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Title: Ancient Rome : from the earliest times down to 476 A. D.
Author: Pennell, Robert F.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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ANCIENT ROME

FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES DOWN TO 476 A.D.

By Robert F. Pennell

_Revised Edition_



PREFACE.

This compilation is designed to be a companion to the author's History
of Greece. It is hoped that it may fill a want, now felt in many high
schools and academies, of a short and clear statement of the rise and
fall of Rome, with a biography of her chief men, and an outline of her
institutions, manners, and religion.

For this new edition the book has been entirely rewritten, additional
matter having been introduced whenever it has been found necessary to
meet recent requirements.

The penults of proper names have been marked when long, both in the text
and Index. The Examination Papers given are introduced to indicate the
present range of requirement in leading colleges.

The maps and plans have been specially drawn and engraved for this
book. The design has been to make them as clear and open as possible;
consequently, names and places not mentioned in the text have, as a
rule, been omitted.

ROBERT F. PENNELL. RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA, July. 1890.

(Illustration: GAIUS IULIUS CAESAR.)



ANCIENT ROME.



CHAPTER I. GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY.


Italy is a long, narrow peninsula in the southern part of Europe,
between the 38th and 46th parallels of north latitude. It is 720 miles
long from the Alps to its southern extremity, and 330 miles broad in
its widest part, i.e. from the Little St. Bernard to the hills north of
Trieste. It has an area of nearly 110,000 square miles, about that of
the State of Nevada.

The Alps separate Italy on the north and northwest from the rest
of Europe. The pass over these mountains which presents the least
difficulties is through the Julian Alps on the east. It was over this
pass that the Barbarians swept down in their invasions of the country.
The Apennines, which are a continuation of the Alps, extend through
the whole of the peninsula. Starting in the Maritime Alps, they extend
easterly towards the Adriatic coast, and turn southeasterly hugging the
coast through its whole extent. This conformation of the country causes
the rivers of any size below the basin of the Po to flow into the
Tyrrhenian (Tuscan) Sea, rather than into the Adriatic.

Northern Italy, between the Alps and the Apennines, is drained by the
Padus (Po) and its tributaries. It was called GALLIA CISALPÍNA (Gaul
this side of the Alps), and corresponds in general to modern Lombardy.
The little river Athesis, north of the Padus, flows into the Adriatic.
Of the tributaries of the Padus, the Ticínus on the north, and the
Trebia on the south, are of historical interest.

The portion of Northern Italy bordering on the Mediterranean is a
mountainous district, and was called LIGURIA. In this district on the
coast were Genua and Nicaea. The district north of the Athesis, between
the Alps and the Adriatic, was called VENETIA, from which comes the name
Venice. Here were located Patavium (Padua), Aquileia, and Forum Julii.

Gallia Cisalpína contained many flourishing towns. North of the Padus
were Veróna, Mediolánum (Milan), Cremóna, Mantua, Andes, and Vercellae,
a noted battle-field. South of this river were Augusta Taurinórum
(Turin), Placentia, Parma, Mutina, and Ravenna. The Rubicon, a little
stream flowing into the Adriatic, bounded Gallia Cisalpína on the
southeast. The Mucra, another little stream, was the southern boundary
on the other side of Italy.

CENTRAL ITALY, _Italia Propria_, or Italy Proper, included all of the
peninsula below these rivers as far down as Apulia and Lucania. In this
division are the rivers Tiber, Arnus, Liris, and Volturnus, which empty
into the Mediterranean, and the Metaurus, Aesis, and Aternus, which
empty into the Adriatic.

The most important subdivision of Central Italy was LATIUM, bordering
on the Tyrrhenian Sea. North of it on the same coast was ETRURIA, and to
the south was CAMPANIA. On the Adriatic coast were UMBRIA, PICÉNUM, and
SAMNIUM.

The cities of Latium were Rome, on the Tiber, and its seaport, Ostia,
near the mouth of the same river. Ten miles northwest of Rome was Veii,
an Etruscan city, and about the same distance southeast was Alba Longa.
Nearly the same distance directly south of Rome, on the coast, was
Lavinium, and east-northeast of Rome was Tibur. Neighboring to Alba
Longa were Tusculum and the Alban Lake. The Pomptine Marshes were near
the coast, in the southern part of Latium. Lake Regillus was near Rome.

In Etruria were Florentia, Faesulae, Pisae, Arretium, Volaterrae,
Clusium, and Tarquinii; also Lake Trasiménus. In Campania were Capua,
Neapolis (Naples), Cumae, Baiae, a watering place, Herculaneum, Pompeii,
Caudium, Salernum, Casilínum, and Nola. The famous volcano of Vesuvius
was here, and also Lake Avernus.

In Umbria, on the coast, were Ariminum and Pisaurum; in the interior
were Sentinum and Camerínum. The river Metaurus, noted for the defeat of
Hasdrubal, was likewise in Umbria.

In Picenum was Ancona. In Samnium were Cures and Beneventum.

SOUTHERN ITALY included APULIA and CALABRIA on the Adriatic, LUCANIA and
BRUTTUM on the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Apulia is the most level of the countries south of the Rubicon. Its
only stream is the Aufidus, on the bank of which at Cannae was fought a
famous battle. Arpi, Asculum, and Canusium are interior towns.

In Calabria (or Iapygia) were the cities of Brundisium and Tarentum.

The chief towns in Lucania and Bruttium were settled by the Greeks.
Among them were Heracléa, Metapontum, Sybaris, and Thurii, in Lucania;
and Croton, Locri, and Rhegium, in Bruttium.

The islands near Italy were important. SICILY, with an area of about
10,000 square miles, and triangular in shape, was often called by the
poets TRINACRIA (with three promontories). The island contained many
important cities, most of which were of Greek origin. Among these were
Syracuse, Agrigentum, Messána, Catana, Camarína, Gela, Selínus, Egesta
(or Segesta), Panormus, Leontíni, and Enna. There are many mountains,
the chief of which is Aetna.

SARDINIA is nearly as large as Sicily. CORSICA is considerably smaller.
ILVA (Elba) is between Corsica and the mainland. IGILIUM is off Etruria;
CAPREAE is in the Bay of Naples; STRONGYLE (Strombóli) and LIPARA are
north of Sicily, and the AEGÁTES INSULAE are west of it.



CHAPTER II. THE EARLY INHABITANTS OF ITALY.


So far as we know, the early inhabitants of Italy were divided into
three races, the IAPYGIAN, ETRUSCAN, and ITALIAN. The IAPYGIANS were the
first to settle in Italy. They probably came from the north, and were
pushed south by later immigrations, until they were crowded into the
southeastern corner of the peninsula (Calabria). Here they were mostly
absorbed by the Greeks, who settled in the eighth and seventh centuries
all along the southern and southwestern coast, and who were more highly
civilized. Besides the Iapygians, and distinct from the Etruscans and
Italians, were the Venetians and the Ligurians, the former of whom
settled in Venetia, the latter in Liguria.

The ETRUSCANS at the time when Roman history begins were a powerful and
warlike race, superior to the Italians in civilization and the arts of
life. They probably came from the north, and at first settled in the
plain of the Po; but being afterwards dislodged by the invading Gauls,
they moved farther south, into Etruria. Here they formed a confederation
of twelve cities between the Arno and the Tiber. Of these cities the
most noted were Volsinii, the head of the confederacy, Veii, Volaterrae,
Caere, and Clusium. This people also formed scattering settlements in
other parts of Italy, but gained no firm foothold. At one time, in the
sixth century, they were in power at Rome. Corsica, too, was at this
time under their control. Their commerce was considerable. Many well
preserved monuments of their art have been discovered, but no one has
yet been able to decipher any of the inscriptions upon them. The power
of these people was gradually lessened by the Romans, and after the fall
of Veii, in 396, became practically extinct.

The ITALIANS were of the same origin as the Hellénes, and belonged
to the Aryan race, a people that lived in earliest times possibly in
Scandinavia. While the Hellénes were settling in Greece, the Italians
entered Italy.

At this time the Italians had made considerable progress in
civilization. They understood, in a measure, the art of agriculture; the
building of houses; the use of wagons and of boats; of fire in preparing
food, and of salt in seasoning it. They could make various weapons and
ornaments out of copper and silver; husband and wife were recognized,
and the people were divided into clans (tribes).

That portion of the Italians known as the LATINS settled in a plain
which is bounded on the east and south by mountains, on the west by the
Tyrrhenian Sea, and on the north by the high lands of Etruria.

This plain, called LATIUM (flat country), contains about 700 square
miles (one half the size of Rhode Island), with a coast of only fifty
miles, and no good harbors. It is watered by two rivers, the Tiber, and
its tributary, the Anio. Hills rise here and there; as Soracte in the
northeast, the promontory of Circeium in the southwest, Janiculum
near Rome, and the Alban range farther south. The low lands (modern
_Campagna_) were malarious and unhealthy. Hence the first settlements
were made on the hills, which also could be easily fortified.

The first town established was ALBA; around this sprung up other towns,
as Lanuvium, Aricia, Tusculum, Tibur, Praeneste, Laurentum, Roma, and
Lavinium.

These towns, thirty in number, formed a confederacy, called the LATIN
CONFEDERACY, and chose Alba to be its head. An annual festival was
celebrated with great solemnity by the magistrates on the Alban Mount,
called the Latin festival. Here all the people assembled and offered
sacrifice to their common god, Jupiter (_Latiaris_).

(Illustration: Latium)



CHAPTER III. THE ROMANS AND THEIR EARLY GOVERNMENT.


We have learned the probable origin of the LATINS; how they settled
in Latium, and founded numerous towns. We shall now examine more
particularly that one of the Latin towns which was destined to outstrip
all her sisters in prosperity and power.

Fourteen miles from the mouth of the Tiber, the monotonous level of
the plain through which the river flows is broken by a cluster of
hills (Footnote: The seven hills of historic Rome were the Aventine,
Capitoline, Coelian, Esquiline (the highest, 218 feet), Palatine,
Quirínal, and Viminal. The Janiculum was on the other side of the Tiber,
and was held by the early Romans as a stronghold against the Etruscans.
It was connected with Rome by a wooden bridge (_Pons Sublicius_).)
rising to a considerable height, around one of which, the PALATINE,
first settled a tribe of Latins called RAMNES,--a name gradually changed
to ROMANS.

When this settlement was formed is not known. Tradition says in 753. It
may have been much earlier. These first settlers of Rome were possibly
a colony from Alba. In the early stages of their history they united
themselves with a Sabine colony that had settled north of them on the
QUIRÍNAL HILL. The name of TITIES was given to this new tribe. A third
tribe, named LUCERES, composed, possibly, of conquered Latins,
was afterwards added and settled upon the COELIAN HILL. All early
communities, to which the Romans were no exception, were composed of
several groups of FAMILIES. The Romans called these groups GENTES, and
a single group was called a GENS. All the members of a _gens_ were
descended from a common ancestor, after whom the _gens_ received its
name.

The head of each family was called PATER-FAMILIAS, and he had absolute
authority (Footnote: Called _patria potestas_.) over his household, even
in the matter of life and death.

The Roman government at first was conducted by these Fathers of the
families, with a KING, elected from their own number, and holding
office for life. His duties were to command the army, to perform certain
sacrifices (as high priest), and to preside over the assembly of the
Fathers of the families, which was called the SENATE, i. e. an assembly
of old men (_Senex_).

This body was probably originally composed of all the Fathers of the
families, but in historical times it was limited to THREE HUNDRED
members, holding life office, and appointed during the regal period by
the king. Later the appointment was made by the Consuls, still later by
the Censors, and for nearly one hundred years before Christ all persons
who had held certain offices were thereby vested with the right of seats
in the Senate. Hence, during this later period, the number of Senators
was greatly in excess of three hundred. The Senators, when addressed,
were called PATRES, or "Fathers," for they were Fathers of the families.

The Romans, as we saw above, were divided at first into three tribes,
_Ramnes_, _Tities_, and _Luceres_ Each tribe was subdivided into ten
districts called CURIAE, and each curia into ten clans called GENTES
(3 tribes, 30 curiae, and 300 gentes). Every Roman citizen,
therefore, belonged to a particular family, at the head of which was a
_pater-familias_; every family belonged to a particular _gens_, named
after a common ancestor; every gens belonged to a particular _curia_;
and every curia to a particular _tribe_.

We have learned that in the early government of Rome there was a king,
and a senate that advised the king. Besides this, there was an assembly
composed of all Roman citizens who could bear arms. (Footnote: We must
remember that at this time no one was a Roman citizen who did not
belong to some family. All other residents were either slaves or had no
political rights, i.e. had no voice in the government.) This assembly of
Roman citizens met, from time to time, in an enclosed space called the
COMITIUM, which means a place of gathering or coming together. This was
between the Palatine and Quirínal hills near the FORUM, or market-place.
This assembly itself was called the COMITIA CURIÁTA, i.e. an assembly
composed of the 30 curiae. This body alone had the power of changing the
existing laws; of declaring war or peace; and of confirming the election
of kings made by the senate. The voting in this assembly was taken by
each curia, and the majority of the curiae decided any question.



CHAPTER IV. THE EARLY GROWTH AND INTERNAL HISTORY OF ROME.


The position of Rome was superior to that of the other towns in the
Latin Confederacy. Situated on the Tiber, at the head of navigation, she
naturally became a commercial centre. Her citizens prospered and grew
wealthy, and wealth is power. Her hills were natural strongholds, easily
held against a foe. Thus we see that she soon became the most powerful
of the Latin cities, and when her interests conflicted with theirs,
she had no scruples about conquering any of them and annexing their
territory. Thus Alba was taken during the reign of Tullus Hostilius, and
his successor, Ancus Marcius, subdued several cities along the river,
and at its mouth founded a colony which was named OSTIA, the seaport of
Rome.

