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´╗┐Title: Chess Strategy
Author: Lasker, Edward, 1885-1981
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chess Strategy" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



INFORMATION ABOUT THIS E-TEXT EDITION



The following is an e-text of "Chess Strategy," second edition, (1915)
by Edward Lasker, translated by J. Du Mont.

This e-text contains the 167 chess and checkers board game
diagrams appearing in the original book, all in the form of
ASCII line drawings. The following is a key to the diagrams:

For chess pieces,

  R  =  Rook
  Kt =  Knight
  B  =  Bishop
  Q  =  Queen
  K  =  King
  P  =  Pawn

Black pieces have a # symbol to the left of them, while
white pieces have a ^ symbol to the left of them. For example,
#B is the Black bishop, while ^B is the white bishop. #Kt is
the black knight, while ^Kt is the white knight. This will
let the reader instantly tell by sight which pieces in the
ASCII chess diagrams are black and which are white. Those
who find these diagrams hard to read should feel free
to set up them up on a game board using the actual pieces.



CONTENTS



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE
AUTHOR'S PREFACE

PART I

I. INTRODUCTORY

     I. Rules of the Game
    II. Notation

II. HINTS FOR BEGINNERS

     Elementary Combinations
     Simple Calculation
     Complications

III. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CHESS STRATEGY

     Introductory
     Balance of Attack and Defence
     Mobility

IV. THE OPENING

     Development of the Pieces
     On Losing Moves
     Examples of Practical Play
     Pawn Play
     Pawn Skeleton
     The Centre
  A. King's Pawn Games
  B. Queen's Pawn Games
  C. Irregular Openings

V. THE END-GAME

     End-games with Pieces
     Pawn Endings
     Mixed Endings

END-GAMES FROM MASTER-PLAY

     Teichmann-Blackburne (Berlin, 1897)
     Ed. Lasker-Rotlewi (Hamburg, 1910)
     Blackburne-Schlechter (Vienna, 1898)
     Bird-Janowski (Hastings, 1895)
     Steiner-Forgacz (Szekesfehervar, 1907)
     Charousek-Heinrichsen (Cologne, 1898)

VI. THE MIDDLE GAME

     General Remarks
     Evolution of the Pawn Skeleton
     Objects of Attack
     "Backward" Pawns
     On Fixing a Weakness
     Weaknesses in a Pawn Position
     Breaking up the King's Side
     Doubled Pawns
     Illustrations--
         v. Scheve-Teichmann (Berlin, 1907)
         Marshall-Burn (Ostend, 1907)
     Manoeuvres of the Pieces Open Files and Diagonals
     Example--
         Fred. Lazard-Ed. Lasker (Paris, 1914)

                  PART II

ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES FROM MASTER TOURNAMENTS

     1. Tartakower-Burn (Carlsbad, 1911)
     2. Leonhardt-Marshall (San Sebastian, 1911)
     3. Spielmann-Prokes (Prag, 1908)
     4. Tarrasch-Capablanca (San Sebastian, 1911)
    4a. Howell-Michell (Cable Match, 1907)
    4b. X. v. Y
     5. Griffith-Gunston (London, 1902)
     6. Mason-Gunsberg (New York, 1889)
     7. Marshall-Tarrasch (Hamburg, 1910)
     8. Blackburne-Em. Lasker (Petrograd, 1914)
     9. Salwe-Marshall (Vienna, 1908)
    10. Teichmann-Amateurs (Glasgow, 1902)
    11. Schlechter-Janowski (Paris, 1900)
    12. Teichmann-Rubinstein (Carlsbad, 1911)
    13. Teichmann-Schlechter (Carlsbad, 1911)
    14. Spielmann-Tarrasch (San Sebastian, 1912)
    15. Aljechin-Niemzowitsch (Petrograd, 1914)
    16. Yates-Gunsberg (Chester, 1914)
    17. Berlin-Riga (1908-1909)
   17a. Maroczy-Berger (Vienna, 1908)
    18. Em. Lasker-Capablanca (Petrograd, 1914)
    19. Ed. Lasker-Janowski (Scheveningen, 1913)
    20. Ed. Lasker-Englund (Scheveningen, 1913)
    21. Ed. Lasker-Aljechin (Scheveningen, 1913)
    22. Forgacz-Tartakower (Petrograd, 1909)
    23. Yates-Esser (Anglo-Dutch Match, 1914)
    24. Atkins-Barry (Cable Match, 1910)
    25. Em. Lasker-Tarrasch (Munich, 1908)
    26. Capablanca-Blanco (Havanna, 1913)
    27. Niemzowitsch-Tarrasch (San Sebastian, 1912)
    28. Alapin-Rubinstein (Wilna, 1912)
    29. Teichmann-Spielmann (Leipzig, 1914)
    30. Tarrasch-Spielmann (Mannheim, 1914)
    31. John-Janowski (Mannheim, 1914)
    32. Ed. Laskcr-Mieses (Scheveningen, 1913)
    33. Barasz-Mieses (Breslau, 1012)
    34. Em. Lasker-Niemzowitsch (Petrograd, 1914)
    35. Reti-Tartakower (Vienna, 1910)
    36. Forgacz-E. Cohn (Petrograd, 1909)
    37. Marshall-Capablanca (New York, 1909)
    38. Rotlewi-Teichmann (Carlsbad, 1911)
   38a. Rubinstein-Teichmann (Vienna, 1908)
    39. Rotlewi-Rubinstein (Lodz, 1907)
    40. Rubinstein-Capablanca (San Sebastian, 1911)
    41. Niemzowitsch-Tarrasch (Petrograd, 1914)
    41a. Em. Lasker-Bauer (Amsterdam, 1889)
    42. Capablanca-Aljechin (Petrograd, 1913)
    43. Capablanca-Bernstein (Petrograd, 1914)
    44. Dus Chotimirski-Vidmar (Carlsbad, 1911)
    45. Rubinstein-Spielmann (Pistyan, 1912)
    46. Thomas-Ed. Lasker (London, 1912)
    47. Tartakower-Asztalos (Budapest, 1913)
   47a. Tartakower-Spielmann (Vienna, 1913)
   47b. X v. Y
    48. Blackburne-Niemzowitsch (Petrograd, 1914)

TABLE OF OPENINGS

      A. King's Pawn Games
      B. Queen's Pawn Games
      C. Irregular Openings



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE



As the first edition of Edward Laskcr's CHESS STRATEGY was
exhausted within a comparatively short time of its appearance,
the author set himself the task of altering and improving the
work to such an extent that it became to all intents and purposes
a new book. I had the privilege of co-operating with him to a
slight degree on that second edition, and was in consequence able
to appreciate the tremendous amount of work he voluntarily took
upon himself to do; I say voluntarily, because his publishers,
anxious to supply the strong demand for the book, wished to
reprint it as it stood.

A little later I undertook to translate this second edition into
English for Messrs. Bell & Sons. Only a few months had elapsed,
the tournaments at Petrograd, Chester, and Mannheim had taken
place, several new discoveries had been made, and it is the
greatest testimony to Edward Lasker's indefatigable devotion to
the Art of Chess that I am able to say that this is not a
translation of the second edition, but of what is practically a
new book. It contains a new preface, a chapter for beginners, a
new introduction, new variations.  Furthermore, a large number of
new games have taken the place of old ones.

I have no doubt that any chess player who will take the trouble
to study CHESS STRATEGY will spend many a pleasurable hour.
Incidentally new vistas will be opened to him, and his playing
strength increased to a surprising degree.

The author says in his preface that he appeals to the
intelligence and not the memory of his readers. In my opinion,
too, the student should above all try to improve his judgment of
position.

Than the playing over of games contested by experts I can hardly
imagine a greater or purer form of enjoyment.  Yet I must at the
outset sound a note of warning against its being done
superficially, and with a feverish expectation of something
happening. Every move or combination of moves should be carefully
weighed, and the student should draw his own conclusions and
compare them with what actually happens in the game under
examination.

This applies particularly to some of the critical positions set
out in diagrams in the course of the exposition of the several
games.

The reader would derive the greatest possible benefit from a
prolonged study of such positions before seeking to know how the
games proceed. After having formed his own opinion about the
merits of a particular position, he should compare the result
with the sequel in the game in question, and thus find out where
his judgment has been at fault.

The deeper study of the theory of the openings is of course a
necessity to the student who wishes to become an expert, but the
development of his judgment must precede it. To him Griffith &
White's admirable book, Modern Chess Openings, will be a perfect
mine of information. There are thousands of variations, and in
most of them the actual game in which they were first tried by
masters is named, thus adding to the interest and value of the
work.

I must not omit to mention the invaluable help afforded me by my
friend Mr. John Hart, to whom my warmest thanks are due.


JULIUS DU MONT.



AUTHOR'S PREFACE



THE large majority of chess players who would like to improve
their game, have not the necessary opportunity of pitting
themselves against players of master-strength, or at least of
obtaining the desired instruction from personal intercourse with
them. It is for such players that the present work is intended.
The books on which the learner has to rely hardly ever serve his
purpose, being mostly little more than a disjointed tabulation of
numberless opening variations, which cannot be understood without
preliminary studies, and consequently only make for confusion. In
the end the connection between the various lines of play may
become clear, after the student has made an exhaustive study of
the subject, but very few would have either the time or the
inclination for such prolonged labour.

Therefore another shorter and less empirical way must be found in
which to acquire the understanding of sound play. My system of
teaching differs from the usual ones, in that it sets down at the
outset definite elementary principles of chess strategy by which
any move can be gauged at its true value, thus enabling the
learner to form his own judgment as to the manoeuvres under
consideration. In my opinion it is absolutely ESSENTIAL to follow
such strategical principles, and I go so far as to assert that
such principles are in themselves SUFFICIENT for the development
and conduct of a correct game of chess.

Even though instruction in chess is possible on very general
lines alone, yet I think it advisable and indeed necessary to
explain the application of such principles to the various phases
of each game of chess. Otherwise the learner might unduly delay
his progress, and lose valuable time in finding out for himself
certain essentials that could more profitably be pointed out to
him.

With regard to the way in which I have arranged my subject and
the form of its exposition in detail, I have thought out the
following plan.

After discussing at length the leading principles underlying
sound play, I have first treated of the OPENINGS, in which such
principles are of even more deciding influence than in any other
stage of the game, as far as could be done on broad lines without
having to pay attention to middle and end-game considerations.

I proceeded as follows, by taking as my starting-point the  "pawn
skeleton" which is formed in the opening, and round which the
pieces should group themselves in logical fashion.  As a
consequence of the pawns having so little mobility, this  "pawn
skeleton" often preserves its shape right into the end-game.
Applying the general strategical principles to the formation of
the pawn skeleton, the learner acquires the understanding of the
leading idea underlying each opening without having to burden his
memory. Not only that, he will also be able to find a correct
plan of development when confronted with unusual forms of
opening.

The most important result of this system of teaching is that the
learner does not lose his way in a maze of detail, but has in
view at the very outset, the goal which the many possible
variations of the openings are intended to reach.

Before I could proceed to the discussion of the middle game, I
found it necessary to treat of the principles governing the END-
GAME. For in most cases play in the middle game is influenced by
end-game considerations. Here also it has been my endeavour as
far as possible to reduce my subject to such principles as are
generally applicable.

Finally, as regards the MIDDLE GAME, to which the whole of Part
II is devoted, I have again made the handling of pawns, the
hardest of all problems of strategy, the starting-point for my
deliberations. I have shown at length how the various plans
initiated by the various openings should be developed further. To
ensure a thorough understanding of the middle game, I have given
a large number of games taken from master play, with numerous and
extensive notes. Thus the student has not to rely only on
examples taken haphazard from their context, but he will at the
same time see how middle-game positions, which give opportunities
for special forms of attack, are evolved from the opening.

It has been my desire to make the subject easily understandable
and at the same time entertaining, and to appeal less to the
memory of my readers than to their common sense and intelligence.
I hope in that way not to have strayed too far from the ideal I
had in mind when writing this book, namely, to apply to chess the
only method of teaching which has proved productive in all
branches of science and art, that is, the education of individual
thought.

If I have succeeded in this, I shall have the satisfaction of
having contributed a little to the furthering, in the wide
circles in which it is played, of the game which undoubtedly
makes the strongest appeal to the intellect.


EDWARD LASKER.



PART I



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTORY


I. RULES OF THE GAME


A GAME of chess is played by two opponents on a square board
consisting of sixty-four White and Black squares arranged
alternately. The forces on each side comprise sixteen units,
namely a King, a Queen, two Rooks, two Bishops, two Knights, and
eight Pawns. All units move according to different laws, and the
difference in their mobility is the criterion of their relative
value and of the fighting power they contribute towards achieving
the ultimate aim, namely, the capture of the opposing King.
Before I can explain what is meant by the capture of the King, I
must set out the rules of the game in full.

Diagram 1 shows the position the forces take up for the contest.
The board is so placed that there is a white square at the top
left-hand corner. The Rooks take up their positions at the corner
squares, and next to them the Knights.  Next to those again are
the Bishops, and in the centre the King and Queen, the White
Queen on a White square, and the Black Queen on a Black square.
The eight pawns occupy the ranks immediately in front of the
pieces. From this initial position, White begins the game in
which the players must move alternately.

The pieces move in the following way: The Rook can move from any
square it happens to be on, to any other square which it can
reach in a straight line, either perpendicularly or horizontally,
unless there is another piece of the same colour in the way, in
which case it can only move as far as the square immediately in
front of that piece. If it is an opposing piece which blocks the
way, he can move on to the square that piece occupies, thereby
capturing it. The piece thus captured is removed from the board.
The Bishop can operate along either of the diagonals of which the
square on which he is standing forms part. A Bishop on a White
square can there fore never get on to a Black one.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #K | #B | #Kt| #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #P | #P | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         a    b    c    d    e    f    g    h

                DIAG. 1.

The Queen commands both the straight and the oblique lines which
start from the square she stands on, and therefore unites the
power of both Rook and Bishop in her movements.

The King has similar powers to the Queen, but curtailed, inasmuch
as he can only move one step at a time. He therefore only
controls one neighbouring square in any direction.

The Knight plays and captures alternately on White and Black
squares, and only reaches such squares as are nearest to him
without being immediately adjacent; his move is as it were
composed of two steps, one square in a straight line, and one in
an oblique direction. Diagram 2 will illustrate this.

[Footnote: I should like to quote my friend Mr. John Hart's
clever definition of the Knight's move, though it may not be new.
If one conceives a Knight as standing on a corner square of a
rectangle three squares by two, he is able to move into the
corner diagonally opposite.]

The pawns only move straight forward, one square at a time,
except at their first move, when they have the option of moving
two squares. In contrast to the pieces, the pawns do not capture
in the way they move. They move straight forward, but they
capture diagonally to the right and left, again only one square,
and only forward. Therefore a pawn can only capture such pieces
or pawns as occupy squares of the same colour as the square on
which it stands. If, in moving two squares, a pawn traverses a
square on which it could have been captured by a hostile pawn,
that pawn has the right to capture it, as if it had moved only
one square. This is called capturing EN PASSANT. However, this
capture can only be effected on the very next move, otherwise the
privilege of capturing en passant is lost.

       ---------------------------------------
    8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
      |---------------------------------------|
    7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
      |---------------------------------------|
    6 |    |    |    | *  |    | *  |    |    |
      |---------------------------------------|
    5 |    |    | *  |    |    |    | *  |    |
      |---------------------------------------|
    4 |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |
      |---------------------------------------|
    3 |    |    | *  |    |    |    | *  |    |
      |---------------------------------------|
    2 |    |    |    | *  |    | *  |    |    |
      |---------------------------------------|
    1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       ---------------------------------------
        A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                        Diag. 2.

If a player succeeds in reaching the eighth rank with one of his
pawns he is entitled to call for any piece of higher grade, with
the exception of the King, in place of such pawn.

Each move in a game of chess consists of the displacement of one
piece only, with the exception of what is termed "castling," in
which the King and either Rook can be moved simultaneously by
either player once in a game. In castling, the King moves
sideways to the next square but one, and the Rook to which the
King is moved is placed on the square which the King has skipped
over. Castling is only allowed if neither the King nor the Rook
concerned have moved before, and if there is no piece between the
Rook and King.

Diagram 3 shows a position in which White has castled on the
Queen's side, and Black on the King's side. Castling is not
permitted if the King in castling must pass over a square
attacked by a hostile piece. A square (or a piece) is said to be
"attacked" when the square (or the piece) is in the line of
action of a hostile unit. A square (or a piece) is said to be
covered or protected if an opposing piece occupying that square
(or capturing the piece) could itself be captured.

When attacking the King it is customary to call "check,"  to
notify the opponent of the fact; for the attack on the King

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #R |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    | ^K | ^R |    |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                        Diag. 3.

must be met in some way or other. This can be done by capturing
the attacker or by interposing a piece (this is not possible in
case of attack by a Knight or a pawn), or lastly by moving the
King to a square which is not attacked. The latter must not be
done by castling. If it is impossible by any of the three methods
above mentioned to avoid the attack upon the King, the King is
said to be checkmated, and the game is ended.

If a King is unable to move, though not attacked, and none of his
remaining pieces can move, the King is said to be stale-mated,
and the game is drawn. A game is also drawn when neither side has
sufficient material left to enforce a mate.  (Compare page 63.)

If a player resigns his game before he is actually mated, he
acknowledges that in the end mate is unavoidable, and the game is
counted as a loss to him.

A game is null and void if it is shown that a mistake was made in
setting the board or men. The same applies when in the course of
the game the position and number of pieces have been altered in a
manner not in accordance with the proper course of play, and the
latter cannot be re-constructed from the point where the error
was made.

If a player having the move touches one of his pieces he is under
compulsion to move it; if he touches a hostile piece he must
capture it, provided that the piece can be properly moved or
captured in either case. This rule is of no effect if the piece
so touched cannot be moved or captured, as the case may be.  So
long as the hand has not left the piece to be moved, the latter
can be placed on any accessible square. If a player touches a
piece with the sole object of adjusting its position, he must
apprise his opponent of his intention by saying  "J'adoube"
beforehand. It is best to move the King first when castling. If
the Rook is moved first, and unless the King is played almost
simultaneously, a doubt might arise whether castling or a Rook's
move only was intended.

If a player has castled illegally, Rook and King must be moved
back, and the King must make another move, if there is a legal
one. If not, any other move can be played. A player who makes an
illegal move with a piece must retract that move, and make
another one if possible with the same piece. If the mistake is
only noticed later on, the game should be restarted from the
position in which the error occurred.


II. NOTATION


A special notation has been adopted to make the study of games
and positions possible, and it is necessary for students of the
game to become thoroughly conversant with it. The original and
earliest notation is still in use in English, French, and Spanish
speaking countries. It is derived from the original position in
the game, in that the squares take the names of the pieces which
occupy them. Thus the corner squares are called R 1 (Rook's
square or Rook's first), and to distinguish them from one another
QR1 or KR 1 (Queen's or King's Rook's square). The squares
immediately in front are called QR2 or KR2. A distinction is made
between White and Black, and White's R 1 is Black's R 8, Black's
R 2 is White's R 7, White's K B 3 is Black's KB6, and so on. K
stands for King; Q for Queen; B for Bishop; Kt for Knight; R for
Rook; and P for Pawn. In describing a capture, only the capturing
and the captured pieces are mentioned, and not the squares.

When confusion is possible, it is customary to add whether King's
side or Queen's side pieces are concerned, e.g. KRx Q Kt.  In
this notation it is necessary to bear in mind which Kt is the Q
Kt, which R is the KR. This becomes increasingly difficult as the
game goes on and pieces change their places.  Many sets of
chessmen have one Rook and one Knight stamped with a special
sign, to show they are King's side pieces. This is not necessary
in the case of Bishops: a white KBis always on white squares, a
white QBon black squares.

A more modern notation is the algebraic notation, which has been
adopted in most countries. It has the advantage of being
unmistakably clear, and also more concise. Here the perpendicular
lines of squares (called files) are named with the letters a-h,
from left to right, always from the point of view of White, and
the horizontal lines of squares (called ranks) with numbers 1-8
as before, only with the distinction that the rank on which the
White pieces stand is always called the first; thus the square we
named White's QB2 or Black's QB7 is now called c2 in both cases.
Black's QB2 (White's QB7) is always c7. In capturing, the square
on which the capture takes place and not the piece captured is
noted, for the sake of uniformity. In the case of pawn moves, the
squares only are noted.

O--O stands for castles on the King's side; O--O--O stands for
castles on the Queen's side; : or x stands for captures; + for
check.

In the following opening moves, both notations are used for the
purpose of comparison:

    1. P-Q 4      P-Q4         1. d4         d5
    2. P-QB4      P-K3         2. c4         e6
    3. Kt-QB3     P-QB4        3. Ktc3       c5
    4. PxQP       KPxP         4. cd:        ed:
    5. P-K4       QPxP         5. e4         de:
    6. P-Q5       Kt-KB3       6. d5         Ktf6
    7. B--KKt5    B-K2         7. Bg5        Be7
    8. K Kt-K2    Castles      8. Ktge2      O--O

In most books in which the algebraic notation is used, both
squares of a move are written out for the benefit of the student.
The moves above would then look like this:

          1. d2-d4          d7-d5
          2. c2-c4          e7-e6
          3. Ktb1-c3        c7-c5
          4. C4 x d5        e6xd5
          5. e2-e4          d5xe4
          6. d4-d5          Ktg8-f6
          7. Bc1-g5         Bf8-e 7
          8. Ktg1-e2        O--O

To conclude: I will give the denomination of the pieces in
various languages:

English .............. K  Q  R  B  Kt P   Castles
French  .............. R  D  T  F  C  P   Roq
Spanish .............. R  D  T  A  C  P   Enrog
German and Austrian .. K  D  T  L  S      O-O (O)
Italian .............. R  D  T  A  C      O-O (O)
Russian .............. KP F  L  C  K      O-O (O)
Dutch ................ K  D  T  L  P      O-O (O)
Scandinavian ......... K  D  T  L  S      O-O (O)
Bohemian ............. K  D  V  S  J      O-O (O)
Hungarian ............ K  V  B  F  H      O-O (O)



CHAPTER II

HINTS FOR BEGINNERS--ELEMENTARY COMBINATIONS



THE mental development of the chess player is a gradual struggle
from a state of chaos to a clear conception of the game. The
period required for such development largely depends upon the
special gifts the learner may possess, but in the main the
question of methods predominates. Most beginners do not trouble
very much about any particular plan in their study of chess, but
as soon as they have learnt the moves, rush into the turmoil of
practical play. It is self-evident that their prospects under
such conditions cannot be very bright. The play of a beginner is
planless, because he has too many plans, and the capacity for
subordinating all his combinations to one leading idea is non-
existent. Yet it cannot be denied upon investigation that a
certain kind of method is to be found in the play of all
beginners, and seems to come to them quite naturally. At first
the pawns are pushed forward frantically, because there is no
appreciation of the power and value of the pieces. Conscious of
the inferiority of the pawns, the beginner does not conclude that
it must be advantageous to employ the greater power of the
pieces, but is chiefly concerned with attacking the opposing
pieces with his pawns in the hope of capturing them. His aim is
not to develop his own forces, but to weaken those of his
opponent.  His combinations are made in the hope that his
adversary may not see through them, nor does he trouble much
about his opponent's intentions. When most of his pawns are gone,
then only do his pieces get their chance. He has a great liking
for the Queen and the Knight, the former because of her
tremendous mobility, the latter on account of his peculiar step,
which seems particularly adapted to take the enemy by surprise.
When watching beginners you will frequently observe numberless
moves by a peripatetic Queen, reckless incursions by a Knight
into the enemy's camp, and when the other pieces join in the
fray, combination follows combination in bewildering sequence and
fantastic chaos. Captures of pieces are planned, mating nets are
woven, perhaps with two pieces, against a King's position, where
five pieces are available for defence. This unsteadiness in the
first childish stages of development makes it very difficult for
the beginner to get a general view of the board. Yet the
surprises which each move brings afford him great enjoyment.

A few dozen such games are by no means wasted. After certain
particular dispositions of pieces have proved his undoing, the
beginner will develop the perception of threats.  He sees dangers
one or two moves ahead, and thereby reaches the second stage in
his development.

His combinations will become more and more sound, he will learn
to value his forces more correctly, and therefore to husband his
pieces and even his pawns with greater care. In this second stage
his strength will increase steadily, but, and this is the
drawback, only as far as his power of combination is concerned.
Unless a player be exceptionally gifted, he will only learn after
years of practice, if at all, what may be termed  "positional
play." For that, it is necessary to know how to open a game so as
to lay the foundation for a favourable middle game, and how to
treat a middle game, without losing sight of the possibilities of
the end-game. It is hopeless to try to memorise the various
openings which analysis have proved correct, for this empirical
method fails as soon as the opponent swerves from the recognised
lines of play. One must learn to recognise the characteristics of
sound play. They apply to all and any position, and the
underlying principles must be propounded in a manner generally
applicable. And this brings me to the substance of my subject,
round which I will endeavour to build up a system compatible with
common sense and logic.

Before I proceed to develop my theme, I shall set down a number
of elementary rules which will facilitate the understanding of
such simple combinations as occur at every step in chess.

If we ignore the comparatively small proportion of games in which
the mating of the opponent's King is accomplished on a full
board, we can describe a normal, average game of chess in the
following way. Both sides will employ their available forces more
or less advantageously to execute attacking and defensive
manoeuvres which should gradually lead to exchanges. If one side
or the other emerges from the conflict with some material gain,
it will generally be possible to force a mate in the end-game,
whilst if both sides have succeeded by careful play to preserve
equality of material, a draw will generally ensue.

It will be found a little later that a single pawn may suffice,
with some few exceptions, to achieve a victory, and we shall
adopt the following leading principle for all combinations, viz.
loss of material must be avoided, even if only a pawn.  It is a
good habit to look upon every pawn as a prospective Queen. This
has a sobering influence on premature and impetuous plans of
attack.

On the other hand, victory is often brought about by a timely
sacrifice of material.

But in such cases the sacrificing of material has its
compensation in some particular advantage of position. As
principles of position are difficult for beginners to grasp, I
propose to defer their consideration for the present and to
devote my attention first to such combinations as involve
questions of material. Let us master a simple device that makes
most combinations easy both for attack and defence. It amounts
merely to a matter of elementary arithmetic, and if the beginner
neglects it, he will soon be at a material disadvantage.

Diagram 4 may serve as an example:

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    | #R |    |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #Q | #Kt| #R |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt| #B | #P |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    | ^Kt|    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^B |    | ^Q | ^R |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 4.

It is Black's move, and we will suppose he wishes to play P-K4. A
beginner will probably calculate thus: I push on my pawn, he
takes with his pawn, my Knight takes, so does his, then my Bishop
takes, and so on. This is quite wrong, and means waste of time
and energy.

When the beginner considers a third or fourth move in such a
combination, he will already have forgotten which pieces he
intended to play in the first moves. The calculation is perfectly
simple upon the following lines: I play P-K4, then my pawn is
attacked by a pawn and two Knights, a Bishop and two Rooks, six
times in all. It is supported by a Bishop, two Knights, two Rooks
and a Queen, six times in all. Therefore I can play P-K4,
provided the six units captured at K4 are not of greater value
than the six white units which are recaptured. In the present
instance both sides lose a pawn, two Knights, two Rooks, and a
Bishop, and there is no material loss. This established, he can
embark on the advance of the KP without any fear.

Therefore: in any combination which includes a number of
exchanges on one square, all you have to do is to count the
number of attacking and defending units, and to compare their
relative values; the latter must never be forgotten. If Black
were to play KtxP in the following position, because the pawn at
K 5 is attacked three times, and only supported twice, it would
be an obvious miscalculation, for the value of the defending
pieces is smaller. [Footnote: It is difficult to compare the
relative value of the different pieces, as so much depends on the
peculiarities of each position, but, generally speaking, minor
pieces, Bishop and Knight, are reckoned as equal; the Rook as
equal to a minor piece and one or two pawns (to have a Rook
against a minor piece, is to be the "exchange"  ahead). The Queen
is equal to two Rooks or three minor pieces.]

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    | #R |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    | #R |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P |    |#Kt |    | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |^Kt |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^B |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    | ^R |    | ^K |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 5.

Chess would be an easy game if all combinations could be tested
and probed exhaustively by the mathematical process just shown.
But we shall find that the complications met with are extremely
varied. To give the beginner an idea of this, I will mention a
few of the more frequent examples. It will be seen that the
calculation may be, and very frequently

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #R |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P | #B | ^R |    |#Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^B | ^P |    |    |^Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 6.

is, upset by one of the pieces involved being exchanged or
sacrificed. An example of this is found in Diagram 6; KtxP

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #B | #P |    |    |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | ^P |#Kt |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |^Kt |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^K |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 7.

fails on account of R X B; this leaves the Knight unprotected,
and White wins two pieces for his Rook. Neither can the Bishop
capture on K5 because of R X Kt. leaving the Bishop unprotected,
after which BxKt does not retrieve the situation because the Rook
recaptures from B6.

A second important case, in which our simple calculation is of no
avail, occurs in a position where one of the defending pieces is
forced away by a threat, the evasion of which is more important
than the capture of the unit it defends. In Diagram 7, for
instance, Black may not play KtxP, because White, by playing P-
Q6, would force the Bishop to Kt4 or B1, to prevent the pawn from
Queening and the Knight would be lost. A further example of the
same type is given in Diagram 8. Here a peculiar mating threat,
which occurs not

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #B |    | #Q | #R |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |#Kt |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |^Kt |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | ^R |    |^Kt |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^Q |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 8.

infrequently in practical play, keeps the Black Queen tied to her
KB2 and unavailable for the protection of the B at BI.

White wins as follows:

1. KtxB, KtxKt; 2. RxKt, QxR; 3. Kt-B7ch, K-Kt1; 4. Kt-R6 double
ch, K-R1; 5 Q-Kt8ch, RxQ; 6. Kt-B7 mate.

We will now go a step further and turn from "acute"  combinations
to such combinations as are, as it were, impending.   Here, too,
I urgently recommend beginners (advanced players do it as a
matter of course) to proceed by way of simple arithmetical
calculations, but, instead of enumerating the attacking and
defending pieces, to count the number of possibilities of attack
and defence.

Let us consider a few typical examples. In Diagram 9, if Black
plays P-Q5, he must first have probed the position in the
following way. The pawn at Q5 is attacked once and supported once
to start with, and can be attacked by three more White units in
three more moves (1. R-Q1, 2. R(B2)-Q2, 3. B-B2) Black can also
mobilise three more units for the defence in the same number of
moves (1. Kt-B4 or K3, 2. B-Kt2, 3. R-Q1). There is,
consequently, no immediate danger, nor is there anything to fear
for some time to come, as White has no other piece which could
attack the pawn for the fifth time.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    | #R | #B | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    | #R |    |    |#Kt | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P |^Kt |    |    |    | ^P | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^R |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    | ^R |    |    |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 9.

It would be obviously wrong to move the pawn to Q6 after White's
R-Q1, because White could bring another two pieces to bear on the
P, the other Rook and the Knight, whilst Black has only one more
piece available for the defence, namely, his Rook.

The following examples show typical positions, in which simple
calculation is complicated by side issues.

In Diagram 10, the point of attack, namely, the Black Knight at
KB3, can be supported by as many Black units as White can bring
up for the attack, but the defensive efficiency of one of Black's
pieces is illusory, because it can be taken by a White piece. The
plan would be as follows: White threatens Black's Knight for the
third time with Kt-K4, and Black must reply QKt-Q2, because
covering with R-K3 would cost the "exchange," as will appear from
a comparison of the value of the pieces concerned. The "exchange"
is, however, lost for Black on the next move, because

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #R |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #B | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |    | #P |    | #Kt| #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | ^Kt| #P |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^B |    |    | ^P |    | ^Kt|    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 10

White's further attack on the Knight by Q-B3 forces the Rook to
defend on K3, where it gets into the diagonal of the Bishop,
which at present is masked by White's Knight. The sequel would be
3. QKtxKtch, RxKt (not BxKt on account of BxR winning a whole
Rook), 4. BxR, and so on.  A similar case is shown in Diagram 11.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #K | #P | #Kt|    |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    | ^B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P |    | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | #B |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 11

Here, too, there is a flaw in the simple calculation, because the
defending units are not secure. Beginners should devote special
attention to this position, which is in practice of frequent
occurrence.

It can be easily perceived that the Bishop cannot capture the
pawn at B7 on account of P-QR3. But to take with the Knight would
also be an error, because Black would then keep chasing away the
covering Bishop.

1. P-Kt4; 2. B-Q6, K-B3; 3. Kt-K8, B-B2; and wins one of the
pieces.

Finally, one more example, in which one of the defending pieces
being pinned makes simple calculation impracticable.

In Diagram 12 it seems at first sight as if Black could play
KtxP: although White can pin the Knight with R-K1

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    | #Kt| #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P | #Kt|    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt|    |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 12

and then attack it once more with his Knight, Black would appear
to have sufficient protection available, with his Kt and B. White
has no time to double Rooks, because if he does so, after his R-
K2 Black would play the King away from his file and allow the
Knight to escape.

But White can, by a simple sacrifice, bring the slumbering R at
R1 into sudden action:

1. ... KtxP; 2 R-K1, B-B4; 3. Kt-B3, Kt-Q3; 4. RxKt, KtxR; 5. R-
K1, and White wins two pieces for his Rook.

These illustrations will be sufficient to give the beginner an
understanding of economy of calculation in all kinds of
combinations. His power of combining will grow speedily on this
basis, and thrive in the fire of practical experience.  Where an
opponent is missing, the gap must be filled by reference to such
books as treat of the science of combination and give examples
taken from actual play.



CHAPTER III

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CHESS STRATEGY



In bringing the teachings of this book under the collective
heading "Chess Strategy," it was not in any way my intention to
draw anything like an exact parallel between the manoeuvres on
the chess-board and military operations in actual warfare. In
trying to seek such analogies there is great danger of being led
astray, and little likelihood of gaining knowledge that might be
of use in practical play. Plain common-sense will give us all we
need, without our being influenced by those tactical and
strategical considerations that have been found useful in war.

The following definition may not be out of place: Strategy sets
down the whole of the problems which must be solved in war, in
order to attain the ultimate result aimed at; tactics solve such
problems in various ways, and according to the conditions
prevailing in the particular case. Sound strategy, when setting
the task, must never lose sight of tactical practicability, and
only a thorough knowledge of tactical resources makes correct
strategy possible.

Now we shall not under any circumstances, as unfortunately even
great chess masters have done, seek in outward similarities
justification for transferring to chess the teachings of the
strategy and tactics of war. It sounds pretty enough to say:
Chess is a game of war--the various pieces represent the various
kinds of forces: the pawns represent the infantry, the Knights
take the place of cavalry, the Rooks do the work of heavy
artillery, sweeping broad lines; the different ways in which the
pieces move find a parallel in the topography of the theatre of
war, in that the various battle-fields are more or less easy of
access. But it is quite unjustifiable to assign to the Knights
the functions of scouts, and to say that Rooks should stay in the
background, as heavy artillery, and so on. Such pronouncements
would not have the slightest practical value.  What we take from
the science of warfare is merely the definition. In each game the
strategy of chess should set us the tasks which must be
accomplished (in order to mate the opponent's King), and tactics
point the way in which it is possible to solve such problems.
Correct chess strategy will only set such tasks as are tactically
possible, and, if we wish to expound the principles of chess
strategy, we cannot exclude chess tactics from the field of our
observations. If here and there the results of our deliberations
bear some analogy to actual warfare, we may certainly give way to
a kind of aesthetic satisfaction in that our own occupation has
some parallel in real life, but we must never fashion our
principles in accordance with such fortuitous circumstances.

Having surveyed the problems we have to solve, we can now plunge
into our subject.

In the first chapter, when considering special cases in
elementary combinations, we have already noticed the important
part played in each skirmish by the balance between the attacking
and defending units. Speaking quite generally, common-sense will
tell us that, in all operations on the chess-board, the main
consideration for the defence will be to maintain that balance,
and that there is only justification for an attack when it is
possible to concentrate more forces on the strategic point than
can be mustered by the defence. However, one very important point
must not be neglected, though I did not touch upon it when
discussing elementary combinations for fear of complicating
matters for beginners: the balance between the contending forces
is by no means established by their numerical equality. A
paramount factor is the mobility of such forces, and as soon as
it is no longer one of the elementary cases of capture and
recapture described previously, this factor must be taken into
account in order to decide, on a general survey, whether there is
a sufficient defence to an impending attack, or whether one's own
intended attack is likely to prevail. That mobility is the first
and foremost consideration should be self-evident, since the
relative value of the pieces can only make itself felt by their
greater or lesser mobility.

Except in certain positions, which are brought about by some
particular array of the pieces, the intrinsic value of a Rook is
greater than that of a Bishop, because it can command all the
squares on the board, whilst a Bishop is tied to its own colour;
Knight and Bishop are considered equivalent, because the Knight's
advantage in being able to act on all the squares of either
colour is balanced by the fact that the Bishop can sweep long
diagonals. Two Bishops are, generally speaking, of greater value
than two Knights, because together they also act on all the
squares, and their command of long diagonals is a clear
advantage. The whole of this valuation, however, comes to nought
when the pieces are hindered in their mobility by the peculiarity
of any particular position.

We will consider one instance from end-game play, and one from
the openings.

In Diagram 13, White derives no advantage from being

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P |    |    |    | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #P |    | #P |    | #P | ^P | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^P |    | ^P | #Kt| ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    | ^R |    |    | ^P | ^K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 13

the exchange to the good, for the Rook has no file which could be
used to break into the Black camp.

In Diagram 14, the numerical equality of forces will not save
Black, because bad development reduces the mobility of his pieces
to such an extent that he has no resources with which he can
parry the impending attack.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #K | #R |    | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #B |    |    | #Q | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P | #P |    | #P |    |    | #Kt|    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | ^P | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P | ^Kt|    | ^B | ^Kt| ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    |    | ^Q |    | ^P | ^K | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    | ^R |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 14

White will assail the Black King's position on the Queen side,
and Black is unable to concentrate his forces quickly enough for
the defence of the jeopardised entrenchments. Let us therefore
bear in mind that the mobility of the pieces is the deciding
factor of their efficiency, and that mobility is the highest
criterion by which to judge the merits (or demerits)  of their
operations.

We will now consider this principle in its application to the
three stages of play, namely, the opening, the middle-game, and
the ending.



CHAPTER IV

THE OPENING



The only pieces available on the first move are the Knights.  In
order to develop other pieces as well, it is necessary to move
pawns first, and such pawn moves will be best as give an outlet
to as many pieces as possible. For quick development is of the
utmost importance, and he who succeeds first in placing all his
pieces, from their initial awkward positions, to such places as
give them command of the greatest possible number of squares, has
the better chance of concentrating a superior force on some
important point.

It follows that White, having the first move, is, so to speak,
always morally justified in attacking, whilst Black should assume
the defensive. It is a step in the right direction, to appreciate
the truth of this proposition. Unfortunately most beginners fail
to realise it, and so pave the way, from the first, to the loss
of the game.

There are not many developing pawn moves to choose from.
Apparently from the point of view of quick development only P-K4
and P-Q4 need be considered, since they free both Bishop and
Queen, whilst other pawn moves liberate one piece only. Generally
speaking it is only required to move two or three pawns to allow
all pieces to be developed, and it is good, on principle, to make
only such pawn moves in the opening, which are necessary for the
development of pieces.  To play other pawns really means the loss
of a move. To "lose a move" means to make a move which is not
essential to the attainment of a desired position. Thus the "loss
of a move" results also from playing a piece to a given square in
more moves than necessary.

I shall now give a few games showing the far-reaching
consequences of losing moves. The first one is a typical though
glaring example, which is very instructive and came to my notice
some time ago:

          1. P-K4           P-K4
          2. P-Q4           PxP
          3. QxP            Kt-QB3
          4. Q-K3           Kt-B3
          5. P-KR3?

I will not discuss the system of development adopted by White in
his first four moves. The last move, however, can at once be
recognised as faulty. It is the loss of a move such as occurs in
the vast majority of games played by beginners.  It was
unnecessary to prevent KKt-Kt5, since the Knight could not hold
that square permanently. In any case B-K2 would have had the same
effect, and developed a piece at the same time.

          5. ...                B-K2
          6. P-QR3??

This, of course, is very bad. The consequences of this loss of a
second move are swift and deadly.

          6. ...               Castles
          7. B-B4

At last a developing move.

          7. ...               R-K1
          8. Q-QKt3

Another Queen's move. The attack on the Bishop's Pawn may be very
tempting, but must necessarily be incorrect--and why? Because
White is much behind with his development.  It is useless to
analyse any kind of attack in face of this fact.  The beginner
finds it hard to get used to this way of thinking.  He prefers to
try to unravel a long string of variations and combinations, in
which he will mostly lose his bearings. Even stronger players
obstruct their own powers by refusing to see the value of judging
a position on general merits. They lose valuable time in thinking
out endless variations, to maintain positions which could be
proved valueless by general and logical deductions.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #R |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #P | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P | ^Q |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B |    | ^K |    | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 15

Then, as in the present position, retribution comes swiftly.

          8. ...           P-Q4

White should have considered this move. It was obvious, since the
opening of the K file for the Rook is most dangerous, for the
White King.

           9. BxP          KtxB

Black could have played QxB at once.

          10. QxKt         QxQ
          11. PxQ          B-Kt5 double ch
          12. K-Q1         R-K8 mate

A further example in which the loss of moves occurs, though not
so glaringly, is the following famous game, which Morphy played
against the Duke Karl of Brunswick and Count Isouard in the Royal
box at the Paris opera-house.

           1. P-K4          P-K4
           2. Kt-KB3        P-Q3

According to the principles set out above, Kt-QB3 would have been
better, since the text move shuts out the King's Bishop.

           3. P-Q4

Now the King's Pawn is attacked twice. It would be bad to support
it with Kt-QB3, as White would exchange pawns and then Queens.
Black would thus forfeit his chance of castling and lose much
time in bringing the King into safety and the Rooks into play. P-
KB3, of course, is impossible, as it is not a developing move,
and moreover blocks the natural development of the King's Knight.
Protecting the pawn with the Queen would also block other pieces,
and QKt-Q2 cannot be good, as it blocks the Queen's Bishop.

Since it seems impossible to protect the King's Pawn, the only
alternative would be to exchange it; indeed it is on the whole
the best course, although it allows a White piece to take up a
dominating position in the centre. Wishing to avoid this, Black
plays

          3. ...       B-Kt5

and, by pinning the opponent's Knight, indirectly protects the
King's Pawn. This manoeuvre is, however, ill-advised, as Black is
forced to exchange the Bishop for the Knight. The Bishop will
have moved twice, the Knight only once, therefore White will have
gained a move for his development.

               4. PxP           BxKt

Should Black play PxP at once, White would exchange Queens,
release the pin, and win the pawn.

               5. QxB           PxP
               6. B-QB4

White has now two pieces more in play than Black, instead of only
one, and the mobility of the White Queen, which Black himself has
brought out, begins to have a threatening effect on Black's game.

              6. ...            Kt-KB3
              7. Q-QKt3         Q-K2

Black cannot cover his King's Bishop's Pawn with Q-Q2 because 8.
QxP wins the Rook, whilst now Black could play 8. ... Q-Kt5ch in
reply, forcing the exchange of Queens.  The text move, which is
forced, blocks the Bishop, and at the same time prevents the
development of the King's Rook, all of which is the direct
consequence of the loss of one move.

              8. Kt-B3

White rightly disdains the gain of the Knight's Pawn, but
prevents the exchange of Queens in developing a piece. He proves
the superiority of his position much more convincingly in that
way. Black must now lose yet another move to protect his Knight's
Pawn.

              8. ...            P-B3
              9. B-KKt5         P-Kt4

Black must try to develop his Queen's Knight at last. He cannot
play QKt-Q2 at once, since his Knight's Pawn would again be
unprotected; therefore he plays the move in the text, probably
thinking that now White also must lose a move to withdraw his
Bishop. But in view of the fact that Black's game is wholly
undeveloped, and that he plays practically several pieces down,
White sacrifices his Knight for two pawns: he foresees the
position which occurs a few moves later, when Black is hemmed in
on all sides.

          10. KtxP          PxKt
          11. BxKtPch       QKt-Q2
          12. Castles QR    R-Q1

This is the only piece available to cover Q2, for the King's
Knight is pinned. White has another piece in reserve, his King's
Rook, and against this Black is defenceless.


        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #R | #K | #B |    |#R  |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    | #Kt| #Q | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^B |    |    | #P |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^Q |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    | ^K | ^R |    |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 16


          13. RxKt

compare Diag. 12.

          13. ...          RxR
          14. R-Q1         Q-K3

This releases the King's Knight. Now White could win by playing
BxKt and BxRch, but he prefers to end up with a magnificent
sacrifice.

         15. BxRch        KtxB
         16. Q-Kt8ch!!    KtxQ
         17. R-Q8 mate

The final position shows in a striking manner how a few well-
developed pieces can be worth more than many undeveloped ones,
and the whole game is an example of the fatal consequences which
can follow the loss of a move, since it often leads to the
compulsory loss of further moves in the course of the game.

"This is the curse of every evil deed That propagating still it
brings forth evil."

The logical sequence of the moves in this game, as pointed out in
the commentaries to it, is borne out by the curious coincidence
that I once had the opportunity of playing a game in exactly the
same sequence of moves, against a player to whom Morphy's
"brilliancy" was unknown.

              --------------------------

The leading principle of all opening moves is made clear by the
foregoing pages, namely, rapid development of pieces, and
consequently the avoidance of the loss of a move in any shape or
form.

Before treating of the various systems of openings, I will say a
few words on the principles of PAWN PLAY.

Each opening is characterised by a well-defined pawn formation,
and concurrently a certain method in the development of the
pieces. Naturally the formation of a pawn skeleton is not an
independent factor, but must be evolved with a view to
facilitating the favourable development of pieces. But when
considering the form of a pawn position and that of the pieces,
we cannot shut our eyes to the fact that pawn formation must
necessarily be the dominant consideration in our mind. Pawn
formation is of a more permanent character than that of the
pieces, in consequence of the latter's greater mobility. When we
have made a rash move with a piece, to which our attacking
disposition may have tempted us, we may still have a chance of
retrieving the position by timely retreat. Once a pawn has moved
it cannot turn back, and only after the greatest deliberation
should we embark on changes in our pawn formation in order not to
disturb the balance of this "static element" of the game. But we
shall see that the pawn skeleton which was formed in the opening
often weathers the storm and stress of the middle game, and
frequently preserves its character right up to the end-game.  I
will therefore make pawn formation my starting-point in an
attempt to show the way through the maze of the openings on the
basis of general strategical principles.

If our pawn skeleton is to promote the freedom of all the pieces,
we must not build it up with the narrow view of developing minor
pieces only, but must consider from the very first in which way
it will enable the Rooks to get into action. We can unite these
tendencies in making the CENTRE OF THE BOARD the main field of
action for all our forces. This means for both sides K4 and Q4,
and also in a lesser degree QB4 and KB4.  We shall get a clear
insight into the positional advantage of having command of the
centre later on, when discussing the middle game. At present I
will only touch the subject in a general way, explaining it in an
elementary form, which will be sufficient to develop an
understanding for pawn strategy in the opening. In the course of
further deductions, after the grasp of this difficult stage of
the game has become stronger, I will go into details which will
allow the subject to be stated in a more precise form.

Placing the pieces in the centre is of value, because there they
have more mobility than near the edge, which, of course, limits
their range of action, and also because from the centre a
concentration of forces on a given point can generally be
effected in the quickest way.

In most cases two centre squares become inaccessible at once,
through the opponent placing one of his pawns in the centre;
therefore it would seem a good plan to lure that pawn away, and
this is rendered feasible by playing P-K4 or P-QB4 when the
opponent has a pawn on his Q4, and P-Q4 or P-KB4 when he has a
pawn on K4. In the following we will consider such manoeuvres as
could apply either to White or Black, from the point of view of
White, to whom the initiative is, as pointed out above, a sort of
birth-right. Naturally, should White lose a move, as, for
instance, 1. P-K4, P-K4; 2. Kt-KB3, Kt-QB3; 3. P-QR3? the
position is reversed, and Black is bound to obtain the initiative
which is White's birthright.

The pawn moves mentioned above also have the tendency of giving
the Rooks an opportunity for action. A Rook standing behind an
advanced pawn may support its further advance, or, if the pawn
should be exchanged, might get an open file.

The damage we wish to inflict on our opponent we must, of course,
try to avoid ourselves. Thus we will not easily give up a centre
pawn unless we can obtain some other advantage in doing so. This
advantage may be, that in exchanging the centre pawn we open up
lines of attack for our pieces, or that we are able to place one
of our pieces in a commanding position in the centre of the
board.

