore, it is not the number in itself but
its _position_ in respect to the other numbers which gives it the value
now of one, now of ten, now of one hundred or one thousand. Thus we have
the symbolic translation of those real values which increase in so
prodigious a way and which are almost impossible for us to conceive. One
line of ten thousand beads is seventy meters long! Ten such lines would
be the length of a long street! Therefore we are forced to have recourse
to symbols. How very important this _position_ occupied by the number

How do we indicate the position and hence the value of a certain number
with reference to other numbers? As there are not always vertical lines
to indicate the relative position of the figure, _the requisite number
of zeros are placed to the right of the figure!_

The children already know, from the "Children's House," that zero has no
value and that it can give no value to the figure with which it is used.
It serves merely to show the position and the value of the figure
written at its left. Zero does not give value to 1 and so make it
become 10: the zero of the number 10 indicates that the figure 1 is not
a unit but is in the next preceding position--that of the tens--and
means therefore one ten and not one unit. If, for instance, 4 units
followed the 1 in the tens position, then the figure 4 would be in the
units place and the 1 would be in the tens position.

[Illustration: The bead material used for addition and subtraction. Each
of the nine numbers is of different colored beads.]

[Illustration: Counting and calculating by means of the bead chains. (_A
Montessori School in Italy._)]

The "Children's House" child already knows how to write ten and even one
hundred; and it is now very easy for him to write, with the aid of
zeros, and _in columns_, from 1 to 1000: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9; 10,
20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90; 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800,
900; 1,000. When the child has learned to count well in this manner, he
can easily read any number of four figures.

Let us now make up a number on the counting-frame; for example, 4827. We
move four beads to the left on the thousands-wire, eight on the
hundreds-wire, two on the tens-wire, and seven on the units-wire; and we
read, four thousand eight hundred and twenty-seven. This number is
written by placing the numbers _on the same line_ and in the mutually
relative order determined by the symbolic positions for the decimal
relations, 4827.

We can do the same with the date of our present year, writing the
figures on the left-hand side of the paper as indicated: 1917.

Let us compose 2049 on the symbolic number frame. Two of the
thousand-beads are moved to the left, four of the ten-beads, and nine of
the unit-beads. On the hundreds-wire there is nothing. Here we have a
good demonstration of the function of zero, which is to occupy the
places that are empty on this chart.

Similarly, to form the number 4700 on the frame, four thousand-beads
are moved to the left and seven hundred-beads, the tens-wire and the
units-wire remaining empty. In transcribing this number, these empty
places are filled by zeros--a figure of no value in itself.

[Illustration: The bead cube of 10; ten squares of 10; and chains of 10,
of 100, and of 1000 beads.]

[Illustration: This shows the first bead frame which the child uses in
his study of arithmetic. The number formed at the left on the frame is

When the child fully understands this process he makes up many exercises
of his own accord and with the greatest interest. He moves beads to the
left at random, on one or on all of the wires, then interprets and
writes the number on the sheets of paper purposely prepared for this.
When he has comprehended the position of the figures and performed
operations with numbers of several figures he has mastered the process.
The child need only be left to his auto-exercises here in order to
attain perfection.

Very soon he will ask to go beyond the thousands. For this there is
another frame, with seven wires representing respectively units, tens,
and hundreds; units, tens and hundreds of the thousands; and a million.

This frame is the same size as the other one but in this the shorter
side is used as the base and there are seven wires instead of four. The
right-hand side is marked by three different colors according to the
groups of wires. The units, tens, and hundreds wires are separated from
the three thousands wires by a brass tack, and these in turn are
separated in the same manner from the million wire.

The transition from one frame to the other furnishes much interest but
no difficulty. Children will need very few explanations and will try by
themselves to understand as much as possible. The large numbers are the
most interesting to them, therefore the easiest. Soon their copybooks
are full of the most marvelous numbers; they have now become dealers in

For this frame also there is specially prepared paper. On the
right-hand side the child writes the numbers corresponding to the frame,
counting from one to a million: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9; 10, 20, 30,
40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90; 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900;
1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, 6,000, 7,000, 8,000, 9,000; 10,000,
20,000, 30,000, 40,000, 50,000, 60,000, 70,000, 80,000, 90,000; 100,000,
200,000, 300,000, 400,000, 500,000, 600,000, 700,000, 800,000, 900,000;

After this the child, moving the beads to the left on one or more of the
wires, tries to read and then to write on the left half of the paper the
numbers resulting from these haphazard experiments. For example, on the
counting-frame he may have the number 6,206,818, and on the paper the
numbers 1,111,111; 8,640,850; 1,500,000; 3,780,000; 5,840,714; 720,000;
500,000; 430,000; 35,840; 80,724; 15,229; 1,240.

When we come to add and subtract numbers of several figures and to write
the results in column, the facility resulting from this preparation is
something astonishing.


[6] At the present time, because of the difficulty of getting beads of
certain colors, owing to war conditions, the following colors have been
approved by Dr. Montessori to replace those originally used: 10 bead
bar, gold; 9, dark blue; 8, white; 7, light green; 6, light blue; 5,
yellow; 4, pink; 3, green; 2, yellow-green; 1, gold. These same colors
are retained for the bead squares and the bead cubes. They will be
supplied by The House of Childhood, 16 Horatio Street, New York.

[7] It would, perhaps, be better in this first counting-frame to have
the beads not only of different colors, but of different sizes,
according to the value of the wires, as was suggested to me by a
Portuguese professor who had been taking my course.



MATERIAL: The material for the multiplication table is in several parts.
There is a square cardboard with a hundred sockets or indentures (ten
rows, ten in a row), and into each of these indentures may be placed a
bead. At the top of the square and corresponding to each vertical line
of indentures are printed the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. At
the left is an opening into which may be slipped a small piece of
cardboard upon which are printed in red the numbers from 1 to 10. This
cardboard serves as the multiplicand; and it can be changed, for there
are ten of these slips, bearing the ten different numbers. In the upper
left-hand corner is a small indenture for a little red marker, but this
detail is merely secondary. This arithmetic board is a white square with
a red border; and with it comes an attractive box containing a hundred
loose beads.

The exercise which is done with this material is very simple. Suppose
that 6 is to be multiplied by the numbers in turn from 1 to 10: 6 × 1; 6
× 2; 6 × 3; 6 × 4; 6 × 5; 6 × 6; 6 × 7; 6 × 8; 6 × 9; 6 × 10. Opposite
the sixth horizontal line of indentures, in the small opening at the
left is slipped the card bearing the number 6. In multiplying the 6 by
1, the child performs two operations: first, he puts the red marker
above the printed 1 at the top of the board, and then he puts six beads
(corresponding to the number 6) in a vertical column underneath the
number 1. To multiply 6 by 2, he places the red marker over the printed
2, and adds six more beads, placed in a column under number 2.
Similarly, multiplying 6 by 3, the red marker must be placed over the 3,
and six more beads added in a vertical line under that number. In this
manner he proceeds up to 6 × 10.

The shifting of the little red marker serves to indicate the multiplier
and requires constant attention on the part of the child and great
exactness in his work.


    |                            |
    |      COMBINATION OF        |
    |                            |
    |         =THREE=            |
    |                            |
    |  WITH THE NUMBERS 1 TO 10  |
    |                            |
    |   3 ×  1 = ___________     |
    |                            |
    |   3 ×  2 = ___________     |
    |                            |
    |   3 ×  3 = ___________     |
    |                            |
    |   3 ×  4 = ___________     |
    |                            |
    |   3 ×  5 = ___________     |
    |                            |
    |   3 ×  6 = ___________     |
    |                            |
    |   3 ×  7 = ___________     |
    |                            |
    |   3 ×  8 = ___________     |
    |                            |
    |   3 ×  9 = ___________     |
    |                            |
    |   3 × 10 = ___________     |

While the child is doing these operations he is writing down the
results. For this purpose there is specially prepared paper with an
attractive heading which the child can place at the right of his
multiplication board. There are ten sets of this paper in a series and
ten series in a set, making a hundred sheets with each set of
multiplication material. The accompanying cut shows a sheet prepared for
the multiplication of number 3.

Everything is ready on the printed sheet; the child has only to write
the results which he obtains by adding the beads in columns of three
each. If he makes no error he will write: 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24,
27, 30.

In this way he will work out and write down the whole series from 1 to
10; and as there are ten copies of each sheet, he can repeat each
exercise ten times.

Thus the child learns by memory each of these multiplications. And we
find that he helps himself to memorize even in other ways. He walks up
and down holding the multiplication sheet, which he looks at from time
to time. It is a sheet which he himself has filled, and he may be
memorizing seven times six, forty-two; seven times seven, forty-nine;
seven times eight, fifty-six, etc.

This material for the multiplication table is one of the most
interesting to the children. They fill six or seven sets, one after the
other, and work for days and weeks on this one exercise. Almost all of
them ask to take it home with them. With us, the first time the material
was presented a small uprising took place, for they all wished to carry
it away with them. As this was not permitted the children implored their
mothers to buy it for them, and it was with difficulty that we made them
understand that it was not on the market and therefore could not be
purchased. But the children could not give up the idea. One older girl
headed the rebellion. "The Dottoressa wants to try an experiment with
us," she said. "Well, let's tell her that unless she gives us the
material for the multiplication table we won't come to school any

This threat in itself was impolite, and yet it was interesting; for the
multiplication table, the bug-bear of all children, had become so
attractive and tempting a thing that it had made wolves out of my lambs!

When the children have repeatedly filled a whole series of these blanks,
with the aid of the material, they are given a test-card by means of
which they may compare their work for verification, and see whether they
have made any errors in their multiplication. Table by table, number by
number, they do the work of comparing each result with the number which
corresponds to it in each one of the ten columns. When this has been
done carefully, the children possess their own series, the accuracy of
which they are able to guarantee themselves.


TO 10

  |                                                                   |
  | 1 ×  1 =  1  2 ×  1 =  2  3 ×  1 =  3  4 ×  1 =  4   5 ×  1 =   5 |
  | 1 ×  2 =  2  2 ×  2 =  4  3 ×  2 =  6  4 ×  2 =  8   5 ×  2 =  10 |
  | 1 ×  3 =  3  2 ×  3 =  6  3 ×  3 =  9  4 ×  3 = 12   5 ×  3 =  15 |
  | 1 ×  4 =  4  2 ×  4 =  8  3 ×  4 = 12  4 ×  4 = 16   5 ×  4 =  20 |
  | 1 ×  5 =  5  2 ×  5 = 10  3 ×  5 = 15  4 ×  5 = 20   5 ×  5 =  25 |
  | 1 ×  6 =  6  2 ×  6 = 12  3 ×  6 = 18  4 ×  6 = 24   5 ×  6 =  30 |
  | 1 ×  7 =  7  2 ×  7 = 14  3 ×  7 = 21  4 ×  7 = 28   5 ×  7 =  35 |
  | 1 ×  8 =  8  2 ×  8 = 16  3 ×  8 = 24  4 ×  8 = 32   5 ×  8 =  40 |
  | 1 ×  9 =  9  2 ×  9 = 18  3 ×  9 = 27  4 ×  9 = 36   5 ×  9 =  45 |
  | 1 × 10 = 10  2 × 10 = 20  3 × 10 = 30  4 × 10 = 40   5 × 10 =  50 |

  |                                                                   |
  | 6 ×  1 =  6  7 ×  1 =  7  8 ×  1 =  8  9 ×  7 =  9  10 ×  1 =  10 |
  | 6 ×  2 = 12  7 ×  2 = 14  8 ×  2 = 16  9 ×  2 = 18  10 ×  2 =  20 |
  | 6 ×  3 = 18  7 ×  3 = 21  8 ×  3 = 24  9 ×  3 = 27  10 ×  3 =  30 |
  | 6 ×  4 = 24  7 ×  4 = 28  8 ×  4 = 32  9 ×  4 = 36  10 ×  4 =  40 |
  | 6 ×  5 = 30  7 ×  5 = 35  8 ×  5 = 40  9 ×  5 = 45  10 ×  5 =  50 |
  | 6 ×  6 = 36  7 ×  6 = 42  8 ×  6 = 48  9 ×  6 = 54  10 ×  6 =  60 |
  | 6 ×  7 = 42  7 ×  7 = 49  8 ×  7 = 56  9 ×  7 = 63  10 ×  7 =  70 |
  | 6 ×  8 = 48  7 ×  8 = 56  8 ×  8 = 64  9 ×  8 = 72  10 ×  8 =  80 |
  | 6 ×  9 = 54  7 ×  9 = 63  8 ×  9 = 72  9 ×  9 = 81  10 ×  9 =  90 |
  | 6 × 10 = 60  7 × 10 = 70  8 × 10 = 80  9 × 10 = 90  10 × 10 = 100 |

The children should write down on the following form, in the separate
columns, their verified results: under the 2, the column of the 2's;
under the 3, the column of the 3's; under the 4, the column of the 4's,

    |  1  |  2  |  3  |  4  |  5  |  6  |  7  |  8  |  9  | 10  |
    |  2  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    |  3  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    |  4  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    |  5  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    |  6  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    |  7  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    |  8  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    |  9  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
    | 10  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |

Then they get the following table, which is identical with the test
cards included in the material. It is a summary of the multiplication
table--the famous Pythagorean table.


     |  1 |  2 |  3 |  4 |  5 |  6 |  7 |  8 |  9 | 10 |
     |  2 |  4 |  6 |  8 | 10 | 12 | 14 | 16 | 18 | 20 |
     |  3 |  6 |  9 | 12 | 15 | 18 | 21 | 24 | 27 | 30 |
     |  4 |  8 | 12 | 16 | 20 | 24 | 28 | 32 | 36 | 40 |
     |  5 | 10 | 15 | 20 | 25 | 30 | 35 | 40 | 45 | 50 |
     |  6 | 12 | 18 | 24 | 30 | 36 | 42 | 48 | 54 | 60 |
     |  7 | 14 | 21 | 28 | 35 | 42 | 49 | 56 | 63 | 70 |
     |  8 | 16 | 24 | 32 | 40 | 48 | 56 | 64 | 72 | 80 |
     |  9 | 18 | 27 | 36 | 45 | 54 | 63 | 72 | 81 | 90 |
     | 10 | 20 | 30 | 40 | 50 | 60 | 70 | 80 | 90 |100 |

The child has built up his multiplication table by a long series of
processes each incomplete in itself. It will now be easy to teach him to
read it as a "multiplication table," for he already knows it by memory.
Indeed, he will be able to fill the blanks from memory, the only
difficulty being the recognition of the square in which he must write
the number, which must correspond both to the multiplicand and to the

We offer ten of these blank forms in our material. When the child, left
free to work as long as he wishes on these exercises, has finished them
all, he has certainly learned the multiplication table.



MATERIAL: The same material may be used for division, except the blanks,
which are somewhat different.

Take any number of beads from the box and count them. Let us suppose
that we have twenty-seven. This number is written in the vacant space at
the left-hand side of the division blank.

    |   : 2 = _____ | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 3 = _____ | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 4 = _____ | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 5 = _____ | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |27 : 6 = _____ | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 7 = _____ | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 8 =    3  |      3    |
    |               |           |
    |   : 9 =    3  |           |
    |               |           |
    |   :10 =    2  |      7    |

Then taking the box of beads and the arithmetic board with the hundred
indentures we proceed to the operation.

Let us first divide 27 by 10. We place ten beads in a vertical line
under the 1; then in the next row ten more beads under the 2. The beads,
however, are not sufficient to fill the row under the 3. Now on the
paper prepared for division we write 2 on a line with the 10 to the
left of the vertical line, and to the right of the same vertical line we
write the remainder 7.

To divide 27 by 9, nine beads are counted out in the first row, then
nine in the second row under the 2, and still another nine under the 3.
There are no beads left over. So the figure 3 is written after the
equal-sign (=) on a line with 9.

To divide 27 by 8 we count out eight beads, place them in a row under
the 1, and then fill like rows under the 2 and the 3; in the fourth row
there are only three beads. They are the remainder. And so on.

A package of one hundred division blanks comes in an attractive dark
green cover tied with a silk ribbon. The multiplication blanks, with
their tables for comparison and summary tables, come in a parchment
envelope tied with leather strings.

    |   : 2 =       | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 3 =       | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 4 =       | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 5 =       | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 6 =       | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 7 =       | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 8 =       | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   : 9 =       | _________ |
    |               |           |
    |   :10 =       | _________ |



By this time the child can easily perform operations with numbers of two
or more figures, for he possesses all the materials necessary and is
already prepared to make use of them.

For this work we have for the first three operations, addition,
subtraction, and multiplication, a counting-frame; and for division a
more complicated material which will be described later on.


Addition on the counting frame is a most simple operation, and therefore
is very attractive. Let us take, for example, the following:

      1320 +

First we slide over the beads to represent the first number: 1 on the
thousands-wire, 3 on the hundreds-wire, and 2 on the tens-wire. Then we
place next to them the beads representing the second number: 4 on the
hundreds-wire, 3 on the tens-wire, and 5 on the units-wire. Now there
remains nothing to be done except to write the number shown by the beads
in their present position: 1755.

[Illustration: This shows the second counting-frame used in arithmetic.
The child is writing the number she has just formed on her frame. (_The
Rivington Street Montessori School, New York._)]

When the problem is a more complicated one, the beads for any one wire
amounting to more than 10, the solution is still very easy. In that case
the entire ten beads would be returned to their original position and in
their stead one corresponding bead of the next lower wire would be
slipped over. Then the operation is continued. Take, for example:

      390 +

We first place the beads representing 390: that is, 3 on the
hundreds-wire and 9 on the tens-wire; or, vice versa, beginning with the
units, we would first place the 9 tens and then the 3 hundreds. For the
second number we place 4 beads for the hundreds and then we begin to
place the 8 tens. But when we have placed only one ten, the wire is
full; so the ten tens are returned to their original position and to
represent them we move over another bead on the hundreds-wire; then we
continue to place the beads of the tens which now, after having
converted 10 of them into 1 hundred, remain but 7. Or we can begin the
addition by placing the beads for the units before we place those for
the hundreds; and in that case we move on the hundreds-wire first the
bead representing the ten beads on the wire above, and then the 4
hundreds which must be added. Finally we write down the sum as now
indicated by the position of the beads: 872.

With a larger counting-frame it is possible to perform in this manner
very complicated problems in addition.

[Illustration: The two little girls are working out problems in seven
figures. (_The Washington Montessori School, Washington, D. C._)]


The counting-frame lends itself equally well to problems in subtraction.
Let us take, for example, the following:

      8947 -

We place the beads representing the first number; then from them we take
the beads representing the second number The beads remaining indicate
the difference between the two numbers; and this is written: 2212.

Then comes the more complicated problem where it is necessary to borrow
from a higher denomination. When the beads of one wire are exhausted, we
move over the entire ten and take to represent them one bead from the
lower wire; then we continue the subtraction. For example:

      8954 -

We move the beads representing the first number; then we take 3 beads
from the units. Now we begin to subtract the tens. We wish to take away
9 beads; but when we have moved five the wire is empty, and there are
still four more to be moved. We take away one bead from the
hundreds-wire and replace the entire ten on the tens-wire; and then we
continue to move beads on the tens-wire until we have taken a total of
nine--that is, we now move the other four. On the hundreds-wire there
remain but 8 beads, and from them we take the 5, etc. Our final
remainder is 1361.

It is easy to see how familiar and clear to the child the technique of
"borrowing" becomes.


When there is a number to be multiplied by more than one figure, the
child not only knows the multiplication table but he easily
distinguishes the units from the tens, hundreds, etc., and he is
familiar with their reciprocal relations. He knows all the numbers up to
a million and also their positions in relation to their value. He knows
from habitual practise that a unit of a higher order can be exchanged
for ten of a lower order.

To have the child attack this new difficulty successfully one need only
tell him that each figure of the multiplier must multiply in turn each
figure of the multiplicand and that the separate products are placed in
columns and then added. The analytical processes hold the child's
attention for a long period of time; and for this reason they have too
great a formative value not to be made use of in the highest degree.
They are the processes which lead to that inner maturation which gives a
deeper realization of cognitions and which results in bursts of
spontaneous synthesis and abstraction.

The children, by rapidly graduated exercises, soon become accustomed to
writing the analysis of each multiplication (according to its factors)
in such a way that, once the work of arranging the material is finished,
nothing is left for them to do but to perform the multiplications which
they already have learned in the simple multiplication table.

Here is an example of the analysis of a multiplication with three
figures appearing in both the multiplicand and the multiplier: 356 X

           { 2 units                 { 6 units
    742 =  { 4 tens           356 =  { 5 tens
           { 7 hundreds              { 3 hundreds

Each of the first numbers is combined with the three figures of the
other number in the following manner:

  u. 6 }            { 12 _units_       u. 6 }            { 24 _tens_
  t. 5 }  × u. 2 =  { 10 tens          t. 5 }  × t. 4 =  { 20 hundreds
  h. 3 }            {  6 hundreds      h. 3 }            { 12 thousands

  u. 6 }            { 42 _hundreds_
  t. 5 }  × h. 7 =  { 35 thousands
  h. 3 }            { 21 tens of thousands

When this analysis is written down, the work on the counting-frames
begins. Here the operations are performed in the following manner: 2 × 6
units necessitate the bringing forward of the ten beads on the first
wire. However, even those do not suffice. So they are slid back and one
bead on the second wire is brought forward, to represent the ten
replaced, and on the first wire two beads are brought forward (12).

Next we take 2 × 5 tens. There is already one bead on the tens-wire and
to this should be added ten more, but instead we bring forward one bead
on the hundreds-wire. At this point in the operation the beads are
distributed on the wires in this manner:


Now comes 2 × 3 hundreds, and six beads on the corresponding wire are
brought forward. When the multiplication by the units of the multiplier
is finished, the beads on the frame are in the following order:


We pass now to the tens: 4 × 6 = 24 tens. We must therefore bring
forward four beads on the tens-wire and two on the hundreds-wire:


4 × 5 = 20 hundreds, therefore two thousands:


4 × 3 thousands = 12 thousands; so we bring forward two beads on the
thousands-wire and one on the ten-thousands-wire:


Now we take the hundreds: 7 × 6 hundreds are 42 hundreds; therefore we
slide four beads on the thousands-wire and two on the hundreds-wire. But
there already were nine beads on this wire, so only one remains and the
other ten give us instead another bead on the thousands-wire:



5 × 7 thousands = 35 thousands, which is the same as five thousands and
three ten-thousands. Three beads on the fifth wire and five on the
fourth are brought forward; but on the fourth wire there already were
nine beads, so we leave only four, exchanging the other ten for one bead
on the fifth wire:


Finally 7 × 3 ten-thousands = 21 ten-thousands. One bead is brought
forward on the fifth wire and two on the hundred-thousands-wire.

At the end of the operation the beads will be distributed as follows:

    2 beads on the first  wire (units)
    5   "    "  "  second   "  (tens)
    1   "    "  "  third    "  (hundreds)
    4   "    "  "  fourth   "  (thousands)
    6   "    "  "  fifth    "  (tens of thousands)
    2   "    "  "  sixth    "  (hundreds of thousands)

This distribution translated into figures gives the following number:
264,152. This may be written as a result right after the factors without
the partial products: that is, 742 × 356 = 264,152.

Although this description may sound very complicated, the exercise on
the counting-frame is an easy and most interesting arithmetic game. And
this game, which contains the secret of such surprising results, not
only is an exercise which makes more and more clear the decimal
relations of reciprocal value and position, but also it explains the
manner of procedure in abstract operations.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. The disposition of the beads for the number

In fact, in the multiplication as commonly performed:

       356 ×

the same operations are involved; but the figures, once written down,
cannot be modified as is possible on the frame by moving the beads and
substituting beads of higher value for those of lower value when the
ten beads of one wire, as a mechanical result of the structure of the
frame, are all used. As multiplication is ordinarily written, such
substitutions cannot be made; but the partial products must be written
down in order, placed in column according to their value, and finally
added. This is a much longer piece of work, because the act of writing a
figure is more complicated than that of moving a bead which slides
easily on the metal wire. Again, it is not so clear as the work with the
beads, once the child is accustomed to handling the frame and no longer
has any doubt as to the position of the different values, and when it
has become a sort of routine to substitute one bead of the lower wire
for the ten beads of the upper wire which have been exhausted.
Furthermore, it is much easier to add new products without the
possibility of making a mistake. Let us go back to the point in the
operation where the beads on the frame read thus:


and it was necessary to add 35 thousands--five beads to the
thousands-wire and three beads to the ten-thousands-wire. The three
beads on the fifth wire can be brought forward without any thought as to
what will happen on the wire above when the five are added to the nine.
Indeed, what takes place there does not make any difference, for it is
not necessary that the operation on the higher wire precede that on the
lower wire.

[Illustration: Fig. 2. The disposition of the beads for the number
54,152; after adding 5 thousands to the number 49,152.]

In adding the five beads to the nine beads only four remain on the
fourth wire, since the other ten are substituted by a bead on the lower
wire; this bead may be brought forward even after the three for the
ten-thousands have been placed.

By the use of the frame the child acquires remarkable dexterity and
facility in calculating, and this makes his work in multiplication much
more rapid. Often one child, working out an example on paper, has
finished only the first partial multiplication when another child,
working at the frame, has completed the problem and knows the final
product. It is interesting even among adults to watch two compete in the
same problem, one at the frame and the other using the ordinary method
on paper.

It is very interesting, also, not to work out on the frame the
individual products in the sequence indicated in analyzing the factors,
but to work them out by chance. Indeed, it does not matter whether the
beads are moved in the order of their alignment or at random. The beads
on the ten-thousands-wire may be moved first, then the hundreds, the
units, and finally the thousands.

These exercises, which give such a deep understanding of the operations
of arithmetic, would be impossible with the abstract operation which is
performed only by means of figures. And it is evident that the exercises
can be amplified to any extent as a pleasing game.


Take, for example, 8640 × 2531. We write the figures of the multiplicand
one under the other but in their relative positions; this also can be
written by filling in the vacant spaces with zeros.

In this way we repeat the multiplicand as many times as there are
figures in the multiplier; but instead of writing beside these figures
the words units, tens, etc., we indicate this with zeros, which, for the
sake of clearness, we fill in till they resemble large dots.

The child already knows, from his previous exercises, that zero
indicates the position of a figure and that multiplying by ten changes
this position. Therefore zeros in the multiplier would cause a
corresponding change of position in the figures of the multiplicand.

The accompanying figure shows clearly what it is not so easy to explain
in words.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.]

We are now ready for the usual procedure of multiplication. A child of
seven years reaches this stage very easily after having done our
preliminary exercises, and then it does not matter to him how many
figures he has to use. Indeed, he is very fond of working with numbers
of unheard of figures, as is shown in the following example--one of the
usual exercises done by the children, who of themselves choose the
multiplicand and the multiplier; the teacher would never think of giving
such enormous numbers. They can now perform the operation

    22,364,253 × 345,234,611

            22364253 ×

without analysis of factors and without help from the frames but by the
method commonly used. This may be seen by the way in which the example
is written out and then done by the child.


Not only is it possible to perform long division with our bead material,
but the work is so delightful that it becomes an arithmetical pastime
especially adapted to the child's home activities. Using the beads
clarifies the different steps of the operation, creating almost a
_rational arithmetic_ which supersedes the common empirical methods,
that reduce the mechanism of abstract operations to a simple _routine_.
For this reason, these pastimes prepare the way for the rational
processes of mathematics which the child meets in the higher grades.

The bead frame will no longer suffice here. We need the square
arithmetic board used for the first partial multiplications and for
short division. However, we require several such boards and an adequate
provision of beads. The work is too complicated to be described clearly,
but in practise it is easy and most interesting.

It is sufficient here to suggest the method of procedure with the
material. The units, tens, hundreds, etc., are expressed by
different-colored beads: _units_, white; _tens_, green; _hundreds_, red.
Then there are racks of different colors: _white_ for the simple units,
tens, and hundreds; _gray_ for the thousands; _black_ for the millions.
There also are boxes, which on the outside are white, gray, or black,
and on the inside white, green, or red. And for each box there is a
corresponding rack containing ten tubes with ten beads in each.

Suppose we must divide 87,632 by 64. Five of the boxes are put in a
row, arranged from left to right according to the value of their color,
as follows: two gray boxes--one green inside and the other white--and
three white boxes with the inside respectively red, green, and white. In
the first box to the left we put 8 green beads; in the second box 7
white beads; in the third, 6 red beads; in the fourth 3 green beads; and
in the fifth box 2 white beads. Back of each box is one of the racks
with ten tubes filled with beads of corresponding colors. These
beads--ten in each tube--are used in exchanging the units of a higher
denomination for those of a lower.

[Illustration: The child here is solving a problem in long division. (_A
Montessori School, Barcelona, Spain._)]

There are two arithmetic boards, one next to the other, placed below the
row of boxes. In the one to the left, the little cardboard with the
figure 6 is inserted in the slot we have described, and in the other to
the right the figure 4.

Now to divide 87,632 by 64, place the first two boxes at the left
(containing 8 and 7 beads respectively) above the two arithmetic boards.
On the first board the eight beads are arranged in rows of six, as in
the more simple division. On the second board the seven beads are
arranged in rows of four, corresponding to the number indicated by the
red figure. The two quotients must be reduced with reference to the
quotient in the first arithmetic board. All the other is considered as a
remainder. The quotient in this case is 1 and the remainders are 2 on
the first board and 3 on the second.

When this is finished, the boxes are moved up one place and then the
first box is out of the game, its place having been taken by the second
box; so the gray-green box is no longer above the first board but the
gray-white one instead, and above the second board we must place the box
with the red beads.

[Illustration: The illustration at the top shows the square and the cube
of 4 and of 5. That in the middle shows the arithmetic board being used
for multiplication. In the photograph at the bottom a problem in
division is being worked out on the arithmetic-board: 26 ÷ 4 = 6 and 2

Now the beads must be adjusted. The two beads that are left over on the
card marked with the number 6 are green but the box above this card is
the gray-white one. We must therefore change the green beads into white
beads, taking for each one of them a tube of ten white beads. The white
beads which were left over on the other card must be brought to the card
above which the white box is now placed. We have only to arrange the
white beads now in rows of six while the other box of red beads is
emptied on to the second board in rows of four, as in simple division.

With the material arranged in this way according to color, we proceed to
the reduction, which is done by exchanging one bead of a higher
denomination for ten of a lower. Thus, for example, in the present case
we have twenty-three white beads distributed on the first board in rows
of six, which gives a quotient of three and a remainder of five. On the
second board there are six red beads distributed in rows of four, giving
a quotient of one with a remainder of two. Now the work of reduction
begins. This consists in taking one by one the beads from the board to
the left--in this case the white--and exchanging them for ten red beads,
which in turn are placed in rows of four on the other board until the
quotients on the two cards are alike. What is left over is the
remainder. In this case it is necessary to change only the one white
bead so as to have the other quotient reach three with a remainder of

The same process is continued until all the boxes are used.

The final remainder is the one to be written down with the quotient.

The exercise requires great patience and exactness, but it is most
interesting and might be called an excellent game of solitaire for
children for home use. There is no intellectual fatigue but much
movement and much intense attention. The quotients and remainders may be
written on a prepared sheet of paper, so as to be verified by the

When the child has performed many of these exercises he comes
spontaneously to try to foresee the result of an operation without
having to make the material exchange and arrangement of the beads; hence
to shorten the mechanical process. When at length he can "see" the
situation at a glance, he will be able to do the most difficult division
by the ordinary processes without experiencing any fatigue, or without
having been obliged to endure tiring progressive lessons and humiliating
corrections. Not only will he have learned how to perform long divisions
but he will have become a master of their mechanism. He will realize
each step, in ways that the children of ordinary secondary schools
possibly never will be able to understand, when through the usual
methods of rational mathematics they approach the incomprehensible
operations which they have performed for several years without
considering the reasons for them.




When the child, by the aid of all this material, has had a chance to
grasp the fundamental ideas relating to the four operations and has
passed on to the execution of them in the abstract, he is ready to
continue on the numerical processes which will lead to a more profound
study preparatory to the more complex problems that await him in the
secondary schools.

These studies are, however, a means of helping him to remember the
things he already knows and to enlarge upon them. They come to him as a
pastime, as an agreeable manner of thinking over either in school or at
home the ideas which he already has gained.

One of the first exercises is that of continuing the multiplication of
each number by the series of 1 to 10 which was begun by the exercises on
the multiplication tables. This should be done in the abstract: that is,
without recourse to the material. Let us, however, set some limit--we
will stop when each product has reached 100. In order that these series
of exercises may each be in one column the first exercises will stop
with 50 and another can be used for the numbers from 51 to 100.