At this time (about 625) the Roman territory (_ager Románus_) comprised
nearly 250 square miles, being irregular in shape, but lying mostly
along the southern bank of the Tiber and extending about ten or twelve
miles from the river. It was not materially increased during the next
two centuries.

The original founders of Rome and their direct descendants were called
PATRICIANS, i. e. belonging to the _Patres_, or Fathers of the families.
They formed a class distinct from all others, jealously protecting their
rights against outsiders. Attached to the Patricians was a class called
CLIENTS, who, though free, enjoyed no civil rights, i. e. they had
no voice in the government, but were bound to assist in every way the
Patrician, called PATRON, to whom they were attached. In return, the
latter gave them his support, and looked after their interests. These
clients corresponded somewhat to serfs, worked on the fields of their
patrons, and bore the name of the _gens_ to which their patron belonged.
Their origin is uncertain; but they may have come from foreign towns
conquered by the Latins, and whose inhabitants had not been made slaves.

In addition to the clients there were actual slaves, who were the
property of their masters, and could be bought or sold at pleasure.
Sometimes a slave was freed, and then he was called a LIBERTUS
(freedman) and became the client of his former master.

As Rome grew into commercial prominence, still another class of people
flocked into the city from foreign places, who might be called resident
foreigners, corresponding in general to the _Metics_ at Athens. Such
were many merchants and workmen of all trades. These all were supposed
to be under the protection of some patrician who acted as their patron.

These three classes, clients, slaves, and resident foreigners, were all
of a different race from the Romans. This should be constantly borne in
mind.

We have learned that Rome, as she grew in power, conquered many of the
Latin towns, and added their territory to hers. The inhabitants of these
towns were of the same race as the Romans, but were not allowed any of
their civil rights. Most of them were farmers and peasants. Many of them
were wealthy. This class of inhabitants on the _ager Romanus_, or in
Rome itself, were called Plebeians (_Plebs_, multitude). Their very name
shows that they must have been numerous. They belonged to no gens
or curia, but were free, and allowed to engage in trade and to own
property. In later times (from about 350) all who were not Patricians or
slaves were called Plebeians.


THE ARMY.

Until the time of Servius Tullius (about 550) the army was composed
entirely of patricians. It was called a Legio (a word meaning _levy_),
and numbered three thousand infantry called _milites_, from _mille_,
a thousand, one thousand being levied from each tribe. The cavalry
numbered three hundred at first, one hundred from each tribe, and was
divided into three companies called Centuries.

During the reign of Servius the demands of the plebeians, who had now
become numerous, for more rights, was met by the so called SERVIAN
reform of the constitution. Heretofore only the patricians had been
required to serve in the army. Now all males were liable to service. To
accomplish this, every one who was a land-owner, provided he owned two
acres, was enrolled and ranked according to his property. There were
five "Classes" of them. The several classes were divided into 193
subdivisions called "Centuries," each century representing the same
amount of property. In the first class there were forty centuries in
active service, composed of men under forty-six, forty centuries of
reserve, and eighteen centuries of cavalry.

In the second, third, and fourth classes there were twenty centuries
each, ten in active service, and ten in reserve. The fifth class had
thirty centuries of soldiers, and five of mechanics, musicians, etc.

The first four ranks of the troops were made up of the infantry from
the first class. All were armed with a leather helmet, round shield,
breastplate, greaves (leg-pieces), spear, and sword. The fifth rank was
composed of the second class, who were armed like the first, without
breastplate. The sixth rank was composed of the third class, who had
neither breastplate nor greaves. Behind these came the fourth class,
armed with spears and darts, and the fifth class, having only slings.

Each soldier of the infantry paid for his own equipments; the cavalry,
however, received from the state a horse, and food to keep it.

This new organization of both patricians and plebeians was originally
only for military purposes,--that the army might be increased, and the
expenses of keeping it more equitably divided among all the people. But
gradually, as the influence of the wealthy plebeians began to be felt,
the organization was found well adapted for political purposes, and
all the people were called together to vote under it. It was called the
COMITIA CENTURIÁTA, i.e. an assembly of centuries. The place of meeting
was on the CAMPUS MARTIUS, a plain outside of the city.

In this assembly each century had one vote, and its vote was decided by
the majority of its individual voters. The tendency of this system was
to give the wealthy the whole power; for since each century represented
the same amount of property, the centuries in the upper or richer
classes were much smaller than those in the lower or poorer classes, so
that a majority of the centuries might represent a small minority of
the people. The majority of the wealthy people at Rome were still
patricians, so the assembly was virtually controlled by them. In this
assembly magistrates were elected, laws made, war declared, and judgment
passed in all criminal cases.

(Illustration: CAMPANIA)



CHAPTER V. THE DYNASTY OF THE TARQUINS.


Of the seven traditional kings of Rome, the last three were undoubtedly
of Etruscan origin, and their reigns left in the city many traces of
Etruscan influence. The Etruscans were great builders, and the only
buildings of importance that Rome possessed, until a much later period,
were erected under this dynasty. The names of these kings are said to
have been LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS, SERVIUS TULLIUS, his son-in-law,
and LUCIUS TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS.

Under the first of these kings were built the fine temple of JUPITER
CAPITOLÍNUS, on the Capitoline Hill, and near by shrines to JUNO and
MINERVA. This temple to Jupiter was called the CAPITOLIUM, and from
it we get our word CAPITOL. It was looked upon as the centre of Roman
religion and authority, and at times the Senate was convened in it.

During this reign the famous CLOÁCA MAXIMA, or great sewer intended to
drain the Campagna, is also said to have been constructed. This sewer
was so well built that it is still used.

Under the second king of this dynasty, Servius Tullius, the city was
surrounded with a wall, which included the Palatine, Quirínal, Coelian,
and Aventine hills, and also the Janiculum, which was on the opposite
side of the river, and connected with the city by a bridge (_pons
sublicius_).

The establishment of the new military organization, mentioned in the
previous chapter, was attributed also to this king.

The pupil will notice the similarity between these reforms of Tullius
and those of Solon of Athens, who lived about the same time. Thus early
was the Greek influence felt at Rome.

During the reign of Tullius a temple in honor of DIÁNA was erected on
the Aventine, to be used by all the Latin towns.

Tarquinius Superbus added to the AGER ROMÁNUS the territory of the city
of GABII, and planted two military colonies, which were afterwards lost.
The dynasty of the Tarquins ended with the overthrow of this king, and a
Republic was established, which lasted until the death of Julius Caesar.



CHAPTER VI. THE CONSULS AND TRIBUNES.


At the close of the dynasty of the Tarquins, the regal form of
government was abolished, and instead of one king who held office for
life, two officers, called CONSULS, were elected annually from the
PATRICIANS, each of whom possessed supreme power, and acted as a
salutary check upon the other; so that neither was likely to abuse his
power. This change took place towards the close of the sixth century
before Christ.

In times of great emergency a person called DICTATOR might be appointed
by one of the Consuls, who should have supreme authority; but his tenure
of office never exceeded six months, and he must be a patrician. He
exercised his authority only outside of the city walls. It was at
this time, about 500, that the COMITIA CENTURIÁTA came to be the more
important assembly, superseding in a great measure the COMITIA CURIÁTA.

We must remember that in this assembly all criminal cases were tried,
magistrates nominated, and laws adopted or rejected. We must not forget
that, since it was on a property basis, it was under the control of the
patricians, for the great mass of plebeians were poor. Still there were
many wealthy plebeians, and so far the assembly was a gain for this
party.

About this time the Senate, which heretofore had consisted solely of
Fathers of the families (_Patres_), admitted into its ranks some of the
richest of the landed plebeians, and called them CONSCRIPTI. (Footnote:
This is the origin of the phrase used by speakers addressing the Senate,
viz.: "_Patres (et) Consripti_") These, however, could take no part in
debates, nor could they hold magistracies.

In the Senate, thus constituted, the nomination of all magistrates made
in the Comitia Centuriáta was confirmed or rejected. In this way it
controlled the election of the Consuls, whose duties, we must remember,
were those of generals and supreme judges, though every Roman citizen
had the privilege of appealing from their decision in cases which
involved life.

Two subordinate officers, chosen from the patricians, were appointed by
the Consuls. These officers, called QUAESTÓRES, managed the finances of
the state, under the direction of the Senate.

The wars in which the Romans had been engaged, during the century
preceding the establishment of the Republic, had impoverished the state
and crippled its commerce. This was felt by all classes, but especially
by the small landed plebeians whose fields had been devastated. They
were obliged to mortgage their property to pay the taxes, and, when
unable to meet the demands of their creditors, according to the laws
they could be imprisoned, or even put to death.

The rich land-owners, on the other hand, increased their wealth by
"farming" the public revenues; i.e. the state would let out to them,
for a stipulated sum, the privilege of collecting all import and other
duties. These, in turn (called in later times Publicans), would
extort all they could from the tax-payers, thus enriching themselves
unlawfully. So the hard times, the oppression of the tax-gatherer, and
the unjust law about debt, made the condition of the poor unendurable.

The military service, too, bore hard upon them. Many were obliged to
serve more than their due time, and in a rank lower than was just; for
the Consuls, who had charge of the levy of troops, were patricians, and
naturally favored their own party. Hence we see that the cavalry service
was at this time made up entirely of young patricians, while the older
ones were in the reserve corps, so that the brunt of military duty fell
on the plebeians.

This state of things could not last, and, as the opportunity for
rebelling against this unjust and cruel oppression was offered, the
plebeians were not slow in accepting it.

The city was at war with the neighboring Sabines, Aequians, and
Volscians, and needed extra men for defence. One of the Consuls
liberated all who were confined in prison for debt, and the danger was
averted. Upon the return of the army, however, those who had been set
free were again thrown into prison. The next year the prisoners were
again needed. At first they refused to obey, but were finally persuaded
by the Dictator. But after a well-earned victory, upon their return to
the city walls, the plebeians of the army deserted, and, marching to a
hill near by, occupied it, threatening to found a new city unless their
wrongs were redressed. This is called the First Secession of the Plebs,
and is said to have been in 494.

The patricians and richer plebeians saw that concessions must be made,
for the loss of these people would be ruin to Rome. Those in debt were
released from their obligations, and the plebeians received the right
to choose annually, from their own numbers, two officers called TRIBÚNI
PLEBIS, who should look after their interests, and have the power of
VETOING any action taken by any magistrate in the city. This power,
however, was confined within the city walls, and could never be
exercised outside of them.

The person of the Tribunes was also made sacred, to prevent interference
with them while in discharge of their duties, and if any one attempted
to stop them he was committing a capital crime. Thus, if the Consuls or
Quaestors were inclined to press the law of debt to extremes, or to
be unjust in the levying of troops, the Tribunes could step in, and by
their VETO stop the matter at once.

This was an immense gain for the plebeians, and they were justified in
giving the name of SACRED MOUNT to the hill to which they had seceded.

The number of Tribunes was afterwards increased to five, and still later
to ten.



CHAPTER VII. THE COMITIA TRIBUTA AND THE AGRARIAN LAWS.


The next gain made by the plebeians was the annual appointment from
their own ranks of two officers, called AEDILES. (Footnote: The word
"Aedile" is derived from _Aedes_, meaning temple.) These officers held
nearly the same position in reference to the Tribunes that the Quaestors
did to the Consuls. They assisted the Tribunes in the performance of
their various duties, and also had special charge of the temple of
Ceres. In this temple were deposited, for safe keeping, all the decrees
of the Senate.

These two offices, those of Tribune and Aedile, the result of the
first secession, were filled by elections held at first in the Comitia
Centuriáta, but later in an assembly called the COMITIA TRIBÚTA, which
met sometimes within and sometimes without the city walls.

This assembly was composed of plebeians, who voted by "tribes"
(_tributa_, meaning composed of tribes), each tribe being entitled to
one vote, and its vote being decided by the majority of its individual
voters. (Footnote: These "tribes" were a territorial division,
corresponding roughly to "wards" in our cities. At this time there were
probably sixteen, but later there were thirty-five. The plebeians in the
city lived mostly in one quarter, on the Aventine Hill.)

The Comitia Tribúta was convened and presided over by the Tribunes and
Aediles. In it were discussed matters of interest to the plebeians.
By it any member could be punished for misconduct, and though at first
measures passed in it were not binding on the people at large, it
presently became a determined body, with competent and bold leaders, who
were felt to be a power in the state.

The aim of the patricians was now to lessen the power of the Tribunes;
that of the plebeians, to restrain the Consuls and extend the influence
of the Tribunes. Party spirit ran high; even hand to hand contests
occurred in the city. Many families left Rome and settled in neighboring
places to escape the turmoil. It is a wonder that the government
withstood the strain, so fierce was the struggle.

The AGRARIAN LAWS at this time first become prominent. These laws had
reference to the distribution of the PUBLIC LANDS. Rome had acquired a
large amount of land taken from the territory of conquered cities. This
land was called AGER PUBLICUS, or _public land_.

Some of this land was sold or given away as "homesteads," and then it
became AGER PRIVÁTUS, or _private land_. But the most of it was occupied
by permission of the magistrates. The occupants were usually rich
patricians, who were favored by the patrician magistrates. This land, so
occupied, was called AGER OCCUPÁTUS, or _possessio_; but it really was
still the property of the state. The rent paid was a certain per cent
(from 10 to 20) of the crops, or so much a head for cattle on pasture
land. Although the state had the undoubted right to claim this land at
any time, the magistrates allowed the occupants to retain it, and were
often lenient about collecting dues. In course of time, this land, which
was handed down from father to son, and frequently sold, began to be
regarded by the occupants as their own property. Also the land tax
(TRIBÚTUM), which was levied on all _ager privátus_, and which was
especially hard upon the small plebeian land-owners, could not legally
be levied upon the _ager occupátus_. Thus the patricians who possessed,
not owned, this land were naturally regarded as usurpers by the
plebeians.

