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Title: Chronicles (1 of 6): The Description of Britaine
Author: Hooker, John, Holinshed, Raphael, -1580?, Harrison, William, 1534-1593
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chronicles (1 of 6): The Description of Britaine" ***

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   VOL. I.







   NEW YORK, N.Y. 10003



   [_Original Title._]






   1 =The description and historie of England=,
   2 =The description and historie of Ireland=,
   3 =The description and historie of Scotland=:





   _Now newlie augmented and continued (with manifold matters of
       singular note and worthie memorie)_

   TO THE YEARE 1586,

   By JOHN HOOKER aliàs VOWELL Gent.





 THE CHRONICLES of HOLINSHED having become exceedingly scarce, and,
 from their Rarity and Value, having always brought a high Price
 whenever they have appeared for Sale, the Publishers have thought they
 should perform an acceptable Service to the Public by reprinting them
 in a uniform, handsome, and modern Form.

 It cannot now be necessary to state the Importance and interesting
 Nature of this Work. The high Price for which it has always sold, is a
 sufficient Testimony of the Esteem in which it has been held.
 Holinshed's Description of Britain is allowed to contain the most
 curious and authentic Account of the Manners and Customs of our Island
 in the Reign of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, in which it was written.
 His History of the Transactions of the British Isles, during these
 Periods, possesses all the Force and Value of contemporary Evidence,
 collected by a most skilful Observer; and the peculiar Style and
 Orthography in which the Work is written, furnish a very interesting
 Document to illustrate the History of the English Language.

 The original Edition of the Chronicles of Holinshed, it is well known,
 was published by their Author in a mutilated State. A Number of Pages,
 which had obviously been printed with the rest of the Work, were found
 to be omitted, except in a few Copies obtained by some favoured
 Persons. In the present Edition, these Castrations are faithfully
 restored; and in order that the Purchaser may depend upon finding an
 exact as well as a perfect Copy, it has been a Law with the
 Publishers, not to alter a single Letter, but to print the Work with
 the utmost Fidelity from the best preceding Edition, with the Author's
 own Orthography, and with his marginal Notes. The only Liberty taken,
 has been to use the Types of the present Day, instead of the old
 English Letter of the Time of Elizabeth.

 The Publishers submit to the Public this Edition of a curious and
 valuable Chronicle of our History, with a confident Hope, that it will
 gratify both the Historical Student and the General Reader. If it meet
 with the Reception which they anticipate, they will be encouraged to
 select some others of the rarest and most important of our ancient
 Chronicles, and reprint them, in like Manner, for the Convenience and
 Gratification of the Public.





 Hauing had iust occasion, Right Honorable, to remaine in London,
 during the time of Trinitie terme last passed, and being earnestlie
 required of diuers my freends, to set downe some breefe discourse of
 parcell of those things, which I had obserued in the reading of such
 manifold antiquities as I had perused toward the furniture of a
 Chronologie, which I haue yet in hand; I was at the first verie loth
 to yeeld to their desires: first, for that I thought my selfe vnable
 for want of skill and iudgment, so suddenlie & with so hastie speed to
 take such a charge vpon me: secondlie, bicause the dealing therein
 might prooue an hinderance and impechment vnto mine owne Treatise: and
 finallie, for that I had giuen ouer all earnest studie of histories,
 as iudging the time spent about the same, to be an hinderance vnto my
 more necessarie dealings in that vocation & function wherevnto I am
 called in the ministerie. But when they were so importunate with me,
 that no reasonable excuse could serue to put by this trauell, I
 condescended at the length vnto their yrkesome sute, promising that I
 would spend such void time as I had to spare, whilest I should be
 inforced to tarie in the citie, vpon some thing or other that should
 satisfie their request; and stand in lieu of a description of my
 Countrie. For their parts also they assured me of such helps as they
 could purchase: and thus with hope of good, although no gaie successe,
 I went in hand withall, then almost as one leaning altogither vnto
 memorie, sith my books and I were parted by fourtie miles in sunder.
 In this order also I spent a part of Michaelmas and Hilarie termes
 insuing, being inforced thereto I say by other businesses which
 compelled me to keepe in the citie, and absent my selfe from my
 charge, though in the meane season I had some repaire vnto my poore
 librarie, but not so great as the dignitie of the matter required, and
 yet far greater than the Printers hast would suffer. One helpe, and
 none of the smallest that I obtained herein, was by such commentaries
 as _Leland_ had somtime collected of the state of Britaine, books
 vtterlie mangled, defaced with wet and weather, and finallie vnperfect
 through want of sundrie volumes: secondlie, I gat some knowledge of
 things by letters and pamphlets, from sundrie places & shires of
 England, but so discordant now and then amongst themselues,
 especiallie in the names and courses of riuers and situation of
 townes, that I had oft greater trouble to reconcile them one with an
 other, than orderlie to pen the whole discourse of such points as they
 contained: the third aid did grow by conference with diuers, either at
 the table or secretlie alone, wherein I marked in what things the
 talkers did agree, and wherin they impugned ech other, choosing in the
 end the former, and reiecting the later, as one desirous to set foorth
 the truth absolutelie, or such things in deed as were most likelie to
 be true. The last comfort arose by mine owne reading of such writers
 as haue heretofore made mention of the condition of our countrie, in
 speaking wherof, if I should make account of the successe, &
 extraordinarie c[=o]ming by sundrie treatises not supposed to be
 extant, I should but seeme to pronounce more than may well be said
 with modestie, & say farder of my selfe than this Treatise can beare
 witnes of. Howbeit, I refer not this successe wholie vnto my purpose
 about this Description, but rather giue notice thereof to come to
 passe in the penning of my Chronologie, whose crums as it were fell
 out verie well in the framing of this Pamphlet. In the processe
 therefore of this Booke, if your Honor regard the substance of that
 which is here declared, I must needs confesse that it is none of mine
 owne: but if your Lordship haue consideration of the barbarous
 composition shewed herein, that I may boldlie claime and challenge for
 mine owne, sith there is no man of any so slender skill, that will
 defraud me of that reproch, which is due vnto me for the meere
 negligence, disorder, and euill disposition of matter comprehended in
 the same. Certes I protest before God and your Honour, that I neuer
 made any choise of stile, or words, neither regarded to handle this
 Treatise in such precise order and method as manie other would haue
 done, thinking it sufficient, truelie and plainelie to set foorth such
 things as I minded to intreat of, rather than with vaine affectation
 of eloquence to paint out a rotten sepulchre; a thing neither
 commendable in a writer, nor profitable to the reader. How other
 affaires troubled me in the writing hereof manie know, and
 peraduenture the slacknesse shewed herein can better testifie: but
 howsoeuer it be done, & whatsoeuer I haue done, I haue had an
 especiall eye vnto the truth of things, and for the rest, I hope that
 this foule frizeled Treatise of mine will prooue a spur to others
 better learned, more skilfull in Chorographie, and of greater
 iudgement in choise of matter to handle the selfe same argument, if in
 my life time I doo not peruse it againe. It is possible also that your
 Honour will mislike hereof, for that I haue not by mine owne trauell
 and eysight viewed such things as I doo here intreat of. In deed I
 must needs confesse, that vntill now of late, except it were from the
 parish where I dwell, vnto your Honour in Kent; or out of London where
 I was borne, vnto Oxford & Cambridge where I haue bene brought vp, I
 neuer trauelled 40. miles foorthright and at one iourney in all my
 life; neuerthelesse in my report of these things, I vse their
 authorities, who either haue performed in their persons, or left in
 writing vpon sufficient ground (as I said before) whatsoeuer is
 wanting in mine. It may be in like sort that your Honour will take
 offense at my rash and retchlesse behauiour vsed in the composition of
 this volume, and much more that being scambled vp after this maner, I
 dare presume to make tendour of the protection therof vnto your
 Lordships hands. But when I consider the singular affection that your
 Honour dooth beare to those that in any wise will trauell to set
 foorth such profitable things as lie hidden, and therevnto doo weigh
 on mine owne behalfe my bounden dutie and gratefull mind to such a one
 as hath so manie and sundrie waies benefited me that otherwise can
 make no recompense, I can not but cut off all such occasion of doubt,
 and therevpon exhibit it, such as it is, and so penned as it is, vnto
 your Lordships tuition, vnto whome if it may seeme in anie wise
 acceptable, I haue my whole desire. And as I am the first that
 (notwithstanding the great repugnancie to be seene among our writers)
 hath taken vpon him so particularlie to describe this Ile of Britaine;
 so I hope the learned and godlie will beare withall, & reforme with
 charitie where I doo tread amisse. As for the curious, and such as can
 rather euill fauouredlie espie than skilfullie correct an error, and
 sooner carpe at another mans dooings than publish any thing of their
 owne, (keeping themselues close with an obscure admiration of learning
 & knowledge among the common sort) I force not what they saie hereof:
 for whether it doo please or displease them, all is one to me, sith I
 referre my whole trauell in the gratification of your Honour, and such
 as are of experience to consider of my trauell, and the large scope of
 things purposed in this Treatise, of whome my seruice in this behalfe
 may be taken in good part, that I will repute for my full recompense,
 and large guerdon of my labours. The Almightie God preserue your
 Lordship in continuall health, wealth, and prosperitie, with my good
 Ladie your wife, your Honours children, (whom God hath indued with a
 singular towardnesse vnto all vertue and learning) and the rest of
 your reformed familie, vnto whom I wish farder increase of his holie
 spirit, vnderstanding of his word, augmentation of honor, and
 continuance of zeale to follow his commandements.

   _Your Lordships humble seruant
   and houshold Chaplein._

   W. H.






   Aelius Spartianus.

   Aelius Lampridius.

   Asserius Meneuensis.

   Alfridus Beuerlacensis.

   Aeneas Syluius Senensis.


   Adam Merimouth with additions.

   Antoninus Archiepiscopus Florentinus.

   Albertus Crantz.

   Alexander Neuill.

   Arnoldus Ferronius.

   Annius Viterbiensis.

   Amianus Marcellinus.

   Alliances genealogiques des Roys & Princes de France.

   Annales D. Aquitaine per Iean Bouchet.

   Annales de Bourgoigne per Guilamme Paradin.

   Annales de France per Nicol Giles.

   Annales rerum Flandricarum per Jacobum Meir.

   Antonius Sabellicus.

   Antonius Nebricensis.

   Aurea Historia.


   Biblia Sacra.

   Beda venerabilis.


   Brian Tuke knight.

   Blondus Forliuiensis.

   Berdmondsey, a Register booke belonging to that house.


   Cæsars Commentaries.

   Cornelius Tacitus.

   Chronica Chronicorum.

   Chronica de Dunstable, a booke of Annales belonging to the Abbey

   Chronicon Io. Tilij.

   Chronica de Eyton, an historie belonging to that colledge, although
       compiled by some Northernman, as some suppose named Otherborne.

   Chronicles of S. Albon.

   Chronica de Abingdon, a booke of Annales belonging to that house.

   Chronica de Teukesburie.


   Chronicon Genebrard.

   Chroniques de Normandie.

   Chroniques de Britaine.

   Chroniques de Flanders published by Denis Sauage.

   Continuation de Historie and Chroniques de Flanders by the same



   Chronica Sancti Albani.

   Caxtons Chronicles.

   Carion with additions.

   Crockesden, a Register booke belonging to an house of that name in


   Diodorus Siculus.

   Dion Cassius.

   Dominicus Marius Niger.





   Encomium Emmæ, an old Pamphlet written to hir, conteining much good
       matter for the vnderstanding of the state of this realme in hir
       time, wherein hir praise is not pretermitted, and so hath
       obteined by reason thereof that title.

   Enguerant de Monstrellet.


   Edmund Campian.




   Franciscus Tarapha.

   Franciscus Petrarcha.

   Flauius Vopiscus Siracusanus.

   Floriacensis Vigorinensis.


   Gviciardini Francisco.

   Guiciardini Ludouico.

   Gildas Sapiens.

   Galfridus Monemutensis, aliàs Geffrey of Monmouth.

   Giraldus Cambrensis.

   Guilielmus Malmesburiensis.

   Galfridus Vinsauf.

   Guilielmus Nouoburgensis.

   Guilielmus Thorne.

   Gualterus Hemmingford, aliàs Gisburnensis.

   Geruasius Dorobernensis.

   Geruasius Tilberiensis.

   Guilielmus Gemeticensis de ducibus Normaniæ.

   Guilielmus Rishanger.

   Guilielmus Lambert.

   Georgius Lillie.

   Guilamme Paradin.



   Henricus Huntingtonensis.

   Henricus Leicestrensis.

   Hector Boece.

   Historie Daniou.

   Historia Ecclesiastica Magdeburgensis.

   Henricus Mutius.

   Historia quadripartita seu quadrilogium.

   Hardings Chronicle.

   Halles Chronicle.

   Henricus Bradshaw.

   Henricus Marleburgensis.


   Humfrey Luyd.


   Iohannes Bale.

   Iohannes Leland.

   Iacobus Philippus Bergomas.

   Iulius Capitolinus.

   Iulius Solinus.

   Iohannes Pike with additions.

   Iohannes Functius.

   Iohn Price knight.

   Iohannes Textor.

   Iohannes Bodinus.

   Iohannes Sleidan.

   Iohannes Euersden a Monke of Berry.

   Iohannes or rather Giouan villani a Florentine.

   Iohannes Baptista Egnatius.

   Iohannes Capgraue.

   Iohannes Fourden.

   Iohannes Caius.

   Iacob de Voragine Bishop of Nebio.

   Iean de Bauge a Frenchman wrote a pamphlet of the warres in
       Scotland, during the time that Monsieur de Desse remained

   Iohn Fox.

   Iohannes Maior.

   Iohn Stow, by whose diligent collected summarie, I haue beene not
       onelie aided, but also by diuers rare monuments, ancient
       writers, and necessarie register bookes of his, which he hath
       lent me out of his own Librarie.



   Liber constitutionum London.


   Lælius Giraldus.


   Marianus Scotus.

   Matthæus Paris.

   Matthaeus Westmonaster.    aliàs Flores historiarum.

   Martin du Bellay, aliàs Mons. de Langey.

   Mamertinus in Panegyricis.

   Memoires de la Marche.




   Nicholaus Treuet with additions.


   Orosius Dorobernensis.

   Osbernus Dorobernensis.

   Otho Phrisingensis.



   Paulus Diaconus.

   Paulus Aemilius.

   Ponticus Virunius.

   Pomponius Lætus.

   Philip de Cumeins, aliàs M. de Argenton.

   Polydor Virgil.

   Paulus Iouius.


   Philippus Melancthon.


   Pomponius Mela.


   Rogerus Houeden.

   Ranulfus Higeden, aliàs Cestrensis the author of Polychronicon.

   Radulfus Cogheshall.

   Radulfus Niger.

   Register of the Garter.

   Records of Battell Abbey.

   Richardus Southwell.

   Robert Greene.

   Radulfus de Diceto.

   Robert Gaguin.

   Rodericus Archiepiscopus Toletanus.

   Records and rolles diuerse.




   Sigebertus Gemblacensis.

   Sidon Appollinaris.

   Simon Dunelmensis.

   Sextus Aurelius Victor.


   Trebellius Pollio.

   Thomas More knight.

   Thomas Spot.

   Thomas Walsingham.

   Titus Liuius de Foroliuisijs de vita Henrici. 5.

   Titus Liuius Patauiensis.

   Thomas Lanquet.

   Thomas Couper.

   Taxtor a Monke of Berry.


   Thomas de la More.

   Tripartita Historia.


   Vvlcatius Gallicanus.

   Volfgangus Lazius.


   Whethamsted, a learned man, sometime Abbat of Saint Albons a

   William Harrison.

   William Patten of the expedition into Scotland. 1574.

   William Proctor of Wiats rebellion.

 Besides these, diuers other bookes and treatises of historicall matter
 I haue seene and perused, the names of the authors being vtterlie



 [Sidenote: Wil. Conqu.]
 [Sidenote: Wil. Rufus.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 1.]
 [Sidenote: Stephanus.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 2.]
 [Sidenote: Richardus 1.]
 [Sidenote: Ioannes.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 3.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 1.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 2.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 3.]
 [Sidenote: Richardus 2.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 4.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 5.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 6.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 4.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 5.]
 [Sidenote: Richardus 3.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 7.]
 [Sidenote: Henricus 8.]
 [Sidenote: Eduardus 6.]
 [Sidenote: Phil. & Mar.]
 [Sidenote: Elisabeth.]

   Conquestor, Rufus, prior Henricus, Stephanúsque,
   Alter & Henricus, Leonino corde Richardus,
   Rex & Ioannes, Henricus tertius inde:
   Eduardus primus, Gnatúsque, Nepósque sequuntur:
   His inf[oe]licem Richardum iunge secundum:
   Henricus quartus soboles Gandaui Ioannis,
   Præcedit Gnato quinto, sextóque Nepoti:
   Eduardus quartus, quintus, homicida Richardus,
   Septimi & Henricus octauus clara propago:
   Eduardus sextus, regina Maria, Philippus:
   Elisabeth longos regnet victura per annos,
   Seráque promisso f[oe]lix potiatur olympo.



 [Sidenote: Loydus.]
 [Sidenote: Lelandus.]
 [Sidenote: Prisius.]
 [Sidenote: Stous.]
 [Sidenote: Holinshedius.]
 [Sidenote: Lambardus.]
 [Sidenote: Morus.]
 [Sidenote: Camdenus.]
 [Sidenote: Thinnius.]
 [Sidenote: Hallus.]
 [Sidenote: Vocalis aliàs Hookerus.]
 [Sidenote: Graftonus.]
 [Sidenote: Foxius.]
 [Sidenote: Harrisonus.]
 [Sidenote: Hardingus.]
 [Sidenote: Gildas.]
 [Sidenote: Staniherstus.]
 [Sidenote: Beda.]
 [Sidenote: Neuillus.]
 [Sidenote: Flemingus.]
 [Sidenote: Parkerus.]

   Gramine, fluminibus, grege, principe, fruge, metallis,
     Lacte, feris, armis, vrbibus, arte, foris,
   Quæ viget ac floret generosa Britannia, quæque,
     Obruta puluereo squalluit ante situ:
   Exerit ecce caput, genuinum nacta nitorem,
     Et rutilum emittit cum grauitate iubar.
   Et quod blæsa hominum mutilarat tempore lingua,
     Illud habet rectum pumice tersa nouo.
   Loydus in hac pridem gnauus prolusit arena,
     Lelandus, Prisius, Stous, Holinshedius,
   Lambardus, Morus, Camdenus, Thinnius, Hallus,
     Vocalis, Grafton, Foxius, Harrisonus,
   Hardingus, Gildas, Staniherstus, Beda, Neuillus,
     Doctáque Flemingi lima poliuit opus:
   Nec te cane senex, magne ô Parkere, silebo,
     Cui decus attulerat pontificalis apex.
   Omnibus his meritò est laus debita & optima merces,
     Quòd patriæ accendant lumina clara suæ.
   Longa dies opus hoc peperit, longæua senectus,
     Et libri authores perbeet, atque librum.











   1 _Of the diuision of the whole earth._

   2 _Of the position, circuit, forme, and quantitie of the Ile of

   3 _Of the ancient denominations of this Iland._

   4 _What sundrie nations haue dwelled in Albion._

   5 _Whether it be likelie that anie giants were, and whether they
      inhabited in this Ile or not._

   6 _Of the languages spoken in this Iland._

   7 _Into how manie kingdoms this Iland hath beene diuided._

   8 _The names of such kings and princes as haue reigned in this

   9 _Of the ancient religion vsed in Albion._

   10 _Of such Ilands as are to be seene vpon the coasts of Britaine._

   11 _Of riuers, and first of the Thames, and such riuers as fall into

   12 _Of such streames as fall into the sea, betweene the Thames and
       the mouth of Sauerne._

   13 _The description of the Sauerne, and such waters as discharge
       themselues into the same._

   14 _Of such waters as fall into the sea in compasse of the Iland,
       betweene the Sauerne and the Humber._

   15 _The description of the Humber or Isis, and such water-courses as
       doo increase hir chanell._

   16 _Of such fals of waters as ioine with the sea, betweene Humber
       and the Thames._

   17 _Of such ports and creeks as our sea-faring men doo note for
       their benefit vpon the coasts of England._

   18 _Of the aire, soile, and commodities of this Iland._

   19 _Of the foure high waies sometime made in Britaine by the princes
       of this Iland._

   20 _Of the generall constitution of the bodies of the Britons._

   21 _How Britaine at the first grew to be diuided into three

   22 _After what maner the souereigntie of this Ile dooth remaine to
       the princes of Lhoegres or kings of England._

   23 _Of the wall sometime builded for a partition betweene England
       and the Picts and Scots._

   24 _Of the maruels of England._



 [Sidenote: Noah first diuided the earth among his sonnes.]
 We read that the earth hath beene diuided into thrée parts, euen
 sithens the generall floud. And the common opinion is, that Noah
 limited and bestowed it vpon his three sons, Japhet, Cham, and Sem,
 preserued with him in the Arke, giuing vnto each of them such portions
 thereof as to him séemed good, and neuerthelesse reteining the
 souereigntie of the whole still vnto himselfe: albeit as yet it be
 left vncertaine how those seuerall parts were bounded, and from whome
 they tooke such names as in our times are attributed to each of them.
 Certes the words, Asia, Europa, and Africa, are denominations giuen
 but of late (to speake of) vnto them, and it is to be doubted, whether
 sithens the time of Noah, the sea hath in sundrie places wonne or
 lost, added or diminished to and from each of them; or whether Europa,
 and Lybia were but one portion; and the same westerlie regions of late
 discouered (and now called America,) was the third part (counting Asia
 for the second) or the selfe region of the Atlantides, which Plato and
 others, for want of traffike thither in their times, supposed to be
 dissolued and sunke into the sea: as by their writings appeereth.

 [Sidenote: The diuision of the earth not yet certeinlie knowne.]
 Not long before my time, we reckoned Asia, Europa, and Africa, for a
 full and perfect diuision of the whole earth, which are parcels onelie
 of that huge Iland that lieth east of the Atlantike sea, and whereof
 the first is diuided from the second by Tanais (which riseth in the
 rocks of Caucasus, and hideth it selfe in the Meotine moores) and the
 Ocean sea; and the last from them both by the Mediterrane and red sea,
 otherwise called Mare Erythræum. But now all men, especially the
 learned, begin to doubt of the soundnes of that partition; bicause a
 no lesse part than the greatest of the thrée ioined with those Ilands
 and maine which lie vnder the north and Southpoles, if not double in
 quantitie vnto the same, are found out and discouered by the diligence
 of our trauellers. Hereby it appeereth, that either the earth was not
 exactlie diuided in time past by antiquitie; or els, that the true
 diuision thereof came not to the hands and notice of their posteritie,
 so that our ancestors haue hitherto as it were laboured in the
 Cimmerian darkenesse, and were vtterlie ignorant of the truth of that
 whereabout they indeuoured to shew their trauels and knowledge in
 their writings. Some peece of this confusion also is to be found
 amongst the ancient and Romane writers, who (notwithstanding their
 large conquests) did sticke in the same mire with their successors,
 not being able (as appeereth by their treatises) to deliuer and set
 [Sidenote: Variance among the writers
 about the diuision of the earth.]
 downe the veritie. For Salust in his booke De bello Iugurthino cannot
 tell whether Africa be parcell of Asia or not. And with the same
 scruple Varro in his booke De lingua Lat. is not a litle incumbred,
 who in the end concludeth, that the whole earth is diuided into Asia
 and Europa: so that Africa is excluded and driuen out of his place.
 Silius also writeth of Africa, (as one not yet resolued wherevnto to
 leane,) that it is;

   Aut ingens Asiæ latus, aut pars tertia rerum.

 Wherein Lucane lib. 9. sheweth himselfe to be far of another
 iudgement, in that he ascribeth it to Europa, saieng after this maner:

   Tertia pars rerum Lybia: si credere famæ
   Cuncta velis, si ventos c[oe]lúmque sequaris,
   Pars erit Europæ, nec enim plus littora Nili
   Quàm Scythicus Tanais primis à gradibus absunt.

 Whereby (I saie) we may well vnderstand, that in the time of Augustus
 Tiberius, Claudius & Nero, the Romanes were not yet resolued of the
 diuision of the earth. For my part, as I indeuour not to remooue the
 credit of that which antiquitie hath deliuered (and yet loth to
 continue and maintaine any corruption that may be redressed) so I
 [Sidenote: The earth diuided into fiue parts, whereas _Belforest_
 hath but foure, in _Prefat. lib. 4._]
 thinke good to giue foorth a new diuision more probable, & better
 agreeing with a truth. And therefore I diuide the whole into fiue
 seuerall parcels, reteining the common diuision in the first three, as
 before; and vnto the fourth allowing not onelie all that portion that
 lieth by north of the Magellan streicts, and those Hyperborean Ilands
 which lie west of the line of longitude, of late discouered by
 Frobisher, and called by hir Maiestie Meta incognita: but likewise so
 manie Ilands as are within 180. degrees Westwards from our beginning
 or common line of longitude, whereby they are parted from those, which
 by this diuision are allotted vnto Asia, and the portion it selfe made
 equipollent with the same for greatnes, and far excéeding either
 Europa or Africa, if it be not fullie so much in quantitie as they
 both vnited and laid togither. The fift & last part is the Antartike
 portion with hir Ilands annexed, that region (I meane) which lieth
 vnder the South pole, cut off from America, or the fourth part by the
 Magellan streicts; & from Africa by the sea which passeth by the Cape
 [Sidenote: Cape di bona Speranza.]
 of good hope; a countrie no lesse large for limits and bounds than
 Africa or America, and therefore right worthie to be called the fift:
 howsoeuer it shall please the curious to mislike of this diuision.
 This also I will adde, that albeit the continent hereof doo not extend
 [Sidenote: The forme of the fift part.]
 it selfe vnto the verie Antartike point, but lieth as it were a long
 table betwéene two seas, of which the later is vnder the South poole,
 and as I may call it a maine sea vnder the aforesaid pricke, yet is it
 not without sundrie Ilands also adjoining vnto it, and the inner most
 sea not destitute of manie, as by experience hath béene of late
 confirmed. Furthermore, whereas our describers of the earth haue made
 it such in their descriptions, as hath reached litle or nothing into
 the peaceable sea without the Antartike circle: it is now found by
 Theuet and others, that it extendeth it selfe northwards into that
 trace, by no small number of leagues, euen in maner to the Equator, in
 so much that the westerlie part thereof from America, is supposed to
 reach northward so far from the Antartike article, as Africa dooth
 southwards from the tropike of Cancer, which is no small portion of
 ground; & I maruell why not obserued by such as heretofore haue
 written of the same. But they excuse themselues by the ingratitude of
 the Portingals and Spaniards, who haue of purpose concealed manie
 things found out in their trauell, least they should séeme to open a
 gap by dooing otherwise, for strangers to enter into their conquests.
 As for those Ilands also which lie in the peaceable sea, scattered
 here and there, as Iaua the greater, the lesser Sumatra, Iapan,
 Burneo, &c: with a number of other, I refer them still unto Asia, as
 before, so as they be without the compasse of 90. degrees eastward
 from the line of longitude, & not aboue 180. as I doo the Ile of S.
 Laurence, and a number of other vnto Africa within the said
 proportion, wishing so little alteration as I may: and yet not
 yeelding vnto any confusion, whereby the truth of the diuision should
 hereafter be impeached.

 And whereas by Virgil (speaking of our Iland) saith;

   Et penitùs toto diuisos orbe Britannos,

 [Sidenote: Unto what portion Britaine is referred.]
 And some other authors not vnworthie to be read and perused, it is not
 certeine vnto which portion of the earth our Ilands, and Thule, with
 sundrie the like scattered in the north seas should be ascribed,
 bicause they excluded them (as you sée) from the rest of the whole
 earth: I have thought good, for facilitie sake of diuision, to refer
 them all which lie within the first minute of longitude, set downe by
 Ptolome, to Europa, and that as reason requireth: so that the
 aforesaid line shall henceforth be their Meta & partition from such as
 are to be ascribed to America; albeit they come verie neere vnto the
 aforesaid portion, & may otherwise (without prejudice) be numbred with
 the same. It may be that some will thinke this my dealing either to be
 superfluous, or to procéed from (I wot not what) foolish curiositie:
 for the world is now growne to be very apt and readie to iudge the
 hardest of euerie attempt. But forsomuch as my purpose is to leaue a
 plaine report of such matter as I doo write of, and deliuer such
 things as I intreat of in distinct and vpright order; though method
 now and then doo faile, I will go forward with my indeuour, referring
 the examination of my dooings to the indifferent and learned eare,
 without regard what the other doo conceiue and imagine of me. In the
 meane season therefore it shall suffice to say at this time, that
 Albion as the mother, and the rest of the Ilands as hir daughters,
 lieng east of the line of longitude, be still ascribed vnto Europa:
 wherevnto some good authours heretofore in their writings, & their
 owne proper or naturall situations also haue not amisse referred them.



 [Sidenote: How Britaine lieth from the maine.]
 Britannia or Britain, as we now terme it in our English toong, or
 Brutania as some pronounce it (by reason of the letter y in the first
 syllable of the word, as antiquitie did sometime deliuer it) is an Ile
 lieng in the Ocean sea, directlie ouer against that part of France
 which conteineth Picardie, Normandie, and thereto the greatest part of
 little Britaine, which later region was called in time past Armorica,
 of the situation thereof vpon the sea coast, vntill such time as a
 companie of Britons (either led ouer by some of the Romane Emperours,
 or flieng thither from the tyrannie of such as oppressed them here in
 this Iland) did setle themselues there, and called it Britaine, after
 the name of their owne countrie, from whence they aduentured thither.
 It hath Ireland vpon the west side, on the north the maine sea, euen
 to Thule and the Hyperboreans; and on the east side also the Germane
 Ocean, by which we passe dailie through the trade of merchandize, not
 onlie into the low countries of Belgie, now miserablie afflicted
 betwéene the Spanish power and popish inquisition (as spice betweene
 the morter and the pestell) but also into Germanie, Friezeland,
 Denmarke, and Norwaie, carrieng from hence thither, and bringing from
 thence hither, all such necessarie commodities as the seuerall
 countries doo yeeld: through which meanes, and besides common amitie
 conserued, traffike is mainteined, and the necessitie of each partie
 abundantlie reléeued.

 [Sidenote: The longitude and latitude of this Ile.]
 It conteineth in longitude taken by the middest of the region 19.
 degrees exactlie: and in latitude 53. degrées, and thirtie min. after
 the opinions of those that haue diligentlie obserued the same in our
 daies, and the faithfull report of such writers as haue left notice
 thereof vnto vs, in their learned treatises to be perpetuallie
 remembred. Howbeit, whereas some in setting downe of these two lines,
 haue seemed to varie about the placing of the same, each of them
 diuerslie remembring the names of sundrie cities and townes, whereby
 they affirme them to haue their seuerall courses: for my part I haue
 thought good to procéed somewhat after another sort; that is, by
 diuiding the latest and best chards each way into two equall parts (so
 neere as I can possiblie bring the same to passe) wherby for the
 [Sidenote: Longest day.]
 middle of latitude, I product Caerlile and Newcastell vpon Tine,
 (whose longest day consisteth of sixteene houres, 48. minuts) and for
 the longitude, Newberie, Warwike, Sheffield, Skipton, &c: which
 dealing, in mine opinion, is most easie and indifferent, and likeliest
 meane to come by the certeine standing and situation of our Iland.

 [Sidenote: The compasse of Britaine.]
 Touching the length and bredth of the same, I find some variance
 amongst writers: for after some, there are from the Piere or point of
 Douer, vnto the farthest part of Cornewall westwards 320. miles: from
 thence againe to the point of Cathnesse by the Irish sea 800. Wherby
 Polydore and other doo gather, that the circuit of the whole Iland of
 Britaine is 1720. miles, which is full 280. lesse than Cæsar dooth set
 downe, except there be some difference betwéene the Romane and British
 miles, as there is indeed; wherof hereafter I may make some farther

 Martianus writing of the bredth of Britaine, hath onlie 300. miles,
 but Orosius hath 1200. in the whole compasse. Ethicus also agreeing
 with Plinie, Martianus, and Solinus, hath 800. miles of length, but in
 the breadth he commeth short of their account by 120. miles. In like
 maner Dion in Seuero maketh the one of 891. miles: but the other; to
 wit, where it is broadest, of 289. and where it is narrowest, of 37.
 Finally, Diodorus Siculus affirmeth the south coast to conteine 7000.
 furlongs, the second; to wit, à Carione ad Promontorium 15000. the
 third 20000. and the whole circuit to consist of 42000. But in our
 time we reckon the breadth from Douer to Cornewall, not to be aboue
 300. miles, and the length from Douer to Cathnesse, no more than 500.
 which neuerthelesse must be measured by a right line, for otherwise I
 see not how the said diuision can hold.

 [Sidenote: The forme.]
 The forme and fashion of this Ile is thrée-cornered, as some have
 deuised, like vnto a triangle, bastard sword, wedge, or partesant,
 being broadest in the south part, and gathering still narrower and
 narrower, till it come to the farthest point of Cathnesse northward,
 where it is narrowest of all, & there endeth in maner of a promontorie
 called Caledonium & Orchas in British Morwerydh, which is not aboue
 30. miles ouer, as dailie experience by actuall trauell dooth

 [Sidenote: Promontories of Britaine.]
 The old writers giue vnto the thrée principall corners, crags, points,
 and promontories of this Iland, thrée seuerall names. As vnto that of
 Kent, Cantium, that of Cornewall, Hellenes, and of Scotland,
 Caledonium, and Orchas; and these are called principall, in respect of
 the other, which are Taruisium, Nonantum, Epidium, Gangacum,
 Octapites, Herculeum, Antiuesteum, Ocrinum, Berubium, Taizalum,
 Acantium, &c: of which I thought good also to leaue this notice, to
 the end that such as shall come after, may thereby take occasion to
 seeke out their true places, wherof as yet I am in maner ignorant, I
 meane for the most part; bicause I haue no sound author that dooth
 leade mée to their knowledge.

 [Sidenote: The distance from the maine.]
 Furthermore, the shortest and most vsuall cut that we haue out of our
 Iland to the maine, is from Douer (the farthest part of Kent eastward)
 unto Calice a towne in Picardie 1300. miles from Rome, in old time
 called Petressa and Scalas, though some like better of blacknesse
 where the breadth of the sea is not aboue thirtie miles. Which course,
 as it is now frequented and vsed for the most common and safe passage
 of such as come into our countrie out of France and diuers other
 realms, so it hath not beene vnknowne of old time vnto the Romans, who
 for the most part vsed these two hauens for their passage and
 repassage to and fro; although we finde, that now and then diuerse of
 them came also from Bullen, and landed at Sandwich, or some other
 places of the coast more toward the west, or betweene Hide and Lid; to
 wit, Romneie marsh, (which in old time was called Romania or Romanorum
 insula) as to auoid the force of the wind & weather, that often
 molesteth seafaringmen in these narrowe seas, best liked them for
 their safegards. Betweene the part of Holland also, which lieth néere
 the mouth of the Rhene and this our Iland, are 900. furlongs, as
 Sosimus saith; and besides him, diuers other writers, which being
 conuerted into English miles, doo yeeld 112. and foure od furlongs,
 whereby the iust distance of the neerest part of Britaine, from that
 part of the maine also, dooth certeinlie appéere to be much lesse than
 the common maps of our countrie haue hitherto set downe.



 [Sidenote: Dis, Samothes.]
 In the diligent perusall of their treatises, who haue written of the
 state of this our Iland, I find that at the first it séemed to be a
 parcell of the Celtike kingdome, whereof Dis otherwise called
 Samothes, one of the sonnes of Japhet was the Saturne or originall
 beginner, and of him thencefoorth for a long while called Samothea.
 Afterward in processe of time, when desire of rule began to take hold
 in the minds of men, and ech prince endeuoured to enlarge his owne
 [Sidenote: Neptunus Marioticus.]
 dominions: Albion the sonne of Neptune, Amphitrite surnamed Marioticus
 (bicause his dominions laie among the ilands of the Mediterran sea, as
 those of Plutus did on the lower grounds neere vnto shore, as
 contrariwise his father Jupiter dwelled on the high hils néerer to
 heauen) hearing of the commodities of the countrie, and plentifulnesse
 [Sidenote: The first conquest of Britaine.]
 of soile here, made a voiage ouer, and finding the thing not onelie
 correspondent vnto, but also farre surmounting the report that went of
 this Iland, it was not long after yer he inuaded the same by force of
 armes, brought it to his subiection in the 29. yeare after his
 grandfathers decease, and finallie changed the name thereof into
 Albion, whereby the former denomination after Samothes did grow out of
 mind, and fall into vtter forgetfulnesse. And thus was this Iland
 bereft at on time both of hir ancient name, and also of hir lawfull
 succession of princes descended of the line of Japhet, vnder whom it
 [Sidenote: Britaine under the Celts 341. yeares.]
 had continued by the space of 341. yeres and nine princes, as by the
 Chronologie following shall easilie appeere.

 Goropius our neighbor being verie nice in the denomination of our
 Iland, as in most other points of his huge volume of the originall of
 Antwarpe lib. 6. (whom Buchanan also followeth in part) is brought
 into great doubt, whether Britaine was called Albion of the word Alb,
 white; or Alp an hill; as Bodinus is no lesse troubled with fetching
 the same ab Oibijs, or as he wresteth it, ab Albijs gallis. But here
 his inconstancie appeareth, in that in his Gotthadamca liber. 7. he
 taketh no lesse paines to bring the Britaines out of Denmarke, whereby
 the name of the Iland should be called Vridania, Freedania, Brithania,
 or Bridania, tanquam libera Dania, as another also dooth to fetch the
 originall out of Spaine, where Breta signifieth soile or earth. But as
 such as walke in darkenesse doo often straie, bicause they wot not
 whither they go: euen so doo these men, whilest they séeke to
 extenuate the certeintie of our histories, and bring vs altogither to
 uncerteinties & their coniectures. They in like maner, which will haue
 the Welshmen come from the French with this one question, vnde Walli
 nisi a Gallis, or from some Spanish colonie, doo greatlie bewraie
 their oversights; but most of all they erre that endeuour to fetch it
 from Albine the imagined daughter of a forged Dioclesian, wherewith
 our ignorant writers haue of late not a little stained our historie,
 and brought the sound part thereof into some discredit and mistrust:
 but more of this hereafter.

 [Sidenote: Neptune God of the sea.]
 Now to speake somewhat also of Neptune as by the waie (sith I haue
 made mention of him in this place) it shall not be altogither
 impertinent. Wherfore you shall vnderstand, that for his excellent
 knowledge in the art of nauigation (as nauigation then went) he was
 reputed the most skilfull prince that liued in his time. And therfore,
 and likewise for his courage & boldnesse in aduenturing to and fro, he
 was after his decease honoured as a god, and the protection of such as
 [Sidenote: The maner of dressing of ships in old time.]
 trauelled by sea committed to his charge. So rude also was the making
 of ships wherewith to saile in his time (which were for the most part
 flat bottomed and broad) that for lacke of better experience to calke
 and trim the same after they were builded, they vsed to naile them
 ouer with rawe hides of bulles, buffles, and such like, and with such
 a kind of nauie (as they say) first Samothes, & then Albion arriued in
 this Iland, which vnto me doth not séeme a thing impossible. The
 northerlie or artike regions, doo not naile their ships with iron,
 which they vtterly want, but with wooden pins, or els they bind the
 planks togither verie artificiallie with bast ropes, osiers, rinds of
 trées, or twigs of popler, the substance of those vessels being either
 of fir or pine, sith oke is verie deintie & hard to be had amongst
 them. Of their wooden anchors I speake not (which neuerthelesse are
 common to them, and to the Gothlanders) more than of ships wrought of
 wickers, sometime vsed in our Britaine, and couered with leather euen
 in the time of Plinie, lib. 7. cap. 56. as also botes made of rushes
 and réeds, &c. Neither haue I iust occasion to speake of ships made of
 canes, of which sort Staurobates, king of India fighting against
 Semiramis, brought 4000. with him and fought with hir the first
 battell on the water that euer I read of, and vpon the riuer Indus,
 but to his losse, for he was ouercome by hir power, & his nauie either
 drowned or burned by the furie of hir souldiers.

 But to proceed, when the said Albion had gouerned here in this
 countrie by the space of seauen yeares, it came to passe that both he
 and his brother Bergion were killed by Hercules at the mouth of
 Rhodanus, as the said Hercules passed out of Spaine by the Celtes to
 go ouer into Italie, and vpon this occasion (as I gather among the
 writers) not vnworthie to be remembred. It happened in time of Lucus
 [Sidenote: Lestrigo.]
 king of the Celts, that Lestrigo and his issue (whom Osyris his
 [Sidenote: Janigenes were the posteritie of Noah in Italie.]
 grandfather had placed ouer the Janigenes) did exercise great
 tyrannie, not onelie ouer his owne kingdome, but also in molestation
 of such princes as inhabited round about him in most intollerable
 maner. Moreouer he was not a little incouraged in these his dooings by
 [Sidenote: Neptune had xxxiii. sonnes.]
 Neptune his father, who thirsted greatly to leaue his xxxiii. sonnes
 settled in the mightiest kingdoms of the world, as men of whom he had
 alreadie conceiued this opinion, that if they had once gotten foot
 into any region whatsoeuer, it would not be long yer they did by some
 meanes or other, not onelie establish their seats, but also increase
 their limits to the better maintenance of themselues and their
 posteritie for euermore. To be short therefore, after the giants, and
 great princes, or mightie men of the world had conspired and slaine
 the aforsaid Osyris, onlie for that he was an obstacle vnto them in
 their tyrannous dealing; Hercules his sonne, surnamed Laabin, Lubim,
 or Libius, in the reuenge of his fathers death, proclaimed open warres
 against them all, and going from place to place, he ceased not to
 spoile their kingdomes, and therewithall to kill them with great
 courage that fell into his hands. Finallie, hauing among sundrie other
 [Sidenote: Lomnimi. Geriones.]
 ouercome the Lomnimi or Geriones in Spaine, and vnderstanding that
 Lestrigo and his sonnes did yet remaine in Italie, he directed his
 viage into those parts, and taking the kingdome of the Celts in his
 waie, he remained for a season with Lucus the king of that countrie,
 [Sidenote: Galathea. Galates, or Kelts.]
 where he also maried his daughter Galathea, and begat a sonne by hir,
 calling him after his mothers name Galates, of whom in my said
 Chronologie I haue spoken more at large.

 In the meane time Albion vnderstanding how Hercules intended to make
 warres against his brother Lestrigo, he thought good if it were
 possible to stop him that tide, and therefore sending for his brother
 [Sidenote: Bergion.]
 Bergion out of the Orchades (where he also reigned as supreame lord
 and gouernour) they ioined their powers, and sailed ouer into France.
 [Sidenote: _Pomponius Mela cap. de Gallia._]
 Being arriued there, it was not long yer they met with Hercules and
 his armie, neare vnto the mouth of the riuer called Roen (or the
 Rhodanus) where happened a cruell conflict betwéene them, in which
 Hercules and his men were like to haue lost the day, for that they
 were in maner wearied with long warres, and their munition sore wasted
 in the last viage that he had made for Spaine. Herevpon Hercules
 perceiuing the courages of his souldiours somewhat to abate, and
 seeing the want of artillerie like to be the cause of his fatall daie
 and present ouerthrowe at hand, it came suddenlie into his mind to
 will each of them to defend himselfe by throwing stones at his enimie,
 whereof there laie great store then scattered in the place. The
 [Sidenote: _Strabo, lib. 4._]
 policie was no sooner published than hearkened vnto and put in
 execution, whereby they so preuailed in the end, that Hercules wan the
 field, their enimies were put to flight, and Albion and his brother
 both slaine, and buried in that plot. Thus was Britaine rid of a
 tyrant, Lucus king of the Celts deliuered from an vsurper (that dailie
 incroched vpon him, building sundrie cities and holds, of which some
 were placed among the Alps & called after his owne name, and other
 also euen in his owne kingdome on that side) and Lestrigo greatlie
 weakened by the slaughter of his brethren. Of this inuention of
 Hercules in like sort it commeth, that Jupiter father vnto Hercules
 (who indeed was none other but Osyris) is feigned to throw downe
 stones from heauen vpon Albion and Bergion, in the defense of his
 sonne: which came so thicke vpon them, as if great drops of raine or
 haile should haue descended from aboue, no man well knowing which waie
 to turne him from their force, they came so fast and with so great a

 But to go forward, albeit that Albion and his power were thus
 discomfited and slaine, yet the name that he gaue unto this Iland died
 not, but still remained vnto the time of Brute, who arriuing héere in
 the 1116. before Christ, and 2850. after the creation of the world,
 not onelie changed it into Britaine (after it had beene called Albion,
 by the space of about 600. yeares) but to declare his souereigntie
 ouer the rest of the Ilands also that lie scattered round about it, he
 called them all after the same maner, so that Albion was said in time
 to be Britanniarum insula maxima, that is, The greatest of those Iles
 that beare the name of Britaine, which Plinie also confirmeth, and
 Strabo in his first and second bookes denieth not. There are some,
 which vtterlie denieng that this Iland tooke hir name of Brute, doo
 affirme it rather to be so called of the rich mettals sometime carried
 from the mines there into all the world as growing in the same. Vibius
 Sequester also saith that Calabria was sometime called Britannia, Ob
 immensam affluentiam totius delitiæ atque vbertatis, that was to be
 found heerein. Other contend that it should be written with P
 (Pritannia.) All which opinions as I absolutelie denie not, so I
 willinglie leane vnto none of them in peremptorie maner, sith the
 antiquitie of our historie carrieth me withall vnto the former
 iudgements. And for the same cause I reiect them also, which deriue
 the aforesaid denomination from Britona the nymph, in following Textor
 (or Prutus or Prytus the sonne of Araxa) which Britona was borne in
 Creta daughter to Mars, and fled by sea from thence onelie to escape
 the villanie of Minos, who attempted to rauish and make hir one of his
 paramours: but if I should forsake the authoritie of Galfride, I would
 rather leane to the report of Parthenius, whereof elsewhere I haue
 made a more large rehersall.

 It is altogither impertinent, to discusse whether Hercules came into
 this Iland after the death of Albion, or not, although that by an
 ancient monument seene of late, as I heare, and the cape of Hartland
 or Harcland in the West countrie (called Promontorium Herculis in old
 time) diuers of our British antiquaries doo gather great likelihood
 that he should also be here. But sith his presence or absence maketh
 nothing with the alteration of the name of this our region and
 countrie, and to search out whether the said monument was but some
 token erected in his honour of later times (as some haue beene
 elsewhere, among the Celts framed, & those like an old criple with a
 bow bent in one hand & a club in the other, a rough skin on his backe,
 the haire of his head all to be matted like that of the Irishmens, and
 drawing manie men captiue after him in chaines) is but smallie
 auailable, and therefore I passe it ouer as not incident to my
 purpose. Neither will I spend any time in the determination, whether
 Britaine had beene sometime a parcell of the maine, although it should
 well séeme so to haue beene, bicause that before the generall floud of
 Noah, we doo not read of Ilands, more than of hils and vallies.
 Wherfore as Wilden Arguis also noteth in his philosophie and
 tractation of meteors, it is verie likelie that they were onelie
 caused by the violent motion and working of the sea, in the time of
 the floud, which if S. Augustine had well considered, he would neuer
 haue asked how such creatures as liued in Ilands far distant from the
 maine could come into the arke, De ciuit. lib. 16. cap. 7. howbeit in
 the end he concludeth with another matter more profitable than his

 As for the speedie and timelie inhabitation thereof, this is mine
 opinion, to wit, that it was inhabited shortlie after the diuision of
 the earth. For I read that when each capteine and his companie had
 their portions assigned vnto them by Noah in the partition that he
 made of the whole among his posteritie, they neuer ceased to trauell
 and search out the vttermost parts of the same, vntill they found out
 their bounds allotted, and had seene and vewed their limits, euen vnto
 the verie poles. It shall suffice therefore onelie to haue touched
 these things in this manner a farre off, and in returning to our
 purpose, to proceed with the rest concerning the denomination of our
 [Sidenote: Yet _Timeus_, _Ephorus_, and some of the Grecians,
 know the name Britannia, as appeareth also by _Diodorus_, &c.
 before the comming of Cesar.]
 Iland, which was knowne vnto most of the Gréekes for a long time, by
 none other name than Albion, and to saie the truth, euen vnto
 Alexanders daies, as appeareth by the words of Aristotle in his De
 mundo, and to the time of Ptolomie: notwithstanding that Brute, as I
 haue said, had changed the same into Britaine, manie hundred yeares

 After Brutus I doo not find that anie men attempted to change it
 againe, vntill the time that Theodosius, in the daies of Valentinianus
 and Valens endeuoured, in the remembrance of the two aforesaid
 Emperours, to call it Valentia, as Marcellinus saith. But as this
 deuise tooke no hold among the common sort, so it retained still the
 name of Britaine, vntill the reigne of Ecbert, who about the 800.
 yeare of Grace, and first of his reigne, gaue foorth an especiall
 edict, dated at Winchester, that it should be called Angles land, or
 Angel-landt, for which in our time we doo pronounce it England. And
 this is all (right honorable) that I haue to say, touching the
 seuerall names of this Iland, vtterlie misliking in the meane season
 their deuises, which make Hengist the onlie parent of the later
 denomination, whereas Ecbert, bicause his ancestours descended from
 the Angles one of the sixe nations that came with the Saxons into
 Britaine (for they were not all of one, but of diuers countries, as
 Angles, Saxons, Germans, Switzers, Norwegiens, Jutes otherwise called
 Jutons, Vites, Gothes or Getes, and Vandals, and all comprehended
 vnder the name of Saxons, bicause of Hengist the Saxon and his
 companie that first arriued here before anie of the other) and therto
 hauing now the monarchie and preheminence in maner of this whole
 [Sidenote: Of this opinion is _Belforest, lib. 3. cap. 44_.]
 Iland, called the same after the name of the countrie from whence he
 derived his originall, neither Hengist, neither anie Queene named
 Angla, neither whatsoeuer deriuation ab Angulo, as from a corner of
 the world bearing swaie, or hauing ought to doo at all in that



 As few or no nations can iustlie boast themselues to haue continued
 sithence their countrie was first replenished, without any mixture,
 more or lesse, of forreine inhabitants; no more can this our Iland,
 whose manifold commodities haue oft allured sundrie princes and famous
 capteines of the world to conquer and subdue the same vnto their owne
 subiection. Manie sorts of people therfore haue come in hither and
 settled themselues here in this Ile, and first of all other, a parcell
 [Sidenote: Samotheans.]
 of the linage and posteritie of Japhet, brought in by Samothes in the
 1910. after the creation of Adam. Howbeit in processe of time, and
 after they had indifferentlie replenished and furnished this Iland
 with people (which was doone in the space of 335. yeares) Albion the
 giant afore mentioned, repaired hither with a companie of his owne
 race procéeding from Cham, and not onelie annexed the same to his owne
 dominion, but brought all such in like sort as he found here of the
 line of Japhet, into miserable seruitude and most extreame thraldome.
 After him also, and within lesse than sixe hundred and two yeares,
 [Sidenote: Britains.]
 [Sidenote: Chemminits.]
 came Brute the sonne of Syluius with a great traine of the posteritie
 of the dispersed Troians in 324. ships: who rendering the like
 courtesie vnto the Chemminits as they had doone before unto the séed
 of Japhet, brought them also wholie vnder his rule and gouernance, and
 dispossessing the peeres & inferior owners of their lands and
 possessions, he diuided the countrie among such princes and capteines
 as he in his arriuall here had led out of Grecia with him.

 [Sidenote: Romans.]
 From hencefoorth I doo not find any sound report of other nation
 whatsoeuer, that should aduenture hither to dwell, and alter the state
 of the land, vntill the Romane emperours subdued it to their dominion,
 sauing of a few Galles, (and those peraduenture of Belgie) who first
 comming ouer to rob and pilfer vpon the coasts, did afterward plant
 themselues for altogither neere vnto the shore, and there builded
 sundrie cities and townes which they named after those of the maine,
 from whence they came vnto vs. And this is not onelie to be gathered
 out of Cesar where he writeth of Britaine of set purpose, but also
 elsewhere, as in his second booke a little after the beginning: for
 speaking of Deuiaticus king of the Swessions liuing in his time, he
 affirmeth him not onelie to be the mightiest prince of all the Galles,
 but also to hold vnder his subiection the Ile of Britaine, of which
 his sonne Galba was afterward dispossessed. But after the comming of
 the Romans, it is hard to say with how manie sorts of people we were
 dailie pestered, almost in euery steed. For as they planted their
 forworne legions in the most fertile places of the realme, and where
 they might best lie for the safegard of their conquests: so their
 armies did commonlie consist of manie sorts of people, and were (as I
 may call them) a confused mixture of all other countries and nations
 then liuing in the world. Howbeit, I thinke it best, bicause they did
 all beare the title of Romans, to reteine onelie that name for them
 all, albeit they were wofull ghests to this our Iland: sith that with
 them came all maner of vice and vicious liuing, all riot and excesse
 of behauiour into our countrie, which their legions brought hither
 from each corner of their dominions; for there was no prouince vnder
 them from whence they had not seruitours.

 [Sidenote: Scots.]
 [Sidenote: Picts.]
 How and when the Scots, a people mixed of the Scithian and Spanish
 blood, should arriue here out of Ireland, & when the Picts should come
 vnto vs out of Sarmatia, or from further toward the north & the
 Scithian Hyperboreans, as yet it is vncerteine. For though the Scotish
 histories doo carrie great countenance of their antiquitie in this
 Iland: yet (to saie fréelie what I thinke) I iudge them rather to haue
 stolne in hither within the space of 100. yeares before Christ, than
 to haue continued here so long as they themselues pretend, if my
 coniecture be any thing. Yet I denie not, but that as the Picts were
 long planted in this Iland before the Scots aduentured to settle
 themselues also in Britaine; so the Scots did often aduenture hither
 to rob and steale out of Ireland, and were finallie called in by the
 Meats or Picts (as the Romans named them, because they painted their
 bodies) to helpe them against the Britains, after the which they so
 planted themselues in these parts, that vnto our time that portion of
 the land cannot be cleansed of them. I find also that as these Scots
 were reputed for the most Scithian-like and barbarous nation, and
 longest without letters; so they vsed commonlie to steale ouer into
 Britaine in leather skewes, and began to helpe the Picts about or not
 long before the beginning of Cesars time. For both Diodorus lib. 6.
 and Strabo lib. 4. doo seeme to speake of a parcell of the Irish
 nation that should inhabit Britaine in their time, which were giuen to
 the eating of mans flesh, and therefore called Anthropophagi.
 Mamertinus in like sort dooth note the Redshanks and the Irish (which
 are properlie the Scots) to be the onelie enimies of our nation,
 before the comming of Cæsar, as appeareth in his panegyricall oration,
 so that hereby it is found that they are no new ghestes in Britaine.
 Wherefore all the controuersie dooth rest in the time of their first
 attempt to inhabit in this Iland. Certeinlie I maruell much whie they
 trauell not to come in with Cantaber and Partholonus: but I see
 perfectlie that this shift should be too grosse for the maintenance of
 their desired antiquitie. Now, as concerning their name, the Saxons
 translated the word Scotus for Irish: whereby it appeareth that those
 Irish, of whom Strabo and Diodorus doo speake, are none other than
 those Scots, of whom Ierome speaketh Aduersus Iouinianum, lib. 2. who
 vsed to feed on the buttocks of boies and womens paps, as delicate
 dishes. Aethicus writing of the Ile of Man, affirmeth it to be
 inhabited with Scots so well as Ireland euen in his time. Which is
 another proofe that the Scots and Irish are all one people. They were
 also called Scoti by the Romans, bicause their Iland & originall
 inhabitation thereof were vnknowne, and they themselues an obscure
 [Sidenote: Of the Picts.]
 nation in the sight of all the world. Now as concerning the Picts,
 whatsoeuer Ranulphus Hygden imagineth to the contrarie of their latter
 enterance, it is easie to find by Herodian and Mamertinus (of which
 the one calleth them Meates, the other Redshankes and Pictones) that
 they were setled in this Ile long before the time of Seuerus, yea of
 Cæsar, and comming of the Scots. Which is proofe sufficient, if no
 further authoritie remained extant for the same. So that the
 controuersie lieth not in their comming also, but in the true time of
 their repaire and aduenture into this Iland out of the Orchades (out
 of which they gat ouer into the North parts of our countrie, as the
 writers doo report) and from whence they came at the first into the
 aforsaid Ilands. For my part I suppose with other, that they came
 hither out of Sarmatia or Scythia: for that nation hauing had alwaies
 an eie vnto the commodities of our countrie, hath sent out manie
 companies to inuade and spoile the same. It may be that some will
 gather, those to be the Picts, of whom Cæsar saith that they stained
 their faces with wad and madder, to the end they might appeare
 terrible and feareful to their enimies; and so inferre that the Picts
 were naturall Britans. But it is one thing to staine the face onelie
 as the Britans did, of whom Propertius saith,

   Nunc etiam infectos demum mutare Britannos,

 And to paint the images and portraitures of beasts, fish and foules
 ouer the whole bodie, as the Picts did, of whom Martial saith,

   Barbara depictis veni Bascauda Britannis.

 Certes the times of Samothes and Albion, haue some likelie limitation;
 and so we may gather of the comming in of Brute, of Cæsar, the Saxons,
 the Danes, the Normans, and finallie of the Flemmings, (who had the
 Rosse in Wales assigned vnto them 1066. after the drowning of their
 countrie.) But when first the Picts, & then the Scots should come ouer
 into our Iland, as they were obscure people, so the time of their
 arriuall is as far to me vnknowne. Wherefore the resolution of this
 point must still remaine In tenebris. This neuerthelesse is certeine,
 that Maximus first Legate of Britaine, and afterward emperour, draue
 the Scots out of Britaine, and compelled them to get habitation in
 Ireland, the out Iles, and the North part of the maine, and finallie
 diuided their region betwéene the Britaines and the Picts. He
 denounced warre also against the Irishmen, for receiuing them into
 their land: but they crauing the peace, yéelded to subscribe, that
 from thence-foorth they would not receiue any Scot into their
 dominions; and so much the more, for that they were pronounced enimies
 to the Romans, and disturbers of the common peace and quietnesse of
 their prouinces here in England.

 The Saxons became first acquainted with this Ile, by meanes of the
 piracie which they dailie practised vpon our coastes (after they had
 once begun to aduenture themselues also vpon the seas, thereby to
 seeke out more wealth than was now to be gotten in the West parts of
 the maine, which they and their neighbours had alreadie spoiled in
 most lamentable and barbarous maner) howbeit they neuer durst presume
 [Sidenote: The hurt by forren aid.]
 to inhabit in this Iland, vntill they were sent for by Vortiger to
 serue him in his warres against the Picts and Scots, after that the
 Romans had giuen vs ouer, and left vs wholie to our owne defense and
 regiment. Being therefore come vnder Hengist in three bottoms or
 kéeles, and in short time espieng the idle and negligent behauiour of
 the Britaines, and fertilitie of our soile, they were not a little
 inflamed to make a full conquest of such as at the first they came to
 aid and succour. Herevpon also they fell by little and little to the
 winding in of greater numbers of their countrimen and neighbours, with
 their wiues and children into this region, so that within a while
 these new comlings began to molest the homelings, and ceased not from
 time to time to continue their purpose, vntill they had gotten
 possession of the whole, or at the leastwise the greatest part of our
 countrie; the Britons in the meane season being driuen either into
 Wales and Cornewall, or altogither out of the Iland to séeke new

 [Sidenote: Danes.]
 In like maner the Danes (the next nation that succéeded) came at the
 first onelie to pilfer and robbe vpon the frontiers of our Iland, till
 that in the end, being let in by the Welshmen or Britons through an
 earnest desire to be reuenged vpon the Saxons, they no lesse plagued
 the one than the other, their fréends than their aduersaries, seeking
 by all meanes possible to establish themselues also in the sure
 possession of Britaine. But such was their successe, that they
 prospered not long in their deuise: for so great was their
 lordlinesse, crueltie, and insatiable desire of riches, beside their
 detestable abusing of chast matrons, and yoong virgins (whose husbands
 and parents were dailie inforced to become their drudges and slaues,
 whilest they sat at home and fed like drone bées of the sweet of their
 trauell and labours) that God I say would not suffer them to continue
 any while ouer vs, but when he saw his time he remooued their yoke,
 and gaue vs liberty as it were to breath vs, thereby to see whether
 this his sharpe scourge could haue mooued vs to repentance and
 amendment of our lewd and sinfull liues, or not. But when no signe
 thereof appeared in our hearts, he called in an other nation to vex
 [Sidenote: The Normans.]
 vs, I meane the Normans, a people mixed with Danes, and of whom it is
 worthilie doubted, whether they were more hard and cruell to our
 countrimen than the Danes, or more heauie and intollerable to our
 Iland than the Saxons or the Romans. This nation came out of Newstria,
 the people thereof were called Normans by the French, bicause the
 Danes which subdued that region, came out of the North parts of the
 world: neuerthelesse, I suppose that the ancient word Newstria, is
 corrupted from West-rijc, bicause that if you marke the situation, it
 lieth opposite from Austria or Ost-rijc, which is called the East
 region, as Newstria is the Weast: for Rijc in the old Scithian toong
 dooth signifie a region or kingdome, as in Franc-rijc, or Franc-reich,
 Westsaxon-reich, Ost saxon-reich, Su-rijc, Angel-rijc, &c, is else to
 be séene. But howsoeuer this falleth out, these Normans or Danish
 French, were dedlie aduersaries to the English Saxons, first by meane
 of a quarell that grew betwéene them in the daies of Edward the
 Confessour, at such time as the Earle of Bullen, and William Duke of
 Normandie, arriued in this land to visit him, & their freends; such
 Normans (I meane) as came ouer with him and Emma his mother before
 him, in the time of Canutus and Ethelred. For the first footing that
 euer the French did set in this Iland, sithence the time of Ethelbert
 & Sigebert, was with Emma, which Ladie brought ouer a traine of French
 Gentlemen and Ladies with hir into England.

 [Sidenote: The cause of the conquest by the Normans.]
 After hir also no small numbers of attendants came in with Edward the
 Confessour, whome he preferred to the greatest offices in the realme,
 in so much that one Robert a Norman, became Archbishop of Canturburie,
 whose preferment so much enhanced the minds of the French, on the one
 side, as their lordlie and outragious demeanour kindled the stomachs
 of the English nobilitie against them on the other: insomuch that not
 long before the death of Emma the kings mother, and vpon occasion of
 the brall hapning at Douer (whereof I haue made sufficient mention in
 my Chronologie, not regarding the report of the French authors in this
 behalfe, who write altogither in the fauour of their Archbishop
 Robert, but following the authoritie of an English préest then liuing
 in the court) the English Peeres began to shew their disliking in
 manifest maner. Neuerthelesse, the Normans so bewitched the king with
 their lieng and bosting, Robert the Archbishop being the chéefe
 instrument of their practise, that he beléeued them, and therevpon
 vexed sundrie of the nobilitie, amongst whom Earle Goodwijn of Kent
 was the chéefe, a noble Gentleman and father in law to king Edward by
 the mariage of his daughter. The matter also came to such issue
 against him, that he was exiled, and fiue of his sonnes with him,
 wherevpon he goeth ouer the sea, and soone after returning with his
 said sonnes, they inuaded the land in sundrie places, the father
 himselfe comming to London, where when the kings power was readie to
 ioine with him in battell, it vtterlie refused so to doo: affirming
 plainelie, that it should be méere follie for one Englishman to fight
 against another, in the reuenge of Frenchmens quarels: which answer
 entred so déeplie into the kings mind, that he was contented to haue
 the matter heard, and appointing commissioners for that purpose; they
 concluded at the vpshot, that all the French should depart out of
 England by a day, few excepted, whom the king should appoint and
 [Sidenote: Archbishop of Can. exiled, and the rest of the French.]
 nominate. By this means therfore Robert the Archbishop, & of secret
 counsell with the king, was first exiled as principall abuser &
 seducer of the king, who goeth to Rome, & there complaineth to the
 Pope of his iniurie receiued by the English. Howbeit as he returned
 home againe with no small hope of the readeption of his See, he died
 in Normandie, whereby he saued a killing. Certes he was the first that
 euer tendered complaint out of England vnto Rome, & with him went
 William Bishop of London (afterward reuoked) and Vlfo of Lincolne, who
 hardlie escaped the furie of the English nobilitie. Some also went
 into Scotland, and there held themselues, expecting a better time. And
 this is the true historie of the originall cause of the conquest of
 England by the French: for after they were well beaten at Douer,
 bicause of their insolent demeanour there shewed, their harts neuer
 ceased to boile with a desire of reuenge that brake out into a flame,
 so soone as their Robert possessed the primacie, which being once
 obteined, and to set his mischéefe intended abroch withall, a
 contention was quicklie procured about certeine Kentish lands, and
 controuersie kindled, whether he or the Earle should haue most right
 vnto them. The king held with the priest as with the church, the
 [Sidenote: Erle Goodwine slandered by the French writers.]
 nobilitie with the Earle. In processe also of this businesse, the
 Archbishop accused the Earle of high treason, burdening him with the
 slaughter of Alfred the kings brother, which was altogither false: as
 appeareth by a treatise yet extant of that matter, written by a
 chaplaine to king Edward the Confessour, in the hands of Iohn Stow my
 verie fréend, wherein he saith thus, "Alfredus incautè agens in
 aduentu suo in Angliam a Danis circumuentus occiditur." He addeth
 moreouer, that giuing out as he came through the countrie accompanied
 with his few proud Normans, how his meaning was to recouer his right
 vnto the kingdome, and supposing that all men would haue yéelded vnto
 him, he fell into their hands, whome Harald then king did send to
 apprehend him, vpon the fame onelie of this report brought vnto his
 eares. So that (to be short) after the king had made his pacification
 with the Earle, the French (I say) were exiled, the Quéene restored to
 his fauour (whom he at the beginning of this broile had imprisoned at
 Wilton, allowing hir but one onlie maid to wait upon hir) and the land
 reduced to hir former quietnesse, which continued vntill the death of
 the king. After which the Normans not forgetting their old grudge,
 remembred still their quarell, that in the end turned to their
 conquest of this Iland. After which obteined, they were so cruellie
 [Sidenote: The miserie of the English vnder the French.]
 bent to our vtter subuersion and ouerthrow, that in the beginning it
 was lesse reproch to be accounted a slaue than an Englishman, or a
 drudge in anie filthie businesse than a Britaine: insomuch that euerie
 French page was superiour to the greatest Peere; and the losse of an
 Englishmans life but a pastime to such of them as contended in their
 brauerie, who should giue the greatest strokes or wounds vnto their
 bodies, when their toiling and drudgerie could not please them, or
 satisfie their gréedie humors. Yet such was our lot in those daies by
 the diuine appointed order, that we must needs obey such as the Lord
 did set ouer vs, and so much the rather, for that all power to resist
 was vtterlie taken from vs, and our armes made so weake and feeble
 that they were not now able to remooue the importable load of the
 [Sidenote: The cause of our miserie.]
 enimie from our surburdened shoulders. And this onelie I saie againe,
 bicause we refused grace offered in time, and would not heare when God
 by his Preachers did call vs so fauourablie vnto him. Oh how miserable
 was the estate of our countrie vnder the French and Normans, wherein
 the Brittish and English that remained, could not be called to any
 function in the commonwealth, no not so much as to be constables and
 headburowes in small villages, except they could bring 2. or 3.
 Normans for suerties to the Lords of the soile for their good
 behauiour in their offices! Oh what numbers of all degrées of English
 and Brittish were made slaues and bondmen, and bought and sold as oxen
 in open market! In so much that at the first comming, the French bond
 were set free; and those that afterward became bond, were of our owne
 countrie and nation, so that few or rather none of vs remained free
 without some note of bondage and seruitude to the French. Hereby then
 we perceiue, how from time to time this Iland hath not onelie béene a
 prey, but as it were a common receptacle for strangers, the naturall
 homelings or Britons being still cut shorter and shorter, as I said
 [Sidenote: In this voiage the said Harald builded Portaschith,
 which Caradoch ap Griffin afterward ouerthrew, and killed the
 garrison that Harald left therein.]
 before, till in the end they came not onelie to be driuen into a
 corner of this region, but in time also verie like vtterlie to haue
 beene extinguished. For had not king Edward, surnamed the saint, in
 his time, after greeuous wars made vpon them 1063. (wherein Harald
 latelie made Earle of Oxenford, sonne to Goodwin Earle of Kent, and
 after king of England, was his generall) permitted the remnant of
 their women to ioine in mariage with the Englishmen (when the most
 part of their husbands and male children were slaine with the sword)
 it could not haue béene otherwise chosen, but their whole race must
 néeds haue susteined the vttermost confusion, and thereby the memorie
 of the Britons vtterlie haue perished among vs.

 Thus we see how England hath six times beene subiect to the reproch of
 conquest. And wheras the Scots séeme to challenge manie famous
 victories also ouer us, beside gréeuous impositions, tributs, &
 dishonorable compositions: it shall suffice for answer, that they
 deale in this as in the most part of their historie, which is to seeke
 great honor by lieng, & great renowme by prating and craking. Indeed
 they haue doone great mischéefe in this Iland, & with extreme
 crueltie; but as for any conquest the first is yet to heare of. Diuers
 other conquests also haue béene pretended by sundrie princes sithence
 the conquest, onelie to the end that all pristinate lawes and tenures
 of possession might cease, and they make a new disposition of all
 things at their owne pleasure. As one by king Edw. the 3. but it tooke
 none effect. Another by Henrie the 4. who neuerthelesse was at the
 last though hardlie drawne from the challenge by William Thorington,
 then cheefe Justice of England. The third by Henrie the 7. who had
 some better shew of right, but yet without effect. And the last of all
 by Q. Marie, as some of the papists gaue out, and also would haue had
 hir to haue obteined, but God also staied their malices, and hir
 challenge. But beside the six afore mentioned, Huntingdon the old
 historiographer speaketh of a seuenth, likelie (as he saith) to come
 one daie out of the North, which is a wind that bloweth no man to
 good, sith nothing is to be had in those parts, but hunger & much
 cold. Sée more hereof in the historie of S. Albons, and aforsaid
 author which lieth on the left side of the librarie belonging now to
 Paules: for I regard no prophesies as one that doubteth from what
 spirit they doo procéed, or who should be the author of them.


 CAP. V.

 Besides these aforesaid nations, which haue crept (as you haue heard)
 into our Iland, we read of sundrie giants that should inhabit here.
 Which report as it is not altogither incredible, sith the posterities
 of diuers princes were called by the name: so vnto some mens eares it
 seemeth so strange a rehersall, that for the same onelie cause they
 suspect the credit of our whole historie, & reiect it as a fable,
 vnworthie to be read. They also condemne the like in all other
 histories, especiallie of the North, where men are naturallie of
 greatest stature, imagining all to be but fables that is written of
 Starcater, Hartben, Angrine, Aruerode, &c: of whom Saxo, Johannes
 Magnus and Olaus doo make mention, & whose bones doo yet remaine to be
 seene as rare miracles in nature. Of these also some in their life
 time were able to lift vp (as they write) a vessell of liquor of 1000.
 weight, or an horsse, or an oxe, & cast it on their shoulders (wherein
 their verie women haue beene likewise knowne to come néere vnto them)
 and of the race of those men, some were séene of no lesse strength in
 the 1500. of Grace, wherein Olaus liued, and wrote the same of his
 owne experience and knowledge. Of the giant of Spaine that died of
 late yeares by a fall vpon the Alpes, as he either went or came fro
 Rome, about the purchase of a dispensation to marrie with his
 kinswoman (a woman also of much more than common stature) there be men
 yet liuing, and may liue long for age, that can saie verie much euen
 by their owne knowledge. Wherfore it appeareth by present experience,
 that all is not absolutelie vntrue which is remembred of men of such
 giants. For this cause therfore I haue now taken vpon me to make this
 breefe discourse insuing, as indeuouring therby to prooue, that the
 opinion of giants is not altogither grounded vpon vaine and fabulous
 narrations, inuented onelie to delight the eares of the hearers with
 the report of maruellous things: but that there haue beene such men in
 [Sidenote: * _Esay. 30. vers. 25._]
 deed, as for their hugenesse of person haue resembled rather[*] high
 towers than mortall men, although their posterities are now consumed,
 and their monstruous races vtterlie worne out of knowledge.

 I doo not meane herein to dispute, whether this name Gigas or Nephilim
 was giuen vnto them, rather for their tyrannie and oppression of the
 people, than for their greatnesse of bodie, or large steps, as
 Goropius would haue it (for he denieth that euer men were greater than
 at this present) or bicause their parents were not knowne, for such in
 old time were called Terræ filij; or whether the word Gigas dooth
 onlie signifie Indigenas, or homelings, borne in the land or not;
 neither whether all men were of like quantitie in stature, and farre
 more greater in old time, than now they be: and yet absolutelie I
 denie neither of these, sith verie probable reasons may be brought for
 ech of them, but especiallie the last rehearsed, whose confirmation
 dependeth vpon the authorities of sundrie ancient writers, who make
 diuers of noble race, equall to the giants in strength and manhood,
 and yet doo not giue the same name vnto them, bicause their quarels
 were iust, and commonlie taken in hand for defense of the oppressed.
 [Sidenote: Antheus. _Lucane lib. 4 in fine._]
 Examples hereof we may take of Hercules and Antheus, whose wrestling
 declareth that they were equall in stature & stomach. Such also was
 the courage of Antheus, that being often ouercome, and as it were
 vtterlie vanquished by the said Hercules, yet if he did eftsoones
 returne againe into his kingdome, he forthwith recouered his force,
 returned and held Hercules tacke, till he gat at the last betwéene him
 and home, so cutting off the farther hope of the restitution of his
 armie, and killing finallie his aduersarie in the field, of which
 victorie Politian writeth thus:

   Incaluere animis dura certare palæstra,
     Neptuni quondàm filius atque Iouis:
   Non certamen erant operoso ex ære lebetes,
     Sed qui vel vitam vel ferat interitum:
   Occidit Antæus Ioue natum viuere fas est,
     Estq; magistra Pales Græcia, non Lybia.

 [Sidenote: Corineus. Gomagot.]
 The like doo our histories report of Corineus and Gomagot,
 peraduenture king of this Ile, who fought a combat hand to hand, till
 one of them was slaine, and yet for all this no man reputeth Hercules
 or Corineus for giants, albeit that Hanuile in his Architrenion make
 the later to be 12. cubits in height, which is full 18. foot, if
 poeticall licence doo not take place in his report and assertion. But
 sith (I say againe) it is not my purpose to stand vpon these points, I
 passe ouer to speake any more of them. And whereas also I might haue
 proceeded in such order, that I should first set downe by manie
 circumstances, whether any giants were, then whether they were of such
 huge and incredible stature as the authours doo remember, and finallie
 whether any of them haue beene in this our Iland or not, I protest
 plainlie, that my mind is not here bent to deale in any such maner,
 but rather generallie to confirme and by sufficient authoritie, that
 there haue beene such mightie men of stature, and some of them also in
 Britaine, which I will set downe onelie by sundrie examples, whereby
 it shall fall out, that neither our Iland, nor any part of the maine,
 haue at one time or other béen altogither without them. First of all
 therfore, & to begin with the scriptures, the most sure & certeine
 ground of all knowledge: you shall haue out of them such notable
 examples set downe, as I haue obserued in reading the same, which vnto
 the godlie may suffice for sufficient proofe of my position.
 Neuerthelesse, after the scriptures I will resort to the writings of
 our learned Diuines, and finallie of the infidell and pagane authors,
 whereby nothing shall seeme to want that may confute Goropius, and all
 his cauillations.

 [Sidenote: _Cap. 6. vers. 5._]
 Moses the prophet of the Lord, writing of the estate of things before
 the floud, hath these words in his booke of generations. In these
 [Sidenote: _Anti. li. 1._]
 daies saith he, there were giants vpon the earth. Berosus also the
 Chalde writeth, that néere vnto Libanus there was a citie called Oenon
 (which I take to be Hanoch, builded sometime by Cham) wherein giants
 did inhabit, who trusting to the strength and hugenesse of their
 bodies, did verie great oppression and mischeefe in the world. The
 Hebrues called them generallie Enach, of Hanach the Chebronite, father
 to Achimam, Scheschai and Talma, although their first originall was
 deriued from Henoch the sonne of Caine, of whome that pestilent race
 descended, as I read. The Moabits named them Emims, and the Ammonites
 Zamsummims, and it should seeme by the second of Deut. cap. 19, 20.
 that Ammon and Moab were greatlie replenished with such men, when
 Moses wrote that treatise. For of these monsters some families
 remained of greater stature than other vnto his daies, in comparison
 [Sidenote: _Nu. cap. 13. verse 33, & 34._]
 of whome the children of Israell confessed themselues to be but
 grashoppers. Which is one noble testimonie that the word Gigas or
 Enach is so well taken for a man of huge stature, as for an homeborne
 child, wicked tyrant, or oppressour of the people.

 [Sidenote: _Deut. 3. vers. 11._ Og of Basan.]
 Furthermore, there is mention made also in the scriptures of Og,
 sometime king of Basan, who was the last of the race of the giants,
 that was left in the land of promise to be ouercome by the Israelits,
 & whose iron bed was afterward shewed for a woonder at Rabbath (a
 citie of the Ammonites) conteining 9. cubits in length, and 4. in
 bredth, which cubits I take not to be geometricall, (that is, each one
 so great as six of the smaller, as those were wherof the Arke was
 made, as our Diuines affirme, especiallie Augustine: whereas Origen,
 hom. 2. in Gen. out of whom he seemeth to borrow it, appeareth to haue
 no such meaning directlie) but rather of the arme of a meane man,
 which oftentimes dooth varie & differ from the standard. Oh how
 Goropius dalieth about the historie of this Og, of the breaking of his
 pate against the beds head, & of hurting his ribs against the sides,
 and all to prooue, that Og was not bigger than other men, and so he
 leaueth the matter as sufficientlie answered with a French countenance
 of truth. But see August. de ciuit. lib. 15. cap. 25. & ad Faustum
 Manich. lib. 12. Ambros. &c. and Johannes Buteo that excellent
 geometrician, who hath written of purpose of the capacitie of the

 [Sidenote: _Cap. 17. ver. 4, 5, 6._]
 [Sidenote: Goliah.]
 In the first of Samuel you shall read of Goliah a Philistine, the
 weight of whose brigandine or shirt of maile was of 5000. sicles, or
 1250. ounces of brasse, which amounteth to 104. pound of Troie weight
 after 4. common sicles to the ounce. The head of his speare came vnto
 ten pound English or 600. sicles of that metall. His height also was
 measured at six cubits and an hand bredth. All which doo import that
 he was a notable giant, and a man of great stature & strength to weare
 such an armour, and beweld so heauie a lance. But Goropius thinking
 himselfe still to haue Og in hand, and indeuouring to extenuate the
 fulnesse of the letter to his vttermost power, dooth neuerthelesse
 earnestlie affirme, that he was not aboue three foot more than the
 common sort of men, or two foot higher than Saule: and so he leaueth
 it as determined.

 [Sidenote: _Cap. 21. ver. 16, 17, &c._]
 In the second of Samuel, I find report of foure giants borne in Geth;
 of which Ishbenob the first, that would haue killed Dauid, had a
 speare, whose head weighed the iust halfe of that of Goliath: the
 second called Siphai, Sippai or Saph, 1. Par. 20. was nothing
 inferiour to the first: the third hight also Goliah, the staffe of
 whose speare was like vnto the beame of a weauers loome, neuerthelesse
 he was slaine in the second battell in Gob by Elhanan, as the first
 was by Abisai Ioabs brother, and the second by Elhanan. The fourth
 brother (for they were all brethren) was slaine at Gath by Ionathan
 nephew to Dauid, and he was not onlie huge of personage, but also of
 disfigured forme, for he had 24. fingers and toes. Wherby it is
 euident, that the generation of giants was not extinguished in
 Palestine, vntill the time of Dauid, which was 2890. after the floud,
 nor vtterlie consumed in Og, as some of our expositors would haue it.

 Now to come vnto our christian writers. For though the authorities
 alreadie alleged out of the word, are sufficient to confirme my
 purpose at the full; yet will I not let to set downe such other notes
 as experience hath reuealed, onelie to the end that the reader shall
 not thinke the name of giants, with their quantities, and other
 circumstances, mentioned in the scriptures, rather to haue some
 mysticall interpretation depending vpon them, than that the sense of
 the text in this behalfe is to be taken simplie as it speaketh. And
 first of all to omit that which Tertullian Lib. 2. de resurrect.
 [Sidenote: _De ciuitate Dei lib. 15. cap. 9._]
 saith; S. Augustine noteth, how he with other saw the tooth of a man,
 wherof he tooke good aduisement, and pronounced in the end that it
 would haue made 100. of his owne, or anie other mans that liued in his
 [Sidenote: _Iohannes Boccacius._]
 time. The like hereof also dooth Iohn Boccace set downe, in the 68.
 chapter of his 4. booke, saieng that in the caue of a mountaine, not
 far from Drepanum (a towne of Sicilia called Eryx as he gesseth) the
 bodie of an exceeding high giant was discouered, thrée of whose teeth
 did weigh 100. ounces, which being conuerted into English poise, doth
 yeeld eight pound and foure ounces, after twelue ounces to the pound,
 that is 33. ounces euerie tooth.

 He addeth farther, that the forepart of his scull was able to conteine
 manie bushels of wheat, and by the proportion of the bone of his
 [Sidenote: A carcase discouered of 200. cubits.]
 thigh, the Symmetricians iudged his bodie to be aboue 200. cubits.
 Those teeth, scull, and bones, were (and as I thinke yet are, for
 ought I know to the contrarie) to be seene in the church of Drepanum
 in perpetuall memorie of his greatnesse, whose bodie was found vpon
 this occasion. As some digged in the earth to laie the foundation of
 an house, the miners happened vpon a great vault, not farre from
 Drepanum: whereinto when they were entred, they saw the huge bodie of
 a man sitting in the caue, of whose greatnesse they were so afraid,
 that they ranne awaie, and made an outcrie in the citie, how there sat
 a man in such a place, so great as an hill: the people hearing the
 newes, ran out with clubs and weapons, as if they should haue gone
 vnto a foughten field, and 300. of them entring into the caue, they
 foorthwith saw that he was dead, and yet sat as if he had been aliue,
 hauing a staffe in his hand, compared by mine author vnto the mast of
 a tall ship, which being touched fell by and by to dust, sauing the
 nether end betwéene his hand and the ground, whose hollownesse was
 filled with 1500. pound weight of lead, to beare vp his arme that it
 should not fall in péeces: neuerthelesse, his bodie also being touched
 fell likewise into dust, sauing three of his aforesaid teeth, the
 forepart of his scull, and one of his thigh bones, which are reserued
 to be séene of such as will hardlie beleeue these reports.

 In the histories of Brabant I read of a giant found, whose bones were
 17. or 18. cubits in length, but Goropius, as his maner is, denieth
 them to be the bones of a man, affirming rather that they were the
 bones of an elephant, because they somwhat resembled those of two such
 beasts which were found at the making of the famous ditch betwéene
 Bruxels and Machlin. As though there were anie precise resemblance
 betwéene the bones of a man and of an elephant, or that there had euer
 béene any elephant of 27. foot in length. But sée his demeanour. In
 the end he granteth that another bodie was found vpon the shore of
 Rhodanus, of thirtie foot in length. Which somewhat staieth his
 iudgement, but not altogither remooueth his error.

 [Sidenote: _Mat. Westmon._]
 The bodie of Pallas was found in Italie, in the yeare of Grace 1038.
 and being measured it conteined twentie foot in length, this Pallas
 was companion with Æneas.

 [Sidenote: _Iohannes Leland._]
 There was a carcase also laid bare 1170. in England vpon the shore
 (where the beating of the sea had washed awaie the earth from the
 stone wherein it laie) and when it was taken vp it conteined 50. foot
 [Sidenote: _Mafieus, lib. 14. Triuet._]
 in measure, as our histories doo report. The like was seene before in
 [Sidenote: _Mat. West._]
 Wales, in the yeare 1087. of another of 14. foot.

 In Perth moreouer a village in Scotland another was taken vp, which to
 this daie they shew in a church, vnder the name of little John (per
 Antiphrasin) being also 14. foot in length, as diuerse doo affirme
 [Sidenote: _Hector Boet._]
 which haue beholden the same, and whereof Hector Boetius dooth saie,
 that he did put his whole arme into one of the hanch bones: which is
 worthie to be remembred.

 In the yeare of Grace 1475. the bodie of Tulliola the daughter of
 Cicero was taken vp, & found higher by not a few foot than the common
 sort of women liuing in those daies.

 [Sidenote: _Geruasius Tilberiensis._]
 Geruasius Tilberiensis, head Marshall to the king of Arles writeth in
 his Chronicle dedicated to Otho 4. how that at Isoretum, in the
 suburbes of Paris, he saw the bodie of a man that was twentie foot
 long, beside the head and the necke, which was missing & not found,
 the owner hauing peraduenture béene beheaded for some notable
 trespasse committed in times past, or (as he saith) killed by S.

 The Greeke writers make mention of Andronicus their emperour, who
 liued 1183. of Grace, and was ten foot in height, that is, thrée foot
 higher than the Dutch man that shewed himselfe in manie places of
 England, 1582. this man maried Anna daughter to Lewis of France
 (before assured to Alexius, whome he strangled, dismembred and drowned
 in the sea) the ladie not being aboue eleuen yeares of age, whereas he
 was an old dotard, and beside hir he kept Marpaca a fine harlot, who
 ruled him as she listed.

 Zonaras speaketh of a woman that liued in the daies of Justine, who
 being borne in Cilicia, and of verie comelie personage, was
 neuerthelesse almost two foot taller than the tallest woman of hir

 [Sidenote: _Sir Thomas Eliot._]
 A carcase was taken vp at Iuie church neere Salisburie but of late
 yeares to speake of, almost fourtéene foot long, in Dictionario

 [Sidenote: _Leland in Combrit._]
 In Gillesland in Come Whitton paroche not far from the chappell of the
 Moore, six miles by east from Carleill, a coffin of stone was found,
 and therein the bones of a man, of more than incredible greatnes. In
 like sort Leland speaketh of another found in the Ile called Alderney,
 whereof you shall read more in the chapiter of our Ilands.

 [Sidenote: _Richard Grafton._]
 Richard Grafton in his Manuell telleth of one whose shinbone conteined
 six foot, and thereto his scull so great that it was able to receiue
 fiue pecks of wheat. Wherefore by coniecturall symmetrie of these
 parts, his bodie must needs be of 24. foot, or rather more, if it were
 [Sidenote: The Symmetrie or proportion of the bodie of a comelie man.]
 diligentlie measured. For the proportion of a comelie and well
 featured bodie, answereth 9. times to the length of the face, taken at
 large from the pitch of the crowne to the chin, as the whole length is
 from the same place vnto the sole of the foot, measured by an imagined
 line, and seuered into so manie parts by like ouerthwart draughts, as
 Drurerus in his lineall description of mans bodie doth deliuer.
 Neuertheles, this symmetrie is not taken by other than the well
 proportioned face, for Recta, orbiculata (or fornicata) prona,
 resupinata, and lacunata (or repanda) doo so far degenerate from the
 true proportion as from the forme and beautie of the comelie. Hereby
 also they make the face taken in strict maner, to be the tenth part of
 the whole bodie, that is, fr[=o] the highest part of the forehead to
 the pitch of the chin, so that in the vse of the word face there is a
 difference, wherby the 9. part is taken (I say) from the crowne
 (called Vertex, because the haire there turneth into a circle) so that
 if the space by a rule were truelie taken, I meane from the crowne or
 highest part of the head to the pitch of the nether chap, and
 multiplied by nine, the length of the whole bodie would easilie
 appeare, & shew it selfe at the full. In like maner I find, that from
 the elbow to the top of the midle finger is the 4. part of the whole
 length, called a cubit: from the wrist to the top of the same finger,
 a tenth part: the length of the shinbone to the ancle a fourth part
 (and all one with the cubit:) from the top of the finger to the third
 ioint, two third parts of the face from the top of the forehead. Which
 obseruations I willinglie remember in this place, to the end that if
 anie such carcases happen to be found hereafter, it shall not be hard
 by some of these bones here mentioned, to come by the stature of the
 whole bodie, in certeine & exact maner. As for the rest of the bones,
 ioints, parts, &c: you may resort to Drurerus, Cardan, and other
 writers, sith the farther deliuerie of them concerneth not my purpose.
 [Sidenote: _Sylvester Gyraldus._]
 To proceed therefore with other examples, I read that the bodie of
 king Arthur being found in the yeare 1189. was two foot higher than
 anie man that came to behold the same. Finallie the carcase of William
 Conqueror was séene not manie yeares since (to wit, 1542.) in the
 [Sidenote: _Constans fama Gallorum._]
 citie of Cane, twelue inches longer, by the iudgment of such as saw
 it, than anie man which dwelled in the countrie. All which testimonies
 I note togither, bicause they proceed from christian writers, from
 whome nothing should be farther or more distant, than of set purpose
 to lie, and feed the world with fables.

 In our times also, and whilest Francis the first reigned ouer France,
 there was a man séene in Aquiteine, whome the king being in those
 parties made of his gard, whose height was such, that a man of common
 heigth might easilie go vnder his twist without stooping, a stature
 [Sidenote: Briat.]
 incredible. Moreouer Casanion, a writer of our time, telleth of the
 bones of Briat a giant found of late in Delphinois, of 15. cubits, the
 diameter of whose scull was two cubits, and the breadth of his
 shoulders foure, as he himselfe beheld in the late second wars of
 France, & wherevnto the report of Ioan Marius made in his bookes De
 Galliarum illustrationibus, where he writeth of the carcase of the
 same giant found not farre from the Rhodanus, which was 22. foot long,
 from the scull to the sole of the feet, dooth yéeld sufficient
 testimonie. Also Calameus in his commentaries De Biturigibus,
 confirmeth no lesse, adding that he was found 1556. & so dooth
 Baptista Fulgosus, lib. 1. cap. 6. saieng farther, that his graue was
 seene not farre from Valentia, and discouered by the violence and
 current of the Rhodanus. The said Casanion in like sort speaketh of
 the bones of a man which he beheld, one of whose téeth was a foot
 long, and eight pound in weight. Also of the sepulchre of another
 neere vnto Charmes castell, which was nine paces in length, things
 incredible to vs, if eiesight did not confirme it in our owne times,
 and these carcases were not reserued by the verie prouidence of God,
 to the end we might behold his works, and by these relikes vnderstand,
 that such men were in old time in deed, of whose statures we now begin
 to doubt. Now to say somwhat also of mine owne knowledge, there is the
 thighbone of a man to be séene in the church of S. Laurence néere
 Guildhall in London, which in time past was 26. inches in length, but
 now it beginneth to decaie, so that it is shorter by foure inches than
 it was in the time of king Edward. Another also is to be seene in
 Aldermarie burie, of some called Aldermanburie, of 32. inches and
 rather more, whereof the symmetrie hath beene taken by some skilfull
 in that practise, and an image made according to that proportion,
 which is fixt in the east end of the cloister of the same church, not
 farre from the said bone, and sheweth the person of a man full ten or
 eleuen foot high, which as some say was found in the cloister of
 Poules, that was neere to the librarie, at such time as the Duke of
 Somerset did pull it downe to the verie foundation, and carried the
 stones thereof to the Strand, where he did build his house. These two
 bones haue I séene, beside other, whereof at the beholding I tooke no
 great heed, bicause I minded not as then to haue had any such vse of
 their proportions, and therefore I will speake no more of them: this
 is sufficient for my purpose that is deliuered out of the christian

 Now it resteth furthermore that I set downe, what I haue read therof
 in Pagane writers, who had alwaies great regard of their credit, and
 so ought all men that dedicate any thing vnto posteritie, least in
 going about otherwise to reape renowme and praise, they doo procure
 vnto themselues in the end nothing else but meere contempt and
 infamie. For my part I will touch rare things, and such as to my selfe
 doo séeme almost incredible: howbeit as I find them, so I note them,
 requiring your Honour in reading hereof, to let euerie Author beare
 his owne burden, and euerie oxe his bundle.

 [Sidenote: _In vita Sertorij de Antheo._]
 Plutarch telleth how Sertorius being in Lybia, néere to the streicts
 of Maroco, to wit, at Tingi (or Tanger in Mauritania, as it is now
 called) caused the sepulchre of Antheus, afore remembred to be opened:
 for hearing by common report that the said giant laie buried there,
 whose corps was fiftie cubits long at the least, he was so far off
 from crediting the same, that he would not beleeue it, vntill he saw
 the coffin open wherein the bones of the aforesaid prince did rest. To
 be short therefore, he caused his souldiers to cast downe the hill
 made sometime ouer the tombe, and finding the bodie in the bottome
 coffined in stone, after the measure therof taken, he saw it
 manifestlie to be 60. cubits in length, which were ten more than the
 people made accompt of, which Strabo also confirmeth.

 Pausanias reporteth out of one Miso, that when the bodie of Aiax was
 found, the whirlebone of his knée was adiudged so broad as a pretie
 dish: also that the bodie of Asterius somtime king of Creta was ten
 cubits long, and that of Hyllus or Gerion no lesse maruelous than the
 rest, all which Goropius still condemneth to be the bones of monsters
 of the sea (notwithstanding the manifest formes of their bones,
 epitaphes, and inscriptions found ingrauen in brasse and lead with
 them in their sepulchres) so far is he from being persuaded and led
 from his opinion.

 [Sidenote: _Philostrate._]
 Philostrate in Heroicis saith, how he saw the bodie of a giant thirtie
 cubits in length, also the carcase of another of two and twentie, and
 the third of twelue.

 Liuie in the seauenth of his first decade, speaketh of an huge person
 which made a challenge as he stood at the end of the Anien bridge,
 against any Romane that would come out and fight with him, whose
 stature was not much inferiour to that of Golias, of Artaches (of
 whome Herodot speaketh in the historie of Xerxes) who was sixe common
 cubits of stature, which make but fiue of the kings standard, bicause
 this is longer by thrée fingers than the other. Of Pusio, Secundilla,
 & Cabaras, of which the first two liuing vnder Augustus were aboue ten
 foot, and the later vnder Claudius of full nine, and all remembred by
 Plinie; of Eleazar a Jew, of whome Iosephus saith, that he was sent to
 Tiberius, and a person of heigth fiue cubits; of another of whom
 Nicephorus maketh mention lib. 12. cap. 13. Hist. eccles. of fiue
 cubits and an handfull, I say nothing, bicause Casanion of Mutterell
 hath alredie sufficientlie discoursed vpon these examples in his De
 gigantibus, which as I gesse he hath written of set purpose against
 Goropius, who in his Gigantomachia, supposeth himselfe to haue killed
 all the giants in the world, and like a new Iupiter Alterum carcasse
 Herculem, as the said Casanion dooth merilie charge and vpbraid him.

 [Sidenote: _Lib. 7._]
 Plinie telleth of an earthquake at Creta, which discouered the body of
 a giant, that was 46. cubits in length after the Romane standard, and
 by diuerse supposed to be the bodie of Orion or Ætion. Neuerthelesse I
 read, that Lucius Flaccus and Metellus did sweare Per sua capita, that
 it was either the carcase of some monster of the sea, or a forged
 deuise to bleare the peoples eies withall, wherein it is wonderfull to
 see, how they please Goropius as one that first deriued his
 fantasticall imagination from their asseueration & oth. The said
 Plinie also addeth that the bodie of Orestes was seuen cubits in
 length, one Gabbara of Arabia nine foot nine inches, and two reserued
 In conditorio Sallustianorum halfe a foot longer than Gabbara was, for
 which I neuer read that anie man was driuen to sweare.

 [Sidenote: _Trallianus._]
 Trallianus writeth how the Athenienses digging on a time in the
 ground, to laie the foundation of a new wall to be made in a certeine
 Iland in the daies of an emperour, did find the bones of Macrosyris in
 a coffin of hard stone, of 100. cubits in length after the accompt of
 the Romane cubit, which was then either a foot and a halfe, or not
 much in difference from halfe a yard of our measure now in England.
 These verses also, as they are now translated out of Gréeke were found

   Sepultus ego Macrosyris in longa insula
   Vitæ peractis annis mille quinquies:

 which amounteth to 81. yeares foure moneths, after the Aegyptian

 In the time of Hadrian the emperour, the bodie of the giant Ida was
 taken vp at Messana, conteining 20. foot in length, and hauing a
 double row of teeth, yet standing whole in his chaps. Eumachus also in
 Perigesi, telleth that when the Carthaginenses went about to dich in
 their prouince, they found two bodies in seuerall coffins of stone,
 the one was 23. the other 24. cubits in length, such another was found
 in Bosphoro Cymmerio after an earthquake, but the inhabitants did cast
 those bones into the Meotidan marris. In Dalmatia, manie graues were
 shaken open with an earthquake, in diuers of which certeine carcases
 were found, whose ribs conteined 16. els, after the Romane measure,
 whereby the whole bodies were iudged to be 64. sith the longest rib is
 commonlie about the fourth part of a man, as some rouing symmetricians

 Arrhianus saith, that in the time of Alexander the bodies of the
 Asianes were generallie of huge stature, and commonlie of fiue cubits,
 and such was the heigth of Porus of Inde, whom the said Alexander
 vanquished and ouerthrew in battell.

 Suidas speaketh of Ganges, killed also by the said prince, who farre
 exceeded Porus; for he was ten cubits long. What should I speake of
 Artaceas a capitaine in the host of Xerxes, afore remembred, whose
 heigth was within 4. fingers bredth of fiue cubits, & the tallest man
 in the armie except the king himselfe. Herod. lib. 7. Of Athanatus
 whom Plinie remembreth I saie nothing. But of all these, this one
 example shall passe, which I doo read of in Trallianus, and he setteth
 downe in forme and manner following.

 In the daies of Tiberius th'emperor saith he, a corps was left bare or
 laid open after an earthquake, of which ech tooth (taken one with
 another) conteined 12. inches ouer at the least. Now forsomuch as in
 [Sidenote: A mouth of sixteene foot wide.]
 such as be full mouthed, ech chap hath commonlie 16. teeth at the
 least, which amount vnto 32. in the whole, needs must the widenesse of
 this mans chaps be welneere of 16. foot, and the opening of his lips
 fiue at the least. A large mouth in mine opinion, and not to eat
 peason with Ladies of my time, besides that if occasion serued, it was
 able to receiue the whole bodies of mo than one of the greatest men, I
 meane of such as we be in our daies. When this carcase was thus found,
 euerie man maruelled at it, & good cause why. A messenger was sent to
 [Sidenote: A counterfect made of a monstrous carcase
 by one tooth taken out of the head.]
 Tiberius the emperour also to know his pleasure, whether he would haue
 the same brought ouer vnto Rome or not, but he forbad them, willing
 his Legate not to remooue the dead out of his resting place, but
 rather somewhat to satisfie his phantasie to send him a tooth out of
 his head, which being done, he gaue it to a cunning workeman,
 commanding him to shape a carcase of light matter, after the
 proportion of the tooth, that at the least by such means he might
 satisfie his curious mind, and the fantasies of such as are delited
 [Sidenote: This man was more fauorable to this monster
 than our papists were to the bodies of the dead who
 tare them in peeces to make money of them.]
 with nouelties. To be short, when the image was once made and set vp
 on end, it appéered rather an huge colossie than the true carcase of a
 man, and when it had stood in Rome vntill the people were wearie &
 throughlie satisfied with the sight thereof, he caused it to be broken
 all to peeces, and the tooth sent againe to the carcase fr[=o] whence
 it came, willing them moreouer to couer it diligentlie, and in anie
 wise not to dismember the corps, nor from thencefoorth to be so hardie
 as to open the sepulchre anie more. Pausan. lib. 8. telleth in like
 maner of Hiplodanus & his fellowes, who liued when Rhea was with child
 of Osyris by Cham, and were called to hir aid at such time as she
 feared to be molested by Hammon hir first husband, whilest she
 [Sidenote: Grandiáque effossis mirabitur ossa sepulchris.]
 remained vpon the Thoumasian hill, "In ipso loco," saith he,
 "spectantur ossa maiora multo quàm vt humana existimari possunt, &c."
 Of Protophanes who had but one great and broad bone in steed of all
 his ribs on ech side I saie nothing, sith it concerneth not his

 I could rehearse manie mo examples of the bodies of such men, out of
 Solinus, Sabellicus, D. Cooper, and others. As of Oetas and Ephialtes,
 who were said to be nine orgies or paces in heigth, and foure in
 bredth, which are taken for so many cubits, bicause there is small
 difference betwéene a mans ordinarie pace and his cubit, and finallie
 of our Richard the first, who is noted to beare an axe in the wars,
 the iron of whose head onelie weighed twentie pound after our greatest
 weight, and whereof an old writer that I haue seene, saith thus:

   This king Richard I vnderstand,
   Yer he went out of England,
   Let make an axe for the nones,
   Therewith to cleaue the Saracens bones,
   The head in sooth was wrought full weele,
   Thereon were twentie pound of steele,
   And when he came in Cyprus land,
   That ilkon axe he tooke in hand, &c.

 I could speake also of Gerards staffe or lance, yet to be seene in
 Gerards hall at London in Basing lane, which is so great and long that
 no man can beweld it, neither go to the top thereof without a ladder,
 which of set purpose and for greater countenance of the wonder is
 fixed by the same. I haue seene a man my selfe of seuen foot in
 heigth, but lame of his legs. The chronicles also of Cogshall speake
 of one in Wales, who was halfe a foot higher, but through infirmitie
 and wounds not able to beweld himselfe. I might (if I thought good)
 speake also of another of no lesse heigth than either of these and
 liuing of late yeares, but these here remembred shall suffice to
 prooue my purpose withall. I might tell you in like sort of the marke
 stone which Turnus threw at Æneas, and was such as that twelue chosen
 and picked men (saith Virgil),

 [Sidenote: Vis vnita fortior est eadem dispersa.]

   (Qualia nunc hominum producit corpora tellus)

 were not able to stur and remooue out of the place: but I passe it
 ouer, and diuerse of the like, concluding that these huge blocks were
 ordeined and created by God: first for a testimonie vnto vs of his
 power and might; and secondlie for a confirmation, that hugenes of
 bodie is not to be accompted of as a part of our felicitie, sith they
 which possessed the same, were not onelie tyrants, doltish, & euill
 men, but also oftentimes ouercome euen by the weake & feeble. Finallie
 they were such indéed as in whom the Lord delited not, according to
 [Sidenote: _Cap. 3, 36._]
 the saieng of the prophet Baruch; "Ibi fuerunt gigantes nominati, illi
 qui ab initio fuerunt statura magna, scientes bellum, hos non elegit
 Dominus, neque illis viam disciplinæ dedit, propterea perierunt, et
 quoniam non habuerunt sapientiam, interierunt propter suam
 insipientiam, &c." that is, "There were the giants famous from the
 beginning, that were of great stature and expert in warre, those did
 not the Lord choose, neither gaue he the waie of knowledge vnto them,
 but they were destroied, because they had no wisedome, and perished
 through their owne foolishnesse." That the bodies of men also doo
 [Sidenote: _4. Esd. cap. 5._]
 dailie decaie in stature, beside Plinie lib. 7. Esdras likewise
 confesseth lib. 4. cap. 5. whose authoritie is so good herein as that
 of Homer or Plinie, who doo affirme so much, whereas Goropius still
 continuing his woonted pertinacitie also in this behalfe, maketh his
 proportion first by the old Romane foot, and then by his owne, &
 therevpon concludeth that men in these daies be fullie so great as
 euer they were, whereby as in the former dealing he thinketh it
 nothing to conclude against the scriptures, chosen writers and
 testimonies of the oldest pagans. But see how he would salue all at
 last in the end of his Gigantomachia, where he saith, I denie not but
 that od huge personages haue bene seene, as a woman of ten, and a man
 of nine foot long, which I my selfe also haue beholden, but as now so
 in old time the common sort did so much woonder at the like as we doo
 at these, because they were seldome séene, and not commonlie to be
 heard of.



 [Sidenote: British.]
 What language came first with Samothes and afterward with Albion, and
 the giants of his companie, it is hard for me to determine, sith
 nothing of sound credit remaineth in writing, which may resolue vs in
 [Sidenote: Small difference betweene the British
 and Celtike languages.]
 the truth hereof. Yet of so much are we certeine, that the speach of
 the ancient Britons, and of the Celts, had great affinitie one with
 another, so that they were either all one, or at leastwise such as
 either nation with small helpe of interpretors might vnderstand other,
 and readilie discerne what the speaker meant. Some are of the opinion
 that the Celts spake Greeke, and how the British toong resembled the
 same, which was spoken in Grecia before Homer did reforme it: but I
 see that these men doo speake without authoritie and therefore I
 reiect them, for if the Celts which were properlie called Galles did
 speake Gréeke, why did Cesar in his letters sent to Rome vse that
 language, because that if they should be intercepted they might not
 vnderstand them, or why did he not vnderstand the Galles, he being so
 skilfull in the language without an interpretor? Yet I denie not but
 that the Celtish and British speaches might haue great affinitie one
 with another, and the British aboue all other with the Greeke, for
 both doo appéere by certeine words, as first in tri for three, march
 for an horsse, & trimarchia, whereof Pausanias speaketh, for both.
 Atheneus also writeth of Bathanasius a capitaine of the Galles, whose
 name is méere British, compounded of Bath & Ynad, & signifieth a noble
 or comelie iudge. And wheras he saith that the reliques of the Galles
 tooke vp their first dwelling about Isther, and afterward diuided
 themselues in such wise, that they which went and dwelled in Hungarie
 were called Sordsai, and the other that inhabited within the dominion
 of Tyroll) Brenni, whose seate was on the mount Brenhere parcell of
 the Alpes, what else signifieth the word Iscaredich in British, from
 whence the word Scordisci commeth, but to be diuided? Hereby then, and
 sundrie other the like testimonies, I gather that the British and the
 Celtish speaches had great affinitie one with another, as I said,
 which Cesar (speaking of the similitude or likenesse of religion in
 both nations) doth also auerre, & Tacitus in vita Agricolæ, in like
 sort plainlie affirmeth, or else it must needs be that the Galles
 which inuaded Italie and Greece were meere Britons, of whose likenes
 of speech with the Gréeke toong I need not make anie triall, sith no
 man (I hope) will readilie denie it. Appianus talking of the Brenni
 calleth them Cymbres, and by this I gather also that the Celts and the
 Britons were indifferentlie called Cymbri in their own language, or
 else that the Britons were the right Cymbri, who vnto this daie doo
 not refuse to be called by that name. Bodinus writing of the means by
 which the originall of euerie kingdome and nation is to be had and
 discerned, setteth downe thrée waies whereby the knowledge thereof is
 to be found, one is (saith he) the infallible testimonie of the sound
 writers, the other the description and site of the region, the third
 the relikes of the ancient speech remaining in the same. Which later
 if it be of any force, then I must conclude, that the spéech of the
 Britons and Celts was sometime either all one or verie like one to
 another, or else it must follow that the Britons ouerflowed the
 continent vnder the name of Cymbres, being peraduenture associat in
 this voiage, or mixed by inuasion with the Danes, and Norwegiens, who
 are called Cymbri and Cymmerij, as most writers doo remember. This
 also is euident (as Plutarch likewise confesseth In vita Marij) that
 no man knew from whence the Cymbres came in his daies, and therfore I
 beleeue that they came out of Britaine, for all the maine was well
 knowne vnto them, I meane euen to the vttermost part of the north, as
 may appeare furthermore by the slaues which were dailie brought from
 thence vnto them, whom of their countries they called Daui for Daci,
 Getæ for Gothes, &c: for of their conquests I need not make
 rehearsall, sith they are commonlie knowne and remembred by the
 writers, both of the Greekes and Latines.

 [Sidenote: British corrupted by the Latine and Saxon speeches.]
 The British toong called Camberaec dooth yet remaine in that part of
 the Iland, which is now called Wales, whither the Britons were driuen
 after the Saxons had made a full conquest of the other, which we now
 call England, although the pristinate integritie thereof be not a
 little diminished by mixture of the Latine and Saxon speaches withall.
 Howbeit, manie poesies and writings (in making whereof that nation
 hath euermore delited) are yet extant in my time, wherby some
 difference betwéene the ancient and present language may easilie be
 discerned, notwithstanding that among all these there is nothing to be
 found, which can set downe anie sound and full testimonie of their
 owne originall, in remembrance whereof, their Bards and cunning men
 haue béene most slacke and negligent. Giraldus in praising the Britons
 affirmeth that there is not one word in all their language, that is
 not either Gréeke or Latine. Which being rightly vnderstanded and
 conferred with the likenesse that was in old time betwéene the Celts &
 the British toongs, will not a little helpe those that thinke the old
 Celtish to haue some sauour of the Gréeke. But how soeuer that matter
 standeth, after the British speach came once ouer into this Iland,
 sure it is, that it could neuer be extinguished for all the attempts
 that the Romans, Saxons, Normans, and Englishmen could make against
 that nation, in anie maner of wise.

 [Sidenote: The Britons diligent in petigrées.]
 Petigrées and genealogies also the Welsh Britons haue plentie in their
 owne toong, insomuch that manie of them can readilie deriue the same,
 either from Brute or some of his band, euen vnto Æneas and other of
 the Troians, and so foorth vnto Noah without anie maner of stop. But
 as I know not what credit is to be giuen vnto them in this behalfe,
 although I must néeds confesse that their ancient Bards were verie
 diligent in there collection, and had also publike allowance or
 salarie for the same; so I dare not absolutelie impugne their
 assertions, sith that in times past all nations (learning it no doubt
 of the Hebrues) did verie solemnelie preserue the catalogs of their
 descents, thereby either to shew themselues of ancient and noble race,
 or else to be descended from some one of the gods. But

   Stemmata quid faciunt? quid prodest Pontice longo
   Sanguine censeri? aut quid auorum ducere turmas? &c.

 [Sidenote: Latine.]
 Next vnto the British speach, the Latine toong was brought in by the
 Romans, and in maner generallie planted through the whole region, as
 the French was after by the Normans. Of this toong I will not say
 much, bicause there are few which be not skilfull in the same.
 Howbeit, as the speach it selfe is easie and delectable, so hath it
 peruerted the names of the ancient riuers, regions, & cities of
 Britaine in such wise, that in these our daies their old British
 denominations are quite growne out of memorie, and yet those of the
 new Latine left as most vncertaine. This remaineth also vnto my time,
 borowed from the Romans, that all our déeds, euidences, charters, &
 writings of record, are set downe in the Latine toong, though now
 verie barbarous, and therevnto the copies and court-rolles, and
 processes of courts and leets registred in the same.

 [Sidenote: The Saxon toong.]
 The third language apparantlie knowne is the Scithian or high Dutch,
 induced at the first by the Saxons (which the Britons call Saysonaec,
 as they doo the speakers Sayson) an hard and rough kind of speach, God
 wot, when our nation was brought first into acquaintance withall, but
 now changed with vs into a farre more fine and easie kind of
 vtterance, and so polished and helped with new and milder words, that
 it is to be aduouched how there is no one speach vnder the sunne
 spoken in our time, that hath or can haue more varietie of words,
 copie of phrases, or figures and floures of eloquence, than hath our
 English toong, although some haue affirmed vs rather to barke as dogs,
 than talke like men, bicause the most of our words (as they doo
 indéed) incline vnto one syllable. This also is to be noted as a
 testimonie remaining still of our language, deriued from the Saxons,
 that the generall name for the most part of euerie skilfull artificer
 in his trade endeth in Here with vs, albeit the H be left out, and er
 onlie inserted, as Scriuenhere, writehere, shiphere, &c: for
 scriuener, writer, and shipper, &c: beside manie other relikes of that
 spéech, neuer to be abolished.

 [Sidenote: The French toong.]
 After the Saxon toong, came the Norman or French language ouer into
 our countrie, and therein were our lawes written for a long time. Our
 children also were by an especiall decrée taught first to speake the
 same, and therevnto inforced to learne their constructions in the
 French, whensoeuer they were set to the Grammar schoole. In like sort
 few bishops, abbats, or other clergie men, were admitted vnto anie
 ecclesiasticall function here among vs, but such as came out of
 religious houses from beyond the seas, to the end they should not vse
 the English toong in their sermons to the people. In the court also it
 grew into such contempt, that most men thought it no small dishonor to
 speake any English there. Which brauerie tooke his hold at the last
 likewise in the countrie with euerie plowman, that euen the verie
 carters began to wax wearie of there mother toong, & laboured to
 speake French, which as then was counted no small token of gentilitie.
 And no maruell, for euerie French rascall, when he came once hither,
 was taken for a gentleman, onelie bicause he was proud, and could vse
 his owne language, and all this (I say) to exile the English and
 British speaches quite out of the countrie. But in vaine, for in the
 time of king Edward the first, to wit, toward the latter end of his
 reigne, the French it selfe ceased to be spoken generallie, but most
 of all and by law in the midst of Edward the third, and then began the
 English to recouer and grow in more estimation than before;
 notwithstanding that among our artificers, the most part of their
 implements, tooles and words of art reteine still their French
 denominations euen to these our daies, as the language it selfe is
 vsed likewise in sundrie courts, bookes of record, and matters of law;
 whereof here is no place to make any particular rehearsall. Afterward
 [Sidenote: The helpers of our English toong.]
 also, by diligent trauell of Geffray Chaucer, and Iohn Gowre, in the
 time of Richard the second, and after them of Iohn Scogan, and Iohn
 Lydgate monke of Berrie, our said toong was brought to an excellent
 passe, notwithstanding that it neuer came vnto the type of perfection,
 vntill the time of Quéene Elizabeth, wherein Iohn Iewell B. of Sarum,
 Iohn Fox, and sundrie learned & excellent writers haue fullie
 accomplished the ornature of the same, to their great praise and
 immortall commendation; although not a few other doo greatlie séeke to
 staine the same, by fond affectation of forren and strange words,
 presuming that to be the best English, which is most corrupted with
 externall termes of eloquence, and sound of manie syllables. But as
 this excellencie of the English toong is found in one, and the south
 part of this Iland; so in Wales the greatest number (as I said)
 retaine still their owne ancient language, that of the north part of
 the said countrie being lesse corrupted than the other, and therefore
 reputed for the better in their owne estimation and iudgement. This
 [Sidenote: Englishmen apt to learne any forren toong.]
 also is proper to vs Englishmen, that sith ours is a meane language,
 and neither too rough nor too smooth in vtterance, we may with much
 facilitie learne any other language, beside Hebrue, Gréeke & Latine,
 and speake it naturallie, as if we were home-borne in those countries;
 & yet on the other side it falleth out, I wot not by what other
 meanes, that few forren nations can rightlie pronounce ours, without
 some and that great note of imperfection, especiallie the French men,
 who also seldome write any thing that sauoreth of English trulie. It
 is a pastime to read how Natalis Comes in like maner, speaking of our
 affaires, dooth clip the names of our English lords. But this of all
 the rest dooth bréed most admiration with me, that if any stranger doo
 hit vpon some likelie pronuntiation of our toong, yet in age he
 swarueth so much from the same, that he is woorse therein than euer he
 was, and thereto peraduenture halteth not a litle also in his owne, as
 I haue séene by experience in Reginald Wolfe, and other, whereof I
 haue iustlie maruelled.

 [Sidenote: The Cornish toong.]
 The Cornish and Deuonshire men, whose countrie the Britons call
 Cerniw, haue a speach in like sort of their owne, and such as hath in
 déed more affinitie with the Armoricane toong than I can well discusse
 of. Yet in mine opinion, they are both but a corrupted kind of
 Brittish, albeit so far degenerating in these daies from the old, that
 if either of them doo méete with a Welshman, they are not able at the
 first to vnderstand one an other, except here and there in some od
 words, without the helpe of interpretors. And no maruell in mine
 opinion that the British of Cornewall is thus corrupted, sith the
 Welsh toong that is spoken in the north & south part of Wales, doth
 differ so much in it selfe, as the English vsed in Scotland dooth from
 that which is spoken among vs here in this side of the Iland, as I
 haue said alreadie.

 [Sidenote: Scottish english.]
 The Scottish english hath beene much broader and lesse pleasant in
 vtterance than ours, because that nation hath not till of late
 indeuored to bring the same to any perfect order, and yet it was such
 in maner, as Englishmen themselues did speake for the most part beyond
 the Trent, whither any great amendement of our language had not as
 then extended it selfe. Howbeit in our time the Scottish language
 endeuoreth to come neere, if not altogither to match our toong in
 finenesse of phrase, and copie of words, and this may in part appeare
 by an historie of the Apocripha translated into Scottish verse by
 Hudson, dedicated to the king of that countrie, and conteining sixe
 books, except my memorie doo faile me.

 Thus we sée how that vnder the dominion of the king of England, and in
 the south parts of the realme, we haue thrée seuerall toongs, that is
 to saie, English, British, and Cornish, and euen so manie are in
 Scotland, if you accompt the English speach for one: notwithstanding
 that for bredth and quantitie of the region, I meane onelie of the
 soile of the maine Iland, it be somewhat lesse to see to than the
 [Sidenote: The wild Scots.]
 [Sidenote: Redshanks.]
 [Sidenote: Rough footed Scots.]
 [Sidenote: Irish Scots.]
 [Sidenote: Irish speech.]
 other. For in the north part of the region, where the wild Scots,
 otherwise called the Redshanks, or rough footed Scots (because they go
 bare footed and clad in mantels ouer their saffron shirts after the
 Irish maner) doo inhabit, they speake good Irish which they call
 Gachtlet, as they saie of one Gathelus, whereby they shew their
 originall to haue in times past béene fetched out of Ireland: as I
 noted also in the chapiter precedent, and wherevnto Vincentius cap. de
 insulis Oceani dooth yéeld his assent, saieng that Ireland was in time
 past called Scotia; "Scotia eadem (saith he) & Hibernia, proxima
 Britanniæ insula, spatio terrarum angustior, sed situ f[oe]cundior;
 Scotia autem à Scotorum gentibus traditur appellata, &c." Out of the
 14. booke of Isidorus intituled Originum, where he also addeth that it
 is called Hybernia, because it bendeth toward Iberia. But I find
 elsewhere that it is so called by certeine Spaniards which came to
 seeke and plant their inhabitation in the same, wherof in my
 Chronologie I haue spoken more at large.

 In the Iles of the Orchades, or Orkeney, as we now call them, & such
 coasts of Britaine as doo abbut vpon the same, the Gottish or Danish
 speach is altogither in vse, and also in Shetland, by reason (as I
 take it) that the princes of Norwaie held those Ilands so long vnder
 their subiection, albeit they were otherwise reputed as rather to
 belong to Ireland, bicause that the verie soile of them is enimie to
 poison, as some write, although for my part I had neuer any sound
 experience of the truth hereof. And thus much haue I thought good to
 speake of our old speaches, and those fiue languages now vsuallie
 spoken within the limits of our Iland.