The two following tables (A and B) are the result. These are prepared in
this manner in our material so that the child may compare his work with


  2× 1= 2  3× 1= 3  4× 1= 4  5× 1= 5  6× 1= 6  7× 1= 7  8× 1= 8  9× 1= 9  10× 1=10
  2× 2= 4  3× 2= 6  4× 2= 8  5× 2=10  6× 2=12  7× 2=14  8× 2=16  9× 2=18  10× 2=20
  2× 3= 6  3× 3= 9  4× 3=12  5× 3=15  6× 3=18  7× 3=21  8× 3=24  9× 3=27  10× 3=30
  2× 4= 8  3× 4=12  4× 4=16  5× 4=20  6× 4=24  7× 4=28  8× 4=32  9× 4=36  10× 4=40
  2× 5=10  3× 5=15  4× 5=20  5× 5=25  6× 5=30  7× 5=35  8× 5=40  9× 5=45  10× 5=50
  2× 6=12  3× 6=18  4× 6=24  5× 6=30  6× 6=36  7× 6=42  8× 6=48
  2× 7=14  3× 7=21  4× 7=28  5× 7=35  6× 7=42  7× 7=49
  2× 8=16  3× 8=24  4× 8=32  5× 8=40  6× 8=48
  2× 9=18  3× 9=27  4× 9=36  5× 9=45
  2×10=20  3×10=30  4×10=40  5×10=50
  2×11=22  3×11=33  4×11=44
  2×12=24  3×12=36  4×12=48
  2×13=26  3×13=39
  2×14=28  3×14=42
  2×15=30  3×15=45
  2×16=32  3×16=48


  2×26= 52  3×17=51  4×13= 52  5×11= 55  6× 9=54  7× 8=56  8× 7=56  9× 6=54  10× 6= 60
  2×27= 54  3×18=54  4×14= 56  5×12= 60  6×10=60  7× 9=63  8× 8=64  9× 7=63  10× 7= 70
  2×28= 56  3×19=57  4×15= 60  5×13= 65  6×11=66  7×10=70  8× 9=72  9× 8=72  10× 8= 80
  2×29= 58  3×20=60  4×16= 64  5×14= 70  6×12=72  7×11=77  8×10=80  9× 9=81  10× 9= 90
  2×30= 60  3×21=63  4×17= 68  5×15= 75  6×13=78  7×12=84  8×11=88  9×10=90  10×10=100
  2×31= 62  3×22=66  4×18= 72  5×16= 80  6×14=84  7×13=91  8×12=96  9×11=99
  2×32= 64  3×23=69  4×19= 76  5×17= 85  6×15=90  7×14=98
  2×33= 66  3×24=72  4×20= 80  5×18= 90  6×16=96
  2×34= 68  3×25=75  4×21= 84  5×19= 95
  2×35= 70  3×26=78  4×22= 88  5×20=100
  2×36= 72  3×27=81  4×23= 92
  2×37= 74  3×28=84  4×24= 96
  2×38= 76  3×29=87  4×25=100
  2×39= 78  3×30=90
  2×40= 80  3×31=93
  2×41= 82  3×32=96
  2×42= 84  3×33=99
  2×43= 86
  2×44= 88
  2×45= 90
  2×46= 92
  2×47= 94
  2×48= 96
  2×49= 98


   1 |                        ||  51 |
   2 |                        ||  52 |
   3 |                        ||  53 |
   4 |                        ||  54 |
   5 |                        ||  55 |
   6 |                        ||  56 |
   7 |                        ||  57 |
   8 |                        ||  58 |
   9 |                        ||  59 |
  10 |                        ||  60 |
  11 |                        ||  61 |
  12 |                        ||  62 |
  13 |                        ||  63 |
  14 |                        ||  64 |
  15 |                        ||  65 |
  16 |                        ||  66 |
  17 |                        ||  67 |
  18 |                        ||  68 |
  19 |                        ||  69 |
  20 |                        ||  70 |
  21 |                        ||  71 |
  22 |                        ||  72 |
  23 |                        ||  73 |
  24 |                        ||  74 |
  25 |                        ||  75 |
  26 |                        ||  76 |
  27 |                        ||  77 |
  28 |                        ||  78 |
  29 |                        ||  79 |
  30 |                        ||  80 |
  31 |                        ||  81 |
  32 |                        ||  82 |
  33 |                        ||  83 |
  34 |                        ||  84 |
  35 |                        ||  85 |
  36 |                        ||  86 |
  37 |                        ||  87 |
  38 |                        ||  88 |
  39 |                        ||  89 |
  40 |                        ||  90 |
  41 |                        ||  91 |
  42 |                        ||  92 |
  43 |                        ||  93 |
  44 |                        ||  94 |
  45 |                        ||  95 |
  46 |                        ||  96 |
  47 |                        ||  97 |
  48 |                        ||  98 |
  49 |                        ||  99 |
  50 |                        || 100 |


   1                          ||  53
   2                          ||  54 = 2×27 = 3×18 = 6×9 =
   3                          ||       9×6
   4 = 2×2                    ||  55 = 5×11
   5                          ||  56 = 2×28 = 4×14 = 7×8 =
   6 = 2×3 = 3×2              ||       8×7
   7                          ||  57 = 3×19
   8 = 2×4 = 4×2              ||  58 = 2×29
   9 = 3×3                    ||  59
  10 = 2×5 = 5×2              ||  60 = 2×30 = 3×20 = 4×15 =
  11                          ||       5×12 = 6×10 = 15×4
  12 = 2×6 = 3×4 = 4×3 = 6×2  ||  61
  13                          ||  62 = 2×31
  14 = 2×7 = 7×2              ||  63 = 3×21 = 7×9 = 9×7
  15 = 3×5 = 5×3              ||  64 = 2×32 = 4×16 = 8×8
  16 = 2×8 = 4×4 = 8×2        ||  65 = 5×13
  17                          ||  66 = 2×33 = 3×22 = 6×11
  18 = 2×9 = 3×6 = 6×3 = 9×2  ||  67
  19                          ||  68 = 2×34 = 4×17
  20 = 2×10 = 4×5 = 5×4 =     ||  69 = 3×23
       10×2                   ||  70 = 2×35 = 5×14 = 7×10 =
  21 = 7×3 = 3×7              ||       10×7
  22 = 2×11                   ||  71
  23                          ||  72 = 2×36 = 3×24 = 4×18 =
  24 = 2×12 = 3×8 = 4×6 =     ||       6×12 = 8×9 = 9×8
       6×4 = 8×3              ||  73
  25 = 5×5                    ||  74 = 2×37
  26 = 2×13                   ||  75 = 3×25 = 5×15
  27 = 3×9 = 9×3              ||  76 = 2×38 = 4×19
  28 = 2×14 = 4×7 = 7×4       ||  77 = 7×11
  29                          ||  78 = 2×39 = 3×26 = 6×13
  30 = 2×15 = 3×10 = 5×6 =    ||  79
       6×5 = 10×3             ||  80 = 2×40 = 4×20 = 5×16
  31                          ||       8×10 = 10×8
  32 = 2×16 = 4×8 = 8×4       ||  81 = 3×27 = 9×9
  33 = 3×11                   ||  82 = 2×41
  34 = 2×17                   ||  83
  35 = 5×7 = 7×5              ||  84 = 2×42 = 3×28 = 4×21 =
  36 = 2×18 = 3×12 = 4×9 =    ||       6×14 = 7×12
       6×6 = 9×4              ||  85 = 5×17
  37                          ||  86 = 2×43
  38 = 2×19                   ||  87 = 3×29
  39 = 3×13                   ||  88 = 2×44 = 4×22 = 8×11
  40 = 2×20 = 4×10 = 5×8 =    ||  89
       8×5 = 10×4             ||  90 = 2×45 = 3×30 = 5×18 =
  41                          ||       6×15 = 9×10 = 10×9
  42 = 2×21 = 3×14 = 6×7 =    ||  91 = 7×13
       7×6                    ||  92 = 2×46 = 4×23
  43                          ||  93 = 3×31
  44 = 2×22 = 4×11            ||  94 = 2×47
  45 = 3×15 = 5×9 = 9×5       ||  95 = 5×19
  46 = 2×23                   ||  96 = 2×48 = 3×32 = 4×24 =
  47                          ||       6×16 = 8×12
  48 = 2×24 = 3×16 = 4×12 =   ||  97
       6×8 = 8×6              ||  98 = 2×49 = 7×14
  49 = 7×7                    ||  99 = 3×33 = 9×11
  50 = 2×25 = 5×10 = 10×5     || 100 = 2×50 = 4×25 = 5×20 =
  51 = 3×17                   ||        10×10
  52 = 2×26 = 4×13            ||

To read over a column of the results of each number is to learn them by
heart, and it impresses upon the child's memory the series of multiples
of each number from 1 to 100.

With these tables a child can perform many interesting exercises. He has
sheets of long narrow paper. On the left are written the series of
numbers from 1 to 50 and from 51 to 100. He compares the numbers on
these sheets with the same numbers in the tables, series by series, and
writes down the different factors which he thus finds; for example, 6 =
2 × 3; 8 = 2 × 4; 10 = 2 × 5. Then finding the same number in the second
column and the other columns his result will read, 6 = 2 × 3 = 3 × 2; 18
= 2 × 9 = 3 × 6 = 6 × 3 = 9 × 2.

In this comparison the child will find that some numbers cannot be
resolved into factors and their line is blank. By this means he gets his
first intuition of prime numbers (Tables C and D).

When the child has filled in this work from 1 to 50 and from 51 to 100
and has reduced the numbers to factors and prime numbers he may pass on
to some exercises with the beads.

The children now meditate, using the material, on the results that they
have obtained by comparing these tables. Let us consider, for example, 6
= 2 × 3 = 3 × 2. The child takes six beads, and first makes two groups
of three beads and then three groups of two.

     °    °     °°°
    ° °  ° °    °°°

And so on for each number he chooses. For example:

    18 = 2 × 9 = °°°°°°°°°

       = 9 × 2 = ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° °
                 ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° °


    = 6 × 3 = °   °   °   °   °   °
             ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° ° °

    = 3 × 6 = °°°   °°°   °°°
              °°°   °°°   °°°

The child will try in every way to make other combinations and he will
try also to divide the prime numbers into factors.

This intelligent and pleasing game makes clear to the child the
"divisibility" of numbers. The work that he does in getting these
factors by multiplication is really a way of dividing the numbers. For
example, he has divided 18 into 2 equal groups, 9 equal groups, 6 equal
groups, and 3 equal groups. Previously he has divided 6 into 2 equal
groups and then into 3 equal groups. Therefore when it is a question of
multiplying the two factors there is no difference in the result whether
he multiplies 2 by 3 or 3 by 2; for the inverted order of the factors
does not change the product. But in division the object is to arrange
the number in equal parts and any modification in this equal
distribution of objects changes the character of the grouping. Each
separate combination is a different way of dividing the number.

The idea of division is made very clear to the child's mind: 6 ÷ 3 = 2,
means that the 6 can be divided into three groups, each of which has two
units or objects; and 6 ÷ 2 = 3, means that the 6 also can be divided
into but two equal groups, each group made up of three units or objects.

The relations between multiplication and division are very evident since
we started with 6 = 3 × 2; 6 = 2 × 3. This brings out the fact that
multiplication may be used to prove division; and it prepares the child
to understand the practical steps taken in division. Then some day when
he has to do an example in long division, he will find no difficulty
with the mental calculation required to determine whether the dividend,
or a part of it, is divisible by the divisor. This is not the usual
preparation for division, though memorizing the multiplication table is
indeed used as a preparation for multiplication.

From the above exercises (Table D) others might be derived involving
further analysis of the same numbers. For example, one of the possible
factor groups for the number 40 is 2 × 20. But 20 = 2 × 10; and 10 = 2 ×
5. Bringing together the smaller figures into which the larger numbers
have been broken, we get 40 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 5; in other words 40 = 2^{3} ×

This is the result for 60:

    60 = 2 × 30 = 2 × 2 × 15 = 2 × 2 × 3 × 5 = 2^{2} × 3 × 5

For these two numbers we get accordingly the prime factors: 2^{3} × 5;
and 2^{2} × 3 × 5. What then have the two larger numbers, 40 and 60 in
common? The 2^{2} is included in the 2^{3}; the series therefore may be
written: 2^{2} × 2 × 5; and 2^{2} × 3 × 5. The common element (the
greatest common divisor) is 2^{2} × 5 = 20. The proof consists in
dividing 60 and 40 by 20, something which will not be possible for any
number higher than 20.

We have test sheets where the numbers from 1 to 100 are arranged in rows
of 10, forming a square. Here the child's exercise consists in
underlining, in different squares, the multiples of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 10. The numbers so underlined stand out like a design in such a way
that the child easily can study and compare the tables. For instance, in
the square where he underlines the multiples of 2 all the even numbers
in the vertical columns are marked; in the multiple of 4 we have the
same linear grouping--a vertical line--but the numbers marked are
alternate numbers; in 6 the same vertical grouping continues, but one
number is marked and two are skipped; and again in the multiples of 8
the same design is repeated with the difference that every fourth number
is underlined. On the square marked off for the multiples of 3 the
numbers marked form oblique lines running from right to left and all the
numbers in these oblique lines are underlined. In the multiples of 6 the
design is the same but only the alternating numbers are underlined. The
6 therefore, partakes of the type of the 2 and of the 3; and both of
these are indeed its factors.


   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  |   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  20  |  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  20
  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  30  |  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40  |  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40
  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  50  |  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  50
  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  60  |  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  60
  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  70  |  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  70
  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  80  |  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  80
  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  90  |  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  90
  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  |  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  |   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  20  |  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  20
  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  30  |  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40  |  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40
  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  50  |  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  50
  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  60  |  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  60
  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  70  |  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  70
  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  80  |  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  80
  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  90  |  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  90
  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  |  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  |   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  20  |  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  20
  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  30  |  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40  |  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40
  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  50  |  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  50
  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  60  |  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  60
  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  70  |  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  70
  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  80  |  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  80
  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  90  |  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  90
  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  |  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  |   1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  20  |  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  20
  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  30  |  21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  30
  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40  |  31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40
  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  50  |  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  50
  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  60  |  51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  60
  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  70  |  61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  70
  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  80  |  71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  80
  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  90  |  81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  90
  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  |  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

                     1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10

                    11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19  20

                    21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  30

                    31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39  40

                    41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49  50

                    51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59  60

                    61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69  70

                    71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  80

                    81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  90

                    91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100



Let us take two of the two-bead bars (green) which were used in counting
in the first bead exercises. Here, however, these form part of another
series of beads. Along with these two bars there is a small chain: °°-°°
By joining two like bars, the chains represent 2 × 2. There is another
combination of these same objects--the two bars are joined together not
in a chain but in the form of a square:

    ° °
    ° °

They represent the same thing: that is to say, as numbers they are 2 ×
2; but they differ in position--one has the form of a line, the other of
a square. It can be seen from this that if as many bars as there are
beads on a bar are placed side by side they form a square.

In the series in fact we offer squares of 3 × 3 pink beads; 4 × 4 yellow
beads; 5 × 5 pale blue beads; 6 × 6 gray beads; 7 × 7 white beads; 8 × 8
lavender beads; 9 × 9 dark blue beads; and 10 × 10 orange beads; thus
reproducing the same colors as were used at the beginning in counting.

For every number there are as many bars as there are beads for the
number, 3 bars for the 3, 4 for the 4, etc.; in addition there is a
chain consisting of an equal number of bars, 3 × 3; 4 × 4; and, as we
have seen, there is a square containing another equal quantity.

The child not only can count the beads of the chains and squares, but
he can reproduce them by placing the corresponding single bars either in
a horizontal line or laying them side by side in the shape of a square.
The number repeated as many times as the unit it contains is really the
multiplication of the number by itself.

For example, taking the small square of four the child can count four
beads on each side; multiplying 4 by 4 we have the number of beads in
the square, 16. Multiplying one side by itself (squaring one side) we
have the area of the little square.

This can be continued for 5, 8, 9, etc. The square of 10 has ten beads
on each side. Multiplying 10 by 10, in other words, "squaring" one side
we get the entire number of beads forming the area of the square: 100.

However, it is not the form alone which gives these results; for if the
ten bars which formed the square are placed end to end in a horizontal
line, we get the "hundred chain." This can be done with each square; the
chain 5 × 5, like the square 5 × 5, contains the same number of beads,
25. We teach the child to write the numbers with symbol for the square:
5^{2} = 25; 7^{2} = 49; 10^{2} = 100, etc.

Our material here is manufactured with reference to the numbers 2, 3, 4,
5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. It is "offered" to the child, beginning with the
smaller numbers. Given the material and freedom, the idea will come of
itself and the child will "work" it into his consciousness on them.

In this same period we take up also the cubes of the numbers, and there
is a similar material for this: that is, the chain of the cube of the
number is made up of chains of the square of that number joined by
several links which permit of its being folded. There are as many
squares for a number as there are units in that number--four squares
for number 4, six squares for 6, ten squares for 10--and a cube of the
beads is formed by placing the necessary number of squares one on top of
the other.


Let us consider the cube of four. There is a chain formed by four chains
each representing the square of four. They are joined by small links so
that the chain can be rolled up lengthwise. The chain of the cube, when
thus rolled, gives four squares similar to the separate squares which,
when drawn out again, for a straight line.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--This shows only part of the entire chain for

The quantity is always the same: four times the square of four. 4 × 4 ×
4 = 4^{2} × 4 = 4^{3}.

The cube of four comes with the material; but it can be reproduced by
placing four loose squares one on top of the other. Looking at this cube
we see that it has all its edges of four. Multiplying the area of a
square by the number of units contained in the side gives the volume of
the cube: 4^{2} × 4.

In this way the child receives his first intuitions of the processes
necessary for finding a surface and volume.

With this material we should not try to teach a great deal but should
leave the child free to ponder over his own observations--observing,
experimenting, and meditating upon the easily handled and attractive


Little by little we shall see the slates and copybooks filled with
exercises of numbers raised to the square or cube independently of the
rich series of objects which the material itself offers the child. In
his exercises with the square and cube of the numbers he easily will
discover that to multiply by ten it suffices to change the position of
the figures--that is to say, to add a zero. Multiplying unity by ten
gives 10; ten multiplied by ten is equal to 100; one hundred multiplied
by ten is equal to 1,000, etc.

Before arriving at this point the child will often either have
discovered this fact for himself or have learned it by observing his

Some of the fundamental ideas acquired only through laborious lessons by
our common school methods are here learned intuitively, naturally, and
spontaneously. An interesting study which completes that already made
with the "hundred chain" and the "thousand chain" is the comparison of
the respective square chain and cube chain. Such differing relations
showing the increasing length are most illustrative and make a marked
impression upon the child. Furthermore, they prepare for knowledge that
is to be used later. Some day when the child hears of "geometric
progressions" or "linear squares" he will understand immediately and

It is interesting to build a small tower with the bead cubes. Though it
will resemble the pink tower, this tower, which seems to be built of
jewels, gives a profound notion of the relations of quantity. By this
time these cubes are no longer recognized superficially through
sensorial impressions, but their minutest details are known to the child
through the progressively intelligent work which they have occasioned.





The geometric insets used for sensorial exercises in the "Children's
House" made it possible for the child to become familiar with many
figures of plane geometry: the square, rectangle, triangle, polygon,
circle, ellipse, etc. By means of the third series of corresponding
cards, where the figures are merely outlined, he formed the habit of
recognizing a geometric figure represented merely by a line.
Furthermore, he has used a series of iron insets reproducing some of the
geometric figures which he previously had learned through the use of
wooden geometric insets. He used these iron insets to draw the outline
of a figure, which he then filled in with parallel lines by means of
colored pencils (an exercise in handling the instruments of writing).

The geometric material here presented to the elementary classes
supplements that used in the "Children's House." It is similar to the
iron insets; but in this material each frame is fastened to an iron
foundation of exactly the same size as the frame. Since each piece is
complete in itself, no rack is needed to hold them.

The frame of the inset is green, the foundation is white, and the inset
itself--the movable portion--is red. When the inset is in the frame, the
red surface and the green frame are in the same plane.

This material further differs from the other in that each inset is
composed not of a single piece, as in the first material, but of many
pieces which, when put together on the white foundation, exactly
reproduce the geometric figure there designated.

The use to which these modified insets may be put is most varied. The
main purpose is to facilitate the child's auto-education through
exercises in geometry and often through the solution of real problems.
The fact of being able actually to "handle geometric figures," to
arrange them in different ways, and to judge of the relations between
them, commands the child's absorbed attention. The putting together of
the insets, which deal with equivalent figures, reminds one of the
"games of patience"--picture puzzles--which have been invented for
children but which, while amusing them, have no definite educational
aim. Here, however, the child leaves the exercises with "clear concepts"
and not merely with general "notions" of the principles of geometry, a
thing which is very hard to accomplish by the methods common to the
older schools. The difference between like figures, similar figures, and
equivalent figures, the possibility of reducing every regular plane
figure to an equivalent rectangle, and finally the solution of the
theorem of Pythagoras--all these are acquired eagerly and spontaneously
by the child. The same may be said about work in fractions, which is
made most interesting by the exercises with the circular insets. The
real meaning of the word _fraction_, operations in fractions, the
reduction of common fractions to decimal fractions--all of this is
mastered and becomes perfectly clear in the child's mind.

These are formative conquests and at the same time a dynamic part of the
child's intellectual activity. A child who works spontaneously and for a
long period of time with this material not only strengthens his
reasoning powers and his character but acquires higher and clearer
cognitions, which increase his mental capacity. In his succeeding
spontaneous flights into the abstract he will show ability for
surprising progress. While a high school child is still wasting his
mental effort in trying to understand the relation between geometrical
figures, which it seems impossible for him to comprehend, our child in
the primary grades is "finding it out for himself" and is so elated by
his discovery that he immediately begins the search for other
geometrical relations. Our children gallop freely along over a smooth
road, urged on by the inner energy of their growing psychic organism,
while many other children plod on barefooted and in shackles over stony

Every positive conquest gained through objects with our method of
freedom--allowing the child to exercise himself at the time when he is
most ready for the exercise and permitting him to complete this
exercise--results in spontaneous abstractions. How is it possible to
lead a child to perform abstractions if his mind is not sufficiently
mature and he is without adequate information? These two points of
support are, as it were, the feet of the psychic man who is traveling
toward his highest mental activities. We shall always see the repetition
of this phenomenon. Every ulterior exercise of inner development, every
ulterior cognition, will lead the child to new and ever higher flights
into the realm of the abstract. It is well, however, to emphasize this
principle: that the mind, in order to fly, must leave from some point of
contact, just as the aeroplane starts from its hangar, and that it must
have reached a certain degree of maturity, as is the case with the small
bird when it tries its wings and starts on its first flight from the
nest where it was born and gained his strength. An aeroplane of
perpetual flight without a means of replenishing its supplies, and a
bird with only an "instinct of flight" without the process of
development that takes place from the egg to the first flight, are
things that do not exist.

A machine flying perpetually without need of replenishing the fuel for
its propelling energy, and an instinct without a corresponding organism,
are pure fancies. The same is true of the flight of man's imagination,
which soars through space and creates. Though this is the mind's "manner
of being," its "highest instinct," yet it also needs to find support in
reality, to organize its inner forces from time to time. The longer a
material can claim and hold a child's attention, the greater promise it
gives that an "abstract process," an "imaginative creation" will follow
as the result of a developed potentiality. This creative imagination,
which is ever returning to reality to gain inspiration and to acquire
new energies, will not be a vain, exhaustible, and fickle thing, like
the so-called imagination which our ordinary schools are trying to

Without positive replenishment in reality there never will be a
spontaneous flight of the mind; this is the unsurmountable difficulty of
the common schools in their attempt to "develop the imagination" and to
"lead to education." The child who without any impelling force from
within is artificially "borne aloft" by the teacher, who forces him into
the "abstract," can at most learn only how to descend slowly like a
parachute. He can never learn to "lift himself energetically to dizzy
heights." This is the difference; hence the necessity for considering
the positive basis which holds the mind of the child to systematic
auto-exercises of preparation. After this it suffices merely to grant
freedom to the child's genius in order that it may take its own flight.

I need not repeat that even in the period of replenishing, freedom is
the guide in finding the "particular moment" and the "necessary time";
for I already have spoken insistently and at length concerning this. It
is well, however, to reaffirm here even more clearly that a material for
development predetermined by experimental research and put into relation
with the child (through lessons) accomplishes so complete a work by the
psychic reactions which it is capable of stimulating that marvelous
phenomena of intellectual development may be obtained. These geometric
insets furnish rich materials for the application of this principle and
respond wonderfully to the "instinct for work" in the child mind.

The exercises with this material not only are exercises of composition
with the pieces of an inset or of the substitution of them into their
relative metal plates; they are also exercises in drawing which, because
of the labor they require, allow the child to take cognizance of every
detail and to meditate upon it.

The designing done with these geometric insets, as will be explained, is
of two kinds: geometric and artistic (mechanical and decorative). And
the union of the two kinds of drawings gives new ways of applying the

The geometric design consists in reproducing the figure outlined by the
corresponding insets. In this way the child learns to use the different
instruments of drawing--the square, the ruler, the compass, and the
protractor. In these exercises he acquires, with the aid of the special
portfolio which comes with the material, actual and real cognitions in

Artistic designs are made by combining the small pieces of the various
geometric insets. The resulting figures are then outlined and filled in
with colored pencils or watercolors. Such combinations on the part of
the child are real esthetic creations. The insets are of such reciprocal
proportions that their combination results in an artistic harmony which
facilitates the development of the child's esthetic sense. With our
insets we were able to reproduce some of the classic decorations found
in our masterpieces of art, such as decorations by Giotto.

A combination of geometric design and artistic design is formed by
decorating the different parts of the geometric figure--as the center,
the sides, the angles, the circumference, etc.; or by elaborating with
free-hand details the decorations which have resulted from the
combination of the insets. But a far better concept of all this will be
gained as we pass on to explain our didactic material.




FIRST SERIES OF INSETS: _Squares and Divided Figures._ This is a series
of nine square insets, ten by ten centimeters, each of which has a white
foundation of the same size as the inset.

One inset consists of an entire square; the others are made up in the
following manner:

    A square divided into two equal rectangles
    "   "       "      "  four equal squares
    "   "       "      "  eight equal rectangles
    "   "       "      "  sixteen equal squares
    "   "       "      "  two equal triangles
    "   "       "      "  four equal triangles
    "   "       "      "  eight equal triangles
    "   "       "      "  sixteen equal triangles

The child can take the square divided into two rectangles and the one
divided into two triangles and interchange them: that is, he can build
the first square with triangles and the second with rectangles. The two
triangles can be superimposed by placing them in contact at the under
side where there is no knob, and the same can be done with the
rectangles, thus showing their equivalence by placing one on the other.
But there also is a certain relation between the triangles and the
rectangles; indeed, they are each half of the same square; yet they
differ greatly in form. Inductively the child gains an idea of
equivalent figures. The two triangles are identical; the two rectangles
also are identical; whereas the triangle and the rectangle are
equivalents. The child soon makes comparisons by placing the triangle on
the rectangle, and he notices at once that the small triangle which is
left over on the rectangle equals the small triangle which remains
uncovered on the larger triangle, and therefore that the triangle and
the rectangle, though they do not have the same form, have the same


This exercise in observation is repeated in a like manner with all the
other insets, which are divided successively into four, eight, and
sixteen parts. The small square which is a fourth of the original
square, resulting from the division of this latter by two medial lines,
is equivalent to the triangle which was formed by dividing this same
original square into four triangles by two diagonal lines. And so on.

By comparing the different figures the child learns the difference
between _equivalent_ figures and _identical_ figures. The two rectangles
are the result of dividing the large square by a medial line and are
identical; the two triangles are formed by dividing the original square
by a diagonal line, etc. _Similar_ figures, on the other hand, are those
which have the same form but differ in dimension. For example, the
rectangle which is half of the original square and the one which is half
of the smaller square--that is, an eighth of the original square--are
neither identical nor equivalent but they are _similar_ figures. The
same may be said of the large square and of the smaller ones which
represent a fourth, a sixteenth, etc.

Through these divisions of the square an idea of fractions is gained
intuitively. However, this is not the material used for the study of
fractions. For this purpose there is another series of insets.

SECOND SERIES OF INSETS: _Fractions._ There are ten metal plates, each
of which has a circular opening ten centimeters in diameter. One inset
is a complete circle; the other circular insets are divided respectively
into 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 equal parts.


The children learn to measure the angles of each piece, and so to count
the degrees. For this work there is a circular piece of white
card-board, on which is drawn in black a semicircle with a radius of the
same length as that of the circular insets. This semicircle is divided
into 18 sectors by radii which extend beyond the circumference on to the
background; and these radii are numbered by tens from 0° to 180°. Each
sector is then subdivided into ten parts or degrees.


The diameter from 0° to 180° is outlined heavily and extends beyond the
circumference, in order to facilitate the adjustment of the angle to be
measured and to give a strict exactness of position. This is done also
with the radius which marks 90°. The child places a piece of an inset in
such a way that the vertex of the angle touches the middle of the
diameter and one of its sides rests on the radius marked 0°. At the
other end of the arc of the inset he can read the degrees of the angle.
After these exercises, the children are able to measure any angle with a
common protractor. Furthermore, they learn that a circle measures 360°,
half a circle 180°, and a right angle 90°. Once having learned that a
circumference measures 360° they can find the number of degrees in any
angle; for example, in the angle of an inset representing the seventh of
the circle, they know that 360° ÷ 7 = (approximately) 51°. This they can
easily verify with their instruments by placing the sector on the
graduated circle.

These calculations and measurements are repeated with all the different
sectors of this series of insets where the circle is divided into from
two to ten parts. The protractor shows approximately that:

    1/3 circle = 120°  and  360° ÷  3 = 120°

    1/4    "   =  90°   "   360° ÷  4 =  90°

    1/5    "   =  72°   "   360° ÷  5 =  72°

    1/6    "   =  60°   "   360° ÷  6 =  60°

    1/7    "   =  51°   "   360° ÷  7 =  51°

    1/8    "   =  45°   "   360° ÷  8 =  45°

    1/9    "   =  40°   "   360° ÷  9 =  40°

    1/10   "   =  36°   "   360° ÷ 10 =  36°

In this way the child learns to write fractions:

    1/2  1/3  1/4  1/5  1/6  1/7  1/8  1/9  1/10

He has concrete impressions of them as well as an intuition of their
arithmetical relationships.

The material lends itself to an infinite number of combinations, all of
which are real arithmetical exercises in fractions. For example, the
child can take from the circle the two half circles and replace them by
four sectors of 90°, filling the same circular opening with entirely
different pieces. From this he can draw the following conclusion:

1/2 + 1/2 = 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4.

He also may say that two halves are equal to four fourths, and write

2/2 = 4/4.


This is merely the expression of the same thing. Seeing the pieces, he
has done an example mentally and then has written it out. Let us write
it according to the first form, which is, in reality, an analysis of
this example:

1/2 + 1/2 = 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4.

When the denominator is the same, the sum of the fractions is found by
adding the numerators:

1/2 + 1/2 = 2/2; 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4 = 4/4.

The two halves make an entire circle, as do the four fourths.

Now let us fill a circle with different pieces: for example, with a half
circle and two quarter circles. The result is 1 = 1/2 + 2/4. And in the
inset itself it is shown that 1/2 = 2/4. If we should wish to fill the
circle with the largest piece (1/2) combined with the fewest number of
pieces possible, it would be necessary to withdraw the two quarter
sectors and replace them by another half circle; result:

1 = 1/2 + 1/2 = 2/2 = 1.

Let us fill a circle with three 1/5 sectors and four 1/10 sectors:

1 = 3/5 + 4/10.

If the larger pieces are left in and the circle is then filled with the
fewest number of pieces possible, it would necessitate replacing the
four tenths by two fifths. Result:

1 = 3/5 + 2/5 = 5/5 = 1.

Let us fill the circle thus: 5/10 + 1/4 + 2/8 = 1.

Now try to put in the largest pieces possible by substituting for
several small pieces a large piece which is equal to them. In the space
occupied by the five tenths may be placed one half, and in that occupied
by the two eighths, one fourth; then the circle is filled thus:

1 = 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/2 + 2/4.

We can continue to do the same thing, that is to replace the smaller
pieces by as large a sector as possible, and the two fourths can be
replaced by another half circle. Result:

1 = 1/2 + 1/2 = 2/2 = 1.

All these substitutions may be expressed in figures thus:

5/10 + 1/4 + 2/8 = 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/4 =

1/2 + 2/4 = 1/2 + 1/2 = 2/2 = 1.

This is one means of initiating a child intuitively into the operations
used for the reduction of fractions to their lowest terms.

Improper fractions also interest them very much. They come to these by
adding a number of sectors which fill two, three, or four circles. To
find the whole numbers which exist under the guise of fractions is a
little like putting away in their proper places the circular insets
which have been all mixed up. The children manifest a desire to learn
the real operations of fractions. With improper fractions they originate
most unusual sums, like the following:

    [8 + (7/7 + 18/9 + 24/2) + 1] =

    [8 + (1 + 2 + 12) + 1]
    ---------------------- =

    8 + 15 + 1
    ---------- = 24/8 = 3.

We have a series of commands which may be used as a guide for the
child's work. Here are some examples:

    --Take 1/5 of 25 beads

    --Take 1/4  " 36 counters

    --Take 1/6  " 24 beans

    --Take 1/3  " 27 beans

    --Take 1/10 " 40 beans

    --Take 2/5  " 60 counters

In this last there are two operations:

60 ÷ 5 = 12; 12 X 2 = 24; or 2 X 60 = 120; 120 ÷ 5 = 24, etc.

this purpose is similar to that of the circular insets, except that the
frame is white and is marked into ten equal parts, and each part is then
subdivided into ten. In these subdivisions the little line which marks
the five is distinguished from the others by its greater length. Each of
the larger divisions is marked respectively with the numbers, 10, 20,
30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 0. The 0 is at the top and there is a
raised radius against which are placed the sectors to be measured.


To reduce a common fraction to a decimal fraction the sector is placed
carefully against the raised radius, with the arc touching the
circumference of the inset. Where the arc ends there is a number which
represents _the hundredths_ corresponding to the sector. For example, if
the 1/4 sector is used its arc ends at 25; hence 1/4 equals 0.25.