The following example may serve as an illustration. Supposing
White plays after

          1. P-Q4          P-Q4
          2. P-QB4

His aim is to tempt Black's centre pawn away and to make his QB4
and K4 accessible for his own forces. Black might be justified in
taking the pawn, if he really could hold the pawn thus gained. We
shall show later on that this is not so, and that White can win
it back easily and advantageously.   Therefore Black is more
likely to play 2. P-K3.  Not 2. ... Kt-KB3; for after 3. PxP,
KtxP; 4. P-K4 would open White's game and drive the Knight away
at once, gaining a move. Supposing, however, Black plays 2. ...
B-B4; should White now think mechanically, "I will take his
centre pawn and consequently have the better game," his deduction
would be wrong. For after exchanging his Bishop for the Knight,
which otherwise would drive his Queen away, Black brings the
latter into a dominating square in the centre.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt|    | #Q | #K | #B | #Kt| #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    | #P | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    | #B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H


                     Diag. 17.

          3. PxP          BxKt
          4. RxB          QxP

Black's Queen cannot easily be driven away from her commanding
position, particularly as White must lose a move to save his QRP.
Meanwhile Black gains time for concentrating his forces for an
attack which wins the Queen's Pawn.

          5. P-QKt3           Kt-QB3
          6. P-K3             Castles QR
          7. Kt-B3            P-K4

and wins the QP, or

          5. P-QR3            Kt-QB3
          6. P-K3             Castles QR

and P-K4 is again a threat hard for white to meet.

This position shows, that to bring one's opponent's centre pawn
away and to keep one's own, does not under all circumstances mean
the command of the centre, but that the opening up of files and
diagonals for one's pieces towards the centre is an important
moment in the fight for positional advantage.

Considerations of this kind will help to improve our judgment in
many of the various openings treated in the following pages.

We will class the openings in this way:

    A. White 1. P-K4.

            (a) Black 1. P-K4
            (b) Black 1. Any other move

    B. White 1. P-Q4.

            (a) Black 1. P-Q4
            (b) Black 1. Any other move

    C. White 1. Any other move

We shall find that openings classed under C generally lead to
positions treated under A and B.

A. We have already come to the conclusion that after 1. P-K4, P-
K4 White does well to try to force the exchange of Black's centre
pawn on Q4 or KB4, and that Black will try to counteract this,
unless by allowing the exchange he gets a chance of exerting
pressure in the centre by means of his pieces.

We will first see what happens when White undertakes the advance
in question on his second move. Superficially the difference
between 2. PQ4 and 2. P-KB4 is that in the first case the pawn
thus advanced is covered, while in the second it is not. An
opening in which a pawn sacrifice is offered, is called a
"gambit"; 2. P-KB4 is therefore a gambit.

2. P-Q4 is only a gambit if after 2. ... PxP White does not
recapture the pawn. Nevertheless this opening has been called the
"centre gambit," and though the denomination is not correct we
will adhere to it, as it is in general use.

A very considerable difference between the centre gambit and the
King's gambit lies in the fact that in the former acceptance is
compulsory, whilst in the second it may be declined.

For: 2. P-Q4 threatens to take the King's Pawn. To defend it by
means of 2. ... P-Q3 is unwise, since White exchanges pawns and
then Queens, by which Black loses his chance of castling and
impedes the development of his Rooks.  2. ... Kt-QB3 is also bad,
since after 3. PxP, KtxP; 4 P-KB4, White drives the Knight away,
gaining a strong hold on the centre, and Black has no
compensation for giving up his centre pawn. It may be mentioned
here that after 2. ... Kt-QB3, 3. P-Q5 would be a useless move,
as to begin with it would be inconsequent, since P-Q4 was played
in order to clear the centre, and moreover it would block up a
diagonal which could be most useful to the King's Bishop.

We conclude now that Black cannot hold his pawn at K4.  He must
relinquish the centre by 2. ... PxP. He will now either attempt
to bring away White's King's Pawn by advancing his own QP to Q4,
or try to utilise the King's file, which was opened by his second
move, and operate against White's KP. The Rooks are indicated for
this task. We shall refer to the execution of these plans later
on.

In the King's gambit, White's attempt to bring away Black's
King's Pawn may be safely ignored.

The move 2. P-KB4 does not threaten to take the King's Pawn, as
Black would win White's KP by Q-R5ch. Black can therefore develop
in security with 2. ... B-B4, and if then White prevents the Q
check by Kt-KB3, there is no objection to Black protecting his
King's Pawn with P-Q3, as the King's Bishop is already developed.
After 4. B-B4, Black has still no need to protect his KP with Kt-
QB3, but can play Kt-KB3 first, because after 5. PxP, PxP; 6.
KtxP would be answered by 6. ... Q-Q5 winning a piece. Black
keeps the upper hand in these early encounters because he has
made a developing move with a piece, whilst White has played a
pawn move which is useless for the purpose of development.


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt| #P |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #B |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B |    | ^P | ^P | #B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt| ^P |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H


                        Diag. 18.

Diagram 18 shows the position which results from the following
plausible moves:

          2. P-KB4            B-B4
          3. Kt-KB3           P-Q3
          4. B-B4             Kt-KB3
          5. P-Q3             Kt-B3
          6. Kt-B3            B-KKt5

If White wishes to castle on the K side, which must have been his
intention when playing 2. P-KB4, he will have to play Kt-QR4 and
KtxB.

Though this is of no disadvantage to Black, he could avoid the
exchange of his KB by playing 2. ... P-QR3 instead of B-KKt5. If
then White plays P-B5 in order to hinder the development of
Black's QB and to bring out his own, the pressure on Black's KP
is relieved permanently, and sooner or later Black will break
through on the Q file, as his QP is no longer needed at Q3 for
the support of the centre pawn.

A different pawn formation is the result if White enforces the
exchange of Black's centre pawn at once. This he can do by
playing P-Q4, e.g.:

     2. P-KB4      B-B4     or    4. P-B3    Kt-KB3
     3. Kt-KB3     P-Q3           5. P-Q4 PxQP
     4. P-Q4       PxQP           6. PxP    B-Kt3
     5. KtxP

Here Black can get an early advantage by attacking White's KP,
taking possession of the K file after castling on the K side.

All things considered, the student should in my opinion decline
the gambit, as in doing so he can get an easy and satisfactory
development. The treatment of the "King's Gambit accepted," which
aims at holding the gambit pawn, is most difficult and leads
early in the game to such complications as none but an expert can
hope to master.

[Footnote: As an example of the difficult play which ensues when
Black defends the pawn in the King's Gambit, I give the latest
variation of an attack introduced by Professor I. L. Rice, and
called the "Rice Gambit":

1. P-K4, P-K4; 2. P-KB4, PxP; 3. Kt-KB3, P-KKt4; 4. P-KR4, P-Kt5;
5. Kt-K5, Kt-KB3; 6. B-B4, P-Q4; 7. PxP, B-Q3; 8. Castles! BxKt;
9. R-K1, Q-K2; 10. P-B3, Kt-R4; 11. P-Q4, Kt-Q2; 12. PxB, KtxP;
13. P-QKt3, Castles; 14. B-R3, Kt-B6ch!; 15. PxKt, QxP; 16. R-K5!
B-B4!!; 17. Kt-Q2! Q-Kt6ch; 18. K-B1, Q-R7; 19. BxR, P-Kt6; 20.
B-B5, P-Kt7ch; 21. K-K1, Q-R5ch; 22. K-K2, Kt-Kt6ch; 23. K-B2,
Kt-K5ch; 24. KxP, B-R6ch; 25. K-R1, K-R1; 26. KtxKt, R-KKt1; 27.
R-Kt5, with interesting possibilities.

Numberless interesting variations are possible, but their
discussion does not lie within the scope of this work. They will
be found in books treating of the analysis of the openings.]

It is therefore unwise for the beginner to accept the gambit,
unless there be a chance of compensation for the disappearance of
his centre pawn, by forcing the exchange of White's centre pawn
as well. The following line of play would fulfil this condition:

1. P-K4, P-K4; 2. P-KB4, PxP; 3. Kt-KB3, Kt-KB3; 4. Kt-B3, P-Q4!
Black thereby abandons the gambit pawn.

On principle, and when he has the choice, the beginner should
give preference to simple and clear development in the opening,
rather than to the gain of a pawn, when this involves difficult
and intricate play. This principle must also guide us in other
openings.

A good example is to be found in the so-called "Danish gambit,"
[Footnote: The names of the various openings, which I mention for
the sake of completeness, are generally derived from towns or
countries in which they were first extensively played and
analysed.] which will lead us back to those openings in which
White plays P-Q4 on his second move. After 2. P-Q4, PxP, White
has the option of sacrificing two pawns to obtain a very rapid
development 3. P-QB3, PxP; 4. B-QB4, PxP; 5. QBxP. It may now be
just possible for Black to avoid the many threats which White can
bring to bear with his beautifully placed forces, perhaps by
giving back one or both of the pawns gained. But this question
can only be of interest to us if there is no opportunity of
adopting a simple line of development at the outset. As it is,
this opportunity is not wanting. All that Black needs to do is to
push on his Queen's Pawn as soon as possible, thus freeing his
own Queen's Bishop.

          2. P-Q4           PxP
          3. P-QB3          P-Q4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #K | #B |#Kt | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                     Diagram 19.

After 4. KPxP, QxP, Black's position is at least as easy of
development as White's. In the position set out in Diagram 19,
White cannot play P-K5, because Black wins a pawn by PxP without
hindering his own development in the least. The equalising power
of Black's P-Q4 in all KP openings where White has played P-Q4
can be noticed in many variations. I shall now give a few typical
examples, which will show the line of play that can be adopted in
many similar cases, and which can often be evolved one from the
other by altering the order of the moves.


            I. CENTRE GAMBIT


          2. P-Q4          PxP
          3. QxP           Kt-QB3
          4. Q-K3          Kt-B3
          5. Kt-QB3        B-K2
          6. B-Q2          P-Q4!


       II. KING'S BISHOP'S OPENING


          2. P-Q4          PxP
          3. B-QB4         Kt-KB3
          4. P-K5          P-Q4!


             III. SCOTCH GAMBIT


          2. Kt-KB3         Kt-QB3
          3. P-Q4           PxP
          4. B-B4           Kt-B3   4. P-B3 P-Q4!
          5. P-K5           P-Q4!


                IV. SCOTCH GAME


          2. Kt-KB3         Kt-QB3
          3. P-Q4           PxP
          4. KtxP           Kt-B3
          5. Kt-QB3         B-Kt5
          6. KtxKt          KtPxKt
          7. B-Q3           P-Q4!

In no case should Black forfeit his chance of playing P-Q4. It is
tempting after 2. P-Q4, PxP; 3. Kt-KB3 to cover the pawn at Q5 by
P-QB4, but in that case White would sacrifice a pawn by P-QB3, by
this means opening the Queen's file for himself, and so
preventing Black from ever playing P-Q4. Thus, for the loss of a
pawn, White has a paramount advantage in position.

For after 4. ... PxP, 5. KtxP (Diagram 20) White has developed
both Knights, and his Bishops are free, whilst Black has none of
his pieces out. P-Q3 must also be played in order to mobilise the
Queen's Bishop, leaving K2 as the only square for the King's
Bishop; finally the "backward" pawn [Footnote: A pawn is said to
be "backward," when it cannot move into cover by another pawn.]
at Q3 is open to constant attacks and is difficult to defend.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #K | #B | #Kt| #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    | #P |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 20

The best plan for Black is to decline the doubtful gift of the
pawn and to bring about one of the positions, as sketched above,
in which, by playing P-Q4 early in the game, Black is sure of the
free development of all his forces.

Black is able to play P-Q4 early in all such openings, where
White does not force the defensive move P-Q3 by attacking Black's
King's Pawn. For instance, in the King's gambit, since the move
2. P-KB4 does not threaten PxP, Black can reply at once by 2. ...
P-Q4 (Falkbeer Counter Gambit). After 3. PxQP, P-K5 (to permit of
Kt-KB3, which at present is not feasible on account of 4. PxP);
4. P-Q3, PxP; 5. QxP, White is a pawn ahead, but his Queen
obstructs his KB; therefore Black has better developing chances
and should be able to win the pawn back at the very least.

A second example is the Vienna game, which proceeds as follows:

          2. Kt-QB3        Kt-KB3
          3. P-B4          P-Q4 (Diagram 21)

If White plays 4. PxQP, Black can play P-K5, as in the Falkbeer
gambit mentioned just now. In answer to 4. PxKP, on the other
hand, Black can play KtxP without having the slightest difficulty
with his development. For instance,

    5. Kt-KB3      B-K2
    6. P-Q4        P-KB3
    7. B-Q3        KtxKt
    8. PxKt        Castles
    9. Castles     Kt-B3 or B-KKt5

and Black also will soon have an open file for his Rook, with no
disadvantage in position.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |#Kt | #B | #Q | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |#Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |^Kt |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |^P  | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P |
        ---------------------------------------
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B |^Kt | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  21.

There is, however, one opening in which Black has the utmost
difficulty in preventing White from getting a positional
advantage in the centre. It is called the Ruy Lopez, and is held
by many to be the strongest opening for White. The initial moves
are: 1. P-K4, P-K4; 2. Kt-KB3, Kt-QB3; 3. B-Kt5. With this move
White at once attacks the Black KP, though indirectly, by
threatening to exchange the B for the Kt. To make the capture
effective, however, White must first protect his own King's Pawn,
which would otherwise be lost after 4. BxKt, QPxB; 5. KtxP, Q-
Q5!.  At first, therefore, Black need not provide against the
threatened exchange.

I shall treat at some length the various defences from which
Black can choose, and in studying this most important King's side
opening, we shall have occasion to note many points of general
interest for operations in the centre.

Broadly speaking, two entirely different systems of defence can
be distinguished: either Black will try to maintain his centre
pawn, or else, giving up the centre, try to gain some other
advantage as compensation.

Black can only maintain his centre pawn if he can prevent his QKt
from being exchanged. As is readily seen, White can attack
Black's KP a second time with P-Q4, whilst after Black's P-Q3 any
other defensive move would hinder development. These
considerations lead to the first main line of defence in which
Black plays 3. ... P-QR3. After 4. B-R4 Black has the option of
releasing the pin by playing P-QKt4 at some opportune moment. If
White elects to exchange his Bishop for the Kt forthwith, he can
remove the Black centre pawn after 4. ... QPxB by playing 5. P-
Q4, but the exchange of the B for the Kt gives Black a free
development and in consequence a good game. (Compare note to move
4 in Game No. 12.)

Diagram 22 reproduces a typical position in this defence.  The
more usual continuation for White is 4. B-R4, Kt-B3;


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |#Kt | #P |    |#Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^B |    |    |    |^Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |^Kt | ^B | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  22.

5. Castles; he does not trouble to protect his KP as its capture
would allow his Rook an open file on which to act against the
opposing King (compare Games Nos. 14 and 17) 5. ... B-K2. Now
Black can capture the KP without much risk, as the Bishop is on
the King's file. 6. R-K1, White covers his pawn, and thereby
threatens to win a pawn by BxKt. Therefore Black must not delay
playing 6. ... P-QKt4.

After 7. B-Kt3, P-Q3; (Diagram 22) White cannot yet execute the
manoeuvre which underlies the whole tendency of the Ruy Lopez,
namely P-Q4, maintaining the pressure in the centre, because
after KtxQP, 9. KtxKt, PxKt; 10. QxP?  White loses a piece
through 10. ... P-B4, etc. It is therefore necessary to play P-
QB3 first. White could also obtain a rapid development by Kt-B3,
P-Q3, B-K3 or Kt5, but this arrangement is not popular, because
Black can play Kt-QR4 and exchange the valuable KB. The pawn at
QB3 supports an advance in the centre, and also provides a
retreat for the KB. The QKt can be developed in this way: Kt-Q2-
B1-Kt3 or K3. Black, however, must try to round off his pawn
position on the Queen's side, by moving his QBP into line.
Black's pawns at K4 and QB4 then exert a pressure on White's Q4.
And this pressure threatens to be reinforced by B-Kt5. From these
considerations the following development seems to be natural:  8.
P-B3, Kt-QR4; 9. B-B2, P-B4; 10. P-Q4, Q-B2  (to support the KP);
it leads to the position in Diagram 23.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #Q |    | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |    | #P |    |#Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |#Kt | #P | #P |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |^Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^B |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |^Kt | ^B | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  23.

    11. P-KR3

One of the few instances in which this pawn move is justified.
It deprives Black's QB of its only good square, and saves the
KKt, the co-operation of which is urgently needed in the centre.

This system of opening will receive more exhaustive treatment
under the heading of "Middle Game." (Compare Game No. 12.)

In the second main line of defence, of which I shall treat now,
Black renounces the maintenance of his KP, and makes an attempt
to find compensation by attacking White's King's Pawn. The King's
file, opened by the disappearance of the Black pawn, offers
opportunities for that purpose. After the first few moves we
arrive at the following position, which

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #B | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |#Kt | #P |    |#Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^B |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |^Kt | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |^Kt |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  24.

may be reached thus: 3. B-Kt5, P-Q3; 4. P-Q4, B-Q2; 5. Kt-B3, Kt-
B3; 6. Castles, B-K2; 7. R-K1, PxP; 8. KtxP, Castles. The
exchange on the seventh move is compulsory, because the loss of a
pawn after BxKt is in effect threatened, now that the White KP is
supported by the Rook.

Black's intention of exerting pressure on the KP is now difficult
of execution, because his pieces are very cramped and hinder one
another in a restricted area. The KB in particular cannot be
brought into action without great difficulty, for instance by: R-
K1, B-KB1, P-KKt3, and B-Kt2.  It is therefore advisable for
White to develop his QB at Kt2 instead of at Kt5, in order not to
give Black a chance of exchanging his troublesome Bishop. (In a
game Bernstein-Emanuel Lasker, Moscow, 1914, there happened 9.
BxKt, PxB; 10. B-Kt5, P-KR3; 11. B-R4, Kt-R2; 12. BxB, QxB with a
good game for Black.)

The defence has a totally different trend, if Black gives up his
own KP, but captures the White KP at once. I have already pointed
out that White would not mind his KP being taken, in view of the
attack on the open King's file. Let us now consider in which way
this attack can be planned. There are two essentially different
lines, according to whether Black interpolates P-QR3 or not.

After 3. B-Kt5, Kt-B3; 4. Castles, KtxP; 5. R-K1, Black gets out
of it comfortably by playing Kt-Q3, B-K2 and Castles, and White
cannot permanently prevent Black's game from being freed by the
advance of the QP. P-Q4 for White on the fifth move is therefore
stronger. Black cannot very well exchange the pawns, leaving the
King's file quite exposed, and must submit to White playing PxP,
maintaining the pawn at K5 and preventing Black's P-Q4 for some
time to come.

The opening might continue in this way: 5. P-Q4, B-K2; 6. Q-K2,
Kt-Q3; 7. BxKt, KtPxB (to make room for the Kt); 8. PxP, Kt-Kt2
(Diagram 25).

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #Kt| #P | #P | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    | ^Q | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 25

The whole of the manoeuvres now centre round Black's endeavours
to force his P-Q4, and White's attempt to prevent it. Black
ultimately gains his point, as will be seen, but at the expense
of such disadvantages in the pawn position that it is
questionable whether the whole variation (called the Rio de
Janeiro Defence) is playable.

9. Kt-B3, Castles; 10. R-K1, Kt-B4 (the Knight is to be posted at
K3 to bring the White KKt away from his Q4, whence he prevents
the advance of Black's QP by attacking QB6); 11. Kt-Q4, Kt-K3;
12. B-K3, KtxKt; 13. BxKt, P-B4; 14. B-K3, P-Q4; 15. PxP e.p.,
BxP.  This is the critical position in the Rio de Janeiro
defence.  Black has succeeded in eliminating the White centre
pawn, and sweeps long diagonals with his Bishops, but the
advantage cannot be maintained. White exchanges the Bishop at Q6,
and there remains a backward pawn, which Black will hardly be
able to hold permanently. In practice it has been shown that the
end-game should be won by White in spite of Bishops of opposite
colours, as Black's pawn at his QB4 is difficult to defend.

16. Kt-K4, B-Kt2; 17. KtxB (not BxP because of BxB; 18. KtxB, BxP
followed by Q-Kt4ch), PxKt; 18. Q R-Q1 and P-QB4.

The game is much more favourable for Black if he first plays 3.
... P-QR3, and retains the option of driving the White KB away by
P-QKt4, after which P-Q4 can be enforced very soon. 3. B-Kt5, P-
QR3; 4. B-R4, Kt-B3; 5. Castles, KtxP; 6. P-Q4, P-QKt4; 7. B-Kt3,
P-Q4; 8. PxP, B-K3, 9. P-B3.

Now Black's pieces are more mobile, and that is the reason why
this system of defence is becoming more popular than any other.

On the other hand, it cannot be denied that Black's pawn
formation on the Q side is weak, and that his centre is less
secure. Whilst White has a pawn firmly posted in the centre,
Black has a Knight there which will soon be driven away.  White's
Q4, the basis of his centre, is entirely in his hands, whilst
Black's Q4 is exposed to a steady pressure by the White pieces.
Finally Black's QKt is unfavourably placed, obstructing as it
does the QBP and preventing its falling into line with its
fellows.

Diagram 26 shows the position after 9. P-B3. The latter move
prevents the exchange of the B after Black's Kt-R4, an exchange
which would allow Black to round up his pawn formation with P-
QB4. The experts are not yet agreed as to the best continuation
for Black in this critical position.  To be considered are the
moves B-QB4, B-K2 and Kt-B4.  B-K2 is preferred nowadays to B-
QB4, as QB4 should be kept free for the KKt in case the latter is
driven from his dominating position, e.g. 10. R-K1 and 11. Q Kt-
Q2.  For if in that case Black exchanges the Knights, he only
furthers White's development without doing anything towards
strengthening his Q4.

If Black covers the Knight with P-B4, White plays PxP e.p. and
Kt-Kt5, rids himself of Black's QB, and thereby weakens Black's
QP still more.

Kt-B4 would therefore seem to be the best choice, as the QB
becomes mobile again after White's B-B2, nor can White

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |#Kt |    | #B |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |#Kt |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^B | ^P |    |    |^Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |^Kt | ^B | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  26.

play P-Q4 as yet. The position in the diagram therefore leads to
the following variations:

A. 9. ... B-K2; 10. R-K1, Castles; 11. QKt-Q2, Kt-B4; 12. B-B2,
B-KKt5. This manoeuvre was introduced by Em. Lasker (Petrograd,
1909. For further particulars see Game No. 15).

B. 9. ... Kt-B4; 10. QKt-Q2, P-Q5 (Capablanca-Em.  Lasker,
Petrograd, 1914); or 9. ... B-K2; 10. R-K1, Castles; 11. QKt-Q2,
Kt-B4; 12. B-B2, P-Q5 (Em. Lasker-Tarrasch, Petrograd, 1914).

Capablanca believes that the early advance of P-Q5 can be refuted
by Kt-K4, e.g. 9. ... B-K2; 10. QKt-Q2, Kt-B4; 11. B-B2, P-Q5;
12. Kt-K4, PxP; 13. KtxKt, BxKt; 14. B-K4, Q-Q2; 15. Q-B2 or PxP.

The openings as sketched out up to this point give a sufficiently
clear idea of the possibilities of combining sound development
with an attempt to capture the centre after the opening moves 1.
P-K4, P-K4. In most cases, Black's centre pawn being open to
attack by White's P-Q4, we find an early break-up of the centre,
and concurrently the opening of the Ks or Qs file for the Rooks.
That is why games opened in this fashion have been classed very
generally as "open,"  whilst all the other openings are called
"close games." Lately the distinction has been abandoned, and
very rightly, since in the latter openings, too, the centre can
be cleared occasionally.  We attain typical close positions when
Black does not play 1. ... P-K4 in answer to 1. P-K4, but
relinquishes all claim on his K4 and takes possession of his Q4
instead, leaving White the option of interlocking the pawns in
the centre with P-K5.

On principle it does not seem advisable for Black to play P-Q4 on
the first move in reply to 1. P-K4. Although White's centre pawn
disappears after 2. PxP, QxP, Black loses a move through 3. Kt-
QB3, and his Queen has no place from which it cannot be driven
away very soon, unless it be at Q1. This, however, would amount
to an admission of the inferiority of the whole of Black's plan.

There are two moves which deserve consideration as a preliminary
to P-Q4, namely, 1. ... P-K3 (French Defence)

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |#Kt |#B  | #Q | #K | #B |#Kt | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P |^P  |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |^Kt | ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B |^Kt |^R  |
        ---------------------------------------
        A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                  Diag. 27

and P-QB3 (Caro-Kann defence). After 2. P-Q4, P-Q4, we attain the
positions set out in the Diagrams 27 and 28, to which we must
devote a good deal of attention.

These openings are worthy of study as being especially
interesting examples of the struggle for the centre.

As early as the third move, White has to take an important
decision. Is he to play P-K5 and prevent the opening of

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #K | #B | #Kt| #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 28

the K or Q file for a long time to come, or should he proceed to
develop his pieces, and leave Black the option of anticipating
the blocking of the centre by playing PxP himself?

I shall first turn my attention to those games in which White
plays P-K5, starting with the French Defence, after which the
Caro-Kann Defence will be easily understood.

The position which ensues in the centre after 1. P-K4, P-K3; 2.
P-Q4, P-Q4; 3. P-K5, divides the board diagonally, and it is easy
to recognise roughly the main lines of play which will govern the
game. White has more scope on the King's side, where his pieces
will have greater mobility, and prospects of attack. Black's
chances are on the Queen's side. Both sides will have to advance
more pawns in order to obtain openings for their Rooks, and use
them for the attack, since they have no future on the K and Q
files, as was the case in the openings mentioned hitherto.

The obvious moves to this end are: for White the advance of the
KBP, for Black that of the QBP and sometimes even of the QKtP,
that is when the QBP has not been exchanged for the opposing QP,
but has pushed on to B5.

In Diagrams 29 and 30 we see the chains of pawns formed by these
manoeuvres.

White's pawn attack is more dangerous than Black's,

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | #P | ^P | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 29

because it involves a direct assault on the King. And we shall
see that Black will usually be compelled to suspend operations on
the Queen's side temporarily, to ward off the storm by the

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P | ^P | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #P | #P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 30

White Pawns on the King's side. He will attempt this either by P-
KB3 attacking White's centre or by P-KB4 preventing White from
playing P-B5. In the latter case White can only make a breach in
the Black barrier by playing P-KKt4 as well. These manoeuvres
result in the pawn formations given in Diagrams 31 and 32.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | #P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 31

We must now turn to the development of the pieces corresponding
to these pawn skeletons. If White plays P-K5


        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | #P | ^P | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    | ^P | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 32

on his third move, he prevents the Black KKt from reaching KB3,
whence he might have moved to Q2. This is a desirable position,
from which he could support the advance of P-QB4. But the Knight
has other chances of development, to KR3 and B4, whence he can
take his share in the attack on the White Pawn at Q4. In
consequence White must postpone P-KB4 in order not to intercept
the action of the QB on R6. Now, in that case White's Pawn at his
K5 has not sufficient support against the attack by Black's P-KB3
(Diagram 31), and the latter move gives Black the advantage. The
two main variations illustrative of these considerations are:

                      I

          3. P-K5          P-QB4
          4. P-QB3         Kt-QB3
          5. P-KB4         PxP
          6. PxP           Q-Kt3
          7. Kt-KB3        Kt-R3

                      II

          3. P-K5          P-QB4
          4. P-QB3         Kt-QB3
          5. Kt-B3         P-B3

In both cases the initiative falls to Black, in the first through
the attack on White's Q4, the mainstay of White's centre; in the
second through attack on White's K5, the White centre itself. We
must therefore consider White's advance of P-K5 on the third move
as premature. Let us now find out whether it is advantageous to
effect the same subsequently. A developing move can be
interpolated, e.g. 3. Kt-QB3, Kt-KB3. If White plays P-K5 now he
gains time for his advance of P-KB4, as Black's Knight must
retreat. On the other hand he cannot now maintain his pawn at Q4,
as he has blocked his QBP. We arrive at the following plan of
development:

          3. Kt-QB3         Kt-KB3
          4. P-K5           KKt-Q2
          5. P-B4           P-QB4
          6. PxP            Kt-QB3

If Black were to play BxP at once, White could play Q-Kt4 with an
attack on the Knight's Pawn. That is the object of Black's
waiting move. White must either play 7. Kt-B3, which prevents his
Q-Kt4, or 7. B-Q3, after which Black would take the pawn on B4
with his Knight, getting rid of the White Bishop. 7. Q-Kt4 at
once would be answered by P-B4.

          7. Kt-B3          BxP
          8. B-Q3           P-B4

Black cannot castle yet, on account of the following threat,
which I give in full because it occurs frequently in practice:
8. ... Castles; 9. BxPch, KxB; 10. Kt-Kt5ch, K-Kt1:  11. Q-R5, R-
K1; 12. QxPch; 13. Q-R5ch; 14. Q-R7ch;  15. Q-R8ch; 16. QxP mate.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    | #Kt|    |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #B | #P | ^P | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt| ^B |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 33

The position in the diagram seems favourable to Black as White
cannot castle for some time.

For that reason another line of play has come to the fore in
which White exchanges his inactive QB for Black's troublesome KB.

          3. Kt-QB3          Kt-KB3
          4. B-Kt5           B-K2
          5. P-K5            KKt-Q2
          6. BxB             QxB

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt|#B  |    | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #Kt| #Q | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 34

White has now the choice of two lines of development. He can
either prepare for P-QB3 to support his QP. or he can develop his
King's side, holding the P at K5 only

                         I

          7. Kt-Kt5         Kt-Kt3
          8. P-QB3          P-QR3
          9. Kt-QR3         P-QB4
         10. P-KB4          Kt-B3
         11. Kt-B2          Castles
         12. Kt-B3          B-Q2
         13. B-Q3           P-B4

The sacrifice BxPch, as mentioned above, was threatened.

          14. Castles       Kt-R5
          15. R-Kt1         P-QKt4

If White does not wish to lose so many moves with his Kt, he can
effect the intended protection of his QP as follows:

          7. Q-Q2           P-QR3

not P-QB4 at once, because of Kt-Kt5.

          8. Kt-Q1          P-QB4
          9. P-QB3

                     II

          7. P-B4          Castles
          8. Kt-B3         P-QB4
          9. B-Q3          P-B4
         10. Castles       Kt-QB3

and so on.

In both cases White has an easy development, whilst Black has no
convenient square for his Queen's Bishop.

To avoid this drawback Rubinstein has evolved the following
variation, in which provision is made from the first for the
freedom of action of the Queen's Bishop:

          3. Kt-QB3          Kt-KB3
          4. B-Kt5           PxP

to open the diagonal for the Bishop at QKt2, e.g.:

          5. KtxP            QKt-Q2
          6. Kt-KB3          B-K2

followed by P-QKt3 and B-Kt2.

We will now leave the French defence and turn our attention to
the Caro-Kann, of which the initial position was shown in Diagram
28. Here also we find two essentially different systems of
development, according to whether White plays P-K5 or gives Black
the option of exchanging pawns by 3. Kt-QB3. In the first case a
very noticeable difference from the French defence is, that Black
can bring out his Queen's Bishop. Here the process of development
may be:

          3. P-K5          B-B4
          4. B-Q3          BxB

Not B-Kt3, because White could play P-K6! and paralyse the whole
of Black's game by preventing his playing the King's Pawn.

          5. QxB          P-K3
          6. Kt-K2 or KR3

Through this the move P-KB4, which fits into this pawn formation,
is kept in reserve.

While White's development is easy and natural, Black has
difficulty in finding good places for his King's side pieces.
The game can proceed generally speaking on the lines of the
French defence. Only Black can hardly attack White's centre with
P-B3, since the Pawn at K3 would be weak in the absence of the
Queen's Bishop. On the other hand, Black would be a move behind
with an attack on the Queen's side, since to reach QB4 his pawn
would have made two moves instead of one as in the French
defence. A certain compensation lies in the fact that White's
attacking King's Bishop has been exchanged.

In practical play it has nevertheless been shown that White's
attack is more likely to succeed, and for this reason a variation
introduced by Niemzowitsch has been tried several times; it aims
at the exchange of Queens in order to weaken and retard White's
threatened attack, and to gain time for Queen's side operations.

          6. ...               Q-Kt3
          7. Castles           Q-R3 or Kt4

But after 8. Kt-B4, QxQ; 9. KtxQ, White is so much ahead with his
development that Black's chance of equalising the game would seem
questionable.

If White plays Kt-KR3 on his sixth move, he foils at once Black's
attempt of forcing an exchange of Queens, as he could play 8. Q-
KKt3.

On the whole we can conclude that in the Caro-Kann defence White
obtains a good game by 3. P-K5.

A line of play which used to be in vogue, namely, 3. Kt-QB3, PxP;
4. KtxP, Kt-B3; 5. KtxKtch, KPxKt or KtPxKt, gives Black an even
chance, for although he loses his centre pawn he obtains a good
development, and later in the game he has opportunities of
exercising pressure on White's QP through his open Q file.

Except the French defence and the Caro-Kann, there is no game in
which an irregular reply to White's 1. P-K4 necessitates any
special considerations either in development of pieces or pawn
formation. In all such cases it is sufficient to maintain the
pawn centre and to occupy such squares with the pieces, whence
they cannot be driven away with the loss of a move. Just one
example: If Black plays 1. ... P-QB4 (Sicilian defence), White
will not play his King's Bishop to B4, because Black can reply P-
K3, and gain a move by P-Q4.

B. Let us now consider the openings in which the first move is 1.
P-Q4 on either side. Here the centre cannot be cleared as early
as in the openings beginning with 1. P-K4, P-K4.  The advance of
a second centre pawn, which there led to a clearance, is not
feasible in this case. White does not command his K4, and for
some time to come he will be unable to advance the K pawn beyond
K3. In consequence the K file does not seem a likely opening for
the Rooks, and another file must be found for them. The
conclusions arrived at for Black in the French defence hold good
for both sides in the opening now under consideration, and
accordingly the QB file is that most advantageous for the Rooks.
The advance of the QBP strikes at the opposing centre, and, that
being of paramount importance, the Queen's Knight must not be
developed at B3 before the QBP has been pushed on.  Another
development might be conceivable for the Rooks; viz. on the KB
file, and also the KKt or KR file; here, as we shall see, an
occasion may arise for storming the opposing King's side by a
pawn attack. But in this case, too, although it seems unnecessary
to play the QBP, it is advisable to develop the Knight via Q2, as
there is a constant threat of the QB file being forced open
subsequently by the opposing forces.

We will start with the games in which the QB Pawns are played in
the earliest stages of the opening, so that the pawn skeleton in
Diagram 35 forms the basis of development. The sequence of moves
is of moment, because the advance of the KP, whether forced or
not, determines the possibility of bringing out the Q Bishops.
The simplest process of development based on Diagram 35 is the
following, in which both sides block up the QB.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #K | #B | #Kt| #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 35

          2. P-K3           P-K3
          3. Kt-KB3         Kt-KB3
          4. P-B4           P-B4
          5. Kt-B3          Kt-B3
          6. B-Q3           B-Q3
          7. Castles.       Castles

The only useful square for the QB's on either side is now at Kt2,
and 8. P-QKt3, P-QKt3 are indicated. To play P-QKt3 before
castling is very dangerous, because Black can play PxQP and pin
the White QKt with B-Kt5, forcing B-Q2, when B-Kt2 was the move
intended, e.g. 6. P-QKt3, BPxP; 7. KPxP, B-Kt5; 8. B-Kt2, Kt-K5;
9. Q-B2, Q-R4; 10. R-QB1, QxP.

In order not to relinquish the square at QKt4 to Black, White can
also try the following manoeuvre:

          6. PxBP           BxP
          7. P-QR3          Castles
          8. P-QKt4         B-Q3
          9. B-Kt2

If Black imitates White's moves, viz. 9. ... PxP; 10. BxP, P-QR3;
11. Castles, P-QKt4; 12. B-Q3, B-Kt2, the result is the
symmetrical position in Diagram 36.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #B |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt| #B | #P | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P |    | ^Kt| ^B | ^P | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^B |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 36

When treating of the middle game, we shall find that even in this
apparently fully equalised position the influence of the first
move is still at work.

In order to obtain a more thorough understanding of the Queen's
Pawn game, we must now turn our attention very closely to the
opening moves. Already on the second move White can play 2. P-QB4
and turn the game into a Queen's gambit, which Black can either
accept or decline. Black would be justified in playing 2. ...
PxP, and so furthering White's object of getting his (Black's)
Queen's Pawn away, if he could permanently hold the gambit pawn,
or if the giving up of the square at Q4 fits into a reasoned
system of development.  The latter was, for instance, the case in
the play leading to the position shown in the Diagram 36. But
Black is well advised to wait until White has moved the King's
Bishop before taking the pawn on his QB5. This forces the Bishop
to move twice, and Black regains the move he lost in his
development, when he played PxP.

It would be quite incorrect to try to hold the pawn by P-QKt4 as
follows:

          2. P-QB4          PxP
          3. Kt-KB3         Kt-KB3
          4. P-K3          P-QKt4
          5. P-QR4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    | #P |    | #P | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^P |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 37

If now Black answers PxP, White simply plays BxP and the P at R5
is lost very soon. If Black plays instead: 5. ... P-B3, White
wins back his pawn with 6. P-QKt3, PxKt P; 7. PxP, PxP; 8. BxPch
by QxP, and moreover is much ahead with his development.

These considerations point to the conclusion that after 2. P-QB4
there is no inducement for Black to take the pawn.  On the
contrary, he will cover his centre pawn, which White wishes to
tempt away, either with P-K3 or P-QB3. The attempt to develop the
Queen's Bishop before playing P-K3 is not to be recommended,
because the Q Kt's pawn remains unprotected and open to an
immediate attack by 3. Q-Kt3.  Of the two remaining replies, 2.
... P-K3 and 2. ... P-QB3, I will first discuss the former, as
being the more natural of the two, since P-QB3 does not fit into
the scheme for opening the QB file for the Rooks. White, on the
other hand, can bring out his QB before playing P-K3, in this
way:

2. P-QB4, P-K3; 3. Kt-QB3, Kt-KB3; 4. B-Kt5, and the game might
proceed as follows: 4. ... Q Kt-Q2. (Diagram 38.)

No fault can be found with this move, although it blocks the
Bishop, since the latter can only be developed effectively at
Kt2. Moreover, the Knight at Q2 supports the projected P-B4.
White cannot win a pawn now with 5. PxP, PxP; 6. KtxP, because of
KtxKt; 7. BxQ, B-Kt5ch. Therefore 5. P-K3 must be played first,
and after B-K2; 6. Kt-B3, Castles; 7. R-B1, P-QKt3; 8. PxP, PxP;
9. B-Q3, B-Kt2, all the pieces have found rational development.

          ---------------------------------------
       8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K | #B |    | #R |
         |---------------------------------------|
       7 | #P | #P | #P |#Kt |    | #P | #P | #P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       6 |    |    |    |    | #P |#Kt |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    | ^B |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       4 |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       3 |    |    |^Kt |    |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       2 | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K | ^B |^Kt | ^R |
          ---------------------------------------
           A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                  Diag. 38

Quite a different system of opening ensues, when Black does not
delay pushing the P to QB4 until after his pieces are developed,
but makes the advance on his third move.

Here Black has the advantage of being able to avoid the pinning
of his Knight by the opposing QB.

          2. P-QB4          P-K3
          3. Kt-QB3         P-QB4
          4. Kt-B3          Kt-QB3!

Now Black threatens QPxP with an attack on White's Queen's Pawn.
If White plays P-K3 we get the position mentioned in connection
with Diagram 35. If he wishes to bring out his QB first, he must
anticipate Black's threat by BPxP.

After

          5. BPxP          KPxP

the third of the typical main positions in the Queen's gambit
ensues, and is given in Diagram 39. Two continuations must now be
considered. White can either develop his KB at Kt2, and
concentrate on the Black QP, which is somewhat weak, or he can
place the KB on one of the available squares between B1 and R6.
In the first instance, the KP need not be played at all, and the
QB

          ---------------------------------------
       8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K | #B |#Kt | #R |
         |---------------------------------------|
       7 | #P | #P |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       6 |    |    |#Kt |    |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       5 |    |    | #P | #P |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       3 |    |    |^Kt |    |    |^Kt |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       2 | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
          ---------------------------------------
           A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                  Diag. 39

retains the option of developing at Kt5, B4, and even K3.  In the
second, where the K must make room for the KB, White must decide
at once between B-B4 or Kt5, and only B4 can be seriously
considered on account of

          6. B-Kt5          B-K2
          7. BxB            KtxB

which only furthers Black's development. White would only be
justified in this course if he could now win a pawn with 8. PxP,
but Black would win it back and have the superior game after

          8. ...               P-Q5
          9. Kt-K4             Castles

followed by B-B4 and Q-R4ch. The correct move in this variation
is consequently 6. B-B4, and a possible continuation would be:
Kt-KB3; 7. P-K3, B-K3; 8. R-QB1 or B-QKt5 or B-Q3.

With this we will close the discussion of the variations
initiated by 2. P-QB4, P-K3, and study the reply 2. ... P-QB3.
The first question which arises in our mind is: Which file will
Black be able to utilise for his Rooks? An attempt to free the
King's file through P-K4 is conceivable. But White can prevent
this by simply playing Kt-KB3.

Two other possibilities present themselves: after playing P-K3,
Kt-B3 and QKt-Q2, Black could steer into a line similar to the
Queen's gambit accepted with PxP and P-QB4, or he could keep the
centre closed with P-KB4 and Kt-B3, with the intention of playing
Kt-K5 and using the KB file for activating his Rook via KB3.
Diagram 40 gives the position reached after:

          3. Kt-KB3          P-K3
          4. P-K3            Kt-KB4
          5. Kt-K5           Kt-B3

          ---------------------------------------
       8 | #R |#Kt | #B | #Q | #K | #B |    | #R |
         |---------------------------------------|
       7 | #P | #P |    |    |    |    | #P | #P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       6 |    |    | #P |    | #P |#Kt |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       5 |    |    |    | #P |^Kt | #P |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       4 |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       3 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       1 | ^R |^Kt | ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
          ---------------------------------------
           A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                  Diag. 40

White would not accomplish much with 6. P-KB4. The more or less
symmetrical lineup of the pieces would most likely lead to a draw
after Black properly prepares freeing his hemmed-in Bishop with
P-QKt3 and B-Kt2. A better plan would be 6. P-B3, preventing Kt-
K5 and preparing the eventual advance of the King's Pawn to K4.
In reply to 6. ... , QKt-Q2 White would then rather play 7. Kt-Q3
than exchange Knights, as after this exchange it would not be too
difficult for Black to bring his Bishop into play on the King's
wing via K1. Both of White's Bishops would be best placed on Kt2.

This "Stonewall" opening can also be played by White, who is then
a move to the good in the variation just shown.  But this opening
has practically disappeared from modern tournament games, simply
because the QB cannot easily be brought into play.

The following variation is reminiscent of the "Stonewall" in the
formation of the centre pawns. White develops his Queen's side
just as Black did in the opening shown in connection with Diagram
38.

          2. Kt-KB3         P-QB4
          3. P-K3           Kt-QB3
          4. B-Q3           Kt-B3
          5. P-QKt3         P-K3
          6. B-Kt2          B-Q3
          7. QKt-Q2         PxP
          8. PxP            Castles

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt| #B | #P | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    | ^B |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^B | ^P | ^Kt|    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 41

White can now settle his Knight at K5, and initiate a violent
King's side attack after castling, by P-KB4, Q-B3, which could be
continued with P-KKt4, K-R1, R-KKt1, and so on. Once the position
in Diagram 41 has been reached, Black's resources against the
dangerous onslaught of the White forces are scanty. Yet he can
retaliate, not by making the simplest and most obvious developing
moves, as mentioned before, but in the following way:

If White plays 5. P-QKt3 before castling, Black exchanges pawns
and checks with the Queen. Now White has the disagreeable choice
between B-Q2 and P-B3. The former must be bad, being contrary to
the plan of development as intended by P-QKt3. The latter blocks
the very diagonal on which the Bishop was meant to operate.
White can open up the diagonal by playing P-QB4 after castling,
nor would it really imply the loss of a move to have played the
BP twice, since Black must move his Queen again from R4, where
she has no future. But in any case there remains the disadvantage
that White was forced to play the BP, whilst before he had the
option of withholding its advance until a more opportune moment.

Another possible subtlety in Black's sequence of developing moves
would be to withhold the advance of his KP until White has played
P-QKt3, and then to play the QB to Kt5. For, as I have already
remarked, the objection to developing Black's Queen's Bishop lies
in White's threat to attack Black's QKtP with Q-Kt3. That
possibility disappears after P-QKt3.

Before bringing the discussion of the Queen's Pawn opening to a
close, I may remark that in tournaments it has become usual for
White not to play P-QB4 at once, but to play Kt-KB3 as a
preliminary, in order to avoid the complications of the Queen's
counter gambit: 2. P-QB4, P-K4.

If White plays 3. PxKP, Black's reply is P-Q5, and the obvious
move 4. P-K3 fails on account of the following pretty
combination: B--Kt5ch; 5. B--Q2, PxP; 6. BxB, PxPch; 7. K-K2,
PxKtch!!; 8. RxKt, B-Kt5ch, etc.

Instead of 4. P-K3, White should play P-KKt3 and develop his KB
at Kt2. Black could now try to regain his pawn with Kt-K2-Kt3,
but he can also sacrifice a pawn by P-KB3, with a view to rapid
development.

It now only remains for us to discover whether Black has any
other answer to P-Q4 which would necessitate close analysis on
White's part.

Here must be mentioned: 1. ... Kt-KB3, 1. ... P-QB4, and 1. ...
P-KB4. The former move prepares P-Q3, followed by P-K4. In this
opening there is no reason why White should play P-QB4, as there
is no prospect of opening the QB file for the Rooks. Furthermore,
Black has relinquished the square Q4 and made K4 the basis of
operations. It will be more advisable to prevent Black from
playing P-K4 as far as this can be achieved in conformity with a
logical development, e.g. 1. P-Q4, Kt-KB3; 2. Kt-KB3.  Not 2. Kt-
QB3, because Black could then lead into the Queen's gambit by
playing P-Q4 and P-QB4, after which White has the disadvantage of
not being able to open the QB file. 2. ... P-Q3; 3. B-B4, QKt-Q2;
4. P-K3.  Now Black can only enforce P-K4 after P-B3 and QB2.
Meanwhile White mobilises all his pieces, whilst Black's QB
remains blocked and the Kt must remain at Q2 to cover the KP. If,
on the other hand, Black exchanges pawns in order to free the
Knight, there is no Black centre left.

With regard to the second irregular reply to 1. P-Q4, namely, 1.
... P-QB4, two ways are open to White. One is to turn the opening
into an ordinary Queen's gambit by playing P-K3, on which Black
can play P-Q4. The second is to play 2. P-Q5. Black will then
develop his King's side with P-KKt3 and B-Kt2. The Bishop is well
posted here, and can frequently take up an attacking position at
K4 or Q5. (See Game No. 45, Rubinstein v. Spielmann.)

If White plays 2. PxP, we have after 2. ... P-K3 a Queen's gambit
accepted by White, and, as pointed out before, this line of play
is not commendable.

The last of the three irregular answers mentioned above:  1. ...
P-KB4 leads to two entirely different plans, according to the
second move chosen by White.

White can confine himself to a simple development such as:  Kt-
KB3, B-Kt5, P-K3, QKt-Q2 (Kt-B3 would only be good if preceded by
P-B4, because Black would again lead into a Queen's gambit with
P-Q4 and P-QB4).  The other possibility is the following: in view
of the fact that 1. ... P-KB4 does absolutely nothing to aid
development, White can initiate a violent attack by giving up his
King's Pawn (P-K4) and thus accelerate his own development. The
play might be as follows: 2. ... PxP; 3. Kt-QB3, Kt-KB3; 4. B-
KKt5, P-B3 (P-Q4? 5. BxKt followed by Q-R5ch); 5. P-B3. If Black
takes the pawn he lays himself open to an attack hard to meet. It
seems best to play 5. ... P-K6, which calls back the White QB and
leaves White's BP as a hindrance to the development of the KKt.



IRREGULAR OPENINGS



Many openings in which neither P-K4 nor P-Q4 is the first move
lead to well-known positions by a simple transposition of moves.
For instance, a Queen's gambit may well have the following
opening moves: 1. P-QB4, Kt-KB3; 2. Kt-KB3, P-K3; 3. Kt-B3, P-B4;
4. P-K3, P-Q4; 5. P-Q4, or a French defence these: 1. Kt-QB3, P-
Q4; 2. P-Q4, Kt-KB3; 3. B-Kt5, P-K3; 4. P-K4.