 [Sidenote: Britaine at the first one entire kingdome.]
 It is not to be doubted, but that at the first, the whole Iland was
 ruled by one onelie prince, and so continued from time to time, vntill
 ciuill discord, grounded vp[=o] ambitious desire to reigne, caused the
 same to be gouerned by diuerse. And this I meane so well of the time
 before the comming of Brute, as after the extinction of his whole race
 & posteritie. Howbeit, as it is vncerteine into how manie regions it
 was seuered, after the first partition; so it is most sure that this
 latter disturbed estate of regiment, continued in the same, not onelie
 vntill the time of Cæsar, but also in maner vnto the daies of Lucius,
 with whome the whole race of the Britons had an end, and the Romans
 full possession of this Iland, who gouerned it by Legats after the
 maner of a prouince. It should séeme also that within a while after
 the time of Dunwallon (who rather brought those foure princes that
 vsurped in his time to obedience, than extinguished their titles, &
 such partition as they had made of the Iland among themselues) each
 great citie had hir fréedome and seuerall kind of regiment, proper
 vnto hir selfe, beside a large circuit of the countrie appertinent
 vnto the same, wherein were sundrie other cities also of lesse name,
 which owght homage and all subiection vnto the greater sort. And to
 saie truth, hereof it came to passe, that each of these regions,
 whereinto this Iland was then diuided, tooke his name of some one of
 these cities; although Ciuitas after Cæsar doth sometime signifie an
 whole continent or kingdome, whereby there were in old time Tot
 ciuitates quot regna, and contrariwise as may appeare by that of the
 Trinobantes, which was so called of Trinobantum the chiefe citie of
 that portion, whose territories conteined all Essex, Middlesex, and
 part of Hertfordshire, euen as the iurisdiction of the bishop of
 London is now extended, for the ouersight of such things as belong
 vnto the church. Ech of the gouernors also of these regions, called
 themselues kings, and therevnto either of them dailie made warre vpon
 other, for the inlarging of their limits. But for somuch as I am not
 able to saie how manie did challenge this authoritie at once, and how
 long they reigned ouer their seuerall portions, I will passe ouer
 these ancient times, and come néerer vnto our owne, I meane the 600.
 yéere of Christ, whereof we haue more certeine notice, & at which
 season there is euident proofe, that there were twelue or thirtéene
 kings reigning in this Iland.

 [Sidenote: Wales diuided into three kingdomes.]
 We find therefore for the first, how that Wales had hir thrée seuerall
 kingdomes, which being accompted togither conteined (as Giraldus
 saith) 49. cantreds or cantons (whereof thrée were in his time
 possessed by the French and English) although that whole portion of
 the Iland extended in those daies no farder than about 200. miles in
 length, and one hundred in bredth, and was cut from Lhoegres by the
 riuers Sauerne and Dee, of which two streames this dooth fall into the
 Irish sea at Westchester, the other into the maine Ocean, betwixt
 Somersetshire and Southwales, as their seuerall courses shall witnesse
 more at large.

 [Sidenote: Gwinhed.]
 In the begining it was diuided into two kingdoms onelie, that is to
 saie, Venedotia or Gwynhedh (otherwise called Dehenbarth) and Demetia,
 for which we now vse most c[=o]monlie the names of South & Northwales.
 But in a short processe of time a third sprung vp in the verie middest
 betwéene them both, which from thence-foorth was called Powisy, as
 shalbe shewed hereafter. For Roderijc the great, who flourished 850.
 of Christ, and was king of all Wales (which then conteined onlie six
 regions) leauing thrée sons behind him, by his last will & testament
 diuided the countrie into thrée portions, according to the number of
 his children, of which he assigned one vnto either of them, wherby
 Morwing or Morwinner had Gwynhedh or Northwales, Cadelh Demetia or
 Southwales, and Anaralt Powisy, as Giraldus and other doo remember.
 Howbeit it came to passe that after this diuision, Cadelh suruiued all
 his brethren, and thereby became lord of both their portions, and his
 successors after him vntill the time of Teuther or Theodor (all is
 one) after which they were contented to kéepe themselues within the
 compasse of Demetia, which (as I said) conteined 29. of those 49.
 cantreds before mentioned, as Powisy did six, and Gwinhedh fourtéene,
 except my memorie doo faile me.

 [Sidenote: Venedotia.]
 The first of these thrée, being called (as I said) Northwales or
 Venedotia (or as Paulus Iouius saith Malfabrene, for he diuideth Wales
 also into thrée regions, of which he calleth the first Dumbera, the
 second Berfrona, and the third Malfabrene) lieth directlie ouer
 [Sidenote: Anglesei.]
 against the Ile of Anglesei, the chiefe citie whereof stood in the Ile
 of Anglesei and was called Aberfraw. It conteineth 4. regions, of
 which the said Iland is the first, and whereof in the chapter insuing
 [Sidenote: Arfon.]
 I wille intreat more at large. The second is called Arfon, and situate
 [Sidenote: Merioneth.]
 betweene two riuers, the Segwy and the Conwy. The third is Merioneth,
 and as it is seuered from Arfon by the Conwy, so is it separated from
 [Sidenote: Stradcluyd or Tegenia.]
 Tegenia (otherwise called Stradcluyd and Igenia the fourth region) by
 the riuer Cluda. Finallie, the limits of this latter are extended also
 euen vnto the Dée it selfe, and of these foure regions consisteth the
 kingdome of Venedotia, whereof in times past the region of the Canges
 was not the smallest portion.

 [Sidenote: Powisy.]
 The kingdome of Powisy, last of all erected, as I said, hath on the
 north side Gwinhedh, on the east (from Chester to Hereford, or rather
 to Deane forest) England, on the south and west the riuer Wy and verie
 high hilles, whereby it is notablie seuered from Southwales, the
 chiefe citie thereof being at the first Salopsburg, in old time
 Pengwerne, and Ynwithig, but now Shrowesburie, a citie or towne raised
 out of the ruines of Vricouium, which (standing 4. miles from thence,
 and by the Saxons called Wrekencester and Wrokecester, before they
 ouerthrew it) is now inhabited with méere English, and where in old
 time the kings of Powisy did dwell and hold their palaces, till
 Englishmen draue them from thence to Matrauall in the same prouince,
 where they from thencefoorth aboad. Vpon the limits of this kingdome,
 and not far from Holt castell, vpon ech side of the riuer, as the
 [Sidenote: Bangor.]
 chanell now runneth, stood sometime the famous monasterie of Bangor,
 whilest the abated glorie of the Britons yet remained vnextinguished,
 and herein were 2100. monkes, of which, the learned sort did preach
 the Gospell, and the vnlearned labored with their hands, thereby to
 mainteine themselues, and to sustaine their preachers. This region was
 in like sort diuided afterward in twaine, of which, the one was called
 [Sidenote: Mailrosse.]
 Mailor or Mailrosse, the other reteined still hir old denomination,
 and of these the first laie by south, & the latter by north of the

 [Sidenote: Fowkes de Warren.]
 As touching Mailrosse, I read moreouer in the gests of Fowkes de
 Warren, how that one William sonne to a certeine ladie sister to Paine
 Peuerell, the first lord of Whittington, after the conquest did win a
 part of the same, and the hundred of Ellesmore from the Welshmen, in
 which enterprise he was so desperatlie wounded, that no man hight him
 life; yet at the last by eating of the shield of a wild bore, he got
 an appetite and recouered his health. This William had issue two
 [Sidenote: Helene.]
 [Sidenote: Mellent.]
 daughters, to wit, Helene maried to the heir of the Alans, and Mellent
 which refused mariage with anie man, except he were first tried to be
 a knight of prowesse. Herevpon hir father made proclamation, that
 against such a daie & at such a place, whatsoeuer Gentleman could shew
 himselfe most valiant in the field, should marrie Mellent his
 daughter, & haue with hir his castell of Whittington with sufficient
 liueliehood to mainteine their estates for euer. This report being
 spred, Fowkes de Warren came thither all in red, with a shield of
 siluer and pecocke for his crest, whereof he was called the red
 knight, and there ouercomming the kings sonne of Scotland, and a Baron
 of Burgundie, he maried the maid, and by hir had issue as in the
 treatise appeareth. There is yet great mention of the red knight in
 the countrie there about; and much like vnto this Mellent was the
 daughter sometime of one of the lord Rosses, called Kudall, who bare
 [Sidenote: The originall of Fitz Henries.]
 such good will to Fitz-Henrie clarke of hir fathers kitchen, that she
 made him carie hir awaie on horssebacke behind him, onlie for his
 manhood sake, which presentlie was tried. For being pursued & ouer
 taken, she made him light, & held his cloke whilest he killed and
 draue hir fathers men to flight: and then awaie they go, till hir
 father conceiuing a good opinion of Fitz-Henrie for this act, receiued
 him to his fauour, whereby that familie came vp. And thus much (by the
 waie) of Mailrosse, whereof this may suffice, sith mine intent is not
 as now to make anie precise description of the particulars of Wales;
 but onelie to shew how those regions laie, which sometime were knowne
 [Sidenote: Demetia.]
 to be gouerned in that countrie. The third kingdome is Demetia, or
 Southwales, sometime knowne for the region of the Syllures, wherevnto
 I also am persuaded, that the Ordolukes laie in the east part thereof,
 and extended their region euen vnto the Sauerne: but howsoeuer that
 matter falleth out, Demetia hath the Sauerne on hir south, the Irish
 sea on hir west parts, on the east the Sauerne onelie, and by north
 the land of Powisy, whereof I spake of late.

 [Sidenote: Cair Maridunum.]
 Of this region also Caermarden, which the old writers call Maridunum,
 was the chéefe citie and palace belonging to the kings of Southwales,
 vntill at the last through forren and ciuill inuasions of enimies, the
 princes thereof were constrained to remooue their courts to Dinefar
 (which is in Cantermawr, and situate neuerthelesse vpon the same riuer
 Tewy, wheron Caermarden standeth) in which place it is far better
 defended with high hils, thicke woods, craggie rocks, and déepe
 marises. In this region also lieth Pembroke aliàs Penmoroc shire,
 whose fawcons haue béene in old time very much regarded, and therein
 likewise is Milford hauen, whereof the Welsh wisards doo yet dreame
 strange toies, which they beleeue shall one daie come to passe. For
 they are a nation much giuen to fortelling of things to come, but more
 to beléeue such blind prophesies as haue béene made of old time, and
 no man is accompted for learned in Wales that is not supposed to haue
 the spirit of prophesie.

 [Sidenote: Pictland.]
 [Sidenote: Scotland.]
 [Sidenote: Picts.]
 [Sidenote: Scots.]
 That Scotland had in those daies two kingdoms, (besides that of the
 Orchades) whereof the one consisted of the Picts, and was called
 Pightland or Pictland, the other of the Irish race, and named
 Scotland: I hope no wise man will readilie denie. The whole region or
 portion of the Ile beyond the Scotish sea also was so diuided, that
 the Picts laie on the east side, and the Scots on the west, ech of
 them being seuered from other, either by huge hils or great lakes and
 riuers, that ran out of the south into the north betwéene them. It
 séemeth also that at the first these two kingdoms were diuided from
 the rest of those of the Britons by the riuers Cluda and Forth, till
 both of them desirous to inlarge their dominions, draue the Britons
 ouer the Solue and the Twede, which then became march betweene both
 the nations. Wherefore the case being so plaine, I will saie no more
 of these two, but procéed in order with the rehersall of the rest of
 the particular kingdoms of this our south part of the Ile, limiting
 out the same by shires as they now lie, so néere as I can, for
 otherwise it shall be vnpossible for me to leaue certaine notice of
 the likeliest quantities of these their seuerall portions.

 [Sidenote: Kent Henghist.]
 The first of these kingdoms therefore was begunne in Kent by Henghist
 in the 456. of Christ, and thereof called the kingdome of Kent or
 Cantwarland, and as the limits thereof extended it selfe no farther
 than the said countie (the cheefe citie whereof was Dorobernia or
 Cantwarbyry now Canturburie) so it indured well néere by the space of
 400. yeares, before it was made an earledome or Heretochie, and vnited
 by Inas vnto that of the West Saxons, Athelstane his sonne, being the
 first Earle or Heretoch of the same. Maister Lambert in his historie
 of Kent dooth gather, by verie probable coniectures, that this part of
 the Iland was first inhabited by Samothes, and afterward by Albion.
 But howsoeuer that case standeth, sure it is that it hath béen the
 onelie doore, whereby the Romans and Saxons made their entrie vnto the
 conquest of the region, but first of all Cæsar, who entred into this
 Iland vpon the eightéenth Cal. or 14. of September, which was foure
 daies before the full of the moone, as he himselfe confesseth, and
 then fell out about the 17. or 18. of that moneth, twelue daies before
 the equinoctiall (apparant) so that he did not tarrie at that time
 aboue eight or ten daies in Britaine. And as this platforme cannot be
 denied for his entrance, so the said region and east part of Kent, was
 the onelie place by which the knowledge of Christ was first brought
 ouer vnto vs, whereby we became partakers of saluation, and from the
 darkenesse of mistie errour, true conuerts vnto the light and bright
 beames of the shining truth, to our eternall benefit and euerlasting

 [Sidenote: Southsax.]
 [Sidenote: Ella.]
 The second kingdome conteined onelie Sussex, and a part of (or as some
 saie all) Surrie, which Ella the Saxon first held: who also erected
 his chéefe palace at Chichester, when he had destroied Andredswald in
 the 492. of Christ. And after it had continued by the space of 232.
 years, it ceased, being the verie least kingdome of all the rest,
 which were founded in this Ile after the comming of the Saxons (for to
 saie truth, it conteined little aboue 7000. families) & within a while
 after the erection of the kingdome of the Gewisses or Westsaxons,
 notwithstanding that before the kings of Sussex pretended and made
 claime to all that which laie west of Kent, and south of the Thames,
 vnto the point of Corinwall, as I haue often read.

 [Sidenote: Eastsax.]
 [Sidenote: Erkenwiin.]
 The third regiment was of the East Saxons, or Tribonantes. This
 kingdome began vnder Erkenwijn, whose chéefe seat was in London (or
 rather Colchester) and conteined whole Essex, Middlesex, and part of
 Herfordshire. It indured also much about the pricke of 303. yeares,
 and was diuided from that of the East Angles onlie by the riuer
 Stoure, as Houeden and others doo report, & so it continueth separated
 from Suffolke euen vnto our times, although the said riuer be now
 growne verie small, and not of such greatnesse as it hath béene in
 times past, by reason that our countriemen make small accompt of
 riuers, thinking carriage made by horsse and cart to be the lesse
 chargeable waie. But herin how far they are deceiued, I will
 else-where make manifest declaration.

 [Sidenote: Westsax.]
 The fourth kingdome was of the West Saxons, and so called, bicause it
 laie in the west part of the realme, as that of Essex did in the east,
 [Sidenote: Cerdiic.]
 and of Sussex in the south. It began in the yeare of Grace 519. vnder
 Cerdijc, and indured vntill the comming of the Normans, including at
 the last all Wiltshire, Barkeshire, Dorset, Southampton,
 Somersetshire, Glocestershire, some part of Deuonshire (which the
 Britons occupied not) Cornewall, and the rest of Surrie, as the best
 authors doo set downe. At the first it conteined onelie Wiltshire,
 Dorcetshire, and Barkeshire, but yer long the princes thereof
 conquered whatsoeuer the kings of Sussex and the Britons held vnto the
 point of Cornewall, and then became first Dorchester (vntill the time
 of Kinigils) then Winchester the chéefe citie of that kingdome. For
 when Birinus the moonke came into England, the said Kinigils gaue him
 Dorchester, and all the land within seauen miles about, toward the
 maintenance of his cathedrall sea, by meanes whereof he himselfe
 remooued his palace to Winchester.

 [Sidenote: Brennicia, aliàs Northumberland.]
 The fift kingdome began vnder Ida, in the 548. of Christ, and was
 called Northumberland, bicause it laie by north of the riuer Humber.
 [Sidenote: Ida.]
 And from the comming of Henghist to this Ida, it was onlie gouerned by
 earls or Heretoches as an Heretochy, till the said Ida conuerted it
 into a kingdome. It conteined all that region which (as it should
 séeme) was in time past either wholie apperteining to the Brigants, or
 whereof the said Brigants did possesse the greater part. The cheefe
 citie of the same in like maner was Yorke, as Beda, Capgraue, Leyland,
 and others doo set downe, who ad thereto that it extended from the
 Humber vnto the Scotish sea, vntill the slaughter of Egfride of the
 Northumbers, after which time the Picts gat hold of all, betweene the
 Forth and the Twede, which afterward descending to the Scots by meanes
 of the vtter destruction of the Picts, hath not béene sithens vnited
 to the crowne of England, nor in possession of the meere English, as
 before time it had béene. Such was the crueltie of these Picts also in
 their recouerie of the same, that at a certeine houre they made a
 Sicilien euensong, and slew euerie English man, woman and child, that
 they could laie hold vpon within the aforesaid region, but some
 escaped narrowlie, and saued themselues by flight.

 [Sidenote: Deira.]
 Afterward in the yeare of Grace 560. it was parted in twaine, vnder
 Adda, that yeelded vp all his portion, which lay betweene Humber and
 [Sidenote: Ella.]
 the Tine vnto his brother Ella (according to their fathers
 appointment) who called it Deira, or Southumberland, but reteining the
 rest still vnto his owne vse, he diminished not his title, but wrote
 himselfe as before king of all Northumberland. Howbeit after 91.
 yeares, it was revnited againe, and so continued vntill Alfred annexed
 the whole to his kingdome, in the 331. after Ida, or 878. of the birth
 of Jesus Christ our Sauiour.

 [Sidenote: Eastangles Offa, à quo Offlingæ.]
 The seauenth kingdome, called of the East-Angles, began at Norwich in
 the 561. after Christ, vnder Offa, of whom the people of that region
 were long time called Offlings. This included all Norfolke, Suffolke,
 Cambridgeshire, and Elie, and continuing 228. yeares, it flourished
 onelie 35. yeares in perfect estate of liberte, the rest being
 consumed vnder the tribut and vassallage of the Mercians, who had the
 souereigntie thereof, and held it with great honour, till the Danes
 gat hold of it, who spoiled it verie sore, so that it became more
 miserable than any of the other, and so remained till the kings of the
 West-saxons vnited it to their crownes. Some saie that Grantcester,
 but now Cambridge (a towne erected out of hir ruines) was the chéefe
 citie of this kingdome, and not Norwich. Wherein I may well shew the
 discord of writers, but I cannot resolue the scruple. Some take this
 region also to be all one with that of the Icenes, but as yet for my
 part I cannot yeeld to their assertions, I meane it of Leland
 himselfe, whose helpe I vse chéefelie in these collections, albeit in
 this behalfe I am not resolued that he doth iudge aright.

 The 8. & last was that of Mertia, which indured 291. yeares, and for
 greatnesse exceeded all the rest. It tooke the name either of Mearc
 the Saxon word, bicause it was march to the rest (and trulie, the
 limits of most of the other kingdomes abutted vpon the same) or else
 [Sidenote: Mertia.]
 for that the lawes of Martia the Queene were first vsed in that part
 of the Iland. But as this later is but a méere coniecture of some, so
 [Sidenote: Creodda.]
 the said kingdome began vnder Creodda, in the 585. of Christ, &
 indured well néere 300. yeares before it was vnited to that of the
 West-saxons by Alfred, then reigning in this Ile. Before him the Danes
 had gotten hold thereof, and placed one Ceolulph an idiot in the same;
 but as he was soone reiected for his follie, so it was not long after
 yer the said Alfred (I saie) annexed it to his kingdome by his
 [Sidenote: Limits of Mertia.]
 manhood. The limits of the Mertian dominions included Lincolne,
 Northampton, Chester, Darbie, Nottingham, Stafford, Huntington,
 Rutland, Oxford, Buckingham, Worcester, Bedford shires, and the
 greatest part of Shropshire (which the Welsh occupied not) Lancaster,
 Glocester, Hereford (alias Hurchford) Warwijc and Hertford shires: the
 rest of whose territories were holden by such princes of other
 kingdomes through force as bordered vpon the same. Moreouer, this
 kingdome was at one time diuided into south and north Mertia, whereof
 this laie beyond and the other on this side of the Trent, which later
 also Oswald of Northumberland did giue to Weada the sonne of Penda for
 kindred sake, though he not long inioied it. This also is worthie to
 be noted, that in these eight kingdomes of the Saxons, there were
 twelue princes reputed in the popish Catalog for saints or martyrs, of
 which Alcimund, Edwine, Oswald, Oswijn and Aldwold reigned in
 Northumberland; Sigebert, Ethelbert, Edmond, and another Sigebert
 among the Estangels; Kenelme and Wistan in Mertia; and Saint Edward
 the confessor, ouer all; but how worthilie, I referre me to the
 iudgement of the learned. Thus much haue I thought good to leaue in
 memorie of the aforesaid kingdomes: and now will I speake somewhat of
 the diuision of this Iland also into prouinces, as the Romanes seuered
 it whiles they remained in these parts. Which being done, I hope that
 I haue discharged whatsoeuer is promised in the title of this chapter.

 The Romans therefore hauing obteined the possession of this Iland,
 diuided the same at the last into fiue prouinces, as Vibius Sequester
 [Sidenote: Britannia prima.]
 saith. The first whereof was named Britannia prima, and conteined the
 east part of England (as some doo gather) from the Trent vnto the
 [Sidenote: Valentia.]
 Twede. The second was called Valentia or Valentiana, and included the
 west side, as they note it, from Lirpoole vnto Cokermouth. The third
 [Sidenote: Britannia secunda.]
 hight Britannia secunda, and was that portion of the Ile which laie
 [Sidenote: Flauia Cæsariensis.]
 southwards, betwéene the Trent and the Thames. The fourth was surnamed
 Flauia Cæsariensis, and conteined all the countrie which remained
 betweene Douer and the Sauerne, I meane by south of the Thames, and
 wherevnto (in like sort) Cornewall and Wales were orderlie assigned.
 [Sidenote: Maxima Cæsariensis.]
 The fift and last part was then named Maxima Cæsariensis, now
 Scotland, the most barren of all the rest, and yet not vnsought out of
 the gréedie Romanes, bicause of the great plentie of fish and foule,
 fine alabaster and hard marble that are ingendred and to be had in the
 same, for furniture of houshold and curious building, wherein they
 much delited. More hereof in Sextus Rufus, who liued in the daies of
 Valentine, and wrate Notitiam prouinciarum now extant to be read.

     _A Catalog of the kings and princes of this Iland, first from
     Samothes vnto the birth of our sauiour Christ, or rather the
     comming of the Romans: secondlie of their Legates: thirdlie
     of the Saxon princes according to their seuerall kingdomes:
     fourthlie of the Danes, and lastlie of the Normans and English
     princes, according to the truth conteined in our Histories._


   Bardus Iunior.
   Celtes after Albion slaine.
   Galates. 2.

     After whom Brute entreth into the Iland, either neglected by the
     Celts, or otherwise by conquest, and reigned therein with
     his posteritie by the space of 636. yeares, in such order as

   Gwendolena his widow.
   Brutus Iunior.
   Cordeil his daughter.
   Cunedach and Morgan.
   Ferres and Porrex.

     These 2. being slaine, the princes of the land straue for the
     superioritie and regiment of the same, by the space of 50.
     yéeres (after the race of Brute was decaied) vntill Dunwallon
     king of Cornwall subdued them all, & brought the whole to his
     subiection, notwithstanding that the aforesaid number of kings
     remained still, which were but as vassals & inferiours to him,
     he being their chéefe and onelie souereigne.

   Dunwallon reigneth.
   Belinus his sonne, in whose time Brennus vsurpeth.
   Owan aliàs Ellan.
   Morwich aliàs Morindus.
   Grandobodian aliàs Gorbonian.
   Elidurus aliàs Hesidor.
   Arcigallon againe.
   Elidurus againe.
   Vigen aliàs Higanius, & Petitur aliàs Peridurus.
   Elidurus the third time.
   Gorbodia aliàs Gorbonian.
   Meriones aliàs Eighuans.
   Rhimo Rohugo.
   Geruntius Voghen.
   Pyrrho aliàs Porrex.
   Fulganius aliàs Sulgenis.
   Dedantius Eldagan.
   Clotenis Claten.
   Bledunus Bledagh.
   Owinus aliàs Oghwen.
   Sisillus or Sitsiltus.
   Arcimalus Archiuall.
   Ruthenis thrée moneths.
   Rodingarus aliàs Rodericus.
   Samulius Penysell.
   Pyrrho 2.
   Carporis aliàs Capporis.
   Dynellus aliàs Dygnellus.
   Hellindus a few moneths.

     Hitherto I haue set foorth the catalog of the kings of Britaine,
     in such sort as it is to be collected out of the most ancient
     histories, monuments and records of the land. Now I will
     set foorth the order and succession of the Romane legates or
     deputies, as I haue borowed them first out of Tacitus, then
     Dion, and others: howbeit I cannot warrant the iust course of
     them from Iulius Agricola forward, bicause there is no man that
     reherseth them orderlie. Yet by this my dooing herein, I hope
     some better table may be framed hereafter by other, wherof I
     would be glad to vnderstand when soeuer it shall please God that
     it may come to passe.

   Aulus Plautius.
   Ostorius Scapula.
   Didius Gallus.
   Veranius a few moneths.
   Petronius Turpilianus.
   Trebellius Maximus.
   Vectius Volanus.
   Petilius Cerealis.
   Iulius Frontinus.
   Iulius Agricola.

     Hitherto Cornelius Tacitus reherseth these vicegerents or
     deputies in order.

   Salustius Lucullus.
   Cneius Trebellius.
   Suetonius Paulinus.
   Calphurnius Agricola.
   Publius Trebellius.
   Pertinax Helrius.
   Vlpius Marcellus.
   Clodius Albinas.
   Carus Tyrannus.
   Iunius Seuerus, aliàs Iulius Seuerus.
   Linius Gallus.
   Lollius Vrbicus.

     Other Legates whose names are taken out of the Scotish historie
     but in incertein order.

   Fronto sub Antonino.
   Publius Trebellius.
   Aulus Victorinus.
   Lucius Antinoris.
   Quintus Bassianus.



     ¶ The Romans not regarding the gouernance of this Iland, the
     Britons ordeine a king in the 447. after the incarnation of

   Aurelius Ambrosius.
   Aurelius Conanus.

     ¶ The kingdome of Wales ceaseth, and the gouernance of the
     countrie is translated to the Westsaxons by Inas, whose second
     wife was Denwalline the daughter of Cadwallader: & with hir
     he not onlie obteined the principalitie of Wales but also of
     Corinwall & Armorica now called little Britaine, which then was
     a colonie of the Britons, and vnder the kingdome of Wales.



     ¶ Hengist in the 9. of the recouerie of Britaine proclaimeth
     himselfe king of Kent, which is the 456. of the birth of our
     Lord & sauior Jesus Christ.

   Osrijc aliàs Osca.
   Osca his brother.

     The seat void.

   Adelbert Iunior.

     ¶ As the kingdome of Wales was vnited vnto that of the
     Westsaxons by Inas, so is the kingdom of Kent, at this present
     by Ecbert in the 827. of Christ, who putteth out Aldred and
     maketh Adelstane his owne base sonne Hertoch of the same,
     so that whereas it was before a kingdome, now it becometh an
     Hertochie or Dukedome, and so continueth for a long time after.



     ¶ Ella in the 46. after Britaine giuen ouer by the Romanes
     erecteth a kingdom in Southsex, to wit, in the 492. of Christ
     whose race succeedeth in this order.


     ¶ This kingdome endured not verie long as ye may sée, for it was
     vnited to that of the Westsaxons by Inas, in the 4689. of the
     world, which was the 723. of Christ, according to the vsuall
     supputation of the church, and 232. after Ella had erected the
     same, as is aforesaid.



     ¶ Erkenwijn in the 527. after our sauiour Christ beginneth to
     reigne ouer Estsex, and in the 81. after the returne of Britaine
     from the Romaine obedience.

   Sepredus and Sywardus.
   Sigebert fil. Syward.
   Sijgar and Sebba.
   Sebba alone.

     ¶ In the 303. after Erkenwijn, Ecbert of the Westsaxons vnited
     the kingdome of Estsex vnto his owne, which was in the 828.
     after the birth of our sauiour Christ. I cannot as yet find the
     exact yéeres of the later princes of this realme, and therefore
     I am constrained to omit them altogither, as I haue done before
     in the kings of the Britons, vntill such time as I may come by
     such monuments as may restore the defect.



     ¶ Cerdijc entreth the kingdome of the Westsaxons, in the 519.
     of the birth of Christ, & 73. of the abiection of the Romaine

   Cerdijc aliàs Cercit.
   Kilriic aliàs Celrijc.

     The seat void.

   Edward I.
   Edward 2.
   Edmund 2.
   Canutus 2.
   Edward 3.
   Harald 2.

     ¶ The Saxons hauing reigned hitherto in this land, and brought
     the same into a perfect monarchie, are now dispossessed by the
     Normans, & put out of their hold.



     ¶ Ida erecteth a kingdome in the North, which he extended from
     the Humber mouth to S. Johns towne in Scotland, & called it of
     the Northumbers. This was in the 547. after the birth of our
     sauiour Christ.

   Edelred againe.
   Ricisiuus a Dane.
   Ecbert againe.

     ¶ Alfride king of the Westsaxons subdueth this kingdome in the
     878. after our sauiour Christ, and 33. after Ida.



     ¶ Ella brother to Adda is ouer the south Humbers, whose
     kingdome reched from Humber to the These, in the 590. after the
     incarnation of Jesus Christ our sauiour.

   Edwijn againe.

     ¶ Of all the kingdomes of the Saxons, this of Deira which grew
     by the diuision of the kingdome of the Northumbers betwéene the
     sons of Ida was of the smallest continuance, & it was vnited
     to the Northumbers (wherof it had bene I saie in time past
     a member) by Oswijn in the 91. after Ella, when he had most
     traitorouslie slaine his brother Oswijn in the yéer of the
     world, 4618. (or 651. after the comming of Christ) and conteined
     that countrie which we now call the bishoprike.



     ¶ Offa or Vffa erecteth a kingdome ouer the Estangles or
     Offlings in the 561. after the natiuitie of Christ, and 114.
     after the deliuerie of Britaine.


     The seat void.


     ¶ Offa of Mercia killeth Ethelbert, and vniteth Estanglia vnto
     his owne kingdome, in the 793. of Christ, after it had continued
     in the posteritie of Offa, by the space of 228. yéers and yet
     of that short space, it enioyed onelie 35. in libertie, the rest
     being vnder the tribute of the king of Mercia aforesaid.



     ¶ Creodda beginneth his kingdome of Mercia, in the 585. of our
     sauiour Christ, and 138. after the captiuitie of Britaine ended.

   Kinred or Kindred.

     The seat void.

   Willaf againe.

     ¶ Alfride vniteth the kingdome of Mercia, to that of the
     Westsaxons, in the 291. after Creodda, before Alfred the Dane
     had gotten hold thereof, and placed one Cleolulphus therein,
     but he was soone expelled, and the kingdome ioyned to the other
     afore rehearsed.

     [*] _The Succession of the kings of England from_ WILLIAM
     _bastard, unto the first of Queene_ ELIZABETH.

   William the first.
   William his sonne.
   Henrie 1.
   Henrie 2.
   Richard 1.
   Henrie 3.
   Edward 1. aliàs 4.
   Edward 2.
   Edward 3.
   Richard 2.
     Henrie 4.
     Henrie 5.
     Henrie 6.
   Edward 4. aliàs 7.
   Edward 5.
     Richard 3.
   Henrie 7.
   Henrie 8.
   Edward 6.
   Marie his sister.

     ¶ Thus haue I brought the Catalog of the Princes of Britaine
     vnto an end, & that in more plaine and certeine order than hath
     béene done hertofore by anie. For though in their regions since
     the conquest few men haue erred that haue vsed any diligence,
     yet in the times before the same, fewer haue gone any thing
     néere the truth, through great ouersight & negligence. Their
     seuerall yéeres also doo appéere in my Chronologie insuing.



 It is not to be doubted, but at the first, and so long as the
 posteritie of Iaphet onelie reigned in this Iland, that the true
 [Sidenote: Samothes.]
 knowledge and forme of religion brought in by Samothes, and published
 with his lawes in the second of his arriuall, was exercised among the
 Britans. And although peraduenture in proces of time, either through
 curiositie, or negligence (the onelie corruptors of true pietie and
 godlinesse) it might a little decaie, yet when it was at the woorst,
 it farre excéeded the best of that which afterward came in with Albion
 and his Chemminites, as may be gathered by view of the superstitious
 rites, which Cham and his successours did plant in other countries,
 yet to be found in authors.

 What other learning Magus the sonne of Samothes taught after his
 fathers death, when he also came to the kingdome, beside this which
 concerned the true honoring of God, I cannot easilie say, but that it
 should be naturall philosophie, and astrologie (whereby his disciples
 gathered a kind of foreknowledge of things to come) the verie vse of
 the word Magus (or Magusæus) among the Persians dooth yéeld no
 vncerteine testimonie.

 [Sidenote: Sarron.]
 In like maner, it should seeme that Sarron sonne vnto the said Magus,
 diligentlie followed the steps of his father, and thereto beside his
 owne practise of teaching, opened schooles of learning in sundrie
 places, both among the Celts and Britans, whereby such as were his
 auditors, grew to be called Sarronides, notwithstanding, that as well
 the Sarronides as the Magi, and Druiydes, were generallie called
 [Sidenote: Samothei.]
 [Sidenote: Semnothei.]
 Samothei, or Semnothei, of Samothes still among the Grecians, as
 Aristotle in his De magia dooth confesse; and furthermore calling them
 Galles, he addeth therevnto, that they first brought the knowledge of
 letters and good learning vnto the Gréekes.

 [Sidenote: Druiyus.]
 Druiyus the son of Sarron (as a scholer of his fathers owne teaching)
 séemed to be exquisit in all things, that perteined vnto the diuine
 and humane knowledge: and therefore I may safelie pronounce, that he
 excelled not onlie in the skill of philosophie and the quadriuials,
 but also in the true Theologie, whereby the right seruice of God was
 kept and preserued in puritie. He wrote moreouer sundrie precepts and
 rules of religious doctrine, which among the Celts were reserued verie
 religiouslie, and had in great estimation of such as sought vnto them.

 [Sidenote: Corruptors of religion.]
 How and in what order this prince left the state of religion, I meane
 touching publike orders in administration of particular rites and
 ceremonies, as yet I doo not read: howbeit this is most certeine, that
 after he died, the puritie of his doctrine began somewhat to decaie.
 For such is mans nature, that it will not suffer any good thing long
 to remaine as it is left, but (either by addition or subtraction of
 this or that, to or from the same) so to chop and change withall from
 time to time, that in the end there is nothing of more difficultie,
 for such as doo come after them, than to find out the puritie of the
 originall, and restore the same againe vnto the former perfection.

 [Sidenote: _Cæsar._]
 In the beginning this Druiyus did preach vnto his hearers, that the
 soule of man is immortall, that God is omnipotent, mercifull as a
 father in shewing fauor vnto the godlie, and iust as an vpright iudge
 in punishing the wicked; that the secrets of mans hart are not
 vnknowne, and onelie knowne to him; and that as the world and all that
 is therein had their beginning by him, at his owne will, so shall all
 things likewise haue an end, when he shall see his time. He taught
 [Sidenote: _Strabo. li. 4._]
 [Sidenote: _Socion. lib. success._]
 them also with more facilitie, how to obserue the courses of the
 heauens and motions of the planets by arithmeticall industrie, to find
 [Sidenote: _Cicero diuinat._ I.]
 out the true quantities of the celestiall bodies by geometricall
 demonstration, and thereto the compasse of the earth, and hidden
 natures of things contained in the same by philosophicall
 contemplation. But alas, this integritie continued not long among his
 successors, for vnto the immortalitie of the soule, they added, that
 after death it went into another bodie, (of which translation Ouid

   Morte carent animæ, sempérque priore relicta
   Sede, nouis domibus viuunt habitántque receptæ.)

 The second or succedent, being alwaies either more noble, or more vile
 than the former, as the partie deserued by his merits, whilest he
 liued here vpon earth. And therefore it is said by Plato and other,
 that Orpheus after his death had his soule thrust into the bodie of a
 swanne, that of Agamemnon conueied into an egle, of Aiax into a lion,
 of Atlas into a certeine wrestler, of Thersites into an ape, of
 Deiphobus into Pythagoras, and Empedocles dieng a child, after sundrie
 changes into a man, whereof he himselfe saith;

   Ipse ego námq; fui puer olim, deinde puella,
   Arbustum & volucris, mutus quóq; in æquore piscis.

 [Sidenote: _Plinius, lib. 16. cap. ultimo._]
 For said they (of whom Pythagoras also had, and taught this errour) if
 the soule apperteined at the first to a king, and he in this estate
 did not leade his life worthie his calling, it should after his
 [Sidenote: Metempsuchôsis.]
 decease be shut vp in the bodie of a slaue, begger, cocke, owle, dog,
 ape, horsse, asse, worme, or monster, there to remaine as in a place
 of purgation and punishment, for a certeine period of time. Beside
 this, it should peraduenture susteine often translation from one bodie
 vnto another, according to the quantitie and qualitie of his dooings
 here on earth, till it should finallie be purified, and restored
 againe to an other humane bodie, wherein if it behaued it selfe more
 orderlie than at the first: after the next death, it should be
 preferred, either to the bodie of a king againe, or other great
 estate. And thus they made a perpetuall circulation or reuolution of
 our soules, much like vnto the continuall motion of the heauens, which
 neuer stand still, nor long yeeld one representation and figure. For
 this cause also, as Diodorus saith, they vsed to cast certeine letters
 into the fire, wherein the dead were burned, to be deliuered vnto
 their deceased fréends, whereby they might vnderstand of the estate of
 such as trauelled here on earth in their purgations (as the Moscouits
 doo write vnto S. Nicholas to be a speach-man for him that is buried,
 in whose hand they bind a letter, and send him with a new paire of
 shooes on his feet into the graue) and to the end that after their
 next death they should deale with them accordinglie, and as their
 merits required. They brought in also the worshipping of manie gods,
 and their seuerall euen to this daie sacrifices: they honoured
 [Sidenote: Oke honored whereon mistle did grow,
 and so doo our sorcerers thinking some spirits
 to deale about ye same, for hidden treasure.]
 likewise the oke, whereon the mistle groweth, and dailie deuised
 infinit other toies (for errour is neuer assured of hir owne dooings)
 whereof neither Samothes, nor Sarron, Magus, nor Druiyus did leaue
 them anie prescription.

 These things are partlie touched by Cicero, Strabo, Plinie, Sotion,
 Laertius, Theophrast, Aristotle, and partlie also by Cæsar, Mela, Val.
 Max. lib. 2. and other authors of later time, who for the most part
 doo confesse, that the cheefe schoole of the Druiydes was holden here
 in Britaine, where that religion (saith Plinie) was so hotlie
 professed and followed, "Vt dedisse Persis videri possit," lib. 30.
 cap. 1. and whither the Druiydes also themselues, that dwelt among the
 Galles, would often resort to come by the more skill, and sure
 vnderstanding of the mysteries of that doctrine. And as the Galles
 receiued their religion from the Britons, so we likewise had from them
 [Sidenote: Logike and Rhetorike out of Gallia.]
 some vse of Logike & Rhetorike, such as it was which our lawiers
 practised in their plees and common causes. For although the Greeks
 were not vnknowne vnto vs, nor we to them, euen from the verie comming
 of Brute, yet by reason of distance betwéene our countries, we had no
 great familiaritie and common accesse one vnto another, till the time
 of Gurguntius, after whose entrance manie of that nation trauelled
 hither in more securitie, as diuers of our countriemen did vnto them
 without all danger, to be offered vp in sacrifice to their gods. That
 we had the maner of our plees also out of France, Iuuenal is a
 witnesse, who saith;

   Gallia causidicos docuit facunda Britannos.

 Howbeit as they taught vs Logike and Rhetorike, so we had also some
 Sophistrie from them; but in the worst sense: for from France is all
 kind of forgerie, corruption of maners, and craftie behauiour not so
 soone as often transported into England. And albeit the Druiydes were
 thus honored and of so great authoritie in Britaine, yet were there
 great numbers of them also in the Iles of Wight, Anglesey, and the
 Orchades, in which they held open schooles of their profession, aloofe
 as it were from the resort of people, wherein they studied and learned
 their songs by heart. Howbeit the cheefe college of all I say,
 remained still in Albion, whither the Druiydes of other nations also
 (beside the Galles) would of custome repaire, when soeuer anie
 controuersie among them in matters of religion did happen to be
 mooued. At such times also the rest were called out of the former
 Ilands, whereby it appeareth that in such cases they had their synods
 and publike meetings, and therevnto it grew finallie into custome, and
 after that a prouerbe, euen in variances falling out among the
 princes, great men, and common sorts of people liuing in these weast
 parts of Europe, to yeeld to be tried by Britaine and hir thrée
 Ilands, bicause they honoured hir préests (the Druiydes) as the
 Athenians did their Areopagites.

 [Sidenote: Estimation of the Druiydes or Druiysh preests.]
 Furthermore, in Britaine, and among the Galles, and to say the truth,
 generallie in all places where the Druiysh religion was frequented,
 such was the estimation of the préests of this profession, that there
 was little or nothing doone without their skilfull aduise, no not in
 ciuil causes, perteining to the regiment of the common-wealth and
 countrie. They had the charge also of all sacrifices, publike and
 priuate, they interpreted oracles, preached of religion, and were
 neuer without great numbers of yoong men that heard them with
 diligence, as they taught from time to time.

 [Sidenote: Immunitie of the cleargie greater vnder idolatrie
 than vnder the gospell.]
 Touching their persons also they were exempt from all temporall
 seruices, impositions, tributes, and exercises of the wars: which
 immunitie caused the greater companies of scholers to flocke vnto them
 from all places, & to learne their trades. Of these likewise, some
 remained with them seuen, eight, ten, or twelue years, still learning
 the secrets of those unwritten mysteries by heart, which were to be
 had amongst them, and commonlie pronounced in verse. And this policie,
 as I take it, they vsed onelie to preserue their religion from
 contempt, whereinto it might easilie haue fallen, if any books thereof
 had happened into the hands of the common sort. It helped also not a
 little in the exercise of their memories, wherevnto bookes are vtter
 enimies, insomuch as he that was skilfull in the Druiysh religion,
 would not let readilie to rehearse manie hundreds of verses togither,
 and not to faile in one tittle, in the whole processe of this his
 laborious repetition. But as they dealt in this order for matters of
 their religion, so in ciuill affairs, historicall treatises, and
 setting downe of lawes, they vsed like order and letters almost with
 the Grecians. Whereby it is easie to be séene, that they reteined this
 kind of writing from Druiyus (the originall founder of their religion)
 and that this Iland hath not béene void of letters and learned men,
 euen sith it was first inhabited. I would ad some thing in particular
 also of their apparell, but sith the dealing withall is nothing
 profitable to the reader, I passe it ouer, signifieng neuerthelesse,
 that it was distinguished by sundrie deuises from that of the common
 sort, and of such estimation among the people, that whosoeuer ware the
 Druiysh weed, might walke where he would without any harme or
 annoiance. This honour was giuen also vnto the préests in Rome,
 insomuch that when Volusius was exiled by the Triumuirate, and saw
 himselfe in such danger, as that he could not escape the hardest, he
 gat the wéed of a preest upon his backe, and begged his almes therein,
 euen in the high waies as he trauelled, and so escaped the danger and
 the furie of his aduersaries: but to proceed with other things.

 [Sidenote: Bardus.]
 After the death of Druiyus, Bardus his sonne, and fift king of the
 Celts, succéeded not onelie ouer the said kingdome, but also in his
 fathers vertues, whereby it is verie likelie, that the winding and
 wrapping vp of the said religion, after the afore remembred sort into
 verse, was first deuised by him, for he was an excellent poet, and no
 lesse indued with a singular skill in the practise and speculation of
 musicke, of which two many suppose him to be the verie author and
 [Sidenote: _Gen. 4. 21._]
 beginner, although vniustlie, sith both poetrie and song were in vse
 before the flood, as was also the harpe and pipe, which Iubal
 inuented, and could neuer be performed without great skill in musicke.
 But to procéed, as the cheefe estimation of the Druiydes remained in
 the end among the Britons onelie, for their knowledge in religion, so
 did the fame of the Bardes (which were so called of this Bardus for
 their excellent skill in musicke, poetrie, and the heroicall kind of
 song, which at the first conteined onelie the high mysteries and
 secret points of their religion. There was little difference also
 [Sidenote: The Bards degenerate.]
 betwéene them and the Druiydes, till they so farre degenerated from
 their first institution, that they became to be minstrels at feasts,
 droonken meetings, and abhominable sacrifices of the idols: where they
 sang most commonlie no diuinitie as before, but the puissant acts of
 valiant princes, and fabulous narrations of the adulteries of the
 gods. Certes in my time this fond vsage, and thereto the verie name of
 the Bardes, are not yet extinguished among the Britons of Wales, where
 they call their poets and musicians Barthes, as they doo also in
 Ireland: which Sulpitius also writing to Lucane remembreth, where he
 saith that the word Bardus is meere Celtike, and signifieth a singer.
 Howbeit the Romans iudging all nations beside themselues to be but
 rude and barbarous, and thereto misliking vtterlie the rough musicke
 of the Bardes, entred so farre into the contemptuous mockage of their
 melodie, that they ascribed the word Bardus vnto their fooles and
 idiots, whereas contrariwise the Scythians and such as dwell within
 the northweast part of Europe, did vse the same word in verie
 honourable maner, calling their best poets and heroicall singers,
 Singebardos; their couragious singers and capiteins that delited in
 musicke, Albardos, Dagobardos, Rodtbardos, & one lame musician Lambard
 aboue all other, of whose skilfull ditties Germanie is not
 vnfurnished, as I heare vnto this daie. In Quizqueia or new Spaine, an
 Iland of the Indies, they call such men Boitios, their rimes Arcitos,
 and in steed of harps they sing vnto timbrels made of shels such
 sonnets and ditties as either perteine vnto religion, prophane loue,
 commendation of ancestrie, and inflammation of the mind vnto Mars,
 whereby there appeareth to be small difference betwéene their Boitios
 and our Bardes. Finallie of our sort, Lucane in his first booke
 writeth thus, among other like saiengs well toward the latter end;

 [Sidenote: _Lucani. li._ 1.]

   Vos quóq; qui fortes animas, bellóq; peremptas
   Laudibus in longum vates dimittitis æuum,
   Plurima securi fudistis carmina Bardi.
   Et vos barbaricos ritus, morémque sinistrum
   Sacrorum Druiydæ, positis recepistis ab armis.
   Solis nosse Deos, & c[oe]li numina vobis,
   Aut solis nescire datum: nemora alta remotis
   Incolitis lucis. Vobis authoribus, vmbræ
   Non tacitas Erebi sedes, Ditisque profundi
   Pallida regna petunt, regit idem spiritus artus
   Orbe alio. Longæ canitis si cognita, vitæ
   Mors media est, certe populi, quos despicit arctos,
   F[oe]lices errore suo, quos ille timorum
   Maximus haud vrget leti metus: inde ruendi
   In ferrum mens prona viris, animæque capaces
   Mortis: & ignauum est redituræ parcere vitæ.

 Thus we sée as in a glasse the state of religion, for a time, after
 the first inhabitation of this Iland: but how long it continued in
 such soundnesse, as the originall authors left it, in good sooth I
 cannot say, yet this is most certeine, that after a time, when Albion
 arriued here, the religion earst imbraced fell into great decaie. For
 whereas Iaphet & Samothes with their children taught nothing else than
 such doctrine as they had learned of Noah: Cham the great grandfather
 of this our Albion, and his disciples vtterlie renouncing to follow
 their steps, gaue their minds wholie to seduce and lead their hearers
 headlong vnto all error. Whereby his posteritie not onelie corrupted
 this our Iland, with most filthie trades and practises; but also all
 mankind, generallie where they became, with vicious life, and most
 [Sidenote: What doctrine Cham and his disciples taught.]
 vngodlie conuersation. For from Cham and his successours procéeded at
 the first all sorcerie, witchcraft, and the execution of vnlawful
 lust, without respect of sex, age, consanguinitie, or kind: as
 branches from an odious and abhominable root, or streames deriued from
 a most filthie and horrible stinking puddle. Howbeit, &
 notwithstanding all these his manifold lewdnesses, such was the follie
 of his Ægyptians (where he first reigned and taught) that whilest he
 liued they alone had him in great estimation (whereas other nations
 contemned and abhorred him for his wickednesse, calling him
 [Sidenote: Chemesenua.]
 Chemesenua, that is, the impudent, infamous and wicked Cham) and not
 [Sidenote: Chem Min.]
 [Sidenote: Cham made a god.]
 onelie builded a citie vnto him which they called Chem Min, but also
 after his death reputed him for a god, calling the highest of the
 seuen planets after his name, as they did the next beneath it after
 Osyris his sonne, whom they likewise honored vnder the name of

 [Sidenote: Translation of mortall men into heauen how it began.]
Certes it was a custome begonne in Ægypt of old time, and generallie in
vse almost in euerie place in processe of time (when any of their
famous worthie princes died) to ascribe some forme or other of the
stars vnto his person, to the end his name might neuer weare out of
memorie. And this they called their translation in heauen, so that he
which had any starres or forme of starres dedicated vnto him, was
properlie said to haue a seat among the gods. A toie much like to the
catalog of Romish saints, (although the one was written in the
celestiall or immateriall orbes, the other in sheeps skins, and verie
brickle paper) but yet so estéemed, that euerie prince would oft hazard
and attempt the vttermost aduentures, thereby to win such fame in his
life, that after his death he might by merit haue such place in heauen,
among the shining starres. Howbeit, euerie of those that were called
gods, could not obteine that benefit, for then should there not haue
béene stars enow in heauen to haue serued all their turnes, wherfore
another place was in time imagined, where they reigned that were of a
 second calling, as the Semones who were gods by grace and fauour of
 [Sidenote: _Cyril, aduersus Iul. lib. 6. sect. 8._]
 the people. "Semones dici voluerunt (saith Fulgentius In vocibus
 antiquis) quos c[oe]lo nec dignos ascriberent, ob meriti paupertatem;
 sicut Priapus Hyppo. Vortumnus, &c. nec terrenos eos deputare vellent
 per gratiæ venerationem," as also a third place that is to say an
 earth, where those gods dwelled which were noble men, officers, good
 gouernours and lawgiuers to the people, and yet not thought worthie to
 be of the second or first companie, which was a iollie diuision.

 Thus we sée in generall maner, how idolatrie, honoring of the starres,
 and brood of inferiour gods were hatched at the first, which follies
 in processe of time came also into Britaine, as did the names of
 Saturne & Iupiter, &c: as shall appeare hereafter. And here sith I
 haue alreadie somewhat digressed from my matter, I will go yet a
 little farder, and shew foorth the originall vse of the word Saturne,
 Iupiter, Hercules, &c: whereby your Honor shall sée a little more into
 the errours of the Gentils, and not onelie that, but one point also
 [Sidenote: Which were Saturni, Ioues, Iunones, and Hercules.]
 properlie called of the root of all the confusion that is to be found
 among the ancient histories. Certes it was vsed for a few yéeres after
 the partition of the earth (which was made by Noah, in the 133. yeere
 after the floud) that the beginners of such kingdoms as were then
 erected should be called Saturni, whereby it came to passe that
 Nimbrote was the Saturne of Babylon: Cham of Ægypt: and so foorth
 other of sundrie other countries. Their eldest sonnes also that
 succeeded them, were called Ioues; and their nephewes or sonnes
 sonnes, which reigned in the third place Hercules, by which meanes it
 followed that euerie kingdome had a Saturne, Iupiter and Hercules of
 hir owne, and not from anie other.

 In like sort they had such another order among their daughters, whom
 they married as yet commonlie vnto their brethren (God himselfe
 permitting the same vnto them for a time) as before the floud, to the
 end the earth might be thoroughlie replenished, and the sooner
 furnished with inhabitants in euerie part therof. The sister therefore
 [Sidenote: Isis, Io and Iuno all one.]
 and wife of euerie Saturne was called Rhea, but of Iupiter, Iuno,
 Isis, or Io. Beyond these also there was no latter Harold that would
 indeuour to deriue the petigree of any prince, or potentate, but
 supposed his dutie to be sufficientlie performed, when he had brought
 it orderlie vnto some Saturne or other, wherat he might cease, and
 shut vp all his trauell. They had likewise this opinion grounded
 amongst them, that heauen & earth were onlie parents vnto Saturne and
 [Sidenote: C[oe]lum or C[oe]lus.]
 [Sidenote: Ogyges.]
 [Sidenote: Sol.]
 [Sidenote: Pater deorum.]
 Rhea, not knowing out of doubt, what they themselues did meane, sith
 these denominations, Heauen, Ogyges, the Sunne, Pater Deorum, and such
 [Sidenote: * Tydea.]
 [Sidenote: Vesta.]
 [Sidenote: Terra.]
 [Sidenote: Luna.]
 [Sidenote: Aretia.]
 [Sidenote: Deorum mater.]
 like, were onelie ascribed vnto Noah: as [*]Terra, (the Earth) Vesta,
 Aretia, the Moone, Mater deorum, and other the like were vnto Tydea
 his wife. So that hereby we sée, how Saturne is reputed in euerie
 nation for their oldest god, or first prince, Iupiter for the next,
 and Hercules for the third. And therefore sith these names were
 dispersed in the beginning ouer all, it is no maruell that there is
 such confusion in ancient histories, and the dooings of one of them so
 mixed with those of another, that it is now impossible to distinguish
 them in sunder. This haue I spoken, to the end that all men may see
 what gods the Pagans honored, & thereby what religion the posteritie
 of Cham did bring ouer into Britaine. For vntill their comming, it is
 not likelie that anie grosse idolatrie or superstition did enter in
 among vs, as deifieng of mortall men, honoring of the starres, and
 erection of huge images, beside sorcerie, witchcraft, and such like,
 whereof the Chemminites are worthilie called the autors. Neither were
 [Sidenote: Fr[=o] whence Brute did learne his religion.]
 these errors anie thing amended, by the comming in of Brute, who no
 doubt added such deuises vnto the same, as he and his companie had
 learned before in Græcia, from whence also he brought Helenus the
 sonne of Priamus, (a man of excéeding age) & made him his préest and
 bishop thorough out the new conquest, that he had atchieued in

 After Brute, idolatrie and superstition still increased more and more
 among vs, insomuch that beside the Druiysh and Bardike ceremonies, and
 those also that came in with Albion and Brute himselfe: our
 countriemen either brought hither from abroad, or dailie inuented at
 home new religion and rites, whereby it came to passe that in the
 [Sidenote: Dis or Samothes made a god.]
 stead of the onelie and immortall God (of whom Samothes and his
 posteritie did preach in times past) now they honored the said
 Samothes himselfe vnder the name of Dis and Saturne: also Iupiter,
 Mars, Minerua, Mercurie, Apollo, Diana; and finallie Hercules, vnto
 whome they dedicated the gates and porches of their temples, entrances
 into their regions, cities, townes and houses, with their limits and
 bounds (as the papists did the gates of their cities and ports vnto
 Botulph & Giles) bicause fortitude and wisedome are the cheefe
 vpholders and bearers vp of common-wealths and kingdoms, both which
 they ascribed to Hercules (forgetting God) and diuers other idols
 [Sidenote: _Mela. Diodorus, Strab. 4. Plin. Cæsar. 5._]
 whose names I now remember not. In lieu moreouer of sheepe and oxen,
 they offred mankind also vnto some of them, killing their offendors,
 prisoners, and oft such strangers as came from farre vnto them, by
 shutting vp great numbers of them togither in huge images made of
 wicker, réed, haie, or other light matter: and then setting all on
 fire togither, they not onelie consumed the miserable creatures to
 ashes (sometimes adding other beasts vnto them) but also reputed it to
 be the most acceptable sacrifice that could be made vnto their idols.
 From whence they had this horrible custome, trulie I cannot tell, but
 that it was common to most nations, not onlie to consume their
 strangers, captiues, &c; but also their owne children with fire, in
 such maner of sacrifice: beside the text of the Bible, the prophane
 histories doo generallie leaue it euident, as a thing either of
 custome or of particular necessitie, of which later Virgil saith;

   Sanguine placastis ventos & virgine cæsa, &c.

 As Silius dooth of the first, where he telleth of the vsuall maner of
 the Carthaginenses, saieng after this maner;

   Vrna reducebat miserandos annua casus, &c.

 But to procéed with our owne gods and idols, more pertinent to my
 purpose than the rehersall of forreine demeanours: I find that huge
 temples in like sort were builded vnto them, so that in the time of
 Lucius, when the light of saluation began stronglie to shine in
 [Sidenote: _Ptol. Lucensis._]
 Britaine, thorough the preaching of the gospell, the christians
 discouered 25. Flamines or idol-churches beside three Archflamines,
 whose préests were then as our Archbishops are now, in that they had
 superior charge of all the rest, the other being reputed as
 inferiours, and subiect to their iurisdiction in cases of religion,
 and superstitious ceremonies.

 [Sidenote: Monstrous proportions of idols.]
 Of the quantities of their idols I speake not, sith it is inough to
 saie, that they were monstrous, and that each nation contended which
 should honour the greater blocks, and yet all pretending to haue the
 iust heigth of the god or goddesse whom they did represent. Apollo
 Capitolinus that stood at Rome, was thirtie cubits high at the least;
 Tarentinus Iupiter of 40.; the idoll of the sonne in the Rhodes, of 70
 (whose toe few men could fadam;) Tuscanus Apollo that stood in the
 librarie of the temple of Augustus, of 50. foot; another made vnder
 Nero of 110. foot; but one in France passed all, which Zenoduris made
 vnto Mercurie at Aruernum in ten years space, of 400. foot. Wherby it
 appeareth, that as they were void of moderation in number of gods, so
 without measure were they also in their proportions, and happie was he
 which might haue the greatest idoll, and lay most cost thereon.

 Hitherto yee haue heard of the time, wherein idolatrie reigned and
 blinded the harts of such as dwelled in this Iland. Now let vs sée the
 successe of the gospell, after the death and passion of Iesus Christ
 our sauiour. And euen here would I begin with an allegation of
 [Sidenote: _Theodoret._]
 Theodoret, wherevpon some repose great assurance (conceiuing yet more
 [Sidenote: _Sophronius._]
 hope therein by the words of Sophronius) that Paule the Apostle should
 preach the word of saluation here, after his deliuerie out of
 captiuitie, which fell as I doo read in the 57. of Christ. But sith I
 cannot verifie the same by the words of Theodoret, to be spoken more
 of Paule than Peter, or the rest, I will passe ouer this coniecture
 (so far as it is grounded vpon Theodoret) and deale with other
 authorities, whereof we haue more certeintie. First of all therfore
 let vs see what Fortunatus hath written of Pauls comming into
 Britaine, and afterward what is to be found of other by-writers in
 other points of more assurance. Certes for the presence of Paule I
 read thus much:

   Quid sacer ille simul Paulus tuba gentibus ampla,
   Per mare per terras Christi præconia fundens,
   Europam & Asiam, Lybiam, sale dogmata complens,
   Arctos, meridies, hic plenus vesper & ortus,
   Transit & Oceanum, vel qua facit insula portum,
   Quásq; Britannus habet terras atque vltima Thule, &c.

 [Sidenote: Iosephus.]
 That one Iosephus preached here in England, in the time of the
 Apostles, his sepulchre yet in Aualon, now called Glessenburg or
 Glastenburie, an epitaph affixed therevnto is proofe sufficient.
 Howbeit, sith these things are not of competent force to persuade all
 men, I will ad in few, what I haue read elsewhere of his arriuall
 here. First of all therefore you shall note that he came ouer into
 Britaine, about the 64. after Christ, when the persecution began vnder
 Nero, at which time Philip and diuers of the godlie being in France
 (whether he came with other christians, after they had sowed the word
 of God in Scythia, by the space of 9. yeares) seuered themselues in
 sunder, to make the better shift for their owne safegard, and yet not
 otherwise than by their flight, the gospell might haue due
 [Sidenote: _Philip. Freculphus. To. 2., lib. 2. cap. 4._]
 [Sidenote: _Nennius. Nicephorus lib. 2. cap. 40._]
 [Sidenote: _Isidorus lib. de vita & obit. dict. patrum._]
 [Sidenote: _W. Malmes. de antiq. Glasconici monast._]
 furtherance. Hereby then it came to passe, that the said Philip vpon
 good deliberation did send Iosephus ouer, and with him Simon Zelotes
 to preach vnto the Britons, and minister the sacraments there
 according to the rites of the churches of Asia and Greece, from whence
 they came not long before vnto the countrie of the Galles. Which was
 saith Malmesburie 103. before Faganus and Dinaw did set foorth the
 gospell amongst them. Of the c[=o]ming of Zelotes you may read more in
 the second booke of Niceph. Cal. where he writeth thereof in this
 maner: "Operæpretium etiam fuerit Simonem Cana Galileæ ortum, qui
 propter flagrantem in magistrum suum ardorem, summámq; euangelicæ rei
 per omnia curam Zelotes cognominatus est hîc referre, accepit enim is
 c[oe]litùs adueniente spiritu sancto, Aegyptium Cyrenem & Africam,
 deinde Mauritaniam & Lybiam omnem euangelium deprædicans percurrit,
 eandemque doctrinam etiam ad occidentalem Oceanum insulásque
 Britannicas perfert." And this is the effect in a little roome, of
 that which I haue read at large in sundrie writers, beside these two
 here alledged, although it may well be gathered that diuers Britains
 were conuerted to the faith, before this sixtie foure of Christ.
 Howbeit, whereas some write that they liued, and dwelled in Britaine,
 it cannot as yet take any absolute hold in my iudgement, but rather
 that they were baptised and remained, either in Rome, or else-where.
 [Sidenote: Claudia Rufina a British ladie.]
 And of this sort I suppose Claudia Rufina the wife of Pudens to be
 one, who was a British ladie indeed, and not onelie excellentlie séene
 in the Gréeke and Latine toongs, but also with hir husband highlie
 [Sidenote: _1. Tim. 4._]
 commended by S. Paule, as one hauing had conuersation and conference
 with them at Rome, from whence he did write his second epistle vnto
 Timothie, as I read. Of this ladie moreouer Martial speaketh, in
 reioising that his poesies were read also in Britaine, and onelie by
 hir meanes, who vsed to cull out the finest & honestest of his
 epigrams and send them to hir fréends for tokens, saieng after this
 maner, as himselfe dooth set it downe:

   Dicitur & nostros cantare Britannia versus.

 Furthermore making mention of hir and hir issue, he addeth these

 [Sidenote: _Li. 11. Epig. 54._]

   Claudia c[oe]ruleis cùm sit Rufina Britannis
     Edita, cur Latiæ pectora plebis habet?
   Quale decus formæ? Romanam credere matres
     Italides possunt, Atthides esse suam.
   Dij bene, quod sancto peperit fæcunda marito,
     Quot sperat, generos, quótque puella nurus.
   Sic placeat superis, vt coniuge gaudeat vno,
     Et semper natis gaudeat illa tribus.

 The names of hir thrée children were Prudentiana, Praxedes, both
 virgins, and Nouatus, who after the death of Pudens their father
 (which befell him in Cappadocia) dwelled with their mother in Vmbria,
 where they ceased not from time to time to minister vnto the saints.
 But to leaue this impertinent discourse, and proceed with my purpose.

 I find in the Chronicles of Burton (vnder the yeare of Grace 141. and
 time of Hadrian the emperour) that nine scholers or clerkes of Grantha
 or Granta (now Cambridge) were baptised in Britaine, and became
 preachers of the gospell there, but whether Taurinus bishop or elder
 ouer the congregation at Yorke (who as Vincentius saith, was executed
 [Sidenote: _Lib. 10. cap. 17._]
 [Sidenote: Taurinus.]
 about this time for his faith) were one of them or not, as yet I do
 not certeinlie find; but rather the contrarie, which is that he was no
 Britaine at all, but Episcopus Ebroicensis, for which such as perceiue
 not the easie corruption of the word, may soone write Eboracensis as
 certeinlie mine author out of whom I alledge this authoritie hath done
 before me. For Vincentius saith flat otherwise, and therefore the
 Chronologie if it speake of anie Taurinus bishop of Yorke is to be
 reformed in that behalfe. Diuers other also imbraced the religion of
 Christ verie zealouslie before these men. Howbeit, all this
 notwithstanding, the glad tidings of the gospell had neuer free and
 open passage here, vntill the time of Lucius, in which the verie
 enimies of the word became the apparent meanes (contrarie to their
 owne minds) to haue it set foorth amongst vs. For when Antoninus the
 emperour had giuen out a decrée, that the Druiysh religion should
 euerie where be abolished, Lucius the king (whose surname is now
 perished) tooke aduise of his councell what was best to be doone, &
 wrote in this behalfe. And this did Lucius, bicause he knew it
 [*]impossible for man to liue long without any religion at all:
 [Sidenote: * This is contrarie to the common talke of our
 Atheists who say, Let vs liue here in wealth, credit and
 authoritie vpon earth, and let God take heauen and his
 religion to himselfe to doo withall what he listeth.]
 finallie finding his Nobilitie & subiects vtter enemies to the Romane
 deuoti[=o] (for that they made so many gods as they listed, & some to
 haue the regiment euen of their dirt & dung) and thervnto being
 pricked forwards by such christians as were conuersant about him, to
 choose the seruice of the true God that liueth for euer, rather than
 the slauish seruitude of any pagan idoll: he fullie resolued with
 himselfe in the end, to receiue and imbrace the gospell of Christ.
 [Sidenote: Lucius openeth his ears to good counsell,
 as one desirous to serue God & not prefer the world.]
 He sent also two of his best learned and greatest philosophers to
 Rome, vnto Eleutherus then bishop there in the 177. of Christ, not to
 promise any subiection to his sea, which then was not required, but to
 say with such as were pricked in mind, Acts. 2. verse. 37. "Quid
 faciemus viri fratres?" I meane that they were sent to be perfectlie
 instructed, and with farther commission, to make earnest request vnto
 him and the congregation there, that a competent number of preachers
 might be sent ouer from thence, by whose diligent aduise and trauell,
 the foundation of the gospell might surelie be laid ouer all the
 portion of the Ile, which conteined his kingdome, according to his

 [Sidenote: The purpose of Lucius opened vnto the
 congregation at Rome by Eleutherus.]
 When Eleutherus vnderstood these things, he reioiced not a little for
 the great goodnesse, which the Lord had shewed vpon this our Ile and
 countrie. Afterwards calling the brethren togither, they agréed to
 ordeine, euen those two for bishops, whom Lucius as you haue heard,
 had directed ouer vnto them. Finallie after they had thoroughlie
 catechized them, making generall praier vnto God and earnest
 supplication for the good successe of these men, they sent them home
 againe with no small charge, that they should be diligent in their
 function, and carefull ouer the flocke committed to their custodie.

 The first of these was called Eluanus Aualonius, a man borne in the
 Ile of Aualon, and brought up there vnder those godlie pastours and
 their disciples, whom Philip sent ouer at the first for the conuersion
 of the Britons. The other hight Medguinus, and was thereto surnamed
 Belga, bicause he was of the towne of Welles, which then was called
 Belga. This man was trained vp also in one schoole with Eluanus, both
 of them being ornaments to their horie ages, and men of such grauitie
 and godlinesse, that Eleutherus supposed none more worthie to support
 this charge, than they: after whose comming home also, it was not long
 [Sidenote: A zealous prince maketh feruent subiects.]
 yer Lucius and all his houshold with diuers of the Nobilitie were
 baptised, beside infinit numbers of the common people, which dailie
 resorted vnto them, and voluntarilie renounced all their idolatrie and

 In the meane time, Eleutherus vnderstanding the successe of these
 learned doctours, and supposing with himselfe, that they two onlie
 could not suffice to support so great a charge as should concerne the
 conuersion of the whole Iland; he directed ouer vnto them in the yeare
 [Sidenote: Faganus.]
 [Sidenote: Dinauus.]
 [Sidenote: Aaron.]
 insuing Faganus, Dinaw (or Dinauus) Aaron, and diuerse other godlie
 preachers, as fellow-labourers to trauell with them in the vineyard of
 [Sidenote: _Radulphus de la noir aliàs Niger._]
 the Lord. These men therefore after their comming hither, consulted
 with the other, and foorthwith wholie consented to make a diuision of
 [Sidenote: 3. Cheefe Bishops in Britaine.]
 this Iland amongst themselues, appointing what parcell each preacher
 should take, that with the more profit and ease of the people, and
 somewhat lesse trauell also for themselues, the doctrine of the
 Gospell might be preached and receiued. In this distribution, they
 ordeined that there should be one congregation at London, where they
 [Sidenote: Theonus.]
 [Sidenote: Theodosius.]
 [Sidenote: London.]
 [Sidenote: Yorke.]
 [Sidenote: Caerlheon.]
 placed Theonus as chéefe elder and bishop, for that present time,
 worthilie called Theonus. 1. for there was another of that name who
 fled into Wales with Thadiocus of Yorke, at the first comming of the
 Saxons; and also Guthelmus, who went (as I read) into Armorica, there
 to craue aid against the Scots and Vandals that plagued this Ile, from
 the Twede vnto the Humber. After this Theonus also Eluanus succéeded,
 who conuerted manie of the Druiydes, and builded the first librarie
 neere vnto the bishops palace. The said Lucius also placed another at
 Yorke, whither they appointed Theodosius: and the third at Caerlheon
 vpon the riuer Vske, builded sometimes by Belinus, and called
 Glamorgantia, but now Chester (in which three cities there had before
 time beene thrée Archflamines erected vnto Apollo, Mars, and Minerua,
 but now raced to the ground, and three other churches builded in their
 steeds by Lucius) to the end that the countries round about might haue
 indifferent accesse vnto those places, and therewithall vnderstand for
 certeintie, whither to resort for resolution, if after their
 conuersion they should happen to doubt of any thing. In like sort also
 the rest of the idoll-temples standing in other places were either
 ouerthrowne, or conuerted into churches for christian congregations to
 assemble in, as our writers doo remember. In the report whereof giue
 me leaue gentle reader, of London my natiue citie to speake a little:
 for although it may and dooth seeme impertinent to my purpose, yet it
 shall not be much, and therefore I will soone make an end. There is a
 controuersie moued among our historiographers, whether the church that
 Lucius builded at London stood at Westminster, or in Cornehill. For
 there is some cause, why the metropolitane church should be thought to
 stand where S. Peters now doth, by the space of 400. & od yéeres
 before it was remoued to Canturburie by Austine the monke, if a man
 should leane to one side without anie conference of the asseuerations
 of the other. But herin (as I take it) there lurketh some scruple, for
 beside that S. Peters church stood in the east end of the citie, and
 that of Apollo in the west, the word Cornehill (a denomination giuen
 of late to speake of to one street) may easilie be mistaken for
 Thorney. For as the word Thorney proceedeth from the Saxons, who
 called the west end of the citie by that name, where Westminster now
 standeth, bicause of the wildnesse and bushinesse of the soile; so I
 doo not read of anie stréete in London called Cornehill before the
 conquest of the Normans. Wherfore I hold with them, which make
 Westminster to be the place where Lucius builded his church vpon the
 ruines of that Flamine 264. yeeres, as Malmesburie saith, before the
 comming of the Saxons, and 411. before the arriuall of Augustine. Read
 also his appendix in lib. 4. Pontif. where he noteth the time of the
 Saxons, in the 449. of Grace, and of Augustine in the 596. of Christ;
 which is a manifest accompt, though some copies haue 499. for the one,
 but not without manifest corruption and error.

 [Sidenote: Britaine the first prouince that receiued
 the Gospell generallie.]
 Thus became Britaine the first prouince that generallie receiued the
 faith, and where the gospell was freelie preached without inhibition
 of hir prince. Howbeit, although that Lucius and his princes and great
 numbers of his people imbraced the word with gréedinesse, yet was not
 the successe thereof either so vniuersall, that all men beleeued at
 the first; the securitie so great, as that no persecution was to be
 feared from the Romane empire after his decease; or the procéeding of
 the king so seuere, as that he inforced any man by publike authoritie
 to forsake and relinquish his paganisme: but onelie this fréedome was
 enioied, that who so would become a christian in his time, might
 without feare of his lawes professe the Gospell, in whose testimonie,
 if néed had béene, I doubt not to affirme, but that he would haue shed
 [Sidenote: Emerita neece vnto Lucius.]
 also his bloud, as did his neece Emerita, who being constant aboue the
 common sort of women, refused not after his decease by fire, to yeeld
 hir selfe to death, as a swéet smelling sacrifice in the nostrels of
 the Lord, beyond the sea in France.

 [Sidenote: Lucius sendeth againe to Rome.]
 The faith of Christ being thus planted in this Iland in the 177. after
 Christ, and Faganus and Dinaw with the rest sent ouer from Rome, in
 the 178. as you haue heard: it came to passe in the third yeare of the
 Gospell receiued, that Lucius did send againe to Eleutherus the
 bishop, requiring that he might haue some breefe epitome of the order
 of discipline then vsed in the church. For he well considered, that as
 it auaileth litle to plant a costlie vineyard, except it afterward be
 cherished, kept in good order, and such things as annoie, dailie
 remooued from the same: so after baptisme and entrance into religion,
 it profiteth little to beare the name of christians, except we doo
 [Sidenote: _Ro. 3. ver. 1._]
 walke in the spirit, and haue such things as offend apparentlie,
 corrected by seuere discipline. For otherwise it will come to passe,
 that the wéedes of vice, and vicious liuing, will so quicklie abound
 in vs, that they will in the end choke vp the good séed sowne in our
 minds, and either inforce vs to returne vnto our former wickednesse
 with déeper securitie than before, or else to become meere Atheists,
 which is a great deale woorse.

 For this cause therefore did Lucius send to Rome, the second time, for
 a copie of such politike orders as were then vsed there, in their
 [Sidenote: The wisedome of Eleutherus.]
 regiment of the church. But Eleutherus considering with himselfe, how
 that all nations are not of like condition, and therefore those
 constitutions that are beneficiall to one, may now and then be
 preiudiciall to another: and séeing also that beside the word no rites
 and orders can long continue, or be so perfect in all points, but that
 as time serueth, they will require alteration: he thought it best not
 to laie any more vpon the necks of the new conuerts of Britaine as
 yet, than Christ and his apostles had alreadie set downe vnto all men.
 In returning therefore his messengers, he sent letters by them vnto
 Lucius and his Nobilitie, dated in the consulships of Commodus and
 Vespronius, wherein he told them that Christ had left sufficient order
 in the Scriptures for the gouernment of his church alreadie in his
 word, and not for that onlie, but also for the regiment of his whole
 [Sidenote: * Though most princes canot heare on that side.]
 [*]kingdome, if he would submit himselfe, to yéeld and follow that
 rule. The epistle it selfe is partlie extant, and partlie perished,
 yet such as it is, and as I haue faithfullie translated it out of
 sundrie verie ancient copies, I doo deliuer it here, to the end I will
 not defraud the reader of anie thing that may turne to the glorie of
 God, and his commoditie, in the historie of our nation.

 [Sidenote: Epistle of Eleutherus vnto Lucius.]
 "You require of vs the Romane ordinances, and thereto the statutes of
 the emperours to be sent ouer vnto you, and which you desire to
 practise and put in vre within your realme and kingdome. The Romane
 lawes and those of emperours we may eftsoones reprooue, but those of
 God can neuer be found fault withall. You haue receiued of late
 through Gods mercie in the realme of Britaine the law and faith of
 Christ, you haue with you both volumes of the scriptures: out of them
 therefore by Gods grace, and the councell of your realme take you a
 law, and by that law through Gods sufferance rule your kingdome, for
 [Sidenote: _Psal. 24._]
 you are Gods vicar in your owne realme, as the roiall prophet saith;
 The earth is the Lords and all that is therein, the compasse of the
 [Sidenote: _Psal. 45._]
 world, and they that dwell therein. Againe, Thou hast loued truth and
 hated iniquitie, wherefore God, euen thy God hath annointed thee with
 oile of gladnesse aboue thy fellowes. And againe, according to the
 [Sidenote: _Psal. 71._]
 saieng of the same prophet; Oh God giue thy iudgement vnto the king, &
 thy iustice vnto the kings sonne. The kings sons are the christian
 people & flocke of the realme, which are vnder your gouernance, and
 [Sidenote: * Here wanteth.]
 liue & continue in peace within your kingdome. [*] The gospell saith;
 As the hen gathereth hir chickens vnder hir wings, so dooth the king
 his people. Such as dwell in the kingdome of Britaine are yours, whom
 if they be diuided, you ought to gather into concord and vnitie, to
 call them to the faith and law of Christ, and to his sacred church: to
 chearish and mainteine, to rule also and gouerne them, defending each
 of them from such as would doo them wrong, and keeping them from the
 malice of such as be their enimies. [*]Wo vnto the nation whose king
 is a child, and whose princes rise vp earlie to banket and féed, which
 is spoken not of a prince that is within age, but of a prince that is
 become a child, through follie, sinne & vnstedfastnesse, of whom the
 [Sidenote: _Psal. 55._]
 prophet saith; The bloudthirstie and deceitfull men shall not liue
 foorth halfe their daies. [*]By féeding I vnderstand gluttonie; by
 gluttonie, lust; & by lust all wickednesse & sinne, according to the
 saieng of Salomon the king; Wisedome entreth not into a wicked mind,
 nor dwelleth with a man that is subiect vnto sinne. A king hath his
 name of ruling, and not of the possession of his realme. You shalbe a
 king whilest you rule well, but if you doo otherwise, the name of a
 king shall not remaine with you, but you shall vtterlie forgo it,
 which God forbid. The almightie God grant you so to rule the kingdome
 of Britaine, that you may reigne with him for euer, whose vicar (or
 vicegerent) you are within your aforesaid kingdome. Who with the Sonne
 and the Holie-ghost, &c."

 Hitherto out of the epistle that Eleutherus sent vnto Lucius, wherein
 manie pretie obseruations are to be collected, if time and place would
 serue to stand vpon them. After these daies also the number of such as
 were ordeined to saluation, increased dailie more and more, whereby
 (as in other places of the world) the word of God had good successe in
 Britaine, in time of peace; and in heat of persecution, there were no
 [Sidenote: Albane.]
 [Sidenote: Amphibalus.]
 [Sidenote: Iulius.]
 [Sidenote: Aaron.]
 small number of martyrs that suffered for the same, of which Albane,
 Amphibalus, Iulius, and Aaron, are reputed to be the chiefe, bicause
 of their noble parentage, which is a great matter in the sight of
 worldlie men.

 There are which affirme our Lucius to renounce his kingdome, and
 afterward to become first a bishop, then a preacher of the gospell,
 and afterward a pope: but to the end such as hold this opinion may
 once vnderstand the botome of their errors, I will set downe the
 matter at large, whereby they shall sée (if they list to looke) how
 far they haue béene deceiued.

 [Sidenote: Chlorus had three sons, & a daughter by Helena.]
 I find that Chlorus had issue by his second wife, two sonnes,
 Dalmatius (who had a sonne called also Dalmatius and slaine by the
 souldiors.) Constantius father to Gallus, and Iulian the apostata;
 besides foure other whose names as yet I find not. But being at the
 first matched with Helena, and before she was put from him by the
 roiall power of Dioclesian, he had by hir three sonnes (beside one
 daughter named Emerita) of which the name of the first is perished,
 the second was called Lucius, & the third Constantine, that afterward
 was emperour of Rome, by election of the armies in Britaine. Now it
 happened that Lucius, whome the French call Lucion, by means of a
 quarell growne betwéene him and his elder brother, did kill his said
 brother, either by a fraie or by some other meanes, wherevpon his
 father exiled him out of Britaine, and appointed him from thenceforth
 to remaine in Aquitane in France. This Lucion brought thus into
 worldlie sorow, had now good leasure to meditate vpon heauen, who
 before in his prosperitie had peraduenture neuer regard of hell.
 [Sidenote: Lucion becommeth a christian.]
 [Sidenote: Lucion a bishop.]
 Finallie he fell so far into the consideration of his estate, that at
 the last he renounced his paganisme, and first became a christian,
 then an elder, and last of all a bishop in the church of Christ. He
 erected also a place of praier wherein to serue the liuing God, which
 after sundrie alterations came in processe of time to be an Abbaie,
 and is still called euen to our time after Lucion or Lucius: the first
 founder therof, and the originall beginner of anie such house in those

 In this also he and diuers other of his freends continued their times,
 in great contemplation and praier, and from hence were translated as
 occasion serued, vnto sundrie ecclesiasticall promotions in the time
 of Constant. his brother. So that euen by this short narration it is
 now easie to sée, that Lucius the king, and Lucius or Lucion the sonne
 [Sidenote: _Hermannus Schedelius. Bruschius cap. 3._]
 of Chlorus, were distinct persons. Herevnto Hermannus Schedelius
 addeth also how he went into Rhetia with Emerita his sister, and néere
 vnto the citie Augusta conuerted the Curienses vnto the faith of
 Christ, and there likewise (being put to death in Castro Martis) lieth
 buried in the same towne, where his feast is holden vpon the third
 daie of December, as may readilie be confirmed, whereas the bones of
 our Lucius were to be séene at Glocester. That Schedelius erreth not
 herein also, the ancient monuments of the said Abbaie, whereof he was
 the originall beginner, as I said, doo yeeld sufficient testimonie,
 beside an hymne made in his commendation, intituled Gaude Lucionum,
 [Sidenote: _Festum Lucionis. Iohn Bouchet._]
 &c. But for more of this you may resort vnto Bouchet in his first
 booke, and fift chapter of the Annales of Aquitane, who neuertheles
 maketh the king of Britaine grandfather to this Lucion. The said
 [Sidenote: Emerita martyred in Rhetia.]
 Schedelius furthermore setteth downe, that his sister was martyred in
 Trinecastell, néere vnto the place where the said Lucion dwelled,
 whereby it appéereth in like sort, that she was not sister to Lucius
 king of Britaine, of which prince Alexander Neccham in his most
 excellent treatise De sapientia diuina, setteth downe this Distichon:

   Prima Britannorum fidei lux Lucius esse
     Fertur, qui rexit m[oe]nia Brute tua.

 Neither could Lucion or Lucius be fellow and of kinred vnto Paule the
 apostle, as Auentine inferreth, except he meane it of some other
 Lucius, as of one whome he nameth Cyrinensis. But then will not the
 historie agree with the conuersion of the Rhetians and Vindelicians,
 whereof Schedelius and other doo make mention. But as each riuer the
 farder it runneth from the head, the more it is increased by small
 riuelets, and corrupted with filthie puddels, and stinking gutters,
 [Sidenote: Heresie and monastical life brought into
 Britaine at one time by _Pelagius_.]
 that descend into the same: so the puritie of the gospell, preached
 here in Britaine, in processe of time became first of all to be
 corrupted with a new order of religion, and most execrable heresie,
 both of them being brought in at once by Pelagius, of Wales, who
 hauing trauelled through France, Italie, Aegypt, Syria, & the
 easterlie regions of the world, was there at the last made an elder or
 bishop, by some of the monkes, vnto whose profession he had not long
 before wholie addicted himselfe. Finallie returning home againe with
 an augmentation of fame and countenance of greater holinesse than he
 bare out of the land with him, he did not onelie erect an house of his
 [Sidenote: Bangor.]
 owne order at Bangor in Wales, vpon the riuer Dee, but also sowed the
 pestiferous séed of his hereticall prauities ouer all this Iland,
 whereby he seduced great numbers of Britons, teaching them to preferre
 their owne merits, before the free mercie of God, in Jesus Christ his
 sonne. By this means therefore he brought assurance of saluation into
 question, and taught all such as had a diligent respect vnto their
 workes to be doubtfull of the same, whereas to such as regard this
 latter, there can be no quietnesse of mind, but alwaies an vnstedfast
 opinion of themselues, whereby they cannot discerne, neither by
 prosperitie nor aduersitie of this life, whether they be worthie loue
 or hatred. Neuertheles it behooueth the godlie to repose their hope in
 that grace which is freelie granted through Jesu Christ, and to flee
 vnto the mercies of God which are offered vnto vs in with and by his
 son, to the end that we may at the last find the testimonie of his
 spirit working with ours, that we are his chosen children, whereby
 commeth peace of conscience to such as doo beléeue.

 Thus we sée how new deuises or orders of religion and heresie came in
 together. I could shew also what Comets, and strange signes appeared
 in Britaine, much about the same time, the like of which with diuers
 other haue beene perceiued also from time to time, sithence the death
 of Pelagius, at the entrance of anie new kind of religion into this
 Ile of Britaine. But I passe them ouer, onelie for that I would not
 seeme in my tractation of antiquities, to trouble my reader with the
 rehersall of anie new inconueniences.

 [Sidenote: Anachorites. Heremites. Cyrillines. Benedictines.]
 To procéed therefore with my purpose, after these, there followed in
 like sort sundrie other kinds of monasticall life, as Anachorites,
 Heremits, Cyrilline and Benedictine monkes, albeit that the
 heremeticall profession was onelie allowed of in Britaine, vntill the
 comming of Augustine the monke, who brought in the Benedictine sect,
 framed after the order of the house which Benedict surnamed Nursinus
 did first erect in Monte Cassino, about the 524. of Christ, & was
 finallie so well liked of all men, that we had few or (as I suppose)
 no blacke monkes in England that were not of his order. In processe of
 time how Benedict Biscop also our countrieman restored the said
 Benedictine profession greatlie decaied in England, our histories are
 verie plentifull, which Biscop went off into Italie, and at one time
 for a speciall confirmation of his two monasteries which he had
 [Sidenote: Monkes and Heremites onelie allowed of in Britaine.]
 builded at other mens costs vnto Paule and Peter vpon the bankes of
 the Were, as Beda dooth remember. So fast also did these and other
 like humane deuises prosper after his time, that at their suppression
 in England and Wales onelie, there were found 440. religious houses at
 the least, of which 373. might dispend 200. li. by the yéere at the
 least, as appeareth by the record of their suppression, which also
 noteth the totall summe of their reuenues to amount vnto 32000.
 pounds, their moueables 100000. li. and the number of religious men
 [Sidenote: The number of religious houses in England
 at their dissolution.]
 conteined in the same, to be 10000. which would make a pretie armie,
 wherevnto if you adde those 45. of late standing in Scotland, you
 shall soone see what numbers of these dens of spirituall robbers were
 mainteined here in Britaine. What number of saincts also haue béene
 hatched in them I could easilie remember, and beside those 160. which
 Capgraue setteth downe, & other likewise remembred in the golden
 Legend, and Legendarie of Excester, I might bring a rable out of
 Scotland able to furnish vp a calendar, though the yere were twise as

 As touching Pelagius the first heretike that euer was bred in this
 realme (notablie knowne) and parent of Monachisme, it is certeine,
 that before his corruption and fall, he was taken for a man of
 singular learning, deepe iudgement, and such a one, as vpon whome for
 his great gifts in teaching and strictnesse of life, no small péece of
 the hope and expectation of the people did depend. But what is
 wisedome of the flesh, without the feare and true knowledge of God?
 and what is learning except it be handmaid to veritie and sound
 iudgement? Wherefore euen of this man, we may see it verified, that
 [Sidenote: Roger Bakon his saieng of the preachers of his
 time who were the best lawyers and the worst Diuines.]
 one Roger Bakon pronounced long after of the corruption of his time,
 when all things were measured by wit and worldlie policie, rather than
 by the scriptures or guidance of the spirit; Better it is saith he, to
 heare a rude and simple idiot preach the truth, without apparance of
 skill and learned eloquence, than a profound clearke to set foorth
 error, with great shew of learning, and boast of filed vtterance.
 Gerson in like sort hath said fullie asmuch. These follies of Pelagius
 were blased abroad about the 400. of Christ, and from thencefoorth how
 his number of monkes increased on the one side, and his doctrine on
 the other, there is almost no reader that is vnskilfull and ignorant.

 This also is certeine, that within the space of 200. yeares and odde,
 [Sidenote: More than 2100 monkes in the College or Abbaie of
 Bangor in whose territories the parish of Ouerton standeth.]
 there were manie more than 2100. monkes gathered togither in his
 house, whose trades notwithstanding the errors or their founder, (who
 taught such an estimation of merits and bodilie exercise (as Paule
 calleth it) that therby he sought not onlie to impugne, but also
 preuent grace, which was in deed the originall occasion of the
 erection of his house) were yet farre better and more godlie than all
 those religious orders, that were inuented of later time, wherein the
 professours liued to themselues, their wombs and the licentious
 fruition of those parts, that are beneath the bellie. For these
 [Sidenote: _Niceph. lib. II. cap. 34._]
 laboured continuallie  for their owne liuings, at vacant times from
 praier (as did Serapions monkes, which were 10000. ouer whome he
 himselfe was Abbat) and likewise for the better maintenance of such
 learned men as were their appointed preachers. Their liues also were
 correspondent to their doctrine, so that herein onelie they seemed
 intollerable, in that they had confidence in their déeds, and no
 warrant out of the word for their succor & defense, but were such a
 plant as the heauenlie father had not planted, and therefore no
 maruell, though afterward they were raised by the roots.

 But as Pelagius and his adherents had a time to infect the church of
 Christ in Britaine, so the liuing God hath had a season also to purge
 and cleanse the same, though not by a full reformation of doctrine,
 [Sidenote: Germanus, Lupus, Palladius, Patricius.]
 sith Germanus, Lupus, Palladius, Patricius, and such like leaning for
 the most part vnto the monasticall trades, did not so much condemne
 the generall errors of Pelagius one waie, as mainteine the same, or as
 euill opinions another. For as Patricke séemed to like well of the
 honoring of the dead, so Germanus being in Britaine repaired an old
 [Sidenote: _Seuerus Sulpitius in vita Patricij._]
 chapell to S. Albane, wherein Lupus also praied, as Palladius vpheld
 the strictnesse of life, in monasticall profession to the vttermost of
 his power. Wherefore God wrought this purgation of his house at the
 first, rather by taking awaie the wicked and pompous schoolemaisters
 of errour out of this life: hoping that by such meanes, his people
 would haue giuen eare to the godlie that remained. But in processe of
 time, when this his mercifull dealing was forgotten and our
 countriemen returned to their former disorders, he brought in the
 Saxons, who left no idoll vnhonored, no not their filthie Priapus,
 vnto whom the women builded temples, and made a beastlie image (Cum
 pene intenso, and as if he had beene circumcised) whome they called
 Ithypallus, Verpus, and as Goropius Atvatic. pag. 26. addeth, Ters:
 calling vpon him in maner at euerie word, yea at the verie fall of a
 knife out of their hands, and not counted anie shame vnto the most
 ancient and sober matrone of them all. Howbeit when this procéeding of
 the Lord could also take no place, and the shéepe of his pasture would
 receiue no wholesome fodder, it pleased his maiestie, to let them run
 on headlong from one iniquitie to another, in somuch that after the
 doctrine of Pelagius, it receiued that of Rome also, brought in by
 [Sidenote: Augustine the monke.]
 Augustine and his monkes, whereby it was to be seene, how they fell
 from the truth into heresie, and from one heresie still into another,
 till at the last they were drowned altogither in the pits of error
 digged vp by Antichrist, wels in deed that hold no water, which
 notwithstanding to their followers séemed to be most sound doctrine,
 and cisterns of liuing water to such as imbraced the same.

 [Sidenote: Augustine.]
 This Augustine, after his arriuall, conuerted the Saxons in déed from
 paganisme, but as the prouerbe saith, bringing them out of Gods
 blessing into the warme sunne, he also imbued them with no lesse
 hurtfull superstition, than they did know before: for beside the
 onelie name of Christ, and externall contempt of their pristinate
 idolatrie, he taught them nothing at all, but rather (I saie) made an
 exchange from grosse to subtill treacherie, from open to secret
 idolatrie, & from the name of pagans, to the bare title of christians,
 thinking this sufficient for their soules health, and the stablishment
 of his monachisme, of which kind of profession, the holie scriptures
 of God can in no wise like or allow. But what cared he? sith he got
 the great fish for which he did cast his hooke, and so great was the
 fish that he caught in déed, that within the space of 1000. yeares,
 and lesse, it deuoured the fourth part & more of the best soile of the
 Iland, which was wholie bestowed vpon his monkes, & other religious
 broodes that were hatched since his time, as may hereafter appéere in
 the booke following, where I intreate of cities, townes, &c. In the
 [Sidenote: Monks of Canturburie plagued.]
 meane season what successe his monkes had at Canturburie, how oft they
 were spoiled by enimies, their houses burned by casualtie, and
 brethren consumed with pestilence, I refer me to Gotcellius, Houeden,
 Geruase, and the rest of their owne historiographers. And so sore did
 the pestilence rage among them in the time of Celnothus (in whose
 daies the preests, clerks and monkes sang their seruice togither in
 the quire, that (of I wote not how manie) there remained onelie fiue
 aliue, which was a notable token of the furie and wrath of God
 conceiued and executed against that malignant generation. It came also
 to passe at the last that men vsed to praie for helpe at the said
 Augustines tumbe (although afterward Thomas Becket a newer saint did
 not a little deface his glorie) among which king Athelstane was one,
 whome Elnothus the abbat staied so long in the place, when he came
 thither to praie, that his soldiours waiting for his comming, and
 supposing the monkes to haue murdered him, began to giue an assault
 and set fire vpon the house.

 [Sidenote: Meates. Pictes. Caledoniens.]
 Whilest these things were thus in hand, in the south part of Albion,
 the Meates, Picts, and Caledoniens, which lie beyond the Scotish sea,
 receiued also the faith, by preaching of such christian elders as
 aduentured thither dailie, who trauelled not without great successe
 and increase of perfect godlines in that part of the Ile. Certes this
 prosperous attempt passed all mens expectation, for that these nations
 were in those daies reputed wild, sauage, and more vnfaithfull and
 craftie than well-minded people (as the wild Irish are in my time) and
 such were they (to saie the truth) in déed, as neither the sugred
 courtesie, nor sharpe swords of the Romans could mollifie or restraine
 from their naturall furie, or bring to anie good order. For this cause
 also in the end, the Romane emperours did vtterlie cast them off as an
 vnprofitable, brutish, & vntameable nation, and by an huge wall
 herafter to be described, separated that rude companie from the more
 mild and ciuill portion.

 [Sidenote: Scotland conuerted to the faith of Christ.]
 This conuersion of the north parts fell out in the sixt yeare before
 the warres that Seuerus had in those quarters, and 170. after the
 death of our sauiour Jesus Christ. From thenceforth also the christian
 religion continued still among them, by the diligent care of their
 pastors and bishops (after the vse of the churches of the south part
 of this Iland) till the Romane shéepheard sought them out, and found
 the meanes to pull them vnto him in like sort with his long staffe as
 he had done our countriemen, whereby in the end he abolished the rites
 of the churches of Asia there also, as Augustine had done alreadie in
 England: and in stéed of the same did furnish it vp with those of his
 pontificall see, although there was great contention, and no lesse
 bloodshed made amongst them, before it could be brought to passe, as
 by the histories of both nations yet extant may be séene.

 [Sidenote: Paladius.]
 In the time of C[oe]lestine bishop of Rome, who sate in the 423. of
 Christ, one Paladius a Grecian borne (to whome Cyrill wrote his dialog
 De adoratione in spiritu) and sometime disciple to Iohn 24. bishop of
 [Sidenote: The first attempt of the bishop of Rome
 to bring Scotland vnder his obedience.]
 Ierusalem, came ouer from Rome into Britaine, there to suppresse the
 Pelagian heresie, which not a little molested the orthodoxes of that
 Iland. And hauing doone much good in the extinguishing of the
 aforesaid opinion there, he went at the last also into Scotland,
 supposing no lesse, but after he had trauelled somwhat in confutation
 of the Pelagians in those parts, he should easilie persuade that
 crooked nation to admit and receiue the rites of the church of Rome,
 as he would faine haue doone beforehand in the south. But as
 [Sidenote: Fastidius bishop of London.]
 Fastidius Priscus archbishop of London, and his Suffragans resisted
 him here; so did the Scotish prelates withstand him there also in this
 behalfe: howbeit, bicause of the authoritie of his commission,
 grauitie of personage, and the great gift which he had in the veine of
 pleasant persuasion (whereby he drew the people after him, as Orpheus
 did the stones with his harpe, and Hercules such as heard him by his
 toong) they had him not onelie then in great admiration, but their
 successors also from time to time, and euen now are contented (and the
 rather also for that he came from Rome) to take him for their chéefe
 [Sidenote: Paladius accompted for the apostle of the Scots.]
 apostle, reckoning from his comming as from the faith receiued, which
 was in the 431. yeare of Christ, as the truth of their historie dooth
 verie well confirme.

 Thus we see what religion hath from time to time beene receiued in
 this Iland, & how and when the faith of Christ came first into our
 countrie. Howbeit as in processe of time it was ouershadowed, and
 corrupted with the dreames and fantasticall imaginations of man, so it
 dailie waxed woorse & woorse, till that it pleased God to restore the
 preaching of his gospell in our daies, whereby the man of sinne is now
 openlie reuealed, and the puritie of the word once againe brought to
 light, to the finall ouerthrow of the Romish sathan, and his popish
 adherents that honour him daie and night to the vttermost of their
 power, yeelding vp their harts as temples for him to dwell in, which
 rather ought to be the temples of God and habitations of the
 Holy-ghost. But such is their peruerse ignorance (notwithstanding that
 Paule hath giuen warning of him alreadie 2. Thes. 2. calling him (as I
 said) the man of sinne, and saieng that he sitteth as God in the
 temple of God, shewing himselfe in his chalenge of power, as if he
 were God, vnder pretense of zeale vnto true religion) that they will
 not giue eare vnto the truth, but rather shut their eares and their
 eies from hearing and reading of the scriptures, bicause they will not
 be drawne out of his snares and bondage.


 There is a certeine period of kingdomes, of 430. yeares, in which
 commonlie they suffer some notable alteration. And as in the aforesaid
 season there is set a time of increase and decaie, so we find that
 before the execution of Gods purpose dooth come to passe, in changing
 the estate of things, sundrie tokens are sent, whereby warning is
 giuen, that without repentance he will come and visit our offenses.
 This is partlie verified by Ioachimus Camerarius, who in his first
 booke De ostentis intreating of the same argument, telleth of a
 strange earthquake felt in Delus, which was neuer touched with any
 such plague before or after the ouerthrow of the Persians, giuen vnto
 them by the Grecians; also of the beard that suddenlie grew out of the
 face of the Pedacien prophetesse, so often as the citie was to be
 touched with any alteration and change. "Nam (saith he) descriptas
 esse diuinitùs ætates quibus idem humanarum rerum status duraret,
 quibus finitis, prædici prius quàm existeret nouationem in deterius
 euenturam rerum, quæque indies minùs ac minùs numini cordi essent.
 Emittuntur igitur cometæ diuinitus, & reuocantur dum supra nos
 conspecti quamdiu placuit Deo inferuntur, &c." Plato referreth such
 changes as happen in common-wealths to a certeine diuine force that
 resteth hidden in sundrie od numbers, whereof their periods do
 consist. True it is that God created all things in number, weight &
 measure, & that after an incomprehensible maner vnto our fraile &
 humane capacitie. Neuerthelesse, he appointed not these three to haue
 the rule of his works, wherefore we must not ascribe these changes to
 the force of number with Plato, much lesse then vnto destinie with the
 Peripatetiks, but vnto the diuine prouidence and appointment of God,
 which onelie may be called destinie as S. Augustine saith, for of
 other destinie it is impietie to dreame. Aristotle ascribing all
 euents vnto manifest causes precedent, dooth scoffe at Plato and his
 numbers in his booke of common-wealths, and bringeth in sundrie causes
 of the alteration of the state of things, which we may referre vnto
 principals, as iniurie, oppression, ambition, treason, rebellion,
 contempt of religion and lawes, and therevnto abundance of wealth in
 few, and great necessitie and miserie in manie. But whatsoeuer
 Aristotle gesseth at these things by humane reason as at the first
 causes, yet we acknowledge other beyond them, as sinne, which being
 suffered and come to the full, is cut downe by the iustice of the high
 God, the cheefe cause of all, who foreseeing the wickednesse of such
 as dwell on earth, dooth constitute such a reuolution of things in
 their beginnings, as best standeth with the execution of his purpose,
 and correction of our errors. The causes therefore that Aristotle
 dooth deliuer, are nothing else but the meanes which God vseth to
 bring his purposes to passe; and yet they deserue the name of causes,
 in that they preceed those effects which follow them immediatlie. But
 in truth other than secondarie or third causes no man can iustlie call
 them. Bodinus in his historicall method, cap. 6. making a large
 discourse of the conuersions of commonwealths, dooth séeme at the
 first to denie the force of number, but after a while he maruelleth
 that no Grecian or Latine Academike, hath hitherto made any discourse
 of the excellencie of such numbers as apperteine to the estate of
 empires and kingdomes by exemplification in any one citie or other.
 Hereby he sheweth himselfe vpon the sudden to alter his iudgement, so
 [Sidenote: Fatal numbers.]
 that he setteth downe certeine numbers as fatall; to wit, sixe vnto
 women, and seauen and nine vnto men, which (saith he) haue "Magnam in
 tota rerum natura potestatem," meaning as well in common-wealths and
 kingdomes from their first erections, as in particular ages of bodies,
 for sickenesse, health, change of habitation, wealth, and losse, &c:
 and for the confirmation of the same, he setteth downe sundrie
 examples of apparent likelihood, either by multiplication of one by
 the other, or diuision of greater numbers by either of them, or their
 concurrence one with another, calling the aforesaid three his
 criticall or iudiciall numbers, whereby he bringeth or rather
 restoreth an old kind of arithmancie (fathered on Pythagoras, yet
 neuer inuented by him) againe into the world. But we christians, in
 respecting of causes, haue to looke vnto the originall and great cause
 of all, and therefore we haue not to leane vnto these points in any
 wise as causes: for we know and confesse that all things depend vpon
 his prouidence, who humbleth and exalteth whom it pleaseth him.
 Neuerthelesse, I hope we may without offense examine how these
 assertions hold, so long as we vse them rather as Indices than Causas
 mutationum. And therefore haue I attempted to practise at this present
 the example of Bodinus, first in the alterations of our ciuill estate
 passed; and secondlie, of the like in cases of religion; from the
 flood generallie, and then after the first comming in of Samothes into
 our Ile, thereby somewhat to satisfie my selfe, and recreate the
 readers; but still protesting in the meane season that I vtterlie
 denie them to be any causes, or of themselues to worke any effect at
 all in these things, as Bodinus would seeme to vphold. As for those of
 other countries, I referre you to Aristotles politikes, and the eight
 of the common-wealth which Plato hath left vnto vs, therby to be
 farther resolued, if you be desirous to looke on them. In beginning
 therefore with my purpose; First bicause the flood of Noah was
 generall, and therefore appertinent vnto all, it shall not be amisse
 to begin with that, which was in the yeare 1656. after the creation of
 Adam, so that if you diuide the same by nine, you shall find the
 quotient to fall out exactlie with the 184. reuolution of the same
 number. Secondlie, for so much as the confusion of toongs was the
 originall cause of the dispersion of the people ouer the face of the
 whole earth, it shall not be amisse also to examine the same. Certes
 it fell out in the 133. after the flood: if we diuide therefore the
 said 133. by seauen, you shall find the quotient 19. without any ods
 remaining. From hence also vnto the comming of Samothes into Britaine,
 or rather his lawes giuen vnto the Celts, and with them vnto the
 Britons, in the second of his arriuall in this land, we find by exact
 supputation 126. yeares, which being parted by nine or seauen sheweth
 such a conclusion as maketh much for this purpose. Doubtlesse I am the
 more willing to touch the time of his lawes than his entrance, sith
 alteration of ordinances is the cheefe and principall token of change
 in rule and regiment; although at this present the circumstances hold
 not, sith he dispossessed none, neither incroched vpon any. From
 Samothes vnto the tyrannie of Albion, are 335. yeares complet, so that
 he arriued here in the 335. or 48. septenarie, which also concurreth
 with the 590 after the flood. In like sort the regiment of Albion
 continued but seauen yeares, and then was the souereingtie of this Ile
 restored againe by Hercules vnto the Celts. The next alteration of our
 estate openlie knowne, happened by Brute, betweene whose time and
 death of Albion there passed full 601. yeares (for he spent much time
 after his departure out of Grecia, before he came into Albion) so that
 if you accompt him to come hither in the 602. you shall haue 86.
 septenaries exactlie. From Brute to the extinction of his posteritie
 in Ferrex and Porrex, and pentarchie of Britaine, are 630. yeares, or
 70. nouenaries, than the which where shall a man find a more precise
 period after this method or prescription, for manie and diuers
 considerations. The time of the pentarchie indured likewise 49.
 yeares, or seauen septenaries, which being expired Dunwallo brought
 all the princes vnder his subiection, and ruled ouer them as monarch
 of this Ile. After the pentarchie ended, we find againe, that in the
 98. yeare, Brennus rebelled against Beline his brother, wherevpon
 insued cruell bloodshed betwéene them. So that here you haue 14.
 septenaries, as you haue from those warres ended, which indured a full
 yeare & more before Brennus was reconciled to his brother, to the
 comming of Cæsar into this Iland (whereat our seruitude and miserable
 thraldome to the Romans may worthilie take his entrance) 48. or 336.
 yeares, than the which concurrences I know not how a man should
 imagine a more exact.

 After the comming of Cæsar we haue 54. or sixe nouenaries to Christ,
 whose death and passion redoundeth generallie to all that by firme and
 sure faith take hold of the same, and applie it vnto their comfort.
 From the birth of Christ to our countrie deliuered from the Romane
 yoke, are 446. yeares, at which time the Britains chose them a king,
 and betooke themselues to his obedience. But neither they nor their
 king being then able to hold out the Scots and Picts, which dailie
 made hauocke of their countrie; the said Vortiger in the third yeare
 of his reigne (which was the 63. septenarie after Christ) did send for
 the Saxons, who arriued here in the 449. and 450. yeares of Grace, in
 great companies, for our aid and succour, although that in the end
 their entrances turned to our vtter decaie and ruine, in that they
 made a conquest of the whole Ile, and draue vs out of our liuings.
 Hereby we sée therefore how the preparatiue began in the 449. but how
 it was finished in the tenth nouenarie, the sequele is too too plaine.
 In like sort in the 43. nouenarie or 387. after the comming of the
 Saxons, the Danes entred, who miserablie afflicted this Ile by the
 space of 182. yeares or 46. septenaries, which being expired, they
 established themselues in the kingdome by Canutus. But their time
 lasting not long, the Normans followed in the end of the 49. yeare,
 and thus you sée how these numbers do hold exactlie vnto the conquest.
 The like also we find of the continuance of the Normans or succession
 of the Conquerour, which indured but 89. yeares, being extinguished in
 Stephen, and that of the Saxons restored in Henrie the second,
 although it lacke one whole yeare of ten nouenaries, which is a small
 thing, sith vpon diuers occasions the time of the execution of any
 accident may be preuented or proroged, as in direction and progression
 astronomicall is oftentimes perceiued. From hence to the infamous
 excommunication of England in king Iohns daies, wherevpon insued the
 resignation of his crownes and dominions to the pope, are eight
 septenaries or 56. yeares. Thence againe to the deposition of Richard.
 2. and vsurpation of Henrie 4. are 77. yeares or 11. septenaries. From
 hence to the conspiracie made against Edward. 2. after which he was
 deposed & murdered are 117. yeares, or 13. nouenaries. From hence to
 the beginning of the quarell betwéene the houses of Yorke and
 Lancaster (wherein foure score and od persons of the blood roiall were
 slaine and made awaie first and last, and which warres begunne in the
 1448. and the yeare after the death of the Duke of Glocester, whose
 murther séemed to make frée passage to the said broile) are 72. yeares
 or eight nouenaries. From hence to the translation of the crowne from
 the house of Lancaster to that of Yorke, in Edward the 4. are 14.
 yeares or two septenaries, and last of all to the vnion of the said
 houses in Henrie the eight, is an exact quadrat of seuen multiplied in
 it selfe, or 49. yeares, whereof I hope this may in part suffice.

 Now as concerning religion, we haue from Christ to the faith first
 preached in Britaine (by Iosephus ab Aramathia, and Simon Zelotes) as
 some write 70. yeares or 10. septenaries. Thence also to the baptisme
 of Lucius, and his nobilitie in the yeare after their conuersion, 12.
 nouenaries or 108. yeares. After these the Saxons entred and changed
 the state of religion for the most part into paganisme, in the yeare
 449. 39. nouenarie, and 273. yeare after Lucius had beene baptised,
 which is 39. septenaries, if I be not deceiued. In the 147. or 21.
 septenarie, Augustine came, who brought in poperie, which increased
 and continued till Wicklif with more boldnesse than anie other began
 to preach the gospell, which was Anno. 1361. or 765. yeares after the
 comming of Augustine, and yeeld 85. nouenaries exactlie. From hence
 [Sidenote: Henrie 8.]
 againe to the expulsion of the pope 175. yeares, or 25. septenaries,
 [Sidenote: Marie.]
 thence to the receiuing of the pope and popish doctrine 21. yeares or
 3. septenaries, wherevnto I would ad the time of restoring the gospell
 by Quéene Elizabeth, were it not that it wanteth one full yeare of 7.
 Whereby we may well gather, that if there be anie hidden mysterie or
 thing conteined in these numbers, yet the same extendeth not vnto the
 diuine disposition of things, touching the gift of grace and frée
 mercie vnto the penitent, vnto which neither number weight nor measure
 shall be able to aspire.


 CAP. 10.

 There are néere vnto, or not verie farre from the coasts of Britaine
 many faire Ilands, wherof Ireland with hir neighbors (not here handled)
 séeme to be the cheefe. But of the rest, some are much larger or lesse
 than other, diuers in like sort enuironed continuallie with the salt sea
 (whereof I purpose onelie to intreat, although not a few of them be
 Ilands but at the floud) and other finallie be clipped partlie by the
 fresh and partlie by the salt water, or by the fresh alone, whereof I
 may speake afterward.

 Of these salt Ilands (for so I call them that are enuironed with the
 Ocean waues) some are fruitfull in wood, corne, wild foule, and pasture
 ground for cattell, albeit that manie of them be accounted barren,
 bicause they are onelie replenished with conies, and those of sundrie
 colours (cherished of purpose by the owners, for their skins or carcases
 in their prouision of household) without either man or woman otherwise
 inhabiting in them. Furthermore, the greatest number of these Ilands
 haue townes and parish-churches, within their seuerall precincts, some
 mo, some lesse: and beside all this, are so inriched with commodities,
 that they haue pleasant hauens, fresh springs, great store of fish, and
 plentie of cattell, wherby the inhabitants doo reape no small aduantage.
 How manie they are in number I cannot as yet determine, bicause mine
 informations are not so fullie set downe, as the promises of some on the
 one side, & mine expectation on the other did extend vnto. Howbeit,
 first of all that there are certeine which lie neere togither, as it
 were by heapes and clusters, I hope none will readilie denie. Of these
 [Sidenote: Nesiadæ.]
 [Sidenote: Insulæ Scylurum.]
 [Sidenote: Sileustræ.]
 [Sidenote: Syllanæ.]
 [Sidenote: Sorlingæ.]
 [Sidenote: Sylley.]
 [Sidenote: Hebrides.]
 [Sidenote: Hebudes.]
 [Sidenote: Meuaniæ.]
 [Sidenote: Orchades.]
 also those called the Nesiadæ, Insulæ Scylurum, Sileustræ, Syllanæ, now
 the Sorlings, and Iles of Silley, lieng beyond Cornwall are one, and
 conteineth in number one hundreth fourtie and seauen (each of them
 bearing grasse) besides shelfes and shallowes. In like sort the companie
 of the Hebrides in old time subject vnto Ireland are another, which are
 said to be 43. situat vpon the west side of this Iland, betweene Ireland
 & Scotland, and of which there are some that repute Anglesei, Mona
 Cæsaris, and other lieng betweene them to be parcell, in their corrupted
 iudgement. The third cluster or bunch consisteth of those that are
 called the Orchades, and these lie vpon the northwest point of Scotland,
 being 31. aliàs 28. in number, as for the rest they lie scattered here
 and there, and yet not to be vntouched as their courses shall come
 about. There are also the 18. Shetland Iles, and other yet farther
 distant from them, of which Iohn Frobuser I doubt not touched vpon some
 in his voiage to Meta Incognita: but for somuch as I must speake of the
 Shetlands hereafter, I doo not meane to spend anie time about them as

 There haue beene diuers that haue written of purpose, De insulis
 Britanniæ, as Cæsar doth confesse. The like also may be seene by
 Plutarch, who nameth one Demetrius a Britaine, that should set foorth an
 exact treatise of each of them in order, and among other tell of
 certeine desert Iles beyond Scotland dedicated to sundrie gods and
 goddesses, but of one especiallie, where Briareus should hold Saturne
 and manie other spirits fast bound with the chaines of an heauie sléepe,
 as he heard, of which some die now and then, by meane wherof the aire
 becommeth maruellouslie troubled, &c: as you may sée in Plutarch De
 cessatione oraculorum, &c. But sith those bookes are now perished, and
 the most of the said Ilands remaine vtterlie vnknowen, euen to our owne
 selues (for who is able in our time to say where is Glota, Hiucrion,
 Etta, Iduna, Armia, Æsarea, Barsa, Isiandium, Icdelis, Xantisma,
 Indelis, Siata, Ga. Andros or Edros, Siambis, Xanthos, Ricnea, Menapia,
 &c? whose names onelie are left in memorie by ancient writers, but I
 saie their places not so much as heard of in our daies) I meane (God
 willing) to set downe so manie of them with their commodities, as I doo
 either know by Leland, or am otherwise instructed of by such as are of
 credit. Herein also I will touch at large those that are most famous,
 and breeflie passe ouer such as are obscure and vnknowen, making mine
 entrance at the Thames mouth, and directing this imagined course (for I
 neuer sailed it) by the south part of the Iland into the west. From
 thence in like sort I will proceed into the north, & come about againe
 by the east side into the fall of the aforesaid streame, where I will
 strike saile, and safelie be set ashore, that haue often in this voiage
 wanted water, but oftener béene set a ground, especiallie on the Scotish

 In beginning therefore, with such as lie in the mouth of the aforesaid
 [Sidenote: Hoo.]
 riuer, I must néeds passe by the How, which is not an Iland, and
 therefore not within the compasse of my description at this time, but
 almost an Iland, which parcels the Latins call Peninsulas, and I doo
 english a Byland, vsing the word for such as a man may go into
 drie-footed at the full sea, or on horssebacke at the low water without
 anie boat or vessell: and such a one almost is Rochford hundred in Essex
 also, yet not at this time to be spoken of, bicause not the sea onelie
 but the fresh water also doth in maner enuiron it, and is the cheefe
 occasion wherfore it is called an Iland. This How lieth between Cliffe
 (in old time called Clouesho, to wit, Cliffe in How or in the hundred of
 How) & the midwaie that goeth along by Rochester, of which hundred there
 goeth an old prouerbe in rime after this maner:

   He that rideth into the hundred of How,
   Beside pilfering sea-men shall find durt ynow.

 [Sidenote: Greane.]
 Next vnto this we haue the Greane, wherein is a towne of the same
 denomination, an Ile supposed to be foure miles in length, and two in
 [Sidenote: Shepey.]
 bredth. Then come we to Shepey, which Ptolomie calleth Connos,
 conteining seauen miles in length, and three in bredth, wherein is a
 castell called Quinborow, and a parke, beside foure townes, of which one
 is named Minster, another Eastchurch, the third Warden, and the fourth
 Leyden: the whole soile being throughlie fed with shéepe, verie well
 woodded, and (as I heare) belongeth to the Lord Cheyney, as parcell of
 his inheritance. It lieth thirtéene miles by water from Rochester, but
 the castell is fiftéene, and by south thereof are two small Ilands,
 [Sidenote: Elmesie.]
 [Sidenote: Hertesie.]
 wherof the one is called Elmesie, and the more easterlie Hertesie. In
 this also is a towne called Hertie, or Hartie, and all in the Lath of
 Scraie, notwithstanding that Hartie lieth in the hundred of Feuersham,
 and Shepey reteineth one especiall Bailie of hir owne.

 From hence we passe by the Reculuers (or territorie belonging in time
 past to one Raculphus, who erected an house of religion, or some such
 thing there) vnto a little Iland in the Stoure mouth. Herevpon also
 [Sidenote: Stureev.]
 [Sidenote: Thanet.]
 the Thanet abutteth, which Ptolomie calleth Toliapis, other Athanatos,
 bicause serpents are supposed not to liue in the same, howbeit sith it
 is not enuironed with the sea, it is not to be dealt withall as an Iland
 in this place, albeit I will not let to borow of my determination, and
 describe it as I go, bicause it is so fruitfull. Beda noteth it in times
 past to haue conteined 600. families, which are all one with Hidelands,
 [*]Ploughlands, Carrucates, or Temewares. He addeth also that it is
 [Sidenote: * In Lincolneshire the word Hide or hideland,
 was neuer in vse in old time as in other places, but for
 Hide they vsed the word Carucate or cartware, or Teme,
 and these were of no lesse compasse than an Hideland.
 _Ex Hugone le blanc Monacho Petrolurgensi._]
 diuided from our continent, by the riuer called Wantsume, which is about
 thrée furlongs broad, and to be passed ouer in two places onelie. But
 whereas Polydore saieth, the Thanet is nine miles in length & not much
 lesse in bredth, it is now reckoned that it hath not much aboue seauen
 miles from Nordtmuth to Sandwich, and foure in bredth, from the Stoure
 to Margate, or from the south to the north, the circuit of the whole
 being 17. or 18. as Leland also noteth. This Iland hath no wood growing
 in it except it be forced, and yet otherwise it is verie fruitfull, and
 beside that it wanteth few other commodities, the finest chalke is said
 to be found there. Herein also did Augustine the moonke first arriue,
 when he came to conuert the Saxons, and afterward in processe of time,
 sundry religious houses were erected there, as in a soile much bettered
 (as the supersticious supposed) by the steps of that holy man, & such as
 came ouer with him. There are at this time 10. parish churches at the
 least in the Ile of Thanet, as S. Nicholas, Birchington, S. Iohns, Wood
 or Woodchurch, S. Peters, S. Laurence, Mownton or Monkeron, Minster, S.
 Gyles and all Saincts, whereof M. Lambert hath written at large in his
 description of Kent, and placed the same in the Lath of sainct Augustine
 and hundred of Kingslow, as may easilie be séene to him that will peruse

 [Sidenote: Rutupium.]
 Sometime Rutupium or (as Beda calleth it) Reptacester, stood also in
 this Iland, but now thorough alteration of the chanell of the Dour, it
 is shut quite out, and annexed to the maine. It is called in these daies
 Richborow, and as it should seeme builded vpon an indifferent soile or
 high ground. The large brickes also yet to be seene there, in the
 ruinous walles, declare either the Romane or the old British
 workemanship. But as time decaieth all things, so Rutupium named
 Ruptimuth is now become desolate, and out of the dust thereof Sandwich
 producted, which standeth a full mile from the place where Reptacester
 stood. The old writers affirme, how Arthur & Mordred fought one notable
 battell here, wherin Gwallon or Gawan was slaine; at which time the said
 rebell came against his souereigne with 70000. Picts, Scots, Irish,
 Norwegians, &c: and with Ethelbert the first christian king of Kent did
 hold his palace in this towne, and yet none of his coine hath hitherto
 béene found there, as is dailie that of the Romanes, whereof manie
 péeces of siluer and gold, so well as of brasse, copper, and other
 mettall haue often beene shewed vnto me. It should appéere in like sort,
 that of this place, all the whole coast of Kent therabout was called
 Littus Rutupinum, which some doo not a little confirme by these words of
 Lucane, to be read in his sixt booke soone after the beginning:

 [Sidenote: The last verse of one couple and first of an other.]

   Aut vaga cum Tethis, Rutupináq; littora feruent,
   Vnda Calidonios fallit turbata Britannos.

   Or when the wandering seas
     and Kentish coasts doo worke,
   And Calidons of British bloud,
     the troubled waues beguile.

 Meaning in like sort by the latter, the coast néere Andredeswald, which
 in time past was called Littus Calidonium of that wood or forrest, as
 Leland also confirmeth. But as it is not my mind to deale anie thing
 curiouslie in these by-matters, so in returning againe to my purpose,
 [Sidenote: Seolesey of Seles there taken.]
 and taking my iourney toward the Wight, I must needs passe by Selesey,
 which sometime (as it should séeme) hath béene a noble Iland, but now in
 maner a Byland or Peninsula, wherin the chéefe sée of the bishop of
 Chichester was holden by the space of thrée hundred twentie nine yeares,
 and vnder twentie bishops.