The first object of the AGRARIAN LAWS was to remedy this evil.

SPURIUS CASSIUS, an able man, now came forward (486?), proposing a law
that the state take up these lands, divide them into small lots, and
distribute them among the poor plebeians as homes (homesteads). The law
was carried, but in the troublesome times it cost Cassius his life, and
was never enforced.



CHAPTER VIII. THE CONTEST OF THE PLEBEIANS FOR CIVIL RIGHTS.


The plebeians were now (about 475) as numerous as the patricians, if
not more so. Their organization had become perfected, and many of their
leaders were persistent in their efforts to better the condition
of their followers. Their especial aim was to raise their civil and
political rights to an equality with those of the patricians. The
struggle finally culminated in the murder of one of the Tribunes, Gnarus
Genucius, for attempting to veto some of the acts of the Consuls.

VALERO PUBLILIUS, a Tribune, now (471) proposed and carried,
notwithstanding violent opposition by the patricians, a measure to the
effect that the Tribunes should hereafter be chosen in the _Comitia
Tribúta_, instead of the _Comitia Centuriáta_. Thus the plebeians
gained a very important step. This bill is called the PUBLILIAN LAW
(_Plebiscítum Publilium_). (Footnote: All bills passed in the Comitia
Tribúta were called Plebiscíta, and until 286 were not necessarily
binding upon the people at large; but this bill seems to have been
recognized as a law.)

For the next twenty years the struggle continued unabated. The plebeians
demanded a WRITTEN CODE OF LAWS.

We find among all early peoples that the laws are at first the unwritten
ones of custom and precedent. The laws at Rome, thus far, had been
interpreted according to the wishes and traditions of the patricians
only. A change was demanded. This was obtained by the TERENTILIAN
ROGATION, a proposal made in 461 by Gaius Terentilius Harsa, a Tribune,
to the effect that the laws thereafter be written. The patrician
families, led by one Kaeso Quinctius, made bitter opposition. Kaeso
himself, son of the famous Cincinnátus, was impeached by the Tribune and
fled from the city.

Finally it was arranged that the Comitia Centuriáta should select from
the people at large ten men, called the DECEMVIRATE, to hold office for
one year, to direct the government and supersede all other magistrates,
and especially to draw up a code of laws to be submitted to the people
for approval. A commission of three patricians was sent to Athens to
examine the laws of that city, which was now (454) at the height of
its prosperity. Two years were spent by this commission, and upon their
return in 452 the above mentioned Decemvirate was appointed.

The laws drawn up by this board were approved, engraved on ten tables of
copper, and placed in the Forum in front of the Senate-House. Two more
tables were added the next year. These TWELVE TABLES were the only Roman
code.

The DECEMVIRI should have resigned as soon as these laws were approved,
but they neglected to do so, and began to act in a cruel and tyrannical
manner. The people, growing uneasy under their injustice, finally
rebelled when one of the Decemviri, Appius Claudius, passed a sentence
that brought an innocent maiden, Virginia, into his power. Her father,
Virginius, saved his daughter's honor by stabbing her to the heart, and
fleeing to the camp called upon the soldiers to put down such wicked
government.

A second time the army deserted its leaders, and seceded to the SACRED
MOUNT, where they nominated their own Tribunes. Then, marching into the
city, they compelled the Decemviri to resign.

The TWELVE TABLES have not been preserved, except in fragments, and we
know but little of their exact contents. The position of the debtor
was apparently made more endurable. The absolute control of the _pater
familias_ over his family was abolished. The close connection heretofore
existing between the clients and patrons was gradually relaxed, the
former became less dependent upon the latter, and finally were absorbed
into the body of the plebeians. _Gentes_ among the plebeians now began
to be recognized; previously only the patricians had been divided into
_gentes_.

Thus we see, socially, the two orders were approaching nearer and
nearer.

In 449 Valerius and Horatius were elected Consuls, and were instrumental
in passing the so called VALERIO-HORATIAN laws, the substance of which
was as follows:--

I. Every Roman citizen could appeal to the Comitia Centuriáta against
the sentence of any magistrate.

II. All the decisions of the Comitia Tribúta (_plebiscita_), if
sanctioned by the Senate and Comitia Centuriáta, were made binding
upon patricians and plebeians alike. This assembly now became of equal
importance with the other two.

III. The persons of the Tribunes, Aediles, and other plebeian officers,
were to be considered sacred.

IV. The Tribunes could take part in the debates of the Senate, and veto
any of its decisions.

Two years later (447), the election of the Quaestors, who must still be
patricians, was intrusted to the Comitia Tribúta. Heretofore they had
been appointed by the Consuls.

In 445 the Tribune Canuleius proposed a bill which was passed,
and called the CANULEIAN LAW, giving to the plebeians the right of
intermarriage (_connubium_) with the patricians, and enacting that all
issue of such marriages should have the rank of the father.

Canuleius also proposed another bill which he did not carry; viz. that
the consulship be open to the plebeians. A compromise, however, was
made, and it was agreed to suspend for a time the office of Consul, and
to elect annually six MILITARY TRIBUNES in the Comitia Centuriáta, the
office being open to all citizens. The people voted every year whether
they should have consuls or military tribunes, and this custom continued
for nearly a half-century. The patricians, however, were so influential,
that for a long time no plebeian was elected.

As an offset to these gains of the plebeians, the patricians in 435
obtained two new officers, called CENSORS, elected from their own ranks
every five years (_lustrum_) to hold office for eighteen months.

The duties of the Censors were:--

I. To see that the citizens of every class were properly registered.

II. To punish immorality in the Senate by the removal of any members who
were guilty of offences against public morals.

III. To have the general supervision of the finances and public works of
the state. This office became in after years the most coveted at Rome.

A few years later, in 421, the plebeians made another step forward by
obtaining the right of electing one of their number as Quaestor. There
were now four Quaestors.

Thus the patricians, in spite of the most obstinate resistance,
sustained loss after loss. Even the rich plebeians, who had hitherto
often found it for their interest to side with the patricians, joined
the farmers or lower classes.

Finally, in 367, the Tribunes Licinius and Sextius proposed and passed
the following bills, called the LICINIAN ROGATIONS.

I. To abolish the six military tribunes, and elect annually, as
formerly, two Consuls, choosing one or both of them from the plebeians.

II. To forbid any citizen's holding more than 500 _jugera_ (300 acres)
of the public lands, or feeding thereon more than 100 oxen or 500 sheep.

III. To compel all landlords to employ on their fields a certain number
of free laborers, proportionate to the number of their slaves.

IV. To allow all interest hitherto paid on borrowed money to be deducted
from the principal, and the rest to be paid in three yearly instalments.

These rogations were a great gain for the poorer classes. It gave them
an opportunity for labor which had previously been performed mostly
by slaves. They were less burdened by debts, and had some prospect of
becoming solvent. But most of all, since the office of Consul was open
to them, they felt that their interests were now more likely to be
protected. The temple of CONCORDIA in the Forum was dedicated by
Camillus as a mark of gratitude for the better times that these
rogations promised.

The plebeians, however, did not stop until all the offices, except
that of _Interrex_, were thrown open to them. First they gained that of
Dictator, then those of Censor and of Praetor, and finally, in 286, by
the law of HORTENSIUS, the plebiscita became binding upon all the people
without the sanction of the Senate and Comitia Centuriáta. After 200 the
sacred offices of PONTIFEX and AUGUR also could be filled by plebeians.

Thus the strife that had lasted for two centuries was virtually ended;
and although the Roman patricians still held aloof from the commons, yet
their rights as citizens were no greater than those of the plebeians.

To recapitulate:--

Full citizenship comprised four rights, viz.: that of trading and
holding property (COMMERCIUM); that of voting (SUFFRAGIUM); that of
intermarriage (CONNUBIUM); and that of holding office (HONORES).

The first of these rights the plebeians always enjoyed; the second they
obtained in the establishment of the COMITIA TRIBÚTA; the third by the
CANULEIAN BILL; the fourth by the LICINIAN and subsequent bills.



CHAPTER IX. EXTERNAL HISTORY.


The first authentic history of Rome begins about 400. The city then
possessed, possibly, three hundred square miles of territory. The
number of tribes had been increased to twenty-five. Later it became
thirty-five.

In 391 a horde of Celtic barbarians crossed the Apennines into
Etruria and attacked CLUSIUM. Here a Celtic chief was slain by Roman
ambassadors, who, contrary to the sacred character of their mission,
were fighting in the ranks of the Etrurians. The Celts, in revenge,
marched upon Rome. The disastrous battle of the ALLIA, a small river
about eleven miles north of the city, was fought on July 18, 390. The
Romans were thoroughly defeated and their city lay at the mercy of the
foe. The Celts, however, delayed three days before marching upon Rome.
Thus the people had time to prepare the Capitol for a siege, which
lasted seven months, when by a large sum of money the barbarians were
induced to withdraw.

During this siege the records of the city's history were destroyed, and
we have no trustworthy data for events that happened previous to 390.

The city was quickly rebuilt and soon recovered from the blow. In 387
the lost territory adjacent to the Tiber was annexed, and military
colonies were planted at Sutrium and Nepete upon the Etruscan border, and
also at Circeii and Setia. (Footnote: These military colonies, of which
the Romans subsequently planted many, were outposts established to
protect conquered territory. A band of Roman citizens was armed and
equipped, as if for military purposes. They took with them their wives
and children, slaves and followers, and established a local government
similar to that of Rome. These colonists relinquished their rights as
Roman citizens and became Latins; hence the name LATIN COLONIES.) The
neighboring Latin town of TUSCULUM, which had always been a faithful
ally, was annexed to Rome.

The trying times of these years had caused numerous enemies to spring
up all around Rome; but she showed herself superior to them all, until
finally, in 353, she had subdued the whole of Southern Etruria, and
gained possession of the town of CAERE, with most of its territory. The
town was made a MUNICIPIUM, the first of its kind.

The inhabitants, being of foreign blood and language, were not allowed
the full rights of Roman citizenship, but were permitted to govern their
own city in local matters as they wished. Many towns were subsequently
made MUNICIPIA. Their inhabitants were called CIVES SINE SUFFRAGIO,
"citizens without suffrage."

During the next ten years (353-343) Rome subdued all the lowland
countries as far south as TARRACÍNA. To the north, across the Tiber, she
had acquired most of the territory belonging to VEII and CAPÉNA.

In 354 she formed her first connections beyond the Liris, by a treaty
with the SAMNITES, a race that had established itself in the mountainous
districts of Central Italy. This people, spreading over the southern
half of Italy, had in 423 captured the Etruscan city of CAPUA, and
three years later the Greek city of CUMAE. Since then they had been
practically masters of the whole of Campania.

After the treaty of 354 mentioned above, both the Romans and Samnites
had, independently of each other, been waging war upon the Volsci. The
Samnites went so far as to attack Teánum, a city of Northern Campania,
which appealed to Capua for aid. The Samnites at once appeared before
Capua, and she, unable to defend herself, asked aid of Rome.

Alarmed at the advances of the Samnites, Rome only awaited an excuse to
break her treaty. This was furnished by the Capuans surrendering their
city unconditionally to Rome, so that, in attacking the Samnites, she
would simply be defending her subjects.

Thus began the SAMNITE WARS, which lasted for over half a century with
varying success, and which were interrupted by two truces. It is usual
to divide them into three parts, the First, Second, and Third Samnite
Wars.


THE FIRST SAMNITE WAR (343-341).

The accounts of this war are so uncertain and confused that no clear
idea of its details can be given. It resulted in no material advantage
to either side, except that Rome retained Capua and made it a
_municipium_, annexing its territory to her own.


THE LATIN WAR (340-338).

The cities of the LATIN CONFEDERACY had been for a long time looking
with jealous eyes upon the rapid progress of Rome. Their own rights had
been disregarded, and they felt that they must now make a stand or lose
everything. They sent to Rome a proposition that one of the Consuls and
half of the Senate be Latins; but it was rejected. A war followed, in
the third year of which was fought the battle of Trigánum, near Mount
Vesuvius. The Romans, with their Samnite allies, were victorious
through the efforts of the Consul, TITUS MANLIUS TORQUÁTUS, one of the
illustrious names of this still doubtful period. The remainder of the
operations was rather a series of expeditions against individual cities
than a general war.

In 338 all the Latins laid down their arms, and the war closed. The
Latin confederacy was at an end. Rome now was mistress. Four of
the Latin cities, TIBUR, PRAENESTE, CORA, and LAURENTUM, were left
independent, but all the rest of the towns were annexed to Rome. Their
territory became part of the _Ager Románus_, and the inhabitants Roman
plebeians.

Besides acquiring Latium, Rome also annexed, as _municipia_, three more
towns, Fundi, Formiae, and Velítrae, a Volscian town.

LATIUM was now made to include all the country from the Tiber to the
Volturnus.

Rome about this time established several MARITIME (Roman) COLONIES,
which were similar to her MILITARY (Latin) COLONIES, except that the
colonists retained all their rights as Roman citizens, whereas the
military colonists relinquished these rights and became Latins. The
first of these colonies was ANTIUM (338); afterwards were established
TARRACÍNA (329), MINTURNAE, and SINUESSA (296). Others were afterwards
founded.

Later, when Antium was changed into a military colony, its navy was
destroyed, and the beaks (_rostra_) of its ships were taken to Rome, and
placed as ornaments on the speaker's stand opposite the Senate-House.
Hence the name ROSTRA.