There are, of course, systems of opening which deviate absolutely
from those which have been proved sound and are in general use,
and it is those openings that puzzle the beginner most of all. He
says: What is the good of learning correct openings, if my
opponent plays incorrectly and wins all the same? This line of
thought is wrong from its inception.  The student is not supposed
to "learn" openings by heart, but to UNDERSTAND how the general
principles of Chess Strategy are applied to any opening. Such
knowledge can never be obtained from a tabulated analysis, but
can only be arrived at by the application of common sense. If a
player succeeds in winning in spite of an inferior opening, it
only proves that subsequently he has played a stronger game than
his opponent, who, after playing the opening according to the
book, did not know how to proceed further. And herein lies the
weakness, and not in the absence of knowledge of the analysis of
openings. The latter is rated far too highly.  Any player will
hold his own in the opening, as soon as he has grasped the real
meaning of those principles which I cannot repeat often enough,
viz.: 1st, quick development of pieces and avoidance of lost
moves; 2nd, the maintenance of a pawn centre, hampering the
development of the opposing forces, and the avoidance of pawn
moves that do not contribute to the development of pieces.

How to conduct the middle game and end-game is not entirely a
matter of deduction from such general rules. In order to play the
end-game correctly, one must know certain things and positions
which arise from and may be said to be peculiar to the purely
arbitrary rules of chess. The same applies to the middle game, as
in most cases it must be played with a view to the end-game which
ensues, unless there be a chance of mating the opponent before.
The student should have, therefore, a knowledge of the end-game
before he can hope to be able to conduct the middle game
efficiently. For this reason I have decided to treat of the end-
game first.



CHAPTER V

THE END-GAME



JUST as it is difficult to state the exact point at which an
opening ends, so is it equally difficult to say where the end-
game may be said to commence. One of the main characteristics of
end-games is the active part taken by the King.  Clearly the King
cannot venture out into the field of operations until there has
been an exchange of the majority of the pieces, so that there can
be no danger of his being mated. As soon as a player has attained
some advantage in material which ensures the victory in the end-
game, he will try to bring about the end-game by exchanging
pieces, for there the lines on which to push home his advantage
are clearly set out.

It is first necessary to know what surplus of forces is the
minimum required in order to force a mate. The positions in which
the mate can be forced may be shown by a few typical examples.
But I shall lay stress mainly on one point. That is the ability
to judge whether an end-game which could be brought about by
exchanges is won or not; in other words, whether it can be
reduced to one of the typical positions referred to above.

It is obvious that the end-game is the particular demesne of pawn
strategy. Nearly always one or more pawns survive the exchange of
pieces, and the knowledge of the end-game will be invaluable for
gauging the consequences of pawn moves in the course of the
middle game. The latter represents probably the most difficult
aspect of the strategy of chess.

In order to enable beginners to grasp the following chapters, I
must again point out a few elementary considerations.

Simple end-games, that is, end-games without pawns, are
comparatively easy to understand. Let us first consider the case
 of a King denuded of all his troops. In order to force the mate
it is necessary to obtain command of four squares, namely, those
four squares which he controls after he has been driven into a
corner. Supposing the Black King has been driven to QR1, the
White King can prevent him from reaching two squares of different
colour, namely, QR2 and QKt2. Therefore it is necessary for White
still to have such forces as can command two more squares of
different colour, namely, QR1 and QKt1. As can readily be seen,
it will be essential to have at least the Queen or a Rook or two
Bishops, or a Knight and Bishop, or two Knights. [Footnote: How
the King can be driven into a corner will be shown subsequently.]

We shall see that in the latter case it is impossible to drive
the King into a corner without bringing about a stalemate.  The
mates by a Queen or Rook are so simple that I only give an
example of each for the sake of completeness.

        Position 1.--White: K at QR1, Q-KR1
                  Black: K at K4

     1. K-Kt2, K-Q5; 2. K-Kt3, K-K4; 3. K-B4, K-Q3; 4. Q-K4, K-
Q2; 5. K-B5, K-B1; 6. K-B6, K-Kt1; 7. Q-QR4, or Kt4ch, or K7, or
R7 and mate next move.

       Position 2.--White: K at QKt3, RKR2
             Black: K at K4

     1. K-B4, K-Q3; 2. R-K2, K-B3; 3. R-K6ch, K-Q2; 4. K-Q5, K-
B2; 5. K-B5, K-Q2; 6. R-K1, K-B2; 7. R-K7ch, K-Q1; 8. K-Q6, K-B1;
9. K-B6, K-Kt1; 10. R-K1, K-R7; 11. R-K8, K-R3; 12. R-R8 mate.

     Position 3.--White: K at QRsq, B at KKtsq, BatKKt2
                Black: K at KRsq

1.	K-Kt2, K-Kt2; 2. K-B3, K-B3; 3. K-Q4, K-K3; 4. B-R2, K-
B3; 5. K-Q5, K-B4; 6. B-K5, K-Kt4; 7. K-K6, K-Kt5; 8. B-
QR8, K-Kt4; 9. B-B3, K-Kt3; 10. B-KB6, K-R3; 11. K-B7, K-
R2; 12. B-Kt5, K-R1; 13. B-Q1, K-R2; 14.  B-B2ch, K-R1;
B-B6 mate.

It is more difficult to mate with KNIGHT AND BISHOP. It is only
possible to mate on a corner square commanded by the Bishop, as
the following argument shows clearly. A mating position in the
corner which the Bishop does not command would have to be of the
type set out in Diagram 42.  Here the Bishop plays on White
squares, and the Knight in order to checkmate must move on to a
White square; in other words, he must come from a Black one.
Therefore, when the Bishop checked on the previous move and drove
the King away, the King had the option of two black squares, and
had no need to go into the corner one. He is only mated in
consequence of a wrong move.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^B |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  42

  As stated above, however, it is possible in all cases to mate
in the corner square which is of the same colour as the Bishop.
The King is driven into the corner in this way:  the Knight cuts
him off such squares as the Bishop does not command. Diagram 43
will serve as an illustration.

1. K-Kt2, K-Kt2; 2. K-B3, K-B3; 3. K-Q4, K-K3; 4. Kt-Kt3, K-B3;
5. B-B3, K-Kt4; 6. K-K5, K-Kt3; 7. Kt-K4, K-Kt2; 8. K-B5, K-R1;
9. K-B6, K-Kt1; 10. Kt-Kt5, K-R1; 11. Kt-B7ch, K-Kt1; 12. B-K4,
K-B1; 13. B-R7, K-K1; 14. Kt-K5, K-Q1; 15. Kt-B4, K-B2; 16. B-K4,
K-Q2; 17. K-B7, K-B2; 18. K-K7, K-B1; 19. K-Q6, K-Q1; 20. B-Kt6,
K-B1; 21. Kt-R5, K-Q1; 22. Kt-Kt7ch, K-B1; 23. K-B6, K-Kt1; 24.
K-Kt6, K-B1; 25. B-B5ch, K-Kt1; 26. Kt-B5, K-R1; 27. B-K6, K-Kt1;
28. Kt-R6ch, K-R1; 29. B-Q5 mate.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | ^B |    |    |    |    |    |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | #K |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 43.

It is impossible to force a mate with the KING AND TWO KNIGHTS.
On the same grounds as given with respect to Diagram 42, the mate
can only be attained through the opponent making a bad move. But
a mate can be forced if the weaker side has a spare move which
prevents the stalemate, e.g. Diagram 44.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #K |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  44

1. Kt(K3)-Q5, K-Kt2; 2. K-B5, K-R3; 3. K-Kt4, K-Kt2; 4. K-Kt5, K-
R2; 5. Kt-B7, K-Kt2; 6. Kt(B7)-K8, K-R2; 7. Kt-Q6, K-Kt1; 8. K-
Kt6, K-R1; 9. Kt-Q7, P-B4; 10. Kt-Kt5, P-B5; 11. Kt-B7 mate.

Having decided as to the smallest amount of material advantage
with which it is possible to force a mate, we will now turn our
attention to simple game endings (still without pawns). To judge
such endings correctly, it will only be necessary to find out
whether it is possible to obtain the minimum advantage mentioned.
It is sufficient to discuss cases in which a piece on the one
side plays against a stronger one on the other, because in
endings where several pieces are left on either side, fortuitous
circumstances are generally the deciding factors, and it would be
impossible to characterise and classify positions of that kind,
by giving typical illustrations.  Besides, they are reduced
sooner or later by exchanges to such end-games as have been
treated already, or are going to be shown now.

The Queen wins against any other piece; the Rook alone may give
trouble. In Diagram 45 we illustrate a

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    | #K |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #R |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | ^Q |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  45

position which is one of the most favourable to the weaker side.

1. Q-R6 leads to nothing, as R-B2ch follows, and after 2. K-Kt6
Black forces a stalemate with R-B3ch.

It is necessary for White to gain a move in this position; in
other words, White must try to transfer to the other side the
onus of having to move. If then the Rook moves away from the
King, it gets lost after a few checks, or if Black's King plays
to B1, the Rook is equally lost through Q-R6.

White plays therefore: 1. Q-K5ch, K-R1; 2. Q-R1ch, K-Kt1; 3. Q-
R5, and wins. For example, 3. ... R-B2; 4. Q-K5ch, K-R2; 5. Q-
K3ch, K-R1; 6. Q-K8ch, and so on.

The Rook can win against a minor piece in exceptional cases only.
In endings of ROOK AGAINST BISHOP the weaker King must take
refuge in a corner square of different colour from that of his
Bishop. For instance, Diagram 46:

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | #B |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 46.

1. R-Q5, B-B5 (or R2); 2. R-Q8ch, B-Kt1, and Black is stalemate
unless the Rook leaves the eighth Rank.  Any outside square which
is not of the same colour as that of the Bishop is dangerous for
the King. Imagine the pieces in Diagram 46 shifted two squares
towards the centre of the board, as in Diagram 47, and White wins
with

          1. R-QKt5          B-R5
          2. R-Kt8ch         B-K1
          3. R-R8

The Bishop is lost, as it is Black's move.

In endings of ROOK AGAINST KNIGHT, the weaker side loses, where
the Knight is cut off from his King.

For instance, in Diagram 48, 1. R-Q5! In this "oblique
opposition" the Rook takes four of the Knight's squares:  1. ...
Kt-K8; 2. K-B5, Kt-B7; 3. K-K4, Kt-R6 (Kt-Kt5?; 4. R-Kt5ch! wins
the Knight). In this ending there is always a fatal check at some
point, and the position in the

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    | #K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    | ^R |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | #B |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 47

diagram is not in any way a chance win. 4. K-Q3, K-B2; 5. R-QR5,
Kt-Kt8; 6. R-R1, and wins.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    | #K |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | ^R |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 48

As soon as the Knight can obtain the King's support the game is
drawn even when the King is already forced on to the edge of the
board.

          Position--White: K at K6, R at K5
                    Black: K at K1, Kt at QR2

1. R-QB5, K-Q1; 2. K-Q6, Kt-B1ch; 3. K-B6, Kt-K2ch, draw. In this
case the King must avoid the corners, as the Knight would be
bereft of his efficiency.

          Position--White: K at KR6, R at KR4
                    Black: K at KR1, Kt at K2

1. R-K4, Kt-Kt1ch; 2. K-Kt6 and wins.

We come now to the more interesting part of end-game play,
namely, PAWN ENDINGS. The best course will be first to study how
to turn a material superiority in pawns to decisive advantage,
after which we shall note particular positions, in which a win is
possible with an equality or even an inferiority in pawns.

The ending of KING AND PAWN AGAINST KING is one of the simplest
albeit one of the most important of elementary cases.  The
stronger side will evidently try to queen the pawn. But generally
this is not possible if the adverse King has command of the
queening square. One important condition, though, must be
complied with: the weaker King must move into  "opposition," and
"opposition" is one of the characteristic and deciding factors in
most pawn endings. It is absolutely necessary for the learner to
understand fully the meaning of the term "opposition," and its
value in elementary cases This knowledge is of far reaching
influence in end-games.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | #K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 49

In Diagram 49 White seeks to queen his pawn.

    1. K-Q4, K-K2; 2. K-K5

With this move White assumes the opposition. That is, he moves
into the same rank or file, separated by one square only, so
that both Kings stand on squares of the same colour.  White has
moved last, it is Black's turn to move; it is said in this case
that "White has the opposition." We shall soon see that Black is
only able to draw the game, if he succeeds in assuming the
opposition himself (which means that, having the move, he should
step into opposition). 2. ... K-Q 2; 3 P-Q6 (Diagram 50).

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    | #K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 50

I propose now to recapitulate.

This is the critical moment, namely, when the pawn reaches the
sixth rank. If now Black plays K-K1 he is lost, for White playing
K-K6 has the opposition. After 4. ... K-Q1, 5. P-Q7, Black is
forced to allow the White King to move to K7, covering the
queening square; 5. ... K-B2, 6. K-K7, any; 7. P queens. But
Black has a draw in the position of Diagram 50, by playing 3. ...
K-Q1!! (not K1).  Now after 4. K-K6 he keeps the opposition
himself with K-K1; and after 5. P-Q7ch, K-Q1; 6. K-Q6, he is
stalemated, or else wins the pawn if White plays differently on
his sixth move. The King draws against King and pawn if he
commands the queening square, and if he can retain the opposition
on the first rank as soon as the pawn moves into his sixth.

It is of the utmost importance that the pawn should be at his
sixth; if the pawn is still further back, the opposition on the
first rank is of no avail.

Diagram 51 will serve as an example. Having the move,

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 51

White would only draw with P-B5, because Black's K-B2 wins the
pawn.

But White wins as follows: 1. K-Kt6, K-B1; 2. K-B6, K-K1; 3. K-
K6, K-Q1; 4. K-Q6, K-B sq:

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 52.

5. P-B5, K-Q sq. We see: Black has just assumed the opposition,
but the pawn has not yet crossed to his sixth square, and White,
by playing P-B6, again forces Black to give up the opposition. It
might be more clear to put it in this way: with P-B6 White wins
the opposition, in that he brings about a position with Black to
move. Therefore the game is won for White.  Since the opposition
on the outside rank is of no avail, when the pawn has not yet
played to his sixth square, the weaker side must try to keep away
the opposing King from the sixth rank until the pawn has reached
that rank. This is possible in positions such as that in Diagram
53, where the stronger

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #K |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 53

King is not more than one rank ahead of his pawn, and the weaker
King can assume the opposition. In the position in Diagram 53
Black plays K-Q4 and maintains the opposition until the pawn
moves, after which a typical position, similar to the one treated
in connection with Diagram 50 is brought about.

If White has the move, however, he wins easily by 1. K-B4, thus:

          1. ...                K-Q3
          2. K-Kt5              K-B2
          3. K-B5               K-Kt2
          4. K-Q6               K-B1
          5. K-B6

and there is opposition on the eighth rank whilst the pawn has
not reached the sixth.

If the King is more than one rank ahead of his pawn, as in
Diagram 54, the end-game can always be won, for if Black

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #K |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 54

takes the opposition with K-Q3, White deprives him of it again,
winning a move by P-B3, and the position is similar to that in
Diagram 53, with White to move.

          1. ...               K-Q3
          2. P-B3              K-B3
          3. K-B4              and wins.

This settles all typical end-games of King and pawn against King.
There is, however, one exception to the rules set out, namely,
when a ROOK'S PAWN is concerned. Here the isolated King always
succeeds in drawing if he can reach the corner where the pawn has
to queen, for he cannot be driven out again. The Rook's pawn
affords another opportunity for the weaker side to draw. Diagram
55 will illustrate this, and similar positions are of frequent
occurrence in practice.  Here Black draws with 1. ... K-B5. As he
threatens to capture the pawn, White must play 2. P-R4. Then
after the reply K-B4, White is still unable to cut the opponent
off from the corner with K-Kt7, as the loss of the pawn is still
threatened through K-Kt5. And after 3. P-R5 Black attains the
position which is typical for this end-game, namely the
opposition against the King on the Rook's file. The latter cannot
escape without giving up the contested corner, and the game is
drawn. 3. ... K-B3; 4. K-R7, K-B2; 5. K-R8, K-B1; 6. P-R6, K-B2;
7. P-R7, K-B1: and White is stalemated.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | ^K |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | #K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 55

End-games with a majority of one pawn, when both sides still have
pawns, are much more simple to manipulate.

Such games result in positions of which Diagram 56 is a

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    |    | #K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 56

typical instance. Here White does not even need to Queen his
passed pawn. The mere threat forces the win. For the pawn at Kt4
reduces the mobility of the Black King, in so far as the latter
must at all times be ready to reach the queening square in as few
moves as the pawn, or else the pawn would queen unmolested. The
White King can therefore capture the opposing Bishop's pawn in
peace and then queen his own.

1. K-K4, K-K3; 2. P-Kt5, K-K2; 3. K-K5, K-B2; 4. K-Q6, and so on;
or 1. ... K-Kt4 KxP; 3. K-Q6, K-B4; 4. KxP, K-K3; 5. K-Kt7, and
so on.

Such positions as Diagram 56 are also reached when there are
several pawns on each wing. The stronger side exchanges pawns on
the wing where there is a majority until the extra pawn is
passed.

The winning process is not quite so simple when all the pawns are
on the same wing, because exchanges are of no use unless the King
can assume the opposition in front of the last remaining pawn
(compare notes to Diagram 53).

In Diagram 57, for instance, White must not play P-B4.  Therefore
he can only win by gaining the Knight's Pawn,

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | #K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 57

that is, by bringing his King to B5. This he achieves by forcing
the Black King to relinquish the opposition with 1. P-B3.

1. ... K-B3; 2. K-K5, K-Kt2; 3. K-Q6, K-Kt3; 4. K-Q5, K-Kt2; 5.
K-B5, K-R3; 6. K-B6, and wins, as Black must abandon the pawn.

This position, being of frequent occurrence, is most important,
and I recommend it as a valuable study in the use of the
opposition.

Before I discuss positions of greater complexity, in which the
only way to win is by sacrificing the extra pawn, I shall treat
of end-games in which positional advantages ensure the victory
although the pawns are equal. Here we shall find simple cases in
which pawn manoeuvres bring about the win, and more intricate
ones in which King moves are the deciding factor.

Of the former the most important type is the end-game with the
"distant passed pawn." A typical example is the position in
Diagram 58, in which Black wins.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 58

The King's moves are outlined by the necessity of capturing the
opposing passed pawn, after which the Black King is two files
nearer the battle-field (the Queen's side), so that the White
pawns must fall.

1. K-Kt2, K-Kt2; 2. K-Kt3, K-B3; 3. K-Kt4, K-K4; 4. P-B4ch, K-B3;
5. K-Kt3, P-R4; 6. K-R4, K-B4; 7. KxP, KxP; 8. K-Kt6, K-K4, and
so on.

For similar reasons the position in Diagram 59 is lost for Black.
White obtains a passed pawn on the opposite wing to that of the
King. He forces the Black King to abandon his King's side pawns,
and these are lost. I give the moves in full, because this is
another important example characteristic of the ever recurring
necessity of applying our arithmetical rule. By simply
enumerating the moves necessary for either player to queen his
pawn--SEPARATELY for White and Black--we can see the result of
our intended manoeuvres, however far ahead we have to extend our
calculations.

        1. P-R4, K-K3; 2. P-R5, PxP; 3. PxP, K-Q3

Now the following calculations show that Black is lost.  White
needs ten moves in order to queen on the King's side, namely,
five to capture the Black King's side pawns (K-K4, B5, Kt6, R6,
Kt5), one to free the way for his pawn, and four moves with the
pawn. After ten moves, Black only

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P | #P |    |    | #K |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 59

gets his pawn to B6. He requires six moves to capture the White
Queen's side pawns, one to make room for his pawn at B3, and
after three moves the pawn only gets to B6. White then wins by
means of many checks, forcing the Black King to block the way of
his own pawn, thus gaining time for his King to approach. As we
shall see later on (p. 97), if the pawn had already reached B7,
whilst under protection by his K, the game would be drawn.

It is necessary to make it a rule to examine positions in which
each side has a passed pawn, by counting the moves in the way
first shown. It is just because end-games can be calculated to a
nicety, there being no moves of which the consequences cannot be
foreseen, that we note in contemporary master play a tendency to
simplify the middle-game by exchanging pieces, as soon as there
is an infinitesimal advantage in the pawn position (compare the
game Charousek-Heinrichsen, p. 108).

We will now turn our attention to positions in which the pawns
opposed on each wing are of equal number and no passed pawn can
be forced through. Everything depends on the relative position of
the Kings. The deciding factor in valuing the King's position is
whether pawn moves are possible, or whether they are already
entirely or nearly exhausted, so that only manoeuvres by the King
are possible. The following illustrations make the position
clear. We shall see that the importance of getting the opposition
is paramount.  Diagram 60 shows a simple instance in which there
are no

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 60

more pawn moves. Whoever has the move wins by assuming the
opposition. The opposing King must then give the way free to one
of the pawns.

The state of affairs in Diagram 61 is similar to that in Diagram
60. Having the move, White plays into opposition and forces his
way to Q5, after which Black's Bishop's pawn is lost.

1. K-K4, K-Q3; 2. K-B5, K-Q2; 3. K-K5, K-B3; 4. K-K6, K-B2; 5. K-
Q5, K-Kt3; 6. K-Q6, and so on (compare Diagram 57). If Black has
the move he can only draw, because the White Bishop's pawn is
covered even though Black gains the square at Q5.

1. ... K-K4; 2. K-Q3, K-B5; 3. K-Q2!! and whatever Black plays
White wins the opposition, so that the Black King's ingress is
stopped; 2. K-K2 loses the game because of 3. ... K-K5; 4. K-Q2,
K-Q5; 5. K-B2, K-K6; 6. K-B1, K-Q6; 7. K-Kt2, K-Q7; 8. K-Kt1, K-
B6; 9. K-R2, K-B7, and wins.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 61

I shall take this opportunity of explaining what is called
"distant opposition." In Diagram 62, White with the move wins by
1. K-K2, thus assuming "distant opposition"  (squares of the same
colour!!). If Black now enters his second rank, White immediately
plays into opposition on his third rank, e.g. 1. ... K-Q2; 2. K-
Q3, and still maintains it by 3. K-K3 if Black plays a waiting
move such as 2. ... K-K2. Now Black has no further waiting moves,
as White threatens to capture one of the pawns. But playing into
the third rank is of no use, as White then assumes the direct
opposition, and wins as in Diagram 60. Black must allow White
access to one side or the other. He could not have remained on
the first rank at the outset either, for after 1. ... K-Q1, White
advances through a square, to which Black cannot assume the
opposition, namely, 2. K-B3. If now Black wishes to answer the
threat of K-B 4-Kt5 and plays K-K2, White answers 3. K-K3 as
before.

2. K-K3 or KQ3 would be wrong, as Black would then succeed in
assuming the opposition at K2 or Q2, and would be able to
maintain it. White would be unable to circumvent this or to
attack the pawns.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    | #K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 62

In this position, too, there is ample scope for the study of the
opposition.

If the pawns are still standing behind, the King who has the most
advanced position has always the advantage, because he threatens
to attack the opposing pawns should they leave their base. White
has more pawn moves at his disposal, and will nearly always
succeed in assuming the opposition.  For instance, in Diagram 63,
White, having the move, wins because his King gets first into the
centre of the board.

1. K-K3, K-Q2; 2. K-B4, K-K2; 3. K-Kt5 K-B2; 4. K-R6, K-Kt1; 5.
P-KB4, K-R1; 6. P-B5, PxP; 7. K-Kt5, K-Kt2; 8. KxP, K-B2. Black
has now the opposition but cannot maintain it, having no pawn
moves available. The White King threatens to capture any pawn
that ventures forward.

9. K-K5, K-K2; 10. K-Q5, K-Q2; 11. P-B4, P-B3ch; 12. K-K5, K-K2;
13. P-B5, and wins, as Black will soon be compelled to play K-Q2,
after which a manoeuvre shown previously gives White the Queen's
Bishop's pawn.

l3. ... P-KR4; 14. P-KR4, P-R4; 15. P-R4!  K-Q2; 16. K-B6, K-O1:
17. K-K6, and so on.

If in Diagram 63 the King stood at Q2 instead of B1, he could
just manage to draw. White takes eleven moves to capture the
Black King's side pawns, and to queen one of

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #K |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    | ^P | ^K |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 63

his own, as can be easily seen. In eleven moves Black captures
the opposing QBP and queens his own. We see here how the King's
position can be counterbalanced by the weakness of a pawn, and
lead to a draw. If the White QBP was not isolated but standing,
for instance, at QKt2, Black would be lost, as calculation easily
shows.

The strength or weakness of a pawn position, which, as we saw,
had so deciding an influence in the end-game position just
treated, is one of the most important factors in a game of chess,
and should have full consideration in the middle game. A pawn,
when isolated, is naturally weaker than when it is or can be
protected by another. It may easily lead to the loss of a game,
as the mobility of the King or a piece is reduced by having to
protect the pawn (compare End-game, p. 102).

It is frequently and erroneously thought that DOUBLED pawns as
such are a weakness. Doubled pawns are weak when ISOLATED, for
they cannot support each other. But if doubled pawns can be
supported by a pawn on the next file they need not by any means
be at a disadvantage against three united single pawns on the
opposite side. For instance, in Diagram 64, if Black had a pawn
at QKt3 instead of R2, White would have no winning chances. He
could not attack the pawns, nor would any kind of manoeuvres
force a passed pawn through. In the diagram, however, White wins
through

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    | #P | #K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 64

1. K-B5; Black cannot then hold the pawn at B3. 1. ... P-R3;  2.
P-Kt4.

In this particular case the win is made easy by the fact that the
White King is able to attack the Black pawn at once. But even
without this advantage, the weakness of

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P | #K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^P |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 65

doubled pawns usually entails the loss of the game. Diagram 65
may serve as an example.

1. K-Q4, P-B4ch; 2. K-B4, K-B3; 3. P-B3 K-Kt3; 4. K-Q5, P-B3ch;
5. K-B4, and wins.

Doubled pawns are a drawback, even when not isolated, should
there be no way of obtaining a passed pawn by exchanging them
against a smaller number of single pawns.  This is illustrated in
Diagram 66, in which Black wins because the three pawns on the
King's side hold up the four White pawns and the Black King can
assail the White pawns from the rear,

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | #K |    |    |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 66

the White King being fettered by the necessity of capturing the
QBP. The proper formation for the Black pawns would be at B3,
Kt2, R3, after which White cannot force a pawn through by playing
P-B4 and P-Kt5, as Black can refrain from making any exchange.
Black could not afford to leave the pawns where they are, because
even if there were no White pawn at B2, White would, by playing
P-Kt5, threaten to win in the following way:

1. P-Kt6, BPxP; 2. P-R6, and P-B6, etc.; or 1. ...  RPxP; 2. P-
B6, with P-R6, etc. In a game Ed. Lasker-Moll (Berlin
championship, 1904), from which the position is taken, Black
played P-R3 in order to obtain the formation mentioned above, and
White resigned after 2. P-B4? P-B3, P-Kt5, K-Q5. There was,
however, a pretty win after Black's P-R3, namely: 2. P-B6, PxP;
3. P-B4, K-Q5; 4. P-Kt5, BPxP; 5. PxP, K-K4; 6. PxP, K-B6; 7. K-
B2 and Black is lost, because his own pawn obstructs the square
B2, and the King must release the square Kt2, after which the
White pawn queens.

This winning combination, however, is only an interesting
exception to the rule that positions of this kind are generally
won by the side which possesses the passed pawn. In this
particular case Black could have made the position secure by
obtaining the ideal position of B3 Kt2 R3 for his pawns earlier,
before the White pawns could advance so far. In the position of
Diagram 66 Black could still have won by playing P-B3. After 2.
P-R6, PxP; 3. P-B4, K-Q4; the Black King has time to overtake the
passed pawn which results on the Bishop's file.

To conclude the study of pawn endings with an equal number of
pawns on either side, we will discuss Diagram 67,

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #K |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    | ^K |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 67

which illustrates a curious position occurring from time to time
in practice. Whoever has the move wins by moving into distant
opposition. White, therefore, should play K-K5 K-Q5 would lose,
as Black would play K-Kt5, protecting his pawn and attacking the
White pawn, the protection of which White has to give up next
move. In the same way Black with the move cannot play K-Kt5
because White wins the pawn with K-Q5. After 1. K-K5 Black cannot
avoid the loss of the game, e.g. K-R3; 2. K-Q5, K-Kt3; 3. K-Q6,
and so on. Black with the move wins similarly with K-R5.

We have still to consider end-games in which a draw results in
spite of a majority of pawns, or where a win can only be achieved
by the sacrifice of an extra pawn.

Diagram 68 shows the latter case. Here White can only win in the
following manner: 1. P-Kt4ch, PxPch; 2. K-Kt3, K any; 3. KxP, and
wins. Any other way would allow

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #P |    | #K |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^P |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P | ^K |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 68

Black to assume the opposition and to force the draw, e.g. 1. K-
B2, K-B3! 2. K-Q3, K-Q4, etc.

Not 1. K-B2, K-Kt5? 2. K-Kt2, K-B4, 3. K-B3, etc., as in Diagram
57.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #K | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 69

A counterpart to this position is found in Diagram 69, which
shows one of the few cases in which the possession of an extra
pawn does not force a win. It seems at first sight as if White
could win by simply assuming the opposition with 1. K-K4
continued: ... K-K2; 2. K-Q5, K-Q2; 3. P-B5, K-K2; 4. K-B6, etc.
But Black would reply 1. ... P-B4ch! and after 2. PxPch, K-B3
followed by KxP ensure the draw.

We come now to those end-games in which pieces as well as pawns
are left on the board.

As it is my aim to give typical examples, I shall confine myself
to positions where there is only one piece besides the King. Most
end-games with several pieces can be reduced to that.

In nearly all end-games with pieces the King's manoeuvres used in
pawn endings are of no avail, as far as opposition is concerned,
as the advantage of opposition means that the opponent is forced
to move his King, and as long as there are pieces on the board,
such "forced move" positions are infrequent. However, the
strength of the pawn position is of the same importance as in
pawn endings, just as the command of as many squares as possible
is essential for the King. A third and very important factor is
again the mobility of pieces.

A good example is found in Diagram 70, a position from a game
Post-Leonhardt (Berlin Jubilee Tournament, 1907).

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |    | #K |    |    | #B | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | ^P | #P |    | #P |    | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    | ^K |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^B | ^P |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 70

Black's pawn position is weaker, because the White pawns, being
on Black squares, cannot be attacked by the Bishop, whilst Black
has two isolated pawns on White squares.  Furthermore the Black
Bishop has less mobility than the White one, and finally the
Black King is tied to his Q3, to prevent White's entry at B5 or
K5. These drawbacks decide the issue. 1. ... B-R2; 2. P-R4, B-
Kt3; 3. B-B2, P-R4. (After B-R2 White would command the square at
Kt6 through P-R5); 4. B-Q3, B-R2; 5. B-B1, and Black resigns, for
White threatens to establish his Bishop at B3, where the pawns at
Q5 and R5 are both attacked, whilst the Black Bishop is at once
forced to occupy the only square from which both pawns are
covered, namely B2. As this square must be abandoned in the next
move, Black loses a pawn and the game.

5. ... B-Kt1; 6. B-K2, B-B2; 7. B-B3, and wins, or 5. ... B-Kt3;
6. B-Kt2, B-B2; 7. B-B3, and wins.

A corresponding instance of KNIGHT V. BISHOP is the end-game
Blackburne-Schlechter (p. 102).

It is difficult to gauge the relative value of Bishop and Knight
in the end-game. The Knight has the advantage of access to all
squares; against that the Bishop is able to fight at long range,
and offers opportunities of gaining moves in certain positions
where there is a "forced move" (compare p. 90).

As already stated, two Bishops are superior to two Knights
because the limitation of the colour of squares ceases. A Rook
generally wins against a Bishop or a Knight, sometimes even
against a majority of one or two pawns, provided, of course, that
there are still pawns on the Rook's side, and that their exchange
cannot be forced. The following position (Diagram 71), from a
game Moll-Post, shows how to proceed in such cases.

Here White can force a win in the following way:  1. RxP, P-Kt6;
2. R-R6, PxP; 3. RxP, K-B2; 4. R-B2, B-Kt5; 5. R-B4, B-R4; 6. P-
B4! The Black pawn position must first be torn up, if it is to be
attacked successfully.

Now Black's defeat is inevitable, whether the pawn is taken or
not. The sequel would be 6. ... PxP; 7. RxP, after which the Rook
goes to KR5 and the Rook's pawn must fall, or: 6. ... K-Kt3; 7.
PxP, PxP; 8. R-B6ch, K-Kt2; 9. R-B5, and the Bishop's pawn is
lost, unless Black gives up his passed pawn. In this case Black
loses also: 9. R-B5, B-Q1; 10. KxP, K-Kt3; 11. K-Q3, B-B3; 12. R-
B6, K-Kt2; 13. K-K4, K-Kt3; 14. R-R6, K-B2; 15. K-B5, B-Q1; 16.
R-KKt6, followed by RxP, etc.

The Queen against a minor piece wins so easily that it is not
necessary to give an example. It only remains to discuss end-

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | ^R |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | #P | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #P |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #P |    |    |    |    | ^P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | #B |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    |    | #P | ^K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 71

games of QUEEN V. QUEEN, ROOK V. ROOK, AND MINOR PIECE V. MINOR
PIECE, in which one player has a majority of pawns, or an equal
number of pawns, one of which is passed. As a rule the extra

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #B |    |    |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^Kt|    | ^K |    | #P | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 72

pawn leads to a win. There are, however, exceptions frequently
recurring in practice to which I must refer specially.

Diagram 72 shows an end-game with a Rook's pawn and a Bishop "of
the wrong colour."

White draws with 1. Kt-Q2, P-B7; 2. Kt-K4ch, K-Kt7; 3. KtxP, and
draws, as Black, in order to capture the White pawn, after KxKt
must give the White King access to the Rook's square, from which
he could not be dislodged except by a Bishop on White squares.

In Diagram 73 White cannot win although his Bishop is of the
"right colour" by 1. P-B7, KtxP; 2. BxKt, and White cannot win
the Rook's pawn. He can only attack the pawn from Kt7 or Kt8,
both of which are inaccessible as the Black King gets to Kt1. It
is a stalemate position. If the White

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    | #K |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | ^P |    | #Kt|    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | ^K | ^B |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 73

pawn were still at R5, White's King could attack the pawn from R6
and secure the win.

In the position given, White could only win by keeping his passed
pawn, and indeed it is possible to win by gaining a move with the
Bishop. In the diagram it is White's move.  Black with the move
could not play K-B2 because K-Q6 would follow. The Knight would
have to move, allowing the pawn to queen. Therefore White must
try to bring about the same position with Black to move. He can
do this, for instance, in the following way:

1. B-Kt3, K-B2 (now 2. K-Q6 would be bad on account of Kt-Q5, 3.
P-B7, Kt-Kt5ch, and KtxP); 2. B-R2, K-K2; 3. B-K5. Now White's
plan has succeeded; the same position has occurred, and it is
Black's move. As mentioned before, the King must not move, but
Knight's moves are of no avail. If 3. ... Kt-Kt4; 4. B-B6ch, the
Knight is lost, or alternatively the pawn queens. On 3. ... Kt-
B1, B-Q6ch decides, and on 3. ... Kt-Q1; 4. B-B6ch, K-K1; 5. BxKt
would follow.

On this occasion I should like to point out that it is impossible
to gain a move with a Knight, as a square which is accessible to
him in an odd number of moves cannot be reached by him in an even
number. A simple instance is Diagram 74.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    | #K |    | ^K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 74

White loses, having the move. 1. K-R8, Kt-K4; 2. K-R2, Kt-Q2; 3.
K-R8, Kt-B1; 4. P-R7, Kt-Kt3 mate.

Black with the move cannot win, as he cannot bring about the same
position with White to move.

In end-games of BISHOP V. BISHOP, of which we have already had an
example in Diagram 70, an extra pawn wins in most cases if the
Bishops are of the same colour. It is generally possible to force
an exchange of Bishops and obtain one of the well-known pawn
endings.

On the other hand an ending with Bishops of different colour
leads mostly to a draw, frequently even against a majority of two
pawns. The position in Diagram 75 is a draw, because it is
impossible for the White King to get round his Kt pawn to drive
off the Bishop.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    | #K |    |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    | ^K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    | ^B |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 75

With two passed pawns distant from each other, a win can
generally be forced, as in the following position (Diagram 76).

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #B |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | #K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^B |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 76

The King moves up to the pawn, the progress of which is barred by
the Bishop (not the King). He thereby forces the sacrifice of the
Bishop. If the Black King comes to the rescue of the Bishop, the
other pawn proves Black's downfall.

1. K-K4, K-K2; 2. K-Q5, K-Q2; 3. B-K4, B-K2; 4. P-Kt6, B-Q1; 5.
P-Kt7, K-B2; 6. K-K6, and wins; or 5. ... B-B2; 6. P-B6, B-R7; 6.
B-B2, K-K1; 8. K-K6, B-Kt1; 9. B-Kt6ch, K-B1; 10. K-Q7, and wins.

When the pawns are united, one should observe this rule: if they
are attacked, they should, if possible, move to squares of the
colour of the opposing Bishop.

Therefore in the position set out in Diagram 77 White should not
play P-B5, but P-K5. After 1. P-B5 there is no possible chance
for White to assume the command of the Black squares, and in
order to advance the pawns it is necessary

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #B |    |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    | ^B |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 77

to force access to both White and Black squares. In the present
instance play would proceed on these lines:

1. P-K5, B-R4; 2. K-K3, K-B2; 3. K-K4, K-K2;  4. P-B5, B-Kt5; 5.
P-B6ch, K-B1; 6. P-K6, B-R6; 7. B-R4, B-Kt5. White can only get
through with the King's Pawn, as P-B7 is unavailing on the
grounds set out above. But in order to play P-K7, the square K7
must first be covered a second time, so that the Bishop cannot be
given up for the two pawns. Therefore: 8. K-Q5, B-R6 (B-B6; P-
K7ch); 9. K-B6, K-K1; 10.  K-B7ch, K-B1; 11. K-Q7, and wins.

In end-games with one Knight on each side, an extra pawn usually
decides the game much in the same way as in end-games with
Bishops of the same colour; frequently even with equal pawns, the
possession of a passed pawn is sufficient, as it keeps either the
King or the Knight busy, so that there is only one piece
available for the defence of the pawns. An instructive example is
the end-game Ed. Lasker-Rotlevi on p. 100.

End-games with Rook against Rook are the most frequent, as well
as the most difficult. Here the possession of an extra pawn is
seldom sufficient for a win, unless the stronger side has also an
advantage in the greater mobility of the Rook.  Diagram 78 is
typical of such cases, frequent in practice, in

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #R |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | ^R |    |    |    | #P | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^K | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 78

which the greater mobility is the deciding factor. Although White
has one pawn more, he can only win by reducing the mobility of
the Black Rook through the following manoeuvre:  1. R-B2, R-Q2;
2. R-R2, R-R2. Now the Black Rook has only one move left, whilst
the White Rook has the freedom of the Rook's file. For instance,
the Rook can be posted at R5 and prevent the Black King from
attacking White's King's side pawns, whilst the White King makes
for the R at R7 and effects its capture. If, on the other hand,
the Black King tries to obstruct the way to the Queen's side,
White penetrates into the Black pawn position. Black cannot
maintain the opposition because the White Rook has spare moves,
the Black Rook none. e.g. 3. K-B3, K-Kt3; 4. R-R5, K-B3; 5. K-K4,
K-K3; 6. R-R4, P-Kt3; 7. R-R5, K-Q3; 8. K-Q4, K-B3; 9. K-K5, and
wins the pawns.

Having the move, Black would draw the game by:  1. ... R-Q7ch; 2.
K-R3, R-R7. By placing his Rook behind the passed pawn he
condemns the opposing Rook to inactivity, whilst his own is free
to move on the Rook's file.  If now the White King comes up, he
will in the end force the sacrifice of the Black Rook for the
pawn, but meanwhile the Black King captures the White pawns, and
with passed pawns on the King's side might get winning chances.

When there is only one pawn left in endings of R against R, the
weaker side maintains the draw, if the King can command the
queening square. Diagram 79 shows a position favourable to the
stronger side, and which can mostly be obtained in this end-game.
But here, too, Black forces a draw with a pretty manoeuvre: 1.
... R-B2; 2. R-KKt2, R-Q2ch; 3. PXR, and Black is stalemate.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #R | #K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | ^P | ^K |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^R |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 79

The chances of a draw are even greater in endings of Q against Q,
as the King on the stronger side can seldom evade perpetual
check. For the sake of completeness I will show a few cases in
which Q or R cannot win against an advanced pawn.

In Diagram 80 White can still draw, for in five moves the pawn
reaches Kt7, supported by the King at R7, and in that time Black
cannot come up with his King, so that he must give up the Rook
for the pawn. Two passed pawns win, even when the King is away
from them, if they have reached their sixth square. In Diagram
81, for instance, White is lost,

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | ^K |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    |    | #R |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | #K |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 80.

as Black gives up his Rook at Q7 and plays P-Kt6, after which one
of the pawns queens.

The Queen wins against an advanced pawn, even when the latter is
supported by the King; only the R or B pawn can

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #K |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #R |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 81.

draw sometimes, when the pawn is on the seventh supported by the
King, and the opposing Q cannot move to the queening square.

The following illustrates the three principal cases:

          A. Position--White: K at QKt8, P at QR7
                       Black: K at QR8, Q at QB3

Black must stop the pawn and plays Q-Kt3ch. White answers with K-
R sq and is stalemate unless White lets the Kt's file free again.
This end-game can only be won if the stronger King can assume the
opposition in two moves. Therefore, if in the above example the
Black King was standing at Q5, Black would win as follows: 1. ...
Q-K1ch; 2. K-Kt7, Q-K2ch; 3. K-Kt8, K-B4; 4. P-R8 = Q, K-Kt3. and
White cannot cover the mate.

          B. Position--White: K at QKt8, P at QB7
                       Black: K at Q5, Q at QB3

White draws: 1. ... Q-Kt3ch; 2. K-R8, QxP stalemate.

          C. Position--White: K at QKt8, P at QKt7
                       Black: K at Q5, Q at QB3 White loses.

1. K-R7, Q-R5ch; 2. K-Kt6, Q-Kt5ch; 3. K-B7, Q-B4ch; 4. K-Q8, Q-
Q3ch; 5. K-B8, Q-B3ch; 6. K-Kt8, K-B4; 7. K-R7, Q-R5ch; 8. K-Kt8,
K-B3; 9. K-B8, Q-R3, etc.



END-GAMES FROM MASTER PLAY



In the following pages I give some instructive examples taken
from tournament play. Step by step we will find how very
important is the knowledge of the simple endings treated in the
last chapter. We shall see that it is often necessary to consider
many moves ahead to find the correct line, but that it is nearly
always possible to foresee every consequence with unfailing
certainty. Moreover, because of the reduction of forces there is
no call to take very many variations into consideration.  This
explains why there is a tendency in modern master play to enforce
the exchange of pieces, as soon as there is the slightest
advantage sufficient to bring about one of the elementary end-
game positions, in which the win can be forced.


1. FROM A GAME TEICHMANN-BLACKBURNE (BERLIN, 1897).


        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    | #K | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | #P |    | #P |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 82.

Black has an extra pawn on the Queen's side. But as it is
doubled, the material superiority is of no account. A perceptible
advantage, however, lies in the fact that White cannot bring
about a "forced move" position, as Black has the move P-QB4 in
reserve. White has also an infinitesimal weakness on the King's
side, the Rook's pawn having advanced two squares and being
therefore an easy mark. This disadvantage soon becomes apparent.

          1. P-B3            K-B4
          2. K-B2            P-R4
          3. K-Kt2           P-Kt4
          4. K-R3            K-K4

With this move advantage is taken of one of White's weaknesses.
White must exchange pawns. If the King moves, Black captures,
freeing B 5 for his King, from where he can later on get to K6 or
Kt6. But after the exchange at Kt4, Black has the chance of
obtaining a "distant passed pawn" on the Rook's file.

          5. PxP             PxP
          6. K-Kt2           K-B4
          7. K-R2            K-B3

If Black were to play P-R5 at once, White would reply with 8. K-
R3, and after PxP, 9. KxP. Black would have to give up the spare
move P-B4, to gain the square at B5 for his King. The game then
would be drawn after 10. K-Kt2!  K-B5, 11. K-B2, because White
maintains the opposition, and Black cannot get through at K6 or
Kt6. Black therefore manoeuvres his King first in such a way that
the square at his B4 is only reached when the White King is at
Kt3.

          8. K-Kt2           K-Kt3
          9. K-R2            P-R5

Now neither PxP nor P-B4 is of any use. In the first case Black
obtains the distant passed pawn. In the second White obtains the
distant passed pawn after 10. P-B4, PxBP; 11. PxRP, but loses it
again after K-R4; 12. K-R3, P-B4.

          10. K-R3           PxP
          11. KxP            K-B4

At last Black has captured the coveted square, whilst keeping the
spare move in hand.

          12. K-B2           K-B5

The White King cannot move to Kt2 now, because in that case Black
would move the King to the White QBP and queen in seven moves,
and White, after seven moves, would only have the KB pawn at B7.

          13. K-K2           K-Kt6
          14. K-K3           P-B4

and wins, for White cannot hold the KBP now, but must capture the
KtP in exchange for it, after which the Black King reaches the
Queen's side two moves ahead, e.g.:

          15. K-K2           K-Kt7
          16. K-K3           K-B8!
          17. K-K4           K-B7
          18. K-B5           KxP
          19. KxP            K-K6, etc.

Black would have forced a win also if White had played K-Kt2 on
his twelfth move thus: 12. K-Kt2, K-B5; 13. K-B2.

Now White has the opposition, and after Black wrings it from him
by playing the spare move P-B4, he assumes it again with 14. K-
K2, K-Kt6; 15. K-K3. But he cannot maintain it after Black's K-R6
because the square at Q3 for distant opposition is not
accessible. After 16. K-Q2, K-R7!; 17. K-K3, K-Kt6; 18. K-K2, K-
Kt7; 19. K-K3, K-B8 we get the same result as before.


II. FROM A GAME ED. LASKER-ROTLEVI (HAMBURG, 1910).


        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    | #Kt |    |   |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    | #K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 83.

White has the advantage, because Black must keep either his King
or his Knight permanently near the passed pawn, guarding against
its advance, whilst both White's King and Knight can attack the
Black pawns. As yet they stand so far in the rear that the White
King cannot approach them Therefore White must first try to force
their advance.

          1. Kt-B5          P-Kt3
          2. Kt-Q3          P-R4

This is now necessary, because the square B3 is weak after P-Kt3
and the White Knight threatens to win the Rook's pawn eventually
with a check at B6. For this reason Kt-Q 2, for instance, could
not be played instead of the move in the text, because 3. Kt-K5
would follow. Black now cannot exchange, of course, otherwise the
position would resolve itself to an easy end game win similar to
the one in Diagram 56. There would be nothing left but Kt-Kt1 to
oppose the threat of Kt-B6ch, and this would get the Knight
entirely out of play, so that White could queen the passed pawn
easily after 4. K-Kt6.

          3. K-K5           P-B3

The King was threatening to enter via Q5 and B6.

          4. K-B5           Kt-K3

If Black wishes to obviate the threat: Kt-K5-B4, and plays P-Kt4,
the White King goes to QB5 and wins all the pawns easily.
Therefore Black endeavours to sacrifice a pawn in order to
exchange the two others, after which a draw could be forced by
exchanging the Knight for the remaining White pawn.

          5. Kt-K5          P-B4
          6. Kt-B4          P-Kt4
          7. KtxP           P-B5

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    | #K |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | ^Kt| #P |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | #P |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 84.

          8. K-K5          Kt-B4
          9. Kt-B6ch       K-B1!

Not K-B2, because of 10. K-Q4, Kt-Q6; 11. Kt-K5ch.

         10. Kt-R7

Here White had only considered the following answer:

Kt-Q6ch; 11. K-Q4, KtxKtP; 12. KtxP, Kt-Q6; 13. P-B5, Kt-Kt5; 14.
Kt-B3, Kt-B7ch: 15. KxP, Kt-K6ch; 16. K-B5, KtxP; 17. P-R4, Kt-
K2; 18. Kt-Q5, Kt-B1; 19. K-B6, K-K1; 20. K-B7, Kt-R7; 21. K-Kt7,
and wins the Knight.

Black however draws, through a pretty combination:

          10. ...           P-Kt5
          11. K-Q4          P-B6
          12. K-B4          PxP
          13. KxP           KtxP

and White cannot prevent the ultimate exchange of Kt for P.  The
last winning chance would have been: 10. K-Q4!, Kt-Q; 11. K-B3.
This is in any case the more plausible line, because now White
can attack the pawns with both King and Knight, as both the Black
pieces are away from the field of operations. The sequel could
be: 11. KtxBP; 12. P-R3  (Kt-R7 would only draw: Kt-K7ch; 13. K-
Kt4, Kt-B8 14. P-R3, Kt-R7ch; 15. KxP, P-B6); 12. Kt-Q4ch 13. K-
Q4, Kt-B5; 14. K-K4 (Kt-R7 ?, Kt-K7ch!!; 15 K-K3, P-B6), Kt-Q6;
15. P-Kt4, Kt-Kt7 16 Kt-Q4, and wins


III. From a game Blackburne-Schlechter (Vienna, 1898).


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    | #R |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #K | #B |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    | #Q |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    |    | ^Q |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^K | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    | ^R |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  85

White has just played Q-B4. P-B5 is threatened, and Black is
forced to exchange Queens. The ensuing end-game, however, is
inferior for Black, because the QP is weak and White threatens
eventually to force his Queen's Pawn through.