 Next vnto this, we come vnto those that lie betweene the Wight and the
 [Sidenote: Thorne.]
 maine land, of which the most easterlie is called Thorne, and to saie
 truth, the verie least of all that are to be found in that knot. Being
 [Sidenote: Haling.]
 past the Thorne, we touched vpon the Haling, which is bigger than the
 Thorne, and wherein one towne is situat of the same denomination beside
 [Sidenote: Port.]
 another, whose name I remember not. By west also of the Haling lieth the
 Port (the greatest of the three alreadie mentioned) and in this standeth
 Portsmouth and Ringstéed) whereof also our Leland, saieth thus: "Port
 Ile is cut from the shore by an arme of the maine hauen, which breaketh
 out about thrée miles aboue Portsmouth, and goeth vp two miles or more
 by morish ground to a place called Portbridge, which is two miles from
 Portsmouth." Then breaketh there out another créeke from the maine sea,
 about Auant hauen, which gulleth vp almost to Portbridge, and thence is
 the ground disseuered, so that Portsmouth standeth in a corner of this
 Ile, which Iland is in length six miles, and three miles in bredth,
 verie good for grasse and corne, not without some wood, and here and
 there inclosure. Beside this, there is also another Iland north
 northwest of Port Ile, which is now so worne and washed awaie with the
 working of the sea, that at the spring tides it is wholie couered with
 water, and thereby made vnprofitable. Finallie being past all these, and
 in compassing this gulfe, we come by an other, which lieth north of
 Hirst castell, & southeast of Kaie hauen, whereof I find nothing worthie
 to be noted, sauing that it wanteth wood, as Ptolomie affirmeth in his
 Geographicall tables of all those Ilands which enuiron our Albion.

 [Sidenote: Wight.]
 [Sidenote: Guidh.]
 The Wight is called in Latine Vectis, but in the British speach Guidh,
 that is to saie, Eefe or easie to be séene, or (as D. Caius saith)
 separate, bicause that by a breach of the sea, it was once diuided
 from the maine, as Sicilia was also from Italie, Anglesei from Wales,
 Foulenesse from Essex, & Quinborow from Kent. It lieth distant from the
 south shore of Britaine (where it is fardest off) by fiue miles & a
 halfe, but where it commeth neerest, not passing a thousand paces, and
 this at the cut ouer betwéene Hirst castell and a place called Whetwell
 chine, as the inhabitants doo report. It conteineth in length twentie
 miles, and in bredth ten, it hath also the north pole eleuated by 50.
 degrées and 27. minutes, and is onelie 18. degrees in distance, and 50.
 od minuts from the west point, as experience hath confirmed, contrarie
 to the description of Ptolomie, and such as folow his assertions in the
 same. In forme, it representeth almost an eg, and so well is it
 inhabited with meere English at this present, that there are thirtie six
 townes, villages and castels to be found therein, beside 27.
 parish-churches, of which 15. or 16. haue their Parsons, the rest either
 such poore Vicars or Curats, as the liuings left are able to sustaine.
 The names of the parishes in the Wight are these.

 [Sidenote: P signifieth parsonages, V. vicarages.]

    1 Newport, a chap.
    2 Cairsbrosie.      v.
    3 Northwood.
    4 Arriun.           v.
    5 Goddeshill.       v.
    6 Whitwell.
    7 S. Laurence.      p.
    8 Nighton.          p.
    9 Brading.          v.
   10 Newchurch.        v.
   11 S. Helene.        v.
   12 Yauerland.        p.
   13 Calborne.         p.
   14 Bonechurch.       p.
   15 Mottesson.        p.
   16 Yarmouth.         p.
   17 Thorley.          v.
   18 Shalflete.        v.
   19 Whippingham.      p.
   20 Wootton.          p.
   21 Chale.            p.
   22 Kingston.         p.
   23 Shorwell.         p.
   24 Gatrombe.         p.
   25 Brosie.
   26 Brixston.         p.
   27 Bensted.          p.

 It belongeth for temporall iurisdiction to the countie of Hamshire, but
 in spirituall cases it yéeldeth obedience to the sée of Winchester,
 wherof it is a Deanerie. As for the soile of the whole Iland, it is
 verie fruitfull, for notwithstanding the shore of it selfe be verie full
 of rocks and craggie cliffes, yet there wanteth no plentie of cattell,
 corne, pasture, medow ground, wild foule, fish, fresh riuers, and
 pleasant woods, whereby the inhabitants may liue in ease and welfare. It
 was first ruled by a seuerall king, and afterwards wonne from the
 Britons by Vespasian the legat, at such time as he made a voiage into
 the west countrie. In processe of time also it was gotten from the
 Romans by the kings of Sussex, who held the souereigntie of the same,
 and kept the king thereof vnder tribute, till it was wonne also from
 them, in the time of Athelwold, the eight king of the said south region,
 by Ceadwalla, who killed Aruald that reigned there, and reserued the
 souereigntie of that Ile to himselfe and his successors for euermore. At
 this time also there were 1200. families in that Iland, whereof the said
 Ceadwalla gaue 300 to Wilfride sometime bishop of Yorke, exhorting him
 to erect a church there, and preach the gospell also to the inhabitants
 thereof, which he in like maner performed, but according to the
 prescriptions of the church of Rome, wherevnto he yéelded himselfe
 vassall and feudarie: so that this Ile by Wilfride was first conuerted
 to the faith, though the last of all other that hearkened vnto the word.
 After Ceadwalla, Woolfride the parricide was the first Saxon prince that
 aduentured to flie into the Wight for his safegard, whither he was
 driuen by Kenwalch of the Westsaxons, who made great warres vpon him,
 and in the end compelled him to go into this place for succour, as did
 also king Iohn, in the rebellious stir of his Barons, practised by the
 clergie: the said Iland being as then in possession of the Forts, as
 some doo write that haue handled it of purpose. The first Earle of this
 Iland that I doo read of, was one Baldwijne de Betoun, who married for
 his second wife, the daughter of William le Grosse Earle of Awmarle; but
 he dieng without issue by this ladie, she was maried the second time to
 Earle Maundeuille, and thirdlie to William de Fortes, who finished
 Skipton castell, which his wiues father had begun about the time of king
 Richard the first. Hereby it came to passe also, that the Forts were
 Earls of Awmarle, Wight, and Deuonshire a long time, till the ladie
 Elizabeth Fortes, sole heire to all those possessions came to age, with
 whom king Edward the third so preuailed through monie & faire words,
 that he gat the possession of the Wight wholie into his hands, & held it
 to himselfe & his successors, vntill Henrie the sixt, about the
 twentieth of his reigne, crowned Henrie Beauchamp sonne to the lord
 Richard Earle of Warwike king thereof and of Iardesey and Gardesey with
 his owne hands, and therevnto gaue him a commendation of the Dutchie of
 Warwike with the titles of Comes comitum Angliæ, lord Spenser of
 Aburgauenie, and of the castell of Bristow (which castell was sometime
 taken from his ancestors by king Iohn) albeit he did not long enioy
 these great honors, sith he died 1446. without issue, and seuen yéeres
 after his father.

 After we be past the Wight, we go forward and come vnto Poole hauen,
 [Sidenote: Brunt Keysy.]
 wherein is an Ile, called Brunt Keysy, in which was sometime a
 parish-church, and but a chapell at this present, as I heare. There are
 also two other Iles, but as yet I know not their names.

 We haue (after we are passed by these) another Ile, or rather Byland
 [Sidenote: Portland.]
 also vpon the coast named Portland not far from Waymouth or the Gowy, a
 prettie fertile peece though without wood, of ten miles in circuit, now
 well inhabited, but much better heretofore, and yet are there about
 foure score housholds in it. There is but one street of houses therein,
 the rest are dispersed, howbeit they belong all to one parish-church,
 whereas in time past there were two within the compasse of the same.
 There is also a castell of the kings, who is lord of the Ile, although
 the bishop of Winchester be patrone of the church, the parsonage whereof
 is the fairest house in all the péece. The people there are no lesse
 excellent slingers of stones than were the Baleares, who would neuer
 giue their children their dinners till they had gotten the same with
 their slings, and therefore their parents vsed to hang their meate verie
 high vpon some bough, to the end that he which strake it downe might
 onlie haue it, whereas such as missed were sure to go without it, Florus
 lib. 3. cap. 8. Which feat the Portlands vse for the defense of their
 Iland, and yet otherwise are verie couetous. And wheras in time past
 they liued onlie by fishing, now they fall to tillage. Their fire bote
 is brought out of the Wight, and other places, yet doo they burne much
 cow doong dried in the sunne, for there is I saie no wood in the Ile,
 except a few elmes that be about the church. There would some grow
 there, no doubt, if they were willing to plant it, although the soile
 lie verie bleake and open. It is not long since this was vnited to the
 maine, and likelie yer long to be cut off againe.

 Being past this we raise another, also in the mouth of the Gowy,
 betweene Colsford and Lime, of which for the smalnesse thereof I make no
 great account. Wherefore giuing ouer to intreat any farther of it, I
 [Sidenote: Iardsey.]
 [Sidenote: Gardesey.]
 cast about to Iardsey, and Gardesey, which Iles with their appurtenances
 apperteined in times past to the Dukes of Normandie, but now they
 remaine to our Quéene, as parcell of Hamshire and iurisdiction of
 Winchester, & belonging to hir crowne, by meanes of a composition made
 betwéene K. Iohn of England and the K. of France, when the dominions of
 the said prince began so fast to decrease, as Thomas Sulmo saith.

 [Sidenote: Iardsey.]
 Of these two, Iardsey is the greatest, an Iland hauing thirtie miles in
 compasse, as most men doo coniecture. There are likewise in the same
 twelue parish-churches, with a colledge, which hath a Deane and
 Prebends. It is distant from Gardsey full 21. miles, or thereabouts, and
 made notable, by meanes of a bloudie fact doone there in Queene Maries
 daies, whereby a woman called Perotine Massie wife vnto an honest
 minister or préest, being great with childe by hir husband, was burned
 to ashes: through the excéeding crueltie of the Deane and Chapiter, then
 contending manifestlie against God for the mainteinance of their popish
 and antichristian kingdome. In this hir execution, and at such time as
 the fire caught holde of hir wombe, hir bellie brake, and there issued a
 goodly manchilde from hir, with such force that it fell vpon the cold
 ground quite beyond the heate and furie of the flame, which quicklie was
 [Sidenote: Horrible murther.]
 taken vp and giuen from one tormentor and aduersarie to an other to
 looke vpon, whose eies being after a while satisfied with the beholding
 thereof, they threw it vnto the carcase of the mother which burned in
 the fire, whereby the poore innocent was consumed to ashes, whom that
 [Sidenote: Gardsey.]
 furious element would gladlie haue left vntouched, & wherevnto it
 ministred (as you heare) an hurtlesse passage. In this latter also,
 there haue béene in times past, fine religious houses, and nine castels,
 howbeit in these daies there is but one parish-church left standing in
 the same. There are also certeine other small Ilands, which Henrie
 [Sidenote: S. Hilaries.]
 the second in his donation calleth Insulettas, beside verie manie rocks,
 whereof one called S. Hilaries (wherein sometime was a monasterie) is
 fast vpon Iardsey, another is named the Cornet, which hath a castel not
 [Sidenote: Cornet. Serke.]
 passing an arrow shot from Gardsey. The Serke also is betwéene both,
 which is six miles about, and hath another annexed to it by an Isthmus
 or Strictland, wherein was a religious house, & therwithall great store
 of conies.

 [Sidenote: Brehoc.]
 [Sidenote: Gytho.]
 [Sidenote: Herme.]
 There is also the Brehoc, the Gytho, and the Herme, which latter is
 foure miles in compasse, and therein was sometime a Canonrie, that
 afterward was conuerted into a house of Franciscanes. There are two
 other likewise neere vnto that of S. Hilarie, of whose names I haue no
 [Sidenote: Burhoo, aliàs the Ile of rats.]
 notice. There is also the rockie Ile of Burhoo, but now the Ile of rats,
 so called of the huge plentie of rats that are found there, though
 [Sidenote: Turkie conies.]
 otherwise it be replenished with infinit store of conies, betwéene whome
 and the rats, as I coniecture, the same which we call Turkie conies, are
 oftentimes produced among those few houses that are to be seene in this
 Iland. Some are of the opinion that there hath béene more store of
 building in this Ile than is at this present to be seene, & that it
 became abandoned through multitudes of rats, but hereof I find no
 perfect warrantise that I may safelie trust vnto, yet in other places I
 read of the like thing to haue happened, as in Gyara of the Cyclades,
 where the rats increased so fast that they draue away the people. Varro
 speaketh of a towne in Spaine that was ouerthrowne by conies. The
 Abderits were driuen out of Thracia by the increase of mice & frogs; and
 so manie conies were there on a time in the Iles Maiorca and Minorca
 (now perteining to Spaine) that the people began to starue for want of
 bread, and their cattell for lacke of grasse. And bicause the Ilanders
 were not able to ouercome them, Augustus was constreined to send an
 armie of men to destroie that needlesse brood. Plin. lib. 8. cap. 55.
 [Sidenote: Causes of the desolation of sundrie cities and townes.]
 A towne also in France sometime became desolate onelie by frogs and
 todes. Another in Africa by locustes and also by grashoppers, as Amicla
 was by snakes and adders. Theophrast telleth of an whole countrie
 consumed by the palmer-worme, which is like vnto an huge caterpiller.
 Plinie writeth of a prouince vpon the borders of Æthiopia made void of
 people by ants and scorpions, and how the citizens of Megara in Grecia
 were faine to leaue that citie through multitudes of bées, as waspes had
 almost driuen the Ephesians out of Ephesus. But this of all other
 (whereof Ælianus intreateth) is most woonderfull, that when the
 Cretenses were chased out of a famous citie of their Iland by infinit
 numbers of bees, the said bees conuerted their houses into hiues, and
 made large combes in them which reached from wall to wall, wherein they
 reserued their honie. Which things being dulie considered, I doo not
 denie the possibilitie of the expulsion of the inhabitants out of the
 Ile of Burhoo by rats, although I say that I doo not warrant the effect,
 bicause I find it not set downe directlie in plaine words.

 [Sidenote: Alderney.]
 Beside this there is moreouer the Ile of Alderney a verie pretie plot,
 about seuen miles in compasse, wherin a préest not long since did find a
 [Sidenote: _Comment. Brit._]
 coffin of stone, in which lay the bodie of an huge giant, whose fore
 téeth were so big as a mans fist, as Leland dooth report. Certes this to
 me is no maruell at all, sith I haue read of greater, and mentioned them
 alreadie in the beginning of this booke. Such a tooth also haue they in
 Spaine wherevnto they go in pilgrimage as vnto S. Christophers tooth,
 but it was one of his eie teeth, if Ludouicus Viues say true, who went
 thither to offer vnto the same. S. August. de ciuit. lib. 15. cap. 9.
 writeth in like sort, of such another found vpon the coast of Vtica, and
 thereby gathereth that all men in time past were not onlie far greater
 than they be now, but also the giants farre exceeding the huge stature
 [Sidenote: _Iliad. 6._]
 and height of the highest of them all. Homer complaineth that men in his
 time were but dwarfes in comparison of such as liued in the wars of Troy.
 [Sidenote: _Iliad. 5. & 7._]
 See his fift Iliad, where he speaketh of Diomedes, and how he threw a
 stone at Æneas, (which 14. men of his time were not able to stirre) and
 [Sidenote: _Vergilius Aen. 12._]
 therewith did hit him on the thigh and ouerthrew him. Virgil also noteth
 no lesse in his owne deuise, but Iuvenal bréefelie comprehendeth all
 this in his 15. Satyra, where he saith:

   Saxa inclinatis per humum quæsita lacertis
   Incipiunt torquere, domestica seditione
   Tela, nec hunc lapidem, quali se Turnus, & Aiax,
   Et quo Tytides percussit pondere coxam
   Aeneæ: sed quem valeant emittere dextræ
   Illis dissimiles, & nostro tempore nata.
   Nam genus hoc viuo iam decrescebat Homero,
   Terra malos homines nunc educat, atque pusillos,
   Ergo Deus quicunque aspexit, ridet, & odit.

 But to returne againe vnto the Ile of Alderney, from whence I haue
 digressed. Herein also is a prettie towne with a parish-church, great
 plentie of corne, cattell, conies, and wilde foule, whereby the
 inhabitants doo reape much gaine and commoditie: onelie wood is their
 want, which they otherwise supplie. The language also of such as dwell
 in these Iles, is French; but the wearing of their haire long, & the
 attire of those that liued in Gardsey and Iardsey, vntill the time of
 king Henrie the eight, was all after the Irish guise. The Ile of Gardsey
 also was sore spoiled by the French 1371. and left so desolate, that
 onlie one castell remained therein vntouched.

 Beyond this, and neerer unto the coast of England (for these doo lie
 about the verie middest of the British sea) we haue one Iland called
 [Sidenote: Bruchsey.]
 the Bruch or the Bruchsey, lieng about two miles from Poole, whither men
 saile from the Fromouth, and wherein is nought else, but an old chapell,
 without any other housing.

 Next to this also are certeine rocks, which some take for Iles, as
 Illeston rocke néere vnto Peritorie, Horestan Ile a mile from Peritorie
 by south, Blacke rocke Ile southeast from Peritorie toward Teygnemouth,
 and also Chester, otherwise called Plegimundham: but how (to saie truth)
 or where this latter lieth, I cannot make report as yet, neuerthelesse
 sith Leland noteth them togither, I thinke it not my part to make
 separation of them.

 [Sidenote: Mount Iland.]
 From hence the next Ile is called Mount Iland, otherwise Mowtland,
 situate ouer against Lough, about two miles from the shore, and well
 néere thrée miles in compasse. This Iland hath no inhabitants, but
 onelie the warrenner and his dog, who looketh vnto the conies there:
 notwithstanding that vpon the coast thereof in time of the yeere, great
 store of pilchards is taken, and carried from thence into manie places
 of our countrie. It hath also a fresh well comming out of the rocks,
 which is worthie to be noted in so small a compasse of ground. Moreouer
 in the mouth of the créeke that leadeth vnto Lough, or Loow, as some
 [Sidenote: S. Nicholas Iland.]
 call it, there is another little Iland of about eight acres of ground
 called S. Nicholas Ile, and midwaie betweene Falmouth and Dudman (a
 [Sidenote: Greefe.]
 certeine Promontorie) is such another named the Gréefe, wherein is great
 [Sidenote: Inis Prynin.]
 store of gulles & sea foule. As for Inis Prynin, it lieth within the
 Baie, about three miles from Lizards, and containeth not aboue two acres
 of ground, from which Newltjn is not far distant, and wherein is a poore
 fisher-towne and a faire wel-spring, wherof as yet no writer hath made
 mention. After these (omitting Pendinant in the point of Falmouth hauen)
 [Sidenote: S. Michaels mount.]
 we came at last to saint Michaels mount, whereof I find this description
 readie to my hand in Leland.

 The compasse of the root of the mount of saint Michael is not much more
 than halfe a mile, and of this the south part is pasturable and bréedeth
 conies, the residue high and rockie soile. In the north side thereof
 also is a garden, with certeine houses and shops for fishermen.
 Furthermore, the waie to the mountaine lieth at the north side, and is
 frequented from halfe eb to halfe floud, the entrance beginning at the
 foot of the hill, and so ascending by steps and greeces westward, first;
 and then eastward to the vtter ward of the church. Within the same ward
 also is a court stronglie walled, wherein on the south side is a chapell
 of S. Michaell, and in the east side another of our ladie. Manie times a
 man may come to the hill on foot. On the north northwest side hereof
 also, is a Piere for botes and ships, and in the Baie betwixt the mount
 and Pensardz are seene at the lowe water marke, diuers roots and stubs
 of trées, beside hewen stone, sometimes of doores & windowes, which are
 perceiued in the inner part of the Baie, and import that there hath not
 onelie beene building, but also firme ground, whereas the salt water
 doth now rule and beare the maisterie. Beyond this is an other little
 [Sidenote: S. Clements Ile.]
 Ile, called S. Clements Ile, of a chapell there dedicated to that saint.
 It hath a little from it also the Ile called Mowshole, which is not
 touched in any Chard. As for Mowshole it selfe, it is a towne of the
 maine, called in Cornish Port Enis, that is, Portus insulæ, whereof the
 said Ile taketh denomination, and in tin workes néere vnto the same
 there hath beene found of late, speare heds, battell axes, and swords of
 copper wrapped vp in linnen, and scarselie hurt with rust or other
 hinderance. Certes the sea hath won verie much in this corner of our
 Iland, but chéefelie betwéene Mowshole and Pensardz.

 Hauing thus passed ouer verie neere all such Iles, as lie vpon the south
 coast of Britaine, and now being come vnto the west part of our
 countrie, a sudden Pirie catcheth hold of vs (as it did before, when we
 went to Iardsey) and carrieth vs yet more westerlie among the flats of
 [Sidenote: Sylley Iles or Syl.]
 Sylley. Such force dooth the southeast wind often shewe vpon poore
 trauellers in those parts, as the south and southwest dooth vpon
 strangers against the British coast, that are not skilfull of our rodes
 and harborowes. Howbeit such was our successe in this voiage, that we
 feared no rocks, more than did king Athelstane, when he subdued them
 (and soone after builded a colledge of preests at S. Burien, in
 performance of his vow made when he enterprised this voiage for his safe
 returne) nor anie tempest of weather in those parts that could annoie
 our passage. Perusing therefore the perils whereinto we were pitifullie
 plunged, we found the Syllane Ilands (places often robbed by the
 Frenchmen and Spaniards) to lie distant from the point of Cornewall,
 about three or foure hours sailing, or twentie English miles, as some
 men doo account it. There are of these (as I said) to the number of one
 hundreth fortie seauen in sight, whereof each one is greater or lesse
 than other, and most of them sometime inhabited: howbeit, there are
 twentie of them, which for their greatnesse and commodities excéed all
 the rest. Thereto (if you respect their position) they are situat in
 maner of a circle or ring, hauing an huge lake or portion of the sea in
 the middest of them, which is not without perill to such as with small
 aduisement enter into the same. Certes it passeth my cunning, either to
 name or to describe all these one hundreth fourtie seauen, according to
 their estate; neither haue I had anie information of them, more than I
 haue gathered by Leland, or gotten out of a map of their description,
 which I had sometime of Reginald Woolfe: wherfore omitting as it were
 all the rags, and such as are not worthie to haue anie time spent about
 their particular descriptions, I will onelie touch the greatest, and
 those that lie togither (as I said) in maner of a roundle.

 [Sidenote: S. Maries Ile.]
 The first and greatest of these therefore, called S. Maries Ile, is
 about fiue miles ouer, or nine miles in compasse. Therein also is a
 parish-church, and a poore towne belonging thereto, of threescore
 housholds, beside a castell, plentie of corne, conies, wild swans,
 puffens, gulles, cranes, & other kinds of foule in great abundance. This
 fertile Iland being thus viewed, we sailed southwards by the Norman
 [Sidenote: Agnus Ile.]
 rocke, and S. Maries sound vnto Agnus Ile, which is six miles ouer, and
 hath in like sort one towne or parish within the same of fiue or six
 housholds, beside no small store of hogs & conies of sundrie colours,
 verie profitable to their owners. It is not long since this Ile was left
 desolate, for when the inhabitants thereof returned from a feast holden
 in S. Maries Ile, they were all drowned, and not one person left aliue.
 [Sidenote: Annot.]
 There are also two other small Ilands, betwéene this and the Annot,
 whereof I find nothing worthie relation: for as both of them ioind
 togither are not comparable to the said Annot for greatnesse and
 circuit, so they want both hogs and conies, wherof Annot hath great
 [Sidenote: Minwisand.]
 [Sidenote: Smithy sound.]
 [Sidenote: Suartigan.]
 [Sidenote: Rousuian.]
 [Sidenote: Rousuiar.]
 [Sidenote: Cregwin.]
 plentie. There is moreouer the Minwisand, from whence we passe by the
 Smithy sound (leauing thrée little Ilands on the left hand, vnto the
 Suartigan Iland, then to Rousuian, Rousuiar, and the Cregwin, which
 seauen are (for the most part) replenished with conies onelie, and wild
 garlike, but void of wood & other commodities, sauing of a short kind of
 grasse, or here & there some firzes wheron their conies doo féed.

 Leauing therefore these desert peeces, we incline a little toward the
 [Sidenote: Moncarthat.]
 [Sidenote: Inis Welseck.]
 [Sidenote: Suethiall.]
 [Sidenote: Rat Iland.]
 northwest, where we stumble or run vpon Moncarthat, Inis Welseck, &
 Suethiall. We came in like sort vnto Rat Iland, wherein are so manie
 monstrous rats, that if anie horsses, or other beasts, happen to come
 thither, or be left there by negligence but one night, they are sure to
 be deuoured & eaten vp, without all hope of recouerie. There is
 [Sidenote: Anwall. Brier.]
 moreouer the Anwall and the Brier, Ilands in like sort void of all good
 furniture, conies onelie excepted, and the Brier (wherein is a village,
 castell, and parish-church) bringeth foorth no lesse store of hogs, and
 wild foule, than Rat Iland doth of rats, whereof I greatlie maruell.

 [Sidenote: Rusco.]
 [Sidenote: Inis widd[=o].]
 By north of the Brier, lieth the Rusco, which hath a Labell or Byland
 stretching out toward the southwest, called Inis widdon. This Rusco is
 verie neere so great as that of S. Maries. It hath moreouer an hold, and
 a parish within it, beside great store of conies and wild foule, whereof
 they make much gaine in due time of the yeare. Next vnto this we come to
 [Sidenote: Round Iland. S. Lides.]
 the Round Iland, which is about a mile ouer, then to S. Lides Iland,
 (wherein is a parish-church dedicated to that Saint, beside conies,
 wood, and wild foule, of which two later there is some indifferent store)
 [Sidenote: Notho. Auing.]
 the Notho, the Auing, (one of them being situat by south of another, and
 the Auing halfe a mile ouer, which is a iust halfe lesse than the Notho)
 [Sidenote: Tyan.]
 and the Tyan, which later is a great Iland, furnished with a
 parish-church, and no small plentie of conies as I heare. After the Tyan
 [Sidenote: S. Martines.]
 we come to S. Martines Ile, wherein is a faire towne, the Ile it selfe
 being next vnto the Rusco for greatnesse, and verie well furnished with
 conies & fresh springs. Also betwixt this and S. Maries, are ten other,
 smaller, which reach out of the northeast into the southwest, as
 [Sidenote: Knolworth.]
 [Sidenote: Sniuilliuer.]
 [Sidenote: Menweth[=a].]
 [Sidenote: Vollis. 1.]
 [Sidenote: Surwihe.]
 [Sidenote: Vollis. 2.]
 [Sidenote: Arthurs Ile.]
 [Sidenote: Guiniliuer.]
 [Sidenote: Nenech.]
 [Sidenote: Gothrois.]
 Knolworth, Sniuilliuer, Menwetham, Vollis. 1. Surwihe, Vollis. 2.
 Arthurs Iland, Guiniliuer, Nenech and Gothrois, whose estates are
 diuers: howbeit as no one of these is to be accounted great in
 comparison of the other, so they all yéeld a short grasse méet for
 sheepe and conies, as doo also the rest. In the greater Iles likewise
 (whose names are commonlie such as those of the townes or churches
 standing in the same) there are (as I here) sundry lakes, and those
 neuer without great plentie of wild foule, so that the Iles of Sylley,
 are supposed to be no lesse beneficiall to their lords, than anie other
 whatsoeuer, within the compasse of our Ile, or neere vnto our coasts.
 [Sidenote: Wild swine in Sylley.]
 In some of them also are wild swine. And as these Iles are supposed to
 be a notable safegard to the coast of Cornewall, so in diuerse of them
 great store of tin is likewise to be found. There is in like maner such
 plentie of fish taken among these same, that beside the feeding of their
 swine withall, a man shall haue more there for a penie, than in London
 for ten grotes. Howbeit their cheefe commoditie is made by Keigh, which
 they drie, cut in peeces, and carie ouer into little Britaine, where
 they exchange it there, for salt, canuas, readie monie, or other
 merchandize which they doo stand in need of. A like trade haue some of
 them also, with Buckhorne or dried whiting, as I heare. But sith the
 author of this report did not flatlie auouch it, I passe ouer that fish
 as not in season at this time. Thus haue we viewed the richest and most
 wealthie Iles of Sylley, from whence we must direct our course
 eastwards, vnto the mouth of the Sauerne, and then go backe againe vnto
 the west point of Wales, continuing still our voiage along vpon the west
 coast of Britaine, till we come to the Soluey whereat the kingdomes
 part, & from which foorth on we must touch such Ilands as lie vpon the
 west and north shore, till we be come againe vnto the Scotish sea, and
 to our owne dominions.

 [Sidenote: Helenus. Priamus.]
 From the point of Cornewall therefore, or promontorie of Helenus (so
 called, as some thinke, bicause Helenus the son of Priamus who arriued
 here with Brute lieth buried there, except the sea haue washed awaie his
 sepulchre) vntill we come vnto the mouth of Sauerne, we haue none Ilands
 at all that I doo know or heare of, but one litle Byland, Cape or
 Peninsula, which is not to be counted of in this place. And yet sith I
 [Sidenote: Pendinas.]
 haue spoken of it, you shall vnderstand, that it is called Pendinas, and
 beside that the compasse thereof is not aboue a mile, this is to be
 remembered farder thereof, how there standeth a Pharos or light therein,
 for ships which saile by those coasts in the night. There is also at the
 verie point of the said Pendinas, a chappell of saint Nicholas, beside
 the church of saint Ia, an Irish woman saint. It belonged of late to the
 Lord Brooke, but now (as I gesse) the Lord Mountioy enioieth it. There
 is also a blockhouse, and a péere in the eastside thereof, but the péere
 is sore choked with sand, as is the whole shore furthermore from S. Ies
 vnto S. Carantokes, insomuch that the greatest part of this Byland is
 now couered with sands, which the sea casteth vp, and this calamitie
 hath indured little aboue fiftie yeares, as the inhabitants doo affirme.

 There are also two rocks neere vnto Tredwy, and another not farre from
 Tintagell, all which many of the common sort doo repute and take for
 Iles: wherefore as one desirous to note all, I thinke it not best that
 these should be omitted: but to proceed. When we be come further, I
 meane vnto the Sauerne mouth, we meet the two Holmes, of which one is
 called Stepholme, and the other Flatholme, of their formes béeing in
 déed parcels of ground and low soiles fit for little else than to beare
 grasse for cattell, whereof they take those names. For Holme is an old
 Saxon word, applied to all such places. Of these also Stepholme lieth
 south of the Flatholme, about foure or fiue miles; the first also a mile
 and an halfe, the other two miles or thereabout in length; but neither
 of them a mile and an halfe in breadth, where they doo seeme to be the

 It should séeme by some that they are not worthie to be placed among
 Ilands: yet othersome are of opinion, that they are not altogither so
 base, as to be reputed amongst flats or rocks: but whatsoeuer they be,
 this is sure, that they oft annoie such passengers and merchants as
 passe and repasse vpon that riuer. Neither doo I read of any other Iles
 [Sidenote: Barri.]
 which lie by east of these, saue onelie the Barri, and Dunwen: the first
 [Sidenote: Barri is a flight shot from the shore.]
 of which is so called of one Barroc, a religious man (as Gyraldus saith)
 and is about a flight shot from the shore. Herin also is a rocke
 standing at the verie entrance of the cliffe, which hath a little rift
 or chine vpon the side, wherevnto if a man doo laie his eare, he shall
 heare a noise, as if smithes did worke at the forge, sometimes blowing
 with their bellowes, and sometimes striking and clinking with hammers,
 whereof manie men haue great wonder; and no maruell. It is about a mile
 in compasse, situat ouer against Aberbarry, and hath a chappell in it.

 [Sidenote: Dunwen.]
 Dunwen is so called of a church (dedicated to a Welsh woman saint,
 called Dunwen) that standeth there. It lieth more than two miles from
 Henrosser, right against Neuen, and hath within it two faire mils, &
 great store of conies. Certes if the sand increase so fast hereafter as
 it hath done of late about it, it will be vnited to the maine within a
 short season. Beyond these and toward the coast of southwales lie two
 other Ilands, larger in quantitie than the Holmes, of which the one is
 [Sidenote: Caldee.]
 called Caldee or Inis Pyr. It hath a parish-church with a spire steeple,
 and a pretie towne belonging to the countie of Pembroke, and
 iurisdiction of one Dauid in Wales. Leland supposeth the ruines that are
 found therein to haue béene of an old priorie sometimes called Lille,
 which was a cell belonging to the monasterie of S. Dogmael, but of this
 [Sidenote: Londy.]
 I can saie nothing. The other hight Londy, wherein is also a village or
 towne, and of this Iland the parson of the said towne is not onelie the
 captaine, but hath thereto weife, distresse, and all other commodities
 belonging to the same. It is little aboue sixteene miles from the coast
 of Wales, though it be thirtie from Caldée, and yet it serueth (as I am
 informed) lord and king in Deuonshire. Moreouer in this Iland is great
 plentie of sheepe, but more conies, and therewithall of verie fine and
 short grasse for their better food & pasturage; likewise much Sampere
 vpon the shore, which is carried from thence in barrels. And albeit that
 there be not scarslie fourtie housholds in the whole, yet the
 inhabitants there with huge stones (alredie prouided) may kéepe off
 thousands of their enimies, bicause it is not possible for anie
 aduersaries to assaile them, but onelie at one place, and with a most
 dangerous entrance. In this voiage also we met with two other Ilands,
 one of them called Shepes Ile, the other Rat Ile; the first is but a
 little plot lieng at the point of the Baie, before we come at the
 Blockehouse which standeth north of the same, at the verie entrie into
 Milford hauen vpon the eastside. By north also of Shepes Ile, and
 betwéene it & Stacke rocke, which lieth in the verie middest of the
 hauen, at another point is Rat Ile yet smaller than the former, but what
 [Sidenote: Schalmey.]
 commodities are to be found in them as yet I cannot tell. Schalmey the
 greater and the lesse lie northwest of Milford hauen a good waie. They
 belong both to the crowne, but are not inhabited, bicause they be so
 [Sidenote: Schoncold.]
 often spoiled with pirates. Schoncold Ile ioineth vnto great Schalmey,
 and is bigger than it, onlie a passage for ships parteth them, whereby
 they are supposed to be one: Leland noteth them to lie in Milford hauen.
 Beside these also we found the Bateholme, Stockeholme, Midland, and
 Gresholme Iles, and then doubling the Wellock point, we came into a
 Baie, where we saw saint Brides Iland, and another in the Sound betwéene
 Ramsey and the point, of all which Iles and such rocks as are offensiue
 to mariners that passe by them, it may be my hap to speake more at large

 [Sidenote: Limen or Ramsey.]
 Limen (as Ptolomie calleth it) is situat ouer against S. Dauids in Wales
 (wherevnto we must néeds come, after we be past another little one,
 which some men doo call Gresholme) & lieth directlie west of Schalmey.
 In a late map I find this Limen to be called in English Ramsey: Leland
 also confirmeth the same, and I cannot learne more thereof, than that it
 is much greater than anie of the other last mentioned (sithens I
 described the Holmes) and for temporall iurisdiction a member of
 Penbrookeshire, as it is vnto S. Dauids for matters concerning the
 church. Leland in his commentaries of England lib. 8. saieth that it
 contained thrée Ilets, whereof the bishop of S. Dauids is owner of the
 greatest, but the chanter of S. Dauids claimeth the second, as the
 archdeacon of Cairmarden dooth the third. And in these is verie
 excellent pasture for sheepe and horses, but not for other horned beasts
 which lacke their vpper téeth by nature (whose substance is conuerted
 into the nourishment of their hornes) and therefore cannot bite so low.
 [Sidenote: Mawr.]
 Next vnto this Ile we came to Mawr, an Iland in the mouth of Mawr, scant
 a bow shoot ouer, and enuironed at the low water with fresh, but at the
 high with salt, and here also is excellent catching of herings.

 After this, procéeding on still with our course, we fetched a compasse,
 going out of the north toward the west, and then turning againe (as the
 coast of the countrie leadeth) vntill we sailed full south, leauing the
 shore still on our right hand, vntill we came vnto a couple of Iles,
 which doo lie vpon the mouth of the Soch, one of them being distant (as
 we gessed) a mile from the other, and neither of them of anie greatnesse
 almost worthie to be remembred. The first that we came vnto is called
 [Sidenote: Tudfall.]
 Tudfall, and therein is a church, but without anie parishioners, except
 they be shéepe and conies. The quantitie thereof also is not much aboue
 [Sidenote: Penthlin.]
 six acres of ground, measured by the pole. The next is Penthlin, Myrach,
 or Mererosse, situat in maner betwixt Tudfall or Tuidall and the shore,
 and herein is verie good pasture for horsses, wherof (as I take it) that
 [Sidenote: Guelyn.]
 name is giuen vnto it. Next vnto them, we come vnto Gwelyn, a little Ile
 which lieth southeast of the fall of Daron or Daren, a thing of small
 quantitie, and yet almost parted in the mids by water, and next of all
 vnto Bardsey an Iland lieng ouer against Periuincle the southwest point
 or promontorie of Northwales (where Merlin Syluestris lieth buried) and
 whither the rest of the monks of Bangor did flie to saue themselues,
 when 2100. of their fellowes were slaine by the Saxon princes in the
 quarell of Augustine the monke, & the citie of Caerleon or Chester raced
 to the ground, and not since reedified againe to anie purpose. Ptolomie
 calleth this Iland Lymnos, the Britons Enlhi, and therein also is a
 parish-church, as the report goeth. From hence we cast about, gathering
 still toward the northest, till we came to Caer Ierienrhod, a notable
 rocke situat ouer against the mouth of the Leuenni, wherein standeth a
 strong hold or fortresse, or else some towne or village. Certes we could
 not well discerne whether of both it was, bicause the wind blew hard at
 southwest, the morning was mistie, and our
 mariners doubting some flats to be couched not far from thence, hasted
 awaie vnto Anglesei, whither we went a pace with a readie wind euen at
 our owne desire.

 This Iland (which Tacitus mistaketh no doubt for Mona Cæsaris, and so
 dooth Ptolomie as appeareth by his latitudes) is situat about two miles
 from the shore of Northwales. Paulus Iouius gesseth that it was in time
 [Sidenote: Anglesei cut from Wales by working of the sea.]
 past ioined to the continent, or maine of our Ile, and onelie cut off by
 working of the Ocean, as Sicilia peraduenture was from Italie by the
 violence of the Leuant or practise of some king that reigned there.
 Thereby also (as he saith) the inhabitants were constreind at the first
 to make a bridge ouer into the same, till the breach waxed so great,
 that no such passage could anie longer be mainteined. But as these
 things doo either not touch my purpose at all, or make smallie with the
 [Sidenote: Anglesei.]
 present description of this Ile: so (in comming to my matter) Anglesei is
 found to be full so great as the Wight, and nothing inferiour, but
 rather surmounting it, as that also which Cæsar calleth Mona in
 fruitfulnesse of soile by manie an hundred fold. In old time it was
 reputed and taken for the common granarie to Wales, as Sicilia was to
 Rome and Italie for their prouision of corne. In like maner the Welshmen
 themselues called it the mother of their countrie, for giuing their
 minds wholie to pasturage, as the most easie and lesse chargeable trade,
 they vtterlie neglected tillage, as men that leaned onelie to the
 fertilitie of this Iland for their corne, from whence they neuer failed
 to receiue continuall abundance. Gyraldus saith that the Ile of Anglesei
 was no lesse sufficient to minister graine for the sustentation of all
 the men of Wales, than the mountaines called Ereri or Snowdoni in
 Northwales were to yeeld plentie of pasture for all the cattell
 whatsoeuer within the aforesaid compasse, if they were brought togither
 and left vpon the same. It contained moreouer so manie townes welnéere,
 as there be daies in a yeare, which some conuerting into Cantreds haue
 accompted but for three, as Gyraldus saith. Howbeit as there haue beene
 I say 363. townes in Anglesei, so now a great part of that reckoning is
 vtterlie shroonke, and so far gone to decaie, that the verie ruines of
 them are vnneath to be séene & discerned: and yet it séemeth to be
 méetlie well inhabited. Leland noting the smalnesse of our hundreds in
 comparison to that they were in time past, addeth (so far as I remember)
 that there are six of them in Anglesei, as Menay, Maltraith, Liuon,
 Talbellion, Torkalin, and Tindaithin: herevnto Lhoid saith also how it
 belonged in old time vnto the kingdome of Guinhed or Northwales, and
 that therein at a towne called Aberfraw, being on the southwestside of
 the Ile, the kings of Gwinhed held euermore their palaces, whereby it
 came to passe, that the kings of Northwales were for a long time called
 kings of Aberfraw, as the Welshmen named the kings of England kings of
 London, till better instruction did bring them farther knowledge.

 There are in Anglesei many townes and villages, whose names as yet I
 cannot orderlie atteine vnto: wherefore I will content my selfe with the
 rehearsall of so many as we viewed in sailing about the coasts, and
 otherwise heard report of by such as I haue talked withall. Beginning
 therefore at the mouth of the Gefni (which riseth at northeast aboue
 Gefni or Geuenni, 20. miles at the least into the land) we passed first
 by Hundwyn, then by Newborow, Port-Hayton, Beaumarrais, Penmon, Elian,
 Almwoch, Burric (whereby runneth a rill into a creeke) Cornew, Holihed
 (standing in the promontorie) Gwifen, Aberfraw, and Cair Cadwalader, of
 all which, the two latter stand as it were in a nuke betweene the
 Geuenni water, and the Fraw, wherevpon Aberfraw is situate. Within the
 Iland we heard onelie of Gefni afore mentioned, of Gristial standing
 vpon the same water, of Tefri, of Lanerchimedh, Lachtenfarwy and
 Bodedrin, but of all these the cheefe is now Beaumarais, which was
 builded sometime by king Edward the first, and therewithall a strong
 castell about the yeare 1295. to kéepe that land in quiet. There are
 also as Leland saith 31. parish-churches beside 69. chappels, that is, a
 hundreth in all. But héerof I can saie little, for lacke of iust
 instruction. In time past, the people of this Ile vsed not to seuerall
 their grounds, but now they dig stonie hillocks, and with the stones
 thereof they make rude walles, much like to those of Deuonshire, sith
 they want hedge bote, fire bote, and house bote, or (to saie at one
 word) timber, bushes and trees. As for wine, it is so plentifull and
 good cheape there most commonlie as in London, through the great
 recourse of merchants from France, Spaine, and Italie vnto the aforesaid
 Iland. The flesh likewise of such cattell as is bred there, wherof we
 haue store yearelie brought vnto Cole faire in Essex is most delicate,
 by reason of their excellent pasture, and so much was it esteemed by the
 Romans in time past, that Columella did not onelie commend and preferre
 them before those of Liguria, but the emperours themselues being neere
 hand also caused their prouision to be made for nete out of Anglesei, to
 feed vpon at their owne tables as the most excellent beefe. It taketh
 now the name of Angles and Ei, which is to meane the Ile of Englismen,
 bicause they wan it in the Conquerors time, vnder the leading of Hugh
 earle of Chester, and Hugh of Shrewesburie. Howbeit they recouered it
 againe in the time of William Rufus, when they spoiled the citie of
 Glocester, ransacked Shrewesburie, and returned home with great bootie
 and pillage, in which voiage also they were holpen greatlie by the
 Irishmen, who after thrée yeares ioined with them againe, and slue the
 earle of Shrewesburie (which then liued) with great crueltie. The
 Welshmen call it Tiremone and Mon, and herein likewise is a promontorie
 [Sidenote: Holie head, or Cair kiby.]
 or Byland, called Holie head (which hath in time past beene named Cair
 kyby, of Kyby a monke that dwelled there) from whence the readiest
 passage is commonlie had out of Northwales to get ouer into Ireland, of
 which Ile I will not speake at this time, least I shuld bereaue another
 of that trauell. Yet Plinie saith, lib. 4. cap. 16. that it lieth not
 farre off from and ouer against the Silures, which then dwelled vpon the
 west coast of our Iland, and euen so farre as Dunbritton, and beyond:
 [Sidenote: Enilsnach, holie Ile.]
 but to our Cair kybi. The Britons named it Enylsnach, or holie Ile, of
 the number of carcases of holie men, which they affirme to haue beene
 buried there. But herein I maruell not a little, wherein women had
 offended, that they might not come thither, or at the least wise returne
 from thence without some notable reproch or shame vnto their bodies. By
 south also of Hilarie point, somewhat inclining toward the east, lieth
 Inis Lygod, a small thing (God wot) and therefore not worthie great
 remembrance: neuertheles not to be omitted, though nothing else inforced
 the memoriall thereof, but onelie the number and certeine tale of such
 Iles as lie about our Iland. I might also speake of the Ile Mail Ronyad,
 which lieth north west of Anglesei by sixe miles; but bicause the true
 name hereof, as of manie riuers and streames are to me vnknowne, I am
 the more willing to passe them ouer in silence, least I should be noted
 to be farther corrupter of such words as I haue no skill to deliuer and
 exhibit in their kind. And now to conclude with the description of the
 whole Iland, this I will ad moreouer vnto hir commodities, that as there
 are the best milstones of white, red, blew, and gréene gréets,
 (especiallie in Tindaithin) so there is great gaines to be gotten by
 fishing round about this Ile, if the people there could vse the trade:
 but they want both cunning and diligence to take that matter in hand.
 And as for temporall regiment, it apperteineth to the countie of
 Cairnaruon, so in spirituall cases it belongeth to the bishoprike of
 Bangor. This is finallie to be noted of Anglesei, that sundrie earthen
 [Sidenote: Ancient buriall.]
 pots are often found there of dead mens bones conuerted into ashes, set
 with the mouthes downeward contrarie to the vse of other nations, which
 turned the brims vpwards, whereof let this suffice.

 Hauing thus described Anglesei, it resteth to report furthermore, how
 that in our circuit about the same, we met with other little Ilets, of
 which one lieth northwest thereof almost ouer against Butricke mouth, or
 the fall of the water, that passeth by Butricke. The Britons called it
 [Sidenote: Adar.]
 [Sidenote: Moil.]
 [Sidenote: Rhomaid.]
 [Sidenote: Ysterisd.]
 [Sidenote: Adros.]
 [Sidenote: Lygod.]
 Ynis Ader, that is to say, the Ile of birds in old time, but now it
 hight Ynis Moil, or Ynis Rhomaid, that is the Ile of porpasses. It hath
 to name likewise Ysterisd, and Adros. Being past this, we came to the
 second lieng by north east, ouer against the Hilarie point, called Ynis
 Ligod, that is to saie, the Ile of Mise, and of these two this latter is
 the smallest, neither of them both being of any greatnesse to speake of.
 [Sidenote: Seriall.]
 [Sidenote: Prestholme.]
 Ynis Seriall or Prestholme, lieth ouer against Penmon, or the point
 called the head of Mon, where I found a towne (as I told you) of the
 same denomination. Ptolomie nameth not this Iland, whereof I maruell. It
 is parcell of Flintshire, and of the iurisdiction of S. Asaph, and in
 fertilitie of soile, and breed of cattell, nothing inferiour vnto
 Anglesei hir mother: although that for quantitie of ground it come
 infinitelie short thereof, and be nothing comparable vnto it. The last
 Iland vpon the cost of Wales, hauing now left Anglesei, is called
 [Sidenote: Credine.]
 Credine, and although it lie not properlie within the compasse of my
 description, yet I will not let to touch it by the waie, sith the causey
 thither from Denbighland, is commonlie ouerflowne. It is partlie made an
 Iland by the Conwey, and partlie by the sea. But to proceed, when we had
 viewed this place, we passed foorth to S. Antonies Ile, which is about
 two or thrée miles compasse or more, a sandie soile, but yet verie
 batable for sheepe and cattell, it is well replenished also with fresh
 wels, great plentie of wild foule, conies and quarries of hard ruddie
 stone, which is oft brought thence to Westchester, where they make the
 foundations of their buildings withall. There are also two parish
 churches in the same, dedicated to S. Antonie and S. Iohn, but the
 people are verie poore, bicause they be so oft spoiled by pirats,
 although the lord of the same be verie wealthie thorough the exchange
 made with them of his victuals, for their wares, whereof they make good
 peniworths, as théeues commonlie doo of such preies as they get by like
 escheat, notwithstanding their landing there is verie dangerous, and
 onelie at one place. Howbeit they are constreined to vse it, and there
 to make their marts. From hence we went on, vntill we came to the cape
 [Sidenote: Hilberie.]
 of Ile Brée, or Hilberie, and point of Wyrale, from whence is a common
 passage into Ireland, of 18. or 20. houres sailing, if the wether be not
 tedious. This Iland at the full sea is a quarter of a mile from the
 land, and the streame betwéene foure fadams déepe, as ship-boies haue
 oft sounded, but at a lowe water a man may go ouer thither on the sand.
 The Ile of it selfe is verie sandie a mile in compasse, and well stored
 with conies, thither also went a sort of supersticious fooles in times
 past, in pilgrimage, to our ladie of Hilberie, by whose offerings a cell
 of monkes there, which belonged to Chester, was cherished and

 The next Iland vpon the coast of England is Man or Mona Cæsaris, which
 some name Mana or Manim, but after Ptolomie, Monaoida, as some thinke,
 though other ascribe that name to Anglesei, which the Welshmen doo
 commonlie call Môn, as they doo this Manaw. It is supposed to be the
 first, as Hirtha is the last of the Hebrides. Hector Boetius noteth a
 difference betwéene them of 300. miles. But Plinie saith that Mona is
 200000. miles from Camaldunum, lib. 2. cap. 75. It lieth also vnder 53.
 degrées of latitude, and 30. minuts, and hath in longitude 16. degrees
 and 40. minuts, abutting on the north side vpon S. Ninians in Scotland,
 Furnesfels on the east, Prestholme and Anglesei on the south, and
 Vlsther in Ireland on the west. It is greater than Anglesei by a third,
 and there are two riuers in the same, whose heads doo ioine so néere,
 that they doo seeme in maner to part the Ile in twaine. Some of the
 [Sidenote: Eubonia.]
 [Sidenote: Meuania.]
 ancient writers, as Ethicus, &c: call it Eubonia, and other following
 Orosius, Meuana or Mæuania, howbeit after Beda and the Scotish
 histories, the Meuaniæ are all those Iles aforesaid called the Hebrides,
 Eubonides, or Hebudes (whereof William Malmesburie, lib. 1. de regibus
 (beside this our Mona) will haue Anglesei also to be one. Wherefore it
 séemeth hereby that a number of our late writers ascribing the said name
 vnto Mona onelie, haue not beene a little deceiued. Iornandes lib. de
 Getis speaketh of a second Meuania; "Habet & aliam Meuaniam (saith he)
 necnon & Orchadas." But which should be prima, as yet I do not read,
 except it should be Anglesei; and then saith Malmesburie well. In like
 sort Propertius speaketh of a Meuania, which he called Nebulosa, but he
 meaneth it euidentlie of a little towne in Vmbria where he was borne,
 lib. 4. eleg. De vrbe Rom. Wherfore there néedeth no vse of his
 authoritie. This in the meane time is euident out of Orosius, lib. 1.
 capite 2. that Scots dwelled somtime in this Ile, as also in Ireland,
 which Ethicus also affirmeth of his owne time, and finallie confirmeth
 that the Scots and Irish were sometime one people. It hath in length 24.
 miles, and 8. in bredth, and is in maner of like distance from Galloway
 in Scotland, Ireland and Cumberland in England, as Buchanan reporteth.

 In this Iland also were some time 1300. families, of which 960. were in
 the west halfe, and the rest in the other. But now through ioining house
 to house & land to land (a common plague and canker, which will eat vp
 all, if prouision be not made in time to withstand this mischéefe) that
 number is halfe diminished, and yet many of the rich inhabiters want
 roome, and wote not how and where to bestowe themselues, to their quiet
 contentations. Certes this impediment groweth not by reason that men
 were greater in bodie, than they haue béene in time past, but onelie for
 that their insatiable desire of inlarging their priuate possessions
 increaseth still vpon them, and will doo more, except they be
 restrained: but to returne to our purpose. It was once spoiled by the
 Scots in the time of king Athelstane, chéeflie by Anlafus in his flight
 from the bloudie battell, wherein Constantine king of Scotland was
 ouercome: secondlie by the Scots 1388. after it came to the possession
 of the English, for in the beginning the kings of Scotland had this
 Iland vnder their dominion, almost from their first arriuall in this
 Iland, and as Beda saith till Edwine king of the Northumbers wan it from
 them, and vnited it to his kingdome. After the time of Edwine, the Scots
 gat the possession thereof againe, and held it till the Danes & Norwaies
 wan it from them, who also kept it (but with much trouble) almost 370.
 yeares vnder the gouernance of their viceroies, whome the kings of
 Norwaie inuested vnto that honor, till Alexander the third king of that
 name in Scotland recouered it from them, with all the rest of those Iles
 that lie vpon the west coast, called also Sodorenses in the daies of
 Magnus king of Norwaie. And sithens that time the Scotish princes haue
 not ceased to giue lawes to such as dwelled there, but also from time to
 time appointed such bishops as should exercise ecclesiasticall
 iurisdiction in the same, till it was won from them by our princes, and
 [Sidenote: _Chronica Tinemuthi._]
 so vnited vnto the realme of England. Finallie, how after sundrie sales
 bargains and contracts of matrimonie (for I read that William Scroope
 the kings Vicechamberleine, did buy this Ile and crowne thereof of the
 lord William Montacute earle of Sarum) it came vnto the ancestours of
 the earles of Darbie, who haue béene commonlie said to be kings of Man,
 the discourse folowing shall more at large declare. Giraldus noteth a
 contention betwéene the kings of England & Ireland for the right of this
 Iland, but in the end, when by a comprimise the triall of the matter was
 referred to the liues or deaths of such venemous wormes as should be
 brought into the same, and it was found that they died not at all, as
 the like doo in Ireland, sentence passed with the king of England, & so
 he reteined the Iland. But howsoeuer this matter standeth, and whether
 anie such thing was done at all or not, sure it is that the people of
 the said Ile were much giuen to witchcraft and sorcerie (which they
 learned of the Scots a nation greatlie bent to that horrible practise)
 in somuch that their women would oftentimes sell wind to the mariners,
 inclosed vnder certeine knots of thred, with this iniunction, that they
 which bought the same, should for a great gale vndoo manie, and for the
 [Sidenote: Tall men in Man.]
 lesse a fewer or smaller number. The stature of the men and also
 fertilitie of this Iland are much commended, and for the latter supposed
 verie néere to be equall with that of Anglesei, in all commodities.

 There are also these townes therein, as they come now to my remembrance,
 Rushen, Dunglasse, Holme towne, S. Brids, Bala cury (the bishops house)
 S. Mich. S. Andrew, kirk Christ, kirk Louel, S. Mathees, kirk S. Anne,
 Pala sala, kirk S. Marie, kirk Concane, kirk Malu, and Home. But of all
 these Rushen with the castell is the strongest. It is also in recompense
 [Sidenote: Riuers.]
 of the common want of wood, indued with sundrie pretie waters, as first
 of al the Burne rising in the northside of Warehill botoms, and
 branching out by southwest of kirk S. An, it séemeth to cut off a great
 part of the eastside thereof, from the residue of that Iland. From those
 hils also (but of the south halfe) commeth the Holme and Holmey, by a
 towne of the same name, in the verie mouth whereof lieth the Pile afore
 mentioned. They haue also the Bala passing by Bala cury, on the
 westside, and the Rame on the north, whose fall is named Ramesei hauen,
 as I doo read in Chronicles.

 [Sidenote: Hilles.]
 There are moreouer sundrie great hils therein, as that wherevpon S.
 Mathees standeth, in the northeast part of the Ile, a parcell whereof
 commeth flat south, betwéene kirk Louell, and kirk Marie, yéelding out
 of their botoms the water Bala, whereof I spake before. Beside these and
 well toward the south part of the Ile, I find the Warehils, which are
 extended almost from the west coast ouertwhart vnto the Burne streame.
 [Sidenote: Hauens.]
 It hath also sundrie hauens, as Ramsei hauen, by north Laxam hauen, by
 east Port Iris, by southwest Port Home, and Port Michell, by west. In
 [Sidenote: Calfe of man.]
 [Sidenote: The pile.]
 [Sidenote: S. Michels Ile.]
 like sort there are diuers Ilets annexed to the same, as the Calfe of
 man on the south, the Pile on the west, and finallie S. Michels Ile
 [Sidenote: Sheepe.]
 in the gulfe called Ranoths waie in the east. Moreouer the sheepe of
 this countrie are excéeding huge, well woolled, and their tailes of such
 [Sidenote: Hogs.]
 greatnesse as is almost incredible. In like sort their hogs are in maner
 [Sidenote: Barnacles.]
 monstrous. They haue furthermore great store of barnacles bréeding vpon
 their coasts, but yet not so great store as in Ireland, and those (as
 there also) of old ships, ores, masts, peeces of rotten timber as they
 saie, and such putrified pitched stuffe, as by wrecke hath happened to
 corrupt vpon that shore. Howbeit neither the inhabitants of this Ile,
 [Sidenote: Barnacles neither fish nor flesh.]
 nor yet of Ireland can readilie saie whether they be fish or flesh, for
 although the religious there vsed to eat them as fish, yet elsewhere,
 some haue beene troubled, for eating of them in times prohibited for
 heretikes and lollards.

 For my part, I haue béene verie desirous to vnderstand the vttermost of
 the bréeding of barnacls, & questioned with diuers persons about the
 same. I haue red also whatsoeuer is written by forren authors touching
 the generation of that foule, & sought out some places where I haue
 béene assured to sée great numbers of them: but in vaine. Wherefore I
 vtterlie despaired to obteine my purpose, till this present yeare of
 Grace 1584. and moneth of Maie, wherein going to the court at Gréenewich
 from London by bote, I saw sundrie ships lieng in the Thames newlie come
 home, either from Barbarie or the Canarie Iles (for I doo not well
 remember now from which of these places) on whose sides I perceiued an
 infinit sort of shells to hang so thicke as could be one by another.
 Drawing néere also, I tooke off ten or twelue of the greatest of them, &
 afterward hauing opened them, I saw the proportion of a foule in one of
 them more perfectlie than in all the rest, sauing that the head was not
 yet formed, bicause the fresh water had killed them all (as I take it)
 and thereby hindered their perfection. Certeinelie the feathers of the
 taile hoeng out of the shell at least two inches, the wings (almost
 perfect touching forme) were garded with two shels or shéeldes
 proportioned like the selfe wings, and likewise the brestbone had hir
 couerture also of like shellie substance, and altogither resembling the
 figure which Lobell and Pena doo giue foorth in their description of
 this foule: so that I am now fullie persuaded that it is either the
 barnacle that is ingendred after one maner in these shels, or some other
 sea-foule to vs as yet vnknowen. For by the feathers appearing and forme
 so apparant, it cannot be denied, but that some bird or other must
 proceed of this substance, which by falling from the sides of the ships
 in long voiages, may come to some perfection. But now it is time for me
 to returne againe vnto my former purpose.

 [Sidenote: Bishop of Man.]
 There hath sometime beene, and yet is a bishop of this Ile, who at the
 first was called Episcopus Sodorensis, when the iurisdiction of all the
 Hebrides belonged vnto him. Whereas now he that is bishop there, is but
 a bishops shadow, for albeit that he beare the name of bishop of Man,
 yet haue the earles of Darbie, as it is supposed, the cheefe profit of
 his sée (sauing that they allow him a little somewhat for a flourish)
 [Sidenote: Patrone of Man.]
 notwithstanding that they be his patrons, and haue his nomination vnto
 that liuing. The first bishop of this Ile was called Wimundus or
 Raymundus, and surnamed Monachus Sauinensis, who by reason of his
 extreame and tyrannicall crueltie toward the Ilanders, had first his
 sight taken from him, & then was sent into exile. After him succéeded
 another moonke in king Stephens daies called Iohn, and after him one
 Marcus, &c: other after other in succession, the sée it selfe being now
 also subiect to the archbishop of Yorke for spirituall iurisdiction.
 [Sidenote: King of Man.]
 In time of Henrie the second, this Iland also had a king, whose name was
 Cuthred, vnto whome Vinianus the cardinall came as legate 1177. and
 wherin Houeden erreth not. In the yeare also 1228. one Reginald was
 viceroy or petie king of Man, afterward murthered by his subiects. Then
 Olauus, after him Hosbach the sonne of Osmond Hacon, 1290. who being
 slaine, Olauus and Gotredus parted this kingdome of Sodora, in such
 wise, that this had all the rest of the Iles, the other onelie the Ile
 of Man at the first; but after the slaughter of Gotredus, Olauus held
 all, after whom Olauus his sonne succeeded. Then Harald sonne to Olauus,
 who being entered in Maie, and drowned vpon the coastes of Ireland, his
 brother Reginald reigned twentie and seuen daies, and then was killed
 the first of June, whereby Olauus aliàs Harald sonne to Gotred ruled in
 the Ile one yeare. Next vnto him succéeded Magnus the second sonne of
 Olauus, and last of all Iuarus, who held it so long as the Norwaies were
 lords thereof. But being once come into the hands of the Scots, one
 Godred Mac Mares was made lieutenant, then Alane, thirdlie Maurice
 Okarefer, and fourthlie one of the kings chapleines, &c. I would gladlie
 haue set downe the whole catalog of all the viceroyes and lieutenants:
 but sith I can neither come by their names nor successions, I surcesse
 to speake any more of them, and also of the Ile it selfe, whereof this
 may suffice.

 After we haue in this wise described the Ile of Man, with hir
 commodities, we returned eastwards backe againe unto the point of
 Ramshed, where we found to the number of six Ilets of one sort and
 other, whereof the first greatest and most southwesterlie, is named
 [Sidenote: Wauay.]
 the Wauay. It runneth out in length, as we gessed, about fiue miles and
 more from the southeast into the northwest, betwéene which and the maine
 land lie two little ones, whose names are Oldborrow and Fowlney. The
 [Sidenote: Fouldra.]
 fourth is called the Fouldra, and being situate southeast of the first,
 it hath a prettie pile or blockhouse therin, which the inhabitants name
 [Sidenote: Fola.]
 [Sidenote: Roa.]
 the pile of Fouldra. By east thereof in like sort lie the Fola and the
 Roa, plots of no great compasse, and yet of all these six, the first and
 Fouldra are the fairest and most fruitfull. From hence we went by
 [Sidenote: Rauenglasse.]
 Rauenglasse point, where lieth an Iland of the same denomination, as
 Reginald Wolfe hath noted in his great card, not yet finished, nor
 likelie to be published. He noteth also two other Ilets, betwéene the
 same and the maine land; but Leland speaketh nothing of them (to my
 remembrance) neither any other card, as yet set foorth of England: and
 thus much of the Ilands that lie vpon our shore in this part of my

 Hauing so exactlie as to me is possible, set downe the names and
 positions of such Iles, as are to be found vpon the coast of the Quéenes
 Maiesties dominions, now it resteth that we procéed orderlie with those
 [Sidenote: Iles in Scotland.]
 that are séene to lie vpon the coast of Scotland, that is to saie, in
 the Irish, the Deucalidonian & the Germans seas, which I will performe
 in such order as I may, sith I cannot do so much therin as I would. Some
 therefore doo comprehend and diuide all the Iles that lie about the
 north coast of this Ile now called Scotland into thrée parts, sauing
 that they are either occidentals, the west Iles, aliàs the Orchades &
 Zelandine, or the Shetlands. They place the first betwéene Ireland and
 the Orchades, so that they are extended from Man and the point of
 Cantire almost vnto the Orchades in the Deucalidonian sea, and after
 some are called the Hebrides. In this part the old writers indéed placed
 [Sidenote: Hemodes of some called Acmodes,
 sée _Plinie, Mela, Martianus, Capella,
 Plutarch. de defect. orac._]
 the Hebrides or Hemodes, which diuers call the Hebudes and the Acmodes;
 albeit the writers varie in their numbers, some speaking of 30 Hebudes
 and seuen Hemodes; some of fiue Ebudes, as Solinus, and such as follow
 his authoritie. Howbeit the late Scottish writers doo product a summe of
 more than 300 of these Ilands in all, which sometime belonged to the
 Scots, sometime to the Norwegians, and sometime to the Danes. The first
 of these is our Manaw, of which I haue before intreated: next vnto this
 is Alisa a desert Ile, yet replenished with conies, soland foule, and a
 fit harbor for fishermen that in time of the yeare lie vpon the coast
 thereof for herings. Next vnto this is the Arran, a verie hillie and
 craggie soile, yet verie plentifull of fish all about the coast, and
 wherein is a verie good hauen: ouer against the mouth whereof lieth the
 Moll, which is also no small defence to such seafaring men as seeke
 harbor in that part. Then came we by the Fladwa or Pladwa, no lesse
 fruitfull and stored with conies than the Bota, Bura, or Botha, of eight
 miles long & foure miles broad, a low ground but yet verie batable, and
 wherein is good store of short and indifferent pasture: it hath also a
 towne there called Rosse, and a castell named the Camps. There is also
 another called the Marnech, an Iland of a mile in length, and halfe a
 mile in breadth, low ground also but yet verie fertile. In the mouth
 likewise of the Glot, lieth the more Cumber and the lesse, not farre in
 sunder one from another, and both fruitfull inough the one for corne,
 and the other for Platyceraton. The Auon another Iland lieth about a
 mile from Cantire, and is verie commodious to ships, wherof it is called
 Auon, that is to saie, Portuosa, or full of harbor: and therefore the
 Danes had in time past great vse of it. Then haue we the Raclind, the
 Kyntar, the Cray, the Gegaw six miles in length and a mile and a halfe
 in breadth; the Dera full of déere, and not otherwise vnfruitfull: and
 therefore some thinke that it was called the Ile of déere in old time.
 [Sidenote: Scarba.]
 Scarba foure miles in length, and one in breadth, verie little
 inhabited, and thereinto the sea betwéene that and the Ile of déere is
 so swift and violent, that except it be at certeine times, it is not
 easilie nauigable. Being past these, we come to certeine Ilands of no
 great fame, which lie scattered here and there, as Bellach, Gyrastell,
 Longaie, both the Fiolas, the thrée Yarues, Culbrenin, Duncomell, Lupar,
 Belnaua, Wikerua, Calfile, Luing, Sele Ile, Sound, of which the last
 thrée are fruitfull, and belong to the earle of Argile. Then haue we the
 [Sidenote: Slate Ile.]
 Slate, so called of the tiles that are made therin. The Nagsey, Isdalf,
 and the Sken (which later is also called Thian, of a wicked herbe
 growing there greatlie hurtfull, and in colour not much vnlike the
 lillie, sauing that it is of a more wan and féeble colour) Vderga, kings
 Ile, Duffa or blacke Ile, Kirke Ile and Triarach. There is also the Ile
 Ard, Humble Ile, Greene Ile, and Heth Ile, Arbor Ile, Gote Ile, Conies
 Ile aliàs idle Ile, Abrid Ile or bird Ile, and Lismor, wherein the
 bishop of Argill sometime held his palace, being eight miles in length
 and two miles in breadth, and not without some mines also of good
 mettall. There is also the Ile Ouilia, Siuna, Trect, Shepey, Fladaw,
 Stone Ile, Gresse, great Ile, Ardis, Musadell, & Berner, sometime called
 the holie sanctuarie, Vghe Ile, Molochasgyr, and Drinacha, now
 ouergrowne with bushes, elders, and vtterlie spoiled by the ruines of
 such great houses as haue heretofore béene found therin. There is in
 like sort the Wijc, the Ranse, and the Caruer.

 [Sidenote: Ila.]
 In this tract also, there are yet thrée to intreat of, as Ila, Mula and
 Iona, of which the first is one of the most, that hath not béene least
 accounted of. It is not much aboue 24 miles in length, and in breadth 16
 reaching from the south into the north, and yet it is an excéeding rich
 plot of ground verie plentious of corne, cattell, déere, and also lead,
 and other mettals, which were easie to be obteined, if either the people
 were industrious, or the soile yéeldable of wood to fine and trie out
 the same. In this Iland also there is a lake of swéet water called the
 Laie, and also a baie wherein are sundrie Ilands; and therevnto another
 lake of fresh water, wherein the Falangam Ile is situate, wherein the
 souereigne of all the Iles sometime dwelled. Néere vnto this is the
 [Sidenote: Round Ile.]
 round Ile, so called of the consultations there had: for there was a
 court sometime holden, wherein 14 of the principall inhabitants did
 minister iustice vnto the rest, and had the whole disposition of things
 committed vnto them, which might rule vnto the benefit of those Ilands.
 There is also the Stoneheape, an other Iland so called of the heape of
 stones that is therein. On the south side also of Ila, we find moreouer
 the Colurne, Mulmor, Osrin, Brigidan, Corkerke, Humble Ile, Imersga,
 Bethy, Texa, Shepeie, Naosig, Rinard, Cane, Tharscher, Aknor, Gret Ile,
 Man Ile, S. Iohns Ile, and Stackbed. On the west side thereof also lieth
 Ouersey, whereby runneth a perilous sea, and not nauigable, but at
 certeine houres, Merchant Ile, Vsabrast, Tanask, Neff, Wauer Ile,
 Oruans, Hog Ile, and Colauanso.

 [Sidenote: Mula.]
 Mula is a right noble Ile, 24 miles in length and so manie in bredth,
 rough of soile, yet fruitfull enough: beside woods, déere, & good
 harbrough for ships, replenished with diuers and sundrie townes and
 castels. Ouer against Columkill also, it hath two riuers, which yeld
 verie great store of salmons, and other riuellets now altogither
 vnfruitfull, beside two lakes, in each of which is an Iland: and
 likewise in euerie of these Ilands a castell. The sea beating vpon this
 Ile, maketh foure notable baies wherein great plentie and verie good
 herrings are taken. It hath also in the northwest side Columbria, or the
 Ile of doues; on the southeast, Era: both verie commodious for fishing,
 cattell, and corne. Moreouer, this is woorth the noting in this Ile
 aboue all the rest, that it hath a plesant spring, arising two miles in
 distance from the shore, wherein are certeine little egs found, much
 like vnto indifferent pearles, both for colour and brightnesse, and
 thereto full of thicke humour, which egs being carried by violence of
 the fresh water vnto the salt, are there within the space of twelue
 houres conuerted into great shels, which I take to be mother pearle;
 except I be deceiued.

 [Sidenote: Iona.]
 Iona was sometime called Columkill, in fame and estimation nothing
 inferiour to anie of the other, although in length it excéed little
 aboue two miles, and in breadth one. Certes it is verie fruitfull of all
 such commodities, as that climat wherein it standeth dooth yeeld, and
 beareth the name of Columbus the abbat, of whome I haue spoken more at
 large in my Chronologie. There were somtimes also two monasteries
 therein, one of moonks builded by Fergus, another of nuns: and a parish
 church, beside many chappels builded by the Scotish kings, and such
 princes as gouerned in the Iles. And when the English had once gotten
 possession of the Ile of Manaw, a bishops see was erected in the old
 monasterie of Columbus, whereby the iurisdiction of those Iles was still
 mainteined and continued. Certes there remaine yet in this Iland the old
 burials apperteining to the most noble families that had dwelled in the
 west Iles; but thrée aboue other are accompted the most notable, which
 haue little houses builded vpon them. That in the middest hath a stone,
 [Sidenote: Regum tumuli.]
 whereon is written, Tumuli regum Scotiæ, The burials of the kings of
 Scotland: for (as they saie) fourtie eight of them were there interred.
 Another is intituled with these words, The burials of the kings of
 Ireland, bicause foure of them lie in that place. The third hath these
 words written thereon, The graues of the kings of Norwaie, for there
 eight of them were buried also, and all through a fond suspicion
 conceiued of the merits of Columbus. Howbeit in processe of time, when
 Malcolme Cammor had erected his abbeie at Donfermeling, he gaue occasion
 to manie of his successors to be interred there.

 About this Iland there lie six other Iles dispersed, small in quantitie,
 but not altogither barren, sometimes giuen by the kings of Scotland and
 lords of the Iles vnto the abbeie of saint Columbus, of which the Soa,
 albeit that it yeeld competent pasturage for shéepe, yet is it more
 commodious, by such egs as the great plentie of wildfoule there bréeding
 [Sidenote: The Ile of Shrewes.]
 doo laie within the same. Then is there the Ile of Shrewes or of women;
 as the more sober heads doo call it. Also Rudan, & next vnto that, the
 Rering. There is also the Shen halfe a mile from Mula, whose bankes doo
 swarme with conies: it hath also a parish church, but most of the
 inhabitants doo liue and dwell in Mula. There is also the Eorse or the
 Arse, and all these belong vnto saint Columbus abbeie. Two miles from
 Arse is the Olue, an Iland fiue miles in length, and sufficientlie stored
 with corne and grasse, & not without a good hauen for ships to lie and
 harbor in. There is also the Colfans, an iland fruitfull inough, and full
 of cornell trées. There is not far off also the Gomater, Stafa, the two
 [Sidenote: Mosse Ile.]
 Kerneburgs, and the Mosse Ile, in the old Brittish speech called Monad,
 that is to saie Mosse. The soile of it is verie blacke, bicause of the
 corruption & putrefaction of such woods as haue rotted thereon: wherevpon
 also no small plentie of mosse is bred and ingendered. The people in like
 maner make their fire of the said earth, which is fullie so good as our
 English turffe. There is also the Long, & six miles further toward the
 west, Tirreie, which is eight miles in length and thrée in breadth, & of
 all other one of the most plentifull for all kinds of commodities: for it
 beareth corne, cattell, fish, and seafowle aboundantlie. It hath also a
 well of fresh water, a castell, and a verie good hauen for great vessels
 to lie at safegard in. Two miles from this also is the Gun, and the Coll
 two miles also from the Gun. Then passed we by the Calfe, a verie wooddie
 Iland, the foure gréene Iles, the two glasse or skie Ilands, the Ardan,
 the Ile of woolfes, & then the great Iland which reacheth from the east
 into the west, is sixteene miles in length, and six in breadth, full of
 mounteins and swelling woods: and for asmuch as it is not much inhabited,
 the seafoules laie great plentie of egs there, whereof such as will, may
 gather what number them listeth. Vpon the high cliffes and rocks also the
 Soland géese are taken verie plentifullie. Beyond this, about foure
 miles also is the Ile of horsses: and a little from that the hog Iland,
 which is not altogither vnfruitfull. There is a falcon which of custome
 bréedeth there, and therevnto it is not without a conuenient hauen. Not
 farre off also is the Canna, and the Egga, little Iles, but the later
 full of Soland géese. Likewise the Sobratill, more apt to hunt in than
 méet for anie other commoditie that is to be reaped thereby.

 [Sidenote: Skie.]
 After this we came to the Skie, the greatest Ile about all Scotland: for
 it is two and fortie miles long; and somewhere eight, & in some places
 twelue miles broad: it is moreouer verie hillie, which hilles are
 therevnto loaden with great store of wood, as the woods are with
 pasture, the fields with corne and cattell; and (besides all other
 commodities) with no small heards of mares, whereby they raise great
 aduantage and commoditie. It hath fiue riuers verie much abounding with
 salmons, and other fresh streams not altogither void of that prouision.
 It is inuironed also with manie baies, wherein great plentie of herrings
 is taken in time of the yéere. It hath also a noble poole of fresh
 water; fiue castels and sundrie townes; as Aie, S. Iohns, Dunwegen, S.
 Nicholas, &c. The old Scots called it Skianacha, that is, Winged, but
 now named Skie. There lie certeine small Ilands about this also, as
 Rausa a batable soile for corne & gras; Conie Iland full of woods and
 conies; Paba a theeuish Iland, in whose woods théeues do lurke to rob
 such as passe by them. Scalpe Ile, which is full of deere; Crowling,
 wherein is verie good harbour for ships; Rarsa, full of béechen woods
 and stags, being in length seuen miles, and two in breadth. The Ron, a
 woodie Ile and full of heath: yet hath it a good hauen, which hath a
 little Iland called Gerloch on the mouth thereof, and therein lurke
 manie théeues. There is not farre off from this Ron, to wit about six
 miles also, the Flad, the Tiulmen, Oransa, Buie the lesse, and Buie the
 more and fiue other little trifling Iles, of whose names I haue no

 After these we come vnto the Ise, a pretie fertile Iland, to the Oue, to
 the Askoome, to the Lindill. And foure score miles from the Skie towards
 the west, to the Ling, the Gigarmen, the Berner, the Magle, the Pable,
 the Flad, the Scarpe, the Sander, the Vateras, which later hath a noble
 hauen for great ships, beside sundrie other commodities: and these nine
 last rehearsed are vnder the dominion of the bishop of the Iles. After
 [Sidenote: Bar.]
 this we come to the Bar, an Iland seauen miles in length, not
 vnfruitfull for grasse and corne, but the chiefe commoditie thereof
 lieth by taking of herrings, which are there to be had abundantlie. In
 one baie of this Iland there lieth an Islet, and therein standeth a
 strong castell. In the north part hereof also is an hill which beareth
 good grasse from the foot to the top, and out of that riseth a spring,
 which running to the sea, doth carrie withall a kind of creature not yet
 perfectlie formed, which some do liken vnto cockels; and vpon the shore
 where the water falleth into the sea, they take vp a kind of shelfish,
 when the water is gone, which they suppose to be ingendred or increased
 after this manner. Betwéene the Barre and the Visse lie also these
 Ilands, Orbaus, Oue, Hakerset, Warlang, Flad, the two Baies, Haie,
 Helsaie, Gigaie, Lingaie, Fraie, Fudaie, and Friskaie. The Visse is
 thirtie miles long and six miles broad; and therein are sundrie fresh
 waters, but one especiallie of three miles in length: neuerthelesse, the
 sea hath now of late found a waie into it, so that it cannot be kept off
 with a banke of three score foot, but now and then it will flowe into
 the same, and leaue sea-fish behind it in the lake. There is also a fish
 bred therein almost like vnto a salmon, sauing that it hath a white
 bellie, a blacke backe, and is altogither without scales: it is likewise
 a great harbour for théeues and pirats.

 Eight miles beyond this lieth the Helscher, appertinent to the nuns of
 Iona: then haue we the Hasker, verie plentifullie benefited by seales,
 which are there taken in time of the yéere. Thrée score miles from this
 also is the Hirth, whose inhabitants are rude in all good science and
 religion; yet is the Iland verie fruitfull in all things, and bringeth
 foorth shéepe farre greater than are else-where to be found, for they
 are as big as our fallow deare, horned like bugles, and haue their
 tailes hanging to the ground. He that is owner of this Ile, sendeth ouer
 his bailiffe into the same at midsummer, to gather in his duties, and
 [Sidenote: Baptisme without preests.]
 with him a préest to saie masse, and to baptise all the children borne
 since that time of the yéere precedent: or if none will go ouer with him
 (bicause the voiage is dangerous) then doth each father take paine to
 baptise his owne at home. Their rents are paid commonlie in dried seales
 and sea foule. All the whole Ile is not aboue a mile euerie waie; and
 except thrée mounteines that lie vpon one part of the shore, such as
 dwell in the other Iles can see no part thereof.

 Being past the Visse, we came after to Walaie, the Soa, the Strome, to
 Pabaie, to Barner, Ensaie, Killiger, the two Sagas, the Hermodraie,
 Scarfe, Grie, Ling, Gilling, Heie, Hoie, Farlaie, great So, little So,
 Ise, Sein the more, Sein the lesse, Tarant, Slegan, Tuom, Scarpe,
 Hareie, and the seauen holie Ilands, which are desert and bréed nothing
 [Sidenote: Wild sheepe.]
 but a kind of wild shéepe, which are often hunted, but seldome or neuer
 eaten. For in stéed of flesh they haue nothing but tallow; and if anie
 flesh be, it is so vnsauorie, that few men care to eate of it, except
 great hunger compell them. I suppose, that these be the wild sheepe
 which will not be tamed; and bicause of the horrible grenning thereof,
 [Sidenote: Tigers.]
 is taken for the bastard tiger. Their haire is betweene the wooll of a
 sheepe, and the haire of a goat, resembling both, shacked, and yet
 absolutelie like vnto neither of both: it maie be also the same beast
 which Capitolinus calleth Ouis fera, shewed in the time of Gordian the
 emperour; albeit that some take the same for the Camelopardalis: but
 hereof I make no warrantise.

 There is also not farre off the Garuell, the Lambe, the Flad, the
 Kellas, the two Bernars, the Kirt, the two Buies, the Viraie, the
 [Sidenote: Ile of Pigmeies.]
 Pabaie, the two Sigrams, and the Ile of Pigmeies (which is so called
 vpon some probable coniecture) for manie little sculs and bones are
 dailie there found déepe in the ground, perfectlie resembling the bodies
 of children; & not anie of greater quantities, wherby their coniecture
 (in their opinion) is the more likelie to be true. There is also the
 Fabill Ile, Adams Ile, the Ile of Lambes, Hulmes, Viccoll, Haueraie,
 Car, Era, Columbes Ile, Tor Ile, Iffurd, Scalpe, Flad, and the Swet; on
 whose east side is a certeine vault or caue, arched ouer, a flight shoot
 in length, wherevnto meane ships do vse to runne for harbour with full
 saile when a tempest ouertaketh them, or the raging of the sea, in those
 parts do put them in danger of wrecke. Also we passed by the old castell
 Ile, which is a pretie and verie commodious plat for fish, foule, egges,
 corne, and pasture. There is also the Ile Eust or Eu, which is full of
 wood, and a notable harbour for théeues, as is also the Grinort;
 likewise the preests Ile, which is verie full of sea foule and good
 pasture. The Afull, the two Herbrerts, to wit, the greater and the
 lesse; and the Iles of Horsses, and Mertaika: and these 8 lie ouer
 against the baie which is called the Lake Brian. After this, we go
 toward the north, and come to the Haraie, and the Lewis or the Leug,
 both which make (in truth) but one Iland of thrée score miles in length,
 and sixtéene in breadth, being distinguished by no water, but by huge
 woods, bounds, and limits of the two owners that doo possesse those
 parts. The south part is called Haraie, and the whole situate in the
 [Sidenote: Lewis called Thule by Tacitus, with no
 better authoritie than the Angleseie Mona.]
 Deucalidon sea, ouer against the Rosse, & called Thule by Tacitus,
 wherein are manie lakes, and verie pretie villages, as lake Erwijn,
 lake Vnsalsago: but of townes, S. Clements, Stoie, Nois, S. Columbane,
 Radmach, &c. In like sort, there are two churches, whereof one is
 dedicated to saint Peter, an other to S. Clement, beside a monasterie
 called Roadill. The soile also of this Ile is indifferent fruitfull; but
 they reape more profit vnder the ground than aboue, by digging. There is
 neither woolfe, fox, nor serpent séene in this Iland; yet are there great
 woods therein, which also separate one part from the other. Likewise
 there be plentie of stags, but farre lesse in quantitie than ours: and in
 the north part of the Iland also is a riuer which greatlie aboundeth with
 salmons. That part also called Lewisa, which is the north half of the Ile
 is well inhabited toward the sea coasts, and hath riuers no lesse
 plentifull for salmon than the other halfe. There is also great store of
 herrings taken, whereof the fisher men doo raise great gaine and
 commoditie; and no lesse plentie of sheepe, which they doo not sheere,
 but plucke euerie yeere; yet is the ground of this part verie heathie,
 and full of mosse, and the face thereof verie swart and blacke, for the
 space of a foot in depth, through the corruption of such woods as in time
 past haue rotted on the same. And therefore in time of the yeere they
 conuert it into turffe to burne, as néede shall serue; and in the yéere
 after, hauing well doonged it in the meane time with slawke of the sea,
 they sowe barleie in the selfe places where the turffes grew, and reape
 [Sidenote: Tithe whales.]
 verie good corne, wherewith they liue and féed. Such plentie of whales
 also are taken in this coast, that the verie tithe hath béene knowne, in
 some one yéere, to amount vnto seauen and twentie whales of one
 greatnesse and other. This is notable also in this part of the Ile, that
 there is a great caue two yards déepe of water when the sea is gone, and
 not aboue foure when it is at the highest; ouer which great numbers doo
 sit of both sexes and ages, with hooks and lines, and catch at all times
 an infinite deale of fish, wherewith they liue, and which maketh them
 also the more idle.

 Being past this about sixtie miles, we come vnto the Rona, or Ron, which
 some take for the last of the Hebrides, distant (as I said) about fortie
 miles from the Orchades, and one hundreth and thirtie from the
 promontorie of Dungisbe. The inhabitants of this Ile are verie rude and
 irreligious, the lord also of the soile dooth limit their number of
 housholds, & hauing assigned vnto them what numbers of the greater and
 smaller sorts of cattell they shall spend and inioie for their owne
 prouision, they send the ouerplus yéerlie vnto him to Lewis. Their
 cheefe paiments consist of a great quantitie of meale, which is verie
 plentifull among them, sowed vp in shéepes skins. Also of mutton and sea
 foule dried, that resteth ouer and aboue, which they themselues do
 spend. And if it happen that there be more people in the Iland than the
 lords booke or rate dooth come vnto, then they send also the ouerplus of
 them in like maner vnto him: by which means they liue alwaies in
 plentie. They receiue no vices from strange countries, neither know or
 heare of anie things doone else-where than in their owne Iland. Manie
 whales are taken also vpon their coasts, which are likewise replenished
 with seale, and porpasse, and those which are either so tame, or so
 fierce, that they abash not at the sight of such as looke vpon them,
 neither make they anie hast to flie out of their presence.

 [Sidenote: Suilscraie.]
 Beyond this Ile, about 16 miles westward, there is another called
 Suilscraie, of a mile length, void of grasse, and without so much as
 heath growing vpon hir soile: yet are there manie cliffes and rocks
 therein, which are couered with blacke mosse, whereon innumerable sorts
 of foules do bréed and laie their egs. Thither in like sort manie doo
 saile from Lewissa, to take them yoong in time of the yeare, before they
 be able to flie, which they also kill and drie in eight daies space, and
 then returne home againe with them, and great plentie of fethers
 gathered in this voiage. One thing is verie strange and to be noted in
 [Sidenote: Colke foule.]
 this Iland, of the Colke foule, which is little lesse than a goose; and
 this kind commeth thither but once in the yeare, to wit, in the spring,
 to laie hir egs and bring vp hir yoong, till they be able to shift for
 themselues, & then they get them awaie togither to the sea, and come no
 more vntill that time of the yéere which next insueth. At the same
 season also they cast their fethers there, as it were answering tribute
 to nature for the vse of hir mossie soile: wherein it is woonderfull to
 sée, that those fethers haue no stalkes, neither anie thing that is hard
 in them, but are séene to couer their bodies as it were wooll or downe,
 till breeding time (I saie) wherein they be left starke naked.

 [Sidenote: Orchades.]
 The Orchades (whose first inhabitants were the Scithians, which came
 from those Iles where the Gothes did inhabit, as some sparks yet
 remaining among them of that language doo declare) lie partlie in the
 Germaine, and partlie in the Calidon seas, ouer against the point of
 Dunghisbie (being in number eight and twentie, or as other saie thirtie
 & one, yet some saie thirtie thrée, as Orosius, but Plinie saith fortie)
 and now belonging to the crowne of Scotland, as are the rest whereof
 héeretofore I haue made report, since we crossed ouer the mouth of the
 Solueie streame, to come into this countrie. Certes the people of these
 Islands reteine much of their old sparing diets, and therevnto they are
 of goodlie stature, tall, verie comelie, healthfull, of long life, great
 strength, whitish colour, as men that féed most vpon fish; sith the cold
 is so extreame in those parts, that the ground bringeth foorth but small
 store of wheate, and in maner verie little or no fuell at all, wherewith
 to warme them in the winter, and yet it séemeth that (in times past)
 some of these Ilands also haue béene well replenished with wood, but now
 they are without either trée or shrub, in stéed whereof they haue
 plentie of heath, which is suffered to grow among them, rather thorough
 their negligence, than that the soile of it selfe will not yéeld to
 bring forth trées & bushes. For what store of such hath béene in times
 past, the roots yet found and digged out of the ground doo yéeld
 sufficient triall. Otes they haue verie plentifullie, but greater store
 of barleie, wherof they make a nappie kind of drinke, and such indéed,
 as will verie readilie cause a stranger to ouershoot himselfe. Howbeit
 this may be vnto vs in lieu of a miracle, that although their drinke be
 neuer so strong, & they themselues so vnmeasurable drinkers (as none are
 [Sidenote: If he speake all in truth.]
 more) yet it shall not easilie be séene (saith Hector) that there is
 anie drunkard among them, either frantike, or mad man, dolt, or naturall
 foole, meet to weare a cockescombe.

 This vnmeasurable drinking of theirs is confessed also by Buchanan, who
 noteth, that whensoeuer anie wine is brought vnto them from other
 soiles, they take their parts thereof aboundantlie. He addeth moreouer,
 how they haue an old bole (which they call S. Magnus bole, who first
 preached Christ vnto them) of farre greater quantitie than common boles
 are, and so great, that it may séeme to be reserued since the Lapithane
 banket, onelie to quaffe and drinke in. And when anie bishop commeth
 vnto them, they offer him this bole full of drinke, which if he be able
 to drinke vp quite at one draught; then they assure themselues of good
 lucke, and plentie after it. Neuerthelesse this excesse is not often
 found in the common sort, whom penurie maketh to be more frugall; but in
 their priests, and such as are of the richer calling. They succour
 pirats also, and verie often exchange their vittels with their
 commodities, rather for feare and want of power to resist (their Ilands
 lieng so scattered) than for anie necessitie of such gains as they doo
 get by those men: for in truth, they thinke themselues to haue little
 need of other furniture than their owne soiles doo yéeld and offer vnto
 them. This is also to be read of the inhabitants of these Ilands, that
 ignorance of excesse is vnto the most part of them in stéed of physicke;
 and labour and trauell a medicine for such few diseases as they are
 molested and incombred withall.

 In like sort they want venemous beasts, chéefelie such as doo delight in
 hotter soile, and all kinds of ouglie creatures. Their ewes also are so
 full of increase, that some doo vsuallie bring foorth two, three, or
 foure lambes at once, whereby they account our anelings (which are such
 as bring foorth but one at once) rather barren than to be kept for anie
 gaine. As for wild and tame foules, they haue such plentie of them, that
 the people there account them rather a burthen to their soile, than a
 benefit to their tables: they haue also neat and gotes, whereby they
 abound in white meat, as butter and cheese: wherein, next vnto fish, the
 chéefe part of their sustenance dooth consist. There is also a bishop of
 the Orchades, who hath his see in Pomona the chéefe of all the Ilands,
 wherein also are two strong castels, and such hath béene the
 superstition of the people here, that there is almost no one of them,
 that hath not one church at the least dedicated to the mother of Christ.
 Finallie, there is little vse of physicke in these quarters, lesse store
 of éeles, and least of frogs. As for the horsses that are bred amongst
 them, they are commonlie not much greater than asses, and yet to labour
 and trauell, a man shall find verie few else-where, able to come neere,
 much lesse to match with them, in holding out their iournies. The seas
 about these Ilands are verie tempestuous, not onelie through strong
 winds, and the influences of the heauens and stars; but by the contrarie
 méetings and workings of the west ocean, which rageth so vehementlie in
 the streicts, that no vessell is able to passe in safetie amongst them.
 Some of these Ilands also are so small and low, that all the commoditie
 which is to be reaped by anie of them, is scarselie sufficient to
 susteine one or two men: and some of them so barren and full of rocks,
 that they are nothing else but mosse or bare shingle. Wherefore onelie
 thirtéene of them are inhabited and made account of, the rest being left
 vnto their sheepe and cattell. Of all these Ilands also Pomona is the
 greatest, and therfore called the continent, which conteineth thirtie
 miles in length, and is well replenished with people: for it hath twelue
 parish churches, and one towne which the Danes (sometime lords of that
 [Sidenote: Kirkwa.]
 Iland) called Cracouia: but now it hight Kirkwa. There are also two
 pretie holds, one belonging to the king, the other to the bishop: and
 also a beautifull church, and much building betweene the two holds, and
 about this church, which being taken as it were for two townes, the one
 is called the kings and the other the bishops towne. All the whole Iland
 is full of cliffes and promontories, whereby no small number of baies
 and some hauens are producted.

 There is also tin and lead to be found in six of these Iles, so good and
 plentifullie as anie where else in Britaine. It lieth foure & twentie
 miles from Cathnesse, being separated from the same by the Pictish sea:
 wherein also lie certeine Ilands, as Stroma, foure miles from Cathnesse,
 which albeit that it be but foure miles from Cathnesse, is not reputed
 for anie of the Orchades. Going therefore from hence northward, we come
 to the first Ile of the Orchades, called south Rauals, which is sixtéene
 miles from Dunghilsbie, aliàs Dunachisbie, & that in two houres space,
 such is the swiftnesse of the sea in that tract. This Ile is fiue miles
 long, and hath a faire port called saint Margarets hauen. Then passe we
 by two desert Iles, which lie towards the east, wherein nothing is found
 but cattell: some call them the holmes, bicause they lie low, and are
 good for nothing but grasse. On the northside lieth the Bur, and two
 other holmes betweene the same & Pomona. From Bur, toward the west lie
 thrée Iles, Sun, Flat, and Far: and beyond them Hoie and Vall, which
 some accompt for two, and other but for one; bicause that in March and
 September, the flats that lie betwéene them, doo séeme to ioine them
 togither, after the tide is gone. This neuerthelesse is certeine, that
 in this single or double Ile, which is ten miles in length, the highest
 hilles are to be séene that are in all the Orchades. And as they lie
 eight miles from Rauals, so are they two miles from Pomona, & from saint
 Donats in Scotland full twentie miles, and on the north side of it lieth
 the Brainse, in a narrow streict, as Buchanan dooth remember. And these
 are the Iles which lie betweene Pomona and Cathnesse. As for the west
 side of the continent, I find that it lieth open to the sea, without
 either shelues, Ilands, or rocks appéering néere vnto it: but on the
 east side thereof Cobesa dooth in maner ouershadow it. Siapinsa also an
 Ile of six miles long, lieth within two miles of Cracouia, toward the
 east, on the west side of Pomona lieth the Rouse of six miles in length:
 and by east of that, the Eglisa, wherin (as they saie) their patrone S.
 Magnus lieth interred. From hense southward lie the Vera, Gersa, and not
 far off the Vester (which is fourescore miles from Hethland) Papa &
 Stronza, which is also eightie miles from Hethland as is the Vester. In
 the middest also of this tract lieth Far, or Fara, which is to saie,
 faire Ile, in old English, faire eie: and within sight so well of
 Hethland, as the Orchades (by reason of three insuperable rocks which
 are apparant in the same) a verie poore Iland, and yet yearelie robbed
 of such commodities as it hath by such Flemish and English fishermen as
 passe by the coasts thereof in time of the yeare, to catch fish for the
 prouision of their countries.

 Next vnto this is the greatest of all the Hethlands, an Iland called the
 Maine, sixtie miles in length, and sixteene in bredth, full of rocks,
 and whose coasts are onelie inhabited, the innermost parts being left
 vnto the foules of the aire, bicause of the barrennesse and
 vnfruitfulnesse of the soile: yet of late some haue indeuoured to
 impeople it, but with no successe correspondent to their desire.
 Wherefore they returned to their former trades, making their chéefe
 commoditie and yearelie gaine by fish, as aforetime. Ten miles from this
 toward the north, lieth the Zeale, twentie miles in length, eight in
 bredth, and so wild that it will suffer no creature to liue thereof,
 that is not bred therein. Betwéene this Iland also and the Maine, are
 other smaller Ilands to be found, as the Ling, Orne, Big, and Sanferre.
 And from hense nine miles northward Vsta, twentie miles long, & six in
 bredth, plaine, pleasant, but inuironed with a swift and terrible sea.
 Betwéene this also and the Zeale, are the Vie, the Vre, and the Ling:
 also towards the west, the two Skeues, Chalseie, Nordwade, Brase, and
 Mowse, on the west side lie the west Skeies, Rottia, Papa the lesse,
 Wunned, Papa the more, Valla, Londra, Burra, Haura the more, Haura the
 lesse, & in maner so manie holmes dispersed heere and there, whereof I
 haue no notice. Some call these the Shetland, and some the Shotland
 Iles. Buchanan nameth them in the third member of his diuision
 Zelandine, and toward the end of his first booke seemeth to auouch, that
 they liue in maner as doo the inhabitants of the Orchades: although not
 in so ciuill wise, nor in such large measure and aboundance of diet in
 their houses. He addeth moreouer, that their apparrell is after the
 Germaine cut, comelie, but not so chargeable and costlie, and how they
 raise their gaine by skins of beasts, as marterns, sheepe, oxen, and
 gotes skins, and therevnto a kind of cloth which they weaue, and sell to
 the merchants of Norwaie, togither with their butter, fish, either
 salted or dried, and their traine oile, and exercise their trade of
 fishing also in their vncerteine skewes, which they fetch out of

 Their speech is Gothish, and such of them as by their dealing with
 forren merchants doo gather anie wealth, that will they verie often
 bestow vpon the furniture of their houses. Their weights & measures are
 after the Germaine maner, their countrie is verie healthie, and so
 wholesome, that a man was found which had married a wife at one hundred
 yeares of age, and was able to go out a fishing with his bote at one
 hundred and fortie, and of late yéeres died of méere age, without anie
 other disease. Dronkennesse is not heard of among them, and yet they
 meet and make good chéere verie often. Neither doo I read of anie great
 vse of flesh or foule there, although that some of their Ilands haue
 plentie of both. Nor anie mention of corne growing in these parts, and
 therefore in steed of bread they drie a kind of fish, which they beat in
 morters to powder, & bake it in their ouens, vntill it be hard and drie.
 Their fuell also is of such bones as the fish yéeldeth, that is taken on
 their coasts: and yet they liue as themselues suppose in much felicitie,
 thinking it a great péece of their happinesse to be so farre distant
 from the wicked auarice, and cruell dealings of the more rich and ciuill
 part of the world.

 Herein also they are like vnto the Hirthiens, in that at one time of the
 yeare, there commeth a priest vnto them out of the Orchades (vnto which
 iurisdiction they doo belong) who baptiseth all such children, as haue
 béene borne among them, since he last arriued, and hauing afterward
 remained there for a two daies, he taketh his tithes of them (which they
 prouide and paie with great scrupulositie in fish, for of other
 commodities haue they none) and then returneth home againe, not without
 boast of his troublesome voiage, except he watch his time. In these Iles
 [Sidenote: Amber.]
 also is great plentie of fine Amber to be had (as Hector saith) which is
 producted by the working of the sea vpon those coasts: but more of this
 elsewhere. This neuertheles is certeine, that these Ilands, with the
 Orchades, were neuer perfectlie vnited to the crowne of Scotland, till
 the mariage was made betwéene king Iames and the ladie Marie daughter to
 Christierne king of Denmarke 1468, which Christierne at the birth of
 their sonne Iames (afterward king of Scotland and called Iames the
 fourth) resigned all his right and title whatsoeuer either he or his
 ancestors either presently or hertofore had, might haue had, or herafter
 may or should haue, vnto the aforesaid péeres, as appéereth by the

 From these Shetland Iles, and vntill we come southwards to the Scarre,
 which lieth in Buquhamnesse, I find no mention of anie Ile situat vpon
 that coast, neither greatlie from thence, vntill we come at the Forth,
 that leadeth vp to Sterling, neither thought we it safetie for vs to
 search so farre as Thule, whence the most excellent brimstone commeth, &
 thereto what store of Ilands lie vnder the more northerlie climats,
 whose secret situations though partlie seene in my time, haue not yet
 bin perfectlie reueled or discouered by anie, bicause of the great
 aboundance of huge Ilands of ice that mooueth to and fro vpon their
 shores, and sundrie perilous gulfes and indraughts of water, and for as
 much as their knowlege doth not concerne our purpose, wherfore casting
 about, we came at the last into the Firth or Forth, which some call the
 Scotish sea, wherein we passe by seuen or eight such as they be, of
 which the first called the Maie, the second Baas, and Garwie the third,
 doo seeme to be inhabited. From these also holding on our course toward
 England, we passe by another Ile, wherein Faux castell standeth, and
 this (so far as my skill serueth) is the last Iland of the Scotish side,
 in compassing whereof I am not able to discerne, whether their flats and
 shallowes, number of Ilands without name, confusion of situation, lacke
 of true description, or mine owne ignorance hath troubled me most. No
 meruell therefore that I haue béene so oft on ground among them. But
 most ioifull am I that am come home againe: & although not by the Thames
 mouth into my natiue citie (which taketh his name of Troie) yet into the
 English dominion, where good interteinement is much more franke and
 copious, and better harborough wherein to rest my wearie bones, and
 refresh at ease our wetherbeaten carcasses.

 The first Iland therefore which commeth to our sight, after we passed
 [Sidenote: Lindesfarne or Holie Iland.]
 Berwike, is that which was somtime called Lindesfarne, but now Holie
 Iland, and conteineth eight miles; a place much honored among our
 monasticall writers, bicause diuerse moonks and heremits did spend their
 times therein. There was also the bishops see of Lindesfarne for a long
 season, which afterward was translated to Chester in the stréet, &
 finallie to Duresme, Dunelme, or Durham. It was first erected by Oswald,
 wherein he placed Aidanus the learned Scotish moonke, who came hither
 out of the Ile called Hij, whereof Beda speaking in the third chapter of
 his third booke, noteth, that although the said Hij belong to the kings
 of Northumberland, by reason of situation & néerenesse to the coast; yet
 the Picts appointed the bishops of the same, and gaue the Ile with the
 see it selfe to such Scotish moonks as they liked, bicause that by their
 preaching they first receiued the faith. But to returne to Lindesfarne.
 After Aidan departed this life, Finanus finished and builded the whole
 church with sawed timber of oke, after the maner of his countrie, which
 when Theodorus the archbishop of Canturburie had dedicated, Edbert the
 bishop did couer ouer with lead.

 [Sidenote: Farne.]
 Next vnto this is the Ile of Farne, and herein is a place of defense so
 far as I remember, and so great store of egs laid there by diuerse kinds
 of wildfoule in time of the yeare, that a man shall hardlie run for a
 wager on the plaine ground without the breach of manie, before his race
 be finished. About Farne also lie certeine Iles greater than Farne it
 selfe, but void of inhabitants; and in these also is great store of
 [Sidenote: Puffins.]
 puffins, graie as duckes, and without coloured fethers, sauing that they
 haue a white ring round about their necks. There is moreouer another
 [Sidenote: Saint Cuthberts foules.]
 bird, which the people call saint Cuthberts foules, a verie tame and
 gentle creature, and easie to be taken. After this we came to the Cocket
 Iland; so called, bicause it lieth ouer against the fall of Cocket
 water. Herein is a veine of meane seacole, which the people dig out of
 the shore at the low water; and in this Iland dwelled one Henrie
 sometime a famous heremite, who (as his life declareth) came of the
 Danish race. And from thence vntill we came vnto the coast of Norffolke
 I saw no more Ilands.

 Being therfore past S. Edmunds point, we found a litle Ile ouer against
 the fall of the water that commeth from Holkham, & likewise another ouer
 against the Claie, before we came at Waburne hope: the third also in
 Yarmouth riuer ouer against Bradwell, a towne in low or little England,
 whereof also I must néeds saie somewhat, bicause it is in maner an
 Iland, and as I gesse either hath béene or may be one: for the brodest
 place of the strict land that leadeth to the same, is little aboue a
 quarter of a mile, which against the raging waues of the sea can make
 [Sidenote: Little England.]
 but small resistance. Little England or low England therefore is about
 eight miles in length and foure in bredth, verie well replenished with
 townes, as Fristan, Burgh castell, Olton, Flixton, Lestoft, Gunton,
 Blundston, Corton, Lownd, Ashebie, Hoxton, Belton, Bradwell, and
 Gorleston, and beside this it is verie fruitfull and indued with all

 Going forward from hence, by the Estonnesse (almost an Iland) I saw a
 small parcell cut from the maine in Orford hauen, the Langerstone in
 Orwell mouth, & two péeces or Islets at Cattiwade bridge; and then
 [Sidenote: Merseie.]
 casting about vnto the Colne, we beheld Merseie which is a pretie Iland,
 well furnished with wood. It was sometime a great receptacle for the
 Danes when they inuaded England; howbeit at this present it hath beside
 two decaied blockehouses, two parish churches, of which one is called
 east Merseie, the other west Merseie, and both vnder the archdeacon of
 [Sidenote: Foulnesse.]
 Colchester, as parcell of his iurisdiction. Foulenesse is an Ile void of
 wood, and yet well replenished with verie good grasse for neat and
 sheepe, whereof the inhabitants haue great plentie: there is also a
 parish church, and albeit that it stand somewhat distant from the shore,
 yet at a dead low water a man may (as they saie) ride thereto if he be
 skilfull of the causie; it is vnder the iurisdiction of London. And at
 this present master William Tabor bacheler of diuinitie and archdeacon
 of Essex hath it vnder his iurisdiction & regiment, by the surrender of
 maister Iohn Walker doctor also of diuinitie, who liued at such time as
 I first attempted to commit this booke to the impression.

 In Maldon water are in like sort thrée Ilands inuironed all with salt
 [Sidenote: Osithe.]
 [Sidenote: Northeie.]
 streames, as saint Osithes, Northeie, and another (after a mersh) that
 beareth no name so far as I remember. On the right hand also as we went
 [Sidenote: Ramseie.]
 [Sidenote: Reie.]
 toward the sea againe, we saw Ramseie Ile, or rather a Peninsula or
 Biland, & likewise the Reie, in which is a chappell of saint Peter. And
 then coasting vpon the mouth of the Bourne, we saw the Wallot Ile and
 his mates, whereof two lie by east Wallot, and the fourth is Foulnesse,
 except I be deceiued, for here my memorie faileth me on the one side,
 and information on the other, I meane concerning the placing of
 Foulenesse. But to procéed. After this, and being entered into the
 Thames mouth, I find no Iland of anie name, except you accompt Rochford
 hundred for one, whereof I haue no mind to intreat, more than of
 Crowland, Mersland, Elie, and the rest, that are framed by the ouze.
 Andredeseie in Trent, so called of a church there dedicated to saint
 Andrew, and Auon (two noble riuers hereafter to be described) sith I
 touch onelie those that are inuironed with the sea or salt water round
 [Sidenote: Canwaie.]
 about, as we may see in the Canwaie Iles, which some call marshes
 onelie, and liken them to an ipocras bag, some to a vice, scrue, or wide
 sléeue, bicause they are verie small at the east end, and large at west.
 The salt rilles also that crosse the same doo so separat the one of them
 from the other, that they resemble the slope course of the cutting part
 of a scrue or gimlet, in verie perfect maner, if a man doo imagine
 himselfe to looke downe from the top of the mast vpon them. Betwéene
 these, moreouer and the Leigh towne lieth another litle Ile or Holme,
 whose name is to me vnknowne. Certes I would haue gone to land and
 viewed these parcels as they laie, or at the least haue sailed round
 about them by the whole hauen, which may easilie be doone at an high
 water: but for as much as a perrie of wind (scarse comparable to the
 makerell gale, whereof Iohn Anele of Calis one of the best seamen that
 England euer bred for his skill in the narow seas was woont to talke)
 caught hold of our sailes, & caried vs forth the right waie toward
 London, I could not tarie to sée what things were hereabouts. Thus much
 therefore of our Ilands, & so much may well suffice where more cannot be



 Hauing (as you haue séene) attempted to set downe a full discourse of
 all the Ilands, that are situat vpon the coast of Britaine, and finding
 the successe not correspondent to mine intent, it hath caused me
 somewhat to restreine my purpose in this description also of our riuers.
 For whereas I intended at the first to haue written at large, of the
 number, situation, names, quantities, townes, villages, castels,
 mounteines, fresh waters, plashes or lakes, salt waters, and other
 commodities of the aforesaid Iles, mine expectation of information from
 all parts of England, was so deceiued in the end, that I was faine at
 last onelie to leane to that which I knew my selfe either by reading, or
 such other helpe as I had alreadie purchased and gotten of the same. And
 euen so it happeneth in this my tractation of waters, of whose heads,
 courses, length, bredth, depth of chanell (for burden) ebs, flowings,
 and falles, I had thought to haue made a perfect description vnder the
 report also of an imagined course taken by them all. But now for want of
 instruction, which hath béene largelie promised, & slacklie perfourmed,
 and other sudden and iniurious deniall of helpe voluntarilie offered,
 without occasion giuen on my part, I must needs content my selfe with
 such obseruations as I haue either obteined by mine owne experience, or
 gathered from time to time out of other mens writings: whereby the full
 discourse of the whole is vtterlie cut off, and in steed of the same a
 mangled rehearsall of the residue set downe and left in memorie.

 Wherefore I beséech your honour to pardon this imperfection and
 rudenesse of my labour, which notwithstanding is not altogither in
 vaine, sith my errors maie prooue a spurre vnto the better skilled,
 either to correct or inlarge where occasion serueth, or at the leastwise
 to take in hand a more absolute péece of worke, as better direction
 shall incourage them thereto. The entrance and beginning of euerie thing
 is the hardest; and he that beginneth well, hath atchiued halfe his
 purpose. The ice (my lord) is broken, and from hencefoorth it will be
 more easie for such as shall come after to wade through with the rest,
 sith "Facile est inuentis addere;" and to continue and finish, is not so
 great a matter in building, as to attempt and laie the foundation or
 platforme of anie noble péece of workmanship, though it be but rudelie
 [Sidenote: Thamesis.]
 handled. But to my purpose. As I began at the Thames in my description
 of Ilands, so will I now doo the like with that of famous riuers; making
 mine entrie at the said riuer it selfe, of whose founteine some men make
 as much adoo, as in time past of the true head of Nilus, which, till of
 late (if it be yet descried) was neuer found: or the Tanais, whose
 originall was neuer knowne, nor shall be: for whilest one placeth it
 here, another there; there are none at all that deale with it exactlie.
 Wherefore leaning to such mens writings as haue of set purpose sought
 out the spring of the Thames; I affirme that this famous streame hath
 his head or beginning out of the side of an hill, standing in the
 plaines of Cotswold, about one mile from Tetburie, néere vnto the Fosse
 (an high waie so called of old) where it was sometime named Isis, or the
 Ouse, although diuerse doo ignorantlie call it the Thames euen there,
 rather of a foolish custome than anie skill, bicause they either neglect
 or vtterlie are ignorant how it was named at the first. From hence it
 runneth directlie toward the east (as all good riuers should) and
 [Sidenote: Corinium.]
 méeteth with the Cirne or Churne, (a brooke called in Latine Corinium)
 whereof Cirncester towne (by which it commeth) doth take the

 From hence it hasteth vnto Créekelade, aliàs Crekanford, Lechlade,
 Radcotebridge, Newbridge, and Eouesham, receiuing by the waie an infinit
 sort of small streames, brookes, beckes, waters, and rundels: and here
 on this side of the towne diuideth it selfe into two courses, of which
 the one goeth straight to Botleie and Hinkseie, the other by Godstow, a
 village not farre off. This latter spreadeth it selfe also for a while
 into sundrie smaller branches, which run not farre yer they be reunited,
 and then beclipping sundrie pleasant meadowes, it passeth at length by
 Oxford, of some supposed rather to be called Ouseford of this riuer,
 [Sidenote: Charwell.]
 where it meeteth with the Charwell, and a litle from whence the
 originall branches doo ioine and go togither by Abbandune (aliàs Sensham
 or Abington as we call it) although no part of it at the first came so
 néere the towne as it doth now, till a branch thereof was led thither
 [Sidenote: Some write, that the maine streame was brought thither
 from which ranne before betweene Andredeseie and Culenham.]
 the maine streame, thorough the industrie of the moonks, as (beside the
 testimonie of old records thereof yet extant to be séene) by the decaie
 of Cair Dour, now Dorchester it selfe, sometime the throughfare from
 Wales and the west countrie to London, which insued vpon this fact, is
 easie to be seene. From hence it goeth to Dorchester, and so to Thame,
 where ioining with a riuer of the same denomination, it looseth the name
 of Isis or Ouse (whereof Ouseneie at Oxford is producted) and from
 thenceforth is called Thamesis. From Thame it goeth to Wallingford, and
 so to Reding, which in time past, of the number of bridges there, was
 [Sidenote: Pontium.]
 called Pontium; albeit that the English name doth rather proceed from
 [Sidenote: Saint Marie ouer Rhee.]
 Rhe, or Ree, the Saxon word for a water-course or riuer; which maie be
 séene in Ouerée, or Sutherée, for ouer the Ree, or south of the Rhee, as
 to the skilfull doth readilie appéere; yet some hold (and not altogither
 against probabilitie and likelihood) that the word Sutherée is so called
 of Sudrijc, to wit, the south kingdome, wherevnto in part the Thames is
 a bound. But that holdeth not in denomination, either of the said church
 or name of the foresaid countie. Other affirme likewise, that Reding is
 so called of the Greeke word ([Greek: rheô]) which is to ouerflowe.
 Certes, as neither of these coniectures are to be contemned, so the last
 c[=o]meth most neere to mine aid, who affirme, that not onelie the
 course of euerie water it selfe, but also his ouerflowing was in time
 past called Rhe, by such Saxons as inhabited in this Iland: and euen to
 this daie in Essex I haue oft obserued, that when the lower grounds by
 rage of water haue béene ouerflowen, the people beholding the same, haue
 said; All is on a Rhe, as if they should haue said; All is now a riuer,
 albeit the word Riuer be deriued from the French, and borrowed by them
 from the Latins, but not without corruption, as it was brought vnto
 them. I will not here giue notice how farre they are deceiued, which
 call the aforesaid church by the name of S. Marie Auderies, or S. Marie
 ouer Isis, or Ise: but I will procéed with the course of this noble
 streame, which, howsoeuer these matters stand after it hath passed by
 [Sidenote: Kenet.]
 Reding, & there receiued the Kenet, which commeth from the hilles that
 [Sidenote: Thetis.]
 lie west of Marleborough (& then the Thetis, commonlie called the Tide
 that commeth from Thetisford) hieth to Sudlington otherwise called
 Maidenhead, and so to Windleshore (or Windsore) Eaton, and then to
 Chertseie, where Erkenwald bishop of London sometime builded a religious
 house or cell, as I doo read.

 From Chertseie it hasteth directlie vnto Stanes, and receiuing an other
 [Sidenote: Cole.]
 streame by the waie, called the Cole (wherevpon Colbrooke standeth) it
 goeth by Kingstone, Shene, Sion and Brentford or Bregentford, where it
 méeteth the Brane or the Brene (another brooke descending from Edgworth)
 whose name signifieth a frog, in the Brittish speach. Vpon this also sir
 John Thin had sometime a statelie house, with a maruellous prouision to
 inclose and reteine such fish as should come about the same. From
 [Sidenote: Brene.]
 Brentfoord it passeth by Mortlach, Putneie, Fulham, Batterseie,
 Chelseie, Lambeth, and so to London. Finallie going from thence vnto the
 sea, it taketh the Lée with it by the waie vpon the coast of Essex, and
 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 another that commeth from Abreche not far off, and the Darnt vpon Kent
 side, which riseth néere to Tanrige, and commeth by Shoreham, vnto
 [Sidenote: Craie.]
 Derntford, wherevnto the Craie falleth. And last of all the Medwaie a
 notable riuer (in mine opinion) which watereth all the south and
 southwest part of Kent, and whose description shall insue.

 Hauing in this maner bréefelie touched this noble riuer, and such
 brookes as fall into the same; I will now adde a particular description
 of each of these last by themselues, whereby their courses also shall be
 seuerallie described to the satisfaction of the studious. But yer I take
 the same in hand, I will insert a word or two of the commodities of the
 said riuer, which I will performe with so much breuitie as is possible.
 Héereby also finding out his whole tract and course from the head to the
 fall thereof into the sea. It appeareth euidentlie that the length
 thereof is at the least, one hundreth and eightie miles, if it be
 measured by the iourneies of the land. And as it is in course, the
 longest of the thrée famous riuers of this Ile, so it is nothing
 inferiour vnto them in aboundance of all kind of fish, whereof it is
 hard to saie, which of the three haue either most plentie, or greatest
 varietie, if the circumstances be duelie weighed. What some other write
 of the riuers of their countries it skilleth not, neither will I (as
 diuerse doo) inuent strange things of this noble streame, therewith to
 nobilitate and make it more honorable: but this will I in plaine termes
 affirme, that it neither swalloweth vp bastards of the Celtish brood, or
 casteth vp the right begotten that are throwne in without hurt into
 their mothers lap, as Politian fableth of the Rhene, Epistolarum lib. 8.
 epi. 6. nor yéeldeth clots of gold as the Tagus dooth: but an infinit
 plentie of excellent, swéet and pleasant fish, wherewith such as inhabit
 néere vnto hir bankes are fed and fullie nourished.

 [Sidenote: Salmons.]
 What should I speake of the fat and swéet salmons, dailie taken in this
 streame, and that in such plentie (after the time of the smelt be past)
 as no riuer in Europa is able to excéed it. What store also of barbels,
 trouts, cheuins, pearches, smelts, breames, roches, daces, gudgings,
 flounders, shrimps, &c: are commonlie to be had therein, I refer me to
 them that know by experience better than I, by reason of their dailie
 trade of fishing in the same. And albeit it seemeth from time to time,
 to be as it were defrauded in sundrie wise of these hir large
 commodities, by the insatiable auarice of the fishermen, yet this famous
 riuer complaineth commonlie of no want, but the more it looseth at one
 time, the more it yéeldeth at another. Onelie in carps it séemeth to be
 [Sidenote: Carps a fish late brought into England
 and later into the Thames.]
 scant, sith it is not long since that kind of fish was brought ouer into
 England, and but of late to speake of into this streame, by the violent
 rage of sundrie landflouds, that brake open the heads and dams of diuers
 gentlemens ponds, by which means it became somewhat partaker also of
 this said commoditie, whereof earst it had no portion that I could euer
 heare. Oh that this riuer might be spared but euen one yeare from nets,
 &c! But alas then should manie a poore man be vndoone. In the meane time
 it is lamentable to see, how it is and hath béene choked of late with
 sands and shelues, through the penning and wresting of the course of the
 water for commodities sake. But as this is an inconuenience easilie
 remedied, if good order were taken for the redresse thereof: so now, the
 fine or prise set vpon the ballasse sometime freelie giuen to the
 merchants by patent, euen vnto the lands end (Iusques au poinct) will be
 another cause of harme vnto this noble streame, and all through an
 aduantage taken at the want of an (i) in the word ponct: which grew
 through an error committed by an English notarie vnskilfull in the
 French toong, wherein that patent was granted.