Page 275 shows in detail the practical method of using our material to
reduce common fractions to decimal fractions. In the upper figure the
segments correspond to 1/3, 1/4, and 1/8 of a circle are placed within
the circle divided into hundredths. Result:

    1/3 + 1/4 + 1/8 = 0.70.

The lower figure shows how the 1/3 sector is placed: 1/3 = 0.33.

If instead we use the 1/5 sector we have: 1/5 = 0.20, etc.

Numerous sectors may be placed within the circle; for example:

    1/4 + 1/7 + 1/9 + 1/10.

In order to find the sum of the fraction reduced to decimals, it is
necessary to read only the number at the outer edge of the last sector.


Using this as a basis, it is very easy to develop an arithmetical idea.
Instead of 1, which represents the whole circle, let us write 100, which
represents its subdivisions when used for decimals, and let us divide
the 100 into as many parts of a circle as there are sectors in the
circle, and the reduction is made. All the parts which result are so
many hundredths. Hence:

    1/4 = 100 ÷ 4 = 25 hundredths: that is, 25/100 or 0.25.

The division is performed by dividing the numerator by the demoninator:

    1 ÷ 4 = 0.25.

THIRD SERIES OF INSETS: _Equivalent Figures._ Two concepts were given by
the squares divided into rectangles and triangles: that of fractions and
that of equivalent figures.

There is a special material for the concept of fractions which, besides
developing the intuitive notion of fractions, has permitted the solution
of examples in fractions and of reducing fractions to decimals; and it
has furthermore brought cognizance of other things, such as the
measuring of angles in terms of degrees.

For the concept of equivalent figures there is still another material.
This will lead to finding the area of different geometric forms and also
to an intuition of some theorems which heretofore have been foreign to
elementary schools, being considered beyond the understanding of a

MATERIAL: Showing that a triangle is equal to a rectangle which has one
side equal to the base of the triangle, the other side equal to half of
the altitude of the triangle.

In a large rectangular metal frame there are two white openings: the
triangle and the equivalent rectangle. The pieces which compose the
rectangle are such that they may fit into the openings of either the
rectangle or the triangle. This demonstrates that the rectangle and the
triangle are equivalent. The triangular space is filled by two pieces
formed by a horizontal line drawn through the triangle parallel to the
base and crossing at half the altitude. Taking the two pieces out and
putting them one on top of the other the identity of the height may be


Already the work with the beads and the squaring of numbers has led to
finding the area of a square by multiplying one side by the other; and
in like manner the area of a rectangle is found by multiplying the base
by half other. Since a triangle may be reduced to a rectangle, it is
easy to find its area by multiplying the base by half the height.

MATERIAL: Showing that a rhombus is equal to a rectangle which has one
side equal to one side of the rhombus and the other equal to the height
of the rhombus.

The frame contains a rhombus divided by a diagonal line into two
triangles and a rectangle filled with pieces which can be put into the
rhombus when the triangles have been removed, and will fill it
completely. In the material there are also an entire rhombus and an
entire rectangle. If they are placed one on top of the other they will
be found to have the same height. As the equivalence of the two figures
is demonstrated by these pieces of the rectangle which may be used to
fill in the two figures, it is easily seen that the area of a rhombus is
found by multiplying the side or base by the height.



       *       *       *       *       *

MATERIAL: To show the equivalence of a trapezoid and a rectangle having
one side equal to the sum of the two bases and the other equal to half
the height.

The child himself can make the other comparison: that is, a trapezoid
equals a rectangle having one side equal to the height and the other
equal to one-half the sum of the bases. For the latter it is only
necessary to cut the long rectangle in half and superimpose the two

The large rectangular frame contains three openings: two equal
trapezoids and the equivalent rectangle having one side equal to the sum
of the two bases and the other side equal to half the height. One
trapezoid is made of two pieces, being cut in half horizontally at the
height of half its altitude; the identity in height may be proved by
placing one piece on top of the other. The second trapezoid is composed
of pieces which can be placed in the rectangle, filling it completely.
Thus the equivalence is proved and also the fact that the area of a
trapezoid is found by multiplying the sum of the bases by half the
height, or half the sum of the bases by the height.


With a ruler the children themselves actually calculate the area of the
geometrical figures, and later calculate the area of their little
tables, etc.

MATERIAL: To show the equivalence between a regular polygon and a
rectangle having one side equal to the perimeter and the other equal to
half of the hypotenuse.

[Illustration: The analysis of the decagon.]

In the material there are two decagon insets, one consisting of a
whole decagon and the other of a decagon divided into ten triangles.

Page 281 shows a table taken from our geometry portfolio, representing
the equivalence of a decagon to a rectangle having one side equal to the
perimeter and the other equal to half the hypotenuse.

[Illustration: The bead number cubes built into a tower.]

The photograph shows the pieces of the insets--the decagon and the
equivalent rectangle--and beneath each one there are the small equal
triangles into which it can be subdivided. Here it is demonstrated that
a rectangle equivalent to a decagon may have one side equal to the whole
hypotenuse and the other equal to half of the perimeter.

Another inset shows the equivalence of the decagon and a rectangle which
has one side equal to the perimeter of the decagon and the other equal
to half of the altitude of each triangle composing the decagon. Small
triangles divided horizontally in half can be fitted into this figure,
with one of the upper triangles divided in half lengthwise.

Thus we demonstrate that the surface of a regular polygon may be found
by multiplying the perimeter by half the hypotenuse.


_A._ All triangles having the same base and altitude are equal.

This is easily understood from the fact that the area of a triangle is
found by multiplying the base by half the altitude; therefore triangles
having the same base and the same altitude must be equal.

For the inductive demonstration of this theorem we have the following
material: The rhombus and the equivalent rectangle are each divided
into two triangles. The triangles of the rhombus are different, for they
are divided by opposite diagonal lines. The three different triangles
resulting from these divisions have the same base (this can be actually
verified by measuring the bases of the different pieces) and fit into
the same long rectangle which is found below the first three figures.
Therefore, it is demonstrated that the three triangles have the same
altitude. They are equivalent because each one is the half of an
equivalent figure.

[Illustration: The decagon and the rectangle can be composed of the same
triangular insets.]

[Illustration: The triangular insets fitted into their metal plates.]


_B._ THE THEOREM OF PYTHAGORAS: In a right-angled triangle the square of
the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the two sides.

MATERIAL: The material illustrates three different cases:

      First case: In which the two sides of the triangle are

      Second case: In which the two sides are in the
      proportion of 3:4.

      Third case: General.

_First case:_ The demonstration of this first case affords an impressive

In the frame for this, shown below, the squares of the two sides are
divided in half by a diagonal line so as to form two triangles and the
square of the hypotenuse is divided by two diagonal lines into four
triangles. The eight resulting triangles are all identical; hence the
triangles of the squares of the two sides will fill the square of the
hypotenuse; and, vice versa, the four triangles of the square of the
hypotenuse may be used to fill the two squares of the sides. The
substitution of these different pieces is very interesting, and all the
more because the triangles of the squares of the sides are all of the
same color, whereas the triangles formed in the square of the hypotenuse
are of a different color.


_Second case:_ Where the sides are as the proportion of 3:4.

In this figure the three squares are filled with small squares of three
different colors, arranged as follows: in the square on the shorter
side, 3^{2} = 9; in that on the larger side, 4^{2} = 16; in that on the
hypotenuse, 5^{2} = 25.

[Illustration: Second Case]

The substitution game suggests itself. The two squares formed on the
sides can be entirely filled by the small squares composing the square
on the hypotenuse, so that they are both of the same color; while the
square formed on the hypotenuse can be filled with varied designs by
various combinations of the small squares of the sides which are in two
different colors.

_Third case:_ This is the general case.

The large frame is somewhat complicated and difficult to describe. It
develops a considerable intellectual exercise. The entire frame measures
44 × 24 cm. and may be likened to a chess-board, where the movable
pieces are susceptible of various combinations. The principles already
proved or inductively suggested which lead to the demonstration of the
theorem are:

(1) That two quadrilaterals having an equal base and equal altitude are

(2) That two figures equivalent to a third figure are equivalent to each

In this figure the square formed on the hypotenuse is divided into two
rectangles. The additional side is determined by the division made in
the hypotenuse by dropping a perpendicular line from the apex of the
triangle to the hypotenuse. There are also two rhomboids in this frame,
each of which has one side equal respectively to the large and to the
small square of the sides of the triangle and the other side equal to
the hypotenuse.

The shorter altitude of the two rhomboids, as may be seen in the figure
itself, corresponds to the respective altitudes, or shorter sides, of
the rectangles. But the longer side corresponds respectively to the side
of the larger and of the smaller squares of the sides of the triangle.

It is not necessary that these corresponding dimensions be known by the
child. He sees red and yellow pieces of an inset and simply moves them
about, placing them in the indentures of the frame. It is the fact that
these movable pieces actually fit into this white background which
gives the child the opportunity for reasoning out the theorem, and not
the abstract idea of the corresponding relations between the dimensions
of the sides and the different heights of the figures. Reduced to these
terms the exercise is easily performed and proves very interesting.

This material may be used for other demonstrations:

DEMONSTRATION A: _The substitution of the pieces._ Let us start with the
frame as it should be filled originally. First take out the two
rectangles formed on the hypotenuse; place them in the two lateral
grooves, and lower the triangle. Fill the remaining empty space with the
two rhomboids.

The same space is filled in both cases with:

    A triangle plus two rectangles, and then
    A triangle plus two rhomboids.

Hence the sum of the two rectangles (which form the square of the
hypotenuse) is equal to the sum of the two rhomboids.

In a later substitution we consider the rhomboids instead of the
rectangles in order to demonstrate their respective equivalence to the
two squares formed on the sides of the triangle. Beginning, for example
with the larger square, we start with the insets in the original
position and consider the space occupied by the triangle and the larger
square. To analyze this space the pieces are all taken out and then it
is filled successively by:

    The triangle and the large square in their original positions.
    The triangle and the large rhomboid.

[Illustration: Showing that the two rhomboids are equal to the two

DEMONSTRATION B: _Based on Equivalence_. In this second demonstration
the relative equivalence of the rhomboid, the rectangles, and the
squares is shown outside the figure by means of the parallel indentures
which are on both sides of the frame. These indentures, when the pieces
are placed in them, show that the pieces have the same altitude.

This is the manner of procedure: Starting again with the original
position, take out the two rectangles and place them in the parallel
indentures to the left, the larger in the wider indenture and the
smaller in the narrower indenture. The different figures in the same
indenture have the same altitude; therefore the pieces need only to be
placed together at the base to prove that they are equal--hence the
figures are equal in pairs: the smaller rectangle equals the smaller
rhomboid and the larger rectangle equals the larger rhomboid.

Starting again from the original position you proceed analogously with
the squares. In the parallel indentures to the right the large square
may be placed in the same indenture with the large rhomboid, which,
however, must be turned in the opposite direction (in the direction of
its greatest length); and the smaller square and the smaller rhomboid
fit into the narrower indenture. They have the same altitude; and that
the bases are equal is easily verified by putting them together;
therefore here is proof that the squares and the rhomboids are
respectively equivalent.

Rectangles and squares which are equivalent to the same rhomboids are
equivalent to each other. Hence the theorem is proved.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

[Illustration: Showing that the two rhomboids are equal to the two

This series of geometric material is used for other purposes, but they
are of minor importance.

FOURTH SERIES OF INSETS: _Division of a Triangle_. This material made up
of four frames of equal size, each containing an equilateral triangle
measuring ten centimeters to a side. The different pieces should fill
the triangular spaces exactly.

One is filled by an entire equilateral triangle.

One is filled by two rectangular scalene triangles, each equal to half
of the original equilateral triangle, which is bisected by dropping a
line perpendicularly to the base.


The third is filled by three obtuse isosceles triangles, formed by lines
bisecting the three angles of the original triangle.

The fourth is divided into four equilateral triangles which are similar
in shape to the original triangle.

With these triangles a child can make a more exact analytical study than
he made when he was observing the triangles of the plane insets used in
the "Children's House." He measures the degrees of the angles and learns
to distinguish a right angle (90°) from an acute angle (<90°) and from
an obtuse angle (>90°).

Furthermore he finds in measuring the angles of any triangle that their
sum is always equal to 180° or to two right angles.

He can observe that in equilateral triangles all the angles are equal
(60°); that in the isosceles triangle the two angles at the opposite
ends of the unequal side are equal; while in the scalene triangle no two
angles are alike. In the right-angled triangle the sum of the two acute
angles is equal to a right angle. A general definition is that those
triangles are similar in which the corresponding angles are equal.

for the most part is made up of that already described, and which is
therefore merely an application of it, inscribed or concentric figures
may be placed in the white background of the different inset frames. For
example, on the white background of the large equilateral triangle the
small red equilateral triangle, which is a fourth of it, may be placed
in such a way that each vertex is tangent to the middle of each side of
the larger triangle.

There are also two squares, one of 7 centimeters on a side and the other
3.5. They have their respective frames with white backgrounds. The 7
centimeters square may be placed on the background of the 10 centimeters
square in such a way that each corner touches the middle of each side of
the frame. In like manner the 5 centimeters square, which is a fourth of
the large square, may be put in the 7 centimeters square; the 3.5
centimeters square in the 5 centimeters square; and finally the tiny
square, which is 1/16 part of the large square, in the 3.5 centimeters

There is also a circle which is tangent to the edges of the large
equilateral triangle. This circle may be placed on the background of the
10 centimeters circle, and in that case a white circular strip remains
all the way round (concentric circles). Within this circle the smaller
equilateral triangle (1/4 of the large triangle) is perfectly inscribed.
Then there is a small circle which is tangent to the smallest
equilateral triangle.

Besides these circles which are used with the triangles there are two
others tangent to the squares: one to the 7 centimeters square and the
other to the 3.5 centimeters square. The large circle, 10 centimeters in
diameter, fits exactly into the 10 centimeters square; and the other
circles are concentric to it.

These corresponding relations make the figures easily adaptable to our
artistic composition of decorative design (see following chapter).

Finally, together with the other material, there are two stars which are
also used for decorative design. The two stars, or "flowers," are based
on the 3.5 centimeters square. In one the circle rests on the side as a
semi-circle (simple flower); and in the other the same circle goes
around the vertex and beyond the semi-circle until it meets the
reciprocal of four circles (flower and foliage).



Since the children already know how to find the area of ordinary
geometric forms it is very easy, with the knowledge of the arithmetic
they have acquired through work with the beads (the square and cube of
numbers), to initiate them into the manner of finding the volume of
solids. After having studied the cube of numbers by the aid of the cube
of beads it is easy to recognize the fact that the volume of a prism is
found by multiplying the area by the altitude.

In our didactic material we have three objects for solid geometry: a
prism, a pyramid having the same base and altitude, and a prism with the
same base but with only one-third the altitude. They are all empty. The
two prisms have a cover and are really boxes; the uncovered pyramid can
be filled with different substances and then emptied, serving as a sort
of scoop.

These solids may be filled with wheat or sand. Thus we put into practise
the same technique as is used to calculate capacity, as in anthropology,
for instance, when we wish to measure the capacity of a cranium.

It is difficult to fill a receptacle completely in such a way that the
measured result does not vary; so we usually put in a scarce measure,
which therefore does not correspond to the exact volume but to a smaller

One must know how to fill a receptacle, just as one must know how to do
up a bundle, so that the various objects may take up the least possible
space. The children like this exercise of shaking the receptacle and
getting in as great a quantity as possible; and they like to level it
off when it is entirely filled.

The receptacles may be filled also with liquids. In this case the child
must be careful to pour out the contents without losing a single drop.
This technical drill serves as a preparation for using metric measures.

By these experiments the child finds that the pyramid has the same
volume as the small prism (which is one-third of the large prism); hence
the volume of the pyramid is found by multiplying the area of the base
by one-third the altitude. The small prism may be filled with clay and
the same piece of clay will be found to fill the pyramid. The two solids
of equal volume may be made of clay. All three solids can be made by
taking five times as much clay as is needed to fill the same prism.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

Having mastered these fundamental ideas, it is easy to study the rest,
and few explanations will be needed. In many cases the incentive to do
original problems may be developed by giving the children definite
examples: as, how can the area of a circle be found? the volume of a
cylinder? of a cone? Problems on the total area of some solids also may
be suggested. Many times the children will risk spontaneous inductions
and often of their own accord proceed to measure the total surface area
of all the solids at their disposal, even going back to the materials
used in the "Children's House."

The material includes a series of wooden solids with a base measurement
of 10 cm.:

    A quadrangular parallelopiped (10 X 10 X 20 cm.)
    A quadrangular parallelopiped equal to 1/3 of above
    A quadrangular pyramid (10 X 10 X 20 cm.)
    A triangular prism (10 X 20 cm.)
    A triangular prism equal to 1/3 of above
    The corresponding pyramid (10 X 20 cm.)
    A cylinder (10 cm. diameter, 20 altitude)
    A cylinder equal to 1/3 of above
    A cone (10 cm. diameter, 20 altitude)
    A sphere (10 cm. diameter)
    An ovoid (maximum diameter 10 cm.)
    An ellipsoid (maximum diameter 10 cm.)
        Regular Polyhedrons
    Hexahedron (cube)

(The faces of these polyhedrons are in different colors.)

APPLICATIONS: _The Powers of Numbers_.

MATERIAL: Two equal cubes of 2 cm. on a side; a prism twice the size of
the cubes; a prism double this preceding prism; seven cubes 4 cm. on a

The following combinations are made:

      The two smaller cubes are placed side by side = 2.

      In front of these is placed the prism which is twice
      as large as the cube = 2^{2}.

      On top of these is placed the double prism, making a
      cube with 4 cm. on a side = 2^{3}.

      One of the seven cubes is put beside this = 2^{4}.

In front are placed two more of the seven cubes = 2^{5}.

On top are put the remaining four equal cubes = 2^{6}.

In this way we have made a cube measuring 8 cm. on a side. From this we
see that:

    2^{3}, 2^{6} have the form of a cube.
    2^{2}, 2^{5} have the form of a square.
    2, 2^{4} have a linear form.

_The Cube of a Binomial:_ (a + b)^{3} = a^{3} + b^{3} + 3a^{2}b +

MATERIAL: A cube with a 6 cm. edge, a cube with a 4 cm. edge; three
prisms with a square base of 4 cm. on a side and 6 cm. high; three
prisms with a square base of 6 cm. to a side and 4 cm. high. The 10 cm.
cube can be made with these.

These two combinations are in special cube-shaped boxes into which the
10 cm. cube fits exactly.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

_Weights and Measures:_ All that refers to weights and measures is
merely an application of similar operations and reasonings.

The children have at their disposal and learn to handle many of the
objects which are used for measuring both in commerce and in every-day
life. In the "Children's House" days they had the long stair rods which
contain the meter and its decimeter subdivisions. Here they have a
tape-measure with which they measure floors, etc., and find the area.
They have the meter in many forms: in the anthropometer, in the ruler.
Then, too, they use the metal tape, the dressmaker's tape measure, and
the meterstick used by merchants.

[Illustration: Hollow geometric solids, used for determining equivalence
by measuring sand, sugar, etc.]

The twenty centimeter ruler divided into millimeters they use constantly
in design; and they love to calculate the area of the geometric figures
they have designed or of the metal insets. Often they calculate the
surface of the white background of an inset and that of the different
pieces which exactly fit this opening, so as to verify the former. As
they already have some preparation in decimals it is no task for them to
recognize and to remember that the measures increase by tens and take on
new names each time. The exercises in grammar have greatly facilitated
the increase in their vocabulary.

They calculate the reciprocal relations between length, surface, and
volume by going back to the three sets which first represented "long,"
"thick," and "large."

The objects which differ in length vary by 10's; those differing in
areas vary by 100's; and those which differ in volume vary by 1000's.

The comparison between the bead material and the cubes of the pink tower
(one of the first things they built) encourages a more profound study of
the sensory objects which were once the subject of assiduous

By the aid of the double decimeter the children make the calculations
for finding the volume of all the different objects graded by tens, such
as the rods, the prisms of the broad stair, the cubes of the pink tower.

By taking the extremes in each case they learn the relations between
objects which differ in one dimension, in two dimensions, and in three
dimensions. Besides, they already know that the square of 10 is 100, and
the cube of 10 is 1000.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

[Illustration: Designs formed by arranging sections of the insets within
the frames.]

The children make use of various scientific instruments: thermometers,
distillers, scales, and, as previously stated, the principal measures
commonly used.

By filling an empty metal cubical decimeter, which like the geometric
solids is used for the calculation of volume, they have a liter measure
of water, which may be poured into a glass liter bottle. All the decimal
multiples and subdivisions of the liter are easily understood. Our
children spent much time pouring liquids into all the small measures
used in commerce for measuring wine and oil.

They distil water with the distiller. They use the thermometer to
measure the temperature of water in ebullition and the temperature of
the freezing mixture. They take the water which is used to determine the
weight of the kilogram, keeping it at the temperature of 4°C.

The objects which serve to measure capacity also are at the disposal of
the children.

There is no need to go into more details upon the multitudinous
consequences resulting from both a methodical preparation of the
intellect and the possibility of actually being in contact with real

A great number of problems given by us, as well as problems originated
by the children themselves, bear witness to the ease with which external
effects may he spontaneously produced when once the inner _causes_ have
been adequately stimulated.





I already have mentioned the fact that the material of the geometric
insets may be applied also to design.

It is through design that the child may be led to ponder on the
geometric figures which he has handled, taken out, combined in numerous
ways, and replaced. In doing this he completes an exercise necessitating
much use of the reasoning faculties. Indeed, he reproduces all of the
figures by linear design, learning to handle many instruments--the
centimeter ruler, the double decimeter, the square, the protractor, the
compass, and the steel pen used for line ruling. For this work we have
included in the geometric material a large portfolio where, together
with the pages reproducing the figures, there are also some illustrative
sheets with brief explanations of the figures and containing the
relative nomenclature. Aside from copying designs the child may copy
also the explanatory notes and thus reproduce the whole geometry
portfolio. These explanatory notes are very simple. Here, for example,
is the one which refers to the square:

"SQUARE: The side or base is divided into 10 cm. All the other sides are
equal, hence each measures 10 cm. The square has four equal sides and
four equal angles which are always right angles. The number 4 and the
identity of the sides and angles are the distinguishing characteristics
of the square."

The children measure paper and construct the figure with attention and
application that are truly remarkable. They love to handle the compasses
and are very proud of possessing a pair.

One child asked her mother for a Christmas gift of "one _last_ doll and
a box of compasses," as if she were ending one epoch of her life and
beginning another. One little boy begged his mother to let him accompany
her when she went to buy the compass for him. When they were in the
store the salesman was surprised to find that so young a child was to
use the compass and gave them a box of the simplest kind. "Not those,"
protested the little fellow; "I want an engineer's compass;" and he
picked out one of the most complicated ones. This was the very reason
why he was so anxious to go with his mother.

As the children draw, they learn many particulars concerning the
geometric figures: the sides, angles, bases, centers, median lines,
radii, diameters, sectors, segments, diagonals, hypotenuses,
circumferences, perimeters, etc. They do not, however, learn all this as
so much dry information nor do they limit themselves to reproducing the
designs in the geometry portfolio. Each child adds to his own portfolio
other designs which he chooses and sometimes originates. The designs
reproduced in the portfolio are drawn on plain white drawing paper with
China inks, but the children's special designs are drawn on colored
paper with different colored inks and with gildings (silver, gold). The
children reproduce the geometric figures and then they fill them in with
decorations made either with pen or water-colors. These decorations
serve especially to emphasize, in a geometric analysis, the various
parts of the figure, such as center, angles, circumference, medians,
diagonals, etc.

The decorated motif is selected or else invented by the child himself.
He is allowed the same freedom of choice in his backgrounds as he enjoys
for his inks or water-colors. The observation of nature (flowers and
their different parts--pollen, leaves, a section of some part observed
under the microscope, plant seeds, shells, etc.) serves to nourish the
child's æsthetic imagination. The children also have access to artistic
designs, collections of photographs reproducing the great masterpieces,
and Haeckel's famous work, _Nature's Artistic Forms_, all of which
equipment is so interesting and delightful to a child.

The children work many, many hours on drawing. This is the time we seize
for reading to them (see above p. 197) and almost all their history is
learned during this quiet period of copy and simple decoration which is
so conducive to concentration of thought.

Copying some design, or drawing a decoration which has been directly
inspired by something seen; the choice of colors to fill in a geometric
figure or to bring out, by small and simple designs, the center or side
of the figure; the mechanical act of mixing a color, of dissolving the
gildings, or of choosing one kind of ink from a series of different
colors; sharpening a pencil, or getting one's paper in the proper
position; determining through tentative means the required extension of
the compass--all this is a complex operation requiring patience and
exactitude. But it does not require great intellectual concentration. It
is, therefore, a work of application rather than of inspiration; and the
observation of each detail, in order to reproduce it exactly, clarifies
and rests the mind instead of rousing it to the intense activity
demanded by the labor of association and creation. The child is busy
with his hands rather than with his mind; but yet his mind is
sufficiently stimulated by this work as not easily to wander away into
the world of dreams.

These are quiet hours of work in which the children use only a part of
their energies, while the other part is reaching out after something
else; just as a family sits quietly by the fireside in long winter
evenings engaged in light manual labors requiring little intelligence,
watching the flames with a sense of enjoyment, willing to pass in this
way many peaceful hours, yet feeling that a certain side of their needs
is not satisfied. This is the time chosen for story telling or for light
reading. Similarly this is the best time for our little children to
listen to reading of all kinds.

During these hours they listened to the reading of books like _The
Betrothed_ (of Manzoni), psychological books like Itard's _Education of
the Savage of Aveyron_, or historical narratives. The children took a
deep interest in the reading. Each child may be occupied with his own
design as well as with the facts which he is hearing described. It seems
as though the one occupation furnishes the energy necessary for
perfection in the other. The mechanical attention which the child gives
to his design frees his mind from idle dreaming and renders it more
capable of completely absorbing the reading that is going on; and the
pleasure gained from the reading which, little by little, penetrates his
whole being seems to give new energy to both hand and eye. His lines
become most exact and the colors more delicate.

When the reading has reached some point of climax we hear remarks,
exclamations, applause or discussions, which animate and lighten the
work without interrupting it. But there are times when, with one accord,
our children abandon their drawing so as to act out some humorous
selection or to represent an historical fact which has touched them
deeply; or, indeed, as happened during the reading of the _Savage of
Aveyron_, their hands remained almost unconsciously raised in the
intensity of their emotion, while on their faces was an expression of
ecstasy, as if they were witnessing wonderful unheard-of things. Their
actions seemed to interpret the well-known sentiment: "Never have I seen
woman like unto this."

       *       *       *       *       *

ARTISTIC COMPOSITION WITH THE INSETS: Our geometric insets, which are
all definitely related to one another in dimensions and include a series
of figures which can be contained one within the other, lend themselves
to very beautiful combinations. With these the children make real
creations and often follow out their artistic ideas for days and even
weeks. By moving the small pieces or by combining them in different ways
on the white background, these very insets produce various decorations.
The ease with which the child may form designs by arranging the little
pieces of iron on a sheet of paper and then outlining them, and the
harmony which is thus so easily obtained, affords endless delight.
Really wonderful pieces of work are often produced in this way.

During these periods of creative design, as indeed during the periods of
drawing from life, the child is deeply and wholly concentrated. His
entire intellect is at work and no kind of instructive reading would be
at all fitting while he is engaged in drawing or designing of this

With the insets, as we have said, we have reproduced some of the classic
decorations so greatly admired in the Italian masterpieces; for
instance, those of Giotto in Florentine Art. When the children try with
the insets to reproduce these classic decorations from photographs they
are led to make most minute observations, which may be considered a real
study of art. They judge the relative proportions of the various figures
in such a way that their eye learns to appreciate the harmony of the
work. And thus, even in childhood, a fine æsthetic enjoyment begins to
engage their minds on the higher and more noble planes.



All the preceding exercises are "formative" for the art of drawing. They
develop in the child the manual ability to execute a geometric design
and prepare his eye to appreciate the harmony of proportions between
geometric figures. The countless observations of drawings, the habit of
minute examination of natural objects, constitute so many preparatory
drills. We can, however, say that the whole method, educating the eye
and the hand at the same time and training the child to observe and
execute drawings with intense application, prepares the mechanical means
for design, while the mind, left free to take its flight and to create,
is ready to produce.

It is by developing the individual that he is prepared for that
wonderful manifestation of the human intelligence, which drawing
constitutes. The ability _to see reality_ in form, in color, in
proportion, to be master of the movements of one's own hand--that is
what is necessary. Inspiration is an individual thing, and when a child
possesses these formative elements he can give expression to all he
happens to have.

There can be no "graduated exercises in drawing" leading up to an
artistic creation. That goal can be attained only through the
development of mechanical technique and through the freedom of the
spirit. That is our reason for not teaching drawing directly to the
child. We prepare him indirectly, leaving him free to the mysterious and
divine labor of reproducing things according to his own feelings. Thus
drawing comes to satisfy a need for expression, as does language; and
almost every idea may seek expression in drawing. The effort to perfect
such expression is very similar to that which the child makes when he is
spurred on to perfect his language in order to see his thoughts
translated into reality. This effort is spontaneous; and the real
drawing teacher is in the inner life, which of itself develops, attains
refinement, and seeks irresistibly to be born into external existence in
some empirical form. Even the smallest children try spontaneously to
draw outlines of the objects which they see; but the hideous drawings
which are exhibited in the common schools, as "free drawings"
"characteristic" of childhood, are not found among our children. These
horrible daubs so carefully collected, observed, and catalogued by
modern psychologists as "documents of the infant mind" are nothing but
monstrous expressions of intellectual lawlessness; they show only that
the eye of their child is uneducated, the hand inert, the mind
insensible alike to the beautiful and to the ugly, blind to the true as
well as to the false. Like most documents collected by psychologists who
study the children of our schools, they reveal not the soul but the
errors of the soul; and these drawings, with their monstrous
deformities, show simply what the uneducated human being is like.

Such things are not "free drawings" by children. _Free drawings_ are
possible only when we have a _free child_ who has been left free to grow
and perfect himself in the assimilation of his surroundings and in
mechanical reproduction; and who when left free to create and express
himself actually does create and express himself.

The sensory and manual preparation for drawing is nothing more than an
alphabet; but without it the child is an illiterate and cannot express
himself. And just as it is impossible to study the writing of people who
cannot write, so there can be no psychological study of the drawings of
children who have been abandoned to spiritual and muscular chaos. All
psychic expressions acquire value when the inner personality has
acquired value by the development of its formative processes. Until this
fundamental principle has become an absolute acquisition we can have no
idea of the psychology of a child as regards his creative powers.

Thus, unless we know how a child should develop in order to unfold his
natural energies, we shall not know how drawing as a natural expression
is developed. The universal development of the wondrous language of the
hand will come not from a "school of design" but from a "school of the
new man" which will cause this language to spring forth spontaneously
like water from an inexhaustible spring. To confer the gift of drawing
we must create an eye that sees, a hand that obeys, a soul that feels;
and in this task the whole life must cooperate. In this sense life
itself is the only preparation for drawing. Once we have lived, the
inner spark of vision does the rest.

[Illustration: Designs formed by the use of the geometry squares,
circles, and equilateral triangle, modified by free-hand drawing. In the
design on the right the "flower" within the cross is made with
compasses: the decorative detail in the arms of the cross and the circle
in the center are free-hand. The design on the left is similar to a
decoration in the Cathedral at Florence, in the windows round the apse.]

Leave to man then this sublime gesture which transfers to the canvas the
marks of creative divinity. Leave it free to develop from the very time
when the tiny child takes a piece of chalk and reproduces a simple
outline on the blackboard, when he sees a leaf and makes his first
reproduction of it on the white page. Such a child is in search of
every possible means of expression, because no one language is rich
enough to give expression to the gushing life within him. He speaks, he
writes, he draws, he sings like a nightingale warbling in the

       *       *       *       *       *

Let us consider, then, the "elements" which our children have acquired
in their development with reference to drawing: they are observers of
reality, knowing how to distinguish the _forms_ and _colors_ they see

[Illustration: Decorations formed by the use of the geometry insets.
That on the right is a copy of the design by Giotto shown below the
picture of the Madonna in the Upper Church of St. Francis d'Assisi

[Illustration: Making decorative designs with the aid of geometric
insets. (_The Washington Montessori School, Washington, D. C._)]

Children are peculiarly sensitive in their appreciation of color. This
sensibility began to grow in the sensory exercises in the early years.
Their hands have been trained to the most delicate movements and the
children have been masters of them since the days of the "Children's
House." When they begin to draw outlines they copy the most diverse
objects--not only flowers but everything which interests them: vases,
columns and even landscapes. Their attempts are spontaneous; and they
draw both on the blackboard and on paper.

As regards colors, it should be recalled that while still in the
"Children's House" the children learned to prepare the different shades,
mixing them themselves and making the various blends. This always held
their eager interest. Later the care with which they seek to get shades
corresponding exactly to natural colorings is something truly
remarkable.[8] Over and over again the children try to mix the most
diverse colors, diluting or saturating them until they have succeeded in
reproducing the desired shade. It is surprising also to see how often
their eye succeeds in appreciating the finest differences of color
and in reproducing them with striking accuracy.