          1. ...           Q-B4
          2. QxQ           BxQ
          3. Kt-Q4         B-Kt3
          4. RxR           RxR
          5. R-K1          RxR

If Black wants to avoid the exchange, he must yield up the King's
file to White, and that would surely spell disaster, as the Black
Rook would have no field of action, and would have to go to Q1 to
avoid the loss of a pawn through Kt-Kt5ch, after which the White
Rook would take possession of the seventh rank, fettering the
action of the Bishop into the bargain.

          6. KxR            B-Q6
          7. P-QKt3         K-Q2

Black is condemned to inactivity, and White can quietly set to
work to force his pawn through.

          8. K-Q2           B-K5
          9. P-Kt3          B-Kt8
         10. P-QR3          B-K5
         11. K-K3           B-Kt8
         12. Kt-B3

In order to play P-QKt4 and P-B5, then to force Black to exchange
at B5, White must first have the opportunity of bearing a second
time on Black's Queen's Pawn.  Therefore he prepares the
manoeuvre Kt-B3-Q2-B4.

          12. ...            K-K2
          13. P-QKt4         B-B4
          14. P-B5           B-Q2
          15. K-Q4           B-K1
          16. Kt-Q2          B-Q2
          17. Kt-B4          PxPch
          18. PxP            P-B3

It is not yet easy to materialise the advantage in position The
advance P-Q6ch would be very bad, as B6 and K6 would be made
accessible for Black. White starts by tempting the pawns forward
and thus systematically creates points of attack.

          19. Kt-Kt2          B-B4
          20. P-QR4           K-Q2
          21. P-R5            P-QR3

The Queen's side is paralysed. The text move is forced, as P-R6
would give White yet another passed pawn. Now White turns his
attention to the King's side.

          22. Kt-B4           K-B2
          23. Kt-Q6           B-Q2
          24. K-K4            B-R5
          25. P-Kt4           B-B7ch
          26. K-Q4            B-Kt3

Black wishes to play P-R4, in order to get a passed pawn too, the
only chance of saving the game.

          27. P-R3          K-Kt1

Now P-R4 would be countered by Kt-B5, forcing the exchange and
leaving a backward pawn at Kt2 and the Rook's pawn would be bound
to fall.

          28. Kt-B5          BxKt
          29. PxB            K-B2

          ---------------------------------------
       8 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       7 |    | #P | #K |    |    |    | #P | #P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       6 | #P |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       5 | ^P |    | ^P | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       4 |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       2 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          ---------------------------------------
           A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H


                      Diag. 86.

It would now seem as if Black might have played P-KKt4 here,
securing a passed pawn, and forcing a draw. After 30. P-R4 Black
would play P-R3, and it is not evident how White is to win. But
29. ... P-KKt4 is parried by PxP e.p. The difference in the pawn
positions, which decides the issue for White, is found in the
fact that the White passed pawn at Q5 is unassailable because the
support of the BP cannot be taken away by Black's P-Kt3, whilst
Black's passed pawn at his B3 can be isolated at any time through
P-R4-R5. White would take up a position on the Knight's file with
the King, and push on the Rook's pawn.  The isolated pawns are
then an easy prey. On the text move White also pushes the Rook's
pawn on to compel P-R3 and reduce Black to moves by the King. The
passed Queen's pawn decides the game.

          30. K-K4          K-Q2
          31. K-B4          K-K2
          32. K-Kt4         K-Q2
          33. P-R4          K-B1
          34. P-R5          P-R3

Otherwise there follows: P-R6, K-R5, etc.

          35. K-B4          K-Q2
          36. K-K4          K-B2
          37. P-Q6ch        K-B1
          38. K-Q5          K-Q2
          39. P-B6ch        PxPch

              (compare Diagram 68)

          40. K-B5          Resigns


IV. FROM A GAME BIRD-JANOWSKI.


          ---------------------------------------
       8 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #K |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       7 | #P |    | ^B |    |    |    |    | #P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       5 | ^P |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       4 |    | ^P |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P |    |
         |---------------------------------------|
       2 |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    | ^P |
         |---------------------------------------|
       1 | #R |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
          ---------------------------------------
           A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                      Diag. 87

In spite of the preponderance of material, the win is not an easy
one for Black, because of White's alarming pawn array on the
Queen's side. The King must first make use of his great power as
an end-game piece.

          1. ...                K-B2
          2. P-Kt5              K-K3
          3. P-Kt6              PxP
          4. PxP                K-Q2
          5. B-K5

threatens P-Kt7. But as White must first move his Bishop to cover
his pawn, the Rook's pawn is lost, and the manoeuvre therefore
unsound. P-R3 was indicated; it threatens the break-up of the
Black pawns by P-Kt4 and their capture by the King.

          5. ...                K-B3
          6. B-Q4               R-R2ch
          7. K-K3               RxP
          8. K-B4               R-Q7!
          9. P-Kt4              RxB

Black reduces the position to an elementary ending, which is
theoretically a win. Whilst the two White passed pawns are
isolated and fall singly, Black obtains two passed pawns, which
are united and unassailable.

          10. PxR               P-K6
          11. KxKP              PxP
          12. K-B4              P-R4
          13. P-Q5ch            KxKtP
          14. K-K5              K-B2
              Resigns.


V. FROM A GAME STEINER-FORGACZ (SZEKESFEHERVAR, 1907).


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    | #P |    | #K | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^R |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 88

White has an advantage in the greater mobility of his Rook, and
makes the most of it in an instructive fashion.

          1. R-Kt4          P-Kt3

White provokes this move in order to produce a weakness at KB6.

          2. K-K2           K-K3
          3. R-KB4          R-KB1

Black naturally dare not allow the Rook to penetrate into the
seventh.

          4. P-Q4           P-QB4

This move would win the game, if the Rooks had been exchanged,
because in that case the distant passed pawn which Black could
obtain on the QKt file would decide the issue.  But, supported by
the mobile Rook, the centre pawns become irresistible. Instead of
the text move, P-KB4 was necessary in order to release the Rook.

          5. P-B3           PxP
          6. PxP            P-KB4

If it were not for the Rooks, the centre pawns would not help
White, because Black would obtain a passed pawn on either wing.

          7. K-Q3           P-KKt4
          8. R-B2           R-B1
          9. P-Kt4          P-B5

If PxP, 10. R-B6ch, K-K2; 11. R-R6 wins.

          10. P-KR4         P-KR3
          11. PxP           PxP
          12. R-R2          R-B1
          13. R-R6ch        K-K2
          14. P-Q5          P-B6
          15. R-K6ch        K-Q2
          16. R-B6!         Resigns.

For after RxR, 17. PxR, White captures the BP, and still
overtakes the passed pawn which Black obtains on the Queen's
wing; the pawns at Q5 and B6 are unassailable (K-K8, P-Q6, K-B7,
P-Q7, etc.). The consequences of 16. R-B6 had to be calculated to
a nicety. If, for instance, the QKtP were already at his fourth,
White would lose. In four moves Black would have one of his pawns
at his R6, the other at Kt5. In the meantime White would have
taken the BP and come back to the Q file. Now Black would win
with P-Kt6, because after PxP the RP queens unmolested.


VI. FROM A GAME CHAROUSEK-HEINRICHSEN (COLOGNE, 1898).


        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #R |    |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    | #Q | #R | #P | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    |    | ^Q |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | #P | ^R |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 89

White's position is superior; firstly, because the only open file
on the board is his, and secondly, because the Black Queen's side
pawns are advanced, and therefore weak for a King's ending. After
exchanging the Queen and one Rook, the possession of the King's
file ensures the advance of the King to K4 and from there to Q5.
Then the weakness of Black's pawns decides the game.

          1. QxQ          RxQ
          2. R-K8ch       RxR
          3. RxRch        K-R2
          4. K-R2         P-KKt3
          5. K-Kt3

PxP is no threat, because White wins the pawn back at once with
R-K5. By capturing, Black would only dislocate his pawns.

          5. ...                   KKt2
          6. K-B4                  K-B3
          7. R-K5                  P-Kt3
          8. K-K4                  R-Q3
          9. P-KB4                 R-K3

Black probably hopes for a counter chance by getting a distant
passed pawn on the KRook's file. But he underrates the weakness
of the Queen's side pawns, and even without the exchange of
Rooks, White would win, by settling the King's side first and
then tearing up the Queen's side, as in the game:  10. P-KKt4, R-
K2; 11. PxP, PxP; 12. P-Kt5ch, PxP; 13. PxPch.

          10. PxP                  PxP
          11. K-Q5                 RxR
          12. PxRch               K-K2
          13. P-QKt4               Resigns

Black must capture, as he needs seven moves in which to ex change
the Knight's pawn and queen his Rook's pawn, whilst in that time
White can win the QP after PxP, and yet arrive in time with his
King to stop the pawn from queening.

After l3. ... PxP, however, there follows 14. KxP. Then White
covers his passed pawn with P-Q4, and his King, having full
freedom, captures all the Black pawns.



CHAPTER VI

THE MIDDLE GAME



GENERAL REMARKS



HAVING now a fair knowledge of the end-game, we should be in a
position to appreciate how the middle game should be conducted.
We must throughout maintain a favourable pawn formation, in view
of the end-game which might be forced on us by exchanges. On the
other hand, as soon as we have gained an advantage sufficient to
secure the victory in the end-game, we must ourselves, by the
exchange of pieces, try to reduce the position to one of the
typical elementary cases which we have discussed. Now it will
invariably be found that beginners are unwilling to make these
essential exchanges. This is explained by the attraction which
combinations involving the action of many pieces have for them.
They assume that exchanges, particularly of the Queens, make the
games dull. Such ideas only prove that the beginner has not
grasped the nature of chess, the essence of which is stern logic
and uncompromising conclusions, and this demands the shortest and
clearest way leading to a mate. To the strong player, able to
play logically, logic will always be inseparable from beauty in
chess.

To play logically means to subordinate all combinations to a
leading plan of campaign, but there is difficulty in finding the
latter. An unsound scheme, even if worked out to its logical
conclusion, can of course be of no value. All the same it is
better than no plan at all. And in time one gains by experience,
and develops a sort of instinct for rejecting from the large
number of possible operations all those which, properly
countered, cannot bring any advantage.

Beside practical play, which is essential in order to gain this
instinct, a methodical theoretical instruction is of inestimable
value, and accelerates the development of the student's mind. Now
the instruction I wish to give in the THEORY of chess will not
take the form of an ANALYSIS, brought up right into the middle
game, of the various openings, tested and found correct in master
play. Such collections erroneously bear the title of "Theory of
the Openings," and are, besides, quite useless at this stage,
since they only embody the results of ANALYSIS.

It is first necessary to ascertain a few leading principles,
which can be taught in a most simple manner, by the exercise of
common sense, rather than by applying oneself to the study of
long-winded analysis. The student will no longer need to discover
time-worn maxims in the light of his own weary experience, and on
the other hand, these principles will help him to understand
analysis, and to keep clearly before his mind's eye the common
and principal lines of play, of which he might easily lose sight
in the labyrinth of suggested variations.

I propose to show the application of such principles to master
play, and this will give us a further opportunity of deeper
study, both of the rules set out in the first part for conducting
the opening correctly, and of the end-game principles, which
should be well considered.

I have made the pawn skeleton with its attendant grouping of
pieces the main consideration in the study of the opening; now in
the investigation of the problems of the middle game, I will
start from the TRANSFORMATION which the pawn skeleton has to
undergo in the course of further operations.  In my opinion this
is the best starting-point for the choice of effective manoeuvres
of the different pieces.

Before we are able to evolve a practical scheme we must have
under consideration the following important points:  How do we
know if an attack is likely to succeed? In other words: On what
point should I concentrate the attack? It should be clear to all
that it is of no possible use to direct an attack on anything
that can move away. Yet beginners frequently infringe this
obvious rule, and I have often witnessed manoeuvres such as these
(Diagram 90):

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt| #P |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #B |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt| ^P |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 90

1. P-QR3, 2. P-QKt4, and then, after the B has retired to his Kt3
even, 3. R-QKt1, 4. P-QR4, 5. P-R5. Meanwhile Black will have
played P-QR3, to make a loophole for his B at R2, and what is the
result? The Black Bishop is as effectual at R2 as at B4, but
White has advanced his pawns, and weakened them, as they are now
more liable to attack. Moreover, White has used up five moves to
achieve his aim, whilst Black only needed three. Therefore Black
has gained two moves, which he can use for the development of his
pieces.

Diagram 91 illustrates another mistake frequently made in the
choice of an objective, and one which can utterly spoil the whole
game, even in its earliest stage. Black has to

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K | #B | #Kt| #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #P |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^Q | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B |    | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 91

move, and his game is somewhat hindered by the dominating
position of the White Queen. The latter prevents the Bishop from
occupying a desirable square at his QB4, and also makes the
liberating move P-Q4 impossible. Therefore it would seem
desirable to drive the Queen away. But this should only be done
if it is not attended by some further disadvantage.

Now the average player is not particularly fastidious in his
methods. The Queen irritates him, therefore the Queen must be
repelled one way or the other. He would probably try P-QB4. The
result is that the Queen selects another good square, for
instance at K3 or QR4, but Black has not improved matters, for he
still can play neither B-B4 nor P-Q4.  On the other hand,
irredeemable harm has been done, inasmuch as the Black QP now
remains "backward." The attack on the Queen by P-QB4 must
consequently be rejected.  Sallies such as these, in which short-
lived attacks are made by pawns upon pieces, are always of
doubtful value. They must unquestionably be avoided if they break
up the pawn skeleton, which is formed in the opening, and confine
the mobility of the pieces.

Also with regard to manoeuvres of PIECES, intended solely to
drive away an opposing piece, it is obviously essential that the
attacking pieces in effecting their purpose should not be made to
stray too far afield, lest they become out of play.

I shall delay dealing with the features underlying good forms of
attack, both by pieces and pawns, until I have treated of the
choice of an objective.

From what we have already expounded, it is clear that the subject
of an attack should be incapable of evasion. Should it, in the
course of attack, be desired to prevent a PIECE from being moved,
that can only be effected by means of a "pin." A PAWN, however,
can be held in place either by occupying the square immediately
in front of it, or by controlling the latter with more forces
than the opponent can bring to bear upon it.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #R |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #Q | #R | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P | #P |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    | ^P | ^B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    | ^R |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    |    | ^Q |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    | ^R |    |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 92

The last two diagrams exemplify this. If in Diagram 91 Black
makes the mistake of playing P-QB4 as suggested, the backward QP
becomes a welcome objective for White's attack. White can keep
that pawn back by playing P-Q B4 as soon as it threatens to
advance, after which he would develop quietly, double his Rooks,
and bring the Q and QB to bear in a concentrated attack on Q6. A
position not unlike that in Diagram 92 will result ultimately, in
which Black defends the pawn as many times as it is attacked, but
in which White can bring up his KP to the attack, as the QP
cannot move away, whilst Black has no further defensive move at
his disposal.  Play against a backward pawn nearly always
develops on these lines, and is even easier when there is no
defending B of the same colour as the pawn. (See p. 40, and Game
No. 26.)

Such manoeuvres, in the course of which pieces are pinned and
attacked, are illustrated in Diagram 90. The most obvious move,
which initiates an attack and at the same time completes the
development of the minor pieces, is B-Kt5.  Attacks by means of
such devices are so frequent and varied that it will be necessary
to treat them at some length, which I now propose to do. I should
also add that, with regard to Diagram 90, the student will derive
lasting benefit from a thorough study of the position, and will
thus improve his power to judge of the desirability, or
otherwise, of obtaining open files, diagonals, doubled pawns,
etc. After B-KKt5, the threat is to attack the Knight a second
and third time with Kt-Q5, and Q-B3, after moving the KKt away.
As Black's KKt is only supported twice, and there is no chance of
bringing up more forces for its defence, Black must undertake
something to provide against the threatened onslaught.

The most natural plan is to develop the QB at K3, from where it
can be exchanged for the Knight should Kt-Q5 be played. The
doubled pawn, which White could force by exchanging the Bishops,
is in no way detrimental to Black's game. On the contrary, the
opening of the file for the Rook, with the attendant chance of
playing P-Q4 supported by the doubled pawn, gives Black the
advantage.

The doubled pawn which Black obtains after 2. Kt-Q5, BxKt; 3. PxB
(or 3. BxB), Kt-K2; 4. BxKt, would also be of no help to White.
The apparent weakness created in Black's game at KB3 and KR3 by
the disappearance of the KtP does not assist White in this case,
because the pieces which could take advantage of such a weakness,
the QB and the Kt at Q5, have been exchanged. There only remains
the KKt and the Q for an immediate attack, whilst the Black Rook
will soon get into effective action on the open Knight's file,
e.g. 5. Q-Q2, K-R1; 6. Q-R6, Kt-Kt3; 7. Kt-R4, KtxKt; 8. QxKt, Q-
K2, followed by the doubling of the Rooks on the Kt file.
Considerations of a similar nature would tend to show that 1. B-
Kt5, Kt-K2; 2. BxKt, PxB is in favour of Black. The White QB,
which is so effective in taking advantage of weaknesses at
Black's KB3 and R3, has been exchanged. The Queen's Knight is not
available for attack on the KBP, as it would be exchanged or else
driven off in time by P-B3. Compared with the position considered
above, which occurs after 1. ... B-K3, 2. Kt-Q5, Black has the
further advantage of maintaining his QB, which makes it possible
to push the weak KBP on to his fourth, and either exchange it or
push it still further to B5, a useful and secure position.

Matters would be different were Black to allow his King's wing to
be broken up without getting rid of White's dangerous pieces by
exchanges. Let us consider what happens, if Black takes no
measures against Kt-Q5, but only prevents White's ultimate Q-B3
by pinning the Knight with B-KKt5. White gains a decisive
advantage by bringing his Queen into play before Black is able to
secure himself against the threatened combined attack of Q and B,
or alternately Q and Kt by K-R1, R-Kt1-Kt3. I will give two
examples of how the whole game now centres on the attack and
defence of the points weakened by the disappearance of the KtP,
and how White pushes home his advantage in the one instance with
the help of the B, in the other by the co-operation of the Kt.


     I. 1. B-KKt5, B-KKt5; 2. Kt-Q5, Kt-Q5; 3. Q-Q2, BxKt?; 4.
BxKt, PxB; 5. Q-R6, and there is no reply to the threat of KtxPch
and QxP mate, except through the sacrifice of the Q. Forcing the
exchange of Knights is of no avail, for after 5. ... Kt-K7ch;  6.
K-R1, BxPch; 7. KxB, Kt-B5ch; 8. KtxKt, PxKt; 9. K-R1, White
occupies the Kt file first and wins easily: 9. ... K-R1; 10. R-
KKt1, R-KKt1; 11. RxR, QxR;  12. R-KKt1 followed by mate or loss
of the Queen.

     II. 3. Q-Q2, P-B3; 4. KtxKtch, PxKt; 5. B-R4!  BxKt; 6. Q-
R6, Kt-K7ch; 7. K-R1, BxPch; 8. KxB, Kt-B5ch; 9. K-R1, Kt-Kt3.
Now Black has succeeded in interrupting the White Queen's action
on the BP. But it has taken many moves, with the sole result that
Black's Queen's Knight is better placed. All the other pieces,
however, occupy the positions they took up in the opening.  The
Black Knight, moreover, is only supported by the RP until Black
manages to block the White Bishop's diagonal by P-Q4. Meanwhile
White has gained a big start, and is ready to occupy the open
file with his Rooks. The sequel might be: 10. P-Q4!, BxP (if PxP;
11. P-K5!!, QPxP; 12. R-KKt1, etc.); 11. P-B3, B-Kt3; 12. QR-Q1,
K-R1; 13. R-KKt1, Q-K2; 14. R-Q3, R-KKt1; 15. R-R3, R-Kt2 (KtxB;
16. QxRPch!!); 16. R-B3, followed by BxP (B6).

Taking it all in all, we see from the foregoing that the pinning
of the Black Knight can only be injurious to Black if he does not
take timely measures to provide against White's Kt-Q5, which
threatens to concentrate more forces for the attack on KB6 than
Black is able to mobilise for its defence.

Beginners, after having experienced frequent trouble through
their inadequate defence of this kind of attack, try to avoid
their recurrence by making such pinning moves impossible from the
first and playing P-R3 on whichever side the pin is threatened.
Apart from the loss of time, on which I remarked at length when
discussing the opening, such pawn moves have various other
drawbacks.

With every pawn move it should be considered whether the squares
protected by the pawn before it has moved may not need the
support of that pawn at a later stage. This is particularly the
case with regard to squares in front of the castled King. If one
of those pawns pushes on, the squares which have lost its
protection frequently offer an opening for a direct attack by the
enemy's pieces on the King.

A second consideration is the fact that the advancing pawn itself
becomes a target for an assault in which the opponent, moving up
a pawn on the next file, brings his Rooks into play, or in which
he sacrifices a piece for the advanced pawn and the one that
protects it, thus robbing the King of the protection he sought to
obtain in castling.

The following examples will contribute much to the understanding
of this most important subject, the grasp of which will mean a
great step forward for the student.

The position in Diagram 93 is from a game v. Scheve-Teichmann
(Berlin, 1907). White played 1. P-R3 in order to avoid the
pinning of his Knight through B-Kt5. The move is not unjustified,
as the Knight is required for the support of the square at Q4.
The pawn move, however, has the drawbacks enumerated above, and
White must think of keeping a sufficiency of pieces for the fight
on the King's wing, in order to prevent Black from utilising the
weakness thus created for a combined assault by superior forces.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    | #K |    | #Kt| #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #B | #P | #P |    | #Q | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt| #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | ^P |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 93

In this case White does not take precautionary measures, and
succumbs in a surprisingly short time.

1. ... Kt-B3; 2. PxP? With this move White opens the diagonal for
Black's KB for no apparent reason. 2. ... QKtxP; 3. KtxKt?
Instead of providing for the defence of his King's wing, White
exchanges one of the King's side pieces, 3. ... QxKt; 4. Kt-Q2,
BxP! White has provoked this sacrifice by his last two moves. The
KBP is pinned, and the Q enters by way of her Kt6, the protection
of which was given up by pushing on the RP. The rest is easy; 5.
PxB, Q-Kt6ch; 6. K-R1, QxPch; 7. K-Kt1, Kt-Kt5; 8. Kt-B3, Q-
Kt6ch; 9. K-R1, BxP; 10. resigns.

Diagram 94 shows a position from a game Marshall-Burn  (Ostend,
1907). Strong in the knowledge that the Black Queen's side pieces
are not developed, and can only with difficulty be of assistance
in the defence of the King's side because of their limited
mobility, White takes advantage of the weakness created by the
advance of the Black KKt pawn to his third, and initiates an
immediate assault on the King's stronghold.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #Kt| #P | #P | #B | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | #P |    | #Kt| #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    | ^B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^B | ^P | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^Kt|    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 94

1. P-KR4, R-K1; 2. P-R5. This forces open the Rook's file. If the
pawn were still at Kt2, Black would simply let White push on to
R6 and then reply with P-KKt3.  2. ... KtxP; 3. RxKt, White
concludes the game in brilliant style. Black's wrong development
has given a welcome opportunity for sacrificial combinations. Now
the KB has an open diagonal, the pawn position is broken, and
White's Q and R have no difficulty in using the Rook's file for a
deadly attack.  3. ... PxR; 4. BxPch, KxB; 5. Kt-Kt5ch, K-Kt3 (if
K-Kt1, then 6. QxP, Kt-B3; 7. QxPch, K-R1; 8. Castles, etc.); 6.
QKt-B3, P-K4; 7. Kt-R4ch, K-B3; 8. Kt-R7ch, K-K2; 9. Kt-B5ch, K-
K3; 10. KtxBch, K-K2; 11. Kt-B5ch, K-K3; 12. P-Q5ch, KxKt; 13.
QxPch, K-K5; 14. Castles, followed by P-B3 or R-Q4 mate.

In cases where both sides have already castled on the same wing,
and the opponent has weakened his position by pushing on one of
the pawns of that wing, it is seldom advisable to start an attack
with the advance of one of the pawns in front of the King, as the
latter's position would be weakened. An attack of this kind is
only justified if there is a prospect of concentrating with all
speed a superior force before the opponent has time for a counter
attack.

The Black position in Diagram 95 illustrates one much favoured by
"natural" players. Here the advance of the

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #B | #P | #P | #Kt| #P | #B | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P | #Kt|    | #P |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt| ^B | ^B | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 95

KRP would not be a suitable plan of attack for White as his Rook
is no longer on the Rook's file, nor could it be brought back in
time. In this case White must endeavour to take advantage of the
weaknesses at Black's KB3 and KR3, produced by his move P-KKt3.
This will be the modus operandi: Q-Q2 followed by B-R6, forcing
the exchange of Black's valuable KB. After that the Q in
conjunction with one of the Knights will attempt to force an
entry at KB6 or KR6, as for instance in the following, the moves
of which are taken from a game I once watched and took note of as
being most instructive.

1. Q-Q2, P-Q3; 2. B-KR6, PxP; 3. BxB, KxB; 4. PxP, Q-Q2; 5. Kt-
K4, Kt-Q4; 6. B-B4, QR-Q1; 7. BxKt, PxB; 8. Kt-B6, Q-K3; 9. Q-
Kt5, B-B1 (to prevent Kt-Kt4); 10. QR-K1, Q-B4; 11. Q-R4, P-KR3;
12. Kt-Q4, KtxKt; 13. QxKt, P-B4; 14. Q-Q2, P-Q5; 15. P-KB4, P-
B5; 16. P-KKt4, Q-K3; 17. P-B5, Q-B3; 18. R-K4, B-Kt2; 19. R-B3!,
Q-B4; 20. QxPch, KxQ; 21. R-R3ch, followed by R-R7 or Kt-R7 mate.

A somewhat more difficult case is shown in Diagram 96.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt|    |    | #Kt| #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #B | #Q |    |    | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |    | #P |    | #B | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P | #P | ^P | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    | ^B | ^Kt|    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^B |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^R | ^Kt| ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 96

Here the advance of the White King's side pawns has undeniably
produced weaknesses in the pawn skeleton, and these would be
fatal had the Black pieces as much mobility as the White ones.
But the congestion of Black's pieces on the Queen's side makes
his defence unwieldy, and White has no difficulty in accumulating
his forces on the King's side for the final assault. The
prospects are that White will be able to bring home his attack,
before Black has a chance of forcing exchanges and of bringing
about the end-game, which through the weakness of the White pawns
would probably turn to his advantage. The play (E. Cohn-Ed.
Lasker match, Berlin, 1909) is instructive, and shows how the
attack should be conducted in such positions. 1. Kt-Kt3, B-Kt2;
2. K-R2, P-B3; 3. R-KKt1, Kt-Q2; 4. Kt-R4, K-B2. The
concentration of the White pieces has become alarming, and
threatens to be continued by Q-Q2, R-Kt2.  QR-KKt1, and Kt-B5. So
the Black King decides on flight, but he finds no peace on the Q
side either, because there his advanced pawns soon allow White to
make a breach in the Black position.

5. Kt-Kt2, K-K2; 6. Q-K2, Kt-Kt3; 7. KR-KB1, B-B1. It is Black's
intention to play P-B4 as soon as practicable, and to make an
attempt at a counter demonstration on the King's side, 8. P-K B4,
K-Q1? (Black should have kept to his original intention and
played P-B4); 9. PxP, QPxP; 10. Q-B2, Kt-Q2; 11. P-QR4; B-Kt2;
12. PxP, PxP; 13. RxR, BxR. Now White has achieved what he set
out to do. He has opened up avenues of attack on the Queen's
side, and is ready to utilise the weakness of Black's QBP by
playing P-Kt4, on which Black must submit to opening the file for
the White KR or the diagonal for the White QB. In either case
White brings vastly superior forces to bear on the Black King's
position, and Black should lose. In this game Black escaped only
through a mistake on the part of his opponent.

In the foregoing positions it was seen how fatal weaknesses can
be, which are produced by the premature advance of the pawns in
front of the King, on whom the opposing pieces can force their
attack. When the pawns concerned are on the opposite wing to
their King, the disadvantages of a premature advance are felt in
a different way. The weakness concerns the pawns themselves and
not the forces behind them, and is apt to cause the loss of the
end-game, particularly of Rook end-games. Let us compare the
positions in Diagrams 97

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |#Kt | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | #P |    | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^B |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #B |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |^Kt | ^P |    |^Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  97

and 98. In the one case the chain of Black pawns is broken by the
absence of K Kt P, in the other of the Q Kt P. The absence of the
KKt pawn can lead to serious consequences in the middle game,
because of the weakness of Black's KB3 and KR3 (compare Diagram
90); it can, however, hardly become awkward in the end-game, as
the pawns on the B and R files are within the protecting reach of
their King.


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    | #P | #B | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P | #P |    |#Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |^Kt | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |^Kt | ^Q |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  98

On the other hand, the absence of the Q Kt P is of no consequence
for the middle game. There is nothing behind it which could
invite an attack. The QRP and QBP, however, are very weak for the
end-game, as they are quite out of reach of the King (compare
Game No. 19). I do not wish to imply that Black should have
avoided the exchange at his QB3 at all cost; such an exchange has
always the compensating advantage of opening a file for the
Rooks, which advantage often means a favourable middle game, as
will be readily understood. Further, it is often possible to get
rid of the weak QRP by pushing it on, and eventually compelling
the exchange of the opposing Kt P, an exchange which can usually
be enforced if the Rooks have occupied the open Kt file. The pawn
itself is often useful at B 3, in that it can support the advance
of P-Q 4 in the centre, should it be desired, or it can, by
pushing on, be brought to exercise further pressure on the
opposing Kt P.

The break-up of the pawn position on the Q side can become
awkward in the end-game and sometimes in the middle-game when the
pawns can be attacked, and pieces brought to bear on the Queen's
side without leaving the King's side denuded of forces.

This will be illustrated by the position in Diagram 99.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    | ^B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 99

FROM A GAME FR. LAZARD-ED. LASKER (PARIS, 1914)

Here the pawn positions on both sides are broken, and the player
that occupies the open files first, gets a decisive advantage.
In this case it is Black's move. We can conclude at once that
White has played the opening badly. He must have lost two moves,
for he has still to capture the BP and then, being White, it
should be his move. This disadvantage, small as it may seem, with
which White has emerged from the opening, is sufficient to bring
him into the greatest difficulties. Black, of course, does not
defend the pawn by B-Kt2 or B-Q2, as this would practically
reduce the B to a P and, moreover, White, by R-Kt1 or Q1, would
both attack the B and obtain an open file. Instead of that, Black
utilises the two moves, which he has, as it were, as a gift in an
otherwise equalised position, to bring both Rooks on the Kt file.
This policy allows Black to occupy the seventh or eighth rank at
will, and to attack the White pawns from the flank or rear,
according to circumstances. This menace hampers the radius of
action of the White pieces, as they must always be ready for the
defence of the threatened pawns, and this gives Black by far the
superior game.

The play was continued as follows: 1. ... R-Kt1; 2. BxP, R-Kt7;
3. B-K4, B-K3; 4. P-QR3, KR-Kt1. The Knight's file is now
definitely in Black's hands. White could occupy the Queen's file,
but the Black B at K3, which prevents the entry of the Rooks at
Q7, makes the operation aimless.  Therefore White is condemned to
inactivity. On the contrary, Black's line of action is clear. His
entry on the seventh can only achieve something if White's QBP
can be deprived of its support. To do this Black has only to play
P-QB4-B5 and P-KB4. This, of course, weakens Black's KB, and the
White Rooks might obtain an entry on the K file. Therefore Black
will effect a timely exchange of one of his Rooks, after which
his King alone will hold the K file. These considerations make
the following moves clear: 5. KR-K1, P-QB4; 6. P-KR3, a further
awkward necessity in positions of this kind. Before the Rook can
venture out, a loophole must be provided for the King.

6. ... P-B5; 7. R-K3, R-Kt8ch; 8. RxR, RxRch; 9. K-R2, P-B4; 10.
B-B3, K-B2; 11. B-K2 (threatening R-QB3), R-Kt2; 12. R-QB3, K-B3
(now BxP is not feasible on account of R-QB2); 13. P-B4. White
wishes to keep the Black King from his Q5 but cannot do so
permanently. Black, however, can occupy the Q file with his Rook,
and confine the White King to his wing. 13. ... R-Q2; 14. K-Kt3)
R-Q5; 15. K-B3, K-K2; 16. R-K3, K-Q3; 17. K-Kt3, R-Q7; 18. P-B3,
B-B2. R-R7 would be a mistake on account of RxBch, but the QRP
cannot escape. 19. P-QR4, P-Kt3; 20. B-B3, R-R7; 21. B-Q1, B-Q4;
22. R-K2, R-R8; 23. R-Q2, R-R6; 24. R-QB2, RxRP. Now at last
Black has obtained material gain, which was made possible by his
command of the open Kt file. To convert it into a win by queening
the extra pawn is only a matter of time.

We have now seen how the possession of open files reacts on the
mobility of the opposing forces, forever increasing their
difficulties until the positional advantage is converted into
material gain. We shall meet with cases later on in which the
greater mobility of minor pieces achieves the same result and
find more and more proofs of the truth of the main general
principles which I introduced at the outset.

Let us now recapitulate the chief points touched upon in the
course of our deliberations:

     1. Generally speaking, attacks should only be directed to
objects which cannot be moved away.

     2. If in particular cases the attack is aimed at driving off
an opposing piece from an especially favourable post that attack
is unwise, if it involves the weakening the pawn position, or if
pieces have to take up inferior positions in order to effect
their purpose.

     3. Pawn moves always create weaknesses, either by leaving
other unsupported pawns behind, or by giving opposing pieces
access to squares formerly guarded by them, and this more
specially so in front of the castled King.

     4. Attacks which depend on pawn moves are only justified if
overwhelming forces can be accumulated in support, as the
advanced pawns might become the object of a counter attack.

     5. As pawn moves have very generally some drawbacks, the
middle game is the pieces' own hunting ground.  As in the
opening, the first consideration of sound play in the middle game
is to make only such moves as do not reduce the mobility of the
pieces.

As illustrative of such manoeuvres I shall now give examples from
actual master play. In my annotations of these games I have tried
to keep before the student's mind constantly the main ideas
underlying the different combinations which spring from general
strategical principles. I thus avoid burdening his memory with a
mass of detail, and bring into prominence the basic principle of
each line of play, thereby developing his capacity for conducting
a middle game, even after an unusual opening.

I have fixed mainly upon such games as are illustrative of the
openings treated in the first part of this book. In most cases
the first moves will, therefore, not need any special remarks.
The end-games, being typical examples, will only need reference
to the chapters in which they have been respectively dealt with.



PART II

ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES FROM MASTER TOURNAMENTS



                GAME No. 1

    White: Tartakower.   Black: Burn.

   King's Gambit declined (compare p. 30).

          1. P-K4         P-K4
          2. P-KB4        B-B4
          3. Kt-KB3       P-Q3
          4. PxP

On principle this exchange cannot be commended, as the opening of
the Queen's file increases the Black Queen's mobility.  White
derives no benefit from the KB file so long as the Black Bishop
makes castling impossible. White intends to play P-B3 and P-Q4,
but the manoeuvre is doubtful, and the whole opening includes an
inordinately large number of pawn moves. In the present game
Black exposes the failings inherent to this system unequivocally.

          4. ...          PxP
          5. P-B3         Kt-QB3

Black cannot put off White's P-Q4 by B-KKt5, for White can give a
check with the Queen and unpin the Knight.

          6. P-QKt4

The object of this move is not clear, as P-Kt5 does not win a
pawn (Kt-R4; 8. KtxP; 9. Q-R5ch). It does not promote development
either, and only compromises the QBP and QKtP.

          6. ...            B-Kt3
          7. B-Kt5          Kt-B3

This is aimed at the White King's pawn, which is deprived of its
natural support by the QKt. In this position Black does well to
attack White's KP rather than to defend his own, because an open
King's file can only benefit him. Being able to castle, he can
occupy the file with his Rook before White has time to bring his
King into safety.

          8. KtxP

It would have been better to protect the pawn by Q-K2 or P-Q3.

          8.    ...            Castles!


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #B |#Kt |    |    |#Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^B |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    |    | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  100

The beginning of a brilliant attack. Whether White exchanges the
Bishop or the Knight, he is overwhelmed.

          9. KtxKt

After 9. BxKt, PxB; 10. KtxP, Q-K1 wins; 10. P-Q4 would also lose
because Black gains two pawns after KtxP; 11. O-O, KtxP. It is
interesting to note how speedily the weakness at White's QB3 is
brought to book.

          9. ...               PxKt
         10. BxP               KtxP!!

Now White can neither take the Kt nor the R. In the first case Q-
R5ch forces mate very soon, in the second B-B7ch, followed by B-
Kt5ch or B-R3ch, wins the Queen.

          11. P-Q4           Q-B3!
          12. BxKt           Q-R5ch
          13. K-Q2           QxB
          14. Q-B3           Q-R5!
          15. P-Kt3

Not QxR, because of Q-B7ch and the loss of the Queen by a
discovered check by the Bishop.

                             Q-Kt4ch
          16. Q-K3           Q-Q4
          17. R-K1           B-Kt5
          18. K-B2           P-QR4

Such is the price to pay for premature advances.

          19. PxP            RxP
          20. B-R3           P-QB4

Black shatters White's pawn position, and his Bishops and Rooks
have full play along open files and diagonals.

          21. PxP            RxB!
          22. KtxR

or PxB, RxRPch; 23. RxR,QxRch; 24. K-Bl,B-B4.

          22. ...            BxP

The rest speaks for itself.

          23. Q-K5           B-B4ch
          24. K-Kt2          Q-Kt2ch
          25. K-B1           BxKtch
          26. K-Q2           R-Q1ch
          27. K-K3           R-Q6ch
          28. K-B2           Q-B6ch
          29. K-Kt1          R-Q7
          30. Q-Kt8ch        B-KB1
              Resigns.


                  GAME No. 2

       White: Leonhardt. Black: Marshall.

    Falkbeer Counter Gambit (compare p. 35).

          1. P-K4           P-K4
          2. P-KB4          P-Q4
          3. PxQP           P-K5
          4. P-Q3           PxP
          5. QxP            Kt-KB3
          6. Kt-QB3

It would be quite bad to play P-B4 and try to hold the extra pawn
at the expense of development. Black would very soon occupy the
King's file with his Rook and there would be no time for White to
bring his King into safety, e.g. 6. P-B4, B-QB4; 7. Kt-KB3,
Castles; 8. B-K2, R-K1, and already now there are threats of Kt-
K5 or Kt-Kt5 followed by B-B7ch or Kt-B7.

           6. ...           B-QB4
           7. B-Q2

White would of course like to continue with B-K3 in order to make
a fight for the possession of the diagonal. He would, however,
lose his chance of castling through Black's Q-K2. This is
detrimental in all such cases where the lines in the centre are
open or likely to be forced open at any time.

          7. ...            Castles
          8. Castles        QKt-Q2
          9. B-K2           Kt-Kt3
         10. B-B3           B-KKt5
         11. B-K3?

White has not yet completed his development, and his first care
should be to bring out his KKt. This he could have done without
difficulty, thus: 11. BxB, KtxB; 12. Kt-R3.  After the move in
the text, Black not only occupies the King's file but gains a
move in so doing.

         11. ...            BxBch
         12. QxB            R-K1
         13. Q-Q4           Q-Q3

Black's course is obvious; he must win the QP. The forces will
then be equal in material, but there will remain a

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    | #R |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #Kt|    | #Q |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^Q |    | ^P | #B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    | ^B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    | ^K | ^R |    |    | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 101.

flaw in White's position, namely the exposed KBP, and this tells
in the ending.

          14. P-KR3

Now the square at KKt3 is unprotected, and this is serious in
view of a probable Knight's ending, where, moreover, it will
sooner or later be necessary to play P-KKt3 in order to support
the KBP. Both the KKtP and KBP would be weak, with the King on
the other wing, and be under constant threat of being captured.
The game does proceed as indicated, and the simple and logical
manner in which Marshall brings home his advantage in a very
short time shows convincingly how fatal a shattered pawn position
can be for the end-game. Instead of the move in the text, White
should have played BxB followed by Kt-B3, which would have
completed his development without making another pawn move.

          14. ...           BxB
          15. KtxB          QR-Q1
          16. KR-KI         RxR
          17. RxR           QKtxP
          18. KtxKt         KtxKt
          19. P-KKt3        P-KR3

making a loophole for the King. In this case the move is correct,
as the threat of mate ties the Black Rook to his rank. It is
wrong to make a loophole, as weak players are fond of doing, as
early as possible "in case," before it is shown that there will
be a need for it, or that there will be a Rook ending.

          20. P-R3

White is afraid of playing 20. QxP on account of Kt-Kt5, which
threatens KtxBP followed by Q-QB3. 21. QxP would not be a
sufficient defence because of Q-B4 threatening mate, and on the
other hand 21. Q-R4 would conjure up a dangerous attack,
beginning with P-QKt4. When the players castle on different
wings, there is always the danger of the opponent sacrificing
pawns and opening up files for his Rooks and Q against the
castled King. The game then assumes a wild character, and as
matters are generally settled one way or another in the middle-
game, end-game considerations, both with regard to number and
position of pawns, can be disregarded. Experience has shown that
the player who develops his attack first is likely to win, and
that it is of little use to submit tamely to an assault of this
kind without attempting a counter attack.

Such games are very difficult for the beginner to understand.
There is about them something violent and difficult to estimate,
and years of practice are necessary in order to gain the judgment
required for weighing up the possibilities of attack and counter
attack, where the Kings have castled on opposite wings.

          20. ...            P-R3
          21. R-Q1           Kt-B3
          22. QxQ            RxQ
          23. RxR            PxR
          24. Kt-Q4          Kt-K5
          25. Kt-K2          K-B1

The Black King now pushes forward irresistibly, and attacks the
weakened pawns on the King's wing. The White King cannot get any
nearer, as a check by the Black Kt would win a pawn at once. The
end is easy.

          26. P-B3           K-K2
          27. K-B2           K-K3
          28. P-Kt3          Kt-B7
          29. Kt-Q4ch        K-B3
          30. P-KR4          P-KR4

Now the P at Kt3 is "backward" and therefore lost.

          31. P-B4        Kt-K5
          32. Kt-K2       K-B4
          33. K-Q3        Kt-B7ch
          34. K-B3        K-Kt5
          35. P-Kt4       Kt-K5ch
          36. K-Q4        KtxP
              Resigns.


                GAME No. 3

     White: Spielmann. Black: Prokes.

      Vienna Game (compare p. 35).

          1. P-K4         P-K4
          2. Kt-QB3       Kt-KB3
          3. P-B4         P-Q4
          4. PxKP         KtxP
          5. Q-B3

It is contrary to the principles governing sound play to bring
out the Queen early in the game. The opponent frequently has an
opportunity of gaining a move by driving off the Queen,
developing a minor piece at the same time. In the present case
Black might have gained the advantage in the following way: 5.
... Q Kt-B3. Now if: 6 KtxKt then Kt-Q5!; 7 Q-Q3?, PxKt; 8 QxP?,
B-KB4. If, however, 6 B-Kt5, Black obtains the better game by
playing 6. ... KtxKt; 7 KtPxKt, Q-R5ch; 8 P-Kt3, Q-K5ch; 9 QxQ,
PxQ; 10 BxKtch, PxB, with two Bishops on open diagonals. There is
no harm in the doubled pawn, as White cannot attack it. Black's
immediate threat is B-R3 or KB4, which exerts pressure at Q6, and
White will find it difficult to advance his QP.

          5. ...           P-KB4

This move is open to discussion, as the Kt which it means to
support can be driven away by P-Q3. On the other hand, if White
does play his QP to Q3, Black can prevent its further advance by
P-Q5, after which the White KP is insecure and the KB somewhat
shut in.

          6. P-Q3          KtxKt
          7. PxKt          P-Q5
          8. Q-B2!

White offers his QBP in order to be able to strengthen his centre
by P-Q4, and to free his pieces. To protect his QBP would be
inferior, e.g. 8 Kt-K2, Kt-B3 or 8 B-Kt2?, PxP; 9 BxP, B-Kt5!; 10
BxB, QxR5ch; 11 Q-B2, QxBch; 12 Q-Q2, Q-Q5.

          8. ...           PxP?

It would have been better, of course, to continue developing with
Kt-B3, which at the same time maintains the pressure on Q5.

           9. P-Q4         B-K3
          10. Kt-R3

Intending Kt-B4 with a view to exchanging the Bishop.  After
that, Black's position on White squares is weak specially on the
diagonal QR7, KKt1, which was opened by Black's fifth move, and
on which the White Bishop can soon operate.  The game is
instructive in showing the development of that idea.

          10. ...          B-K2
          11. Kt-B4        Q-Q2
          12. KtxB         QxKt
          13. B-Q3         P-KKt3

Black cannot prevent White's threat of Q-K2 and B-B4.

          14. Q-K2         Q-Q4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |#Kt |    |    | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |#P  | #P |    | #B |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #Q | ^P | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | #P | ^B |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    | ^P |    | ^Q |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B |    | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  102.

          15. Castles      QxQPch

Black is obliging. The opening of files in the centre is
favourable for White, as he can make use of his Rooks in the
combined attack. Instead of the move in the text, development
with Kt-B3 and Castles QR was the last, though slender, chance of
saving the game.

          16. B-K3         Q-Q4

If QxP, Q-B2 followed by B-Q4, B-K4, KR-K1 and QR-Q1. Black has
no sufficient means of defence to oppose this massing of forces.

          17. QR-Q1        Q-R4
          18. BxBP

The end is swift, and easy to understand.

          18. ...          R-B1
          19. Q-Kt4        PxB
          20. Q-R5ch      R-B2
          21. P-K6         Resigns.


                GAME NO. 4

      White: Tarrasch. Black: Capablanca.

               Giuoco Piano

           1. P-K4         P-K4
           2. Kt-KB3       Kt-QB3
           3. B-B4         B-B4
           4. P-B3

The beginning of interesting operations in the centre. The steady
development with: 4. P-Q3, P-Q3; 5. Kt-B3, Kt-B3; 6. B-KKt5, B-K3
or Castles tends to a draw from the very first, and is thought
dull.

           4. ...        Kt-B3

Black can avoid the exchange of pawns, which White tries to bring
about after P-Q4, by playing his Queen to K2.  This covers his KP
a second time, and White's P-Q4 can be answered with B-Kt3.
White's QBP then obstructs the Kt's natural development. In a
game von Schewe-Teichmann  (Berlin, 1907) the position discussed
on p. 117 was reached after the following moves: 5. Castles, P-
Q3; 6. P-Q4, B-Kt3; 7. P-QR4, P-QR3; 8. P-R5, B-R2.

          5. P-Q4          PxP
          6. PxP           B-Kt5ch

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #P |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #B | ^B | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 103

          7. B-Q2

The pawn sacrifice by 7. Kt-B3, KtxKP; 8. Castles! is much more
interesting and more in keeping with the spirit of the opening.
[Footnote: The following two short games will give an idea of the
various lines of attack which are to be found in this opening:

a. Howell-Michell (cable match, England--America, 1907): 8. ...
BxKt; 9. P-Q5 (Moller attack), B-B3; 10. R-K1, Kt-K2; 11. RxKt,
P-Q3; 12. B-Kt5, BxB; 13. KtxB, B-B4 (the only chance of a draw
would be this: Castles; 14. KtxRP, KxKt; 15. QR5ch, K-Kt1; 16. R-
R4, P-KB4!; 17. B-K2, Kt-Kt3!; 18. Q-R7ch, K-B2; 19. R-R6, Kt-B5;
20.  B-R5ch, KtxB; 21. Q-Kt6 with perpetual check); 14. Q-B3,Q-Q2
(BxR; 15. QxPch followed by Q-K6ch and QxB); 15. B-Kt5!, QxB; 16.
QxB, P-KB3; 17. QR-K1, PxKt; 18. RxKtch and mate in a few moves.

b. X v. Y, first 10 moves as before: 11. RxKt, Castles; 12. P-Q6,
PxP 13. B-KKt5, Kt-B4; 14. Q-Q5!, BxB; 15. KtxB, Kt-R3 (QxKt; 16.
QxPch); 16. Q R-K1, resigns.] White obtains a quick development
and prevents Black from freeing his game by playing P-Q4. After
8. ... BxKt; 9. P-Q5 follows (Moller attack), and after 9. ... B-
B3, White wins back his piece by R-K1 (10. PxKt would not be
good, as Black could free his game by KtPxP and P-Q4). On the
other hand, after 8. ... KtxKt; PxKt, White in addition gains a
move, as BxP is countered by Q-Kt3.