 Furthermore, the said riuer floweth and filleth all his chanels twise in
 the daie and night, that is in euerie twelue houres once; and this
 ebbing & flowing, holdeth on for the space of seauentie miles, within
 the maine land: the streame or tide being alwaies highest at London,
 when the moone dooth exactlie touch the northeast and south or west
 points of the heauens, of which one is visible, the other vnder the
 earth, and not subiect to our sight. These tides also differ in their
 times, each one comming latter than other, by so manie minuts as passe
 yer the reuolution and naturall course of the heauens doo reduce, and
 bring about the said planet vnto those hir former places: whereby the 36
 [Sidenote: The iust dist[=a]ce betwéene one tide and another.]
 common difference betwéene one tide and another, is found to consist of
 twentie foure minuts, which wanteth but twelue of an whole houre in
 foure and twentie, as experience dooth confirme. In like sort we sée by
 dailie triall, that each tide is not of equall heigth and greatnesse:
 for at the full and change of the moone we haue the greatest flouds, and
 such is their ordinarie course, that as they diminish from their changes
 and fuls, vnto the first and last quarters; so afterwards they increase
 againe, vntill they come to the full and change. Sometimes also they
 rise so high (if the wind be at the north or northeast, which bringeth
 in the water with more vehemencie, bicause the tide which filleth the
 chanell, commeth from Scotland ward) that the Thames ouerfloweth hir
 banks néere vnto London: which hapneth especiallie in the fuls and
 changes of Januarie and Februarie, wherein the lower grounds are of
 custome soonest drowned. This order of flowing in like sort is
 perpetuall, so that when the moone is vpon the southwest and north of
 points, then is the water by London at the highest: neither doo the
 tides alter, except some rough winds out of the west or southwest doo
 [Sidenote: The streame oft checked in hir entrance into the land.]
 kéepe backe and checke the streame in his entrance, as the east and
 northeast do hasten the comming in thereof, or else some other
 extraordinarie occasion, put by the ordinarie course of the northerne
 seas, which fill the said riuer by their naturall returne and flowing.
 And that both these doo happen eft among, I refer me to such as haue not
 sildome obserued it, as also the sensible chopping in of thrée or foure
 tides in one naturall daie, wherof the vnskilfull doo descant manie

 But how so euer these small matters doo fall out, and how often soeuer
 this course of the streame doth happen to be disturbed; yet at two
 seuerall times of the age of the moone, the waters returne to their
 naturall course and limits of time exactlie. Polydore saith, that this
 riuer is seldome increased or rather neuer ouerfloweth hir banks by
 landflouds: but he is herein verie much deceiued, as it shalbe more
 apparentlie séene hereafter. For the more that this riuer is put by of
 hir right course, the more the water must of necessitie swell with the
 white waters which run downe from the land: bicause the passage cannot
 be so swift and readie in the winding as in the streight course. These
 landflouds also doo greatlie straine the finesse of the streame, in so
 much that after a great landfloud, you shall take haddocks with your
 hands beneath the bridge, as they flote aloft vpon the water, whose eies
 are so blinded with the thicknesse of that element, that they cannot see
 where to become, and make shift to saue themselues before death take
 hold of them. Otherwise the water of it selfe is verie cléere, and in
 comparison next vnto that of the sea, which is most subtile and pure of
 all other; as that of great riuers is most excellent, in comparison of
 smaller brookes: although Aristotle will haue the salt water to be most
 grosse, bicause a ship will beare a greater burden on the sea than on
 the fresh water; and an eg sinke in this that swimmeth on the other. But
 he may easilie be answered by the quantitie of roome and aboundance of
 waters in the sea; whereby it becommeth of more force to susteine such
 vessels as are committed to the same, and whervnto the greatest riuers
 (God wot) are nothing comparable. I would here make mention of sundrie
 [Sidenote: London bridge.]
 bridges placed ouer this noble streame, of which that of London is most
 chieflie to be commended, for it is in maner a c[=o]tinuall street, well
 replenished with large and statelie houses on both sides, and situat
 vpon twentie arches, whereof ech one is made of excellent free squared
 stone, euerie of them being thréescore foot in height, and full twentie
 in distance one from another, as I haue often viewed.

 In like maner I could intreat of the infinit number of swans dailie to
 [Sidenote: 2000 boates vpon the Thames
 and 3000 poore m[=e] mainteined by
 the same whose gaines come in most
 plentifullie in the tearme time.]
 be séene vpon this riuer, the two thousand wherries and small boats,
 wherby three thousand poore watermen are mainteined, through the
 cariage and recariage of such persons as passe or repasse, from time to
 time vpon the same: beside those huge tideboats, tiltbotes, and barges,
 which either carrie passengers, or bring necessarie prouision from all
 quarters of Oxfordshire, Barkeshire, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire,
 Herfordshire, Midlesex, Essex, Surrie, and Kent, vnto the citie of
 London. But for somuch as these things are to be repeated againe in the
 particular description of London, annexed to his card; I surceasse at
 this time to speake anie more of them here, as not lingering but hasting
 to performe my promise made euen now, not yet forgotten, and in
 performance whereof I thinke it best to resume the description of this
 noble riuer againe into my hands, and in adding whatsoeuer is before
 omitted, to deliuer a full and perfect demonstration of his course. How
 and where the said streame ariseth, is alreadie & with sufficiencie set
 downe, noting the place to be within a mile of Tetburie, whereof some
 doo vtterlie mislike, bicause that rill in summer drouths is oft so
 drie, that there is little or no water at all séene running aboue ground
 in the same. For this cause therefore manie affirme the verie head of
 [Sidenote: Isis.]
 Isis to come from the poole aboue Kemble. Other confound it with the
 head of the Cirne or Chirne, called in Latine Corinium that riseth aboue
 Coberleie. For my part I follow Leland, as he dooth the moonke of
 Malmesburie, which wrote the historie intituled Eulogium historiarum,
 who searched the same of set purpose, and pronounced with Leland,
 although at this present that course be verie small, and choked vp (as I
 heare) with grauell and sand. Procéeding therefore from the head, it
 [Sidenote: Couus.]
 first of all receiueth the Kemble water called the Coue, which riseth
 aboue Kemble towne, goeth by Kemble it selfe vnto Poole and Somerford,
 and then (accompanieth the Thames) vnto Canes, Ashton, Canes, and
 Howston, holding on in one chanell vntill they méet with the Chirne, the
 next of all to be described.

 [Sidenote: Corinium.]
 The Chirne is a faire water arising out of the ground aboue Coberleie,
 from whence it runneth to Cowleie, Cowlesburne, Randcome, and so into
 the Isis on the left side aboue Crekelade. These thrée waters being thus
 vnited and brought into one chanell, within a little space of the head
 of Isis, it runneth on by Crekelade, beneath which towne it receiueth
 [Sidenote: Rhe.]
 the Rhe, descending from Elcombe, Escot, Redburne, Widhill, & at the
 fall into Isis, or not far off ioineth with another that runneth west of
 Purton by Braden forrest, &c. Next of all our Isis méeteth with the
 [Sidenote: Amneie.]
 Amneie on the left hand, which comming from aboue Holie roode Amneie,
 runneth by Downe Amneie, and finallie into the Isis a little aboue
 Iseie. In like sort I read of another that méeteth withall on the right
 hand aboue Iseie also, which so far as I can call to remembrance,
 commeth from about Drifield and falleth so into our Isis, that they run
 as one vntill they come at the Colne, although not so nakedlie and
 without helpe, but that in this voiage, the maine streame dooth crosse
 one water that descendeth from Swindon, and going also by Stratton
 toward Seuingham, is it selfe increased with two rils by the waie,
 whereof one commeth from Liddenton by Wambreie, as I haue béene

 [Sidenote: Colneius, Colineus, or Colunus.]
 The Colne is a faire riuer rising by north neere to Witchington, & from
 thence goeth to Shiptons, Compton Abdale, Wittenton, Parneworth, Colne
 Deanes, and Colne Rogers, Winston, Biberie, Colne Alens, Quenington,
 Faireford, and west of Lachelade into the riuer Isis, which hereabout on
 the southside also taketh in another, whereof I find this remembrance.
 The Isis being once past Seuingham, crosseth a brooke from southest that
 mounteth about Ashbirie, and receiuing a rill from bywest (that commeth
 from Hinton) beneath Shrineham, it afterward so diuideth it selfe, that
 the armes therof include Inglesham, and by reason that it falleth into
 the Isis at two seuerall places, there is a plesant Iland producted,
 whereof let this suffice.

 [Sidenote: Lecusor Leche.]
 Being past Lechelade a mile, it runneth to saint Johns bridge, &
 thereabout méeteth with the Leche on the left hand. This brooke, whereof
 Lechlade taketh the name (a towne wherevnto one péece of an old
 vniuersitie is ascribed, which it did neuer possesse, more than
 Crekelade did the other) riseth east of Hampnet, fr[=o] whence it goeth
 to north Lech, Estenton, Anlesworth, east Lech, south Thorpe, Farendon,
 & so into the Isis. From hence this famous water goeth by Kenskot toward
 Radcote bridge (taking in the rill that riseth in an od péece of
 Barkeshire, and runneth by Langford) and being past the said bridge (now
 notable through a conspiracie made there sometimes by sundrie barons
 against the estate) it is not long yer it crosse two other waters, both
 of them descending from another od parcell of the said countie, whereof
 I haue this note giuen me for my further information. There are two fals
 of water into Isis beneath Radcote bridge, wherof the one commeth from
 Shilton in Barkeshire by Arescote, blacke Burton and Clarrefield. The
 other also riseth in the same péece, and runneth by Brisenorton vnto
 Bampton, and there receiuing an armelet from the first that breake off
 at blacke Burton, it is not long yer they fall into Isis, and leaue a
 pretie Iland. After these confluences, the maine course of
 [Sidenote: Winrush.]
 the streame hasteth by Shifford to Newbridge, where it ioineth with the
 Winrush. The Winrush riseth aboue Shieburne in Glocestershire, from
 whence it goeth to Winrush, & c[=o]ming by Barrington, Burford,
 Widbrooke, Swinbecke castell, Witneie, Duckington, Cockthorpe, Stanlake,
 it méeteth with the Isis west by south of Northmore. From hence it goeth
 beneath Stanton, Hartingcourt and Ensham, betwéene which and Cassinton,
 [Sidenote: Briwerus.]
 it receiueth (as Leland calleth it) the Bruerne water.

 It riseth aboue Limington, and going to Norton in the Marsh, and through
 a patch of Worcestershire vnto Euenlode, betweene it and the foure
 [Sidenote: Comus.]
 shirestones, it taketh in a rill called Come, comming by the long and
 the little Comptons. After this also it goeth by Bradwell, Odington, and
 [Sidenote: Rolrich.]
 so to Bleddenton, aboue which towne it taketh in the Rolrich water that
 issueth at two heads, in the hils that lie by west of little Rolrich,
 and ioine aboue Kenkeham, and Church hill. From thence also it goeth
 vnto Bruerne, Shipton vnderwood, Ascot, Short hamton, Chorleburie,
 Corneburie parke, Stonfield, Longcombe, and southeast of Woodstocke
 [Sidenote: Enis.]
 parke, taketh in the Enis, that riseth aboue Emstone, and goeth to
 Ciddington, Glimton, Wotton (where it is increased with a rill that
 runneth thither from stéeple Barton, by the Béechin trée) Woodstocke,
 Blaidon, so that after this confluence, the said Enis runneth to
 Cassinton, and so into the Isis, which goeth from hence to Oxford, and
 there receiueth the Charwell, now presentlie to be described.

 [Sidenote: Charwell.]
 The head of Charwell is in Northamptonshire, where it riseth out of a
 little poole, by Charleton village, seuen miles aboue Banberie
 northeast, and there it issueth so fast at the verie surge, that it
 groweth into a pretie streame, in maner out of hand. Soone after also
 [Sidenote: Bure.]
 it taketh in a rillet called the Bure, which falleth into it, about
 Otmere side: but forasmuch as it riseth by Bincester, the whole course
 therof is not aboue foure miles, and therefore cannot be great. A friend
 of mine prosecuting the rest of this description reporteth thereof as
 followeth. Before the Charwell commeth into Oxfordshire, it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Culen.]
 Culen, which falleth into the same, a little aboue Edgcote, and so
 descending toward Wardington, it méeteth with another comming from by
 north west, betweene Wardington and Cropreadie. At Banberie also it
 [Sidenote: Come.]
 méeteth with the Come (which falleth from fennie Conton by Farneboro,
 and afterwards going by kings Sutton, not far from Aine, it receiueth
 the discharge of diuerse rillets, in one bottome before it come at
 Clifton. The said water therfore ingendred of so manie brookelets,
 [Sidenote: Ocus.]
 consisteth chiefelie of two, whereof the most southerlie called Oke,
 commeth from Oke Norton, by Witchington or Wiggington, and the Berfords;
 and carieng a few blind rils withall, dooth méet with the other that
 falleth from by northwest into the same, within a mile of Charwell.

 That other (as I coniecture) is increased of thrée waters, wherof each
 [Sidenote: Tudo.]
 one hath his seuerall name. The first of them therefore hight Tudo,
 which comming betwéene Epwell and the Lée by Toddington, ioineth about
 [Sidenote: Ornus.]
 Broughton with the second that runneth from Horneton, named Ornus, as I
 gesse. The last falleth into the Tude or Tudelake, beneath Broughton;
 and for that it riseth not far from Sotteswell in Warwikeshire, some are
 [Sidenote: Sotbrooke.]
 of the opinion, that it is to be called Sotbrooke. The next water that
 méeteth without Charwell beneath Clifton commeth from about Croughton,
 [Sidenote: Souarus.]
 [Sidenote: Sowar.]
 and after this is the Sowar or Swere, that riseth north of Michaell Tew,
 [Sidenote: Burus.]
 and runneth by nether Wotton. The last of all is the Reie aliàs Bure,
 whose head is not far aboue Burcester, aliàs Bincester, and Burncester:
 and from whence it goeth by Burecester to Merton, Charleton, Fencote,
 Addington, Noke, Islip, and so into Charwell, that holdeth on his course
 after this augmentation of the waters, betwéene Wood and Water Eton, to
 Marston, and the east bridge of Oxford by Magdalene college, and so
 beneath the south bridge into our aforesaid Isis.

 [Sidenote: Middest of England whereabouts.]
 In describing this riuer, this one thing (right honorable) is come vnto
 my mind, touching the center and nauill as it were of England. Certes
 there is an hillie plot of ground in Helledon parish, not far from
 Danberie, where a man maie stand and behold the heads of thrée notable
 riuers, whose waters, and those of such as fall into them, doo
 abundantlie serue the greatest part of England on this side of the
 Humber. The first of these waters is the Charwell, alreadie described.
 The second is the Leme that goeth westward into the fourth Auon. And the
 third is the head of the Nene or fift Auon it selfe, of whose courses
 there is no card but doth make sufficient mention; and therefore your
 honour maie behold in the same how they doo coast the countrie, and also
 measure by compasses how this plot lieth in respect of all the rest,
 contrarie to common iudgement, which maketh Northampton to be the
 middest and center of our countrie.

 But to go forward with my description of the Ouse, which being past
 Oxford goeth to Iflie, Kennington, Sanford, Rodleie, Newnham, and so to
 Abington, som time called Sensham, without increase, where it receiueth
 [Sidenote: Ocus.]
 the Oche, otherwise called the Coche, a little beneath S. Helens, which
 runneth thither of two brooklets, as I take it, whereof one commeth from
 Compton, out of the vale and west of the hill of the White horsse, the
 other from Kings Letcombe, and Wantage in Barkshire, and in one chanell,
 entreth into the same, vpon the right side of his course. From Abington
 [Sidenote: Arun.]
 likewise (taking the Arun withall southwest of Sutton Courtneie) it
 goeth by Appleford, long Wittenham, Clifton, Wittenham the lesse, &
 beneath Dorchester, taketh in the Thame water, from whence the Isis
 loseth the preheminence of the whole denomination of this riuer, and is
 contented to impart the same with the Thame, so that by the coniunction
 of these two waters Thamesis is producted, and that name continued euen
 vnto the sea.

 [Sidenote: Thame.]
 Thame riuer riseth in the easterlie parts of Chilterne hils, towards
 Penleie parke, at a towne called Tring west of the said parke, which is
 seauen miles from the stone bridge, that is betweene Querendon and
 Ailsburie (after the course of the water) as Leland hath set downe.
 Running therefore by long Merston, and Puttenham, Hucket, and Bearton,
 it receiueth soone after a rill that commeth by Querendon from Hardwike,
 and yer long an other on the other side that riseth aboue Windouer in
 the Chilterne, and passing by Halton, Weston, Turrill, Broughton, and
 Ailsburie, it falleth into the Tame west of the said towne (except my
 memorie doo faile me.) From this confluence the Tame goeth by Ethorpe,
 the Winchingtons, Coddington, Chersleie, Notleie abbeie: and comming
 almost to Tame, it receiueth one water from southeast aboue the said
 towne, and another also from the same quarter beneath the towne; so that
 Tame standeth inuironed vpon thrée sides with thrée seuerall waters, as
 maie be easilie séene. The first of these commeth from the Chiltern east
 of Below or Bledlow, from whence it goeth to Hinton, Horsenden,
 Kingseie, Towseie, and so into the Tame. The other descendeth also from
 the Chilterne, and going by Chinner, Crowell, Siddenham, and Tame parke,
 it falleth in the end into Tame water, and then they procéed togither as
 one by Shabbington, Ricot parke, Dracot, Waterstoke, Milton, Cuddesdon,
 and Chiselton. Here also it taketh in another water from by-east, whose
 head commeth from Chilterne hils, not farre from Stocking church, in the
 waie from Oxford to London. From whence it runneth to Weston (and
 méeting beneath Cuxham with Watlington rill) it goeth onto Chalgraue,
 Stadham, and so into the Tame. From hence our streame of Thame runneth
 to Newenton, Draton, Dorchester (sometime a bishops see, and a noble
 citie) and so into the Thames, which hasteth in like sort to Bensington,
 [Sidenote: Blauius.]
 Crowmarsh, or Wallingford, where it receiueth the Blaue, descending from
 Blaueburg, now Blewberie, as I learne.

 Thus haue I brought the Thames vnto Wallingford, situate in the vale of
 White horsse, that runneth a long therby. From hence it goeth by
 Newenham, north Stoke, south Stoke, Goring, Bassilden, Pangburne, where
 it meeteth with a water that commeth from about Hamsted Norris, runneth
 by Frizelham, Buckelburie, Stanford, Bradfeld, Tidmarsh and Pangburne.
 After which confluence it goeth on betweene Mapledorham and Purleie, to
 Cauersham, and Cauersham manour, and a little beneath receiueth the
 Kenet that commeth thereinto from Reading.

 [Sidenote: Cenethus.]
 The Kenet riseth aboue Ouerton 5 or 6 miles west of Marleborow, or
 Marlingsborow, as some call it; & then going by Fifeld, Clatfor, Maulon,
 & Preshute, vnto Marleburie: it holdeth on in like order to Ramsburie,
 and northwest of little Cote, taketh in a water by north descending from
 the hilles aboue Alburne chase west of Alburne town. Thence it runneth
 to little Cote, Charnhamstréet, & beneth Charnhamstréet it crosseth the
 [Sidenote: Bedwiine.]
 [Sidenote: Chalkeburne.]
 Bedwin, which (taking the Chalkburne rill withall) commeth from great
 Bedwijne, & at Hungerford also two other in one botom somewhat beneath
 the towne. From hence it goeth to Auington, Kinburie, Hamsted marshall,
 [Sidenote: Lamburne.]
 Euburne, Newberie; and beneath this towne, taketh in the Lamburne water
 that commeth by Isberie, Egerston, the Sheffords, Westford, Boxford,
 Donington castell, and Shaw. From Newberie it goeth to Thatcham,
 [Sidenote: Alburnus.]
 Wolhampton, Aldermaston, a little aboue which village it receiueth the
 Alburne, another brooke increased with sundrie rils: and thus going on
 to Padworth, Oston, and Michaell, it commeth at last to Reading, where
 (as I said) it ioineth with the Thames, and so they go forward as one by
 Sonning to Shiplake, and there on the east side receiue the Loddon that
 commeth downe thither from the south, as by his course appéereth.

 [Sidenote: Lodunus.]
 The Loddon riseth in Hamshire betwéene west Shirburne and Wooton toward
 the southwest, afterward directing his course toward the northwest,
 thorough the Vine, it passeth at the last by Bramlie, and thorough a
 peece of Wiltshire, to Stradfield, Swallowfield, Arberfield, Loddon
 bridge, leauing a patch of Wiltshire on the right hand (as I haue béene
 informed.) This Loddon not far from Turges towne receiueth two waters in
 one bottome, whereof the westerlie called Basing water, commeth from
 Basingstoke, and thorough a parke vnto the aforesaid place.

 The other descendeth of two heads from Mapledour well, and goeth by
 Skewes, Newenham, Rotherwijc, and yer it come at Hartlie, ioineth with
 the Basing water, from whence they go togither to Turges, where they
 méet with the Loddon (as I haue said alreadie.) The next streame toward
 [Sidenote: Ditis vadum.]
 the south is called Ditford brooke. It riseth not farre from Vpton, goeth
 [Sidenote: Ikelus.]
 by Gruell, and beneath Wharnborow castell receiueth the Ikell (comming
 from a parke of the same denomination) from whence they go togither by
 Maddingleie vnto Swalowfield, and so into the Loddon. In this voiage
 [Sidenote: Elueius.]
 also the Loddon méeteth with the Elwie or Elueie that commeth from
 Aldershare, not farre by west of Euersleie: and about Eluesham
 [Sidenote: Ducus.]
 likewise with another running from Dogmansfield named the Douke: and
 [Sidenote: Erin.]
 also the third not inferior to the rest comming from Erin, whose head is
 in Surreie, and going by Ash becommeth a limit, first betwéene Surreie
 and Hamshire; then betwéene Hamshire and Barkeshire, and passing by Ash,
 Erinleie, Blacke water, Perleie, and Finchamsted; it ioineth at last
 with the Ditford, before it come at Swalowfield. To conclude therefore
 with our Loddon, hauing receiued all these waters; and after the last
 confluence with them now being come to Loddon bridge, it passeth on by a
 part of Wiltshire to Twiford bridge, then to Wargraue, and so into the
 Thames that now is maruellouslie increased and growen vnto triple
 greatnesse (to that it was at Oxford.)

 Being therefore past Shiplake and Wargraue, it runneth by Horsependon,
 or Harding: then to Henleie vpon Thames, where sometime a great rill
 voideth it selfe in the same. Then to Remenham, Greneland (going all
 this waie from Shiplake iust north, and now turning eastwards againe) by
 Medenham, Hurlie, Bisham, Marlow the greater, Marlow the lesse, it
 meeteth with a brooke soone after that consisteth of the water of two
 [Sidenote: Vsa.]
 rilles, whereof the one called the Vse, riseth about west Wickham, out
 of one of the Chilterne hilles, and goeth from thence to east Wickham or
 high Wickham, a pretie market towne. The other named Higden, descendeth
 [Sidenote: Higden.]
 also from those mounteines but a mile beneath west Wickham, and ioining
 both in one at the last, in the west end of east Wickham towne, they go
 togither to Wooburne, Hedsor, & so into the Thames. Some call it the
 Tide; and that word doo I vse in my former treatise: but to procéed.
 After this confluence our Thames goeth on by Cowkham, Topleie,
 Maidenhead, aliàs Sudlington, Braie, Dorneie, Clure, new Windsore
 (taking in neuerthelesse, at Eaton by the waie, the Burne which riseth
 out of a Moore, & commeth thither by Burnham) old Windsor, Wraiborow,
 and a little by east therof doth crosse the Cole, whereof I find this
 short description insuing.

 [Sidenote: Colus, aliàs Vere and Vertume.]
 The Cole riseth néere vnto Flamsted, from whence it goeth to Redburn, S.
 Michaels, S. Albons, Aldenham, Watford, and so by More to Richmansworth,
 where there is a confluence of three waters, of which this Cole is the
 [Sidenote: Gadus.]
 first. The second called Gadus riseth not farre from Ashridge, an house
 or palace belonging to the prince: from whence it runneth to great
 Gaddesdin, Hemsted, betwéene Kings Langleie, and Abbots Langleie, then
 to Hunters, and Cashew bridges, and so to Richmanswoorth, receiuing by
 the waie a rill comming from Alburie by northwest, to Northchurch,
 Barkehamsted, and beneath Hemsted ioining with the same. The last
 commeth in at northwest from aboue Chesham, by Chesham it selfe, then by
 Chesham Bois, Latimers, Mawdlens, Cheinies, Sarret and Richmanswoorth,
 and so going on all in one chanell vnder the name of Cole, it runneth to
 Vxbridge, where it taketh in the Missenden water, from northwest, which
 rising aboue Missenden the greater goeth by Missenden the lesse,
 Hagmondesham (now Hammersham) the Vach, Chalfhunt Giles, Chalfhunt S.
 Peters, Denham, and then into the Cole aboue Vxbridge (as I haue said.)
 Soone after this our Cole doth part it selfe into two branches, neuer to
 ioine againe before they come at the Thames, for the greater of them
 goeth thorough the goodlie medows straight to Colebrooke, the other vnto
 two milles, a mile and a halfe east of Colebrooke, in the waie to
 London, leauing an Iland betwéene them of no small size and quantitie.

 [Sidenote: Vindeles.]
 Being past the Cole, we come to the fall of the Vindeles, which riseth
 by northwest néere vnto Bagshot, from whence it goeth to Windlesham,
 Chobham, and méeting with a brooklet comming westward from Bisleie, they
 run togither toward Cherteseie, where when they haue met with a small
 rill rising north of Sonning hill in Windlesoure great parke, it falleth
 into the Thames on the northeast side of Cherteseie. When we were come
 beyond this water, it was not long yer we came vnto another on the same
 side, that fell into the Thames betweene Shepperton on the one side, and
 [Sidenote: Veius.]
 Oteland on the other, and is called the Waie. The Weie or the Waie
 rising by west, commeth from Olsted, & soone after taking the Hedleie
 brooke withall (which riseth in Wulmere forrest, and goeth by Hedleie
 and Frensham) hasteth by Bentleie, Farnham, Alton, Waiberleie, Elsted,
 [Sidenote: Thuresbie.]
 and so to Pepper harrow, where it ioineth with the Thuresbie water,
 which commeth not farre off from a village of the same denomination.
 From hence also it goeth to Godalming, and then toward Shawford, but yer
 it come there, it crosseth Craulie becke, which rising somewhere about
 [Sidenote: Crawleie.]
 the edge of Sussex short of Ridgewijc, goeth by Vacherie parke, Knoll,
 Craulie, Bramleie, Wonarsh, and so into the Waie. From hence then our
 [Sidenote: Abbinger.]
 riuer goeth to Shawford, and soone after (méeting with the Abbinger
 water that commeth by Shere, Albirie, and the chappell on the hill) it
 proceedeth to Guldeford, thence to Stoke, Sutton in the parke, Send,
 Woking, and at Newarke parke side taketh in a brooke that riseth of two
 heads, whereof one dooth spring betwéene two hils north of Pepper
 harrow, and so runneth through Henleie parke, the other aboue Purbright,
 and afterward ioining in one, they go foorth vnto Newarke, and being
 there vnited, after the confluence it goeth to Purford court, to Bifler,
 Waifred, Oteland, and so into the Thames.

 [Sidenote: Molts.]
 From Oteland the Thames goeth by Walton, Sunburie, west Moulseie,
 Hampton, and yer it come at Hampton court on the northside, and east
 Moulseie on the other, it taketh in the Moule water, which giueth name
 vnto the two townes that stand on each side of the place, where it
 falleth into our streame. It riseth in Word forrest, and going by
 Burstow, it méeteth afterward with another gullet, conteining a small
 course from two seuerall heads, whereof one is also in the forrest
 aforenamed, the other runneth from Febush wood, and comming by Iseld,
 méeteth with the first aboue Horleie, and so run on in one chanell, I
 saie, till they ioine with the Moule water, whereof I spake before.

 After this confluence in like sort, it is not long yer the Moule take in
 another from by north, which commeth from about Mesham on the one side,
 and another on the other side, running by Ocleie and Capell, and
 whereinto also a branch or rill commeth from a wood on the northwest
 part. Finallie, being thus increased with these manie rilles, it goeth
 by east Becheworth, west Becheworth, and ouer against the Swalow on the
 side of Drake hill, taking in another that c[=o]meth thither from
 Wootton by Darking and Milton, it runneth to Mickleham, Letherhed,
 Stoke, Cobham, Ashire parke, east Moulseie, and so into the Thames,
 which after this coniunction goeth on to Kingston, and there also
 méeteth with another becke, rising at Ewell south of Nonsuch. Certes,
 this rill goeth from Ewell by the old parke, then to Mauldon, & so to
 Kingston towne. The Thames in like maner being past Kingston, goeth to
 Tuddington, Petersham, Twickenham, Richmond, and Shene, where it
 receiueth a water on the northwest side, which comming from about Harrow
 on the hill, and by west of the same, goeth by Haies, Harlington,
 Felthan, and Thistleworth into the Thames.

 The next fall of water is at Sion, néere vnto new Brainford, so that it
 [Sidenote: Brane.]
 issueth into the Thames betwéen them both. This water is called Brane,
 that is in the Brittish toong (as Leland saith) a frog. It riseth about
 Edgeworth, and commeth from thence by Kingesburie, Twiford, Periuall,
 Hanwell, and Austerleie. Thence we followed our riuer to old Brentford,
 Mortlach, Cheswijc, Barnelmes, Fulham, and Putneie, beneath which townes
 it crossed a becke from Wandlesworth, that riseth at Woodmans turne, and
 going by Easthalton, méeteth another comming from Croidon by Bedington,
 and so going on to Mitcham, Marton abbeie, and Wandlesworth, it is not
 [Sidenote: Mariburne.]
 long yer it fall into the Thames. Next vnto this is Mariburne rill on
 the other side, which commeth in by S. Iames, so that by this time we
 haue either brought the Thames, or the Thames conueied vs to London,
 where we rested for a season to take view of the seuerall tides there,
 of which each one differeth from other, by foure & twentie minuts, that
 is fortie eight in a whole daie, as I haue noted before, except the
 wether alter them. Being past London, and in the waie toward the sea:
 the first water that it méeteth withall, is the Brome on Kent side,
 [Sidenote: Bromis.]
 west of Gréenewich, whose head is Bromis in Bromleie parish, and going
 from thence to Lewsham, it taketh in a water from by east, and so
 directeth his course foorth right vnto the Thames.

 The next water that it méeteth withall, is on Essex side, almost against
 [Sidenote: Lée.]
 Woolwich, and that is the Lée or Luie, whose head riseth short of
 Kempton in Hertfordshire, foure miles southeast of Luton, sometime
 [Sidenote: Logus.]
 called Logodunum or Logrodunum, & going through a péece of Brokehall
 parke (leauing Woodhall parke on the north, and Hatfield on the south,
 with another parke adioining) it goeth toward Hartford towne. But yer it
 [Sidenote: Marran.]
 come there, it receiueth a water (peraduenture the Marran) rising at
 northwest in Brodewater hundred, from aboue Welwin, northeast of
 Digeswell, and going to Hartingfeld burie, where the said confluence
 is within one mile of the towne. Beneath Hatfield also it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Beane.]
 Beane (as I gesse) comming from Boxwood by Benington, Aston, Watton, and
 Stapleford, and a little lower, the third arme of increase from aboue
 Ware, which descendeth from two heads: whereof the greatest commeth from
 Barkewaie in Edwinster hundred, the other Sandon in Oddesey hundred, and
 after they be met beneath little Hornemeade, they go togither by
 Pulcherchurch, or Puckrich, Stonden, Thunderidge, Wadesmill, Benghoo,
 and so into the Lée, which from hence runneth on till it come at Ware,
 which was drowned by the rage of the same 1408, and so to Amwell, where
 on the north side it receiueth the water that commeth from little
 Hadham, through a péece of Singleshall parke, then by great Hadham, and
 so from Widford to the aforesaid towne. From hence also they go as one
 to old Stansted called Le Veil, branching in such wise yer it come
 there, that it runneth through the towne in sundrie places. Thence it
 goeth foorth to Abbats Stansted, beneath which it méeteth with the
 [Sidenote: Sturus.]
 Stoure, west (as I remember) of Roidon. This Sture riseth at Wenden
 lootes, from whence it goeth to Langleie, Clauering, Berden, Manhuden, &
 Birchanger (where it taketh a rill comming from Elsingham, & Stansted
 Mountfitchet.) Thence it hieth on to Bishops Stourford, Sabrichfoord,
 and beneath this towne crosseth with another from the east side of
 Elsingham, that goeth to Hatfield, Brodocke, Shiring, Harlo, & so into
 the Stoure, and from whence they go togither to Eastwic, Parmedon, and
 next into the Lée. These things being thus performed, the Lée runneth on
 beneath Hoddesdon, Broxburne, and Wormleie, where a water breaketh out
 by west of the maine streame, a mile lower than Wormeleie it selfe, but
 yet within the paroch, and is called Wormeleie locke.

 It runneth also by Cheston nunrie, and out of this a little beneath the
 said house, breaketh an arme called the Shirelake, bicause it diuideth
 Eastsex and Hartford shire in sunder, and in the length of one medow
 called Fritheie. This lake runneth not but at great flouds, and méeteth
 againe with a succor of ditchwater, at a place called Hockesditch, halfe
 a mile from his first breaking out, and halfe a mile lower at Marsh
 point ioineth againe with the streame from whence it came before. Thence
 commeth the first arme to S. Maulie bridge (the first bridge westward
 vpon that riuer) vpon Waltham causie, & halfe a mile lower than Maulie
 bridge, at the corner of Ramnie mead, it méeteth with the kings streame
 & principall course of Luy, or Lee, as it is commonlie called. The
 second arme breaketh out of the kings streame at Halifield halfe a mile
 lower than Cheston nunrie, and so to the fulling mill, and two bridges
 by west of the kings streame, wherinto it falleth about a stones cast
 lower at a place called Malkins shelffe, except I was wrong informed.
 Cheston & Hartfordshire men doo saie, that the kings streame at Waltham
 dooth part Hartfordshire and Essex, but the Essex men by forrest charter
 doo plead their liberties to hold vnto S. Maulies bridge. On the east
 side also of the kings streame breaketh out but one principall arme at
 Halifield, three quarters of a mile aboue Waltham, & so goeth to the
 corne mill in Waltham, and then to the K. streame againe a little
 beneath the kings bridge.

 From hence the Lée runneth on by south on Waltonstow till it come to
 Stretford Langthorne, where it brancheth partlie of it selfe, and partlie
 [Sidenote: Alfred.]
 by mans industrie for mils. Howbeit heerein the dealing of Alfred
 (sometimes king of England) was not of smallest force, who vnderstanding
 the Danes to be gotten vp with their ships into the countrie, there to
 kill and slaie his subiects, in the yeere of grace 896, by the conduct
 of this riuer: he in the meane time before they could returne, did so
 mightilie weaken the maine chanell, by drawing great numbers of trenches
 from the same; that when they purposed to come backe, there was nothing
 so much water left as the ships did draw: wherefore being set on ground,
 they were soone fired, & the aduersaries ouercome. By this policie also
 much medow ground was woone, & made firme land, whereby the countrie
 about was not a little inriched, as was also a part of Assyria by the
 like practise of Cyrus with the Ganges, at such time as he came against
 Babylon, which riuer before time was in maner equall with Euphrates. For
 he was so offended, that one of his knights whom he loued déerlie, was
 drowned and borne awaie with the water in his passage ouer the same,
 that he sware a deepe oth yer long to make it so shallow that it should
 not wet a woman to the knées. Which came to passe, for he caused all his
 armie to dig 46 new draines fr[=o] the same, wherby the vow that he had
 made was at the full performed. Senec. de Tra. li. 3. But to conclude
 with the Lee that somtime ouerflowed all those medowes, through which it
 passeth (as for a great waie not inferior to the Thames) and I find that
 being past Westham, it is not long yer it fall into that streame. One
 thing I read more of this riuer before the conquest, that is, how Edward
 the first, & sonne of Alfred, in the yeare of grace 912, builded
 Hartford towne: at which time also he had Wittham a towne in Essex in
 hand, as his sister called Aelfled repaired Oxford & London, and all
 this foure yeares before the building of Maldon; of some called Hertford
 or Herudford betweene three waters, that is, the Lée, the Benefuth, and
 Memmarran, or rather Penmarran: but how these waters are distinguished
 in these daies, as yet I cannot tell. It is possible, that the Bene may
 be the same which commeth by Benington, and Benghoo: which if it be so,
 then must the Memmarran be the same that descendeth from Whitwell, for
 not farre from thence is Branfield, which might in time past right well
 be called Marranfield, for of like inuersion of names I could shew manie

 Being past the Lee (whose chanell is begun to be purged 1576, with
 further hope to bring the same to the north side of London) we come vnto
 [Sidenote: Rodon or Rodunus.]
 the Rodon, vpon Essex side in like maner, and not verie farre (for foure
 miles is the most) from the fall of the Lée. This water riseth at little
 Canfield, from whence it goeth to great Canfield, high Roding, Eithorpe
 Roding, Ledon Roding, White Roding, Beauchampe Roding, Fifeld, Shelleie,
 high Ongar, and Cheping Ongar, where the Lauer falleth into it, that
 [Sidenote: Lauer.]
 ariseth betwixt Matching and high Lauer; and taking another rill withall
 comming from aboue Northweld at Cheping Ongar, they ioine (I saie) with
 the Rodon, after which confluence Leland coniectureth that the streame
 [Sidenote: Iuelus.]
 is called Iuell: for my part, I wot not what to say of it. But héerof I
 am sure, that the whole course being past Ongar, it goeth to Stansted
 riuers, Theidon mount, Heibridge, Chigwell, Woodford bridge, Ilford
 bridge, Barking, & so into the Thames.

 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 The Darwent méeteth with our said Thames vpon Kents side, two miles and
 more beneath Erith. It riseth at Tanridge, or there abouts, as I haue
 beene informed by Christopher Saxtons card late made of the same, and
 the like (I hope) he will doo in all the seuerall shires of England at
 the infinit charges of sir Thomas Sackford knight, & maister of the
 requests, whose zeale vnto his countrie héerin I cannot but remember, &
 so much the rather, for that he meaneth to imitate Ortelius, & somewhat
 beside this hath holpen me in the names of the townes, by which these
 riuers for the Kentish part do run. Would to God his plats were once
 finished for the rest! But to procéed. The Darwent therefore, rising at
 Tanridge, goeth on by Titseie toward Brasted, and receiuing on ech side
 of that towne (& seuerall bankes) a riuer or rill, it goeth on to
 Nockhold, Shorham, Kinsford, Horton, Darnhith, Dartford or Derwentford,
 [Sidenote: Craie.]
 & there taking in the Craie on the left hand that coms from Orpington by
 Marie Craie, Paules Craie, North Craie, and Craiford, it is not long yer
 it fall into the Thames. But after I had once passed the fall of the
 brooke, it is a world to sée what plentie of Serephium groweth vpon the
 Kentish shore, in whose description Fuichsius hath not a little halted;
 whilest he giueth foorth the hearbe Argentaria for Serephium, betwéene
 which there is no maner of likelihood. This neuerthelesse is notable in
 the said hearbe, that being translated into the garden, it receiueth
 another forme cleane different from the first, which it yéelded when it
 grew vpon the shore, and therevnto appeareth of more fat & foggie
 substance. Which maketh me to thinke that our physicians do take it for
 a distinct kind of wormewood, whereof controuersie ariseth among them.
 The next water that falleth into the Thames, is west of the Wauie Iles,
 a rill of no great fame, neither long course, for rising about Coringham,
 it runneth not manie miles east and by south, yer it fall into the mouth
 of this riuer, which I doo now describe.

 I would haue spoken of one créeke that commeth in at Cliffe, and another
 that runneth downe from Haltsto by S. Maries: but sith I vnderstand not
 with what backewaters they be serued, I let them passe as not skilfull
 of their courses. And thus much of the riuers that fall into the Thames,
 wherein I haue doone what I maie, but not what I would for mine owne
 satisfaction, till I came from the head to Lechlade, vnto which, as in
 lieu of a farewell, I will ascribe that distichon which Apollonius
 Rhodius writeth of the Thermodon:

   Huic non est aliud flumen par, nec tot in agros
   Vllum dimittit riuos quot fundit vtrinque.

 [Sidenote: Midwaie.]
 Next vnto the Thames we haue the Midwaie water, whereof I find two
 descriptions, the first beginneth thus. The Midwaie water is called in
 Latine Medeuia (as some write) bicause the course therof is midwaie in a
 manner betwéene London and Dorobernia, or (as we now call it)
 Canturburie. In British it hight Dourbrée: and thereof Rochester was
 sometime called Durobreuum. But in an old charter which I haue seene
 (conteining a donation sometime made to the monasterie of saint Andrews
 there by Ceadwalla) I find that the Saxons called this riuer Wedring;
 and also a towne standing betweene Malling and east Farleie, Wedrington;
 and finallie, a forrest also of the same denomination, Wedrington, now
 Waterdon, wherby the originall name appeareth to be fetched from this
 streame. It ariseth in Waterdon forrest east of Whetlin or Wedring, and
 ioineth with another brooke that descendeth from Ward forrest in Sussex:
 and after this confluence they go on togither, as one by Ashhirst, where
 hauing receiued also the second brooke, it hasteth to Pensherst, and
 there carrieth withall the Eden, that commeth from Lingfield parke.
 After this it goeth to the southeast part of Kent, and taketh with it
 [Sidenote: Frethus.]
 the Frith or Firth, on the northwest side, and an other little streame
 that commeth from the hilles betwéene Peuenburie and Horsemon on the
 southeast. From thence also, and not farre from Yalling it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Theise.]
 Theise (a pretie streame that ariseth about Theise Hirst) & afterward
 [Sidenote: Grane aliàs Cranus.]
 the Gran or Crane, which hauing his head not farre from Cranbrooke, and
 méeting with sundrie other riuelets by the waie, whereof one branch of
 Theise is the last, for it parteth at the Twist, and including a pretie
 Iland, doth ioine with the said Midwaie, a little aboue Yalding, and
 then with the Lowse. Finallie at Maidstone it méeteth with another
 brooke, whose name I know not, and then passeth by Allington, Duton,
 Newhide, Halling, Cuckestane, Rochester, Chattham, Gillingham, Vpchurch,
 Kingsferrie, and falleth into the maine sea betwéene Shepeie and the

 And thus much out of the first authour, who commendeth it also, for that
 in time past it did yéeld such plentie of sturgeon, as beside the kings
 portion, and a due vnto the archbishop of Canturburie out of the same,
 the deane and chapter of Rochester had no small allowance also of that
 commoditie: likewise for the shrimps that are taken therein, which are
 no lesse estéemed of in their kind, than the westerne smelts or
 flounders taken in the Thames, &c. The second authour describeth it
 after this manner, and more copiouslie than the other.

 The cheefe head of this streame riseth in Waterdon forrest, from whence
 after it hath runne a pretie waie still within the same, east of
 Whetlin, it méeteth with a brooke, whose head is in Ward forrest,
 southwest of Greenested, which goeth to Hartfield, and so to Whetlin,
 and yer long ioineth with the Midwaie. After this confluence it is not
 long yer it take in another by west from Cowden ward, and the third
 aboue Pensherst, growing from two heads, whereof one is in Lingfield
 parke, the other west of Crawherst; and ioining aboue Edinbridge, it
 doth fall into the midwaie beneath Heuer towne, and Chiddingston. From
 Pensherst our maine streame hasteth to Ligh, Tunbridge, and Twidleie,
 and beneath the towne, it crosseth a water from North, whereof one head
 is at the Mote, another at Wroteham, the third at west Peckham, &
 likewise another from southest, that runneth east of Capell. Next after
 this it receiueth the These, whose forked head is at Theise Hirst, which
 descending downe toward the north, taketh in not farre from Scotnie a
 brooke out of the northside of Waterden forrest, whose name I find not,
 except it be the Dour. After this confluence our riuer goeth to
 Goldhirst, and comming to the Twist, it brancheth in such wise, that one
 part of it runneth into Midwaie, another into the Garan, or rather
 [Sidenote: Garunus, Cranus.]
 Cranebrooke (if my coniecture be anie thing.) The Garan (as Leland
 calleth it) or the Crane (as I doo take it) riseth néere to Cranebrooke,
 and going by Siffinghirst, it receiueth yer long one water that commeth
 by Fretingdon, and another that runneth from great Chard by Smerdon, and
 Hedcorne, crossing two rilles by the waie from by north, Hedcorne it
 selfe standing betwéene them both. Finallie, the Garan or Crane meeting
 with Midwaie south of Yalling, they on the one side, and the These on
 the other, leaue a pretie Iland in the middest, of foure miles in
 length, and two in breadth, wherein is some hillie soile, but neither
 towne nor village, so farre as I remember.

 From Yalling forward, the Midwaie goeth to west Farlegh, east Farlegh:
 and yer it come at Maidstone, it interteineth a rill that riseth short
 of Ienham, and goeth by Ledes and Otteringden, which is verie
 beneficiall to clothiers in drie yéeres: for thither they conueie their
 clothes to be thicked at the fulling milles, sometimes ten miles for the
 same: there is also at Ledes great plentie of fulling earth, which is a
 necessarie commoditie.

 Being past Maidstone, it runneth by Allington, Snodland, Halling,
 Cuckstane, and Rochester, where it passeth vnder a faire bridge of
 stone, with a verie swift course, which bridge was begun 1388 by the
 lord Iohn Cobham, the ladie Margaret his wife, and the valiant sir
 Robert Knolles, who gaue the first onset vpon that péece of worke, and
 therevnto builded a chappell of the Trinitie at the end therof, in
 testimonie of his pietie. In processe of time also one Iohn Warner of
 Rochester made the new coping thereof; and archbishop Warham of
 Canturburie the iron barres: the bishops also of that see were not
 slacke in their beneuolence and furtherances toward that worke,
 especiallie Walter Merton founder of Merton college in Oxford, who by
 misfortune perished by falling from the same, as he rode to surueie the
 workemen. Being past Rochester, this noble riuer goeth to Chatham,
 Gillingham, Vpchurch, and soone after branching, it imbraceth the Greene
 at his fall, as his two heads doo Ashdon forrest, that lieth betwéene
 them both.



 [Sidenote: Stoure.]
 After the Midwaie we haue the Stoure that riseth at Kingeswood, which is
 [Sidenote: Nailburne water also (as I heare) neer to Cantwarbirie,
 but I wote not whereabouts: sée _Marianus Scotus_.]
 fourtéene or fifteene miles from Canturburie. This riuer passeth by
 Ashford, Wie, Nackington, Canturburie, Fordish, Standish, and
 Sturemouth, where it receiueth another riuer growing of three branches.
 After our Stoure or Sture parteth it self in twaine, & in such wise,
 that one arme therof goeth toward the north, and is called (when it
 commeth at the sea) the north mouth of Stoure; the other runneth
 southeastward vp to Richborow, and so to Sandwich, from whence it goeth
 northeast againe and falleth into the sea. The issue of this later tract
 is called the hauen of Sandwich. And peraduenture the streame that
 commeth downe thither, after the diuision of the Stoure, maie be the
 [Sidenote: Wantsome.]
 same which Beda calleth Wantsome; but as I cannot vndoo this knot at
 will, so this is certeine, that the Stoure on the one side, and
 peraduenture the Wantsome on the other, parteth and cutteth the Tenet
 from the maine land of Kent, whereby it is left for an Iland.

 There are other little brookes which fall into the Stoure, whereof
 Leland speaketh, as Fishpoole becke that ariseth in Stonehirst wood, and
 meeteth with it foure miles from Canturburie: another beginneth at
 Chislet, and goeth into the Stoure gut, which sometime inclosed Thanet,
 as Leland saith: the third issueth out of the ground at Northburne
 (where Eadbert of Kent sometime past held his palace) and runneth to
 Sandwich hauen, as the said authour reporteth: and the fourth called
 Bridgewater that riseth by S. Marie Burne church, and going by Bishops
 Burne, meeteth with Canturburie water at Stourmouth: also Wiham that
 riseth aboue Wiham short of Adsam, and falleth into Bridgewater at
 Dudmill, or Wenderton: and the third namelesse, which riseth short of
 Wodensburgh (a towne wherein Hengist & the Saxons honored their grand
 idoll Woden, or Othine) and goeth by Staple to Wingam: but sith they are
 obscure I will not touch them here. From hence passing by the Goodwine,
 a plot verie perilous for sea-faring men (sometime firme land, that is,
 vntill the tenth of the conquerours sonne, whose name was William Rufus,
 and wherein a great part of the inheritance of erle Goodwine in time
 past was knowne to lie) but escaping it with ease, we came at length to
 [Sidenote: Dour.]
 Douer. In all which voiage we found no streame, by reason of the cliffes
 that inuiron the said coast. Howbeit vpon the south side of Douer, there
 is a pretie fresh riuer, whose head ariseth at Erwell, not passing foure
 miles from the sea, and of some is called Dour, which in the British
 toong is a common name for waters, as is also the old British word Auon
 for the greatest riuers, into whose mouthes or falles shippes might find
 safe entrance; and therefore such are in my time called hauens, a new
 word growen by an aspiration added to the old: the Scots call it Auen.
 But more of this else-where, sith I am now onelie to speake of Dour,
 wherof it is likelie that the towne & castell of Douer did sometime take
 the name. From hence we go toward the Camber (omitting peraduenture here
 and there sundrie small creeks void of backwater by the waie)
 [Sidenote: Rother.]
 whereabouts the Rother a noble riuer falleth into the sea. This Rother
 separateth Sussex from Kent, and hath his head in Sussex, not farre from
 Argas hill néere to Waterden forrest, and from thence directeth his
 course vnto Rotherfield. After this it goeth to Ethlingham or
 Hitchingham, and so foorth by Newendon vnto Mattham ferrie, where it
 diuideth it selfe in such wise, that one branch thereof goeth to
 Appledoure (where is a castell sometime builded by the Danes, in the
 time of Alfred, as they did erect another at Middleton, and the third at
 [Sidenote: Bilie.]
 Beamflete) and at this towne, where it méeteth the Bilie that riseth
 about Bilsington, the other by Iden, so that it includeth a fine parcell
 of ground called Oxneie, which in time past was reputed as a parcell of
 Sussex; but now vpon some occasion or other (to me vnknowne) annexed
 vnto Kent. From hence also growing into some greatnesse, it runneth to
 [Sidenote: Becke.]
 Rie, where it méeteth finallie with the Becke, which commeth from
 Beckleie: so that the plot wherein Rie standeth, is in manner a by-land
 or peninsula, as experience doth confirme. Leland and most men are of the
 [Sidenote: Limenus.]
 likeliest opinion, that this riuer should be called the Limen, which (as
 Peter of Cornhull saith) doth issue out of Andredeswald, where the head
 thereof is knowne to be. Certes, I am of the opinion, that it is called
 the Rother vnto Appledoure, & from thence the Limen, bicause the Danes
 are noted to enter into these parts by the Limen; and sailing on the
 same to Appledoure, did there begin to fortifie, as I haue noted
 alreadie. Howbeit, in our time it is knowne by none other name than the
 Rother or Appledoure water, whereof let this suffice.

 Being thus crossed ouer to the west side of Rie hauen, & in vewing the
 issues that fall into the same, I meet first of all with a water that
 groweth of two brookes, which come downe by one chanell into the east
 side of the mouth of the said port. The first therfore that falleth into
 it descendeth from Beckleie or thereabouts (as I take it) the next
 runneth along by Pesemarsh, & soone after ioining with all, they hold on
 as one, till they fall into the same at the westerlie side of Rie: the
 third streame commeth from the north, and as it mounteth vp not farre
 from Munfield, so it runneth betweene Sescambe and Wacklinton néere vnto
 Bread, taking another rill withall that riseth (as I heare) not verie
 far from Westfield. There is likewise a fourth that groweth of two heads
 betweene Ielingham and Pet, and going by Winchelseie it méeteth with all
 about Rie hauen, so that Winchelseie standeth inuironed on thrée parts
 with water, and the streames of these two that I haue last rehearsed.

 The water that falleth into the Ocean, a mile by southwest of Hastings,
 [Sidenote: Aestus.]
 or therabouts, is called Æstus or Asten: perhaps of Hasten or Hasting
 the Dane, (who in time past was a plague to France and England) & rising
 not far from Penhirst, it meeteth with the sea (as I heare) by east of
 [Sidenote: Buluerhithe.]
 Hollington. Buluerhith is but a creeke (as I remember) serued with no
 backewater; and so I heare of Codding or Old hauen, wherefore I meane
 not to touch them.

 [Sidenote: Peuenseie.]
 Into Peuenseie hauen diuerse waters doo resort, and of these, that which
 entereth into the same on the east side riseth out from two heads,
 [Sidenote: Ash.]
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 whereof the most easterlie is called Ash, the next vnto the Burne, and
 vniting themselues not farre from Ashburne, they continue their course
 vnder the name and tide of Ashburne water, as I read. The second that
 commeth thereinto issueth also of two heads, whereof the one is so manie
 miles from Boreham, the other not far from the Parke east of
 Hellingstowne, and both of them concurring southwest of Hirstmowsen,
 they direct their course toward Peuenseie (beneath which they méet with
 another rising at Foington) and thence go in one chanell for a mile or
 [Sidenote: Cucomarus.]
 more, till they fall togither into Peuenseie hauen. The Cuckmer issueth
 out at seuerall places, and hereof the more easterlie branch commeth
 from Warbleton ward, the other from Bishops wood, and méeting beneath
 Halling, they run one bottome by Micham, Arlington, Wellington, old
 Frithstan, and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Isis.]
 [Sidenote: Ni fallor.]
 Vnto the water that commeth out at Newhauen, sundrie brookes and
 riuerets doo resort, but the chiefe head riseth toward the west,
 somewhat betwéene Etchinford and Shepleie, as I heare. The first water
 therefore that falleth into the same on the east side, issueth out of
 the ground about Vertwood, and running from thence by Langhton and Ripe,
 on the west side; it falleth into the aforesaid riuer beneath Forle and
 Glime, or thrée miles lower than Lewis, if the other buttall like you
 not. The next herevnto hath his head in Argas hill, the third descendeth
 from Ashedon forrest, and ioining with the last mentioned, they crosse
 the maine riuer a little beneath Isefield. The fourth water commeth from
 Ashedon forrest by Horstéed Caines (or Ousestate Caines) and falleth
 into the same, likewise east of Linfield. Certes I am deceiued if this
 riuer be not called Isis, after it is past Isefield. The fift riseth
 [Sidenote: Sturewell.]
 about Storuelgate, and meeteth also with the maine streame aboue
 Linfield, and these are knowen to lie vpon the right hand as we rowed vp
 the riuer. On the other side are onelie two, whereof the first hath his
 originall neere vnto Wenefield, and holding on his course toward the
 east, it meeteth with his maister betweene Newicke and Isefield (or
 [Sidenote: Plimus.]
 Ifield) as some read it. The last of all commeth from Plimodune or
 Plumpton, and hauing met in like sort with the maine riuer about
 Barcham, it runneth foorth with it, & they rest in one chanell by
 Barcham, Hamseie, Malling, Lewis, Piddingburne, and so foorth into the

 [Sidenote: Soru.]
 The next riuer that we came vnto west of Brighthemston is the Sore,
 which notwithstanding I find to be called Brember water, in the ancient
 map of Marton colledge in Oxford: but in such sort (as I take it) as the
 Rother or Limen is called Appledoure streame, bicause of the said towne
 that standeth thervpon. But to procéed, it is a pleasant water, &
 thereto if you consider the situation of his armes, and branches from
 the higher grounds, verie much resembling a foure stringed whip.
 Whereabout the head of this riuer is, or which of these branches may
 safelie be called Sora from the rising, in good sooth I cannot say. For
 after we had passed nine or ten mils thereon vp into the land, suddenlie
 the crosse waters stopped vs, so that we were inforced to turne either
 east or west, for directlie foorth right we had no waie to go. The first
 arme on the right hand as we went, riseth out of a parke by south of
 Alborne, and going on for a certeine space toward the northwest, it
 turneth southward betwéene Shermonburie and Twinham, and soone after
 [Sidenote: Bimarus.]
 méeteth with the Bimar, not much south from Shermonburie, whence they
 run togither almost two miles, till they fall into the Sore. That on the
 west side descendeth from about Billingeshirst, & going toward the east,
 it crosseth with the fourth (which riseth a litle by west of Thacam)
 east from Pulborow, and so they run as one into the Sore, that after
 this confluence hasteth it selfe southward by Brember, Burleis, the
 Combes, and yer long into the Ocean.

 [Sidenote: Arunus.]
 The Arun (of which beside Arundell towne the castell and the vallie
 wherin it runneth is called Vallis Aruntina, or Arundale in English) is
 a goodlie water, and thereto increased with no small number of excellent
 & pleasant brookes. It springeth vp of two heads, whereof one descendeth
 from the north not far from Gretham, and going by Lis, méeteth with the
 next streame (as I gesse) about Doursford house. The second riseth by
 west from the hils that lie toward the rising of the sunne from East
 maine, and runneth by Peterfield. The third commeth from Beriton ward,
 and ioineth with the second betwéene Peterfield and Doursford, after
 which confluence they go togither in one chanell still toward the east
 (taking a rill with them that c[=o]mmeth betwéene Fernehirst and S.
 Lukes chappell, southwest of Linchmere, and meeting with it east of
 Loddesworth (as I doo read, and likewise sundrie other in one chanell
 beneath Stopham) to Waltham, Burie, Houghton, Stoke, Arundell,
 Tortington ford, Climping (all on the west side) and so into the sea.

 Hauing thus described the west side of Arun, let vs doo the like with
 the other in such sort as we best may. The first riuer that we come vnto
 therfore on the east side, and also the second, rise of sundrie places
 in S. Leonards forrest, & ioining a little aboue Horsham, they méet with
 the third, which commeth from Ifield parke, not verie farre from
 Slinfeld. The fourth hath two heads, whereof one riseth in Witleie
 parke, the other by west, neere vnto Heselméere chappell, and meeting by
 west of Doursfeld, they vnite themselues with the chanell, growing by
 the confluence that I spake of beneath Slinfeld, a little aboue
 Billingshirst. The last water commeth from the hils aboue Linchemere,
 and runneth west and south, and passing betwéene Billingshirst and
 Stopham it commeth vnto the chanell last mentioned, and so into the Arun
 beneath Stopham, without anie further increase, at the least that I doo
 heare of.

 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 Burne hath his issue in a parke néere Aldingburrie (or rather a little
 aboue the same toward the north, as I haue since beene informed) and
 running by the bottomes toward the south, it falleth betwéene north
 [Sidenote: Elin.]
 Berflete and Flesham. Erin riseth of sundrie heads, by east of Erinleie,
 and directing his course toward the sunne rising, it peninsulateth
 [Sidenote: Del[=u]s.]
 Seleseie towne on the southwest and Pagham at northwest. Deel springeth
 about Benderton, and thence running betwéene middle Lauant and east
 Lauant, it goeth by west of west Hampnet, by east of Chichester, or west
 of Rumbaldesdowne, and afterward by Fishburne, where it meeteth with a
 rill comming north west from Funtingdon (a little beneath the towne) &
 then running thus in one streame toward the sea, it méeteth with another
 rillet comming by north of Bosham, and so into Auant gulfe by east of
 Thorneie Iland.

 [Sidenote: Racunus.]
 The Racon riseth by east of Racton or Racodunum (as Leland calleth it)
 and comming by Chidham, it falleth into the sea, northeast of Thorneie
 [Sidenote: Emill.]
 aforesaid. The Emill commeth first betwéene Racton and Stansted, then
 downe to Emilsworth or Emmesworth, & so vnto the Ocean, separating
 Sussex from Hampshire almost from the very head. Hauing in this maner
 passed along the coasts of Sussex, the next water that I remember,
 riseth by east of the forrest of Estbirie, from whence it goeth by
 Southwike, west Burhunt, Farham, and so into the gulfe almost full
 [Sidenote: Badunus forte.]
 south. Then come we to Bedenham creeke (so called of a village standing
 thereby) the mouth whereof lieth almost directlie against Porchester
 castell, which is situat about three miles by water from Portesmouth
 towne, as Leland dooth report. Then go we within halfe a mile further
 [Sidenote: Forten or Fordon.]
 to Forten creeke, which either giueth or taketh name of a village hard
 [Sidenote: Osterpoole.]
 by. After this we come to Osterpoole lake, a great créeke, that goeth vp
 by west into the land, and lieth not far from a round turret of stone,
 from whence also there goeth a chaine to another tower on the east side
 directlie ouer against it, the like whereof is to be séene in diuerse
 other hauens of the west countrie, wherby the entrance of great vessels
 into that part may be at pleasure restreined.

 From hence we go further to Tichefeld water, that riseth about Eastmaine
 [Sidenote: Tichefield.]
 parke, ten or twelue miles by northeast or there abouts from Tichefeld.
 From Eastmaine it goeth (parting the forrests of Waltham, and Eastberie
 by the way) to Wicham or Wicombe, a pretie market towne & large
 throughfare, where also the water separateth it selfe into two armelets,
 and going vnder two bridges of wood commeth yer long againe vnto one
 chanell. From hence it goeth three or foure miles further, to a bridge
 of timber by maister Writhoseleies house (leauing Tichfeld towne on the
 right side) and a little beneath runneth vnder Ware bridge, whither the
 sea floweth as hir naturall course inforceth. Finallie, within a mile of
 this bridge it goeth into the water of Hampton hauen, whervnto diuerse
 streames resort, as you shall heare hereafter.

 [Sidenote: Hamelrish.]
 After this we come to Hamble hauen, or Hamelrish créeke, whose fall is
 betwéene saint Andrewes castell, and Hoke. It riseth about Shidford in
 Waltham forrest, & when it is past Croke bridge, it méeteth with another
 brooke, which issueth not farre from Bishops Waltham, out of sundrie
 springs in the high waie on Winchester, from whence it passeth (as I
 said) by Bishops Waltham, then to Budeleie or Botleie, and then ioining
 with the Hamble, they run togither by Prowlingsworth, Vpton, Brusill,
 Hamble towne, and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Southhampton.]
 Now come we to the hauen of Southhampton, by Ptolomie called Magnus
 portus, which I will briefelie describe so néere as I can possiblie. The
 bredth or entrie of the mouth hereof (as I take it) is by estimation two
 miles from shore to shore. At the west point therof also is a strong
 castell latelie builded, which is rightlie named Caldshore, but now
 Cawshot, I wote not by what occasion. On the east side thereof also is a
 place called Hoke (afore mentioned) or Hamell hoke; wherein are not
 aboue thrée or foure fisher houses, not worthie to be remembred. This
 hauen shooteth vp on the west side by the space of seuen miles, vntill
 it come to Hampton towne, standing on the other side, where it is by
 estimation a mile from land to land. Thence it goeth vp further about
 thrée miles to Redbridge, still ebbing and flowing thither, and one mile
 further, so farre as my memorie dooth serue mée. Now it resteth that I
 describe the Alresford streame, which some doo call the Arre or Arle,
 and I will procéed withall in this order following.

 [Sidenote: Alresford.]
 The Alresford beginneth of diuerse faire springs, about a mile or more
 fr[=o] Alresford, or Alford as it is now called, and soone after
 resorting to one bottome, they become a broad lake, which for the most
 part is called Alford pond. Afterward returning againe to a narrow
 chanell, it goeth through a stone bridge at the end of Alford towne
 (leauing the towne it selfe on the left hand) toward Hicthingstocke
 thrée miles off, but yer it commeth there, it receiueth two rils in one
 bottome, whereof one commeth from the Forrest in maner at hand, and by
 northwest of old Alresford, the other fr[=o] Browne Candiuer, that goeth
 by Northenton, Swarewotton, Aberstone, &c: vntill we méet with the said
 water beneath Alford towne. Being past Hichinstocke, it commeth by
 Auington to Eston village, and to Woorthie, where it beginneth to
 branch, and ech arme to part it selfe into other that resort to Hide and
 the lower soiles by east of Winchester, there seruing the stréets, the
 close of S. Maries, Wolueseie, and the new college verie plentifullie
 with their water. But in this meane while, the great streame commeth
 from Worthie to the east bridge, and so to saint Elizabeth college,
 where it dooth also part in twaine, enuironing the said house in most
 delectable maner. After this it goeth toward S. Crosses, leauing it a
 quarter of a mile on the right hand: then to Twiford (a mile lower)
 where it gathereth againe into one bottome, and goeth six miles further
 [Sidenote: Otter.]
 to Woodmill, taking the Otter brooke withall on the east side, and so
 into the salt créeke that leadeth downe to the hauen.

 On the other side of Southhampton, there resorteth into this hauen also
 [Sidenote: Stocke.]
 both the Test & the Stockbridge water in one bottome, whereof I find
 this large description insuing. The verie head of the Stockewater, is
 supposed to be somewhere about Basing stoke, or church Hockleie, and
 going from thence betwéene Ouerton and Steuenton, it commeth at last by
 Lauerstocke & Whitchurch, and soone after receiuing a brooke by
 [Sidenote: Bourne.]
 northwest, called the Bourne (descending from S. Marie Bourne, southeast
 from Horsseburne) it procéedeth by Long paroch and the wood, till it
 meet with the Cranburne, on the east side (a pretie riuelet rising about
 Michelneie, and going by Fullington, Barton, and to Cramburne) thence to
 Horwell in one bottome, beneath which it meeteth with the Andeuer water,
 that is increased yer it come there by an other brooke, whose name I doo
 not know. This Andeuer streame riseth in Culhamshire forrest, not far by
 north from Andeuer towne, and going to vpper Clatford, yer it touch
 there it receiueth the rill of which I spake before, which rising also
 néere vnto Anport, goeth to Monketon, to Abbatesham, the Andeuer, and
 both (as I said) vnto the Test beneath Horwell, whereof I spake euen

 These streames being thus brought into one bottome, it runneth toward
 the south vnder Stockbridge, and soone after diuiding it selfe in
 twaine, one branch thereof goeth by Houghton, & a little beneath meeteth
 with a rill, that commeth from bywest of S. Ans hil, and goeth by east
 of vpper Wallop, west of nether Wallop, by Bucholt forrest, Broughton,
 [Sidenote: Valopius.]
 and called (as I haue béene informed) the Gallop, but now it is named
 Wallop. The other arme runneth through the parke, by north west of kings
 Somburne, and vniting themselues againe, they go forth by Motteshunt, and
 [Sidenote: Test.]
 then receiue the Test, a pretie water rising in Clarendun parke, that
 goeth by west Deane, and east Deane, so to Motteshunt, and finallie to
 the aforesaid water, which from thencefoorth is called the Test, euen
 vnto the sea. But to procéed. After this confluence, it taketh the gate
 to Kimbebridge, then to Rumseie, Longbridge, and beneath the same
 receiueth a concourse of two rilles whereof the one commeth from
 Sherefield, the other from the new Forrest, and ioining in Wadeleie
 parke, they beat vpon the Test, not verie farre from Murseling. From
 thence the Test goeth vnder a pretie bridge, before it come at
 Redbridge, from whence it is not long yer it fall into the hauen.

 The next riuer that runneth into this port, springeth in the new
 [Sidenote: Eling.]
 Forrest, and commeth thereinto about Eling, not passing one mile by west
 of the fall of Test. From hence casting about againe into the maine sea,
 and leauing Calde shore castell on the right hand, we directed our
 course toward the southwest, vnto Beaulieu hauen, whereinto the Mineie
 [Sidenote: Mineie.]
 descendeth. The Mineie riseth not far from Mineiestéed, a village in the
 north part of the new Forrest; and going by Beaulieu, it falleth into
 the sea southwest (as I take it) of Exburie, a village standing vpon the

 [Sidenote: Limen.]
 Being past the Mineie, we crossed the Limen as it is now called, whose
 head is in the verie hart of the new Forrest (sometime conuerted into a
 place of nourishment for déere by William Rufus, buieng his pleasure
 with the ruine of manie towns and villages, as diuerse haue inclosed or
 inlarged their parks by the spoile of better occupiengs) & running
 southwest of Lindhirst & the parke, it goeth by east of Brokenhirst,
 west of Bulder, & finallie into the sea south and by east of Lemington.
 I take this not to be the proper name of the water, but of the hauen,
 for Limen in Gréeke is an hauen: so that Limendune is nothing else, but
 a downe or higher plot of ground lieng on the hauen: neuerthelesse, sith
 this denomination of the riuer hath now hir frée passage, I think it not
 conuenient to séeke out any other name that should be giuen vnto it. The
 next fall that we passed by is namelesse, except it be called Bure, & as
 [Sidenote: Bure.]
 [Sidenote: Milis.]
 it descendeth from new Forrest, so the next vnto it hight Mile, as I
 haue heard in English. Certes the head thereof is also in the southwest
 part of the said Forrest, & the fall not far from Milford bridge, beyond
 the which I find a narrow going or strictland leading fr[=o] the point
 to Hirst castell which standeth into the sea, as if it hoong by a thred,
 from the maine of the Iland, readie to be washed awaie by the continuall
 working and dailie beating of the waues.

 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 The next riuer that we came vnto of anie name is the Auon, which (as
 Leland saith) riseth by northeast, and not far from Woolfehall in
 Wiltshire, supposed to be the same which Ptolomie called Halenus. The
 first notable bridge that it runneth vnto, is at Vphauen, thence foure
 miles further it goeth to little Ambresburie, and there is another
 bridge, from thence to Woodford village, standing at the right hand
 banke, and Newton village on the left. The bishops of Sarum had a proper
 manor place at Woodford, which bishop Sharton pulled downe altogither,
 bicause it was somewhat in ruine. Thence it goeth to Fisherton bridge,
 to Cranebridge, old Salisburie, new Salisburie, and finallie to Harnham,
 which is a statelie bridge of stone, of six arches at the least. There
 is at the west end of the said bridge, a little Iland, that lieth
 betwixt this and another bridge, of foure pretie arches, and vnder this
 later runneth a good round streame, which (as I take it) is a branch of
 Auon, that breaketh out a little aboue, & soone after it reuniteth it
 selfe againe: or else that Wilton water hath there his entrie into the
 Auon, which I cannot yet determine. From Harneham bridge it goeth to
 Dounton, that is about foure miles, and so much in like sort from thence
 to Fordingbridge, to Ringwood bridge fiue miles, to Christes church
 Twinham fiue miles, and streight into the sea; and hitherto Leland of
 this streame, which for the worthinesse thereof (in mine opinion) is not
 sufficientlie described. Wherefore I thinke good to deliuer a second
 receiued of another, which in more particular maner dooth exhibit his
 course vnto vs.

 Certes this Auon is a goodlie riuer, rising (as I said before néere)
 vnto Wolfe hall; although he that will séeke more scrupulouslie for the
 head in déed, must looke for the same about the borders of the forrest
 of Sauernake (that is Soure oke) which lieth as if it were imbraced
 betwéene the first armes thereof, as I haue beene informed. These heads
 also doo make a confluence by east of Martinshall hill, and west of
 Wootton. From whence it goeth to Milton, Powseie, Manningfield abbeie,
 Manningfield crosse, and beneath Newington taketh in one rill west from
 Rudborow, and another a little lower that riseth also west of
 Alcanninges, and runneth into the same by Patneie, Merden, Wilford,
 Charleton, and Rustisall. Being therefore past Newington, it goeth to
 Vphauen (whereof Leland speaketh) to Chesilburie, Compton, Ablington,
 little Almsburie, Darntford, Woodford, old Salisburie, and so to new
 Salisburie, where it receiueth one notable riuer from by northwest, &
 another from north east, which two I will first describe, leauing the
 [Sidenote: Wilugh.]
 Auon at Salisburie for a while. The first of these is called the Wilugh,
 whereof the whole shire dooth take hir name, and not of the great
 plentie of willowes growing therein, as some fantasticall heads doo
 imagine: whereof also there is more plentie in that countrie than is to
 be found in other places. It riseth among the Deuerels, and running
 thence by hill Deuerell, & Deuerell long bridge, it goeth toward Bishops
 straw, taking in one rill by west & another from Vpton by Werminster at
 northwest. From Bishops straw it goeth to Norton, Vpton, Badhampton,
 Steplinford, and Stapleford, where it meeteth with the Winterburie water
 from by north, descending from Maddenton by Winterburne. From Stapleford
 it hasteth to Wishford, Newton, Chilhampton, Wilton: and thither commeth
 a water vnto it from southwest, which riseth of two heads aboue
 Ouerdonet. After this it goeth by Wordcastell, to Tisburie, and there
 receiueth a water on ech side, whereof one commeth from Funthill, the
 other from two issues (of which one riseth at Austie, the other at
 Swalodise) and so keeping on still with his course, our Wilugh runneth
 next of all by Sutton. Thence it goeth to Fouant, Boberstocke,
 [Sidenote: Nader becke.]
 Southburcombe, Wilton (where it taketh in the Fomington or Nader water)
 Westharnam, Salisburie, and Eastharnam: and this is the race of Wilugh.

 The other is a naked arme or streame without anie branches. It riseth
 aboue Colingburne Kingston in the hils, and thence it goeth to
 Colingburne, the Tidworths (whereof the more southerlie is in Wiltshire)
 Shipton, Cholterton, Newton, Toneie, Idmerson, Porton, the Winterburns,
 Lauerstocke, and so into Auon east of Salisburie. And thus is the
 confluence made of the aforesaid waters, with this our second Auon,
 [Sidenote: Becquith brooke.]
 whereinto another water falleth (called Becquithes brooke) a mile
 beneath Harneham bridge, whose head is fiue miles from Sarum, and thrée
 miles aboue Becquithes bridge, as Leland doth remember, who noteth the
 [Sidenote: Chalkeburne.]
 Chalkeburne water to haue his due recourse also at this place into the
 aforesaid riuer. Certes it is a pretie brooke, and riseth six miles from
 Shaftesburie, and in the waie toward Salisburie in a bottome on the
 right hand, whence it commeth by Knighton and Fennistratford, to
 Honington, that is about twelue miles from the head, and about two miles
 and an halfe from Honington beneath Odstocke, goeth into the Auon, a
 mile lower than Harnham bridge, except he forget himselfe. This Harnham,
 whereof I now intreat, was sometime a pretie village before the erection
 of new Salisburie, and had a church of S. Martine belonging vnto it, but
 now in stéed of this church, there is onelie a barne standing in a verie
 low mead on the northside of S. Michaels hospitall. The cause of the
 relinquishing of it was the moistnesse of the soile, verie oft
 ouerflowne. And whereas the kings high waie laie sometime through
 Wilton, licence was obteined of the king and Richard bishop of
 Salisburie, to remooue that passage vnto new Salisburie in like maner,
 and vpon this occasion was the maine bridge made ouer Auon at Harneham.
 [Sidenote: Thrée towns decaied by changing one waie.]
 By this exchange of the waie also old Salisburie fell into vtter decaie,
 & Wilton which was before the head towne of the shire, and furnished
 with twelue parish churches, grew to be but a poore village, and of
 small reputation. Howbeit, this was not the onelie cause of the ruine of
 old Salisburie, sith I read of two other, whereof the first was a salue
 vnto the latter, as I take it. For whereas it was giuen out, that the
 townesmen wanted water in old Salisburie, it is flat otherwise; sith
 that hill is verie plentifullie serued with springs and wels of verie
 swéet water. The truth of the matter therefore is this.

 [Sidenote: An holie conflict.]
 In the time of ciuill warres, the souldiors of the castell and chanons
 of old Sarum fell at ods, insomuch that after often bralles, they fell
 at last to sad blowes. It happened therefore in a rogation weeke that
 the cleargie going in solemne procession, a controuersie fell betwéene
 them about certeine walkes and limits, which the one side claimed and
 the other denied. Such also was the hot intertainment on ech part, that
 at the last the Castellanes espieng their time, gate betwéene the
 cleargie and the towne, and so coiled them as they returned homeward,
 that they feared anie more to gang about their bounds for the yeare.
 Héerevpon the people missing their bellie cheare (for they were woont to
 haue banketing at euerie station, a thing commonlie practised by the
 religious in old time, wherewith to linke in the commons vnto them, whom
 anie man may lead whither he will by the bellie, or as Latimer said,
 with beefe, bread and beere) they conceiued foorthwith a deadlie hatred
 against the Castellans. But not being able to cope with them by force of
 armes, they consulted with Richard Pore their bishop, and he with them
 so effectuallie, that it was not long yer they, I meane the chanons,
 began a new church vpon a péece of their owne ground called Mirifield,
 pretending to serue God there in better safetie, and with far more
 [Sidenote: New Salisburie begun.]
 quietnesse than they could doo before. This church was begun 1219, the
 nine and twentith of Aprill, and finished with the expenses of 42000
 marks, in the yeare 1260, and fiue & twentith of March, whereby it
 appeereth that it was aboue fortie yéers in hand, although the clearks
 were translated to the new towne 1220, or the third yeere after the
 fraie. The people also séeing the diligence of the chanons, and reputing
 their harmes for their owne inconuenience, were as earnest on the other
 side to be néere vnto these prelats, and therefore euerie man brought
 his house vnto that place, & thus became old Sarum in few yeeres
 vtterlie desolate, and new Salisburie raised vp in stéed thereof, to the
 great decaie also of Harnham and Wilton, whereof I spake of late.
 Neuerthelesse it should séeme to me that this new citie is not
 altogither void of some great hinderances now and then by water: for in
 the second of Edward the second (who held a parlement there) there was a
 sudden thaw after a great frost, which caused the waters so fast to
 arise, that euen at high masse time the water came into the minster, and
 not onelie ouerflowed the nether part of the same, but came vp all to
 the kings pauase where he sate, whereby he became wetshod, and in the
 end inforced to leaue the church, as the executour did his masse, least
 they should all haue béene drowned: and this rage indured there for the
 space of two daies, wherevpon no seruice could be said in the said

 Now to returne againe from whence I thus digressed. Our Auon therefore
 departing from Salisburie, goeth by Burtford, Longford, and taking in
 the waters afore mentioned by the waie, it goeth by Stanleie, Dunketon,
 Craiford, Burgate, Fording bridge, Ringwood, Auon, Christes church; and
 finallie into the sea. But yer it come all there & a litle beneth
 [Sidenote: Sturus.]
 Christes church, it crosseth the Stoure or Sture, a verie faire streame,
 whose course is such as may not be left vntouched. It riseth of six
 heads, whereof thrée lie on the north side of the parke at Sturton
 within the pale, the other rise without the parke; & of this riuer the
 towne and baronie of Sturton dooth take his name as I gesse, for except
 my memorie do too much faile me, the lord Sturton giueth the six heads
 of the said water in his armes. But to procéed. After these branches are
 conioined in one bottome, it goeth to long Laime mill, Stilton, Milton,
 and beneath Gillingham receiueth a water that descendeth from Mere.
 Thence the Sture goeth to Bugleie, Stoure, Westouer bridge, Stoure
 [Sidenote: Cale.]
 prouost, and yer long it taketh in the Cale water, from Pen that commeth
 downe by Wickhampton to Moreland, & so to Stapleford, seuen miles from
 Wickhampton, passing in the said voiage, by Wine Caunton, and the fiue
 bridges. After this confluence, it runneth to Hinton Maries, and soone
 [Sidenote: Lidden.]
 [Sidenote: Deuilis.]
 after crosseth the Lidden and Deuilis waters all in one chanell, whereof
 the first riseth in Blackemore vale, and goeth to the bishops Caundell:
 the second in the hils south of Pulham, and so runneth to Lidlinch; the
 [Sidenote: Iber.]
 third water issueth néere Ibberton, and going by Fifehed to Lidlington,
 [Sidenote: Blackewater.]
 and there méeting with the Lidden, they receiue the Blackewater aboue
 Bagburne, and so go into the Stoure.

 After this the Stoure runneth on to Stoureton minster, Fitleford,
 Hammond, and soone after taking in one water that commeth from Hargraue
 by west Orchard, and a second from Funtmill, it goeth on to Chele,
 Ankeford, Handford, Durweston, Knighton, Brainston, Blandford,
 Charleton: and crossing yer long a rill that riseth about Tarrent, and
 goeth to Launston, Munketon, Caunston, Tarrant, it proceedeth foorth by
 Shepwijc, and by and by receiuing another brooke on the right hand, that
 riseth about Strictland, and goeth by Quarleston, Whitchurch, Anderston,
 and Winterburne, it hasteth forward to Stoureminster, Berford lake, Alen
 bridge, Winburne, aliàs Twinburne minster, whither commeth a water
 called Alen (from Knolton, Wikehampton, Estambridge, Hinton, Barnsleie)
 which hath two heads, whereof one riseth short of Woodcotes, and east of
 Farneham, named Terig, the other at Munketon aboue S. Giles Winburne,
 and going thence to S. Giles Ashleie, it taketh in the Horton becke, as
 the Horton dooth the Cranburne. Finallie, meeting with the Terig aboue
 Knolton, they run on vnder the name of Alen to the Stoure, which goeth
 to the Canfords, Preston, Kingston, Perleie, and Yolnest: but yer it
 [Sidenote: This Stoure aboundeth with pike, perch, roch,
 dace, gudgeon and éeles.]
 come at Yolnest it taketh in two brookes in one bottome, whereof one
 commeth from Woodland parke by Holt parke, and Holt, another from aboue
 vpper Winburne, by Edmondesham, Vertwood, and Mannington, and ioining
 about S. Leonards, they go to Hornebridge, and so into Stoure. After
 which confluence, the said Stoure runneth by Iuor bridge, and so into
 Auon, leauing Christs church aboue the méeting of the said waters (as I
 haue said before.)

 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 Hauing in this maner passed Christes church head we come to the fall of
 the Burne, which is a little brooke running from Stourefield heath,
 without branches; from whence we proceeded: & the next fall that we come
 [Sidenote: Poole.]
 vnto is Poole, from whose mouth vpon the shore, by southwest in a baie
 of thrée miles off, is a poore fisher towne called Sandwich, where we
 saw a péere and a little fresh brooke. The verie vtter part of saint
 Adelmes point, is fiue miles from Sandwich. In another baie lieth west
 Lilleworth, where (as I heare) is some profitable harborough for ships.
 The towne of Poole is from Winburne about foure miles, and it standeth
 almost as an Ile in the hauen. The hauen it selfe also, if a man should
 measure it by the circuit, wanteth little of twentie miles, as I did
 gesse by the view.

 Going therefore into the same, betwéene the north and the south points,
 to sée what waters were there, we left Brunkeseie Iland, and the castell
 on the left hand within the said points; and passing about by Pole, and
 leauing that créeke, bicause it hath no fresh, we came by Holton and
 Kesworth, where we beheld two falles, of which one was called the north,
 [Sidenote: Piddle.]
 the other the south waters. The north streame hight Piddle as I heare.
 It riseth about Alton, and goeth from thence to Piddle trench head,
 [Sidenote: Deuils.]
 Piddle hinton, Walterstow, and yer it come at Birstam, receiueth Deuils
 brooke that commeth thither from Brugham and Melcombe by Deuilish towne.
 Thence it goeth to Tow piddle, Ashe piddle, Turners piddle (taking in
 yer it come there, a water that runneth from Helton by Middleton,
 Milburne & Biere) then to Hide, and so into Pole hauen, and of this
 water Marianus Scotus speaketh, except I be deceiued. The south water
 [Sidenote: Frome.]
 is properlie called Frome for Frame. It riseth néere vnto Euershot, and
 going downe by Fromequitaine, Chelmington, and Catstocke, it receiueth
 there a rill from beside Rowsham, and Wraxehall. After this it goeth on
 [Sidenote: Ocus.]
 to Chilfrome, and thence to Maden Newton, where it méeteth with the
 Owke, that riseth either two miles aboue Hoke parke at Kenford, or in
 the great pond within Hoke parke, and going by the Tollards, falleth
 into the Frome about Maden Newton, & so go as one from thence to
 Fromevauchirch, Crokewaie, Frampton, and Muckilford, and receiueth néere
 vnto the same a rill from aboue Vpsidling by S. Nicholas Sidling, and
 Grimston. From hence it goeth on by Stratton and Bradford Peuerell, and
 [Sidenote: Silleie.]
 [Sidenote: Minterne.]
 [Sidenote: Cherne.]
 beneath this Bradford, it crosseth the Silleie aliàs Minterne and Cherne
 brooks both in one chanell: whereof the first riseth in vpper Cherne
 parish, the other at Minterne, and méeting aboue middle Cherne, they go
 by nether Cherne, Forston, Godmanston, and aboue Charneminster into
 Frome. In the meane time also our Frome brancheth and leaueth an Iland
 aboue Charneminster, and ioining againe néere Dorchester, it goeth by
 Dorchester, and Forthington; but yer it come at Beckington, it méeteth
 with another Becke that runneth thereinto from Winterburne, Stapleton,
 Martinstow, Heringstow, Caine and Stafford, and from thence goeth
 without anie further increase as yet to Beckington, Knighton, Tinkleton,
 Morton, Wooll, Bindon, Stoke, & beneath Stoke receiueth the issue of the
 [Sidenote: Luckford.]
 Luckford lake, from whence also it passeth by Eastholme, Warham, and so
 [Sidenote: Séeke more for Wilie brooke that goeth by
 West burie to Pole hauen.]
 into the Baie. From this fall we went about the arme point by Slepe,
 where we saw a little créeke, then by Owre, where we beheld an other, &
 then comming againe toward the entrance by saint Helens, and Furleie
 castell, we went abroad into the maine, and found ourselues at libertie.

 When we were past Pole hauen, we left the Handfast point, the Peuerell
 point, S. Adelmes chappell, and came at last to Lughport hauen, whereby
 and also the Luckeford lake, all this portion of ground last remembred,
 is left in maner of a byland or peninsula, and called the Ile of
 Burbecke, wherein is good store of alum and hard stone. In like sort
 going still westerlie, we came to Sutton points, where is a créeke. Then
 vnto Waie or Wilemouth, by kings Welcombe, which is twentie miles from
 Pole, and whose head is not full foure miles aboue the hauen by
 northwest at Vphill in the side of a great hill. Hereinto when we were
 entred, we saw three falles, whereof the first and greatest commeth from
 Vpweie by Bradweie, and Radipoole, receiuing afterward the second that
 ran from east Chekerell, and likewise the third that maketh the ground
 betwéene Weimouth and Smalmouth passage almost an Iland. There is a
 little barre of sand at the hauen mouth, and a great arme of the sea
 runneth vp by the right hand; and scant a mile aboue the hauen mouth on
 the shore, is a right goodlie and warlike castell made, which hath one
 open barbicane. This arme runneth vp also further by a mile as in a
 baie, to a point of land where a passage is into Portland, by a little
 course of pibble sand. It goeth vp also from the said passage vnto
 Abbatsbirie about seauen miles off, where a litle fresh rondell
 resorteth to the sea. And somewhat aboue this, is the head or point of
 [Sidenote: Chesill.]
 the Chesill lieng northwest, which stretcheth vp from thence about
 seauen miles, as a maine narrow banke, by a right line vnto the
 southeast, and there abutteth vpon Portland scant a quarter of a mile
 aboue the Newcastle there. The nature of this banke is such, that so
 often as the wind bloweth vehementlie at southeast, so often the sea
 beateth in, and losing the banke soketh through it: so that if this wind
 should blow from that corner anie long time togither, Portland should be
 left an Iland as it hath béene before. But as the southwest wind dooth
 appaire this banke, so a northwest dooth barre it vp againe. It is
 pretie to note of the Townelet of Waimouth, which lieth streight against
 Milton on the other side, and of this place where the water of the hauen
 is but of small breadth, that a rope is commonlie tied from one side of
 the shore to another, whereby the ferrie men doo guide their botes
 without anie helpe of Ores. But to procéed with our purpose. Into the
 mouth of this riuer doo ships often come for succour.

 Going by Portland and the point thereof called the Rase, we sailed along
 by the Shingle, till we came by saint Katharins chappell, where we saw
 the fall of a water that came downe from Blackdéene Beaconward, by
 Portsham and Abbatsburie. Thence we went to another that fell into the
 sea, neere Birton, and descended from Litton by Chilcombe, then vnto the
 [Sidenote: Bride.]
 Bride or Brute port, a pretie hauen, and the riuer it selfe serued with
 [Sidenote: Nature hath set the mouth of this riuer in maner betwixt
 two hils, so that a little cost would make an hau[=e] there.]
 sundrie waters. It riseth halfe a mile or more aboue Bemister, and so
 goeth from Bemister to Netherburie by Parneham, then to Melplash, and so
 to Briteport, where it taketh in two waters from by east in one chanell,
 of which one riseth east of Nettlecort, and goeth by Porestoke and
 Milton, the other at Askerwell, and runneth by Longlether. From hence
 [Sidenote: Simen.]
 also our Bride going toward the sea, taketh the Simen on the west that
 commeth by Simensburge into the same, the whole streame soone after
 falling into the sea, and leauing a pretie hauenet.

 [Sidenote: Chare.]
 The next port is the Chare, serued with two rils in one confluence,
 beneath Charemouth. The cheefe head of this riuer is (as Leland saith)
 in Marshwood parke, and commeth downe by Whitechurch: the other runneth
 by west of Wootton, and méeting beneath Charemouth towne (as I said)
 dooth fall into the sea. Then came we to the Cobbe, and beheld the Lime
 [Sidenote: Buddle.]
 water, which the townesmen call the Buddle, which commeth about thrée
 miles by north of Lime, from the hils, fleting vpon Rockie soile, and so
 falleth into the sea. Certes, there is no hauen héere that I could sée,
 but a quarter of a mile by west southwest of the towne, is a great and
 costlie iuttie in the sea for succour of ships. The towne is distant
 from Coliton, about fiue miles. And heere we ended our voiage from the
 Auon, which conteineth the whole coast of Dorcester, or Dorcetshire, so
 that next we must enter into Summerset countie, and sée what waters are

 [Sidenote: Axe.]
 The first water that we méet withall in Summersetshire is the Axe, which
 riseth in a place called Axe knoll, longing to sir Giles Strangwaie,
 néere vnto Cheddington in Dorsetshire, from whence it runneth to
 Mosterne, Feborow, Claxton, Weiford bridge, Winsham foord, and receiuing
 one rill from the east by Hawkechurch, and soone after another comming
 from northwest by Churchstoke, from Wainbroke, it goeth to Axeminster,
 [Sidenote: Yare aliàs Arte.]
 beneath which it crosseth the Yare, that commeth from about Buckland, by
 Whitstaunton, Yarecombe, Long bridge, Stockeland, Kilmington bridge
 (where it receiueth a brooke from by south, that runneth by Dalwood) and
 so into the Axe. From hence our Axe goeth to Drake, Musburie, Culliford:
 but yer it come altogither at Culliford, it méeteth with a water that
 riseth aboue Cotleie, and goeth from thence by Widworthie, Culliton, and
 there receiuing a rill also, procéedeth on after the confluence aboue
 Culliford bridge, into the Axe, and from thence hold on togither into
 the maine sea, whereinto they fall vnder the roots of the winter
 cliffes, the points of them being almost a mile in sunder. The most
 westerlie of them called Berewood, lieth within halfe a mile of Seton.

 But the other toward the east is named Whitecliffe, of which I saie no
 more, but that "in the time of Athelstane, the greatest nauie that euer
 aduentured into this Iland, arriued at Seton in Deuonshire, being
 replenished with aliens that sought the conquest of this Iland, but
 Athelstane met and incountered with them in the field, where he
 ouerthrew six thousand of his aforesaid enimies. Not one of them also
 that remained aliue, escaped from the battell without some deadlie or
 verie gréeuous wound. In this conflict moreouer were slaine fiue kings,
 which were interred in the churchyard of Axe minster, and of the part of
 the king of England were killed eight earles of the chéefe of his
 nobilitie, and they also buried in the churchyard aforesaid. Héervnto it
 addeth how the bishop of Shireburne was in like sort slaine in this
 battell, that began at Brunedune neere to Coliton, and indured euen to
 Axe minster, which then was called Brunberie or Brunburg. The same daie
 that this thing happened the sunne lost his light, and so continued
 without anie brightnesse, vntill the setting of that planet, though
 otherwise the season was cléere and nothing cloudie."

 As for the hauen which in times past as I haue heard, hath béene at
 [Sidenote: Sidde.]
 Sidmouth (so called of Sidde a rillet that runneth thereto) and likewise
 [Sidenote: Seton.]
 at Seton, I passe it ouer, sith now there is none at all. Yet hath there
 béene sometime a notable one, albeit, that at this present betweene the
 two points of the old hauen, there lieth a mightie bar of pibble stones,
 in the verie mouth of it, and the riuer Axe is driuen to the verie east
 point of the hauen called White cliffe. Thereat also a verie little gull
 goeth into the sea, whither small fisherbotes doo oft resort for succour.
 The men of Seton began of late to stake and make a maine wall within the
 hauen to haue changed the course of the Axe, and (almost in the middle of
 the old hauen) to haue trenched through the Chesill, thereby to haue let
 out the Axe, & to haue taken in the maine sea, but I heare of none effect
 that this attempt did come vnto. From Seton westward lieth Coliton, about
 [Sidenote: Colie.]
 two miles by west northwest, whereof riseth the riuer Colie, which going
 by the aforesaid towne, passeth by Colecombe parke, and afterward falleth
 betweene Axe bridge and Axe mouth towne into the Axe riuer.

 By west of Bereworth point lieth a créeke, serued (so farre as I
 remember) with a fresh water that commeth from the hilles south of
 [Sidenote: Sid.]
 Soutleie or Branscombe. Sidmouth hauen is the next, and thither commeth a
 fresh water by S. Maries from the said hils, that goeth from S. Maries
 aforesaid to Sidburie, & betweene Saltcombe & Sidmouth into the maine
 [Sidenote: Autrie aliàs Ottereie.]
 sea. By west of Auterton point also lieth another hauen, and thither
 commeth a pretie riueret, whose head is in the Hackpendon hilles, and
 commeth downe first by Vpauter, then by a parke side to Mohuns Auter,
 Munketon, Honniton, Buckewell, and north of Autrie receiueth a rill
 [Sidenote: Tale.]
 called Tale, that riseth northwest of Brodemburie in a wood, and from
 whence it commeth by Pehemburie, Vinniton, and making a confluence with
 the other, they go as one betwéene Cadde and Autrie, to Herford, Luton,
 Collaton, Auterton, Budeleie, and so into the sea. On the west side of
 this hauen is Budeleie almost directly against Otterton. It is easie to
 be seene also, that within lesse space than one hundred yeers, ships did
 vse this hauen, but now it is barred vp. Some call it Budeleie hauen of
 Budeleie towne, others Salterne port, of a little créeke comming out of
 the maine hauen vnto Salterne village, that hath in time past béene a
 towne of great estimation.

 [Sidenote: Exe.]
 The Ex riseth in Exmore in Summersetshire, néere vnto Ex crosse, and
 goeth from thence vnto Exeford, Winsford, and Extun, where it receiueth
 a water comming from Cutcombe, by north. After this confluence it goeth
 on toward the south, till it méet with a pretie brooke rising northeast
 of Whettell (going by Brunton Regis) increased at the least with thrée
 rilles which come all from by north. These being once met, this water
 runneth on by west of the beacon that beareth the name of Haddon, & soone
 [Sidenote: Barleie.]
 after taketh in the Barleie, that receiueth in like sort the Done at
 [Sidenote: Done aliàs Done stroke.]
 Hawkbridge, and from hence goeth by Dauerton, and Combe, and then doth
 méet with the Exe, almost in the verie confines betwéene Dorset &
 Summersetshires. Being past this coniunction, our Exe passeth betwéene
 Brushford and Murbath, and then to Exe bridge, where it taketh in (as I
 heare) a water by west from east Austie: and after this likewise another
 on ech side, whereof one commeth from Dixford, and Baunton, the other
 [Sidenote: Woodburne.]
 called Woodburne, somewhat by east of Okeford. From these meetings it
 goeth to Caue and through the forrest and woods to Hatherland and
 Washfields, vntill it come to Tiuerton, and here it receiueth the Lomund
 water that riseth aboue Ashbrittle, & commeth downe by Hockworthie,
 vpper Loman, and so to Tiuerton that standeth almost euen in the verie
 [Sidenote: Lomund or Simming.]
 confluence. Some call this Lomund the Simming brooke or Sunnings bath.
 After this our Exe goeth to Bickleie, Theuerten, (taking in a rill by
 [Sidenote: Columbe.]
 west) nether Exe, Bramford, beneath which it ioineth with the Columbe
 that riseth of one head northeast of Clarie Haidon, and of another south
 of Shildon, and méeting beneath Columbe stocke, goeth by Columbe and
 Bradfeld, and there crossing a rill that commeth by Ashford, it runneth
 south to Wood, More haies, Columbton, Brandnicke, Beare, Columbe Iohn,
 Hoxham, and ioining (as I said) with the Exe at Bramford, passing vnder
 but one bridge, yer it meet with another water by west, growing of the
 [Sidenote: Cride.]
 [Sidenote: Forten.]
 Forten and Cride waters (except it be so that I doo iudge amisse.) The
 Cride riseth aboue Wollesworthie, and néere vnto Vpton: after it is past
 Dewrish, crosseth a rill from betweene Puggill and Stockeleie by Stocke
 English, &c. From hence it goeth to Fulford, where it méeteth with the
 Forten, wherof one branch commeth by Caldbrooke, the other from S. Marie
 Tedburne, and ioining aboue Crediton, the chanell goeth on to the Cride,
 (which yer long also receiueth another from by north, comming by
 Stockeleie and Combe) then betwéene Haine and Newton Sires, to Pines,
 and so into the Exe, which staieth not vntill it come to Excester. From
 Excester (whither the burgesses in time past laboured to bring the same,
 but in vaine) it runneth to Were, there taking in a rill from by west,
 and an other lower by Exminster, next of all vnto Toppesham; beneath
 [Sidenote: Cliuus.]
 which towne the Cliue entreth thereinto, which rising about Plumtree,
 goeth by Cliff Haidon, Cliff Laurence, Brode Cliff, Honiton, Souton,
 Bishops Cliff, S. Marie Cliff, Cliff saint George, and then into the
 Exe, that runneth forward by Notwell court, Limston and Pouderham
 [Sidenote: Ken.]
 castell. Here (as I heare) it taketh in the Ken, or Kenton brooke (as
 Leland calleth it) comming from Holcombe parke, by Dunsdike,
 Shillingford, Kenford, Ken, Kenton, and so into Exe hauen, at whose
 mouth lie certeine rocks which they call the Checkstones, except I be
 deceiued. The next fall, whereof Leland saith nothing at all, commeth by
 Ashcombe and Dulish, and hath his head in the hilles thereby.

 [Sidenote: Teigne.]
 The Teigne mouth is the next fall that we came to, & it is a goodlie
 port foure miles from Exemouth. The head of this water is twentie miles
 from the sea at Teigne head in Dartmore among the Gidleie hilles. From
 whence it goeth to Gidleie towne, Teignton drue, where it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Crokerne.]
 Crokerne comming from by north, and likewise an other west of Fulford
 parke. Then it goeth to Dufford, Bridford, Kirslowe, Chidleie, Knighton,
 [Sidenote: Bouie.]
 and beneath the bridge there receiueth the Bouie, whose course is to
 north Bouie, Lilleie, and Bouitracie. Thence it runneth to kings
 [Sidenote: Eidis.]
 Teignton, taking in Eidis, a brooke beneath Preston that commeth from
 Edeford by the waie. And when it is past this confluence, at kings
 [Sidenote: Leman.]
 Teignton, it crosseth the Leman, which commeth from Saddleton rocke by
 [Sidenote: Aller.]
 Beckington, and Newton Bushels: and soone after the Aller that riseth
 betwéene Danburie and Warog well, afterward falling into the sea by
 Bishops Teignton, south of Teignmouth towne.

 The verie vtter west point of the land, at the mouth of Teigne is called
 the Nesse, and is a verie high red cliffe. The east part of the hauen is
 named the Poles, a low sandie ground, either cast vp by the spuing of
 the sand out of the Teigne, or else throwne vp from the shore by the
 rage of wind and water. This sand occupieth now a great quantitie of the
 ground betwéene the hauen where the sand riseth, and Teignmouth towne,
 which towne (surnamed Regis) hath in time past béene sore defaced by the
 Danes, and of late time by the French.

 From Teignemouth we came to Tor baie, wherof the west point is called
 Birie, and the east Perritorie, betwéene which is little aboue foure
 miles. From Tor baie also to Dartmouth is six miles, where (saith
 Leland) I marked diuerse things. First of all vpon the east side of the
 hauen a great hillie point called Downesend, and betwixt Downesend, and
 a pointlet named Wereford is a little baie. Were it selfe, in like sort,
 is not full a mile from Downesend vpward into the hauen. Kingswere towne
 standeth out as another pointlet, and betwixt it & Wereford is the
 second baie. Somewhat moreouer aboue Kingswere towne goeth a little
 créeke vp into the land from the maine streame of the hauen called
 Waterhead, and this is a verie fit place for vessels to be made in. In
 like sort halfe a mile beyond this into the landward goeth another
 longer créeke, and aboue that also a greater than either of these called
 Gawnston, whose head is here not halfe a mile from the maine sea, by the
 compassing thereof, as it runneth in Tor baie.

 [Sidenote: Dart.]
 The riuer of Dart or Darent (for I read Derenta muth for Dartmouth)
 commeth out of Dartmore fiftéene miles aboue Totnesse, in a verie large
 plot, and such another wild morish & forrestie ground as Exmore is. Of
 it selfe moreouer this water is verie swift, and thorough occasion of
 tin-workes whereby it passeth, it carrieth much sand to Totnesse bridge,
 and so choketh the depth of the riuer downeward, that the hauen it selfe
 is almost spoiled by the same. The mariners of Dartmouth accompt this to
 be about a kenning from Plimmouth. The Darent therefore proceeding from
 the place of his vprising, goeth on to Buckland, from whence it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Ashburne.]
 Buckland hole; and soone after taking in the Ashburne water on the one
 [Sidenote: Buckfastlich.]
 side that runneth from Saddleton rocke by north, and the Buckfastlich
 that commeth from north west, it runneth to Staunton, Darington,
 Hemston, and there also crossing a rill on ech side passeth foorth to
 [Sidenote: Hartburne.]
 Totnesse, Bowden, and aboue Gabriell Stoke, méeteth with the Hartburne
 that runneth vnder Rost bridge, two miles aboue Totnes, or (as another
 saith) by Ratter, Harberton, Painesford, and Asprempton into Darent,
 which yon long also commeth to Corneworthie, Grenewaie, Ditsham,
 Darntmouth towne (wherevnto king Iohn gaue sometimes a maior, as he did
 vnto Totnesse) from thence betwéene the castelles, and finallie into sea.

 From hence we went by Stokeflemming to another water, which commeth from
 blacke Auton, then to the second that falleth in east of Slapton, and so
 coasting out of this baie by the Start point, we saile almost directlie
 west, till we come to Saltcombe hauen. Certes this port hath verie
 little fresh water comming to it, and therefore no meruell though it be
 barred; yet the head of it (such as it is) riseth néere Buckland, and
 goeth to Dudbrooke, which standeth betwéene two créekes. Thence it hieth
 to Charleton, where it taketh in a rill, whose head commeth from south
 and north of Shereford. Finallie it hath another créeke that runneth vp
 by Ilton: and the last of all that falleth in north of Portlemouth,
 whose head is so néere the baie last afore remembred, that it maketh it
 a sorie peninsula (as I haue heard it said.)

 [Sidenote: Awne.]
 Then come we to the Awne, whose head is in the hils farre aboue Brent
 towne, from whence it goeth to Dixford wood, Loddewell, Hache, Aunton,
 Thorleston, and so into the sea ouer against a rocke called S. Michaels
 [Sidenote: Arme.]
 burrow. Arme riseth aboue Harford, thence to Stoford, Iuie bridge,
 Armington bridge, Fléet, Orchardton, Ownewell, and so vnto the sea,
 which is full of flats and rocks, so that no ship commeth thither in
 anie tempest, except it be forced therto, through the vttermost
 extremitie and desperat hazard of the fearefull mariners. King Philip of
 [Sidenote: Sée Hen. 7. pag. 792, 793, 794.]
 Castile lost two ships here in the daies of king Henrie the seuenth,
 when he was driuen to land in the west countrie by the rage of weather.
 [Sidenote: Yalme.]
 Yalme goeth by Cornewood, Slade, Stratleie, Yalmeton, Collaton, Newton
 ferrie, and so into the sea, about foure miles by south east from the
 [Sidenote: Plim.]
 maine streame of Plimmouth. Being past these portlets, then next of all
 we come to Plimmouth hauen, a verie busie péece to describe, bicause of
 the numbers of waters that resort vnto it, & small helpe that I haue for
 the knowledge of their courses; yet will I doo what I may in this, as in
 the rest, and so much I hope by Gods grace to performe, as shall suffice
 my purpose in this behalfe.

 [Sidenote: Plim.]
 The Plimne or Plim, is the verie same water that giueth name to Plimpton
 towne. The mouth of this gulfe, wherein the ships doo ride, is walled on
 ech side and chained ouer in time of necessitie, and on the south side
 of the hauen is a blocke house vpon a rockie hill: but as touching the
 riuer it selfe, it riseth in the hils west of Cornewood, and commeth
 downe a short course of thrée miles to Newenham after it be issued out
 of the ground. From Newenham also it runneth to Plimpton, and soone after
 [Sidenote: Stoure aliàs Catwater.]
 into the Stoure, which Stoure ariseth northwest of Shepistour, & goeth
 fr[=o] thence to Memchurch, Hele, Shane, Bickleie, and so to Eford,
 where taking in the Plim, it runneth downe as one vnder the name of
 Plim, vntill it go past Plimmouth, and fall into the hauen south east of
 Plimmouth aforesaid. I haue oftentimes trauelled to find out the cause
 whie so manie riuers in England are called by this name Stoure, and at
 the first supposing that it was growne by the corruption of Dour, the
 British word for a streame, I rested thervpon as resolued for a season:
 but afterward finding the word to be méere Saxon, and that Stouremare is
 a prouince subiect to the duke of Saxonie, I yéelded to another opinion:
 whereby I conceiue that the said name was first deriued from the Saxons.
 But to returne to our purpose.

 Plimmouth it selfe standeth betweene two créeks, not serued with anie
 backewater, therefore passing ouer these two, we enter into the Thamar
 that dischargeth it selfe into the aforesaid hauen. Going therfore vp
 that streame, which for the most part parteth Deuonshire from Cornewall,
 [Sidenote: Taue or Tauie.]
 the first riueret that I met withall on the east side is called Tauie,
 the head whereof is among the mounteins foure miles aboue Peters Tauie,
 beneath which it meeteth with another water from by west, so that these
 two waters include Marie Tauie betwéene them, though nothing neere the
 confluence. From hence the Taue or Tauie runneth to Tauistocke, aboue
 which it taketh in a rill from by west, and another aboue north
 Buckland, whose head is in Dartmore, and commeth therevnto by Sandford
 and Harrow bridge. From hence it goeth into Thamar, by north Buckland,
 moonks Buckland, Beare, and Tamerton follie. Hauing thus dispatched the
 [Sidenote: Lidde.]
 Tauie, the next that falleth in on the east side vpwards is the Lidde,
 which rising in the hils aboue Lidford, runneth downe by Curriton and
 [Sidenote: Trushell.]
 Siddenham, and so to Lidstone, aboue which it receiueth the Trushell
 brooke, which rising north east of Brediston, goeth by Trusholton to
 Ibaine, where it receiueth a rill that commeth by Bradwood from
 Germanswike, and after the confluence runneth to Liston, and from thence
 [Sidenote: Core.]
 into the Thamar. The next aboue this is the Corewater, this ariseth
 somewhere about Elwell or Helwell, and going by Virginston, runneth on
 by saint Giles without anie increase vntill it come to Thamar. Next of
 all it taketh in two brookes not much distant in sunder, whereof the one
 commeth in by Glanton, the other from Holsworthie, and both east of
 Tamerton, which standeth on the further banke, & other side of the
 Thamar, and west northwest of Tedcote, except the quarter deceiue me.

 [Sidenote: Thamar.]
 Certes, the Thamar it selfe riseth in Summersetshire, about thrée miles
 northeast of Hartland, and in maner so crosseth ouer the whole west
 countrie betwéene sea and sea, that it leaueth Cornewall, a byland or
 peninsula. Being therefore descended from the head, by a tract of six
 miles, it commeth to Denborow, Pancrase well, Bridge Reuell, Tamerton,
 Tetcote, Luffencote, Boiton, and Wirrington, where it meeteth with a
 [Sidenote: Arteie.]
 water on the west side called Arteie, that riseth short of Jacobstow.
 [Sidenote: Kenseie.]
 Two miles in like sort fr[=o] this confluence, we met with the Kenseie,
 whose head is short of Warpeston by south east: from whence it goeth by
 Treneglos, Tremone, Tresmure, Trewen, Lanston, and so into the Thamar,
 that runneth from hence by Lowwhitton vnto Bradston, and going on toward
 Dunterton, taketh in a rill from south Pitherwijc, and by Lesant;
 [Sidenote: Enian.]
 beneath Dunterton also it crosseth the Enian. This riuer riseth at
 Dauidston, and directeth his race by saint Clethir, Lancast, and
 Trelaske first; and then vnder sundrie bridges, vntill it méet with the
 Thamar. From hence also the Thamar goeth by Siddenham to Calstocke
 bridge, Calstocke towne, Clifton, Cargreue (there abouts taking in a
 créeke aboue Landilip) and running on from thence, hasteth toward
 [Sidenote: Liuer.]
 Saltash, where it receiueth the Liuer water. The head of Liuer is about
 Broomwellie hill, from whence it goeth on to North hill, Lekenhorne,
 South hill, and taking in a rill by east (from aboue Kellington) it
 runneth on to Newton, Pillaton, Wootton, Blosfleming, saint Erne, and
 beneath this village crosseth a rillet that runneth thither from Bicton
 by Quithiocke, saint Germans, and Sheuiocke. But to procéed. After the
 confluence, it goeth betweene Erlie and Fro Martine castell, and soone
 after taking in a rill from by north, that passeth west of saint
 Steuens, it is not long yer it fall into the Thamar, which after this
 (receiuing the Milbrooke creeke) goeth on by Edgecombe, and betwéene
 saint Michaels Ile and Ridden point into the maine sea. And thus haue I
 finished the description of Plimmouth water, and all such falles as are
 betwéene Newston rocke on the east side, and the Ram head on the other.

 After this we procéeded on with our iournie toward the west, and passing
 by Longstone, we came soone after to Sothan baie, where we crossed the
 Seton water, whose head is about Liscard, & his course by Minheniet,
 [Sidenote: Sutton.]
 [Sidenote: Low.]
 Chafrench, Tregowike, Sutton and so into the sea. Then came we to Low,
 and going in betwéene it and Mount Ile, we find that it had a branched
 course, and thereto the confluence aboue Low. The chiefe head riseth in
 the hils, as it were two miles aboue Gaine, and going by that towne, it
 ceaseth not to continue his course east of Dulo, till it come a little
 aboue Low, where it crosseth and ioineth with the Brodoke water that
 runneth from Brodokes by Trewargo, and so into the sea. Next vnto these
 [Sidenote: Polpir.]
 are two other rils, of which one is called Polpir, before we come at
 Foy, or Fawy.

 [Sidenote: Fawie.]
 Foy or Fawy riuer riseth in Fawy moore, on the side of an hill in Fawy
 moore, from whence it runneth by certeine bridges, till it méet with the
 [Sidenote: Glin.]
 Glin water west of Glin towne, which rising aboue Temple, & méeting with
 a rill that commeth in from S. Neotes, doth fall into Fawy a mile and
 more aboue Resprin from by east. After this confluence then, it goeth to
 Resprin bridge, Lestermen castell, Lostwithiell bridge, Pill, saint
 [Sidenote: Lerinus.]
 Kingtons, saint Winnow, and Golant, and here also receiueth the Lerine
 water out of a parke, that taketh his waie into the maine streame by
 Biconke, Tethe, and the Fining house. Being thus vnited, it proceedeth
 vnto Fawy towne, taking in a rill or creeke from aboue it on the one
 side, and another beneath it south of Halling on the other: of which two
 this latter is the longest of course, sith it runneth thrée good miles
 [Sidenote: Faw.]
 before it come at the Foy. Leland writing of this riuer addeth verie
 largelie vnto it after this maner. The Fawy riseth in Fawy moore (about
 two miles from Camilford by south, and sixtéene miles from Fawy towne)
 in a verie quaue mire on the side of an hill. From hence it goeth to
 Drainesbridge, to Clobham bridge, Lergen bridge, New bridge, Resprin
 bridge, and Lostwithiell bridge, where it meeteth with a little brooke,
 and néere therevnto parteth it selfe in twaine. Of these two armes
 therefore one goeth to a bridge of stone, the other to another of
 timber, and soone after ioining againe, the maine riuer goeth to saint
 Gwinnowes, from thence also to the point of saint Gwinnowes wood, which
 is about halfe a mile from thence, except my memorie dooth faile me.
 Here goeth in a salt créeke halfe a mile on the east side of the hauen,
 and at the head of it is a bridge called Lerine bridge; the créeke it
 selfe in like maner bearing the same denomination.

 [Sidenote: In the middle of this créeke was a cell of S. Ciret in an
 Islet longing sometime to Mountegew a priorie.]
 From Lerine créeke, to S. Caracs pill or créeke, is about halfe a mile,
 and Lower on the east side of the said hauen: it goeth vp also not aboue
 a mile and an halfe into the land. From Caracs créeke to Poulmorland a
 mile, and this likewise goeth vp scant a quarter of a mile into the
 land, yet at the head it parteth it selfe in twaine. From Poulmorland
 vnto Bodnecke village halfe a mile, where the passage and repassage is
 commonlie to Fawy. From Bodnecke to Pelene point (where a créeke goeth
 vp not fullie a thousand paces into the land) a mile, thence to Poulruan
 a quarter of a mile, and at this Poulruan is a tower of force, marching
 against the tower on Fawy side, betwéene which (as I doo heare) a chaine
 hath sometime beene stretched, and likelie inough; for the hauen there
 is hardly two bow shot ouer. The verie point of land at the east side of
 the mouth of this hauen, is called Pontus crosse, but now Panuche
 crosse. It shall not be amisse in this place somewhat to intreat of the
 [Sidenote: Comwhath.]
 towne of Fawy, which is called in Cornish Comwhath, and being situat on
 the northside of the hauen, is set hanging on a maine rockie hill, being
 in length about one quarter of a mile, except my memorie deceiue me.

 The renowme of Fawy rose by the wars vnder king Edward the first, Edward
 the third, and Henrie the fift, partlie by feats of armes, and partlie
 by plaine pirasie. Finallie, the townesmen feeling themselues somwhat at
 ease and strong in their purses, they fell to merchandize, and so they
 prospered in this their new deuise, that as they trauelled into all
 places, so merchants from all countries made resort to them, whereby
 within a while they grew to be exceeding rich. The ships of Fawy sailing
 on a time by Rhie and Winchelseie in the time of king Edward the third,
 refused stoutlie to vale anie bonet there, although warning was giuen
 them so to doo by the portgreues or rulers of those townes. Herevpon the
 Rhie and Winchelseie men made out vpon them with cut and long taile: but
 so hardlie were they interteined by the Fawy pirates (I should saie
 aduenturers) that they were driuen home againe with no small losse and
 hinderance. Such fauour found the Fawy men also immediatlie vpon this
 bickering, that in token of their victorie ouer their winching
 aduersaries, and riding ripiers (as they called them in mockerie) they
 altered their armes and compounded for new, wherein the scutchion of
 Rhie and Winchelseie is quartered with theirs, and beside this the Foyens
 [Sidenote: Gallants of Foy or Fawy.]
 were called the gallants of Fawy or Foy, whereof they not a little
 reioiced, and more peraduenture than for some greater bootie. And thus
 much of Fawy towne, wherein we sée what great successe often commeth of
 witlesse and rash aduentures. But to returne againe to our purpose from
 whence we haue digressed, and as hauing some desire to finish vp this
 our voiage, we will leaue the Fawmouth & go forward on our iournie.

 Being therefore past this hauen, we come into Trewardith baie, which
 lieth into the land betwéene Canuasse and the Blacke head point, and
 here about Leland placeth Vrctoum promontorium. In this we saw the fall
 of two small brookes, not one verie far distant from another. The first
 of them entring west of Trewardith, the other east of saint Blaies, and
 both directlie against Curwarder rocke, except I mistake my compasse.
 Neither of them are of anie great course, and the longest not full thrée
 miles and an halfe. Wherfore sith they are neither branched nor of anie
 great quantitie, what should I make long haruest of a little corne and
 spend more time than may well be spared about them?

 [Sidenote: Austell.]
 When we were past the Blacke head, we came to Austell brooke, which is
 increased with a water that commeth from aboue Mewan, and within a mile
 after the confluence, they fall into the sea at Pentoren, from whence we
 went by the Blacke rocke, and about the Dudman point, till we came to
 [Sidenote: Chare.]
 Chare haies, where falleth in a pretie water, whose head is two miles
 aboue saint Tues. Thence we went by here and there a méere salt créeke,
 till we passed the Graie rocke, in Gwindraith baie, and S. Anthonies
 point, where Leland maketh his accompt to enter into Falamouth hauen.

 [Sidenote: Fala.]
 The Fala riseth a little by north of Penuenton towne, and going westward
 till it come downwards toward saint Dionise, it goeth forth from thence
 to Melader, saint Steuens Grampont, Goldon, Crede, Corneleie, Tregue,
 Moran, Tregunnan, it falleth into the hauen with a good indifferent
 force: and this is the course of Fala. But least I should séeme to omit
 those creekes that are betwéene this and S. Anthonies point, I will go a
 little backe againe, and fetch in so manie of them, as come now to my
 remembrance. Entring therefore into the port, we haue a créeke that
 runneth vp by saint Anthonies toward saint Gereus, then another that
 goeth into the land by east of saint Maries castell, with a forked head,
 passing in the meane time by a great rocke that lieth in the verie midst
 of the hauen, in maner of the third point of a triangle, betwéene saint
 Maries castell and Pendinant.

 Thence we cast about by the said castell, and came by another créeke
 that falleth in by east, then the second aboue saint Iustus, the third
 at Ardenora, the fourth at Rilan. And hauing as it were visited all
 these in order, we came backe againe about by Tregonnian, and then going
 vpward betweene it and Taluerne, till we came to Fentangolan, we found
 the confluence of two great creekes beneath saint Clements, whereof one
 hath a fresh water comming downe by S. Merther, the other another from
 Truro, increased with sundrie branches, though not one of them of anie
 greatnesse, and therefore vnworthie to be handled. Pole hole standeth
 vpon the head almost of the most easterlie of them. S. Kenwen and Truro
 stand aboue the confluence of other two. The fourth falleth in by west
 from certeine hils: as for the fift and sixt, as they be little créeks
 and no fresh, so haue I lesse language and talke to spend about them.

 [Sidenote: S. Caie.]
 Of saint Caie, and saint Feokes créeke, whose issue is betwéene
 Restronget and créeke of Trurie, I sée no cause to make any long spéech;
 [Sidenote: S. Feoks.]
 yet I remember that the towne of S. Feoke standeth betwéene them both.
 That also called after this saint, rising aboue Perannarwothill, and
 [Sidenote: Milor.]
 comming thence by Kirklo, falleth into Falamouth, northeast of Milor,
 which standeth vpon the point betwéene it and Milor créeke. Milor creeke
 is next Restronget: some call it Milor poole, from whence we went by
 Trefusis point, and there found an other great fall from Perin, which
 being branched in the top, hath Perin towne almost in the verie
 confluence. And thus much by my collection of the fall. But for somuch
 as Leland hath taken some paines in the description of this riuer, I
 will not suffer it to perish, sith there is other matter conteined
 therein worthie remembrance, although not deliuered in such order as the
 thing it selfe requireth.

 [Sidenote: Fala.]
 The verie point (saith he) of the hauen mouth (being an hill whereon the
 king hath builded a castell) is called Pendinant. It is about a mile in
 compasse, almost inuironed with the sea: and where the sea couereth not,
 the ground is so low that it were a small mastrie to make Pendinant an
 Iland. Furthermore, there lieth a cape or foreland within the hauen a
 mile and a halfe, and betwixt this and maister Killigrewes house one
 great arme of the hauen runneth vp to Penrine towne, which is three
 miles from the verie entrie
 [Sidenote: Leuine.]
 of Falamouth hauen, and two good miles from Penfusis. Moreouer there is
 Leuine, Priselo, betwixt saint Budocus and Pendinas, which were a good
 hauen but for the barre of sand. But to procéed.