[Illustration: Water-color paintings from nature, showing spontaneous
expression resulting from work in natural science.]

The study of natural science proved to be a great help in drawing. Once
I tried to show some children how a flower should be dissected, and for
this purpose I provided all the necessary instruments: the botanist's
needle, pincers, thin glass plates, etc., just as is done at the
university for the experiments in natural science. My only aim was to
see whether the preparations which university students make for
botanical anatomy were in any way adaptable to the needs of little
children. Even at the time when I studied in the botanical laboratory at
the university I felt that these exercises in the preparation of
material might be put to such use. Students know how difficult it is to
prepare a stem, a stamen, an epithelium, for dissection, and how only
with difficulty the hand, accustomed for years exclusively to writing,
adapts itself to this delicate work. Seeing how skilful our children
were with their little hands I decided to give them a complete
scientific outfit and to test by experiment whether the child mind and
the characteristic manual dexterity shown by children were not more
adapted to such labors than the mind and hand of a nineteen-year-old



My suspicion proved correct. The children with the keenest interest
dissected a section of the violet with remarkable accuracy, and they
quickly learned to use all the instruments. But my greatest surprise was
to find that they did not despise or throw away the dissected parts, as
we older students used to do. With great care they placed them all in
attractive order on a piece of white paper, as if they had in mind some
secret purpose. Then with great joy they began to draw them; and they
were accurate, skilled, tireless, and patient, as they are in
everything else. They began to mix and dilute their colors to obtain the
correct shades. They worked up to the last minute of the school session,
finishing off their designs in watercolor: the stem and leaves green,
the individual petals violet, the stamens--all in a row--yellow, and the
dissected pistil light green. The following day a little girl brought me
a charmingly vivacious written composition, in which she told of her
enthusiasm over the new work, describing even the less noticeable
details of the little violet.

These two expressions--drawing and composition--were the spontaneous
manifestations of their happy entrance into the realms of science.

Encouraged by this great success, I took some simple microscopes to
school. The children began to observe the pollen and even some of the
membrane coverings of the flower. By themselves they made some splendid
cross-sections of the stems, which they studied most attentively.

They "drew everything they saw." Drawing seemed to be the natural
complement of their observation work.

In this way the children learned to draw and paint _without a drawing
teacher_. They produced works which, in geometric designs as well as in
studies from life, were considered far above the average drawings of


[8] We give to the children first only tubes containing the three
fundamental colors, red, yellow, and blue; and with these they produce a
large number of shades.





Since the publication of my first volume on the education of small
children, considerable progress has been made in the matter of musical
education. Miss Maccheroni, who came to Rome to work with me on
experiments looking to the continuation of the methods used with primary
classes, was successful in establishing a number of tests which
constituted our first steps into this important field of education. We
are under great obligations to the Tronci firm of Pistoja, which took
charge of the manufacture of materials and gave us the most sympathetic

We had already prepared at the time of that first publication an
equipment of bells to be used in training the ear to perceive
differences between musical sounds. The methods of using this material
were considerably modified and perfected again after the publication of
my _Own Handbook_ (New York, Stokes, 1914), in which for the first time
appeared a treatise on musical method. The foundation of the system
consists of a series of bells representing the whole tones and
semi-tones of one octave. The material follows the general
characteristics of that used in the sensorial method, that is, the
objects differ from each other in one and only one quality, the one
which concerns the stimulation of the sense under education. The bells,
for instance, must be _apparently identical_ in dimensions, shape,
etc., but they must _produce different sounds_. The basic exercise is to
have the child recognize "identities." He must pair off the bells which
give the same sound.


The bell system is constructed as follows: We have a very simple
support, made of wood (of course any other material might be used) 115
cm. long and 25 cm. wide. On this the bells rest. The board is wide
enough to hold two bells placed lengthwise and end to end across it. The
board is marked off into black and white spaces, each wide enough to
hold one bell. The white spaces represent whole tones, the black spaces
semi-tones. Though the apparent purpose of this board is to serve as a
support, it is in reality a _measure_, since it indicates the regular
position of the notes in the simple diatonic scale. The combination of
white and black rectangles indicates the interval between the various
notes in the scale: in other words, a semi-tone between the third and
fourth and between the seventh and eighth, and a whole tone between the
others. Bells showing the value of each rectangle are fixed in proper
order in the upper portion of the support. These bells are not all of
the same size, but vary in dimension regularly from the bottom to the
top of the scale. This permits considerable saving in manufacture; for,
to get a different sound from bells of the same size, different
thicknesses are required, and this entails more labor for construction
and consequently greater cost. But in addition the child here sees a
material variation corresponding to the differences in quality of sound.
On the other hand, the other bells on which the child is to perform his
critical exercises are of _identical dimensions_.

In the exercise the child strikes with a small mallet one of the bells
fixed on the support. Then, from among the others scattered at random on
the table, he finds one which gives the same sound and places it on the
board in front of the fixed bell corresponding to it. In the most
elementary exercises, only the whole tone bells corresponding to the
white spaces are used. Later, the semi-tones are brought in. This first
exercise in sense perception corresponds to the pairing practised in
other sensory exercises (color, touch, etc.) The next step is for the
child to distinguish differences, and at the same time, gradations of
stimuli (like the exercises with the color charts, hearing, etc.) In
this case the child mixes at random the eight bells, all of the same
size, which give the whole tones of the scale. He is to find _do_, then
_re_, and so on through the octave one note after the other, placing the
bells in order in their proper places. Nomenclature is taught step by
step as in the other sensorial exercises. To familiarize the child with
the names, _do_, _re_, _mi_, _fa_, _sol_, _la_, _si_, we use small round
disks, the circular form serving to suggest the head of the written
note. On each disk the name of the note is written. The disks are to be
placed on the bases of the bells that correspond to them. The exercises
in naming the notes may be begun with the fixed bells, in order (with
children who already know how to read) to associate the sounds with
their names in the first exercise of pairing. Later, when the child
comes to the exercise of putting the bells in gradation, he can place
the corresponding disk on each bell as he finds it.

Some individuals, commenting on this material, have solemnly protested
their native inability to understand music, insisting that music reveals
its secrets only to a chosen few. We may point out in reply that, so
far, our principal object is simply to distinguish notes so widely
different from each other that the different number of vibrations can
easily be measured with instruments. It is a question of a material
difference which any normal ear can naturally detect without any
miraculous aptitude of a musical character. One might as well claim that
it is the privilege only of genius to distinguish one color from another
somewhat like it. Particular aptitude for music is determined by
conditions of a quite different and a much higher order, such as
intuition of the laws of harmony and counterpoint, inspiration for
composition, and so on.

In actual practise, we found that when the material was used with some
restrictions by forty children between three and six years of age, only
six or seven proved capable of filling out the major scale by ear. But
when the material was freely placed at their disposal, they all
progressed along the same lines and showed about the same rate of
improvement, as was the case in our experiments with reading, writing,
etc. When individual differences appeared, it was by no means due to the
_possibility_ of performing these tasks, but rather to the amount of
_interest_ taken in the exercises, for which some children showed actual
enthusiasm. Eagerness for surmounting difficulties and for high
attainment is much more frequently found in children than we, judging by
our own experience as adults, easily suspect. In any event, actual
performance is the only guide to the revelation of particular aptitude,
of personal calling.

When one of the larger children spreads on the table the eight bells of
similar size to make up the scale by ear, the little ones pick up a
single bell, sometimes reaching out for it with the greatest eagerness.
They beat it with the mallet for a long time, they feel of it, examining
it carefully, making it ring more and more slowly. The older children
take special interest in the pairing, often repeating the same exercise
many times; but an unusual charm is found in the successive sounds of
the eight bells when placed in order; in other words, in hearing the
scale. Nennella, one of the children of the "Children's House" of Via
Giusti, played the scale over two hundred times in succession, one
hundred for the ascending scale and one hundred back again. The whole
class is sometimes interested in listening, the children following with
absolute silence the classic beauty of this succession of sounds.
Another child, Mario, used to go to the very end of the table--as far
away as possible, and resting his elbows on the table with his head in
his hands, he would remain without stirring in the silence of the
darkened room, showing his extraordinary interest in the exercise in
every detail of demeanor and facial expression.

At a certain, moment, interest in reproducing the note vocally appears.
The children accompany the scale with their voices. They strive for the
exact reproduction of the sound which the bell gives. Their voices
become soft and musical in this exercise, showing nothing of that
shrillness, so characteristic of children's voices in the usual popular
songs. In the classes of Via Trionfale it happened that some children
asked permission to accompany vocally the scale that a child was playing
softly on the bells. The interest taken in this exercise was of a
higher order than that shown by children in the singing of songs. It was
easy to see that songs with their capricious intervals between widely
separated notes and calling for pronunciation of words, musical
expression, differences in time, etc., are unadapted to the most
elementary exercises in singing.

It was possible to test the absolute memory of the child for the
different notes without any set exercise. After a long series of
experiments in pairing, the children begin to make scales, using only
one series of bells, and they repeat this exercise many times and in
different ways. Sometimes, for instance, a child always looks for the
lowest note, _do_, then for the next above it, _re_, etc. Again, a child
will take any bell at random, looking next for the note immediately
above or immediately below, and so on. It also happens that on picking
up some bell or other, the child will exclaim on hearing its sound, this
is _mi_, this is _do_, and so on. One child had made a splendid
demonstration of the use of the bells before her Majesty, the Queen
Mother. This was in the month of May. Although he had had no further
access to the materials in his "Children's House" of Via Giusti, in the
November following he was asked to use some musical pipes,[9] which he
had hardly seen before, and which happened to be in great disorder since
they had just arrived from the factory. There were sixteen pipes mixed
at random, comprising a double diatonic scale. He took one of the pipes,
struck it and said, "This is _si_," and immediately hung it on the
appropriate hook of the support. On ringing the next one, he said, this
is _mi_, and again put the pipe in the right place. So he went on and
arranged the sixteen pipes in accurate order on the two parallel frames.
He had had a good deal of exercise during the preceding year and had
preserved an absolutely accurate memory of the notes.

As is the case with colors, geometrical shapes, etc., the children begin
at this point to explore the environment. One will come to the teacher
at the piano and say, striking a key, "This is _stee_," meaning that the
note corresponds to the first syllable of the first word in some song he
knows (Stella, Stellina). It happens that the key struck by the child is
a _do_, the very note corresponding to the syllable _ste_ in the song.
We had many touching examples of this musical exploration of the


[9] The pipes are an equipment parallel to the bells. They are to be
recommended for schools, which can afford a more sumptuous outlay.



MATERIAL: In "The Children's House" the musical staff is introduced by
means of a board painted green with the lines in bas relief. On each
line and in each space representing the octave to which the sounds of
the bells respectively correspond, is a small circular indenture, or
socket, into which the disk for each note may be inserted. Inside each
indenture is written a number: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. The disks used in
this exercise have a number written on the lower face and the name of a
note on the upper: for instance, 1, _do_; 2, _re_; 3, _mi_; 4, _fa_; 5,
_sol_; 6, _la_; 7, _si_:



This device enables the child to place the notes on their respective
lines without making any mistakes and to examine their relative
positions. The indentures are so arranged as to show an empty space
wherever a semi-tone appears:

    _do_, _re_, _mi_, _fa_, _sol_, _la_, _si_, _do_.

In the semi-tone spaces black counters are to be placed. At a later
stage of this exercise the staff is represented by a wooden board
similar to the one described above, but without the indentures. The
child has at his disposal a great many disks with the notes written out
in full on one face. He can arrange thirty or forty of these disks at
random on the board, keeping them, however, in their places according to
the names of the notes; but each time the surface showing the name of
the note should be placed downward on the board, so that on the line
only disks without names are visible. When a child has finished this
exercise, he is to turn the disks over without disarranging them and so
determine from their names whether he has placed them properly. All the
disks on a given line or in a given space should have the same names.
Should any doubt arise as to the proper place of a note, the other board
with the numbered indentures can be used as a check.


When a child has reached this stage of development, he can practice
reading the musical script, ringing the bells according to the notes he
is interpreting. The musical staffs are prepared on oblong cards about
seventeen centimeters broad. The notes are about two centimeters in
diameter. The cards are variously colored--blue, violet, yellow, red.

The next step is for the children to write notes themselves. For this
purpose we have prepared little sheets which can be bound together into
a book or album.

We offer also a few songs employing two or three notes so simple in
character that the child can make them out by ear on his bells. When,
after some practise, he is certain he can copy the song, he writes the
notes on his staff and so becomes the editor of his own music.


_Arrangement of the notes in the form of a rhombus:_ All the exercises
thus far have been in reference to the higher _clef_. However, no
representation of this key has as yet been given the child. His first
task is to learn the relative position of the notes on the two staffs.
To supply this want, following the system of the Musical Conservatory of
Milan, we have adopted the double staff.


[Illustration: A sheet on which the child writes his own music.]

[Illustration: The notes written by the child.]

The broken line (p. 328) indicates the position of _do_, the point of
departure for the scale. In fact, as the notes pass from line to space
and space to line, they form the natural series:

    _do_, _re_, _mi_, _fa_, _sol_, _la_, _si_, _do_.

The same situation develops as they go down the scale:

    _do_, _si_, _la_, _sol_, _fa_, _mi_, _re_, _do_.

When the position of _do_ has been determined, the other notes above and
below it are easily found. From the _do_ on the left the child can find
his way to the _do_ on the next octave higher and come down again.
Likewise from the same point on the right (_do_) he can go down to the
_do_ of the lower octave and then go up the scale again. When these
notes are represented on the combined staffs with the counters, the
resulting design is a rhombus.


Separating the two staffs, the arrangement of the notes in the higher
and lower key (the C scale and bass) becomes apparent and the different
significance of the two series can be emphasized by placing to the left
of the staff the two clef signs, which have been prepared as special
portions of our material.


In this way the children have learned the scale in _do major_ in the two
keys. The arrangement of the black and white spaces puts them in a
position to recognize these notes even on the piano. Our material, in
fact, includes a diminutive keyboard where the keys are small enough to
fit the size of a child's hand. It can be used as an exercise for the
finger muscles. As each key is touched it raises a hammer marked with
the name of the note struck, which the child can see through a glass.
Thus while the child is practising his finger movements, he fixes his
acquaintance with the arrangement of the notes on the keyboard. This
small piano makes no noise. However, a sort of organ-pipe mechanism can
be fitted on above the hammers in such a way that each stroke, as the
hammer rises, connects with a reed which gives a corresponding sound.

All the exercises thus far have been based upon sensory experience as
the point of departure. The child's ear has recognized the fundamental
sounds and initiated him into real musical education. All the rest, such
as the music writing, etc., _is not music_.



We have developed additional material for the teaching of the scales.
Here we show a chart somewhat suggesting the arrangement of the bell
material used in the first exercises. That is, the relative intervals
between the various notes of the scale are clearly indicated. The
_scale_ is, in fact, a series of eight sounds, the intervals between
each being as indicated by the black marks in the design: whole tone,
whole tone, semi-tone, whole tone, whole tone, whole tone, semi-tone.

In the _do major_ scale the intervals are indicated as follows: a whole
tone between _do_ and _re_; _re_ and _mi_; _fa_ and _sol_; _sol_ and
_la_; _la_ and _si_; and a semi-tone between _mi_ and _fa_ and _si_ and
_do_. If, however, instead of beginning with _do_, the scale starts from
some other note, the mutual intervals characterizing the scale remain
unchanged. It is as though the whole scale with its characteristic
construction as regards tone differences were moved along. Accordingly,
as our plate shows, under the figure of the two octaves there is another
figure. This latter is a movable piece of cardboard which shows the
construction of the octave in black and white. This movable card is
fastened to the large chart by a ribbon. Supposing now we slide this
movable piece, as indicated in the figure, to the level of _mi_. The
intervals between the tones of the _mi_ scale are the same as in all the
other scales. In other words, they remain as indicated on the small
movable card. It is necessary, accordingly, to strike on the grand scale
the notes corresponding to the white spaces of the movable slip: viz.,

    _mi_, _fa_ diesis, _sol_ diesis, _la_, _si_, _do_ diesis, _re_ diesis.

This process may be repeated by sliding the movable card to all the
notes in succession. In this way all the scales are gradually
constructed. This becomes an interesting theoretical exercise, since the
child discovers that he is able to build _all possible scales_ by

[Illustration: The monocord. In the first instrument the notes are
indicated by frets. On the monocord in the foreground the child places
the frets as he discovers the notes by drawing the bow across the

[Illustration: Material for indicating the intervals of the major scale
and its transposition from one key to another.]

We have, however, for this purpose a real musical material, as appears
from our design. Here on a wooden form like that used for the bells, but
two octaves instead of one octave long, we have arranged prisms of equal
dimensions but painted black and white according to the tones they
represent. Each prism shows a rectangular plate exposed to view. The
plates are identical in appearance on all the prisms. They are, however,
really of different lengths according to the different prisms. When
these plates are struck, they give the notes of two octaves, the prisms
acting as sounding boards. The sounds are soft and mellow and unusually
clear, so that we do not exaggerate in describing this mechanism as
really a musical instrument (resembling the Xylophone). In our design
each piece is arranged in its proper position in the _do major_ scale.

Since the intervals between the tones are the same for all the scales
without distinction, if the group of prisms is moved as a whole from
right to left, sliding along the wooden form, some of the prisms will
fall. The resulting effect is the same as that produced when the small
card was moved over the larger chart (see above). No matter how far
the group of prisms is moved, the scale can be obtained by striking all
the prisms corresponding to the white spaces on the wooden form.

[Illustration: The upper cut shows the music bars arranged for the scale
of C major. The lower cut shows the transposition of the scale,
preserving, however, the same intervals.]

For instance, let us take away the two first prisms, _do_ and _do
diesis_ on the left, and push the whole group of prisms from right to
left until _re_ reaches the point formerly occupied by _do_. If, now, we
strike the plates which correspond to the notes of the major scale, we
obtain the major scale in _re_. On examining the notes which make up
this scale, we find: _re_, _mi_, _fa diesis_, _sol_, _la_, _si_, _do
diesis_, _re_.

This brief description will indicate how interesting this instrument is.
It contains in very simple form and expresses in a clear and delightful
way the fundamental principles of harmony. Its use can be made apparent
to teachers by the three following tables.

As the children derive in this way all the possible scales, they should
transfer them to their copy books, making use of all the symbols of
musical notation. The copying of the scales should be developed
progressively: first the scale with one _diesis_, next the scale with
two, then the one with three _dieses_, etc. Fine opportunities for
observation are here offered. A child may see for instance that a scale
with two _dieses_ has the same _diesis_ which appeared in the preceding
scale; a scale with three _dieses_ has the two _dieses_ of the preceding
scales, and so on. The _dieses_ recur at intervals of five notes.

Since in using the first material, by changing the third and sixth bell,
the child was taught to recognize the harmonic minor scale, to construct
it and listen to it, it is now an obviously simple matter for him to
make up all the minor scales.

We have thus developed exercises which prepare for the recognition of
the major and minor tones as well as for the recognition of the
different tones. It also becomes an easy matter to play a simple _motif_
in different keys. It is sufficient to move the series of plates, as has
been indicated, and play them over according to the indications of the
white and black spaces of the wooden form.

With all the plates in position.


With two plates removed. Scale of D.


With four plates removed. Scale of E.


With five plates removed. Scale of F.


With seven plates removed. Scale of G.


With nine plates removed. Scale of A.


With eleven plates removed. Scale of B.


Scale of C♭.


With one plate removed. Scale of D♭.


Scale of C♯.


With three plates removed. Scale of E♭.


With six plates removed. Scale of G♭.


Scale of F♯.


With eight plates removed. Scale of A♭.


With ten plates removed. Scale of B♭.


Here is a specimen of key transposition:


At this point children usually develop great keenness for producing
sounds and scales on all kinds of instruments (stringed instruments,
wind instruments, etc.)

One of the instruments which brings the child to producing and
recognizing notes is the _monochord_. It is a simple, resonant box with
one string. The first

Scale of C.


Scale with sharps. Scale with flats.


exercise is in tuning. The string is made to correspond with one of the
resonant prisms (_do_). This is made possible by a key with which the
string can be loosened or tightened. The child may now be taught to
handle the violin bow or mandolin plectrum, or he may be instructed in
the finger thrumming used for the harp or banjo. On one of our
monochords, the notes are indicated by fixed transversal frets, the name
of each note being printed in the proper space. These notes are,
however, not written on the other monochord, where the child must learn
to discover by ear the proper distances at which the notes are
produced. In this case the child has at his disposal movable frets with
which he can indicate the points he has discovered as producing a given
note. These frets should be left in position by the child to serve as a
check on his work. The children have shown considerable interest also in
little pitchpipes, which give very pleasing tones.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

Thus in composing the scales and in listening to them the child performs
real exercises in musical education. A given melody in the major scale
is repeated in various keys. In listening to it carefully, in repeating
it, in observing the notes which make it up, the child has an exercise
similar to the audition of the note, but an exercise of a far more
advanced character.

C Pitch.


D Pitch.


E Pitch.


F Pitch.


This exercise is to be the starting point for _understanding_ melody. To
make the hearing of music an intelligent act and not like the mechanical
process which appears when children read, in loud monotone, books which
they cannot understand and of the meaning of which they have no idea,
preparatory exercises are required. We get this preparation through
various exercises in the audition of various scales for the recognition
of key, and in exercises on the interpretation of rhythm.



One of our most successful exercises has proved to be that originally
conceived as a help in teaching children to walk, viz., "walking the
line." It will be remembered that among the exercises in motor education
used at the outset of our method, appeared that of walking with one foot
in front of the other on a line drawn on the floor, much as do
tight-rope-walking acrobats. The purpose of this exercise was to
stabilize equilibrium, to teach erect carriage and to make movement
freer and more certain.

Miss Maccheroni began her exercises in rhythm by accompanying this
walking of the children with piano music. In fact, the sound of the
piano came to be the call signal for the children to take up this
exercise. The teacher starts to play and immediately the children come
of their own accord, and almost without exception, to take up their
positions on the line. At the very beginning the music seems to be
purely a signal, at best a pleasant accompaniment to the motor exercise.
There is no apparent adaptation of the child's movements to the musical
rhythm. However, as the same measure is repeated for a considerable
period, the rudiments of this adaptation begin to appear. One of the
children begins to keep step with the rhythm of the music. Individual
differences in adaptation persist for some time; but if the same musical
rhythm is kept up, almost all the children finally become sensible to
it. In fact, these little people begin to develop general attitudes of
body, in relation to the music, which are of the greatest interest.
First of all, the children change their gait according to the music: the
light walk, the war-like march, the run, develop on the impulse of the
rhythmic movement. It is not that the teacher "teaches" the child to
change his walk according to the music: the phenomenon arises of its own
accord. The child begins to interpret the rhythm by moving in harmony
with it. But to obtain this result the teacher must play perfectly,
carefully noting all the details of musical punctuation. The creation of
musical feeling in the children depends upon the teacher's own feeling
and the rigorous accuracy of her own execution.

It will be useful to give here a few details on the execution of these
first rhythmic exercises. The children begin, as we have said, by
learning to walk on the line. They develop a passion for walking on that
line, yielding to a fascination which grown-up people cannot conceive.
They seem to put their whole souls into it. This is the moment for the
teacher to sit down at the piano and without saying anything to play the
first melody in our series. The children smile, they look at the piano
and continue to walk, becoming more and more concentrated on what they
are doing. The melody acts as a persuading voice; the children begin to
consider the time of the music and little by little their tiny feet
begin to strike the line in step with it. Some of our three-year-olders
begin to keep step as early as the first or second trial. After a very
few attempts a whole class of forty children will be walking in time. We
must warn against the error of playing with special emphasis on the
measure; in other words, of striking more loudly than is required the
note (thesis) which marks the inception of the rhythmic period. The
teacher should be careful simply to bring out all the expression that
the melody requires. She may be sure that the rhythmic cadence will
become apparent from the tune itself. The playing of one note more
loudly than the others, thus to emphasize the rhythmic accent (thesis),
is to deprive the selection of all its value as melody and therefore of
its power to cause the motory action corresponding to rhythm. It is
necessary to play accurately and with feeling, giving an interpretation
as real as possible. We get thus a "musical time" which, as every one
knows, is not the "mechanical time" of the metronome. If it is certainly
absurd to play a _Nocturne_ of Chopin on the metronome, it is hardly
less absurd and certainly quite as disagreeable to play a piece of dance
music on that instrument. Even those people who have a great aptitude
for feeling "time" and who play with special attention to exactness of
measure, know that they cannot follow the metronome without positive
discomfort. Children feel the rhythm of a piece of music if it is played
with _musical feeling_; and not only do they follow the time with their
footsteps, but, as the rhythmic periods vary, they adapt the whole
attitude of their bodies to the melodic period, which is developed
around the beats constituting the rhythm as around points of support.
There is a vast difference between this exercise and that of having
children march to the clapping of hands or to the time of _one_, _two_,
_three_, etc., counted in a tone of command.

A child of ten years was dancing to the music of a Chopin waltz played
with most generous concessions to the different colorations indicated in
the text. She put into her movements a certain fullness of swing, to
bring out the effect which a marked _rallentando_ gives the notes. Of
course this method of dancing demands on the part of the children a
perfect and intimate identification of spirit with the music; but this
is something which children, even when they are small, possess in a very
special way, and which they develop in their long and uninterrupted
walks on the line to the sounds of a tune often repeated. It is curious
to see them assume a demeanor entirely in harmony with the expression of
the music they are following. A little boy of three, during the playing
of our first melody, held the palms of his hands turned parallel with
the floor and as he walked he bent his knees slightly with each step. On
passing from our first to our second tunes, he changed not only the
rapidity of his footsteps, but the attitude of his whole body.
Considered as something external this may be of slight importance, but
considered as evidence of a mental state, the change in demeanor bears
witness to a distinct artistic experience. The composer of the tune
could well be proud of such a sincere response to his work, if the test
of musical beauty be regarded as successful communication of feeling.

Our second tune is a rapid _andante_ somewhat _staccato_. The first was
slow and blending (_legato_). The children feel the _legato_, answering
it with very reserved movements. The _staccato_ lifts them from the
floor. The _crescendo_ makes them hurry and stamp their feet. The
_forte_ sometimes brings them to clap their hands, while _calando_
restores them to the silent march, which turns, during the _piano_, to
perfect silence. The completion of the musical period brings them to a
halt and they stand there expectant until it is taken up again; or if it
be the end of the whole tune, they suddenly stop.

Beppino, a little boy of three, used to keep time with the extended
forefinger of his right hand. The music was a song in two parts repeated
alternately, the one in _legato_ and the other in _staccato_; with the
_legato_ he used a uniform regular movement; he followed the _staccato_
with sudden spasmodic beats.

To-day forty children may be seen walking as softly as possible during a
tune played _pianissimo_. These same children on the day when they first
heard the _piano_ kept calling to the teacher "play louder; we can't
hear" and yet at that time the teacher was playing not _pianissimo_, but
_mezzo forte_!

At first the children interested in the first tune are deaf to any
other. The children in the St. Barnaba School in Milan got in step with
the first tune. They did not notice that the teacher had changed to the
second and kept their step so well that when the first tune was resumed,
the teacher found them in perfect time, while on the faces of the
children appeared a smile of recognition, as it were, of an old friend.

If the teacher is sufficiently cautious, she can discover without
disturbing the children the moment when they have caught a new tune; and
even if only a few succeed in following both of the first two melodies,
the teacher can satisfy these few by alternating the tunes. This does
not disturb the others who come, little by little, to notice the change
in the music and to fall in with the new movement. In a public
kindergarten at Perugia an attempt of this nature was made without
warning by a lady, who, being a visitor, felt free to take this liberty.
The children were invited into the large hall and left to themselves
while the lady was playing on the piano our third melody, a march. The
older children caught the movement at once. After they had been
marching for some time a _galop_ was played. Some hesitation appeared in
a few pupils while others apparently were not aware of the change in the
music. Suddenly two or three began to run, as though swept away by the
rhythmic wave, as though borne along by the music. They hardly seemed to
touch that floor to which, but a few moments previously, the march
seemed to have glued them at every step! A portion of the children in
this class had taken seats in the sloping auditorium around the room.
They were the youngest children; and when the victorious charge broke
out to the tune of the _galop_, they began to clap their hands
enthusiastically. Some of the teachers felt alarmed, but certainly the
spectacle was an inspiring one.

It follows that if we are to _tell_ the children to "hop," "run," or
"march," there is no use in our giving them music. We must take our
choice: either _music_ or _commands_. Even in our reading lessons with
the slips, we do not tell the child the word that he must read. We must
do without commands, without false accentuation of notes, without
enforced positions. Music, if it be in reality an expressive language,
suggests everything to children if they are left to themselves. Rhythmic
interpretation of the musical thought is expressed by the attitude and
movement of body and spirit.

Nannina, a girl four years old, would gracefully spread her skirt, and
relax her arms along her body. She would bend her knees slightly, throw
her head back and turning her pretty little face to one side, smile at
those behind her as though extending her amiability in all directions.

Beppino, four and a half years old, stood with his feet together
motionless at the center of the ellipse drawn on the floor, on which the
children were walking. He beat the time of the first tune with an
outstretched arm, bowing from the waist in perfectly correct form at
every measure. The time consumed in this bow of Beppino exactly filled
the interval between one _thesis_ and the next and was in perfect accord
with the movement of the tune.

Nannina, the same pretty girl we mentioned above, always grew stiff when
a military march was played; she would frown and walk heavily.

On the other hand, the intervention of the teacher to give some apposite
lesson, tending to perfect certain movements, is something which gives
the children extraordinary delight. Five of our little girls embraced
each other rapturously and smothered the teacher with kisses when they
had learned a few new movements of a rhythmic dance.

Otello, Vincenzino and Teresa had been taught to get a better effect
from their tambourines, their steps and gestures. Each of them thanked
the teacher for the profitable lesson in a special way. Vincenzino gave
her a beaming smile whenever he marched past her; Teresa would furtively
touch her with her hand; Otello was even more demonstrative--as he went
by her he would leave the line, run to her and embrace her for a second
or two.

If the spontaneity of every child has been respected; if, in other
words, every child has been able to grow in his or her own way,
listening to the tunes, following them with the footsteps and with free
movements--interpreting them; if each child has been able to penetrate,
without being disturbed by any one, into the heart of the beautiful fact
which the understanding of music constitutes; then it is easy for the
teacher who has forty children (between three and five and a half years
of age) only one assistant, and preferably perhaps a whole apartment
instead of a closed room, to sit down at the piano and teach eight
children a long and intricate dance,--the lanciers in five parts. And
then just like the orchestra leader who has prepared his pupils, the
teacher with a minimum of effort gets the very effect in dancing, etc.,
which teachers generally are so anxious to obtain. Then we can get
marches, counter marches, simultaneous movements, alternate movements,
interweaving lines,--anything in fact, that we wish, and with perfect
accuracy besides; since every movement in the children corresponds
exactly with the development of the tune.

For instance, the children are marching two by two, holding each other's
hand, during the playing of a short tune. At the end of this melody they
slowly kneel, but in such a way that on the sound of the last note they
are touching the floor very gently with their knees. There is something
sweet about the accuracy and the perfect simultaneousness attained by
the children, under the guidance of the tune. The effect of these
exercises on them is to bring repose to their whole body and a sense of
peace to their little souls.

On one occasion in a school just opened in Milan, 1908, the children
re-acted to the piano by jumping about in confusion, waving their arms,
moving their shoulders and legs. This was really an attempt to represent
by a sort of chaos the complexity of the rhythmic movements they were
hearing. They were actually making, without any assistance from others,
a spontaneous attempt at musical interpretation. They soon grew tired of
this, saying that "the thing was ugly." They had, however, divined the
possibilities of an orderly motory action; and when they had become
quiet again, they began to listen to the music with great interest
waiting for the revelation of its deep secret. Then suddenly they began
to walk again, this time regularly and according to the real measure.

One of the children, whose graph was somewhat as follows:


(pauses, that is, on the line of quiescence, with frequent excursions
into the negative field), took no part in these rhythmic exercises. On
the contrary, he was always breaking them up by pushing the other
children out of line or making a noise. Finally, however, he did learn
not to disturb others; in other words, to stay _quiet_, something which
he had never known how to do before. It is a great conquest for a
disorderly child to gain the ability to become quite motionless, in a
gently placid state of mind. His next step was to learn to move
delicately, with respect for other people; and he came to have a certain
sensitiveness about his relations with his schoolmates. For example, he
used to blush when they smiled at him and even when he took no part in
what they were doing, he shared their activities with an affectionate
attention. From this point on Riziero (that was the child's name)
entered on a higher plane of existence--one of order, labor and

The fact also that children at times listen to the music, while
remaining seated comfortably around the room, watching the other
children dance and march, is in itself a pretty thing. The children who
are seated become very self-controlled. They watch their schoolmates or
exchange a few words cautiously with each other. At times, even, they
let themselves go in interesting expressions of movement with their
arms. The manifestations of placidity and interest here seen cannot be
disjoined from a healthful, spiritual upbuilding--a beautiful
orderliness, which is being established within them. Obviously, a
wonderful harmony springs up between the teacher, who plays with
enthusiastic feeling and with all possible skill of hand and abundance
of spirit simply because she feels the musical phenomena around her in
the children, and the pupils who, little by little, are transformed
under this influence, and show an understanding of the music, which
becomes for them something more and more intimate, more and more
complete. It is no longer a question of the _step_, but of the position
of the whole body: arms, heads, chests _are moved_ by the music.