At this time the FORUM, which had been used for trading purposes of all
kinds, was improved and beautified. It became a centre for political
discussions and financial proceedings. The bankers and brokers had their
offices here. Smaller _Fora_ were started near the river, as the _Forum
Boarium_ (cattle market) and the _Forum Holitorium_ (vegetable market).

Maenius, one of the Censors, was chiefly instrumental in bringing about
these improvements.


THE SECOND AND THIRD SAMNITE WARS (326-290).

The results of the First Samnite War and the Latin War were, as we have
seen, to break up the Latin confederacy, and enlarge the domain of Rome.

There were now in Italy three races aiming at the supremacy, the Romans,
the Samnites, and the Etruscans. The last of these was the weakest, and
had been declining ever since the capture by the Romans of Veii in 396,
and of Caere in 353.

In the contest which followed between Rome and the Samnites, the
combatants were very nearly matched. Rome had her power more compact and
concentrated, while the Samnites were superior in numbers, but were more
scattered. They were both equally brave.

During the first five years of the war (326-321), the Romans were
usually successful, and the Samnites were forced to sue for peace.
In this period Rome gained no new territory, but founded a number of
military posts in the enemy's country.

The peace lasted for about a year, when hostilities were again renewed.
By this time the Samnites had found a worthy leader in Gavius Pontius,
by whose skill and wisdom the fortune of war was turned against the
Romans for seven years (321-315). He allured the Romans into a small
plain, at each end of which was a defile (Furculae Caudinae). On
reaching this plain they found Pontius strongly posted to oppose them.
After a bloody but fruitless attempt to force him to retreat, the Romans
themselves were compelled to give way. But meanwhile Pontius had also
occupied the defile in their rear, and they were obliged to surrender.

A treaty was signed by the Consuls Titus Veturius and Spurius Postumius,
according to which peace was to be made, and everything restored to its
former condition.

Such was the affair at the Caudine Forks (321), one of the most
humiliating defeats that ever befell the Roman arms. The army was made
to pass under the yoke,--which was made of three spears, two stuck into
the ground parallel to each other and the third placed above them,--and
then suffered to depart.

Rome was filled with dismay at the news. The citizens dressed in
mourning, business and amusements were suspended, and every energy was
devoted to repairing the disaster. Compliance with the terms of the
treaty was refused, on the ground that no treaty was valid unless
sanctioned by a vote of the people. It was determined to deliver the
Consuls who had signed it to the enemy.

Pontius, indignant at the broken faith, refused to accept them, and the
war was renewed. It continued for seven years, when (310) the Samnites
were so thoroughly whipped by QUINTUS FABIUS, then Dictator, at LAKE
VADIMÓNIS in Etruria, that they could no longer make any effective
resistance, and at last (304) agreed to relinquish all their sea-coast,
their alliances and conquests, and acknowledge the supremacy of Rome.

During this war the Etruscans made their last single effort against the
Roman power. An expedition was sent in 311 to attack the military colony
of Sutrium, which had been founded seventy-six years before. The Consul
Quintus Fabius went to the rescue, raised the siege, drove the Etruscans
into the Ciminian forests, and there completely defeated them.

Six years intervened between the Second and the THIRD SAMNITE WAR
(298-290). This time was employed by the Samnites in endeavoring to
unite Italy against Rome. They were joined by the UMBRIANS, GAULS, and
ETRUSCANS. The LUCANIANS alone were with Rome.

The war was of short duration, and was practically decided by the
sanguinary battle of SENTINUM (295) in Umbria. The Samnites, led by
Gellius Egnatius, were routed by the Roman Consuls QUINTUS FABIUS
MAXIMUS and PUBLIUS DECIUS MUS.

In this battle the struggle was long and doubtful. The Samnites were
assisted by the Gauls, who were showing themselves more than a match
for the part of the Roman army opposed to them, and commanded by Decius.
Following the example of his illustrious father, the Consul vowed his
life to the Infernal Gods if victory were granted, and, rushing into the
midst of the enemy, was slain. (Footnote: It is said that the father
of Decius acted in a similar manner in a battle of the Latin war.) His
soldiers, rendered enthusiastic by his example, rallied and pushed back
the Gauls. The victory was now complete, for the Samnites were already
fleeing before that part of the army which was under Fabius.

The war dragged on for five years, when the Consul MANIUS CURIUS
DENTÁTUS finally crushed the Samnites, and also the SABINES, who had
recently joined them. The Samnites were allowed their independence,
and became allies of Rome. The Sabines were made Roman citizens (_sine
suffragio_), and their territory was annexed to the _Ager Románus_. This
territory now reached across Italy from the Tuscan to the Adriatic
Sea, separating the Samnites and other nations on the south from the
Umbrians, Gauls, and Etruscans on the north.

In 283, at Lake Vadimónis, the Romans defeated the Senonian and Boian
Gauls, and founded the military colony of SENA GALLICA.



CHAPTER X. WARS WITH PYRRHUS (281-272).

In the early times of Rome, while she was but little known, it had been
the custom of Greece to send colonies away to relieve the pressure
of too rapid increase. We find them in Spain, France, Asia Minor, and
especially in Sicily and Southern Italy, where the country became so
thoroughly Grecianized that it was called MAGNA GRAECIA. Here were many
flourishing cities, as Tarentum, Sybaris, Croton, and Thurii. These had,
at the time of their contact with Rome, greatly fallen from their former
grandeur, owing partly to the inroads of barbarians from the north,
partly to civil dissensions, and still more to their jealousy of each
other; so that they were unable to oppose any firm and united resistance
to the progress of Rome. It had been their custom to rely largely upon
strangers for the recruiting and management of their armies,--a fact
which explains in part the ease with which they were overcome.

Of these cities TARENTUM was now the chief. With it a treaty had been
made by which the Tarentines agreed to certain limits beyond which their
fleet was not to pass, and the Romans bound themselves not to allow
their vessels to appear in the Gulf of Tarentum beyond the Lacinian
promontory. As usual, the Romans found no difficulty in evading their
treaty whenever it should profit them.

Thurii was attacked by the Lucanians, and, despairing of aid from
Tarentum, called on Rome for assistance. As soon as domestic affairs
permitted, war was declared against the Lucanians, and the wedge was
entered which was to separate Magna Graecia from Hellas, and deliver the
former over to Rome.

Pretending that the war was instigated by Tarentum, Rome decided to
ignore the treaty, and sent a fleet of ten vessels into the Bay of
Tarentum. It was a gala day, and the people were assembled in the
theatre that overlooked the bay when the ships appeared. It was
determined to punish the intrusion. A fleet was manned, and four of the
Roman squadron were destroyed.

An ambassador, Postumius, sent by Rome to demand satisfaction, was
treated with insult and contempt. He replied to the mockery of the
Tarentines, that their blood should wash out the stain. The next year
one of the Consuls was ordered south.

Meanwhile Tarentum had sent envoys to ask aid of PYRRHUS, the young and
ambitious KING OF EPÍRUS. He was cousin of Alexander the Great, and,
since he had obtained no share in the division of the conquests of this
great leader, his dream was to found an empire in the West that would
surpass the exhausted monarchies of the East.

Pyrrhus landed in Italy in 281 with a force of 20,000 infantry,
3,000 cavalry, and 20 elephants. He at once set about compelling the
effeminate Greeks to prepare for their own defence. Places of amusement
were closed; the people were forced to perform military duty; disturbers
of the public safety were put to death; and other reforms were made
which the dangers of the situation seemed to demand. Meanwhile the
Romans acted with promptness, and boldly challenged him to battle. The
armies met in 280 on the plain of HERACLÉA, on the banks of the Liris,
where the level nature of the country was in favor of the Greek method
of fighting. The Macedonian phalanx was the most perfect instrument of
warfare the world had yet seen, and the Roman legions had never yet been
brought into collision with it.

The Romans, under LAEVÍNUS, were defeated, more by the surprise of a
charge of elephants than by the tactics of the phalanx. However, they
retired in good order. Pyrrhus is said to have been much impressed by
the heroic conduct of the foe, and to have said, "Another such victory
will send me back without a man to Epirus." He recognized the inferior
qualities of his Greek allies, and determined to make a peace. A trusted
messenger, CINEAS, was sent to Rome. He was noted for his eloquence,
which was said to have gained more for his master than the sword.
Through him Pyrrhus promised to retire to Epirus if safety was
guaranteed to his allies in Italy.

The eloquence of Cineas was fortified with presents for the Senators;
and though these were refused, many seemed disposed to treat with him,
when the aged APPIUS CLAUDIUS CAECUS (Blind) was led into the Senate,
and declared that Rome should never treat with an enemy in arms.

Cineas was deeply impressed by the dignity of the Romans, and declared
that the Senators were an assembly of kings and Rome itself a temple.

Pyrrhus then tried force, and, hastily advancing northward, appeared
within eighteen miles of the city. Here his danger became great. The
defection he had hoped for among the Latins did not take place, and
the armies which had been operating elsewhere were now ready to unite
against him. He therefore retired into winter quarters at Tarentum,
where he received the famous embassy of GAIUS FABRICIUS, sent to propose
an interchange of prisoners. It was in vain that bribes and threats were
employed to shake the courage of the men sent by the Senate; and, on his
part, Pyrrhus refused to grant the desired exchange.

Many Italian nations now joined Pyrrhus, and hostilities were renewed.
The armies again met in 279 on the plain of ASCULUM, in Apulia; but
though the Romans were defeated, it was only another of those Pyrrhic
victories which were almost as disastrous as defeat.

The same year Pyrrhus retired to Sicily to defend Syracuse against the
Carthaginians, who were allied to the Romans. He remained on the island
three years. Upon his return to Italy he met the Romans for the last
time in 274, near BENEVENTUM, where he was defeated by the Consul MANIUS
CURIOUS DENTÁTUS. The Romans had by this time become accustomed to the
elephants, and used burning arrows against them. The wounded beasts
became furious and unmanageable, and threw the army into disorder. With
this battle ended the career of Pyrrhus in Italy. He returned home, and
two years later was accidentally killed by a woman at Argos.

The departure of Pyrrhus left all Italy at the mercy of Rome. Two years
later, in 272, the garrison at Tarentum surrendered, the city walls were
demolished, and the fleet given up.



CHAPTER XI. DIVISIONS OF THE ROMAN TERRITORY.--NOTED MEN OF THE PERIOD.


Rome was now mistress of all Italy south of the Arnus and Aesis. This
country was divided into two parts.

I. The AGER ROMÁNUS, including about one quarter of the whole, bounded
on the north by CAERE, on the south by FORMIAE, and on the east by the
APENNINES.

II. The DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES.

The _Ager Románus_ was subdivided, for voting and financial purposes,
into thirty-three, afterwards thirty-five districts (tribes), four of
which were in Rome. The elections were all held at Rome.

These districts were made up,--

a. Of ROME.

b. Of the ROMAN COLONIES, mostly maritime, now numbering seven, but
finally increased to thirty-five.

c. Of the MUNICIPIA (towns bound to service).

d. Of the PRAEFECTÚRAE (towns governed by a praefect, who was sent from
Rome and appointed by the Praetor).

The DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES were made up,--

a. Of the LATIN (military) COLONIES, now numbering twenty-two,
afterwards increased to thirty-five.

b. Of the ALLIES of Rome (_Socii_), whose cities and adjoining territory
composed more than one half of the country controlled by Rome.

These allies were allowed local government, were not obliged to pay
tribute, but were called upon to furnish their proportion of troops for
the Roman army.

The inhabitants of this country were divided into five classes, viz.--

a. Those who possessed both PUBLIC and PRIVATE RIGHTS as citizens, i. e.
FULL RIGHTS. (Footnote: Public rights consisted of the _jus suffragii_
(right of voting at Rome); _jus honorum_ (right of holding office),
and _jus provocationis_ (right of appeal). Private rights were _jus
connubii_ (right of intermarriage); and _jus commercii_ (right of
trading and holding property). Full rights were acquired either by
birth or gift. A child born of parents, both of whom enjoyed the
_jus connubii_, was a Roman citizen with full rights. Foreigners were
sometimes presented with citizenship (_civitas_))

b. Those who were subjects and did not possess full rights.

c. Those who were ALLIES (_Socii_).

d. Those who were SLAVES, who possessed no rights.

e. Those who were RESIDENT FOREIGNERS, who possessed the right of
trading.

To class _a_ belonged the citizens of Rome, of the Roman colonies, and
of some of the Municipia.

To class _b_ belonged the citizens of most of the Municipia, who
possessed only private rights, the citizens of all the _Praefectúrae_,
and the citizens of all the Latin colonies.

ROADS.

Even at this early date, the necessity of easy communication with the
capital seems to have been well understood. Roads were pushed in every
direction,--broad, level ways, over which armies might be marched
or intelligence quickly carried. They were chains which bound her
possessions indissolubly together. Some of them remain today a monument
of Roman thoroughness, enterprise, and sagacity,--the wonder and
admiration of modern road-builders. By these means did Rome fasten
together the constantly increasing fabric of her empire, so that not
even the successes of Hannibal caused more than a momentary shaking of
fidelity, for which ample punishment was both speedy and certain.


NOTED MEN.

The three most noted men of the period embraced in the two preceding
chapters were Appius Claudius, the Censor and patrician; and Manius
Curius Dentátus and Gaius Fabricius, plebeians.

We have seen that all plebeians who were land-owners belonged to one of
the tribes, and could vote in the _Comitia Tribúta_; this, however, shut
out the plebeians of the city who owned no land, and also the freedmen,
who were generally educated and professional men, such as doctors,
teachers, etc.