 The first creeke or arme that casteth on the northwest side of Falemouth
 hauen, goeth vp to Perin, and at the end it breaketh into two armes,
 whereof the lesse runneth to Glasenith, Viridis nidus, the gréene nest,
 or Wagméere at Penrine: the other to saint Glunias the parish church of
 Penrine. In like sort out of each side of Penrine créeke, breaketh an
 arme yer it come to Penrine. This I vnderstand also that stakes and
 foundations of stone haue béene set in the créeke at Penrine a little
 lower than the wharfe, where it breaketh into armes: but howsoeuer this
 standeth, betwixt the point of Trefusis and the point of Restronget is
 [Sidenote: Milor.]
 Milor créeke, which goeth vp a mile into the land, and by the church is
 a good rode for ships. The next creeke beyond the point of Restronget
 [Sidenote: Restronget.]
 wood, is called Restronget, which going two miles vp into the maine,
 breaketh into two armes. In like order betwixt Restronget and the creeke
 [Sidenote: S. Feoks.]
 [Sidenote: S. Caie.]
 of Trurie be two créekes; one called saint Feokes, the other saint Caie,
 next vnto which is Trurie créeke that goeth vp about two miles créeking
 from the principall streame, and breaketh within halfe a mile of Trurie,
 casting in a branch westward euen hard by Newham wood.

 [Sidenote: Trurie créeke.]
 This creeke of Trurie is diuided into two parts before the towne of
 Trurie, and each of them hauing a brooke comming downe and a bridge, the
 towne of Trurie standeth betwixt them both. In like sort Kenwen stréet
 is seuered from the said towne with this arme, and Clements street by
 east with the other. Out of the bodie also of Trurie creeke breaketh
 another eastward a mile from Trurie, and goeth vp a mile and a halfe to
 Cresilian bridge of stone. At the verie entrie and mouth of this créeke
 is a rode of ships called Maples rode: and here fought not long since
 eightéene ships of Spanish merchants, with foure ships of warre of
 Deepe, but the Spaniards draue the Frenchmen all into this harborow. A
 mile and an halfe aboue the mouth of Crurie creeke, is another named
 [Sidenote: Moran.]
 Lhan Moran of S. Morans church at hand. This créeke goeth vp a quarter
 of a mile from the maine streame into the hauen, as the maine streame
 goeth vp two miles aboue Moran créeke ebbing and flowing: and a quarter
 of a mile higher, is the towne of Cregowie, where we found a bridge of
 stone vpon the Fala riuer. Fala it selfe riseth a mile or more west of
 Roche hill, and goeth by Graund pont, where I saw a bridge of stone.

 [Sidenote: Graund pont.]
 This Graund pont is foure miles from Roche hill, and two little miles
 from Cregowie, betwixt which the Fala taketh his course. From Cregowie
 to passe downe by the bodie of the hauen of Falamouth to the mouth of
 Lanie horne pill or créeke, on the south side of the hauen is a mile,
 and (as I remember) it goeth vp halfe a mile from the principall streame
 of the hauen. From Lanihorne pill also is a place or point of sand about
 a mile waie of fortie acres or thereabout (as a peninsula) called
 Ardeuerauter. As for the water or créeke that runneth into the south
 southeast part, it is but a little thing of halfe a mile vp into the
 land, and the créeke that hemmeth in this peninsula, of both dooth seeme
 to be the greater. From the mouth of the west creeke of this peninsula,
 vnto saint Iustes creeke, is foure miles or more.

 [Sidenote: S. Iustus.]
 [Sidenote: S. Mawes.]
 In like maner from saint Iustes pill or créeke (for both signifie one
 thing) to saint Mawes creeke is a mile and a halfe, and the point
 betwéene them both is called Pendinas. The créeke of saint Mawes goeth
 vp a two miles by east northeast into the land, and beside that it
 ebbeth and floweth so farre, there is a mill driuen with a fresh créeke
 that resorteth to the same. Halfe a mile from the head of this downeward
 to the hauen, is a créeke in maner of a poole, whereon is a mill also
 that grindeth with the tide. And a mile beneath that on the south side
 entereth a créeke (about halfe a mile into the countrie) which is barred
 from the maine sea by a small sandie banke, and another mile yet lower,
 is an other little créekelet. But how so euer these créekes doo run,
 certeine it is that the bankes of them that belong to Fala are
 meruellouslie well woodded. And hitherto Leland, whose words I dare not
 alter, for feare of corruption and alteration of his iudgement. Being
 past Falmouth hauen therefore (as it were a quarter of a mile beyond
 Arwennach, maister Killegrewes place which standeth on the brimme or
 shore within Falmouth) we came to a little hauen which ran vp betwéene
 two hilles, but it was barred: wherefore we could not learne whether it
 were serued with anie backe fresh water or not.

 [Sidenote: Polwitherall.]
 From thence we went by Polwitherall creeke (parted into two armes) then
 [Sidenote: Polpenrith.]
 to the Polpenrith, wherevnto a riueret falleth that riseth not farre
 from thence, and so goeth to the maine streame of the hauen at the last,
 whither the créeke resorteth about thrée miles and more from the mouth
 of the hauen, and into which the water that goeth vnder Gare bridges,
 doo fall in one bottome (as Leland hath reported.) Vnto this hauen
 [Sidenote: Wike.]
 [Sidenote: Gare.]
 [Sidenote: Mogun.]
 [Sidenote: Penkestell.]
 [Sidenote: Callous.]
 [Sidenote: Cheilow.]
 [Sidenote: Gilling.]
 also repaireth the Penkestell, the Callous, the Cheilow, and the
 Gilling, although this latter lieth against saint Mawuons on the hither
 side hard without the hauen mouth (if I haue doone aright.) For so
 motheaten, mouldie, & rotten are those bookes of Leland which I haue,
 and beside that, his annotations are such and so confounded, as no man
 can (in a maner) picke out anie sense from them by a leafe togither.
 Wherefore I suppose that he dispersed and made his notes intricate of
 set purpose: or else he was loth that anie man should easilie come to
 that knowledge by reading, which he with his great charge & no lesse
 trauell attained vnto by experience. Thus leauing Fala hauen, as more
 troublesome for me to describe, than profitable for seafaring men,
 without good aduise to enter into, we left the rocke on our left hand,
 and came straight southwest to Helford hauen, whose water commeth downe
 [Sidenote: Haile.]
 from Wréeke (where is a confluence of two small rilles whereof that rill
 consisteth) by Mawgan and Trelawarren, and then it receiueth a rill on
 the north ripe from Constantine, after whose confluence it goeth a maine
 vntill it come to the Ocean, where the mouth is spoiled by sand comming
 from the tinworks. See Leland in the life of S. Breaca. Beneath this
 also is another rill comming from S. Martyrs, by whose course, and
 another ouer against it on the west side that falleth into the sea by
 Winniton, all Menage is left almost in maner of an Iland. From hence we
 go south to the Manacle point, then southwest to Lisard, and so north
 and by west to Predannocke points, beyond which we méet with the fall of
 the said water that riseth in the edge of Menag, and goeth into the sea
 by Melien on the north, and Winniton on the south. By north also of
 [Sidenote: Curie.]
 Winniton is the Curie water that runneth short of Magan, and toucheth
 with the Ocean south of Pengwenian point.

 [Sidenote: Loo.]
 From hence we sailed to the Loo mouth, which some call Lopoole, because
 it is narrower at the fall into the sea, than it is betwéene the sea and
 Hailston. It riseth aboue S. Sethians, and comming downe by Wendron, it
 hasteth to Hailston or Helston, from whence onelie it is called Loo: but
 betwéene Helston and the head, men call it commonlie Cohor. Of this
 riuer Leland saith thus: The Lopoole is two miles in length, and betwixt
 it and the maine Ocean is but a barre of sand that once in thrée or
 foure yéeres, what by weight of the fresh water, and working of the sea
 breaketh out, at which time it maketh a wonderfull noise: but soone
 after the mouth of it is barred vp againe. At all other times the
 superfluitie of the water of Lopole (which is full of trout and éele)
 draineth out through the sandie barre into the open sea: certes if this
 barre could alwaies be kept open, it would make a goodlie hauen vp vnto
 Haileston towne, where coinage of tin is also vsed, as at Trurie and
 Lostwithiell, for the quéenes aduantage.

 Being passed the Loo, I came to another water that descendeth without
 [Sidenote: Simneie.]
 anie increase from Crowan by Simneie, whose whole course is not aboue
 thrée miles in all. Then going by the Cuddan point, we entered the
 mounts Baie, and going streight north (leauing S. Michaels mount a
 [Sidenote: Lid.]
 little vpon the left hand) we came to the Lid, which rising short of
 Tewidnacke, descendeth by Lidgenan, and so into the sea. Certes the
 course of these waters cannot be long, sith in this verie place this
 breadth of land is not aboue foure miles, and not more than fiue at the
 verie lands end. There is also a rill east of Korugie, and Guluall, and
 another west of the same hard at hand, and likewise the third east of
 Pensants: and not a full quarter of a mile from the second, southwest of
 Pensants also lieth the fourth that commeth from Sancrete ward by
 Newlin, from whence going southwest out of the baie by Moushole Ile,
 that lieth south of Moushole towne, we come to a water that entreth into
 the Ocean betwixt Remels & Lamorleie point. Trulie the one head thereof
 commeth from by west of Sancrete, the other from by west of an hill that
 standeth betwéene them both, and ioining aboue Remels, it is not long
 yer they salute their grandame. After this, and before we come at
 Rosecastell, there are two other créekes, whereof one is called
 Boskennie, that riseth south of saint Buriens, and an other somewhat
 longer than the first, that issueth by west of the aforesaid towne,
 wherein is to be noted, that our cards made heretofore doo appoint
 S. Buriens to be at the very lands end of Cornewall, but experience now
 teacheth vs, that it commeth not néere the lands end by thrée miles.
 This latter rill also is the last that I doo reade of on the south side,
 and likewise on the west and north, till we haue sailed to S. Ies baie,
 [Sidenote: Bresan Ile.]
 which is full ten miles from the lands end, or Bresan Ile eastward, &
 rather more, if you reckon to the fall of the Haile, which lieth in the
 very middest and highest part of the baie of the same. The soile also is
 verie hillie here, as for saint Ies towne, it is almost (as I said) a
 byland, and yet is it well watered with sundrie rilles that come from
 those hilles vnto the same.

 [Sidenote: Haile.]
 The Haile riseth in such maner, and from so manie heads, as I haue
 before said: howbeit I will adde somewhat more vnto it, for the benefit
 of my readers. Certes the chéefe head of Haile riseth by west of
 Goodalfin hilles, and going downe toward saint Erthes, it receiueth the
 second, and best of the other three rilles from Goodalfin towne:
 finallie, comming to saint Erthes, and so vnto the maine baie, it taketh
 [Sidenote: Clowart.]
 in the Clowart water from Guimer, south of Phelacke, which hath two
 heads, the said village standing directlie betwixt them both.

 [Sidenote: Caine.]
 The Caine riseth southeast of Caineburne towne a mile and more, from
 whence it goeth without increase by west of Gwethian, and so into the
 sea west of Mara Darwaie. From hence we coasted about the point, & left
 the baie till we came to a water that riseth of two heads from those
 hilles that lie by south of the same: one of them also runneth by saint
 Vni, another by Redreuth, and méeting within a mile, they fall into the
 [Sidenote: Luggam.]
 Ocean beneath Luggam or Tuggan. A mile and a halfe from this fall we
 come vnto another small rill, and likewise two other créekes, betwixt
 which the towne of saint Agnes standeth; and likewise the fourth halfe a
 mile beyond the most easterlie of these, whose head is almost thrée
 miles within the land in a towne called saint Alin. Thence going by the
 Manrocke, and west of saint Piran in the sand, we find a course of thrée
 miles and more from the head, and hauing a forked branch, the parts doo
 méet at west aboue saint Kibbard, and so go into the sea. I take this to
 [Sidenote: S. Pirans créeke. Carantocke.]
 be saint Pirans créeke, for the next is Carantocke pill or créeke, whose
 head is at Guswarth, from whence it goeth vnto Trerise, and soone after
 taking in a rill from by west, it runneth into the sea coast of saint
 Carantakes. Beyond this is another créeke that riseth aboue little saint
 Colan, and goeth by lesse saint Columbe: and east and by north hereof
 commeth downe one more whose head is almost south of the Nine stones, &
 going from thence to great saint Columbes, it passeth by Lamberne, and
 so into the sea. S. Merous créeke is but a little one, rising west of
 Padstow, and falling in almost ouer against the Gull rocke. Then turning
 [Sidenote: Padstow.]
 [Sidenote: Locus bufonis.]
 betwéene the point and the blacke rocke, we entred into Padstow hauen
 thrée miles lower than port Issec, and a mile from port Ewin, whose
 waters remaine next of all to be described.

 [Sidenote: Alannus.]
 The Alan ariseth flat east from the hauen mouth of Padstow, well néere
 [Sidenote: Eniam.]
 eight or nine miles about Dauidstone, neere vnto which the Eniam also
 issueth, that runneth into the Thamar. Going therefore from hence it
 passeth to Camelford, saint Aduen, saint Bernard (both Cornish saints)
 and soone after receiueth a rill at northeast, descending from Rowters
 hill. Thence it goeth to Bliseland, and Helham, the first bridge of name
 that standeth vpon Alin. Yer long also it taketh in one rill by south
 from Bodman, another from saint Laurence, the third by west of this, and
 the fourth that commeth by Wethiell, no one of them excéeding the course
 of thrée miles, and all by south. From hence it goeth toward
 Iglesaleward, and there receiueth a water on the east side, which
 commeth about two miles from saint Teath, by Michelston, saint Tuchoe,
 saint Maben (mo Cornish patrons) and finallie south of Iglesall, méeteth
 with the Alen that goeth from thence by S. Breaca to Woodbridge.
 Hereabout I find, that into our Alein or Alen, there should fall two
 [Sidenote: Carneseie.]
 [Sidenote: Laine.]
 riuerets, whereof the one is called Carneseie, the other Laine, and
 comming in the end to full notice of the matter, I sée them to issue on
 seuerall sides beneath Woodbridge almost directlie the one against the
 other. That which descendeth from northwest, and riseth about saint Kew,
 is named Carneseie, as I heare: the other that commeth in on the
 southwest banke hight Laine, and noted by Leland to rise two miles aboue
 S. Esse. But howsoeuer this matter standeth, there are two other créekes
 [Sidenote: Pethrike.]
 [Sidenote: Minner.]
 [Sidenote: Dunmere.]
 on ech side also, beneath these, as Pethrike creeke, and Minner créeke
 (so called of the Cornish saints) for that soile bred manie, wherewith I
 finish the description of Alen, or (as some call it) Dunmere, and other
 Padstow water.

 From Padstow hauen also they saile out full west to Waterford in
 Ireland. There are likewise two rockes, which lie in the east side of
 the hauen, secretlie hidden at full sea, as two pads in the straw,
 whereof I think it taketh the name. Yet I remember how I haue read that
 Padstow is a corrupted word for Adlestow, and should signifie so much as
 Athelstani locus, as it may well be. For it is euident that they had in
 time past sundrie charters of priuilege from Athelstane, although at
 this present it be well stored with Irishmen. But to our purpose. Leland
 supposed this riuer to be the same Camblan, where Arthur fought his last
 and fatall conflict: for to this daie men that doo eare the ground
 there, doo oft plow vp bones of a large size, and great store of armour,
 or else it may be (as I rather coniecture) that the Romans had some
 field (or Castra) thereabout, for not long since (and in the remembrance
 of man) a brasse pot full of Romane coine was found there, as I haue
 often heard. Being thus passed Padstow hauen, and after we had gone
 three miles from hence, we came to Portgwin a poore fisher towne, where
 I find a brooke and a péere. Then I came to Portissec aliàs Cunilus two
 miles further, and found there a brooke, a péere, and some succor for
 fisher boats. Next of all vnto a brooke that ran from south east,
 directlie north into the Sauerne sea, and within halfe a mile of the
 same laie a great blacke rocke like an Iland. From this water to
 Treuenni is about a mile, where the paroch church is dedicated to saint
 Simphorian, and in which paroch also Tintagell or Dundagie castell
 standeth, which is a thing inexpugnable for the situation, and would be
 made with little reparations one of the strongest things in England. For
 it standeth on a great high terrible crag inuironed with the sea. There
 is a chappell yet standing in the dungeon thereof, dedicated to saint
 Vlet. Tintagell towne and Treuenni are not a mile in sunder.

 [Sidenote: Tredwie.]
 The next créeke is called Bosinni, which is a mile from Tintagell, and
 to the same Tredwie water resorteth, and so they go to the sea betwixt
 two hils, whereof that on the one side lieth out like an arme or cape,
 and maketh the fashion of an hauenet or peere, whither shiplets sometime
 doo resort for succour. A frier of late daies tooke vpon him to make an
 hauen at this place, but in vaine. There lie also two blacke rocks as
 Ilets, at the west northwest point, or side of this créeke, the one
 (sauing that a little gut dooth part them) ioining with the other, and
 in these by all likelihood is great store of gulles. I can not tell
 whether this be the water that runneth by Boscastell or not, but if it
 [Sidenote: Boscastell.]
 be not, then haue I this description of the latter. Boscastell créeke
 that lieth east of Tintagell, is but a small thing, running at the most
 not aboue two miles into the land, yet it passeth by foure townes,
 whereof the first is called Lesneth, the second saint Juliet, the third
 Minster, and the fourth Boscastell or Bushcastell, as some men doo
 pronounce it.

 [Sidenote: Bede.]
 In Bede baie I find the Bedewater, whose chiefe head is not farre from
 [Sidenote: Lancels.]
 Norton. Thence running to Stratton, it receiueth the Lancels rill before
 it come at Norham. And here also it crosseth another whose head is east
 of saint Marie wijke, from whence it runneth by Wolston and Whalesborow,
 and thence into the sea betweene Efford and Plough hill. And thus much
 of the waters that lie betwéene the point of Cornewall, and the Hartland
 head vpon the north side of Cornewall. Now let vs doo the like with
 those that remaine of Deuonshire, whereo the said Hartland is the verie
 first point in this our poeticall voiage. Hauing therefore brought
 Hartland point on our backs, we come next of all to Barstable bar, and
 so into the hauen, whereinto two principall streams doo perpetuallie
 vnburden their chanels.

 [Sidenote: Ocus.]
 The first and more westerlie of these is called Ocus, whose head is not
 farre west of the head of Darnt, and Loth in Darntmore. Rising therefore
 in the aforesaid place, it runneth northwest to Snorton, and so to
 Okehampton, beneath which towne it méeteth with an other water comming
 from southeast, & riseth not much west from the head of Tawe. From hence
 it goeth to Stow Exborne, Moonke Okington, & Iddesleie, where it taketh
 [Sidenote: Tanridge.]
 [Sidenote: Turrege.]
 in the Tanridge a verie pretie streamelet, whose issue is not full a mile
 by east from the head of Thamar, thrée miles by north east from
 Hartland. Comming therefore by west and east Putford, Bulworthie,
 Bockington, Newton, and Shebbor, it receiueth a forked rill that runneth
 from ech side of Bradworthie by Sutcombe, Treborow, Milton, & so to
 Thornebirie, where méeting with an other forked water (whereof one head
 comming from Dunsland, ioineth with the other north of Cockbirie) it
 goeth with speed into the Tanridge water. After this confluence it
 [Sidenote: Buckland.]
 runneth on to Shéepewash (by west whereof falleth in the Buckland water
 from by north) thence to high Hainton, and so to Haitherlaie, north
 wherof it taketh in a rill from by south, and endeth his race at
 Iddesleie, by ioining with the Oke. Hence then the Ocus hasteth to
 Dowland, and betwéene it and Doulton, receiueth one rill from by east,
 as it dooth an other betwéene Doulton and Marton from by west, and so
 procéeding on with his course, it commeth east of Torrington the lesse,
 and taking in a water at east, that runneth from thrée heads (by Wollie
 parke) betweene which Combe and Roughborow are situat, it descendeth to
 [Sidenote: Langtrée.]
 Torington the more, and meeting with the Langtrée water on the one side,
 [Sidenote: Were or Ware.]
 and the Ware brooke on the other, it procéedeth to Bediford, crossing a
 rill by the waie that commeth vnto it betwéene Annarie & Littham. From
 Bediford bridge it goeth without anie increase to Westleie, Norham,
 Appledoure, and so into the hauen.

 [Sidenote: Taw.]
 The Taw of both is the more noble water, notwithstanding that his hauen
 be barred with sand; and thereby dangerous, and hath most rils
 descending into his chanell. Howbeit, by these two is all the hart of
 Deuonshire well watered on the northside of the moores. The Tawy riseth
 directlie at south west of Throwlie, and north of the head of Darnt, or
 (as Leland saith) in Exmore south east from Barstable. From thence also
 it runneth to Sele, South Taueton, Cockatre, Bath, Northtaueton,
 Ashridge, Colridge, and soone after receiueth the Bowmill créeke, wherof
 [Sidenote: Bowmill.]
 one head riseth at Bow, the other at Mill, and meeting beneth Bishops
 Morchard, they fall into the Taw north of Nimeth Rowland, as I haue
 béene informed. From hence then it runneth by Edgeforth, to Chimligh, by
 south whereof it méeteth with a rill comming downe of two heads from
 about Rakenford, by Wetheridge and Chawleie. Thence it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Moulebraie.]
 Burrington, and Chiltenholtwood, and there taketh in the Moulebraie
 water consisting of two in one chanell, wherof the Moll dooth rise aboue
 north Moulton, and comming to Moulton receiueth another rill running
 from Molland, and soone after the second that growing by two brookes
 (the head of one being at Knawston, and of the other west of Crokeham,
 and both vniting themselues beneath Mariston) dooth fall into the same
 yer long also, and so go togither till it crosse the Braie, which (being
 [Sidenote: Braie.]
 the second of the two that maketh the Moulbraie) riseth at Braie,
 commeth by Buckland, and south of Holtwood dooth make his confluence
 with Taw. Being past the wood, it goeth on to Brightleie hall, Taueton,
 Tauestocke, & Berstable, sometime a pretie walled towne with foure
 gates, but now a little thing; and such in déed, as that the suburbes
 thereof are greater than it selfe. I suppose that the name of this towne
 in the British speach was Abertaw, bicause it stood toward the mouth of
 Taw, and Berdnesse pronounced short (as I gesse) for Abernesse. As for
 Staple, it is an addition for a market, & therefore hath nothing to doo
 in the proper name of the towne. King Athelstane is taken here for the
 chiefe priuileger of the towne. This is also worthie to be noted hereof,
 that the houses there are of stone, as most are in all the good townes

 But to proceed with our purpose. Beneath this towne there falleth in a
 water that hath one head néere about Challacombe, & another at east
 Downe, whereof this descending by Stoke riuer, and the other by
 Sherwell, they vnite themselues within thrée miles of Berstaple. Soone
 after also it taketh in another that descendeth from Bitenden by
 Ashford, and the last of all east of saint Anthonies chappell, named the
 [Sidenote: Doneham.]
 Doneham, bicause one head is at west Done, and the other at Ham, both of
 them méeting west of Ash. And thus is Taue described, which is no great
 water nor quicke streame, as may appéere in Low water marke at Berstable
 and yet is it a pretie riueret. This also is worthie to be noted
 thereof, that it receiueth no brooke from by west, whereof I would
 somewhat maruell, if Taurige were not at hand.

 Being past the Taue, Cride baie and Bugpoint aliàs Bagpoint, we go by
 More baie, Morstone aliàs Mortstone, and then toward the northeast, till
 we come by a créekelet to Ilfare combe, & so to Combe Marton, whereat (I
 meane ech of them) are sundrie créekes of salt water, but not serued
 with anie fresh that I as yet doo heare of. Marrie there is betwéene
 Martinbow & Trensow, a créeke that hath a backewater, which descendeth
 [Sidenote: Paradine.]
 from Parracombe (so farre as I call to mind named Parradine becke) but
 [Sidenote: Orus.]
 the greatest of all is betweene Linton and Connisberie called Ore, which
 riseth in Summersetshire in Exmore (east of Hore oke, more than a mile)
 and going by Owre, falleth into the sea betwéene Linton and Conisberie,
 so that the whole race thereof amounteth in and out to an eight miles,
 as I haue heard reported. Thus haue I finished the discourse of the
 [Sidenote: The bredth of Deuonshire & Cornewall.]
 waters of Deuonshire, whose breadth in this place from hence ouerthwart
 to the Checkstones in the mouth of Ex, on the south side of the Ile, is
 eight and thirtie miles or vnder fortie, and so much likewise is it from
 Plimmouth to Hartland point, but the broadest part there commeth to six
 and thirtie miles, whereas the broadest part of Cornewall doth want two
 miles of fortie.

 Being past the aforesaid limits of the counties we came to Portlochbaie,
 [Sidenote: Loch.]
 whither commeth a water named Loch that descendeth from Stokepero,
 [Sidenote: Durus.]
 Lucham and Portloch without increase. Thence to Dunsteir brooke, which
 runneth from about Wootton, and Courtneie by Tunbercombe and Dunsteir,
 then to another that commeth west of Old Cliffe, leauing a parke on the
 [Sidenote: Vacetus.]
 west side, next of all to Watchet water, whereof one head commeth from
 the Quantocke hils south of Bickualer by Westquantocke head, and almost
 [Sidenote: Williton.]
 at Doniford, receiueth the Williton becke, then to east Quantocke brooke
 [Sidenote: Doddington.]
 (omitting a créeket) & next of all to Doddington water, that goeth by
 Holford, Alfoxton, and afterward into the sea. From hence we go by
 Bottesall point, to Stert point, where two noble riuers doo make their
 confluence, which I will seuerallie describe, as to my purpose

 [Sidenote: Iuelus.]
 The first of these is called the Iuell, or (as I find it in an ancient
 writer) Yoo, who saith that the riuer Yoo dooth runne from Ilchester to
 Bridgewater, and so into the sea. It riseth aboue Oburne, and at
 Shirburne receiueth a water, whereof Leland saith thus. There are seuen
 [Sidenote: The seuen sisters.]
 springs in an hill called the seuen sisters, north east from Shireburne,
 which gather into one bottome, & come into the Mere. Another brooke
 likewise commeth by Heidon from Puscandell, three miles from thence by
 flat east, betwixt the parke and the Mere full so great as the streame
 of the Mere, and ioining at the lower mill of Shireburne, with the Mere
 water, it is not long yer it fall into the Euill. Thence our Euill goeth
 on towards Glasen Bradford, and yer it come there taketh in a forked
 rill from by south, descending from about west Chelburie and Chetnall in
 Dorsetshire, beneath which towne the other head falleth into the same,
 so that they run foorth by Bearhaggard and Thorneford (till they méet
 with the Iuell) and so to Clifton, Euill a proper market towne, Trent,
 [Sidenote: Cade.]
 Mutford, Ashinton, and east of Limminton it méeteth with the Cade that
 runneth from Yarlington, by north Cadbirie, and soone after crossing a
 rill also from by east, that commeth from Blackeford by Compton, it
 hasteth to south Cadbirie, Sparkeford, Queenes Camell, west Camell, and
 so into Iuell, which runneth on to Kimmington, Ilchester, Ilbridge, long
 Sutton, and yer it come at Langport, taketh in two famous waters in one
 chanell, next of all to be remembred before I go anie further. The first
 of all these riseth southeast betwéene the Parrets (where it is called
 [Sidenote: Parret.]
 Parret water) and goeth to Crokehorne, and at Meriot taketh in a brooke
 from the east, which consisteth of two courses vnited at Bowbridge,
 whereof the one descendeth from Pen by Hasilburie, the other from aboue
 the thrée Chenocks, as I doo vnderstand.

 From hence also they go as one with the Parret water, toward south
 Pederton (taking in at east a becke comming from Hamden hill) thence to
 Pederton, Lambrooke, Thorneie bridge, and Muchelneie where it méeteth
 [Sidenote: Ill.]
 with the second called Ill or Ilus, whose head is aboue Chellington, &
 comming downe from thence by Cadworth, before it come at Dunniet, it
 taketh in a rill that runneth by Chascombe and Knoll. Thence leauing
 Ilmister on the east side, it meeteth with another from by east,
 descending from about Whitlakington. Then it goeth to Pokington (where it
 [Sidenote: Ilton.]
 crosseth the Ilton water by west) next to Ilbruers, and there it ioineth
 with a rillet that riseth by west at Staple, and runneth by Bicknell and
 Abbats Ilie, and after this confluence goeth on toward Langport. And
 here after some mens opinion, the Iuell looseth his name, and is called
 Parret: but this coniecture cannot hold, sith in the old writers it is
 called Iuell, till it fall into the sea. Neuerthelesse, how soeuer this
 matter standeth, being past Langport, it goeth by Awber toward saint
 Anthonies, where it méeteth with the Tone next of all to be described.

 [Sidenote: Tone.]
 The Tone issueth at Clatworthie, and goeth by west of Wiuelscombe, to
 Stawleie, Ritford, Runton, Wellington and Bradford, beneath which it
 taketh in a faire water c[=o]ming from Sanford Combe, Elworthie, Brunt
 Rafe, Miluerton, Oke and Hilfarens. After this confluence also it
 runneth to Helebridge, and there below méeteth with one water that
 runneth by Hawse, Hethford, and Norton, then another from Crokeham by
 bishops Slediard, and the third & fourth at Taunton, that descendeth
 from Kingston by north, and another by south that riseth about
 Pidmister. And thus is the Tone increased, which goeth from Taunton to
 Riston, Crech, Northcurrie, Ling, and so by Anthonie into the Iuell,
 [Sidenote: Chare or Care.]
 that after this confluence méeteth yer long with the Chare, a pretie
 riuer that commeth by east from Northborow, by Carleton, Badcare,
 Litecare, Somerton, Higham, Audrie moore, Audrie, and Michelsborow. From
 whence going on betweene Quéenes moore and North moore, it receiueth one
 [Sidenote: Peder.]
 brooke called Peder from by southwest, that runneth through Pederton
 parke and North moore; and likewise another that passeth by Durleie, yer
 it doo come at Bridgewater. From Bridgewater it goeth by Chilton
 directlie northwest, and then turning flat west, it goeth northward
 towards the sea, taking in two waters by the waie, whereof one runneth
 [Sidenote: Camington.]
 by Coripole & Camington, and beareth the name of Camington, the other by
 [Sidenote: Brier.]
 Siddington and Comage, and then receiuing the Brier before it come at
 Start point, they fall as one into the Ocean, whereof let this suffice
 for the description of the Iuell, whose streame dooth water all the west
 part of Summersetshire and leaueth it verie fruitfull.

 [Sidenote: Brier.]
 The Brier, Bruer, or Bréer, riseth of two waters, wherof one is in
 Selwood forest, & commeth downe by Bruecombe, Bruham, and Bruton. The
 [Sidenote: _Leland_ writeth the first Brieuelus and the second
 Mellodunus or the Milton water.]
 other which Leland nameth Mellos, is northest of Staffordell towne, and
 going by the same, it runneth by Redlinch, to Wike; where it méeteth
 with the other head, and thence go on as one to Awnsford, Alford (where
 [Sidenote: Dulis.]
 it taketh in a water called Dulis from by north that riseth néere
 Dolting, and commeth by Euerchurch parke) then to the Lidfords, Basborow
 wood, the Torhill, Pont perilous (whereinto they fable that Arthur being
 wounded to death did throw Calibur his sword) by Glastenburie and so into
 the Méere. Beside this riuer there are two other also that fall into the
 [Sidenote: Sowaie or Stowaie.]
 said Méere, whereof the one called Sowaie commeth from Créechurch parke,
 [Sidenote: Cos.]
 and Pulton by Hartlacke bridge, the other named Cos or the Coscombe
 water, from aboue Shepton, Mallet (which east of Wike taketh in a water
 comming from Welles) by Wike, Gedneie, and so into the Méere. Finallie,
 returning all into one chanell, it runneth to Burtlehouse, and soone
 after diuiding it selfe, one arme goeth by Bastian aliàs Brent bridge,
 to High bridge, leauing Huntspill a market towne by southwest, the other
 by Marke to Rokes bridge, Hebbes passage, and so into the sea, leauing a
 faire Iland, wherin beside Brentmarsh are seuen or eight townes, of
 whose names I haue no knowledge.

 Now as touching the water that commeth from Welles, which falleth (as I
 said) into the Coscombe water on the right hand of the Cawseie; you shall
 vnderstand that as manie springs are in Wels, so the chiefe of them is
 named Andres well, which riseth in a medow plat not farre from the east
 end of the cathedrall church, and afterward goeth into the Coscombe, in
 [Sidenote: Milton.]
 [Sidenote: Golafer.]
 such place as I haue noted. Leland speaketh of the Milton & Golafer
 waters, which should fall likewise into the Brier: but whether those be
 they whereof the one riseth aboue Staffordell, and in the descent
 runneth by Shipton, Pitcombe, and so to Awnsford on the one side, as the
 other dooth rise betwéene Batcombe and Vpton noble on the other halfe;
 or vnto whether of them either of these names are seuerallie to be
 attributed: as yet I doo not read.

 [Sidenote: Axe. 2.]
 The second Axe which commeth by Axe towne in old time called Vexa,
 issueth out of Owkie hole, from whence it goeth by Owkie towne, afterward
 [Sidenote: The Chederbrooke, driueth twelue miles within a quarter of
 a mile of his head.]
 meeting with the Chederbrooke that commeth from the Cheder rocks,
 wherein is an hole in old time called Carcer Æoli, wherof much hath
 béene written & surmised past credit. It runneth by Were, Ratcliffe, and
 after a little compasse into the northeast branch of the aforesaid riuer
 last described, betweene Rokes bridge and Hebbes passage, as I haue
 beene informed. From the fall of Axe we come to an other called Bane,
 [Sidenote: Bane.]
 northeast of Woodspring, whose head is about Banwell parke, or else in
 [Sidenote: Artro.]
 Smaldon wood. Then to an other, and to the third, called Artro, which
 riseth about Litton, and going by the Artroes, Vbbeie, Perribridge
 (receiuing a rill yer it come thither from by south) beneath
 Cungesbirie, or (as I learne) betwéene Kingston and Laurence Wike, it
 méeteth with the sea.

 [Sidenote: Sottespill.]
 Sottespill water riseth betwéene Cheueleie and Naileseie, howbeit it
 hath no increase before it come into the sea at Sottespill, more than
 [Sidenote: Cleueden.]
 the next vnto it, which is named Cleueden water, of a certeine towne
 neere to the fall thereof. It riseth southeast of Barrow, goeth by
 [Sidenote: Auon. 3.]
 Burton Naileseie, and so vnto Cleuedon. The Auon, commonlie called the
 third Auon, is a goodlie water, and growne to be verie famous by sundrie
 occasions, to be particularlie touched in our description of Bristow.
 Yet thus much will I note héere thereof as a rare accident, how that in
 king Edgars daies, the verie same yeare that the old monasterie of
 Euesham fell downe by itselfe, a porpasse was taken therein neere to the
 said monasterie, and neuer anie before or since that time heard of to
 haue béene found in that streame. And euen so not manie yeares before I
 [Sidenote: Sturgion taken in Rochester water.]
 first wrote this treatise, a sturgion was taken aliue in Rochester
 streame, which the bishop gaue vnto your honor, and you would as gladlie
 haue sent it to the quéenes maiestie, if she might haue béene presented
 withall aliue as it was taken. Certes both these rare occurrents gaue no
 lesse occasion of strange surmises to the inhabitants of both places,
 than the blockes of Brerton, when they appeare, doo vnto that familie;
 of which the report goeth that they are neuer séene but against some
 mischéefe or other to befall vnto that house. But how farre am I gone
 from my purpose?

 The Auon therefore riseth in the verie edge of Tetburie, and goeth by
 long Newton to Brokenton, Whitchurch, and Malmsburie, where it receiueth
 two waters, that is to saie, one from by west comming by Foreleie and
 Bromleham, which runneth so néere to the Auon in the west suburbe of
 Malmsburie, that the towne thereby is almost made an Iland. Another from
 Okeseie parke by Hankerton, Charleton, and Garesden. After this
 confluence it hasteth to Cole parke, then goeth it toward the southeast,
 till it méet with a water comming from southwest (betwéene Hullauington
 and Bradfield) by Aston: and soone after with another at the northside
 from Binall by Wootton Basset (through the parke to Gretenham, and
 Idouer bridges) and after the confluence to Dauntseie, Segar, Sutton,
 Christmalford, Auon, Calwaies house, and then to west Tetherton. Beneath
 this towne also it taketh in a water increased by two brookes, whereof
 one comming from Cleue by Hilmarton, Whitleie house and Bramble (and
 there receiuing another that commeth by Calne) passeth on by Stanlie
 into the Auon, which from thencefoorth goeth to Chippenham, Rowdon,
 [Sidenote: Cosham.]
 Lekham, and then receiuing Cosham water, goeth to Lacocke, Melsham, and
 yer it come at Whaddon, crosseth two other in one chanell, whereof one
 riseth about Brumham house, and goeth to Sene, the other about the
 Diuizes, and from thence runneth to Potterne wood, Creeke wood, Worton,
 Maston, Bucklington, and ioining with the other aboue Litleton, they run
 by Semmington, and north of Whaddon aforesaid into the maine streame,
 whereof I now intreat. From hence our Auon runneth to Stauerton, and
 [Sidenote: Were.]
 southwest of that towne méeteth with the Were that commeth from Vpton by
 [Sidenote: Westbirie vnder the plaine,
 neuer without a théefe or twaine.]
 Dilton, Brooke parke (there crossing a rill called Bisse from Westbirie
 vnder the plaine) then to north Bradleie, Trubridge, and so into Auon
 that goeth from thence to Bradford, & within a mile or thereabouts,
 before it come at Freshford, it méeteth with the Frome, whose
 description dooth insue.

 [Sidenote: Frome.]
 The Frome riseth in the east part of Mendip hils, and from thence
 runneth by Astwijc, the Cole pits, Lie vnder Mendip, Whateleie,
 [Sidenote: Nonneie.]
 Elmesbridge, and soone after taketh in the Nonneie water, comming from
 Nonneie castell, thence to Walles and Orcharleie bridge, where it
 receiueth a pretie brooke descending from Frome Selwood west of
 Brackleie, increased with sundrie rils, whereof two come out of Selwood
 forrest (and one of them from the Fratrie) another out of Long lead
 parke, from Horningsham, and the fourth from Cosleie. Hence our Frome
 goeth to Lullington, Beckington, Farleie castell, Bord and Fresh foord,
 [Sidenote: Silling.]
 and taking in the Silling brooke, falleth into the Auon beneath
 Bradford, and east of Freshford. From thence going beneath Stoke, it
 receiueth on the left hand a water comming from southwest, increased by
 sundrie brookes, whereof one commeth from Camelet by Litleton, and
 Dankerton, the other from Stone Eston, Midsummer Norton, by Welston,
 Rodstocke, Wrigleton, Foscot, and Wellow, and there (taking in a rill
 from Phillips Norton) it goeth by Clauerton to Hampton, and there it
 méeteth with another water comming from Barthford, whose head is at
 Litleton from whence it runneth by west Kineton to Castell combe (where
 it ioineth with a rill rising by north from Litleton drue) and thence
 commeth south to Slaughtenford, Haselburie, Box, Baithford, and so into
 the Auon, which turning plaine west, hasteth to Baithwijc, and (meeting
 with another in his passage from Caldaston) to Bath, the Tiuertons, and

 Héere also it taketh in a rill by the waie from Markesburie by Wilmerton
 and Newton, and then going on to Sawford, it méeteth with one rill soone
 [Sidenote: Swinford.]
 west of Northstocke, named Swinford, and another by Bitton, from Durhain
 by Wike, and so procéedeth still holding on his way to Caimsham, a towne
 [Sidenote: Swinford parteth Summerset & Glocestershires in sunder.]
 in Summerset shire (so called of Caim an English saint, by whose
 praiers, as the countrie once beléeued, all the adders, snakes and
 serpents were turned into stone, their formes reserued, and for a
 certeine space of ground about the said towne, and whereof some store as
 yet is to be found in those quaries. But this miracle is so true as the
 historie of Hilda, or that S. Patrike should chase all venemous
 creatures out of Italie, with his staffe; or that maid Radegund should
 driue the crowes to the pound, which did annoie hir corne while she went
 vnto a chappell to heare & sée a masse) where it crosseth the Chute,
 which issueth at Winford, and goeth by bishops Chue to Penford, and
 there receiueth the Clue comming from Cluton, and from thence to Chute,
 & so into the Auon. The Auon likewise after all these confluences goeth
 to Briselton, and so to Bristow, beneath which it receiueth a rill on
 each side (wherof one commeth from about Stoke lodge in Glocestershire,
 being a faire water and running by Acton, Frampton, Hambroch, Stapleton,
 and through Bristow, the other by south from Dundreie hill and towne, by
 Bisport and Bedminster) and so descending yet lower, goeth to Rawneham
 passage and Clifton, then by S. Vincents rocke and Laie, next of all to
 Crocampill, and finallie into the sea, whither all waters by nature doo

 [Sidenote: Alderleie.]
 Beside this water, Leland maketh mention of Alderleie brooke, which in
 some ancient records is also called Auon, and runneth by Barkeleie. In
 [Sidenote: Douresleie.]
 like maner he talketh of Douresleie becke, whose principall head is in
 Douresleie towne: howbeit he saith no thing of it more, than that it
 [Sidenote: Torworth.]
 serueth sundrie tucking lucking milles, and goeth by Tortworth or foure
 miles further, before it come at the Sauerne. Finallie, making mention
 of an excellent quarrie of hard stone about Douresleie, he telleth of
 the Tortworth becke, that runneth within a flight shot of Barkeleie
 towne, and falleth on the left hand into Sauerne marches, taking with
 all the Alderleie or Auon, except I mistake his meaning, which may soone
 be doone among his confused notes.



 [Sidenote: Sauerne.]
 The Sauerne which Ptolomie calleth Sabriana, Tacitus Sabrina, diuideth
 England or that part of the Iland, which sometime was called Lhoegres
 from Cambria, so called of Camber, the second sonne of Brute, as our
 histories doo report. But now that region hight Wales, of the Germane
 word Walsh, whereby that nation dooth vse to call all strangers without
 respect of countrie. This riuer tooke the name of a certeine ladie,
 called Habren or Hafren, base daughter to Locrinus begotten vpon
 Estrildis daughter to Humber otherwise called Cumbrus or Vmar, and for
 which some write Chonibrus king of Scithia, that sometime inuaded this
 Island, and was ouerthrowne here in the daies of this Locrinus, as shall
 be shewed at hand: although I suppose rather that this ladie was called
 Ine, and that the word Sabrina is compounded of Aber and Ine, and the
 letter S added "Propter euphoniam:" for the mouth or fall of euerie
 riuer in the British spéech is called Aber, whereby Aber Ine is so much
 to saie as, the fall of Ine. But let vs returne againe to our discourse
 of Humber or Vmar, which is worthie to be remembred.

 For after the death of Locrinus, it came to passe that Guendolena his
 wife ruled the kingdome in the nonage of hir sonne: and then getting the
 said Estrildis and Habren hir daughter into hir hands, she drowned them
 both in this riuer. And in perpetuall remembrance of hir husbands
 disloialtie towards hir, she caused the streame to be called Habren of
 the yoong ladie, for which the Romans in processe of time for readinesse
 and mildnesse of pronunciation, wrote Sabrina, and we at this time doo
 pronounce the Sauerne. Of the drowning of the said Abren also I find
 these verses insuing:

                   In fluuium præcipitatur Abren,
   Nomen Abren, fluuio de virgine, nomen eidem
     Nomine corrupto deinde Sabrina datur.

 But to returne to our Sauerne. It falleth into the maine sea betweene
 Wales and Cornewall, which is and shall be called the Sauerne sea, so
 long as the riuer dooth keepe hir name. But as the said streame in
 length of course, bountie of water, and depth of chanell commeth farre
 behind the Thames: so for other commodities, as trade of merchandize,
 plentie of cariage, & store of all kind of fish, as salmon, trouts,
 breames, pikerell, tench, perch, &c: it is nothing at all inferiour or
 second to the same. Finallie, there is nothing to be discommended in
 this riuer, but the opennesse thereof in manie places to the weather,
 whereby sundrie perils oft ouertake such as fish or saile in small
 vessels on the same.

 The head of this noble streame is found in the high mounteines of south
 Wales called Helennith or Plim limmon; in English, the blacke mounteins,
 or moore heads, from whence also the Wie and the Rhidoll do procéed: and
 therefore these thrée waters are commonlie called the thrée sisters, and
 haue in latitude two and fiftie degrees ten minutes, in longitude
 fiftéene and fiftie, as the description inferreth. So soone as it is out
 of the ground, it goeth southeastward, till it come within a mile of
 Laundlos, where it receiueth a chanell from by south southwest, called
 the Dulas, which commeth thereinto on the south side, & southwest of Lan
 Idlos. It riseth (as it should séeme) of diuerse heads in the edge of
 Radnorshire, and taking in sundrie small rilles, it meeteth at the last
 [Sidenote: Brueham.]
 with the Brueham brooke, and so they go togither till they fall into the
 [Side note: Clewdogh.]
 Sauerne. Beneath Lan Idlos it taketh in the Clewdogh, from northwest, a
 water producted by the influence of foure pretie brookes, whereof one is
 [Sidenote: Bacho.]
 [Sidenote: Dungum.]
 [Sidenote: Lhoid.]
 [Sidenote: Bigga.]
 [Sidenote: Couine.]
 called Bacho, another Dungum comming out of lin Glaslin, the third Lhoid
 rising in lin Begilin, and the most southerlie called Bigga. After which
 confluence our Sauerne procéedeth on by Berhlaid toward Landiman, taking
 in by the waie, on the east side the Couine, thence to Cairfuse castell,
 [Sidenote: Carnon.]
 [Sidenote: Taran.]
 where it meeteth with the Carnon, and the Taran both in one chanell, and
 going not far from the aforesaid fortresse. After this it crosseth the
 [Sidenote: Hawes.]
 [Sidenote: Dulesse 2.]
 Hawes on the north halfe beneath Aberhawes, next of all the Dulesse that
 riseth in the edge of Radnor shire, and méeteth with it before it come
 at Newton in Powisie, otherwise called Trenewith, as I find in British
 language. Being come to Trenewith, I cannot eschue (right honorable) to
 giue one note, as by the waie, touching the originall of my ladie your
 bedfellowes ancestrie, which came from hence, & were surnamed Newtons
 onelie, for that the grandfather of sir John Newton either dwelled or
 was borne there: otherwise the right name is Caradoc, for which some doo
 corruptlie write Cradocke, respecting rather the shortnesse of
 pronuntiation, than the true orthographie and writing of the word.
 Certes the Caradockes haue béene, and yet are a linage of great honor,
 antiquitie, and seruice; their lands also sometime belonged (for the
 most part) to the noble Connoanies of Summersetshire: but in what order
 they descended to the Newtons, in good sooth I cannot tell. But to
 procéed with our riuer, which being past Newton, runneth foorth by
 [Sidenote: Mule.]
 Landilouarne, and so foorth on till it come to the fall of the Mule,
 whose head is in the edge of Radnor also, and thereto his passage by
 Kerie and Lanmereiwijc. After this also it procéedeth further till it
 [Sidenote: Kenlet.]
 [Sidenote: Camalet.]
 [Sidenote: Tate.]
 meet with the Kenlet or the Camalet, which taketh in also the Tate or
 Tadbrooke water rising out of the hilles a mile from Bishops towne, the
 whole course thereof being about seauen miles from the head (as I haue
 often heard.) Of this also I find two descriptions, whereof one I borrow
 out of Leland, who saith that it is a pretie brooke, running in the vale
 by Mountgomerie, and comming within halfe a mile of the place where
 Chirbirie priorie stood, it falleth into the Sauerne about a mile from
 thence. Of the rilles (saith he) that run from the hilles thorough
 Mountgomerie, which are a mile from the Sauerne shore, and likewise of
 [Sidenote: Lan Idlos.]
 the Lan Idlos brooke that méeteth withall within foure miles of the
 head, I speake not, but thinke it sufficient to touch those of some
 estimation, onelie leauing the rest to such as maie hereafter deale with
 things more particularlie as time and trauell maie reueale the truth to
 them. And hitherto Leland, whose words I dare not alter. But another
 noteth this Camalet or Kenlet to run by More, Liddiom, Sned,
 Churchstocke, Chirbirie, Walcote, and Winsbirie, and so into the

 From hence then, and after this confluence it goeth on by Fordon,
 Leighton, and Landbreuie toward Meluerleie, and there it méeteth with
 [Sidenote: Tanet.]
 sundrie waters in one chanell, whereof the one called the Tanet is a
 [Sidenote: Peuereie or Murnewie.]
 verie pretie water (whereinto the Peuereie or Murneweie doth fall, which
 descendeth from the hilles by west of Matrafall not farre from Lhan
 [Sidenote: Auernie.]
 Filin) the other Auernie, and ioining beneath Abertannoth, or aboue
 Lannamonach neere unto the ditch of Offa, it is not long yer they méet
 [Sidenote: Mordant.]
 with the Mordant brooke, and there loose their names so soone as they
 ioine and mix their waters with it. The head of the Mordant issueth out
 of the Lanuerdan hilles, where diuerse saie, that the parish church of
 crosse Oswald or Oswester sometimes stood. Certes, Oswester is thirtéene
 miles northwest from Shrewesburie, and conteineth a mile within the
 walles. It hath in like sort foure suburbs or great stréetes, of which
 one is called Stratlan, another Wuliho, the third Beterich, wherein are
 one hundred and fortie barns standing on a row belonging to the citizens
 or burgesses, and the fourth named the Blackegate stréet, in which are
 thirtie barns mainteined for corne and haie. There is also a brooke
 [Sidenote: Simons becke.]
 running thorough the towne by the crosse, comming from Simons well, a
 bow shoote without the wall; & going vnder the same betweene Thorowgate
 & Newgate, running vnder the Blacke gate. There is another, ouer whose
 [Sidenote: Bederich.]
 course the Baderikes or Bederich gate standeth, and therefore called
 Bederich brooke. The third passeth by the Willigate or Newgate, & these
 fall all togither with the Crosse brooke, a mile lower by south into the
 Mordant that runneth (as I said) by Oswester. From hence also it goeth
 to Mordant towne, and betwéene Landbreuie and Meluerleie doth fall into
 the Sauerne. After this our principall streame goeth to Sheauerdon
 castell, Mountford, and Bicton chappell: and here it receiueth a water
 on the left hand, that riseth of two heads, whereof one is aboue Merton,
 the other at Ellismere, and ioining betweene Woodhouses & Bagleie, the
 confluence runneth on by Radnall, Halton, Teddesmer, Roiton, Baschurch,
 Walford, Grafton, Mitton, and so into the Sauerne. From hence it runneth
 to Fitz, Eton, or Leiton, Barwijc, vpper Rossall, Shelton, and so to
 Shrewsburie, where it crosseth the Mele water, whose head (as I heare)
 is said to be in Weston.

 [Sidenote: Mele.]
 The Mele therefore rising at Weston, goeth by Brocton, Worthen, Aston
 [Sidenote: Haberleie.]
 Pigot, Westleie, Asterleie, and at Lea it méeteth with the Haberleie
 water that commeth downe by Pontesford and Aunston. After this
 confluence also it runneth to Newenham & Crokemele, there taking in a
 rill on the other side that descendeth by Westburie and Stretton, &
 thence going on to Hanwood, Noball, Pulleie, Bracemele, and
 Shrewesburie, it falleth (as I said) into the open Sauerne. From hence
 our Sauerne hasteth to Vffington, Preston, and betwéene Chilton and
 Brampton taketh in the Terne, a faire streame and worthie to be well
 handled; if it laie in me to performe it. This riuer riseth in a mere
 beside Welbridge parke, néere vnto Ternemere village in Staffordshire.
 From whence it runneth by the parkes side to Knighton, Norton, Betton,
 and at Draiton Hales crosseth with a water comming from about Adbaston
 (where maister Brodocke dwelleth) and runneth by Chippenham and Amming:
 [Sidenote: Terne.]
 so that the Terne on the one side, and this brooke on the other, doo
 [Sidenote: * Sée Hen. 6. pag. 649]
 inclose a great part of [*]Blore heath, where a noble battell was
 somtime purposed betwéene king Henrie the sixt, and the duke of Yorke:
 but it wanted execution.

 But to procéed. After this confluence, it runneth to Draiton Hales,
 Ternehill bridge: and yer long taking in a rill from Sandford by
 Blechleie, it goeth to Stoke Allerton, Peplaw, and Eaton, where it
 crosseth with a brooke that riseth about Brinton, and going by Higham,
 Morton, the great Mere, Forton, Pilson, Pickstocke, Keinton, Tibberton,
 and Bolas, it ioineth with the said Terne not farre from Water Vpton.
 Thence passing to Crogenton, it méeteth with another brooke that commeth
 from Chaltwen Aston, by Newport, Longford, Aldneie, and so through the
 Wilde moore to Kinsleie & Sléepe, and finallie into the Terne, which
 hasteth from thence to Eston bridge, and néere vnto Walcote taketh in
 [Sidenote: Roden.]
 the Roden. This water riseth at Halton in Cumbermere lake: and comming
 to Ouenleie, crosseth a rill from Cowlemere by Leniall. Thence it goeth
 to Horton, and (ioining with another rill beneath Nonlaie that commeth
 from Midle) runneth on to Wen, Aston, there crossing a rill beneath
 Lacon hall from Prées ward, and so to Lée, Befford, Stanton, Morton,
 Shabrée, Painton, Roden, Rodington, and then into Terne, that runneth
 from thence by Charlton, Vpton, Norton, Barwijc, Acham, and so into the
 Sauerne two miles beneath Shrewesburie (as I wéene.)

 Thus haue I described the Terne in such wise as my simple skill is able
 to performe. Now it resteth that I proceed on (as I maie) with the
 Sauerne streame, with which, after this former confluence, it goeth vnto
 Roxater or Roxcester, Brampton, Eaton vpon Sauerne, Draiton, where it
 [Sidenote: Euerne.]
 ioineth with the Euerne that runneth from Frodesleieward by Withiall and
 Pitchford, Cresfedge, Garneston, Leighton, and betwéene the two
 [Sidenote: Wenlocke or Rhe.]
 Bildasses crosseth the Rhe or Wenlocke water, and so goeth on to
 Browsleie and Hoord parke, where it vniteth it selfe with another brooke
 to be described in this place, whilest the Sauerne rests, and recreates
 it selfe here among the plesant bottoms.

 This water ariseth aboue Tongcastell, and yer it haue run anie great
 distance from the head, it méeteth with a rill comming by Sheriffe
 Hales, and Staunton. Thence it goeth on to Hatton, Roiton, and there
 crossing another from Woodhouses, comming by Haughton and Euelin, it
 [Sidenote: Worfe.]
 procéedeth to Beckebirie and Higford, and not omitting here to crosse
 the Worfe (sometime a great streame that runneth vnto it out of Snowdon
 poole) and so passeth foorth to Badger, Acleton, Worffield: a litle from
 whence (about Wickin) it taketh in another brooke into it called Churle,
 & so goeth on to Rindleford, and then into Sauerne somwhat aboue
 Bridgenorth at Penston mill (except mine information deceiue me.) From
 Bridgenorth our Sauerne descendeth to Woodburie, Quatford, and there
 [Sidenote: Marbrooke.]
 taking in the Marbrooke beneath Eaton that riseth aboue Collaton, and
 goeth by Moruill & Vnderton, it runneth by Didmanston, Hempton, Aueleie,
 & beneath in the waie to Bargate, crosseth with a brooke comming from
 Vpton parke, by Chetton, Billingsleie, and Highleie, which being
 admitted, it holdeth on to Areleie, Ciarnewood parke, Hawbach and
 [Sidenote: Dowlesse.]
 Dowlesse. Here also it méeteth with the Dowlesse water, a pretie brooke
 issuing out of the Cle hilles in Shropshire, verie high to looke vpon,
 and thrée miles or thereabouts from Ludlow, which runneth through
 [Sidenote: Lempe.]
 Clebirie parke in Wire forrest, & taking withall the Lempe, dooth fall
 into the Sauerne not far from Bewdleie.

 But to procéed. From Bewdleie our Sauerne hasteth directlie to Ribford,
 [Sidenote: Stoure.]
 Areleie and Redston, and here it méeteth with a water called Stoure,
 descending from Elie, or out of the ponds of Hales Owen in
 Worcestershire, where it receiueth a rill from the left hand, and
 another from the right, and then goeth on to Sturbridge (taking in there
 the third water yer long running from Sturton castell) then to Kniuer
 Whittenton, Ouerleie and Kidormister, aboue which it crosseth one
 brookelet that commeth thither by Church hill, and another beneath it
 that runneth by Belborow, betwixt which two waters lieth an od peece of
 Staffordshire included, and also the Cle hill. From hence the aforesaid
 Sauerne hasteth by Redston to Shrawleie; and aboue this towne receiueth
 [Sidenote: Astleie.]
 the Astleie water, as beneath the same it dooth another. From Witleie
 then it goeth on to Holt castell, and so to Grimleie, taking in
 [Sidenote: Doure.]
 [Sidenote: Sulwaie.]
 thereabout with the Doure, and Sulwaie waters, whereof this riseth at
 Chadswijc, and runneth by Stoke priorie, & Droitwich, the other aboue
 Chaddesleie, and commeth by Dourdale. After this it goeth foorth vnto
 Worcester, in old time called Cair Brangon, or Cair Frangon, where it
 [Sidenote: Tiber.]
 méeteth with the Tiber, or Tiberton water, on the right hand aboue that
 citie, and beneth it neere vnto Powijc with the Temde, whose description
 shall be set downe before I procéed or go anie further with the Sauerne.

 [Sidenote: Temde.]
 The Temde, or (as some name it) the Tame riseth vp in Radnorshire, out
 of the Melenith hilles, and soone after his issue, méeting with a water
 from Withall, it runneth to Begeldie, Lanuerwaterden, and so to
 Knighton, which is fiue or six miles (as I heare) from his originall.
 From Knighton it goeth ouer the ditch of Offa vnto Standish, and
 [Sidenote: Clude.]
 crossing a rill that commeth from betwéene the parke named Clude, (and
 is a bound of Radnorshire) it goeth to Buckton, Walford, and Lanuarden,
 where it meeteth with the Bardwell or Berfield, and the Clun, both in
 one chanell, of which I find these descriptions here folowing word for
 [Sidenote: Barfield.]
 word in Leland. The Bardwell or Barfield riseth aboue New Chappell, in
 [Sidenote: Clun.]
 the honour of Clun, hard by the ditch of Offa, and goeth by Bucknell.
 The Clun issueth out of the ground betwéene Lhan Vehan and Maiston, and
 going on by Bucton, Cluncastell, Clundon, Purslaw, and Clunbirie, it
 crosseth with a brooke that runneth along by Kempton and Brampton.
 Thence going foorth by Clunbirie, Brome, Abcot and Marlow, it méeteth
 with the Bardwell, and so in the Temde, not verie far from Temderton. I
 [Sidenote: Owke.]
 suppose that Leland calleth the Bardwell by the name of Owke, but I will
 not abide by it bicause I am not sure of it. After these confluences
 therefore, our Temde goeth by Trippleton, Dounton, Burrington, and
 [Sidenote: Oneie.]
 Broomefield, where it méeteth with the Oneie, which is an indifferent
 streame, and increased with sundrie waters, whereof I saie as followeth.

 [Sidenote: Bow.]
 The first of all is called the Bow. It riseth (as I learne) in the
 hilles betwéene Hissington and Shelue, and from thence commeth downe by
 [Sidenote: Warren.]
 Lindleie and Hardwijc, where it crosseth the Warren that issueth out of
 the ground about Rotlie chappell, and runneth by Adston and Wentnor.
 After the confluence also going on by Choulton and Cheinies, it taketh
 [Sidenote: Queneie and Strabroke.]
 in the Queneie and Strabroke both in one chanell, wherof the first
 riseth at Lebotwood, and commeth downe by the Strettons, till it passe
 by Fellanton. The second mounteth about Longuill, and goeth by
 Rushburie, Newhall, Harton, and Alcaster, from whence it is not long yer
 it fall into the Queneie, and so by Stratford into the Oneie, which hath
 borne that name since the confluence of the Bow and Warren at Hardwijc,
 whereof I spake before. Finallie, the Oneie which some call the
 [Sidenote: Somergill.]
 Somergill being thus increased, it runneth on to Hawford chappell,
 Oneibirie, Broomefield, and so into Temde, and next of all to Ludlow.
 [Sidenote: Corue.]
 The Temde being thus brought to Ludlow, méeteth with the Corue, which
 commeth thorough Coruedale from aboue Brocton by Morehouses, Shipton,
 Hungerford, and a little beneath taking in a rill that commeth by
 Tugford, and Brencost castell, goeth on to Corsham castell, and there
 crossing another from saint Margarets Clée, it hieth to Stanton Lacie,
 and so likewise to Ludlow.

 From Ludlow in like sort it goeth to Ludford, the Ashfordes, little
 [Sidenote: Ladwich.]
 Hereford, Burrington, and at Burfford vniteth it selfe with the Ladwich
 that commeth beneath Milburne stoke, from betweene Browne, Cleehill, and
 Stittertons hill, to Middleton, Henleie, Ladwich, Conam, and so into
 Temde, which beneath Temdbirie receiueth another rill on the other side,
 [Sidenote: Rhe.]
 and the second on the left hand called Rhe, that commeth from aboue
 Ricton, Staterton, Hound, Nene, Clebirie, Knighton, and then into the
 Temde. From hence the Temde doeth goe by Astham, Lingridge, Shelleie
 Welch, Clifton, Whitburne (and crossing a water that commeth from the
 Sapies) to Knightwijc and Bradwaies. Hereabout againe it interteineth a
 rill that descendeth from about Kidburie on the right hand, and goeth by
 Collomatherne, Credeleie, Aufrike, and so into Temde, and then
 procéeding forward, the said streame runneth to Braunford, and yer long
 [Sidenote: Langherne.]
 (taking in the Langherne that riseth about Martleie, and passeth by
 Kengewijc) it goeth to Powijc, and so into the Sauerne before it come at

 Thus haue I brought all such streames before me that fall into the
 Sauerne from the head, vntill I come to Powijc, wherof (as you may
 easily perceiue) the Temde is the most excellent. Now it resteth that I
 proceed with the rest of the discourse intended concerning this our
 riuer. Certes, from Powijc mils which are about halfe a mile beneth
 Worcester, the Sauerne runneth on to Kempseie and Cleueld, whence after
 it hath crossed a brooke comming from Cowleie, it hasteth first to
 Stoke, and so to Vpton, which is eleuen or twelue miles from Glocester,
 whither it floweth manie times at high tides, but yer it come there, it
 drowneth another fall descending from Maluerne hilles by Blackemoore
 parke, & soone after the third growing by two branches, wherof one
 commeth also from Maluerne hils by little Maluerne and Welland, the
 other from Elderford by Pendocke and Longdon. After these confluences in
 like sort, it runneth to Bushelleie, and Tewkesburie, where it receiueth
 the Auon, that followed next of all in order to be described, before I
 procéed anie further in my discourse of Sauerne.

 [Sidenote: Auon 4.]
 The Auon riseth at Nauesbie in the borders of Northamptonshire, a little
 side hand of Gillesborow and foot of the hils whereon Nauesbie standeth,
 and euen out of the church yard of the said village. From hence it goeth
 to Welford, Stamford, Lilburne, Clifton, and Rugbie, by north whereof it
 [Sidenote: Swiuethus.]
 crosseth a water called Swift, which commeth from aboue Kimcote, to
 Lutterworth, Browne ouer and Colsford. From thence also it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Souus.]
 Newbold, Wolston, Ruington, and betwéene the Stonlies taketh in the Sow.
 This Sow is a pretie water comming from aboue Calendon to Whitleie, and
 soone after méeting with a riueret from Couentrie, which some doo call
 Shirburne water, it goeth thence to Bagginton, where it taketh in a rill
 [Sidenote: Kinell.]
 called Kinell, as I haue read from Kenelsworth, from whence it runneth
 to Stonleie, & so into the Auon. After this confluence the Auon
 procéedeth on to Stonleie abbeie, Ashehow, Miluerton, Edmonds cote, and
 appace to Warwijc.

 But yer it come there, it méeteth from south east with two waters in one
 chanell, whereof the least commeth to Marton from Bishops Itchington, by
 Herburbirie and Thorpe, where it crosseth a rill from Southam. The other
 [Sidenote: Leame.]
 is called Leame, or Lime that descendeth from about Helladon, or néere
 vnto Catesbie in Northamptonshire, and going by Ouencote, Braunston,
 Lemington and Mertun, it ioineth with the other, and then go from thence
 togither vnder the name of Leame, to Hunnington, Cobbington, and so into
 the Auon, as I gaue notice before. At Warwike also the Auon taketh in a
 water running northwest from Groue parke. Thence it goeth on to
 Bereford, and there crossing another from Shirburne, it passeth forth to
 Bishops Hampton, méeting finallie with the third, from Kineton that
 runneth by Walton and Charlecote. After this last rehearsed confluence,
 it hasteth to Stretford vpon Auon, and then to Luddington ward, where it
 [Sidenote: Stoure.]
 taketh in the Stoure that riseth aboue Cherington, & whose course from
 thence is such, as that being once past the head, it goeth by Weston, and
 yer long crossing a water from Campden, hanging Aston, & Todnam, it
 runneth to Barcheston, Aldermaston, Clifford, & so into the Auon.
 From hence then the said Auon goeth to Luddington, Burton, Bitford, and
 Cleue, and being parted from the said towne, yer it come at Sawford, it
 [Sidenote: Arow.]
 receiueth the Arow or Aur, which rising in the blacke hils in
 Worchestershire, commeth by Alchurch, Beleie parke, Ypsleie, Studleie,
 [Sidenote: Alne.]
 and then taking in another rill called Alne, out of Fecknam forrest, and
 going by Coughton parke, it hasteth to Alcester, Arow, Ragleie,
 Wheteleie, Bouington, Standford, and so into Auon, which after this
 conjunction goeth to Vffenton & then to Eouesholme: but yer it come
 there it receiueth two waters in one chanell, whereof the first riseth
 about Willerseie, the other néere to Buckland, and ioining beneath
 [Sidenote: Pludor.]
 Badseie, they fall into Anon, vnder the name of Pludor brooke, before it
 come to Eouesholme.

 [Sidenote: Vincélus.]
 Being past Eouesholme it crosseth the Vincell, which rising out of the
 hils somewhere about Sudleie, runneth two miles further to Winchelcombe,
 and Gretton, and taking in a rill by the waie from Hailes, procéedeth on
 (going within one quarter of a mile of Hailes abbaie) to Tuddington, or
 Doddington, beneath which when it hath crossed another rill that commeth
 from Stanwaie, it goeth to Wannington, Sedgeborow, and receiuing there
 the last on the right hand also (as all aboue rehearsed) it falleth into
 the Auon, when it is come by Hinton, vnto a towne called Hampton, or (as
 some doo write it) Ampton. After this confluence the Auon goeth to
 Charleton, to Crapthorne (and there taking in a rill on the left hand)
 to Fladbirie wike, and almost at Persore bridge, méeteth with a branched
 [Sidenote: Piddle.]
 water that commeth by Piddle, whereof one head is at Alberton, an other
 at Piddle. From Persore it goeth to Birlingham, and soone after carrieng
 a brooke withall descending from Fakenham, by Bradleie, Himbleton,
 Huddenton, Crowleie, Churchhill, Pibleton, Besseford and Desseford, it
 fléeteth to Eckington, Bredon, Twining, Mitton, and Tewkesburie, where
 it ioineth with the Sauerne.

 Now to resume the course of the Sauerne, you shall vnderstand, that from
 Tewkesburie it goeth to Derehirst, the How passage, and soone after
 [Sidenote: Chilus.]
 receiuing the Chiltenham water that commeth thither by Bodenton, Sawton,
 and Norton, it runneth to Ashelworth, Sainthirst; and here it parteth it
 selfe till it come to Glocester, where it vniteth it selfe againe. But
 in the meane time the easterlie branch receiueth a forked chanell,
 whereof one head is not far fr[=o] Leke Hampton, the other about
 Witcombe, from whence it goeth to Brockworth. The other branch or arme
 taketh in the Leadon that commeth downe by Preston, Dimmocke, Pantleie
 [Sidenote: Leadon.]
 vpper Leadon, Leadon court, and there taking in one rill that commeth
 from Linton by Areknoll, and another beneath it from Tainton by Rudford,
 it falleth into the said branch on the right side, before it come at

 The Sauerne therefore being past Glocester, it méeteth with a litle rill
 on the right hand, and thence holding on his course by Elmore,
 Minsterworth, Longneie, to Framilode, it receiueth yer it come at this
 [Sidenote: Strowd.]
 latter the Strowd brooke, which rising not farre from Side, goeth by
 Massade, Edgeworth, Frampton, Strowd, and receiuing there a water that
 commeth from Panneswijc Lodge, by Pittescombe on the one side, and
 another from Radbridge on the other, it prosecuteth his voiage to Stone
 house, Eslington, white Misen, & so toward Framilode, where the said
 Strowd dooth fall into the Sauerne. After the fall of Strowd, the
 Sauerne goeth from thence to Newenham, and Arlingham, and soone after
 receiuing a water on each side, whereof one commeth from Vleie by Cham
 and Chambridge, the other by Blackneie and Catcombe, it goeth foorth
 till it méet with another water on ech side, whereof that on the English
 halfe is forked, so that one head thereof is to be found about Borwell,
 the other at Horton, and méeting aboue Tortworthie, they run by Stone
 and Barkeleie castell, and so into the Sauerne. That on the Welsh halfe
 [Sidenote: Newarne.]
 is named Newarne, which cömeth from the forrest of Deane, and so into
 the Sauerne.



 The Sauerne being thus described, it resteth that I go forward with the
 names of those that lie vpon the coast of Southwales, making my entrie
 at the ferrie ouer betwéene Aust in Glocestershire, and a village on the
 further banke of Sauerne, not farre from Tarendacus chappell, in the
 [Sidenote: Wie mouth.]
 mouth of the riuer Wie, which ferrie is about three miles ouer (saith
 [Sidenote: Guie aliàs Wie.]
 Leland) or else my memorie dooth faile me. This riuer Guie or Wie
 beginneth (as I said before) on the side of the hilles, where the
 Sauerne dooth arise, and passing through Wenceland, that is, southeast
 by Raiader Guie to Buelt (where the Irwon meeteth withall) it goeth to
 Glasburie, Hereford, Monmouth, and finallie into the Sauerne sea at
 Chepstow: for so they call Monhafren, which seuereth Wales from
 Summersetshire, Deuonshire, Cornewall: as for the Rhidoll which is the
 third sister, it hath the shortest course of all, for it runneth
 northward, and into the sea at Aberistwith, which is not farre off, as
 the writers doo report.

 Leland writing of this riuer Guie or Wie saith thus; The Wie goeth
 thorough all Herefordshire by Bradwarden castell, belonging to sir
 Richard Vehan, and so to Hereford east, thence eight miles to Rosse, a
 [Sidenote: Vmber a fish onelie in the Wie.]
 market towne in Herefordshire: and in this riuer be vmbers, otherwise
 called grailings. It is also found by common experience, that the salmon
 of this riuer is in season, when the like fish to be found in all other
 riuers is abandoned and out of vse; wherof we of the east parts doo not
 a little maruell. But let vs not staie vpon these descriptions, sith an
 other is come to my hand more exact than either of these.

 The Guie therefore riseth out of the blacke mounteines of Wales, out of
 which the Sauerne springeth in Radnorshire, and comming by Lhangerike,
 [Sidenote: Darnoll.]
 and Raiadargoie, it receiueth one rill from the west called Darnoll, and
 another from by northeast comming by saint Harmon. Thence it goeth to
 Lhanuthell, and in the waie betwixt Raiader and Lhanuthell, it ioineth
 [Sidenote: Elland.]
 with the Elland, whose head is néere to Comeristwith, and taketh
 [Sidenote: Clardwen.]
 likewise into him the Clardwen that diuideth for a season Radnorshire
 from Brecknoch, which Clardwen is likewise increased by the Clarthie
 within thrée miles of his head and lesse, hauing his course from
 southwest & hille soile adiacent. From Lhanuthell it goeth west of
 [Sidenote: Ithan.]
 Dissart, where it receiueth the Ithan, a riuer rising aboue Lhanibister,
 and from whence it runneth to Landwie, and Lambaderne vawr: beneath
 which it crosseth a water on ech side, whereof that on the right hand
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 [Sidenote: Cluedoch.]
 consisteth on the Dulesse and the Cluedoch, after their confluence: the
 [Sidenote: Lamaron.]
 other hight Lomaron, whose head is aboue Lanthangle, and in the forrest
 of Blethwag. After these confluences, it runneth on crinkeling in
 [Sidenote: Hawie.]
 strange manner, vnder the name of Ithor, till it come to Dissart, taking
 in the Hawie on the left side yer it come there, and then into the Wie
 on the north side, which directeth his course further to Bealt, where it
 [Sidenote: Yrwon.]
 receiueth the Yrwon, a notable streame, descending from the hilles aboue
 Lanihangle Abergwessen, and thence comming downe by Lanurid Lang marsh,
 Lanauan, Vechan, Langantan, and so to Beth or Bealt, being inlarged by
 [Sidenote: Weuereie.]
 the waie with sundrie faire waters, as the Weuereie, whose head is about
 Lanauan moore, the Dulasse, or (as some call it) the Dowlasse, that
 [Sidenote: Dulasse.]
 [Sidenote: Comarch.]
 [Sidenote: Dulasse.]
 commeth from the hilles west of the head of Weuereie. The Comarch whose
 head and course is west of the Dowlasse on the north side, and likewise
 by two other on the southwest, and Dilasse from by southwest, which last
 rehearsed falleth into him halfe a mile and more aboue the influence of
 the Comarch which lieth on the other side. After this our Yrwon goeth to
 [Sidenote: Dehon.]
 Lhanuareth, where it crosseth the Dehon on the southwest side, then to
 [Sidenote: Edwie.]
 Aberedwie, and there receiueth the Edwie on the northeast, which ariseth
 in the hilles aboue Botins chappell, and commeth downe by Crigend and
 Lanhaderne, thence the Guie goeth on to Lanstephan, and there (or a
 [Sidenote: Machaweie.]
 little aboue) taketh in the Machaweie that commeth by castell Paine, and
 [Sidenote: Leuenni.]
 so going on in processe of time with the Leuenni, whereof Leland in his
 commentaries doth write as here insueth.

 [Sidenote: Euer.]
 [Sidenote: Euerie.]
 The Leuenni, otherwise called the Euer or Euerie, is a farre streame
 rising in Welch Talgarth hard by Blaine Leuenni, among the Atterill
 hilles, from whence it goeth to Brecknoch mere, which is two miles long,
 and a mile broad, and where men doo fish in Vniligneis or botes of one
 peece, as they doo in Lhin Seuathan, which is foure miles from Brecknoch.
 Finallie bringing great store of red sand withall, and there with the
 [Sidenote: Brennich.]
 Brennich water (that hath his originall issue at Mennith gader, and is
 [Sidenote: Trufrin.]
 increased with the Trufrin) it falleth into the Wie aboue Glesbirie
 three miles from Haie, at a place that of the onelie fall of this brooke
 is named Aberleuenni, after this the Guie. Being come to Haie, a pretie
 towne where much Romane coine is found, which they call Jewes monie: and
 after it hath passed or crossed a little brooke, which commeth from
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 Lanigon, it méeteth with the Dulesse that commeth also from the Atterill
 by Kersop, and from thence goeth to Clifford castell (being now entred
 into Herefordshire, and leauing Radnor, wherevnto it hath for a long
 course béene march) then to the Whitneies, Winferton, Letton,
 Bradwarden, Broberie, Monington, Biford, Bridgesalers, Eaton, Brinton,
 and Hereford, without anie influence of riuer worthie of memorie, and
 yet with manie windlesses, & there méeteth with a water rising short of
 Wormesleie, which goeth by Maunsell, Lacie, Brinsop, Crednell, Stretton,
 and Huntington, and soone after into the Wie, beside a little rill that
 runneth betwéene them both euen into Hereford towne. From hence in like
 sort the Wie hasteth to Rotheras church, Hampton, and Mordeford, where
 [Sidenote: Lug.]
 it taketh in sundrie waters in one chanell, of which the Lug or Luie is
 the principall, and next of all to be described, before I go anie
 further with the course of the Wie, whereinto it dischargeth the
 chanell. It riseth in the edge of the forrest of Kemples aboue Langunlo:
 from whence it goeth to Momonacht, Pilleth Whitton, Fuldibrooke,
 Prestaine, so into Herefordshire, where betwéene Bonie & Beton, or
 Bitton, it receiueth in the Somergill, whose crotched head being march
 to Radnor forrest, directeth his streame betwéene the new and old
 Radnors, to Knill, to Nash, and so into the Lug, which presentlie
 passeth by Kinsham, Shirleie, Ailmister, Kingsland, Eaton chappell, and
 so into Lemister, where it crosseth the Oneie (a streamelet rising short
 of Shobden, and going by Chorlester) a little before it come to the west
 side of the towne.

 At Lemister it selfe in like sort three waters doo méet, and almost
 [Sidenote: Pinsell.]
 inuiron the towne, that is to saie, the Lug, the Pinfulleie or Pinsell
 [Sidenote: Kenbrooke.]
 (a riueret rising at Kingsland two miles from Lemister) & the Kenbrooke,
 which commeth out of the blacke mounteins, from Lemister, otherwise
 called Leofminster, of the builder, and also Leonminster, the Lug or
 Luie goeth on to Eaton, and there taketh in a rill beneath Hampton, and
 aboue Hope, whereof one head is betwéene Hatfield and Bickleton, another
 néere vnto Marston, and méeting of both at Humber. From Hampton it goeth
 to Bodenham, Wellington, Morton, Sutton, Shelwijc, Lugwardin, and
 [Sidenote: Fromeie.]
 Longward, where it crosseth the Fromeie or Frome, a pretie water, and
 worthie to be remembred. It riseth about Wolferelaw, from whence it
 commeth downe toward the southest by Edwinsloch to Bromyard, Auenburie,
 Bishops Frome, Castell Frome, Can Frome, to Stretton vpon Frome, and
 [Sidenote: Loden aliàs Acton.]
 there taking in a water called Loden, comming from aboue Bishops
 Grendon, by Pencombe, Cowarne, Stoke Lacie, Cowarne, and Engleton, our
 Frome goeth on to Yarkeleie, Dornington, and Longward, and so into the
 Lug, betwéene Longward and Suston, which runneth foorthwith to Mordford,
 or Morthford, and there into the Wie, vnto whose description I now
 returne againe.

 Being come therefore vnto Mordford, it goeth to Fawnehope, Hamlacie,
 [Sidenote: Treske.]
 Ballingham, Capull regis, where it receiueth a water called Treske, from
 little Berch by Treske, Fawleie, How, Capull Inkeston, Foie, Brampton,
 Bridstow, Wilton castell, the Rosse, and there a rill from Bishops
 Vptonward by Rudhall, Weresend, Ham, Glewston, Godderich, here in like
 sort meeting with another that commeth from Ecleswall in the confines of
 Glocestershire, by Peniard castell & Coughton, to Welch Bicknor, English
 Bicknor, Huntesham, including a parcell of Monmouthshire, being an
 outliggand, as ye may find in that parcell of Herefordshire which butteth
 vpon Glocestershire (as you shall find the like péece of Herefordshire
 in the confines of Salop and Worcester, wherein Rochford standeth,
 beside manie other which I haue elsewhere spoken of) Whitchurch, where
 [Sidenote: Gainar.]
 it taketh in Gainar water that commeth from Much Birch, by Lanwarne,
 [Sidenote: Garran.]
 Michaell church, and at Langarran crosseth the Garran brooke, that
 riseth in Gregwood, short of Arcop, six miles from Monemouth by
 northwest: after which these two doo runne as one to Marston, and almost
 Whitchurch, and so into the Wie, which goeth from thence to Gunnarew, S.
 Michaell, Dixton, and Monemouth, where I will staie a while, till I haue
 described the Mone, next of all to be remembred here.

 [Sidenote: Mona.]
 The Mona or Monbecke, riseth in the forrest of Hene, twentie miles from
 Monemouth by west in Eirisland, and going by Creswell, or Craswall
 chappell not farre from the marches of Brecknocke, and northeast of
 Hatuill hils, which after it hath run a good distance from the head
 [Sidenote: Eskill.]
 receiueth first the Eskle, and passeth by Lanihangle and the old Court,
 [Sidenote: Elkon.]
 from northweast, then the Olcon, from southwest, which méeteth withall
 néere Cledoll or Knedoch, & passing by the old towne, it hasteth to
 Altrinis, where it becommeth march betwéene Hereford and Monemouth
 shires, and taketh in a water comming by Trewin, & likewise the Hordwie
 [Sidenote: Hodneie.]
 or Hodneie which riseth in Becknocke, among the Saterelles, & runneth by
 Capell a fin, Lantonie, Cumroie, Michaell church in Monemouthshire, and
 ioineth with our Mona at Altrinis, which after this confluence hasteth
 to Walderstone, Lansillo Langua, betwéene which and Kinechurch it ioineth
 [Sidenote: Doure.]
 with the Doure that riseth about the Bache aboue Dourston, which is six
 miles aboue Doure abbie, so that it runneth through the Gilden dale, by
 Peterchurch, Fowchurch, Morehampton, Newcourt, Doure, and beneath Doure
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 taketh in the Dulesse, from southwest and Lanihangle, by Harleswas
 [Sidenote: Wormesbecke.]
 castell on the one side, and yer long the Wormesbecke, descending from
 aboue Keuernall by Didleie, Deuerox, Workebridge, and Kenderchurch on
 the other, and so running all in one chanell vnto Mona, that riuer goeth
 on to Kinech church, Grismond, Cardwaie, Skenfrith, Warnethall,
 Perthire, and so to Monemouth, where it meeteth with the Wie, ouer each
 of which riuers Monemuth towne hath his particular bridge.

 The Guie or Wie therefore being increased with thus manie brookes and
 waters, passeth on from hence, and going toward Landogo, it méeteth with
 [Sidenote: Trollie.]
 the Trollie becke, whose head is aboue Lannam ferrie in the north part
 of Monemouth shire, and goeth from thence by Lhantellio, Lanihangle,
 Gracedieu, Diggestow, Wonastow, Troie, and so into Wie, that runneth
 [Sidenote: Elwie.]
 also by Wies wood chase, taking in there the Elwie that commeth from
 aboue Landelwie by Langowen, Lannissen, Penclase, Trilegh, and Langogo,
 where méeting with the aforesaid streame, the Wie directeth his course
 from thence by Tinterne abbeie (where it crosseth a rill from Trile
 grange) Chapell hill, Parcasicke, Penterie chapell, Lancante, Chepstowe,
 and so into the sea, leauing the Treacle (a chappell standing on a
 rocke) on the hand betweene it & Sauerne, ouer against the point that
 lieth south of Betteslie. Next vnto the Wie, I find a rill of no great
 course, comming downe from Mounton chappell, by a place of the bishops
 of Landaffe. Thence passing by Charston rocke, and the point whereon
 [Sidenote: Trogie.]
 Trinitie chappell standeth, I come vnto the fall of Trogie, which riseth
 short of Trogie castell, and runneth toward the sea, by Landuair,
 Dewston, Calicot, and so into the Ocean, ouer against the Charston
 rocke. The next fall is of a water that commeth from aboue Penho by saint
 [Sidenote: Dennie Iland in the middest of the Sauerne,
 and likewise another litle one called Beuerage.]
 Brides, north and by west of Dennie Iland, which lieth midwaie betweene
 that fall & Porshot point, and before I touch at Goldcliffe point, I
 crosse another fall of a fresh brooke, whose head is aboue Landueigo in
 Wencewood, and course by Lhanbed, Langston, Lhanwarme, and through the
 More to Witston.

 [Sidenote: Wiske.]
 Next vnto this is the Aberwish, or Wiske, in Latine Osca, whereon
 Caerleon standeth, sometime called Chester and Ciuitas legionum, bicause
 the Romans soiourned there, as did afterward Arthur the great, who also
 held a noble parlement in the same, whereof Galfride maketh mention Lib.
 7. cap. 4. affirming thereto, that in those daies the maiestie thereof
 was such, as that all the forefronts of their houses were in maner laid
 ouer with gold, according to the Romane vsage. There was in the same in
 like sort a famous vniuersitie, wherein were 200 philosophers; also two
 goodlie churches erected in the remembrance of Iulius and Aaron, two
 Brittish martyrs, whereby it might well be reputed for the third
 metropoliticall sée in Britaine. But to our water, whereof I read that
 it is furthermore one of the greatest in Southwales, and huge ships
 might well come to the towne of Caerleon, as they did in the time of the
 Romans, if Newport bridge were not a let vnto them; neuerthelesse, big
 botes come thereto. It is eight Welsh or twelue English miles from
 Chepstow or Strigull, and of some thought to be in base Wenceland,
 though other be of the contrarie opinion. But howsoeuer the matter
 standeth, this riuer is taken to be the bounds of Brechnockshire, as
 Renni is middle to Wenceland & Glamorganshire. But to leaue these
 by-matters, and come to the description of the water.

 [Sidenote: Vske.]
 You shall vnderstand that the Vske or Wiske, in Latin Osca riseth in the
 blacke mounteins ten miles aboue Brechnocke toward Carmardine, the hill
 being properlie called Yminidh Duy out of which it falleth, and situate
 in the verie confines betwéene Brechnocke and Carmardine shires, from
 whence winding into the northeast, it commeth to Trecastle, and in the
 [Sidenote: Craie.]
 waie betwéene it and Capell Ridburne, it taketh in the Craie brooke, on
 the right hand before it come to Ridburne chappell. Going also from
 [Sidenote: Sennie.]
 thence toward Deuinocke, it crosseth the Senneie on the same side (which
 [Sidenote: Camblas.]
 [Sidenote: Brane.]
 riseth aboue Capell Senneie) next of all the Camblas, & at Aberbraine,
 the Brane, or the Bremich, whose head is thrée miles from Brechnocke,
 and running by Lanihangle, it méeteth I saie with the Vske, about master
 [Sidenote: Yster.]
 Awbries manor. Beneath Aber Yster, it receiueth the Yster, which riseth
 northwest aboue Martyr Kinoch, and commeth by Battell chappell, and
 going from thence by Lanspithed and Newton, it runneth in the end to
 [Sidenote: Hodneie.]
 Brechnocke, where it taketh in the Hodneie or Honthie on the one side,
 whose head is in Blaine Hodneie, and comming downe from thence by
 Defrune chappell, Lanihangle and Landiuilog, it méeteth with the Vske or
 Brechnocke townes end, which of the fall of this water was sometime
 called Aberhodni, as I haue beene informed: on the other halfe likewise
 [Sidenote: Tertarith.]
 it receiueth the Tertarith that riseth among the Bane hils, fiue miles
 from Brechnocke, and commeth likewise into the verie suburbs of the
 towne, beneath Trenewith, or new Troie, whereby it taketh the course.

 [Sidenote: Kinuricke.]
 After these confluences, the Vske procéedeth on toward Aberkinurike, or
 the fall of a water whose head is in the roots of Menuchdennie hill, and
 passage by Cantreffe. Thence it goeth by Lanhamlaghe, Penkethleie
 castell, Lansanfreid, Landettie, Langonider, and soone after receiuing
 [Sidenote: Riangall.]
 the Riangall (which riseth about the hill whereon Dinas castell
 standeth, and runneth by Lanihangle and Tretoure) it passeth betwéene
 Laugattocke and Cerigkhowell, to Langroinie, and there about crosseth
 [Sidenote: Groini.]
 the Groinie brooke, that descendeth from Monegather, Arthur hill, by
 Peter church, as I find. When the Vske is past this brooke, it taketh in
 thrée other short rils, from by south within a little distance, whereof
 [Sidenote: Cledoch Vaur.]
 [Sidenote: Fidan.]
 [Sidenote: Cledochveh[=a].]
 the first hight Cledoch Vaur, the second Fidan, and the third
 Cledochvehan. Of these also the last falleth in néere to Lanwenarth.
 From hence the Vske runneth to Abergeuenni towne, where it méeteth
 [Sidenote: Kebbie.]
 with the Kebbie water from by north, that riseth short of Bettus
 [Sidenote: Geuenni.]
 chappell aboue the towne, and the Geuennie that descendeth from aboue
 Landilobartholl beneath not farre from Colbroke, and so goeth on to
 Hardwijc, beneath which it crosseth thrée namelesse rilles, on the right
 hand or southwest side before it come at Lanihangle vpon Vske, of whose
 courses I know not anie more than that they are not of anie length, nor
 the chanell of sufficient greatnesse seuerallie to intreat of. Betwéene
 [Sidenote: Birthin.]
 Kemmeis and Trostreie it meeteth with such an other rill that commeth
 [Sidenote: Caer Vske standeth on one side of
 Vske, and Caerleon on the other, but Caer Vske
 by diuerse miles further into the land.]
 downe by Bettus Newith. Thence it goeth to Caer Vske or Brenbigeie
 (whose bridge, I mene that of Vske, was ouerthrowne by rage of this
 riuer, in the six and twentith yeare of king Henrie the eight, vpon
 saint Hughes daie after a great snow) but yer it come there, it
 receiueth the Birthin on the right hand, which is a pretie water,
 descending from two heads, whereof the first is northwest of Manihilot,
 as the other is of Lanihangle and Pentmorell.

 [Sidenote: Elwie.]
 Next vnto this it ioineth with the Elwie aboue Lanbadocke, whose head is
 east of Penclase, and running westwards by Penclase, Lanislen, Langowen
 (and beneath Landewie taking in a brooket from Ragland castell, that
 commeth downe thither by Ragland parke) it bendeth southwest, vntill it
 come at the Vske, which crinkling towards the south, and going by
 Lanhowell, méeteth with three rilles before it come to Marthenie
 chappell, whereof the first lieth on the right hand, and the other on
 the left: the midlemost falling into the same, not farre from
 Lantressen, as I haue béene informed. From the mouth of the Romeneie to
 the mouth of the Taffe are two miles. Certes the Taffe is the greatest
 riuer in all Glamorganshire, (called by Ptolomie Rhatostathybius, as I
 gesse) and the citie Taffe it selfe of good countenance, sith it is
 indued with the cathedrall see of a bishop. The course of the water in
 like maner is verie swift, and bringeth oft such logs and bodies of
 trées withall from the wooddie hilles, that they doo not seldome crush
 the bridge in péeces, but for so much as it is made with timber it is
 repaired with lighter cost, wheras if it were of hard stone, all the
 countrie about would hardlie be able to amend it. It riseth in
 Brechnockshire among the woodie hilles, from two heads, whereof one is
 in Monuchdenie, the other west of that mounteine, of which the first
 called Taffe vaure, goeth by Capell lan vehan, Vainor, and Morlais, the
 other by Capell Nantie, and ioining at southwest beneath Morlais castle,
 they go to Martyr Tiduill, and toward Lannabor, but by the waie it
 taketh in from northwest a brooke called Cunnon, which commeth out of
 Brechnockshire by Abardare, and afterward the Rodneie comming out of the
 same quarter (but not out of the same shire) which runneth by
 Estridinodoch, a crotched brooke, & therefore diuided into Rodneie
 vaure, & Rodneie vehan, that being ioined with the Taffe, doth run on
 withall to Eglefilian, castle Coch, Whitchurch, Landaffe, Cardiffe, and
 so into the sea, not far from Pennarth point, where also the Laie dooth
 bid him welcome vnto his chanell or streame. Furthermore, from
 Marthellie it hasteth to Kemmeis, and yer it come at Caerleon or Chester
 in the south, taketh in two waters on the right hand, of which the first
 commeth downe from the north betweene Landgwie, Landgweth, and by Lhan
 Henoch, without anie further increase: but the other is a more
 beautifull streame, called Auon, and thus described as I find it among
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 my pamphlets. The Auon riseth in the hilles that séeme to part Monemouth
 and Brechenocke shires in sunder, and after a rill receiued from
 Blorench hill on the northside of the same, running downe from thence by
 Capell Newith and Triuethin, it receiueth a water from by south almost
 of equall course, and from that quarter of the countrie, and in processe
 of time another little one from the same side, yer it come to Lanurgwaie
 and Lanihangle, from whence it goeth to Guennocke and Penrose, & so in
 Vske before it go by Caerleon. But here you must note, that the course
 of this streame ioining beneath Quenocke chappell, with the other which
 descendeth (as I said) from the hilles about foure miles aboue Landgwaie
 and Langweth, dooth make an Iland aboue Caerleon, where Penrose
 standeth, & much Romane coine is found of all sorts, so that the
 influence of the one into the other séemeth to me to be but a draine
 deuised by man, to kéepe the citie from the violence of such water as
 otherwise would oft annoie the same.

 Being past Caerleon it runneth to Crindie, where maister Harbert
 dwelleth, and there carieng another brooke withall, that riseth north of
 Tomberlow hill, and descendeth by Henlis and Bettus chappell, it runneth
 forth to Newport (in Welch castle Newith) and from thence vnder a bridge,
 [Sidenote: Ebowith.]
 after thrée or foure miles course to the sea, taking the Ebowith water
 withall, which méeteth with the same almost in the verie mouth or fall,
 and riseth in the edge of Brecknoch shire, or (as Leland saith) high
 Winceland, from two heads of which one is called Eberith Vehan, the
 other Eberith Mawr, as I haue beene informed. The course of the first
 head is by Blamgrent, and after the confluence they passe togither by
 Lanhileth, and comming by west of Tomberlow hill (crossing a rill, from
 [Sidenote: Serowie.]
 north east by the waie) it taketh in thereabout the Serowie, that
 runneth by Trestrent, & is of lesse race hitherto than the Ebowith, and
 from that same quarter. After this confluence it goeth to Risleie,
 Rocheston castell, next of all thorough a parke, and so by Greenefield
 castell, and is not long yer it fall into the sea, being the last issue
 that I doo find in the countie,
 which beareth the name of Monemouth, and was in old time a part of the
 region of the Silures.

 [Sidenote: Romeneie.]
 The Romenie or (as some corruptlie call it) the Nonneie, is a goodlie
 water, and from the head a march betwéene Monemouth & Glamorgan shires.
 The head hereof is aboue Egglins Tider vap Hoell otherwise called Fanum
 Theodori, or the church of Theodorus, whence commeth manie springs, &
 taking one bottome, the water is called Canoch and not Romeneie till it
 be come to Romeneie. It receiueth no water on the east side, but on the
 west diuerse small beckes, whereof three (and one of them called Ifra)
 are betwéene the rising and Brathetere chappell, the fourth c[=o]meth in
 by Capell Gledis, and Kethligaire, the fift from betwéene the Faldraie
 and Lanuabor, the sixt & seuenth before it come to Bedwas, and the eight
 ouer against Bedwas it selfe from chappell Martin, Cairfillie castell,
 and Thauan, after which confluences it runneth on by Maghan, Keuen,
 Mableie and Romeneie, & yer long crossing a becke at north west that
 commeth from aboue Lisuan, Lamssen and Roch, it falleth into the sea,
 about six miles from the Wisbe, and albeit the mouth therof be nothing
 profitable for ships, yet is it also a march betwéene the Silures and

 [Sidenote: Laie.]
 The Laie falleth into the sea a mile almost from the Taffe, and riseth
 in the hilles aboue Lantrissent (for all the region is verie hillie.)
 From whence comming by Lantrissent and Auercastell, it runneth by Coit
 Marchan parke, Lambedder, S. Brides, Lhannihangle, saint Fagans and
 Elaie, Leckwith, Landowgh, Cogampill, and so into the sea, without anie
 [Sidenote: Dunelais.]
 maner increase by anie rils at all sauing the Dunelais, which riseth
 foure miles from his fall, east northeast, and meeteth withall a little
 more than a quarter of a mile from Pont Velim Vaur, and likewise by west,
 [Sidenote: Methcoid.]
 the Methcoid that commeth from Glinne Rodeneie, and wherein to the
 [Sidenote: Pedware.]
 Pedware dischargeth that small water gathered in his chanell. Here will
 I staie a little and breake off into a discourse, which Leland left also
 as parcell of this coast who toucheth it after this maner.

 [Sidenote: Laie.]
 From Taffe to Laie mouth or Ele riuer a mile, from Laie mouth (or rather
 [Sidenote: Thawan.]
 Penarth, that standeth on the west point of it) to the mouth of Thawan
 riuer (from whence is a common passage ouer vnto Mineheued in
 Summersetshire of 17 miles) are about seuen Welsh miles, which are
 [Sidenote: Scilleie.]
 counted after this maner. A mile and a halfe aboue Thawan is Scilleie
 hauenet (a pretie succour for ships) whose head is in Wenno paroch two
 [Sidenote: Barrie.]
 miles and a halfe from the shore. From Scilleie mouth to Aber Barrie a
 mile, and thither commeth a little rill of fresh water into Sauerne,
 whose head is scant a mile off in plaine ground by northeast, and right
 [Sidenote: This Ile went fiftie yeares agone for x. pounds.]
 against the fall of this becke lieth Barrie Iland a flight shot from the
 shore at the full sea. Halfe a mile aboue Aber Barrie is the mouth of
 [Sidenote: Come kidie.]
 Come kidie, which riseth flat north from the place where it goeth into
 the Sauerne, and serueth oft for harbour vnto sea-farers. Thence to the
 mouth of Thawan are thrée miles, wherevnto ships may come at will.

 [Sidenote: Colhow.]
 Two miles aboue Thawan is Colhow, whither a little rill resorteth from
 Lau Iltuit, thence to the mouth of Alen foure miles, that is a mile to
 [Sidenote: Alen.]
 saint Dinothes castell, and thrée miles further. The Alen riseth by
 northeast vp into the land at a place called Lhes Broimith, or Skirpton,
 about foure miles aboue the plot where it commeth by it selfe into
 [Sidenote: Ogur.]
 Sauerne. From thence to the mouth of Ogur aliàs Gur thrée miles. Then
 [Sidenote: Kensike.]
 come they in processe of time vnto the Kensike or Colbrooke riuer, which
 is no great thing, sith it riseth not aboue three miles from the shore.
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 From Kensike to Aber Auon two miles, and herein doo ships molested with
 weather oftentimes séeke harborough. It commeth of two armes, wherof
 that which lieth northeast is called Auon Vaur, the other that lieth
 northwest Auon Vehan. They meet togither at Lhanuoie Hengle, about two
 miles aboue Aber Auon village, which is two miles also from the sea.

 [Sidenote: Neth.]
 From hence to the Neth is about two miles and a halfe, thereon come
 shiplets almost to the towne of Neth from the Sauerne. From the mouth of
 Neth vnto the mouth of Crimline becke is two miles, and being passed the
 [Sidenote: Tauie.]
 same we come vnto the Tauie, which descendeth from the aforesaid hilles
 and falleth into the sea by east of Swanseie. Being past this we come
 [Sidenote: Lochar.]
 vnto the Lichwr, or Lochar mouth, and then gliding by the Wormes head,
 [Sidenote: Wandres.]
 we passed to the Wandresmouth, wherof I find this description following
 [Sidenote: Vendraith Vaur, Vendraith Vehan.]
 in Leland. Both Vendraith Vaur and Vendraith Vehan rise in a péece of
 Carmardineshire, called Issekenen, that is to saie, the low quarter
 about Kennen riuer, and betwixt the heads of these two hils is another
 hill, wherein be stones of a gréenish colour, whereof the inhabitants
 make their lime. The name of the hill that Vendraith Vaur riseth in, is
 called Mennith Vaur, and therein is a poole as in a moorish ground,
 named Lhintegowen, where the principall spring is, and this hill is
 eight or nine miles from Kidwellie: the hill that Vendraith Vehan
 springeth out of, is called Mennith Vehan, and this water commeth by
 Kidwellie towne.

 But about thrée or foure miles yer it come thither, it receiueth a
 brooke called Tresgirth, the course whereof is little aboue a mile from
 the place where it goeth into Vendraith, and yet it hath foure or fiue
 tucking milles and thrée corne milles vpon it. At the head of this
 brooke is an hole in the hilles side, where men often enter and walke in
 a large space. And as for the brooke it selfe, it is one of the most
 plentifull and commodious that is to be found in Wales. All along the
 sides also of Vendraith Vaur, you shall find great plentie of sea-coles.
 There is a great hole by head of Vendraith Vehan, where men vse to enter
 into vaults of great compasse, and it is said, that they maie go one
 waie vnder the ground to Wormes head, and another waie to Cairkemen
 castell, which is three miles or more into the land. But how true these
 things are, it is not in me to determine; yet this is certeine, that
 there is verie good hawking at the Heron in Vendraith Vehan. There are
 diuerse prints of the passage of certeine worms also in the caue, at the
 head of Vendraith Vehan, as the inhabitants doo fable: but I neuer heard
 of anie man that saw anie worme there, and yet it is beléeued that manie
 wormes are there. Hitherto out of Leland. But now to returne to mine
 owne course.

 [Sidenote: Laie.]
 Leauing the Laie, which some call Elaie, and passing the Pennarth baie,
 that lieth betwéene the Pennarth and the Lauerocke points, we left
 Scillie Ilet (which lieth on the mouth of Scillie hauen before
 [Sidenote: Barrie.]
 described) and came vnto the Barrie, whose head is aboue Wrinston
 castell, and from whence he runneth by Deinspowis, Cadoxton, Barrie, and
 so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Aberthaw.]
 Being past the Barrie water, we come to a fall called Aberthaw, which
 riseth two or thrée miles aboue Lansanor, and going by Welch Newton, it
 commeth at length to Cowbridge, and from thence goeth to Lanblethian,
 Landoch, Beanpéere, Flimston, Gilston, and betweene the east and the
 west Aberthaw, & into the Sauerne sea. But yer it come all there it
 receiueth a brooke called Kensan, or Karnsan, or Kensech, on the east
 side, whose head is east of Bolston, & comming by Charnelhoid,
 Lhancaruan, & Lancadle, it falleth into the former aboue either of the
 [Sidenote: Kensan.]
 Thawans. Leland saith, that Kensan hath two heads, whereof the more
 northerlie called Brane, lieth in Luenlithan, and runneth seauen miles
 before it méet with the other. Leauing this water we sailed on, casting
 about the Nash point, omitting two or thrée small waters (whereof Leland
 hath alreadie as ye see made mention) because I haue nothing more to add
 vnto their descriptions, except it be, that the Colhow taketh in a rill
 from Lan Iltruit, of whose course (to saie the truth) I haue no manner
 of knowledge.

 [Sidenote: Ogur.]
 The Ogur or Gur, which some call the Ogmur, is a well faire streame (as
 we were woont to saie in our old English) whose head is in the same
 hilles, where the Rodeneies are to be found, but much more westerlie,
 and running a long course yer it come to anie village, it goeth at the
 length beneath Languineuere or Langouodoch, to S. Brides vpon Ogur, then
 [Sidenote: Wennie.]
 to Newcastell, and Marthermaure, beneath which it méeteth the Wennie,
 halfe a mile from Ogur or Ogmur castell on the east side of the banke.
 It riseth fiue or six miles from this place, among the hilles, and
 comming downe at last by Lanharne, it crosseth a rill yer long from
 northeast, and the confluence passeth foorth by Coitchurch, Ogur
 castell, & so into the Ogur. Leland writing of the waters that fall into
 [Sidenote: Garrow.]
 this Ogur saith thus. Into the Ogur also resorteth the Garrow two miles
 aboue Lansanfride bridge, descending from Blaingarow. It taketh
 [Sidenote: Leuennie.]
 furthermore (saith he) another called Leuennie rising in the parish of
 [Sidenote: Corug.]
 Glin Corug, at northwest, and then running two miles lower, vniteth it
 selfe with the Corug brooke, a little short thing, and worthie no longer
 speach. From this confluence the Leuennie goeth seauen miles further yer
 it meete with the Ogur on the west side, at Lansanfride, two miles aboue
 Penbowt. And so far Leland. But I wot not what he meaneth by it.

 [Sidenote: Kensig.]
 Next vnto the Ogur is the Kensig water, that commeth downe by the Pile
 [Sidenote: Margan.]
 and Kensig castell, and being past the same we crosse the Margan rill,
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 where sir Edward Manxell dwelt, and so vnto Auon, which hauing two heads
 (as is said) the more easterlie of them commeth downe by Hauodaport
 chappell, the other by Glin Corug, Michaell church, Aber Auon, and so
 into the sea, yéelding also in time of néed a good harbour for ships to
 lodge and ride in. From hence we went along by the Cole pits to the
 [Sidenote: Neth.]
 [Sidenote: Nethuehan.]
 mouth of the Neth. The Neth is a faire water, rising of diuerse heads,
 whereof the more easterlie named Nethuehan riseth not farre from the
 head of the Kennon, and comming downe by Penedorin to Aberpirgwin it
 [Sidenote: Nethuaur.]
 receiueth Nethuaur, a little aboue the towne, which rising not farre
 southeast of the head of Tauie in Brecknoch shire (as all the rest doo)
 [Sidenote: Trangarth.]
 [Sidenote: Meltaie.]
 [Sidenote: Hepsaie.]
 receiueth the Trangarth, the Meltaie and the Hepsaie, all which are
 accounted as members of his head in one chanell, about a mile or more
 before it ioine with Nethuehan. For as Trangarth riseth east of
 Nethuaur, so the Melta riseth by east of Trangarth, and ioineth with the
 same aboue Istrad wealthie, and a little beneath the same towne taketh
 in the Hepsaie. So that albeit their seuerall risings be half or a whole
 mile in sunder, yet haue they (in a maner) like distance from
 Aberpirgwin, and their finall confluence in the edge of Glamorganshire,
 which they directlie doo crosse. After these confluences, the maine
 streame runneth in and out by sundrie miles, and through the wooddie
 soiles, till it meet with Cledaugh, which ioineth with the same beneath
 the Resonlaie, and goeth withall to Lanisted, where it taketh in the
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 Dulesse, whose head is aboue Chappell Krenaunt, in the marches of
 Brecknoch. Thence it goeth to Cador towne, or betwéene it and
 Lannistide, then to Neth towne, whither small vessels often come: and
 [Sidenote: Cledoch.]
 beneath the same receiuing the Cledoch that runneth by Kelebebilch (and
 also Neth abbeie where maister Crumwell dwelleth) it goeth on by
 Coitfranke forrest, Nethwood, Briton ferrie, and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Tauie.]
 The Tauie riseth in the thickest of the blacke mounteines in
 Brecknochshire west of Nethnaur, and comming downe west of Calwen
 [Sidenote: Coilus.]
 chappell, it receiueth on the east banke a rill named Coiell that
 runneth thither by Coielburne chappell: and being thus vnited, the
 [Sidenote: Torch.]
 chanell passeth foorth by Istradgunles, and then méeting with the Turch
 or Torch water that c[=o]meth from the foot of the blacke mounteines,
 and is march to parcell of Caermardinshire, it runneth to Langoge,
 Lansamled, saint Iohns, Swanseie, and so into the Baie. Being past this,
 we come by another little fall, whose water runneth thrée or foure miles
 yer it come into Swanseie baie, but without name. Thence we go to the
 Crimline becke, whose description I neither haue, nor find anie great
 want therof. Wherfore going about by Oistermont castell, and Mumbles
 point, we passe foorth toward the southwest, by Penmarch point, til we
 [Sidenote: Ilston.]
 come to Ilston water, whose head is not farre within the land; and yet
 as it commeth thorough the woodland, and downe by Penmarch castell, a
 rill or two dooth fall into the same. Then casting about by Oxwich
 point, we go onward there by, and sailing flat north by the Holme
 (hauing passed the Wormeshead and S. Kennets chappell) and then
 [Sidenote: Lochar.]
 northeast by Whitford point, we went at length to the Lochar or Loghor,
 or as Lhoyd nameth it, the Lichwr, whose indraught for a certene space
 is march betwéene Caermardine and Glamorgan shires. It riseth aboue
 Gwenwie chappell, from whence it goeth Landbea, to and aboue Bettus
 [Sidenote: Amond.]
 receiueth a rill named Amond that entreth thereinto from northeast.
 Being past Bettus, it passeth by Laneddie, Arthelas bridge and ouer
 [Sidenote: Combwilie.]
 against Landilo Talabout, it crosseth from by west, the Combwilie by
 [Sidenote: Morlais.]
 west of Parkreame, and afterward the Morlais aboue Langnarch on the same
 side. Then comming to Loghor castell, it taketh in on the east side, the
 [Sidenote: Lhu.]
 Lhu, whose course is not aboue fiue miles, and thence loosing the name
 [Sidenote: Burraie.]
 of Lochar, it is called Burraie, as some gesse, vntill it come to the
 sea, where it parteth it selfe going on each side (of Bachannie Iland, a
 small thing) and not worthie for anie thing I read thereof, as yet to be
 particularlie described. From this water we passed (I saie) by
 Bachannies Ile, to the Aberlheddie water, whose head being in the hilles
 aboue Prenacrois, it passeth by Lhaneltheie, and thence into the sea.
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 Then went we to the Dulesse a little rill, whose head is not farre from
 Trinsaren: thence by the Pembraie and Calicoit points, till we came
 [Sidenote: Wandres.]
 about to the Wandres or Vendraith mouth, whose description is partlie
 touched alreadie; but bicause it is not such as I would wish it to be, I
 will here after my owne maner deale somewhat further withall. Gwendrath
 or Vendraith vaur riseth in the lower ground, or not far from the hill
 Renneth Vaur, whereon castell Careg standeth, and descending by a pretie
 long course vnder sundrie bridges, commeth at the last to Glin, then to
 Capull Lanberie, and so vnto the sea, being little augmented with
 influences by the waie. Vendraith Vehan riseth a mile higher towards the
 north than Vendraith Vaur, but out of the same soile, & thence directing
 his course toward the southwest, it goeth by Lancharog, Langendarne,
 Capull Langell, Bithon, Leighdenie, Kidwillie, and so into the sea,
 about one mile from the fall of Vendraith Vaur.

 [Sidenote: Towie.]
 The Towie riseth in the mounteines of Elennith foure miles by southeast
 from Lintiue, and two from Lingonon, in a moorish ground foure & twentie
 miles from Caermardine, and in a forrest called Bishops forrest, midwaie
 betwixt Landwibreuie & Landanuerie castell. For fish, in my opinion,
 this is much better than the Taw or Taffe, whose head breedeth no fish,
 but if it be cast into it, they turne vp their bellies flote aloft and
 die out of hand. It parteth Brecknoch from Cardigonshire also for a
 [Sidenote: Trausnant.]
 certeine season, till it come by the water of Trausnant, that falleth
 thereinto from by east out of the confins of Brecknoch, vnto Pilin
 [Sidenote: Tothée.]
 capell, and so to Istrodefine, where it méeteth with the Tothee that
 commeth thither from Lhinuerwin where it riseth, and so through Rescoth
 [Sidenote: Pescotter.]
 forrest, vniting it selfe by the waie with the Pescotter, which mounting
 out of the ground in the edge of Cardigonshire, runneth along as a limit
 and march vnto the same, till it ioine with the Tothée, and both come
 togither beneath Istrodefine into Towie, which we haue now in hand.
 After this confluence it commeth to Lhanuair Awbreie, Lanihowell, and
 Lanimphfrie, and here it receiueth two waters in one chanell, whereof
 [Sidenote: Brane.]
 [Sidenote: Gutherijc.]
 the first is called Brane, the other Gutherijc (which lieth more
 southerlie of the two) and fall (as I said) into Towie beneath
 [Sidenote: Dulesse.]
 [Sidenote: Morlais.]
 Landonuereie, which runneth on till it méet with the first Dulesse that
 goeth by Lenurdie, then with the Morlais, and these on the northwest.
 Certes the Brane is a pretie brooke rising two or thrée miles aboue
 Capell Newith, and descending by Lanbrane and Vstradwalter, it méeteth
 (I saie) with the Gutherijc, whose head is west of Tridcastell in
 Brecknochshire, and thereby it is not a little increased. But to proceed
 with the Towie, which being past Lanimphfrie and a rill that méeteth
 with the same, descending from northwest of Lanurdan, it taketh in the
 influences of diuerse waters in one chanell, of which the greatest is
 called Modewie, and thereof I find this description.

 [Sidenote: Modewie.]
 The Modewie, or (as some pronounce it) Motheuie, riseth of two heads,
 which ioining aboue Lanihangle, the streame runneth on till it méet with
 [Sidenote: Cledoch.]
 the Cledoch on the left hand, procéeding also further toward Langadocke,
 [Sidenote: Sawtheie.]
 it receiueth not far from thence the Sawtheie, whose two heads descend
 from the blacke mounteines or east edge of Carmardineshire (as mine
 [Sidenote: Dulesse. 2.]
 information leadeth me.) After this confluence the second Dulesse dooth
 méet with the Towie, whose head is in the hilles aboue Talthogaie
 abbeie, northwest from Langadocke full fiue miles: then comming downe by
 Landilovaur, Newton, Dinefar castell, and Golden groue, it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Dulesse. 3.]
 third Dulesse from by north that commeth in by Lanihangle and Drislan
 [Sidenote: Cothie.]
 castell, and after that the Cothie, whose race is somewhat long, and
 therefore his description not vtterlie to be passed ouer.

 Not farre from the head (which is three miles from Landanbreuie, vnder
 the hulke of Blame Icorne, a narrow passage, and therein manie heaps of
 stones) and somewhat beneath Lana Pinsent chappell, it taketh in the
 [Sidenote: Turche.]
 Turche becke that runneth thither from aboue Lanacroies: thence it goeth
 to Lansawell, Abergorlech, Breghuangothie, Lannigood, and so into Towie,
 [Sidenote: Rauelthie.]
 which hasting forward by chappell Dewie, receiueth the Rauelthie from by
 [Sidenote: Gwilie.]
 north, then the Gwilie from northwest, whose head is aboue Lanie
 Pinsent, and race by Canwell, Eluert, Comewilie, and Merling hill as I
 haue often heard. After this confluence with the Gwilie, the Towie goeth
 to Caermardine, then to Lanigang, then to Lanstephan, S. Ismaels, and so
 into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Taue.]
 Next vnto the Towie is the Taue, whose head is in the blacke mounteines,
 as at the roots of Wrenni vaur hill in Pembrookeshire, from whence it
 [Sidenote: Dudderie.]
 runneth by Lanuurnach, Langludien, Lanualteg, and taking in the Dudderie
 from southwest, out of the same countie by Lanbederuelfraie, and Lindwie,
 [Sidenote: Marlais.]
 it goeth to Eglesware chappell, beneath which it crosseth the Marlais by
 north that runneth by Lanbedie and Whitland. Thence meeting with one
 [Sidenote: Vennie.]
 rill called Venni, as I take it, that commeth through Cardith forrest on
 [Sidenote: Caire.]
 the one side, and the Caire on the other that runneth into it west of
 [Sidenote: Carthkinnie.]
 Landowror, it hasteth to S. Clares, where it taketh in the Carthkinnie,
 [Sidenote: Gow.]
 or Barthkinnie (as Leland calleth it) and the Gow or Tow both in one
 chanell, of which the first riseth aboue Capell Bettus, from whence it
 runneth by Talacouthe, Kilsant, and Langinnin, the other issueth out of
 the ground aboue Trologh Bettus, by Midrun, & ioining with the former a
 little aboue S. Clares, they run into the Taue, and from thence to
 [Sidenote: Gowen.]
 Lanihangle, and betwéene it and Abercowen, admitteth finallie the Gowen
 or Gow streame, which comming likewise from the blacke mounteines, goeth
 by Ebbernant, & so into the Taue, who directeth his course by Lancharne
 castell, and then into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Gwair.]
 The next water that we come to is the Gwair, which is but a small thing
 rising aboue Lambeder Velfraie, and going from thence by east of castell
 Merhie hill, Crumuier and Argwaire, it is not long yer it fall into the
 sea, and so we leaue Cairdinshire, and go ouer into Penbrooke. Then
 passed we by an other comming out of Rathe forrest called Coit Rathe,
 the water it selfe rising about Templeton. Thence leauing the Monkeston
 rocke, we came to Tenbie or Dinbechie Piscood, and passing into the port
 [Sidenote: Brechnocke.]
 betwéene the castell and S. Katharines rocke, we found it serued with
 two little backe waters, of so small countenance, that they are not
 worthie of anie further talke to be spent in their descriptions: yet the
 one séemeth to be called Florence brooke, the other Fresto, Gunfreston
 standing betwéene them both, when by their sight cannot perish. After
 [Sidenote: From Londie to Caldie thirtie miles.]
 this we passed betwéene Londie and an other Ilet or rocke lieng by
 northwest of the same, to Ludsop point, & so to Abertrewent, where I
 [Sidenote: Trewent.]
 found a sillie fresh water named Trewend that riseth a mile or
 thereabout within the land. From thence we went southwards by Brode
 hauen, till we came to S. Gowans point. Then gathering west and by north
 before we came at Shepe Iland, we found another fresh water, that riseth
 short of Kiriog Maharen, and running south of Vggarston, Windmill hill,
 or betwéene it and Castell Norton and Gupton, it holdeth on flat west
 all the waie till it come to the Ocean.

 [Sidenote: Pennar.]
 Being passed this water, we cast about toward the northwest, by the
 Poptons and Pennar, till we came to the Pennar mouth, out of which the
 salt water issueth that in manor inuironneth Penbroke. From this
 (omitting sundrie salt créekes on both sides of the hauen, not
 appertinent to our purpose) we came to the fall of two waters in one
 chanell, aboue whose confluence Williamston parke standeth, and whereof
 one (a méere salt course) incloseth thrée parts of Carew castell. The
 other rising néere to Coit Rath forrest is a fresh, & going by
 Geffraiston, Creswell & Lawrenie, it leaueth the parke on the south
 side, & goeth into the hauen after confluence with the former.

 Now come I to the two swords, or hauen of Milford, whereinto two riuers
 [Sidenote: Dugledu.]
 direct their course from the northeast called Dugledu or the two swords,
 [Sidenote: Cultlell.]
 and betwéene them both is a rill which they call also Cultlell (that is
 to saie) the knife. Hereof riseth a merrie tale of a Welshman, that
 lieng in this place abroad all night in the cold weather, and
 peraduenture not verie well occupied, was demanded of his hostesse
 (where he did breake his fast the next morrow) at what inne he laie in
 the night precedent, bicause he came so soone to hir house yer anie of
 hir maids were vp? Oh good hostesse (quoth he) be contented, I laie to
 night in a dangerous estate, for I slept betweene two swords with a long
 knife at my heart; meaning indéed that he laie betwéene these two
 riuers, and his brest towards the south neere to the head of Cultlell.
 But to passe ouer these iests. Here Leland speaketh of a riuer called
 [Sidenote: Gwilie.]
 Gwilie, but where it riseth or falleth, he maketh no certeine report:
 wherefore it is requisit that I proceed according to my purpose.

 The one of these swords is called Clotheie or Clothie, of which I find
 [Sidenote: Clotheie.]
 this short and breefe description. The Clothie riseth at the foot of
 Wrennie vaure hill and comming downe to Monachlodge, Langelman,
 Lannakeuen, and Egremond, it receiueth a rill from by northwest before
 it come at Lanhaddon castell, which commeth from aboue the moore by
 Clarbaston and Bletherston, his head arising in the hill west of
 Mancloghaie, as Leland dooth informe me. Yer long also and beneath
 Lanhaddon it taketh in another on the east side from Narbarth castell,
 comming by Robeston, then going by Cunaston, Slebach, Picton castell,
 Sister houses, Minware & Martheltwie, at Rise castell point west of Coit
 [Sidenote: Dugledie.]
 Kenles (as I haue béene informed) it taketh in the other sword, named
 Dugledie, wherof I read as followeth. The head of the Dugledie is
 somwhere at northwest, betwixt S. Laurences & S. Dugwels, from whence it
 runneth to Trauegarne, Redbaxton, & taking in a rill by the waie from
 Camrose at the west, it goeth to Hauerford or Hereford west, and there
 vniteth it selfe with a water, which peraduenture is the same that
 [Sidenote: Gwilie.]
 Leland called Gwilie. Certes it riseth short of Walton, and comming by
 S. Leonards chappell and Pendergest, it falleth I saie into the
 Dugledie, ouer against the towne of Hauerford or Herford west, but in
 Welsh Hufford; as Lhoid dooth set it downe. Beneath Herford it taketh in
 another water from south west, whose head is short of S. Margarets
 chappell, and enterance betweene Harraldston and Herford, which
 Harraldstone receiueth the name of Harrald the successour of Edward the
 confessour as some call him, who was a gréeuous mall vnto the Britons
 that remained in the time of the said Edward; as I haue noted elsewhere.
 Then the Dugledie still descending taketh in the Frese fr[=o]
 Fresethorpe, a rill of no great accompt, and therefore I go from it
 making hast vnto Culthell, & omitting two rils betwéene it and the
 Clotheie on the southside, of no great weight and moment. The Cultlhell
 commeth into the Dugledie beneath Bolston, with a streight course from
 by north, of three or foure miles, rising by west of Slebach, and
 comming by Bowlston, after whose vnition with the aforesaid water they
 run on as one till they méet with the Clothie, casting out by the waie
 sundrie salt créekes, as the maine chanell dooth from thence foorth
 vntill it passe the Sandie hauen, the Dale rode (whither a sillie fresh
 rill commeth of small value) & be come about againe to the large Ocean.