Finally, many of the children beat time with their hands, and interpret
correctly without ever having been taught distinctions between 3 and 4
time, etc. When a keen interest in "guessing" the time is awakened in
them, the children look about for various objects--wands, tambourines,
castagnettes, etc., and the class exercise is developed to perfection.
The child comes to be "possessed" by the music. He obeys the musical
command with his whole body and becomes more and more perfect in this
obedience shown by his muscles.

Here is a pretty story which will show to what extent children can feel
themselves dependent on the music which "makes them move." Once my
father went into a room where a little Parisian girl whom he was very
fond of was passionately marching to the rhythm of a tune played on the
piano. The child usually ran to meet the old gentleman; but that day the
moment she saw him she began to shout to Miss Maccheroni, who was
playing, "_Arrête, arrête!_" She wanted to go and shake hands with my
father, something she could not do as long as the music was continuing
to _command_ her to move with the rhythm. And in fact, it was not until
Miss Maccheroni stopped playing that the little girl was able to run and
deliver her greeting.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

We have prepared a series of tunes for this work and I think it will be
useful to give here three which we finally selected because they have
succeeded, whenever they were tried, in arousing in the children the
phenomena above described. There are eight movements chosen from
repeated over and over again and played with all possible accuracy, will
surely, sooner or later, be felt in every rhythm by the children.

The transition from following the time by ones (that is, one beat for
every rhythmic element) to the indication of simply the beginning of the
measure (that is, one beat on the _thesis_) appeared for the first time
in a "Children's House" directed by Miss Maccheroni. There, one morning
when the children were following the music with great pleasure, marching
about and beating on tambourines, it was a girl who first caught the
strong beat (_thesis_). A little boy behind her made the conquest a
second later; but while the little girl lost what she had gained almost
immediately, the little boy developed it to perfection. Shortly after
other children made the same progress, apparently as a saving of effort;
they began, that is, by beating once on every step. This required a
rapid movement and an endless succession of beats. All of a sudden they
began to beat on the first note of a measure.

[Illustration: The children using the music bells and wooden keyboards.
(_The Washington Montessori School, Washington, D. C._)]

Here, for instance, is a case of 4/4 time:

    |_ _ _ _|_ _ _ _|_ _ _ _
    | | | | | | | | | | | |

The children at first marked the time without regard to the measure,

    | | | | | | | | | | | |

But the moment comes suddenly when they catch the measure: then they
beat it as follows:

    | · · · | · · · | · · ·

In other words, their beats fall only on the first note at the measure.

Maria Louise, a little under four years of age, was walking to the sound
of a 2/4 march, played rather lightly. Suddenly she called to the
teacher: "_Regarde, regarde, comme je fais!_" She was making little
skips, gracefully raising her arms on the first beat of the measure. Her
invention was extraordinarily happy and graceful.

Usually in teaching the divisions of musical time, it has been the
custom to play _forte_ the time called theoretically _tempo forte_: in
other words, to strike hard on the first note of every rhythmic measure.
In fact, teachers of children or young people can often be heard playing
a tune with special emphasis on the first note of every measure and
playing the successive notes _pianissimo_. Naturally the motory action
corresponds to this: it will be tense for the strong beats and light for
the weak beats. But what value has all this in relation to the feeling
of the rhythmic measure? What is called theoretically _tempo forte_
has no relation to the meaning of the words "strong" and "weak" in their
ordinary sense. It is a question of _emphasis_ and _expression_, which
derive their nature from the laws of musical time and melodic
composition and certainly not from the wrist muscles of the person
playing. If this were not so, a person could play the first, second or
third note of a measure as _forte_, whereas, in reality, it is the first
that is always "strong."

[Illustration: Analyzing the beat of a measure while walking on a line.
(_A Montessori School in Italy._)]

In practise, children, to whom the six tunes we proposed for the
beginning of this study were played--and played always with rigorous
musical interpretation and with expressiveness--succeeded in recognizing
the first beat of the measure as "strong," and went on thus to divide
into measures some thirty pieces of music of varied rhythm. Even the
following year, after the summer vacation, they kept asking for new
pieces of music just for the "fun" of working out the measure in them.
They would stand at the side of the teacher at the piano and either with
their hands or with soft playing on the castagnettes or tambourines,
accompany their new piece of music. In general they would listen in
silence to the first measure and then fall in with their little beats
like any well-trained orchestra. They took the trouble no longer to
march to the music: they were interested in this new form of study;
while the smaller tots, delighted with the new music, were still walking
undisturbed along the elliptical line on the floor which was to guide
them to such great conquests!

The strong beat (_thesis_) is the key that opens to the higher laws of
music. Sometimes it is played, for reasons of expression, very softly
and always possesses the solemnity of the note which dominates the
rhythm. It may even be syncopated or lacking entirely, just as when the
orator on reaching his climax pronounces in a very low voice the phrase
which is to produce the great effect, or even pauses and is silent: this
sentence rings powerfully in the ears of those who listen.

The same error which leads to heavy stress, in playing, on the first
beat of every measure in order to attract the attention of the children
to it, also leads to suggesting secondary movements in addition to the
one which marks the _thesis_. The children, for instance, must make four
movements for a 4/4 time: movements in the air for the secondary beats,
and a more energetic movement for the _thesis_. The result is that
interest in the succession of movements replace attention to the fact of
most importance, which is _to feel_ the value of the first beat.
Children who feel the first note because it is played "strong" and who
proceed from one strong beat to the following strong beat guided by a
succession of movements, are not, it is obvious, following the tune. One
little girl who had been prepared by this method found herself, on
having mistaken the beat, constantly persisting in her mistake under the
guidance of her four movements. It is like presenting a cube or a
triangle to children of three years with the teacher enumerating the
sides, the angles, the apexes, etc. In reality the children do not get
any notion of the triangle or the cube.

Our children come ultimately to represent the secondary beats with the
slight movements, as follows:

    |_ _ _ _|_ _ _ _|_ _ _ _|_ _ _ _
    | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

and then they count them. When we have, gone thus far we reach the point
which is exactly the _point of departure_ for ordinary methods, namely,
counting _one! two! three! four!_ to keep step in time.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

As a practical application of the information already acquired in the
division of time into measures, we next pass to the exercise of playing
the scales in 2/4, 3/4 and 4/4 time and with the triplets. The scale,
the classic type of the melody, lends itself beautifully to these
interpretations of various measures. Every one must have passed hours at
the piano playing simple scales and finding a delicious variety in the
exercise. The _do_ scale itself may be played, for instance, thus:


or thus:


or thus:


Our little piano may be of use in this exercise; but it is better first
to use an exercise more easy for finger movement and for the position of
the hand:

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

Children who have succeeded in identifying and dividing the melody into
measures and the measure itself into 2, 3, 4, understand very easily
the time values of the notes. It is sufficient to let the child _hear_
each exercise _first_ and he will repeat it with precision. Thus all
kinds of dry explanation of musical _values_ disappear.


The following notation


presents no special difficulty if the child has once heard it.

Our next step is to use some exercises for the analysis of the measure,
for instance:


The children follow these exercises, marching so as to put one step on
every note. Even children of four years when prepared with the preceding
exercises succeed in following these with the very greatest interest.
They are especially delighted with the long note which keeps them
hanging in position with one foot in front of them on the line and the
other one behind them also on the line. The position is that of a person
who stops before bringing up the foot which is still behind him.

Since the children already know how to _read_ music, there is hung up
before them a green chart (similar in dimensions to the musical staffs
already familiar to them) on which is written the exercise which is
being played at the piano by the teacher and which they execute on the




Here is another:


We even give a simple time like this one (composed by Professor Jean
Gibert of the Montessori Primary School of Barcelona):


Of course, sooner or later children fix their attention on the varying
form of the notes and discover that this difference in form bears a
relation to differences in time-value of the notes:


This is the time to give in very brief explanation the lesson on the
value of the notes. Thereafter the child may write from memory a simple
melody which the teacher has first played on the piano. Almost always
the child writes this down with accuracy, showing that he has control
over the musical values appearing in the melody in question. The child
uses for this purpose a large green chart containing various musical
staffs on which movable notes may be fixed at pleasure. These notes are
equipped with a pin which may be pushed into the wood. The simple
exercises given for the analysis of the measures, transferred into
various keys, can after some practise in playing them on the system of
plates be put into their copy books by the children. These exercises for
measure-analysis are so simple that the children themselves have
sometimes learned to play them on the piano. It then has happened that
the class went of its own accord into the piano room; one child began to
play and the others followed the music on the floor-line. The children
as they walk ultimately come to sing the scales and the easy tunes (of
which they have recognized the notes) pronouncing the names of the
notes; but in so pronouncing them they soften, their voices to the point
of attaining an expression which may be called even artistic. When the
teacher plays, the music gains the added charm of harmony, since the
teacher can give not only the simple scale, but the relative chords, and
this gives the scale a vigorous and very sweet fullness.

These exercises in measure analysis have also been particularly useful
in their application to gymnastic exercises. The children follow them
with gymnastic movements, using especially the movements of Dalcroze,
which are admirably adapted to the measures of 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, etc., and
which have a real beauty. We discovered that these exercises proved to
be complexly difficult for the children who had not practised
sufficiently in the interpretation of the different note values. On the
other hand, they were very easy for those who had come to have a clear
feeling for these different values. This was proof to us that sensorial
preparation must precede these exercises, and furthermore, that the only
difficulty Dalcroze movements encounter in children arises from
insufficient sensory preparation in the children themselves.

In the same way we illustrate the different details of of musical
writing: the dotted note,


the triplet:


the _legato_, the _staccato_, etc.

Here is an example of a _legato_ effect:

[Illustration: (Sonnambula. Quintet)]

This example which derives all its expressive value from the ties, also
brings out the value of the note:


We need, accordingly, a collection of musical selections in which the
value of the notes is obvious and clear to such an extent that the
children come to recognize the different values. This recognition must
be obtained by ear through listening to the music, not by eye looking at
the symbols while the teacher explains.

The 1/4 note always has a different musical content from the 1/16 note.
A musical piece made up of the 16th or 32d notes has a character of its
own (joy or agitation); and a piece made up of half or whole notes has
likewise its peculiar character (religious, sad, impressive).

The same may be said of every musical symbol, the value of which is
brought out by the note being played with that value and in reference
to that symbol. It has been held that in playing for children and in
copying music for the use of children the expression-symbols should be
suppressed. We should observe that these signs of expression bear to the
music the relation that punctuation bears to the written sentence; their
suppression takes away all value from the notes. For example, the
_legato_ and symbols which indicate that difference ([image] and ·) have
therefore the greatest value.

The children succeed quite easily in using and reading the accessory
symbols of music. They already know their meaning through having heard
them. We have not found it necessary to use such signs as _sense
objects_, such as bars (to be placed on the wooden staff to divide
measure from measure), time fractions, parentheses and so on. Although
we had these manufactured, we ultimately abandoned them because we found
that they were simply in the way.

On the other hand, we found considerable utility in our large colored
cards with a single staff already described. On these are written
various measures which the children read with a special pleasure and
execute on their bells.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

With all this a way has been opened to a really musical education. Once
Miss Maccheroni, while executing her customary rhythmic tunes,
reproduced a melodious religious movement, "_O Sanctissima_," which the
children heard for the first time. The children all left the line and
gathered around the piano to listen. Two or three little girls kneeled
on the floor and others remained motionless executing plastic poses
with their arms. This revealed to us their sensitiveness to melody; they
felt moved not to march but to pray and assume various poses.




We have not yet been able to push our experiments far enough precisely
to define the musical material adapted to children of various ages. We
have, however, made a very great number of successful attempts to bring
children to enjoy melody and sentimental expression in music. The
practicableness and utility of musical auditions, or, if you wish, of
concerts for children, graduated in difficulty, executed on various
instruments, but on one instrument at a time, are beyond all question;
this applies above all to songs reproduced by the human voice, when a
well-trained voice is available.

If a real artist should take up the task of analyzing for children the
language of music, bringing them to enjoy it phrase by phrase and under
different _timbres_ (voice, strings, etc.), his new and scientific
application of the art would be produced in the future from these groups
of little ones, so intelligent in music, who follow the most expressive
tunes with so much passion and in a silence more absolute than any
celebrated artist can dream of attaining in a meeting of adults! No one
among these little hearers is cold, far away in thought. But on the
faces of the children appears the interior working of a spirit, tasting
a nectar essential to its very live.

How many times a plastic pose, a kneeling posture, an ecstatic face,
will move the heart of the artist to a sense of joy greater than that
which any applause of a throng of people often indifferent or
inattentive, can possibly give him! Usually only those wounded at heart
by the difficulty of being understood by others, or discouraged by the
coldness or rudeness of other people, or oppressed by disillusion, or
filled with a sense of painful loneliness or need of expansion in some
other way, feel in music the voice which opens the doors of the heart
and causes a health-giving flood of tears or raises the spirit to a
lofty sense of peace. Only they can understand how necessary a companion
for humanity music is. We know, of course, to-day that music is an
indispensable stimulant for soldiers rushing forth to die. How much more
truly would it then become a stimulant for all who are to live!

This conviction is already in the hearts of many people. In fact,
attempts have already been made to reach the populace by concerts in the
public squares and by making concert halls accessible to people of every
class; but after all, do such attempts amount to more than putting the
cheap editions of the classics into circulation among illiterates?
Education is the prime requisite; without such education we have a
people of deaf mutes forever barred from any music. The ear of the
uneducated man cannot perceive the sublime sounds which music would
bring within his reach. That is why though the music of Bellini and
Wagner is being played in public squares, the saloons are just as full
as before.

If, however, from these pupils of ours a whole people could grow up, it
would be sufficient to go through the streets with a good piece of music
and everybody would come out to hear. All those places where the rough
and abandoned wrecks of humanity seek enjoyment, like homeless dogs
looking for food in our ash-cans, would be emptied as if by magic. We
would have an actual realization of the Allegory of Orpheus; for hearts
which are to-day of stone would then be stirred and brought to life by a
sublime melody.


Singing began with the scale. The singing of a scale, first in
accompaniment with the bells and later with the piano is a first and
great delight to the children. They sing it in various ways, now in a
low voice, now very loud, now all together in unison, now one by one.
They sing divided into two groups, sharing the notes alternately between
them. Among the songs which we offer to the children, the greatest
favorite proved to be the syllabic Gregorian Chant. It is something like
a very perfect form of speech. It has a conversational intonation, the
softness of a sentence well pronounced, the full roundness of the
musical phrase. The examples given here have almost the movement of the

Many other verses of the Gregorian Chant have, like these, proved to be
the delight of the Montessori Elementary School of Barcelona. There the
children are especially keen about this very simple music which they
like to play on the piano, on their plates (Xylophones) or on their

[Illustration: Music

    Rorate Cœli de super et nubes pluant justum
    Puer natus in Bethlehem, alleluia.
    Unde gaudet Jerusalem
    Alleluia Alleluia
    In Cordis jubilo
    Christum natum adoremus,
    Cum novo Cantico.]


We give here in complete form the musical phrases used by us for the
first rhythmic exercises. They are adequate for giving the sensation of
rhythm and for suggesting the motory actions associated with the rhythm.
This musical material now forms in our schools part of the material
which is experimentally established.

  _Works from which Selections are Taken_     _Motor Reactions Provoked_

  1. "Ancora un bacio," mazurka, Bastianelli   Slow walk.
  2. "Si j'étais roi," Adolphe Adam            Accelerated walk.
  3. "Eagle March," Wagner                     March step.
  4. "Galop," Strauss                          Run.
  5. "Italian folk-song"                       Hop.
  6. "Pas des patineurs"                       Sedate walk.


[Illustration: Music]


[Illustration: Music]


[Illustration: Music]


[Illustration: Music]


[Illustration: Music]


[Illustration: Music]


[Illustration: Music]



The movement entitled "O Sanctissima," played by Miss Maccheroni one day
by chance among the rhythmic exercises, is regarded by us as an
introduction to _musical audition_. It will be recalled that the
children had been accustomed to alter their style of marching on the
floor-line according to changes in the music. It had never, however,
occurred to them to leave the line. When this piece was played they all
crowded around the piano, motionless, thoughtful, absorbed; while two or
three little ones fell to their knees and assumed various poses. This
experience suggested to us the idea of "musical auditions," if you wish
"concerts for children."

Children, little by little to be sure, but no less admirably, enter into
the spirit of music. After the numerous rhythmic exercises, as soon,
that is, as they have mastered the problem of measure, almost any
_sonata_ is within their reach. They can handle not isolated movements
merely, but whole pieces of music. The same is true of the auditions. At
first, of course, it is better to select simple phrases; but gradually
the children come to enjoy "the best music," joyfully recognizing the
feeling which it expresses and which inspired it. Our pupils used to
exclaim, for instance: "This piece is for weeping," "This is for
prayer," "Now we must laugh," "Now we must shout," etc.

We cannot, however, insist too strongly on the need for the greatest
possible care in the execution of the selections used. A child audience
is a very special one. It demands something more than is expected by the
average "intelligent audience." It is one in which musical intelligence
must be _developed_. Our object must be the creation not merely of
higher and higher grades of understanding but also of higher and higher
grades of _feeling_. In this sense, we can never _do too much_ for the
children. It is a task not beneath the dignity of the greatest
composers, the most accomplished technicians. Indeed, any one of such
might well esteem it a privilege some day to hear it said of his work
that it aroused the first love for music in the hearts of one of these
little ones. For thus music would have been made a companion, a
consoler, a guardian angel of man! It is of course not the lot of all of
us to attain the exalted position of greatness whether as artists or
technicians. We must content ourselves with assuming an obligation: with
_giving_ all the soul and all the skill we possess. We must conceive of
ourselves as transmitters of the largess of music to our children. We
must deeply feel our calling as bestowers of a divine gift.

The following titles were all used successfully by us in our
experiments. They are supplements to the "O Sanctissima" and a "Pater


      _Trovatore:_ "Tacea la notte placida."
      _Lucrezia Borgia:_ "Nella fatal di Rimini e memorabil guerra."
      _Lucia di Lamermoor:_ "Regnava nel silenzio."
      _Trovatore:_ "Racconto di Azucena."
      _Sonnambula:_ "A fosco cielo, a notte bruna."
      _Rigoletto:_ "Tutte le frese al tempio."
      _Fra Diavolo:_ "Quell'uom dal fiero aspetto."


    _Beethoven_: "Moonlight."
    _Bohème_: "Nevica; qualcuno passa e parla" (Act II, prelude).
    _Aida_, prelude as far as "Cieli azzurri."
    _Aida_, "Marcia trionfale" (containing the motive of the scene to
            which it belongs).


        _Traviata_: "Libiam nei lieti celici."
        _Sonnambula_: "In Elvezia non v'ha rosa fresca e bella al par
        _Traviata_: "Sempre libera deggi' io folleggiar."
        _Faust_: Peasant song, "La vaga pupilla."

        _Aida_: "Rivedrò le foreste imbalsamate."

        _Traviata_: "Amami Alfredo."
        _Lucrezia Borgia_: "Era desso il figliuol mio."

        _Lucrezia Borgia_: "Mio figlio, ridate a me il mio figlio."
              "       "    "Infelice, il veleno bevesti."

        _Cavalleria Rusticana_: "Bada, Santuzza, schiavo non son."

        _Barbiere di Siviglia_: "La calunnia è un venticello."
        _Iris_: "La Piovra."

        _Barbiere di Siviglia_: "Pace e gioia sia con voi."
        _Fra Diavolo_: "Grazie al ciel per una serva."

        _Faust_: "Permetteresti a me."
        _Bohème_: song of Rudolph, "Che gelida manina."

        _Sonnambula_: "Ah perchè non posso odiarti."

      _Sorrow of sacrifice:_
        _Bohème_: "Vecchia zimarra senti."

        Mendelsohn: Romances.






One of the novelties included in our experiments was the teaching of
metrics, hitherto reserved for high schools. The love shown by children
for poetry, their exquisite sensitiveness to rhythm, led me to suspect
that the native roots of poetry might be present in little children. I
suggested to Miss Maria Fancello, a teacher of literature in the high
schools and my colleague, to attempt such an experiment. She began with
children of different ages, and, together, we succeeded in discovering a
highly interesting department of education, the object of which might be
to give the mass of the people, prepared for life in the primary
schools, the basic elements of literary appreciation, thus opening a new
source of pleasure calculated also to increase general enlightenment. A
populace capable of enjoying poetry, of judging the beauty of verse, and
hence of coming in contact with the spirits of our greatest poets, would
be something quite different to the masses we new know. To find the like
we have to imagine the people of ancient story, who talked in poetry and
moved their bodies to the rhythm, thus laying the foundations of refined

It is not our intention to describe in detail all we did in these
experiments. It will be sufficient to summarize the results, which may
suggest useful material end methods to others.

As soon as the children are somewhat advanced in reading, poetry, which
they loved so much in "Children's House," may be included in the
materials offered in partial satisfaction of their insatiable desire to
read. It is best to begin with poems composed of stanzas of different
lengths, the stanzas being printed at easily noticeable intervals from
each other. The lines may be counted, in teaching the two new words
"stanza" and "line." The process involved is a recognition of "objects,"
suggesting the first exercise in reading, where the children put _names_
on things; though here the situation is much simpler. At the same time
we have the exercise of counting the lines. In short, it is a review
exercise of the greatest simplicity.

The counting of the lines leads at once to the identification of such
groups as the couplet, quatrain, octave, etc. But little time is spent
on such a crude detail. The little ones almost immediately become
interested in the rhyme. The first step is the recognition of rhyming
syllables which are underlined with colored pencils, using a different
color for each rhyme. Seven-year-olders take the greatest delight in
this work, which is too simple to arouse interest in children of eight
or nine. Those of seven do such work about as quickly as those of ten,
the speed of the younger children being due apparently to their
enthusiasm, the slowness of the older to their lack of interest. We may
note in passing that these exercises furnish tests of absolute exactness
as to rapidity of work. Children of eight are able to go one step beyond
marking the rhymes with colored pencils. They can use the more
complicated device of marking lines with the letters of the alphabet:
aa, bb, cc, etc. Marking with numbers to the left the lines in their
order, and the rhymes with letters to the right, we get a specimen
result as follows:

    1^{o} Rondinella pellegr_ina_             a

    2^{o} Che ti posi sul ver_one_            b

    3^{o} Ricantando ogni matt_ina_           a

    4^{o} Quella flebile canz_one_            b

    5^{o} Che vuoi dirmi in tua fav_ella_     c

    6^{o} Pellegrina rondin_ella_?            c

(Translation: "Wandering swallow, as you sit there on my balcony each
morning, singing to me your tearful song, what is it you are trying to
tell me in your language, wandering swallow?")

       *       *       *       *       *

This brings out the difference between the alternating rhyme (a, b, a,
b) and the couplet (c, c), as well as the morphology of the stanza.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

In reading the lines over and over again to work out the rhyme scheme,
the children spontaneously begin to catch the tonic accents. Their
readiness in this respect is a matter of common observation. In fact, in
ordinary schools, the teachers are continually struggling against the
"sing-song" developed by children in reading poetry. This "sing-song" is
nothing more nor less that stress on the rhythmic movement.

On one occasion, one of our children, a little boy, had been spending
some time over a number of decasyllabic lines. While waiting in the
corridor for the doors to open at dismissal time, he suddenly began to
walk up and down "right-about-facing" at every three steps and saying
aloud: "tatatá, tatatá, tatatátta," right-about-face, then "tatatá,
tatatá, tatatátta." Each step was accompanied by a gesture in the air
with his little clenched fist. This tot was marching to the verse
rhythm, just as he would have marched to music. It was a case of
perfectly interpretative "gymnastic rhythm." His gestures fell on the
three tonic accents of the Italian decasyllable, the right-about marked
the end of the "verse"--the "turn" in the line, which he indicated by
"turning" himself around to begin over again.

When the children have reached such a stage of sensory development, they
have no difficulty in recognizing the tonic accents. For this purpose,
we have prepared sheets with poems written in a clear hand. The children
mark with a neatly drawn accent the letter on which the rhythmic accent
falls. The material should be systematically presented. We found from
experience that the children first discover the accents in _long_ lines
made up of _even-numbered_ syllables (parisyllabic lines), where the
accents recur at regular intervals and are clearly called for both by
sense, word accent and rhythm. We were able to establish the following
sequence for various Italian lines, which present a graduated series of
difficulties to the child in recognizing the accents:

1. Decasyllables: example:

    S'ode a d=é=stra uno squ=í=llo di tr=ó=mba
    A sin=í=stra risp=ó=nde uno squ=í=llo:
    D'ambo i l=á=ti calp=é=sto rimb=ó=mba
    Da cav=á=lli e da f=á=nti il terr=é=n.
    Quinci sp=ú=nta per l'=á=ria un vess=í=llo:
    Quindi un =á=ltro s'av=á=nza spieg=á=to:
    Ecco app=á=re un drapp=é=llo schier=á=to;
    Ecco un =á=ltro che inc=ó=ntro gli vi=é=n.
          (MANZONI, _La battaglia di Maclodio._)

(Translation: "A trumpet call sounds to the right; a trumpet calls
answers to the left; all around the earth shakes with the charge of
horses and men. Here a standard is broken out to the breeze; there
another advances waving; here a line of troops appears, there another
rushing against it.")

2. Dodecasyllables: example:

    Ru=é=llo, Ru=é=llo, div=ó=ra la v=í=a,
    Port=á=teci a v=ó=lo, buf=é=re del ci=é=l.
    È pr=é=sso alla m=ó=rte la v=é=rgine m=í=a,
    Gal=ó=ppa, gal=ó=ppa, gal=ó=ppa Ru=é=l.
          (PRATI, _Galoppo notturno_.)

(Translation: "Ruello, Ruello, as fast as you can! O storm-winds of
heaven, lend us your wings; my loved one is lying near death; onward,
onward, onward, Ruello!")

3. Eight syllable lines (_ottonario_): example:

    Solit=á=rio bosco ombr=ó=so,
    A te vi=é=ne afflitto c=ó=r,
    Per trov=á=r qualche rip=ó=so
    Fra i sil=é=nzi in quest'orr=ó=r.
          (ROLLI, _La lontananza_.)

(Translation: "O deserted wood! To your shade the sorrowing heart comes
to find some rest in your cool silence.")

4. Six syllable lines (_senario_): example:

    Pur b=á=ldo di sp=é=me
    L'uom =ú=ltimo gi=ú=nto
    Le c=é=neri pr=é=me
    D'un m=ó=ndo def=ú=nto;
    Inc=á=lza di s=é=coli
    Non =á=nco mat=ú=ri
    I f=ú=lgidi a=ú=g=ú=ri.
        (ZANELLA, _La conchiglia fossile_.)

(Translation: "Radiant with hope, the latest comer treads on the ashes
of a dead world, pursuing the glowing aspirations of ages not yet

NOTE: In the above selections the vowels in broad-faced type have been
marked with an accent by the child, to indicate the rhythmic beat.

We found, on the other hand, that greater difficulty is experienced by
the children in lines where the syllables are in odd-numbers
(imparisyllabics), the hardest of the Italian lines being the
hendecasyllable, which is a combination of the seven syllable and the
five syllable line, fused together with all their great varieties of

We established the following gradation of difficulties:

1. Seven syllable line (_settenario_): example:

    Gi=à= ri=é=de Pr=í=mav=é=ra
    Col s=ú=o flor=í=to asp=é=tto,
    Gi=à= il gr=á=to z=é=ffir=é=tto
    Sch=é=rza fra l'=é=rbe e i fi=ó=r.
          (METASTASIO, _Primavera_.)

(Translation: "Now already flowery Spring returns; again the lovely
zephyrs dance amidst the grass and blossoms.")

2. Five syllable line (_quinario_): example:

    Viv=á=ce s=í=mbolo
    D=é= la fam=í=glia,
    Le di=è= la tr=é=mula
    M=á=dre a la f=í=glia,
    Le di=è= la su=ó=cera
    Bu=ó=na a la nu=ó=ra
    Ne l'=ú=ltim' =ó=ra.
          (MAZZONI, _Per un mazzo di chiavi_.)

(Translation: "As a vivid symbol of the home, they were passed on by the
dying mother to her daughter or to her son's wife.")

3. Nine syllable line (_novenario_): example:

    Te tr=í=ste! Che a v=á=lle t'asp=é=ttano
    I gi=ó=rni di c=á=ntici pr=í=vi;
    Ah n=ó=, non dai m=ó=rti che t'=á=mano,
    Ti gu=á=rda, frat=é=llo, dai v=í=vi.
          (CAVALLOTTI, _Su in alto_.)

(Translation: "Alas, for thee, O brother! Yonder, songless days await
thee. Ah no, have no fear of the dead: they love thee! The living only
shouldst thou fear!")

4. Hendecasyllable: example:

    Per me si v=á= nella citt=á= dol=é=nte,
    Per me si v=á= nell'et=é=rno dol=ó=re,
    Per me si v=á= tra la perd=ú=ta g=é=nte.
         (DANTE, _Divina Commedia, Inferno_.)

(Translation: "Through me ye enter the city of sorrow; through me ye
enter the realm of eternal grief; through me ye enter the regions of the

       *       *       *       *       *

The typical ending of these various lines is the trochee (-- U, _verso
piano_). The iambic (U --, _verso tronco_) and the dactyllic (-- U U,
_verso sdrucciolo_) endings (requiring respectively one syllable less
and one syllable more than the _verso piano_) constitute occasional
variations. We have found that these rarer lines are recognized rather
as curiosities than as difficulties by the children who easily refer
them to their respective normal types. They are accordingly presented in
our material along with the common verses of trochaic endings. Our
illustration of the five syllable line given above showed specimens of
the dactyllic ending (_sdrucciolo_, -- U U). Here is another example of
alternating trochaic (_piano_) and dactyllic endings:

    In c=í=ma a un =á=lbero
    C'=é= un uccell=í=no
    Di nu=ó=vo g=é=nere....
    Che s=í=a un bamb=í=no?
          (L. SCHWARZ, _Uccellino_.)

(Translation: "There's a very strange little bird up in that tree! Why,
it's a little child!")

       *       *       *       *       *

In the following decasyllables, the trochaic ending alternates with the
iambic (_tronco_):

    Lungi, l=ú=ngi, su l'=á=li del c=á=nto
    Di qui l=ú=ngi rec=á=re io ti v=ó='
    Là, ne i c=á=mpi fior=í=ti del s=á=nto
    Gange, un lu=ó=go bell=í=ssimo, io s=ó=.
                    (CARDUCCI, _Lungi, lungi_.)

(Translation: "I will take thee far, far away on the wings of my song:
there, among the flowery fields of the sacred Ganges, I know of a
beautiful spot").

       *       *       *       *       *

Some difficulty arose, however, when we came to lines with alternations
of parisyllables and imparisyllables; though this new movement aroused
real enthusiasm among the children, who greeted it as a new and strange
music. It often happened that after the pleasurable effort of analyzing
a poem with lines alternating in this way, the pupils would choose as
"recreation" the study of lines of even-numbered syllables. Here is an
example of the new type:

    Eran trec=é=nto, eran gi=ó=vani e f=ó=rti,
    E s=ó=no m=ó=rti!
    Me ne and=á=vo al matt=í=no a spigol=á=re
    Quando ho v=í=sto una b=á=rca in mezzo al m=á=re:
    Era una b=á=rca che and=á=va a vap=ó=re,
    E alz=á=va una bandi=é=ra tricol=ó=re.
    All'=í=sola di P=ó=nza s'è ferm=á=ta,
    È stata un p=ó=co e p=ó=i si è ritorn=á=ta;
    S'è ritorn=á=ta ed è ven=ú=ta a t=é=rra:
    Sceser con l'=á=rmi, e a noi non f=é=cer gu=é=rra.
                    (PRATI, _La spigolatrice di Sapri_.)

(Translation: "There were three hundred, young and strong! And now they
are dead! That morning I was gleaning in the fields; I saw a boat at
sea,--a steamer flying the white, red and green. It stopped at Ponza,
remained a while and then came back--came back and approached the shore.
They came ashore in arms, but to us they did no harm").

       *       *       *       *       *

While the rhythmic accents were being studied, we found that the
discovery of the cæsura (interior pause) formed an interesting
recreative diversion. In fact this work aroused so much enthusiasm that
the children went from exercise to exercise, continuing at study for
extended periods, and far from showing signs of weariness, actually
increased their joyous application. One little girl, in the first six
minutes of her work, marked the cæsura of seventy-six ten-syllable lines
without making a mistake. An abundant material is necessary for this
exercise. Example:

    Dagli atri muscosi, | dai fori cadenti,
    Dai boschi, dall'arse | fucine stridenti,
    Dai solchi bagnati | di servo sudor,
    Un volgo disperso | repente si desta,
    Intende l'orecchio, | solleva la testa,
    Percosso da novo | crescente rumor.
          (MANZONI, _Italiani e Longobardi_.)

(Translation: "From the damp atria, from the ruined squares, from the
forests, from the hissing forges, from the fields bathed with the sweat
of slaves, a scattered horde of men suddenly is roused. They listen,
lift their heads, startled at this strange increasing roar").