APPIUS CLAUDIUS as Censor, in 312, deprived the landowners of the
exclusive privilege of voting in the _Comitia Tribúta_, and gave to
property owners of any sort the right to vote. Eight years later this
law was modified, so that it applied to the four city tribes alone, and
the thirty-one rural tribes had for their basis landed property only.

During the censorship of Appius, Rome had its first regular water supply
by the Appian aqueduct. The first military road, the VIA APPIA, was
built under his supervision. This road ran at first from Rome as far
as Capua. It was constructed so well that many parts of it are today in
good condition. The road was afterward extended to Brundisium, through
Venusia and Tarentum.

MANIUS CURIUS DENTÁTUS was a peasant, a contemporary of Appius, and
his opponent in many ways. He was a strong friend of the plebeians. He
obtained for the soldiers large assignments of the _Ager Publicus_. He
drained the low and swampy country near Reáte by a canal. He was
the conqueror of Pyrrhus. A man of sterling qualities, frugal and
unostentatious, after his public life he retired to his farm and spent
the remainder of his days in seclusion as a simple peasant.

GAIUS FABRICIUS, like Dentátus, was from the peasants. He was a
Hernican. As a soldier he was successful. As a statesman he was
incorruptible, and of great use to his country. Previous to the battle
of Asculum, Pyrrhus attempted to bribe him by large sums of money, and,
failing in this, thought to frighten him by hiding an elephant behind
a curtain; the curtain was suddenly removed, but Fabricius, though
immediately under the elephant's trunk, stood unmoved.

In this generation we find Roman character at its best. Wealth had not
flowed into the state in such large quantities as to corrupt it. The
great mass of the people were peasants, small land-owners, of frugal
habits and moral qualities. But comparatively few owned large estates as
yet, or possessed large tracts of the _Ager Publicus_. A century later,
when most of the available land in the peninsula was held by the wealthy
and farmed by slaves, we find a great change.

The fall of TARENTUM marks an important era in Roman history. Large
treasures were obtained from this and other Greek cities in Southern
Italy. Luxury became more fashionable; morals began to degenerate. Greed
for wealth obtained by plunder began to get possession of the Romans.
From now on the moral tone of the people continued to degenerate in
proportion as their empire increased.



CHAPTER XII. FOREIGN CONQUEST.


ROME AND CARTHAGE.--FIRST PUNIC WAR. (264-241.) (Footnote: The word
"Punic" is derived from _Phoenici_. The Carthaginians were said to
have come originally from PHOENICIA, on the eastern coast of the
Mediterranean. Their first ruler was Dido. The Latin student is of
course familiar with Virgil's story of Dido and Aenéas.)

While Rome was gradually enlarging her territory from Latium to the
Straits of Messána, on the other shore of the Mediterranean, opposite
Italy and less than one hundred miles from Sicily, sprang up, through
industry and commerce, the Carthaginian power.

Like Rome, Carthage had an obscure beginning. As in the case of Rome, it
required centuries to gain her power.

It was the policy of Carthage to make a successful revolt of her subdued
allies an impossibility, by consuming all their energies in the support
of her immense population and the equipment of her numerous fleets and
armies. Hence all the surrounding tribes, once wandering nomads, were
forced to become tillers of the soil; and, with colonies sent out by
herself, they formed the so called Libyo-Phoenician population, open
to the attack of all, and incapable of defence. Thus the country around
Carthage was weak, and the moment a foreign enemy landed in Africa the
war was merely a siege of its chief city.

The power of Carthage lay in her commerce. Through her hands passed the
gold and pearls of the Orient; the famous Tyrian purple; ivory, slaves,
and incense of Arabia; the silver of Spain; the bronze of Cyprus; and
the iron of Elba.

But the harsh and gloomy character of the people, their cruel religion,
which sanctioned human sacrifice, their disregard of the rights of
others, their well known treachery, all shut them off from the higher
civilization of Rome and Greece.

The government of Carthage was an ARISTOCRACY. A council composed of a
few of high birth, and another composed of the very wealthy, managed the
state. Only in times of extraordinary danger were the people summoned
and consulted.

Rome had made two treaties with Carthage; one immediately after the
establishment of the Republic, in 500, the other about 340. By these
treaties commerce was allowed between Rome and its dependencies and
Carthage and her possessions in Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. But the
Romans were not to trade in Spain, or sail beyond the Bay of Carthage.

In leaving Sicily, Pyrrhus had exclaimed, "What a fine battle-field for
Rome and Carthage!" If Carthage were mistress of this island, Rome would
be shut up in her peninsula; if Rome were in possession of it, "the
commerce of Carthage would be intercepted, and a good breeze of one
night would carry the Roman fleets to her walls".

At this time the island was shared by three powers,--HIERO, king of
Syracuse, the CARTHAGINIANS, and the MAMERTINES, a band of brigands who
came from Campania. The latter, making Messána their head-quarters, had
been pillaging all of the island that they could reach. Being shut up
in Messána by Hiero, they asked aid of Rome on the ground that they were
from Campania. Although Rome was in alliance with Hiero, and had
but recently executed 300 mercenaries for doing in Rhegium what the
Mamertines had done in Sicily,--she determined to aid them, for Sicily
was a rich and tempting prey.

Meanwhile, however, through the intervention of the Carthaginians, a
truce had been formed between Hiero and the brigands, and the siege of
Messána was raised. The city itself was occupied by a fleet and garrison
of Carthaginians under HANNO, The Romans, though the Mamertines
no longer needed their aid, landed at Messána and dislodged the
Carthaginians.

Thus opened the FIRST PUNIC WAR. The Romans at once formed a double
alliance with Syracuse and Messána, thus gaining control of the eastern
coast of Sicily and getting their first foothold outside of Italy.

The most important inland city of Sicily was AGRIGENTUM. Here the
Carthaginians the next year (262) concentrated their forces under
HANNIBAL, son of Cisco. The Romans besieged the city, but were
themselves cut off from supplies by Hanno, who landed at Heracléa in
their rear. Both besieged and besiegers suffered much. At last a battle
was fought (262), in which the Romans were victorious, owing to their
superior infantry. Agrigentum fell, and only a few strongholds on the
coast were left to the Carthaginians.

The Romans now began to feel the need of a fleet. That of Carthage ruled
the sea without a rival: it notonly controlled many of the seaports of
Sicily, but also threatened Italy itself. With their usual energy, the
Romans began the work. (Footnote: In 259, three years previous to the
battle of Ecnomus, the Romans under Lucius Scipio captured Blesia, a
seaport of Corsica, and established there a naval station.) A wrecked
Carthaginian vessel was taken as a model, and by the spring of 260 a
navy of 120 sail was ready for sea.

The ships were made the more formidable by a heavy iron beak, for the
purpose of running down and sinking the enemy's vessels; a kind of
hanging stage was also placed on the prow of the ship, which could be
lowered in front or on either side. It was furnished on both sides
with parapets, and had space for two men in front. On coming to close
quarters with the enemy, this stage was quickly lowered and fastened to
the opposing ship by means of grappling irons; thus the Roman marines
were enabled to board with ease their opponents' ship, and fight as if
on land.

Four naval battles now followed: 1st, near LIPARA (260); 2d, off MYLAE
(260); 3d, off TYNDARIS (257); 4th, off ECNOMUS (256).

In the first of these only seventeen ships of the Romans were engaged
under the CONSUL GNAEUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO. The fleet with its commander
was captured.

In the second engagement, off Mylae, all the Roman fleet under GAIUS
DUILIUS took part. The Carthaginians were led by Hannibal, son of Gisco.
The newly invented stages or boarding-bridges of the Romans were found
to be very effective. The enemy could not approach near without these
bridges descending with their grappling irons and holding them fast to
the Romans. The Carthaginians were defeated, with the loss of nearly
half their fleet.

A bronze column, ornamented with the beaks of the captured vessels, was
erected at Rome in honor of this victory of Duilius. The pedestal of
it is still standing, and on it are inscribed some of the oldest
inscriptions in the Latin language.

The third engagement, off Tyndaris, resulted in a drawn battle.

In the fourth engagement, off Ecnomus, the Carthaginians had 350
sail. Thirty Carthaginian and twenty-four Roman vessels were sunk, and
sixty-four of the former captured. The Punic fleet withdrew to the coast
of Africa, and prepared in the Bay of Carthage for another battle. But
the Romans sailed to the eastern side of the peninsula which helps to
form the bay, and there landed without opposition.

MARCUS ATILIUS REGULUS was put in command of the Roman forces in
Africa. For a time he was very successful, and the Carthaginians became
disheartened. Many of the towns near Cartilage surrendered, and the
capital itself was in danger. Peace was asked, but the terms offered
were too humiliating to be accepted.

Regulus, who began to despise his opponents, remained inactive at
Tunis, near Carthage, neglecting even to secure a line of retreat to his
fortified camp at Clupea. The next spring (255) he was surprised, his
army cut to pieces, and he himself taken prisoner. He subsequently died
a captive at Carthage.

The Romans, learning of this defeat, sent a fleet of 350 sail to relieve
their comrades who were shut up in Clupea. While on its way, it gained a
victory over the Carthaginian fleet off the Herméan promontory, sinking
114 of the enemy's ships.

It arrived at Clupea in time to save its friends. The war in Africa was
now abandoned. The fleet, setting sail for home, was partly destroyed in
a storm, only eighty ships reaching port.

Hostilities continued for six years without any great results. Panormus
was taken in 254; the coast of Africa ravaged in 253; Thermae and the
island of Lipara were taken in 252, and Eryx in 249.

DREPANA and LILYBAEUM were now the only places in Sicily, held by
Carthage. A regular siege of Lilybaeum was decided upon, and the city
was blockaded by land and sea; but the besieging party suffered as much
as the besieged, its supplies were frequently cut off by the cavalry of
the Carthaginians, and its ranks began to be thinned by disease.

The Consul, Publius Claudius, who had charge of the siege, determined to
surprise the Carthaginian fleet, which was stationed at Drepana (249).
He was unsuccessful, and lost three fourths of his vessels. Another
fleet of 120 sail sent to aid him was wrecked in a violent storm.

The Romans were now in perplexity. The war had lasted fifteen years.
Four fleets had been lost, and one sixth of the fighting population.
They had failed in Africa, and the two strongest places in Sicily
were still in the enemy's hands. For six years more the war dragged on
(249-243).

A new Carthaginian commander, HAMILCAR BARCA (Lightning), meanwhile took
the field in Sicily. He was a man of great activity and military talent,
and the Romans at first were no match for him. He seemed in a fair way
to regain all Sicily. The apathy of the Senate was so great, that at
last some private citizens built and manned at their own expense a fleet
of 200 sail.

GAIUS LUTATIUS CATALUS, the Consul in command, surprised the enemy and
occupied the harbors of Drepana and Lilybaeum in 242. A Carthaginian
fleet which came to the rescue was met and destroyed off the AEGÁTES
INSULAE in 241. Hamilcar was left in Sicily without support and
supplies. He saw that peace must be made.

Sicily was surrendered. Carthage agreed to pay the cost of the
war,--about $3,000,000,--one third down, and the remainder in ten annual
payments. Thus ended the First Punic War.



CHAPTER XIII. ROME AND CARTHAGE BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND PUNIC WARS
(241-218).


Twenty-three years elapsed between the First and Second Punic Wars.
The Carthaginians were engaged during the first part of this time in
crushing a mutiny of their mercenary troops.

Rome, taking advantage of the position in which her rival was placed,
seized upon SARDINIA and CORSICA, and, when Carthage objected,
threatened to renew the war, and obliged her to pay more than one
million dollars as a fine (237).

The acquisition of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica introduced into the
government of Rome a new system; viz. the PROVINCIAL SYSTEM.

Heretofore the two chief magistrates of Rome, the Consuls, had exercised
their functions over all the Roman possessions. Now Sicily was made
what the Romans called a _provincia_, or PROVINCE. Sardinia and Corsica
formed another province (235).

Over each province was placed a Roman governor, called Proconsul. For
this purpose two new Praetors were now elected, making four in all. The
power of the governor was absolute; he was commander in chief, chief
magistrate, and supreme judge.

The finances of the provinces were intrusted to one or more QUAESTORS.
All the inhabitants paid as taxes into the Roman treasury one tenth
of their produce, and five per cent of the value of their imports and
exports. They were not obliged to furnish troops, as were the dependants
of Rome in Italy.

The provincial government was a fruitful source of corruption. As the
morals of the Romans degenerated, the provinces were plundered without
mercy to enrich the coffers of the avaricious governors.

The Adriatic Sea at this time was overrun by Illyrican pirates, who did
much damage. Satisfaction was demanded by Rome of Illyricum, but to no
purpose. As a last resort, war was declared, and the sea was cleared of
the pirates in 229.

"The results of this Illyrican war did not end here, for it was the
means of establishing, for the first time, direct political relations
between Rome and the states of Greece, to many of which the suppression
of piracy was of as much importance as to Rome herself. Alliances
were concluded with CORCÝRA, EPIDAMNUS, and APOLLONIA; and embassies
explaining the reasons which had brought Roman troops into Greece were
sent to the Aetolians and Achaeans, to Athens and Corinth. The admission
of the Romans to the Isthmian Games in 228 formally acknowledged them as
the allies of the Greek states."

The Romans now began to look with hungry eyes upon GALLIA CISALPÍNA. The
appetite for conquest was well whetted. There had been peace with the
Gauls since the battle of Lake Vadimónis in 283. The _ager publicus_,
taken from the Gauls then, was still mostly unoccupied. In 232 the
Tribune Gaius Flaminius (Footnote: Gaius Flaminius, by his agrarian laws
gained the bitter hatred of the nobility. He was the first Governor of
Sicily, and there showed himself to be a man of integrity and honesty,
a great contrast to many who succeeded him.) carried an agrarian law,
to the effect that this land be given to the veterans and the poorer
classes. The law was executed, and colonies planted. To the Gauls
this seemed but the first step to the occupation of the whole of their
country. They all rose in arms except the Cenománi.