As played here, Black succeeds in playing P-Q4, and the game is
even. Indeed the isolated QP is a weakness in the White position.

          7. ...             BxBch
          8. QKtxB           P-Q4!
          9. PxP             KKtxP
         10. Q-Kt3           QKt-K2
         11. Castles KR      Castles
         12. KR-K1           P-QB3

Now the Knight is securely posted in the centre, and Black can
accumulate forces for the attack on the White QP, possibly by Q-
Kt3, R-Q1 and Kt-B4.

         13. P-QR4

in order to drive the Queen from her Kt3, but this advance is
"three-edged," as Master Gregory would say, and the pawn is sure
to prove weak in the end-game.

         13. ...             Q-Kt3
         14. Q-R3            B-K3
         15. P-R5            Q-B2
         16. Kt-K4

Kt-KKt5 would seem to be stronger here. B-B4 would then be
answered by 17. B-Q3. After BxB, 18. QxB, White obtains
opportunities for a King's side attack, in which the Rook could
co-operate via K4 and Kt4 or R4.

         16. ...             QR-Q1
         17. Kt-B5           B-B1
         18. P-KKt3?

This produces weak points at KB3 and KR3, and there being as yet
no definite threat in Black's Kt-B5, should have been avoided. It
is of course difficult to formulate a plan of attack, for there
is no weak place in Black's armour. In any case White could
safely have played QR-Q1 and Q2 in order to double the Rooks on
the King's file or Queen's file according to circumstances. But
now as soon as a Rook moves to Q1--and that will have to be done
in the end, to support the weak QP--Black's B-Kt5 might become
awkward.

          18. ...            Kt-B4
          19. QR-Q1          Kt-Q3!
          20. BxKt           Kt-Kt4

avoiding an isolated pawn in a subtle manner.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #B | #R |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #Q |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | ^P | #Kt| ^Kt| ^B |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^Q |    |    |    |    | ^Kt| ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    | ^R | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 104

          21. Q-Kt4           RxB
          22. Kt-Q3           B-Kt5
          23. QKt-K5          P-R4
          24. KtxB            PxKt
          25. Kt-R4

Kt-K5 would be answered by KR-Q1; 26. KtxP, KtxP threatening both
Kt-B6ch and Kt-B7. If White stops both threats with Q-B3, Kt-K7ch
wins.

          25. ...             KR-Q1
          26. R-K7            Q-Q3

Now Black foregoes his well-earned advantage. He overlooks
White's subtle move 28. P-R6. 26 Q-B1 was indicated.  White's
Queen's Pawn could not escape, and there was time to dislodge the
White Rook from the seventh by R-Q2, e g. 26. ... Q-B1; 27. Q-
Kt3!, QR-Q2; 28. Q-K3, RxR; 29. QxR, KtxP.

          27. QxQ          KtxQ
          28. P-R6!        PxP
          29. RxRP         Kt-Kt4
          30. RxRP         KtxP
          31. K-B1         P-Kt4
          32. Kt-Kt2       Kt-B6
          33. RxR          PxR!

The pawn threatens to queen. Taking the Rook's pawn would not be
so good, as it would displace the Knight. White would not only
regain the pawn easily with Kt-K3, but would also get his King
into play.

          34. Kt-K1        R-K1

Here R-QB1 affords winning possibilities for Black.  On account
of the threat of R-B8, the exchange of Knights by White would be
forced, and his game would have been badly cramped by the Black
KBP, e.g. 34. ... R-QB1; 35. KtxKt, PxKt; 36. R-R1 (K-K1?, R-B7;
37. R-Q6, R-K7ch; 38. K-B1, RxP; 39. K-K1, R-K7ch; 40. K-B1, R-
K4), R-Kt1; 37. R-Kt1, R-Kt6. After the move in the text the game
is drawn.

          35. KtxKt          PxKt
          36. R-Q6           R-QB1

There is nothing in this move, as the Black passed pawn is now
attacked.

          37. K-K1           R-K1ch
          38. K-B1           R-QB1
                    Drawn.


                  GAME No. 5

  White: R. C. Griffith.    Black: W. H. Gunston.

                 Giuoco Piano.

          1. P-K4          P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3        Kt-QB3
          3. B-B4          B-B4
          4. P-B3          Kt-B3
          5. P-Q3

P-Q4 would seem to be the logical consequence of P-B3, and
therefore preferable. After the text move Black will sooner or
later be able to enforce the advance of his own pawn to Q4, and
his pieces will then have the greater mobility.

          5. ...          P-Q3

Here Black might have played P-Q4 at once. For if White takes the
pawn, he leaves Black in possession of the pawn in the centre. If
he does not do so but plays B-QKt5 instead, Black's reply would
be Q-K2 and the exchange of pawns at K 5 would follow. White's P-
B3 is then clearly a lost move.

          6.  B-K3          B-Kt3
          7.  QKt-Q2        Kt-K2
          8.  Kt-B1         P-B3
          9.  Q-K2          Castles
          10. Kt-Kt3        P-Q4
          11. PxP           PxP
          12. B-Kt3         Kt-Kt3

Black has now the superior position on account of his pawn
centre.

          13. Castles KR    B-B2
          14. B-Kt5         P-KR3
          15. BxKt          PxB

There is nothing in the weakness at Black's KB3 and KR3 caused by
the disappearance of his KKt Pawn, as White has lost his KB. On
the contrary the open file should be a distinct asset, for,
having a strong centre, Black's pieces are more mobile and he is
more likely to get an attack.

          16. Q-K3          K-R2
          17. P-KR3

in order to play Kt-R5, which otherwise would be answered by B-
Kt5.

          17. ...           KR-Kt1
          18. K-R1          P-B4
          19. Kt-R5         B-K3

BxP was threatened.

          20. R-KKt1          P-B5

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q |    |    | #R |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #B |    |    | #P |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #B |    | #Kt| #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P | #P |    |    | ^Kt|
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^B | ^P | ^P | ^Q | ^Kt|    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    |    |    | ^R | ^K |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 105

P-K5 would seem to be better, as it opens a diagonal for the KB,
and a diagonal, too, for the QB, as White has to exchange the
pawns. Indeed Black would soon have obtained a winning advantage,
e.g. 20. ... P-K5; 21. PxP  (Kt-R2, Q-R5; 22. Q-K2, Kt-K4), BPxP;
22. Kt-R2, Q-R5; 23. Q-K2 (P-KKt4 or B-Q1, P-B4), Kt-K4,
threatening Kt-Kt5 and Kt-Q6. As it is, White gains a little
time, although Black's position still remains superior.

          21. Q-K2          Q-K2
          22. P-Kt4         P-B3

to prevent P-Kt5.

          23. R-Kt2         QR-K1
          24. R-K1          Q-B2
          25. Kt-Q2

intending to play P-B3, thus retarding Black's P-K5, which is
still hanging over White like Damocles' sword. The move, however,
lets in the Knight.

          25. ...           Kt-R5
          26. R-R2          P-B4
          27. P-B3          P-K5

Now this move is no longer feasible, as White's brilliant
sacrifice demonstrates. To make the move possible, long
preparations would have been necessary, such as: R-Kt3, B-Q2-B3,
etc.

          28. QPxP          QPxP
          29. KtxKP         PxKt
          30. QxPch         R-Kt3
          31. R(R2)-K2

The scene has changed with startling suddenness. White has open
files and diagonals for all his forces, whilst Black's pieces are
immobilised. Whatever he plays, Black must lose the piece he has
gained.

          31. ...            B-Q3
          32. Q-Q3           BxB
          33. RxR            Q-B5

He cannot play B-Q4 on account of Q-Q4.

          34. Kt-B6ch        K-Kt2
          35. QR-K7ch        BxR
          36. RxBch          KxKt
          37. Q-Q6ch         Resigns.


                  GAME No. 6

       White: Mason.    Black: Gunsberg.

                Giuoco Piano.

          1. P-K4          P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3        Kt-QB3
          3. B-B4          B-B4
          4. P-Q3          P-Q3
          5. B-K3          B-Kt3
          6. P-B3          Kt-B3
          7. QKt-Q2        Q-K2
          8. P-QR4

A lost move. The logical continuation is Kt-B1-Kt3 and Castles.

          8. ...           B-K3
          9. B-QKt5        BxB

Generally speaking, exchanges such as this are doubtful.
However, in the present case, although it opens the B file for
White, White cannot prevent Black from obtaining the same
advantage.

          10. PxB           P-QR3

Black gives up the move he has gained. There is no justification
for this, as nothing prevents him from proceeding with his
development at once with 10. ... Castles.

          11. BxKtch       PxB
          12. P-QKt4

White is anxious lest his KtP should be made "backward" by P-QR4
and P-B4. This is one of the drawbacks of the premature advance
of the QRP.

          12. ...           Castles KR
          13. Castles       Kt-Kt5
          14. Q-K2          P-KB4
          15. PxP           BxP
          16. P-K4          B-Q2
          17. Kt-B4         Kt-B3
          18. Kt-K3         P-Kt3
          19. P-B4

This creates a weakness at Q4.

Unimportant as it appears to be, it is the cause of the loss of
the game, as the opposing Knight gets in ultimately. The doubling
of the Rooks on the KB file would seem to be the best plan.

          19. ...           Kt-R4
          20. P-Kt3

White's weaknesses at KB3 and KR3 are more damaging than the
corresponding ones in the Black camp, as Black still possesses a
Bishop of the same colour as the weakened squares.  But the move
is now compulsory; for were White to allow the Black Knight to
his KB5, and to drive him off then with P-Kt3, the Knight could
play to his R6 and prevent the doubling of the White Rooks.

          20. ...           B-R6
          21. R-B2          Kt-Kt2
          22. Q-Kt2

White begins to operate in the centre and on the Q wing, as his
position on the K side begins to be doubtful. The intention is to
play P-Q4, which, however, Black opposes at once.

          22. ...                Kt-K3

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    | #Q |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #P | #P | #Kt|    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^P | ^Kt| ^Kt| ^P | #B |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^Q |    |    |    | ^R |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 106

If now White plays P-Q4, he loses a piece by PxP; 24. KtxP?, RxR;
25. KxR, Q-B3ch.

          23. R-K1

The Rook has no future here, and R-Q1, in order to play P-Q4, is
more logical. But as Black obviously threatens to double his
Rooks on the KB file, it would be advisable to play for an
exchange of Rooks, with: Kt-Kt2, QR-B1 and Kt-K1.

          23. ...               R-B2
          24. QR-K2             QR-KB1
          25. Kt-K1             Kt-Q5
          26. R-Q2              Q-Kt4
          27. Kt(K3)-Kt2        BxKt
          28. KxB

KtxB is frustrated by Kt-B6ch.

          28. ...               Q-K6

All the Black forces are now in action, and White has no defence,
as his pieces can hardly move.

          29. K-B1              Kt-Kt6!
              Resigns.

If R-K2 or B2, there follows RxRch; 31. RxR, Kt-Q7ch; 32. QxKt,
QxQ.

                GAME NO. 7

    White: Marshall.   Black: Tarrasch.

            Max Lange Attack.

          1. P-K4          P-K4
          2. P-Q4          PxP
          3. Kt-KB3        Kt-QB3
          4. B-QB4         B-B4
          5. Castles       Kt-B3

Black can avoid the complications of the Max Lange attack by 5.
... P-Q3. In that case White cannot recover the pawn, and in
order to develop his QKt effectively, would have to play P-B3,
aiming at rapid development in return, after 6. ... PxP; 7. KtxP.
But Black can frustrate this plan either by pushing his pawn to
Q6, so that the QKt is barred from the square B3, or by playing
B-KKt5 with this probable continuation: 7. Q-Kt3, BxKt; 8. BxPch,
K-B1; 9. PxB, Kt-B3, and Black has the better game, for White's
King's side is broken up and his pieces undeveloped, while Black
has prospects of attack on the open KB file.

          6. P-K5          P-Q4
          7. PxKt          PxB
          8. R-K1ch        B-K3
          9. Kt-Kt5        Q-Q4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    | #B | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #B | #Q |    |    | ^Kt|    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | #P | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 107

This is the typical position in the Max Lange attack.  With his
ninth move White threatened to win a piece by KtxB and Q-R5ch.
Black could not parry the threat by 9. ... Q-Q3, on account of
PxP followed by Kt-K4-B6ch.  The position in the diagram appears
to be favourable for Black, as all his minor pieces are in play,
whilst White's development is somewhat restricted by Black's
strong pawns at QB5 and Q5. For a long time this opening has not
been played in tournaments, being considered unsatisfactory for
White.  With the present game, and his new move of 15. B-R6,
Marshall has reopened the question as to whether White's attack
on the K file plus the pawn at KKt7 is sufficiently tempting.

          10. Kt-QB3           Q-B4
          11. QKt-K4           Castles QR

This is imperative. If Black retires the Bishop from his unsafe
position, White permanently prevents Black from castling, which
is bound to be fatal in view of the open K file--e.g. 11. ... B-
Kt3; 12. PxP, R-KKt1; 13. P-KKt4, Q-Kt3; 14. KtxB, PxKt; l5. B-
Kt5, RxP; 16. Q-B3 with a violent attack.

          12. KtxQB

If White tries to win the exchange in the following way:  12. P-
KKt4, Q-K4!; 13. Kt-KB3, Q-Q4; 14. PxP followed by Kt-B6, Black
can initiate a promising counter attack by 14. ... BxP!!; 15.
PxR-Q, RxQ; 16. Kt-B6, QxKt; 17. QxQ, BxQ. In this case White
exposes his King's side by P-KKt4 in order to benefit from the
unstable position of the Black KB, but unless care is taken, he
can easily fall a victim to an attack on the open KKt file

          12. ...               PxKt
          13. P-KKt4            Q-K4

Not Q-Q4, on account of PxP and Kt-B6.

          14. PxP               KR-Kt1
          15. B-R6

This is Marshall's innovation. It gets the Bishop out of play, as
P-Kt5 must necessarily follow, yet the pawn at Kt7 holds the
Black Rook, and there is a permanent threat of Kt-B6 either
winning the exchange or, if the Knight is taken, giving White a
pair of formidable passed pawns.

          15. ...             P-Q6
          16. P-B3            B-Q3

This is quite to White's liking, since he wishes to advance Ids
centre pawns. Black's only chance of escaping disaster would be:
B-K2, with R-Q2, Kt-Q1-B2. Instead of this, his next few moves do
not reveal any concerted plan, and he loses in a surprisingly
short time.

          17. P-B4          Q-Q4
          18. Q-B3          B-K2
          19. P-Kt5         Q-B4
          20. Kt-Kt3        Q-B2

In manoeuvring his Q, Black has achieved nothing either for
counter attack or defence. Now White has numerous attacking
chances. He first turns his attention to the KP.

          21. Q-Kt4          QR-K1
          22. R-K4!          P-Kt4
          23. P-QR4

and now even the QR takes part in the assault. Black's game is
hopeless.

          23. ...            P-R3
          24. PxP            PxP
          25. K-Kt2

attacking the KP by avoiding the check.

          25. ...            Kt-Q1
          26. Q-B3           Q-Kt3
          27. R-Q4           P-B3
          28. RxKtch         KxR
          29. QxP            Resigns.

After this, no master has tried to defend a "Max Lange" in an
international tournament.


                   GAME NO. 8

     White: Blackburne.    Black: Em. Lasker.

                  Scotch Game.

          1. P-K4           P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3         Kt-QB3
          3. P-Q4           PxP
          4. KtxP           B-B4
          5. B-K3           Q-B3

The threat KtxKt and BxB must be met in some way.  P-Q3 is not
satisfactory, for Black remains with a trebled pawn after the
double exchange. An alternative to the text move is B-Kt3. Q-B3,
however, has the advantage of developing a piece, and although it
is the Queen, White has no early opportunity of driving the same
off, such as he often obtains when the Queen comes out so soon in
the game.

          6. P-QB3          KKt-K2
          7. Kt-B2

In order to develop the QKt.

          7. ...            P-QKt3!

Out of three possible moves, Lasker selects the one which
contributes most to development. B-Kt3 does nothing in that
direction, and BxB would bring the White Knight further into
play. The text move prepares the development of the B at Kt2 with
the option of Castles QR. If White exchanges Bishops he gives up
the command of his Q4.  Black's P-Q3 might have had the same
result, but then the exchange would have given White a majority
of pawns on the K side, whilst White's three Q side pawns would
have held the black Q side pawns, one of the latter being
doubled.

          8. Kt-Q2          Q-Kt3

The exchange of Bishops allows White to play Kt-K3, thus avoiding
the weakening move P-K Kt3. 9. B-KB4 is answered by P-Q4!.

          9. BxB            PxB
         10. Kt-K3          R-QKt1
         11. P-QKt3         Castles
         12. B-B4

To prevent Black's P-B4.

At first sight it seems as if the QBP ought to move to B4, as the
advance of the QKtP has weakened it. But White dares not allow a
Black Knight to settle at Q5.

          12. ...            P-Q3
          13. P-B4!

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    | #R | #B |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    | #P |    | #Kt| #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt| #P |    |    | #Q |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P | ^P |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    |    | ^Kt|    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 108

Black threatens to play K-R1 in order to play P-B4.  White's
position would then be very bad, and therefore he rightly decides
to anticipate the move, even at the cost of a pawn. In order to
gain the QBP Black must waste a number of moves with the Q, and
White gains time for a King's side attack. The pawn sacrifice is
very promising indeed.

          13. ...              Q-B3
          14. Castles          QxQBP
          15. R-B3

There seem to be many threats here, and the position is a
difficult one to fathom. After disentangling his Queen, Black
tries very hard to force his P-B4. As soon as he succeeds in this
he has a won game, for the open file is available both for
defence and counter-attack.

          15. ...             Q-Q5
          16. K-R1            B-K3
          17. R-QB1           BxB
          18. RxB             Q-Kt7

Q-B3 is impossible apart from the fact that it would block the
KBP, e.g. 18. ... Q-B3; 19. P-K5, PxP; 20. Kt-K4, etc.

          19. R-QB2          Q-B3

Now the attack shown in the last note could be answered with Q-
R5.

          20. Kt-Kt4

Here P-KKt4 could be answered by Kt-Q5, e.g. 21. P-Kt5, Q-Kt3;
22. R-Kt3, P-B4.

          20. ...           Q-Kt3
          21. R-Kt3         P-B4
          22. Kt-K5         Q-K3
          23. KtxKt         KtxKt
          24. P-K5          Kt-Kt5!

This prevents the Rook from occupying the Q file which is about
to be opened.

          25. R-B4          PxP
          26. Q-R1          Q-Q2!

If now QxP, Black plays R-B2 with unanswerable threats of R-K1 or
Q1.

          27. Kt-B3         PxP
          28. Kt-K5         Q-K2
          29. RxKBP         QR-K1
          30. Kt-B4         Q-K8ch
          31. R-B1          QxQ
          32. RxQ           KtxP
          33. P-R3          P-B5
          34. R-Q3          Kt-Kt5
          35. R-Q7          P-B6!
          36. PxP           RxP
          37. RxRP          Kt-Q6

threatens mate in six.

          38. R-R1          Kt-K8

mate is again threatened.

          39. Kt-Q2         RxPch
          40. K-Kt1         R-Kt6ch
          41. K-R2          R-Q6!
          42. RxKt          RxKtch
          43. RxR           RxR
          44. R-Q7          R-K6
          45. RxP           RxP
          46. RxP           P-R3
          47. R-B6

A few more moves "for fun."

          47. ...          K-R2
          48. K-Kt2        P-R4
          49. R-R6         P-Kt3
          50. R-R4         K-R3
          51. R-QB4        R-Kt7ch
          52. K-Kt3        K-Kt4
          53. R-B3         P-R5ch
          54. K-R3         K-R4
          55. R-B4         R-Kt6ch
          56. K-R2         P-Kt4
          57. R-R4         R-Kt7ch
          58. K-Rsq        P-R6
          59. R-QB4        P-Kt5
          60. K-Ktsq       P-Kt6
          61. R-B5ch       K-Kt3
          62. R-Bsq        K-B4
          63. R-Rsq        R-Q7
          64. R-Ksq        K-B5
          65. R-Rsq        K-K6
          66. R-R3ch       R-Q6
          67. R-Rsq        K-K7
              Resigns.


                    GAME No. 9

            White: Salwe. Black: Marshall.

                Two Knights' Defence

          1. P-K4          P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3        Kt-QB3
          3. B-B4          Kt-B3
          4. Kt-Kt5

This attack may be tempting, as the BP cannot be protected, but
it is against that elementary principle which says that no attack
should be undertaken in the opening until the minor pieces are
mobilised, provided of course that Black also has made sound
opening moves. There is every likelihood that the attack in the
present instance will lead to nothing.  It has taken many years
to find the correct reply, but now that it is known, the opening
has practically disappeared from master practice. Instead of the
move in the text, White can play either P-Q3, leading almost
unavoidably to a drawing variation of the Giuoco piano, or
Castles which might bring about the Max Lange attack after 4. ...
B-B4; 5. P-Q4, PxP.

           4. ...          P-Q4
           5. PxP          Kt-QR4!

This is a typical position in the Two Knights' defence. The
former continuation 5. ... KtxQP has long been abandoned, as the
attack that White can initiate by 6. KtxBP, KxKt; 7. Q-B3ch,
forcing the Black King to K3, is dangerous though the result is
uncertain. The move in the text breaks the attack from the very
first, and Black gets the advantage

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #Kt|    |    | ^P | #P |    | ^Kt|    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  109

as he can gain time by attacking the two minor pieces which it
should be noted, are unsupported, and in addition obtain a speedy
development, worth more than the pawn given up for it.

          6. P-Q3

B-Kt5ch is an alternative. The advantage is Black's in this case
also--e.g. P-B3; 7. PxP, PxP; 8. B-K2, P-KR3; 9. Kt-KB3, P-K5;
10. Kt-K5, Q-B2; 11. P-Q4, B-Q3 (or PxP e.p. followed by B-Q3);
12. P-KB4, PxP e.p.; 13. KtxP, Kt-Kt5 or 11. P-B4, B-Q3; 12. P-
Q4, PxP e.p.; 13 KtxP, Castles. Black has an easy game and open
lines.

           6. ...          P-KR3
           7. Kt-KB3       P-K5
           8. Q-K2         KtxB
           9. PxKt         B-QB4
          10. KKt-Q2

The Knight must move sooner or later.

          10. ...          Castles
          11. Kt-Kt3       B-KKt5
          12. Q-B1

A sorry retreat, but the plausible Q-Q2 would be disastrous, e.g.
P-K6!; 13. PxP, Kt-K5 and Q-R5ch

          12.  ...          B-Kt5ch

Black's superior development begins to tell in no uncertain
fashion. Now White can neither play 13. B-Q2 on account of BxBch;
14. QKtxB, R-K1, followed by P-K6, nor 13. Kt-B3 on account of
BxKt; 14. PXB, P-B3 regaining the pawn and maintaining positional
advantage. White has therefore no alternative but P-B3, which
weakens his Q3, where a Black Knight soon settles down.

           13. P-B3          B-K2
           14. P-KR3         B-R4
           15. P-Kt4         B-Kt3

At last White can castle. He can, of course, only castle on the
Queen's side, because his King's side pawns are shattered.  Now
games in which the Kings castle on different wings are more or
less beyond calculation, as pointed out before. On the whole, the
player who first attacks wins. But experience has shown that the
Queen's side is more difficult to defend on account of its
greater expanse, and this theory is supported by the present
game. In addition, White's development is not completed yet,
whilst all the Black forces are ready to strike.

          16. B-K3            Kt-Q2
          17. QKt-Q2          Kt-K4
          18. Castles         P-Kt4

Storming the position with pawns is peculiar to this kind of
game. The intention is to break up the opposing pawn position,
and to open files for the Rooks. Pawns are cheap in such cases.
Open lines for the pieces are the things that matter, and the
fewer pawns there are left, the more open lines are available for
the attack.

          19. PxP             Kt-Q6ch
          20. K-Kt1           QxP
          21. K-R1

The King was not safe on the diagonal. White wishes to push on
his King's side pawns (P-B4-B5, and so on). But after PxP e.p.
there would be a fatal discovered check by the Black Knight.

          22. ...             QxP

Black's advantage becomes more marked. He has recovered his pawn,
and for the ensuing attacks on both sides he is better placed,
having already two open files for his Rooks.

          22. P-KB4           P-QR4
          23. QR-Kt1          P-KB4
          24. Kt-Q4           Q-R5!

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    | #B |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    | #B | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #P |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | #Q |    |    | ^Kt| #P | ^P | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P | #Kt| ^B |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^K | ^R |    |    |    | ^Q |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 110

The position bristles with chances for daring sacrifices.  After
25. KtxBP, for instance, Black could play RxKt!; 26. PxR, Kt-Kt5;
27. PxKt, PxP; 28. P-R3 (Q-B4ch?, B-B2), B-B3; 29. K-R2, QxPch;
30. PxQ, RxP mate.


          25. P-Kt3           Q-Q2
          26. PxP             BxP
          27. Q-Kt2           P-B4

White's compulsory 25. P-Kt3 has weakened his QB3, and the move
in the text is intended to open the diagonal KB3-QB6 for the
Black Bishop.

          28. KtxB            QxKt
          29. QxP             B-B3
          30. Q-B4ch          K-R1
          31. Kt-K4           QR-K1

White cannot parry all the threats at once. Though he gets rid of
the threatening B, he lets in the hostile R on the K file and the
end cannot long be delayed.

          32. KtxB            RxKt
          33. B-B1            KR-K3
          34. B-R3            R-K7
          35. KR-Q1           Kt-K8
          36. BxP             Kt-B7ch
          37. K-Kt2           Kt-Kt5ch

and mate at R7 or B7.


                  GAME No. 10

White: Teichmann.     Black: Amateurs in consultation.

             Two Knights' Defence.

          1. P-K4             P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3           Kt-QB3
          3. B-B4             Kt-B3
          4. Castles

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #P |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 111

The idea underlying this pawn sacrifice is to open the K file for
the Rook. It will be seen that, with correct play, Black manages
to castle just in time, and White, though winning back his pawn,
has no advantage in position. The opening is seldom played by
modern masters.

Instead of the move in the text, White can hardly defend the KP
with Kt-B3, as Black simply captures the pawn and recovers his
piece by P-Q4, with a satisfactory position.  It is even better
for Black if White plays 6. BxPch in reply to 5. ... KtxP. The
capture of White's KP is far more important than that of the
Black KBP, particularly as the White Bishop, which could be
dangerous on the diagonal QR2-KKt8, is exchanged, e.g. 6. ...
KxB; 7. KtxKt, P-Q4; 8. Kt-Kt5ch, K-Kt1! Black continues P-KR3,
K-R2, R-B1 and has open lines for Rooks and Bishops.

          4. ...             KtxP

Black can, of course, develop his B-B4. Then he must either
submit to the Max Lange attack (5. P-Q4, PxP) or play BxP, giving
up the useful B, in which case he loses the pawn gained after 6.
KtxB, KtxKt; 7. P-KB4, P-Q3; 8. PxP, PxP; 9. B-KKt5, and
eventually Q-B3.

          5. P-Q4

R-K1 at once would lead to nothing.

          5. ...                 PxP
          6. R-K1                P-Q4
          7. BxP!                QxB
          8. Kt-B3

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #Q |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | #P | #Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 112

  This attack has been analysed extensively by Steinitz.  The
only square where the Queen cannot be attacked at once by the
minor pieces is at QI. After 8. ... Q-QI, Black obtains quite a
satisfactory game: 9. RxKtch, B-K2; 10. KtxP, P-B4. This is
Pillsbury's move, intending to displace the Rook. Black has then
open lines for his two Bishops as compensation for his shattered
pawn position.  11. R-KB4, Castles; 12. KtxKt, QxQch; 13. KtxQ,
PxKt. Now it is not easy to find a reasonable plan for White, as
Black threatens to cramp White's game with B-Q3 and P-B5. It is
therefore necessary for White to take measures against that by
playing R-B4 and B-B4. If Black still plays B-Q3, B-B4 follows,
with the intention of exchanging and of provoking Black's P-B4,
which leaves the QP "backward."

          8. ...                 Q-KR4
          9. KtxKt               B-K2
         10. B-Kt5               B-K3
         11. BxB                 KtxB
         12. Kt-Kt3              Q-R3
         13. QxP                 Castles KR
         14. QR-Q1

Now White is ahead with his development, having both Rooks in
play and his Queen better placed. Nor can the latter be attacked
by R-Q1, as White would simply play QxR.  On the Queen being
driven away by the Black Knight, he exchanges the latter and
plays the Queen back into the same dominating position,
eventually producing a dislocation of the Black Queen's side
pawns.

         14. ...                Kt-B3
         15. Q-QR4              QR-Q1
         16. Kt-Q4!             KtxKt
         17. RxKt               RxR
         18. QxR                P-QKt3
         19. Q-K5               P-QB4

It is instructive to watch how this very slight weakness created
by Black's advance of his pawns brings him into trouble. A White
Knight settles down at his Q6, which is no longer guarded by the
Black QBP, and paralyses the whole of Black's game. Another
factor in White's superiority of position is the possession of
the King's file. The Black Rook cannot move until the King gets a
loophole by a pawn move.  As we have seen, such a pawn move often
affords an entry to the opposing pieces.

         20. P-KB4              B-B1

Not BxP, of course, because of P-QKt3 and Q-Kt2.  The Bishop
which cannot remain at K3 is to go to Kt2, so that the threat of
mate after Q-QB3 may also hold up a White piece.

         21. P-B5               B-Kt2
         22. Q-K7               Q-QB3
         23. R-K2               P-B3

Compulsory, as otherwise P-B6 forces the KtP to advance, which is
fatal in any case. After P-Kt3, White would cover his BP and play
his Q to KR6. On the other hand, after PxP there is Kt-R5-B6, and
Black is in a mating net.

         24. Kt-K4              Q-Q4
         25. Kt-Q6              B-B3

The threat was QxRch and R-K8 mate.

          26. P-KR3

in order to retreat to R2 in case of Q-Q8ch. In a way P-KR3
creates a certain weakness, as the square at Kt3 is now
defenceless, but Black has no pieces with which to take advantage
of it: his Rook cannot move, his Bishop is on the White squares.
If Black had a KB instead, the move would be very doubtful,
because then Black might break in through White's KKt3.

          26. ...                P-B5

White's threat was to repel the Black Queen by P-B4 and to mate
in five moves, beginning with Q-K6ch.

          27. P-B3               P-KR3



        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    | ^Q |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P | #B | ^Kt|    | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #Q |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^R |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 113

This disposes of the winning of the Queen by the threatened mate.
But it creates a weakness at Black's Kt3, which White exploits in
grand style. He decides to play the King himself to Kt6,
threatening mate at Kt7. In spite of several raids by the Black
Queen, this quaint device is crowned with success. The weakness
created by P-KR3 could not be demonstrated more drastically.

          28. K-R2          P-QKt4
          29. K-Kt3         P-QR4
          30. K-R4          P-Kt3

If White were to play PxP now, Black would mate him one move
earlier (Q-Kt4). Of course he parries the threat first, and Black
is helpless.

          31. R-K3           QxKtP
          32. R-Kt3          Q-B7

After P-Kt4ch White could not play 33. K-Kt4 on account of the
pretty mate by B-B6. He would play K-R5-Kt6.

          33. PxP            Q-B5ch
          34. R-Kt4          Q-B7ch
          35. K-R5           Resigns.

A most instructive game, showing how the superior position of the
pieces can lead indirectly to a win, by reducing the opponent's
pieces gradually to impotence and compelling him to move pawns,
thereby affording opportunities for a decisive entry.


                 GAME No. 11

   White: Schlechter.    Black: Janowski.

        Ruy Lopez (compare p. 40).

          1. P-K4            P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3          Kt-QB3
          3. B-Kt5           Kt-B3
          4. Castles         KtxP

A continuation, which has lately gained in favour, is: P-Q3 and
B-K2 (see p. 39).

          5. P-Q4            B-K2

It is clearly very dangerous to gratify White's wish for an open
file by playing PxP. The move may be playable in the system of
defence called the "Riga variation" (see Game No. 17). Here it
would be advantageous to be able to close the KB's diagonal. It
is better when intending to play the "Riga variation" to have
played P-QR3 on the third move.

          6. Q-K2           Kt-Q3
          7. BxKt           KtPxB
          8. PxP            Kt-Kt2
          9. Kt-B3          Castles
         10. R-K1           R-K1

The manoeuvre cited on p. 40, namely Kt-B4-K3, which makes P-Q4
possible, is essential for the development of the QB. Black loses
the present game because White is able to keep the Bishop shut in
permanently

         11. Q-B4           Kt-B4

so that the pawn B3 should not be "hanging" when the QP moves.

         12. Kt-KKt5!       BxKt
         13. BxB            QxB
         14. QxKt           R-K3

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    | #P | #P |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    |#R  |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | ^Q |    | ^P |    | #Q |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 114

After the exchanges the position is clearly in favour of White.
Against an undeveloped B, which also hampers a Rook, his Knight
is mobile. The Black Queen's side pawns are weak, and give White
winning chances even if Black succeeds in playing P-Q4 and
bringing the Bishop into play.  The move in the text, which
covers the pawn at B3, again prepares for P-Q4.

         15. Q-Q4           B-Kt2

The only chance lay in the pawn sacrifice by P-QB4, after which
the Bishop gets to Kt2 with a threat of mate, and the QR is free.

          16. Q-QKt4           B-B1
          17. Kt-K4

Fine play. If Black captures the pawn, White obtains a combined
attack with Q, R, and Kt, to which Black can only oppose the Q,
so that the result cannot be in doubt--e.g. 17. ... QxKP; 18. Kt-
B5, Q-Q3; 19. Q-QB4, RxRch; 20. RxR, P-KR3; 21. R-K8ch, K-R2; 22.
Q-K4ch, P-Kt3 (Q-Kt3?; 23. QxQ, followed by KtxP); 23.  Kt-Q3 and
R-K7.

          17. ...              Q-K2
          18. Kt-B5            R-Kt3
          19. R-K3             P-QR4
          20. Q-Q4             R-Kt1
          21. P-QB4

preventing R-Kt4

          21. ...              P-R3
          22. P-QKt3           K-R2
          23. R-Q1             Q-Kt4
          24. R-Kt3            Q-B4
          25. RxR              PxR

Black has built a wall of pawns round his King, but it does not
avail against the superior forces which White can concentrate.

White's plan is clear. He will advance his pawns, and break up
those that surround the Black King, always taking care that Black
does not free his Queen's side meanwhile.  His pieces will then
break in easily, and Black is forced to look on passively.

          26. P-KR3            R-R1
          27. P-QR4

to prevent the sacrifice of a pawn by P-R5, which would bring the
Black Rook into play.

          27. ...              R-Kt1
          28. R-Q3             Q-Kt4
          29. K-R2             Q-K2
          30. P-B4             Q-B2
          31. P-K6!!

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    | #R | #B |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P | #P |    | #Q | #P | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    | ^P |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #P |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^P |    | ^P | ^Q |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    | ^R |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 115

A beautiful move which robs Black of his last chance of freeing
his Queen's side, which he might have accomplished by the pawn
sacrifice of P-Q3.

          31. ...           PxP
          32. Q-K5          Q-K2
          33. P-KKt4        R-Kt5
          34. K-Kt3         R-Kt3
          35. P-R4          Q-B1
          36. P-R5          PxP
          37. QxRP          R-Kt1
          38. Q-K5          R-Kt3
          39. P-Kt5         P-R4
          40. P-Kt6ch

The end is near. Black must take, as QxRP forces a speedy

          40. ...           KxP
          41. Q-Kt5ch       K-R2
          42. QxRPch        K-Kt1
          43. Q-Kt5

threatening R-Q8

          43. ...           K-B2
          44. R-Q8          Q-K2
          45. Q-R5ch       Resigns.

Loss of the Queen and mate in a few moves cannot be prevented.
Black has played the whole game practically with two pieces less,
and the mate was really only a matter of time.


                GAME No. 12

    White: Teichmann.    Black: Rubinstein.

           Ruy Lopez (see p. 37).

           1. P-K4           P-K4
           2. Kt-KB3         Kt-QB3
           3. B-Kt5          P-QR3
           4. B-R4

By exchanging the Bishop White could not prove P-QR3 to be a lost
move, for Black, by retaking with the QP, obtains open lines for
Q and QB, and in addition to an easy development, retains two
Bishops. This is a set-off against a certain weakness in Black's
game, which may be found in the fact that after P-Q4, PxP, White
has four pawns to three on the King's side, while his three pawns
on the Queen's side are able to hold the four opposing pawns, one
of which is doubled. But this weakness can only tell in the end-
game, which is too far ahead for practical purposes, and to which
it may not come at all. An example of the usual line of play will
be found in Game No. 18.

          4. ...             Kt-B3
          5. Castles         B-K2
          6. R-K1            P-QKt4
          7. B-Kt3           P-Q3
          8. P-B3

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt| #P |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^B | ^P |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    | ^P |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 116

         8. ...              Castles

In Capablanca's opinion Black should not castle before White's
intentions in the centre have been made clear. It makes a great
difference whether White plays his QP to Q4 or to Q3 only.

If after 8. ... QKt-R4; 9. B-B2, P-B4 White plays:  10. P-Q4, his
intention is to move his pawn further to Q5 as soon as Black has
castled, and then to attack on the King's wing with QKt-Q2-B1-K3,
P-KKt4 and Kt-B5.  For this reason Black should force White to
disclose whether he intends to exchange his QP or to advance it
to Q5. In the latter case Black can refrain from castling
altogether and counter-attack on the King's wing, e.g., 10. P-Q4,
Q-B2; 11. P-KR3, B-Q2; 12. QKt-Q2, R-QB1; if now: 13.  P-Q5 then
P-R3 followed by P-Kt4-Kt5 gives Black many chances. If on the
contrary 13. PxP, then Black need no longer fear an attack on the
King's side after he has castled, as his Rooks will have a
favourable opportunity for operating on the open Queen's file.
However, there is still the disadvantage for Black of having
advanced Queen's side pawns, which are liable to attack (P-QR4).

The game takes a different course when Black exchanges the pawns
in the centre. The continuation would then be:  11. ... Kt-B3;
12. Q Kt-Q2, B-Q2; 13. Kt-B1, PxP; 14. PxP, PxP; 15. B-Kt5, Q-
Kt3. It is difficult to decide which side has the advantage.
Black has an extra pawn, but White has the initiative.

If in Diag. 116, after 8. ... Castles White plays 9. P-Q4 at
once, Black has an opportunity for the following interesting
attack: 9. P-Q4, B-Kt5; 10. B-K3, KtxKP; 11. B-Q5, Q-Q2; 12.
BxKKt, P-Q4; 13. B-B2, P-K5 14. P-KR3, B-R4; 15. Kt-K5, BxQ; 16.
KtxQ, BxB; 17. KtxR, RxKt. White cannot take advantage of his
Rooks, as there is no open file, whilst Black threatens to
initiate a strong attack with P-B4.

Aljechin has analysed a variation of this line of play, which he
thinks leads finally to White's advantage: 12. PxP, Kt-Kt4; 13.
BxKt, BxB; 14. P-KR3, BxKt; 15. QxB, KtxP; 16. RxKt, PxR; 17.
BxR, B-B8; 18. Kt-R3, Q-Q7. I doubt that White can win this game.

          9. P-Q3

In this less aggressive continuation, in which nothing is
immediately attempted against Black's centre, White prepares
gradually for a King's side attack, as in this game with Kt-Q2-
B1-Kt3. But Black should obtain time for operations in the
centre.

          9. ...                Kt-QR4
          10. B-B2              P-B4
          11. QKt-Q2            Kt-B3
          12. P-QR4

In many variations of the Ruy Lopez, this advance is always good,
if Black cannot avoid exchanging the pawn, because the White
Queen's Rook, which only gets into play with difficulty, can
either be exchanged or hold the Rook's file. In any case the
Black Knight's pawn is weak for the end-game. If, as in the
present game. Black can play P-Kt5, P-R4 is useless and even
doubtful, as the Rook's pawn itself may become weak in the end-
game.

          12. ...               B-Kt2

This causes the loss of the game. In the Ruy Lopez the Bishop is
nearly always needed on the diagonal QB1-KR6, to prevent a Knight
from settling at White's KB5, which otherwise cannot be repelled
except by P-KKt3, a most undesirable consummation. The proper
continuation would have been P-Kt5, B-K3, Q-B2 and P-Q4,
capturing the Queen's file. Compare note to move 13 in the next
game.

          13. Kt-B1             Q-B2
          14. Kt-Kt3            P-Kt3

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #B | #Q |    | #B | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt| #P |    | #Kt| #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P | #P |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^P |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P | ^P |    | ^Kt| ^Kt|    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^P | ^B |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 117

Here is the weakness. White first provides against Black's P-Q4,
and then starts a sharp attack on the King's side.

          15. B-Kt5           QR-Q1

P-Q4 at once is not feasible, because of BxKt.

          16. PxP             PxP
          17. Q-B1

This brings the Q away from her file, which Black could now
secure by P-Q4, followed by PxP.

          17. ...             KR-K1

The proper continuation is the one outlined in the note above.

          18. P-R3

White has now ample leisure to prepare the advance of his KBP.

          18. ...             R-R1
          19. RxR             RxR
          20. Kt-R2           B-QB1
          21. P-KB4           Kt-K1
          22. P-B5            BxB
          23. QxB             Q-K2

Black seeks salvation in exchanges, which White, of course, tries
to avoid, having good prospects of driving home his attack. His
pieces are concentrated on the King's side, whilst the Black
forces are scattered, and unable to get back in time for the
defence. Moreover, it is likely that the weakness at Black's KR3
and KB3 will prove fatal as the Black KB is exchanged.

          24. Q-R6            Q-B1
          25. Q-B1            Q-Kt2
          26. R-B1            P-Kt4

White was threatening to play Kt-Kt4 with PxP and Kt-R6.

          27. Kt-Kt4          Kt-B3
          28. KtxKtch         QxKt

One of the attacking Knights is eliminated. But there is another,
which forces the entry at KB6 and KKt6.

          29. P-R4

to gain access for the White Queen at KR6. If Black, captures
there follows: 30. Kt-R5, Q-Q1; 31. Q-R6, Q-B1; 32. Kt-B6ch, an
instructive example of the weakness created by P-KKt3.

          29. ...            P-R3
          30. Kt-R5          Q-Q1
          31. P-B6

All this is easy to understand.

          31. ...            K-R2
          32. PxP            B-Kt5
          33. Kt-Kt7         K-Kt3
          34. B-Q1           Q-Q2
          35. Kt-B5          BxKt
          36. PxBch          Resigns.

The conclusion might be: K-R2; 37. B-R5, PxP; 38. QxP, R-KKt1;
39. B-Kt6ch, PxB; 40. Q-R4 mate.


                  GAME No. 13

        White: Teichmann. Black: Schlechter.

             Ruy Lopez (see p. 37).

Move 1-8 as in Game No. 12.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt| #P |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^B | ^P |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    | ^P |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 118

           9. P-Q3          Kt-QR4
          10. B-B2          P-B4
          11. QKt-Q2        Q-B2

Supporting, as it does, the KP, this is not a lost move, although
White has not played P-Q4. It prepares Black's P-Q4 (after Kt-
B3), the KP being fully protected against White's double attack
by PxP.

          12. Kt-B1          Kt-B3
          13. Kt-K3          B-Kt2

The logical move would have been B-K3, to enforce P-Q4. Black is
then very well developed, whilst White labours under a somewhat
undeveloped Queen's side. An attempt to exert pressure in the
centre with P-Q4 in order to prevent Black's P-Q4 would be
belated. Black would gain the advantage by: l4. ... KPxP; 15.
PxP, PxP; 16. KtxP, KtxKt; 17. QxKt, Kt-Kt5! Nor would B-Kt5
before Kt-K3 be more successful; after B-K3; 14. Kt-K3, QR-Q1;
15. P-Q4, BPxP; 16. PxP, PxP; 17. KtxP, KtxKt; 18. QxKt, Q-B4,
Black has the better chances in the end-game. The move in the
text is not good because, as we saw before, the Bishop is wanted
on the other diagonal to cover the square at KB4.

          14. Kt-B5          KR-K1
          15. B-Kt5          Kt-Q2

Even now it was desirable to aim at P-Q4, therefore QR-Q1 was
preferable.

          16. B-Kt3

The position of the White pieces points to a dangerous menace to
the opposing King's side.

          16. ...             Kt-B1
          17. B-Q5!!

The beginning of a brilliant combination. BxKt is threatened, and
Black must first cover his B at K2.

          17. ...           Kt-Kt3
          18. BxB           KKtxB

QKtxB is not feasible, because of BxB and KtxQP.

          19. BxPch!!       KxB
          20. Kt-Kt5ch

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    | #R |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #B | #Q |    | #Kt| #K | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt| #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P | #P |    | #P | ^Kt| ^Kt|    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 119

Quite a number of charming combinations are hidden in this
position. If K-Kt3 or Kt1, then 21. KtxKtP! If K-B3 White can
capture the RP first with check.

          20. ...             K-Kt1
          21. Q-R5            KtxKt
          22. QxRPch         K-B1
          23. QxKtch         K-Kt1
          24. Q-Kt6!!!

The point. This prevents P-Kt3, which would allow Black to bring
up his Q for the defence at Kt2. Now nothing can be done against
the threatening R-K3-B3 or R3.

          24. ...             Q-Q2
          25. R-K 3           Resigns

A wonderful game in which Teichmann, the great judge of position,
proves himself also a master in hand-to-hand fighting, in the
wild chaos of sacrificial combinations.


                GAME No. 14

      White: Spielmann. Black: Tarrasch.

           Ruy Lopez (see p. 41).

          1. P-K4          P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3        Kt-QB3
          3. B-KT5         P-QR3
          4. B-R4          Kt-B3
          5. Castles       Kt-P
          6. P-Q4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #P | #P | #P |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt|    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^B |    |    | ^P | #Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 120

In a game between Riga and Berlin PxP was tried for the first
time, a bold venture which anticipates White's desire to open the
King's file. After 7. R-K1 Black can defend the Kt by P-Q4, but
after 8. KtxP White threatens again to win the Kt by P-KB3,
besides attacking the QKt a second time. However, Black has a
surprising answer in readiness. He initiates a violent counter
attack which keeps White busy until Black, by castling, escapes
the dangers of the double pin. (Compare Game No. 17.)

          6. ...            P-QKt4
          7. B-Kt3          P-Q4
          8. P-QR4

This gives Black an opportunity of disposing of his QKt by
exchanging it, thereby enabling him to round off his pawn
position by P-QB4, at the same time threatening to cut off the
Bishop by P-B5. 8. PxP followed by P-B3 is the natural
continuation, as shown in the first part of this book, because
the Bishop, retreating to B2, can operate on a useful diagonal.

          8. ...            QKtxP!

QR-Kt1 would not be so good, because White obtains an open file
for his Rook. The move in the text is an absolutely valid
defence, as was proved by Schlechter in his match against Lasker.

          9. KtxKt          PxKt
         10. Kt-B3

PxP and P-B3 seems a more natural continuation.

         10. ...            KtxKt

Not PxKt, on account of BxP.

         11. PxKt           P-QB4
         12. RPxP           B-K2

in order to castle in reply to B-R4.

         13. Q-B3

Here White should have got back his second pawn by PxQP.  If then
13. ... P-B5; 14. B-R4, Castles; 15. PxP, BxP, White plays P-QB3,
providing a retreat for his R or B.  After the move in the text
this manoeuvre becomes impossible, because the B after P-B3 can
be attacked twice but has lost the support of the Queen.

         13. ...            B-K3
         14. RxP            Castles
         15. PxP            P-B5
         16. B-R2

Now the Bishop is hemmed in permanently; in other words, Black is
a piece up and must win easily. Therefore 16. B-R4 was compulsory
in order to get at any rate three pawns for the piece, thus: 16.
... B-Q2; 17. QxP, RxR; 18. PxR, BxB; 19. QxP.

         16. ...            RxR
         17. PxR            Q-R4
         18. B-Kt1          P-B6
         19. Q-Kt3

White tries to work up an attack on the King's side while Black
is still occupied on the other wing.

         19. ...               R-B1
         20. P-B4              B-KB4
         21. R-K1              B-B3
         22. K-R1

In order to answer BxQP by 23. B-K3 and P-R7, 22. ... QxP is not
feasible because of QxP.

         22. ...               P-R3
         23. P-R3              R-Kt1
         24. B-K3              QxP
         25. R-Q1              Q-R8
         26. Q-K1

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    | #R |    |    |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    | #P | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | #B |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    | #B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | #P |    | ^B |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | #Q | ^B |    | ^R | ^Q |    |    | ^K |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 121

The sequel forms an instructive example of how superior
development can afford winning chances even when there is no
immediate prospect of material gain. The opposing pieces are
gradually constricted until the defending lines are weakened by
compulsory pawn moves. In the present position Black quietly sets
to work to bring his Bishops to bear on the White King.