 Having thus shewed the courses of those few fresh waters that come to
 Milford hauen, we cast about by the Blockehouse and S. Annes chappell
 [Sidenote: Gateholme Ile.]
 to Gateholme Ile, that lieth betwéene S. Annes and the Wilocke point,
 [Sidenote: Stockholme Ile.]
 directlie ouer against Stockeholme Iland that is situat further off into
 the sea, toward the southwest, and is full halfe so great as the
 Scalmeie that I elsewhere described. Betweene the Willocke point also
 [Sidenote: Midland Ile.]
 and the Scalmeie, directlie west is the Midland Ile, full so great as
 the Gateholme. As for the two rocks that lie by north and south of the
 Scalmeie, of which the one is called the Yardland stone, the other
 Mewstone, it shall not be greatlie requisit to stand on their
 discourses, sith they are such as may hardlie be taken for Ilands, and
 euen in like sort we may iudge of S. Brides Ile, which is southwest of
 [Sidenote: Gresholme.]
 Calthrop rode, & likewise of the Gresholme, whereof I find this short
 description. The Gresholme lieth directlie west of Scalmeie, from whence
 if you saile thither on the south side, you must néeds passe by the
 Mewstone rocke: if on the north of Scalmeie, you must leaue the Yarland
 stone on your left hand. Wherto if you note well the situation of these
 Ilands alreadie named, and confer them with the Ramseie and S. Dauids
 land, you shall find them to produce as it were two dangerous points,
 including the Bridbaie, wherein (notwithstanding the greatnesse) are
 1000 perils, and no fresh brookes for me to deale withall. Finallie,
 hauing doubled the Willocke point, we thought it not good altogether to
 leaue that baie vnsearched, at lestwise to sée what Ilands might there
 be found, & long entred into the same, we beheld one which the men of
 [Sidenote: S. Brides Iland.]
 the countrie call S. Brides Iland, a verie little place and situate
 néere the land, before I came at Galtroie rode. From thence we went
 about by the little hauen, Doluach hauen, Caruaie hauen, Shirelace
 rocke, Carnbuddie, and Carnaie baies, Portelais, and so into the sound
 betwéene Ramseie and the point. In this sound likewise is a little Ile,
 almost annexed to the maine: but in the middest thereof, I meane of the
 sound, is a rocke called the horsse (a mile and more by north of Ribbie
 rocke, that lieth south east of Ramseie) and more infortunate than ten
 [Sidenote: A sort of dangerous rocks lieng on a row upon the
 west end of South-wales called the Bishop & his clerkes.]
 of Seians colts, but thanked be God I neuer came on his backe. Thence
 passing by S. Stephans, and Whitesand baies, we saluted the Bishop and
 his clerks, as they went on procession on our left side (being loth to
 take anie salted holie water at their hands) and came at last to the
 point called S. Dauids head, which Ptolomie calleth Octapitanum
 promontorium, except I be deceiued. But here gentle reader giue me leaue
 to staie a while, and insert the words of Leland touching the land
 called S. Dewies or S. Dauids land, whereof some men may peraduenture
 haue vse, his words are these. Being therefore past this hauen and point
 [Sidenote: S. Dewie or Dauid all one.]
 of Demetia, in casting about the coast we come to S. Dewies or S. Dauids
 land, which Ptolomie calleth Octapitanum promontorium, I read to be
 separated from the rest of the countrie much after this maner, although
 I grant that there may be and are diuerse other little creekes betwixt
 Newgale and S. Dauids head, and betwixt S. Dauids and Fischard, beside
 those that are héere mentioned out of a register of that house.

 As we turne therefore from Milford, S. Dauids land beginneth at Newgale,
 a créeke serued with a backe fresh water. Howbeit there is a baie before
 this creeke betwixt it and Milford. From hence about foure miles is
 [Sidenote: Saluach.]
 Saluach creeke, otherwise called Sauerach, whither some fresh water
 resorteth: the mouth also thereof is a good rescue for balingers, as it
 [Sidenote: Portelais.]
 (I meane the register) saith. Thence go we to Portelais three miles,
 [Sidenote: Alen.]
 where is a little portlet, whither the Alen that commeth through saint
 Dewies close dooth run. It lieth a mile south-west from S. Dewies,
 [Sidenote: Portmaw.]
 saint Stinans Chappell also is betwéene Portelais, and Portmaw. The next
 [Sidenote: Maw.]
 [Sidenote: Pendwie.]
 [Sidenote: Lanuehan.]
 is Port Maw, where I found a great estuarie into the land. The Pendwie
 halfe a mile from that: Lhand Vehan is thrée miles from Pendwie, where
 [Sidenote: Tredine.]
 is a salt créeke, then to Tredine three miles, where is another creeke
 [Sidenote: Langunda.]
 to Langunda, foure miles, and another créeke is there in like sort where
 fishermen catch herrings. Héere also the Gwerne riuer diuideth
 [Sidenote: Fischard.]
 Penbidiane from Fischerdine Kemmeis land. From Langunda to Fischard at
 [Sidenote: Gwerne.]
 the Gwerne mouth foure miles, and here is a portlet or hauenet also for
 ships. And thus much of S. Dauids land.

 Besides this also, Leland in a third booke talketh of lhinnes and
 pooles, but for as much as my purpose is not to speake of lakes and
 lhinnes, I passe them ouer as hasting to Teifie, in Latine Tibius, and
 after Ptolomie Tuerobius or Tiuirobius, which is the next riuer that
 serueth for my purpose. And yet not forgetting to touch the Gwerne, for
 after we came from saint Dauids head, we coasted along toward the
 southeast, till wée came ouer against saint Catharins, where going
 northwards by the broad hauen, and the Strombles head, we sailed thence
 northeast, and by north, to Langlas head, then flat south by the Cow and
 Calfe (two cruell rockes) which we left on the left hand, & so coasted
 ouer to Abergwin or Fischard where we found a fresh water named Guin, or
 [Sidenote: Gwerne.]
 Gwerne, whose course is in manner directlie out of the east into the
 west, from Vremie hils by pont Vaunt and Lanichair, vntill it come
 within a mile of the foresaid towne. It riseth flat north of the
 Perselie hill, from whence it goeth by Pont vaine, Lauerillidoch,
 Lanchar, Landilouair, & so to Abergwine, or Abergwerne, for I read both.
 [Sidenote: Neuerne.]
 From Abergwine, we cast about by Dinas head, till we come to the fall of
 Neuerne, where Newport standeth. The head of this riuer is aboue Capell
 Nantgwin, from whence it runneth by Whitchurch, but yer it come at
 Kilgwin, it taketh in a little water that riseth short of Wrenie vaure,
 and thence go foorth as one vntill they come to Newport. Cardigan hauen
 is the next fall that I did stumble on, wherein lieth a little Iland
 [Sidenote: Teifie or Tine.]
 ouer against the north point. Hereinto also commeth the Teifie, a noble
 riuer which riseth in Lintiuie, and is fraught with delicate samons, and
 herein and not else where in all the riuers of Britaine, is the Castor
 or Beuer to be found. But to procéed. The verie hed thereof (I saie) is
 foure miles aboue Stradflore in Luitie, and after it hath run from
 thence a little space, it receiueth a brooke from southeast that commeth
 out of Lin Legnant, and then after the confluence runneth on to
 [Sidenote: Miricke.]
 Stradflore abbeie, beneth which it méeteth with the Miricke water (that
 [Sidenote: Landurch.]
 riseth aboue Stradmirich) and soone after with the Landurch (both from
 the northwest) and finallie the Bremich aboue Tregaron, that commeth in
 by the east; as Leland hath set downe.

 [Sidenote: Bromis.]
 Néere to Landwibreuie also it crosseth the Bromis by east northeast, and
 [Sidenote: Matherne.]
 then goeth to Landuair, Cledogh, Kellan, and soone after taking in the
 Matherne from by east, that parteth Cardigan partlie from Carmardine
 [Sidenote: Dulas.]
 shire, and likewise that Dulas aboue Lanbedder (which riseth aboue
 Langibbie, and goeth thence to Bettus) on the northwest, it goeth next
 of all to Lanbedder towne, then to Laniuair, beneath which it crosseth
 [Sidenote: Grauelth.]
 the Grauelth, thence to Pencarocke, Lanibether, Lanlonie, Lanihangle,
 [Sidenote: Clethor.]
 and Sandissell, and there it vniteth it selfe with the Clethor or
 Dettor, which commeth downe thither by Lantisilued chappell, Lanfraine,
 and finallie Landissell from by north, as I doo here affirme. After this
 confluence it procéedeth on to Landuaie, Alloine, Bangor, Langeler,
 [Sidenote: Kerie.]
 Landeureog and Newcastell, yer long taking in the Kerie from by north,
 whose head is not farre from that of Clethor, and whose course is
 somewhat inlarged by such rilles as descend into the same. For west of
 Kenwith two becks in one chanell doo fall into it, which be namelesse,
 and but of a little length.

 Beneath Tredwair also it crosseth another from by west, that runneth
 along by Bettus, Euan, and finallie méeting with the Teifie, they run as
 one by Kennarth (still parting Cardigon shire from Carmardin, as it hath
 doone sith it met with the Matherne) and so forth on till they ioine
 [Sidenote: Cheach.]
 with the Cheach, which rising southeast aboue chappell Euan, dooth part
 Carmardine and Brechnocke shire in sunder, till it come vnto the Teifie.
 From this confluence, and being still a limit vnto Cardigon shire, it
 goeth by Marierdine, and so to Cardigon, taking in one rill from by
 north descending by Penneralt, by north of Monardiue or Marierdine, and
 two other from by southwest, of which the one commeth in beneath
 Kilgaron castell, the other from Lantwood north west of Oscoid Mortemer,
 which lieth southeast of Cardigan, and then going forward betwéene S.
 Dogmaile, & Langordmere, it is not long yer it fall into the Irish sea,
 flat west and by north from his vprise, and sending vs forth from
 Penlooke into Cardigon shire, wherevnto it hath become march euer
 sithence it came from Kellam, or confluence with the Matherne.

 Being come into Cardigon shire, and hauing passed the Cardigon point, an
 Iland of the same denomination lieng by west thereof, we came vnto the
 [Sidenote: Airon.]
 fall of Airon thrée miles beneath Lancleere, it riseth in the mounteines
 by a chappell called Blam Peniall belonging to Landwie breuie about
 thrée or foure miles from Tiue banks, & runneth on by Lamberwooddie,
 Langitho, Tregrigaron hill, Treuilian, Talaferne, and soone after taking
 in a rill from by south from Siliam by Lanleir it runneth by Istrade,
 Kilkennen, Lanicharin, and finallie into the sea, crossing by the waie
 [Sidenote: Bidder.]
 the Bidder brooke, which comming from Dehewide, dooth fall into the same,
 [Sidenote: Arth.]
 betwéene Lanchairin, and Henuenneie. The Arth which is the next fall is
 no great thing, neither of anie long course, yet somewhat crotched, and
 it riseth three or foure miles or more within the land slopewise, and
 comming by Lambaderne, and Treueglois, it falleth into the sea,
 northeast of Aberarth.

 Being past the Arth, & hauing staied there a while bicause we found some
 [Sidenote: Ris aliàs Wereie.]
 harborough, we came next of all vnto the Wereie, which riseth of two
 heads, aboue whose confluence standeth a towne, named Lanihangle,
 Redrod, and from whence it goeth by Lanigruthen to Laristed, & so into
 the Ocean. Then went we to the Ystwith, which riseth in the blacke
 mounteins aboue Comerstwith, from whence it runneth certeine miles,
 [Sidenote: Istwith.]
 vntill it come vnto Ispittie, Istwith, Lananon, Laniler, Lan Nachairne,
 [Sidenote: Redholl.]
 and so into the sea, taking withall first the Meleuen, then the Ridall
 or Redholl not farre from the shore, whereof I haue this description.
 The Ridall riseth in the top of Plimlimmon hill out of a lake named Lin
 Ridall, from whence going toward Spittie Kinwen, it crosseth one water
 on the north, and another beneth it on the southeast, and so goeth on by
 Lanbeder vaure, till it come to Aberistwith, the Istwith, and so into
 the Ocean. Hauing thus viewed the Istwith, and taken our selues againe
 [Sidenote: Salique.]
 to the sea, we crossed the Salke or Salique brooke, whereof I find this

 The Salique brooke descendeth in like sort from the blacke mounteins, &
 going from Vmmaboue, toward Gogarth, or Gogirthar, it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Massalique.]
 Massalique, and from thence goeth into the sea, southwest from his
 [Sidenote: Lerie.]
 originall. From hence we went to the Lerie, an indraught of no great
 quantitie, neither commodious as I gesse (yet I may be deceiued) for
 anie ship to harborough in. It riseth toward the lower ground of the
 blacke hils, and going by Lanihangle castell Gwalter, it runneth from
 thence northeast into the Ocean, receiuing a rill by the waie from the
 hilles which lie by northeast of his course. But what stand I vpon

 [Sidenote: Wie.]
 Thus haue I brought my selfe out of Caerdigan shire vnto the Wie, which
 is limit betwéene it and Merioneth for a certeine space, & being entred
 in the mouth thereof we gat vp to the head, minding in the description
 of the same to come downeward as in the rest, which we will doo in such
 good manner as for the time and want of some information is possible to
 be performed. It ariseth in the south part of Snowdonie and goeth on
 foorth right to Lammothwie, by Mowdhewie, Mathan laith, and comming
 downe to Dinas Mathew, it receiueth two rilles from northwest, and the
 third comming by Mailroid called Cludoch from northeast, & so holdeth on
 crossing the Angell water at the west, which boundeth Mongomerie shire
 [Sidenote: Remis.]
 in part, till it come to Romis, beneath which water it taketh in the
 Towin that passeth by Lambrin mawr from Talgarth, and then goeth to
 Mathrauerne, crossing another from by north and so foorth to Lanworing,
 where it méeteth with the Kerig on the one side, and the Gwidall which
 commeth from Dorowen on the other.

 After this, our maine riuer goeth by Pengos, and beneath the same taketh
 in an influence from southeast, called the Dulas, and another from the
 northwest: from thence it hasteth on to Magenillet, or Machenlet, first
 crossing the Leuennie from southeast, secondlie the Peniall from
 northwest, thirdlie the Einon, fourthlie the Kinar, fiftlie the Cleidor,
 these thrée last rehearsed falling into it from southeast, & the last
 hauing his course by Langwinhelin and so into the sea, as mine
 instruction vpholdeth. It séemeth in some mens iudgements to part
 Northwales and Westwales in sunder, and the same which in Latine hight
 Deuus, in Welsh or British Difi or Dewie, whereof the Latine doth séeme
 to fetch his sound. But to procéed with the rest of such falles and
 waters as are to be found in this countie. Going therfore northwestward
 we come to a fall fr[=o] the north called Towen Merionneth which is the
 mouth of the Difonnie streame, a pretie riuer rising in the hilles aboue
 Lanihangle, and west of castell Traherne receiueth the Ridrijc, which
 commeth from Chadridrijc hill, by Tallillin castell, Treherie, and so
 into the Difonnie from southeast, fetching his course by Lanegrin, and
 so into the sea within fiue miles thereof.

 Being past this we did cast about by the Sarnabigh point, till we came
 to the Lingouen becke, and so to the Barre, which is a faire water, and
 therefore worthie to be with diligence described, yet it is not called
 Bar from the head, but rather Moth or Derie, for so are the two chiefe
 heads called out of which this riuer descendeth, and are about six miles
 west of the Lin, out of which the Dée hath his issue, and betwéene which
 the Raran vaure hilles are situat and haue their being. After the
 ioining of the two heds of this Barre, as I name it from the originall,
 it receiueth a rill from northeast called Cain, & another beneath the
 same, comming from Beurose wood, and so holdeth on towards the south
 betwéene Laniltid and Kemmor abbaie, till it meet a little by west of
 Dolgelth with the Auon vaure, which comming also out of the Woodland
 soile, & taking in a rill from Gwannas, hasteth northwestward (by
 Dolgelth) to ioine with the Barre, and being met they receiue the
 Kessilgunt, then the Hirgun, & after a course of foure to fiue miles it
 falleth into the sea, hauing watered the verie hart & inward parts of
 this shire. From hence we crosse the Skethie which runneth by Corsogdale
 and Lanthwie, aliàs Lanthonie, then the Lambader which receiuing the
 Artro aboue Lambader, doth fall into the sea, southeast of the point,
 and flat south of Landango, which is a towne situat on the other side of
 the turning.

 [Sidenote: Ho.]
 After this we passed by Aberho, so named of the riuer Ho, that falleth
 there into the sea, and commeth thither from the Alpes or hils of
 Snowdonie, mounteins, no lesse fertile for grasse, wood, cattell, fish
 and foule, than the famous Alpes beyond the seas, whereof all the
 writers doo make so honorable report. From hence we sailed by Abermawr
 [Sidenote: Mawr.]
 or mouth of Mawr, which commeth in like sort from Snowdonie, and taketh
 [Sidenote: Artro.]
 diuerse riuers with him whose names I doo not know. Then vnto the Artro
 a brooke, whose head commeth from by north east, and in his course
 receiueth the Gedar on the north side, and so holdeth on till it fall
 into the sea, after a few windlesses which it maketh as it passeth.
 After this we come to Traith vehan, which is the fall of the Drurid, a
 pretie riuer comming from the marches of Caernaruonshire, which passing
 by Festimog, soone after taketh in the Cunwell, then the Velenrid; and
 so holdeth on to Deckoin, where it falleth into the said Traith. For of
 the other two rilles that lie by south hereof, and haue their issue also
 into the same, I make but small accompt, bicause their quantitie is not
 [Sidenote: Farles.]
 great. Next vnto this we haue Traith mawr, whereinto the Farles hath his
 issue, a riuer proceeding from Snowdonie or the Snowdon hils, descending
 by Bethkelerke and Lanwrothen, without mixture of anie other water in
 all his course and passage. It is parcell of the march also betwéene
 Merioneth and Caernaruon shires. From Traith mawr we passe by the
 Krekith, and come to another water descending from the north by
 Lanstidwie, and after that to the Moie, whose mouthes are so néere
 togither, that no more than halfe a mile of the land dooth seeme to
 kéepe them in sunder.

 [Sidenote: Erke.]
 Then come we vnto the Erke, a pretie brooke descending from Madrijn
 hils, into whose mouth two other of no lesse quantitie than it selfe doo
 séeme to haue their confluence, and whose courses doo come along from
 the west and northwest; the most southerlie being called Girch, and the
 other the Hellie: except my memorie doo faile me. Then casting about
 toward the south (as the coast lieth) we saw the Abersoch or mouth of
 [Sidenote: Soch.]
 the Soch riuer vpon our right hand, in the mouth whereof, or not farre
 by south thereof lie two Ilands, of which the more northerlie is called
 Tudfall, and the other Penrijn: as Leland did obserue. I would set downe
 the British names of such townes and villages as these waters passe by;
 but the writing of them (for want of the language) is so hard to me,
 that I choose rather to shew their falles and risings, than to corrupt
 their denominations in the writing: and yet now and then I vse such
 words as our Englishmen doo giue vnto some of them, but that is not
 often, where the British name is easie to be found out and sounded.

 After this, going about by the point, and leauing Gwelin Ile on the
 [Sidenote: Daron.]
 right hand, we come to Daron riuer, wherevpon standeth Aberdaron a
 quarter of a mile from the shore betwixt Aberdaron and Vortigernes vale,
 where the compasse of the sea gathereth in a head, and entereth at both
 [Sidenote: Edarne beck.]
 ends. Then come we about the point to Edarne becke, a mile and more
 south of Newin. And ten or twelue miles from hence is the Vennie brooke,
 whose course is little aboue so manie miles; and not farre from it is
 the Liuan, a farre lesse water, comming also from the east: and next
 vnto that another, wherinto the Willie by south and the Carrog by north
 after their coniunction doo make their common influence. Hauing passed
 this riuer, we cast about toward the north east, and enter at Abermenaie
 ferrie, into the streicts or streame called Menaie, betweene Angleseie
 and the maine, méeting first of all with the Gornaie, which commeth from
 the Snowdonie out of the Treuennian lake, and passeth by Lanunda into
 the sea or Menaie streame at Southcrocke. Next of all we meet with the
 Saint, which commeth from Lin Lanbereie, passeth by Lanihangle, and so
 falleth into the Menaie at Abersaint, which is on the southwest side of
 Caernaruon: on the other side also of the said towne is the Skeuernocke,
 whereby it standeth betweene two riuers, of which this hath his head not
 farre from Dinas Orueg.

 Then come we (saith Leland) to Gwiniwith mirith (or Horsse brooke) two
 miles from Moilethon, and it riseth at a Well so called full a mile from
 thence. Moilethon is a bowe shot from Aberpowle, from whence ferrie
 [Sidenote: Conte.]
 botes go to the Termone or Angleseie. Aberpowle runneth thrée miles into
 the land, and hath his head foure miles beyond Bangor in Meneie shore:
 and here is a little comming in for botes bending into the Meneie. Aber
 [Sidenote: Gegeine.]
 Gegeine commeth out of a mounteine a mile aboue, and Bangor (thorough
 [Sidenote: Torronnen.]
 which a rill called Torronnen hath his course) almost a mile aboue it.
 [Sidenote: Ogwine.]
 Aber Ogwine is two miles aboue that; it riseth at Tale linne, Ogwine
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 poole, fiue miles aboue Bangor in the east side of Withow. Aber Auon is
 two miles aboue Aberogwene, and it riseth in a poole called Lin man Auon,
 [Sidenote: Lannar.
 thrée miles off. Auon lan var Vehan riseth in a mounteine therby, and
 [Sidenote: Duegeuelth.]
 goeth into the sea, two miles aboue Duegeuelth. Auon Duegeuelth is three
 miles aboue Conweie, which rising in the mounteins a mile off, goeth by
 it selfe into Meneie salt arme. On the said shore also lieth Conweie,
 and this riuer dooth run betwixt Penmaine Maur, and Penmaine Vehan. It
 riseth about three miles from Penmaclon hils which lie about sixtie
 miles from Conweie abbeie, now dissolued out of a lake called Lin
 Conweie, and on the north and west of this riuer standeth the towne of
 Conweie, which taketh his name thereof.

 [Sidenote: Téec.]
 This riuer (which Ptolomie calleth Toesobius, as I take it) after the
 deriuation thereof from the head, passeth on the west side by Spittieuan
 and Tiherio, beneath which it taketh in a streame comming from the east
 out of Denbighshire, deriued from thrée heads, and of the greatest
 called Nag. Soone after also another, and then the third, which commeth
 in from the west by Lanpen Mawr: next of all the Leder on the same side,
 which commeth by Dolathelan castell: and aboue that from a Lin of the
 [Sidenote: Ligow.]
 same denomination. Beneath this and selfe hand lieth likewise the Ligow
 or Ligwie, procéeding from two lakes, that is, the Mumber and the Ligow.
 On the right hand as we still descend, is the Coid, then the Glin, & a
 little lower we méet with the Lin Gerioneth: and after we be past
 another on the right side, we come to the Perloid, which commeth out of
 Lin Cowlid, to the Ygan, to the Idulin, to the castell Water on the
 left, & then to the Melandider on the right, without the sight of anie
 other, till we come almost to Conweie, where we find a notched streame
 comming from by west, and called Guffen or Gyffin into the same by one
 chanell on the northeast side of the towne, beneath Guffin or Gyffin,
 and ouer against Lansanfraid in Denbighshire; so farre as I now
 remember. Some part of Carnaruonshire stretcheth also beyond Aber
 [Sidenote: Ormeshed.]
 Conweie, or the fall of Conweie, & it is called Ormeshed point, wherein
 also is a rill, whose fall into the sea is betwéene Penrin and
 Landright. And thus we haue made an end of the chéefe waters which are
 to be found in this countie.

 The next is a corner of Denbigh, by which we doo as it were step ouer
 into Flintshire, and whose first water is not great, yet it commeth from
 southwest, and falleth into the north or Irish sea called Virginium,
 beneath Landilas; as the next that commeth south from Bettas dooth the
 [Sidenote: Gele.]
 like thrée miles beneath Abergele, and is not onelie called Gele (as the
 name it selfe importeth) but also noted to take his course through the
 Canges. Hauing thus gone ouer the angle of Denbighshire, that lieth
 betwéene those of Carnaruon and Flint, we come next of all vnto Aber
 Cluide, or the fall of Clotha or Glota, which is a streame not to be
 shortlie intreated of. It riseth among certeine hilles, which lie not
 far distant from the confines of Merioneth and Denbighshires. Southeast
 from his fall, and hauing run foure or fiue miles from the head, it
 [Sidenote: Maniton.]
 commeth about to Darwen, taking in the Maniton on the left hand, and the
 Mespin on the right: and soone after the third from bywest, whose head
 is not farre from Gloucanocke. Beneath Ruthen also it taketh in the
 Leueneie: and after that another, and the third, all on the right hand,
 [Sidenote: Cluedoch.]
 and so holdeth on till it méet with the Cluedoch, then with the Ystrade,
 which passeth by Whitchurch on the left hand. After which we come to the
 Whéeler on the right, and so to his ioining with the Elwie, which is
 [Sidenote: Elwie.]
 beneath S. Asaphes, a bishops sée that is inuironed with them both. This
 Elwie riseth aboue Gwitherne, & beneath Lanuair taketh in the Alode,
 which commeth from lin Alode, by Lansannan, and ioineth with him fiue
 miles beneath Langrenew. The Cluda therefore and the Elwie being met,
 the confluence passeth on to the sea by Rutland castell, where it taketh
 in the Sarne, which commeth from by east, and hath a course almost of
 sixteene miles. From hence we tooke sea toward the Dée mouth: and as we
 passed by the rest of the shore, we saw the fall of a little brooke
 néere Basing Werke, of another néere to Flint, of the third at Yowleie
 castell, which with his two armes in maner includeth it; and the fourth
 beneath Hawarden hold, which in like sort goeth round about the same, &
 from whence we came to the Dée, where we landed and tooke vp our lodging
 in Chester. In this place also it was no hard matter to deliuer & set
 downe the names of such riuers and streames as are also to be found in
 Angleseie, finding my selfe to haue some leasure and fit opportunitie
 for the same: and imagining a iourneie thither also, as vnto the other
 places mentioned in this description, whither as yet it hath not béene
 my hap to trauell: I thought it not amisse to take it also in hand, and
 performe it after this maner.

 Ferrieng therefore ouer out of Carnaruonshire to Beaumarise, I went by
 land without crossing of anie riuer or streame worthie memorie, till I
 came to the Brant, which hath his fall not farre from the southest point
 of that Iland. This Brant riseth farre vp in the land, not farre from
 Lauredenell, and holding on his course southward to Lanthoniell Vaall,
 it goeth on to Bodoweruch, Langainwen, and so into the sea.

 The next fall we came vnto was called Maltrath, and it is producted by
 the confluence of two riuers, the Geuennie and the Gint, who ioine not
 farre from Langrestoll. This also last rehearsed hath his head neere to
 Penmoneth, the other being forked riseth in the hillie soile aboue
 Tregaion and Langwithlog: so that part of the Iland obteineth no small
 commoditie and benefit by their passage. Next vnto this we came vnto the
 [Sidenote: Fraw.]
 Fraw, whose head is neere to Langinewen, and passage by Cap Maer; after
 which it falleth into a lake, from whence it goeth east of Aberfraw, and
 so into the sea. The next riuer hath no name to my knowledge: yet hath
 it a longer course than that which I last described. For it riseth two
 or thrée miles aboue Haneglosse: and passing from thence to
 Treualghmaie, after the descent of foure miles, it falleth into the sea.
 After this we came to an other, which riseth more to Cap legan ferwie,
 and falleth into the sea; southeast of the little Iland, which is called
 Ynis Wealt, it is namelesse also as the other was: and therefore hauing
 small delight to write thereof, we passed ouer the salt créeke by a
 bridge into Cair Kibie, which by the same, is as it were cut from the
 maine Iland, and in some respect not vnworthie to be taken for an Ile.
 In the north side therefore of Cair Kibie is a little rill or créeke:
 but whether the water thereof be fresh or salt, as yet I doo not

 This place being viewed, I came backe againe by the aforesaid bridge,
 into the maine of Angleseie, and going northwards I find a fall inforced
 by thrée riuerets, each one hauing his course almost south from other;
 and the last falling into the confluence of the two first, not halfe a
 mile from the west, where I first espied the streame: the name of the
 [Sidenote: Linon.]
 [Sidenote: Allo.]
 most northerlie is Linon, of the second Allo; but the third is
 altogither namelesse for aught that I can learne, wherefore it shall not
 be necessarie to spend anie time in the further searching of his course.
 Being past this, we went northwards till we came to the point, and then
 going eastward, we butted vpon the fall of a certeine confluence growing
 by the ioining of the Nathanon and the Geger, which méet beneath and
 néere to the Langechell. And after the same we passed on somewhat
 declining southward by the Hillarie point, toward the southeast, till we
 came to the Dulesse: and from thence to Pentraeth water: after which we
 turned northward, then eastward; and finallie southward, till we came to
 Langurdin; from whence vnto Beaumarise (where began our voiage) we find
 not anie water worthie to be remembred. And thence I go forward with the
 description of the Dee.

 [Sidenote: Dée or Deua.]
 The Dee or Deua (as Ptolomie calleth it) is a noble riuer, & breeder of
 the best trout, whose head is in Merioneth shire, about thrée miles
 aboue the lake, situate in the countie of Penthlin, and called Lin
 Tegnis, whose streame yet verie small, by reason of the shortnesse of
 his course, falleth into the said lake, not far from Lanullin. There are
 sundrie other waters which come also into the said lake, which is foure
 or five miles in length, and about two miles ouer; as one from by south,
 whose fall is east, and not manie furlongs from the Dee: another hath
 his issue into the same by Langower: the third on the north side of
 Lanullin, named Leie: the fourth at Glanlintegid called Jauerne, the
 lake it selfe ending about Bala, and from thence running into the
 [Sidenote: Trowerin.]
 Trowerin, a pretie streame, and not a little augmented by the Kelme and
 Monach which fall by north into the same, and ioineth with the Dée south
 of Lanuair; from whence forth it looseth the name, and is afterward
 [Sidenote: Ruddoch.]
 called Dée. East of Bala in like sort it receiueth the Ruddoch, then the
 [Sidenote: Cleton.]
 Cleton, and so passing on by Landright to Langar, it méeteth with a
 confluence procéeding from the Alwen and the Giron, of which this riseth
 in the hils aboue Langham, the other in the mounteines about fiue or six
 miles by northwest of Lanihangle in Denbighshire, where (as I gesse) it
 falleth into the ground; and afterward rising againe betwéene Lanihangle
 and Bettus, it holdeth on about two miles, and then ioineth with the
 Giron, full six miles aboue Dole, and before it come to the Dee. From
 hence the Dee goeth by Lansanfraid, and the marches of Merioneth into
 Denbighshire, and so to Langellon, Dinas, Bren, &c: kéeping his course
 [Sidenote: Gristioneth.]
 by certeine windlesses, till he receiue the Gristioneth, descending by
 Ruabon, then another est of the same; the third from by west called
 [Sidenote: Keriog.]
 Keriog (whose head is not farre from the bounds of Merioneth and course
 by Lanarmon, Lansanfraid, and Chirke) the fourth from south east out of
 Shropshire, called Morlais, and so passeth as bounds betwéene
 Denbighshire, and the Outliggand of Flintshire, to wit by Bistocke on
 the one side and Bangor on the other, till it come to Worthenburie:
 whereabout it receiueth a chanell descending from foure influences, of
 which one commeth by Penlie chappell, the second from Hamnere, which
 goeth downe by Emberhall, and falleth in a little by east of the other;
 the third from Blackmere (by Whitchurch) &c: and the fourth from
 betwéene Chad and Worsall. These two later méeting aboue nether
 Durtwich, doo hold on to Talerne, as mine information instructeth me.

 From Wrothenburie the Dee goeth northwestwards toward Shocklige, méeting
 [Sidenote: Cluedoch.]
 by the waie with the confluence of the Cluedoch (or Dedoch originall
 mother to those trouts for which the Dée is commended) and descendeth
 [Sidenote: Gwinrogh.]
 from Capell Moinglath) and the Gwinrogh, that runneth through Wrexham,
 both ioining a mile and more beneath Wrexham, not far from Hantwerne.
 Soone after also our maine riuer receiueth another becke from by east,
 which is bound on the northwest side to the Outliggand of Flintshire,
 and so passeth on betwéene Holt castell and Ferneton, Almere and Pulton,
 as march betwéene Denbighshire and Cheshire, and then taketh in the
 [Sidenote: Alannus.]
 Alannus or Alen; a pretie riuer and worthie to be described. The head of
 this Alen therefore is in Denbighshire, and so disposed that it riseth
 in two seuerall places, ech being two miles from other, the one called
 Alen Mawr, the other Alen Vehan, as I doo find reported. They méet also
 beneath Landegleie, and run northwards till they come beyond Lanuerres,
 where meeting with a rill comming from by west, it runneth on to the
 Mold to Horsheth, and so in and out to Greseford, taking the Cagidog
 from southwest with it by the waie; then to Traue Alen, and so into the
 Dée, a mile and more aboue the fall of Powton becke, which also
 descendeth from southwest out of Flintshire, and is march vnto the same,
 euen from the verie head. After which confluence the Dée hauing
 Chestershire on both sides, goeth to Aldford with a swift course, where
 it méeteth with the Beston brooke, whereof I doo find this description

 [Sidenote: Beston.]
 "The Beston water riseth in the wooddie soile betwéene Spruston and
 Beston castell with a forked head, and leauing Beston towne on the
 northeast, it goeth to Tarneton, and to Hakesleie, where it diuideth it
 selfe in such wise, that one branch thereof runneth by Totnall,
 Goldburne, and Léehall, to Alford, and so into the Dée, the other by
 Stapleford, Terwine, Barrow, Picton, and Therton, where it brancheth
 againe, sending foorth one arme by Stanneie poole, and the parke side
 into Merseie arme, toward the northwest, and another by southwest, which
 commeth as it were backe againe, by Stoke, Croughton, Backeford,
 Charleton, Vpton, the Baites, and so vnder a bridge to Chester ward,
 where it falleth into the Dée arme at Flockes brooke, excluding Wirall
 on the northwest as an Iland, which lieth out like a leg betwéene the
 Merseie and the Dée armes, and including and making another fresh Iland
 within the same, whose limits by northwest are betwéene Thorneton,
 Chester, & Aldford, on the northeast Thorneton and Hakesleie, and on the
 southeast Hakesleie and Aldford, whereby the forme thereof dooth in part
 resemble a triangle." And thus much of the Dée, which is a troublesome
 streame when the wind is at southwest, and verie dangerous, in so much
 that few dare passe thereon. Sometimes also in haruest time it sendeth
 downe such store of water, when the wind bloweth in the same quarter,
 that it drowneth all their grasse and corne that groweth in the lower
 grounds néere vnto the bankes thereof. Certes it is about thrée hundred
 foot, at his departure from the Tignie, and worthilie called a litigious
 streame; because that by often alteration of chanell, it inforceth men
 to séeke new bounds vnto their lands, for here it laieth new ground, and
 there translateth and taketh awaie the old, so that there is nothing
 more vnconstant than the course of the said water. Of the monasterie
 Bangor also, by which it passeth after it hath left Orton bridge, I find
 this note, which I will not omit, because of the slaughter of monks made
 sometime néere vnto the same. For although the place require it not, yet
 I am not willing altogither to omit it.

 [Sidenote: The situation of the monasterie of Bangor.]
 This abbeie of Bangor stood sometime in English Mailor, by hither and
 south of the riuer Dée. It is now ploughed ground where that house
 stood, by the space of a Welsh mile (which reacheth vnto a mile and an
 halfe English) and to this day the tillers of the soile there doo plow
 vp bones (as they saie) of those monks that were slaine in the quarrell
 of Augustine, and within the memorie of man some of them were taken vp
 in their rotten weeds, which were much like vnto those of our late
 blacke monks, as Leland set it downe: yet Erasmus is of the opinion,
 that the apparell of the Benedictine monks was such as most men did
 weare generallie at their first institution. But to proceed. This abbeie
 stood in a valleie, and in those times the riuer ran hard by it. The
 compasse thereof likewise was as the circuit of a walled towne, and to
 this daie two of the gates may easilie be discerned, of which the one is
 named Port Hogan lieng by north, the other Port Clais situat vpon the
 south. But the Dée hauing now changed his chanell, runneth through the
 verie middest of the house betwixt those two gates, the one being at the
 left a full halfe mile from the other. As for the squared stone that is
 found hereabout, and the Romane coine, there is no such necessitie of
 the rehersall therof, but that I may passe it ouer well inough without
 anie further mention.

 Being past the Dée we sailed about Wirall, passing by Hibrie or Hilbrée
 Iland, and Leuerpole, Nasse, making our entrie into Merseie arme by
 Leuerpole hauen, where we find a water falling out betwéene Seacombe and
 the Ferie, which dooth in maner cut off the point from the maine of
 Wirall. For rising néere to the northwest shore, it holdeth a course
 directlie toward the southeast by Wallaseie and Poton, and so leaueth
 all the north part beyond that water a peninsula, the same being three
 square, inuironed on two sides with the Ocean, & on the third with the
 aforesaid brooke, whose course is well néere three miles except I be
 deceiued. Fr[=o] hence entring further into the hauen, we find another
 fall betwéene Bebington and Brombro chappell, descending from the
 hilles, which are seene to lie not farre from the shore, and thence
 crossing the fall of the Beston water, we come next of all vnto the
 [Sidenote: Wiuer.]
 Wiuer, than the which I read of no riuer in England that fetcheth more
 or halfe so many windlesses and crinklings, before it come at the sea.
 It riseth at Buckle hilles, which lie betwéene Ridleie and Buckle
 townes, and soone after making a lake of a mile & more in length called
 Ridleie poole, it runneth by Ridleie to Chalmondlie.

 Thence it goeth to Wrenburie, where it taketh in a water out of a moore
 [Sidenote: Combrus.]
 that commeth from Marburie: and beneth Sandford bridge the Combrus from
 Combermer or Comber lake: and finallie the third that commeth from about
 Moneton, and runneth by Langerslaw, then betweene Shenton and Atherlie
 parkes, and so into the Wiuer, which watereth all the west part of
 England, and is no lesse notable than the fift Auon or third Ouze,
 whereof I haue spoken alreadie. After these confluences it hasteth also
 [Sidenote: Betleie.]
 to Audlem, Hawklow, and at Barderton crosseth the Betleie water, that
 runneth by Duddington, Widdenberie, and so by Barderton into the
 aforesaid streame. Thence it goeth to Nantwich, but yer it come at
 [Sidenote: Salop.]
 Marchford bridge, it meeteth with a rill called Salopbrooke (as I gesse)
 comming from Caluerleie ward, and likewise beneath the said bridge, with
 [Sidenote: Lée and Wuluarne.]
 the Lée and the Wuluarne both in one chanell, wherof the first riseth at
 Weston, the ether goeth by Copnall. From hence the Wiuer runneth on to
 Minchion and Cardeswijc, and the next water that falleth into it is the
 [Sidenote: Ashe.]
 Ashe (which passeth by Darnall Grange) and afterward going to Warke, the
 vale Roiall, and Eaton, it commeth finallie to Northwich where it
 [Sidenote: Dane.]
 receiueth the Dane, to be described as followeth. The Dane riseth in the
 verie edges of Chester, Darbishire, & Staffordshire, and comming by
 Warneford, Swithamleie and Bosleie, is a limit betwéene Stafford and
 Darbie shires, almost euen from the verie head, which is in Maxwell

 [Sidenote: Bidle.]
 It is not long also yer it doo méet with the Bidle water, that commeth
 by Congerton, and after the confluence goeth vnto Swetham, the
 Heremitage, Cotton and Croxton, there taking in two great waters,
 [Sidenote: Whelocke.]
 whereof the one is called Whelocke, which comming from the edge of the
 countie by Morton to Sandbach, crosseth another that descended from
 church Cawlhton, and after the confluence goeth to Warmingham, ioining
 also beneath Midlewish with the Croco or Croxston, the second great
 water, whose head commeth out of a lake aboue Bruerton (as I heare) and
 [Sidenote: Croco.]
 thence both the Whelocke and the Croco go as one vnto the Dane, at
 Croxton, as the Dane dooth from thence to Bostocke, Dauenham, Shebruch,
 Shurlach, and at Northwich into the foresaid Wiuer. After this
 confluence the Wiuer runneth on to Barneton, and there in like sort
 receiueth two brookes in one chanell, whereof one commeth from aboue
 Allostocke, by Holme & Lastocke, the other from beyond Birtles mill, by
 [Sidenote: Piuereie.]
 Chelford (where it taketh in a rill called Piuereie) thence to ouer
 [Sidenote: Waterlesse.]
 Peuer, Holford, and there crossing the Waterlesse brooke (growing of two
 becks and ioining at nether Tableie) it goeth foorth to Winshambridge,
 and then méeting with the other, after this confluence they procéed till
 they come almost at Barneton, where the said chanell ioineth with a
 pretie water running thorough two lakes, whereof the greatest lieth
 betwéene Comberbach, Rudworth and Marburie. But to go forward with the
 course of the maine riuer. After these confluences our Wiuer goeth to
 Warham, Actonbridge, and Dutton, ouer against which towne, on the other
 side it méeteth with a rill, comming from Cuddington: also the second
 going by Norleie, and Gritton, finallie the third soone after from
 Kimsleie, and then procéedeth on in his passage by Asheton chappell,
 Frodesham, Rockesauage, and so into the sea: and this is all that I doo
 find of the Wiuer, whose influences might haue beene more largelie set
 downe, if mine iniunctions had béene amplie deliuered, yet this I hope
 may suffice for his description, and knowledge of his course.

 [Sidenote: Merseie.]
 The Merseie riseth among the Peke hils, and from thence going downe to
 the Woodhouse, and taking sundrie rilles withall by the waie, it
 becommeth the confines betwéene Chester and Darbishires. Going also
 toward Goitehall, it méeteth with a faire brooke increased by sundrie
 [Sidenote: Goite.]
 waters called Goite, whereof I find this short and briefe description.
 The Goite riseth not far from the Shire méere hill (wherein the Doue and
 the Dane haue their originall) that parteth Darbishire and Chestershire
 in sunder, and thence commeth downe to Goite houses, Ouerton, Taxhall,
 [Sidenote: Frith.]
 Shawcrosse, and at Weibridge taketh in the Frith, and beneath Berdhall,
 [Sidenote: Set.]
 the Set that riseth aboue Thersethall and runneth by Ouerset. After this
 confluence also the Merseie goeth to Goite hall, & at Stockford or
 [Sidenote: Tame.]
 Stopford towne méeteth with the Tame, which diuideth Chestershire and
 Lancastershire in sunder, and whose head is in the verie edge of
 Yorkeshire, from whence it goeth southward to Sadleworth Firth, then to
 Mukelhirst, Stalie hall, Ashdon Vnderline, Dunkenfield, Denton, Reddish,
 and so at Stockford into the Merseie streame, which passeth foorth in
 like sort to Diddesbirie, receiuing a brooke by the waie that commeth
 from Lime parke, by Brumhall parke and Chedle.

 [Sidenote: Irwell.]
 From Diddesbirie it procéedeth to Norden, Ashton, Aiston, Flixston,
 where it receiueth the Irwell a notable water, and therefore his
 description is not to be omitted before I doo go forward anie further
 with the Merseie, although it be not nauigable by reason of sundrie
 rockes and shalowes that lie dispersed in the same. It riseth aboue
 Bacop, and goeth thence to Rosendale, and in the waie to Aitenfield it
 taketh in a water from Haselden. After this confluence it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Ræus, or Rache.]
 Newhall, Brandlesham, Brurie, and aboue Ratcliffe ioineth with the Rache
 [Sidenote: Leland speaketh of the Corue water about
 Manchester; but I know nothing of his course.]
 water, a faire streame and to be described when I haue finished the
 Irwell, as also the next vnto it beneath Ratcliffe, bicause I would not
 haue so manie ends at once in hand wherewith to trouble my readers.
 Being therfore past these two, our Irwell goeth on to Clifton, Hollond,
 Edgecroft, Strengwaies, and to Manchester, where it vniteth it selfe
 [Sidenote: Yrke.]
 with the Yrke, that runneth thereinto by Roiton Midleton, Heaton hill,
 [Sidenote: Medlockte.]
 and Blackeleie. Beneath Manchester also it méeteth with the Medlocke
 that commeth thither from the northeast side of Oldham, and betwéene,
 Claiton and Garret Halles, and so betwéene two parkes, falling into it
 about Holne. Thence our Irwell going forward to Woodsall, Whicleswijc,
 Ecles, Barton, and Deuelhom, it falleth néere vnto Flixton, into the
 water of Merseie, where I will staie a while withall, till I haue
 brought the other vnto some passe, of which I spake before.

 [Sidenote: Rache.]
 The Rache, Rech or Rish consisteth of sundrie waters, whereof ech one in
 maner hath a proper name, but the greatest of all is Rache it selfe,
 which riseth among the blacke stonie hils, from whence it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Beile.]
 Littlebrough, and being past Clegge, receiueth the Beile, that commeth
 thither by Milneraw chappell. After this confluence also, it méeteth
 [Sidenote: Sprotton.]
 with a rill néere vnto Rachedale, and soone after with the Sprotton
 [Sidenote: Sudleie.]
 water, and then the Sudleie brooke, whereby his chanell is not a little
 increased, which goeth from thence to Grisehirst and so into the Irwell,
 [Sidenote: Bradsha.]
 before it come at Ratcliffe. The second streame is called Bradsha. It
 riseth of two heds, aboue Tureton church, whence it runneth to Bradsha,
 [Sidenote: Walmesleie.]
 and yer long taking in the Walmesleie becke, they go in one chanell till
 they come beneath Bolton in the More. From hence (receiuing a water that
 commeth from the roots of Rauenpike hill by the way) it goeth by Deane
 and Bolton in the More, and so into Bradsha water, which taketh his waie
 to Leuermore, Farnworth, Leuerlesse, and finallie into the Irwell, which
 I before described, and whereof I find these two verses to be added at
 the last:

   Irke, Irwell, Medlocke, and Tame,
   When they meet with the Merseie, do loose their name.

 Now therefore to resume our Merseie, you shall vnderstand that after his
 confluence with the Irwell, he runneth to Partington, and not farre from
 [Sidenote: Gles.]
 thence interteineth the Gles, or Glesbrooke water, increased with
 sundrie armes, wherof one commeth from Lodward, another from aboue
 Houghton, the third from Hulton parke, and the fourth from Shakerleie:
 and being all vnited néere vnto Leigh, the confluence goeth to Holcroft,
 and aboue Holling gréene into the swift Merseie. After this increase the
 said streame in like sort runneth to Rigston, & there admitteth the
 [Sidenote: Bollein brooke.]
 Bollein or Bolling brooke water into his societie, which rising néere
 the Chamber in Maxwell forrest goeth to Ridge, Sutton, Bollington,
 Prestbirie, and Newton, where it taketh in a water comming from about
 Pot Chappell, which runneth from thence by Adlington, Woodford,
 [Sidenote: Birkin.]
 Wimesleie, Ringeie, and Ashleie, there receiuing the Birkin brooke that
 commeth from betwéene Allerton and Marchall, by Mawberleie, and soone
 [Sidenote: Mar.]
 after the Marus or Mar, that commeth thereinto from Mar towne, by
 Rawstorne, and after these confluences goeth on to Downham, and ouer
 against Rixton beneath Crosford bridge into the Merseie water, which
 procéeding on, admitteth not another that méeteth with all néere Lim
 before it go to Thelwall. Thence also it goeth by Bruche and so to
 Warrington, a little beneath crossing a brooke that commeth from Par by
 Browseie, Bradleie, and Saukeie on the one side, and another on the
 other that commeth thither from Gropenhall, and with these it runneth on
 to nether Walton, Acton grange, and so to Penkith, where it interteineth
 [Sidenote: Bold.]
 [Sidenote: Grundich.]
 the Bold, and soone after the Grundich water on the other side, that
 passeth by Preston, and Daresbirie. Finallie our Merseie going by
 Moulton, it falleth into Lirepoole, or as it was called of old
 Liuerpoole hauen, when it is past Runcorne. And thus much of the
 Merseie, comparable vnto the Wiuer, and of no lesse fame than most
 riuers of this Iland.

 [Sidenote: Tarbocke.]
 Being past these two, we come next of all to the Tarbocke water, that
 falleth into the sea at Harbocke, without finding anie mo till we be
 past all Wirall, out of Lirepoole hauen, and from the blacke rockes that
 lie vpon the north point of the aforesaid Iland. Then come we to the
 [Sidenote: Alt or Ast.]
 Altmouth, whose fresh rising not far into the land, commeth to Feston,
 and soone after receiuing another on the right hand, that passeth into
 it by Aughton, it is increased no more before it come at the sea.
 Neither find I anie other falles till I méet with the mouth of the
 [Sidenote: Duglesse or Dulesse.]
 Yarrow and Duglesse, which haue their recourse to the sea in one chanell
 as I take it. The Duglesse commeth from by west of Rauenspike hill, and
 yer long runneth by Andertonford to Worthington, and so (taking in two
 or thrée rilles by the waie) to Wigen, where it receiueth two waters in
 one chanell, of which one commeth in south from Brin parke, the other
 from northeast. Being past this, it receiueth one on the north side from
 Standish, and another by south from Hollond, and then goeth on toward
 [sidenote: Taud or Skelmere.]
 Rufford chappell taking the Taud withall, that descendeth from aboue
 Skelmersdale towne, and goeth through Lathan parke, belonging (as I
 heare) vnto the earle of Derbie. It méeteth also on the same side,
 [Sidenote: Merton.]
 with Merton méere water, in which méere is one Iland called Netholme
 beside other, and when it is past the hanging bridge, it is not long yer
 it fall into the Yarrow.

 [Sidenote: Yarrow.]
 [Sidenote: Bagen.]
 The Yarrow riseth of two heads, whereof the second is called Bagen
 brooke, and making a confluence beneath Helbie wood, it goeth on to
 Burgh, Eglestan, Crofton, and then ioineth next of all with the
 Dugglesse, after which confluence, the maine streame goeth foorth to
 Bankehall, Charleton, How, Hesket, and so into the sea. Leland writing
 of the Yarrow, saith thus of the same, so fare as I now remember. Into
 the Dugglesse also runneth the Yarrow, which commeth within a mile or
 thereabout of Chorleton towne, that parteth Lelandshire from
 Derbieshire. Vnder the foot of Chorle also I find a rill named Ceorle,
 and about a mile and a halfe from thence a notable quarreie of stones,
 whereof the inhabitants doo make a great boast and price. And hitherto
 to Leland.

 [Sidenote: Ribble.]
 The Ribble, a riuer verie rich of salmon, and lampreie, dooth in manner
 inuiron Preston in Andernesse, and it riseth neere to Kibbesdale aboue
 Gisborne, from whence it goeth to Sawleie or Salleie, Chathburne,
 [Sidenote: Odder.]
 Woodington, Clithero castell, and beneath Mitton méeteth the Odder at
 north west, which riseth not farre from the crosse of Gréet in
 Yorkeshire, and going thence to Shilburne, Newton, Radholme parke, and
 Stonie hirst, it falleth yer long into the Ribble water. From hence the
 [Sidenote: Calder.]
 Ribble water hath not gone farre, but it méeteth with the Calder from
 southeast. This brooke riseth aboue Holme church in Yorkeshire, which
 lieth by east of Lancastershire, and going by Towleie and Burneleie,
 where it receiueth a trifling rill, thence to Higham, and yer long
 crossing one water that commeth from Wicoler by Colne, and another by
 [Sidenote: Pidle.]
 and by named Pidle brooke, that runneth by New church in the Pidle, it
 méeteth with the Calder, which passeth foorth to Paniam; and thence
 receiuing a becke on the other side, it runneth on to Altham, and so to
 [Sidenote: Henburne.]
 Martholme, where the Henburne brooke dooth ioine withall, that goeth by
 Akington chappell, Dunkinhalgh, Rishton, and so into the Calder, as I
 haue said before. The Calder therefore being thus inlarged, runneth
 foorth to Reade, where maister Nowell dwelleth, to Whallie, and soone
 after into Ribble, that goeth from this confluence to Salisburie hall,
 Ribchester, Osbastin, Samburie, Keuerden, Law, Ribbles bridge, & then
 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 taketh in the Darwent, before it goeth by Pontwarth or Pentwarth into
 the maine sea. The Darwent diuideth Lelandshire from Andernesse, and it
 riseth by east aboue Darwent chappell; and soone after vniting it selfe
 [Sidenote: Blackeburne.]
 [Sidenote: Rodlesworth.]
 with the Blackeburne, and Rodlesworth water, it goeth through Houghton
 parke, by Houghton towne, to Walton hall, and so into the Ribble. As for
 [Sidenote: Sannocke.]
 the Sannocke brooke, it riseth somewhat aboue Longridge chappell, goeth
 to Broughton towne, Cotham, Lée hall, and so into Ribble. And here is
 all that I haue to saie of this riuer.

 [Sidenote: Wire.]
 The Wire riseth eight or ten miles from Garstan, out of an hill in
 Wiresdale forrest, from whence it runneth by Shireshed chappell, and
 then going by Wadland, or Waddiler, Grenelaw castell (which belongeth to
 the erle of Darbie) Garstan, and Kirkland hall, it first receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Calder. 2.]
 second Calder, that commeth downe by Edmerseie chappell, then another
 chanell increased with sundrie waters, which I will here describe before
 I procéed anie further with the Wire. I suppose that the first water is
 [Sidenote: Plimpton.]
 called Plimpton brooke, it riseth south of Gosner, and commeth by
 [Sidenote: Barton.]
 Cawford hall, and yer long receiuing the Barton becke, it procéedeth
 [Sidenote: Brooke.]
 forward till it ioineth with the Brooke rill that commeth from Bowland
 forrest, by Claughton hall, where master Brookehales dooth lie, & so
 through Mersco forrest. After this confluence the Plime or Plimpton
 water méeteth with the Calder, and then with the Wire, which passeth
 [Sidenote: Skipton.]
 foorth to Michaell church, and the Raw cliffes, and aboue Thorneton
 crosseth the Skipton that goeth by Potton, then into the Wire rode, and
 finallie through the sands into the sea, according to his nature. When
 we were past the fall of the Wire, we coasted vp by the salt cotes, to
 [Sidenote: Coker.]
 Coker mouth, whose head, though it be in Weresdale forrest, not far from
 that of the Wire, yet the shortnesse of course deserueth no description.
 [Sidenote: Cowdar.]
 The next is Cowdar, which is comming out of Wire dale, as I take it, is
 not increased with anie other waters more than Coker, and therefore I
 will rid my hands thereof so much the sooner.

 [Sidenote: Lune.]
 Being past these two, I came to a notable riuer called the Lune or
 Loine, or (as the booke of statutes hath) Lonwire Anno 13 Ric. 2. cap.
 19, and giueth name to Lancaster, Lonecaster, or Lunecaster, where much
 Romane monie is found, and that of diuerse stamps, whose course dooth
 rest to be described as followeth; and whereof I haue two descriptions.
 The first being set downe by Leland, as master Moore of Catharine hall
 in Cambridge deliuered it vnto him. The next I exhibit as it was giuen
 vnto me, by one that hath taken paines (as he saith) to search out and
 view the same, but verie latelie to speake of. The Lune (saith master
 Moore) of some commonlie called the Loine, riseth at Crosseho, in Dent
 dale, in the edge of Richmondshire out of thrée heads. North also from
 Dent dale is Garsdale, an vplandish towne, wherein are séene manie times
 great store of red déere that come downe to feed from the mounteins into
 the vallies, and thereby runneth a water, which afterward commeth to
 Sebbar vale, where likewise is a brooke méeting with Garsdale water, so
 that a little lower they go as one into Dent dale becke, which is the
 riuer that afterward is called Lune, or Lane, as I haue verie often
 noted it. Beside these waters also before mentioned, it receiueth at the
 foot of Sebbar vale, a great brooke, which commeth out of the Worth,
 betwéene Westmerland and Richmondshire, which taking with him the
 aforesaid chanels, dooth run seauen miles yer it come to Dent dale foot.
 From hence it entreth into Lansdale, corruptlie so called, peraduenture
 for Lunesdale, & runneth therein eight or nine miles southward, and in
 this dale is Kirbie. Hitherto master Moore, as Leland hath exemplified
 that parcell of his letters. But mine other note writeth hereof in this
 [Sidenote: Burbecke.]
 manner. Burbecke water riseth at Wustall head, by west, and going by
 Wustall foot to Skaleg, it admitteth the Breder that descendeth thither
 [Sidenote: Breder.]
 from Breder dale. From hence our Burbecke goeth to Breder dale foot, &
 so to Tibarie, where it méeteth with foure rilles in one bottome, of
 which one commeth from besides Orton, another from betwéene Rasebecke
 and Sunbiggin, the third and fourth from each side of Langdale: and
 after the generall confluence made, goeth toward Roundswath, aboue which
 [Sidenote: Barrow.]
 it vniteth it selfe with the Barrow. Thence it runneth to Howgill,
 Delaker, Firrebanke, and Killington, beneath which it meeteth with a
 [Sidenote: Dent.]
 water comming from the Moruill hilles, and afterward crossing the Dent
 brooke, that runneth thither from Dent towne, beneath Sebbar, they
 continue their course as one into the Burbecke, from whence it is called
 Lune. From hence it goeth to Burbon chappell, where it taketh in another
 rill comming from by east, then to Kirbie, Lansbele, and aboue
 Whittenton crosseth a brooke comming from the countie stone by Burros,
 [Sidenote: Greteie.]
 and soone after beneath Tunstall and Greteie, which descending from
 about Ingelborow hill, passeth by Twiselton, Ingleton, Thorneton,
 Burton, Wratton, and néere Thurland castell, toucheth finallie with the
 Lune, which brancheth, and soone after vniteth it selfe againe. After
 [Sidenote: Wennie.]
 this also it goeth on toward New parke, and receiueth the Wennie, and
 [Sidenote: Hinburne.]
 the Hinburne both in one chanell, of which this riseth north of the
 crosse of Greteie, and going by Benthams and Roberts hill, aboue Wraie
 [Sidenote: Rheburne.]
 taketh in the Rheburne that riseth north of Wulfecrag. After this
 confluence also aboue New parke, it maketh his gate by Aughton,
 Laughton, Skirton, Lancaster, Excliffe, Awcliffe, Soddaie, Orton, and so
 into the sea. Thus haue you both the descriptions of Lune, make your
 conference or election at your pleasure, for I am sworne to neither of
 them both.

 [Sidenote: Docker.]
 The next fall is called Docker, and peraduenture the same that Leland
 [Sidenote: Kerie.]
 dooth call the Kerie, which is not farre from Wharton, where the rich
 Kitson was borne, it riseth north of Docker towne, and going by Barwijc
 hall, it is not increased before it come at the sea, where it falleth
 into the Lune water at Lunesands. Next of all we come to Bitham beck,
 which riseth not far from Bitham towne and parke, in the hilles, where
 about are great numbers of goates kept and mainteined, and by all
 likelihood resorteth in the end to Linsands.

 Being past this, we find a forked arme of the sea called Kensands: into
 the first of which diuerse waters doo run in one chanell, as it were
 from foure principall heads, one of them comming from Grarrig hall,
 another fr[=o] by west of Whinfield, & ioining with the first on the east
 [Sidenote: Sprota.]
 side of Skelmere parke. The third called Sprot or Sprota riseth at
 Sloddale, & commeth downe by west of Skelmer parke, so that these two
 brookes haue the aforesaid parke betwéene them, & fall into the fourth
 east of Barneside, not verie farre in sunder. The fourth or last called
 [Sidenote: Ken.]
 Ken, commeth from Kentmers side, out of Ken moore, in a poole of a mile
 compasse, verie well stored with fish, the head whereof, as of all the
 baronie of Kendall is in Westmerland, & going to Stauelope, it taketh in
 a rill from Chappleton Inges. Then leauing Colnehead parke by east, it
 passeth by Barneside, to Kendall, Helston, Sigath, Siggeswijc,
 Leuenbridge, Milnethorpe, and so into the sea. Certes this Ken is a
 pretie déepe riuer, and yet not safelie to be aduentured vpon, with
 boates and balingers, by reason of rolling stones, & other huge
 substances that oft annoie & trouble the middest of the chanell there.
 [Sidenote: Winstar.]
 The other péece of the forked arme, is called Winstar, the hed wherof is
 aboue Winstar chappell, & going downe almost by Carpmaunsell, &
 Netherslake, it is not long yer it fall into the sea, or sands, for all
 this coast, & a gulfe from the Ramside point to the Mealenasse, is so
 pestered with sands, that it is almost incredible to sée how they
 increase. Those also which inuiron the Kenmouth, are named Kensands: but
 such as receiue the descent from the Fosse, Winander, and Sparke, are
 called Leuesands, as I find by sufficient testimonie. The mouth or fall
 of the Dodon also is not farre from this impechment: wherefore it is to
 be thought, that these issues will yer long become verie noisome, if not
 [Sidenote: Winander.]
 choked vp altogither. The Winander water riseth about Cunbalrasestones,
 from whence it goeth to Cangridge, where it maketh a méere: then to
 Ambleside, and taking in yer it come there, two rilles on the left hand,
 and one on the right that commeth by Clapergate, it maketh (as I take
 it) the greatest méere, or fresh water in England; for I read it is ten
 miles in length. Finallie, comming to one small chanell aboue Newbridge,
 it reacheth not aboue six miles yer it fall into the sea. There is in
 [Sidenote: Fosse.]
 like sort a water, called the Fosse that riseth néere vnto Arneside, and
 Tillerthwates, and goeth foorth by Grisdale, Satrethwate, Rusland,
 Powbridge, Bowth, and so falleth with the Winander water into the maine
 sea. On the west side of the Fosse also commeth another through Furnesse
 felles, and from the hilles by north thereof, which yer long making the
 Thurstan lake not far from Hollinhow, and going by Bridge end, in a
 narrow channell, passeth foorth by Nibthwaits, Blareth, Cowlton, &
 [Sidenote: Sparke.]
 Sparke bridge, and so into the sea. Hauing passed the Leuen or
 Conisands, or Conistonesands, or Winander fall (for all is one) I come
 [Sidenote: Lew.]
 to the Lew, which riseth at Cewike chappell, and falleth into the sea
 [Sidenote: Rawther.]
 beside Plumpton. The Rawther descending out of low Furnesse, hath two
 heads, whereof one commeth from Penniton, the other by Vlmerstone
 abbeie, and ioining both in one chanell, they hasten into the sea,
 whither all waters direct their voiage. Then come we to another rill
 southwest of Aldingham, descending by Glaiston castell; and likewise the
 fourth that riseth néere Lindell, and running by Dawlton castell and
 Furnesse abbeie, not farre from the Barrow head, it falleth into the sea
 ouer against Waueie and Waueie chappell, except mine aduertisements
 misleade me.

 [Sidenote: Dodon.]
 The Dodon, which from the head is bound vnto Cumberland and Westmerland,
 commeth from the Shire stone hill bottome, and going by Blackehill,
 Southwake, S. Iohns, Vffaie parke, & Broughton, it falleth into the
 orltwater, betwéene Kirbie, and Mallum castell. And thus are we now come
 vnto the Rauenglasse point, and well entred into the Cumberland countie.

 Comming to Rauenglasse, I find hard by the towne a water comming from
 two heads, and both of them in lakes or pooles, whereof one issueth out
 [Sidenote: Denocke.]
 of Denocke or Deuenocke méere, and is called Denocke water, the other
 [Sidenote: Eske.]
 named Eske from Eske poole which runneth by Eskedale, Dalegarth, and
 soone after meeting with the Denocke, betwéene Mawburthwate and
 Rauenglasse, falleth into the sea. On the other side of Rauenglasse also
 [Sidenote: Mite.]
 commeth the Mite brooke, from Miterdale as I read. Then find we another
 which commeth from the hils, and at the first is forked, but soone after
 making a lake, they gather againe into a smaller chanell: finallie
 [Sidenote: Brenge.]
 meeting with the Brenge, they fall into the sea at Carleton southeast, as
 [Sidenote: Cander.]
 I wéene of Drig. The Cander, or (as Leland nameth it) the Calder,
 commeth out of Copeland forrest, by Cander, Sellefield, and so into the
 sea. Then come we to Euer water, descending out of a poole aboue
 Coswaldhow, and thence going by Euerdale, it crosseth a water from
 Arladon, and after procéedeth to Egremond, S. Iohns, and taking in
 another rill from Hide, it is not long yer it méeteth with the sea.

 The next fall is at Moresbie, whereof I haue no skill. From thence
 therefore we cast about by saint Bees to Derwentset hauen, whose water
 [Sidenote: Dargwent.]
 is truelie written Dargwent or Deruent. It riseth in the hils about
 Borrodale, from whence it goeth vnto the Grange, thence into a lake, in
 which are certeine Ilands, and so vnto Keswijc, where it falleth into
 [Sidenote: Burthméere.]
 the Bure, whereof the said lake is called Bursemere, or the Burthmere
 poole. In like sort the Bure or Burthmere water, rising among the hils
 goeth to Tegburthesworth, Forneside, S. Iohns, and Threlcote: and there
 [Sidenote: Grise.]
 méeting with a water from Grisdale, by Wakethwate, called Grise, it
 runneth to Burnesse, Keswijc, and there receiueth the Darwent. From
 Keswijc in like sort it goeth to Thorneswate (and there making a plash)
 to Armanswate, Isell, Huthwate and Cokermouth, and here it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Cokar.]
 Cokar, which rising among the hils commeth by Lowsewater, Brakenthwate,
 Lorton, and so to Cokarmouth towne, from whence it hasteth to Bridgeham,
 and receiuing a rill called the Wire, on the south side that runneth by
 Dein, it leaueth Samburne and Wirketon behind it, and entereth into the

 [Sidenote: Wire.]
 Leland saith that the Wire is a créeke where ships lie off at rode, and
 that Wirketon or Wirkington towne dooth take his name thereof. He addeth
 also that there is iron and coles, beside lead ore in Wiredale.
 Neuerthelesse the water of this riuer is for the most part sore
 troubled, as comming thorough a suddie or soddie more, so that little
 [Sidenote: Elmus.]
 good fish is said to liue therein. But to proceed. The Elme riseth in
 the mines aboue Amautrée, and from Amautre goeth to Yeresbie, Harbie,
 Brow, and there taking in a rill on the left hand comming by Torpennie,
 it goeth to Hatton castell, Alwarbie, Birthie, Dereham, and so into the
 sea. Thence we go about by the chappell at the point, and come to a baie
 serued with two fresh waters, whereof one rising westward goeth by
 Warton, Rabbie, Cotes, and so into the maine, taking in a rill withall
 [Sidenote: Croco.]
 from by south, called Croco, that commeth from Crockdale, by Bromefield.
 [Sidenote: Vamus.]
 The second is named Wampoole broocke, & this riseth of two heads,
 whereof one is about Cardew. Thence in like sort it goeth to Thuresbie,
 Croston, Owton, Gamlesbie, Wampall, the Larth, and betwéene Whiteridge
 and Kirbie into the saltwater. From hence we double the Bowlnesse, and
 come to an estuarie, whither thrée notable riuers doo resort, and this
 is named the Solueie mouth. But of all, the first excéedeth, which is
 called Eden, and whose description dooth follow here at hand.

 [Sidenote: Eden.]
 The Eden well fraught with samon, descendeth (as I heare) from the hils
 in Athelstane moore at the foot of Hussiat Moruell hil, where Swale also
 riseth, and southeast of Mallerstang forrest. From thence in like maner
 it goeth to Mallerstang towne, Pendragon castell, Wharton hall, Netbie,
 Hartleie castell, Kirkebie Stephan, and yer it come at great Musgrane,
 [Sidenote: Helbecke.]
 it receiueth thrée waters, whereof one is called Helbecke, bicause it
 commeth from the Derne and Elinge mounteins by a towne of the same
 [Sidenote: Bellow.]
 denomination. The other is named Bellow, and descendeth from the east
 mounteins by Sowarsbie, & these two on the northeast: the third falleth
 from Rauenstandale, by Newbiggin, Smardale, Soulbie, Blaterne, and so
 [Sidenote: Orne.]
 into Eden, that goeth from thence by Warcop; and taking in the Orne
 [Sidenote: Moreton.]
 about Burelles on the one side, and the Morton becke on the other, it
 [Sidenote: Dribecke.]
 hasteth to Applebie, thence to Cowlbie, where it crosseth the Dribecke,
 [Sidenote: Trowt becke.]
 [Sidenote: Liuenet.]
 thence to Bolton, and Kirbie, and there méeting with the Trowt becke,
 and beneath the same with the Liuenet (whereinto falleth an other water
 from Thurenlie méeting withall beneath Clebron) it runneth finallie into
 Eden. After the confluences also the Eden passeth to Temple, and soone
 [Sidenote: Milburne.]
 [Sidenote: Blincorne.]
 after meeting with the Milburne and Blincorne waters, in one chanell, it
 runneth to Winderwarth and Hornebie, where we will staie till I haue
 described the water that meeteth withall néere the aforesaid place
 [Sidenote: Vlse.]
 called the Vlse.

 This water commeth out of a lake, which is fed with six rils, whereof
 [Sidenote: Marke.]
 one is called the Marke, and néere the fall thereof into the plash is a
 [Sidenote: Harteshop.]
 towne of the same name; the second hight Harteshop, & runneth from
 [Sidenote: Paterdale.]
 Harteshop hall by Depedale; the third is Paterdale rill; the fourth
 [Sidenote: Roden.]
 [Sidenote: Glenkguin.]
 Glent Roden, the fift Glenkguin, but the sixt runneth into the said
 lake, south of Towthwate. Afterward when this lake commeth toward Pole
 towne, it runneth into a small chanell, & going by Barton, Dalumaine, it
 taketh in a rill by the waie from Daker castell. Thence it goeth to
 Stockebridge, Yoneworth, and soone after méeteth with a pretie brooke
 [Sidenote: Loder.]
 called Loder, comming from Thornethwate by Bauton, and héere a rill;
 then by Helton, and there another; thence to Askham, Clifton, and so
 ioining with the other called Vlse, they go to Brougham castell, Nine
 churches, Hornebie, and so into Eden, taking in a rill (as it goeth)
 that commeth downe from Pencath. Being past Hornebie, our Eden runneth
 to Langunbie, and soone after receiuing a rill that commeth from two
 heads, and ioining beneath Wingsell, it hasteth to Lasenbie, then to
 Kirke Oswald (on ech side whereof commeth in a rill from by east) thence
 to Nonneie, and there a rill, Anstable, Cotehill, Corbie castell,
 Wetherall, Newbie: where I will staie, till I haue described the Irding,
 and such waters as fall into the same before I go to Carleill.

 [Sidenote: Irding.]
 The Irding ariseth in a moore in the borders of Tindale, néere vnto
 [Sidenote: Terne.]
 Horsse head crag, where it is called Terne becke; vntill it come to
 Spicrag hill, that diuideth Northumberland and Gillesland in sunder,
 from whence it is named Irding. Being therfore come to Ouerhall, it
 [Sidenote: Pultrose.]
 receiueth the Pultrose becke, by east, and thence goeth on to
 Ouerdenton, Netherdenton, Leuercost, and Castelstead, where it taketh in
 [Sidenote: Cambocke.]
 the Cambocke, that runneth by Kirke Cambocke, Askerton castell, Walton,
 and so into Irding, which goeth from thence to Irdington, Newbie, & so
 into Eden. But a little before it come there, it crosseth with the
 [Sidenote: Gillie.]
 Gillie that commeth by Tankin, and soone after falleth into it. After
 these confluences, our Eden goeth to Linstocke castell, (and here it
 interteineth a brooke, comming from Cotehill ward by Aglionbie) and then
 vnto Carleill, which is now almost inuironed with foure waters.

 [Sidenote: Pedar aliàs Logus.]
 For beside the Eden it receiueth the Peder, which Leland calleth Logus
 from southeast. This Peder riseth in the hils southwest of Penruddocke,
 from whence it goeth to Penruddocke, then to Grastocke castell,
 Cateleie, and Kenderside hall, and then taking in a water from Vnthanke,
 it goeth to Cathwade, Pettrelwaie, Newbiggin, Carleton, and so into
 [Sidenote: Bruferth.]
 Eden, northeast of Carleill. But on the north side the Bruferth brooke
 dooth swiftlie make his entrance, running by Leuerdale, Scalbie castell,
 and Housedon; as I am informed. The third is named Candan (if not Deua
 after Leland) which rising about the Skidlow hils, runneth to Mosedale,
 Caldbecke, Warnell, Saberham, Rose castell, Dawston, Brounston,
 Harrington, and west of Carleill falleth into Eden, which going from
 thence by Grimsdale, Kirke Andros, Beaumont, falleth into the sea
 beneath the Rowcliffe castell. And thus much of the Eden, which Leland
 neuerthelesse describeth after another sort, whose words I will not let
 to set downe here in this place, as I find them in his commentaries.

 [Sidenote: Vlse after Leland.]
 The Eden, after it hath run a pretie space from his head, méeteth in
 time with the Vlse water, which is a great brooke in Westmerland, and
 [Sidenote: Loder.]
 rising aboue Maredale, a mile west of Loder, it commeth by the late
 dissolued house of Shappe priorie, thrée miles from Shappe, and by
 Brampton village into Loder or Lodon. Certes this streame within halfe a
 mile of the head, becommeth a great lake for two miles course, and
 afterward waxing narrow againe, it runneth foorth in a meane and
 [Sidenote: Aimote.]
 indifferent bottome. The said Eden in like sort receiueth the Aimote
 about thrée miles beneath Brougham castell, and into the same Aimote
 [Sidenote: Dacor.]
 falleth Dacor becke (alreadie touched) which riseth by northwest in
 Materdale hils, foure miles aboue Dacor castell, and then going through
 Dacor parke, it runneth by east a good mile lower into Eimote, a little
 beneath Delamaine, which standeth on the left side of Dacor. In one of
 his bookes also he saith, how Carleill standeth betwéene two streames,
 [Sidenote: Deua.]
 that is to saie the Deua, which commeth thither from by southwest, and
 also the Logus that descendeth from the southeast. He addeth moreouer
 [Sidenote: Vala.]
 how the Deua in times past was named Vala or Bala, and that of the names
 of these two, Lugibala for Caerleill hath beene deriued, &c. And thus
 much out of Leland. But where he had the cause of this his coniecture as
 yet I haue not read. Of this am I certeine, that I vse the names of most
 riuers here and else-where described, accordinglie as they are called in
 my time, although I omit not to speake here and there of such as are
 more ancient, where iust occasion mooueth me to remember them, for the
 better vnderstanding of our histories, as they doo come to hand.

 [Sidenote: Leuen.]
 Blacke Leuen and white Leuen waters, fall into the sea in one chanell,
 [Sidenote: Lamford.]
 [Sidenote: Eske.]
 and with them the Lamford and the Eske, the last confluence being not a
 full mile from the maine sea. The white and blacke Leuen ioining
 [Sidenote: Tomunt.]
 therfore aboue Bucknesse, the confluence goeth to Bracken hill,
 Kirkleuenton, and at Tomunt water meeteth with the Eske. In like sort
 [Sidenote: Kirsop.]
 [Sidenote: Lidde.]
 the Kirsop ioining with the Lidde out of Scotland at Kirsop foot,
 running by Stangerdike side, Harlow, Hathwater, and taking in the Eske
 aboue the Mote, it looseth the former name, and is called Eske, vntill
 it come to the sea.

 Hauing thus gone thorough the riuers of England, now it resteth that we
 procéed with those which are to be found vpon the Scotish shore, in such
 order as we best may, vntill we haue fetched a compasse about the same,
 and come vnto Barwike, whence afterward it shall be easie for vs to make
 repaire vnto the Thames, from which we did set forward in the
 beginning of our voiage. The first riuer that I met withall on the
 [Sidenote: Eske.]
 Scotish coast, is the Eske, after I came past the Solueie, which hath
 his head in the Cheuiot hilles, runneth by Kirkinton, and falleth into
 the sea at Borow on the sands. This Eske hauing receiued the Ewis
 falleth into the Solueie first at Atterith. After this I passed ouer a
 little créeke from Kirthell, and so to Anand, whereof the vallie
 Anandale dooth séeme to take the name. There is also the Nide, whereof
 commeth Nidsdale, the Ken, the Dée, the Crale, and the Bladnecke, and
 all these (besides diuerse other small rilles of lesse name) doo lie
 vpon the south of Gallowaie.

 On the north side also we haue the Ruan, the Arde, the Cassile Dune, the
 Burwin, the Cluide (wherevpon sometime stood the famous citie of
 Alcluide, and whereinto runneth the Carath) the Hamell, the Dourglesse,
 and the Lame. From hence in like maner we came vnto the Leuind mouth,
 wherevnto the Blake on the southwest and the Lomund Lake, with his
 fléeting Iles and fish without finnes (yet verie holesome) dooth séeme
 to make his issue. This lake of Lomund in calme weather ariseth
 sometimes so high, and swelleth with such terrible billowes, that it
 causeth the best marriners of Scotland to abide the leisure of this
 water, before they dare aduenture to hoise vp sailes on hie. The like is
 seene in windie weather, but much more perillous. There are certeine
 Iles also in the same, which mooue and remooue, oftentimes by force of
 the water, but one of them especiallie, which otherwise is verie
 fruitfull for pasturage of cattell.

 [Sidenote: Leue. Long.]
 [Sidenote: Goile. Heke.]
 [Sidenote: Robinseie.]
 [Sidenote: Forelan. Tarbat.]
 [Sidenote: Lean.]
 [Sidenote: Abir. Arke.]
 [Sidenote: Zefe. Sell.]
 [Sidenote: Zord. Owin.]
 [Sidenote: Nowisse. Orne.]
 [Sidenote: Lang. Drun.]
 [Sidenote: Hew. Brun.]
 [Sidenote: Kile. Dowr.]
 [Sidenote: Faro. Nesse.]
 Next vnto this is the Leue, the Rage, the Long, the Goile, & the Heke,
 which for the excéeding greatnesse of their heads, are called lakes.
 Then haue we the Robinseie, the Foreland, the Tarbat, the Lean, and the
 Abir, wherevnto the Spanseie, the Loine, the Louth, the Arke, and the
 Zefe doo fall, there is also the Sell, the Zord, the Owin, the Newisse,
 the Orne, the Lang, the Drun, the Hew, the Brun, the Kell, the Dowr, the
 Faro, the Nesse, the Herre, the Con, the Glasse, the Maur, the Vrdall,
 the Fers (that commeth out of the Caldell) the Fairsoke, which two latter
 lie a little by west of the Orchades, and are properlie called riuers,
 bicause they issue onelie from springs; but most of the other lakes,
 bicause they come from linnes and huge pooles, or such low bottomes,
 [Sidenote: Herre. Con.]
 [Sidenote: Glasse. Maur.]
 [Sidenote: Vrdall. Fesse.]
 [Sidenote: Calder. Wifle.]
 [Sidenote: Browre. Clin.]
 [Sidenote: Twin. Shin.]
 [Sidenote: Sillan. Carew.]
 [Sidenote: Nesse. Narding.]
 [Sidenote: Spaie. Downe.]
 [Sidenote: Dée. Eske.]
 fed with springs, as séeme to haue no accesse, but onelie recesse of
 waters, whereof there be manie in Scotland.

 But to proceed. Hauing once past Dungisbie head in Cathnesse, we shall
 yer long come to the mouth of the Wifle, a prettie streame, comming by
 south of the mounteins called the Maidens pappes. Then to the Browre,
 the Clin, the Twin (whereinto runneth three riuers, the Shin, the
 Sillan, and Carew) the Nesse, which beside the plentie of samon found
 therein is neuer frosen, nor suffereth yee to remaine there, that is
 cast into the poole. From thence we come vnto the Narding, the Finderne,
 the Spaie (which receiues the Vine) the Fitch, the Bulich, the Arrian,
 the Leuin, and the Bogh, from whence we saile vntill we come about the
 Buquhan head, and so to the Downe, and Dee: which two streames bring
 forth the greatest samons that are to be had in Scotland, and most
 plentie of the same. Then to the north Eske, whereinto the Esmond
 runneth aboue Brechin, the south Eske, then the Louen and the Taw, which
 is the finest riuer for water that is in all Scotland, and wherevnto
 most riuers and lakes doo run. As Farlake, Yrth, Goure, Loich, Cannach,
 Linell, Loion, Irewer, Erne, and diuerse other besides small rillets
 which I did neuer looke vpon.

 Then is there the lake Londors, vpon whose mouth saint Andrewes dooth
 stand, the lake Lewin vnto whose streame two other lakes haue recourse
 in Fifland, and then the Firth or Fortha, which some doo call the
 Pictish and Scotish sea, whither the kingdome of the Northumbers was
 sometime extended, and with the riuer last mentioned (I meane that
 commeth from Londors) includeth all Fife, the said Fortha being full of
 oisters and all kinds of huge fish that vse to lie in the déepe. How
 manie waters run into the Firth, called by Ptolomie Lora, it is not in
 my power iustlie to declare: yet are there both riuers, rills, & lakes
 [Sidenote: Clacke. Alon.]
 [Sidenote: Dune. Kerie.]
 [Sidenote: Cambell.]
 [Sidenote: Cumer. Tere.]
 [Sidenote: Man.]
 [Sidenote: Torkesan.]
 [Sidenote: Rosham.]
 [Sidenote: Mushell. Blene.]
 [Sidenote: Twede.]
 that fall into the same, as Clacke, Alon, Dune, Kerie, Cambell, Cumer,
 Tere, Man, Torkeson, Rosham, Mushell, Blene, and diuerse other which I
 call by these names, partlie after information, and partlie of such
 townes as are neere vnto their heads. Finallie, when we are past the
 Haie, then are we come vnto the Twede, whereinto we entred, leauing
 Barwike on the right hand and his appurtenances, wherein Halidon hill
 standeth, and conteineth a triangle of so much ground beyond the said
 riuer, as is well néere foure miles in length, and thrée miles in bredth
 in the broad end: except mine information doo faile me.

 The Twede (which Ptolomie nameth Toualsis or Toesis, & betwéene which
 and the Tine the countie of Northumberland is in maner inclosed, and
 watred with sundrie noble riuers) is a noble streame and the limes or
 bound betwéene England & Scotland, wherby those two kingdomes are now
 diuided in sunder. It riseth about Drimlar in Eusbale (or rather out of
 a faire well (as Leland saith) standing in the mosse of an hill called
 Airstane, or Harestan in Twede dale ten miles from Pibble) and so
 comming by Pibble, Lander, Dribiwgh, Lelse, Warke, Norham and
 Hagarstone, it falleth into the sea beneath Barwike, as I heare. Thus
 saith Leland. But I not contented with this so short a discourse of so
 long a riuer & briefe description of so faire a streame, will ad
 somewhat more of the same concerning his race on the English side, and
 rehearsall of such riuers as fall into it. Comming therefore to Ridam,
 it receiueth betwéene that and Carham a becke, which descendeth from the
 hilles that lie by west of Windram. Going also from Ridam by
 Longbridgham (on the Scotish side) and to Carham, it hasteth immediatlie
 to Warke castell on the English, and by Spilaw on the other side, then
 to Cornewall, Cald streame, and Tilmouth, where it receiueth sundrie
 waters in one botome which is called the Till, and whose description
 insueth here at hand.

 [Sidenote: Till.]
 Certes there is no head of anie riuer that is named Till, but the issue
 of the furthest water that commeth hereinto, riseth not farre from the
 head of Vswaie in the Cheuiot hilles, where it is called Brennich,
 whereof the kingdome of Brennicia did sometime take the name. From
 thence it goeth to Hartside, Ingram, Branton, Crawleie, Hedgeleie,
 Beueleie, and Bewijc, beneath which it receiueth one water comming from
 Rodham by west, and soone after a second descending from the Middletons,
 [Sidenote: Bromis.]
 and so they go as one with the Bromish, by Chatton to Fowbreie (where
 they crosse the third water falling downe by north from Howborne by
 Heselbridge) thence to Woller, there also taking in a rill that riseth
 about Middleton hall, and runneth by Hardleie, Whereleie, and the rest
 afore remembred, wherby the water of Bromis is not a little increased,
 and after this latter confluence beneath Woller, no more called Bromis
 but the Till, vntill it come at the Twede. The Till passing therefore by
 Weteland and Dedington, méeteth soone after with a faire streame comming
 [Sidenote: Bowbent.]
 from by southwest, which most men call the Bowbent or Bobent.

 It riseth on the west side of the Cocklaw hill, and from thence hasteth
 to Hattons, beneath the which it ioineth from by southeast with the
 Hellerborne, and then goeth to Pudston, Downeham, Kilham, and a little
 by north of Newton Kirke, and betweene it and west Newton, it taketh in
 another water called Glin, comming from the Cheuiot hilles by Heth
 poole, and from thenseforth runneth on without anie further increase, by
 Copland Euart, and so in the Till. The Till for his part in like sort
 after this confluence goeth to Broneridge, Fodcastell, Eatall castell,
 Heaton, & north of Tilmouth into the Twede, or by west of Wesell, except
 my memorie dooth faile me. After this also our aforesaid water of Twede
 descendeth to Grotehugh, the Newbiggins, Norham castell, Foord,
 [Sidenote: Whitaker.]
 Lungridge, & crossing the Whitaker on the other side from Scotland
 beneath Cawmill, it runneth to Ordo, to Barwike, and so into the Ocean,
 leauing (as I said) so much English ground on the northwest ripe, as
 lieth in manner of a triangle betwéene Cawmils, Barwike, and Lammeton,
 which (as one noteth) is no more but two miles and an halfe euerie waie,
 or not much more; except he be deceiued.

 Being past this noble streame, we came by a rill that descendeth from
 Bowsden by Barington. Then by the second which ariseth betwéene
 Middleton and Detcham or Dereham, and runneth by Eskill and the Rosse,
 next of all to Warnemouth, of whose backe water I read as followeth. The
 [Sidenote: Warne.]
 Warne or Gwerne riseth southwest of Crokelaw, and going by Warneford,
 Bradford, Spindlestone, and Budill, it leaueth Newton on the right hand,
 and so falleth into the Ocean, after it hath run almost nine miles from
 the head within the land, and receiued a rill beneath Yessington, which
 commeth downe betweene Newland and Olchester, and hath a bridge beneath
 the confluence, which leadeth ouer the same. From Warnemouth we sailed
 by Bamborow castell, and came at last to a fall betweene Bedwell and
 Newton. The maine water that serueth this issue, riseth aboue Carleton
 from the foot of an hill, which séemeth to part the head of this and
 that of Warne in sunder. It runneth also by Carleton, Tonleie, Doxford,
 Brunton, and Tuggell, and finallie into the sea, as to his course

 [Sidenote: Aile, or Alne,
 aliàs Chalne.]
 From this water we went by Dunstanbugh castell, vnto the Chalne or
 Alnemouth, which is serued with a pretie riueret called Alne, the head
 whereof riseth in the hils west of Alnham towne, and called by Ptolomie,
 Celnius. From thense also it runneth by Rile, Kile, Eslington, and
 Whittingham, where it crosseth a rill comming from by south, and beneath
 the same, the second that descendeth from Eirchild at Brone, & likewise
 the third that riseth at Newton, and runneth by Edlingham castell and
 Lemmaton (all on the southeast side or right hand) and so passeth on
 further, till it meet with the fourth, comming from aboue Shipleie from
 by north, after which confluence it goeth to Alnewijc, & then to
 Dennijc, receiuing there a rillet from by south and a rill from by
 north, and thence going on to Bilton, betweene Ailmouth towne and
 Wooddon, it sweepeth into the Ocean.

 [Sidenote: Cocket.]
 The Cocket is a goodlie riuer, the head also thereof is in the roots of
 Kemblespeth hils, from whence it goeth to Whiteside, and there meeting
 [Sidenote: Vswaie.]
 with the Vswaie (which descendeth from the north) it goeth a little
 [Sidenote: Ridleie.]
 further to Linbridge, and there receiueth the Ridleie by southwest, and
 after that with another, called (as I thinke) the Hoc, which commeth
 from the Woodland and hillie soile by Allington, & falleth into the
 same, west of Parke head. It ioineth also yer long with the Ridland,
 which commeth in north by Bilstone, and then hieth to Sharpton, to
 [Sidenote: Yardop.]
 Harbotle, where it crosseth the Yardop water by south, then to
 Woodhouse, and swallowing in a little becke by the waie from southwest,
 to Bickerton, to Tossons, Newton, and running apace toward Whitton
 towre, it taketh a brooke withall that commeth in northwest of Alnham,
 néere Elihaw, and goeth by Skarnewood, ouer nether Trewhet, Snitter, and
 Throxton, and soone after vniteth it selfe with the Cocket, from whence
 [Sidenote: It may be Leland mistaketh
 Tickington water for one of these.]
 they go together to Rethburie, or Whitton towre, to Halie, to
 Brinkehorne, Welden, taking withall soone after the Tod or burne called
 Tod, which falleth in from by south, then to Elihaw, Felton (receiuing
 thereabout the Fareslie brooke, that goeth by Wintring by south east,
 and Sheldike water, that goeth by Hason, to Brainsaugh by north) and
 from thence to Morricke, Warkworth castell, and so into the sea.

 There is furthermore a little fall, betwéene Hawkeslaw and Drurith,
 which riseth about Stokes wood, goeth by east Cheuington, and
 [Sidenote: Lune.]
 Whittington castell, and afterward into the Ocean. The Lune is a pretie
 brooke rising west of Espleie, from whence it goeth to Tritlington,
 [Sidenote: Wansbecke.]
 Vgham, Linton, and yer long in the sea. Wansbecke (in old time Diua) is
 far greater than the Lune. It issueth vp west and by north of west
 Whelpington, thence it runneth to Kirke Whelpington, Wallington,
 Middleton, and Angerton. Heere it méeteth with a water running from
 about Farnelaw by the grange, and Hartburne on the north, and then going
 from Angerton, it runneth by Moseden to Mitforth, and there in like
 [Sidenote: Font.]
 maner crosseth the Font, which issuing out of the ground about
 Newbiggin, goeth by Nonneie Kirke, Witton castell, Stanton, Nunriding,
 Newton, and so into the Wansbecke, which runneth in like maner from
 Mitford to Morpheth castell (within two miles whereof it ebbeth and
 floweth) the new Chappell, Bottle castell, Shepwash, and so into the
 sea, thrée miles from the next hauen which is called Blithe.

 [Sidenote: Blithe.]
 Blithe water riseth about kirke Heaton, and goeth by Belfe, Ogle, and
 (receiuing the Port aliàs the Brocket, that springeth east of S.
 Oswolds) passeth by Portgate, Whittington, Fennike hall, Madfennes,
 Hawkewell, the Grange, & Dissingtons. After it hath taken in the Pont
 [Sidenote: Hartleie.]
 from the east (whose head is not farre from that of Hartleie streame)
 and is past Barwijc on the hill, it runneth by Harford, Bedlington,
 Cowpon, and at Blithes nuke, into the deepe Ocean. Hartleie streamelet
 riseth in Wéeteslade parioch, goeth by Haliwell, and at Hartleie towne
 yeeldeth to the sea.

 The Tine or Tinna, a riuer notablie stored with samon, and other good
 fish, and in old time called Alan, riseth of two heads, whereof that
 [Sidenote: North Tine.]
 called north Tine, is the first that followeth to be described. It
 springeth vp aboue Belkirke in the hils, & thence goeth to Butterhawgh
 [Sidenote: Shele.]
 (where it receiueth a confluence of Kirsop and the Shele) thence to
 Cragsheles, Leapelish (receiuing on the south a rill out of Tindale)
 then to Shilburne, against which it taketh in a becke that commeth out
 of Tindale called Shill, also two other on the same side, betweene Yarro
 and Fawston hall, and the third at Thorneburne, and so goeth on to
 Grenested, and there carrieth withall a fall, from by north also made by
 the confluence of one rill comming by Thecam, and another that passeth
 by Holinhead, and likewise another on the south comming from Tindale, by
 Chuden, Dalacastell, and Brokes: after which our north Tine goeth by
 Hellaside, to Billingham, and at Rhedes mouth méeteth with the Ridde, a
 verie prettie water, whose description is giuen me after this maner.

 [Sidenote: Ridde.]
 The Ridde therefore riseth within thrée miles of the Scotish march, as
 Leland saith, & commeth through Riddesdale, wherevnto it giueth the
 name. Another writeth how it riseth in the roots of the Carter, and
 Redsquibe hilles, and yer it hath gone farre from the head, beside a few
 [Sidenote: Shelhop.]
 little rilles it taketh in the Spelhop or Petop from the north and the
 [Sidenote: Cheslop.]
 Cheslop on the south, beside sundrie other wild rils nameless and
 obscure, as one on the north side next vnto the Petop or Spelhop;
 another by south out of Riddesdale, the third west of Burdop, the fourth
 runneth by Wullaw to Rochester, then two from southwest, another from by
 north which goeth by Durtburne, and is called Durt or Durth, then the
 Smalburne from the west. Next to the same is the Otter or Otterburne on
 the north side also the Ouereie, and finallie the last which descendeth
 from Ellesdon hilles, by Munkrige and ioineth with our Ridde, northwest
 of Nudhowgh, after which the said Ridde goeth by Woodburne, Risingham,
 Leame, and so into the Tine, a mile lower than Belingham or Bilingham,
 which standeth somewhat aloofe from north Tine and is (as I take it) ten
 miles at the least aboue the towne of Hexham. After this confluence it
 [Sidenote: 3. Burnes.]
 [Sidenote: Shitlington.]
 passeth to Léehall, to Carehouse (crossing Shitlington becke by west
 which also receiueth the Yare on the south side of Shitlington) another
 also beneath this on the same side, made by the confluence of
 Workesburne, and Middleburne, at Roseburne, beside the third called
 Morleis or Morelée aboue, and Simons burne beneath Shepechase, and
 likewise the Swine from by north that runneth by Swinburne castell, next
 of all the Riall from the northeast, which commeth by Erington, & so
 holding his course directlie southwards, it goeth by S. Oswolds through
 the Pictishwall, to Wall, and so into south Tine, beneath Accam, and
 northwest (as I doo wéene) of Hexham.

 [Sidenote: Tine. S.]
 The south Tine ariseth in the Cheuiot hils, and yer it hath gone farre
 [Sidenote: Esgill.]
 from the head, it méeteth with Esgill on the east, and another rill on
 the west, and so going by the houses toward Awsten moore, it ioineth
 [Sidenote: Vent.]
 with Schud from by west, and soone after with the Vent from by east
 aboue Lowbier. From Lowbier it goeth to Whitehalton, to Kirke Haugh
 [Sidenote: Gilders beck.]
 (crossing the Gilders becke on the one side, and the Alne on the other)
 to Thornehope, where it is inlarged with a water on each side, to
 [Sidenote: Knare.]
 Williamstone, and almost at Knaresdale, taketh in the Knare, and then
 runneth withall to Fetherstone angle. At Fetherstone angle likewise it
 méeteth with Hartleie water, by southwest comming from Sibins or
 Sibbenes, another a little beneath from southeast, and thence when it
 commeth to Billester castell, it carieth another withall from by west,
 Thirlewall called Rippall which riseth in the forrest of Lowes, and
 goeth by the Waltowne, Blinkinsop, & Widon, and after which confluence
 it taketh in another from by north rising west of Swinsheld, which goeth
 by Grenelegh to Haltwestell: thence going by Vnthanke, it crosseth
 another rill from by south, descending from the hilles that lie north of
 Todlewood, and then proceeding vnto Wilmotteswijc, it admitteth the
 Wilmots becke from the south, and another running by Bradleie hall on
 the north side of Beltingham; after which it méeteth with the Alen a
 proper water, and described after this maner.

 [Sidenote: East Alen.]
 The Alen or Alon hath two heads, whereof one is called east Alen, the
 other west Alen. The first of them riseth southeast of Sibton Sheles, &
 going by Sundorp, it taketh in a rill withall from by est; after which
 confluence it runneth to Newshele, Allington, Caddon, Old towne, & in
 [Sidenote: West Alen.]
 the course to Stauertpele, méeteth with the west Alen. The west Alen
 riseth in Killop low hilles aboue Wheteleie sheles, from whence it goeth
 to Spartwell, Hawcopole, Owston, and taking in a rill thereabouts, it
 procéedeth on to Permandbie, and crossing there another rill in like
 maner from by west, it goeth by Whitefield, and ioining soone after with
 the est Alen, they run as one to Stauert poole, Plankford, and so into
 the Tine betweene Beltingham and Lées, from whence the Tine runneth on
 by Lees Haddon, Woodhall, Owmers, Whernebie, Costleie, & so by Warden,
 till it crosse the north Tine, and come to Hexham, from whence it goeth
 to Dilstan, crossing two waters by the waie, whereof one commeth from by
 south, and is called the Wolsh, which holdeth his course by Stelehall,
 and Newbiggin receiueth another comming from Grimbridge: the other
 called Dill somewhat lower descending from Hedleie, and running by
 Rising, till it fall into the south side of our streame from Dilstan, it
 goeth to Bywell castell, ouer against which it receiueth a rill that
 runneth by Hindleie, thence it hasteth to Eltingham, Pruddo, Willam,
 (and there it meeteth with another becke) then to Reton, Blaidon, and
 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 next of all ioineth with the Darwent, from by south.

 This riuer riseth aboue Knewdon, and Rudlamhope in Northumberland, from
 two heads: the northerlie being called Dere, and the southerlie the
 Guent: and ioining so well yer long in chanell as in name, they runne on
 to Humsterworth, new Biggin, Blankeland, Acton, Aspersheles,
 Blackheadlie, Brentfield side, Pansheles, Ebchester, and there taking in
 a water from Hedleie in Northumberland, néere to Blacke hall in the
 bishoprike, it goeth on to Spen, Hollinside, Wickham, Swalwell, and so
 into Tine, which passeth from thence by Elswijc, and méeting with
 another water comming from Shildraw, by Rauensworth castell to Redhugh,
 it goeth on to Newcastell, Fellin, Netherheworth, Walker, Waswon,
 Hedburne, and next to Jerro or Girwie, where Beda dwelled in an abbeie;
 now a gentlemans place (although the church be made a parish church,
 wherevnto diuerse townes resort, as moonke Eaton where Beda was borne,
 which is a mile from thence, Southsheles, Harton, Westhow, Hebburne,
 Hedworth, Wardleie, Fellin, Follinsbie, the Heworthes) and from thence
 to the south and Northsheles, and so into the sea, fiue miles by
 northwest of Weremouth, and (as I gesse) somewhat more.

 Beneath the confluence in like sort of both the Tines, standeth
 Corbridge, a towne sometime inhabited by the Romans, and about twelue
 miles from Newcastell, and hereby dooth the Corue run, that meeteth yer
 long with the Tine. Not farre off also is a place called Colchester,
 wherby Leland gesseth that the name of the brooke should rather be Cole
 [Sidenote: Corue.]
 than Corue, and in my iudgement his coniecture is verie likelie; for in
 the life of S. Oswijn (otherwise a féeble authoritie) the word Colbridge
 is alwaies vsed for Corbridge, whereof I thought good to leaue this
 short aduertisement. In this countrie also are the thrée vales or dales,
 whereof men haue doubted whether théeues or true men doo most abound in
 them, that is to saie, Riddesdale, Tuidale, and Liddesdale: this last
 being for the most part Scotish, and without the marches of England.
 Neuerthelesse, sithens that by the diligence cheefelie of maister
 Gilpin, and finallie of other learned preachers, the grace of God
 working with them, they haue béene called to some obedience and zeale
 vnto the word, it is found that they haue so well profited by the same,
 that at this present their former sauage demeanour is verie much abated,
 and their barbarous wildnesse and fiercenesse so qualified, that there
 is great hope left of their reduction vnto ciuilitie, and better order
 of behauiour than hitherto they haue béene acquainted withall. But to
 procéed with the rest.

 [Sidenote: Were.]
 Ptolomie, writing of the Were, calleth it Vedra, a riuer well knowne
 vnto Beda the famous préest, who was brought vp in a monasterie that
 stood vpon the bankes thereof. It riseth of thrée heads in Kelloppeslaw
 [Sidenote: Burdop.]
 hill, whereof the most southerlie is called Burdop, the middlemost
 [Sidenote: Wallop.]
 [Sidenote: Kellop.]
 Wallop, and the northerliest Kellop, which vniting themselues about S.
 Iohns chappell, or a little by west thereof, their confluence runneth
 through Stanhope parke, by east Yare, and so to Frosterleie. But yer it
 come there, it receiueth thrée rilles from the north in Weredale,
 whereof one commeth in by Stanhope, another west of Woodcroft hall, and
 the third at Frosterleie afore mentioned. And a little beneath these, I
 find yet a fourth on the south side, which descendeth from southwest by
 Bolliop, Bishopsleie, Milhouses, and Landew, as I haue béene informed.
 Being therefore vnited all with the Were, this streame goeth on to
 [Sidenote: Wascrop.]
 Walsingham, there taking in the Wascropburne, beside another at
 Bradleie, the third at Harpleie hall (and these on the north side) and
 [Sidenote: Bedburne.]
 the fourth betwéene Witton and Witton castell called Bedburne, comming
 by Hamsterleie, whereby this riuer dooth now wax verie great. Going
 therefore from hence, it hasteth to Bishops Akeland, and beneath it
 receiueth the Garondlesse, which (as Leland saith) riseth six miles by
 west of Akeland castell, and running south thereof, passeth by west
 Akeland, S. Helens Akeland, S. Andrewes Akeland, and bishops Akeland,
 and then into the Were which goeth to Newfield, and Willington. Neere
 vnto this place also and somewhat beneath Sunderland, the Were, crosseth
 one brooke from southest by Het, Croxseie, Cronefurth, Tursdale, and
 Cordale, and two other from by northwest in one botome, whereof the
 first commeth from aboue Ash by Langleie: the other called Coue, from
 aboue Kinchleie by Newbiggin, Lanchester, north Langlie, and through
 Beare parke, & so méeting beneath Kelleie or Hedleie with the other,
 they fall both as one into the Were, betweene south Sunderland and
 Burnall. From hence our riuer goeth on to Howghwell, Shirkeleie, old
 [Sidenote: Pidding brooke.]
 Duresme (and there taking in the Pidding brooke by northeast) it goeth
 to Duresme, Finkeleie, Harbarhouse, Lumleie castell (where it méeteth
 [Sidenote: Pilis.]
 with the Pilis, whose heads are vnited betweene Pelton and Whitwell (and
 after called Hedleie) and from thence to Lampton, Harroton, the Bedikes,
 Vfferton, Hilton parke, Bishops Weremouth, and so into the sea, betweene
 north Sunderland and north Weremouth towne, which now is called moonke
 Weremouth of the monasterie sometime standing there, wherin Beda read &
 wrote manie of his bookes, as to the world appeareth. This mouth of Were
 is eight miles from Durham, and six from Newcastell. Being thus passed
 the Were, & entered into the Bishoprijc, yer we come at the mouth of the
 These, almost by two miles, ouer passing a rill that runneth by castell
 Eden, and Hardwijc, and likewise Hartlepoole towne, which lieth ouer
 into the sea in maner of a byland or peninsula, we meet with a prettie
 fall, which groweth by a riuer that is increased with two waters,
 whereof one riseth by northwest about Moretons, and goeth by Stotfeld
 and Claxton, the other at Dawlton, going by Breerton, Owtham, and
 Grettam, finallie ioining within two miles of the sea, they make a
 prettie portlet: but I know not of what securitie.

 [Sidenote: Thesis.]
 The These, a riuer that beareth and féedeth an excellent samon, riseth
 in the Blacke lowes, aboue two miles flat west of the southerlie head of
 Were called Burdop, and south of the head of west Alen, and thence
 runneth through Tildale forrest: and taking in the Langdon water from
 northwest it runneth to Durtpit chappell, to Newbiggin, and so to
 Middleton, receiuing by west of each of these a rill comming from by
 [Sidenote: Hude.]
 north (of which the last is called Hude) and likewise the Lune afterward
 by southwest that riseth at thrée seuerall places, whereof the first is
 in the borders of Westmerland and there called Arnegill becke, the
 [Sidenote: Lune.]
 second more southerlie, named Lunebecke, and the third by south at
 [Sidenote: Arnegill.]
 Bandor Skarth hill, and méeting all aboue Arnegill house, they run
 togither in one bottome to Lathekirke bridge, and then into the These.
 Hauing therefore met with these, it runneth to Mickelton (& there taking
 [Sidenote: Skirkewith.]
 in the Skirkwith water) it goeth to Rombald kirke (crossing there also
 [Sidenote: Bander.]
 one rill and the Bander brooke by south west) and then going to Morewood
 hag, and Morewood parke, till it come to Bernards castell.

 [Sidenote: Rere crosse.]
 Here also it receiueth the Thuresgill water, comming east of Rere crosse
 in Yorkeshire, from the spittle in Stanmore by Crag almost southwest,
 and being vnited with the These, it goeth by Stratford, Eglesdon,
 Rokesbie, Thorpe, Wickliffe, Ouington, Winston, and betweene Barfurth
 and Gainfurth méeteth with another rill, that commeth from Langleie
 forest, betwéene Rabie castell and Standorpe, of whose name I haue no
 knowledge. But to procéed. The These being past Ramforth, runneth
 betwéene Persore and Cliffe, and in the waie to Crofts bridge taketh in
 [Sidenote: Skerne.]
 the Skerne a pretie water, which riseth about Trimdon, and goeth by
 Fishburne, Bradburie, Preston, Braforton, Skirmingham, the Burdens,
 Haughton and Darlington, & there finallie meeting with the Cocke becke
 or Dare, it falleth in the These beneath Stapleton, before it come at
 Crofts bridge, and (as it should séeme) is the same which Leland calleth
 Gretteie or Grettie. From thence it runneth to Sockburne, nether
 Dunsleie, Middleton row, Newsham, Yarne (crossing a brooke from Leuen
 bridge) called Leuen or Leuinus in Latine, whose crinkling course is
 notable, and the streame of some called Thorpe, which I find described
 in this maner.

 [Sidenote: Thorpe aliàs Leuand.]
 The Thorpe riseth of sundrie heads, whereof one is aboue Pinching
 Thorpe, from whence it goeth to Nonnethorpe, and so to Stokesleie. The
 second hath two branches, and so placed, that Kildale standeth betweene
 them both: finallie, méeting beneath Easbie they go by Eaton, and
 likewise vnto Stokesleie. The last hath also two branches, whereof one
 commeth from Inglesbie, and méeteth with the second beneath Broughton; &
 going from thence to Stokesleie, they méet with the Thorpe aboue the
 towne, as the other fall into it somewhat beneath the same. From hence
 it goeth to Ridleie, and there taketh in another rill comming
 [Sidenote: Crawthorne.]
 from Potto, thence to Crawthorne brooke, Leuanton, Milton, Hilton,
 Inglesbie, and so into the These, betwéene Yarne and Barwijc, whereof I
 made mention before. After this confluence our These hasteth on to
 Barwijc, Preston, Thorne abbeie, and Arsham, which standeth on the
 southeast side of the riuer almost betweene the falles of two waters,
 whereof one descendeth from west Hartburne by long Newton, Elton, &
 Stockton; the other from Stillington, or Shillington, by Whitton,
 Thorpe, Blackestone, Billingham, and Norton. From Arsham finallie it
 goeth to Bellasis, Middleburgh, and so into the sea. Leland describing
 this riuer speaketh of the Wiske, which should come thereinto from by
 south vnder Wiske bridge, by Danbie, and Northalarton, and should ioine
 with a greater streame: but as yet I find no certeine place where to
 bestow the same.

 Next of all we come vnto the high Cliffe water, which rising aboue
 Hutton, goeth by Gisborow, and there receiueth another streame comming
 from by southeast, and then continuing on his course, it is not long yer
 it fall into the sea. The next is the Scaling water, which descendeth
 from Scaling towne, from whence we come to the Molemouth, not farre from
 whose head standeth Molgraue castell: then to Sandford creeke, and next
 [Sidenote: Eske.]
 of all to Eske mouth, which riseth aboue Danbie wood, and so goeth to
 Castelton, there méeting by the waie with another rill comming from
 about Westerdale by Danbie, and so they go on togither by Armar and
 Thwate castell, till they ioine with another water aboue Glasdule
 chappell, thence to new Biggin, taking yet another brooke with them,
 [Sidenote: Ibur.]
 running from Goodland ward, and likewise the Ibur, and so go on without
 anie further increase by Busworth, yer long into the sea.

 There is also a créeke on each side of Robin Whoodes baie, of whose
 names and courses I haue no skill, sauing that Fillingale the towne
 dooth stand betwéene them both. There is another not far from Scarborow,
 on the north side called the Harwood brooke. It runneth through Harwood
 dale by Cloughton, Buniston, and soone after méeting with another rill
 on the southwest, they run as one into the ocean sea. From Scarborow to
 Bridlington, by Flamborow head, we met with no more falles. This water
 therefore that we saw at Bridlington, riseth at Dugglebie, from whence
 it goeth to Kirbie, Helperthorpe, Butterwijc, Boithorpe, Foxhole, (where
 it falleth into the ground, and riseth vp againe at Rudston) Thorpe,
 Cathorpe, Bridlington, and so into the Ocean.

 Being come about the Spurne head, I meete yer long with a riuer that
 riseth short of Withersie, and goeth by Fodringham and Wisted, from
 thence to another that commeth by Rosse, Halsham, Carmingham: then to
 the third, which riseth aboue Humbleton, and goeth to Esterwijc, Heddon,
 and so into the Humber. The fourth springeth short of Sprotleie, goeth
 by Witton, and falleth into the water of Humber at Merflete, as I heare.

 [Sidenote: Hull.]
 The next of all is the Hull water, which I will describe also here, and
 then crosse ouer vnto the southerlie shore. The furthest head of Hull
 water riseth at Kilham, from whence it goeth to Lewthorpe créeke, and so
 to Fodringham, a little beneath which it meeteth with sundrie waters,
 whereof one falleth in on the northest side, comming from about Lisset;
 the second on the northwest banke from Nafferton; the third from
 Emmeswell and Kirkeburne: for it hath two heads which ioined beneth
 little Drifield, and the fourth which falleth into the same: so that
 these two latter run vnto the maine riuer both in one chanell, as
 experience hath confirmed. From hence then our Hull goeth to Ratseie, to
 Goodalehouse, and then taking in a water from Hornesie mere, it goeth on
 through Beuerleie medowes, by Warron, Stoneferrie, Hull, and finallie
 into the Humber. Of the rill that falleth into this water from south
 Netherwijc, by Skirlow, and the two rilles that come from Cottingham and
 Woluerton, I saie no more, sith it is enough to name them in their



 [Sidenote: Humber.]
 There is no riuer called Humber from the hed. Wherfore that which we now
 call Humber, Ptolomie Abie, Leland Aber, as he gesseth, hath the same
 denomination no higher than the confluence of Trent with the Ouze, as
 beside Leland sundrie ancient writers haue noted before vs both. Certes
 it is a noble arme of the sea, and although it be properlie to be called
 Ouze or Ocellus euen to the Nuke beneath Ancolme, yet are we contented
 to call it Humber of Humbrus or Vmar, a king of the Scithians, who
 inuaded this Ile in the time of Locrinus, thinking to make himselfe
 monarch of the same. But as God hath from time to time singularlie
 prouided for the benefit of Britaine, so in this businesse it came to
 passe, that Humber was put to flight, his men slaine: and furthermore,
 whilest he attempted to saue himselfe by hasting to his ships (such was
 the prease of his nobilitie that followed him into his owne vessell, and
 the rage of weather which hastened on his fatall daie) that both he and
 they were drowned togither in that arme. And this is the onelie cause
 wherefore it hath béene called Humber, as our writers saie; and wherof I
 find these verses:

   Dum fugit obstat ei flumen submergitur illic,
     Déque suo tribuit nomine nomen aquæ.

 This riuer in old time parted Lhoegres or England from Albania, which
 was the portion of Albanactus, the yongest sonne of Brute. But since
 that time the limits of Lhoegres haue béene so inlarged, first by the
 prowesse of the Romans, then by the conquests of the English, that at
 this present daie, the Twede on the one side, & the Solue on the other,
 be taken for the principall bounds betweene vs and those of Scotland. In
 describing therefore the Humber, I must néeds begin with the Ouze, whose
 water bringeth foorth a verie sweet, fat and delicat samon, as I haue
 béene informed, beside sundrie other kinds of fish, which we want here
 on the south and southwest coasts & riuers of our land, whereof I may
 take occasion to speake more at large heerafter.

 [Sidenote: Vre aliàs Ouze, or Isis.]
 The Vre therfore riseth in the furthest parts of all Richmondshire,
 among the Coterine hilles, in a mosse, toward the west fourtéene miles
 beyond Midleham. Being therefore issued out of the ground, it goeth to
 Holbecke, Hardraw, Hawshouse, Butterside, Askebridge (which Leland
 calleth the Askaran, and saith thereof and the Bainham, that they are
 but obscure bridges) then to Askarth, through Wanlesse parke, Wenseleie
 bridge (made two hundred yeares since, by Alwin, parson of Winslaw) New
 parke, Spennithorne, Danbie, Geruise abbeie, Clifton and Masham. When it
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 is come to Masham, it receiueth the Burne, by south west (as it did the
 [Sidenote: Wile.]
 Wile, from verie déepe scarrie rockes, before at Askaran) and diuerse
 other wild rilles not worthie to be remembred. From Masham, it hasteth
 vnto Tanfield (taking in by the waie a rill by southwest) then to
 another Tanfield, to Newton hall, and Northbridge, at the hither end of
 Rippon, and so to Huickes bridge. But yer it come there it méeteth with
 [Sidenote: Skell.]
 the Skell, which being incorporat with the same, they run as one to
 Thorpe, then to Alborow, and soone after receiue the Swale.

 [Sidenote: Swale.]
 Here (saith Leland) I am brought into no little streict, what to
 coniecture of the méeting of Isis and Vre, for some saie that the Isis
 and the Vre doo méet at Borowbridge, which to me dooth séeme to be verie
 vnlikelie, sith Isurium taketh his denomination of Isis and Vro, for it
 is often séene that the lesse riuers doo mingle their names with the
 greater, as in the Thamesis and other is easie to be found. Neither is
 there any more mention of the Vre after his passage vnder Borowbridge,
 but onelie of Isis or the Ouze in these daies, although in old time it
 held vnto Yorke it selfe, which of the Vre is truelie called Vrewijc (or
 Yorke short) or else my persuasion dooth faile me. I haue red also
 Ewerwijc and Yorwijc. But to procéed, and leaue this superfluous

 From Borowbridge, the Ouze goeth to Aldborough, and (receiuing the Swale
 by the waie) to Aldworke, taking in Vsburne water, from the southwest,
 then to Linton vpon Ouze, to Newton vpon Ouze, and to Munketun, méeting
 with the Nid yer long, and so going withall to the Redhouses, to
 [Sidenote: Fosse.]
 Popleton, Clifton, Yorke (where it crosseth the Fosse) to Foulfoorth,
 Middlethorpe, Acaster, & Acaster, Kelfléet, Welehall, Barelebie, Selbie,
 Turmonhall, Skurthall, Hokelath, Hoke, Sandhall, Rednesse, Whitegift,
 Vslet, Blacketoft, Foxfléet, Brownfléet, and so into Humber.

 [Sidenote: Ouze.]
 The course of the Ouze being thus described, and as it were simplie
 without his influences, now will I touch such riuers as fall into the
 same also by themselues, contrarie to my former proceeding, imagining a
 voiage from the Rauenspurne, vntill I come néere to the head of These, &
 so southwards about againe by the bottome of the hillie soile vntill I
 get to Buxston, Sheffeld, Scrobie, & the verie south point of Humber
 mouth, whereby I shall crosse them all that are to be found in this
 walke, & leaue (I doubt) some especiall notice of their seuerall heads
 [Sidenote: Hull or Hulne.]
 and courses. The course of the Hull, a streame abounding with sturgeon
 and lampreie, as also the riuers which haue their issue into the same,
 being (as I say) alreadie described, I thinke it not amisse, as by the
 waie to set downe what Leland saith thereof, to the end that his trauell
 shall not altogither be lost in this behalfe; and for that it is short,
 and hath one or two things worthie to be remembred conteined in the

 The Hulne (saith he) riseth of thrée seuerall heads, whereof the
 greatest is not far from Driefield, now a small village sixtéene miles
 from Hull. Certes it hath beene a goodlie towne, and therein was the
 palace of Egbright king of the Northumbers, and place of sepulture of
 Alfred the noble king sometime of that nation, who died there 727, the
 ninetéene Cal. of Julie, the twentith of his reigne, and whose toombe or
 monument dooth yet remaine (for ought that I doo know to the contrarie)
 with an inscription vpon the same written in Latine letters. Néere vnto
 this towne also is the Danefield, wherein great numbers of Danes were
 slaine, and buried in those hils, which yet remaine there to be séene
 ouer their bones and carcasses. The second head (saith he) is at
 Estburne, and the third at Emmeswell, and méeting all togither not farre
 from Drifield, the water there beginneth to be called Hulne, as I haue
 said alreadie.

 From hence also it goeth through Beuerleie medowes, and comming at the
 last not farre from an arme led from the Hulne by mans hand (and able to
 beare great vessels) almost to Beuerleie towne, which in old time either
 hight or stood in Deirwald, vntill John of Beuerleie (whom Leland nameth
 out of an old author to be the first doctor or teacher of diuinitie that
 euer was in Oxford, and (as it should séeme also by an ancient monument
 yet remaining) to be of an hostell where the vniuersitie college now
 standeth; & therfore they write him, Somtime fellow of that house) began
 to be of fame, of whom it is called Beuerleie (as some affirme) to this
 daie. Indéed all the countrie betwéene the Deirwent & the Humber was
 sometime called Deira, and the lower part Caua Deira in respect of the
 higher soile, but now it is named the east Riding. But what is this to
 my purpose? The Hulne therefore being come almost to Beuerleie towne, &
 [Sidenote: Cottingham.]
 méeting thereabout also with the Cottingham becke comming from Westwood
 by the waie, it hasteth to Kingston vpon Hulne or Hull, and so into the
 Humber without anie maner impeachment.

 [Sidenote: Fowlneie.]
 The Fowlneie riseth about Godmanham, from whence it goeth by Wighton,
 Hareswell, Seton, Williams bridge, and soone after spreading it selfe,
 [Sidenote: Skelfléet.]
 one arme called Skelfleet goeth by Cane Cawseie to Brownefléet and so
 into the Ouze. The other passeth by Sandholme, Gilberts dike, Scalbie
 chappell, Blacketoft, and so into the aforesaid Ouze, leauing a verie
 pretie Iland, which is a parcell (as I heare) of Walding fen more,
 though otherwise obscure to vs that dwell here in the south.