       *       *       *       *       *

The step forward to the perception of the syllabic units of the line is
a purely sensory phenomenon: it is analogous to marking the time of
music without taking account of the measure divisions. Syllabiating
according to rhythm and beating on the table with the fingers solve
even the subtler difficulties such as dieresis and synalepha, in
recognizing the rhythmic syllables. Examples:

    La | so | mma | sa | pi | en | za e'l | pri | mo A | mo | re

We print this verse in the above form, because it was thus divided by a
child in his very first spontaneous effort at syllabiation. As a matter
of fact, we present the material normally according to graded
difficulties, using over again for this purpose the materials used in
the study of accents. At this point also the accents themselves suddenly
acquire a new interest, for the child is able to observe on "what
syllable they fall." Thus his metrical study approaches completion, for
now he can readily acquire the nomenclature of metrics and
versification: _dodecasyllable_, _hendecasyllable_, etc. Then, combining
his knowledge of the numbers of syllables and the location of the
rhythmic accents, the child is at the point of discovering the rhythmic
laws of verse construction. We were expecting the children to begin
producing definitions like the following: "The dodecasyllable line has
twelve syllables and four accents which fall on the second, fifth,
eighth and eleventh syllables," etc. The spontaneous impulse of the
pupils led instead to the construction of "mirrors" or "checkerboards"
like the following:

  |                           |1| 2| 3|4| 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 |10| 11 |12|13|
  |Decasyllable _piano_       | |  |3d| |   |6th|   |   |9th|  |    |  |  |
  |     (trochaic)            | |  |  | |   |   |   |   |   |  |    |  |  |
  |      "   _tronco_ (iambic)| |  |3d| |   |6th|   |   |9th|  |    |  |  |
  |                           | |  |  | |   |   |   |   |   |  |    |  |  |
  |                           | |  |  | |   |   |   |   |   |  |    |  |  |
  |Eight syllable _piano_     | |  |3d| |   |   |7th|   |   |  |    |  |  |
  |  "       "    _tronco_    | |  |3d| |   |   |7th|   |   |  |    |  |  |
  |                           | |  |  | |   |   |   |   |   |  |    |  |  |
  |                           | |  |  | |   |   |   |   |   |  |    |  |  |
  |Dodecasyllable _piano_     | |2d|  | |5th|   |   |8th|   |  |11th|  |  |
  |        "      _tronco_    | |2d|  | |5th|   |   |8th|   |  |11th|  |  |
  |                           | |  |  | |   |   |   |   |   |  |    |  |  |
  |                           | |  |  | |   |   |   |   |   |  |    |  |  |

The additional step to using the symbols of metrics was an easy one, and
a graphic diagram resulted much as follows:

  | Eight syllable | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10| 11| 12| 13|
  | (Title of      | U | U | --| U | U | U | --| U |   |   |   |   |   |
  | Poem)          +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  | e.g.           | U | U | --| U | U | U | --|   |   |   |   |   |   |
  | "Il ritorno in +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  | Italia"        | U | U | --| U | U | U | --| U |   |   |   |   |   |
  | "Return to     +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  | Italy"         | U | U | --| U | U | U | --|   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |                +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |                |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |                | U | U | --| U | U | U | --| U |   |   |   |   |   |
  |                +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |                | U | U | --| U | U | U | --|   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |                +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  | "Solitude"     | U | U | --| U | U | U | --| U |   |   |   |   |   |
  |                +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |                | U | U | --| U | U | U | --|   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |                +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |                |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |

  | Decasyllable   | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10| 11| 12| 13|
  |                | U | U | --| U | U | --| U | U | --| U |   |   |   |
  | (Title of      +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  | Poem)          | U | U | --| U | U | --| U | U | --| U |   |   |   |
  | "Passion"      +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |                |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |                | U | U | --| U | U | --| U | U | --| U |   |   |   |
  | "The Oath of   +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  | Pontida"       | U | U | --| U | U | --| U | U | --| U |   |   |   |
  |                +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |                |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |                | U | U | --| U | U | --| U | U | --| U |   |   |   |
  | "The Battle    +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  | of Macloud"    | U | U | --| U | U | --| U | U | --| U |   |   |   |
  |                +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |                |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |                | U | U | --| U | U | --| U | U | --| U |   |   |   |
  | "Far, far      +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  | away"          | U | U | --| U | U | --| U | U | --|   |   |   |   |
  |                +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+
  |                |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |   |

The next development is a complete study of the stanza or strophe in the
form of a summary; the number of lines, the rhymes, the accents, number
and location of the syllables. To _distinguish_ between the stanzas is
also to classify them, which becomes a pleasing task for the children.

One little girl, who was making a summary study of four terzets of
Dante, suddenly called the teacher to inform her with an expression of
complete surprise: "See, the rhyme always begins at the last accent!"
She had before her:

    Per me si va nella città dol_ente_;
    Per me si va nell'eterno dol_ore_;
    Per me si va tra la perduta g_ente_.
      Giustizia mosse il mio alto fatt_ore_;
    Fecemi la divina potest_ate_,
    La somma sapienza e il primo am_ore_.
    Dinanzi a me non fur cose cre_ate_....
          (Dante: Inscription over Gate of Hell.)

So in metrics also the children, following the natural inclinations of
their growth, pass from sensory discipline, to intelligent cognition,
and graphic representation. Then they become the "explorers of their
environment," the "discoverers" of general laws.

                             * * *

Translator's Note: The basis of Italian verse is in the syllable count,
and the rhythmic accent. In English verse, however, the question of the
syllable count is dependent on a much more complex consideration:
syllable length; and syllable length, in its turn, is conditioned not
only by the phonetic situation in and around the syllable, but by
rhetorical stress as well. It is clear that Signora Montessori's
experiments on the simpler Italian line have little direct bearing, save
as an illustration of method, on the pedagogy of English Metrics. For
whereas, the principal classifications of Italian lines involve merely
the problem of syllabiation (complicated by dieresis and synalepha),
with a numerical terminology (_quinario_, _ottonario_, _decasillabo_,
etc.), the study of English versification demands an analysis of measure
(feet) and of number of feet, with a terminology relative to each:
trochee, iambus, dactyl, spondee, anapest, etc., hexameter, pentameter,
etc., to mention only the most obvious elements of a science which,
applied even to simple English verse, soon becomes extremely
complicated. How much, then, of the study of English metrics, beyond the
elementary concepts of stanza and rhyme, should be included in the
Montessori Advanced Method, and what order of presentation of facts
should be followed, still remains to be experimentally determined.

However, the most illuminating fact, as regards method, which detaches
from Signora Montessori's experiments with metrical forms, is that _long
parisyllables_ are more readily analyzed by children than
imparisyllables; and secondly that _short_ imparisyllables prove easier
than long imparisyllables. We might wish more explicit evidence that the
hardest parisyllable is easier, therefore more _natural_, than the
easiest imparisyllable--implied in Signora Montessori's presentation of
this subject. Even so, her conclusions are interesting, and from more
than one point of view. It will be recalled that the most ancient and
the most fortunate of the meters used in French, Spanish, and Provençal
poetry is precisely the decasyllable (_Song of Roland_, the Provençal
_Boecis_, etc.), whereas the favorite line of old Italian popular poetry
was the octo-syllabic verse. These are both parisyllables, though the
succession of _theses_, or rhythmic beats, is not quite analogous to
that of the modern Italian verses used in this experiment. It would
seem, in fact, as though the children initiated by Signora Montessori
into metrical studies, were actually traversing the earlier experiences
of their Latin race.

Doubtless the reason why the parisyllable submits more readily to
rhythmic analysis than imparisyllables, is that when the syllables are
in even numbers, the line tends to reduce to two simple rhythmic
groups--the decasyllable to groups of 4 and 6, with two rhythmic beats
in each group; the dodecasyllable to groups of 6 and 6 (therefore of 3
and 3 and 3 and 3); the octosyllables to groups of 4 and 4; the six
syllable to groups of 3 and 3. The imparisyllables on the contrary are
rarely capable of such division--of such _monotony_, if you wish. They
lend themselves to more complex rhythm, especially to "paragraphic"
treatment. They are distinctly the rhythms of erudite, "cultivated,"
"literary" poetry.

We should suspect, accordingly, that what appears in the above
experiments as _length_ is in reality _reducibility_ to simpler forms;
and that lines capable of such reduction should be given first in an
adaptation of Signora Montessori's method. It is, however, highly
improbable that in English, where the only constant element in rhythm is
the stress and not the syllable count, the line compounded of two
simpler rhythmic groups should prove easier for the child than either of
those simpler groups themselves. We see no reason to assume, for
instance, than an eight-stress line, reducible to two four-stress lines,
should be more readily analyzed than a four-stress line; or that a
seven-stress line, reducible to a four-stress and a three-stress line,
should be easier than either one of these. In fact, the predominance of
these simpler elements in the English feeling for these longer groups is
indicated by the fact that such compound lines are commonly broken into
their constituent parts when printed (cf. _The Ancient Mariner_), even
in cases where the isolation of these parts is not emphasized and
rendered natural by rhyme. It will be observed that in the Montessori
experiment the order of presentation was first, three-stress
(anapestic), then four-stress (iambic), then two-stress (iambic) lines.
This situation happens to correspond to that found in the commonest
popular English verse, which gives undoubted preference, as witness our
nursery rimes, to three-stress and four-stress iambics. Two-stress lines
constitute in reality four-stress lines divided by rhyme; just as, in
poems of distinctly literary savor, the two-stress line is further
reducible by interior rhyme to two one-stress lines.



    O l=é=t the s=ó=lid gr=oú=nd
    Not f=aí=l ben=eá=th my f=eé=t
    Bef=ó=re my l=í=fe has f=oú=nd
    What s=ó=me have f=oú=nd so sw=eé=t.

    The m=oú=ntain sh=eé=p are sw=eé=ter,
    But the v=á=lley sh=eé=p are f=á=tter;
    We th=é=refore d=eé=med it m=eé=ter
    To c=á=rry =ó=ff the l=á=tter.
    We m=á=de an =é=xped=í=tion;
    We m=é=t an h=ó=st and qu=é=lled it;
    We f=ó=rced a str=ó=ng pos=í=tion,
    And k=í=lled the m=é=n who h=é=ld it.


    Ha=í=l to the=é= blithe sp=í=rit!
    B=í=rd thou n=é=ver w=é=rt,
    Th=á=t from he=á=ven or ne=á=r it
    Po=ú=rest th=ý= full he=á=rt....


    I am m=ó=narch of =á=ll I surv=é=y;
    My r=í=ght there is n=ó=ne to disp=ú=te;
    From the c=é=ntre all ro=ú=nd to the se=á=
    I am l=ó=rd of the f=ó=wl and the br=ú=te.


    Th=í=s is a spr=á=y the bird cl=ú=ng to,
    M=á=king it bl=ó=ssom with ple=á=sure,
    =È=re the high tre=é=-tops she spr=ú=ng to,
    F=í=t for her n=é=st and her tre=á=sure.[10]



Examples: Byron, _The Prisoner of Chillon_; Scott, _The Lady of the
Lake_; Milton, _Il pensieroso_.

    We co=ú=ld not m=ó=ve a s=í=ngle p=á=ce,
    We co=ú=ld not se=é= each =ó=ther's f=á=ce
    But w=í=th that p=á=le and l=í=vid l=í=ght
    They m=á=de us str=á=ngers =í=n our s=í=ght....


Examples: Longfellow, _Hiawatha_; George Eliot, _The Spanish Gipsy_.

    W=é=stward, w=é=stward, H=í=aw=á=tha
    Sa=í=led int=ó= the fi=é=ry s=ú=nset,
    Sa=í=led int=ó= the p=ú=rple v=á=pors,
    Sa=í=led int=ó= the d=ú=sk of =é=vening.

This line is much more common in its catalectic form:

    H=á=ste thee n=ý=mph and br=í=ng with th=é=e
    J=é=st and yo=ú=thful j=ó=llit=ý=,
    Qu=í=ps and cr=á=nks and w=á=nton w=í=les,
    N=ó=ds and b=é=cks and wre=á=thed sm=í=les....
                                   MILTON, _L'Allegro._


Examples: Goldsmith, _Retaliation_; Byron, _The Destruction of

  The sm=á=ll birds rejo=í=ce in the gre=é=n leaves ret=ú=rning,
  The m=ú=rmuring stre=á=mlet winds cle=á=r through the v=á=le.


Examples: Byron, _Song of Saul_; Dryden, _An Evening's Love_.

    =Á=fter the p=á=ngs of a d=é=sperate l=ó=ver,
    Wh=é=n day and n=í=ght I have s=í=ghed all in va=í=n,
    =Á=h what a ple=á=sure it =í=s to disc=ó=ver
    =Í=n her eyes p=í=ty, who ca=ú=ses my p=á=in.



Examples: Herrick, _To the Lark_; Shakespeare, _Midsummernight's Dream_
(Bottom's Song).

    The r=á=ging r=ó=cks
    And sh=í=vering sh=ó=cks
    Shall bre=á=k the l=ó=cks
    Of pr=í=son g=á=tes.


Examples: George Eliot, _The Spanish Gipsy_; Campion, _Art of Poesie_.

    Co=ú=ld I c=á=tch that
    N=í=mble tra=í=tor,
    Sc=ó=rnful La=ú=ra,
    Sw=í=ft-foot La=ú=ra,
    So=ó=n then wo=ú=ld I
    Se=é=k av=é=ngement.


Examples: Shelley, _Arethusa_; Scott, _The Lady of the Lake_ (Coronach).

    He is g=ó=ne on the mo=ú=ntain,
    He is l=ó=st to the f=ó=rest,
    Like a s=ú=mmer-dried fo=ú=ntain,
    When our ne=é=d was the s=ó=rest.


Examples: Tennyson, _Charge of the Light Brigade_; Longfellow, _Saga of
King Olaf_.

    C=á=nnon to r=í=ght of them,
    C=á=nnon to l=é=ft of them,
    C=á=nnon in fr=ó=nt of them,
    V=ó=lleyed and th=ú=ndered.




    Thus Í
    Pass b=ý=
    And d=í=e
    As =ó=ne
    And g=ó=ne.



Examples: Howe, _Battle Hymn of the Republic_; Byron, _Stanzas for
Music_; Kipling, _Wolcott Balestier_; Coleridge, _The Ancient Mariner_.

  Mine ey=é=s have se=é=n the gl=ó=ry =ó=f the c=ó=ming =ó=f the L=ó=rd.


Example: Swinburne, _Clear the Way_.

  Cle=á=r the w=á=y, my l=ó=rds and l=á=ckeys, yo=ú= have h=á=d your
  H=é=re you h=á=ve your =á=nswer, Éngland's ye=á= aga=í=nst your n=á=y.


Example: Swinburne, _The Birds_.

    Come =ó=n then ye dw=é=llers by n=á=ture in d=á=rkness and l=í=ke to
            the le=á=ves' gener=á=tions.


Example: Anonymous.

  Out of the k=í=ngdom of Chr=í=st shall be g=á=thered by =á=ngels
          o'er S=á=tan vict=ó=rious,
  All that off=é=ndeth, that li=é=th, that f=á=ileth to h=ó=nor his
          n=á=me ever gl=ó=rious.


_Iambic_ (alexandrine):

Example: Wordsworth, _The Pet Lamb_.

  The d=é=w was f=á=lling f=á=st, the st=á=rs beg=á=n to bl=í=nk;
  I he=á=rd a vo=í=ce: it sa=í=d, "Drink, pr=é=tty cre=á=ture, dr=í=nk!"


Example: Swinburne, _The Last Oracle_.

  K=í=ng, the w=á=ys of he=á=ven bef=ó=re thy fe=é=t grow g=ó=lden;
  G=ó=d, the so=ú=l of e=á=rth is k=í=ndled w=í=th thy gr=á=ce.


Examples: Tennyson, _Maud_; Swinburne, _The Garden of Cymodoce_.

  And the r=ú=shing b=á=ttle-bolt s=á=ng from the thre=é=-decker
          o=ú=t of the fo=á=m.


Examples: Swinburne, _Hesperia_; Longfellow, _Evangeline_.

  Th=í=s is the f=ó=rest prim=é=val; the m=ú=rmuring p=í=nes and the
  Be=á=rded with m=ó=ss and with g=á=rments gre=é=n, indist=í=nct in
          the tw=í=light.



Example: William Webbe, _Discourse of English Poetrie_.

  Where v=í=rtue w=á=nts and v=í=ce abo=ú=nds, there we=á=lth is b=ú=t
          a ba=í=ted ho=ó=k.


Examples: Tennyson, _Locksley Hall_; Poe, _The Raven_.

  =Ó=pen th=é=n I fl=ú=ng the sh=ú=tter, wh=é=n with m=á=ny a fl=í=rt
          and fl=ú=tter,
  =Í=n there st=é=pped a st=á=tely r=á=ven =ó=f the sa=í=ntly d=á=ys
          of y=ó=re.


Example: Swinburne, _March_.

  Ere fr=ó=st-flower and sn=ó=w-blossom f=á=ded and f=é=ll, and the
          spl=é=ndor of w=í=nter had p=á=ssed out of s=í=ght,
  The wa=ý=s of the wo=ó=dlands were fa=í=rer and str=á=nger than
          dre=á=ms that fulf=í=l us in sle=é=p with del=í=ght.


Example: Longfellow, _Golden Legend_, 4.

  Ónward and =ó=nward the h=í=ghway r=ú=ns to the d=í=stant c=í=ty,
          imp=á=tiently be=á=ring
  T=í=dings of h=ú=man j=ó=y and dis=á=ster, of l=ó=ve and h=á=te,
          of d=ó=ing and d=á=ring.


_Iambic_ (Heroic pentameter):

Examples: Milton, _Paradise Lost_; Bryant, _Thanatopsis_, etc., etc.

  Sweet A=ú=burn, l=ó=veliest v=í=llage =ó=f the pla=í=n
  Where he=á=lth and bea=ú=ty che=é=r the l=á=boring swa=í=n ...


Examples: Browning, _One word more_; Tennyson, _The Vision of Sin_.

    Th=é=n metho=ú=ght I he=á=rd a m=é=llow so=ú=nd,
    G=á=thering =ú=p from =á=ll the l=ó=wer gro=ú=nd.


Examples: Browning, _Saul_; Tennyson, _Maud_.

  We have pr=ó=ved we have he=á=rts in a ca=ú=se: we are n=ó=ble


Very rare in English.

     .     .     .     .     .     .     .     .

While the remainder of the exercises in syllabication and graphic
transcription, as described by Dr. Montessori, would seem to follow
naturally on the above exercises in the analysis of line stress, it is
clear that additional attention must be given to questions of
terminology. For the metrical syntheses performed in the tables at the
end of the preceding section will not be possible for English poetry
unless the child is able to identify the kinds of feet and the kinds of
lines. We suggest accordingly two supplementary drills with the card
system familiar to the child from his exercises in grammar. The first
consists of a list of words, each on a separate card, with the tonic
accent marked. Each word with its accent represents a foot (iambus,
trochee, anapest, dactyl), indicated on the card in graphic
transcription beneath the word:

     -- U  U

Corresponding to each word is another card bearing simply the graphic
transcription and the name of the foot. The exercise, of the greatest
simplicity, is to pair off the cards, arranging the words in a column on
the table, putting after each the card that describes it. The cards,
when properly arranged, read as follows:

    betweén         U -- iambus
     U --

    móther          -- U trochee
     -- U

    disrepúte     U U -- anapest
     U  U --

    wónderful     -- U U dactyl
     -- U  U

A second stage of this exercise consists in offering a similar series of
cards where, however, the word-cards are without the indication of the
tonic accent and without the graphic transcription of the measure:

    suggest        U -- iambus
    accent         -- U trochee
    underneath   U U -- anapest
    metrical     -- U U dactyl

An identical exercise is possible for whole lines. The first stage
consists of naming the lines accompanied by the metrical transcription
with cards containing simply the transcription and the name of the
meter; in the second stage, the same lines are given but on cards
without the graphic transcription: for example:


  Go where glory waits thee                  Trochaic trimeter
  --  U    -- U   --    U                       -- U -- U -- U

  The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold
   U   U -- U   U   --    U    U   --  U   U   --

                                          Anapestic tetrameter
                                   U U -- U U -- U U -- U U --

  Venus thy mother in years when the world was a water at rest
  -- U   U   -- U   U  --    U    U   --    U  U -- U  U   --

                                            Dactyllic hexameter
                          -- U U -- U U -- U U -- U U -- U U --


    Go where glory waits thee    Trochaic trimeter
                                  -- U -- U -- U

    It was but John the Red and I    Iambic Tetrameter
                                  U -- U -- U --  U --

                      etc., etc.

When these fundamental notions have been acquired the child is ready for
the more difficult problems of anacrusis, catalexis, irregular feet and
irregular pauses, which he can recognize in almost any poem of
considerable length by comparing the transcription of a given foot with
specimen transcriptions of regular lines, which are always accessible to


[10] Most of our examples of various types and combinations of verse are
taken from Alden, _English Verse_, New York, Henry Holt.




Copies of this Chart (pages 409-422) will be supplied, in convenient
form, by the publishers, Frederick A. Stokes Company, 443-449. Fourth
Avenue, New York, at 20 cents for the set. Diary pads are 10 cents

  __________________SCHOOL DATA_______________________

  _School Year 191_..............................

  _Hours of Sessions_............................


  _Subjects Taught_..............................





  _Teaching Staff_...............................




  _Address of School_............................


  _Consultations with Parents and Public_........





  ________________DATA ON THE CHILD___________________

  _Family Name_.........._Names_............

  _Date of Birth_................................

  _Date of Entrance_.............................

  _Age of Parents: Father_....._Mother_.....

  _Occupations of Parents:_



  _Home Address_.................................

  _Personal History of the Child_................





  _Personal Appearance of the Child_.............

  _Notes on Child's Family_......................






  _____________SCHOOL YEAR 191.. 191..________________

  _Name_.............._Date of Birth_.......


        _Date of Entering School_................

                 |       |Cephalic     |     | NOTES ON CHILD'S PHYSICAL
                 |       |Index        |.....| DEVELOPMENT
                 |       +-------------+-----+
                 |       |Transversal  |     | ..........................
                 | HEAD  |Diameter     |.....|
                 | (mm.) +-------------+-----+ ..........................
                 |       |Antero-post. |     |
                 |       |diameter     |.....| ..........................
                 |       +-------------+-----+
                 |       |Circumference|.....| ..........................
                 | Index               |     | ..........................
                 | of Weight           |.....|
                 +---------------------+-----+ ..........................
                 | Index of            |     |
  ANTHROPOLOGICAL| Stature             |.....| ..........................
  NOTES          +---------------------+-----+
                 | Stature             |     | ..........................
                 | (sitting)           |.....|
                 | (m.)                |     | ..........................
                 | Thoracic            |     | ..........................
                 | circum.             |.....|
                 | (m.)                |     | ..........................
                 | Weight              |     | ..........................
                 | (Kg.)               |.....|
                 +---------------------+-----+ ..........................
                 | Stature             |     |
                 | (standing)          |.....| ..........................
                 | (m.)                |     |

  _______________SCHOOL YEAR 191..-191..______________

  _Name_........_Date of birth_.............

              | STATURE IN METERS  | NOTES
    MONTH     +----------+---------+
              | Standing | Sitting |
  _September_ |..........|..........| ...........
  _October_   |..........|..........|............
  _November_  |..........|..........|............
  _December_  |..........|..........|............
  _January_   |..........|..........|............
  _February_  |..........|..........|............
  _March_     |..........|..........|............
  _April_     |..........|..........|............
  _May_       |..........|..........|............
  _June_      |..........|..........|............
  _July_      |..........|..........|............
  _August_    |..........|..........|............

  SCHOOL YEAR 191..-191..


  _Date of Birth_................................

              | 1st week | 2nd week | 3rd week | 4th week
              |          |          |          |
  _September_ |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _October_   |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _November_  |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _December_  |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _January_   |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _February_  |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _March_     |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _April_     |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _May_       |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _June_      |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _July_      |..........|..........|..........|..........
              |          |          |          |
  _August_    |..........|..........|..........|..........

                 (_Family Name_)        (_Names_)

  NAME IN FULL..............................................

SCHOOL YEAR 191..-191..



  _Diary_ | _Name of_       | _Page Number_
          | _Child_         |
  191..   | Month.............Day...............





      When a child begins to show constant application to a
      piece of work.

      What this work is and how long he remains at it (speed
      or slowness he shows in completing it, the number of
      times he repeats the same exercise).

      Individual peculiarities in application to particular

      To what tasks the child successively applies himself
      on the same day and with how much persistency to each.

      Whether he has periods of spontaneous activity at work
      and on how many days.

      How the child's need of progress is manifested by him.

      What tasks he chooses and the order in which he
      chooses them; the persistency he shows in each.

      His power of application in spite of distractions
      about him that might tend to divert him from his work.

      Whether after a compulsory distraction he takes up
      again the task that has been interrupted.



      Orderliness or disorderliness in the actions of the

      The nature of his disorderliness.

      Whether there are any changes in conduct as his
      working ability develops.

      Whether, as his activities become more orderly, the
      child gives evidence of: accesses of joy; periods of
      placidity; expressions of affection.

      The part the children take and the interest they show
      in the progress of their schoolmates.



      Whether the child answers readily when he is called.

      Whether and at what times the child begins to show
      interest in what others are doing and to make
      intelligent effort to join in their work.

      The progress of his obedience to _calls_.

      The progress of his obedience to _commands_.

      What eagerness and enthusiasm the child shows in his

      The relation between the various phenomena of
      obedience and (a) the development of his working
      capacity; (b) changes in conduct,


School Year 191..-191..



  SCHOOL YEAR 191..--191..



  _Age of parents at marriage_........................

  _Are the parents related to each other?_............

  _Sickness and diseases of the parents?_.............



  _Were pregnancy and parturition normal?_............


  _Was the nursing done by the mother, or artificially?_.....

  _The child's health during the first year:_..........


  _Subsequent sicknesses of the child:_...............


  _Date of teething, learning to walk, and learning to speak:_.....



  SCHOOL YEAR 191..-191..



  _Age, education and occupation:_....................


  _Age, education and occupation:_....................



  _Are accounts kept in the family?_..................


  _Family habits (amusements, home life)_.............

  _Number of persons in the family (how many adults, how many


  _Does the family employ servants?_..................

  _How many wage earners in the family?_..............

  _Does the family have income from property?_........

  _Does the family keep roomers or boarders?_.........

  _Is the housekeeping satisfactory?_.................

  SCHOOL YEAR 191..-191..





     What is commended in the family, e.g., devoutness,
     patriotism, or their opposites, affectionateness,
     honesty, modest, neatness, generosity, kindness,
     independence, etc. The social relationships between
     husband and wife (rights, privileges, or equality).
     Special distinctions of family members (public honors,
     acts of courage, etc.).



  What complaints are made in the home against members of the
  family, e.g., drinking, lack of affectionateness, gambling, irreligion,
  disorderliness, lawlessness, extravagance, laziness, etc.



  What concept do the parents have of education? e.g., severity
  gentleness, rewards, punishments, understanding of children, the
  freedom accorded the children, etc.



  What care is taken of the child and what rights are recognized by
  the family as belonging to him.



This appendix contains a summary of a few of my lectures delivered in
1900 in the Scuola Magistrate Ortofrenica in Rome and published in
pamphlet form for the benefit of the teacher-students who were attending
that course. A number of distinguished physicians were at the same time
lecturing in the school on various subjects--such as Psychology,
Esthesiology, Anatomy of the Nerve Centres, etc. I had reserved for
myself the teaching, or rather the development, of a special pedagogy
for defective children, along the lines previously laid down by Itard
and Séguin.

In the summary of these old lectures of mine are included some of my
experiments with certain subjects taught in the elementary grades. They
show that the origin of my present work with older children is to be
sought in my teaching of defectives.

I still possess, as documentary relics of this course, a hundred copies
of a pamphlet entitled: _Riassunte delle lezioni di didattica della
Prof^{ssa} Montessori, anno 1900, Stab. Lit. Romano, via Frattina 62,
Roma._ More than three hundred teachers followed my course, and are able
to bear witness to the work done there.

I republish the following excerpts not because I consider my work so
important as to merit the preservation of all the documents touching on
its origin, but to prevent the giving of undue prominence to those
remnants of my earlier attempts and studies which are still to be found
in the Scuola Magistrale Ortofrenica in Rome.

      "The child should be led from the education of the
      muscular system to that of the nervous end sensory
      systems; from the education of the senses to concepts;
      from concepts to general ideas; from general ideas to
      morality. This is the educational method of Séguin."

      However, before we begin education, we must prepare
      the child to receive it by another education which is
      to-day regarded as of the very first importance. This
      preparatory education is the foundation on which all
      subsequent education must be based, and the success we
      obtain in it will determine the success of our
      subsequent efforts. by preparatory education I here
      mean _hygienic education_, which in defective children
      sometimes includes medical treatment. That is why the
      educational method for defectives is sometimes
      described as _medico-pedagogical_.

      Those who realize that importance of feeling and
      internal sensation in education will understand that
      the bodily organism must function properly in order to
      respond to our educational efforts. We must preserve
      good health where good health exists: we must restore
      it where it is lacking.

      We are therefore under strict obligation to pay close
      attention to nutrition and to the condition of the
      vital organs. Every one is aware of the close relation
      existing between general sensibility and morality.
      Criminals and prostitutes show very scant
      sensitiveness to pain and to tactile stimuli. The same
      situation is frequently apparent in defectives; hence
      the necessity of restoring the tactile sense with
      adequate attention to hygiene.

      We cannot educate the muscles to perform a given
      coordinate movement if they have lost their power of
      functioning (as in paresis, etc.). Education, properly
      so-called, must be preceded by a medical treatment to
      restore the muscles, if possible, to good health.

It will be impossible to educate, for example, the sense of hearing, if
some pathological situation has produced partial deafness. We cannot
educate the sense of smell if the excessive excretion of mucus prevents
external stimuli from acting on the ends of the sensory nerves.
Obviously, we need a medical treatment to remove these diseased


      _General baths:_ When not too prolonged they develop
      the sensibility of the nervous papillæ. They give tone
      to the cellular and muscular tissues, especially to
      the skin.

      _Hot and cold baths_ given alternately are a powerful
      educational instrument in attracting the attention of
      a child to his external environment.

      _Local hot baths_ may be given to areas deficient in
      sensibility. For instance, try bathing the hands if
      tactile education proves impossible, or bathe the feet
      if the defect in standing upright or in walking comes
      from the insensitiveness of the soles.

      _Local cold baths:_ Given to the head while the
      patient is entirely covered in warm water are a tonic
      to the scalp; they facilitate the knitting of the
      bones of the skull and the formation of wormian bones,
      preventing also cerebral congestion. They stimulate
      and regularize the cerebral circulation. Such baths
      are particularly useful for hydro-cephalics and
      micro-cephalics, but all patients are benefited by
      such baths, which are the most generally useful of

      _Steam baths_ develop perspiration which at times is
      completely absent or partial in defectives, causing
      serious physical disturbances. These baths,
      furthermore, predispose the nerve ends to the most
      intense sensitiveness.

      Such baths are, however, not to be used on epileptics
      or on children suffering from rickets, weak
      circulation or general debility.

      In general, _local steam baths_ are used especially
      for hands and feet, and also for the tongue.

      _General cold baths_ are used in cases of
      super-excitation, motor-hyperactivity, excessive
      sensitiveness to pain and touch. These baths must be
      accompanied by constant cold lotions on the head.

      Baths may be accompanied, with good results, by
      _massage_ and _rubbing_.

      _Rubbings_ may be given dry or with water, alcohol,
      aromatic creams or ointments.

      Local rubbings may be applied: (a) _To the spine_,
      carefully avoiding the lumbar region so as not to
      excite the sexual sensibilities. Dry rubbings should
      be made with a piece of flannel and continued until
      the skin reddens. They are especially useful after hot
      baths followed by cold douches. (b) _To the chest_ to
      stimulate respiration. (c) _To the abdomen_ to
      correct various internal disorders (here, however,
      massage is more efficacious). (d) _To the joints_
      (rubbings with aromatic creams and with alcohol are
      very effective).

      A brief rubbing with alcohol or creams can be followed
      with good effect by massage in the case of abdomen and
      joints. Massage on the abdomen stimulates circulation
      in the intestines and intensifies and regularizes the
      movements of the muscular walls.

      Massage has a surprising effect on the muscles of the
      joints; it shocks the muscular fibers in their
      innermost parts and sets them in motion; it
      regularizes the functioning of the muscles by reducing
      excessive contraction and restoring deficient
      contractibility. Emaciated muscles are regenerated,
      the muscular bulk is vigorously augmented, while the
      fat tissues are absorbed.

      The repetition several times a day of bathing, rubbing
      and massage has produced real miracles of physical


      Intestinal disturbances have a direct influence on the
      functional power of the central nervous system. They
      merit, therefore, special consideration. For in
      defectives an intestinal inflammation may produce
      symptoms of meningitis, and a disorder in digestion
      even unattended by fever may occasionally give rise to

      The hygiene of feeding which is almost the same as
      that for normal children must therefore be rigorously

      The general rule is list the children should have
      regular meals and be allowed nothing whatever to eat
      between meals. It is commonly believed that a piece of
      candy or a bit of fruit given between meals has no bad
      effect. This is a common error of many mothers, who by
      allowing such slight irregularities in diet, become
      the unwitting cause of serious illnesses in their
      children. When we say that children should be fed at
      mealtimes, we mean that _nothing_ should be given them
      _except_ at meal times; nothing, not even the most
      innocent confection; not a crumb of bread, not a drop
      of milk. This severity has the quantity and quality of
      food allowed in each.