         26. ...                 B-K5
         27. K-R2                B-K2
         28. Q-B1

to free his game somewhat with P-B5, which Black prevents at
once.

           28. ...                P-B4
           29. R-K1               B-R5

Being probably short of time, Black makes a few irrelevant moves.
If his aim was not the opening of the KKt file but the subsequent
sacrifice of the Queen, he might have played Q-Kt7 at once,
followed by Q-Kt4.

           30. P-Kt3              B-K2
           31. B-B2               B-Q3
           32. R-B1               K-R2
           33. R-K1               R-Kt3
           34. R-B1               B-R6
           35. R-K1               Q-Kt7
           36. Q-K2               R-Kt5
           37. R-Kt1              R-Kt3

Otherwise White might embark upon a counter attack, beginning
with P-Kt4. Now this is impossible on account of R-Kt3.

           38. R-K1               Q-Kt4
           39. Q-R5

After the exchange of Queens, Black would win easily by R-Kt7.
39. B-R2 also fails on account of QxQ; 40. RxQ, R-Kt7; 41. B-Kt3,
B-Q6!; 42. R-K5, BxP, and the passed pawn costs a Rook. With the
text move, White provokes the sacrifice of the Queen at Kt 8,
apparently not seeing the fine continuation at Black's disposal
on the forty-first move.

           39. ...                QxB!
           40. RxQ                RxR
           41. P-Kt4

Compulsory. B-Kt1 would be followed by R-QB8, etc.

           41. ...                B-B8!!
               Resigns.

There might follow 42. K-Kt3, P-Kt3; 43. Q-R4, BxPch; 44. KxB, P-
Kt4ch, and so on. 4l. ... B-Q3 would have given White a little
respite, though his game would still have been hopeless after PxP
and R-K8.


               GAME No. 15

  White: Aljechin.    Black: Niemzowitsch.

        Ruy Lopez (see p. 41).

          1. P-K4          P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3        Kt-QB3
          3. B-Kt5         P-QR3
          4. B-R4          Kt-B3
          5. Castles       KtxP
          6. P-Q4          P-QKt4
          7. B-Kt3         P-Q4
          8. PxP           B-K3
          9. P-B3          B-K2
         10. R-K1

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #P |    | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt|    | #B |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | #Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^B | ^P |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 122

This is one of the most important positions in the Ruy Lopez.
Black has the better development, but his centre is less secure.
Whilst White has a pawn secured in the centre, Black has a Knight
there which will soon be driven away.  White's Q4, the basis of
his centre, is entirely in his hands, while Black's Q4 is exposed
to a steady pressure by the White pieces. Finally Black's Q Kt is
unfavourably placed, obstructing as it does the QBP and
preventing it from falling into line with its fellows. In
Petrograd, 1909, Lasker tried the following new defence: Kt-B4
followed by B-Kt5, giving up the moves gained before in order to
relieve the pressure on the Black QP and to exchange the same
ultimately at Q5.  The various possibilities of the position have
been discussed in connection with Diag. 22. It may be added that
after 10. ... Castles; QKt-Q2 is surely a better move than the
usual Kt-Q4, as the Queen's side should be developed before
undertaking an attack (11. ... Q-Q2?; 12. KtxB, followed by
RxKt). For a long time it was thought that after Kt-Q4 Black had
to exchange Knights, which enables White to make the pawn at QB7
"backward" by B-K3.  For Black must first play P-KR3 to guard his
Kt against the threat of P-B3 and P-KR4. However, a sensational
innovation which refutes the Kt's move was introduced in Breslau
in 1912. It is the following sacrifice:  10. ... Castles; 11. Kt-
Q4, KtxKP!; 12. P-B3, B-Q3!!; 13. PxKt, B-Kt5!!; 14. Q-Q2, Q-R5
with an overpowering attack.

         10. ...            Kt-B4
         11. B-B2           B-Kt5
         12. Q Kt-Q2        Castles
         13. Kt-Kt3         Kt-K5

Here Lasker played Kt-K3 against Janowski (Paris, 1912), but it
proved to be inferior, because 14. Q-Q3 disorganises Black's
King's side forcibly.

The move in the text is not really a pawn sacrifice. After 14.
BxKt, PxB; 15. QxQ, QRxQ; 16. KKt-Q4, KtxKt; 17. KtxKt, R-Q4,
White cannot play 18. RxP, because of P-QB4; 19. Kt-B2, B-B4 or
19. Kt-B3, R-Q8ch; 20. Kt-K1, B-B4; 21. R-K2, B-Q6; 22. R-K3, B-
Kt4.

         14. B-B4           P-B4
         15. PxP e.p.       KtxP(B3)
         16. Q-Q3           Kt-K5?

This loses the QBP, and weakens the QP. Black might have tried
BxKt; 17. QxB, B-Q3. It would then have been possible to support
the QP by P-B3 after moving the Kt away. If Black was anxious to
preserve his two Bishops he would even have risked P-Kt3. After
17. B-R6, R-B2, the Bishop could have been driven away again by
the KKt from Kt1 or Kt5. The open file offered some compensation
and chances of counter attack.

          17. BxP           Q-Q2

Not QxB because of QxPch.

          18. Kt-K5         KtxKt
          19. BxKt          B-R5

RxP is bad because of 20. RxKt, B-KB4; 21. Q-Kt3.

          20. B-Kt3         BxB
          21. RPxB          B-B4

Now RxP! was feasible with a level game after: 22. RxKt, B-B4!
23. KxR, BxR; 24. Q any, Q-B4ch, followed by BxB. After missing
this chance, Black soon loses the game.

          22. Q-Q4          KR-Q1
          23. QR-Q1         Q-QB2
          24. Kt-Q2         KtxKBP

A last and desperate attempt. Black obtains Rook and pawn against
two minor pieces, but has no time to initiate an attack with the
Rooks. The wisest plan was to give up the P, with a view to
effecting the exchange of the minor pieces, because an ending
with Queen and Rooks generally produces a draw. Black could not
play KtxKtP instead of the move in the text because of 25. B-
Kt3!.

         25. BxB            KtxR
         26. RxKt           QxKtP
         27. B-K6ch         K-R1
         28. BxP            QR-B1
         29. Kt-K4          Q-R5
         30. P-QKt3         R-B3

White now obtains a passed pawn, and a speedy win.

          31. Q-B2          Q-R4
          32. Q-B3          QxQ
          33. PxQ           P-Kt3
          34. R-Q2          R-Kt3
          35. P-QB4         PxP
          36. PxP           R-Kt8ch
          37. K-B2          P-QR4
          38. P-B5          R-QB8
          39. P-B6          K-Kt2
          40. B-B4!         RxB
          41. RxR           RxP
          42. R-Q7ch        K-R3
          43. K-Kt3         R-B5
          44. Kt-B2         K-Kt4

Mate was threatened by: 45. Kt-Kt4ch, K-R4; 46. R-Q5ch, P-Kt4;
47. R-Q6 and R-R6 mate (or if RxKtch, PxR mate).

          45. R-Q5ch        K-B3
          46. RxP           Resigns


               GAME No. 16

     White: Yates.    Black: Gunsberg.

                Ruy Lopez.

          1. P-K4           P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3         Kt-QB3
          3. B-Kt5          P-QR3
          4. B-R4           Kt-B3
          5. Castles        KtxP
          6. P-Q4           P-QKt4
          7. B-Kt3          P-Q4
          8. PxP            B-K3
          9. P-QB3          B-K2
         10. B-K3

in order to exchange the Black Knight if played to B4.

         10. ...            Castles
         11. QKt-Q2

If Q-Q3, then Kt-R4; 12. QKt-Q2, P-QB4.

          11. ...            KtxKt

This furthers White's development, and should not be played
unless there is no other move available. To be considered are P-
B4 and B-KKt5. An argument against P-B4 is that White can deprive
Black's weak centre pawn of one protecting piece (12. PxP e.p.,
KtxP (B3); 13. Kt-Kt5), and experience has shown that White
obtains the superior game.

          12. QxKt                Kt-R4
          13. B-B2                Kt-B5

A very dangerous manoeuvre, as White can evade the exchange of
his Bishop and the Black Kt does not get back in time for the
defence of the K side, where White's attack becomes virulent. He
should have played P-QB4 followed by Kt-B3.

          14. Q-Q3                P-Kt3
          15. B-R6                KtxKtP
          16. Q-K2                R-K1
          17. Kt-Q4

Black had probably anticipated that White would be content with
regaining his pawn by BxP, but, with fine positional insight, he
retains his Bishop for the coming onslaught and speedily
concentrates his forces on the K side; whilst Black, who has won
a pawn at the expense of several moves, cannot mobilise an
equivalent number of pieces in time for the defence.

          17. ...                 Kt-B5
          18. P-B4                B-Q2

White was threatening 19. Kt-B6, 20. KtxB, 21. B-Kt5, 22. B-B6;
18. ... Q-Q2 is not sufficient, as 19. P-B5 would follow. Neither
can 18. ... B-QB4 be played because of 19. B-Kt5, Q-B1; 20. B-B6.
Preferable to the text move seems B-KB1 (19. B-Kt5, Q-B1; 20. B-
B6, B-Kt2), as then the Black pieces have more freedom of action.

          19. QR-K1          P-QB4
          20. P-K6

A brilliant sacrifice to which no satisfactory reply can be
found. For instance, 20. ... PxKt; 21. Q-Kt4, Kt-K6, 22. RxKt,
PxR; 23. P-B5, BxP; 24. PxB, PxP, 25. BxP, etc.; or 24. ... R-
KB1; 25. PxPch, RxP; 26. Q-K6, Q-K1; 27. BxP, etc.; or 23. ... P-
Kt4; 24. PxPch, KxP; 25. Q-R5ch, K-Kt1; 26. P-B6, BxP; 27. BxP,
etc.; or 21. ... B-B4; 22. PxPch, KxP; 23. BxPch, PxB; 24. P-B5,
etc. There are many variations, all leading to a speedy end.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q | #R |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    | #B | #B | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |    |    | ^P |    | #P | ^B |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P | #P | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | #Kt| ^Kt|    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    | ^B |    | ^Q |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    | ^R | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 123

          20. ...                B-KB3
          21. P-Kt4              P-Kt
          22. P-B5               P-Q6
          23. BxP                BxKP

If PxKP then 24. PxKtP, Kt-K4; 25. RxKt, BxR; 26. Q-R5, Q-B3; 27.
RxQ, BxR; 28. PxPch, K-R1; 29. Q-B7, etc.; or 26. ... BxP; 27. B-
B8, etc.

          24. PxB                Q-Kt3ch
          25. K-R1               Resigns


                    GAME No. 17

         White: Berlin.       Black: Riga.

                     Ruy Lopez.

             Move 1-6 as in Game No. 16.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #P | #P | #P |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt|    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^B |    |    | ^P | #Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 124

          6. ...               PxP

Compare note to move No. 6 in Game 14.

          7. R-K1              P-Q4
          8. KtxP              B-Q3

This is the key to the variation. Black threatens to obtain a
draw by perpetual check through BxPch, followed by Q-R5ch and
QxPch. This is not good enough against a weaker opponent in a
tournament, and a strong player cannot afford to play the Riga
defence. But that is not a point against the variation. To prove
it unsound, White has to find a win.

          9. KtxKt             BxPch
         10. K-R1!

After 10. K-B1 Black has a tremendous attack, and drives it home
before White can manage to bring his extra piece into play. A
game Maroczy-Berger (Vienna, 1908) is an illustration of this. It
continued in this way: 10. K-B1, Q-R5; 11. B-K3, Castles; 12. Kt-
Q4, B-Kt5; 13. Kt-KB3, Q-R4. Now White has no satisfactory
continuation.  14. Kt-Q2 obstructs the Queen, and it is difficult
to bring the Rooks into concerted action. 14. Kt-B3, QR-Q1; 15.
Q-Q3, BxKt; 16. PxB, QxP; 17. KtxKt, PxKt; 18. Q-B3, Q-R6ch; 19.
K-K2, Q-Kt5ch; 20. K-B1, R-Q4; 21. B-Kt3, R-KR4; 22. P-B3, PxP;
Resigns.

          10. ...                Q-R5

It now looks as if White were lost. But a fine sacrifice forces
the exchange of all Black's attacking pieces, and saves the
situation.

          11. RxKtch           PxR
          12. Q-Q8ch            QxQ
          13. KtxQch            KxKt
          14. KxB               ...

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #K |    |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^B |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt| ^B |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 125

After the terrible slaughter, the position is somewhat clearer.
Black has a Rook and two pawns for two minor pieces, a slight
advantage for the end-game, but as yet there is no thought of an
end-game. White, in possession of two Bishops, with an open
Queen's file on which the Black King stands, has good attacking
chances, and most masters would think the position favourable for
White.

          14. ...                B-K3

P-KB4 is a plausible move, but is followed by a pretty mate by
15. B-Kt5. The move in the text threatens to eliminate the KB by
P-QB4, P-QKt4.

          15. B-K3           P-KB4
          16. Kt-B3          K-K2
          17. P-KKt4

Tarrasch recommends 17. R-Q1, threatening Kt-Q5ch.  If P-B3,
White could play 18. B-Kt6, thereby permanently preventing Black
from contesting the Queen's file, and then try to exchange
Black's B by Kt-K2-Q4. With two Bishops, White would then have
winning chances.

A subtle idea underlies White's move of P-KKt4. He wishes to take
advantage of the fact that Black has exchanged the KB by playing
P-Kt5, thus holding all the four pawns on the King's side. But
Black finds a surprising reply, which seems to refute White's
plan.

Capablanca played against Ed. Lasker (New York, 1915), 17. P-
KKt4, P-KKt3; 18. K-Kt3, P-KR4; 19. PxBP, P-R5ch; 20. K-R2, PxP;
21. Kt-K2, P-Kt4; 22. B-Kt3, BxB; 23. RPxB, KR-KKt1; 24. R-Q1,
QR-Q1; 25. RxR, KxR; 26. Kt-K4, winning a pawn.

          17. ...         P-KKt3
          18. P-Kt5       QR-KKt1!!

Black offers the exchange in order to get rid of White's QB.  If
White accepts the sacrifice, he loses his KKtP, and Black retains
three passed pawns for the piece, at least an equivalent for the
end-game. White should decline the doubtful gift and meet the
threat of P-R3 and P-KKt4 with 19. R-KKt1.

          19. B-Q4         P-R3
          20. B-B6ch       K-B2
          21. BxR          RxB
          22. R-Q1

in order to play 23. B-Q7 in answer to P-B4. This explains
White's check at move 20.

          22. ...          PxPch
          23. K-Kt2        K-B3!

If now 24. Kt-Q5ch, Black would assail the White King with K-K4;
25. KtxP, B-B5-K7-B6. The Black phalanx of pawns becomes
menacing.

           24. B-Kt3       BxB
           25. RPxB        K-K3
           26. P-Kt4       R-R2

Black need no longer fear to exchange Rooks, for he would then
threaten the Queen's side pawns with his King whilst the passed
pawns kept the White forces occupied.

          27. Kt-K2          R-Q2
          28. Kt-Q4ch        K-B3
          29. P-QB3          P-B3

The aim of this move is not clear. Black should adopt a forward
policy with P-Kt5, P-B5, R-R2, etc.

          30. R-KR1          P-Kt5
          31. R-R8

Now none of the pawns can advance: P-B5 would be answered by 32.
R-K8, R-K2; 33. RxR, KxR; 34. Kt-Kt3 and one of the pawns is
lost.

          31. ...             R-K2
          32. Kt-K2           R-Q2
          33. Kt-Q4           R-K2
          34. R-B8ch          K-Kt2
          35. R-Q8            P-B5
          36. R-Q6            K-B2
          37. Kt-B2           R-K3
          38. R-Q7ch          R-K2
          39. R-Q6            R-K3
          40. R-Q1

White tries to win at all costs--and loses. By a forcible advance
on the Queen's side, he creates new chances, but also new
weaknesses.

          40. ...            K-B3
          41. P-B4           R-K2
          42. R-Q4           K-Kt4
          43. R-Q6           P-K6!
          44. P-B3

PxP fails on account of P-B6ch and R-R2.

          44. ...            P-K7
          45. Kt-K1          P-Kt6
          46. P-Kt5

Too late.

          46. ...           R-R2
          47. PxBP          PxP
          48. R-K6          R-R7ch
          49. K-Kt1         R-B7
          50. Kt-B2         RxP
          51. RxKP          R-Q6
          52. Kt-K1         R-Kt6
          53. R-Q2          P-B6
          54. Kt-Q3         P-R4
              Resigns

The RP cannot be prevented from pushing on to R6, after which a
mate is threatened by the BlacKRon the eighth rank. R-Q1 would
then be compulsory. But that lets the Black Rook in on the
seventh (KR-R7, followed by P-B7ch).


                GAME No. 18.

       Emanuel Lasker.     Capablanca.

           Ruy Lopez (see p. 37)

          1. P-K4          P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3        Kt-QB3
          3. B-Kt5         P-QR3
          4. BxKtQ         PxB
          5. P-Q4          PxP

Worthy of consideration is: 5. ... B-KKt5; 6PxP, QxQch; 7. KxQ,
Castles ch; 8. K-K2, R-K1; 9. P-KR3, BxKtch; 10. KxB, P-B3; with
a good game.  In this opening Black is justified in assuming the
initiative, as the exchange, which has opened a diagonal for his
QB, has furthered his development. If he does not do so, and
confines himself to defending tamely, the chances are that he
will lose on account of White's majority of pawns on the King's
side.

          6. QxP          QxQ

Compulsory. If B-K3 instead, 7. B-B4 attacks QB7.  B-Q3 in reply
to that would be inferior. By exchanging Bishops White would
render the Black QP "backward," and on the open file its capture
would be inevitable.

          7. KtxQ         B-Q3
          8. Kt-QB3       Kt-K2

Black prepares to castle on the King's side. It is more usual,
and probably stronger, to castle on the Queen's side, as the King
then protects the QBP, which in the present case would be weak if
Black's KB were to be exchanged.

          9.  Castles       Castles.
         10.  P-B4          R-K1

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    | #R |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #P | #P |    | #Kt| #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #P | #B |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^Kt| ^P | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 126

Black allows his opponent too much latitude on the King's wing.
He should prevent White's P-B5, which obstructs his QB, by P-KB4.
After P-K5 the game would be equalised by B-B4, BxKt, and B-K3.

A draw would then be practically certain, with the Bishops of
opposite colours. Black probably thought White would not risk
weakening his KP by P-B5. But with unfailing judgment Lasker
foresees that, in consequence of the greater mobility of his
pieces, his attack will be successful before a counter attack on
the weak KP can be instituted.

          11. Kt-Kt3          P-B3

Even now P-KB4 was imperative, though it would keep the Bishop
from that square. The continuation could have been 12. P-K5, B-
Kt5; 13. Kt-K2 (or R4), Kt-Q4, and the Bishop is safe.

          12. P-B5!!

This move has a twofold aim. It shuts in the Bishop, and allows
B-B4, exchanging the Black QB.

          12. ...           P-QKt3

The diagonal QR1-KR8 is the only one in which the Bishop has any
prospects of action. However, as soon as he relinquishes his
present diagonal, a White Knight settles at K6 and the Black
Rooks are very much hampered.

          13. B-B4          B-Kt2

Black should have exchanged the Bishops. Now he gets a weak pawn
at Q3. Before playing B-Kt2, P-B4 should be played to prevent the
Knight getting from Kt3-Q4-K6.

          14. BxB          PxB
          15. Kt-Q4        QR-Q1
          16. Kt-K6        R-Q2
          17. QR-Q1        Kt-B1
          18. R-B2         P-QKt4
          19. KR-Q2

This holds Black's Kt at B1. White's next move prevents the
Bishop getting into action by P-B4. After depriving all the Black
pieces of their mobility, White turns his attention to a
determined assault on the Black King.

          19. ...              QR-K2
          20. P-QKt4           K-B2
          21. P-QR3            B-R1
          22. K-B2             R-R2
          23. P-Kt4            P-R3
          24. R-Q3             P-QR4
          25. P-KR4            PxP
          26. PxP              R(R2)-K2

There are no prospects on the Rook's file, and Black is
restricted to keeping his pieces mutually protected. He cannot
prevent White from penetrating the King's side.

          27. K-B3          R-Kt1
          28. K-B4          P-Kt3
          29. R-Kt3         P-Kt4ch
          30. K-B3

If Black captures the pawn, he would lose it again forthwith
through White's R-R3, and the pawn at R3 would also be captured.

          30. ...                 Kt-Kt3
          31. PxP                 RPxP
          32. R-R3                R-Q2
          33. K-Kt3

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #B |    |    |    |    |    | #R |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    | #R |    | #K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #Kt| #P | #P | ^Kt| #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    |    | ^P | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    | ^K | ^R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    | ^R |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 127

The White King leaves the diagonal because Black's P-B4 would
interfere with the combination by which White intends to
annihilate Black's game in a few moves.

          33. ...                 K-K1
          34. QR-KR1              B-Kt2
          35. P-K5!!

A beautiful final stroke.

          35. ...                 QPxP
          36. Kt-K4!!             Kt-Q4
          37. Kt(K6)-B5           B-B1

Black dares not move the Rook on account of KtxB and Kt-Q6ch.

          38. KtxR                BxKt
          39. R-R7ch              R-B1
          40. R-R1                K-Q1
          41. R-R8ch              B-B1
          42. Kt-B5               Resigns

Mate in two is threatened. Black's only move is Kt-K2, after
which he is helpless, and White can capture the pawns one by one
at his leisure (R-B7, etc.). In this game, so beautifully
engineered by White, we have a further example of Lasker's
remarkable grasp of position.


                 GAME No. 19

  White: Eduard Lasker.    Black: Janowski.

            Four Knights' Game.

          1. P-K4          P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3        Kt-QB3
          3. Kt-B3         Kt-B3
          4. B-Kt5         B-Kt5

  B-K2; 5 Castles, P-Q3; would lead into the Ruy Lopez.

          5. Castles       Castles
          6. P-Q3          P-Q 3

It is, of course, better to castle before playing P-Q3, as the
opponent could at once play Kt-Q5 and utilise the pin to initiate
an immediate attack, e.g. 5. Castles, P-Q3; 6. Kt-Q5, B-B4; 7. P-
Q4, PxP; 8. B-Kt5.

          7. B-Kt5

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt| #P |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^B |    |    | #P |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #B |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt| ^P |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 128.

The position is not unlike that in Diagram 90, and the same
remarks apply to it. Here B-K3 is inadvisable, because P-Q4,
threatening to fork two pieces, forces the exchange of Black's
centre pawn. After 7. ... B-Kt5; 8. Kt-Q5, Kt-Q5; 9. B-B4, B-B4,
on the other hand, we get the position discussed on p. 115, in
which White obtains the advantage by Q-Q2. Instead of 9. ... B-
B4, Black should play Q-Q2 with a similar threat. But he has not
the cooperation of his King's Bishop for the attack, and White
just manages to escape with a draw, e.g. 9. ... Q-Q2; 10.
KtxKtch, PxKt; 11. BxP, P-KR3(BxKt; 12. PxB, Q-R6 fails on
account of K-R1 and R-KKt1); 12. P-B3, KtxKtch; 13. PxKt, B-KR4;
14. K-R1, K-R2 (Diagram 129); 15. R-KKt1.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    |    | #R |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #Q |    | #P |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | #P |    | ^B |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    | #B |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #B | ^B |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q |    | ^R |    | ^K |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 120.

This is the saving clause. If now Black had his B at B4, as White
has in the corresponding attack, White would first have to
protect his BP with 15 Q-K2, and would be lost after R-KKt1; 16.
R-KKt1, R-Kt3; as 17. B-R4 fails because of Q-R6; 18. B-KKt3, R-
B3; and on the other hand, after 17. RxR, PxR Black plays R-KB1,
attacking the BP a second time.

With the Black Bishop at Kt5, however, Black does not succeed.
The continuation could be l5. ... R-KKt1; 16.  R-Kt3, R-Kt3; 17.
B-R4, with a probable draw.

This line of play is most difficult for both sides, and it has
been avoided so far in tournaments.

In Diagram 128 the favourite continuation for many years was: 7.
... BxKt; 8. PxB, Kt-K2. The opening of the KKt file by 9. BxKKt
is not to be feared, because of the reasons given when discussing
Diagram 90. But White obtains the advantage with 9. Kt-R4,
preparing the opening of the KB file by P-B4 and PxP. 9. ... Kt-
Kt3, in order to retake with the BP after 10. KtxKt and to open
the file for Black's Rooks, is not a sufficient reply, because
after 11. P-B4 and PxP White has a clear advantage, having an
extra pawn in effect for the end-game. For the three Black pawns
on the King's side are held by the two adverse pawns, which they
cannot pass.

The attempt to expel the troublesome Bishop after 9. ... Kt-K1 by
P-KB3, and then play for a centre by P-B3, Kt-B2 and P-Q4 fails
on account of the withering attack which White obtains on the KB
file, e.g. 9. ... Kt-K1; 10. B-QB4, K-R1; 11. P-B4, P-KB3; 12. Q-
R5, PxB; 13. PxP, etc.

In consequence the defence by 7. ... BxKt and Kt-K2 has been
abandoned.

In the present game Black reverts to a very old defence,
comprising the moves: BxKt, Q-K2, Kt-Q1-K3. It had been abandoned
because White, by playing R-K1, P-Q4, and eventually B-B1 and B-
R3, forces the exchange of Black's centre pawn, and obtains an
advantage, on well-known grounds. Here Black strengthens the
defence by interpolating P-KR3!, after which White must come to a
decision as to maintaining the pin. If he decides to do so the
White Bishop will no longer be able to threaten the Black Queen
from QR3.

          7. ...                 BxKt
          8. PxB                 P-KR3
          9. B-KR4

If the B retreats to B1 or K3, Black can adopt the defence Kt-K2-
Kt3. Then Kt-R4 would be inferior, because Black can simply play
P-KKt4. In this case the advance of the pawns is justified,
because Black can bring his QKt to KKt3 and have practically one
piece more on the King's side, and good prospects for the attack
which he can open with K-R2, R-KKt1, Kt-Kt3-B5.

          9. ...                 Q-K2

P-KKt4 would be premature. White would win at once by 10. KtxKtP,
PxKt; 11. BxP, as he can attack the Knight a second time by P-KB4
and PxP before Black can either protect it sufficiently or
relieve the "pin."

         10. Q-Q2                Kt-Q1
         11. P-Q4                B-Kt5
         12. Q-K3                BxKt
         13. QxB                 Kt-K3

It would be wrong to play for the gain of a pawn with P-KKt4 and
PxP, e.g. 13. ... P-KKt4; 14. B-Kt3, PxP; 15. R-K1!, PxP; 16. P-
K5, etc.

         14. BxKt

Black's threat was to develop an attack, similar to that
described at move 9, with P-KKt4 and Kt-B5.

         14. ...                 QxB
         15. QxQ                 PxQ
         16. B-B4

in order to exchange the Knight, which is generally superior to a
Bishop in an end-game, as mentioned before.

         16. ...                 PxP
         17. BxKt                PxB
         18. PxP


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 130

In the end-game thus brought about the White Rooks have more
freedom, as they can be mobilised easily on the third rank to act
on either wing. Black's pawns, however, are stronger, being
easily protected by the King, whilst White's weak pawns at QR2
and QB2 are at too great a distance from the King; therefore
White must see to it that Black does not open files for his Rooks
on the Queen's side.

         18. ...                 QR-B1
         19. QR-Kt1              P-Kt3
         20. KR-Q1               KR-Q1
         21. R-Kt3

White must now allow Black to occupy the QB or Q file.  After 21.
P-Q5 Black would simply play PxP; 22. PxP, P-B3, with a certain
draw.

         21. ...                 P-Q4
         22. R-Kt3ch

P-KB3 was the correct move here, in view of subsequent threats of
mate.

         22. ...                 K-B2
         23. PxP                 RxP
         24. R-QR3               P-QR4
         25. P-KB4?

A mistake under time pressure, costing a pawn. QR-Q3 was the
move.

         25. ...                 P-QB4
         26. R-QB3               QR-Q1
         27. R-Kt1               RxP
         28. RxKtP               RxP
         29. P-KR3               R-Q7
         30. R-Kt5

Not RxP, on account of R-B7, and the KKtP cannot be saved.

         30. ...                 R-(B5)B7
         31. R-KKt3              P-B4
         32. P-B4                P-B5
         33. R-KKt4              P-R4
         34. R-Kt5               RxP
         35. P-R4

Mate was threatened in a few moves through R-QB7-B8 and R(R7)-R8.

         35. ...                R-(B7)Kt7

If now R-B7, White would win the KBP or obtain a perpetual check
(36. R-QKt7ch, followed by R-QKt8-KB8).   After the move in the
text, White can still draw, as he wins back his pawn.

         36. RxR                RxR
         37. RxRP?

This careless move now loses the game. Of course White should
have taken the BP. If then P-R5, R-R5 held the pawn from behind,
also after 37. ... K-B3; 38. RxQRP, P-K4, a draw would have been
the result, as the White BP would soon have become threatening,
e.g. 39. R-R8, K-B4; 40. P-B5, P-K5; 41. P-B6, R-QB7; 42. R-QB8,
K-Kt5; 43. P-B7, KxP; 44. K-R2, P-K6; 45. R-B8, RxP; 46. RxPch,
K-Kt4; 47. R-K4, R-B6; 48. K-Kt3, etc.; or 44. R-K8, RxP; 45.
RxP, K-Kt6; 46. R-K1, R-B7; 47. K-R1, RxP; 48. R-K3ch, and so on.

         37. ...                P-R5
         38. RxP                P-R6
             Resigns.

After R-R5 there follows P-R7 and R-Kt8ch, or (if 40. K-R 2) P-
B6.


                 GAME No. 20

   White: Eduard Lasker.    Black: Englund.

             Four Knights' Game.

          1. P-K4               P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3             Kt-QB3
          3. Kt-B3              Kt-B3
          4. B-Kt5              Kt-Q5
          5. KtxP

Black can now get White's KP by playing Q-K2, and moreover
exchange White's valuable Bishop. Instead of the move in the text
it is advisable to retire the Bishop to R4 or B4, or else to play
5. KtxKt, PxKt; 6. P-K5, PxKt; 7. PxKt. Black would then play QxP
and not PxQPch, as the latter move allows White to develop
quickly, and Black has no time to castle--e.g. 8. BxP, QxP; 9.
Castles, B-K2; 10. B-B3, followed by R-K1.

          5. ...              Q-K2
          6. Kt-B3            KtxP?

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #P | #Q | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^B |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | #Kt| #Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^P |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 131.

  Here KtxB was essential, followed by QxP, freeing the Bishop.
After 7. KtxKt, QxPch; 8. Q-K2, QxQch; 9. KxQ, Kt-Q4 (10. P-B4,
P-QR3), Black completes his development a little later (10. R-K1,
P-KB3; 11. K-B1ch, K-B2), but after the exchange of Queens there
is not much to fear from an immediate attack, and the value of
the two Bishops soon asserts itself. In a match game Ed. Lasker-
Cole (London, 1913) the continuation was 12. P-Q4, P-QR3; 13. Kt-
B3, KtxKt; 14. PxKt, P-Q4. Here the doubled pawn is a
disadvantage, in that the pawn at B2 is immobile, and constantly
liable to be attacked by B-B4. P-Q3 was the better move.

          7. Castles         KtxKt

Now KtxB was no longer possible. After KtxQKt there would be
threats of KtxBP as well as of R-K1 and P-Q3.  The game is almost
lost for Black at this stage, as the King cannot escape the
impending attack on the K file by castling.

          8. QPxKt           KtxKtch
          9. QxKt            Q-B4
         10. R-K1ch         B-K2
         11. B-Q3

prevents castling, as Q-K4 would win a piece.

         11. ...             P-Q4
         12. B-K3

White has the development of the B gratis, as Black must lose
time with the Queen.

         12. ...             Q-Q3
         13. B-KB4           Q-KB3
         14. QxP!!

Black being behind with his development is already threatened by
sacrificial combinations. If he takes the Bishop he loses by 15.
B-Kt5ch, K-B1; 16. Q-Q8ch!, BxQ; 17. R-K8 mate, or l5. ... P-B3;
16. BxPch, and so on.

         14. ...             P-B3
         15. Q-K4            B-K3
         16. R-K3            B-QB4

Here Black might have castled on the Queen's side, but R-Q1 would
have had much the same sequel as in the actual game.

         17. B-K5            Q-R3
         18. R-Kt3           B-KB1

A sorry retreat. But after Q-Q7, which may have been Black's
original intention, White plays R-KB1, threatening B-KB4.

         19. R-Q1

This move completes White's development, and only seems to give
Black a chance of castling. However, Black has no satisfactory
continuation.

         19. ...                 Castles?
         20. QxPch               PxQ
         21. B-R6                Mate


                 GAME No. 21

White: Eduard Lasker. Black: Aljechin.

           Three Knights' Defence.

          1. P-K4                P-K4
          2. Kt-KB3              Kt-QB3
          3. Kt-B3               B-Kt5
          4. Kt-Q5

Developing another piece by B-Kt5 or B4 would be more in
accordance with principle.

          4. ...                 B-K2

There was a threat of KtxB and KtxP. If Black plays P-Q3, the B
must retire all the same after 5. B-Kt5. It seems best to retire
the B to K2 rather than to B4 or R4, because there remains the
threat of a pin subsequently by B-KKt5, which might become
serious with the Knight at Q5.

          5. B-B4                Kt-B3
          6. P-Q3                P-Q3
          7. KtxB                QxKt
          8. P-B3                P-KR3

The KKt is to support the advance of P-Q4 subsequently, and that
is why Black does not want to allow it to be pinned. This is
sound strategy, since White has exchanged his QKt, which from B3
prevents P-Q4 in the ordinary way.

          9. B-K3                Castles
         10. Q-Q2                B-K3
         11. B-Kt3

The first mistake. B-QKt5 should be played to retard P-Q4.

         11. ...               BxB
         12. PxB               P-Q4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    | #Q | #P | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    |    | #Kt|    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^B | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^P |    | ^Q |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 132

         13. PxP

The second mistake. Unimportant as it seems, it leads to the loss
of the game. White did not defend the pawn by Q-B2, because it
would have proved 10. Q-Q2 to have been a lost move. But giving
up the centre is a far greater evil. Black now commands his Q5
and KB5, and this enables him to start an attack to which there
is no defence. The game shows conclusively how important it is to
maintain the centre.

         13. ...               KtxP
         14. Castles KR        P-B4
         15. P-QKt4            P-QKt3
         16. Q-K2

to prevent P-K5, which would now be countered by PxP and Q-B4.
However, as P-K5 cannot be prevented permanently, and the Q must
move in any case, Q-B2 would have been the better move, as there
the Queen cannot be molested by a Rook.

         16. ...               Q-Q3
         17. P-Kt5             QKt-K2
         18. B-Q2              Kt-Kt3
         19. R-R4             QR-K1!

Black's game is beautifully developed, whilst White cannot make a
combined effort. The Black Rooks are particularly well placed,
and threaten to take an effective part in the attack in various
ways. All this is the outcome of White losing the centre.

          20. P-KKt3

Though this prevents Kt(Q 4)-B5, it weakens KB3, which is all the
more serious as Black threatens to open the file by P-B5.

          20. ...             Q-Q2

If now White refrains from taking the pawn, Black plays P-QR4!

          21. RxP             P-K5
          22. Kt-Q4           PxP
          23. QxP             Kt-K4
          24. Q-K2            P-B5

All the avenues of attack are now open, and White's game
collapses quickly.

         25. Q-R5                Kt-KB 3
         26. Q-B5                Kt-B6ch
         27. K-R1                QxQ
         28. KtxQ                KtxB
         29. R-Q1                Kt(B3)-K5
         30. KtxP                KtxBPch
         31. K-Kt2               P-B6ch
             Resigns.


                 GAME No. 22

     White: Forgacz.      Black: Tartakower.

          French Defence (see p. 48).

          1. P-K4                P-K3
          2. P-Q4                P-Q4
          3. Kt-QB3              Kt-KB3
          4. B-Kt5               B-K2
          5. P-K5                Kt-K5

KKt-Q2 is better, because it would support the advance of P-QB4
and also be of use eventually in an attack on White's centre by
P-KB3. The text move allows the exchange of two minor pieces,
which can only be to White's advantage, as Black cannot get his
QB into play, and is for a long time practically a piece down.

          6. KtxKt           BxB

After PxKt the pawn would be very weak, and could hardly be held
for long.

          7. KtxB            QxKt
          8. P-KKt3

To be able to play P-KB4 before developing the Kt (see p. 49).

          8. ...             P-QB4
          9. P-QB3           Kt-B3
         10. P-KB4           Q-K2
         11. Q-Q2            B-Q2
         12. Kt-B3           Castles KR
         13. B-Q3            P-B5
         14. B-B2            P-QKt4
         15. Castles KR      P-Kt2
         16. Q R-K1          P-QR4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    |    | #R | #Q |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    | #B | #Q | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #P |    |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #P | #P | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    | ^Kt| ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^B | ^Q |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    | ^R | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 133

So far the game is easy to understand in the light of the remarks
made on page 44, when treating of the openings.  The continuation
shows in an instructive fashion that White's attack is the more
effective, being directed against the King's side.

          17. P-B5!         KPxP

This sacrifice of a pawn in conjunction with a second sacrifice
on the next move, produces a combination of rare beauty.

          18. P-Kt4!!       PxP

If Black did not capture White would. In either case the storming
of the position by pawns achieves its object and the lines of
attack are free for the pieces.

          19. Kt-Kt5        P-Kt3

Now that White has made an opening for himself at KB6, the rest
is easy. 19. ... P-R3 is of no avail. The sequel might have been:
20 Kt-R 7, KR-Q1; 21 Kt-B6ch, after which White wins after either
PxKt; 22 QxP, or K-R1 KtxP.

          20. R-B6          K-Kt2

Black gets no breathing space. If P-R3, then 21 BxP.

          21. QR-KB1        B-K1
          22. Q-B4          Kt-Q1
          23. P-K6          R-R3
          24. Q-K5          K-R3
          25. QR-B5

Help!

          25. ...           BPxP
          26. Kt-B7ch       QxKt
          27. R-R5ch        K-Kt2
          28. RxKtP mate


                  GAME No. 23

        White: Yates.       Black: Esser.

              French Defence.

          1. P-K4           P-K3
          2. P-Q4           P-Q4
          3. Kt-QB3         Kt-KB3
          4. B-Kt5          PxP
          5. BxKt           PxB

If the Queen recaptures, White obtains too great an advantage in
development, and therefore Black submits to the doubling of his
pawns. It is doubtful if this means a handicap, although the
King's side gets broken up. For Black keeps his two Bishops, a
powerful weapon, unless White succeeds in developing swiftly an
attack on the King's side. The present game is instructive and
shows the chances afforded to both sides by the position brought
about by the exchange at KB6.

          6. KtxP           P-KB4

As the KB obtains a long diagonal at Kt2, this advance is
justified. Otherwise there would be strong objections to it, as
the pawn is likely to be subjected to attack, and apart from
that, it gives up command of Black's K4.

          7. Kt-QB3

Kt-Kt3 would seem more natural, firstly, because Black has
weaknesses on the K side, and White will need his pieces for
attack in that quarter, and secondly, because the QP ought to be
supported by P-B3, as Black will attack it by B-Kt2.

          7. ...            B-Kt2
          8. Kt-B3          Castles
          9. B-B4

If now the Knight were at Kt3, White could play P-B3 and BQ3.
This is the proper place for the B, which might obtain an open
diagonal after P-KKt4.

          9. ...            Kt-B3
         10. Kt-K2          Kt-R4
         11. B-Q3           P-B4
         12. P-B3           P-QB5

P-Kt3 seems preferable, as the text move releases the hold on
White's Q4. The isolated pawn resulting after 13. PxP is not to
be feared, as the B at Kt2 would have greater efficiency (QR-
Kt1), and White would not be so firmly established in the centre.

         13. B-B2           P-Kt4
         14. Q-Q2

There now ensues an interesting struggle. White builds up an
attack with Q and both Knights and eventually the B  (P-KKt4). If
Black can manage to play his King into safety at R1 in time, and
then occupies the Kt file with his Rooks, he would have the
better of it, his pieces having by far the greater range of
action.

         14. ...               B-Kt2
         15. Q-B4              Q-B3

K-R1 and KR-Kt1 might be considered.

         16. Kt-Kt3            B-KR3
         17. Q-B7              Q-Q1
         18. Q-K5

White gains a move by attacking the Knight's Pawn. It may seem
far fetched if I now point out that this could not have happened
if from the first Black had given preference to the pawn
formation at QKt3 and B4 instead of Kt4 and B5, though the whole
game would almost certainly have taken a different course. Still,
when advancing a pawn into an unprotected position there always
is the risk of its becoming the object of an attack at an
opportune moment, and whenever the plan of development does not
necessitate such moves they are best avoided.

         18. ...               B-Q4
         19. Kt-R5             Kt-B3?
         20. Q-Kt3ch??

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    |    | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    | #P |    |    | #B |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    | #B |    | #P |    | ^Kt|
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    | ^Kt| ^Q |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^B |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 134

The last moves have decided the game. Both players have
overlooked that 20. Q-B6 would have won a pawn at least  (QxQ,
21. KtxQch with KtxB and BxP). 20. ... BxKt leads to an immediate
loss by 21. QxB, BxKt; 22. QxB followed by P-KKt4! with an
overwhelming attack.

Instead of 19. ... Kt-B3, Black should have played P-B3, followed
by K-R1 and the occupation of the Kt file by the Rooks. White's
last move allows him to de this with even greater effect.

         20. ...               K-R1
         21. Q-R3              R-KKt1

Black has now a preponderance of material on the field of battle,
and it can be concluded off-hand that White, not being able to
bring his Rooks into play, must lose.

         22. Kt-Kt3            Q-B3
         23. K-B1

K-K2 is a shade better. But there is no longer any adequate
defence.

         23. ...               R-Kt5
         24. R-K1              QR-KKt1
         25. Kt-K5

Black was threatening BxKt, followed by R-R5 and P-B5

         25. ...               KtxKt
         26. PxKt              Q-Kt4
         27. Q-R5              BxPch
         28. K-Kt1             RxKt?

QxQ and B-K5ch was simple and effective.

         29. RPxR              BxR
         30. QxQ               BxQ
         31. KxB               R-Q1
         32. P-B4

R-Q1 is much more promising, although it means the loss of a pawn
(RxR and B-B8, etc.). With Bishops of different colour the game
is not easy to win even now.

          32. ...             R-Q7
          33. PxB             RxB
          34. R-Q1            RxKtP
          35. R-Q7            K-Kt2
          36. RxRP            R-QB7

He could have played P-Kt5 at once.

          37. R-R5            R-QKt7
          38. P-R4

R-R3 would only have drawn out the agony a little longer.

          38. ...             P-Kt5
              Resigns.


                GAME No. 24

        White: Atkins. Black: Barry.

              French Defence.

          1. P-K4             P-K3
          2. P-Q4             P-Q4
          3. Kt-QB3           Kt-KB3
          4. B-Kt5            B-K2
          5. P-K5             KKt-Q2
          6. BxB              QxB

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B |    | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #Kt| #Q | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 135.

          7. Kt-Kt5

The intention is to strengthen the centre by P-QB3.  Though it
takes a number of moves to bring the Knight into play again, yet
most of the tournament games in this variation have been won by
White, mostly through a King's side attack on the lines set out
in the notes to Game No. 22.  Investigations by Alapin tend to
show that this is due to the fact that Black in all cases devoted
his attention to Queen's side operations (just as in Game No. 22)
when he could have utilised White's backward development, by
himself starting a counter attack on the King's side. He can then
either aim at the White centre at once with P-KB3, or else play
P-KB4 and prepare the advance of the KKtP by Kt-B3-Q1-B2.  These
various lines of play are still under discussion. Simple
development is probably preferable to the move in the text, e.g.
7. B-Q3, Castles; 8. P-B4, P-QB4; 9. Kt-B3.

          7. ...            K-Q1

There can be no advantage in forfeiting the option of castling
unless there be no other way of getting the King into safety and
of bringing the Rooks into concerted action. It is obvious that
otherwise the free development of pieces is hindered, and the
King is in appreciable danger, for it is easier to open files in
the centre than on the wings where the pawns have not advanced
yet. Therefore Kt-Kt3 is the only move worth considering.

          8. P-QB3           P-KB3
          9. PxP

With the Black King remaining in the centre, White has no further
interest in the maintenance of his pawn at K5. On the contrary he
will try to clear the centre.

          9. ...             PxP
         10. Q-Q2            P-B3
         11. Kt-QR3          Kt-B1

At this early stage it is clear that Black will have to contend
with difficulties in trying to complete his development.   The
usual way (P-QB4) is barred on account of the dangers to Black's
King with which a clearance in the centre is fraught.

         12. Kt-B3           B-Q2
         13. P-KKt3!

As Black can force this advance at any time by playing R-KKt1,
White decides to develop his KB at Kt2, thereby covering his KB3
and KR3. The weakness of the latter squares would not be of any
great moment if White were to castle on the Queen's wing. But as
P-QB4 is necessary in order to break up the centre, castling KR
is the right course.

         13. ...                 B-K1
         14. B-Kt2               QKt-Q2
         15. P-B4                PxP
         16. KtxP                Kt-QKt3
         17. KtxKt               PxKt
         18. Castles KR          Kt-Kt3
         19. KR-K1               B-Q2
         20. Q-B3                R-K1
         21. Kt-Q2               Q-B1
         22. P-QR4!

White wishes to get rid of the pawn at Black's Kt3, in order to
break in with his Knight at B5. Black has no means of preventing
this, and soon succumbs to the overwhelming array of White
forces.

         22. ...                 Kt-K2
         23. P-R5                P-QKt4
         24. Kt-Kt3              Kt-Q4
         25. BxKt                KPxB
         26. RxRch               BxR
         27. Kt-B5               Q-B2
         28. R-K1                K-B2
         29. Q-K3                B-Q2
         30. Q-B4ch              Resigns.

If K-Q1, 31. KtxPch followed by Kt-Q6ch. If K-B1 White wins by
31. Q-Q6 and R-K7.


                  GAME NO. 25

   White: Emanuel Lasker.   Black: Tarrasch.

                French Defence.

          1. P-K4                P-K3
          2. P-Q4                P-Q4
          3. Kt-QB3              Kt-KB3
          4. B-Kt5               B-Kt5

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #B |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 136

This line of defence, called the McCutcheon variation, was
recommended for many years by Tarrasch as being the strongest.
The most obvious continuation 5. P-K5 leads to complications, and
the final verdict has not yet been reached.  After 5. ... P-KR3,
the best continuation is thought to be:  6. PxKt, PxB; 7. PxP, R-
Kt1; 8. P-KR4, PxP; 9. Q-R5, Q-B3; 10. QxRP, QxP.

White has an easy development, whilst Black, as in most
variations in the French defence, finds it difficult to bring his
QB into play. After P-KR3, it is not advisable to retire the
Bishop; 6. B-R4, P-KKt4; 7. B-Kt3, for here the Bishop is out of
play, and Black's King's Knight being free can play to K5 for
concerted action with Black's KB.  Lasker's continuation in the
present instance is at once simple and effective. It leads to an
entirely different system of development.

          5. PxP             QxP

If Black recaptures with the pawn, he must lose a move with the
Bishop in order to avoid getting an isolated doubled pawn after
6. Q-B3. The doubled pawn which Black may get after the move in
the text would not be isolated, and therefore not necessarily
weak. It could become a weakness if Black were to castle on the
King's side. But otherwise it might even become a source of
strength, supporting, as it would, an advance of Black's KP
against the White centre.

          6. Kt-B3          P-B4?

Black should retain the option of castling QR, in case White
exchanges at his KB6; P-QKt3 and B-Kt2 would have been better.

          7. BxKt          PxB
          8. Q-Q2          BxKt
          9. QxB           Kt-Q2
         10. R-Q1          R-KKt1
         11. PxP           QxP
         12. Q-Q2          Q-Kt3

guarding against the mate at Q1 before moving the Kt.  But this
would have been better effected by Q-K2. After Q-Kt3 the Knight
cannot move yet because of B-Kt5ch.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    | #K |    | #R |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    | #Kt|    | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #Q |    |    | #P | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^Q |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    | ^R | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 137

          13. P-B3          P-QR3
          14. Q-B2          P-B4
          15. P-KKt3        Kt-B4
          16. B-Kt2         Q-B2

Black wishes to push on the KP. White, however, prevents this at
once.

          17. Q-K2          P-Kt4
          18. Castles       B-Kt2

The Black position has any number of weaknesses. The King cannot
castle into safety; the pawn position is full of holes, and open
to attack. White takes full advantage of this and wins in
masterly fashion with a few strokes.

         19. P-B4           P-Kt5
         20. Q-Q2           R-Kt1

Now White cannot capture the KtP because of BxKt.  But he does
not want the pawn, he wants the King.