 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 The Darwent riseth in the hilles that lie west of Robin Whoodes baie, or
 two miles aboue Aiton bridge, west from Scarborow as Leland saith: and
 yer it hath run farre from the head, it receiueth two rilles in one
 bottome from by west, which ioine withall about Longdale end. Thence
 they go togither to Broxeie, and at Hacknesse take in another water
 comming from about Silseie. Afterward it commeth to Aiton, then to
 [Sidenote: Kenford.]
 Haibridge, and there crosseth the Kenford that descendeth from
 Roberteston. After this also it goeth on to Potersbrumton where it
 taketh in one rill, as it dooth another beneath running from Shirburne,
 and the third yet lower on the further banke, that descendeth from
 Brumton. From these confluences it runneth to Fowlbridge, Axbridge,
 Yeldingham bridge, & so to Cotehouse, receiuing by the waie manie
 waters, & yéelding great plentie of delicate samons to such as fish vpon
 the same. Leland reckoning vp the names of the seuerall brookes,
 numbreth them confusedlie after his accustomed order. The Darwent (saith
 [Sidenote: Shirihutton.]
 he) receiueth diuerse streames, as the Shirihutton. The second is the
 [Sidenote: Crambecke.]
 Crambecke, descending from Hunderskell castell (so called Tanquam à
 centum fontibus, or multitude of springs that rise about the same) and
 [Sidenote: Rie.]
 goeth to Rie, which comming out of the Blackemore, passeth by Riuers
 [Sidenote: Ricoll.]
 [Sidenote: Seuen.]
 abbeie, taking in the Ricoll on the left hand, then the Seuen, the
 [Sidenote: Costeie.]
 [Sidenote: Pickering.]
 Costeie, and Pickering brooke.

 The Seuin also (saith he) riseth in the side of Blackemoore, and thence
 goeth by Sinnington foure miles from Pickering, and about a mile aboue a
 certeine bridge ouer Rie goeth into the streame. The Costeie in like
 sort springeth in the verie edge of Pickering towne, at a place called
 Keld head, and goeth into the Rie two miles beneath Pickering, about
 Kirbie minster. Finallie, Pickering water ariseth in Blackemoore, and
 halfe a mile beneath Pickering falleth into Costeie, meeting by the way
 [Sidenote: Pocklington.]
 with the Pocklington becke, and an other small rill or two, of whose
 names I haue no knowledge. Hitherto Leland. But in mine opinion, it had
 béene far better to haue described them thus. Of those waters that fall
 into the Darwent beneath Cotehouse, the first commeth from Swenton, the
 second from Ebberston, the third from Ollerston, the fourth from
 Thorneton & Pickering, and the fift on the other side that commeth
 thither from Wintringham. For so should he haue dealt in better order,
 and rid his hands of them with more expedition, referring the rest also
 vnto their proper places.

 But to procéed after mine owne maner. Being past Cotehouse, & yer the
 [Sidenote: Rie.]
 Darwent come at Wickham, it crosseth the Rie, which riseth of two heads,
 and ioining west of Locton they run through Glansbie parke. Finallie,
 [Sidenote: Costeie.]
 receiuing the Costeie, it méeteth at the last with an other streame
 increased by the fals of six waters and more yer it come into the

 [Sidenote: Seuen.]
 The most easterlie of these is called Seuen, and riseth (as is
 aforesaid) in Blackemoore, from whence it goeth by Sinnington, Murton,
 [Sidenote: Don or Done.]
 Normanbie, Newsound, How, and so into the Rie. The second named Don hath
 his originall likewise in Blackemoore, and descending by Rasmore, Keldon
 [Sidenote: Hodgebecke.]
 and Edston (where it receiueth the Hodgebecke, that commeth by Bernesdale,
 Kirkedale, & Welburne) it goeth to Sawlton, and there taketh in first the
 [Sidenote: Ricoll.]
 Ricoll, that goeth by Careton, and whereof Ridall (as some think, but
 [Sidenote: Fesse.]
 falslie) doth séeme to take the name. Then Fesse, which riseth aboue
 Bilisdale chappell, and méeteth with the Rie at the Shaking bridge, from
 whence they go togither vnder the Rie bridge, to Riuis abbeie, and
 thence (after it hath crossed a becke from the west) through a parke of
 the earle of Rutlands to Newton, Muniton, and so to Sawton or Sawlton,
 [Sidenote: Holbecke.]
 as I doo find it written. Here also it taketh in the Holbecke brooke,
 that commeth thither from by west by Gilling castell, and Stangraue,
 from whence it goeth on to Brabie, next into the Seuen, then into the
 Rie, and so into the Darwent, which from thence dooth run to Wickham.

 Being past Wickham, it méeteth with a water that commeth thereinto from
 Grinston to Setterington at southeast, and thence it goeth on to Malton
 and Malton (where the prouerbe saith that a bushell of rie and an other
 of malt is woorth but sixpence, carie awaie whilest you may, so as you
 can kéepe them from running through the sackes) Sutton, Wellam, Furbie,
 and Kirkeham, receiuing by the waie one rill on the one side and an
 other on the other, whereof this commeth from Burdfall, that other from
 Conisthorpe. From Kirkeham it goeth to Cramburne and Owsham bridge
 (crossing by the waie an other brooke comming from saint Edwards gore,
 by Faston) then to Aldbie, Buttercram (aliàs Butterham) bridge, Stamford
 bridge, Kerbie bridge, Sutton, Ellerton, Aughton, Bubwith, Wresill,
 Babthorpe, and so into the Ouze, wherewith I finish the description of
 Darwent: sauing that I haue to let you vnderstand how Leland heard that
 an arme ran some time from the head of Darwent also to Scarborow, till
 such time as two hils betwixt which it ran, did shalder and so choke vp
 his course.

 [Sidenote: Fosse.]
 The Fosse (a slow streame yet able to beare a good vessell) riseth in
 Nemore Calaterio, that is, Galters wood or Cawood, among the wooddie
 hilles, and in his descent from the higher ground, he leaueth Crake
 castell, on his west side: thence he goeth by Marton abbeie, Marton,
 Stillington, Farlington, Towthorpe, Erswijc, Huntington, & at Yorke into
 [Sidenote: Kile.]
 the Ouze. The Kile riseth flat north at Newborow, from whence it goeth
 by Thorneton on the hill, Ruskell parke, Awne, Tollerton, and so into
 [Sidenote: Swale.]
 the Ouze about Newton vpon Ouze. The Swale is a right noble riuer, &
 march in some places betwéene Richmondshire and Westmerland, it riseth
 not far from Pendragon castell in the hilles aboue Kirkedale, and from
 this towne it goeth to Kelde chappell, Carret house, Crackepot,
 [Sidenote: Barneie.]
 Whiteside, and neere vnto Yalen taketh in the Barneie water, which
 commeth from the north east. Thence it goeth by Harcaside to Reth (where
 [Sidenote: Arcleie.]
 it méeteth with the Arcleie) and so to Flemington, Grinton, Marrike
 [Sidenote: Holgate.]
 (taking in the Holgate that commeth from by south: and in the waie to
 [Sidenote: Mariske becke.]
 Thorpe, the Mariske becke, or peraduenture Applegarth water, as Leland
 calleth it, that descendeth from the north) then to Thorpe, Applegarth,
 Richmond, Easbie and Brunton.

 Here by north it interteineth two or thrée waters in one chanell, called
 [Sidenote: Rauenswath.]
 Rauenswath water, whereof the two furthest doo ioine not farre from the
 Dawltons, and so go by Rauenswath, Hartfoorth, Gilling, and at Skebie
 méet with the third, comming from Richmond beaconward. By west also of
 [Sidenote: Rhe.]
 Brunton, the Swale méeteth with the Rhe, running from Resdale, and being
 past Brunton, it goeth to Caterijc bridge beneath Brunton, then to
 Ellerton, Kirkebie, Langton parua, Thirtoft, Anderbie stéeple: and
 [Sidenote: Bedall aliàs Leming.]
 before it come vnto Gatenbie, it meeteth with the Bedall brooke, aliàs
 Lemings becke, that commeth west of Kellirbie, by Cunstable, Burton,
 Langthorpe, Bedall, and Leming chappell. From Gattenbie likewise it
 [Sidenote: Wiske.]
 goeth to Mawbie, & at Brakenbirie receiueth the Wiske, which is a great
 water, rising betwéene two parkes aboue Swanbie in one place, and
 southeast of Mountgrace abbeie in another; and after the confluence
 which is about Siddlebridge, goeth on betwéene the Rughtons to Appleton,
 the Smetons, Birtbie, Hutton Coniers, Danbie, Wijc, Yafford, Warlabie,
 and taking in there a rill from Brunton Aluerton, it procéedeth to
 Otterington, Newlie, Kirbie Wiske, Newson, and Blackenburie, there
 méeting (as I said) with the Swale, that runneth fr[=o] thence by
 Skipton bridge, Catton, Topcliffe, and Raniton, and aboue Eldmire
 méeteth with sundrie other rilles in one bottome, whereof the
 [Sidenote: Cawdebec.]
 [Sidenote: Kebecke.]
 northwesterlie is called Cawdebec: the south easterlie Kebecke, which
 ioine est of Thorneton moore, and so go to Thorneton in the stréet,
 Kiluington, Thruske, Sowerbie, Grastwijc, and soone after crossing
 another growing of the mixture of the Willow, and likewise of the
 [Sidenote: Cuckwolds becke.]
 Cuckewold beckes, which ioine aboue Bridforth, and running on till it
 come almost at Dawlton, it maketh confluence with the Swale, and go
 thence as one with all their samons by Thorneton bridge, Mitton vpon
 Swale, and so into the Ouze.

 [Sidenote: Skell.]
 The Skell riseth out of the west two miles from Founteines abbeie, and
 commeth (as Leland saith) with a faire course by the one side of Rippon,
 as the Vre dooth on the other. And on the bankes hereof stood the famous
 abbeie called Founteines or Adfontes, so much renowmed for the lustie
 monks that sometimes dwelled in the same. It receiueth also the Lauer
 [Sidenote: Lauer.]
 water (which riseth thrée miles from Kirbie, and meeteth withall néere
 vnto Rippon) and finallie falleth into the Vre, a quarter of a mile
 beneath Rippon towne, & almost midwaie betwéene the North and Huicke

 [Sidenote: Nidde.]
 The Nidde, which the booke of statutes called Nidor (anno 13. Edw. 1.)
 and thereto noteth it to be inriched with store of samon, as are also
 the Wheof and Aire, riseth among those hilles that lie by west northwest
 of Gnarresborow, fiue miles aboue Pakeleie bridge, and going in short
 processe of time by Westhouses, Lodgehouses, Woodhall, Newhouses,
 Midlesmore, Raunsgill, Cowthouse, Gowthwall, Bureleie, Brimham,
 [Sidenote: Killingale.]
 Hampeswale, and soone after méeting with the Killingale becke, it goeth
 after the confluence by Bilton parke, Gnaresbridge, Washford, Cathall,
 Willesthorpe, Munketon, or Nonmocke, and so into the Ouze, fouretéene
 miles beneath Gnaresborow, being increased by the waie with verie few or
 no waters of anie countenance. Leland hauing said thus much of the
 Nidde, addeth herevnto the names of two other waters, that is to saie,
 [Sidenote: Couer.]
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 the Couer and the Burne, which doo fall likewise into the Vre or Ouze.
 But as he saith little of the same, so among all my pamphlets, I can
 gather no more of them, than that the first riseth six miles aboue
 Couerham by west, and falleth into the Vre, a little beneath Middleham
 bridge, which is two miles beneath the towne of Couerham. As for the
 Burne, it riseth at More hilles, and falleth into the said riuer a
 little beneath Massham bridge. And so much of these two.

 [Sidenote: Wharfe aliàs Gwerfe.]
 The Wharffe or Gwerfe ariseth aboue Vghtershaw, from whence it runneth
 to Beggermons, Rosemill, Hubberham, Backden, Starbotton, Kettlewell,
 Cunniston in Kettlewell, and here it meeteth with a rill comming from
 Haltongill chappell, by Arnecliffe, and ioining withall northeast of
 Kilneseie crag, it passeth ouer by the lower grounds to Girsington, and
 receiuing a rill there also from Tresfeld parke, it proceedeth on to
 Brunsall bridge. Furthermore at Appletréewijc, it méeteth with a rill
 from by north, and thence goeth to Barden towre, Bolton, Beth and
 Misleie hall, where it crosseth a rill comming from by west, thence to
 Addingham, taking in there also another from by west, and so to Ikeleie,
 and receiuing yer long another by north from Denton hall, it hasteth to
 Weston Vauasour, Oteleie, and Letheleie, where it taketh in the Padside,
 & the Washburne (both in one streame from Lindleie ward) and thence to
 Casleie chappell, and there it crosseth one from by north, and another
 yer long from by south, and so to Yardwood castell, Kerebie, Woodhall,
 Collingham, Linton, Wetherbie, Thorpatch, Newton, Tadcaster, and when it
 [Sidenote: Cockebecke.]
 hath receiued the Cockebecke from southwest, that goeth by Barwie,
 Aberfoorth, Leadhall, and Grimston, it runneth to Exton, Kirbie Wharfe,
 Vskell, Rither, Nunapleton, & so into the Ouze beneath Cawood, a castell
 belonging to the archbishop of Yorke, where he vseth oft to lie when he
 refresheth himselfe with change of aire and shift of habitation, for the
 auoiding of such infection as may otherwise ingender by his long abode
 in one place, for want of due purgation and airing of his house.

 [Sidenote: Air.]
 The Air or Arre riseth out of a lake or tarne south of Darnbrooke,
 wherein (as I heare) is none other fish but red trowt, and perch. Leland
 saith it riseth néere vnto Orton in Crauen, wherfore the ods is but
 little. It goeth therefore from thence to Mawlam, Hamlith, Kirbie,
 Moldale, Calton hall, Areton, and so foorth till it come almost to
 [Sidenote: Otterburne.]
 Gargraue, there crossing the Otterburne water on the west, and the
 [Sidenote: Winterburne.]
 Winterburne on the north, which at Flasbie receiueth a rill from Helton,
 as I heare. Being past Gargraue, our Air goeth on to Eshton, Elswood,
 and so foorth on, first receiuing a brooke from southwest (whereof one
 branch commeth by Marton, the other by Thorneton, which meete about
 Broughton) then another from northeast, that runneth by Skipton castell.
 After this confluence it hasteth by manifold windlesses, which caused
 thirteene bridges at the last to be ouer the same within a little space,
 to Newbiggin, Bradleie, and Kildwijc, by south east whereof it méeteth
 [Sidenote: Glike.]
 with one water from Mawsis, and Glusburne or Glukesburne, called Glike;
 another likewise a little beneath from Seton, beside two rilles from by
 north, after which confluence it runneth by Reddlesden, and ouer against
 [Sidenote: Lacocke.]
 [Sidenote: Woorth.]
 this towne the Lacocke and the Woorth doo meet withall in one chanell,
 [Sidenote: Moreton.]
 as the Moreton water dooth on the north, although it be somewhat lower.
 Thence it goeth to Rishfoorth hall, and so to Bungleie, where it taketh
 a rill from Denholme parke to Shipeleie, and there crossing another from
 Thorneton, Leuenthorpe, and Bradleie, it goeth to Caluerleie, to
 Christall, and so to Léedes, where one water runneth thereinto by north
 from Wettlewood, & two other from by south in one chanell, wherof the
 first hath two armes, of which the one commeth from Pudseie chappell,
 the other from Adwalton, their confluence being made aboue Farnesleie
 hall. The other likewise hath two heads, whereof one is aboue Morleie,
 the other commeth from Domingleie, and méeting with the first not far
 southwest of Leedes, they fall both into the Air, and so run with the
 [Sidenote: Rodwell.]
 same to Swillington, and there taking in the Rodwell becke south of the
 bridge, it proceedeth to Ollerton, Castleford, Brotherton & Ferribridge,
 [Sidenote: Went.]
 there receiuing the Went, a becke from Pontefract or Pomfret, which
 riseth of diuerse heads, wherof one is among the cole pits. Thence to
 Beall, Berkin, Kellington, middle Hodleseie, Templehirst, Gowldall,
 Snath, Rawcliffe, Newland, Armie, and so into the Ouze with an
 indifferent course. Of all the riuers in the north, Leland (in so manie
 of his bookes as I haue séene) saith least of this. Mine annotations
 also are verie slender in the particular waters wherbie it is increased:
 wherfore I was compelled of necessitie to conclude euen thus with the
 description of the same, and had so left it in déed, if I had not
 receiued one other note more to ad vnto it (euen when the leafe was at
 the presse) which saith as followeth in maner word for word.

 There is a noble water that falleth into Air, whose head (as I take it)
 is about Stanford. From whence it goeth to Creston chappell, to
 Lingfield, and there about receiuing one rill néere Elfrabright bridge,
 [Sidenote: Hebden.]
 and also the Hebden by northwest, it goeth to Brearleie hall, and so
 taking in the third by north, it procéedeth on eastward by Sorsbie
 bridge chappell (and there a rill from southwest) and so to Coppeleie
 hall. Beneath this place I find also that it receiueth one rill from
 Hallifax, which riseth from two heads, and two other from southwest, of
 which one commeth by Baresland, and Staneland in one chanell, as I read.
 So that after this confluence the aforesaid water goeth on toward
 Cowford bridge, and as it taketh in two rilles aboue the same on the
 north side, so beneath that bridge there falleth into it a pretie arme
 increased by sundrie waters c[=o]ming from by south, as from Marsheden
 chappell, from Holmesworth chappell, and Kirke Heton, each one growing
 of sundrie heads; whereof I would saie more, if I had more intelligence
 of their seuerall gates and passages.

 But to procéed. From Cowford bridge it runneth to Munfeld, and receiuing
 yer long one rill from Leuersage hall, and another from Burshall by
 Dewesburie, it goeth on northeast of Thornehull, south of Horbirie
 thornes, and thereabout crossing one rill from by south from Woller by
 new Milner Dam, and soone after another from northwest, called Chald,
 [Sidenote: Chald.]
 rising in the Peke hils, whereon Wakefield standeth, and likewise the
 third from southeast, and Waterton hall, it goeth by Warmefield,
 Newland, Altoftes, and finallie into the Aire, west of Castelworth, as I
 learne. What the name of this riuer should be as yet I heare not, and
 therefore no maruell that I doo not set it downe, yet is it certeine
 that it is called Chald, after his c[=o]fluence with the Chald, and
 finallie Chaldair or Chaldar after it hath ioined with the Air or Ar.
 But what is this for his denominations from the head? It shall suffice
 therefore thus farre to haue shewed the course thereof: and as for the
 name I passe it ouer vntill another time.

 [Sidenote: Trent.]
 The Trent is one of the most excellent riuers in the land, not onelie
 for store of samon, sturgeon, and sundrie other kinds of delicate fish
 wherewith it dooth abound, but also for that it is increased with so
 manie waters, as for that onelie cause it may be compared either with
 the Ouze or Sauerne, I meane the second Ouze, whose course I haue
 latelie described. It riseth of two heads which ioine beneath Norton in
 the moore, and from thence goeth to Hilton abbeie, Bucknell church, and
 [Sidenote: Foulebrooke.]
 aboue Stoke receiueth in the Foulebrooke water, which commeth thither
 from Tunstall, by Shelton, and finallie making a confluence they go to
 Hanfleet, where they méet with another on the same side, that descendeth
 from Newcastell vnder Line, which Leland taketh to be the verie Trent it
 selfe, saieng: that it riseth in the hils aboue Newcastell, as may be
 séene by his commentaries.

 But to proceed. At Trentham, or not farre from thence, it crosseth a
 riueret from northeast, whose name I know not, & thence going to Stone
 Aston, Stoke Burston, the Sandons and Weston, a little aboue Shubburne &
 Hawood, it receiueth the Sow, a great chanell increased with sundrie
 waters, which I will here describe, leauing the Trent at Shubburne,
 [Sidenote: Sow.]
 till I come backe againe. The Sow descendeth from the hilles, aboue
 Whitemoore chappell, and goeth by Charleton, and Stawne, and beneath
 Shalford ioineth with another by northeast that commeth from bishops
 Offeleie, Egleshall, Chesbie, Raunton. After this confluence also it
 runneth by Bridgeford, Tillington, & Stafford, beneath which towne
 [Sidenote: Penke.]
 it crosseth the Penke becke, that riseth aboue Nigleton, & Berwood, &
 aboue Penke bridge vniteth it selfe with another comming from Knightleie
 ward, by Gnashall church, Eaton: and so going foorth as one, it is not
 long yer they fall into Sow, after they haue passed Draiton, Dunstan,
 Acton, and Banswich, where loosing their names, they with the Sow & the
 Sow with them doo ioine with the Trent, at Shubburne, vpon the
 southerlie banke.

 From Shubburne the Trent goeth on to little Harwood (meeting by the waie
 one rill at Ousleie bridge, and another south of Riddlesleie) thence by
 Hawksberie, Mauestane, Ridware, and so toward Yoxhall; where I must
 staie a while to consider of other waters, wherewith I méet in this
 voiage. Of these therefore the lesser commeth in by south from Farwall,
 the other from by west, a faire streame, and increased with two brooks,
 whereof the first riseth in Nedewood forrest, northeast of Haggersleie
 [Sidenote: Blith.]
 parke, whereinto falleth another west of Hamsteed Ridware, called Blith,
 which riseth among the hilles in Whateleie moore, aboue Weston Conie,
 and thence going to the same towne, it commeth to Druicote, aliàs
 Dracote, Painsleie, Gratwitch, Grimleie, Aldmaston, Hamstéed, Ridware,
 and finallie into the Trent, directlie west of Yoxhall, which runneth
 also from thence, & leauing kings Bromleie in a parke (as I take it) on
 the left hand, and the Blacke water comming from Southton and Lichfield
 on the right, goeth streightwaie to Catton, where it méeteth with the
 [Sidenote: Tame.]
 Tame, whose course I describe as followeth.

 It riseth in Staffordshire (as I remember) not farre from Petteshall,
 and goeth foorth by Hamsted, toward Pirihall and Brimichams Aston,
 taking in by the waie a rill on each side, whereof the first groweth
 through a confluence of two waters, the one of them comming from Tipton,
 the other from Aldburie, and so running as one by Wedburie till they
 fall into the same. The latter commeth from Woolfhall, and ioineth with
 it on the left hand. After this, and when it is past the aforesaid
 places, it crosseth in like sort a rill from Smethike ward: thence it
 [Sidenote: Rhée.]
 goeth to Yarneton hall, beneath which it méeteth with the Rhée, and
 thence through the parke, at Parke hall by Watercote, crossing finallie
 [Sidenote: Cole.]
 the Cole, whose head is in the forrest by Kingesnorton wood, and hath
 this course, whereof I now giue notice. It riseth (as I said) in the
 forrest by Kingesnorton wood, and going by Yareleie and Kingeshirst, it
 méeteth betwéene that and the parke, with a water running betwéene
 Helmedon and Sheldon.

 Thence it passeth on to Coleshull, by east whereof it ioineth with a
 [Sidenote: Blith.]
 brooke, mounting southwest of Golihull called Blith, which going by
 Henwood and Barston, crosseth on ech side of Temple Balshall, a rill,
 whereof one commeth through the Quéenes parke or chase that lieth by
 west of Kenelworth, & the other by Kenelworth castell it selfe, from
 about Haselie parke. After which confluences it procéedeth in like maner
 to Hampton in Arden, and the Packingtons, and so to Coleshull, where it
 méeteth with the Cole, that going a little further, vniteth it selfe
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 with the Burne on the one side (whereinto runneth a water comming from
 Ansleie on the east) and soone after on the other dooth fall into the
 [Sidenote: Rhée.]
 Tame, that which some call the Rhée, a common name to all waters that
 mooue and run from their head. For [Greek: reo] in Gréeke is to flow and
 run, although in truth it is proper to the sea onelie to flow. Leland
 nameth the Brimicham water, whose head (as I heare) is aboue Norffield,
 so that his course shuld be by Kingesnorton, Bremicham, Budston hall,
 till it fall beneath Yarneton into the Tame it selfe, that runneth after
 these confluences on by Lée, Kingesbirie parke, and going by east of
 Draiton, Basset parke, to Falkesleie bridge, it méeteth with another
 water called Burne, also comming from Hammerwich church, by Chesterford,
 Shenton, Thickebrowne, and the north side of Draiton, Basset parke,
 wherof I spake before. From hence our Tame runneth on to Tamworth, there
 taking in the Anchor by east, whose description I had in this maner
 deliuered vnto me.

 It riseth aboue Burton, from whence it goeth by Nonneaton, Witherleie
 and Atherstone. Yer long also it taketh in a water from northeast, which
 commeth by Huglescote, Shapton, Cunston, Twicrosse (vniting it selfe
 [Sidenote: Anchor.]
 with a water from Bosworth) Ratcliffe, & so to the Anchor, which after
 this confluence passeth by Whittendon, Crindon, Pollesworth, Armington,
 Tamworth, & so into Tame, that hasteth to Hopwash, Comberford hall,
 Telford, and soone after crossing a rill that riseth short of Swinfield
 hall, and commeth by Festirike, it runneth not farre from Croxhall, and
 so to Catton, thereabout receiuing his last increase not worthie to be
 [Sidenote: Mese.]
 omitted. This brooke is named Mese, and it riseth in the great parke
 that lieth betwéene Worthington, and Smethike, from whence also it goeth
 by Ashbie de la Souche, Packington, Mesham, and Stretton, and therabout
 crossing a rill about Nethersale grange, from Ouersale by east, it
 proceedeth by Chilcote, Clifton, Croxall, into the Thame, and both out
 of hand into the maine riuer a mile aboue Repton. Leland writing of this
 riuer (as I earst noted) saith thereof in this wise. Into the Thame also
 runneth the Bremicham brooke, which riseth foure or fiue miles about
 Bremicham in the Blacke hils in Worcestershire, and goeth into the
 aforesaid water a mile aboue Crudworth bridge. Certes (saith he) this
 Bremicham is a towne mainteined chieflie by smiths, nailers, cutlers,
 edgetoole forgers, lorimers or bitmakers, which haue their iron out of
 Stafford and Warwijc shires, and coles also out of the first countie.
 Hitherto Leland. Now to resume the Trent, which being growen to some
 greatnesse, goeth on to Walton, Drakelow, and there crossing a water
 that commeth by Newbold hall, it runneth to Stapenell, Winshull,
 Wightmere, and Newton Souch, where it receiueth two chanels within a
 short space, to be described apart.

 [Sidenote: Dou.]
 The first of these is called the Dou or Doue, it riseth about the thrée
 shires méere, and is as it were limes betweene Stafford and Darbishires,
 vntill it come at the Trent. Descending therefore from the head, it
 goeth by Earlesbooth, Pilsburie grange, Hartington, Wolscot, Eaton,
 [Sidenote: Manifold.]
 Hunsington grange, and aboue Thorpe receiueth the Manifold water, so
 called, bicause of the sundrie crinckling rills that it receiueth, and
 turnagaines that it selfe sheweth before it come at the Dou. Rising
 therefore not farre from Axe edge crosse (in the bottome thereby) it
 runneth from thence to Longmore, Shéene, Warslow chappell, and Welton.

 [Sidenote: Hansleie.]
 Beneath Welton also it taketh in the Hansleie water, that commeth out of
 Blackemoore hilles to Watersall, where it falleth into the ground: and
 afterward mounting againe is receiued into the Manifold, north of
 Throwleie (as I heare) which goeth from thence to Ilam, and aboue Thorpe
 dooth cast it selfe into Dou. Hauing therefore met togither after this
 maner, the Dou procéedeth on to Maplington, beneath which it crosseth
 one water descending from Brassington by Fennie Bentleie, and another
 somewhat lower that commeth from Hocston hall by Hognaston and Ashburne,
 and then going to Matterfield, Narburie, Ellaston, Rawston Rowcester, it
 [Sidenote: Churne.]
 meeteth with the Churne, euen here to be described before I go anie
 further. It riseth a good waie aboue Delacrasse abbie, and comming
 [Sidenote: Dunsmere.]
 thither by Hellesbie wood, it taketh in the Dunsmere, betwéene
 Harracrasse and Leike.

 [Sidenote: Yendor.]
 Thence it goeth to the Walgrange, and a little beneath receiueth the
 Yendor that commeth from aboue Harton, thence to Cheddleton, and hauing
 [Sidenote: Aula Canuti.]
 [Sidenote: Ashenhirst.]
 crossed the Ashenhirst brooke aboue Cnutes hall, it runneth by Ypston,
 Froghall, Below hill, Alton castell, Préestwood, and at Rowcester
 falleth into the Dou, which yer long also receiueth a rill from Crowsden,
 [Sidenote: Teine.]
 and then going to Eton méeteth first with the Teine that commeth thither
 from each side of Chedleie by Teinetowne, Bramhirst and Stranehill.
 [Sidenote: Vttoxeter or Vncester.]
 Secondlie with the Vncester or Vttoxeter water, and then going on to
 Merchington, Sidberie, Cawlton, it crosseth a brooke from Sidmister
 college, by Saperton. From this confluence in like sort it passeth
 foorth to Tilberie castell, Marston, and at Edgerton méeteth with the
 water that commeth from Yeldersleie by Longford (whereinto runneth
 another that commeth from Hollington) and so to Hilton. These waters
 being thus ioined, and manie ends brought into one, the Dou it selfe
 falleth yer long likewise into the Trent, aboue Newton Souch. So that
 the maine riuer being thus inlarged, goeth onwards with his course, and
 betwéene Willington and Repton meeteth with two waters on sundrie sides,
 whereof that which falleth in by Willington, riseth néere Dawberie Lies,
 and runneth by Trusselie and Ashe: the other that entereth aboue Repton,
 descendeth from Hartesburne, so that the Trent being past these, hasteth
 to Twiford, Inglebie, Staunton, Weston, Newton, and Aston, yer long also
 [Sidenote: Darwent.]
 méeting with the Darwent; next of all to be dispatched. The Darwent, or
 (to vse the verie British word) Dowr gwine (but in Latine Fluuius
 Dereuantanus) riseth plaine west, néere vnto the edge of Darbishire,
 aboue Blackwell a market towne, and from the head runneth to the New
 chappell, within a few miles after it be risen. From hence moreouer it
 goeth by Howden house, Darwent chappell, Yorkeshire bridge, and at
 [Sidenote: Neue.]
 Witham bridge dooth crosse the Neue or Nouius that commeth from Newstole
 hill, by Netherburgh, Hope (crossing there one rill from Castelton,
 another from Bradwell, and the third at Hathersage, from Stonie ridge
 hill) and so goeth on to Padleie, Stockehall, receiuing a rill by the
 waie from by west, to Stonie Middleton, and Baslow, and hauing here
 [Sidenote: Burbroke.]
 taken in the Burbrooke on the one side, and another from Halsop on the
 other, it goeth to Chatworth and to Rowseleie, where it is increased
 with the Wie comming from by west, and also a rill on the east, a little
 higher. But I will describe the Wie before I go anie further.

 [Sidenote: Wie.]
 The Wie riseth aboue Buxston well, and there is increased with the
 [Sidenote: Hawkeshow.]
 [Sidenote: Wile.]
 Hawkeshow, and the Wile brooke, whose heads are also further distant
 from the edge of Darbishire than that of Wie, and races somwhat longer,
 though neither of them be worthie to be accompted long. For the Wile,
 hauing two heads, the one of them is not farre aboue the place where
 Wilebecke abbeie stood, the other is further off by west, about
 Wilebecke towne: and finallie ioining in one they runne to Cuckneie
 village, where receiuing a becke that commeth downe from by west, it
 holdeth on two miles further, there taking in the second rill, and so
 [Sidenote: Rufford aliàs Manbecke.]
 resort to Rufford, or the Manbecke. Vnto this also doo other two rills
 repaire, wherof the one goeth through and the other hard by Maunsfield,
 of which two also this latter riseth west about foure miles, and runneth
 foorth to Clipston (three miles lower) and so likewise to Rufford,
 whereof I will speake hereafter. In the meane time to returne againe to
 the Wie. From Buxston well, it runneth to Staddon, Cowdale, Cowlow, New
 medow, Milhouses, Bankewell, and Haddon hall, beneath which it receiueth
 [Sidenote: Lathkell.]
 [Sidenote: Bradford.]
 the Lath kell, that runneth by Ouerhaddon, and the Bradford, both in one
 bottome after they be ioined in one at Alport. And this is the first
 great water that our Darwent dooth méet withall. Being therefore past
 the Rowsleies, the said Darwent goeth to Stancliffe, Darleie in the
 peake, Wensleie, Smitterton hall, and at Matlocke taketh in a rill by
 northeast, as it dooth another at Crumford that goeth by Boteshall.

 From Mattocke, it procéedeth to Watston, or Watsond, Well bridge,
 [Sidenote: Amber.]
 Alderwash, and ioineth with another streame called Amber comming in from
 by north by Amber bridge, whose description shall insue in this wise, as
 I find it. The head of Amber is aboue Edleston hall, or (as Leland
 saith) est of Chesterfield, and comming from thence by Middleton to
 Ogston hall, it taketh withall another brooke, descending from Hardwijc
 wood, by Alton and Streton. Thence it goeth to Higham, Brackenfield, and
 aboue Dale bridge meeteth with a brooke running from Hucknalward to
 [Sidenote: Moreton.]
 Shireland parke side, there crossing the Moreton becke, and so to
 Alferton, except I name it wrong. From Dale bridge it goeth by Wingfeld,
 to Hedge, Fritchlin, and so into Darwent, taking the water withall that
 descendeth from Swanswijc by Pentridge, as Leland doth remember. From
 this confluence likewise it runneth to Belper, where it méeteth with a
 rill comming from Morleie parke: thence to Makenie, and at Duffeld,
 [Sidenote: Eglesburne.]
 receiueth the Eglesburne, which ariseth about Wirkesworth or Oresworth,
 but in the same parish out of a rocke, and commeth in by Turnedich. From
 Duffeld, it passeth to Bradsall, Darleie abbeie, and at Darbie taketh in
 a rill comming from Mirkaston by Weston vnderwood, Kidleston and Merton.
 If a man should say that Darwent riuer giueth name to Darbie towne, he
 should not well know how euerie one would take it, and peraduenture
 therby he might happen to offend some. In the meane time I beleeue it,
 let other iudge as pleaseth them, sith my coniecture can preiudice none.
 To proceed therefore. From Darbie it runneth on by Aluaston, Ambaston,
 the Welles, and so into Trent, which goeth from hence to Sawleie, and
 [Sidenote: Sora, or Surus.]
 north of Thrumpton taketh in the Sore, a faire streame, and not worthie
 to be ouerpassed.

 It riseth in Leicestershire aboue Wigton, and thence goeth to
 Sharneford, Sapcote, and beneath Staunton taketh in a rill that commeth
 by Dounton and Broughton Astleie. Thence to Marleborow, and before it
 come to Eston, crosseth another on the same side (descending by Burton,
 Glen, Winstow, Kilbie and Blabie) then to Leircester towne, Belgraue,
 Burstall, Wanlip; and yer it come at Cussington or Cositon, crosseth the
 [Sidenote: Eie.]
 Eie, which riseth néere Occam aboue Bramston, going by Knawstow,
 [Sidenote: _Leland_ calleth one of these rilles Croco.]
 Somerbie, Pickwell, Whitesonden; and beneath (a litle) receiueth a rill
 on the right hand, from Coldnorton. Thence to Stapleford, & soone after
 crossing a brooke from aboue Sproxton, Coson, Garthorpe and Sarbie, it
 runneth to Wiuerbie, Brentingbie; and yer it come at Milton, meeteth
 with two other small rilles, from the right hand whereof one commeth
 from about Caldwell by Thorpe Arnold, and Waltham in the Would; the
 other from Skaleford ward, and from Melton goeth by Sisonbie, there
 méeting with another from northeast ouer against Kirbie Hellars, after
 [Sidenote: Warke, Vrke, or Wreke.]
 which time the name of Eie is changed into Warke or Vrke, and so
 continueth vntill it come at the Soure. From hence also it goeth to
 Asterbie, Radgale, Habie, Trussington, Ratcliffe; and soone after
 crosseth sundrie waters not verie farre in sunder, whereof one commeth
 from Oueston, by Twiford, Ashbie, and Gadesbie; another from Losebie, by
 Baggraue, and Crawston, and ioining with the first at Ouennihow, it is
 not long yer they fall into the Warke. The second runneth from
 Engarsbie, by Barkeleie, and Sison. But the third and greatest of the
 thrée, is a chanell increased with thrée waters, whereof one commeth
 from Norton by Burton, Kilbie, Foston and Blabie, the other from Dounton
 by Broughton and Astleie, and meéting with the third from Sapcoth, and
 stonie Staunton, they run togither by Narborow, and soone after ioining
 aboue Elston, with the first of the thrée, they go as one by Elston to
 Leircester, Belgraue, Wanlip, and aboue Cussington doo fall into the
 Warke, and soone after into the Soure. The Soure in like sort going from
 thence to mount Sorrell, & taking in another brooke southwest from
 Leircester forrest, by Glenfield, Austie, Thurcaston and Rodelie,
 ioineth with the Soure, which goeth from thence to mount Sorrell, and
 Quarendon (where it taketh in a water comming from Charnewood forrest,
 and goeth by Bradegate and Swithland) and then procéedeth to Cotes,
 Lughborow and Stanford, there also taking in one rill out of
 Nottinghamshire by northeast; and soone after another from southwest,
 comming from Braceden to Shepesheued, Garrington, & Dighlie grange, and
 likewise the third from Worthington, by Disworth, long Whitton, and
 Wathorne. Finallie, after these confluences, it hasteth to Sutton,
 Kingston, and Ratcliffe, and so into the Trent.

 These things being thus brought togither, and we now resuming the
 discourse of the same riuer, it dooth after his méeting with the Soure,
 [Sidenote: Erwash.]
 procéed withall to Barton, where it taketh in the Erwash, which riseth
 about Kirbie, and thence goeth to Selston, Wansbie, Codnor castell,
 Estwood, and crossing a water from Beuall, runneth to Coshall, Trowell
 (and there taking in another rill comming from Henor by Shipleie) it
 proceedeth on to Stapleford, long Eaton, and so into the Trent. This
 being doone it goeth to Clifton, and yer it come at Wilford, it méeteth
 with a brooke that passeth from Staunton by Bonnie and Rodington, and
 thence to Notingham, where it crosseth the Line, which riseth aboue
 Newsted; and passing by Papplewijc, Hucknall, Bafford, Radford and
 Linton, next of all to Thorpe & Farmdon, where it brancheth and maketh
 an Iland, and into the smaller of them goeth a brooke from Beuer
 castell, which rising betweene east Well and Eaton in Leircester is
 [Sidenote: Dene.]
 called the Dene, and from thence runneth by Bramston to Knipton, &
 beneath Knipton méeteth with a brooke that commeth by west of Croxston,
 and thence holdeth on with his course, betwéene Willesthorpe and Beuer
 castell aforesaid, and so to Bottesworth, Normanton, Killington,
 [Sidenote: Snite.]
 Shilton, there receiuing the Snite from by south (whose head is néere
 Clauston, & course from thence by Hickling, Langer, Whalton, Orston, and
 Flareborow) and yer long another comming from Bingham, and Sibthorpe.
 Thence our Trent runneth to Coxam, Hawton, Newarke castell, and so to
 Winthorpe, where the branches are reunited, and thence going on by Holme
 to Cromwell (and soone after taking in a brooke comming from Bilsthorpe,
 by Kersall, Cawnton, Norwell and Willowbie) to Carlton, and to Sutton,
 there making a litle Ile, then to Grinton, where it toucheth a streame
 on ech side, whereof one commeth from Morehouse by Weston & Gresthorpe,
 another from Langthorpe, by Collingham, and Bosthorpe. From hence
 likewise it passeth to Clifton, Newton, Kettlethorpe, Torkeseie, Knash,
 Gainsborow, Waltrith, Stockwith; and leauing Axholme on the left hand,
 it taketh withall Hogdike water out of the Ile, and so goeth foorth to
 Wildsworth, Eastferrie, Frusworth, Burringham, Gummeis, Hixburgh,
 Burton, Walcote, and at Ankerburie into the Humber, receiuing the swift
 Doue by the waie, which for his noblenesse is not to be ouerpassed,
 especiallie for that Anno 1536 Hen. 8, 28, it was (by Gods prouidence) a
 staie of great bloudshed like to haue fallen out betwéene the kings side
 and the rebelles of the north, in a quarrell about religion. For the
 [Sidenote: A miracle.]
 night before the battle should haue béene stricken, and without anie
 apparent cause (a little showre of raine excepted farre vnpossible vpon
 such a sudden to haue made so great a water) the said riuer arose so
 high, & ran with such vehemencie, that on the morow the armies could not
 ioine to trie & fight it out: after which a pacification insued, and
 those countries were left in quiet. Secondlie, the description hereof is
 not to be ouerpassed, bicause of the fine grasse which groweth vpon the
 banks thereof, which is so fine and batable, that there goeth a prouerbe
 vpon the same; so oft as a man will commend his pasture, to say that
 there is no better féed on Doue banke: that maketh it also the more

 [Sidenote: Doue.]
 The Doue therefore riseth in Yorkeshire among the Peke hilles, and
 hauing receiued a water comming by Ingbirchworth (where the colour
 thereof is verie blacke) it goeth to Pennistone, which is foure miles
 from the head: then by Oxspring to Thurgoland, and soone after (ioining
 by the waie with the Midhop water, that runneth by Midhop chappell, and
 Hondshelfe) it méeteth with another comming from Bowsterston chappell.
 Then goeth it by Waddesleie wood to Waddesleie bridge, and at Aluerton
 receiueth the Bradfeld water. Then passeth it to Crokes, and so to
 Sheffeld castell (by east whereof it receiueth a brooke from by south
 that commeth through Sheffeld parke.) Thence it procéedeth to Westford
 [Sidenote: Cowleie.]
 bridge, Briksie bridge; and southwest of Timsleie receiueth the Cowleie
 streame that runneth by Ecclefield. Next of all it goeth to Rotheram,
 [Sidenote: Rother.]
 where it méeteth with the Rother, a goodlie water, whose head is in
 Darbieshire about Pilsleie, from whence it goeth vnder the name of
 Doleie, till it come at Rotheram, by north Winfield church, Wingerworth,
 and Foreland hall, twelue miles from Rotheram, to Chesterford, where it
 [Sidenote: Iber.]
 [Sidenote: Brampton.]
 méeteth with the Iber, and Brampton water that commeth by Holme hall,
 both in one chanell. Thence it runneth to Topton castell, and yer long
 crossing one water comming from Dronefeld by Whittington on the one
 side, and the second from aboue Birmington on the other, it goeth
 through Stalie parke, and soone after méeteth with the Crawleie becke,
 whereof I find this note.

 [Sidenote: Crawleie.]
 The Crawleie riseth not farre from Hardwijc, and going by Stanesbie and
 Woodhouse, it receiueth aboue Netherthorpe, one water on the one side
 comming from the Old parke, and another from Barlborow hill on the
 other, that runneth not farre from Woodthorpe. After this confluence
 likewise they run as one into the Rother, which hasteth from thence to
 Eckington (there crossing a rill that runneth by Birleie hill) and so to
 [Sidenote: Gunno.]
 Kilmarsh, in the confines of Darbieshire, where it taketh in the Gunno
 from by east. Thence to Boughton, vniting it selfe therabout with
 [Sidenote: Mesebrooke.]
 another by west from Gledles, called Mesebrooke, which diuideth
 Yorkeshire from Darbieshire, and so runneth to Treton, Whiston, there
 taking in a rill from Aston, and so to Rotheram, where it méeteth with
 the Doue, and from whence our Doue (yéelding plentie of samon all the
 waie as it passeth) hasteth to Aldwarke, Swaiton, Mexburge, there taking
 in the Darne, which I will next describe, and staie with the Doue,
 vntill I haue finished the same. It riseth at Combworth, and so commeth
 about by Bretton hall, to Darton ward, where it crosseth a water that
 runneth from Gonthwake hall, by Cawthorne vnited of two heads. From
 hence it goeth to Burton grange, then to Drax, where it toucheth with a
 water from southwest, & then goeth to Derfield and Goldthorpe: but yer
 it come to Sprotborow, it vniteth it selfe with a faire riuer, increased
 by diuerse waters, before it come at the Doue, & whereinto it falleth
 (as I heare) northeast of Mexburgh. After this confluence likewise the
 Doue goeth by Sprotborow, to Warnesworth, Doncaster, Wheatleie, (there
 [Sidenote: Hampall.]
 méeting with the Hampall créeke on the northeast side, which riseth east
 of Kirbie) thence to Sandall, Kirke Sandall, Branwith ferrie, Stanford,
 Fishlake, and so to Thuorne or Thurne, where it crosseth the Idle (whose
 description followeth) and finallie into Trent, and so into the Humber.

 But before I deale with the description of the Idle, I will adde
 somewhat of the Rume, a faire water. For though the description thereof
 be not so exactlie deliuered me as I looked for; yet such as it is I will
 set downe, conferring it with Lelands booke, and helping their defect so
 much as to me is possible. It riseth by south of Maunsfield, fiue miles
 from Rumford abbeie, and when the streame commeth neere the abbeie, it
 casteth it selfe abroad and maketh a faire lake. After this it commeth
 [Sidenote: Budbie.]
 againe into a narrow channell, and so goeth on to Rumford village,
 [Sidenote: Gerberton.]
 carrieng the Budbie and the Gerberton waters withall. From thence, and
 with a méetlie long course, it goeth to Bawtrie or Vautrie, a market
 towne in Nottinghamshire, fiue miles from Doncaster, and so into the
 [Sidenote: Girt.]
 Trent. Beneath Rumford also commeth in the Girt, which goeth vnto
 Southwell milles, and so into the Trent. Now as concerning our Idle.

 [Sidenote: Idle.]
 The Idle, which some call Brier streame, riseth at Sutton in Ashfield,
 from whence it runneth to Maunsfield, Clipston & Allerton, where it
 taketh in a water that riseth in the forrest, one mile north of
 Bledworth, and runneth on by Rughford abbeie, till it come to Allerton.
 [Sidenote: Manbecke.]
 The forresters call this Manbecke, whereof Leland also speaketh, who
 describeth it in this maner. Manbrooke riseth somewhere about Linthirst
 wood, from whence it goeth to Blisthorpe, and so to Allerton. But to
 procéed. The Idle hauing taken in the Manbecke, it runneth to
 Bothomsall, by Boughton, & Perlethorpe: but yer it come there, it
 [Sidenote: Meding becke.]
 méeteth the Meding Maiden, or Midding brooke, which rising about
 Teuersall, goeth to Pleasleie, Nettleworth, Sawcan, Warsop, Budleie,
 Thursbie, Bothomsall, and so into the Idle. After this it proceedeth to
 Houghton, west Draiton, but yer it touch at Graunston or Gaunston, it
 [Sidenote: Wilie.]
 taketh in the Wilie, which commeth from Clowne, to Creswell, Holbecke,
 Woodhouse, Wilebecke, Normenton, Elsleie, Graunston, and so into the
 Idle. Being thus increased, the Idle runneth on to Idleton, Ordsall,
 Retford, Bollam, Tilneie, Matterseie abbeie, and so to Bawtrie, where it
 méeteth another from the shire Okes, that riseth aboue Geitford, passeth
 [Sidenote: Blith.]
 on to Worksop (or Radfurth) Osberton, Bilbie, and Blith, there vniting
 it selfe with thrée rilles in one bottome, whereof one commeth from
 Waldingwell to Careleton, and so thorough a parke to Blith towne,
 another from by west Furbecke thrée miles, and so to Blith: but the
 third out of the White water néere to Blith, and there being vnited they
 passe on to Scrobie, and so into the Idle.

 From hence it runneth on to Missen, to Sadlers bridge, and next of all
 [Sidenote: Sandbecke.]
 to Santoft, where it méeteth with the Sandbecke, which rising not farre
 from Sandbecke towne, passeth by Tickhill, Rosington bridge, Brampton,
 Rilholme, Lindholme, and one mile south of Santoft into the Idle water,
 which runneth from thence to Thorne, where it méeteth with the Doue, and
 so with it to Crowleie. Finallie, inuironing the Ile of Axeholme, it
 goeth vnto Garthorpe, Focorbie, & so into the Trent. Leland writing of
 the Wilie, Wile, or Gwilie (as some write it) saith thus therof. The
 Wile hath two heads, whereof one is not farre aboue the place where
 Wilbecke abbeie stood; the other riseth further off by west aboue
 Welbecke or Wilebecke towne: finallie ioining in one, they runne to
 Cuckeneie village, where crossing a becke that commeth in from by west,
 it holdeth on two miles further, there taking in the second rill, and so
 resort to Rufford. To this riuer likewise (saith he) doo two other
 waters repaire, whereof the one goeth hard by Maunsfield (rising foure
 miles from thence by west) and then commeth thrée miles lower to
 Rufford; the other (so far as I remember) goeth quite through the towne.



 Hauing in this maner described the Ouze, and such riuers as fall into
 the same: now it resteth that I procéed in my voiage toward the Thames,
 according to my former order. Being therefore come againe into the maine
 sea, I find no water of anie countenance or course (to my remembrance)
 [Sidenote: Ancolme.]
 till I come vnto the Ancolme a goodlie water, which riseth east of
 Mercate Rasing, and from thence goeth by middle Rasing. Then receiuing a
 short rill from by south, it runneth on vnder two bridges, by the waie,
 till it come to Wingall, northeast; where also it méeteth with another
 brooke, from Vsselbie that commeth thither by Vresbie, goeth by Cadneie
 (taking in the two rilles in one bottome, that descend from Howsham, and
 north Leiseie) and thence to Newsted, Glanford, Wardeleie, Thorneham,
 Applebie, Horslow, north Ferribie, and so into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Kilis.]
 Being past Ancolme, we go about the Nesse, and so to the fall of the
 water which commeth from Kelebie, by Cotham abbeie, Nersham abbeie,
 Thorneton, and leauing Coxhill by west, it falleth into the Ocean. The
 next is the fall of another brooke comming from Fleting, all alongst by
 Stallingburne. Then crossed we Grimsbie gullet, which issuing aboue
 Erebie commeth to Lasebie, the two Cotes, and then into the sea. After
 this we passed by another portlet, whose backwater descendeth from
 Balesbie by Ashbie, Briggesleie, Wath, and Towneie, and finallie to the
 next issue, before we come at Saltflete, which branching at the last,
 leaueth a prettie Iland wherein Comsholme village standeth. This water
 riseth short (as I heare) of Tathewell, from whence it goeth to Rathbie,
 Hallington, Essington, Lowth, Kidirington, Auingham, and then branching
 aboue north Somerton, one arme méeteth with the sea, by Grauethorpe, the
 other by north of Somercote.

 [Sidenote: Saltflete.]
 Saltflete water hath but a short course: for rising among the
 Cockeringtons, it commeth to the sea, at Saltflete hauen: howbeit the
 next vnto it is of a longer race, for it riseth (as I take it) at
 Cawthorpe paroch, and descendeth by Legburne, the Carletons, the west
 middle and east Saltfletes, and so into the Ocean. The water that riseth
 aboue Ormesbie and Dribie, goeth to Cawsbie, Swabie abbeie, Clathorpe,
 Belew, Tattle, Witherne, Stane, and northeast of Thetilthorpe into the
 maine sea.

 [Sidenote: Maplethorpe]
 Maplethorpe water riseth at Tharesthorpe, and going by Markeleie,
 Folethorpe, and Truthorpe, it is not long yer it méet with the Germane
 Ocean. Then come we to the issue that commeth from aboue the Hotoft, and
 thence to Mumbie chappell, whither the water comming from Claxbie,
 Willowbie, and Slouthbie (and whereinto another rill falleth) dooth
 runne, as there to doo homage vnto their lord and souereigne. As for
 Ingold mill créeke, I passe it ouer, and come straight to another water,
 descending from Burge by Skegnes. From hence I go to the issue of a
 faire brooke, which (as I heare) dooth rise at Tetford, and thence goeth
 by Somerbie, Bagenderbie, Ashwardbie, Sawsthorpe, Partneie, Ashbie, the
 Stepings, Thorpe croft, and so into the sea. As for Wainflete water, it
 commeth from the east sea, and goeth betwéene S. Maries & Alhallowes by
 Wainflete towne, and treading the path of his predecessors, emptieth his
 chanell to the maintenance of the sea.

 Now come I to the course of the Witham, a famous riuer, whereof goeth
 the biword, frequented of old, and also of Ancolme, which I before

   Ancolme ele, and Witham pike,
   Search all England and find not the like.

 [Sidenote: Lindis, Witham, Rhe.]
 Leland calleth it Lindis, diuerse the Rhe, and I haue read all these
 names my selfe: and thereto that the Lincolneshire men were called in
 old time Coritani, and their head citie Lindus, Lindon, or Linodunum, in
 which region also Ptolomie placeth Rage, which some take to be
 Notingham, except my memorie doo faile me. It riseth among the Wickhams,
 in the edge of Lincolnshire, and (as I take it) in south-Wickham paroch,
 from whence it goeth to Colsterworth, Easton, Kirkestoke Paunton, and
 Paunton Houghton, and at Grantham taketh in a rill from by southwest, as
 I heare. From Grantham it runneth to Man, Thorpe, Bolton, and Barneston,
 where crossing a becke from northeast, it procéedeth further southwest
 ward by Mereston, toward Faston (there also taking in a brooke that
 riseth about Denton, and goeth by Sidbrooke) it hasteth to Dodington,
 Clapale, Barmebie, Beckingham, Stapleford, Bassingham, Thursbie, and
 beneath Amburgh crosseth a water that commeth from Stogilthorpe by
 Somerton castell.

 After this confluence also, our Witham goeth still foorth on his waie to
 the Hickhams, Boltham, Bracebridge, and Lincolne it selfe, for which the
 Normans write Nicholl by transposition of the letters, or (as I may
 better saie) corruption of the word. But yer it come there, it maketh
 certeine pooles (whereof one is called Swan poole) and soone after
 diuiding it selfe into armes, they run both thorough the lower part of
 Lincolne, each of them hauing a bridge of stone ouer it, thereby to
 passe through the principall stréet: and as the bigger arme is well able
 to beare their fisher botes, so the lesser is not without his seuerall
 [Sidenote: Fosse dike.]
 commodities. At Lincolne also this noble riuer méeteth with the Fosse
 dike, whereby in great floods vessels may come from the Trents side to
 Lincolne. For betweene Torkseie, where it beginneth, and Lincolne citie,
 where it endeth, are not aboue seuen miles, as Leland hath remembred.
 Bishop Atwater began to clense this ditch, thinking to bring great
 vessels from Trent to Lincolne in his time: but sith he died before it
 was performed, there hath no man beene since so well minded as to
 prosecute his purpose. The course moreouer of this our streame
 following, from Lincolne to Boston is fiftie miles by water: but if you
 mind to ferrie, you shall haue but 24. For there are foure common places
 where men are ferried ouer; as Short ferrie, fiue miles from Lincolne,
 Tatersall ferrie, eight miles from Short ferrie, Dogdike ferrie a mile,
 Langreth ferrie fiue miles, and so manie finallie to Boston.

 But to go forward with the course of Lindis (whereof the whole prouince
 hath béene called Lindeseie) when it is past Lincolne, it goeth by
 Shepewash, Wassingburg, Fiskerton, and soone after taketh in sundrie
 riuers in one chanell, whereby his greatnesse is verie much increased.
 From this confluence it goeth to Bardolfe, and there receíuing a rill
 (descending from betweene Sotbie and Randbie, and going by Harton) it
 slideth foorth by Tupham to Tatersall castell, taking vp there in like
 sort thrée small rills by the waie, whereof I haue small notice as yet:
 and therefore I referre them vnto a further consideration to be had of
 them hereafter, if it shall please God that I may liue to haue the
 filing of these rude pamphlets yet once againe, & somewhat more leasure
 to peruse them than at this time is granted. Finallie, being past
 Tatersall, and Dogdike ferrie, the Witham goeth toward Boston, & thence
 into the sea. Thus haue I brieflie dispatched this noble riuer Witham.
 But hauing another note deliuered me thereof from a fréend, I will yéeld
 so farre vnto his gratification, that I will remember his trauell here,
 and set downe also what he hath written thereof, although the riuer be
 sufficientlie described alredie.

 [Sidenote: Witham.]
 Into Witham therefore from by north, and seuen miles beneath Lincolne,
 [Sidenote: Hake.]
 there falleth a faire water, the head whereof is at Hakethorne, from
 whence it goeth by Hanworth, Snarford, Resbie, Stainton, and at
 Bullington méeteth with a water on ech side, whereof one commeth from
 Haiton and Turrington, the other from Sudbrooke, and likewise beneath
 Birlings with the third comming from Barkeworth by Stansted, and ioining
 all in one, soone after it is not long yer it fall into the chanell of
 Witham, and so are neuer more heard of. There is also a brooke by
 southwest, that commeth from Kirbie to Cateleie, Billingams, and the
 [Sidenote: Bane.]
 Ferrie. At Tatersall it méeteth with the Bane, which riseth aboue Burgh,
 and néere vnto Ludford goeth downe to Dunnington, Stanigod, Hemmingsbie,
 Bamburgh, Fillington, Horne castell, (where it crosseth a rill from
 Belchworth) Thornton, Marton, Halton, Kirkebie, Comsbie, Tatersall, and
 so to Dogdike ferrie.

 Aboue Boston likewise it taketh in a water comming from Lusebie by
 Bolingbrooke, Stickeford, Stickneie, Sibbeseie and Hildrike. And to
 Boston towne it selfe doo finallie come sundrie brookes in one chanell,
 called Hammond becke, which rising at Donesbie, runneth on to
 Wrightbold, where it casteth one arme into Holiwell water. Thence it
 hasteth toward Dunnington, receiuing four brookes by the waie, whereof
 the first commeth from Milthorpe, the second from Fokingham, called
 [Sidenote: Bollingborow.]
 [Sidenote: Sempringham.]
 Bollingborow, or (after some, I wote not vpon what occasion) Sempringham
 water, the third from Bridge end, the fourth from Sempringham, and
 afterwards the maine streame is found to run by Kirton holme, and so
 into the Witham. Into the Wiland likewise falleth the Holiwell, which
 riseth of a spring that runneth toward the east from Haliwell to Onebie,
 Esonden, Gretford, and so to Catbridge, where it receiueth another
 rising at Witham and west of Manthorpe, and the second comming from Laund,
 and so run from thence togither to Willesthorpe and Catbridge, and then
 into the Haliwell, which after these confluences goeth to Tetford and
 Eastcote, where it meeteth with a draine, comming from Bourne, and so
 through the fennes to Pinchbecke, Surfleet, and Fosdike, where it
 méeteth with the Welland, in the mouth of the Wash, as I haue noted vnto

 [Sidenote: Wiland.]
 Hauing thus set foorth the riuers that fall into the Witham, now come we
 to the Wiland or Welland, wherevnto we repaire after we be past Boston,
 as drawing by litle and litle toward the Girwies, which inhabit in the
 fennes (for Gir in the old Saxon speach dooth signifie déepe fennes and
 marishes) and these beginning at Peterborow eastward, extend themselues
 by the space of thrée score miles & more, as Hugh of Peterborow writeth.
 This streame riseth about Sibbertoft, and running betwéene Bosworth and
 Howthorpe, it goeth to Féedingworth, Merson, Bubberham, Trussell,
 [Sidenote: Braie.]
 Herborow (receiuing there the Braie, which commeth from Braiebrooke
 castell) to Bowton, Weston, Wiland, Ashleie, Medburne, Rokingham, and
 Cawcot, where a riueret called little Eie méeteth withall, comming from
 east Norton by Alexstone, Stocke, Fasten, and Drie stocke. From Cawcot
 it goeth to Gritto, Harringworth, Seton, Wauerlie, Duddington, Collie
 [Sidenote: Warke.]
 Weston, Eston, and there ioineth with the third called Warke, not far
 from Ketton, which commeth from Lie by Preston, Wing, Lindon, Luffenham,
 [Sidenote: Brooke water.]
 &c. Thence it goeth on by Tinwell, to Stanford (crossing the Brooke
 [Sidenote: Whitnell.]
 water, and Whitnelbecke, both in one bottome) and from Stanford by
 Talington, Mareie, to Mercate Deeping, Crowland (where it almost meeteth
 with the Auon) then to Spalding, Whapland, and so into the sea.

 Leland writing of this Wiland, addeth these words which I will not omit,
 sith in mine opinion they are worthie to be noted, for better
 consideration to be had in the said water and his course. The Wiland
 (saith he) going by Crowland, at Newdrene diuideth it selfe into two
 [Sidenote: Newdrene.]
 branches, of which one goeth vp to Spalding called Newdrene, and so into
 [Sidenote: South.]
 the sea at Fossedike Stow: the other named the South into Wisbech. This
 latter also parteth it selfe two miles from Crowland, & sendeth a rill
 [Sidenote: Writhlake.]
 called Writhlake by Thorneie, where it méeteth with an arme of the Nene,
 that commeth from Peterborow, and holdeth course with the broad streame,
 till it be come to Murho, six miles from Wisbech, where it falleth into
 the South.

 [Sidenote: Shéepees eie.]
 Out of the South in like sort falleth another arme called Sheepes eie
 and at Hopelode (which is fouretéene miles from Lin) did fall into the
 sea. But now the course of that streame is ceased, wherevpon the
 inhabitants susteine manie grieuous flouds, bicause the mouth is
 stanched, by which it had accesse before into the sea. Hitherto Leland.
 Of the course of this riuer also from Stanford, I note this furthermore
 out of another writing in my time. Being past Stanton (saith he) it
 goeth by Burghleie, Vffington, Tallington, Mareie, Déeping, east
 Deeping, and comming to Waldram hall, it brancheth into two armes,
 whereof that which goeth to Singlesole, receiueth the Nene out of
 Cambridgeshire, and then going by Dowesdale, Trekenhole, and winding at
 last to Wisbech, it goeth by Liuerington, saint Maries, and so into the
 sea. The other arme hasteth to Crowland, Clowthouse, Bretherhouse,
 Pikale, Cowbecke and Spalding. Here also it receiueth the Baston dreane,
 Longtoft dreane, Déeping dreane, and thence goeth by Wickham into the
 sea, taking withall on the right hand sundrie other dreanes. And thus
 farre he.

 Next of all, when we are past these, we come to another fall of water
 into the Wash, which descendeth directlie from Whaplade dreane to
 Whaplade towne in Holland: but bicause it is a water of small
 importance, I passe from thence, as hasting to the Nene, of both the
 more noble riuer: and about the middest thereof in place is a certeine
 swallow, so déepe and so cold in the middest of summer, that no man dare
 diue to the bottome thereof for coldnesse, and yet for all that in
 winter neuer found to haue béene touched with frost, much lesse to be
 [Sidenote: Auon.]
 couered with ise. The next therefore to be described is the Auon,
 [Sidenote: Nene.]
 otherwise called Nene, which the said author describeth after this
 maner. The Nene beginneth foure miles aboue Northampton in Nene méere,
 where it riseth out of two heads, which ioine about Northampton. Of this
 riuer the citie and countrie beareth the name, although we now pronounce
 Hampton for Auondune, which errour is committed also in south Auondune,
 as we may easilie see. In another place Leland describeth the said riuer
 after this maner. The Auon riseth in Nene méere field, and going by
 Oundale and Peterborow, it diuideth it selfe into thrée armes, whereof
 one goeth to Horneie, another to Wisbech, the third to Ramseie: and
 afterward being vnited againe, they fall into the sea not verie farre
 from Lin. Finallie, the descent of these waters leaue here a great sort
 of Ilands, wherof Elie, Crowland, and Mersland, are the chiefe. Hitherto

 Howbeit, because neither of these descriptions touch the course of this
 riuer at the full, I will set downe the third, which shall supplie
 whatsoeuer the other doo want. The Auon therefore arising in Nenemere
 field, is increased with manie rilles, before it come at Northampton, &
 one aboue Kings thorpe, from whence it goeth to Dallington, and so to
 Northhampton, where it receiueth the Wedon. And here I will staie, till
 [Sidenote: Vedunus.]
 I haue described this riuer. The Wedon therefore riseth at Faulesse in
 master Knightlies pooles, and in Badbie plashes also are certeine
 springs that resort vnto this streame. Faulesse pooles are a mile from
 Chareton, where the head of Chare riuer is, that runneth to Banberie.
 There is but an hill called Alberie hill betwéene the heads of these two

 From the said hill therefore the Wedon directeth his course to Badbie,
 Newenham, Euerton, Wedon, betwixt which and Floretowne, it receiueth the
 [Sidenote: Florus.]
 Florus (a pretie water rising of foure heads, whereof the one is at
 Dauentrie, another at Watford, the third at long Bucke, the fourth aboue
 Whilton) and then passeth on to Heiford, Kislingberie, Vpton, and so to
 Northhampton, where it falleth into the Auon, receiuing finallie by the
 [Sidenote: Bugius.]
 waie the Bugbrooke water at Heiford, Patshall water néere Kislingberie,
 and finallie Preston water beneath Vpton, which running from Preston by
 Wootton, méeteth at the last with Milton rill, and so fall into Auon.
 Now to resume the tractation of our Auon. From Northhampton therefore it
 runneth by Houghton, great Billing, Whitstone, Dodington, and
 Willingborow, where we must staie a while: for betweene Willingborow and
 [Sidenote: Kilis.]
 Higham ferries, it receiueth a pretie water comming from about Kilmarsh,
 which going by Ardingworth, Daisborow, Rusheton, Newton, Gaddington,
 Boughton, Warketon, Kettering, Berton, and Burton, méeteth there with
 [Sidenote: Rother.]
 Rothwell water, which runneth west of Kettering to Hisham, the greater
 Haridon, and then into the Auon.

 Being therfore past Burton, our maine streame goeth to Higham Ferries,
 Artleborow, Ringsted, Woodford, and (méeting thereby with Cranford rill)
 [Sidenote Ocleie.]
 to Thraxton, north whereof it ioineth also with the Ocleie water, that
 commeth from Sudborow and Lowicke, to old Vmkles, Waden ho, Pilketon,
 Toke (where it taketh in the Liueden becke) and so to Oundell,
 Cotterstocke, Tansoner, and betweene Tothering and Warmington receiueth
 [Sidenote: Corbie.]
 the Corbie water, which rising at Corbie, goeth by Weldon, Denethap,
 Bulwich, Bletherwijc, Fineshed, Axthorpe, Newton, Tothering, and so into
 the Auon. After this, the said Auon goeth to Elton, Massittgton,
 Yerwell, Sutton, Castor, Allerton, and so to Peterborow, where it
 diuideth it selfe into sundrie armes, and those into seuerall branches
 and draines, among the fennes and medowes, not possible almost to be
 numbred, before it méet with the sea on the one side of the countrie,
 and fall into the Ouze on the other.

 [Sidenote: Isis 3.]
 The Ouze, which Leland calleth the third Isis, falleth into the sea
 betwéene Mersland & Downeham. The chiefe head of this riuer ariseth
 néere to Stanes, from whence it commeth to Brackleie (sometime a noble
 towne in Northampton shire, but now scarselie a good village) and there
 taking in on the left hand one water comming from the parke betwéene
 [Sidenote: Sisa.]
 Sisam and Astwell (which runneth by Whitfield and Tinweston) and another
 [Sidenote: Imelus.]
 on the right from Imleie, it goeth on by Westbirie, Fulwell, water
 Stretford, Buckingham, and Berton, beneath which towne the Erin falleth
 into it, whereof I find this short description to be inserted here. The
 [Sidenote: Erin.]
 Erin riseth not farre from Hardwijc in Northamptonshire, from hence it
 goeth by Heth, Erinford, Godderington, Twiford, Steeple Cladon, & yer it
 [Sidenote: Garan.]
 come at Padbirie, méeteth with the Garan brooke descending from
 Garanburge, and so they go togither by Padbirie, till they fall into the
 Ouze, which carieth them after the confluence to Thorneton bridge (where
 they crosse another fall of water comming from Whitlewood forrest by
 Luffeld, Lecamsted and Foscot) and so to Beachampton, Culuerton, Stonie
 Stratford, and Woluerton.

 [Sidenote: Verus.]
 Here the Ouze méeteth with a water (called, as Leland coniectureth, the
 Vere or Were) on the left hand, as you go downewards, that commeth
 betwéene Wedon and Wexenham in Northamptonshire, and goeth by Towcester,
 and Alderton, and not farre from Woluerton and Hauersham into the
 foresaid Ouze, which goeth also from hence to Newportpaganell, where in
 like sort I must staie a while till I haue described another water,
 [Sidenote: Cle aliàs Claius.]
 named the Clée, by whose issue the said streame is not a little
 increased. This riuer riseth in the verie confines betwéene Buckingham
 and Bedfordshires, not farre from Whippesnade, and going on toward the
 northwest, by Eaton and Laiton, it commeth to Linchlade, where it
 entreth whollie into Buckinghamshire, and so goeth on by Hammond,
 Brickle, Fennie Stratford, Simpson, Walton and Middleton, beneath which
 [Sidenote: Saw.]
 it receiueth the Saw from aboue Halcot, and so goeth on till it meet
 with the Ouze néere vnto Newport, as I haue said. Being vnited
 therefore, we set forward from the said towne, and follow this noble
 riuer, to Lathbirie, Thuringham, Filgrane, Lawndon, Newington, Bradfield
 on the one side, and Turueie on the other, till it come at length to
 Bedford after manie windlesses, and then méeteth with another streame,
 which is increased with so manie waters, that I was inforced to make an
 imagined staie here also, and view their seuerall courses, supposing my
 selfe to looke downe from the highest steeple in Bedford, whence (as
 best meane to view anie countrie wheresoeuer) I note the same as

 Certes on the east side, where I began this speculation, I saw one that
 came from Potton, and met withall néere Becliswade: another that grew of
 two waters, wherof one descended from Baldocke, the other from Hitchin,
 which ioined beneth Arleseie, and thence went to Langford and Edworth.
 [Sidenote: These rise not far from Michelborow
 & one of them in Higham parke.]
 The third which I beheld had in like sort two heads, wherof one is not
 farre from Wood end, the other from Wooburne (or Howburne), and ioining
 about Flitwijc, they go to Flitton (where they receiue Antill brooke)
 and so by Chiphill, and Chicksand, they come to Shafford, from whence
 taking the aforsaid Langford water with them, they go foorth by
 Becliswade, Sandie, Blumham, and neere vnto Themisford are vnited with
 the Ouze. And now to our purpose againe.

 [Sidenote: Verus or the Were.]
 After this the Ouze goeth by Berkeford, to Winteringham (méeting there
 with the Wareslie becke) and so runneth to S. Neotes (or saint Nedes, in
 [Sidenote: Stoueus.]
 old time Goluesburg, as Capgraue saith In vita Neoti) to Paxston,
 Offordes, and so to Godmanchester, in old time called Gumicester, which
 (as it should séeme) hath béene a towne of farre greater countenance
 than at this present it is; for out of the ruines thereof much Romane
 coine is found, and sometimes with the image of C. Antius which hath
 long haire, as the Romans had before they receiued barbars into their
 citie, and therevnto the bones of diuerse men of farre greater stature
 than is credible to be spoken of in these daies. But what stand I vpon
 these things? From hence therfore our water goeth on to Huntingdon,
 Wilton, saint Iues, Holiwell, and Erith, receiueth in the meane time the
 [Sidenote: Stoueus.]
 [Sidenote: Helenus.]
 [Sidenote: Elmerus.]
 Stow (néere vnto little Paxton) and likewise the Ellen, and the Emmer,
 in one chanell a little by west of Huntingdon.

 Finallie, the maine streame spreading abroad into the Fennes, I cannot
 tell into how manie branches, neither how manie Ilets are inforced by
 the same; although of Iles, Marshland, Ancarig or Ancarie be the chiefe,
 and of which this later is called Crowland (as Crowland also hight
 thornie A cruda terra, or store of bushes saith Hugo le Blanc) sometime
 growing in the same, and Ancarijc because sundrie Ancres haue liued &
 borne great swaie therein. But howsoeuer this case standeth, this is
 certeine, that after it hath thus delited it selfe with ranging a while
 about the pleasant bottoms & lower grounds, it méeteth with the Granta,
 from whence it goeth with a swift course vnto Downeham. Betwéene it also
 and the Auon, are sundrie large meeres or plashes, by southwest of
 Peterborow full of powts and carpes, whereof Whittleseie méere, and
 [Sidenote: Riuelus.]
 Ramseie méere (whereinto the Riuall falleth), that commeth from aboue
 Broughton, Wiston, and great Riuelleie) are said to be greatest. Of all
 [Sidenote: Granta.]
 the riuers that run into this streame, that called Granta (whereof the
 whole countie in old time was called Grantabrycshire, as appéereth by
 the register of Henrie prior of Canturburie) is the most noble and
 excellent, which I will describe euen in this place, notwithstanding
 that I had earst appointed it vnto my second booke. But for somuch as a
 description of Ouze and Granta were deliuered me togither, I will for
 his sake that gaue them me, not separate them now in sunder.

 The verie furthest head and originall of this riuer is in Henham, a
 large parke belonging to the earle of Sussex, wherein (as the townesmen
 saie) are foure springs that run foure sundrie waies into the maine sea.
 Leland sought not the course of this water aboue Newport pond, and
 therefore in his commentaries vpon the song of the swan, he writeth
 thereof after this maner insuing. Although doctor Iohn Caius the learned
 physician, and some other are of the opinion, that this riuer comming
 from Newport, is properlie to be called the Rhée: but I may not so
 easilie dissent from Leland, whose iudgement in my mind is by a great
 deale the more likelie. Harken therefore what he saith.

 The head of Grantha or Granta, is in the pond at Newport, a towne of the
 east Saxons, which going in a bottome beside the same, receiueth a
 pretie rill, which in the middest thereof dooth driue a mill, and
 descendeth from Wickin Bonhant, that standeth not farre from thence.
 Being past Newport, it goeth alongst in the lower ground, vntill it come
 to Broke Walden, west of Chipping Walden (now Saffron Walden) hard by
 the lord Awdleis place, where the right honorable Thomas Howard with his
 houshold doo soiourne, and sometime stood an abbeie of Benedictine
 moonks, before their generall suppression. From Awdleie end it goeth to
 Littleburie, the lesse and greater Chesterfords, Yealdune, Hincstone,
 [Sidenote: Babren.]
 Seoston or Sawson, and néere vnto Shaleford receiueth the Babren that
 commeth by Linton, Abbington, Babrenham, and Stapleford: and so going
 forward it commeth at the last to Trompington, which is a mile from
 Cambridge. But yer it come altogither to Trompington, it méeteth with
 [Sidenote: Rhée.]
 the Barrington water, as Leland calleth it, but some other the Rhee (a
 common name to all waters in the Saxon speech) whereof I find this
 description, to be touched by the waie. The Rhée riseth short of Ashwell
 in Hertfordshire, and passing under the bridge betweene Gilden Mordon
 and Downton, and leauing Tadlow on the west side (as I remember) it
 goeth toward Crawden, Malton, Barrington, Haselingfield, and so into
 Granta, taking sundrie rills with him from south and southwest, as
 Wendie water southwest of Crawden, Whaddon brooke southwest of Orwell,
 Mildred becke southwest of Malton, and finallie the Orme which commeth
 out of Armington or Ormendum well, and goeth by Fulmere and Foxton, and
 falleth into the same betweene Barrington and Harleston, or Harston; as
 they call it.

 Now to procéed with our Granta. From Trompington on the one side, and
 Grantcester, on the other, it hasteth to Cambridge ward, taking the
 Burne with it by the waie, which descendeth from a castell of the same
 denomination, wherein the Picotes and Peuerels sometime did inhabit.
 Thence it goeth by sundrie colleges in Cambridge, as the queenes
 college, the kings college, Clare hall, Trinitie college, S. Johns, &c:
 vnto the high bridge of Cambridge, and betwéene the towne and the
 [Sidenote: Sturus.]
 castell to Chesterton, and receiuing by and by the Stoure, or Sture (at
 whose bridge the most famous mart in England is yearlie holden and kept)
 from Chesterton it goeth to Ditton, Milton, and yer long méeting with
 two rilles (from Bottesham and Wilberham, in one bottome) it runneth to
 [Sidenote: Bulbecke.]
 Horningseie, & Water Bech: and finallie here ioining with the Bulbecke
 water, it goeth by Dennie, and so forth into the Ouze, fiftéene miles
 from Cambridge, as Leland hath set downe. And thus much of the third
 Isis or Ouze, out of the aforesaid author: wherevnto I haue not onelie
 added somewhat of mine owne experience, but also of other mens notes,
 whose diligent obseruation of the course of this riuer hath not a little
 helped me in the description of the same. Now it resteth that we come
 neerer to the coast of Northfolke, and set foorth such waters as we
 passe by vpon the same, wherein I will deale so preciselie as I may: and
 so farre will I trauell therein, as I hope shall content euen the curious
 reader: or if anie fault be made, it shall not be so great, but that
 after some trauell in the finding, it shall with ease be corrected.

 The first riuer that therefore we come vnto, after we be past the
 confluence of Granta, and the Ouze, and within the iurisdiction of
 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 Northfolke, is called the Burne. This streame riseth not verie farre
 from Burne Bradfield, aboue the greater Wheltham, and from thence it
 goeth on to Nawnton, Burie, Farneham Martin, Farneham Alhallowes,
 Farneham Genouefa, Hengraue, Flemton, Lackeford, Icklingham, and to
 [Sidenote: Dale.]
 Milden hall: a little beneath which, it meeteth with the Dale water,
 that springeth not farre from Catilege, and going by Asheleie, Moulton
 (a benefice as the report goeth not verie well prouided for) to Kenford,
 Kenet, Bradingham, Frekenham, it falleth at the last not farre from
 Iselham into the Burne, from whence they go togither as one into the
 Ouze. With the Burne also there ioineth a water comming from about
 Lidgate, a little beneath Iselham, and not verie far from Mildenhall.

 [Sidenote: Dunus.]
 The Dune head, and rising of Wauenheie, are not much in sunder: for as
 it is supposed, they are both not farre distant from the bridge betwéene
 Loph[=a]m and Ford, wherby the one runneth east and the other west, as I
 haue béene informed. The Dune goeth first of all by Feltham, then to
 Hopton, & to Kinets hall, where it meeteth with a water c[=o]ming out of
 a lake short of Banham (going, by Quiddenham, Herling, Gasthorpe) and so
 on, both in one chanell, they run to Ewston. Here they méet in like
 sort, with another descending from two heads, wherof the one is néere
 vnto Pakenham, the other to Tauestocke, as I heare. Certes these heads
 ioine aboue Ilesworth, not farre from Stow Langtoft, from whence they go
 to Yxworth, Thorpe, Berdwell, Hunnington, Fakenham, and so into the Dune
 at Ewston; as I said. From hence also they hasten to Downeham, which of
 this riuer dooth séeme to borow his name. South Rée rill I passe ouer as
 not worthie the description, because it is so small.

 [Sidenote: Bradunus fortè.]
 Next vnto this riuer on the south side is the Braden, or Bradunus, which
 riseth at Bradenham, and goeth by Necton, north Peckenham, south
 Peckenham, Kirsingham, Bedneie, Langford, Igbor, Munford, North Old,
 Stockebridge, Ferdham, Helgie, and so into the Ouze. The néerest vnto
 [Sidenote: Linus.]
 this is another which riseth about Lukeham, and from thence commeth to
 Lexham, Massingham, Newton, the castell Acre, Acres, Nerboe, Pentneie,
 Wrongeie, Rounghton (which at one time might haue béene my liuing if I
 would haue giuen sir Thomas Rugband money inough, but now it belongeth
 to Gundeuill and Caius college in Cambridge) Westchurch, and so to
 Linne. As so dooth also another by north of this, which commeth from the
 [Sidenote: Congunus.]
 east hilles by Congenham, Grimston, Bawseie, Gaiwood, whereof let this
 suffice. And now giue eare to the rest sith I am past the Ouze. Being
 [Sidenote: Rising.]
 past the mouth or fall of the Ouze, we méet next of all with the Rising
 chase water, which Ptolomie (as some thinke) doth call Metaris, and
 [Sidenote: Ingell.]
 descendeth from two heads, and also the Ingell that commeth from about
 Snetsham. From hence we go by the point of saint Edmund, and so hold on
 our course till we come vnto the Burne, which falleth into the sea by
 south from Waterden, and going betwéene the Crakes to Burnham Thorpe,
 and Burnham Norton, it striketh at the last into the sea; east of
 Burnham Norton a mile at the least, except my coniecture doo faile me.
 [Sidenote: Glouius.]
 The Glow or Glowie riseth not far from Baconsthorpe, in the hundred of
 Tunsted; & going by and by into Holt hundred, it passeth by Hunworth,
 Thornage, Glawnsford, Blackneie, Clare, and so into the sea, receiuing
 there at hand also a rill by east, which descendeth from the hilles
 lieng betwéene Killing towne and Waiburne.

 [Sidenote: Wantsume.]
 The Wantsume riseth in Northfolke at Galesend in Holt hundred, from
 whence it goeth to Watersend, Townton, Skelthorpe, Farneham, Pensthorpe,
 Rieburg, Ellingham, and Billingsford. And here it receiueth two waters
 in one bottome, of which the first goeth by Stanfield and Beteleie, the
 other by Wandling and Gressonhall, and so run on ech his owne waie, till
 they méet at Houndlington, southwest of Billingsford with the Wantsume.
 From hence they go all togither to Below, Ieng, Weston, and Moreton; but
 [Sidenote: Yocus.]
 yer it come to Moreton, it méeteth with the Yowke, which (issuing about
 Yexham) goeth by Matteshall and Barrow. After this the said Wantsume
 goeth on by Ringland, and so to Norwich the pontificall sée of the bishop,
 to whome that iurisdiction apperteineth, which seemeth by this memoriall
 yet remaining in the corrupted name of the water, to be called in old
 time Venta, or (as Leland addeth) Venta Icenorum. But to procéed.
 Beneath Norwich also it receiueth two waters in one chanell, which I
 will seuerallie describe, according to their courses, noting their
 confluence to be at Bixleie, within two miles of Norwich, except my
 annotation deceiue me. The first of these hath two heads wherof one
 mounteth vp southwest of Whinborow, goeth by Gerneston, and is the verie
 [Sidenote: Hierus.]
 [Sidenote: Gerus.]
 Hiere or Yare that drowneth the name of Wantsume, so soone as he meeteth
 withall. The other head riseth at Wood in Mitford hundred, and after
 confluence with the Hiere at Caston, going by Brandon, Bixton, Berford,
 Erleham, Cringlefield (not farre from Bixleie as I said) doth méet with
 his companion, which is the second to be described as followeth. It hath
 two heads also that méet northwest of Therstane; and hereof the one
 commeth from Findon hall, by Wrenningham from about Wotton, by Hemnall,
 Fretton, Stretton, and Tasborow, till they ioine at Therston, as I gaue
 notice aforehand. From Therston therefore they go togither in one to
 Newton, Shotesham, Dunston, Castor, Arminghale, Bixleie, Lakenham, and
 Trowse, and then fall into the Wantsume beneath Norwich, which hereafter
 is named Hiere. The Hiere, Yare, or Gare therefore proceeding in his
 voiage, as it were to salute his grandame the Ocean, goeth from thence
 by Paswijc, Surlingham, Claxton, and Yardleie; and here it meeteth
 againe with another riueret descending from about Shotesham to
 Therstane, Shedgraue, Hockingham, and so into Gare or Yare, whereof
 Yardleie the towne receiueth denomination. After this it goeth to
 [Sidenote: Wauen.]
 Frethorpe, and aboue Burgh castell meeteth with the Waueneie, and so
 into the sea.

 [Sidenote: Bure.]
 Into this riuer also falleth the Bure, which rising at a towne of the
 same name, passeth by Milton, Buresdune, Corpesteie, Marington,
 Blekeling, Bure, Alesham, Brampton, Buxton, Horsted, Werxham bridge,
 [Sidenote: Thurinus.]
 Horning, Raneworth; and beneath Bastewijc receiueth the Thurine which
 riseth aboue Rolesbie; then to Obie, Clipsbie (there also receiuing
 another from Filbie) Rimham, Castor, and by Yarmouth into the Ocean. The
 Waueneie afore mentioned, riseth on the south side of Brisingham, and is
 a limit betweene Northfolke and Suffolke. Going therefore by Dis,
 Starton, not farre from Octe, it méeteth with the Eie, which riseth
 néere Ockold, or betwéene it and Braisworth, & goeth on by Brome, Octe,
 [Sidenote: Wauen.]
 and so into the Waueneie. From thence our Waueneie runneth by Silam,
 Brodish, Nedam, Harleston, Rednam, Alborow, Flixton, Bungeie,
 Sheepemedow, Barsham, Beckles, Albie, & at Whiteacre (as I heare)
 parteth in twaine, or receiuing Milford water (which is most likelie) it
 [Sidenote: Einus.]
 goeth along by Somerleie, Hormingfléet, S. Olaues, (there receiuing the
 [Sidenote: Fritha.]
 Frithstane or Fristan brooke, out of low or litle England) Fristan &
 Burgh castell, where it méeteth with the Hiere, & from thencefoorth
 accompanieth it (as I said) vnto the sea. Willingham water commeth by
 Hensted, Einsted, or Enistate, and falleth into the sea by south of

 [Sidenote: Cokelus.]
 The Cokell riseth south southwest of Cokeleie towne in Blithe hundred,
 and neere vnto Hastelworth it meeteth with the rill that commeth from
 Wisset, and so going on togither by Wenhaston, and Bliborow, it falleth
 into the sea at an hauen betwéene Roidon and Walderswicke. A little rill
 runneth also thereinto from Eston by Sowold, and another from Dunwich,
 by Walderswijke: and hereby it wanteth little that Eston Nesse is not
 cut off and made a pretie Iland.

 [Sidenote: Ford.]
 The Ford riseth at Poxford, and going by Forderleie, and Theberton, it
 [Sidenote: Orus.]
 falleth at last into Mismere créeke. Into the Oreford hauen runneth one
 water comming from Aldborow ward, by a narrow passage from the north
 [Sidenote: Fromus.]
 into the south. By west wherof (when we are past a little Ile) it
 receiueth the second, descending from betwéene Talingston and Framingham
 in Plomes hundred; which c[=o]ming at last to Marleford, meeteth with a
 [Sidenote: Glema.]
 rill southwest of Farnham called the Gleme (that commeth by Rendlesham,
 the Gleinhams) and so passing foorth, it taketh another at Snapesbridge,
 comming from Carleton by Saxmundham, Sternefield & Snape. Then going to
 [Sidenote: Iken, or Ike.]
 Iken (where it méeteth with the third rill at the west side) it fetcheth
 a compasse by Sudburne east of Orford, and so into the hauen. Next vnto
 this by west of Orford, there runneth vp another créeke by Butleie,
 whereinto the waters comming from Cellesford, and from the Ike, doo run
 both in one bottome. And thus much of Orford hauen.

 [Sidenote: Deua.]
 The Deue riseth in Debenham, in the hundred of Hertesméere, and from
 thence goeth to Mickford, Winston, Cretingham, Lethringham, Wickham,
 hitherto still creeping toward the south: but then going in maner full
 south, it runneth neere vnto Ash, Rendlesham, Vfford, Melton, and
 Woodbridge, beneath which it receiueth on the west side, a water comming
 of two heads, wherof one is by north from Oteleie, and the other by
 south from Henleie, which ioining west of Mertelsham, go vnto the said
 towne and so into the Deue, east of Mertelsham abouesaid. From thence
 the Deue goeth by Waldringfield and Henleie, and méeting soone after
 [Sidenote: Clarus fons.]
 with Brightwell brooke, it hasteth into the maine sea, leauing Bawdseie
 on the east, where the fall therof is called Bawdseie hauen.

 [Sidenote: Vrus.]
 Vre riseth not farre from Bacton, in Hertesmeere hundred, and thense
 descendeth into Stow hundred by Gipping Newton, Dagworth, Stow (beneath
 which it méeteth with a water comming from Rattlesden, by one house) and
 so going on to Nedeham (through Bosméere and Claidon hundreds) to
 Blakenham, Bramford, Ypswich, receiuing beneath Stoke, which lieth ouer
 against Ypswich, the Chatsham water, that goeth by Belsted, and so into
 the Vre, at the mouth whereof is a maruellous deepe and large pit,
 whereof some marriners saie that they could neuer find the bottome, and
 therefore calling it a well, and ioining the name of the riuer withall,
 it commeth to passe that the hauen there is called Vrewell, for which in
 these daies we doo pronounce it Orwell. Into this hauen also the Sture
 or Stoure hath readie passage, which remaineth in this treatise next of
 all to be described.

 [Sidenote: Sturus.]
 The Sture or Stoure parteth Essex from Suffolke, as Houeden saith, and
 experience confirmeth. It ariseth in Suffolke, out of a lake neere vnto
 a towne called Stourméere. For although there come two rilles vnto the
 same, whereof the one descendeth from Thirlo, the Wratings and Ketton,
 the other from Horshed parke, by Hauerill, &c: yet in summer time they
 are often drie, so that they cannot be said to be perpetuall heads vnto
 the aforesaid riuer. The Stoure therefore (being, as I take it, called
 by Ptolomie, Edomania, for thereon toward the mouth standeth a prettie
 towne named Manitrée, which carieth some shadow of that ancient name
 thereof vnto this daie, if my coniecture be any thing) ariseth at
 Stouremeere, which is a poole conteining twentie acres of ground at the
 least, the one side whereof is full of alders, the other of réeds,
 wherin the great store of fish there bred, is not a little succoured.
 From this méere also it goeth to Bathorne bridge, to Stocke clare,
 Cawndish, Pentlo, Paules Beauchampe, Milford, Foxerth, Buresleie,
 Sudburie, Bures, Boxsted, Stoke, Nailand, Lanham, Dedham, Strotford,
 east Barfold, Brampton, Manitree, Catwade bridge, and so into the sea,
 where in the verie fall also it ioineth with Orwell hauen, so néere that
 of manie they are reputed as one, and parted but by a shingle that dooth
 run along betwéene them: neither dooth it passe cléere in this voiage,
 but as it were often occupied by the waie, in receiuing sundrie brookes
 and rilles not héere to be omitted.

 For on Essex side it hath one from Hemsted, which goeth by Bumsted, and
 Birdbrooke: another rising short of Foxerth, that runneth by water
 Beauchampe, Brundon, and falleth into the same at Badlington, west of
 Sudburie: and the third that glideth by Horkesleie, and méeteth withall
 west of Boxsted. On the north, or vpon Suffolke side, it receiueth one
 descending from Catiledge, by Bradleie, Thurlow, Wratting, Kiddington,
 and at Hauerell falleth into this Sture. The second descendeth northward
 from Posling field, and ioineth therewith east of Clare. It was in old
 time called Cicux or Ceuxis, and it méeteth with the Stoure in such wise
 that they séeme to make a right angle, in the point almost wherof
 standeth a ruinous castell. Howbeit as sithence which time this water
 (in some mens iudgement) hath béene named Clarus (not so much for the
 greatnesse as clearnesse of the streame) even so the Stoure it selfe was
 also called Ens as they say, and after their confluence the whole
 Clarens, which giueth denomination to a duchie of this Iland of no small
 fame and honour. But these are but méere fables, sith the word Clare is
 deriued from the towne, wherein was an house of religion erected to one
 Clara, and Clarens brought from the same, because of an honour the
 prince had in those parties: which may suffice to know from whence the
 name proceedeth. The third ariseth of two heads, whereof one commeth
 from Wickham brooke, the other from Chedbar in Risbie hundred, and
 ioining about Stanfield, it goeth by Hawton, Somerton, Boxsted,
 Stansted, and north of Foxerth falleth into Stoure. The fourth issueth
 from betwéene the Waldingfields, and goeth by Edwardstone, Boxsted,
 Alington, Polsted, Stoke, and so at south Boxsted falleth into the same.
 The fift riseth northwest of Cockefield, and goeth to Cockefield,
 [Sidenote: Kettle baston.]
 Laneham, Brimsleie, Midling, and receiuing Kettle Baston water southwest
 of Chelsworth (and likewise the Breton that commeth from Bretenham, by
 Hitcheham, and Bisseton stréet on the south east of the same towne) it
 goeth in by Nedging, Aldham, Hadleie, Lainham, Shellie, Higham, and so
 into the Stoure. The sixt is a little rill descending southwest from
 Chappell. The seuenth riseth betweene Chappell and Bentleie, and going
 betwéene Tatingston, and Whetsted, Holbrooke, and Sutton, it falleth at
 length into Stoure, and from thence is neuer heard of.

 [Sidenote: Ocleie.]
 As for Ocleie Drill, that riseth betweene Ocleie, and Wikes parkes, and
 so goeth into the Stoure, on Essex side, west of Harwich, and east of
 Rée Ile; I passe it ouer, because it is of it selfe but a rill, and not
 of anie greatnesse, till it come to the mill aboue Ramseie bridge, where
 I was once almost drowned (by reason of the ruinous bridge which leadeth
 ouer the streame being there verie great) as an arme of the sea that
 continuallie ebbeth & floweth. Next vnto this, we came to another that
 [Sidenote: Mosa.]
 runneth south of Beaumont by Mosse, and falleth into the sea about the
 middest of the Baie, betwixt Harwich and the Naze. Betwixt the Naze also
 and the mouth of Colne, is another rill, which riseth at little Bentleie,
 [Sidenote: Claco.]
 and thence goeth to Tendring thorpe, through Clacton parke by great
 Holland, and east of little Holland, into the déepe sea.

 [Sidenote: Colunus.]
 The Colne hath three heads, whereof one is at Ouington that goeth by
 Tilberie, and east of Yeldam falleth into the chiefe head which riseth
 about Redgewell in Essex, from whence also it goeth to Yeldam and
 Hedingham, otherwise called Yngham: also Hedningham or Heuedingham, [*]
 [Sidenote: * Sic.]
 or Heuedingham of the superioritie which accrued therevnto, because the
 chiefe lords of the same from time to time kept residence in the towne.
 For Heued or Hed signifieth The chiefe, in the old English language,
 which in the name of this and manie other townes and villages yet
 standing in England cannot easilie be forgotten. The third falleth in
 south of Yeldam, and being once met all in one chanell, and called the
 Colne, it goeth (as I said) to Hedningham, Hawsted, Erles Colne, Wakes
 Colne, Fordon, Bardfold, Colchester, in old time Camalodunum, and so
 into the sea at Brickleseie. Some thinke that Colchester and Camalodunum
 are sundrie cities and situat in diuerse places, whereby Maldon (or
 Ithancester out of whose ruines the said towne of Maldon was erected)
 should rather be Camalodunum than Colchester, but hereof I cannot iudge.
 Indeed if (as Leland saith) Maldon should be written Malodunum, it were
 a likelihood that there assertions should be probable. Some reason also
 may be gathered for the same out of Dion, and such as make the Thames
 mouth to take his beginning at Colchester water. But I dare not presume
 to conclude any thing hereof, least I should séeme rashlie to take hold
 of euerie coniecture. This I relie vpon rather as a more certeintie,
 that in the first edition of this treatise I was persuaded, that the sea
 entring by the Colne made thrée seuerall passages fr[=o] thence into the
 land: but now I vnderstand that these are seuerall entrances and
 streames, of which the Colne is one, another is the Salcote water, which
 commeth in beneath the Stroud (a causeie that leadeth vnto Merseie Ile,
 ouer which the sea méeteth with a contrarie course) and the third the
 faire arme that floweth vnto Maldon, and all these thrée haue their
 falles either ouer against or néere vnto the aforesaid Ile, which at a
 low water is not halfe a mile from the shore. Into the Colne or Colunus
 also (whereof Leland thinketh Colchester to take his name, and not A
 colonia Romanorum, although I may not consent to him herein) doo run
 manie salt creekes beneath Fingering ho, of whose names sith I doo not
 know, nor whether they be serued with anie backewaters or not, I giue
 ouer to intreat anie further & likewise of their positions. Into that of
 Maldon runneth manie faire waters, whereof I will saie so much as I know
 to be true in maner by experience.

 [Sidenote: Gwin or Pant.]
 There is a pretie water that beginneth néere vnto Gwinbach or Winbeche
 church in Essex, a towne of old, and yet belonging to the Fitzwaters,
 taking name of Gwin, which is beautifull or faire, & Bache that
 signifieth a wood: and not without cause, sith not onelie the hilles on
 ech side of the said rillet, but all the whole paroch hath sometime
 abounded in woods; but now in manner they are vtterlie decaied, as the
 like commoditie is euerie where, not onelie thorough excessiue building
 for pleasure more than profit, which is contrarie to the ancient end of
 building; but also for more increase of pasture & commoditie to the
 lords of the soile, through their sales of that emolument, whereby the
 poore tenants are inforced to buie their fewell, and yet haue their
 rents in triple maner inhanced.) This said brooke runneth directlie from
 thence vnto Radwinter, now a parcell of your lordships possessions in
 those parts, descended from the Chamberleins, who were sometime chéefe
 owners of the same. By the waie also it is increased with sundrie pretie
 springs, of which Pantwell is the chéefe (whereof some thinke the whole
 brooke to be named Pant) and which (to saie the truth) hath manie a
 leasing fathered on the same. Certes by the report of common fame it
 hath béene a pretie water, and of such quantitie, that botes haue come
 in time past from Bilie abbeie beside Maldon vnto the moores in
 Radwinter for corne. I haue heard also that an anchor was found there
 neere to a red willow, when the water-courses by act of parlement were
 surueied and reformed throughout England, which maketh not a little with
 the aforesaid relation. But this is strangest of all, that a lord
 sometime of Winbech (surnamed the great eater, because he would breake
 his fast with a whole calfe, and find no bones therein as the fable
 goeth) falling at contention with the lord Iohn of Radwinter, could
 worke him none other iniurie, but by stopping vp the head of Pantwell,
 to put by the vse of a mill which stood by the church of Radwinter, and
 was serued by that brooke abundantlie. Certes I know the place where the
 mill stood, and some posts thereof doo yet remaine. But sée the malice
 of mankind, whereby one becommeth a woolfe vnto the other in their
 mischeeuous moodes. For when the lord saw his mill to be so spoiled, he
 in reuenge of his losse, brake the necke of his aduersarie, when he was
 going to horsebacke, as the constant report affirmeth. For the lord of
 Radwinter holding a parcell of his manour of Radwinter hall of the
 Fitzwaters, his sonne was to hold his stirrop at certeine times when he
 should demand the same. Shewing himselfe therefore prest on a time to
 doo his said seruice, as the Fitzwater was readie to lift his leg ouer
 the saddle, he by putting backe his foot, gaue him such a thrust that he
 fell backward, and brake his necke: wherevpon insued great trouble, till
 the matter was taken vp by publike authoritie; and that seruile office
 conuerted into a pound of pepper, which is trulie paid to this daie. But
 to leaue these impertinent discourses, and returne againe to the springs
 whereby our Pant or Gwin is increased. There is likewise another in a
 pasture belonging to the Grange, now in possession of William Bird
 esquier, who holdeth the same in the right of his wife, but in time past
 belonging to Tilteie abbeie. The third commeth out of the yard of one of
 your lordships manors there called Radwinter hall. The fourth from Iohn
 Cockswets house, named the Rotherwell, which running vnder Rothers
 bridge, méeteth with the Gwin or Pant on the northwest end of Ferrants
 meade, southeast of Radwinter church, whereof I haue the charge by your
 honours fauourable preferment.

 I might take occasion to speake of another rill which falleth into the
 Rother from Bendish hall: but bicause it is for the most part drie in
 summer I passe it ouer. Yet I will not omit to speake also of the manor
 which was the chiefe lordship sometime of a parish or hamlet called
 Bendishes, now worne out of knowledge, and vnited partlie to Radwinter,
 and partlie to Ashdon. It belonged first to the Bendishes gentlemen of a
 verie ancient house yet extant, of which one laieng the said manour to
 morgage to the moonks of Feuersham, at such time as K. Edward the third
 went to the siege of Calis, thereby to furnish himselfe the better toward
 the seruice of his prince, it came to passe that he staied longer beyond
 the sea than he supposed. Wherevpon he came before his daie to confer
 with his creditors, who commending his care to come out of debt, willed
 him in friendlie maner not to suspect anie hard dealing on their
 behalfes, considering his businesse in seruice of the king was of it
 selfe cause sufficient, to excuse his delaie of paiment vpon the daie
 assigned. Herevpon he went ouer againe vnto the siege of Calis. But when
 the daie came, the moonks for all this made seisure of the manour, and
 held it continuallie without anie further recompense, maugre all the
 friendship that the aforesaid Bendish could make. The said gentleman
 also tooke this cousening part in such choler, that he wrote a note yet
 to be séene among his euidences, whereby he admonisheth his posteritie
 to beware how they trust either knaue moonke or knaue frier, as one of
 the name and descended from him by lineall descent hath more than once
 informed me. Now to resume our springs that méet and ioine with our

 [Sidenote: Froshwell.]
 The next is named Froshwell. And of this spring dooth the whole hundred
 beare the name, & after this confluence the riuer it selfe whervnto it
 falleth (from by north) so farre as I remember. Certes, all these,
 sauing the first and second, are within your lordships towne aforesaid.
 The streame therefore running from hence (& now, as I said, called
 Froshwell, of Frosh, which signifieth a frog) hasteth immediatlie vnto
 old Sandford, then through new Sandford parke, and afterward with full
 streame (receiuing by the waie, the Finch brooke that commeth thorough
 Finchingfield) to Shalford, Bocking, Stifted, Paswijc, and so to
 Blackewater, where the name of Froshwell ceaseth, the water being from
 hencefoorth (as I heare) commonlie called Blackwater, vntill it come to
 Maldon, where it falleth into the salt arme of the sea that beateth vpon
 the towne; and which of some (except I be deceiued) is called also Pant:
 and so much the rather I make this conjecture, for that Ithancester
 stood somewhere vpon the banks thereof, & in the hundred of Danseie,
 whose ruines (as they saie) also are swalowed vp by the said streame,
 which can not be verified in our riuer that runneth from Pantwell, which
 at the mouth and fall into the great current, excéedeth not (to my
 coniecture) aboue one hundred foot. But to returne to our Pant, alias
 the Gwin. From Blackwater it goeth to Coxall, Easterford, Braxsted and
 [Sidenote: Barus.]
 Wickham, where it méeteth with the Barus, and so going togither as one,
 they descend to Heiebridge, and finallie into the salt water aboue
 Maldon, and at hand as is aforesaid. As for the Barus, it riseth in a
 statelie parke of Essex called Bardfield, belonging to sir Thomas Wroth
 whilest he liued, who hath it to him and his heires males for euer, from
 the crowne. Being risen, it hasteth directlie to old Saling Brainetrée,
 crossing a rillet by the waie comming from Raine, blacke Norleie, white
 Norleie, Falkeburne, Wittham, and falleth into the Blackewater beneath
 Braxsted on the south.

 [Sidenote: Chelmer.]
 Beside this, the said Pant or Gwin receiueth the Chelme or Chelmer,
 which ariseth also in Wimbech aforesaid, where it hath two heads: of
 which the one is not farre from Brodockes (where master Thomas Wiseman
 esquier dwelleth) the other nigh vnto a farme called Highams in the same
 paroch, and ioining yer long in one chanell, they hie them toward
 Thacsted vnder Prowds bridge, méeting in the waie with a rill comming
 from Boiton end, whereby it is somewhat increased. Being past Thacsted,
 it goeth by Tilteie, and soone after receiueth one rill which riseth on
 [Sidenote: Lindis.]
 the north side of Lindsell, & falleth into the Chelmer by northeast at
 Tilteie aforesaid, & another c[=o]ming from southwest, rising southeast
 from Lindsell at much Eiston. From thence then holding on still with the
 course, it goeth to Candfield the more, Dunmow, litle Dunmow, Falsted,
 Lies, both Walthams, Springfield, and so to Chelmeresford. Here vpon the
 south side I find the issue of a water that riseth fiue miles (or
 thereabouts) south and by west of the said towne, from whence it goeth
 to Munasing, Buttesburie (there receiuing a rill from by west, to
 Ingatstone, Marget Inge, Widford bridge, Writtle bridge, and so to
 Chelmeresford (crossing also the second water that descendeth from
 [Sidenote: Roxford.]
 Roxford southwest of Writtle by the waie) whereof let this suffice.

 From hence the Chelmer goeth directlie toward Maldon by Badow, Owting,
 Woodham water, Bilie, and so to Blackwater northwest of Maldon,
 receiuing neuerthelesse yer it come fullie thither, a becke also that
 [Sidenote: Lée.]
 goeth from Lée parke, to little Lées, great Lées, Hatfield, Peuerell,
 Owting, and so into Blackwater (whereof I spake before) as Maldon
 streame dooth a rill from by south ouer against saint Osithes, and also
 another by Bradwell. After which the said streame growing also to be
 verie great, passeth by the Tolshunts, Tollesbie, and so foorth into the
 maine sea neere vnto Marseie: betwéene which fall and the place where
 Salute water entreth into the land, Plautus abode the comming of
 Claudius sometime into Britaine, when he being hardlie beeset, did send
 vnto him for aid and spéedie succour, who also being come did not onelie
 rescue his legat, but in like manner wan Colchester, and put it to the
 spoile, if it be Camalodunum.

 [Sidenote: Burne.]
 The Burne riseth somewhere about Ronwell, and thence goeth to Hull
 bridge, south Fambridge, Kirkeshot ferrie, and so to Foulnesse. And as
 this is the short course of that riuer, so it brancheth, and the south
 arme thereof receiueth a water comming from Haukewell, to great
 Stanbridge, and beneath Pakesham dooth méet by south with the said arme,
 and so finish vp his course, as we doo our voiage also about the coast
 of England.

 Thus haue I finished the description of such riuers and streames as fall
 into the Ocean, according to my purpose, although not in so precise an
 order and manner of handling as I might, if information promised had
 been accordinglie performed; or others would, if they had taken the like
 in hand. But this will I saie of that which is here done, that from the
 Solueie by west, which parteth England & Scotland on that side; to the
 Twede, which separateth the said kingdoms on the east: if you go
 backeward, contrarie to the course of my description, you shall find it
 so exact, as beside a verie few by-riuers, you shall not need to vse
 anie further aduise for the finding and falles of the aforesaid streames.
 For such hath beene my helpe of maister Sackfords cardes, and conference
 with other men about these, that I dare pronounce them to be perfect and
 exact. Furthermore, this I haue also to remember, that in the courses of
 our streames, I regard not so much to name the verie towne or church, as
 the limits of the paroch. And therefore if I saie it goeth by such a
 towne, I thinke my dutie discharged, if I hit vpon anie part or parcell
 of the paroch. This also hath not a little troubled me, I meane the
 euill writing of the names of manie townes and villages: of which I haue
 noted some one man, in the description of a riuer, to write one towne
 two or thrée manner of waies, whereby I was inforced to choose one (at
 aduenture most commonlie) that séemed the likeliest to be sound in mine
 opinion and iudgement.

 Finallie, whereas I minded to set downe an especiall chapter of ports
 and créeks, lieng on ech coast of the English part of this Ile; and had
 prouided the same in such wise as I iudged most conuenient: it came to
 passe, that the greater part of my labour was taken from me by stealth,
 and therefore as discouraged to meddle with that argument, I would haue
 giuen ouer to set downe anie thing therefore at all: and so much the
 rather, for that I sée it may prooue a spurre vnto further mischéefe, as
 things come to passe in these daies. Neuerthelesse, because a little
 thereof is passed in the beginning of the booke, I will set downe that
 parcell thereof which remaineth, leauing the supplie of the rest either
 to my selfe hereafter, (if I may come by it) or to some other that can
 better performe the same.



 It maie be that I haue in these former chapters omitted sundrie hauens
 to be found vpon the shore of England, and some of them serued with
 backe waters, through want of sound and sufficient information from such
 as haue written vnto me of the same. In recompense whereof I haue
 thought good to adde this chapter of ports and creekes, whereby (so
 farre as to me is possible) I shall make satisfaction of mine
 ouersights. And albeit I cannot (being too too much abused by some that
 haue béereft me of my notes in this behalfe) bring my purpose to passe
 for all the whole coast of England round about, from Berwike to the
 Solue: yet I will not let to set downe so much as by good hap remaineth,
 whereby my countriemen shall not altogither want that benefit, hoping in
 time to recouer also the rest, if God grant life and good successe

 [Sidenote: Northumberland.]
 In Northumberland therefore we haue Berwike, Holie Iland, Bamborow,
 Bedwell, Donstanborow, Cocket Iland, Warkeworth, Newbiggin, Almow,
 Blithes nuke, and Tinmouth hauen.

 [Sidenote: Durham.]
 In the bishoprijc, Sonderland, Stocketon, Hartlepoole, These.

 [Sidenote: Yorkeshire.]
 In Yorkeshire, Dapnam sands, Steningreene, Staies, Runswike, Robinhoods
 baie, Whitbie, Scarborow, Fileie, Flamborow, Bricklington, Horneseie
 becke, Sister kirke, Kelseie, Cliffe, Pattenton, Holmes, Kenningham,
 Pall, Hidon, Hulbrige, Beuerlie, Hull, Hasell, Northferebie, Bucke
 créeke, Blacke cost, Wrethell, Howden.

 [Sidenote: Lincolneshire.]
 In Lincolneshire, Selbie, Snepe, Turnebrige, Rodiffe, Catebie,
 Stockwith, Torkeseie, Gainsborow, Southferebie, Barton a good point,
 Barrow a good hauen, Skatermill a good port, Penningham, Stalingborow a
 good hauen, Guimsbie a good port, Clie, March chappell, Saltfléete,
 Wilgripe, Mapleford, saint Clements, Wenfléete, Friscon, Toft, Skerbike,
 Boston, Frompton, Woluerton, Fossedike a good hauen.

 [Sidenote: Northfolke.]
 In Northfolke, Linne a good hauen, Snatchham, Hitchham, Desingham good,
 Thunstone, Thorneham good, Brankester good, Burnham good, with diuers
 townes and villages thereto belonging, Welles good, Strikeie, Marston,
 Blakeleie towne, Withon Claie, Blakelie hauen good, Salthouse créeke,
 Sheringham hith, Roughton, Cromer, Beston, Trinningham, Mounsleie,
 Bromwall, Haseborow, Wakesham, Eckelles, Winterton, Custer, Helmesleie,
 Okell, Vpton, Waibridge, Yarmouth, good all the waie to Norwich, with
 diuerse villages on the riuer side.

 [Sidenote: Suffolke.]
 In Suffolke, Becles, Bongeie, Southton, Corton, Gorton, Laistow a good
 port, Kirtill, Pakefield, Kasseldon, Bliborow, Coffe hith, Eston,
 Walderswijc, Donewich, Swold hauen, Sisewell, Thorpe, Alborow, Orford a
 good hauen, Balseie good, Felixstow, Colneie, Sproten, Ypswich,
 Downambridge good, Pinnemill, Shoteleie, Cataweie, Barfold.

 [Sidenote: Essex.]
 In Essex we haue Dedham, Maning trée, Thorne, Wrabbesnes, Ramseie,
 Harwich, Douercourt, Handford, Okeleie, Kirbie, Thorpe, Brichwill,
 Walton mill, Walton hall, Ganfléete, Newhauen good, S. Osithes, Bentleie
 good, Bricleseie, Thorlington (where good ships of a hundred tun or more
 be made) Alsford, Wiuenhall, Colchester, Cold hith, Rough hedge,
 Fingering ho, east Merseie, west Merseie, Salcot, Goldanger, Borow,
 Maldon, Stanesgate, Sudmester, S. Peters, Burnham, Crixseie, Aldon,
 Clements gréene, Hulbridge, Pacleston, Barling, litle Wakering, much
 Wakering, south Sudburie, Wakeringham, Melton, Papper hill, or Lee,
 Beamfléete, Pidseie range, Fobbing, Hadleie good, Mucking, Stanford, and
 Tilberie ferrie.

 [Sidenote: Kent.]
 In Kent, Harling, Cliffe, Tanfleete, Stokehow, Snodlond, Melhall,
 Maidston, Ailesford, New hith, Rochester, Gelingham, Reinham, Vpchurch,
 Halsted, Quinborow, Milton, Feuersham, Whitstaple, Herne, Margate,
 Brodestaier, Ramsgate; and manie of these good créekes: also Sandwich,
 Douer, Hide, reasonable ports, although none of the best.

 [Sidenote: Sussex.]
 In Sussex we haue Smalade with the créekes adioining to the same, Ridon,
 Appledoure, Rie a good hauen, and Winchelseie nothing at all inferiour
 to the same, and so manie shires onelie are left vnto me at this time,
 wherefore of force I must abruptlie leaue off to deale anie further with
 the rest, whose knowledge I am right sure would haue been profitable:
 and for the which I hoped to haue reaped great thankes at the hands of
 such sea-faring men, as should haue had vse hereof.

 _Desunt cætera._



 [Sidenote: The aire of Britaine.]
 The aire (for the most part) throughout the Iland is such, as by reason
 in maner of continuall clouds, is reputed to be grosse, and nothing so
 pleasant as that is of the maine. Howbeit, as they which affirme these
 things, haue onelie respect to the impediment or hinderance of the sunne
 beames, by the interposition of the clouds and oft ingrossed aire: so
 experience teacheth vs, that it is no lesse pure, wholesome, and
 commodious, than is that of other countries, and (as Cæsar himselfe
 hereto addeth) much more temperate in summer than that of the Galles,
 from whom he aduentured hither. Neither is there anie thing found in the
 aire of our region, that is not vsuallie séene amongst other nations
 lieng beyond the seas. Wherefore, we must néeds confesse, that the
 situation of our Iland (for benefit of the heauens) is nothing inferiour
 to that of anie countrie of the maine, where so euer it lie vnder the
 open firmament. And this Plutarch knew full well, who affirmeth a part
 of the Elisian fields to be found in Britaine, and the Iles that are
 situate about it in the Ocean.

 [Sidenote: The soile.]
 The soile of Britaine is such, as by the testimonies and reports both of
 the old and new writers, and experience also of such as now inhabit the
 same, is verie fruitfull; and such in deed as bringeth foorth manie
 commodities, whereof other countries haue néed, and yet it selfe (if fond
 nicenesse were abolished) néedlesse of those that are dailie brought from
 other places. Neuerthelesse it is more inclined to féeding and grasing,
 than profitable for tillage, and bearing of corne; by reason whereof the
 countrie is wonderfullie replenished with neat, and all kind of cattell:
 and such store is there also of the same in euerie place, that the fourth
 part of the land is scarselie manured for the prouision and maintenance
 of graine. Certes this fruitfulnesse was not vnknowne vnto the Britons
 long before Cæsars time, which was the cause wherefore our predecessors
 liuing in those daies in maner neglected tillage, and liued by féeding
 and grasing onelie. The grasiers themselues also then dwelled in
 mooueable villages by companies, whose custome was to diuide the ground
 amongst them, and each one not to depart from the place where his lot
 [Sidenote: Criacht.]
 laie (a thing much like to the Irish Criacht) till by eating vp of the
 countrie about him, he was inforced to remooue further, and séeke for
 better pasture. And this was the British custome (as I learne) at first.
 It hath béene commonlie reported, that the ground of Wales is neither so
 fruitfull as that of England, neither the soile of Scotland so
 bountifull as that of Wales: which is true, for corne and for the most
 part: otherwise, there is so good ground in some parts of Wales, as is
 in England, albeit the best of Scotland be scarselie comparable to the
 meane of either of both. Howbeit, as the bountie of the Scotish dooth
 faile in some respect, so dooth it surmount in other; God and nature
 hauing not appointed all countries to yéeld foorth like commodities.

 But where our ground is not so good as we would wish, we haue (if néed
 be) sufficient help to cherish our ground withall, and to make it more
 fruitfull. For beside the compest that is carried out of the husbandmens
 yards, ditches, ponds, doouehouses, or cities and great townes: we haue
 with vs a kind of white marle, which is of so great force, that if it be
 cast ouer a péece of land but once in thrée score years, it shall not
 need of anie further compesting. Hereof also dooth Plinie speake, lib.
 [Sidenote: Marle.]
 17, cap. 6, 7, 8, where he affirmeth that our marle indureth vpon the
 earth by the space of fourescore yeares: insomuch that it is laid vpon
 the same but once in a mans life, whereby the owner shall not need to
 trauell twise in procuring to commend and better his soile. He calleth
 it Marga, and making diuerse kinds thereof, he finallie commendeth ours,
 and that of France, aboue all other, which lieth sometime a hundred foot
 déepe, and farre better than the scattering of chalke vpon the same, as
 the Hedni and Pictones did in his time, or as some of our daies also doo
 practise: albeit diuerse doo like better to cast on lime, but it will
 not so long indure, as I haue heard reported.

 [Sidenote: Plentie of riuers.]
 There are also in this Iland great plentie of fresh riuers and streams,
 as you haue heard alreadie, and these throughlie fraught with all kinds
 of delicate fish accustomed to be found in riuers. The whole Ile
 [Sidenote: Hilles.]
 likewise is verie full of hilles, of which some (though not verie manie)
 are of exceeding heigth, and diuerse extending themselues verie far from
 the beginning; as we may see by Shooters hill, which rising east of
 London, and not farre from the Thames, runneth along the south side of
 the Iland westward, vntill it come to Cornewall. Like vnto these also
 are the Crowdon hils, which though vnder diuers names (as also the other
 from the Peke) doo run into the borders of Scotland. What should I
 speake of the Cheuiot hilles, which reach twentie miles in length? of
 [Sidenote: (*) Here lacks.]
 the blacke mounteines in Wales, which go from (*) to (*) miles at the
 least in length? of the Cle hilles in Shropshire, which come within
 foure miles of Ludlow, and are diuided from some part of Worcester by
 the Teme? of the Grames in Scotland, and of our Chiltren, which are
 eightéene miles at the least from one end of them, which reach from
 Henlie in Oxfordshire to Dunstable in Bedfordshire, and are verie well
 replenished with wood and corne? notwithstanding that the most part
 yéeld a sweet short grasse, profitable for shéepe. Wherein albeit they
 of Scotland doo somewhat come behind vs, yet their outward defect is
 inwardlie recompensed, not onelie with plentie of quarries (and those of
 sundrie kinds of marble, hard stone, and fine alabaster) but also rich
 mines of mettall, as shall be shewed hereafter.

 [Sidenote: Winds.]
 In this Iland likewise the winds are commonlie more strong and fierce,
 than in anie other places of the maine, which Cardane also espied: and
 that is often séene vpon the naked hilles, not garded with trées to
 beare and kéepe it off. That grieuous inconuenience also inforceth our
 [Sidenote: Building.]
 nobilitie, gentrie, and communaltie, to build their houses in the
 vallies, leauing the high grounds vnto their corne and cattell, least
 the cold and stormie blasts of winter should bréed them greater
 annoiance: whereas in other regions each one desireth to set his house
 aloft on the hill, not onlie to be seene a farre off, and cast forth his
 beames of statelie and curious workemanship into euerie quarter of the
 countrie; but also (in hot habitations) for coldnesse sake of the aire,
 sith the heat is neuer so vehement on the hill top as in the vallie,
 because the reuerberation of the sunne beames either reacheth not so
 farre as the highest, or else becommeth not so strong as when it is
 reflected upon the lower soile.