      _Number:_ For children between 2 and 7 years: 4 meals
      a day; for children between 8 and 14 years: 3 meals a
      day. These meals should be at regular hours, and
      followed without exception by a period of mental rest,
      which must be provided for in making up the daily
      program of lessons.

      We need special researches as to what type of activity
      may be allowed children during digestion and what
      organs may be active without damage to the child while
      the stomach is taxed with the labor of digestion. A
      few things are clear. The children should be sent out
      of closed rooms where their play raises more or less
      dust, and kept in well-ventilated places, if possible,
      in a garden or in a woods well supplied with aromatic
      trees. The best thing a child can do immediately after
      a meal is to take a short walk in the open air without
      much exertion.

      _Quantity:_ In the case of children between 2 and 7
      years of age, there should be two full meals and two
      luncheons. After the age of 7 there should be one
      lunch and two full meals. We cannot be more specific.

      _Quality:_ In the case of defectives it would be
      useful for the doctor to order a diet day by day after
      having examined the diaries of the nurses as is done
      in hospitals. For it may be possible to introduce into
      the food elements which constitute an actual cure for
      certain diseased conditions and preventives of certain
      kinds of attacks. In food we should realize the
      distinctions between the elements which build
      tissues--true food substances, and others whose
      function is purely stimulatory--alcohol, coffee, tea,
      etc., which should be used only occasionally.

      Among the food substances properly so-called are the
      albuminoids (proteins), fats, and carbo-hydrates
      (sugars, starches, wheat and potato flours, etc.). The
      fats are the least digestible foods, but they produce
      the greatest number of calories.

      The proportion of the different elements in the food
      should be determined by the amount of albumin, which
      constitutes the real food element. Albumin is of both
      vegetable and animal origin. Its animal forms are more
      nutritious, more easily digestible, and products more
      calories than the vegetable forms. The foods which
      produce animal-albumin are milk, eggs, and meats.
      Vegetables themselves furnish what is known as
      vegetable-albumin. Children up to 8 years of age are
      supplied usually with the following albuminous foods:
      eggs, milk and vegetables. For children between 6 and
      8: eggs, milk, fish and vegetables may be provided.
      Older children may be given chicken, veal, and finally

      Though for normal children a restricted meat diet is
      desirable, in the case of defectives a rich supply of
      meat as well as of albuminoids in general is to be
      sought. Their treatment resembles that of weak
      convalescent patients whose strength is to be
      restored. The meats best adapted to such children are
      those containing large amounts of mucilaginous
      substances and sugar (veal, lamb and young animals in
      general). Vegetable _purées_, fat gravies, butter,
      etc., are to be recommended in these cases.

      For _nervous children_, fats, oils, acids, and flours
      should be avoided.

      For _apathetic children_, who experience difficulty in
      digestion, tonics and rich seasonings should be used,
      such as spices, which have come to be almost excluded
      from ordinary cooking, especially for children. Spices
      may well be restored to the diet of institutions for
      defectives, since they have the additional advantage
      of permitting mixture with irons, of which they
      neutralize the taste.

      Questions of food depend largely upon the individual
      condition of the children. The important thing is to
      avoid "the school ration." This is all the more true
      of beverages.

      _Beverages:_ While stimulants are usually to be
      excluded from the diet of normal children of 7 or
      under, it is often desirable to introduce tea, coffee,
      etc., into the meals of defectives. This should be
      done, however, only in the daily diets ordered by the
      physician for individuals.

      _Nervous children_ should be restricted to milk and
      water for their meals with some moderately sweet drink
      (orange juice, weak lemonade, etc.) after eating.

      _Apathetics_, showing atonic digestion, may have
      coffee either before eating or during their meals.

      Special education is necessary to accustom the
      children to complete mastication. Such practice in the
      use of the organs of mastication assists also in the
      later development of speech.


      Among the physiological irregularities that appear
      among children special importance attaches to

      _Defecation:_ Among defectives especially, so-called
      "dirty children" are often so numerous that special
      sections have to be made for them in institutions.
      Such children show involuntary losses of fæces and
      urine, as in the case of infants. Most frequently the
      defecations are of liquid consistency though sometimes
      the reverse is true. Our remedial effort should be in
      two directions: we should try to regularize the
      operation of the intestines by giving solidity to the
      excretions; secondly, we should endeavor to strengthen
      the sphincter muscles.

      A strict observance of the diet hygiene outlined
      above, especially as concerns regularity of meals and
      mastication of food, will assist in the attainment of
      the first object. We should try in addition to
      regularize defecation by stimulating it at regular
      intervals (to be gradually increased in length)
      through light massages and hot rubbings on the

      To strengthen the sphincters general tonics (iron,
      strychnine), and local tonics (such as cold
      "sitz-baths," cold showers and electric baths) may be
      used. Suppositories may also be used to advantage in
      stimulating sphincter contractions and accustoming the
      muscles to constrictive action.

      _Urine:_ some defectives show involuntary loss of
      urine, especially at night, up to very advanced ages.
      Epileptics are particularly predisposed to this. The
      treatment is analogous to that just described.
      Beverages should be carefully supervised. Diuretics
      and excessive drinking in general should be avoided.

      _General recommendations:_ Local baths, and rigorous
      cleanliness to avoid any stimulus to onanism.

      Education can do much in the treatment of this
      situation. Urination should be regularly suggested to
      the child before he goes to bed and when he wakes in
      the morning. In special cases it might be well to
      waken the child once or twice during the night for the
      same purpose. This defect is often associated in a
      child with some abnormality in the phenomena of

      _Perspiration:_ The sweat has almost the same
      composition as urine, and perspiration is a process
      supplementary to the action of the kidneys. It has
      been observed that often in defective children
      perspiration is either entirely lacking or limited to
      certain areas (the palms of the hands, the nose,
      etc.). It is absolutely necessary to stimulate and
      regularize perspiration over the whole surface of the
      body. This may be done by hot and steam baths, by dry
      rubs with flannels (long sustained if necessary), by
      woolen garments constantly worn next to the skin, and
      other similar mechanical devices. We must, however,
      absolutely avoid the use of special diaphoretic drugs,
      which often bring about a fatal weakening of the
      organs of perspiration. The treatments we have
      suggested above are, first of all, harmless, but
      besides they contribute to the general toning and
      sensitizing of the skin.

      _Nasal mucus and tears:_ Tears are often lacking in
      defectives. On the other hand nasal excretion is very
      abundant and replaces the tears, which are often so
      rare that some children reach a relatively advanced
      age without having wept. In such cases there is a
      predisposition to certain diseases of the eyes; and
      excessive nasal excretion prevents the functioning of
      the olfactory organs.

      For this we recommend inhaling of hot vapors and of
      fragrant irritants, which correct the excessive
      excretion of mucus and exercise the olfactory sense.
      Usually the regular secretion of tears follows as a
      matter of course.

      _Saliva:_ One of the most unpleasant abnormalities in
      defectives is the continuous loss of saliva from
      "hanging lips." But the effects are not only
      unesthetic. The continuous over-excretion of saliva
      makes the inner organs of the mouth flabby and
      swollen. The tongue and the organs of speech in
      general gradually lose their contractive power, and
      articulation is ultimately rendered impossible. Taste
      and tactile ability often disappear altogether.
      Mastication becomes difficult and deglutition
      irregular. The secondary effects on the digestive
      organs are bad. We possess a variety of efficient
      curatives and educational treatments for this defect:
      _first_, general tonics; _second_, local cold douches
      on the lip muscles, electric massage of the lips;
      _third_, the use of licorice sticks, large at first
      but gradually reducing in diameter, to be introduced
      between the lips to stimulate the sucking activity
      and the exercise of the contractive muscles. This will
      ultimately give the necessary muscular tone. The lips
      of the child should be closed mechanically from time
      to time to force him to swallow the saliva and to
      create the habit of deglutition.


      The principles of hygiene must be extended to the
      dress of the child and to the environment in which it

      _Clothing:_ The child's clothes should be so made as
      to be easily put on and off. They should not hinder
      normal functioning of the body (breathing). They
      should afford no opportunity for dangerous vices
      (onanism). If the child can dress and undress without
      difficulty, it will learn the more readily to look
      after itself even in those little necessities of daily
      life where partial undressing is necessary. Special
      attention should be given to stockings, which affect
      the development of sensitiveness in the soles of the
      feet and also concern the process of learning to walk.

      _Environment:_ Just a few reminders: for defectives
      perfect ventilation of course; but the walls and
      furniture should be upholstered in the case of
      impulsive defectives or of defectives who do not know
      how to walk. There is danger in furniture with sharp
      projections and in toys which may be thrown about. A
      "child's room," the luxury of which consists in it
      hygienic location, its elastic walls, and its very
      emptiness, is the best gift a rich family can make to
      the education of a defective child.


      Muscular education has for its object the bringing of
      the individual to some labor useful for society. This
      labor must always be executed by means of the muscles,
      whether it be manual labor, speaking or writing. In a
      word, the intelligence must subject the muscles to its
      own purposes and, that the muscles may be equipped for
      such obedience, it is necessary to prepare them by
      some education which will reduce them to coordination.
      Muscular education in defectives accordingly has for
      its object the stimulation and coordination of useful

      It prepares: for exercise; for the activities of
      domestic service (washing, dressing, preparing food,
      setting and clearing the table, etc.); for manual
      labor (trades); for language (use of the vocal
      organs). The preparation consists in bringing the
      child to _tonic quiescence_ in standing posture. The
      child must learn first to stand still with head erect
      and with his eyes fixed on the eyes of the teacher.
      From this position of _tonic quiescence_ we must pass
      to exercises in _imitation_. We obtain _tonic
      quiescence_ by a variety of procedures, the variation
      depending upon individual cases. We must stimulate the
      apathetic and the sluggish; we must moderate the
      hyperactive; we must correct paresis, tics, etc. In
      other words, medical education must precede pedagogy
      itself. It may be a question of applying medical
      gymnastics both for active and passive movements,
      alternating this treatment with massage, electric
      baths, etc.

      Let us note one or two motor abnormalities which are
      easy to detect in defectives. _Atony_: the child does
      not move; he cannot stand; he cannot sit upright nor
      execute any movement whatever. _Hyperactivity_: this
      is characterized by almost constant _incoordinated_ or
      disorganized movements which have no useful purpose,
      e.g., jumping, beating, tearing up of objects within
      reach and so on. Such patients are dangerous to
      themselves and to others.


      (A).--_Movements executed upon the person of the
      child_: sucking of the fingers; biting of the nails;
      constant stroking of some part of the body. These
      movements are caused by imperfectly developed
      sensibility; the children stroke or caress, for
      example, that area of the skin which possesses
      greatest tactile sensitiveness, etc.

      (B).--_Movements executed upon surrounding objects_:
      rapping on tables; constant and careful tearing of
      pieces of paper into small bits, etc. This too is
      associated with some sensory pleasure on the part of
      the patient.

      _Rocking_: (a) _with patient reclining_: the head is
      nodded from left to right, from right to left; (b)
      _with patient sitting_: the trunk is rocked backward
      and forward; (c) _with patient standing_: the whole
      bod; rocks from left to right, the whole weight
      resting now on one foot and now on the other.
      Difficulty and hesitation are experienced in walking.
      These motory defects proceed from the difficulty
      experienced by the child in finding his center of
      gravity, his equilibrium.

      _Inability to perform local movements:_ (a) Inability
      to move certain of the fingers, the tongue, the lips,
      etc. From such defects arises the impossibility of
      performing certain simple manual exercises (bringing
      the finger tips of the two hands together; taking hold
      of objects, e.g., inability to button, etc.) and the
      inability to pronounce certain words; (b) Inability to
      contract the lip and sphincter muscles (loss of
      saliva, involuntary defecation).

      _Atony_ and _hyperactivity_ may be overcome by
      appropriate educational remedies which we will now
      discuss. Local agitations disappear with the general
      education of the senses; while rocking is cured by
      exercises in balancing.

      (A).--_Stimulate active movements in the atonic child
      until he is able to stand erect in tonic quiescence._

      Begin by stimulating the simple movements, gradually
      working up to the most complicated. We have a sure
      guide for this education in the spontaneous
      developments of movements in the normal child: he
      begins with the easiest spontaneous movements and
      gradually arrives at the harder ones.

      The first movement which develops in the child is the
      _prehensile_ act (grasping). Next comes the movements
      of the lower joints used in creeping and walking; next
      the ability to stand; and finally the ability to walk
      alone. _Grasping_: if no external stimulation is
      capable of interesting the defective of low type,
      grasping cannot be stimulated merely by presenting to
      the child some object or other which might seem to be
      interesting for color taste or some other quality. In
      such a case we must have recourse to the instinct of
      self-preservation, to that innate fear of void which
      defectives almost always have. The child feeling
      himself fall will instinctively grasp at some support
      within his reach. This is the simplest point of
      departure for our possible development of the grasping
      faculty in the defective child.

      _Method:_ The hands of the child am mechanically fixed
      around the rung of a ladder suspended to the ceiling.
      Then the child in left to himself. Since his fingers
      are already around the support he needs only to clench
      his hands to find support. He may not succeed even in
      this simple act the first time. The teacher must
      patiently repeat the exercise, always being ready, of
      course, to catch the child if he should fall. In this
      exercise the defective is very much alarmed as a rule
      and all his muscles are as a result more or less

      Likewise based on the instinct of self-preservation is
      the _swing_, where the defective must cling to some
      support with his hands to keep from falling.

      Finally a _ball_ is hung from the ceiling and swung in
      such a way as continually to strike the child in the
      face. To protect himself he must keep it away by
      seizing it.

      In still lower types we must have recourse to the
      instinct for nutrition which exists even in such

      _Standing:_ Under this heading we include also the
      movements which precede the actual attainment of the
      standing posture. To overcome the sinking of the
      knees, which impedes standing, the _swinging chair_
      may be used. The seat must reach nearly to the child's
      feet and the knees are tied to the seat. The child's
      foot, as he swings, strike against a board. This
      exercise prepares the lower joints to hold themselves
      in position when resting on a plane surface. Next the
      child is placed on _parallel bars_. The bars pass
      under the arm-pits and support the child while his
      feet rest on the floor. In these exercises we try to
      stimulate the movements which appear in walking
      (exercises of the lower joints). Next we exercise the
      muscles which support the spinal column. The child is
      made to sit down: first the spine in upright against
      the back of the chair; finally it remains upright when
      the support is removed. Little by little walking can
      be produced if the child is taken away from the bars
      and supported with a simple _gymnastic belt_. The
      exercise is continued until he can be left entirely
      without support.

      When the child has learned to walk we can _command_
      him to stop in the position of _tonic quiescence_.

      (B).--_Moderation of hyperactivity by forced

      In hyperactive children the arms must first be
      restrained by holding them tight in our hands. The
      movements of the lower limbs may be checked by holding
      the child's legs tight between our knees. Finally the
      child may be kept entirely quiescent with his legs
      held between the teacher's knees, his arms in the
      teacher's hands, with the trunk pushed back and held
      firmly against the wall. By a similar process he can
      be kept quiet while standing; then later in a position
      of _tonic quiescence_.

      _General Rule:_ Exercises of the limbs beginning with
      the arms should precede those specifically directed
      toward the spinal column. Séguin says "_tonic
      quiescence_ is necessarily the first step from _atonic
      quiescence_; or if you wish, from a disordered
      activity to an activity which represents harmony
      between the muscular system and the mind."

      We noted above that the posture of _tonic quiescence_
      involves a fixity of gaze on the part of the child.
      This is the point of departure for the development of
      coordinative movements and _imitation_ of what the
      child sees the teacher do.


      If the child is kept in the dark for some time and is
      suddenly shown a bright light he will experience the
      sensation of _red_.

      Keeping the child in a dark room for a shorter time a
      sudden light will attract his gaze.

      Move the light along the wall until the child's gaze
      follows it.

      Next, in a light room, the child is shown a red cloth
      kept in motion; a red balloon hung from the ceiling
      keeps striking him in the face.

      After these preparatory exercises the teacher can try
      to get the child to fix its eyes on his own and to
      maintain the fixed gaze. Here use may be made also of
      the sense of hearing (words of command, encouragement,

      Finally to obtain complete fixity of gaze, one may use
      the large mirror, before which lights may be passed.
      There the child can gaze at his own face and at the
      face of the teacher, which will be kept motionless and
      which the child may come to imitate.

      _Exercises of imitation:_ (1) The child is taught to
      become acquainted with himself. The various parts of
      his body are pointed out to him and he is made to
      touch them. This continues up to the point of
      distinguishing right from left. Begin with the larger
      members of the body (arms, legs, trunk, head) to be
      named in connection with movements of the whole body.
      Then pass to the smaller members (the fingers,
      knuckles, the organs of the mouth), to be referred to
      respectively in the education of the hand and in the
      teaching of speech.

      (2) The child is taught coordinative movements
      relating to gymnastics (walking, running, jumping,
      pushing, etc.).

      (3) Movements relating: (a) to the simpler forms of
      manual labor (exercises of practical life: washing,
      dressing, picking up and laying down various objects,
      opening and closing drawers); (b) to more complex
      kinds of manual labor (elements of various trades;
      weaving, Froebel exercises, etc.).

      (4) Movements relating to articulate language. For
      this educational process the following general rules
      are to be followed: first, movements of the whole body
      must precede movements of specific parts; second, only
      by analyzing complex movements in their successive
      stages and by working out their details point by point
      can we arrive at the execution of a perfect complex

      This latter rule applies especially to manual
      education and the teaching of language. When movements
      of the whole body have been obtained it will often be
      necessary, before going on to movements of particular
      members, to alternate the educational cure with the
      medical: (1) to overcome the weakness of some of the
      muscles (perhaps of some finger), use local electric
      baths, passive gymnastics, etc.; (2) for retractions,
      retarded development of aponeurosis of the palms,
      etc., use orthopedic treatment.

      Gymnastics, manual labor, trades and speaking are
      special branches of teaching, that usually require
      specially trained teachers.


      Outline for examination.

      _Sight:_ Sense of color. It is necessary to call the
      attention of the child several times to the same color
      by presenting it to him under different aspects and in
      different environments. The stimulus should be strong.
      Other senses tend to associate themselves with the
      chromatic sense, for example, the stereognostic and
      gustatory senses. Whenever the teacher gives an
      _idea_ she should unite with it the _word_, the only
      word which is related to the idea. The words should be
      emphatically and distinctly pronounced.

      (1) _Pedagogical aprons:_ The colors are presented on
      a large moving surface, as for instance, an apron worn
      by the teacher; e.g., a red apron. The teacher points
      to it, touches it, lifting it with noticeable
      movements of the arms, continually calls the attention
      of the child to it. "_Look! See here! Attention!_" and
      so on; then saying in a low voice and slowly, "_This
      is_ (and then in a louder voice), _red, red, red!!!_"
      Now take two aprons, one red, the other blue; repeat
      the same process for the blue. There are three stages
      in the process of distinguishing between colors: (a)
      "This is ... _red_!" (b) "Your apron is _red_!" (c)
      "What color is this?" Then try three aprons, red,
      blue, and yellow, bordered with white and black.

      (2) _Insets_--color and form. The red circle, the blue
      square. There are three stages: (a) "This is _red,
      red, red_! Touch it! Do you feel? Your finger goes
      _all the way around, all the way around_. It is
      _round_, it is _round, all round_. Put it in its
      place!" (b) "Give me the _red_ one!" (c) "What color
      is this circle?"

      (3) The dark room. A Bengal red color is shown: "It is
      _red_!" The color appears behind a circular disc: "It
      is _red_!" The blue is shown behind a square window:
      "It is _blue, blue, blue_," etc.

      (4) The child is given a circular tablet of red sugar
      to eat and a square lump of blue sugar. He is made to
      smell a red piece of cloth strongly scented with musk;
      or a blue piece of cloth scented with asafetida, etc.

      (5) The color chart.

      (6) The first game of Froebel.

      The first pedagogical material given should contain
      the color already taught. The notion of color should
      be associated with its original environment.

      _Shapes: Solids, Insets:_ The procedure is always in
      the three stages mentioned. (1) Show the object to the
      child. (2) Have him recognize it. (3) Have him give it
      its name.

      _Dimensions:_ Rods of the same thickness, but of
      graduated length. First the longest and the shortest
      are shown. The child is made to touch them and
      interchange them "Pick up the _longest_!" "Place it on
      the table!" etc. Repeat this exercise, adding some
      intermediate lengths; again finally, with all the
      rods. Next the rods may be disarranged; the child is
      to put them back in order of length. Notice whether
      the child makes an accurate choice in the confused
      pile of the graduated dimensions; or whether it is
      only by placing two rods together that he comes to
      notice the difference between them. Notice how long it
      is before the child makes an accurate choice in the
      pile and of what degrees of difference in length he is
      accurately aware.

      Try the same exercise for _thickness_: prisms of equal
      length, but of graduated thickness, using the same
      procedure in analogous exercises. Games may be used
      for the estimation of distances.

      _The tactile sense proper:_ One board with a
      corrugated surface (like a grater) and one smooth.
      Another board with five adjacent surfaces of graduated
      roughness. Similar exercises may be used in the
      feeling of cloths (guessing games).

      Games: The child is blindfolded and lightly tickled.
      He must seize what is tickling him, putting his hand
      rapidly to the irritant. ("Fly catching," a game for
      the localization of stimulants.)

            { Astringents
    Liquids { Glues
            { Oils

      _Tactile muscular sense:_

    Elastic bodies       {       { Rubber
                         { Balls {
    Non-resilient bodies {       { Wooden

      Use skins, leather gloves, and various kinds of cloths
      for feeling.

      _The muscular sense:_ Balls of the same appearance,
      but of graduated weights. Differentiation of coins by

      _The stereognostic sense:_ Recognition of elementary
      forms, of rare objects, of coins.

      _Thermal senses:_ Hot liquids, iced liquids; relative
      warmth of linen and wool, wood, wax, metal.

      _Olfactory sense:_ Asafetida, oil of rose, mint, etc.,

             { Tobacco smoke
             { Burned sugar
    Odors of { Incense
             { Burned maple

                     { Wood            }
    Odors of burning { Straw           }
    substances       { Paper           } Various applications
                   { Wool              } to practical life.
    Guessing games { Cotton            }
                   { Edibles           }

      Odors of foods (practical life): fresh milk, sour
      milk, fresh meat, stale meat, rancid butter, fresh
      butter, etc.

      _Taste:_ The four fundamental tastes (guessing games).
      Instructive applications to practise in the kitchen
      and at meals.

      Tastes of various food substances:

                                { milk gruel (milk and flour);
                                { diluted wine;
    Exercises of practical life { sweet wine;
                                { turned wine (vinegar), etc.

      The practise of the senses begins in the lower classes
      in the form of guessing games; in the higher classes
      the education of the senses is applied to exercises of
      practical life.

      _Hearing:_ Empirical measurement of the acuteness of
      the sense of hearing. Specimen game: the teacher about
      35 feet away from the blindfolded children and
      standing where an object has been hidden, whispers the
      words "_Find it!_" Those who have heard her will be
      able to find the object. Having removed from the line
      the children who have heard, the teacher steps to
      another place about a yard nearer and repeats the
      experiment to the children who are left over, etc.

      _Intensity of sound:_

      Throw to the floor metal blocks of various sizes,
      coins of graduated weight.

      Strike glasses one after the other according to size.

      Bells of graduated size.

      _Quality of sound:_ Produce different sounds and

           { of metal
    Bells  {
           { of terracotta

      Open Bells.

      Closed Bells.

      Strike with a wooden stick on tin plates, glasses,

      Identify various musical instruments.

      Identify different human voices (of different people).

      Identify the voice of a man, a woman, a child.

      Recognize different people by their step, etc., etc.

      _Pitch:_ Intervals of an octave, of a major triad, and
      so on; major and minor chords. However, musical
      education requires a separate chapter.

      _Sound projection, localization of sound in space:_
      The child is blindfolded. The sound is produced; (1)
      in front of him; behind him; to the right; to the
      left; above his head; (2) the blindfolded child
      recognizes the relative distance at which the sounds
      are produced; (3) the child decides from which side of
      the room the sounds come; he is made to follow some
      one who is speaking.

      _The horizontal plane:_ This is the first notion
      imparted to the child concerning his relationship to
      the objects about him. Almost all the objects the
      child may perceive around him with his senses rest on
      the horizontal plane: his table, his chair, and so on.
      The very objects on which the child sits or puts his
      toys are horizontal planes. If the plane were not
      horizontal, the objects would fall, but they would
      strike on the floor which, again, is a horizontal
      plane. Place an object on the child's table and tip
      one end of the table to show him that the object

      _Guessing game for the plane surface:_ This game
      serves to fix the notion of the plane surface and at
      the same time trains the eye and the attention of the

      1. Under one of three aluminum cups is placed a small
      red ball, a cherry or a piece of candy. The child must
      remember under which cup the object is hidden. The
      teacher tries herself and fails, always raising the
      empty cups and returning them to their places. The
      child, however, finds the object immediately.

      2. The teacher now begins to move the three cups about
      on the plane surface. The child has to keep his eye on
      _his_ cup and never loses sight of it.

      3. Repeat this exercise with six cups.

      _Checkerboard game:_ This serves to teach the child
      the limits and the various divisions of a plane. The
      squares are large and in black and white. The whole
      board should be surrounded by a border in relief.
      Various points are indicated on the plane: forward,
      backward, right, left, center, by placing a tin
      soldier at each point indicated. The soldiers may be
      moved about by the child in obedience to directions of
      the teacher: "The officer on horseback to _the
      center_": "Standard-bearer _to the right_, etc.!"
      Finally, make all the soldiers advance toward the
      center of the board over the black squares only; then
      over the white squares only, etc.

      These notions may be applied to exercises of practical
      life. The children already know how to set the table
      without thinking of what they are doing. From now on,
      the teacher may say: "Put the plates on the _plane
      surface_ of the tables!" "Put the bottle _to the
      left_! _In the center!_" etc. Have a small table set
      with little dishes, having the objects arranged in
      obedience to commands of the teacher. After this, we
      may proceed to the Froebel games on the plane surface
      with the cubes, blocks, and so on.

      _Inset game as a preparation for reading, drawing, and
      writing:_ After the child knows the different colors
      and shapes in the inset, the color tablets of the big
      inset can be put in place: (1) on a piece of cardboard
      where the figures have been drawn in shading in the
      respective colors; (2) on a cardboard where the same
      figures have been drawn merely in colored outline
      (linear abstraction of a regular figure).

      _Inset of shapes where the pieces are all of the same
      color (blue):_ The child recognizes the shape and puts
      the pieces in place: (1) on a cardboard where the
      figure is shaded; (2) on a cardboard where the figure
      is merely outlined (linear abstraction of regular
      geometrical figures). Meanwhile, the child has been
      touching the pieces: "The tablet is smooth. It turns
      round and round and round. It is a _circle_. Here we
      have a _square_. You go this way and there is a
      _point_; this way, and there is another point, and
      another, and another; there are _four points_! In the
      _triangle_ there are _three points_!" Then the child
      follows with his finger the figures outlined on the
      cardboard. "This one is entirely round: it is a
      _circle_! This one has four points: it is a _square_!
      This one has three points: it is a _triangle_!" The
      child runs over the same figures with a small rod of
      wood (skewer), etc.


      At this point, we may bring in the chart with the
      vowels, painted red. The child sees "irregular figures
      outlined in color." Give the child the vowels made of
      red wood. He is to place them on the corresponding
      figures of the chart. He is made to touch the wooden
      vowels, running his finger around them in the way they
      are written. They are called by their names. The
      vowels are arranged according to similarity in shape

    o e a
     i u

      Then the child is commanded: "Show me the letter _o_!
      Put it in its place!" Then he is asked: "What letter
      is this?" It will be found at this point that many
      children make a mistake, if they merely look at the
      letter, but guess rightly when they touch it. It is
      possible accordingly to distinguish the various
      individual types, visual, motory, etc.

      Next the child is made to touch the letter outlined on
      the chart, first with his forefinger only, then with
      the fore and middle fingers, finally with a little
      wooden skewer to be held like a pen. The letter must
      always be followed around in the way it is written.

      The consonants are drawn in blue and arranged on
      various charts, according to similarity in shape
      (reading, writing). The movable alphabet in blue wood
      is added to this. The letters are to be superimposed
      on the chart as was done for the vowels. Along with
      the alphabet we have another series of charts, where,
      beside the consonant identical with the wooden letter
      there are painted one or more figures of objects, the
      names of which begin with the letter in question.
      Beside the long-hand letter, there is also painted in
      the same color a smaller letter in print type. The
      teacher, naming the consonants in the phonic method,
      points to the letter, then to the chart, pronouncing
      the name of the objects which are painted there, and
      stressing the first letter: e.g., "m ... man ... m:
      Give me _M_!" "Put it where it belongs!" "Follow
      around it with your finger!" Here the linguistic
      defects of the children may be studied.

      The tracing of the letters in the way they are written
      begins the muscular education preparatory to writing.
      One of our little girls of the motory type when taught
      by this method reproduced all the letters in pen and
      ink long before she could identify them. Her letters
      were about eight millimetres high and were written
      with surprising regularity. This same child was
      generally successful in her manual work.

      The child, in looking at the letters, identifying
      them, and tracing them in the way they are written, is
      preparing himself both for reading and writing at the
      same time. The two processes are exactly
      contemporaneous. Touching them and looking at them
      brings several senses to bear on the fixing of the
      image. Later the two acts are separated: first looking
      (reading), then touching (writing). According to their
      respective type, some children learn to read first,
      others to write first.

      _Reading:_ As soon as the child has learned to
      identify the letters and also to write them, he is
      made to pronounce them. Then the alphabet is arranged
      in phonetic order. This order is to be varied
      according to individual defects made apparent while
      the child is pronouncing spontaneously the sounds of
      the consonants or vowels, or the words illustrating
      the consonants on the charts. We begin by showing the
      child and having him pronounce, first, syllables and,
      then, words which contain the letters he is able to
      pronounce well. Then we go on to the sounds he has
      trouble with, finally to those he cannot pronounce at
      all (linguistic correction). The phonomimic correction
      of speech requires special discussion. In primary
      schools speech correction should be in the hands of a
      specially trained teacher, like gymnastics, manual
      training and singing. Should no defects in speech
      appear in the child, the letters of the alphabet
      should be taught in the order of physiological

      Beside the big long-hand letters should be placed the
      small letters in print type. The letter is taught;
      then recognition is prompted by asking as each large
      letter is reached: "I want the little one like it."
      The two types of letter appear also on the illustrated
      charts. Next the printed letter is shown, with the
      request: "Give me the big letter that goes with it."
      Finally: "What letter is it?" The little letters are
      not "touched," because they are never to be written.


      The child is given a sheet on which appear a circle
      and a square in outline. The circle is filled in with
      a red pencil, the square with blue (insets). Smaller
      and smaller circles are next given, also circles and
      triangles. They are variously disposed on the page.
      They are to be filled in with colored pencils. Then
      comes the tracing. The black lines are followed around
      with colored pencils: the circle, the triangle, the
      square. This comes easily to the child who has been
      taught to trace with the wooden skewer the figures
      outlined on the inset-charts. Writing follows
      immediately on the exercises in tracing with the
      skewer on the charts of the written alphabet. Some
      help can be given the child by having him darken with
      a black pencil the letter written on the copy book by
      the teacher. As the child writes, his attention should
      be directed to the fact that he is writing on a
      _limited plane surface_; that he begins at the top,
      moving from left to right and little by little coming
      down the page.

      Séguin's method began with shafts and curves. His
      copybooks for the shafts were prepared as follows: the
      shaft to be executed by the child was delimited by two
      points, connected by a very light line. In the margin
      of the pages appear two shafts to be executed by the
      teacher. Similarly for the curves: ( ( ( (. He has the
      printed capitals drawn as combinations of shafts and
      curves: B, D, etc.


      The child, through sensory education, has acquired
      some notions of color, shape, surface (smooth and
      rough), smell, taste, etc. At the same time, he has
      learned to count (one, two, three, four points).
      Uniting all possible notions concerning a single
      object, we arrive at his first concrete idea of the
      object itself: the object lesson. To the idea thus
      acquired, we give the word which represents the
      object. Just as the concrete idea results from the
      assembling of acquired notions, so the word results
      from the union of known sounds, and perceived symbols.

      _Reading lesson:_ On the teacher's table is the large
      stand for the movable alphabet in black printed
      letters. The teacher arranges on it the vowels and a
      few consonants. Each child, in his own place, has the
      small movable alphabet in the pasteboard boxes. The
      children take from the box the same letters they see
      on the large stand, and arrange them in the same
      order. The teacher takes up some object which has a
      simple word for a name, e.g., _pane_ ("bread"). She
      calls the attention of the child to the object,
      reviewing an objective lesson already learned, thus
      arousing the child's interest in the object. "Shall we
      write the word _pane_?" "_Hear_ how I say it!" "_See_
      how I say it!" The teacher pronounces separately and
      distinctly the sounds of the letters which make up the
      word, exaggerating the movements of the vocal organs
      so that they are plainly visible to the children. As
      the pupils repeat the word they continue their
      education in speaking.