         21. Q-R6           BxKt
         22. BxB            Q-K4
         23. KR-K1          QxP
         24. Q-B4           QR-B1
         25. Q-Q6           P-B3

Mate in two was threatened (B-B6ch, etc.).

         26. B-R5ch        R-Kt3
         27. BxRch         PxB
         28. RxPch         Resigns.


                 GAME No. 26

    White: Capablanca.   Black: Blanco

              French Defence.

          1. P-K4           P-K3
          2. P-Q4           P-Q4
          3. Kt-QB3         PxP
          4. KtxP           Kt-Q2
          5. Kt-KB3         KKt-B3
          6. KtxKtch        KtxKt
          7. Kt-K5

This crosses Black's plan of developing the QB at Kt2.

          7. ...            B-Q3
          8. Q-B3           P-B3

9. B-Kt5ch, P-B3; 10. KtxP was threatened.

          9. P-B3           Castles
         10. B-KKt5         B-K2
         11. B-Q3

Whatever Black plays now, he must create some weakness in order
to provide against White's Q-R3, BxKt, QxRP, and White's attack
must succeed. The whole of Black's plan is thus frustrated, as
the only reason for abandoning the centre by PxP was the
occupation of the long diagonal by the QB.  Now the Queen's side
pieces cannot get into play without much difficulty, and by the
time they have succeeded it is too late.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    | #P | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P | ^B |    | ^Q |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 138.

         11. ...              Kt-K1

Intending to intercept the diagonal of the White KB by P-KB4. If
Black plays P-KKt3 with the same intention, White plays P-KR4-5
and PxP, and brings the Rook into play.

         12. Q-R3             P-KB4

P-KR3 would lead to an immediate disaster: 13. BxP, PxB; 14.
QxRP, P-KB4; 15. P-KKt4. The move in the text avoids the
immediate attack on the King, but the King's Pawn is now
"backward," and White immediately fastens on this weakness.

         13. BxB              QxB
         14. Castles KR       R-B3
         15. KR-K1            Kt-Q3
         16. R-K2             B-Q2
         17. QR-K1            R-K1
         18. P-QB4            Kt-B2
         19. P-Q5             KtxKt
         20. RxKt             P-KKt3

21. BxP was threatened.

         21. Q-R4             K-Kt2
         22. Q-Q4             P-B4
         23. Q-B3             P-Kt3
         24. PxP              B-B1
         25. B-K2

The Bishop now settles at Q5, and whether Black takes the pawn or
not, he is paralysed either by the pawn itself, or the pin of the
Bishop if the pawn is taken.

         25. ...              BxP
         26. B-B3             K-B2
         27. B-Q5             Q-Q3
         28. Q-K3             R-K2
         29. Q-R6             K-Kt1
         30. P-KR4

The deciding manoeuvre, tearing up the chain of pawns in front of
the K.

         30. ...              P-QR3
         31. P-R5             P-B5
         32. PxP              PxP
         33. RxB              Resigns.

After RxR, 34. RxR, RxR; 35. QxPch wins a piece.  A beautifully
concise game.

GAME NO. 27

White: Niemzowitsch. Black: Tarrasch.  French Defence.

          1. P-K4           P-QB4

This opening is called the Sicilian Defence. White, however,
adopts a continuation which leads into a variation of the French
Defence.

          2. P-QB3          P-K3
          3. P-Q4           P-Q4
          4. P-K5           Kt-QB3
          5. Kt-B3          Q-Kt3
          6. B-Q3           PxP

Black seeks to demonstrate that White's QP is weak. The present
game, however, seems to prove that White is able to guard it
adequately, thus permanently supporting the KP too.  It would
therefore appear to be better to attack the KP itself, and to
play P-B3 on the fifth move. Now B-Q2 would be better than the
text move. As White cannot give further support to his Q4, he
would have to play PxP, and the protection of the K5 would have
to be undertaken by pieces, which is not desirable.

          7. PxP           B-Q2

Not KtxP, 8. KtxKt, QxKt, because of B-Kt5ch.

          8. B-K2

The B cannot go to B2 on account of Kt-Kt5 and B-Kt4.

          8. ...           KKt-K2
          9. P-QKt3        Kt-B4
         10. B-Kt2

Now White's centre is safe from further attacks. True, White has
forfeited castling, but as he dominates the King's side, where
Black cannot undertake anything, there is no harm in P-Kt3,
preparatory to "artificial castling."

         10. ...           B-Kt5ch
         11. K-B1          B-K2

Directed against 12. P-Kt4, driving off the Kt. Now Kt-R5 would
follow.

         12. P-Kt3         P-QR4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    |    |    | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #P |    | #B | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #Q | #Kt|    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #P |    |    | #P | ^P | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^Kt| ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^B |    |    | ^B | ^P |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Kt|    | ^Q |    | ^K |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 139

This manoeuvre is unwise; White counters with 13. P-QR4, a move
which was necessary in any case, in order to develop the QKt via
R3, this being the Knight's only chance of getting into play,
because, as long as the QP is attacked three times the lines of B
and Q must not be interrupted. That is a weakness in White's
game, and it was necessary for Black to prevent his Kt being
driven off by P-KKt4. P-KR4 was the correct move. Then White also
had to play P-KR4 to prevent P-KKt4-5, in which case Black could
have played l3. ... P-KKt3, and have brought his Rooks into
concerted action. P-KKt3 would have been necessary before
castling, because White's B-Q3 would have attacked the KKt. The
latter could not then capture the Queen's Pawn on account of a
discovered check, e.g. l2. ... Castles; 13 B-Q3, KtxP?; 14 KtxKt,
KtxKt; 15 BxKt, QxB?; 16 B-R7ch, and QxQ.

In Diagram 139 Black's P-QR4 is not only a lost move, but
moreover allows a White piece to settle permanently at QKt5. It
also prevents the Knight from playing to QR4, from where White's
P-QR4 could be answered by Kt-Kt6 eventually.

          13. P-QR4         R-QB1
          14. B-Kt5         Kt-Kt5

All these skirmishes only result in the exchange of pieces, and
as long as Black's KRis out of play this can only be of advantage
to White.

          15. Kt-B3         Kt-QR3

This is in order to drive off the B. Black should have exchanged
his own inactive QB, as the White B might become effective on the
Diagonal QKt1-KR7, whilst Black's QB has no future.

          16. K-Kt2         Kt-B2
          17. B-K2          B-Kt5

Black cannot yet castle, because of 18. B-Q3 Kt-KR3, 19. B-QB1).

          18. Kt-R2          Kt-QR3
          19. B-Q3           Kt-K2
          20. R-QB1          Kt-B3
          21. KtxB           QKtxKt
          22. B-Kt1

White's last eight moves completed his development, and his
Bishops lie in wait for the attack on the Black King.  Meanwhile
Black has effected nothing. On the contrary, he

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #R |    | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #P |    | #B |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #Q | #Kt|    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #P |    |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^P | #Kt|    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^Kt| ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^B |    |    |    | ^P | ^K | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    | ^B | ^R | ^Q |    |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 140

has exchanged his valuable KB, and also allowed his KKt to be
driven off. His King's side is bare, and castling would be
fraught with danger. If Black castles now, White plays Kt-Kt5,
and Black must weaken his position by P-R3 or P-Kt3, and White
would advance his KtP or RP and force an exchange, opening a file
for his Rook. In consequence Black decides to forfeit castling
and to bring his KR to bear on the KB file. For this also Black
must first play P-R3, and White obtains an open file by P-Kt4-
Kt5. The sequel is shown here.

          22. ...            P-R3
          23. P-Kt4          Kt-K2
          24. RxRch          BxR
          25. Kt-K1

White waits first, to see whether Black is going to castle, and
meanwhile tries to exchange Black's QKt, which commands his QB2
and Q3.

          25. ...           R-B1
          26. Kt-Q3         P-B3
          27. KtxKt         QxKt
          28. PxP           RxP
          29. B-B1          Kt-B3
          30. P-Kt5         PxP
          31. BxP           R-B1
          32. B-K3          Q-K2
          33. Q-Kt4

This provides against Black attempting to free his Bishop by P-
K4. Black's B-Q2 is countered by B-Kt6ch. White new wins
surprisingly quickly, through the greater mobility of his pieces.

          33. ...           Q-B3
          34. R-Kt1         R-R1
          35. K-R1          R-R5

Here Black could have held out a little longer by defending his
KtP: 35. ... K-B1; 36. R-Kt3, R-R5; 37. Q-Q1, K-Kt1; 38. B-Kt5,
QxP (RxP, 39. Q-R5); 39. R-Q3, QxP; 40. BxR, QxB.

          36. Q-Kt3          RxP

Compulsory. B-Kt5 was threatened, and after R-R1, QxP, QxQ, RxQ,
the RP wins easily.

          37. BxR           KtxB
          38. QxP           Q-B6ch
          39. Q-Kt2         QxQch
          40. RxQ           KtxP
          41. P-R4          Resigns.


                 GAME No. 28

        White: Alapin.      Black: Rubinstein.

               Sicilian Defence.

          1. P-K4          P-QB4

At first glance this move would seem to lose time, as it does
nothing towards the main object of opening strategy, namely, the
development of pieces. But we shall find that
 it does contribute to that aim, although indirectly. For one
thing it could, by a transposition of moves, lead into an opening
in which P-QB4 is played in any case; in other openings it is of
use, in that it acts from the first against the formation of a
strong white centre. Concurrently it prepares the opening of a
file for the Rooks.

          2. Kt-KB3          Kt-KB3?

Black should not play Kt-KB3 as long as White's P-K5 means the
clear gain of a move. There are plenty of developing moves to
choose from.

Two systems of development can be followed by Black according to
whether the KB is to develop at K2 or Kt2. In the first case
(compare Game No. 29) P-K3 is played. In the second case, the
opening might take this course: 2. ... Kt-QB3; 3. P-Q4, PxP; 4.
KtxP, Kt-B3; 5. Kt-QB3, P-Q3 (not P-KKt3 at once, because White
would exchange Knights and drive off the KKt by P-K5); 6. B-K3,
P-KKt3, and B-Kt2. White's position is superior, as he has a pawn
in the centre in conjunction with greater mobility. Black will
find it difficult to bring his QB into play. Nevertheless his
position is compact and difficult to get at.

          3. P-K5

Undoubtedly Rubinstein had taken this move into account when
playing 2. ... Kt-KB3. His idea was to provoke the advance of the
KP. The pawn at K5 is weaker than at K4, particularly as Black's
QBP prevents its natural support by P-Q4. Moreover Black's Q4 is
free from interference by White. White refutes this ultra
subtilty by simple and straight-forward play, and he gets such an
advantage in development that his attack succeeds before Black is
able to demonstrate any weakness in White's game.

          3. ...            Kt-Q4
          4. Kt-B3          KtxKt
          5. QPxKt          Kt-B3
          6. B-QB4          P-Q3

After 6 ... P-K3, 7. B-B4 would restrain the QP.

          7. B-B4           PxP

At this early stage Black has no satisfactory means of
development. The QP is attacked three times, and therefore the KP
cannot move, nor can the KB be developed at Kt2.  B-Kt5, in order
to play BxKt and PxP, is refuted by BxPch. The move in the text
which brings about the exchange of Queens, but develops another
White piece at the same time, is more or less forced. It is
instructive to watch how White's advantage in development soon
materialises.

          8. KtxP          QxQch
          9. RxQ           KtxKt
         10. BxKt          P-QR3

White's threat of B-Kt5ch could not be parried by B-Q2 because of
11. BxPch.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    | ^B |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 141

          11. B-B7          B-Kt5
          12. P-B3          QR-B1
          13. B-Kt6         B-B4
          14. B-Kt3         P-K4
          15. B-R4ch        K-K2
          16. P-QB4

Here White could have won a pawn at once by R-Q5.  If then K-K3,
17. P-QB4.

          16. ...          P-B3
          17. K-B2         K-B2
          18. B-Q7!        BxB
          19. RxBch        B-K2
          20. KR-Q1!

The pawns can wait. 20. RxP would not have been profitable
because of R-QKt1.

          20. ...          K-K3
          21. RxP          B-Q3

Black might have resigned here. It is only a question of time.

          22. B-R7          R-B3

Otherwise there follows R-Kt6.

          23. RxP           P-QR4
          24. R-Kt7         R-R1
          25. R-Q5          P-R4
          26. P-QR4         P-R5
          27. P-QKt3        R(R1)-QB1
          28. R-Kt5         Resigns.


                 GAME No. 29

     White: Teichmann.     Black: Spielmann.

         Sicilian Defence (see p. 215).

          1. P-K4          P-QB4
          2. Kt-QB3        P-K3
          3. KKt-K2

This comes to the same as Kt-B3, as after P-Q4, PxP the Knight
recaptures. If, however, Black plays P-Q4 there is a certain
advantage for White to have the Kt at K2, e.g. 3. ... P-Q4; 4.
PxP, PxP; 5. P-Q4. If now Black does not exchange pawns, White is
able to bring his KB to bear on the centre after P-KKt3 and B-
Kt2.

          3. ...          Kt-QB3

White can exchange this Knight later on, and thus make P-K5
possible as soon as he should deem it advisable to drive the
Black Knight from his KB3, where the same is bound to develop
sooner or later. It is perhaps wise to prevent P-K5 by Q-B2
instead of the move in the text. This is an old defence,
introduced by Paulsen. Though it retards the development of
Black's minor pieces, it produces a strong defensive position,
and the opening of the QB file gives attacking chances on the
Queen's side. The defence might run like this: 3. ... P-QR3; 4.
P-Q4, PxP; 5. KtxP, Q-B2; 6. B-K3, Kt-KB3; 7. B-K2, B-K2; 8.
Castles, P-QKt4 followed by B-Kt2, P-Q3, QKt-Q2, etc.

          4. P-Q4           PxP
          5. KtxP           P-QR3
          6. KtxKt          KtPxKt
          7. B-Q3           P-Q4
          8. Castles        Kt-B3
          9. B-KB4          B-Kt5

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #P |    | #P |#Kt |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #B |    |    | ^P | ^B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |^Kt | ^B |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag.  #142

As White can force Black to play P-Kt3, a weakening move, by P-K5
and Q-Kt4, Black should have played P-Kt3 at once, so as to have
Kt-R4 in answer to P-K5, thus keeping one piece for the defence
of the King's side.  The latter is in jeopardy after the move in
the text, and White's attack succeeds.

          10. P-K5          Kt-Q2
          11. Q-Kt4         P-Kt3
          12. KR-K1         P-QB4

Of course Black must not accept the sacrifice of the exchange by
playing P-Q5. After 13 Kt-K4, BxR; 14 Kt-Q6ch, K-B1; 15 R x B,
Black is in a mating net, from which there is no escape, as he
has no time to collect sufficient forces for the defence. The
move in the text does not stem the tide either, and White quickly
forces the win by a beautiful combination.

          13. P-QR3          B-R4
          14. B-KKt5         Q-Kt3

Q-B2 leads to the same conclusion.

          15. P-Kt4!         PxP
          16. KtxP           PxKt
          17. P-K6

The object of White's fifteenth move is revealed. Without it the
R at K1 would now be attacked.

          17. ...            P-B4

Kt-B4 fails on account of 18. PxPch, KxP; 19. R-K7ch, followed by
Q-KB4.

          18. PxKt double ch    KxP
          19. BxPch             Resigns.


                  GAME No. 30

       White: Tarrasch.    Black: Spielmann.

                Sicilian Defence.

          1. P-K4          P-QB4
          2. Kt-QB3        Kt-QB3
          3. P-KKt3

Speedy development by Kt-B3 and P-Q4 is more desirable, as
otherwise Black may have time to get a firm footing at his Q5.

          3. ...           P-KKt3
          4. B-Kt2         B-Kt2

The Black Bishop is the more effective, as the line of the White
Bishop is masked by the KP. Small as this advantage would seem,
it becomes serious later on. It is another confirmation of the
doctrine that the value of each manoeuvre in the opening depends
on the measure of mobility it affords for the pieces.

          5. KKt-K2         Kt-B3
          6. P-Q3

Here White could still obtain a freer game with P-Q4.  Perhaps he
was afraid of losing a pawn after 6. ... PxP; 7. KtxP, KtxP. But
there is nothing in it, e.g. 8. KKtxKt, KtxKt; 9. KtxQ, KtxQ; 10.
KtxBP! (KtxKtP?  BxKt; 11. BxB, R-QKt1), KxKt (KtxBP?; 11. KtxR,
KtxR; 12. KtxP, KtxP; 13. KtxP), KxKt. There was nothing else to
be feared after P-Q4.

          6. ...              P-Q3
          7. Castles          B-Q2

in order to play Q-B1 and B-R6 and to exchange Bishops, after
which there would be weak points at White's KR3 and KB3.

          8. P-KR3             Castles
          9. B-K3              P-KR3

Black also prevents an exchange of Bishops.

         10. Q-Q2              K-R2
         11. P-B4              Kt-K1

The position has now become exceedingly difficult. In order to
make the most of the favourable development of his KB, Black must
advance on the Queen's side. But in moving his King's side pieces
over to the Queen's side, Black must proceed warily, as White
might get chances of an attack with overwhelming forces on the
King's side.

         12. P-KKt4            Kt-B2
         13. Kt-Kt3

Here it was necessary to play R-B2 in order to play the QR to KB1
before Black could manage to drive the Kt to Q1 by P-QKt4-5.

         13. ...               P-QKt4
         14. Kt-Q1?

It would still have been better to play QR-K1 and to leave the
Queen's side to itself as long as possible after P-Kt5, 15. Kt-
Q1, in order to start an assault on the King's side with P-B5, P-
KR4 and P-Kt5. After the text move the Queen's Rook remains shut
in.

         14. ...               QR-Kt1
         15. Kt-K2

in order to play P-B3 and P-Q4. The whole plan, however, is
inconsequent, as he has started an attack on the King's side. Now
he suddenly opens up files on the Queen's side where Black has
assembled superior forces. The result is that White gets into
trouble on both wings, for as soon as he gives up his King's side
attack, the advanced pawns there, as one knows, are only a source
of weakness.

          15. ...        P-Kt5
          16. P-B3       PxP
          17. PxP        Q-B1
          18. P-Q4       PxP
          19. PxP        Q-R3
          20. R-B1       Kt-Kt4
          21. P-Q5

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    | #R |    |    |    | #R |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    | #B | #P | #P | #B | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #Q |    | #Kt| #P |    |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #Kt|    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    | ^B |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    |    | ^Q | ^Kt|    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    | ^R | ^Kt|    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 143

This shuts in the White KB altogether, and at the same time opens
the diagonal of Black's KB. Therefore, on principle alone the
move is questionable. In effect it gives Black an opportunity for
a beautiful winning combination.  Only P-K5 was worth
considering, as then the opposing Bishop would have been shut in
and White's own diagonal opened.

          21. ...           Kt-Kt5!!
          22. QxKt          Kt-Q5
          23. QxKt          BxQ
          24. KtxB

Although three minor pieces are generally an equivalent for the
Queen, in this case the White game collapses quickly.  The
advanced pawns have produced too many weak points which afford an
entry for the Black forces.


          24. ...                 KR-B1
          25. RxR                 RxR
          26. R-B2                Q-R6
          27. R-K2

B-R5 was threatened. But the text move is of no avail either.
Black winds up the game with another fine combination.

          27. ...                 R-B8!
          28. BxR                 QxB

If R-K1, Q-B4.

          29. Kt-B3               QxKtch
          30. K-B2                B-Kt4
              Resigns.


                  GAME No. 31

        White: John.    Black: Janowski

               Sicilian Defence.

           1. P-K4                P-QB4
           2. Kt-KB3              Kt-QB3
           3. P-Q4                PxP
           4. KtxP                Kt-B3

The aim of this move is to provoke Kt-B3, and incidentally to
prevent P-QB4. The latter move would give White command of his Q5
and not only prevent Black's P-Q4 but also immobilise Black's KP
unless his QP is to remain  "backward."

           5. QKt-B3              P-KKt3

As shown on p. 216, P-Q3 must be played first. In any case Black
must be wary of playing P-KKt3. If, for instance, after P-Q3
White plays 6. B-QB4, and Black replies with P-KKt3, there
follows 7. KtxKt, PxKt; 8. P-K5!, Kt-Kt5 (PxP?, 9. BxPch); 9. P-
K6, P-KB4, with advantage to White (see game in the match
Schlechter-Lasker).

          6. KtxKt          KtPxKt
          7. P-K5           Kt-Kt1
          8. B-QB4          P-Q4
          9. PxP, e.p.      PxP
         10. Q-B3

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K | #B | #Kt| #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    |    | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P | #P |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    | ^Q |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B |    | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 144

White has now three pieces in action and Black none.  Black's
game is hopeless already; his B2 cannot be covered by Q-Q2
because of: 11. BxPch, QxB; 12. QxPch, and after Q-K2ch there
follows: 11. B-K3, B-Kt2; 12. Castles QR, and 13. KR-K1, with an
overwhelming attack.

         10. ...               Q-Q2
         11. Kt-Q5

In view of the fact that his game is so much more developed, and
that the opposing King will hardly be able to escape from the
centre of the board, White decides to sacrifice a Knight in order
to open the files in the centre for his Rooks, instead of
following the simple line indicated in the previous note.

         11. ...               PxKt
         12. BxP               Q-K2ch
         13. B-K3              R-Kt1
         14. Castles KR

Castles QR is stronger still, as the QR gets into action at once.

          14. ...               B-KKt2
          15. B-KB4             R-Kt3
          16. B-B6ch            RxB

If B-Q2, the continuation might have been: 17. BxB, QxB; 18. QR-
Q1, Q-Kt2; 19. KR-K1ch, Kt-K2; 20. RxKtch, KxR; 21. BxPch, etc.;
or 18. ... Q-B1; 19. BxP, etc.

After 17. R-K1 Black could have held out a little longer with B-
B3. After the text move, however, Black's game collapses quickly
before the concentrated onslaught of the White forces.

          17. QxRch           Q-Q2
          18. Q R-K1ch        Kt-K2
          19. RxKtch!         KxR
          20. R-K1ch          K-B1
          21. BxPch           K-Kt1
          22. R-K8ch          B-B1
          23. RxBch           K-Kt2
          24. Q-B3ch          Resigns.


                 GAME No. 32

    White: Ed. Lasker. Black: Mieses.

           Centre Counter Defence.

           1. P-K4             P-Q4
           2. PxP              Kt-KB3

This is to tempt White to play P-QB4, a weak move  (see p. 35).
By playing P-QB3 Black would obtain by far the better game in
exchange for the pawn.

           3. P-Q4             QxP

KtxP can also be played. In either case White wins a move by
driving off the Black piece by Kt-QB3 or P-QB4.  Furthermore,
White has a pawn in the centre. Black's plan in retaking with the
Queen might be to castle early on the Queen's side and attack
White's centre pawn by P-K4, and White must be on the alert
against this plan, though it will not be easy for Black to put
the same into execution, because of the exposed position of his
Queen. After 4. Kt-QB3, Q-QR4 is the only move which brings the
Queen into momentary security, and even then Black must provide
for a retreat, as after White's B-Q2 there would be a threat of
an advantageous   "discovery" by the Kt. P-QB3 provides such a
retreat, but it bars the QKt from its natural development at B3,
where the Kt could exert further pressure on White's Q4. The QB,
too, is difficult to get into play and easily becomes an object
of attack, as in the present game.

          4. Kt-QB3          Q-QR4
          5. Kt-B3           B-B4

B-Kt5 would only help White's intentions to attack on the King's
side in the absence of Black's Queen, e.g. 6. P-KR3, B-R4; 7. P-
KKt4, B-Kt3; 8. Kt-K5 (threatening Kt-B4), P-B3; 9. P-KR4, Q Kt-
Q2; 10. Kt-B4, Q-B2; 11. P-R5, B-K5; 12. KtxB, KtxKt; 13. Q-B3
and B-B4 with the superior game.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt|    |    | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    | #P | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #Q |    |    |    |    | #B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 145

          6. Kt-K5!          Kt-K5

P-B3 was urgent here, to provide against Kt-B4 and Q-B3. Now the
game is as good as lost. White obtains a violent attack with
superior forces, and brings it home before Black has time to
complete his development.

          7. Q-B3           Kt-Q3

If KtxKt, B-Q2.

          8. B-Q2           P-K3
          9. P-KKt4         B-Kt3

Black had to guard his KB2 because of Kt-Kt5, KtxKt, QxPch.

         10. P-KR4          Q-Kt3
         11. Castles        P-KB3

Compulsory. Kt-B3 is refuted by 12. KtxKt, QxKt; 13. QxQ, PxQ;
14. B-Kt2 and P-R5. On the other hand, the answer to 11. ... QxP
would be 12. B-KB4, Q-B4; 13. P-R5, P-B3; 14. PxB, PxKt; 15. B-
KKt5 followed by RxKt and R-Q8 or Q-B7 mate.

         12. KtxB           PxKt
         13. B-Q3           QxP

K-B2 or P-KB4 were also unavailing in consequence of Black's poor
development.

         14. BxPch          K-Q2
         15. B-K3           Q-Kt5
         16. P-R3           Q-B5
         17. QxKtP          Q-B3
         18. B-K4           Resigns.


                 GAME No. 33

        White: Barasz.   Black: Mieses.

          Centre Counter Defence.

          1. P-K4           P-Q 4
          2. PxP            QxP
          3. Kt-QB3         Q-QR4
          4. Kt-B3

It is better to advance the QP at once and so threaten B-Q2,
after which Black is almost under compulsion to provide a retreat
for his Q by P-QB3, thus blocking his QKt.

          4. ...              Kt-QB3
          5. B-K2             B-B4
          6. P-Q3

Already now the mistake of having allowed Black to develop his
Queen's side unmolested is apparent. P-Q4 is now impossible, for
Black would castle on the Queen's side and keep the initiative by
exerting a permanent pressure on White's QP by P-K4. White must
yield up the centre to Black.

          6. ...              P-K4
          7. B-Q2             Castles
          8. P-QR3            Q-B4

The Queen must escape from White's threat of P-QKt4.

          9. Castles          Kt-B3
         10. P-QKt4           Q-K2
         11. P-Kt5

This advance is somewhat purposeless, as the White pieces are not
ready for an attack on Black's King. It is difficult, though, to
find a sensible plan, as the White pieces have so little
mobility. It would perhaps be best to play R-K1, B-B1, and Kt-K4.

         11. ...              Kt-Q5
         12. R-K1             Q-B4
         13. B-KB1            B-Q3
         14. Q-Kt1?

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #K | #R |    |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | #B |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | ^P | #Q |    | #P | #B |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | #Kt|    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P |    | ^Kt| ^P |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    | ^P | ^B |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R | ^Q |    |    | ^R | ^B | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 146

The purpose of this move is not clear. The advance of the KtP
could only be condoned by a desire to obtain an open file, and it
seems illogical to protect it now. If White wanted to escape the
pinning of his KKt he need not have moved the Queen. KtxKt would
have effected this and prevented the King's side from being laid
bare.

White's game would still have been bad, particularly as the
exchange at Q4 opens the diagonal for the Black KB, but the move
in the text has even a worse effect. Mieses concludes the game
with an elegant sacrifice.

         14. ...                  KtxKtch
         15. PxKt                 P-K5!
         16. QPxP                 BxPch
         17. KxB                  QxPch
         18. B-Kt2                RxB
         19. R-K2                 RxR
         20. KtxR                 QxKt
         21. PxB                  Q-K4ch
         22. K-R1                 R-K1

Black has wrought fearful havoc in the White ranks, and the
defenceless King cannot withstand the onslaught of the three
White pieces for long.

         23. P-QB4                Kt-R4
         24. K-Kt1                Q-Q5ch
         25. K-R2                 R-K7

threatening Q-R5ch, Q-B7ch, and mate at Kt7 or R7.

         26. Q-R1                 Q-K4ch
         27. P-B4                 QxPch
         28. K-Kt1                Q-Q5ch
             Resigns.


                   GAME NO. 34

     White: Em. Lasker.    Black: Niemzowitsch.

        Caro-Kann Defence (compare p. 50).

          1. P-K4                 P-QB3
          2. P-Q4                 P-Q4
          3. Kt-QB3               PxP
          4. KtxP                 Kt-B3
          5. KtxKt                KtPxKt
          6. B-K2                 B-B4
          7. B-B3                 Q-R4ch
          8. P-B3                 P-KR4!

A deep conception. If White accepts the proffered sacrifice of a
pawn, he loses time, as he must retire his B before bringing out
his Kt, and, moreover, the KR file being open, he can only castle
on the Q side. But there the Black Queen is ready for the attack.
If he refuses the sacrifice, the text move is still of value, as
even then it is hardly advisable for White to castle on the K
side, whilst Black can play B-R3 as soon as it might be desirable
to exchange White's QB.

          9. BxP              Kt-Q2
         10. B-Kt4            BxB
         11. QxB              Castles
         12. Kt-K2            P-K3
         13. B-B4             Q-QKt4!

Black is the first to complete his development, and he assumes
the offensive.

         14. Castles QR!

This is much stronger than the alternative P-QKt3, which would
fatally disturb the pawn skeleton, particularly as castling is
only possible on the Q side. Although Black can now gain two
pawns, White obtains an attack and Black only just manages to
escape with a draw.

         14. ...              Kt-Kt3
         15. Kt-Kt3

intending Q-K2 in answer to Kt-B5. Again P-QKt3 is not to be
thought of, and R-Q2 also fails because of Kt-B5; 16. R-B2, KtxP.

         15. ...              Q-Q4
         16. K-Kt1            QxKtP
         17. QR-Kt1           QxBP
         18. Kt-K4            Q-R5
         19. Q-B3             Kt-B5!

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #K | #R |    | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    | #P | #P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | #Kt| ^P | ^Kt| ^B |    | #Q |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    |    | ^Q |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    | ^K |    |    |    |    | ^R | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 147

Whilst Black was busy capturing two pawns by moving the Queen
four times, White was concentrating the whole of his forces, and
now threatens to win back the pawn with R-Kt4. The move in the
text anticipates the threat, for now the answer to 20. R-Kt4
would be Q-R4; 21. KtxP?, Q-B4ch; 22. Kt-K4?? Kt-Q7ch, winning
the Q.

         20. K-R1           P-KB4
         21. Kt-Kt5         B-Q3
         22. B-B1           R-Q2
         23. R-Kt2          B-B2

intending to get rid of the awkward White Knight by Kt-Q3-K5.

         24. KR-Kt          Kt-Q3
         25. Q-K2           Kt-K5
         26. Kt-B3          Q-R6
         27. P-R3

White appears to be in "time" difficulties, or else he remains
passive, in order to give Black an opportunity for making the
risky attempt to hold the extra pawn by P-B3 and P-K4.

         27. ...            P-R3
         28. B-K3           KR-Q1
         29. K-R2           R-R1

If Black wants to play for a win, he must play P-B3.  In view of
the favourable position of the White pieces, he prefers to risk
nothing and to avoid the weakening of position which follows upon
practically every pawn move.

         30. K-R1           KR-Q1
         31. K-R2           R-K1
         32. R-Kt8          RxR
         33. RxRch          R-Q1
         34. R-Kt7          R-Q2
         35. R-Kt8ch

As long as Black plays steadily, White cannot hope for more than
a draw.

         35. ...            R-Q1
         36. R-Kt7          R-B1
         37. P-B4           Kt-B3

In order to drive off the Rook; White now enforces the draw by a
fine combination.

         38. B-Kt5!         Kt-R4
         39. RxP!           RxR
         40. QxPch          R-Q2

Not K-Kt1 on account of 41. Q-K8ch, K-R2; 42. QxR, QxKt; 43. QxB,
threatening B-K7.

         41. Kt-K5!         Draw.

For after BxKt there follows 42. Q-K8ch, K-B2; 43. QxBch, with
perpetual check.

Both players have shown a deep positional insight, and the game
shows in an interesting manner how a preponderance of material
can be counterbalanced by the greater mobility of the pieces.


                GAME NO. 35

        White: Reti.      Black: Tartakower.

             Caro-Kann Defence.

          1. P-K4            P-QB3
          2. P-Q4            P-Q4
          3. Kt-QB3          PxP
          4. KtxP            Kt-KB3
          5. Q-Q3

White wishes to castle as soon as possible on the Queen's side,
in order to operate on the Queen's file with the help of the
Rook.

          5. ...             P-K4

Here Black loses two moves in bringing White's centre pawn away.
The manoeuvre therefore is not sound. QKt-Q2, KtxKt, and Kt-B3,
or any other developing moves would be preferable.

          6. PxP             Q-R4ch
          7. B-Q2            QxP
          8. Castles!

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B |    | #K | #B |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | #Q |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^Q |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^P | ^B |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    | ^K | ^R |    | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 148

White prepares a magnificent mating combination, which can only
be made possible at such an early stage, when the opponent has
utterly neglected his development.

          8. ...               KtxKt
          9. Q-Q8ch!!          KxQ
         10. B-Kt5 double ch   K-B2
         11. B-Q8 mate

A beautiful mate. If 11. ... K-K1, 11. R-Q8 mate.


              GAME NO. 36

    White: Forgacz.    Black: E. Cohn.

            Queen's Gambit.


          1. P-Q4          P-Q4
          2. Kt-KB3        P-K3
          3. P-B4          PxP
          4. Kt-B3         Kt-KB3
          5. B-Kt5         B-K2
          6. P-K4          P-KR3

Through 3. ... PxP Black's development is one move behind, and
such pawn moves should at any cost be avoided as do not
contribute to the mobilisation of the pieces. Castles, P-QKt3, B-
Kt2, and QKt-Q 2 was the proper course.

          7. BxKt

This is better than to withdraw the Bishop; Black's last move was
clearly loss of time.

          7.. ...          BxB
          8. BxP           Kt-Q2
          9. Castles       Castles

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P | #Kt|    | #P | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P | #B |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^B | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 149

There seems to be nothing alarming about the position, yet on
closer investigation a number of vital failings can be discerned
in Black's camp. The absence of a pawn in the centre and the
unsatisfactory development have a far-reaching influence.  White
will be able to bring his forces to the King's side by way of K4,
which is made accessible by the disappearance of Black's QP,
before Black has time to bring his QB to bear on White's K4 by P-
QKt3 and B-Kt2. White's immediate threat (after P-K5) is Q-K2-K4
and B-Q3.  If Black does not wish to risk P-KKt3, he must defend
himself with R-K1, Kt-B1. In the meantime White can play R-Q1 and
threaten P-Q5, opening the Queen's file. This again necessitates
P-B3, which postpones the efficiency of the QB at Kt2 until
White's QKt and QR have been brought up for the attack. The game
develops on these lines, and provides an excellent example of the
advantage of the command of the centre.

         10. P-K5           B-K2
         11. Q-K2           R-K1
         12. QR-Q1          P-QB3
         13. Q-K4           Q-B2

preparing P-QKt3.

         14. KR-K1          Kt-B1
         15. Q-Kt4          P-QKt3
         16. Q-R5           B-Kt2
         17. R-K4           B-Kt5

Black cannot yet play P-QB4, as R-B4 is threatened with an attack
on KB7. The Bishop which obstructs the Q would have no move, save
the sorry retreat to Q1, and White would win speedily: 17. ... P-
QB4; 18. R-B4, B-Q1; 19. P-Q5, PxP; 20. KtxP, BxKt; 21. BxB,
attacking R and P.

         18. R-Kt4          BxKt
         19. PxB            K-R1

QxP was threatened.

         20. Kt-Kt5         R-K2
         21. Kt-K4

Even the Knight is brought in via K4.

         21. ...            R-Q1
         22. R-Q3           P-QB4
         23. Kt-B6

threatening QxPch and R-Kt8 mate. Black cannot capture the Kt
because of QxPch and mate at Kt7. But the mate cannot be delayed
much longer in view of the concentration of superior forces for
the attack.

         23. ...              Kt-Kt3
         24. R-R3             Resigns

There is no answer to Q-Kt5 and RxP.


               GAME NO. 37

   White: Marshall.   Black: Capablanca.

    Queen's Gambit Declined (see p. 52).

          1. P-Q4             P-Q4
          2. P-QB4            P-K3
          3. Kt-QB3           Kt-KB3
          4. B-Kt5            B-K2
          5. P-K3             Kt-K5


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R | #Kt| #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P | #P |    | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P | ^P | #Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K | ^B | ^Kt| ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 150

Lasker has played this move successfully in his match against
Marshall; but it has not come into general use. White should get
the better game by 6. BxB, QxB; 7. Q-B2, KtxKt; 8. QxKt or 7.
PxP, KtxKt; 8. PxKt, PxP; 9. Q-Kt3, in the first case because the
Black QB is out of play, in the second case because of the open
Kt file. 7. KtxKt is bad, because PxKt prevents the natural
development of the KKt at B3, and Black can obtain an attack
after castling by P-KB4-5.

          6. BxB           QxB
          7. B-Q3

This also is a good move, as it furthers development.

          7. ...           KtxKt
          8. PxKt          PxP

Giving up the centre pawn in this case is not against the spirit
of the opening, as it opens the only diagonal on which the Black
QB can operate.

          9. BxP           P-QKt3
         10. Q-B3          P-QB3
         11. Kt-K2         B-Kt2
         12. Castles KR    Castles
         13. P-QR4

This move can only be good if White intends to operate on the
Queen's side, possibly by KR-Kt1 and P-R5.  But the position of
the White Queen makes the adoption of a different plan
compulsory. For one thing, it is rational to concentrate forces
where the Queen can take her share, therefore, in this case, on
the King's side. On the other hand, the manoeuvre referred to
could not be put into execution here because Black can prevent P-
R5 by P-QB4 and Kt-B3. A fairly obvious course was to play P-K4,
taking possession of the centre. P-QB4 would then be answered by
P-Q5, after which the White Rooks would be very effective at Q1
and K1. In this game White does initiate a King's side attack
subsequently, and thus 13. ... P-QR4 is clearly a lost move.

          13. ...          P-QB4
          14. Q-Kt3        Kt-B3
          15. Kt-B4        QR-B1

The tempting move of P-K4 cannot be played because of 16. Kt-Q5,
Q-Q1; 17. PxBP, Kt-R4; 18. KR-Q1.  The move in the text threatens
PxP, KtxP and RxB.

          16. B-R2         KR-Q1
          17. KR-K1        Kt-R4

This threatens B-B3 attacking the RP. White decides to yield the
same at once, thinking quite rightly that a direct attack must
have good chances, as Black gets two pieces out of play in
capturing the pawn.

         18. QR-Q1           B-B 3
         19. Q-Kt4

Black cannot take the pawn yet, because of KtxP and BxPch.

         19. ...             P-B5
         20. P-Q5?

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #R | #R |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    | #Q | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P | #B |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #Kt|    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | ^P |    | #P |    |    | ^Kt| ^Q |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^B |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    | ^R | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 151

There is no need to play for violent complications. The logical
course was to open the way to the King's side for the Rooks by P-
K4. The continuation could have been:  20. P-K4, BxRP; 21. Kt-R5,
P-Kt3; 22. P-K5, BxR; 23. RxB followed by Kt-B6, with a strong
attack; also after 21. ... P-B3, 22. R-Q2, White's attacking
chances are good. After the move in the text, Black could get an
advantage by simply exchanging: 20. ... PxP; 21. KtxP, BxKt; 22.
RxB, RxR; 23. QxRch, R-Q1; 24. Q-KB5, P-Kt3; 25. Q-B2, Q-R6. In
taking the RP, however, Black incurs grave risks.

         20. ...             BxRP
         21. R-Q2            P-K4
         22. Kt-R5           P-Kt3
         23. P-Q6            Q-K3
         24. Q-Kt5           K-R1

Black finds the weaknesses at his KB3 and KR3 very troublesome.
RxP would lose at once, because of 25. RxR, QxR; 26. Q-R6!

          25. Kt-B6           RxP
          26. RxR             QxR
          27. B-Kt1

Q-R4 would have been answered by K-Kt2.

          27. ...             Kt-B3

Black must try to bring back his minor pieces for the defence. If
he succeeds in doing that in time, the end-game is easily won on
the Queen's side.

          28. B-B5            R-Q1

Not PxB because of Q-R6.

          29. P-KR4

White's attacking resources seem inexhaustible. By exchanging
Queens he could have got his pawn back in this way:  29. B-Q7, Q-
B1 (R xB?, 30. Q-R6); 30. BxKt, BxB; 31. QxQP, Q-Q3; 32. Kt-
Q7,QxQ; 33. KtxQ, B-K1; 34. KtxQBP. But even then Black would
maintain a superiority in the end-game owing to the freedom of
his passed pawn, and because he can post his Rook at the seventh
after P-QKt4. This explains why Marshall prefers not to win back
his pawn, but to enter upon a violent attack with a doubtful
issue. However, Capablanca finds the right move in all the
ensuing complications, and finally wins the game.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #R |    |    |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    |    | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P | #Kt| #Q |    | ^Kt| #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    |    | #P | ^B | ^Q |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 | #B |    | #P |    |    |    |    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    | ^R |    | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 152

         29. ...                 Kt-K2
         30. Kt-K4               Q-B2
         31. Q-B6ch              K-Kt1
         32. B-K6

This is now compulsory. If White loses time in withdrawing the B,
Black consolidates his position by: Kt-Q4 and Q-K2.

         32. ...                 PxB

R-B1 is refuted by 33. Kt-Kt5!, PxB; 34. QxR, etc.

         33. QxKPch

Better than Kt-Kt5, for after Kt-Q4, 34. QxPch, the Black King
finds a safe retreat at Kt2.

         33. ...                 K-B1
         34. Kt-Kt5              Kt-Kt1
         35. P-B4

in order to open the file for the Rook.

         35. ...                 R-K1
         36. PxP                 R-K2
         37. R-B1ch              K-Kt2
         38. P-R5                B-K1
         39. P-R6ch              K-R1

KtxP fails on account of Q-B6ch.

         40. Q-Q6

White takes all possible advantage from the position, but cannot
bring home his attack, as Black has concentrated his forces for
the defence. Black must still be careful to avoid a mate, e.g.
QxQ?; 41. PxQ, RxP; 42. R-B7 or 4l. ... R-Q2; 42. R-B8.

         40. ...                 Q-B4
         41. Q-Q4

Here White could have tried QxQ and R-B8. There was then a
permanent threat of RxB, e.g. 41. QxQ, PxQ; 42. R-B8, RxP; 43.
Kt-B3, R-K2; 44. Kt-Kt5, etc.  It seems as if Black would have to
give up the piece again by 43. ... R-R4 in order to win. White,
however, would then have drawing chances, which would have been a
fitting conclusion to this wonderful game.

         41. ...                RxP
         42. Q-Q7               R-K2
             Resigns


                 GAME No. 38

       White: Rotlewi. Black: Teichmann.

           Queen's Gambit Declined.

          1. P-Q4               P-Q 4
          2. Kt-KB3             Kt-KB3
          3. P-B4               P-K3
          4. Kt-B3              QKt-Q2
          5. B-Kt5              B-K2

Capablanca tried 5. ... B-Kt5; against Ed. Lasker in New York,
1915. The continuation was: 6. P-K3, P-B4; 7. B-Q3, Q-R4; 8. Q-
Kt3.

The correct move is here 8. Castles. If Black wins the pawn by
BxKt; 9. PxB, QPxP; 10. BxP, QxBP, White obtains a strong attack,
e.g., 11. R-B1, Q-R4; 12. BxKt, PxB (KtxB; 13. PxP); 13. P-Q5,
with this possible continuation l3. ... Kt-Kt3, 14. PxP, PxP; 15.
Q-Q6, with a strong attack.

          6. P-K3               Castles
          7. Q-B2               P-B4

White intends to castle on the Queen's side, and to follow this
up with a storm by the King's side pawns. Although Rubinstein has
on many occasions been successful with this form of attack, it is
open to criticism. For, where Kings have castled on different
wings, the attack on the King which has castled on the Q side
should be more successful.


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    | #Kt| #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    |    | #P | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | #P |    |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    | ^P | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^Q |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 153

This is much stronger than P-Q Kt3 and B-Kt2, as then the Black
Queen cannot participate in the attack quickly enough. As pointed
out before, speed is the first consideration for the attack,
whenever the Kings have castled on different wings. An
interesting counterpart to the present game is found in a game
won by Rubinstein from Teichmann (Match, Vienna, 1908) 7. ... P-
QKt3; 8. PxP, PxP; 9. B-Q3, B-Kt2; 10. Castles QR, P-B4; 11. P-
KR4, P-B5?  (the only hope lay in the opening of the QB file);
12. B-B5, R-K1; 13. BxKKt, KtxB; 14. P-KKt4, B-Q3; 15. P-Kt5, Kt-
K5; 16. P-R5, Q-K2; 17. QR-Kt1, P-QR3; 18. BxPch!, KxB; 19. P-
Kt6ch, K-Kt1; 20. KtxKt, PxKt; 21. P-R6, P-B31 22. PxP, PxKt; 23
R-R8ch, KxP; 24. R-R7ch, and Black resigned a few moves later.

          8. Castles           Q-R4
          9. PxQP

White loses time in the centre. It was imperative to proceed at
once with P-KKt4 followed by BxKt, P-Kt5 and P-KR4.

          9. ...               KPxP
         10. PxP               KtxP
         11. Kt-Q4             B-K3
         12. K-Kt1

It would be too risky to leave both King and Queen on the QB
file.

         12. ...               QR-B1
         13. B-Q3              P-KR3

The threat was: BxKt and BxPch. Had White played P-KKt4 and P-KR4
instead of effecting exchanges in the centre, Black would not
have been able to afford this weakening move. But now Black wins
the game on the other wing, before White is able to make use of
the weakness thus created.

         14. BxKt              BxB
         15. B-B5              KR-Q1
         16. BxB               PxB
         17. Q-Kt6

The Queen must leave the QB file without delay, as Kt-K5 is
threatened. Black's game is already superior; with the exception
of the Queen, White has no piece available for the attack on the
opposing King.

          17. ...                 R-Q3
          18. R-QB1               R-R3

Now White must again provide against Black's Kt-K5, as White's
QKt is needed for the defence of QR2.

          19. P-B3                R-Q1

Black intends to move his B and then to advance his KP with an
attack on the Queen. The object of the text move is to prevent
White from saving himself by an attack on the Rook (Q-B5).

          20. R-B2                BxKt

By this exchange Black achieves his object of driving off the
Knight by P-Q5, but White has time to give his RP further
protection by P-QKt3, This, Black would have prevented by playing
B-Kt4 instead of the text move, e.g. 21. P-B4, P-K4; 22. Q-B5,
PxKt; 23. PxP, B-B3; 24. PxKt, P-Q5, etc.

          21. PxB                  P-K4
          22. Q-Kt4                PxP
          23. QxP                  Kt-K3
          24. Q-K5

This delays the fatal advance of the QP for one move.

          24. ...                  P-QKt4
          25. P-QKt3               P-Q5
          26. Kt-K4                P-Q6
          27. R-Q2                 Kt-Q5
          28. R-QB1                Kt-B7
          29. Q-Kt2                Kt-R6ch
          30. K-R1                 Kt-B7ch
          31. K-Kt1                Kt-R6ch
          32. K-R1                 Kt-B7ch
          33. K-Kt1

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #R |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #R |    |    |    |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 | #Q | #P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    | ^Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    | #P |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^Q | #Kt| ^R |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    | ^K | ^R |    |    |    |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 154

Black does not play for a draw, but only wishes to gain time.

          33. ...            R-QB3

The intention is to double Rooks and to force an entry at B7. P-
Kt5 would not be good. The White Rook would no longer be
attacked, and the Knight could attack the QP.

          34. R(B1)-Q1       KR-QB1

Now that the White Rook has left the QB file, one Rook would be
sufficient to force an entry at B7, and Kt-R6ch followed by P-Kt5
could have been played at once, e.g. 34. ... Kt-R6ch; 35. K-R1,
P-Kt5 (preventing P-QKt4); 36. Kt-B2,R-B7; 37. RxR, PxR; 38. R-
QB1, Q-Kt3; 39. Kt-K4, R-Q8 followed by RxRch, Q-Q5ch and P-B8
mate.

          35. RxP            Kt-R6ch
          36. K-R1           P-Kt5
          37. R-Q7           Q-K4!!

If QxQ, Black mates in three.

          38. R-Q8ch        RxR
          39. RxRch         K-R2
          40. R-Q1          QxQch

Curiously enough there is nothing better. Q-B2 only leads to the
exchange of Queens and the same end-game, which, however, is an
easy win for Black, as the permanent mating threat keeps the
White Rook tied to the first rank, whilst the Black King
threatens to capture all the White pawns.

If Q-B2 White forces the exchange of Queens with the following
combination: 41. Q-Q2, R-B7; 42. Q-Q3, R-B8ch; 43. K-Kt2, with a
threat of Kt-B6ch and Q-R7 mate. Black therefore would have to
play Q-B7ch, etc., as in the game.