 [Sidenote: Husbandrie amended.]
 But to leaue our buildings vnto the purposed place (which
 notwithstanding haue verie much increased, I meane for curiositie and
 cost, in England, Wales, and Scotland, within these few yeares) and to
 returne to the soile againe. Certeinelie it is euen now in these our
 daies growne to be much more fruitfull, than it hath béene in times
 past. The cause is for that our countriemen are growne to be more
 painefull, skilfull, and carefull through recompense of gaine, than
 heretofore they haue béene: insomuch that my Synchroni or time fellows
 can reape at this present great commoditie in a little roome; whereas of
 late yeares, a great compasse hath yéelded but small profit, and this
 onelie through the idle and negligent occupation of such, as dailie
 manured and had the same in occupieng. I might set downe examples of
 these things out of all the parts of this Iland, that is to saie, manie
 of England, more out of Scotland, but most of all out of Wales: in which
 two last rehearsed, verie little other food and liuelihood was wont to
 be looked for (beside flesh) more than the soile of it selfe, and the
 cow gaue; the people in the meane time liuing idelie, dissolutelie, and
 by picking and stealing one from another. All which vices are now (for
 the most part) relinquished, so that each nation manureth hir owne with
 triple commoditie, to that it was before time.

 [Sidenote: Pasture.]
 The pasture of this Iland is according to the nature and bountie of the
 soile, whereby in most places it is plentifull, verie fine, batable, and
 such as either fatteth our cattell with speed, or yéeldeth great
 abundance of milke and creame: whereof the yellowest butter and finest
 chéese are made. But where the blue claie aboundeth (which hardlie
 drinketh vp the winters water in long season) there the grasse is
 spearie, rough, and verie apt for brushes: by which occasion it commeth
 nothing so profitable vnto the owner as the other. The best pasture
 ground of all England is in Wales, & of all the pasture in Wales that of
 Cardigan is the cheefe. I speake of the same which is to be found in the
 mounteines there, where the hundred part of the grasse growing is not
 eaten, but suffered to rot on the ground, whereby the soile becommeth
 matted, and diuerse bogges and quicke moores made withall in long
 continuance: because all the cattell in the countrie are not able to eat
 it downe. If it be to be accompted good soile, on which a man may laie a
 wand ouer night, and on the morrow find it hidden and ouergrowen with
 grasse: it is not hard to find plentie thereof in manie places of this
 land. Neuertheless, such is the fruitfulnes of the aforsaid countie that
 it farre surmounteth this proportion, whereby it may be compared for
 batablenesse with Italie, which in my time is called the paradise of the
 world, although by reason of the wickednesse of such as dwell therein it
 may be called the sinke and draine of hell: so that whereas they were
 woont to saie of vs that our land is good but our people euill, they did
 but onlie speake it; whereas we know by experience that the soile of
 Italie is a noble soile, but the dwellers therein farre off from anie
 vertue or goodnesse.

 [Sidenote: Medowes.]
 Our medowes, are either bottomes (whereof we haue great store, and those
 verie large, bicause our soile is hillie) or else such as we call land
 meads, and borowed from the best & fattest pasturages. The first of them
 are yearelie & often ouerflowen by the rising of such streames as passe
 through the same, or violent falles of land-waters, that descend from
 the hils about them. The other are seldome or neuer ouerflowen, and that
 is the cause wherefore their grasse is shorter than that of the
 bottomes, and yet is it farre more fine, wholesome, and batable, sith
 the haie of our low medowes is not onelie full of sandie cinder, which
 breedeth sundrie diseases in our cattell, but also more rowtie, foggie,
 and full of flags, and therefore not so profitable for stouer and
 forrage as the higher meads be. The difference furthermore in their
 commodities is great, for whereas in our land meadowes we haue not often
 aboue one good load of haie, or peraduenture a little more in an acre of
 ground (I vse the word Carrucata or Carruca which is a waine load, and,
 as I remember, vsed by Plinie lib. 33. cap. 11.) in low meadowes we haue
 sometimes thrée, but commonlie two or vpward, as experience hath oft

 Of such as are twise mowed I speake not, sith their later math is not so
 wholesome for cattell as the first; although in the mouth more pleasant
 for the time: for thereby they become oftentimes to be rotten, or to
 increase so fast in bloud, that the garget and other diseases doo
 consume manie of them before the owners can séeke out any remedie, by
 Phlebotomie or otherwise. Some superstitious fooles suppose that they
 which die of the garget are ridden with the night mare, and therefore
 they hang vp stones which naturallie haue holes in them, and must be
 found vnlooked for; as if such a stone were an apt cockeshot for the
 diuell to run through and solace himselfe withall, whilest the cattell
 go scot free and are not molested by him. But if I should set downe but
 halfe the toies that superstition hath brought into our husbandmens
 heads in this and other behalfes, it would aske a greater volume than is
 conuenient for such a purpose, wherefore it shall suffice to haue said
 thus much of these things.

 [Sidenote: Corne.]
 The yéeld of our corne-ground is also much after this rate folowing.
 Through out the land (if you please to make an estimat thereof by the
 acre) in meane and indifferent yeares, wherein each acre of rie or
 wheat, well tilled and dressed, will yeeld commonlie sixtéene or twentie
 bushels, an acre of barlie six and thirtie bushels, of otes and such
 like foure or fiue quarters, which proportion is notwithstanding oft
 abated toward the north, as it is oftentimes surmounted in the south. Of
 mixed corne, as peason and beanes, sowen togither, tares and otes (which
 they call bulmong) rie and wheat named miscelin here is no place to
 speake, yet their yéeld is neuerthelesse much after this proportion, as
 I haue often marked. And yet is not this our great foison comparable to
 that of hoter countries of the maine. But of all that euer I read, the
 increase which Eldred Danus writeth of in his De imperio Iudæorum in
 Aethiopia surmounteth, where he saith that in the field néere to the
 Sabbatike riuer, called in old time Gosan, the ground is so fertile,
 that euerie graine of barleie growing dooth yéeld an hundred kernels at
 the least vnto the owner.

 Of late yeares also we haue found and taken vp a great trade in planting
 of hops, whereof our moorie hitherto and vnprofitable grounds doo yeeld
 such plentie & increase, that their are few farmers or occupiers in the
 countrie, which haue not gardens and hops growing of their owne, and
 those farre better than doo come from Flanders vnto us. Certes the
 corruptions vsed by the Flemings, and forgerie dailie practised in this
 kind of ware, gaue vs occasion to plant them here at home: so that now
 we may spare and send manie ouer vnto them. And this I know by
 experience, that some one man by conuersion of his moorie grounds into
 hopyards, wherof before he had no commoditie, dooth raise yearelie by so
 little as twelue acres in compasse two hundred markes; all charges borne
 toward the maintenance of his familie. Which industrie God continue!
 though some secret fréends of Flemings let not to exclaime against this
 commoditie, as a spoile of wood, by reason of the poles, which
 neuerthelesse after three yeares doo also come to the fire, and spare
 their other fewell.

 [Sidenote: Cattell.]
 The cattell which we breed are commonlie such, as for greatnesse of
 bone, swéetnesse of flesh, and other benefits to be reaped by the same,
 giue place vnto none other: as may appeare first by our oxen, whose
 largenesse, height, weight, tallow, hides, and hornes are such, as none
 of anie other nation doo commonlie or may easilie excéed them. Our
 shéepe likewise for good tast of flesh, quantitie of lims, finesse of
 fléece caused by their hardnesse of pasturage, and abundance of increase
 (for in manie places they bring foorth two or thrée at an eaning) giue
 no place vnto anie, more than doo our goates, who in like sort doo
 follow the same order, and our déere come not behind. As for our conies,
 [Sidenote: Meall and Disnege.]
 I haue séene them so fat in some soiles, especiallie about Meall and
 Disnege, that the grease of one being weighed, hath peised verie néere
 six or seuen ounces. All which benefits we first refer to the grace and
 goodnesse of God, and next of all vnto the bountie of our soile, which
 he hath indued with so notable and commodious fruitfulnesse.

 But as I meane to intreat of these things more largelie hereafter, so
 will I touch in this place one benefit which our nation wanteth, and
 [Sidenote: Wine.]
 that is wine; the fault whereof is not in our soile, but the negligence
 of our countriemen (especiallie of the south partes) who doo not inure
 the same to this commoditie, and which by reason of long discontinuance,
 is now become vnapt to beare anie grapes almost for pleasure & shadow,
 much lesse then the plaine fields or seuerall vineyards for aduantage
 and commoditie. Yet of late time some haue assaied to deale for wine, as
 to your lordship also is right well knowen. But sith that liquor when it
 commeth to the drinking hath bin found more hard, than that which is
 brought from beyond the sea, and the cost of planting and keeping
 thereof so chargeable, that they may buie it far better cheape from
 other countries: they haue giuen ouer their enterprises without anie
 consideration, that as in all other things, so neither the ground it
 selfe in the beginning, nor successe of their trauell can answer their
 expectation at the first, vntill such time as the soile be brought as it
 were into acquaintance with this commoditie, and that prouision may be
 made for the more easinesse of charge, to be imploied vpon the same.

 If it be true, that where wine dooth last and indure well, there it will
 grow no worse: I muse not a little wherefore the planting of vines
 should be neglected in England. That this liquor might haue growne in
 this Iland heretofore, first the charter that Probus the emperour gaue
 equallie to vs, the Galles, and Spaniards, is one sufficient testimonie.
 And that it did grow here, beside the testimonie of Beda lib. 1. cap. 1.
 the old notes of tithes for wine that yet remaine in the accompts of
 some parsons and vicars in Kent, & elsewhere, besides the records of
 sundrie sutes, commensed in diuerse ecclesiasticall courts, both in
 Kent, Surrie, &c: also the inclosed parcels almost in euerie abbeie yet
 called the vineyardes, may be a notable witnesse, as also the plot which
 we now call east Smithfield in London giuen by Canutus sometime king of
 this land, with other soile there about vnto certeine of his knights,
 with the libertie of a Guild which therof was called Knighten Guild. The
 truth is (saith Iohn Stow our countrie man, and diligent traueller in
 the old estate of this my natiue citie) that it is now named Port soken
 ward, and giuen in time past to the religious house within Algate.
 Howbeit first Otwell, the Archouell, Otto, & finallie Geffrie erle of
 Essex constables of the Tower of London, withheld that portion fr[=o]
 the said house, vntill the reigne of king Stephan, and thereof made a
 vineyard to their great commoditie and lucre. The Ile of Elie also was
 in the first times of the Normans called Le Ile des vignes. And good
 record appéereth, that the bishop there had yearelie thrée or foure
 tunne at the least giuen him Nomine decimæ, beside whatsoeuer ouer-summe
 of the liquor did accrue to him by leases and other excheats, whereof
 also I haue seene mention. Wherefore our soile is not to be blamed, as
 though our nights were so exceeding short, that in August and September
 the moone which is ladie of moisture, & chiefe ripener of this liquor,
 cannot in anie wise shine long inough vpon the same: a verie méere toie
 and fable right worthie to be suppressed, because experience conuinceth
 the vpholders thereof euen in the Rhenish wines.

 [Sidenote: Wad.]
 The time hath béene also that wad, wherwith our countrie men died their
 faces (as Cæsar saith) that they might séeme terrible to their enimies
 in the field, and also women & their daughters in law did staine their
 bodies & go naked, in that pickle to the sacrifices of their gods,
 coueting to resemble therin the Ethiopians, as Plinie saith li. 22. cap.
 [Sidenote: Madder.]
 1. and also madder haue béene (next vnto our tin and woolles) the chiefe
 [Sidenote: Rape.]
 commodities, and merchandize of this realme. I find also that rape oile
 hath beene made within this land. But now our soile either will not or
 at the leastwise may not beare either wad or madder: I saie not that the
 ground is not able so to doo, but that we are negligent, afraid of the
 pilling of our grounds, and carelesse of our owne profit, as men rather
 willing to buie the same of others than take anie paine to plant them
 [Sidenote: Flax.]
 here at home. The like I may saie of flax, which by law ought to be
 sowen in euerie countrie-towne in England, more or lesse: but I sée no
 successe of that good and wholesome law, sith it is rather
 contemptuouslie reiected than otherwise dutifullie kept in anie place of

 Some saie that our great number of lawes doo bréed a generall negligence
 and contempt of all good order; bicause we haue so manie, that no
 subiect can liue without the transgression of some of them, and that the
 often alteration of our ordinances dooth much harme in this respect,
 which (after Aristotle) doth séeme to carie some reason withall, for (as
 Cornelius Gallus hath:)

 [Sidenote: Eleg. 2.]

   Euentus varios res noua semper habet.

 But verie manie let not to affirme, that the gréedie corruption of the
 promoters on the one side, facilitie in dispensing with good lawes, and
 first breach of the same in the lawmakers & superiors, & priuat respects
 of their establishment on the other, are the greatest causes whie the
 inferiours regard no good order, being alwaies so redie to offend
 without anie facultie one waie, as they are otherwise to presume, vpon
 [Sidenote: Principis longè magis exemplo quion culpa peccare solent.]
 the examples of their betters when anie hold is to be taken. But as in
 these things I haue no skill, so I wish that fewer licences for the
 priuat commoditie but of a few were granted (not that thereby I denie
 the maintenance of the prerogatiue roiall, but rather would with all my
 hart that it might be yet more honorablie increased) & that euerie one
 which by féeed friendship (or otherwise) dooth attempt to procure oughts
 from the prince, that may profit but few and proue hurtfull to manie,
 might be at open assizes and sessions denounced enimie to his countrie
 and commonwealth of the land.

 Glasse also hath beene made here in great plentie before, and in the
 time of the Romans; and the said stuffe also, beside fine scissers,
 shéeres, collars of gold and siluer for womens necks, cruses and cups of
 amber, were a parcell of the tribute which Augustus in his daies laid
 vpon this Iland. In like sort he charged the Britons with certeine
 implements and vessels of iuorie (as Strabo saith.) Wherby it appéereth
 that in old time our countriemen were farre more industrious and
 painefull in the vse and application of the benefits of their countrie,
 than either after the comming of the Saxons or Normans, in which they
 gaue themselues more to idlenesse and following of the warres.

 [Sidenote: Earth.]
 If it were requisit that I should speake of the sundrie kinds of moold,
 as the cledgie or claie, whereof are diuerse sorts (red, blue, blacke
 and white) also the red or white sandie, the lomie, rosellie, grauellie,
 chalkie or blacke, I could saie that there are so manie diuerse veines
 in Britaine, as else where in anie quarter of like quantitie in the
 world. Howbeit this I must néeds confesse, that the sandie and cledgie
 doo beare great swaie: but the claie most of all, as hath beene, and yet
 is alwaies séene & felt through plentie and dearth of corne. For if this
 latter (I meane the claie) doo yeeld hir full increase (which it dooth
 commonlie in drie yeares for wheat) then is there generall plentie:
 wheras if it faile, then haue we scarsitie, according to the old rude
 verse set downe of England, but to be vnderstood of the whole Iland, as
 experience dooth confirme:

   When the sand dooth serue the claie,
   Then may we sing well awaie,
   But when the claie dooth serue the sand,
   Then is it merie with England.

 [Sidenote: Vallies.]
 I might here intreat of the famous vallies in England, of which one is
 called the vale of White horsse, another of Eouesham, commonlie taken
 for the granarie of Worcestershire, the third of Ailesbirie that goeth
 by Tame, the rootes of Chilterne hils, to Donstable, Newport panell,
 Stonie Stratford, Buckhingham, Birstane parke, &c. Likewise of the
 fourth of Whitehart or Blackemoore in Dorsetshire. The fift of Ringdale
 or Renidale, corruptlie called Ringtaile, that lieth (as mine author
 saith) vpon the edge of Essex and Cambridgeshire, and also the Marshwood
 vale: but for somuch as I know not well their seuerall limits, I giue
 ouer to go anie further in their description. In like sort it should not
 [Sidenote: Fennes.]
 be amisse to speake of our fennes, although our countrie be not so full
 of this kind of soile as the parties beyond the seas, to wit, Narbon,
 &c: and thereto of other pleasant botoms, the which are not onelie
 indued with excellent riuers and great store of corne and fine fodder
 for neat and horsses in time of the yeare (whereby they are excéeding
 beneficiall vnto their owners) but also of no small compasse and
 quantitie in ground. For some of our fens are well knowen to be either
 of ten, twelue, sixtéene, twentie, or thirtie miles in length, that of
 the Girwies yet passing all the rest, which is full 60 (as I haue often
 read.) Wherein also Elie the famous Ile standeth, which is seuen miles
 euerie waie, and wherevnto there is no accesse but by thrée causies,
 whose inhabitants in like sort by an old priuilege may take wood, sedge,
 turfe, &c; to burne: likewise haie for their cattell, and thatch for
 their houses of custome, and each occupier in his appointed quantitie
 through out the Ile; albeit that couetousnesse hath now begun somewhat
 to abridge this large beneuolence and commoditie, aswell in the said Ile
 as most other places of this land.

 [Sidenote: Commons.]
 Finallie, I might discourse in like order of the large commons, laid out
 heretofore by the lords of the soiles for the benefit of such poore, as
 inhabit within the compasse of their manors. But as the true intent of
 the giuers is now in most places defrauded, in so much that not the
 poore tenants inhabiting vpon the same, but their landlords haue all the
 commoditie and gaine, so the tractation of them belongeth rather to the
 second booke. Wherfore I meane not at this present to deale withall, but
 reserue the same wholie vnto the due place whilest I go forward with the
 rest; setting downe neuerthelesse by the waie a generall commendation of
 the whole Iland, which I find in an ancient monument, much vnto this

   Illa quidem longè celebris splendore, beata,
   Glebis, lacte, fauis, supereminet insula cunctis,
   Quas regit ille Deus, spumanti cuius ab ore
   Profluit oceanus, &c.
   _And a little after_: Testis Lundonia ratibus, Wintonia Baccho,
   Herefordia grege, Worcestria fruge redundans,
   Batha lacu, Salabyra feris, Cantuaria pisce,
   Eboraca syluis, Excestria clara metallis,
   Norwicum Dacis hybernis, Cestria Gallis,
   Cicestrum Norwagenis, Dunelmia præpinguis,
   Testis Lincolnia gens infinita decore,
   Testis Eli formosa situ, Doncastria visu, &c.



 There are, which indeuoring to bring all things to their Saxon
 originall, doo affirme, that this diuision of waies, (whereof we now
 intreat) should apperteine vnto such princes of that nation as reigned
 here, since the Romanes gaue vs ouer: and herevpon they inferre, that
 Wattling street was builded by one Wattle from the east vnto the west.
 But how weake their coniectures are in this behalfe, the antiquitie of
 these streets it selfe shall easilie declare, whereof some parcelles,
 after a sort, are also set downe by Antoninus; and those that haue
 written of the seuerall iournies from hence to Rome: although
 peraduenture not in so direct an order as they were at the first
 established. For my part, if it were not that I desire to be short in
 this behalfe, I could with such notes as I haue alreadie collected for
 that purpose, make a large confutation of diuerse of their opinions
 concerning these passages, and thereby rather ascribe the originall of
 these waies to the Romans than either the British or Saxon princes. But
 sith I haue spent more time in the tractation of the riuers than was
 allotted vnto me, and that I sée great cause (notwithstanding my late
 alledged scruple) wherfore I should hold with our Galfride before anie
 other; I will omit at this time to discourse of these things as I would,
 and saie what I maie for the better knowledge of their courses,
 procéeding therein as followeth.

 First of all I find, that Dunwallon king of Britaine, about 483 yeares
 before the birth of our sauiour Iesus Christ, séeing the subiects of his
 realme to be in sundrie wise oppressed by théeues and robbers as they
 trauelled to and fro; and being willing (so much as in him laie) to
 redresse these inconueniences, caused his whole kingdome to be surueied;
 and then commanding foure principall waies to be made, which should
 leade such as trauelled into all parts thereof, from sea to sea, he gaue
 sundrie large priuileges vnto the same, whereby they became safe, and
 verie much frequented. And as he had regard herein to the securitie of
 his subiects, so he made sharpe lawes grounded vpon iustice, for the
 suppression of such wicked members as did offer violence to anie
 traueler that should be met withall or found within the limits of those
 passages. How and by what parts of this Iland these waies were conueied
 at the first, it is not so wholie left in memorie: but that some
 question is mooued among the learned, concerning their ancient courses.
 Howbeit such is the shadow remaining hitherto of their extensions, that
 if not at this present perfectlie, yet hereafter it is not vnpossible,
 but that they may be found out, & left certeine vnto posteritie. It
 seemeth by Galfride, that the said Dunwallon did limit out those waies
 by dooles and markes, which being in short time altered by the auarice
 of such irreligious persons as dwelt néere, and incroched vpon the same
 (a fault yet iustlie to be found almost in euerie place, euen in the
 time of our most gratious and souereigne Ladie Elizabeth, wherein the
 lords of the soiles doo vnite their small occupieng, onelie to increase
 a greater proportion of rent; and therefore they either remooue, or giue
 licence to erect small tenements vpon the high waies sides and commons;
 wherevnto, in truth, they haue no right: and yet out of them also doo
 raise a new commoditie) and question mooued for their bounds before
 Belinus his sonne, he to auoid all further controuersie that might from
 thencefoorth insue, caused the same to be paued with hard stone of
 eightéene foot in breadth, ten foot in depth, and in the bottome thereof
 huge flint stones also to be pitched, least the earth in time should
 swallow vp his workemanship, and the higher ground ouer-grow their
 rising crests. He indued them also with larger priuileges than before,
 protesting that if anie man whosoeuer should presume to infringe his
 peace, and violate the lawes of his kingdome in anie maner of wise,
 neere vnto or vpon those waies, he should suffer such punishment without
 all hope to escape (by freendship or mercie) as by the statutes of this
 realme latelie prouided in those cases were due vnto the offendors. The
 names of these foure waies are the Fosse, the Gwethelin or Watling, the
 Erming, and the Ikenild.

 [Sidenote: Fosse.]
 The Fosse goeth not directlie but slopewise ouer the greatest part of
 this Iland, beginning at Dotnesse or Totnesse in Deuonshire, where Brute
 somtime landed, or (as Ranulphus saith, which is more likelie) at the
 point of Cornwall, though the eldest writers doo séeme to note the
 contrarie. From hence it goeth thorough the middle of Deuonshire &
 Summersetshire, and commeth to Bristow, from whence it runneth
 manifestlie to Sudberie market, Tetburie, and so foorth holdeth on as
 you go almost to the midde waie betweene Glocester and Cirnecester,
 (where the wood faileth, and the champeigne countrie appeareth toward
 Cotteswald) streight as a line vntill you come to Cirnecester it selfe.
 Some hold opinion that the waie, which lieth from Cirnecester to Bath,
 should be the verie Fosse; and that betwixt Cirnecester and Glocester to
 be another of the foure waies, made by the Britons. But ancient report
 grounded vpon great likelihood, and confirmed also by some experience,
 iudgeth that most of the waies crossed ech other in this part of the
 realme. And of this mind is Leland also, who learned it of an abbat of
 Cirnecester that shewed great likelihood by some records thereof. But to
 procéed. From Cirnecester, it goeth by Chepingnorton to Couentrie,
 Leircester, Newarke, and so to Lincolne ouerthwart the Watlingstreet:
 where, by generall consent of all the writers (except Alfred of
 Beuerleie, who extendeth it vnto Cathnesse in Scotland) it is said to
 haue an end.

 [Sidenote: Watling stréet.]
 The Watlingstréete begun (as I said) by Dunwallo, but finished by
 Gutheline, of whome it is directlie to be called Gutheline stréet,
 though now corrupted into Watlingstréet, beginneth at Douer in Kent, and
 so stretcheth through the middest of Kent vnto London, and so foorth
 (peraduenture by the middest of the citie) vnto Verolamium or
 Verlamcester, now saint Albons, where, in the yeare of grace, one
 thousand fiue hundred thirtie & one, the course thereof was found by a
 man that digged for grauell wherwith to mend the high waie. It was in
 this place eighteene foot broad, and about ten foot déepe, and stoned in
 the bottome in such wise as I haue noted afore, and peraduenture also on
 the top: but these are gone, and the rest remaine equall in most places,
 and leuell with the fields. The yelow grauell also that was brought
 thither in carts two thousand yéeres passed, remained there so fresh and
 so strong, as if it had béene digged out of the naturall place where it
 grew not manie yéeres before. From hence it goeth hard by Margate,
 leauing it on the west side. And a little by south of this place, where
 the priorie stood, is a long thorough fare vpon the said street, méetly
 well builded (for low housing) on both sides. After this it procéedeth
 (as the chronicle of Barnwell saith) to Caxton, and so to Huntingdon, &
 then forward, still winding in and out till it not onelie becommeth a
 bound vnto Leicestershire toward Lugbie, but also passeth from
 Castleford to Stamford, and so foorth by west of Marton, which is but a
 mile from Torkeseie.

 Here by the waie I must touch the opinion of a traueller of my time, who
 noteth the said stréet to go another waie, insomuch that he would haue
 it to crosse the third Auon, betwixt Newton and Dowbridge, and so go on
 to Binford bridge, Wibtoft, the High crosse, and thence to Atherston
 vpon Ancre. Certes it may be, that the Fosse had his course by the
 countrie in such sort as he describeth; but that the Watlingstréet
 should passe by Atherston, I cannot as yet be persuaded. Neuerthelesse
 his coniecture is not to be misliked, sith it is not vnlikelie that
 thrée seuerall waies might méet at Alderwaie (a towne vpon Tame, beneath
 Salters bridge) for I doo not doubt that the said towne did take his
 name of all three waies, as Aldermarie church in London did of all thrée
 Maries, vnto whom it hath béene dedicated: but that the Watlingstréet
 should be one of them, the compasse of his passage will in no wise
 permit. And thus much haue I thought good to note by the waie. Now to
 returne againe to Leland, and other mens collections.

 The next tidings that we heare of the Watlingstréet, are that it goeth
 thorough or neere by the parke at Pomfret, as the common voice also of
 the countrie confirmeth. Thence it passeth hastilie ouer Castelford
 bridge to Aberford, which is fiue miles from thence, and where are most
 manifest tokens of this stréet and his broad crest by a great waie
 togither, also to Yorke, to Witherbie, and then to Borowbridge, where on
 the left hand thereof stood certeine monuments, or pyramides of stone,
 sometimes placed there by the ancient Romanes. These stones (saith
 Leland) stand eight miles west from Bowis, and almost west from Richmond
 is a little thorough fare called Maiden castell, situate apparantlie
 vpon the side of this stréet. And here is one of those pyramides or
 great round heapes, which is three score foot compasse in the bottome.
 There are other also of lesse quantities, and on the verie top of ech of
 them are sharpe stones of a yard in length; but the greatest of all is
 eighteene foot high at the least, from the ground to the verie head. He
 addeth moreouer, how they stand on an hill in the edge of Stanes moore,
 and are as bounds betwéene Richmondshire, and Westmerland. But to
 procéed. This stréet lieng a mile from Gilling, and two miles from
 Richmond commeth on from Borowbridge to Catericke, eightéene miles; that
 is, twelue to Leuing, & six to Catericke; then eleuen miles to Greteie
 or Gritto, fiue miles to Bottles, eight miles to Burgh on Stanes moore,
 foure miles from Applebie, and fiue to Browham, where the said stréet
 commeth thorough Winfoll parke, and ouer the bridge on Eiemouth and
 Loder, and leauing Perith a quarter of a mile or more on the west side
 of it, goeth to Carleill seuenteene miles from Browham, which hath béene
 some notable thing. Hitherto it appeareth euidentlie, but going from
 hence into Scotland, I heare no more of it, vntill I come to Cathnesse,
 which is two hundred and thirtie miles or thereabouts out of England.

 [Sidenote: Erming stréet.]
 The Erming stréet, which some call the Lelme, stretcheth out of the
 east, as they saie, into the southeast, that is, from Meneuia or S.
 Dauids in Wales vnto Southampton, whereby it is somewhat likelie indeed
 that these two waies, I meane the Fosse and the Erming, should méet
 about Cirnecester, as it commeth from Glocester, according to the
 opinion conceiued of them in that countrie. Of this waie I find no more
 written, and therefore I can saie no more of it, except I should indeuor
 to driue awaie the time, in alleging what other men say thereof, whose
 minds doo so farre disagrée one from another, as they doo all from a
 truth, and therefore I giue them ouer as not delighting in such dealing.

 [Sidenote: Ikenild.]
 The Ikenild or Rikenild began somewhere in the south, and so held on
 toward Cirnecester, then to Worcester, Wicombe, Brimcham, Lichfield,
 Darbie, Chesterfield; and crossing the Watlingstréet somewhere in
 Yorkeshire, stretched foorth in the end vnto the mouth of the Tine,
 where it ended at the maine sea, as most men doo confesse. I take it to
 be called the Ikenild, because it passed thorough the kingdome of the
 Icenes. For albeit that Leland & other following him doo séeme to place
 the Icenes in Norffolke and Suffolke; yet in mine opinion that can not
 well be doone, sith it is manifest by Tacitus, that they laie néere vnto
 the Silures, and (as I gesse) either in Stafford and Worcester shires,
 or in both, except my coniecture doo faile me. The author of the booke,
 intituled Eulogium historiarum, doth call this stréet the Lelme. But as
 herein he is deceiued, so haue I dealt withall so faithfullie as I may
 among such diuersitie of opinions; yet not denieng but that there is
 much confusion in the names and courses of these two latter, the
 discussing whereof I must leaue to other men that are better learned
 than I.

 Now to speake generallie of our common high waies through the English
 part of the Ile (for of the rest I can saie nothing) you shall
 vnderstand that in the claie or cledgie soile they are often verie déepe
 and troublesome in the winter halfe. Wherfore by authoritie of parlement
 an order is taken for their yearelie amendment, whereby all sorts of the
 common people doo imploie their trauell for six daies in summer vpon the
 same. And albeit that the intent of the statute is verie profitable for
 the reparations of the decaied places, yet the rich doo so cancell their
 portions, and the poore so loiter in their labours, that of all the six,
 scarcelie two good days works are well performed and accomplished in a
 parish on these so necessarie affaires. Besides this, such as haue land
 lieng vpon the sides of the waies, doo vtterlie neglect to dich and
 scowre their draines and watercourses, for better auoidance of the
 winter waters (except it may be set off or cut from the meaning of the
 statute) whereby the stréets doo grow to be much more gulled than
 before, and thereby verie noisome for such as trauell by the same.
 Sometimes also, and that verie often, these daies works are not imploied
 vpon those waies that lead from market to market, but ech surueior
 amendeth such by-plots & lanes as séeme best for his owne commoditie,
 and more easie passage vnto his fields and pastures. And whereas in some
 places there is such want of stones, as thereby the inhabitants are
 driuen to seeke them farre off in other soiles: the owners of the lands
 wherein those stones are to be had, and which hitherto haue giuen monie
 to haue them borne awaie, doo now reape no small commoditie by raising
 the same to excessiue prices, whereby their neighbours are driuen to
 grieuous charges, which is another cause wherefore the meaning of that
 good law is verie much defrauded. Finallie, this is another thing
 likewise to be considered of, that the trées and bushes growing by the
 stréets sides; doo not a little keepe off the force of the sunne in
 summer for drieng vp of the lanes. Wherefore if order were taken that
 their boughs should continuallie be kept short, and the bushes not
 suffered to spread so far into the narrow paths, that inconuenience
 would also be remedied, and manie a slough proue hard ground that yet is
 déepe and hollow. Of the dailie incroaching of the couetous vpon the hie
 waies I speake not. But this I know by experience, that wheras some
 stréets within these fiue and twentie yeares haue béene in most places
 fiftie foot broad according to the law, whereby the traueller might
 either escape the théefe or shift the mier, or passe by the loaden cart
 without danger of himselfe and his horsse; now they are brought vnto
 twelue, or twentie, or six and twentie at the most, which is another
 cause also whereby the waies be the worse, and manie an honest man
 encombred in his iourneie. But what speake I of these things whereof I
 doo not thinke to heare a iust redresse, because the error is so common,
 and the benefit thereby so swéet and profitable to manie, by such houses
 and cotages as are raised vpon the same.



 Such as are bred in this Iland are men for the most part of a good
 complexion, tall of stature, strong in bodie, white of colour, and
 thereto of great boldnesse and courage in the warres. As for their
 generall comelinesse of person, the testimonie of Gregorie the great, at
 such time as he saw English capteins sold at Rome, shall easilie
 confirme what it is, which yet dooth differ in sundrie shires and
 soiles, as also their proportion of members, as we may perceiue betwéene
 Herefordshire and Essex men, or Cambridgeshire and the Londoners for the
 one, and Pokington and Sedberrie for the other; these latter being
 distinguished by their noses and heads, which commonlie are greater
 there than in other places of the land. As concerning the stomachs also
 of our nation in the field, they haue alwaies beene in souereigne
 admiration among forren princes: for such hath béene the estimation of
 our souldiers from time to time, since our Ile hath béene knowne vnto
 the Romans, that wheresoeuer they haue serued in forren countries, the
 cheefe brunts of seruice haue beene reserued vnto them. Of their
 conquests and bloudie battels woone in France, Germanie, and Scotland,
 our histories are full: & where they haue beene ouercome, the victorers
 themselues confessed their victories to haue béene so déerelie bought,
 that they would not gladlie couet to ouercome often, after such
 difficult maner. In martiall prowesse, there is little or no difference
 betwéene Englishmen and Scots: for albeit that the Scots haue beene
 often and verie gréeuouslie ouercome by the force of our nation, it hath
 not béene for want of manhood on their parts, but through the mercie of
 God shewed on vs, and his iustice vpon them, sith they alwaies haue
 begun the quarels, and offered vs méere iniurie with great despite and

 Leland noting somewhat of the constitution of our bodies, saith these
 words grounding (I thinke vpon Aristotle, who writeth that such as dwell
 neere the north, are of more courage and strength of bodie than
 skilfulnesse or wisdome.) The Britons are white in colour, strong of
 bodie, and full of bloud, as people inhabiting neere the north, and
 farre from the equinoctiall line, where the soile is not so fruitfull,
 and therefore the people not so feeble: whereas contrariwise such as
 dwell toward the course of the sunne, are lesse of stature, weaker of
 bodie, more nice, delicate, fearefull by nature, blacker in colour, &
 some so blacke in déed as anie crow or rauen. Thus saith he. Howbeit, as
 those which are bred in sundrie places of the maine, doo come behind vs
 in constitution of bodie, so I grant, that in pregnancie of wit,
 nimblenesse of limmes, and politike inuentions, they generallie exceed
 vs: notwithstanding that otherwise these gifts of theirs doo often
 degenerate into méere subtiltie, instabilitie, vnfaithfulnesse, &
 crueltie. Yet Alexander ab Alexandro is of the opinion, that the
 fertilest region dooth bring foorth the dullest wits, and contrariwise
 the harder soile the finest heads. But in mine opinion, the most fertile
 soile dooth bring foorth the proudest nature, as we may see by the
 Campanians, who (as Cicero also saith) had "Penes eos ipsum domicilium
 superbiæ." But nether of these opinions do iustlie take hold of vs, yet
 hath it pleased the writers to saie their pleasures of vs. And for that
 we dwell northward, we are commonlie taken by the forren
 historiographers, to be men of great strength and little policie, much
 courage and small shift, bicause of the weake abode of the sunne with
 vs, whereby our braines are not made hot and warmed, as Pachymerus
 noteth lib. 3: affirming further, that the people inhabiting in the
 north parts are white of colour, blockish, vnciuill, fierce and warlike,
 which qualities increase, as they come neerer vnto the pole; whereas the
 contrarie pole giueth contrarie gifts, blacknesse, wisdome, ciuilitie,
 weakenesse, and cowardise, thus saith he. But alas, how farre from
 probabilitie or as if there were not one and the same conclusion to be
 made of the constitutions of their bodies, which dwell vnder both the
 poles. For in truth his assertion holdeth onelie in their persons that
 inhabit néere vnto and vnder the equinoctiall. As for the small tariance
 of the sunne with vs, it is also confuted by the length of our daies.
 [Sidenote: Non vi sed virtute, non armis sed ingenio vincuntur Angli.]
 Wherefore his reason seemeth better to vphold that of Alexander ab
 Alexandro afore alledged, than to prooue that we want wit, bicause our
 brains are not warmed by the tariance of the sunne. And thus also dooth
 Comineus burden vs after a sort in his historie, and after him, Bodinus.
 But thanked be God, that all the wit of his countriemen, if it may be
 called wit, could neuer compasse to doo so much in Britaine, as the
 strength and courage of our Englishmen (not without great wisedome and
 forecast) haue brought to passe in France. The Galles in time past
 contemned the Romans (saith Cæsar) bicause of the smalnesse of their
 stature: howbeit, for all their greatnesse (saith he) and at the first
 brunt in the warres, they shew themselues to be but féeble, neither is
 their courage of any force to stand in great calamities. Certes in
 accusing our wisedome in this sort, he dooth (in mine opinion) increase
 our commendation. For if it be a vertue to deale vprightlie with
 singlenesse of mind, sincerelie and plainlie, without anie such
 suspicious fetches in all our dealing, as they commonlie practise in
 their affaires, then are our countrimen to be accompted wise and
 vertuous. But if it be a vice to colour craftinesse, subtile practises,
 doublenesse, and hollow behauiour, with a cloake of policie, amitie and
 wisedome: then are Comineus and his countrimen to be reputed vicious, of
 whome this prouerbe hath of old time beene vsed as an eare marke of
 their dissimulation,

   Galli ridendo fidem frangunt. &c.

 How these latter points take hold in Italie, I meane not to discusse.
 How they are dailie practised in manie places of the maine, & he
 accompted most wise and politike, that can most of all dissemble; here
 is no place iustlie to determine (neither would I wish my countrimen to
 learne anie such wisedome) but that a king of France could saie; "Qui
 nescit dissimulare, nescit regnare, _or_ viuere," their owne histories
 are testimonies sufficient. Galen, the noble physician, transferring the
 forces of our naturall humors from the bodie to the mind, attributeth to
 the yellow colour, prudence; to the blacke, constancie; to bloud, mirth;
 to phlegme, courtesie: which being mixed more or lesse among themselues,
 doo yéeld an infinit varietie. By this meanes therefore it commeth to
 passe, that he whose nature inclineth generallie to phlegme, cannot but
 be courteous: which joined with strength of bodie, and sinceritie of
 behauiour (qualities vniuersallie granted to remaine so well in our
 nation, as other inhabitants of the north) I cannot see what may be an
 hinderance whie I should not rather conclude, that the Britons doo
 excell such as dwell in the hoter countries, than for want of craft and
 subtilties to come anie whit behind them. It is but vanitie also for
 some to note vs (as I haue often heard in common table talke) as
 barbarous, bicause we so little regard the shedding of our bloud, and
 rather tremble not when we sée the liquor of life to go from vs (I vse
 their owne words.) Certes if we be barbarous in their eies, bicause we
 be rather inflamed than appalled at our wounds, then are those obiectors
 flat cowards in our iudgement: sith we thinke it a great péece of
 manhood to stand to our tackling, vntill the last drop, as men that may
 spare much bicause we haue much: whereas they hauing lesse are afraid to
 lose that little which they haue: as Frontinus also noteth. As for that
 which the French write of their owne manhood in their histories, I make
 little accompt of it: for I am of the opinion, that as an Italian
 writing of his credit; A papist intreating of religion, a Spaniard of
 his méekenesse, or a Scot of his manhood, is not to be builded on; no
 more is a Frenchman to be trusted in the report of his owne affaires,
 wherein he dooth either dissemble or excéed, which is a foule vice in
 such as professe to deale vprightlie. Neither are we so hard to
 strangers as Horace wold séeme to make vs, sith we loue them so long as
 they abuse vs not, & make accompt of them so far foorth as they despise
 vs not. And this is generallie to be verified, in that they vse our
 priuileges and commodities for diet, apparell and trade of gaine, in so
 ample manner as we our selues enioy them: which is not lawfull for vs to
 doo in their countries, where no stranger is suffered to haue worke, if
 an home-borne be without. But to procéed with our purpose.

 With vs (although our good men care not to liue long, but to liue well)
 some doo liue an hundred yéers, verie manie vnto foure score: as for
 thrée score, it is taken but for our entrance into age, so that in
 Britaine no man is said to wax old till he draw vnto thrée score, at
 which time God spéed you well commeth in place; as Epaminondas sometime
 [Sidenote: Salutations according to our ages.]
 said in mirth, affirming that vntill thirtie yeares of age, You are
 welcome is the best salutation; and from thence to thréescore, God kéepe
 you; but after thréescore, it is best to saie, God spéed you well: for
 at that time we begin to grow toward our iournies end, whereon manie a
 one haue verie good leaue to go. These two are also noted in vs (as
 things apperteining to the firme constitutions of our bodies) that there
 hath not béene séene in anie region so manie carcasses of the dead to
 remaine from time to time without corruption as in Britaine: and that
 after death by slaughter or otherwise, such as remaine vnburied by foure
 or fiue daies togither, are easie to be knowne and discerned by their
 fréends and kindred; whereas Tacitus and other complaine of sundrie
 nations, saieng, that their bodies are "Tam fluidae substantiæ," that
 within certeine houres the wife shall hardlie know hir husband, the
 mother hir sonne, or one fréend another after their liues be ended. In
 like sort the comelinesse of our liuing bodies doo continue from midle
 age (for the most) euen to the last gaspe, speciallie in mankind. And
 albeit that our women through bearing of children doo after fortie begin
 to wrinkle apace, yet are they not commonlie so wretched and hard
 fauoured to looke vpon in their age, as the French women, and diuerse of
 other countries with whom their men also doo much participate; and
 thereto be so often waiward and peeuish, that nothing in maner may
 content them.

 I might here adde somewhat also of the meane stature generallie of our
 women, whose beautie commonlie excéedeth the fairest of those of the
 maine, their comlinesse of person and good proportion of limmes, most of
 theirs that come ouer vnto vs from beyond the seas. This neuerthelesse I
 vtterlie mislike in the poorer sort of them, for the wealthier doo
 sildome offend herein: that being of themselues without gouernement,
 they are so carelesse in the education of their children (wherein their
 husbands are also to be blamed) by means whereof verie manie of them
 neither fearing God, neither regarding either maners or obedience, doo
 oftentimes come to confusion, which (if anie correction or discipline
 had béene vsed toward them in youth) might haue prooued good members of
 their common-wealth & countrie, by their good seruice and industrie. I
 could make report likewise of the naturall vices and vertues of all
 those that are borne within this Iland, but as the full tractation herof
 craueth a better head than mine to set foorth the same, so will I giue
 place to other men that list to take it in hand. Thus much therefore of
 the constitutions of our bodies: and so much may suffice.



 After the comming of Brutus into this Iland (which was, as you haue read
 in the foresaid treatise, about the yeare of the world, 2850, or 1217
 before the incarnation of Christ, although Goropius after his maner doo
 vtterlie denie our historie in this behalfe) he made a generall surueie
 of the whole Iland from side to side, by such means to view and search
 out not onelie the limits and bounds of his dominions, but also what
 commodities this new atchiued conquest might yéeld vnto his people.
 Furthermore, finding out at the last also a conuenable place wherin to
 erect a citie, he began there euen the verie same which at this daie is
 called London, naming it Trenouanton, in remembrance of old Troie, from
 whence his ancestors proceeded, and for which the Romans pronounced
 afterward Trinobantum, although the Welshmen doo call it still
 Trenewith. This citie was builded (as some write) much about the tenth
 yeare of his reigne, so that he liued not aboue fiftéene yeares after he
 had finished the same. But of the rest of his other acts attempted and
 doone, before or after the erection of this citie, I find no certeine
 report, more than that when he had reigned in this Iland after his
 arriuall by the space of foure and twentie yeares, he finished his daies
 at Trenouanton aforesaid, being in his yoong and florishing age, where
 his carcase was honourablie interred. As for the maner of his death, I
 find as yet no mention thereof among such writers as are extant; I meane
 whether it grew vnto him by defect of nature, or force of gréeuous
 wounds receiued in his warres against such as withstood him from time to
 time in this Iland, and therefore I can saie nothing of that matter.
 Herein onelie all agree, that during the time of his languishing paines,
 he made a disposition of his whole kingdome, diuiding it into three
 parts or portions, according to the number of his sonnes then liuing,
 whereof the eldest excéeded not eight and twentie yeares of age, as my
 coniecture giueth me.

 [Sidenote: Locrine.]
 To the eldest therefore, whose name was Locrine, he gaue the greatest
 and best region of all the rest, which of him to this daie is called
 [Sidenote: Lhoegria.]
 Lhoegres among the Britons, but in our language England: of such English
 Saxons as made conquest of the same. This portion also is included on
 the south with the British sea, on the est with the Germane Ocean, on
 the north with the Humber, and on the west with the Irish sea, and the
 riuers Dee and Sauerne, whereof in the generall description of this
 [Sidenote: Camber.]
 [Sidenote: Cambri.]
 Iland I haue spoken more at large. To Camber his second sonne he
 assigned all that lieth beyond the Sauerne and Dée, toward the west
 (which parcell in these daies conteineth Southwales and Northwales) with
 sundrie Ilands adiacent to the same, the whole being in maner cut off
 and separated from England or Lhoegria by the said streams, wherby it
 séemeth also a peninsula or by-land, if you respect the small hillie
 portion of ground that lieth indifferentlie betwéene their maine
 courses, or such branches (at the least) as run and fall into them. The
 Welshmen or Britons call it by the ancient name still vnto this day, but
 we Englishmen terme it Wales: which denomination we haue from the
 Saxons, who in time past did vse the word Walsh in such sort as we doo
 Strange: for as we call all those strangers that are not of our nation,
 so did they name them Walsh which were not of their countrie.

 [Sidenote: Albanact.]
 The third and last part of the Iland he allotted vnto Albanact his
 youngest sonne (for he had but three in all, as I haue said before)
 whose portion séemed for circuit to be more large than that of Camber,
 and in maner equall in greatnesse with the dominions of Locrinus. But if
 you haue regard to the seuerall commodities that are to be reaped by
 each, you shall find them to be not much discrepant or differing one
 from another: for whatsoeuer the first & second haue in plentie of
 corne, fine grasse, and large cattell, this latter wanteth not in
 excéeding store of fish, rich mettall, quarries of stone, and abundance
 of wild foule: so that in mine opinion, there could not be a more equall
 partition than this made by Brute, and after the aforesaid maner. This
 later parcell at the first, tooke the name of Albanactus, who called it
 Albania. But now a small portion onelie of the region (being vnder the
 regiment of a duke) reteineth the said denomination, the rest being
 called Scotland, of certeine Scots that came ouer from Ireland to
 inhabit in those quarters. It is diuided from Lhoegres also by the Solue
 [Sidenote: Albania.]
 and the Firth, yet some doo note the Humber; so that Albania (as Brute
 left it) conteined all the north part of the Iland that is to be found
 beyond the aforesaid streame, vnto the point of Cathnesse.

 To conclude, Brute hauing diuided his kingdome after this maner, and
 therein contenting himselfe as it were with the generall title of the
 whole, it was not long after yer he ended his life; and being solemnelie
 interred at his new citie by his thrée children, they parted each from
 other, and tooke possession of their prouinces. But Scotland after two
 [Sidenote: Locrine king also of Scotland.]
 yeares fell againe into the hands of Locrinus as to the chiefe lord,
 by the death of his brother Albanact, who was slaine by Humber king of
 the Scithians, and left none issue behind him to succéed him in that



 [Sidenote: The Scots alwaies desirous to shake off the English
 subiection, have often made cruell & odious attempts so to doo, but in
 It is possible that some of the Scotish nation, reading the former
 chapter, will take offence with me for meaning that the principalitie of
 the north parts of this Ile hath alwais belonged to the kings of
 Lhoegres. For whose more ample satisfaction in this behalfe, I will here
 set downe a discourse thereof at large, written by diuerse, and now
 finallie brought into one treatise, sufficient (as I thinke) to satisfie
 the reasonable, although not halfe enough peraduenture to content a
 wrangling mind, sith there is (or at the leastwise hath beene) nothing
 more odious among some, than to heare that the king of England hath
 ought to doo in Scotland.

 How their historiographers haue attempted to shape manie coloured
 excuses to auoid so manifest a title, all men may see that read their
 bookes indifferentlie, wherevnto I referre them. For my part there is
 little or nothing of mine herein, more than onelie the collection and
 abridgement of a number of fragments togither, wherein chéeflie I haue
 vsed the helpe of Nicholas Adams a lawier, who wrote thereof (of set
 purpose) to king Edward the sixt, as Leland did the like to king Henrie
 the eight, Iohn Harding vnto Edward the fourth; beside thrée other,
 whereof the first dedicated his treatise to Henrie the fourth, the
 second to Edward the third, and the third to Edward the first, as their
 writings yet extant doo abundantlie beare witnesse. The title also that
 Leland giueth his booke, which I haue had written with his owne hand,
 beginneth in this maner: "These remembrances following are found in
 chronicles authorised, remaining in diuerse monasteries both in England
 and Scotland, by which it is euidentlie knowne and shewed, that the
 kings of England haue had, and now ought to haue the souereigntie ouer
 all Scotland, with the homage and fealtie of the kings there reigning
 from time to time, &c." Herevnto you haue heard alreadie, what diuision
 Brute made of this Iland not long before his death, wherof ech of his
 children, so soone as he was interred, tooke seisure and possession.
 Howbeit, after two yeares it happened that Albanact was slaine,
 wherevpon Locrinus and Camber raising their powers, reuenged his death:
 and finallie the said Locrinus made an entrance vpon Albania, seized it
 into his owne hands (as excheated wholie vnto himselfe) without yéelding
 anie part thereof vnto his brother Camber, who made no claime nor title
 vnto anie portion of the same. Hereby then (saith Adams) it euidentlie
 appeareth, that the entire seigniorie ouer Albania consisted in
 Locrinus, according to which example like law among brethren euer since
 hath continued, in preferring the eldest brother to the onelie benefit
 of the collaterall ascension from the yongest, as well in Scotland as in
 England vnto this daie.

 Ebranke the lineall heire from the bodie of this Locrine, that is to
 saie, the sonne of Mempris, sonne of Madan, sonne of the same Locrine
 builded in Albania the castell of Maidens, now called Edenborough (so
 called of Aidan somtime king of Scotland, but at the first named Cair
 Minid Agnes. 1. the castell on mount Agnes, and the castell of virgins)
 and the castell of Alcluith or Alclude, now called Dunbriton, as the
 Scotish Hector Boetius confesseth: whereby it most euidentlie appeareth,
 that our Ebranke was then thereof seized. This Ebranke reigned in the
 said state ouer them a long time; after whose death Albania (as annexed
 to the empire of Britaine) descended to the onelie king of Britons,
 vntill the time of the two sisters sonnes, Morgan and Conedage, lineall
 heires from the said Ebranke, who brotherlie at the first diuided the
 realme betwéen them; so that Morgan had Lhoegres, and Conedage had
 Albania. But shortlie after Morgan the elder brother, pondering in his
 head the loue of his brother with the affection to a kingdome, excluded
 nature, and gaue place to ambition, and therevpon denouncing warre,
 death miserablie ended his life (as the reward of his vntruth) whereby
 Conedage obteined the whole empire of all Britaine: in which state he
 remained during his naturall life.

 From him the same lineallie descended to the onelie king of Britons,
 vntill (and after) the reigne of Gorbodian, who had issue two sonnes,
 Ferrex, and Porrex. This Porrex, requiring like diuision of the land,
 affirming the former partitions to be rather of law than fauor, was by
 the hands of his elder brother (best loued of queene mother) both of his
 life and hoped kingdome béereaued at once. Wherevpon their vnnaturall
 mother, vsing hir naturall malice for the death of hir one sonne
 (without regard of the loosing of both) miserablie slue the other in his
 bed mistrusting no such treason.

 Cloten, by all writers, as well Scotish as other, was the next
 inheritour to the whole empire: but lacking power (the onelie meane in
 those daies to obteine right) he was contented to diuide the same among
 foure of his kinsmen; so that Scater had Albania. But after the death of
 this Cloten, his sonne Dunwallo Mulmutius made warre vpon these foure
 kings, and at last ouercame them, and so recouered the whole dominion.
 In token of which victorie, he caused himselfe to be crowned with a
 crowne of gold, the verie first of that mettall (if anie at all were
 before in vse) that was worne among the kings of this nation. This
 Dunwallo erected temples, wherein the people should assemble for praier;
 to which temples he gaue benefit of sanctuarie. He made the law for
 wager of battell, in cases of murder and felonie, whereby a théefe that
 liued and made his art of fighting, should for his purgation fight with
 the true man whom he had robbed, beléeuing assuredlie, that the gods
 (for then they supposed manie) would by miracle assigne victorie to none
 but the innocent partie. Certes the priuileges of this law, and benefit
 of the latter, as well in Scotland as in England, be inioied to this
 daie, few causes by late positiue laws among vs excepted, wherin the
 benefit of wager of battell is restreined. By which obedience to his
 lawes, it dooth manifestlie appéere, that this Dunwallo was then seized
 of Albania, now called Scotland. This Dunwallo reigned in this estate
 ouer them manie yeares.

 Beline and Brenne the sonnes also of Dunwallo, did after their fathers
 death fauourablie diuide the land betweene them; so that Beline had
 Lhoegres, & Brenne had Albania: but for that this Brenne (a subiect)
 without the consent of his elder brother and lord, aduentured to marrie
 with the daughter of the king of Denmarke; Beline seized Albania into
 his owne hands, and thervpon caused the notable waies priuileged by
 Dunwallons lawes to be newlie wrought by mens hands, which for the
 length extended from the further part of Cornewall, vnto the sea by
 north Cathnesse in Scotland. In like sort to and for the better
 maintenance of religion in those daies, he constituted ministers called
 archflamines, in sundrie places of this Iland (who in their seuerall
 functions resembled the bishops of our times) the one of which remained
 at Ebranke now called Yorke, and the whole region Caerbrantonica
 (whereof Ptolomie also speaketh but not without wresting of the name)
 whose power extended to the vttermost bounds of Albania, wherby likewise
 appeareth that it was then within his owne dominion. After his death the
 whole Ile was inioied by the onelie kings of Britaine, vntill the time
 of Vigenius & Peridurus lineall heires from the said Beline, who
 fauourablie made partition, so that Vigenius had all the land from
 Humber by south, and Peridurus from thence northwards all Albania, &c.
 This Vigenius died, and Peridurus suruiued, and thereby obteined the
 whole, from whom the same quietlie descended, and was by his posteritie
 accordinglie inioied, vntill the reigne of Coell the first of that name.
 In his time an obscure nation (by most writers supposed Scithians)
 passed by seas from Ireland, and arriued in that part of Britaine called
 Albania: against whome this Coell assembled his power, and being entred
 Albania to expell them, one Fergus in the night disguised, entered the
 tent of this Coell, and in his bed traitorouslie slue him.

 This Fergus was therfore, in reward of his great prowesse, made there
 king, whervpon they sat downe in that part, with their wiues and
 children, and called it Scotland, and themselues Scots: from the
 beginning of the world, foure thousand six hundred and seauentéene
 yeares after the Scotish accompt, which by iust computation and
 confession of all their owne writers, is six hundred yeares lacking ten,
 after that Brutus had reigned ouer the whole Iland, the same land being
 inioied by him and his posteritie before their comming, during two and
 fiftie descents of the kings of Britaine, which is a large prescription.
 Certes this intrusion into a land so manie hundred yeares before
 inhabited, and by so manie descents of kings quietlie inioied, is the
 best title that all their owne writers can alledge for them. But to
 proceed. Fergus herevpon immediatlie did diuide Albania also among his
 capteins and their souldiers: whereby it most euidentlie appeareth, that
 there were no people of that nation inhabiting there before, in proofe
 whereof the same partition shall follow.

 The lands of Cathnes lieng against Orkneie, betwéene Dummesbeie and the
 [Sidenote: Out of Hector Boecius lib. 1.]
 water of Thane, was giuen vnto one Cornath, a capteine and his people.
 The lands betwéene the water of Thane & Nes, now called Rosse, being in
 bredth from Cromart to the mouth of the water of Locht, were giuen to
 Lutorke, another capteine and his people. The lands betweene Spaie and
 Nes, from the Almane seas to the Ireland seas, now called Murraie land,
 were giuen to one Warroch and his people. The land of Thalia, now called
 Boin Ainze, Bogewall, Gariot, Formartine, and Bowguhan, were giuen to
 one Thalis and his people. The lands of Mar Badezenoch, and Lochquhaber,
 were giuen to Martach and his people. The lands of Lorne and Kintier,
 with the hilles and mounteins thereof, lieng from Mar to the Ireland
 seas, were giuen to capteine Nanance and his people. The lands of Athole
 were giuen to Atholus, another capteine and his people. The lands of
 Strabraun, & Brawdawane lieng west from Dunkell, were giuen to Creones &
 Epidithes two capteins. The lands of Argile, were giuen to Argathelus a
 capteine. The lands of Linnox & Clidisdale were allotted to Lolgona a
 capteine. The lands of Siluria now called Kile, Carrike & Cuningham,
 were giuen to Silurth another capteine. The lands of Brigance now called
 Gallowaie, were giuen to the companie called Brigandes, which (as their
 best men) were appointed to dwell next the Britons, who afterward
 expelled the Britons from Annandale in Albania, whereby it is confessed
 to be before inhabited by Britons. The residue of the land now called
 Scotland, that is to saie: Meirnis, Angus, Steremond, Gowrie, Strahern,
 Pirth, Fiffe, Striueling, Callender, Calderwood, Lougthian, Mers,
 Teuedale, with other the Rement Dales, & the Sherifdome, of Berwicke,
 were then enioied by a nation mingled in marriage with the Britons, and
 [Sidenote: Berouicum potiùs à Berubio promontorio.]
 in their obedience, whose capteine called Beringer builded the castell
 and towne of Berwicke vpon Twede, & these people were called Picts, vpon
 whome by the death of this Coell, these Scots had opportunitie to vse
 wars, whereof they ceased not, vntill such time as it pleased God to
 appoint another Coell king of Britons, against whose name, albeit they
 hoped for a like victorie to the first, yet he preuailed and ceased not
 his warre, vntill these Scots were vtterlie expelled out of all the
 bounds of Britaine, in which they neuer dared to reenter, vntill the
 troublesome reigne of Sisilt king of Britons, which was the twelft king
 after this Coell. During all which time the countrie was reinhabited by
 the Britons. But then the Scots turning the ciuill discord of this
 realme, betweene this Sisilt and his brother Blede to their best
 aduantage, arriued againe in Albania, & there made one Reuther their

 Vpon this their new arriuall, new warre was made vpon them by this
 Sisilt king of Britons, in which warre Reuther their new king died, and
 Thereus succéeded, against whome the warre of Britons ceased not, vntill
 he freelie submitted himselfe to the said Sicill king of Britons at
 Ebranke, that is Yorke, where shortlie after the tenth yeare of his
 reigne he died. Finnane brother of Josine succeeded by their election to
 the kingdome of Scots, who shortlie after (compelled by the warres of
 the same Sicill) declared himselfe subiect, and for the better assurance
 of his faith and obeisance to the king of Britons, deliuered his sonne
 Durstus into the hands of this Sicill: who fantasieng the child, and
 hoping by his owne succession to alter their subtiltie (I will not saie
 duplicitie saith Adams) married him in the end to Agasia his owne

 [Sidenote: Durstus.]
 This Durstus was their next king; but for that he had married a Briton
 woman, (though indeed she was a kings daughter) the Scots hated him for
 the same cause, for which they ought rather to haue liked him the
 better, and therefore not onelie traitorouslie slue him; but further to
 declare the end of their malice, disinherited (as much as in them was)
 the issues of the same Durstus and Agasia. Herevpon new warre sproong
 betwéene them and vs, which ceased not vntill they were contented to
 receiue Edeir to their king, the next in bloud then liuing, descended
 from Durstus and Agasia, and thereby the bloud of the Britons, of the
 part of the mother, was restored to the crowne of Albania: so that
 nature, whose law is immutable, caused this bond of loue to hold. For
 shortlie after this Edeir attended vpon Cassibelane king of Britons, for
 the repulse of Iulius Cæsar, as their owne author Boetius confesseth,
 who commanded the same as his subiect. But Iulius Cæsar, after his
 second arriuall, by treason of Androgeus preuailed against the Britons,
 and therevpon pursued this Edeir into Scotland; and (as himselfe saith
 in his commentaries) subdued all the Ile of Britaine. Which though the
 liuing Scots denie it, their dead writers confesse that he came beyond
 Calender wood, and cast downe Camelon, the principall citie of the
 Picts. And in token of this victorie, not farre from Carron, builded a
 round temple of stone, which remained in some perfection vntill the
 reigne of our king Edward called the first after the conquest, by whome
 it was subuerted: but the monument thereof remaineth to this daie.

 [Sidenote: Marius.]
 Marius the sonne of Aruiragus, being king of all Britaine, in his time
 one Roderike a Scithian, with a great rabble of néedie souldiours, came
 to the water of Frith in Scotland, which is an arme of the sea, diuiding
 Pentland from Fiffe: against whome this Marius assembled a power, by
 which he slue this Rodericke, and discomfited his people in Westmerland:
 but to those that remained aliue, he gaue the countrie of Cathnesse in
 Scotland, which prooueth it to be within his owne dominion.

 [Sidenote: Coelus.]
 Coell the sonne of this Marius had issue Lucius, counted the first
 Christian king of this nation: he conuerted the three archflamines of
 this land into bishopriks, and ordeined bishops vnto ech of them. The
 first remained at London, and his power extended from the furthest part
 of Cornewall to Humber water. The second dwelled at Yorke, and his power
 stretched from Humber to the furthest part of all Scotland. The third
 aboded at Caerleon vpon the riuer of Wiske in Glamorgan in Wales, & his
 power extended from Seuerne through all Wales. Some write that he made
 but two, and turned their names to archbishops, the one to remaine at
 Canturburie, the other at Yorke: yet they confesse that he of Yorke had
 iurisdiction through all Scotland: either of which is sufficient to
 prooue Scotland to be then vnder his dominion.

 [Sidenote: Seuerus.]
 Seuerus, by birth a Romane, but in bloud a Briton (as some thinke) and
 the lineall heire of the bodie of Androgeus sonne of Lud, & nephue of
 Cassibelane, was shortlie after emperour & king of Britons, in whose
 time the people to whom his ancestor Marius gaue the land of Cathnesse
 in Scotland, conspired with the Scots, & receiued them from the Iles
 into Scotland. But herevpon this Seuerus came into Scotland, and méeting
 with their faith and false harts togither, droue them all out of the
 maine land into Iles, the vttermost bounds of all great Britaine. But
 notwithstanding this glorious victorie, the Britons considering their
 seruitude to the Romans, imposed by treason of Androgeus, ancestor to
 this Seuerus, began to hate him, whome yet they had no time to loue, and
 who in their defense and suertie had slaine of the Scots and their
 confederats in one battell thirtie thousand: but such was the
 consideration of the common sort in those daies, whose malice no time
 could diminish, nor iust desert appease.

 [Sidenote: Bassianus.]
 Antoninus Bassianus borne of a Briton woman, and Geta borne by a Romane
 woman, were the sonnes of this Seuerus, who after the death of their
 father, by the contrarie voices of their people, contended for the
 crowne. Few Britons held with Bassianus, fewer Romans with Geta: but the
 greater number with neither of both. In the end Geta was slaine, and
 Bassianus remained emperour, against whom Carautius rebelled, who gaue
 vnto the Scots, Picts, and Scithians, the countrie of Cathnesse in
 Scotland, which they afterward inhabited, whereby his seison thereof

 [Sidenote: Coill.]
 Coill, descended of the bloud of the ancient kings of this land, was
 shortlie after king of the Britons, whose onelie daughter and heire
 called Helen, was married vnto Constantius a Romane, who daunted the
 rebellion of all parts of great Britaine; and after the death of this
 Coill was in the right of his wife king thereof, and reigned in his
 state ouer them thirtéene or fourtéene yeares.

 [Sidenote: Constantine.]
 Constantine the sonne of this Constance, and Helen, was next king of
 Britons, by the right of his mother, who passing to Rome to receiue the
 empire thereof, deputed one Octauius king of Wales, and duke of the
 Gewisses (which some expound to be afterward called west Saxons) to haue
 the gouernment of this dominion. But abusing the kings innocent
 goodnesse, this Octauius defrauded this trust, and tooke vpon him the
 crowne. For which traitorie albeit he was once vanquished by Leonine
 Traheron, great vncle to Constantine: yet after the death of this
 Traheron, he preuailed againe, and vsurped ouer all Britaine.
 Constantine being now emperor sent Maximius his kinsman hither (in
 processe of time) to destroie the same Octauius, who in singular battell
 discomfited him. Wherevpon this Maximius, as well by the consent of
 great Constantine, as by the election of all the Britons, for that he
 was a Briton in bloud, was made king or rather vicegerent of Britaine.
 This Maximius made warre vpon the Scots and Scithians within Britaine,
 and ceassed not vntill he had slaine Eugenius their king, and expelled
 and driuen them out of the whole limits and bounds of Britaine. Finallie
 he inhabited all Scotland with Britons, no man, woman, nor child of the
 Scotish nation suffered to remaine within it, which (as their Hector
 Boetius saith) was for their rebellion; and rebellion properlie could it
 not be, except they had béene subiects. He suffered the Picts also to
 remaine his subiects, who made solemne othes to him, neuer after to
 erect anie peculiar king of their owne nation, but to remaine vnder the
 old empire of the onelie king of Britaine. I had once an epistle by
 Leland exemplified (as he saith) out of a verie ancient record which
 beareth title of Helena vnto hir sonne Constantine, and entreth after
 this manner; "Domino semper Augusto filio Constantino, mater Helena
 semper Augusta, &c." And now it repenteth me that I did not exemplifie
 and conueigh it into this treatise whilest I had his books. For thereby
 I might haue had great light for the estate of this present discourse:
 but as then I had no mind to haue trauelled in this matter;
 neuerthelesse, if hereafter it come againe to light I would wish it were
 reserued. It followeth on also in this maner (as it is translated out of
 the Gréeke) "Veritatem sapientis animus non recusat, nec fides recta
 aliquando patitur quamcunque iacturam, &c."

 About fiue and fourtie yeares after this (which was long time after the
 death of this Maximius) with the helpe of Gouan or Gonan and Melga, the
 Scots newlie arriued in Albania, and there created one Fergus the second
 of that name to be there king. But bicause they were before banished the
 continent land, they crowned him king on their aduenture in Argile, in
 the fatall chaire of marble, the yéere of our Lord, foure hundred and
 two and twentie, as they themselues doo write.

 [Sidenote: Maximian.]
 Maximian sonne of Leonine Traheron, brother to king Coill, and vncle to
 Helene, was by lineall succession next king of Britons: but to appease
 the malice of Dionothus king of Wales, who also claimed the kingdome, he
 married Othilia eldest daughter of Dionothus, and afterwards assembled a
 great power of Britons, and entered Albania, inuading Gallowaie, Mers,
 Annandale, Pentland, Carrike, Kill, and Cuningham, and in battell slue
 both this Fergus then king of Scots, and Durstus the king of Picts, and
 exiled all their people out of the continent land: wherevpon the few
 number of Scots then remaining a liue, went to Argile, and there made
 Eugenius their king. When this Maximian had thus obteined quietnesse in
 Britaine, he departed with his cousine Conan Meridocke into Armorica,
 where they subdued the king, and depopulated the countrie, which he gaue
 to Conan his cousine, to be afterward inhabited by Britons, by the name
 of Britaine the lesse: and hereof this realme tooke name of Britaine the
 great, which name by consent of forren writers it keepeth vnto this

 After the death of Maximian, dissention being mooued betweene the nobles
 of Britaine, the Scots swarmed togither againe, and came to the wall of
 Adrian, where (this realme being diuided in manie factions) they
 ouercame one. And herevpon their Hector Boetius (as an hen that for
 laieng of one eg, will make a great cakeling) solemnlie triumphing for a
 conquest before the victorie, alledgeth that hereby the Britons were
 made tributaries to the Scots, and yet he confesseth that they won no
 more land, by that supposed conquest, but the same portion betwéene them
 and Humber, which in the old partitions before was annexed to Albania.
 It is hard to be beléeued, that such a broken nation as the Scots at
 that time were, returning from banishment within foure yeares before,
 and since in battell loosing both their kings, and the great number of
 their best men, to be thus able to make a conquest of great Britaine;
 and verie vnlikelie if they had conquered it, they would haue left the
 hot sunne of the south parts, to dwell in the cold snow in Scotland.
 Incredible it is, that if they had conquered it, they would not haue
 deputed officers in it, as in cases of conquest behooueth. And it is
 beyond all beliefe, that great Britaine, or any other countrie, should
 be woon without the comming of anie enimie into it: as they did not, but
 taried finallie at the same wall of Adrian, whereof I spake before.

 But what need I speake of these defenses, when the same Boecius scantlie
 trusteth his owne beliefe in this tale. For he saieth that Galfride, and
 sundrie other authentike writers, diuerslie varie from this part of his
 storie, wherein his owne thought accuseth his conscience of vntruth:
 herein also he further forgetting how it behooueth a lier to be mindfull
 of his assertion, in the fourth chapter next following, wholie bewraieth
 himselfe, saieng that the confederat kings of Scots and Picts, vpon
 ciuill warres betwéene the Britons (which then followed) hoped shortlie
 to inioie all the land of great Britaine, from beyond Humber vnto the
 fresh sea, which hope had bene vaine, and not lesse than void, if it had
 béene their owne by anie conquest before.

 Constantine of Britaine, descended from Conan king thereof, cousine of
 Brutes bloud to this Maximian, and his neerest heire was next king of
 Britaine; he immediatlie pursued the Scots with wars, and shortlie in
 battell slue their king Dongard, in the first yeare of his reigne,
 whereby he recouered Scotland out of their hands, and tooke all the
 holdes thereof into his owne possessions. Vortiger shortlie after
 obteined the crowne of Britaine, against whom the Scots newlie rebelled:
 for the repressing whereof (mistrusting the Britons to hate him for
 sundrie causes, as one that to auoid the smoke dooth oft fall into the
 fire) receiued Hengest a Saxon, and a great number of his countriemen,
 with whom and a few Britons he entred Scotland & ouercame them,
 wherevpon they tooke the Iles, which are their common refuge. He gaue
 also much of Scotland, as Gallowaie, Pentland, Mers and Annandale, with
 sundrie other lands to this Hengest and his people to inhabit, which
 they did accordinglie inioie. But when this Hengest in processe of time
 thirsted after the whole kingdome of the south, he was banished, and yet
 afterward being restored, he conspired with the Scots against
 Aurilambrose the sonne of Constantine, the iust inheritor of this whole
 dominion. But his vntruth and theirs were both recompensed togither, for
 [Sidenote: Some thinke the Seimors to come from this man by lineall
 descent and I suppose no lesse.]
 he was taken prisoner by Eldulph de Samor a noble man of Britaine, and
 his head for his traitorie striken off at the commandement of
 Aurilambrose. In the field the Scots were vanquished: but Octa the sonne
 of Hengest was receiued to mercie, to whome and his people this
 Aurilambrose gaue the countrie of Gallowaie in Scotland, for which they
 became his subiects. And hereby appeareth that Scotland was then againe
 reduced into his hands.

 Vter called also Pendragon, brother to Aurilambrose was next king of the
 Britons, against whome, these sworne Saxons now foresworne subiects
 (confederate with the Scots) newlie rebelled: but by his power assembled
 against them in Gallowaie in Scotland, they were discomfited, & Albania
 againe recouered vnto his subiection. Arthur the sonne of this Vter,
 begotten before the mariage, but lawfullie borne in matrimonie,
 succéeded next to the crowne of great Britaine; whose noble acts, though
 manie vulgar fables haue rather stained than commended: yet all the
 Scotish writers confesse, that he subdued great Britaine, and made it
 tributarie to him, and ouercame the Saxons then scattered as far as
 Cathnesse in Scotland: and in all these wars against them, he had the
 seruice and obeisance of Scots and Picts. But at the last setting their
 féet in the guilefull paths of their predecessors, they rebelled and
 besieged the citie of Yorke, Howell king of the lesse Britaine cousine
 to king Arthur being therein. But he with an host came thither and
 discomfited the Scots, chased them into a marsh, and besieged them there
 so long, that they were almost famished: vntill the bishops, abbats, and
 men of religion (for as much as they were christened people) besought
 him to take them to his mercie and grace, and to grant them a portion of
 the same countrie to dwell in vnder euerlasting subiection. Vpon this he
 tooke them to his grace, homage and fealtie: and when they were sworne
 his subiects and liegemen, he ordeined his kinsman Anguisan to be their
 king and gouernour, Vrian king of Iland, and Murefrence king of
 Orkeneie. He made an archbishop of Yorke also, whose authoritie extended
 through all Scotland.

 Finallie, the said Arthur holding his roiall feast at Cairleon, had
 there all the kings that were subiects vnto him, among which, Angusian
 the said king of Scots did his due seruice and homage, so long as he was
 with him for the realme of Scotland, & bare king Arthurs sword afore
 him. Malgo shortlie after succéeded in the whole kingdome of great
 Britaine, who vpon new resistance made, subdued Ireland, Iland, the
 Orchads, Norwaie and Denmarke, and made Ethelfred a Saxon king of
 Bernicia, that is, Northumberland, Louthian, and much other land of
 Scotland, which Ethelfred by the sword obteined at the hands of the
 wilfull inhabitants, and continued true subiect to this Malgo.

 Cadwan succéeded in the kingdome of great Britaine, who in defense of
 his subiects the Scots, made warre vpon this Ethelfred, but at the last
 they agréed, and Cadwan vpon their rebellion gaue all Scotland vnto this
 Ethelfred, which he therevpon subdued and inioied: but afterward in the
 reigne of Cadwallo that next succeeded in great Britaine, he rebelled.
 Whervpon the same Cadwallo came into Scotland, and vpon his treason
 reseised the countrie into his owne hands, and hauing with him all the
 vicerois of the Saxons, which then inhabited here as his subiects, in
 singular battell he slue the same Ethelfred with his owne hands.

 Oswald was shortlie after by Cadwallos gift made king of Bernicia, and
 he as subiect to Cadwallo, and by his commandement discomfited the Scots
 and Picts, and subdued all Scotland. Oswie the brother of this Oswald,
 was by the like gift of Cadwallo, made next king of Bernicia, and he by
 like commandement newlie subdued the Scots and Picts, and held them in
 that obeisance to this Cadwallow, during eight and twentie yeares. Thus
 Cadwallo reigned in the whole monarchie of great Britaine, hauing all
 the seuen kings thereof, as well Saxons as others his subiects: for
 albeit the number of Saxons from time to time greatlie increased, yet
 were they alwaies either at the first expelled, or else made tributarie
 to the onelie kings of Britons for the time being, as all their owne
 writers doo confesse.

 Cadwallader was next king of the whole great Britaine, he reigned twelue
 yeares ouer all the kings thereof, in great peace and tranquillitie: and
 then vpon the lamentable death of his subiects, which died of sundrie
 diseases innumerablie, he departed into little Britaine. His sonne and
 cousine Iuor and Iue, being expelled out of England also by the Saxons,
 went into Wales, where among the Britons they and their posteritie
 remained princes. Vpon this great alteration, and warres being through
 the whole dominion betwéene the Britons and Saxons, the Scots thought
 time to slip the collar of obedience, and therevpon entred in league
 with Charles then king of France, establishing it in this wise.

 1 "The iniurie of Englishmen doone to anie of these people, shall be
 perpetuallie holden common to them both.

 2 "When Frenchmen be inuaded by Englishmen, the Scots shall send their
 armie in defense of France, so that they be supported with monie and
 vittels by the French.

 3 "When Scots be inuaded by Englishmen, the Frenchmen shall come vpon
 their owne expenses, to their support and succour.

 4 "None of the people shall take peace or truce with Englishmen, without
 the aduise of other, &c."

 [Sidenote: _Nicholas Adams._]
 Manie disputable opinions may be had of warre without the praising of
 it, as onelie admittable by inforced necessitie, and to be vsed for
 peace sake onelie, where here the Scots sought warre for the loue of
 warre onelie. For their league giueth no benefit to themselues, either
 in frée traffike of their owne commodities, or benefit of the French, or
 other priuilege to the people of both. What discommoditie riseth by
 loosing the intercourse and exchange of our commodities (being in
 necessaries more aboundant than France) the Scots féele, and we
 perfectlie know. What ruine of their townes, destruction of countries,
 slaughter of both peoples, haue by reason of this bloudie league
 chanced, the histories be lamentable to read, and horrible among
 Christian men to be remembred: but God gaue the increase according to
 their séed, for as they did hereby sowe dissention, so did they shortlie
 after reape a bloudie slaughter and confusion. For Alpine their king,
 possessing a light mind that would be lost with a little wind, hoped by
 this league shortlie to subdue all great Britaine, and to that end not
 onelie rebelled in his owne kingdome, but also vsurped vpon the kingdome
 of Picts. Whervpon Edwine king of England, made one Brudeus king of
 Picts, whom he sent into Scotland with a great power, where in battell
 he tooke this Alpine king of Scots prisoner, and discomfited his people.
 And this Alpine being their king found subiect and rebell, his head was
 striken off at a place in Scotland, which thereof is to this daie called
 Pasalpine, that is to saie, the head of Alpine. And this was the first
 effect of their French league.

 Osbright king of England, with Ella his subiect, and a great number of
 Britons and Saxons shortlie after, for that the Scots had of themselues
 elected a new king, entered Scotland, and ceassed not his war against
 them, vntill their king and people fled into the Iles, with whome at the
 last vpon their submission, peace was made in this wise.

 The water of Frith shall be march betwéene Scots and Englishmen in the
 east parts, and shall be named the Scotish sea.

 The water of Cluide to Dunbriton, shall be march in the west parts
 betwéene the Scots and Britons. This castell was before called Alcluide,
 but now Dunbriton, that is to say, the castle of Britons, and sometimes
 it was destroied by the Danes. So the Britons had all the lands from
 Sterling to the Ireland seas, and from the water of Frith & Cluide to
 Cumber, with all the strengths and commodities thereof: and the
 Englishmen had the lands betwéene Sterling and Northumberland. Thus was
 Cluide march betwéene the Scots and the Britons on the one side, and the
 water of Frith named the Scotish sea, march betwéene them and Englishmen
 on the other side, and Sterling common march to thrée people, Britons,
 Englishmen, and Scots, howbeit king Osbright had the castle of Stirling,
 where first he caused to be coined Sterling monie. The Englishmen also
 builded a bridge of stone, for passage ouer the water of Frith, in the
 middest whereof they made a crosse, vnder which were written these

   I am free march, as passengers may ken,
   To Scots, to Britons, and Englishmen.

 Not manie yeares after this, Hinguar and Hubba, two Danes, with a great
 number of people, arriued in Scotland, and slue Constantine, whom
 Osbright had before made king: wherevpon Edulfe or Ethelwulfe, then king
 of England, assembled his power against Hinguar and Hubba, and in one
 battell slue them both; but such of their people as would remaine and
 become christians, he suffered to tarie: the rest he banished or put to
 death, &c.

 This Ethelwulfe granted the Peter pence, of which albeit Peter & Paule
 had little need and lesse right: yet the paiment thereof continued in
 this realme euer after vntill now of late yeares. But the Scots euer
 since vnto this daie haue, and yet doo paie it, by reason of that grant,
 which prooueth them to be then vnder his obeisance.

 Alured or Alfred succéeded in the kingdome of England, and reigned
 noblie ouer the whole monarchie of great Britaine: he made lawes, that
 persons excommunicated should be disabled to sue or claime anie
 propertie; which law Gregour, whome this Alured had made king of Scots,
 obeied; and the same law as well in Scotland as in England is holden to
 this daie, which also prooueth him to be high lord of Scotland.

 This Alured constreined Gregour king of Scots also to breake the league
 with France, for generallie he concluded with him, and serued him in all
 his warres, as well against Danes as others, not reseruing or making
 anie exception of the former league with France.

 The said Alured, after the death of Gregour, had the like seruice and
 obeisance of Donald king of Scots with fiue thousand horssemen, against
 one Gurmond a Dane that then infested the realme, and this Donald died
 in this faith and obeisance with Alured.

 Edward the first of that name called Chifod sonne of this Alured
 succéeded his father, and was the next king of England: against whome
 Sithrijc a Dane and the Scots conspired; but they were subdued, and
 Constantine their king brought to obeisance. He held the realme of
 Scotland also of king Edward, and this dooth Marian their owne
 countrieman a Scot confesse: beside Roger Houeden, and William of

 In the yeare of our Lord 923, the same king Edward was president and
 gouernour of all the people of England, Cumberland, Scots, Danes, and

 King Athelstane in like sort conquered Scotland, and as he laie in his
 tents beside Yorke, whilest the warres lasted, the king of Scots feined
 himselfe to be a minstrell, and harped before him onelie to espie his
 ordinance and his people. But being (as their writers confesse)
 corrupted with monie, he sold his faith and false heart together to the
 Danes, and aided them against king Athelstane at sundrie times. Howbeit
 he met with all their vntruthes at Broningfield in the west countrie, as
 is mentioned in the ninth chapter of the first booke of this
 description, where he discomfited the Danes, and slue Malcolme deputie
 in that behalfe to the king of Scots: in which battell the Scots
 confesse themselues to haue lost more people than were remembred in anie
 age before. Then Athelstane following his good lucke, went throughout
 all Scotland and wholie subdued it, and being in possession thereof,
 gaue land there lieng in Annandale by his deed, the copie wherof dooth

 "I king Athelstane, giues vnto Paulam, Oddam and Roddam, als good and
 als faire, as euer they mine were, and thereto witnesse Mauld my wife."

 By which course words, not onelie appeareth the plaine simplicitie of
 mens dooings in those daies: but also a full proofe that he was then
 seized of Scotland. At the last also he receiued homage of Malcolme king
 of Scots: but for that he could not be restored to his whole kingdome,
 he entered into religion, and there shortlie after died.

 Then Athelstane, for his better assurance of that countrie there after,
 thought it best to haue two stringes to the bowe of their obedience, and
 therefore not onelie constituted one Malcolme to be their king, but also
 appointed one Indulph sonne of Constantine the third, to be called
 prince of Scotland, to whome he gaue much of Scotland: and for this
 Malcolme did homage to Athelstane.

 Edmund brother of Athelstane succéeded next king of England, to whome
 this Indulph then king of Scots not onelie did homage, but also serued
 him with ten thousand Scots, for the expulsion of the Danes out of the
 realme of England.

 [Sidenote: Some referre this to an Edward.]
 Edred or Eldred brother to this Edmund succéeded next king of England:
 he not onelie receiued the homage of Irise then king of Scots, but also
 the homage of all the barons of Scotland.

 Edgar the sonne of Edmund, brother of Athelstane, being now of full age,
 was next king of England: he reigned onelie ouer the whole monarchie of
 Britaine, and receiued homage of Keneth king of Scots for the kingdome
 of Scotland, and made Malcolme prince thereof.

 This Edgar gaue vnto the same Keneth the countrie of Louthian in
 Scotland, which was before seized into the hands of Osbright king of
 England for their rebellion, as is before declared. He inioined Keneth
 their said king also once in euerie yéere at certeine principall feasts
 (whereat the king did vse to weare his crowne) to repaire vnto him into
 England for the making of lawes: which in those daies was doone by the
 noble men or péeres according to the order of France at this daie. He
 allowed also sundrie lodgings in England, to him and his successours,
 whereat to lie, and refresh themselues in their iourneies, whensoeuer
 they should come vp to doo their homages: and finallie a péece of ground
 lieng beside the new palace of Westminster, vpon which this Keneth
 builded a house, that by him and his posteritie was inioied vntill the
 reigne of king Henrie the second. In whose time, vpon the rebellion of
 William king of Scots, it was resumed into the king of Englands hand.
 The house is decaied, but the ground where it stood is called Scotland
 to this daie.

 [Sidenote: Lawfull age and wardship of heires.]
 Moreouer, Edgar made this law, that no man should succéed to his
 patrimonie or inheritance holden by knights seruice, vntill he
 accomplished the age of one and twentie yéeres: because by intendment
 vnder that age, he should not be able in person to serue his king and
 countrie according to the tenor of his deed, and the condition of his
 purchase. This law was receiued by the same Keneth in Scotland; and as
 well there as in England is obserued to this daie: which prooueth also
 that Scotland was then vnder his obeisance.

 In the yeere of our Lord 974, Kinald king of Scots, and Malcolme king of
 Cumberland, Macon king of Man and the Iles, Duuenall king of Southwales,
 Siferth and Howell kings of the rest of Wales, Jacob or James of
 Gallowaie, & Jukill of Westmerland did homage to king Edgar at Chester.
 And on the morrow going by water to the monasterie of saint Iohns to
 seruice, and returning home againe: the said Edgar sitting in a barge,
 and stirring the same vpon the water of Dée, made the said kings to row
 the barge, saieng that his successors might well be ioifull to haue the
 prerogatiue of so great honour, and the superioritie of so manie mightie
 princes to be subiect vnto their monarchie.

 Edward, the sonne of this Edgar, was next king of England, in whose time
 this Keneth king of Scots caused Malcolme king of Scotland to be
 poisoned. Wherevpon king Edward made warre against him, which ceased not
 vntill this Keneth submitted himselfe, and offered to receiue him for
 prince of Scotland, whome king Edward would appoint. Herevpon king
 Edward proclamed one Malcolme to be prince of Scotland, who immediatlie
 came into England, and there did homage vnto the same king Edward.

 Etheldred, brother of this Edward succeeded next ouer England, against
 whome Swaine king of Denmarke conspired with this last Malcolme then
 king of Scots. But shortlie after, this Malcolme sorrowfullie submitted
 himselfe into the defense of Etheldred: who considering how that which
 could not be amended, must onelie be repented, benignlie receiued him.
 By helpe of whose seruice at last Etheldred recouered his realme againe
 out of the hands of Swaine, and reigned ouer the whole monarchie eight
 and thirtie yéeres.

 Edmund surnamed Ironside, sonne of this Etheldred, was next king of
 England, in whose time Canutus a Dane inuaded the realme with much
 crueltie. But at the last he married with Emme sometime wife vnto
 Etheldred and mother of this Edmund. Which Emme, as arbitratrix betweene
 hir naturall loue to the one, and matrimoniall dutie to the other,
 procured such amitie betwéene them in the end, that Edmund was contented
 to diuide the realme with Canutus: and keeping to himselfe all England
 on this side Humber, gaue all the rest beyond Humber, with the
 seigniorie of Scotland to this Canutus. Wherevpon Malcolme then king of
 Scots (after a little accustomable resistance) did homage to the same
 Canutus for the kingdome of Scotland. Thus the said Canutus held the
 same ouer of this Edmund king of England by the like seruices, so long
 as they liued togither. This Canutus in memorie of this victorie, and
 glorie of his seigniorie ouer the Scots, commanded Malcolme their king
 to build a church in Buchquhan in Scotland, (where a field betweene him
 and them was fought) to be dedicated to Olauus patrone of Norwaie and
 Denmarke, which church was by the same Malcolme accordinglie performed.

 Edward called the Confessour, sonne of Etheldred, and brother to Edmund
 Ironside, was afterward king of England: he tooke from Malcolme king of
 Scots his life and his kingdome, and made Malcolme sonne to the king of
 Cumberland and Northumberland king of Scots, who did him homage and

 This Edward perused the old lawes of the realme, and somewhat added to
 some of them: as to the law of Edgar for the wardship of the lands
 vntill the heire should accomplish the age of one and twentie yeeres. He
 added, that the marriage of such heire should also belong to the lord of
 [Sidenote: To whome the marriage of the ward perteineth.]
 whom the same land was holden. Also, that euerie woman marrieng a
 freeman, should (notwithstanding she had no children by that husband)
 enioie the third part of his inheritance during hir life: with manie
 other lawes which the same Malcolme king of Scots obeied, and which as
 well by them in Scotland, as by vs in England be obserued to this day,
 and directlie prooueth the whole to be then vnder his obeisance.

 By reason of this law, Malcolme the sonne of Duncane next inheritor to
 the crowne of Scotland, being within age, was by the nobles of Scotland
 deliuered as ward to the custodie also of king Edward. During whose
 minoritie, one Makebeth a Scot traitorouslie vsurped the crowne of
 Scotland. Against whome the said Edward made warre, in which the said
 Mackbeth was ouercome and slaine. Wherevpon the said Malcolme was
 crowned king of Scots at Scone, in the eight yeere of the reigne of king
 Edward aforesaid. This Malcolme also by tenor of the said new law of
 wardship, was married vnto Margaret the daughter of Edward sonne of
 Edmund Ironside and Agatha, by the disposition of the same king Edward,
 and at his full age did homage to this king Edward the Confessour for
 the kingdome of Scotland.

 [Sidenote: Edward the Confessour.]
 Moreouer, Edward of England, hauing no issue of his bodie, and
 mistrusting that Harald the son of Goodwine, descended of the daughter
 of Harald Harefoot the Dane, would vsurpe the crowne, if he should leaue
 it to his cousine Edgar Eatling (being then within age) and partlie by
 the petition of his subiects, who before had sworne neuer to receiue
 anie kings ouer them of the Danish nation, did by his substantiall will
 in writing (as all our clergie writers affirme) demise the crowne of
 great Britaine vnto William Bastard, then duke of Normandie, and to his
 heires, constituting him his heire testamentarie. Also there was
 proximitie in bloud betwéene them: for Emme daughter of Richard duke of
 Normandie was wife vnto Etheldred, on whom he begat Alured and this
 Edward: and this William was son of Robert sonne of Richard, brother of
 the whole bloud to the same Emme. Whereby appeareth that this William
 was heire by title, and not by conquest, albeit that partlie to
 extinguish the mistrust of other titles, and partlie for the glorie of
 his victorie, he chalenged in the end, the name of a conquerour, and
 hath béene so written euer since the time of his arriuall.

 [Sidenote: William Bastard.]
 Furthermore, this William, called the Bastard and the Conquerour,
 supposed not his conquest perfect till he had likewise subdued the
 Scots. Wherfore to bring the Scots to iust obeisance after his
 coronation, as heire testamentarie to Edward the Confessour; he entred
 Scotland, where after a little resistance made by the inhabitants, the
 said Malcolme then their king did homage to him at Abirnethie in
 Scotland for the kingdome of Scotland, as to his superiour also by meane
 of his late conquest.

 [Sidenote: William Rufus.]
 William surnamed Rufus, sonne to this William called the Conquerour,
 succéeded next in the throne of England, to whome the said Malcolme king
 of Scots did like homage for the whole kingdome of Scotland. But
 afterward he rebelled, and was by this William Rufus slaine in plaine
 field. Wherevpon the Scotishmen did choose one Donald or Dunwall to be
 their king. But this William Rufus deposed him, and created Dunkane
 sonne of Malcolme to be their king, who did like homage to him.
 Finallie, this Dunkane was slaine by the Scots, and Dunwall restored,
 who once againe by this William Rufus was deposed; and Edgar son of
 Malcolme, and brother to the last Malcolme, was by him made their king,
 who did like homage for Scotland to this William Rufus.

 [Sidenote: Henrie I.]
 Henrie called Beauclerke the sonne of William called the Conquerour,
 after the death of his brother William Rufus, succéeded to the crowne of
 England, to whome the same Edgar king of Scots did homage for Scotland:
 this Henrie Beauclerke maried Mawd the daughter of Malcolme K. of Scots,
 and by hir had issue Mawd afterward empresse.

 Alexander the sonne of Malcolme brother to this Mawd was next king of
 Scots, he did like homage for the kingdome of Scotland to this Henrie
 the first, as Edgar had doone before him.

 [Sidenote: Mawd.]
 Mawd called the empresse, daughter and heire to Henrie Beauclerke and
 Mawd his wife, receiued homage of Dauid, brother to hir and to this
 Alexander next king of Scots, before all the temporall men of England
 for the kingdome of Scotland. This Mawd the empresse gaue vnto Dauid in
 the marriage, Mawd the daughter and heire of Voldosius earle of
 Huntingdon & Northumberland. And herein their euasion appeareth, by
 which they allege that their kings homages were made for the earledome
 of Huntingdon. For this Dauid was the first that of their kings was
 earle of Huntingdon, which was since all the homages of their kings
 before recited, and at the time of this mariage, & long after the said
 Alexander his brother was king of Scots, doing the homage aforesaid to
 Henrie Beauclerke son to the aforesaid ladie, of whome I find this
 epitaph worthie to be remembred:

   Ortu magna, viro maior, sed maxima partu,
     Hîc iacet Henrici filia, sponsa, parens.

 In the yéere of our Lord 1136, and first yéere of the reigne of king
 Stephan, the said Dauid king of Scots being required to doo his homage,
 refused it: for so much as he had doone homage to Mawd the empresse
 before time; notwithstanding the sonne of the said Dauid did homage to
 king Stephan.

 [Sidenote: Henrie 2.]
 Henrie called Fitz empresse, the sonne of Mawd the empresse daughter of
 Mawd, daughter of Malcolme king of Scots, was next king of England. He
 receiued homage for Scotland of Malcolme sonne of Henrie, sonne of the
 said Dauid their last king. Which Malcolme after this homage attended
 vpon the same king Henrie in his warres against Lewis then king of
 France. Whereby appeareth that their French league was neuer renewed
 after the last diuision of their countrie by Osbright king of England.
 But after these warres finished with the French king, this Malcolme
 being againe in Scotland rebelled: wherevpon king Henrie immediatlie
 seized Huntingdon and Northumberland into his owne hands by confiscation,
 and made warres vpon him in Scotland: during which the same Malcolme
 died without issue of his bodie.

 William brother of this Malcolme was next king of Scots, he with all the
 [Sidenote: Because they were taken from him before.]
 nobles of Scotland (which could not be now for anie earledome) did
 homage to the sonne of Henrie the second, his father. Also the earledome
 of Huntingdon was (as ye haue heard) before this forfeited by Malcolme
 his brother, and neuer after restored to the crowne of Scotland.

 This William did afterward attend vpon the same Henrie the second, in
 his warres in Normandie against the French king (notwithstanding their
 French league) and then being licenced to depart home in the tenth of
 this prince, and vpon the fifteenth of Februarie he returned, and vpon
 the sixtéenth of October did homage to him for the realme of Scotland.
 In token also of his perpetuall subjection to the crowne of England, he
 offered vp his cloake, his saddle, and his speare at the high altar in
 Yorke: wherevpon he was permitted to depart home into Scotland, where
 immediatlie he mooued cruell warre in Northumberland against the same
 king Henrie, being as yet in Normandie. But God tooke the defense of
 king Henries part, and deliuered the same William king of Scots into the
 hands of a few Englishmen, who brought him prisoner to king Henrie into
 Normandie in the twentith yeere of his reigne. But at the last, at the
 sute of Dauid his brother, Richard bishop of saint Andrews, and other
 bishops and lords, he was put to this fine for the amendment of his
 trespasse; to wit, to paie ten thousand pounds sterling, and to
 surrender all his title to the earldome of Huntingdon, Cumberland, &
 Northumberland into the hands of king Henrie, which he did in all things
 accordinglie, sealing his charters thereof with the great scale of
 Scotland, and signets of his nobilitie yet to be seene: wherein it was
 also comprised, that he and his successours should hold the realme of
 Scotland of the king of England and his successours for euer. And
 herevpon he once againe did homage to the same king Henrie, which now
 could not be for the earledome of Huntingdon, the right whereof was
 alreadie by him surrendered. And for the better assurance of this faith
 also, the strengths of Berwike, Edenborough, Roxborough, and Striueling
 were deliuered into the hands of our king Henrie of England, which their
 owne writers confesse. But Hector Boetius saith, that this trespasse was
 amended by fine of twentie thousand pounds sterling, and that the
 erledome of Huntingdon, Cumberland, and Northumberland were deliuered as
 morgage into the hands of king Henrie, vntill other ten thousand pounds
 sterling should be to him paid, which is so farre from truth, as Hector
 was (while he liued) from well meaning to our countrie. But if we grant
 that it is true, yet prooueth he not that the monie was paid, nor the
 land otherwise redéemed, or euer after came to anie Scotish kings hands.
 And thus it appeareth that the earledome of Huntingdon was neuer
 occasion of the homages of the Scotish kings to the kings of England,
 either before this time or after.

 This was doone 1175. Moreouer I read this note hereof gathered out of
 Robertus Montanus or Montensis that liued in those daies, and was (as I
 take it) "confessor to king Henrie. The king of Scots dooth homage to
 king Henrie for the kingdome of Scotland, and is sent home againe, his
 bishops also did promise to doo the like to the archbishop of Yorke, and
 to acknowledge themselues to be of his prouince and iurisdiction. By
 vertue also of this composition the said Robert saith, that Rex Angliæ
 dabat honores, episcopatus, abbatias, & alias dignitates in Scotia, vel
 saltem eius consilio dabantur, that is, The king of England gaue honors,
 bishopriks, abbatships, and other dignities in Scotland, or at the
 leastwise they were not giuen without his aduise and counsell."

 At this time Alexander bishop of Rome (supposed to haue generall
 iurisdiction ecclesiasticall through christendome) established the whole
 cleargie of Scotland (according to the old lawes) vnder the iurisdiction
 of the archbishop of Yorke.

 In the yeare of our Lord 1185, in the moneth of August, at Cairleill,
 Rouland Talmant lord of Galwaie, did homage and fealtie to the said king
 Henrie with all that held of him.

 In the two and twentith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the second,
 Gilbert sonne of Ferguse prince of Galwaie, did homage and fealtie to
 the said king Henrie, and left Dunecan his sonne in hostage for
 conseruation of his peace.

 Richard surnamed C[oe]ur de Lion, because of his stoutnesse, and sonne
 of this Henrie was next king of England, to whome the same William king
 of Scots did homage at Canturburie for the whole kingdome of Scotland.

 This king Richard was taken prisoner by the duke of Ostrich, for whose
 redemption the whole realme was taxed at great summes of monie vnto the
 which this William king of Scots (as a subject) was contributorie, and
 paied two thousand markes sterling.

 In the yeare of our Lord 1199, Iohn king of England sent to William king
 of Scots, to come and doo his homage, which William came to Lincolne in
 the moneth of December the same yeare, and did his homage vpon an hill
 in the presence of Hubert archbishop of Canturburie, and of all the
 people there assembled, and therevnto tooke his oth and was sworne vpon
 the crosse of the said Hubert: also he granted by his charter confirmed,
 that he should haue the mariage of Alexander his sonne, as his liegeman,
 alwaies to hold of the king of England: promising moreouer that he the
 said king William and his sonne Alexander, should keepe and hold faith
 and allegiance to Henrie sonne of the said king Iohn, as to their chiefe
 lord against all maner of men that might liue and die.

 Also whereas William king of Scots had put Iohn bishop of saint Andrew
 out of his bishoprike, pope Clement wrote to Henrie king of England,
 that he should mooue and induce the same William; and if néed required
 by his roiall power and prerogatiue ouer that nation, to compell him to
 leaue his rancor against the said bishop, and suffer him to haue and
 occupie his said bishoprike againe.

 In the yeare of our Lord 1216, and fiue & twentith of the reigne of
 Henrie, sonne to king Iohn, the same Henrie and the quéene were at Yorke
 at the feast of Christmasse, for the solemnization of a marriage made in
 the feast of saint Stephan the martyr the same yeare, betwéene Alexander
 king of Scots, and Margaret the kings daughter, and there the said
 Alexander did homage to Henrie king of England for all the realme of

 In buls of diuerse popes were admonitions giuen to the kings of Scots,
 as appeareth by that of Gregorie the fift and Clement his successor,
 that they should obserue and trulie kéepe all such appointments, as had
 béene made betwéene the kings of England and Scotland. And that the
 kings of Scotland should still hold the realme of Scotland of the kings
 of England, vpon paine of cursse and interdiction.

 After the death of Alexander king of Scots, Alexander his sonne, being
 nine yeares of age, was by the lawes of Edgar, in ward to king Henrie
 the third, & by the nobles of Scotland brought to Yorke, and there
 deliuered vnto him. During whose minoritie king Henrie gouerned
 Scotland, and to subdue a commotion in this realme, vsed the aid of fiue
 thousand Scotishmen. But king Henrie died during the nonage of this
 Alexander, whereby he receiued not his homage, which by reason and law
 was respited vntill his full age of one and twentie yeares.

 Edward the first after the conquest, sonne of this Henrie was next king
 of England; immediatlie after whose coronation, Alexander king of Scots,
 being then of full age, did homage to him for Scotland at Westminster,
 swearing (as all the rest did) after this maner.

 "I. D. N. king of Scots shall be true and faithfull vnto you lord E. by
 the grace of God king of England, the noble and superior lord of the
 kingdome of Scotland, and vnto you I make my fidelitie for the same
 kingdome, the which I hold and claime to hold of you. And I shall beare
 you my faith and fidelitie of life and lim, and worldlie honour against
 all men, faithfullie I shall knowlege and shall doo you seruice due vnto
 you of the kingdome of Scotland aforesaid, as God me so helpe and these
 holie euangelies."

 This Alexander king of Scots died, leauing one onelie daughter called
 Margaret for his heire, who before had maried Hanigo, sonne to Magnus
 king of Norwaie, which daughter also shortlie after died, leauing one
 onelie daughter hir heire, of the age of two yeares, whose custodie and
 mariage by the lawes of king Edgar, and Edward the confessor, belonged
 to Edward the first: whervpon the nobles of Scotland were commanded by
 our king Edward to send into Norwaie, to conueie this yoong queene into
 England to him, whome he intended to haue maried to his sonne Edward:
 and so to haue made a perfect vnion long wished for betwéene both
 realmes. Herevpon their nobles at that time considering the same
 tranquillitie that manie of them haue since refused, stood not vpon
 shifts and delaies of minoritie nor contempt, but most gladlie
 consented, and therevpon sent two noble men of Scotland into Norwaie,
 for hir to be brought to this king Edward, but she died before their
 comming thither, and therefore they required nothing but to inioie the
 lawfull liberties that they had quietlie possessed in the last king
 Alexanders time.

 After the death of this Margaret, the Scots were destitute of anie heire
 to the crowne from this Alexander their last king, at which time this
 Edward descended from the bodie of Mawd daughter of Malcolme sometime
 king of Scots, being then in the greatest broile of his warres with
 France, minded not to take the possession of that kingdome in his owne
 right, but was contented to establish Balioll to be king thereof, the
 weake title betwéene him, Bruse, & Hastings, being by the humble
 petition of all the realme of Scotland c[=o]mitted to the determination
 of king Edward, wherein by autentike writing they confessed the
 superioritie of the realme to remaine in king Edward, sealed with the
 seales of foure bishops, seuen earles, and twelue barons of Scotland,
 and which shortlie after was by the whole assent of the three estates of
 Scotland, in their solemne parlement confessed and enacted accordinglie,
 as most euidentlie dooth appeare.

 The Balioll in this wise made king of Scotland, did immediatlie make his
 homage and fealtie at Newcastell vpon saint Stéeuens daie (as did
 likewise all the lords of Scotland, each one setting his hand to the
 composition in writing) to king Edward of England for the kingdome of
 Scotland: but shortlie after defrauding the benigne goodnesse of his
 superiour, he rebelled, and did verie much hurt in England. Herevpon
 king Edward inuaded Scotland, seized into his hands the greater part of
 the countrie, and tooke all the strengths thereof. Whervpon Balioll king
 of Scots came vnto him to Mauntrosse in Scotland with a white wand in
 his hand, and there resigned the crowne of Scotland, with all his right,
 title, and interest to the same, into the hands of king Edward, and
 thereof made his charter in writing, dated and sealed the fourth yeare
 of his reigne. All the nobles and gentlemen of Scotland also repaired to
 Berwike, and did homage and fealtie to king Edward, there becomming his
 subiects. For the better assurance of whose oths also, king Edward kept
 all the strengths and holdes of Scotland in his owne hands; and herevpon
 all their lawes, processes, all iudgements, gifts of assises and others,
 passed vnder the name and authoritie of king Edward. Leland touching the
 same rehearsall, writeth thereof in this maner.

 "In the yeare of our Lord 1295, the same Iohn king of Scots, contrarie
 to his faith and allegiance rebelled against king Edward, and came into
 England, and burnt and slue without all modestie and mercie. Wherevpon
 king Edward with a great host went to Newcastell vpon Tine, passed the
 water of Twéed, besieged Berwike, and got it. Also he wan the castell of
 Dunbar, and there were slaine at this brunt 15700 Scots. Then he
 proceeded further, and gat the castell of Rokesborow, and the castell of
 Edenborow, Striuelin and Gedworth, and his people harried all the land.
 In the meane season, the said king Iohn of Scots, considering that he
 was not of power to withstand king Edward, sent his letters and besought
 him of treatie and peace, which our prince benignlie granted, and sent
 to him againe that he should come to the towre of Brechin, and bring
 thither the great lords of Scotland with him. The king of England sent
 thither Antonie Becke bishop of Durham, with his roiall power, to
 conclude the said treatise. And there it was agreed that the said Iohn
 and all the Scots should vtterlie submit themselues to the kings will.
 And to the end the submission should be performed accordinglie, the king
 of Scots laid his sonne in hostage and pledge vnto him. There also he
 made his letters sealed with the common seale of Scotland, by the which
 he knowledging his simplenes and great offense doone to his lord king
 Edward of England, by his full power and frée will yeelded vp all the
 land of Scotland, with all the people and homage of the same. Then our
 king went foorth to sée the mounteins, and vnderstanding that all was in
 quiet and peace, he turned to the abbeie of Scone, which was of chanons
 [Sidenote: The Scots dreame that this was the stone whereon Jacob slept
 when he fled into Mesopotamia.]
 regular, where he tooke the stone called the Regall of Scotland, vpon
 which the kings of that nation were woont to sit, at the time of their
 coronations for a throne, & sent it to the abbeie of Westminster,
 commanding to make a chaire therof for the priests that should sing masse
 at the high altar: which chaire was made, and standeth yet there at this
 daie to be séene."

 In the yeare of our Lord 1296, the king held his parlement at Berwike:
 and there he tooke homage singularlie of diuerse of the lords & nobles
 of Scotland. And for a perpetuall memorie of the same, they made their
 letters patents sealed with their seales, and then the king of England
 made William Warreine earle of Surrie and Southsax lord Warden of
 Scotland, Hugh of Cressingham treasurer, and William Ormesbie iustice of
 Scotland, and foorthwith sent king Iohn to the Tower of London, and Iohn
 Comin, and the earle Badenauth, the earle of Bohan and other lords into
 England to diuerse places on this side of the Trent.

 And after that, in the yeare of our Lord 1297, at the feast of
 Christmas, the king called before him the said Iohn king of Scots,
 although he had committed him to ward: and said that he would burne or
 destroie their castels, townes, and lands, if he were not recompensed
 for his costs and damages susteined in the warres; but king Iohn and the
 other that were in ward, answered that they had nothing, sith their
 liues, their deaths, and goods were in his hands. The king vpon that
 answer mooued with pitie, granted them their liues; so that they would
 doo their homage, and make their oth solenmelie at the high altar (in
 the church of the abbeie of Westminster) vpon the eucharist, that they
 and euerie of them should hold and keepe true faith, obedience, and
 allegiance to the said king Edward and his heires kings of England for
 euer. And where the said king of Scots saw the kings banner of England
 displaied, he and all his power should draw therevnto. And that neither
 he or anie of his from thencefoorth should beare armes against the king
 of England or anie of his bloud. Finallie, the king rewarding with great
 gifts the said king Iohn and his lords, suffered them to depart. But
 they went into Scotland alwaie imagining (notwithstanding this their
 submission) how they might oppresse king Edward, and disturbe his
 realme. The Scots sent also to the king of France for succour and helpe,
 who sent them ships to Berwike furnished with men of armes, the king of
 England then being in Flanders.

 In the yeare of our Lord 1298, the king went into Scotland with a great
 host, and the Scots also assembled in great number, but the king fought
 with them at Fawkirke on S. Marie Magdalens daie, where were slaine
 thréescore thousand Scots, & William Walleis that was their capteine
 fled, who being taken afterward, was hanged, drawen, & quartered at
 London, for his trespasses.

 After this the Scots rebelled againe, and all the lords of Scotland
 [Sidenote: This was doone upon the nine & twentith of Ianuarie, 1306.]
 chose Robert Bruse to be king, except onelie Iohn Commin earle of
 Carrike, who would not consent thereto bicause of his oth made to the
 king of England. Wherefore Robert Bruse slue him at Dumfrise, and then
 was crowned at Schone abbeie. Herevpon the king of England assembled a
 great hoast, and rode through all Scotland, discomfited Robert Bruse,
 slue eight thousand Scots, & tooke the most part of all the lords of
 Scotland, putting the temporall lords to deth bicause they were

 Edward borne at Carnaruan sonne of this Edward, was next king of
 England, who from the beginning of his reigne enioied Scotland
 peaceablie, dooing in all things as is aboue said of king Edward his
 father, vntill toward the later end of his reigne, about which time this
 Robert Bruse conspired against him, and with the helpe of a few
 forsworne Scots, forswore himselfe king of Scots. Herevpon this Edward
 with Thomas earle of Lancaster and manie other lords made warre vpon
 him, about the feast of Marie Magdalene, the said Bruse and his
 partakers being alreadie accurssed by the pope for breaking the truce
 that he had established betwixt them. But being infortunate in his first
 warres against him, he suffered Edward the sonne of Balioll to proclame
 himselfe king of Scots; and neuerthelesse held foorth his warres against
 Bruse, before the ending of which he died, as I read.

 Edward borne at Windsore sonne of Edward the second was next king of
 England, at the age of fifteene yeares, in whose minoritie the Scots
 practised with Isabell mother to this Edward, and with Roger Mortimer
 earle of the March to haue their homages released: whose good will
 therein they obteined, so that for the same release they should paie to
 this king Edward thirtie thousand pounds starling, in three yeares next
 following, that is to saie, ten thousand pounds starling yeerelie. But
 bicause the nobilitie and commons of this realme would not by parlement
 consent vnto it, their king being within age, the same release procéeded
 not, albeit the Scots ceased not their practises with this quéene and
 earle. But before those thrée yeares, in which their monie (if the
 bargaine had taken place) should haue béene paied, were expired, our
 king Edward inuaded Scotland, and ceassed not the warre, vntill Dauid
 the sonne of Robert le Bruse (then by their election king of Scotland)
 absolutelie submitted himselfe vnto him. But for that the said Dauid
 Bruse had before by practise of the quéene and the earle of March,
 married Iane the sister of this king Edward: he mooued by naturall zeale
 to his sister, was contented to giue the realme of Scotland to this
 Dauid Bruse, and to the heires that should be begotten of the bodie of
 the said Iane (sauing the reuersion and meane homages to this king
 Edward and to his owne children) wherewith the same Dauid Bruse was
 right well contented, and therevpon immediatlie made his homage for all
 the realme of Scotland to him.

 Howbeit, shortlie after causelesse conceiuing cause of displeasure, this
 Dauid procured to dissolue this same estate tailée, and therevpon not
 onelie rebelled in Scotland, but also inuaded England, whilest king
 Edward was occupied about his wars in France. But this Dauid was not
 onelie expelled England in the end, but also thinking no place a
 sufficient defense to his vntruth, of his owne accord fled out of
 Scotland: whereby the countries of Annandale, Gallowaie, Mars, Teuidale,
 Twedale, and Ethrike were seized into the king of Englands hands, and
 new marches set betwéene England and Scotland at Cockburnes path &
 Sowtrie hedge. Which when this Dauid went about to recouer againe, his
 power was discomfited, and himselfe by a few Englishmen taken & brought
 into England, where he remained prisoner eleuen yeares after his said

 During this time, king Edward enioied Scotland peaceablie, and then at
 the contemplation and wearie suit of his sorowfull sister, wife of this
 Dauid, he was contented once againe to restore him to the kingdome of
 Scotland. Wherevpon it was concluded, that for this rebellion Dauid
 should paie to king Edward, the summe of one hundred thousand markes
 starling, and thereto destroie all his holdes and fortresses standing
 against the English borders, and further assure the crowne of Scotland
 to the children of this king Edward for lacke of heire of his owne
 bodie, all which things he did accordinglie. And for the better
 assurance of his obeisance also, he afterward deliuered into the hands
 of king Edward sundrie noble men of Scotland in this behalfe as his
 pledges. This is the effect of the historie of Dauid, touching his
 delings. Now let vs sée what was doone by Edward Balioll, wherof our
 chronicles doo report, that in the yéere of our Lord 1326, Edward the
 third, king of England, was crowned at Westminster, and in the fift
 yeare of his reigne Edward Balioll right heire to the kingdome of
 Scotland came in, and claimed it as due to him. Sundrie lords and
 gentlemen also, which had title to diuerse lands there, either by
 themselues, or by their wiues, did the like. Wherevpon the said Balioll
 and they went into Scotland by sea, and landing at Kinghorne with 3000
 Englishmen, discomfited 10000 Scots, and slue 1200, and then went foorth
 to Dunfermeline, where the Scots assembled against them with 40000 men,
 and in the feast of saint Laurence, at a place called Gastmore (or
 otherwise Gladmore) were slaine fiue earls, thirtéene barons, a hundred
 and thrée score knights, two thousand men of armes, and manie other; in
 all fortie thousand: and there were slaine on the English part but
 thirtéene persons onelie, if the number be not corrupted.

 In the eight yeare of the reigne of king Edward, he assembled a great
 hoast, and came to Berwike vpon Twéed, and laid siege therto. To him
 also came Edward Balioll king of Scots, with a great power to strengthen
 & aid him against the Scots, who came out of Scotland in foure batels
 well armed & araied.

 Edward king of England, and Edward king of Scots, apparrelled their
 people either of them in foure battels: and vpon Halidon hill, beside
 Berwike, met these two hoasts, and there were discomfited of the Scots
 fiue and twentie thousand and seauen hundred, whereof were slaine eight
 earles, a thousand and thrée hundred knights and gentlemen. This
 victorie doone, the king returned to Berwike, & then the towne with the
 castell were yéelded vp vnto him. In the eight yeare of the reigne of
 king Edward of England, Edward Balioll king of Scots came to Newcastell
 vpon Tine, and did homage for all the realme of Scotland.

 In the yeare of our Lord 1346, Dauid Bruse by the prouocation of the
 king of France rebelled, and came into England with a great hoast vnto
 Neuils crosse: but the archbishop of Yorke, with diuerse temporall men,
 fought with him; and the said king of Scots was taken, and William earle
 of Duglas with Morrise earle of Strathorne were brought to London, and
 manie other lords slaine, which with Dauid did homage to Edward king of

 And in the thirtith yeare of the kings reigne, and the yeare of our Lord
 1355, the Scots woone the towne of Berwicke, but not the castell.
 Herevpon the king came thither with a great hoast, and anon the towne
 was yéelded vp without anie resistance.

 Edward Balioll, considering that God did so manie maruellous and
 gratious things for king Edward, at his owne will gaue vp the crowne and
 the realme of Scotland to king Edward of England at Rokesborough, by his
 letters patents. And anon after the king of England, in presence of all
 his lords spirituall and temporall, let crowne himselfe king there of
 the realme of Scotland, & ordeined all things to his intent, and so came
 ouer into England.

 Richard the sonne of Edward, called the Blacke prince, sonne of this
 king Edward, was next king of England, who for that the said Iane, the
 wife of the said king Dauid of Scotland was deceassed without issue, and
 being informed how the Scots deuised to their vttermost power to breake
 the limitation of this inheritance touching the crowne of Scotland, made
 foorthwith war against them, wherein he burnt Edenbrough, spoiled all
 their countrie, tooke all their holds, & held continuallie war against
 them vntill his death, which was Anno Dom. 1389.

 Henrie the fourth of that name was next king of England, he continued
 these warres begun against them by king Richard, and ceassed not vntill
 Robert king of Scots (the third of that name) resigned his crowne by
 appointment of this king Henrie, and deliuered his sonne Iames, being
 then of the age of nine yeares, into his hands to remaine at his
 custodie, wardship and disposition, as of his superiour lord, according
 to the old lawes of king Edward the confessor. All this was doone Anno
 Dom. 1404, which was within fiue yeares after the death of king Richard.
 This Henrie the fourth reigned in this estate ouer them fouretéene

 Henrie the fift of that name, sonne to this king Henrie the fourth, was
 next king of England. He made warres against the French king, in all
 which this Iames then king of Scots attended vpon him, as vpon his
 superiour lord, with a conuenient number of Scots, notwithstanding their
 league with France. But this Henrie reigned but nine yeares, whereby the
 homage of this Iames their king (hauing not fullie accomplished the age
 of one & twentie yeares) was by reason and law respited. Finallie the
 said Iames with diuerse other lords attended vpon the corps of the said
 Henrie vnto Westminster, as to his dutie apperteined.

 Henrie the sixt, the sonne of this Henrie the fift, was next king of
 England, to whome the seigniorie of Scotland & custodie of this Iames by
 right, law, and reason descended, married the same Iames king of Scots
 to Iane daughter of Iohn earle of Summerset, at saint Marie ouer Ise in
 Southwarke, and tooke for the value of this mariage, the summe of one
 hundred thousand markes starling.

 This Iames king of Scots at his full age, did homage to the same king
 Henrie the sixt, for the kingdome of Scotland at Windsore, in the moneth
 of Ianuarie.

 Since which time, vntill the daies of king Henrie the seuenth,
 grandfather to our souereigne ladie that now is, albeit this realme hath
 béene molested with diuersitie of titles, in which vnmeet time neither
 law nor reason admit prescription to the prejudice of anie right: yet
 did king Edward the fourth next king of England, by preparation of war
 against the Scots in the latter end of his reigne, sufficientlie by all
 lawes induce to the continuance of his claime to the same superioritie
 ouer them.

 After whose death, vnto the beginning of the reigne of our souereigne
 lord king Henrie the eight, excéeded not the number of seauen and
 twentie yeares, about which time the impediment of our claime of the
 Scots part, chanced by the nonage of Iames their last king which so
 continued the space of one and twentie yeares. And like as his minoritie
 was by all law and reason an impediment to himselfe to make homage; so
 was the same by like reason an impediment to the king of this realme to
 demand anie, so that the whole time of intermission of our claime in the
 time of the said king Henrie the eight, is deduced vnto the number of
 thirteene yeares. And thus much for this matter.



 Hauing hitherto discoursed vpon the title of the kings of England, vnto
 the Scotish kingdome: I haue now thought good to adde herevnto the
 description of two walles that were (in times past) limits vnto both the
 said regions, and therefore to be touched in this first booke, as
 generallie appertinent vnto the estate of the whole Iland; and no lesse
 famous than that which Anastasius Dicorus made afterward from the Euxine
 vnto the Thracian sea, conteining 420 furlongs in length, and twelue
 foot in bredth, & distant from Constantinople 280 furlongs, albeit that
 of Hadrian was made of turffe and timber. The author therefore of the
 [Sidenote: The first beginner of the Picts wall.]
 first wall was Hadrian the emperour, who (as Ælius Spartianus saith)
 erected the same of foure score miles in length, twelue foot in heigth,
 and eight in bredth, to diuide the barbarous Britons from the more
 ciuill sort, which then were generallie called by the name of Romans
 ouer all.

 [Sidenote: The finisher of the wall.]
 After his time Seuerus the emperour comming againe into this Ile (where
 he had serued before in repression of the tumults here begun, after the
 death of Lucius) amongst other things he made another wall (but of
 stone) betwéene eightie and a hundred miles from the first, & of thirtie
 two miles in length, reaching on both sides also to the sea, of whome
 the Britons called it S. Murseueri, or Gwall Seueri, that is, The wall
 of Seuerus, or Seuerus dale, which later indureth vntill these daies in
 fresh memorie, by reason of the ruines & square stones there oft found,
 whose inscriptions declare the authors of that worke. It is worthie the
 noting also, how that in this voiage he lost 50000 men in the Scotish
 side, by one occasion and other, which hinderance so incensed him, that
 he determined vtterlie to extinguish their memorie from vnder heauen,
 and had so doone in déed, if his life had indured but vntill another
 [Sidenote: The wall goeth not streict by a line,
 but in and out in manie places.]
 yeare. Sextus Aurelius writing of Seuerus, addeth, how that the wall
 made by this prince conteined two and thirtie miles, whereby the bredth
 of this Iland there, and length of the wall conteineth onelie so manie
 miles, as may be gathered by his words. But chéeflie for the length of