      A child now comes to the teacher's desk to choose the
      letters corresponding to the sounds and tries to
      arrange them in the order in which they appear in the
      word. The children do the same with the small letters
      at their seats. Every mistake gives rise to a
      correction useful to the whole class. The teacher
      repeats the word in front of each one who has made a
      mistake, trying to get the child to correct himself.
      When all the children have arranged their letters
      properly, the teacher shows a card (visiting-card
      size) on which is printed (in print-type letters about
      a centimeter high) the word "_pane_." All the children
      are made to read it. Then some child is asked to put
      the card where he finds the word written before him;
      next, on the _object_ the word stands for. The
      process is repeated with two or three other objects,
      with their respective names: _pane_ (bread), _lume_
      (lamp), _cece_ (peas). Then the teacher gathers up the
      cards from the various objects, shuffles them and
      calls on some child: "Which object do you like best?"
      "_Lume!_" "Find me the card with the word _lume_!"
      When the card has been selected, all the children are
      asked to read it: "Is Mary right in saying that this
      is the word _lume_?" "Put the card back where it
      belongs!" (i.e., on its object). In the subsequent
      lessons, the old cards, with the objects they stand
      for removed, should be mixed with the new ones. From
      the entire pack the children are to select the new
      cards and place them on their objects. A primary
      reading book ought to present these words next to a
      picture of the object for which they stand.

      In this way the children are brought to unite the
      individual symbol into words. When they have been
      taught to make the syllable, the reading lesson may be
      continued without the use of objects, though it is
      still preferable to use words which will, if possible,
      have a concrete meaning for the children.

      _Writing:_ The children are already able to use the
      cursive (writing) alphabet which corresponds to the
      small letter (print-type) that is neither "touched"
      nor written, but is merely _read_. They must now write
      in hand writing, and place close together, the little
      letters which they have assembled in the movable
      alphabet to compose words. As each word is read or
      written for every object lesson, for every action,
      printed cards are being assembled which will later be
      used to make clauses and sentences with movable words
      that may be moved about just as the individual letters
      were moved about in making the _words_ themselves.
      Later on, the simple clauses or sentences should refer
      to actions performed by the children. The first step
      should be to bring two or more words together: e.g.,
      _red-wool_, _sweet-candy_, _four-footed dog_, etc.
      Then we may go on to the sentence itself: _The wool is
      red_; _The soup is hot_; _The dog has four feet_;
      _Mary eats the candy_, etc. The children first compose
      the sentences with their cards; then they copy them in
      their writing books. To facilitate the choice of the
      cards, they are arranged in special boxes: for
      instance, one box is labeled _noun_: or its
      compartments are distinguished thus: _food_,
      _clothing_, _animals_, _people_, etc. There should be
      a box for _adjectives_ with compartments for _colors_,
      _shapes_, _qualities_, etc. There should be another
      for _particles_ with compartments for _articles_,
      _conjunctions_, _prepositions_, etc. A box should be
      reserved for _actions_ with the label _verbs_ above;
      and then in a compartment should be reserved for the
      _infinitive_, _present_, _past_ and _future_
      respectively. The children gradually learn by practice
      to take their cards from the boxes and put them back
      in their proper places. They soon learn to know their
      "word boxes" and they readily find the cards they want
      among the _colors_, _shapes_, _qualities_, etc., or
      among _animals_, _foods_, etc. Ultimately the teacher
      will find occasion to explain the meaning of the big
      words at the top of the drawers, _noun_, _adjective_,
      _verb_, etc., and this will be the first step into the
      subject of _grammar_.



      We may call persons and objects by their _name_ (their
      _noun_). People answer if we call them, so do animals.
      Inanimate objects, however, never answer, because they
      cannot; but if they could answer they would; for
      example, if I say _Mary_, Mary answers; if I say
      _peas_, the peas do not answer, because they cannot.
      You children _do_ understand when I call an object and
      you bring it to me. I say for example, _book_,
      _beans_, _peas_. If I don't tell you the name of the
      object you don't understand what I am talking about;
      because every object has a different name. This name
      is the word that stands for the object. This name is a
      _noun_. When I mention a noun you understand
      immediately the object which the noun represents:
      _tree_, _chair_, _pen_, _book_, _lamb_, etc. If I do
      not give this noun, you don't know what I am talking
      about; for, if I say simply, _Bring me ... at once, I
      want it_, you do not know what I want, unless I tell
      you the name of the object. Unless I give you the
      _noun_, you do not understand. Thus every object is
      represented by a word which is its _name_ and this
      name is a _noun_. To understand whether a word is a
      noun or not, you simple ask "Is it a thing?" "Would it
      answer if I spoke to it!" "Could I carry it to the
      teacher?" For instance, _bread_. Yes, _bread_ is an
      object; _table_, yes, it is an object; _conductor_,
      yes, the conductor would answer, if I were to speak to

      Let us look through our cards now. I take several
      cards from different boxes and shuffle them. Here is
      the word _sweet_. Bring me _sweet_. Is there anything
      to answer when I call _sweet_? But you are bringing me
      a piece of candy! I didn't say _candy_: I said
      _sweet_! And now you have given me sugar! I said
      _sweet_. If I say _candy_, _sugar_, then you
      understand what I want, what object I am thinking
      about, because the words _candy_, _sugar_, stand for
      objects. Those words are _nouns_. Now let us look
      through the noun cards. Let us read a couple of lines
      in our reading books and see whether there are any
      nouns there. Tell me, are there any nouns? How are we
      to find some nouns? Look around you! Look at yourself,
      your clothes, etc.! Name every object that you see!
      Every word you thus pronounce will be a noun: Teacher,
      clothing, necktie, chair, class, children, books, etc.
      Just look at this picture which represents so many
      things! The figures represent persons and objects.
      Name each of these figures! Every word you pronounce
      will be a noun!


      Mary, rise from your seat! Walk! Mary has performed a
      number of _actions_. She has _risen_. She has
      performed the _action_ of rising. She has _walked_.
      _Walk_ stands for an action. Now write your name on
      the blackboard! _Writing_ is an action. Erase what you
      have written. _Erasing_ is an action. When I spoke to
      Mary, I performed the action of speaking. (Just as the
      noun was taught with objects, here we must have
      actions. Objects represented in pictures will be of no
      use, since actions cannot be portrayed by pictures.)

      The next step will be to suggest a little exercise of
      imagination. Look at all these objects! Try to imagine
      some action which each might perform! A _class_, for
      instance; what actions might a class perform? _Store_:
      what actions might take place in a store? Let us now
      look through our cards after we have shuffled them.
      Next try our reading book. Show me which of the words
      are verbs. Give me some words which are verbs


      Persons, things (proper and common nouns). Singular,
      plural, masculine and feminine. The articles: "Choose
      the article that goes with this noun!" etc.


      Present, past, future. I am performing an action now.
      Have I performed it before? Did I do it yesterday?
      Have I always done it in the past? When I walk now, I
      say I _am walking_, I _walk_. When I mean the action
      that I performed yesterday, I say: I _was walking_, I
      _walked_. The same action performed at different times
      is described differently. How strange that is! The
      word referring to an object never changes. The beads
      are beads to-day. They were beads yesterday.
      _Actions_, however, are represented by words which
      change according to the time in which they are
      performed. To-day I _walk_. Yesterday I _walked_.
      To-morrow I _shall walk_. It is always _I_ who do the
      walking, _I_ who perform the _action_ of walking; and
      I walk always in the same way, putting one foot in
      front of the other. The objects you see perform an
      action always perform it. Do you see that little bird
      which is flying--which is performing the _action_ of
      flying? It was flying yesterday. It flew at some time
      in the past. To-morrow also, that is, at some _future_
      time, if the little bird lives, it will fly and it
      will fly always in the same way, beating its wings to
      and fro. You see what a strange thing a verb is! It
      changes its words according to the _time_ in which the
      action is performed. It is different according as it
      represents action in _present_ time, or action in
      _past_ time, or action in _future_ time. Now, see! I
      am going to take out some of my cards and make up a
      little sentence:

    +-----+  +--------+  +------+  +----+  +-------+
    | Now |  | George |  | eats |  | an |  | apple |
    +-----+  +--------+  +------+  +----+  +-------+

      Now I am going to change the word which stands for the
      time when the action takes place. In place of the card
      _now_ I am going to use this one:

    | yesterday |

      Is this a good sentence? No! Supposing we change the
      time of the verb: _Yesterday George ate an apple_.
      This makes good sense. Put these cards back now in the
      boxes where they belong.


      Every object possesses certain _qualities_. Tell me
      what you can about this apple. It is red, it is round,
      it is sweet. What qualities can you find in this
      chair? It is hard, it is brown, it is wooden. What
      about your school-mates, the children? Are they good,
      are they pretty, are they polite, are they obedient,
      or are they naughty, impolite, disobedient,
      disorderly? Let us look through our cards to see
      whether we can find words which stand for the
      qualities of objects. Supposing we select some from
      the drawer of the adjective and some from the drawer
      of the noun. Now let us place beside each noun a card
      which makes sense with it: here, for instance, I have
      _Charles_, _red_, _quadruped_, _transparent_. Does
      that mean anything? Well then find me some adjectives
      which will go well with _Charles_. Adjectives are
      words which stand for qualities of a given object.
      They must go well with their noun. Find me some
      adjectives which fit well with the noun _dog_. They
      must be words which stand for some quality of the dog.
      Now put all the cards back in the compartments where
      they belong. (This latter exercise is very

      In this method of teaching grammar we make use of
      objects and actions directly relating to life. Such
      lessons may be made more attractive with story
      telling, etc. The teaching of grammar at this period
      should be extended as far as is possible without
      forcing the pupil.


      There should be concise and vivid descriptions of some
      object. The attention of the child should be sustained
      by changing the tone of voice, by exclamations
      calculated to excite the child's curiosity, by praise,
      etc. Never begin with the _word_, but always with the
      _object_. All the notions possessed by the child
      should be as far as practicable in a given case
      applied to his study of the object. First it should be
      described as to its qualities; next as to its uses,
      then as to its origin; for example, Here is an
      _object_! What color is it? What is its shape? Feel of
      it! Taste of it! etc. If possible, have the child
      _see_ the use of the object and its origin in every
      possible way. Just as the concrete idea of the object
      is imparted by verbal description and by various
      appeals to the senses of the child, so the different
      uses of the object should be brought out in
      _describing actions_ which the child _sees_ performed
      with it before him. This, of course, is an ideal which
      the teacher should try to realize as far as possible.
      The object should be shown the child in different
      circumstances and under different aspects so as to
      give it always the appearance of something new and
      something to excite and hold the attention of the
      child. Take, for instance, a lesson on the word _hen_.
      Show a paper model of the hen, the live hen in the
      courtyard, the stereopticon slide of the hen; the
      print of the hen in the reading book; the hen alive
      among other domestic fowls; pictures of the hen among
      pictures of other birds, etc. Each new step should be
      taken on a different day and each time the word should
      be connected with the object. Write the word on the
      blackboard; make up the printed card for the card file
      and put it in its proper box. "Who wants to take the
      blackboard out-doors? We are going to write some words
      in the yard. Now in your reading books there is the
      figure of the hen. Next to it is the word _hen_. Write
      this word in your copy books. Who can repeat what we
      have said about the hen? Write down what you know
      about the hen." The amount of information given about
      a particular object will depend, of course, upon the
      class. The simplest description should be followed by
      one more minute, passing thus to speak of uses,
      habits, origin, etc. The writing of a simple word may
      be developed into a written description. But the
      lessons on the given object should always be short,
      and they should be repeated on different days. For the
      lessons on trees, plants, and vegetables, a garden is
      necessary: the children should see the seeds planted,
      a growing vegetable, a picture of the fruit, etc. If
      possible the domestic use of the garden products
      should be demonstrated. This applies also to flowers.
      The blackboard with crayon should never be lacking in
      the garden. For object lessons we need toys to
      represent furniture, dishes, various objects used in
      the home, tools of different trades, rooms and the
      furniture that goes in each, houses, trees, a church
      (to build villages), etc.; dolls equipped with all the
      necessaries for dressing. There should be a shelf for
      bottles containing specimens of different drinks;
      various kinds of cloths (for tactile exercises); the
      raw materials out of which they are made,
      demonstrations of the way they are manufactured, etc.
      Show also specimens of the various minerals, etc.


      History is taught first on a little stage with living
      tableaux, gradually advancing to action; second, by
      descriptions of large illustrations and colored
      pictures; third, by story-telling based on
      stereopticon views. The teacher should strive for
      brevity, conciseness, and vivacity in descriptions.
      Historical story telling should, as in the case of all
      other lessons, bring about additions of printed cards
      to the word boxes. Various information of the seasons,
      months of the year, etc., should be imparted by
      illustrations and pictures. Every morning the child
      should be asked: "What day is it? What day was
      yesterday? What day will to-morrow be?" and "What day
      of the month is it?"


      1. Exercises on the plane for the cardinal points,
      with various gymnastic and guessing games. 2. Building
      games out of doors. Make a lake, an island, a
      peninsula, a river. 3. Carry the houses and church
      into the yard and construct a small village. Put the
      church on the north; the schoolhouse on the east; the
      mountain on the west; in front of the school place the
      national flag. 4. In the classroom fit out a room with
      its proper furniture to be placed on a map of the room
      outlined on a large chart. As the furniture is
      removed, make a mark on the map to indicate where each
      article was. Make a little village in the same way,
      houses, church, etc. Take away the church, etc.; mark
      the place of each object on the map as it is removed.
      Then identify each spot. "Where was the church?" "What
      was over here?" etc. Thus we get a conception of the
      geographical map. Read the map, making use of the
      cardinal points. 5. Physical characteristics of
      regions may be shown by clay modeling to represent
      hills, etc. Draw outlines around each model, remove
      the clay and read the _geographical map_ resulting.


      The children are to count: 1 nose; 1 mouth; 1, 2
      hands; 1, 2 feet; 1, 2, 3, 4 points in the insets; 1,
      2, 3, 4, 5, 6 soldiers on the plane. How many blocks
      did they use in the building? 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
      9. Thus for the elementary steps in counting.


      Computation should be taught practically in the store
      from the very beginning. The shopkeeper sells 1 cherry
      for 1c. The children have 2c and get two cherries.
      Next they get two nuts for 1c. Place 1c on the counter
      and place 2 nuts beside it. Then count all the nuts
      and there are 2 for 1c, etc. The child must give him
      1c in change (2 + 2 = 4; 2 - 1 = 1). In money changing
      it will be observed that at first some children
      recognize the coins more easily by touch than by sight
      (motor types).


      Charts with the nine numbers: one for each number.
      Each chart has picture representing quantities of the
      most varied objects arranged around the number, which
      is indicated by a large design on the chart. For
      instance: on the _1_ card there is one cherry, one
      dog, one ball, etc. Yesterday the shopkeeper sold one
      cherry for 1c. Is the cherry here? Yes, there is the
      cherry! And what is this? _One_ church! And this?
      _One_ cent! etc. What is this figure here? It is the
      number _one_. Now bring out the wooden figure: What is
      this? Number _one_! Put it on the figure on the chart!
      It is _one_.

      Now take the charts to the store. Who has 1c? Who has
      2c? etc. Let us look for the number among the charts.
      The shopkeeper is selling three peas for 1c. Let us
      look for number _3_ among the charts! Numbers should
      be taught in the afternoon lesson in the store. The
      designs representing the figures should be shown the
      following morning. Next time the charts with the
      figures previously taught should be taken to the shop
      to be recognized again. Other numbers are brought out
      in the new computations. The figures for the new
      numbers then taught in the store should be shown the
      following day, etc. To make the store interesting, the
      topic lesson on the objects offered for sale should be
      frequently repeated. The child should be taught to buy
      only perfect objects, so that on receiving them he may
      examine them carefully, observing them in all their
      parts. He should give them back if they are not
      perfect or if mistakes are made by the shopkeeper in
      giving them out. For instance: A spoiled apple should
      not be accepted. "I refuse to buy it!" Beans should
      not be accepted for peas. Again the child refuses to
      buy them. He must pay only when he is sure he has been
      served properly (exercise in practical life).

      The storekeeper will make mistakes: first, in _kinds_
      of objects, to sharpen the observation of _qualities_
      by the children who purchase; second, in the _number_
      of objects given, to accustom the child to purchasing
      proper _quantities_.


      Even numbers are red. Odd numbers are blue. There are:
      movable figures in wood; red and blue cubes in numbers
      corresponding to the figures on them; finally, charts
      with numbers drawn in color. Under each design are
      small red and blue squares arranged in such a way as
      to emphasize the divisibility of _even_ numbers by 2
      and similarly the indivisibility by 2 of _odd_
      numbers. In the latter case one square is always left
      by itself in the center.

    1    2    3    4    5    6
    -   - -  - -  - -  - -  - -
              -   - -  - -  - -
                        -   - -

      The child places the movable numbers and the cubes on
      the figures on the charts. The teacher then makes two
      equal rows of cubes to correspond to the even numbers
      (red). The division is easy! But try to separate the
      odd numbers (blue). It is not possible! A block is
      always left in the middle! The child takes the figures
      and the blocks and arranges them on his table,
      imitating the design on the chart. He tries to make
      two equal rows of cubes for the even numbers. He
      succeeds. He does not succeed in doing so with the odd
      numbers. The numbers which can be divided thus are
      _even_; those which cannot be so divided are _odd_.

      _Number boxes_: On these boxes are designed red and
      blue figures identical with those on the charts. The
      child puts into each box the number of cubes called
      for by the figure on the box. This exercise follows
      immediately the work on odd and even numbers described
      above. As the child transfers each series of cubes
      from his table to the boxes, he pronounces the number
      and adds _odd_ or _even_.

      _Exercises in attention and memory_: A chart of odd
      and even numbers in colors is placed on the teacher's
      desk in view of all the children. The red and blue
      cubes are piled on the teacher's desk. The teacher
      passes the wooden figures to the children and tells
      them to examine them. Immediately afterwards the
      children leave their seats, go to the teacher's desk,
      and get the numbers which correspond to their own
      figures. On going back to their places they fit the
      cubes under the corresponding figure in the
      arrangement just learned. The teacher is to observe

      1. Whether the child has remembered the color of his
      figure (frequently a child with a red number takes the
      blue cubes).

      2. Whether he has remembered his _number_.

      3. Whether he remembers the proper arrangement.

      4. Whether the child remembers that the chart from
      which he _can copy_ is before him on the stand and
      whether he thinks of looking at it.

      When mistakes are made, the teacher has the child
      correct himself by calling his attention to the chart.


(_For more advanced classes_)

      In the store ten objects are sold for one cent, e.g.:

      (10 beans), one cent for each _ten_.

      One ten = ten, 10.

      Two tens = twenty, 20.

      Three tens = thirty, 30, etc.

      From forty on (in English from sixty on) the numbers
      are more easily learned because their names are like
      simple numbers with the ending -_ty_ (Italian

      Charts should be prepared (rectangular in shape) on
      which nine tens appear arranged one under the other;
      then nine cards where each ten is repeated nine times
      in a column; finally, numerous cards with the unit
      figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, to be fitted on the
      zeros on the cards where the tens are repeated nine


      Some difficulty will be experienced with the tens
      where the names do not correspond to the simple
      numbers: 11, 12, 13, etc. The other tens, however,
      will be very easy. When a little child is able to
      count to 20, he can go on to 100 without difficulty.
      The next step is to superimpose the little cards on
      the first chart of the tens series, having the
      resultant numbers read aloud.

      _Problems_: Problems are, at first, simple memory
      exercises for the children. In fact the problems are
      solved practically in the store in the form of a game;
      buying, lending, sharing with their schoolmates,
      taking a part of what is bought and giving it to some
      other child, etc. The store exercises should be
      repeated in the form of a problem on the following
      morning. The children have simply to remember what
      happened and reproduce it in writing. _Problems are
      next developed contemporaneously_ with the various
      arithmetical operations and computations (addition,
      multiplication, etc.). The teacher explains the
      operations starting with the problem, which becomes
      for the children a very amusing game. The problem,
      finally, becomes an imaginative exercise: "Suppose you
      are going to the store to buy," etc., etc. We can
      ultimately arrive at real problems that require
      reasoning. In the store the teacher illustrates the
      various operations on the blackboard, using simple
      marks at first: "You have bought 2c worth of beans, at
      three for a cent. Let us write that down: III--III.
      Then let us count. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. There are six.
      Well, then, 3 + 3(III III) = 6. We can also say: 2
      groups of III equals 6; twice, three, six; two times
      three, six; 2 × 3 = 6. How much is 3 + 3? How much is
      2 × 3? How much is 3 × 2?"

      The following morning, when the written problem is
      given, the child should have before him for reference
      the computation charts with all the combinations

      The transition to mental computation will come after
      this and not before.



    1 + 1 = 2     2 + 1 = 3     3 + 1 = 4
    1 + 2 = 3     2 + 2 = 4     3 + 2 = 5
    1 + 3 = 4     2 + 3 = 5     3 + 3 = 6
    1 + 4 = 5     2 + 4 = 6     3 + 4 = 7


    1 × 1 = 1     2 × 1 = 2     3 × 1 = 3
    1 × 2 = 2     2 × 2 = 4     3 × 2 = 6
    1 × 3 = 3     2 × 3 = 6     3 × 3 = 9

      Subtraction in the same way. The development of these
      various operations followed logically on the practical
      exercise in the store, where multiplication proved to
      be a product of sums, division, a process of
      successive subtractions.

      In our classes we have arithmetic lessons every day.
      The afternoon practice in the store prepares for the
      theoretical lesson of the following morning.
      Accordingly, on the day when the practical exercise
      occurs, there is no theoretical lesson and vice versa.

      The decimal metric system applied to weights, measures
      and coinage is taught in the same way. The store
      should be equipped with scales, weights, dry and
      liquid measures, etc. All kinds of coins should be
      available, including bills up to $20 (100 francs).
      Work in the store should continue to be not only a
      help toward arithmetical computation but also toward
      the preparation for practical life. For instance, when
      cloth is sold, some attention should be given to its
      actual market value; its qualities should be
      emphasized by feeling, etc.; and the child should be
      taught to observe whether the storekeeper has given
      him the right amount and the right quality. Money
      changing should be made ready and easy. The money
      which the children spend at the store should be earned
      by them as a reward for their application to study and
      their good behavior.


      To attract the attention of defective children strong
      sensory stimulants are necessary. The lessons,
      therefore, should be eminently practical. Every lesson
      should begin with the presentation of the object to be
      illustrated by the teacher in a few words distinctly
      pronounced with continual modulations of the voice and
      accompanied by vivid imitative expression. The lessons
      should be made as attractive as possible and, as far
      as practicable, presented under the form of games, so
      as to arouse the curiosity of the child: guessing
      games, blindman's buff, store-keeping, the sleep
      walker, the blind store-keeper, etc. But however
      amusing the game may be, the lesson should always be
      stopped while the child is still willing to continue.
      His attention, which is easily fatigued, should never
      be exhausted. To fix ideas, lessons should be
      repeated many times. Each time, however, the same
      objects should be presented under different forms and
      in a different environment, so that it will always be
      interesting by appearing as something new:
      story-telling, living tableaux, large illustrations;
      colored pictures; stereopticon views, etc. In case
      individual teaching is necessary, as happens in the
      most elementary classes, care should be exercised to
      keep all the other children busy with different toys:
      insets, lacing-and-buttoning-frames, hooks and eyes,
      etc. When children refuse to take part in their
      lessons it is better not to use coercion, but to aim
      at obtaining obedience indirectly through the child's
      imitation of his schoolmates. Glowing praise of the
      pupils who are showing good will in their work almost
      always brings the recalcitrants to time. When a child
      shows he has understood the point under discussion, it
      is better not to ask for a repetition. His attention
      is easily fatigued, and the second time he may say
      badly what at first he gave successfully; and the
      failure may discourage him. It is well to be satisfied
      with the first good answer, bestow such praise as will
      afford the child a pleasant memory of what he has been
      doing; and go back to the subject on the following
      day, or, at the earliest, several hours later.

      In manual training, however, the situation is
      different. The lesson in this subject can be a whole
      hour long and should take the form of serious work and
      not of play. The child should be set early at some
      useful task, even if a little hard work, not
      unattended with risk, be involved (wood-cutting,
      boring, etc.). From the outset, thus, the child will
      become familiar with the difficulties of bread-winning
      effort and will learn to overcome them.

      Interest in work may be stimulated by appropriate
      rewards. The child may earn during work-hours the
      money for his purchases at the store, for his tickets
      to the theater and the stereopticon lecture. The child
      who does not work may be kept away from the more
      attractive lessons, such as dancing and music, which
      come immediately after the work hour. As a matter of
      fact, these children take to manual training very
      readily, provided the tasks assigned are adapted to
      the natural inclinations of the individual child in
      such a way that he may take in his work the greatest
      possible satisfaction and thus by natural bent attain
      a skill useful to himself and society.


      By the expression "moral education" we mean an
      education which tends to make a social being of an
      individual who is by nature extra- or anti-social. It
      presents two aspects which may be paralleled with the
      education thus far treated and which we call
      "intellectual education."

      In this latter training of the mind, we began by an
      appropriate hygienic cure of all those physical
      defects which could stand in the way of successful
      mental education. In moral education, likewise, we try
      to eliminate such defects as arise from some passing
      physical ailment. We should carefully consider the
      apparently causeless "naughtiness" of children, to see
      whether it may not be due to some intestinal
      disturbance, or to the early stages of some infectious
      disease. The symptoms of such diseases should be known
      to the teacher. I have been told that English mothers
      use the empirical method of administering purgatives
      or cold shower baths to "naughty children," often with
      good correctional effect. I suggest that such
      empiricism is hardly prudent where science is able to
      prescribe much safer and more efficacious methods.
      Child hygiene must be well known to the educator and
      should be the pivotal point of every educational

      In mental education, we began by reducing the child to
      _tonic quiescence_; here we must begin by reducing the
      child to _obedience_.

      In mental education, to give the child his first
      notions of his physical person (personal imitation:
      touching of the parts of the body) and of his
      relations to environment (personal imitation: moving
      of objects, etc.) we had recourse to _imitation_;
      here, to instil in the child elementary notions of his
      duties, we must throw around the child an atmosphere
      morally correct, an environment in which, after
      attaining obedience, he can _imitate_ persons who act

      In mental education we went on to the training of the
      senses; here we pass to the education of _feelings_.
      Our next step, in the one case, was to the education
      proper of the mind; here it is to the training of the

      The parallel is perfect:

    hygienic training: hygiene;
    _tonic quiescence_: obedience;
    imitation: imitation (environment);
    sensory education: education of the feelings (sensibilities);
    mental education proper: education of the will.


      In a command the will of the teacher is imposed upon
      the defective child who is lacking in will. The will
      of the teacher is substituted for the child's will in
      impelling to action or inhibiting the child's
      impulses. From the very first the child must feel this
      will, which is imposed upon him and is irrevocably
      destined to overcome him. The child must understand
      that against this will he cannot offer any resistance.
      The teacher's command must be obeyed at whatever cost,
      even if coercive measures must be resorted to. No
      consideration should ever lead the teacher to desist
      from enforcing her command. The child _must_ submit
      and obey. The teacher accordingly, should be careful
      at first to command the child to move; since, if
      necessary she can _force_ him to move. She may command
      the child to stand motionless because, if necessary,
      she can tie him or put him in a straight-jacket. She
      should never, on the other hand, command the child to
      "beg pardon," because the child may refuse, and in the
      face of this refusal the teacher may find herself
      helpless and lose her authority. To acquire authority
      in command, the teacher must possess a considerable
      power of suggestion; and this she can partially
      acquire. The teacher should be physically attractive,
      of an "imposing personality." She should have a clear
      musical voice, and some power of facial expression and
      gesture. These things may be in large part acquired by
      actual study of declamation and imitation, subjects in
      which the perfect teacher should be proficient. The
      artistic study of _command_, which the teacher may
      undertake, presents itself under three aspects: voice
      study, gesture, facial expression.

      _Voice and speech:_ The voice should be clear and
      musical, word articulation perfect. Any defect in
      pronunciation should effectually bar a teacher from
      the education of defective children. On days when the
      teacher has a cold and her voice is likely to assume
      false or ridiculous intonations, she should not think
      of correcting or _commanding_ a defective child. The
      teacher's voice must be impressive and suggestive to
      the child. If shouting and declamatory tirades have
      gone out of fashion in the education of normal
      children, they may serve very well in the education of
      defectives. Whereas, in the mental education of these
      unfortunates, we are to pronounce a few words, but
      very distinctly, here there is no objection to a
      veritable flood of speech, provided such lectures be
      free from monotony, the voice passing from tones of
      reproof to tones of sorrow, pathos, tenderness, etc. A
      few words are to receive special emphasis--those which
      we intend shall convey to the child what we wish him
      to understand. The rest of all we say will constitute
      for the child merely modulated, musical or painful
      sound. It is in the music of the human voice that the
      elements of the education of the feelings reside;
      whether in the prohibition against doing something
      wrong, we introduce the corrective command, or, in the
      order to perform some action, we include
      encouragement, menace, or promise of reward.

      Often the command is very simple. When the child is
      told to do something, he does not refuse. Nevertheless
      he is not easily persuaded. He must try to understand,
      first of all, what we want of him. The technique of
      such a simple command falls into two parts. We may
      call the first _incitement_, and the second
      _explanation_. The whole command should be repeated
      several times with varied intonations and with stress
      on different words until each word in its order has
      been emphasized. "James, put that book on the table."
      In the first instance the command will be _incitive_
      in character, calling the attention of the child to
      the action and urging him to perform it. Here the
      accent should fall on the name of the child and on the
      imperative. The tone should be that of absolute
      command. "_James_, _put_ that book on the table." As
      we pass from the command to the explanation, the tone
      should be changed and somewhat softened. The first
      word should be clear and impelling, followed by slow,
      insistent words--"James, put _that book_ on the
      table": "James, put that book on the _table_": "James,
      put that book _on_ the table." Thus the voice both in
      commanding and in describing what was commanded, while
      urging the child to perform the required action and
      guiding him to do it, was also affording us help in
      its suggestive power and by explanation.

      _Gesture:_ The teacher must study particularly
      expressive gesture. She must always accompany what she
      says with gestures serving both to impel the child to
      actions and which suggest imitation and explain the
      command. Gestures should be expressive enough to be
      readily intelligible even without words; for example,
      if it is desirable to bring the child to perfect
      quiescence, as the command is given, the teacher
      should stop, become almost rigid, looking sharply at
      the child in such a way that he may be impressed by
      that rigid fixity which he sees before him and be
      brought by suggesting to imitate it. Then to keep the
      child motionless, the teacher may attract his
      attention by a slight almost continuous hypnotizing
      sort of whistle. To excite an apathetic child to
      movement the teacher should herself move, accompanying
      the stress of her voice with motion in her whole body.

      In the _simple command_, arm gesture only should be
      used and as follows:

      For _Incitement_: rapid movement in straight line.

      For _Explanation_: slow movement in curve.

      Command of _quiescence_: gesture up and down, from
      without toward the body.

      Command of _movement_: gesture from down, up, from
      within, out from the body.

      _Facial expression and gaze_: The gaze has a powerful
      effect on the child. It is the same gaze which
      impressed the child and brought him to the first steps
      in his education (see our chapter on the _Education of
      the Gaze_). All the expressions of the eye are useful
      provided the teacher employs them properly. It is not
      a question of scowling at the child to frighten him,
      as might be supposed; but rather of bringing the eye
      as well as the whole face to express all those
      emotions which the teacher must herself actually feel
      in the presence of an obedient or rebellious, a
      patient or angry child; and of giving to this
      expression such clearness that the child cannot
      possibly be mistaken as to its meaning (Séguin, page
      679). The teacher's face must be expressive, mobile,
      hence in harmonious relationship with what is to be
      expressed (calmness, gaiety, effort). The expression
      must never vary momentarily on account of any
      extraneous diversion which may occur; otherwise the
      children will soon learn to provoke such distractions
      of the teacher's attention. Such commands, which
      demand on the teacher's part so much artistic study,
      will, of course, not be necessary during the whole
      period of the child's education.


       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired. Varied hyphenation was retained.

Page 29, the translations for "il lavoratore" and "l'italiano" were
reversed. This was corrected.

Page 29, order of feminine column of list from "la santa" down were out
of order. The original read:

    il santo       la tagliatrice    the saint
    il tagliatore  la donna          the cutter
    l'uomo         la vecchia        the man
    il vecchio     la visitatrice    the old man
    il visitatore  la zia            the visitor
    lo zio         la santa          the uncle

This was repaired.

Page 30, "visitor" changed to "visitors" ("le visitatrici the visitors)

Page 78, "vincino" changed to "vicino" (vicino a, accosto a)

Page 90, "ziz-zag" changed to "zig-zag" (straight, zig-zag)

Page 93, repeated word "a" deleted. Original read (into a a new kind of

Page 122, "oihmè" changed to "ohimè" (ahi! ohi! ohimè!)

Page 156, "casual" changed to "causal" (causal clause)

Page 198, "promesai" changed to "promessi" (I promessi sposi)

Page 231, "discription" changed to "description" (Although this
description may)

Page 277, "demonator" changed to "denominator" (by the denominator)

Page 366, song, "Bethleem" changed to "Bethlehem" (Puer natus Bethlehem)

Page 378, "passe" changed to "passa" (qualcuno passa e parla)

Page 386, "spunta" changed to "spúnta" (Quinci sp=ú=nta per l'=á=ria)

Page 394, the symbols used were "U" and "--" in the tables as the
figures used were not available. Starting with this table, the original
puts an acute accent above the "--".

Page 403, "In" changed to "Ín" (=Í=n there st=é=pped)

Page 437, "processs" changed to "process" (in the process of

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