This contest continued for ten years, and in 225 Etruria was invaded by
an army of 70,000 men. The plans of the invaders, however, miscarried,
and they were hemmed in between two Roman armies near TELAMON in 222,
and annihilated. The Gallic king was slain at the hands of the Consul
MARCUS CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS. PAGE 61 Rome was now mistress of the whole
peninsula of Italy, excepting some tribes in Liguria, who resisted a
short time longer.

Three _military_ (Latin) colonies were founded to hold the Gauls in
check; PLACENTIA and CREMÓNA in the territory of the Insubres, and
MUTINA in that of the Boii. The _Via Flaminia_, the great northern road,
was extended from SPOLETIUM to ARIMINUM. (Footnote: During this period
the _Comitia Centuriáta_ was reorganized on the basis of tribes (35)
instead of money.)

Meanwhile Carthage was not idle. After subduing the revolt of the
mercenaries in 237, she formed the project of obtaining SPAIN as
compensation for the loss of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Hamilcar
Barca, by energetic measures, established (236-228) a firm foothold in
Southern and Southeastern Spain.

At his death, his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, continued his work. Many towns
were founded, trade prospered, and agriculture flourished. The discovery
of rich silver mines near Carthago Nova was a means of enriching the
treasury. After the assassination of Hasdrubal, in 220, the ablest
leader was Hannibal, son of Hamilcar. Although a young man of but
twenty-eight, he had had a life of varied experience. As a boy he had
shown great courage and ability in camp under his father. He was a fine
athlete, well educated in the duties of a soldier, and could endure
long privation of sleep and food. For the last few years he had been
in command of the cavalry, and had distinguished himself for personal
bravery, as well as by his talents as a leader.

Hannibal resolved to begin the inevitable struggle with Rome at once.
He therefore laid siege to Saguntum, a Spanish town allied to Rome. In
eight months the place was compelled to capitulate (219).

When Rome demanded satisfaction of Carthage for this insult, and
declared herself ready for war, the Carthaginians accepted the
challenge, and the Second Punic War began in 218.



CHAPTER XIV. THE SECOND PUNIC WAR.--FROM THE PASSAGE OF THE PYRENEES TO
THE BATTLE OF CANNAE. (218-216.)

In the spring of 218 Hannibal started from Carthágo Nova to invade
Italy. His army consisted of 90,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry, and 37
elephants. His march to the Pyrenees occupied two months, owing to the
opposition of the Spanish allies of Rome. Hannibal now sent back a
part of his troops, retaining 50,000 infantry and 9,000 cavalry, all
veterans. With these he crossed the mountains, and marched along the
coast by Narbo (Narbonne) and Nemansus (Nîmes), through the Celtic
territory, with little opposition. The last of July found him on
the banks of the Rhone, opposite Avenio (Avignon). The Romans were
astonished at the rapidity of his movements.

The Consuls of the year were SCIPIO and SEMPRONIUS. The former had been
in Northern Italy, leisurely collecting forces to attack Hannibal in
Spain; the latter was in Sicily, making preparations to invade Africa.
Scipio set sail for Spain, touching at Massilia near the end of June.
Learning there for the first time that Hannibal had already left
Spain, he hoped to intercept him on the Rhone. The Celtic tribes of the
neighborhood were won over to his side. Troops collected from these were
stationed along the river, but Scipio's main army remained at Massilia.
It was Hannibal's policy to cross the river before Scipio arrived with
his troops. He obtained all the boats possible, and constructed numerous
rafts to transport his main body of troops. A detachment of soldiers
was sent up the river with orders to cross at the first available place,
and, returning on the opposite bank, to surprise the Celtic forces in
the rear. The plan succeeded. The Celts fled in confusion, and the
road to the Alps was opened. Thus Scipio was outgeneralled in the very
beginning.

His course now should have been to return to Northern Italy with all his
forces, and take every means to check Hannibal there. Instead, he
sent most of his troops to Spain under his brother Gnaeus Scipio, and
himself, with but a few men, set sail for Pisae.

Meanwhile Hannibal hurried up the valley of the Rhone, across the Isara,
through the fertile country of the Allobroges, arriving, in sixteen
days from Avenio, at the pass of the first Alpine range (Mont du Chat).
Crossing this with some difficulty, owing to the nature of the country
and the resistance of the Celts, he hastened on through the country of
the Centrónes, along the north bank of the Isara. As he was leaving this
river and approaching the pass of the Little St. Bernard, he was again
attacked by the Celts, and obliged to make the ascent amidst continual
and bloody encounters. After toiling a day and a night, however, the
army reached the summit of the pass. Here, on a table-land, his troops
were allowed a brief rest.

The hardships of the descent were fully as great, and the fertile
valley of the Po was a welcome sight to the half-famished and exhausted
soldiers. Here they encamped, in September, and recruited their wearied
energies.

This famous march of Hannibal from the Rhone lasted thirty-three days,
and cost him 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry.

The Romans were still unprepared to meet Hannibal. One army was in Spain
under Gnaeus Scipio; the other in Sicily, on its way to Africa, under
the Consul Sempronius. The only troops immediately available were a
few soldiers that had been left in the valley of the Po to restrain the
Gauls, who had recently shown signs of defection.

Publius Cornelius Scipio, upon his return from Massilia, took command of
these. He met Hannibal first in October, 218, near the river Ticinus,
a tributary of the Po. A cavalry skirmish followed, in which he was
wounded and rescued by his son, a lad of seventeen, afterwards the
famous Africanus. The Romans were discomfited, with considerable loss.

They then retreated, crossing the Po at Placentia, and destroying the
bridge behind them. Hannibal forded the river farther up, and marched
along its right bank until he reached its confluence with the Trebia,
opposite Placentia. Here he encamped.

Meanwhile Sempronius, who had been recalled from Sicily, relieved the
disabled Scipio.

Early one raw morning in December, 218, the vanguard of the
Carthaginians was ordered to cross the Trebia, and, as soon any
resistance was met, to retreat. The other troops of Hannibal were drawn
up ready to give the enemy a hot reception, if, as he expected, they
should pursue his retreating vanguard. Sempronius was caught in the
trap, and all his army, except one division of 10,000, was cut to
pieces. The survivors took refuge in Placentia and Cremona, where they
spent the winter. Sempronius himself escaped to Rome.

The result of TREBIA was the insurrection of all the Celtic tribes in
the valley of the Po, who increased Hannibal's army by 60,000 infantry
and 4,000 cavalry. While the Carthaginian was wintering near Placentia,
the Romans stationed troops to guard the two highways leading north from
Rome and ending at Arretium and Ariminum, The Consuls for this year were
GAIUS FLAMINIUS and GNAEUS SERVILIUS. The former occupied Arretium, the
latter Ariminum. Here they were joined by the troops that had wintered
at Placentia.

In the spring, Hannibal, instead of attempting to pursue his march by
either of the highways which were fortified, outflanked the Romans by
turning aside into Etruria. His route led through a marshy and unhealthy
country, and many soldiers perished. Hannibal himself lost an eye from
ophthalmia. When he had arrived at Faesulae a report of his course first
reached Flaminius, who at once broke camp and endeavored to intercept
his enemy. Hannibal, however, had the start, and was now near LAKE
TRASIMÉNUS.

Here was a pass with a high hill on one side and the lake on the other.
Hannibal, with the flower of his infantry, occupied the hill. His
light-armed troops and horsemen were drawn up in concealment on either
side.

The Roman column advanced (May, 217), without hesitation, to the
unoccupied pass, the thick morning mist completely concealing the
position of the enemy. As the Roman vanguard approached the hill,
Hannibal gave the signal for attack. The cavalry closed up the entrance
to the pass, and at the same time the mist rolled away, revealing the
Carthaginian arms on the right and left. It was not a battle, but a mere
rout. The main body of the Romans was cut to pieces, with scarcely any
resistance, and the Consul himself was killed. Fifteen thousand Romans
fell, and as many more were captured. The loss of the Carthaginians was
but 1,500, and was confined mostly to the Gallic allies. All Etruria
was lost, and Hannibal could march without hindrance upon Rome, whose
citizens, expecting the enemy daily, tore down the bridges over the
Tiber and prepared for a siege. QUINTUS FABIUS MAXIMUS was appointed
Dictator.

Hannibal, however, did not march upon Rome, but turned through Umbria,
devastating the country as he went. Crossing the Apennines, he halted on
the shores of the Adriatic, in Picénum. After giving his army a rest, he
proceeded along the coast into Southern Italy.

The Romans, seeing that the city was not in immediate danger, raised
another army, and placed the Dictator in command. Fabius was a man of
determination and firmness, well advanced in years. He determined to
avoid a pitched battle, but to dog the steps of the enemy, harassing him
and cutting off his supplies as far as possible.

Meanwhile Hannibal again crossed the mountains into the heart of
Italy to Beneventum, and from there to Capua, the largest Italian city
dependent upon Rome. The Dictator followed, condemning his soldiers to
the melancholy task of looking on in inaction, while the enemy's cavalry
plundered their faithful allies. Finally, Fabius obtained what he
considered a favorable opportunity for an attack. Hannibal, disappointed
in his expectations that Capua would be friendly to him, and not being
prepared to lay siege to the town, had withdrawn towards the Adriatic.
Fabius intercepted him near Casilinum, in Campania, on the left bank of
the Volturnus. The heights that commanded the right bank of the river
were occupied by his main army; and the road itself, which led across
the river, was guarded by a strong division of men.

Hannibal, however, ordered his light-armed troops to ascend the heights
over the road during the night, driving before them oxen with burning
fagots tied to their horns, giving the appearance of an army marching by
torchlight. The plan was successful. The Romans abandoned the road and
marched for the heights, along which they supposed the enemy were going.
Hannibal, with a clear road before him, continued his march with the
bulk of his army. The next morning he recalled his light-armed troops,
which had been sent on to the hills with the oxen. Their engagement with
the Romans had resulted in a severe loss to Fabius.

Hannibal then proceeded, without opposition, in a northeasterly
direction, by a very circuitous route. He arrived in Luceria, with much
booty and a full money-chest, at harvest time. Near here he encamped in
a plain rich in grain and grass for the support of his army.

At Rome the policy of Fabius was severely criticised. His apparent
inaction was displeasing to a large party, and he was called Cunctator
(the Delayer). At length the assembly voted that his command be shared
by one of his lieutenants, Marcus Minucius. The army was divided into
two corps; one under Marcus, who intended to attack Hannibal at the
first opportunity; the other under Fabius, who still adhered to his
former tactics. Marcus made an attack, but paid dearly for his rashness,
and his whole corps would have been annihilated had not Fabius come to
his assistance and covered his retreat. Hannibal passed the winter of
217-216 unmolested.

The season was spent by the Romans in active preparations for the spring
campaign. An army of 80,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry was raised and
put under the command of the Consuls, LUCIUS ÆMILIUS PAULLUS and GAIUS
TERENTIUS VARRO. It was decided to test Hannibal's strength once more in
open battle. His army was only half as strong as the Roman in infantry,
but was much superior in cavalry.

In the early summer of 216 the Consuls concentrated their forces at
CANNAE, a hamlet near the mouth of the Aufidus. Early one morning in
June the Romans massed their troops on the left bank of the river, with
their cavalry on either wing, the right under Paullus, and the left
under Varro. The Proconsul Servilius commanded the centre.

The Carthaginians were drawn up in the form of a crescent, flanked by
cavalry. Both armies advanced to the attack at the same time. The onset
was terrible; but though the Romans fought with a courage increased by
the thought that their homes, wives, and children were at stake, they
were overwhelmed on all sides. Seventy thousand fell on the field,
among whom were Paullus, Servilius, many officers, and eighty men of
senatorial rank. This was the most crushing defeat ever experienced by
the Romans. All Southern Italy, except the Latin colonies and the Greek
cities on the coast, went over to Hannibal.



CHAPTER XV. THE SECOND PUNIC WAR.-FROM CANNAE TO THE BATTLE OF ZAMA
(216-202).


ROME was appalled; but though defeated, she was not subdued. All the
Latin allies were summoned for aid in the common peril. Boys and old men
alike took up arms even the slaves were promised freedom if they would
join the ranks.

Hannibal marched from Cannae into Campania. He induced Capua, the second
city of Italy, to side with him. But his expectations that other
cities would follow her example were not fulfilled. He went into winter
quarters here (215-214). The Capuans, notorious for their luxurious and
effeminate habits, are said to have injured his soldiers. But Hannibal's
superiority as a general is unquestionable, and his want of success
after this was due to insufficient aid from home, and to the fact that
the resources of Rome were greater than those of Carthage. The Latin
allies of Rome had remained true to their allegiance, and only one city
of importance was under his control. It was an easy matter to conquer
the enemy in open battle, but to support his own army was more
difficult, for all Italy had been devastated. On the other hand, the
Romans were well supplied with food from their possessions in Sicily.

Hannibal saw, therefore, that more active measures than those already
employed were necessary. He sent to Carthage an appeal for aid. He
formed an alliance with Philip V. of Macedonia, and earnestly urged
Hasdrubal Baroa, his lieutenant in Spain, to come to his assistance. He
hoped, with this army from the north, with supplies and reinforcements
from Carthage, and with such troops as he might obtain from Macedonia,
to concentrate a large force at Rome and compel her into submission.