         41. KxQ           R-B7ch
         42. K-R1          RxP
         43. R-R1          P-Kt4
         44. Kt-B6ch       K-Kt2
         45. Kt-K4         K-Kt3
         46. Kt-Q6         P-QR4

We have now a position with a forced move. If the White Knight
moves, there follows K-B4-B5, etc. Therefore White gives up his R
P voluntarily.

         47. R-QB1         RxP
         48. Kt-B4         Kt-Kt4

Now Kt-B6 and RxP mate are threatened.

         49. Kt-K5ch       K-Kt2
         50. Kt-Kt4        R-K7
         51. R-B5          R-K8ch
         52. K-Kt2         Kt-R6
         53. R-B7ch        K-B1
         54. R-B1          R-K7ch
         55. K-R1          Kt-B7ch
         56. K-Kt1         Kt-R6ch

Black again appears to be short of time.

         57. K-R1          Kt-Kt4
         58. R-B5          R-K8ch
         59. K-Kt2         Kt-R6
         60. R-B1          R-K7ch

Now, after the sixtieth move Black has again plenty of time, and
can prepare the final combination at leisure.

         61. K-R1          R-K3
         62. R-R1          K-Kt2
         63. R-QB1         K-Kt3
         64. R-B6          RxR
         65. Kt-K5ch       K-B4
         66. KtxR          P-R4
         67. Kt-Q4ch       K-K4
         68. Kt-K2         Kt-B7ch
         69. K-Kt2         Kt-Q5
             Resigns.


              GAME NO. 39.

   White: Rotlewi.   Black: Rubinstein

         Queen's Gambit Declined.

         1. P-Q4           P-Q4
         2. Kt-KB3         P-K3
         3. P-K3           P-QB4
         4. P-B4           Kt-QB3
         5. Kt-B3          Kt-B3
         6. QPxP           BxP
         7. P-QR3          P-QR3
         8. P-QKt4         B-Q3
         9. B-Kt2          Castles


        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #P |    |    |    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #Kt| #B | #P | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P |    | ^Kt|    | ^P | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^B |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 155

         10. Q-Q2

White cannot win the QP by 10. PxP, PxP; 11. KtxP, KtxKt; 12.
QxKt, because BxPch wins the Queen.  The text move is played with
the intention of bringing up the QR for the attack on the QP.
However, it would have been more correct to fix the object of
attack first by PxP, as Black could now cross White's intentions
by playing PxP, after which he would sooner or later gain a move
by occupying the Q file with a Rook, and forcing the White Queen
to retreat.

         10. ...                 Q-K2!

Black offers to give up his Queen's Pawn. If White accepts the
sacrifice, Black's attack on the Queen's file will become deadly,
as White must lose a move in bringing his Queen out of the line
of action of the hostile Rook. The White King has then no time to
get into safety, e.g. 11. PxP, PxP; 12. KtxP, KtxKt; 13. QxKt, R-
Q1; 14. Q-Kt3, B-K3 followed by KtxP, etc.

         11. B-Q3?

Here again PxP (followed by B-K2, R-Q1, Castles)  would have
avoided the loss of a move, as indicated in my note to move 10.
Now White loses yet another move, as Black exchanges pawns and
the Bishop has taken two moves to reach B4, as against one only
in the case of the Black KB.  The loss of two moves in the
opening stages should be fatal, and of this Rubinstein gives a
striking example in the present game.

         11. ...                 PxP
         12. BxP                 P-QKt4
         13. B-Q3                R-Q1
         14. Q-K2                B-Kt2
         15. Castles KR          Kt-K4

The advantage which Black obtains by his last move is generally
gained by White in this opening (compare Diag. 36).  But in the
game White has lost two moves and Black has assumed the
offensive, having moreover a Rook acting on the Q file.

         16. KtxKt               BxKt
         17. P-B4

Black's threat was: BxPch followed by Q-Q3ch and QxB. If White
replies: 17. KR-Q1 the answer is Q-B2 attacking both the RP and
the Kt. The text move is unsatisfactory, as it will be necessary
to advance the KP to K4 or K5, where it will block the diagonal
of one of the Bishops.

         17. ...                B-B2
         18. P-K4               QR-B1
         19. P-K5               B-Kt3ch
         20. K-R1               Kt-Kt5!!

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #R | #R |    |    | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #B |    |    | #Q | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P | #B |    |    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | #Kt|    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | ^P |    | ^Kt| ^B |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^B |    |    | ^Q |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    |    | ^R |    | ^K |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 156

The beginning of magnificent sacrifices. 21. QxKt cannot be
played because of RxB and R-Q7, etc.

         21. B-K4               Q-R5
         22. P-Kt3

After P-R3 Black wins also in fine style: RxKt!!; 23. QxKt, QxQ;
24. PxQ, BxB; 25. BxR, R-Q6 threatening R-R 6 mate; or, 23. BxR,
BxB; 24. QxB, Q-Kt6; 25. PxKt, Q-R5 mate.

         22. ...                RxKt!!
         23. PxQ                R-Q7!!
         24. QxR                BxBch
         25. Q-Kt2              R-R6

and mate at R7.


              GAME NO. 40

  White: Rubinstein.    Black: Capablanca.

        Queen's Gambit Declined.

          1. P-Q4          P-Q4
          2. Kt-KB3        P-QB4
          3. P-B4          P-K3
          4. PxQP          KPxP
          5. Kt-B3         Kt-QB3
          6. P-KKt3        B-K3
          7. B-Kt2         B-K2
          8. Castles       R-B1

This move is not satisfactory at this juncture. It rather helps a
combination which is frequently resorted to in similar positions,
namely, the exchange of the Black QB and subsequent pressure on
the KP by the White KB on the diagonal KR3-QB8. 8. ... Kt-B3
should have been played, after

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    | #R | #Q | #K |    | #Kt| #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    | #B |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt|    |    | ^Kt| ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^B | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 157

which White could hardly be said to possess any advantage, e.g.
9. B-Kt5, Kt-K5, or 9. B-K3, Kt-KKt5, or 9. P-QR3, or 9. PxP,
BxP; 10. B-Kt5, B-K2. After 9. PxP, however, it would be weak to
recapture with the Queen. In a game E. Cohn-Ed. Lasker (match
1909) there followed: 9. ... Q-R4; 10. Kt-KKt5, QxP; 11. B-K3, Q-
R4; 12.  Q-Kt3, after which Black had to give up a pawn already:
Castles QR; 13. KtxB, PxKt; 14. B-R3, etc.

          9. PxP           BxP
         10. Kt-KKt5       Kt-B3
         11. KtxB          PxKt
         12. B-R3          Q-K2
         13. B-Kt5

P-K4 is stronger here, in order to play B-Kt5 after PxP. l3. ...
P-Q5 would then be refuted by Kt-Q5.

         13. ...           Castles
         14. BxKt          QxB

After this White gains a pawn by a complicated and well-timed
combination. Capablanca did not consider the subtle reply on
Rubinstein's seventeenth move. Otherwise he would have recaptured
with the pawn. However, in that case too, White's chances are
good in the end-game which ensues after:  15. KtxP, PxKt; 16.
QxPch, K-R1; 17. BxR. The Rooks would soon become effective in
view of the open K side.

         15. KtxP          Q-R3

BxPch fails because of 16. K-Kt2, Q-B2; 17. Kt-B4!

         16. K-Kt2         QR-Q1
         17. Q-B1

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #R |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    |    |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    | #P |    |    | #Q |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #B | ^Kt|    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^B |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^K | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^Q |    |    | ^R |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 158

         17. ...                 PxKt

If RxKt, White exchanges Queens and plays BxPch.

         18. QxB                 Q-Q7
         19. Q-Kt5               Kt-Q5
         20. Q-Q3

With an extra pawn White forces the exchange of Queens.  Black
cannot prevent it, as 20. ... QxKtP loses the Knight on account
of 21. KR-Kt1, and 20. ... Q-Kt5 loses the QP by 21. KR-Q1 and B-
K6ch.

         20. ...                 QxQ
         21. PxQ                 KR-K1
         22. B-Kt4

KR-K1 would not prevent the entry of the Black Rook:  Kt-B7; 23.
RxRch, RxR; 24. R-QB1, R-K7; 25. B-Kt4, R-Q7. Black would win the
pawn back and might even succeed in the end-game with a Knight
against a Bishop.

         22. ...                 R-Q3
         23. KR-K1               RxR
         24. RxR                 R-QKt3

Black should first play his King to KB3, and keep the Rook away
from his K5. Not that the QP is of paramount importance; the QKtP
fully makes up for its loss. But as played the Knight is driven
from his dominating position, and the badly placed Bishop gets
into play. No doubt even after the text move the ending is most
difficult, and it requires Rubinstein's full powers to bring it
to a successful issue.

          25. R-K5               RxP
          26. RxP                Kt-B3
          27. B-K6ch             K-B1
          28. R-B5ch             K-K1
          29. B-B7ch             K-Q2
          30. B-B4               P-QR3

Black's only chance is his extra pawn on the Q side. To exchange
the Kt for the B by 30. ... K-Q3; 31. R-B 7, Kt-K4; 32. RxKKtP,
KtxB would take too much time where time is all-important. White
would clear the K side in the meantime, push on his KRP, and
ultimately give up his R for Black's remaining P, as soon as the
latter runs into Queen, after which the three passed pawns win
easily against the Rook. Generally speaking it is wise, in R
endings like the present one, to advance pawns on the side where
there is an extra pawn, in order to get a passed pawn as soon as
possible.  Then the hostile Rook has to look after that pawn lest
it should queen, and the greater mobility of one's own Rook often
saves the game even when opposed by a preponderance of pawns.

         31. R-B7ch             K-Q3
         32. RxKKtP             P-Kt4
         33. B-Kt8              P-QR4
         34. RxP                P-R5
         35. P-R4               P-Kt5
         36. R-R6ch             K-B4
         37. R-R5ch             K-Kt3
         38. B-Q5               P-Kt6

RxP is tempting but unavailing, as White plays B-B4 followed by
R-Kt5ch and P-R5-6, etc. After the text move White has a problem-
like continuation, which he has worked out with great accuracy.

         39. PxP                P-R6
         40. BxKt

If now P-R7, White simply plays 41. R-Kt5ch, K-R3; 42. R-Kt8-R8.

         40. ...                RxKtP
         41. B-Q5               P-R7
         42. R-R6ch             Resigns.

As the R holds the RP, e.g. K-R4; 43. B-B4 followed by R-R6ch or
42. ... K-R2; 43. R-R8, etc.


                  GAME NO. 41

    White: Niemzowitsch.   Black: Tarrasch.

            Queen's Gambit Declined.

          1. P-Q4                P-Q4
          2. Kt-KB3              P-QB4
          3. P-B4                P-K3
          4. P-K3                Kt-KB3
          5. B-Q3                Kt-B3
          6. Castles             B-Q3
          7. P-QKt3              Castles
          8. B-Kt2               P-QKt3
          9. QKt-Q2              B-Kt2
         10. R-B1                Q-K2
         11. PxQP

The most natural move to which the development of the QKt at Q2
instead of B3 would seem to lead is Kt-K5 followed by P-B4. After
11. Kt-K5 Black could not yet attempt 11. ... PxQP; 12. KPxP, B-
R6, weakening the QP, because of 13. BxB, QxB; 14. PxP, KtxKt;
15.  PxKt, KtxP; 16. Kt-B4 and Kt-Q6.

         11. ...             KPxP
         12. Kt-R4

In order to provoke Black's weakening move: P-Kt3, which might
give White chances of attack on the long diagonal QR1-KR8, White
gives up two clear moves. Black is able to get considerably ahead
in his development, much to White's disadvantage.

         12. ...             P-Kt3
         13. KKt-B3          QR-Q sq

Not Kt-K5 yet, on account of 14. PxP, PxP?; 15. BxKt, PxB; 16.
KtxP.

         14. PxP

White's position is uncomfortable, and a satisfactory
continuation is hard to find. Possibly passive resistance might
have been the best plan, thus: Q-K2, KR-Q1, Kt-B1-Kt3.   The text
move is a preliminary to operations on the Queen's side, but
allows Black too much scope in the centre.

         14. ...             PxP
         15. B-Kt5

White wishes to get rid of the Black Knight which supports the
advance of P-Q5.

          15. ...           Kt-K5
          16. BxKt          BxB
          17. Q-B2

White has no idea of the threatened disaster, or he would have
played P-KKt3. Even then, however, Black has the better game with
two Bishops, and the Q and Kt better placed.

          17. ...           KtxKt

The beginning of a brilliant mating combination.

          18. KtxKt          P-Q5!

Black would have played the same move if White had retaken with
the Queen.

          19. PxP

P-K4 was comparatively the best move, although Black's attack
would have become overwhelming after P-B4, e.g. 20. P-B3, B-B5,
etc.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    | #R |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    | #Q | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #B | #B |    |    | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^B | ^Q | ^Kt|    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    | ^R |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 159

          19. ...         BxPch!!
          20. KxB         Q-R5ch
          21. K-Kt1       BxP!

Emanuel Lasker won a celebrated game from Bauer   (Amsterdam,
1889) with a similar sacrifice of two Bishops, and very likely
this is the reason why Tarrasch's beautiful game only earned him
the second brilliancy prize at Petrograd (1914).

          22. P-B3

If KxB, then Q-Kt5ch; 23. K-R1, R-Q4; 24. QxP, R-R4ch; 25. QxR,
QxQch; 26. K-Kt2, Q-Kt4ch and QxKt.

          22. ...           KR-K1

Not Q-Kt6, because of Kt-K4.

          23. Kt-K4         Q-R8ch
          24. K-B2          BxR
          25. P-Q5          P-B4
          26. Q-B3          Q-Kt7ch
          27. K-K3          RxKtch!
          28. PxR           P-B5ch

With Q-Kt6ch Black mates two moves earlier.

          29. KxP           R-B1ch
          30. K-K5          Q-R7ch
          31. K-K6          R-K1ch
              Resigns.

If K-Q7, B-Kt4 mate, if K-B6, Q-R5 mate.

[FOOTNOTE: Emanuel Lasker-Bauer: 1. P-KB4, P-Q4; 2. P-K3, Kt-KB3;
3. P-QKt3, P-K3; 4. B-Kt2, B-K2; 5. B-Q3, P-QKt3; 6. Kt-QB3, B-
Kt2; 7. Kt-B3, QKt-Q2; 8. Castles, Castles; 9. Kt-K2, P-B4; 10.
Kt-Kt3, Q-B2; 11. Kt-K5, KtxKt; 12. BxKt, Q-B3; 13. Q-K2, P-QR3;
14. Kt-R5, KtxKt; 15. BxPch!!, KxB; 16. QxKtch, K-Kt1; 17. BxP!,
KxB; 18. Q-Kt4ch, K-R2; 19. R-B3, P-K4; 20. R-R3ch, Q-R3; 21.
RxQ, KxR; 22. Q-Q7, and White won.]


                   GAME No. 42

      White: Capablanca.     Black: Aljechin.

        Queen's Gambit Declined (see pp. 57 and 58).

          1. P-Q4          P-Q4
          2. P-QB4         P-QB3
          3. P-K3          Kt-B3
          4. Kt-KB3        P-K3
          5. QKt-Q2        QKt-Q2
          6. B-Q3          B-K2
          7. Castles       Castles
          8. Q-B2

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    | #Kt| #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    | #P | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    |    | #P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^B | ^P | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P | ^Q | ^Kt|    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 160

Black's difficulty is the development of his QB, particularly
after White's last move, which prevents P-K4. If now Q-B2 White
plays 9. P-K4 and either the Queen or the Knight bear on K5, e.g.
9. ... PxKP; 10. KtxP, P-K4; 11. QKt-Kt5, B-Q3; 12. P-B5, etc.

Black therefore must develop his QB at Kt2 with P-QKt3, B-Kt2 and
P-B4. Having moved the QBP twice, Black is a move behind the
development usual in this opening.  However, it would have been
the lesser evil. In the present game the Bishop does not get into
play in time.

          8. ...          PxP
          9. KtxP         P-B4
         10. QKt-K5       PxP
         11. PxP          Kt-Kt3
         12. Kt-Kt5

If Black captures the pawn, White gains time by threatening the
Queen, and brings all his forces into play, whilst the Black
Queen's side remains undeveloped, e.g.: 12. ... QxP; 13.   R-Q1,
Q-B4; 14. Kt-Kt4, P-Kt3; 15. B-K3, Q-R4; 16. R-B1, with a strong
attack. Black of course need not take the pawn, but the move in
the text is a valuable one nevertheless, as the threat Q-B3-R3
provokes a weakening pawn move.

          12. ...       P-Kt3
          13. KKt-B3    K-Kt2

preventing the entry of the B at R6.

          14. B-KKt5    QKt-Q4
          15. QR-B1     B-Q2
          16. Q-Q2      Kt-Kt1

It should be noted how the weakness at KR3 acts to the detriment
of Black's game. The text move covers the weak square, but at the
same time brings the Kt out of play. White in consequence gets
the upper-hand on the Queen's side, and the Knight cannot return
in time.

          17. BxB       QxB

It would be no use taking with the KKt, as the threat Kt-Kt4 and
Q-R6 must be guarded against. If the other Kt captures there
follows: 18. B-K4, R-Kt1; 19. R-B3 and KR-B1.

          18. B-K4      B-Kt4

This drives the Rook to a better square, but already now there is
no satisfactory move. It would perhaps have been best to parry
the threat of BxKt and R-B7 by playing Q-Q3, although the pawn
would have to recapture after 19. BxKt, because of 20. R-B5 and
KR-B1. The chance of bearing on the QP through the open file,
which was probably Black's intention all along, would then be
lost. After the text move, however, White takes possession of the
seventh rank, and Black's game collapses quickly.

           19. KR-K1    Q-Q3
           20. BxKt     PxB
           21. Q-R5     P-QR3
           22. Q-B7     QxQ
           23. RxQ      P-R3

Kt-Kt5 and Kt-K6ch was threatened.

           24. RxP      QR-B1
           25. P-QKt3   R-B7
           26. P-QR4    B-K7
           27. Kt-R4!   P-KR4

The KtP cannot be saved.

          28. KKtxP    R-K1
          29. RxPch    Resigns.


               GAME No. 43

  White: Capablanca.   Black: Bernstein.

      Queen's Gambit Declined.

          1. P-Q4      P-Q4
          2. Kt-KB3    Kt-KB3
          3. P-B4      P-K3
          4. Kt-B3     QKt-Q2
          5. B-Kt5     B-K2
          6. P-K3      P-B3
          7. B-Q3      PxP

Before initiating this manoeuvre, which aims at the development
of the Queen's wing, Black should castle, as otherwise the King
is exposed to dangerous and immediate attacks in the centre.

          8. BxBP      P-Kt4
          9. B-Q3      P-QR3

The system of opening chosen by Black has been tried frequently
of late. It seems to be somewhat artificial, as the QB Pawn takes
two moves to get to his fourth. On the other hand the pawn
formation at QR3, QKt4, and QB4 is attained, whilst it can be
prevented in other variations, e.g. 6. ... Castles; 7. B-Q3, PxP;
8. BxP, P-QR3; 9 P-QR4.

          10. P-K4     P-K4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    | #Kt| #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 | #P |    | #P |    |    | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    | #P |    |    | #P |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt| ^B |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 161

Black's only plausible move here seems to be P-B4, and many
critics have remarked that after 11. P-K5, PxP!; 12. Kt-K4 (if
PxKt, PxKt) KtxKt; 13. BxKt, R-QKt1; 14. BxB, QxB; 15. QxP, Q-B4;
the game would have been even. However, this is not the case, for
on the 15th move White does not capture the pawn with the Q but
with the Kt and Black has no satisfactory continuation. If he had
castled he could play l5. ... B-Kt2 which now is not available
because of: 16. Kt-B6, BxKt; 17. BxB, with an overwhelming
advantage in position for White. White's refutation of the text
move is above criticism.

          11. PxP       Kt-Kt5
          12. B-KB4     B-B4

If Q-B2, White would play R-B1, after which Black could not
recapture the KP yet, as the QBP is en prise.  13. ... KKtxP; 14.
KtxKt, KtxKt; 15. Kt-Q5, Q-Q3; 16. BxKt, QxB; 19. RxP, etc.

          13. Castles   Q-B2
          14. R-B1      P-B3

Again KtxP is not feasible on account of the loss of the QBP, as
can be easily seen.

          15. B-Kt3     PxP

Black's game cannot be saved. If l5. ... Kt(Kt5)xKP there follows
16. KtxKt, KtxKt; 17. Kt-Q5, Q-Q3; 18. BxKt, PxB; 19. RxB, or 16.
... PxKt; 17. Q-R5ch, P-Kt3, 18. Q-R6.

          16. P-Kt4!

Now White initiates a brilliant attack, driving it home without
giving Black a moment's rest. If Black takes the pawn, White
plays Kt-Q4, with many threats, e.g. P-B4; 18. Kt-Q5, Q-Q3; 19.
Kt-K6, or l7. ... Kt(Kt5)-B3; 18. Kt-K6, etc.

          16. ...       B-R2
          17. BxKtP

The sacrifice is fairly obvious, as White obtains three pawns for
the piece, and moreover drives the King into the field of battle.
However, this does not detract from the beauty of the game, which
is full of brilliant phases.

          17. ...        RPxB
          18. KtxKtP     Q-Q1

Or Q-Kt3; 19. Kt-Q6ch, K-K2; 20. Kt-B5ch, followed by Q-Q6.

          19. Kt-Q6ch    K-B1
          20. RxP        Kt-Kt3

The threat was: 21. Q-Q5, Kt-R3; 22. KtxB, RxKt; 23. R-Q6, etc.
20. ... Kt(Q2)-B3 is of no avail because of 21. Q-Kt3, Kt-R3; 22.
KtxP, or 21. ... Q-Q2; 22. KR-B1, etc.

          21. B-R4       Q-Q2
          22. KtxB!      QxR

Not RxKt because of 23. QxQ. Now Black is a whole Rook ahead. But
it is as much out of play as his Queen's side pieces. The King is
driven into a mating net by the concentration of superior White
forces, and only escapes by giving up the extra piece.

          23. Q-Q8ch     Q-K1
          24. B-K7ch     K-B2
          25. Kt-Q6ch    K-Kt3
          26. Kt-R4ch    K-R4

If K-R3 there follows mate in three by 27. Kt(Q6)-B5ch; 28. Kt-
Kt3ch; 29. B-Kt5 mate.

          27. KtxQ          RxQ
          28. KtxPch        K-R3
          29. Kt(Kt7)-B5ch  K-R4
          30. P-KR3!

This threatens 31. PxKtch, KxP; 32. P-B3ch, followed by P-Kt3 or
Kt4 mate. If Black plays 30. QR-KKt1, White wins as follows: 31.
PxKtch, RxP; 32. P-B3, Kt-B1ch; 33. K-R2, KtxB; 34. PxRch, KxP;
35. KtxKt, K x Kt; 36. R-B7. If 30. ... Kt-R3; 31. Kt-Kt7 mate.

          30. ...        Kt-B1
          31. PxKtch     KxP
          32. BxR        RxB
          33. P-Kt3      R-Q7
          34. K-Kt2      R-K7
          35. P-R4       Kt-Kt3
          36. Kt-K3ch    K-R4
          37. P-R5       Kt-Q2
          38. Kt(R4)-B5  Kt-B3
          39. P-Kt5      B-Q5
          40. K-B3       R-R7
          41. P-R6       B-R2
          42. R-B1       R-Kt7
          43. P-Kt4ch    K-Kt4
          44. R-B7       RxPch
          45. KxR        KtxKtPch
          46. K-B3       Resigns.


               GAME NO. 44

 White: Dus Chotimirski.   Black: Vidmar.

             Queen's Pawn Game.

          1. P-Q4           P-Q4
          2. Kt-KB3         P-QB4
          3. P-B3           P-K3
          4. B-B4

We have seen on page 55 that Black can hardly develop his QB
without disadvantage. White, however, has no difficulty in doing
so, as his QP is protected, and after Black's Q-Kt3 he has only
to look after his KtP. He could play Q-B1, which might bring the
Q into effective action on the diagonal to R6.

The aim of the text move is the early occupation of K5.  But, as
the present game shows, this cannot be effected. Black must not
waste time with Q-Kt3, but play B-Q3 at once.

          4. ...       Kt-QB3
          5. P-K3      Kt-B3
          6. QKt-Q2    B-Q3
          7. B-Kt3     Castles
          8. Kt-K5     BxKt!
          9. PxB       Kt-Q2

Now White has no means of maintaining his centre. Whether he
supports the pawn with Kt-B3 or P-KB4, Black forces matters with
P-B3.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    | #Kt|    | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    | #P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | #P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^P |    | ^P |    | ^B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    | ^Kt|    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    | ^Q | ^K | ^B |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 162

Now that the idea underlying White's opening strategy has proved
impracticable, he has difficulty in formulating a plan. Making
the best of a bad job, he abandons his KP in exchange for Black's
KRP. But Black obtains a powerful pawn centre, a telling
advantage.

          10. B-Q3          KKtxP
          11. BxKt          KtxB
          12. BxPch         KxB
          13. Q-R5ch        K-Kt1
          14. QxKt          P-B3
          15. Q-R5          Q-Kt3

Black wishes to provoke the advance of the QKtP and QBP in order
to obtain a passed pawn (16. P-QKt3, P-K4; 17. Castles KR, Q-R4;
18. P-QB4, P-Q5). In order to avoid this continuation, White
takes his chance of castling on the Queen's side. This turns out
to Black's advantage. Indeed it is a foregone conclusion. In the
ensuing double assault by pawns, Black is several moves ahead, as
the White pawns concerned in the attack are still on their
original squares.

          16. Castles QR     P-K4
          17. P-KKt4         P-Q5
          18. P-QB4          B-Q2
          19. P-Kt5          PxKtP
          20. QxP            RxP
          21. PxP            BPxP!

Finely played. Black gives up his KP in order to get his QR into
play with the gain of a move.

          22. QxP            R-K1
          23. Q-Kt3          QR-K7
          24. KR-K1

KR-Kt1 would also be of no avail because of Q-KR3, 25. Q-Q3, Q-
KB3 threatening B-B4. The move in the text puts an end to the
agony.

          24. ...          RxKt!!
              Resigns.

For after 25. RxR, RxR; 26. KxR, QxPch; 27. K-Q3, B-B4ch; 28. R-
K4, Q-B6ch; 29. K-K2, QxQ; Black remains with an extra piece.


                 GAME No. 45

   White: Rubinstein.    Black: Spielmann.

           Irregular Opening.

          1. P-Q4          P-QB4

With this move Black tries to avoid well-trodden paths of
tournament practice. White can, at will, lead into a peaceful
Queen's Gambit by 2. P-K3 or into a Sicilian Defence by P-K4. It
is more usual, however, to play P-Q5, which blocks up the Black
centre to some extent.

If 2. PxP, Black regains his pawn after P-K3 without any
disadvantage.

          2. P-Q5          P-Q3
          3. P-QB4

Coupled with 4. P-K4, this move is of doubtful value, as Black
gains command of White's Q4. It is advisable to keep the QBP
back, thus retaining the option of driving off a hostile piece
from Q4 by P-QB3. Moreover, the White KB is hemmed in by the pawn
at QB4.

           3. ...       P-KKt3
           4. P-K4      B-Kt2
           5. B-Q3      P-K3

The development of the KKt is not desirable at B3, where it would
block the long diagonal. From K2, however, it commands KB4, where
it can take up a strong position after the exchange of pawns in
the centre, or else it can support the advance of the KBP.

           6. Kt-QB3    Kt-K2
           7. KKt-K2

Kt-B3 would have been slightly better, because the Black QKt
might play to his K4.

           7. ...       PxP
           8. KPxP      Kt-Q2
           9. P-B4

This move weakens the King's position, and would be justified
only if there was a possibility of opening the file for the Rook
by P-B5. But Black has too strong a hold on his KB4. The text
move aims at preventing the exchange of White's KB through
Black's Kt-K4. It would have been better to withdraw the B to B2.

           9. ...       Kt-KB3
          10. Kt-Kt3    P-KR4!

Now White cannot enforce P-B5, as Black can attack the Knight by
P-R5. White cannot prevent this with P-KR4, as the Black Knight
would take up a commanding position at Kt5. Black's game is
superior. He can concentrate all his minor pieces on the King's
wing, while White's QB is ineffective on account of the ill-
considered advance of the KBP.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q | #K |    |    | #R |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P | #P |    |    | #Kt| #P | #B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    |    | #P |    | #Kt| #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | ^P |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^Kt| ^B |    |    | ^Kt|    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    | ^B | ^Q | ^K |    |    | ^R |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 163

          11. Castles    P-R5
          12. KKt-K4     KtxKt
          13. BxKt

White has to capture with the B, in order to exchange the Black
Knight if it should play to B4. After 13. KtxKt, B-Q5ch; 14. K-
R1, Kt-B4; White's Knight would not be able to move from K4 on
account of the threat: Kt-Kt6ch.   Sooner or later, Black would
get a deciding advantage by enforcing the exchange of White's
Knight, e.g. 15. Q-K1, Q-K2; 16. R-QKt1, B-Q2; 17. P-QKt3,
Castles QR; 18. B-Kt2, QxKt; 19. BxQ, Kt-Kt6ch; 20. QxKt, PxQ;
21. P-KR3, BxP; 22. PxB, RxPch; 23. K-Kt2, R-R7ch; 24. KxP, RxB;
or 21. BxB, RxPch, followed by PxB and QR-R1.

          13. ...       B-Q5ch
          14. K-R1      Kt-B4
          15. BxKt      BxB

White is helpless against the two powerful Bishops.

          16. R-K1ch    K-B1

Black forfeits his chance of castling, not a great loss under the
circumstances. In any case his KR is needed on the Rook's file,
and Black would only have castled on the Queen's side if at all.

          17. Q-B3

Here P-KR3 was essential in order to prevent the further advance
of the KRP. The weakness at Kt3 would not have been so serious in
the absence of a Black Knight. Now Black forces the advance of
White's KKtP, and the Bishops become immediately effective.

          17. ...       P-R6
          18. P-KKt3

not P-KKt4 on account of Q-R5.

          18. ...       Q-Q2
          19. B-Q2      B-Kt5
          20. Q-B1

If Q-Q3, Black plays Q-B4 and White cannot exchange Queens
because of B-B6 mate.

          20. ...       Q-B4

threatening Q-B7.

          21. QR-B1     K-Kt2
          22. B-K3      B-B3

Black must not exchange his valuable Bishop.

          23. P-Kt3     KR-K1
          24. B-B2

There is no answer to Black's threat of doubling the Rooks on the
K file. If White plays Q-B2, Black's Queen effects an entry at
Q6, after which he would double his Rooks, and White's Bishop
cannot be defended. After the text move, Black forces the
exchange of his two Rooks for the Queen. Generally speaking, this
is no disadvantage, but in consequence of the exposed position of
the White King, it means a speedy loss for White.

          24. ...       B-B6ch
          25. K-Kt1     B-Kt7
          26. RxR       BxQ
          27. RxR       Q-Q6!

If now RxB Black plays Q-B6.

          28. R-K8

In order to play R-K3 if Black plays BxKt.

          28. ...       Q-B6!
          29. KxB       Q-R8ch
          30. B-Kt1     Q-Kt7ch
          31. K-K1      QxBch
          32. K-Q2      QxPch
              Resigns

for the pawn queens.


               GAME NO. 46

  White: G. A. Thomas.    Black: Ed. Lasker.

   Irregular Opening (compare Game No. 45).

           1. P-Q4      P-QB4
           2. P-Q5      P-Q3
           3. P-QB4     P-KKt3
           4. Kt-QB3    B-Kt2
           5. B-Q2

This is not necessary. Black could hardly exchange his B for the
Kt; the weakness at his KB3 and KR3 would become too serious a
disadvantage.

           5. ...       P-K3
           6. P-K4      PxP
           7. KtxP!

In view of the fact that Black's position after BP or KPxP would
be very promising, as all his pieces would be easy to bring into
play, White decides upon the sacrifice of a pawn, in order to
further his own development.

           7. ...       BxP
           8. R-Kt1     B-Kt2
           9. Q-R4ch    Kt-B3
          10. KKt-B3

Kt-Kt6, R-Kt sq; 11. B-R5 leads to nothing, as Black plays 12.
QK2.

          10. ...       P-KR3

If Black plays KKt-K2 at once, his position becomes somewhat
cramped after 11. B-Kt5, Castles; 12. Kt-B6ch, K-R1; 13. Q-Q1.

          11. B-Q3      Kt-K2
          12. Castles   Castles
          13. Q-B2      P-Kt3

This allows the development of the QB.

          14. B-B3      KtxKt
          15. KPxKt     Kt-K4

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B | #Q |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 | #P |    |    |    |    | #P | #B |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    | #P |    | #P |    |    | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | ^P | #Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    | ^B | ^B |    | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P |    | ^Q |    |    | ^P | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    | ^R |    |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 164

Kt-K2 should have been played here in order to play BxB; 17. QxB,
B-Kt5 with Kt-B4, in answer to 16. Q-Kt2.   Black is still open
to attack in consequence of his broken King's side, but there is
no demonstrable advantage for White. The text move is a mistake,
and gives White chances of a decisive attack.

          16. KtxKt         BxKt
          17. BxB           PxB
          18. BxP!          Q-Kt4

Of course not PxB, on account of 19. QxPch, K-R1; 20. QxPch, K-
Kt1; 21. R-Kt3, etc. 18. ... P-B4 fails because of 19. R-Kt3.

          19. B-K4          P-B4
          20. P-B4!!

This elegant continuation decides the game. If PxP, White simply
plays 21. B-Q3, and Black can hardly hope to save the end-game,
as his pawns are broken up. If the Queen retreats, however, there
follows: 21. PxP, and White obtains two passed pawns for the B
and has the superior position.

          20. ...          Q-Kt2
          21. PxP          PXB
          22. RxRch        QxR
          23. R-KB1        Q-Kt2
          24. QxP          Q-Kt5
          25. R-B4         Q-Q8ch
          26. K-B2         Q-Q5ch
          27. QxQ          PxQ
          28. P-K6         B-R3
          29. RxP          R-B1ch

If K-B1, 30. P-Q6.

          30. K-K3         R-B3
          31. K-K4         R-B7
          32. P-Q6         R-K7ch

He might play K-Q5, after which B-Kt2ch has points.

          33. K-Q3         Resigns.


                GAME No. 47

     White: Tartakower.    Black: Asztalos.

               Dutch Opening.

          1. P-KB4          P-Q4

It has been tried to refute White's non-developing first move by
a pawn sacrifice: 1. ... P-K4; which leads to a rapid
mobilisation of the Black forces after 2. PxP, P-Q3; 3. PxP, BxP.
But this attack--called the From Gambit--does not seem to prevail
against the best defence. In a match game, Tartakower-Spielmann
(Vienna, 1913), White won as follows:

4. Kt-KB3, P-KKt4; 5. P-Q4, P-Kt5; 6. Kt-K5, Kt-QB3; 7. KtxKt,
PxKt; 8. P-KKt3, P-KR4; 9. B-Kt2, P-R5; 10. Q-Q3, B-Q2; 11. Kt-
B3, R-Kt1; 12. Castles, PxP; 13. PxP, P-QB4; 14. B-B4, BxB; 15.
RxB, Q-Kt4; 16. Kt-K4, Q-R3; 17. KtxP, Kt-B3; 18. KtxB, KtxKt;
19. Q-K4ch, K-Q1; 20. RxBP, R-K1; 21. QxP, Q-K6ch; 22. K-B1,
Resigns.

When Black plays P-KB4 in answer to 1. P-Q4 we have the Dutch
Defence. After 1. P-Q4, P-KB4, White can also sacrifice a pawn by
2. P-K4, and thereby obtain a far more favourable position than
Black does in From's gambit, as he is a move to the good, having
already advanced his QP, e.g. 2. P-K4, PxP; 3. Kt-QB3, Kt-KB3; 4.
P-B3 or 4. B-Kt5 and then P-B3. If Black captures the KBP, White
obtains a powerful attack. A drastic example is found in the
following little game, played by two students in an academic
tournament at Petrograd: 4. P-B3, PxP; 5. KtxP, P-K3; 6. B-KKt5,
B-K2; 7. B-Q3, Castles; 8. Castles, P-QKt3; 9. Kt-K5, B-Kt2; 10.
BxKt, BxB; 11. BxPch, KxB; 12. Q-R5ch, K-Kt1; 13. Kt-Kt6, R-K1;
14. Q-R8ch, K-B2; 15. Kt-K5ch, K-K2; 16. QxPch!!, BxQ; 17. R-
B7ch, K-Q3; 18. Kt-Kt5ch, K-Q4; 19. P-B4ch, K-K5; 20. R-K1 mate.

Black's best answer is to play P-Q4 after White's 4. P-KB3  (5.
B-Kt5, B-B4). If 4. B-Kt5, it is not yet possible to play P-Q4
because of the threat: BxKt, Q-R5ch, and QxQP. In that case Black
must first play P-QB3, after which White again obtains a strong
attack by P-KB3.

Black can avoid the attacks which follow after 1. P-Q4, P-KB4; 2.
P-K4, by playing P-K3 on his first move, and then lead into the
Dutch defence with P-KB4 on his second move. He must, however,
reckon with having to play the French defence which White can
bring about with 2. P-K4.

          2. P-K3          P-K3
          3. Kt-KB3        P-QB4
          4. P-QKt3        Kt-QB3
          5. B-Kt5         Kt-B3

Black should have played B-Q2 here, as White can exchange at B6,
leaving Black with a doubled pawn. This in itself is not a
drawback, but in the present position it is serious, as Black
will have difficulty in finding a place for his QB. For there is
no prospect of enforcing P-K4, as White commands that square in
sufficient force.

          6. B-Kt2          B-K2
          7. Castles        Castles
          8. BxQKt          PxB
          9. Kt-K5          Q-B2
         10. P-Q3           P-QR4

Black's attempt of capturing his K4 by playing Kt-Q2 and P-B3,
White would cross at once with Q-Kt4. With the text move Black
begins operations on the Q side, which is quite correct, as White
has the upper hand on the other wing.

          11. Q-K2

White should have prevented the further advance of the Black RP
by 11. P-QR4. This would have been sound policy in any case, as
the R file could not have been forced open for the Black Rooks.

          11. ...          P-R5
          12. Kt-Q2        PxP

Premature. The capture is only of value if the file can be held.
To that end it is first necessary to play B-Kt2 and to occupy the
R file with Rooks and Queen. After the exchange
 of Rooks, Black is at a disadvantage for the end-game because of
the inefficiency of the QB.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 | #R |    | #B |    |    | #R | #K |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    | #Q |    | #B | #P | #P | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    | #P | #Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | #P | ^Kt|    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    |    |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    | #P |    | ^P | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | ^P | ^B | ^P | ^Kt| ^Q |    | ^P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 | ^R |    |    |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 165

If instead of the text move Black had driven off the Bishop to B1
with P-R6 (13. B-B3?, P-Q5!; 14. PxP, Kt-Q4)  he could have
enforced his P-K4, but in the long run White would have captured
the QRP, and remained with a passed pawn on the R file, a
powerful weapon for the end-game, e.g. l2. ... P-R6; 13. B-B1,
Kt-Q2; 14. KtxKt, BxKt; 15. P-K4, P-KB3; 16. P-B4, followed by
Kt-Kt1.

          13. RPxP          RxR
          14. RxR           B-Kt2
          15. P-KKt4

The Black pieces being cut off from the K side, White is free to
attack.

          15. ...           R-R1
          16. RxRch         BxR
          17. P-Kt5         Kt-Q2
          18. Q Kt-B3       KtxKt
          19. BxKt          Q-R4
          20. P-B4

in order to prevent the release of the B by the pawn sacrifice P-
B5 and P-B4.

          20. ...           B-Kt2
          21. K-B2          K-B1
          22. P-R4          B-R3
          23. P-R5          B-Kt2
          24. P-R6          P-Kt3

By advancing his RP White has weakened Black's KB3, with the
constant threat of establishing his Kt there and of capturing the
RP.

          25. K-B1

This move is superfluous and probably dictated by time pressure.
The proper plan is: Q-QKt2 with the threat of B-B7 or Kt8 and Q-
R8ch.

          25. ...          Q-R6
          26. Q-QKt2

The end-game is a clear win for White. He plays his Kt to KKt4,
threatening to reach B6 or K5. The effect is twofold.

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    |    | #K |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    | #B |    |    | #B | #P |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #P |    | #P |    | #P | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P | #P | ^B |    | ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    |    | ^P |    |    | ^P |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 | #Q | ^P |    | ^P | ^P | ^Kt|    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 |    | ^Q |    |    |    |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    | ^K |    |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 166

Black must keep his B at K2 and his K must remain near the KBP.
White's King marches to QKt6 and captures the QB pawns, queening
his QKtP. Black cannot prevent the White King from doing this by
B-Q1, as White, by attacking Black's QB4 with his B, could at any
time force the B back to his K2. The remainder of the game needs
no comment.

          26. ...            QxQ
          27. BxQ            B-Q3
          28. Kt-R2          K-K1
          29. Kt-Kt4         B-K2
          30. B-K5           K-Q2
          31. K-K2           K-K1
          32. K-Q2           K-Q2
          33. K-B2           K-K1
          34. K-Kt2          K-Q2
          35. K-R3           K-K1
          36. K-R4           K-Q2
          37. B-Kt8          K-B1
          38. B-R7           K-Q2
          39. B-Kt6          P-Q5
          40. P-K4           K-K1
          41. P-K5           K-Q2
          42. Kt-B2          Resigns.

because there follows Kt-K4 and BxP.


             GAME No. 48

  White: Blackburne.    Black: Niemzowitsch.

           Irregular Opening.

          1. P-K3           P-Q3

It is due to this reply of Black's that the opening is irregular.
For had he played P-Q4 a peaceful QP game would have resulted, or
after White's 2. P-KB4 a Dutch opening.

          2. P-KB4          P-K4
          3. PxP            PxP

Black has the superior position; he has a pawn in the centre and
his pieces are more free.

          4. Kt-QB3         B-Q3

As was seen on a former occasion, it is a shade better to develop
the Knights before the Bishops, as the choice of moves for the
latter is less limited. The alternative might have been 5. Kt-B3,
B-KKt5; 6. B-K2, Kt-B3.

          5. P-K4

Now White has also a pawn in the centre, but he is a move behind
in his development.

          5. ...           B-K3
          6. Kt-B3         P-KB3
          7. P-Q3          Kt-K2
          8. B-K3          P-QB4
          9. Q-Q2          QKt-B3
         10. B-K2          Kt-Q5
         11. Castles KR    Castles
         12. Kt-Q1         KKt-B3
         13. P-B3

Now Black has gained an advantage from the command of his Q5. The
advance of White's QBP, which was necessitated by the dominating
position of the Black Knight, has left White with a "backward"
pawn at Q3.

         13. ...          KtxBch
         14. QxKt         R-K1

If now a general exchange takes place after P-Q4, the KP is lost
through B-Q4.

          15. Kt-R4

White's counter attack on the King's side becomes threatening,
and Black must continue his operations on the Queen's wing with
the greatest care, as he may be called upon at any time to
concentrate his pieces for the defence of the King's wing.

         15. ...           B-KB1
         16. Kt-B5         K-R1
         17. P-KKt4        Q-Q2
         18. Kt-B2         P-QR4

Black wishes to open up files on the Queen's side.

         19. P-QR3

Freeing the QR.

         19. ...            P-QKt4
         20. QR-Q1          QR-Kt1
         21. R-Q2           P-Kt5
         22. RPxP           RPxP
         23. P-B4           R-R1
         24. Q-B3           R-R7

Before trying to push home his advantage on the Queen's side,
which is made possible by the weakness of White's QP, Black
should look after his King's side, where White has collected an
alarming array of forces. After the text move the Rook is quite
out of play.

          25. P-Kt5        P-Kt3?

        ---------------------------------------
     8 |    |    |    |    | #R | #B |    | #K |
       |---------------------------------------|
     7 |    |    |    | #Q |    |    |    | #P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     6 |    |    | #Kt|    | #B | #P | #P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     5 |    |    | #P |    | #P | ^Kt| ^P |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     4 |    | #P | ^P |    | ^P |    |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     3 |    |    |    | ^P | ^B | ^Q |    |    |
       |---------------------------------------|
     2 | #R | ^P |    | ^R |    | ^Kt|    | ^P |
       |---------------------------------------|
     1 |    |    |    |    |    | ^R | ^K |    |
        ---------------------------------------
         A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H

                Diag. 167

Black should simply play PxP with the following continuation:
26. BxP, Kt-Q5; 27. KtxKt, QxKt; 28. B-K3, Q-Q3. After the move
in the text, White's attack is overwhelming.

          26. Kt-Kt4!

White obtains a Rook and two pawns for his two Knights; this is
in itself an equivalent of material. In the present instance the
exchange is of decisive advantage for White, as Black must lose
several moves to bring up his Rook for the defence of his
unguarded King.

          26. ...       PxKt
          27. KtxBP     Kt-Q5

If PxP, White wins by 28. Q-R5, Q-B2; 29. P-Kt6, QxPch; 30. QxQ
and KtxR.

          28. Q-B2      Q-B3
          29. KtxR      QxKt
          30. BxKt      KPxB
          31. PxP       B-Q2
          32. R-K1      Q-B2
          33. Q-R4!     R-R1

Not BxP because of 34. R-KB2, followed by KR-KB sq.

          34. R-KB2     B-B3
          35. Q-Kt4

The threat is to open the Rook's file by P-Kt6 with an attack on
the King by the Rooks.

          35. ...       R-K1
          36. RxR       QxR

BxR in order to play Q-R4 might be better. With the Queens off
the board, Black has winning chances on account of his two
Bishops. But then White might evade the exchange and proceed to
seize the King's file with the Rook after 37. Q-B4.

          37. R-K2      Q-Q2
          38. R-K6      B-R1

in order to play Q-QKt2 or R2.

          39. P-Kt6!    PxP

If Q-QKt2, 40. R-K8!, if Q-R2, 40. Q-R4. White wins in either
case.

          40. RxP       Q-KR2
          41. Q-Kt3

Threatens Q-K5ch.

          41. ...       Q-R4
          42. R-Kt4!    Resigns.



TABLE OF OPENINGS



                 A. KING'S PAWN GAMES



a. 1. P-K4   P-K4
   2. P-KB4  PxP
   2. ...    B-B4
   2. ...    P-Q4
   2. P-Q4   PxP    3. QxP
                    3. Kt-KB3 P-QB4
                    3. ...    Kt-QB3
                    3. B-QB4
                    3. P-QB3  PxP
                    3. ...    P-Q4
   2. Kt-KB3 Kt-QB3 3. P-Q4   PxP   4. KtxP
                                    4. B-QB4
                                    4. P-B3
                    3. B-B4   B-B4  4. P-Q3
                                    4. P-B3
                    3. ...    Kt-B3
                    3. Kt-B3  Kt-B3
                    3. ...    B-Kt5
                    3. B-Kt5  P-Q3  4. P-Q4
                    3. ...    Kt-B3 4. Castle P-Q3
                                    4. ...   KtxP
                    3. ...    P-QR3 4. B-R4  Kt-B3 5. Castle B-K2
                                                   5. ...    KtxP

                                    4. BxKt  QPxB  5. KtxP
                                                   5. P-Q4
    2. ...    P-Q3  3. P-Q4   QKt-Q2
    2. Kt-QB3 Kt-KB3 3. P-B4  P-Q4

b.  1. P-K4   P-K3
    2. P-Q4   P-Q4  3. P-K5
                    3. Kt-QB3 Kt-KB3 4. P-K5
                                     4. B-Kt5 B-K2
                                     4. ...   B-Kt5
                    3. ...    PxP
    1. P-K4   P-Q4  2. PxP    QxP
    1. P-K4   P-QB3 2. P-Q4   P-Q4
    1. P-K4   P-QB4



                B. QUEEN'S PAWN GAMES



a. 1. P-Q4   P-Q4
   2. P-QB4  PxP
   2. ...    P-K3   3. KtQB3  KtKB3
                    3. ...    PQB4    4. PK3
                                      4. Kt-KB3 Kt-QB3 5. PxQP
   2. ...    P--K4
   2. ...    B-B4
   2. ...    P-QB3
   2. Kt-KB3 P-K3   3. P-B4   PxP
                    3. ...    P-QB4
                    3. ...    Kt-KB3
   2. ...    P-QB4  3. P-B4   P-K3    4. P-K3
                                      4. Kt-B3  Kt-QB3
                    3. P-K3   P-K3    4. B-Q3   Kt-KB3 5. P-QKt3
                    3. P-B3
   2. ...    Kt-KB3

b. 1. P-Q4   P-QB4
   1. P-Q4   Kt-KB3 2. Kt-KB3 P-Q3
   1. P-Q4   P-KB4



                  C. IRREGULAR OPENINGS



   1. P-QB4
   1. P-KB4  P-Q4
   1. ...    P-K4
   1. P-K3   P-Q3





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