The Romans, realizing the position of Hannibal, kept what forces they
could spare in Spain, under the two Scipio brothers, Publius and Gnaeus.
With these they hoped to stop reinforcements from reaching the enemy
from that quarter. At the same time their army in Northern Greece
effectually engaged the attention of Philip. Thus two years (214-212)
passed without any material change in the situation of affairs in Italy.

In 212, while the Carthaginians were in the extreme south of Italy,
besieging Tarentum, the Romans made strenuous efforts to recover
Campania, and especially Capua. Hannibal, learning the danger, marched
rapidly north, and failing to break through the lines which enclosed the
city, resolved to advance on Rome itself.

Silently and quickly he marched along the _Via Latino_ through the heart
of the territory of Rome, to within three miles of the city, and with
his vanguard he even rode up to one of the city gates. But no ally
joined him; no Roman force was recalled to face him; no proposals of
peace reached his camp. Impressed by the unmoved confidence of
the enemy, he withdrew as quickly as he came, and retreated to his
head-quarters in the South.

Capua fell in 211, and the seat of war, to the great relief of Rome, was
removed to Lucania and Bruttium. The punishment inflicted upon Capua was
severe. Seventy of her Senators were killed, three hundred of her chief
citizens imprisoned, and the whole people sold as slaves. The city and
its territory were declared to be Roman territory, and the place was
afterwards repeopled by Roman occupants.

Such was the fate of this famous city. Founded in as early times as Rome
itself, it became the most flourishing city of Magna Graecia, renowned
for its luxury and refinement, and as the home of all the highest arts
and culture.


AFFAIRS IN SICILY.

HIERO II., tyrant of Syracuse, died in 216. During his long reign of
more than fifty years he had been the stanch friend and ally of Rome in
her struggles with Carthage. Hieronymus, the grandson and successor of
Hiero, thought fit to ally himself with Carthage. The young tyrant, who
was arrogant and cruel, was assassinated after reigning a few months.

The Roman Governor of Sicily, MARCELLUS, troubled by the Carthaginian
faction in Syracuse, threatened the city with an attack unless the
leaders of this faction were expelled. In return, they endeavored to
arouse the citizens of the neighboring city of Leontini against Rome
and the Roman party in Syracuse. Marcellus at once attacked and stormed
Leontini. The Syracusans then closed their city gates against him. A
siege of two years (214-212) followed, famous for the various devices
adopted by the noted mathematician ARCHIMÉDES (Footnote: Archimédes was
a great investigator in the science of mathematics. He discovered the
ratio of a sphere to its circumscribed cylinder. One of his famous
sayings was, "Give me where to stand, and I will move the world." He
exerted his ingenuity in the invention of powerful machines for the
defence of Syracuse. Eight of his works on mathematics are in existence.
He was killed at the close of the siege by a Roman soldier, who would
have spared his life had he not been too intent on a mathematical
problem to comply with the summons to surrender. On his tombstone, it
is said, was engraved a cylinder enclosing a sphere.) to defeat the
movements of the Romans. The city was finally betrayed by a Spanish
officer, and given up to plunder. The art treasures in which it was so
rich were conveyed by Marcellus to Rome. From this time (212) the city
became a part of the province of Sicily and the head-quarters of the
Roman Governor.


THE CAMPAIGNS IN SPAIN.

PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO, with his brother, GNAEUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO
CALVUS, were winning victories over the Carthaginians under HANNO
and HASDRUBAL. The greatest of these was fought in 215 at Ibera, the
location of which is uncertain. Spain was gradually being gained over
to Rome, when the Carthaginians, making desperate efforts, sent large
reinforcements there (212). The armies of the Scipios were separated,
surprised, and overwhelmed. Both their leaders were slain, and Spain was
lost to Rome.

Unless checked, the Carthaginians would now cross the Alps, enter Italy,
and, joining forces with Hannibal, place Rome in great danger. PUBLIUS
CORNELIUS SCIPIO, son of one of the slain generals, then but twenty-four
years of age, offered to go to Spain and take command. He had previously
made himself very popular as Aedile, and was unanimously elected to the
command. On his arrival in Spain in 210, he found the whole country west
of the Ebro under the enemy's control.

Fortunately for the Romans, the three Carthaginian generals, HASDRUBAL
and MAGO, brothers of Hannibal, and HASDRUBAL, son of Gisco, did not act
in harmony. Thus Scipio was enabled, in the following spring (209), to
capture Carthago Nova, the head-quarters of the enemy. A good harbor was
gained, and eighteen ships of war, sixty-three transports, $600,000, and
10,000 captives fell into the hands of the Romans.

Shortly after, Scipio fought Hasdrubal, the brother of Hannibal, at
BAECULAE, in the upper valley of the Baetis (Guadalquivir); but the
battle was not decisive, for Hasdrubal was soon seen crossing the
Pyrenees, with a considerable force, on his way to Italy. He spent the
winter (209-208) in Gaul.

The two Carthaginian generals now in Spain, Mago, and Hasdrubal, the son
of Gisco, retired, the latter to Lusitania, the former to the Baleares,
to wait for reinforcements from home.

The next year another battle was fought near Baecula, resulting in
the total defeat of the Carthaginians, who retreated to Gadus, in the
southwestern part of Spain.

The country being now (206) under Roman influence, Scipio crossed
the straits to Africa, and visited the Numidian princes, SYPHAX and
MASINISSA, whom he hoped to stir up against Carthage. On his return,
after quelling a mutiny of the soldiers, who were dissatisfied about
their pay, he resigned his command, and started for Rome, where he
intended to become a candidate for the consulship.


OPERATIONS IN ITALY.

The news of the approach of Hasdrubal caused intense anxiety at Rome.
Every nerve was strained to prevent the union of the two brothers. The
Consuls for this year (207) were GAIUS CLAUDIUS NERO, a patrician,
and MARCUS LIVIUS, a plebeian. To the former was intrusted the task of
keeping Hannibal in check in Bruttium, while the duty of intercepting
Hasdrubal was given to the latter.

The Carthaginian had already reached the neighborhood of the river
Metaurus, a small stream south of the Rubicon. From here he sent
messengers to inform his brother of his approach and proposed line of
march. These messengers were captured by Nero, and the contents of their
despatches learned. He at once pushed north with his forces, joined
Livius, met Hasdrubal on the METAURUS early in 207, and defeated his
army with great slaughter. Among the slain was Hasdrubal himself. Nero
returned south without delay, and the first intimation that Hannibal had
of this battle was the sight of his brother's head thrown into the camp
by the victorious foe.

The war in Italy was now virtually ended, for, although during four
years more Hannibal stood at bay in a corner of Bruttium, he was
powerless to prevent the restoration of Roman authority throughout
Italy. Nothing now remained to Carthage outside of Africa, except the
ground on which Hannibal was making his last stand.


INVASION OF AFRICA.

Scipio, on his return from Spain, urged an immediate invasion of Africa.
He was elected Consul in 205, receiving Sicily as his province, with
permission to cross into Africa if it seemed to him wise. He was so
popular that voluntary contributions of men, money, and supplies poured
in from all sides. The old-fashioned aristocracy, however, did not like
him, as his taste for splendid living and Greek culture was particularly
offensive to them; and a party in the Senate would have recalled him,
had not the popular enthusiasm in his favor been too strong to be
resisted.

In 204 he sailed from Lilybaeum, and landed near Utica. He was welcomed
by Masinissa, whose friendship he had gained in his previous visit to
Africa from Spain. Syphax, however, sided with Carthage; but in 203
Scipio twice defeated him and the Carthaginian forces.

Negotiations for peace followed, but the war party in Carthage
prevailed. Hannibal was recalled. He returned to fight his last battle
with Rome, October 19, 202, at ZAMA, a short distance west of Carthage.
The issue was decided by the valor of the Roman legions, who loved their
commander and trusted his skill. Hannibal met his first and only defeat,
and Scipio won his title of AFRICÁNUS. The battle was a hard one. After
all the newly enrolled troops of Hannibal had been killed or put
to flight, his veterans, who had remained by him in Italy, although
surrounded on all sides by forces far outnumbering their own, fought
on, and were killed one by one around their beloved chief. The army was
fairly annihilated. Hannibal, with only a handful, managed to escape to
Hadrumétum.

The battle of Zama decided the fate of the West. The power of Carthage
was broken, and her supremacy passed to Rome. She was allowed to retain
her own territory intact, but all her war-ships, except ten, were given
up, and her prisoners restored; an annual tax of about $200,000, for
fifty years, was to be paid into the Roman treasury, and she could carry
on no war without the consent of Rome. Masinissa was rewarded by an
increase in territory, and was enrolled among the "allies and friends of
the Roman people."

Rome was now safe from any attack. She had become a great Mediterranean
power. Spain was divided into two provinces, and the north of Africa was
under her protection.

Such was the result of the seventeen years' struggle. Scipio was
welcomed home, and surnamed AFRICANUS. He enjoyed a triumph never before
equalled. His statue was placed, in triumphal robes and crowned with
laurels, in the Capitol. Many honors were thrust upon him, which he had
the sense to refuse. He lived quietly for some years, taking no part in
politics.



CHAPTER XVI. ROME IN THE EAST.


ROME was now in a position to add new nations to her list of subjects.
The kingdoms of the East which formerly composed a part of the vast
empire of Alexander the Great, and which finally went to swell the
limits of Roman authority, were Egypt, Syria, Macedonia, and Greece
proper.

EGYPT was governed by the Ptolemies, and included at this time the
valley of the Nile, Palestine, Phoenicia, the island of Cyprus, and a
number of towns in Thrace.

SYRIA, extending from the Mediterranean to the Indus, was composed of
various nations which enjoyed a semi-independence. Under incompetent
rulers, she saw portion after portion of her dominions fall from her.
Thus arose Pergamus, Pontus, Cappadocia, and Phrygia.

MACEDONIA was ruled by Philip V., and included also a large portion of
Northern Greece.

GREECE proper was divided between the ACHAEAN and AETOLIAN LEAGUES, the
former including the most of the Peloponnesus, the latter the greater
part of Central Greece.

Ever since the repulse of Pyrrhus, Rome had been slowly drifting into
closer contact with the East. She formed an alliance with Egypt in 273.
From this country had come in part her supply of corn during the Second
Punic War. In 205, Ptolemy V. became king, and, through fear of the
Macedonian and Syrian kings, sought the protection of Rome.

The punishment of the Illyrican pirates in 228 brought Rome into closer
relations with Greece. These connections had been sufficient to open the
Eastern ports to her trade, but her struggle with Carthage had left her
no time or strength to interfere actively in Eastern politics, until she
was forced to take action by the alliance of Philip V. of Macedonia and
Hannibal, and by the former's threatened invasion of Italy in 214. A
small force was sent into Greece, which was soon largely increased by
the dissatisfied subjects of Philip.

The only object of Rome in the First Macedonian War (214-205) was
to prevent Philip from lending aid to Hannibal; and in this she was
partially successful. None of the Macedonian troops entered Italy, but
four thousand of them were at Zama.

The military operations of this war were of slight importance. Marcus
Valerius Laevinus was sent to the Adriatic, and pushed the king so hard
that he was obliged to burn the fleet in which he intended to sail for
Italy. Philip was at this time at war with Aetolia. Laevinus assisted
the Aetolians, and the king was too fully occupied at home to think of
operations farther away. But in 205, the Romans, wishing to concentrate
their energies upon the invasion of Africa, made peace.

Some of Philip's soldiers had been captured at Zama. He demanded their
return. The answer was, that, if he wished war again, he could have it.

There were several other reasons which led to the SECOND MACEDONIAN
WAR (200-197). Philip had agreed with ANTIOCHUS III., king of Syria, to
attempt with him the division of Egypt, since it seemed probable that
the young king, Epiphanes (Ptolemy V.), who was only four years old,
would not be able to make an effectual resistance. The ministers of
Egypt sought the protection of Rome. On their journey, the Roman envoys
sent to assume the office of protectorship remonstrated with Philip.

In Asia Minor Philip had conducted himself with such barbarity that the
people rose against him; and from a similar cause Greece was driven to
seek alliances which would protect her against him.

Rome was unwilling to undertake a new war, but the people were induced
to vote for one, on the representation that the only means of preventing
an invasion of Italy was to carry the war abroad.

This year (200) the Consul, Publius Sulpicius Galba, was sent with a
considerable force across the Adriatic. His campaign, and that of the
Consul Villius during the next year, were productive of no decisive
results, but in 198 the Consul TITUS QUINCTIUS FLAMINÍNUS, a man of
different calibre, conducted the war with vigor. He defeated Philip on
the Aóus, drove him back to the pass of Tempe, and the next year utterly
defeated him at CYNOSCEPHALAE.

The king had drawn up his forces in two divisions. With the first he
broke through the line of the legions, which, however, closed in around
him with but little loss. The other division was attacked by the Romans,
while it was forming, and thoroughly discomfited. The victory of the
Romans was decisive.

About the same time the Achaeans captured CORINTH from Philip, and the
Rhodians defeated his troops in Caria.

Further resistance was impossible. Philip was left in possession of
Macedonia alone; he was deprived of all his dependencies in Greece,
Thrace, and Asia Minor, and was forbidden, as Carthage had been, to wage
war without Rome's consent.

The next year (196), at the Isthmian Games, the "freedom of Greece" was
proclaimed to the enthusiastic crowds, and two years later
Flamininus withdrew his troops from the so called "three fetters of
Greece,"--Chalcis, Demetrias, and Corinth,--and, urging the Greeks to
show themselves worthy of the gift of the Roman people, he returned home
to enjoy a well earned triumph.

The chief result of the second Macedonian war was, therefore, the firm
establishment of a ROMAN PROTECTORATE OVER GREECE AND EGYPT. The wedge
had been entered and the interference of Rome in Eastern affairs was
assured.



CHAPTER XVII. THE SYRIAN WAR.


Antiochus III. of Syria, who had proposed to share Egypt with Philip,
had been engaged for some time in a campaign in the East, and did not
hear of his ally's danger until too late to aid him. However, he
claimed for himself portions of Asia Minor and Thrace, which Philip had
previously held, and which Rome now declared free and independent. He
crossed the Hellespont into Thrace in 196, but did not dare to enter
Greece, although earnestly urged to do so by the Aetolians, until after
Flamininus had withdrawn all his troops (192).

Antiochus was no general. Himself irresolute and fond of pleasure, the
power behind his throne was HANNIBAL. This great soldier, after his
defeat at Zama, did not relinquish the aim of his life. He became the
chief magistrate of his native city, and in a short time cleared the
moral atmosphere, which was charged with corruption and depravity. Under
him Carthage might have risen again. But his intrigues with Antiochus,
with whom he wished to make an alliance, gave Rome an opportunity to
interfere. His surrender was demanded. He fled, and, after wandering
from coast to coast, became the trusted adviser of the Syrian king.

Had Antiochus been energetic after his arrival in Greece, he could have
accomplished something before the Roman troops came. But he disregarded
the warnings of Hannibal, and spent valuable time in minor matters. The
Romans arrived in 191, and under Glabrio at Thermopylae drove back the
intruder, who hastily retired to Asia Minor. The Aetolians were punished
for their infidelity.

In 190, LUCIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO was elected Consul, and put in command
of the army in the East, with the understanding that he should be
accompanied by his brother Africanus, and have the benefit of his
military skill and experience. Under his command, the Romans crossed the
Hellespont and sought Antiochus in his own kingdom.

Hannibal could do nothing with the poorly disciplined troops of the
king. They were met by the invading forces at MAGNESIA, in Lydia, in
190, and 80,000 Asiatics were put to rout by 30,000 Romans, 50,000 being
slain. The loss of the victors was slight.

On that day the fate of Asia was sealed. Antiochus relinquished all
pretensions to any territory west of the river Halys and the Taurus
mountains. His chariots, elephants, fleet, and treasures were all
surrendered.

Scipio returned home to enjoy a triumph, and added ASIATICUS to his
name, as his brother had taken that of Africanus in commemoration of his
victory.

Gneius Manlius Vulso succeeded Scipio in the East. He made a campaign
against the Gauls, who had settled in Galatia about a century before,
and had become wealthy by means of constant plunderings. The excuse for
the campaign was, that they had served in the Syrian army; the reason
was, their wealth, and the ambition of the Consul for glory.

The Galatians were easily overcome, their wealth seized, and they
themselves became assimilated to their neighbors. This war is noticeable
chiefly for the reason that Manlius undertook it _without the authority
of the Senate_, the first instance of its kind, and a precedent which
was too frequently followed in later times. On his return to Rome he was
allowed a triumph, which stamped his act as legal.

These wars in the East brought to Rome immense riches, which laid
the foundation of its Oriental extravagance and luxury, and finally
undermined the strength of the state. From Greece were introduced
learning and refinement, from Asia immorality and effeminacy. The vigor
and tone of Roman society are nowhere more forcibly shown than in the
length of time it took for its subjugation by these ruinous exotics.

Meanwhile, at Rome the political enemies of the Scipios were in the
ascendency. Asiaticus was accused of misappropriating funds obtained
during his campaign in the East. As he was about to produce his
account-books before the Senate, his brother, Africanus, seized them,
tore them to pieces, and threw the remnants on the floor. Asiaticus,
however, was sentenced to pay a fine. When it was afterwards intimated
that his brother too was implicated, he proudly reminded his enemies
that their insinuations were ill-timed, for it was the anniversary of
Zama. This remark changed the tide of feeling, and no more charges were
made.

Two years later (183), Africanus died in voluntary exile at Liternum,
on the coast of Campania. He had lived little more than fifty years. His
wife, Aemilia, was the daughter of Paullus, who fell at Cannae, and
the sister of him who afterwards conquered Perseus of Macedonia. His
daughter, CORNELIA, afterwards became the mother of the famous GRACCHI.
Next to Caesar, Scipio was Rome's greatest general. During the
campaign in the East, he met Hannibal at the court of Antiochus. In
the conversation Hannibal is reported to have said that he considered
Alexander the greatest general, Pyrrhus next, and, had he himself
conquered Scipio, he would have placed himself before either.

Scipio lived to see Rome grow from an Italian power to be practically
the mistress of the world. He was of marked intellectual culture, and
as conversant with Greek as with his mother tongue. He possessed a charm
which made him popular at a time when the culture and arts of Greece
were not so courted at Rome as in later days.

Hannibal, after the defeat of Antiochus, was demanded by the Romans,
but, escaping, took refuge in Crete, and subsequently with Prusias, King
of Bithynia. His surrender was demanded, and troops were sent to
arrest him. Seeing no way of escape, he opened the bead on his ring and
swallowed the poison which it contained (183).

Thus died one of the greatest of commanders, without attaining the aim
of his life. He had lived but fifty-four years, yet his life was
so marked that people have ever since looked with wonder upon
the tremendous magnitude of what he undertook, and came so near
accomplishing.

This same year is also memorable for the death of "the last of the
Greeks," PHILOPOEMEN. (Footnote: See Ancient Greece, page 145.)



CHAPTER XVIII. CONQUEST OF MACEDONIA AND GREECE. (171-146.)


Although Philip had aided the Romans in their campaign against
Antiochus, he did not receive from them the expected reward in additions
to his territory. Immediate resistance would be futile; but he labored
patiently and quietly to increase his resources, and to stir up among
the neighboring Greeks hostile feeling towards Rome. He placed his army
on the best footing possible, and soon began to enlarge his boundaries.
Complaints were made to Rome, and the king was compelled to give up his
conquests, and confine himself to the limits of Macedonia. In 179 Philip
died, and was succeeded by his son PERSEUS.

The new king was as able as his father, and more impatient of
subjection. He made friends with the surrounding princes, formed a
marriage connection with Antiochus IV. of Syria, and strove to arouse
among the Greeks memories of their former greatness.

The Senate, hearing of his numerous intrigues, determined to check him.
War was declared in 171; but the forces sent by Rome were at first led
by incompetent men, and nothing was accomplished until LICIUS AEMILIUS
PAULLUS was made Consul, and took charge of the war in 168.

Paullus (229-160) was the son of the Consul of the same name who was
killed at Cannae. His integrity was first shown when, as CURULE AEDILE,
(Footnote: See page 225) in 192, he prosecuted persons who had made an
illegal use of the public pastures. He was sent to Ulterior Spain in 191
as governor, where, after some reverses, he put down all insurrections.
He was Consul in 182, and did good work in conquering a tribe of
marauders in Liguria. For this he was allowed a triumph.

He was elected Consul a second time in 168, and sent against Perseus.
The war was brought to a speedy end by the battle of PYDNA, on the
Thermáic Gulf, June 22. The king fled to Samothráce with his treasures
and family. He was shortly afterwards captured, but was treated with
kindness by the Consul.

Paullus now travelled through Greece. Later, assisted by commissioners,
he arranged the affairs of Macedonia. The country was divided into
four small republics, independent of each other, but prohibited from
intermarriage and commerce with one another.

On his return to Rome in 167, he enjoyed a triumph, which was graced
by Perseus and his three children. He was Censor in 164, and died four
years later.

Paullus had two sons by his first wife. The elder of these was adopted
by Fabius Maximus Cunctátor, the younger by the son of Africánus the
elder, his brother-in-law. He was of the "blue" blood of Rome, of
perfect honesty, and very popular, a good general, but somewhat
superstitious. A patron of learning and the fine arts, he gave his sons
the best training under Greek masters. A strong proof of his popularity
is the fact that his body was carried to its last resting place by
volunteers from the various peoples he had conquered.

Perseus spent his last days in confinement near Rome, enduring, it is
alleged, base and cruel treatment. He was the last king of Macedonia.

After the victory at Pydna, the sympathy shown in Greece for the
conquered monarch made the Romans more watchful of her interests there.
All suspected to be enemies were removed as hostages to Italy, and among
these was the historian POLYBIUS. He lived in Rome for more than twenty
years, and became a great friend of the younger Africánus, whom he
accompanied to the siege of Carthage.

Like Macedonia, Greece was separated into parts, independent of
each other, with no rights of _connubium_ or _commercium_. Utter
demoralization soon ensued, which proved a sure preventive to all
alliances liable to shake the authority of Rome.

Trouble again arose in Macedonia twenty years after Pydna, culminating
in what is sometimes called the FOURTH MACEDONIAN WAR (149-146). Under
the leadership of ANDRISCUS, who claimed to be a son of Perseus, the
people rebelled against the protection of Rome. They were twice defeated
in 148 by the praetor QUINTUS CAECILIUS METELLUS, who gained the agnomen
of MACEDONICUS. The country was made a Roman province, with a Roman
magistrate at its head.

At this time the Achaeans were quarrelling with Sparta. Metellus warned
them to desist, and when the Achaeans advanced against him, he easily
defeated them near SCARPHEIA.

Metellus was a moderate reformer and a model man. He belonged to an
illustrious plebeian _gens_, the Caecilian. Before his death in 115
three of his sons had been consuls, one censor, and the fourth was a
candidate for the consulship.

Metellus was succeeded in Greece by LUCIUS MUMMIUS, a cruel and harsh
leader. The remnant of the Achaean army had taken refuge in CORINTH.
The Senate directed Mummius to attack the city. Its capture in 146
was marked by special cruelties. The city was burned to the ground;
beautiful pictures and costly statuary were ruthlessly destroyed. Gold
in abundance was carried to Rome. The last vestige of Greek liberty
vanished. The country became a Roman province under the name of ACHAIA.

Corinth, the "eye of all Greece," remained in ruins for a century, when
it was rebuilt in 46 by Julius Caesar, who planted on its site a colony
of veterans and freedmen.



CHAPTER XIX. THE THIRD PUNIC WAR, AND FALL OF CARTHAGE.


Fifty years had passed since Zama. It was a period of great commercial
prosperity for Carthage, but her government was weakened by the quarrels
of conflicting factions.

MASINISSA, King of Numidia, an ally of the Romans, was a continual
source of annoyance to Carthage. He made inroads upon her territory,
and, as she was bound by her treaty not to war upon any allies of Rome,
her only recourse was to complain to the Senate. In 157 an embassy was
sent to inquire into the troubles. MARCUS PORCIUS CATO, the chief of the
embassy, was especially alarmed at the prosperity of the city, and from
that time never ceased to urge its destruction. The embassy did not
reach any decision, but allowed matters to go on as they might. Finally,
when some sympathizers with Masinissa were banished from the city, he
attacked and defeated the Carthaginians, compelled their army to
pass under the yoke, and afterwards treacherously destroyed it (150).
Carthage was compelled to give up some of her territory, and pay
$5,000,000 indemnity.

After this victory, matters came to a crisis. The city must be
disciplined for warring with an ally of Rome. Cato never failed to
close any speech he might make in the Senate with the same cruel words,
_Delenda est Carthago_, "Carthage must be destroyed." The people of
Carthage were called to account. Desponding and broken-hearted, they
sent ambassadors to Rome. The answer given them was obscure. They were
requested to make reparation to Rome, and at the same time they were
assured that nothing should be undertaken against Carthage herself.
But in 149 the Consuls crossed with a large army into Sicily, where the
troops were organized, and Carthaginian ambassadors were expected.

When they appeared, the Consuls declared that the Senate did not wish to
encroach upon the freedom of the people, but only desired some security;
for this purpose it demanded that, within thirty days, three hundred
children of the noblest families should be delivered into their hands
as hostages. This demand was met. The Romans then coolly crossed over
to Africa, and informed the Carthaginians that they were ready to treat
with them on any question not previously settled.

When the ambassadors again appeared before the Consuls, they were told
that Carthage must deliver over all her arms and artillery; for, they
said, as Rome was able to protect her, there was no need of Carthage
possessing arms. Hard as was this command, it was obeyed. They were then
told that Carthage had indeed shown her good will, but that Rome had no
control over the city so long as it was fortified. The preservation of
peace, therefore, required that the people should quit the city, give
up their navy, and build a new town without walls at a distance of ten
miles from the sea. The indignation and fury which this demand excited
were intense. The gates were instantly closed, and all the Romans and
Italians who happened to be within the city were massacred.

The Romans, who expected to find a defenceless population, imagined
that the storming of the place would be an easy matter. But despair had
suggested to the Carthaginians means of defence in every direction.
All assaults were repelled. Everybody was engaged day and night in the
manufacture of arms. Nothing can be more heartrending than this last
struggle of despair. Every man and every woman labored to the uttermost
for the defence of the city with a furious enthusiasm.

Two years after the siege began, PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO AFRICÁNUS,
the Younger, was elected Consul while but thirty-seven (under the legal
age), for the express purpose of giving him charge of the siege. After
two years of desperate fighting and splendid heroism on the part of the
defenders, the famished garrison could hold out no longer.

Carthage fell in 146, and the ruins of the city burned for seventeen
days. The destruction was complete. A part of her territory was given to
Numidia. The rest was made a Roman province, and called AFRICA.

The year 149 saw the death of two men who had been Carthage's most
bitter enemies, but who were not allowed to see her downfall,--MASINISSA
and CATO, the one aged ninety, the other eighty-five.

Masinissa's (239-149) hostility dates from the time he failed to get the
promised hand of Hasdrubal's daughter, Sophonisba, who was given to
his rival, Syphax. After the battle of Zama, most of the possessions of
Syphax fell to Masinissa, and among them this same Sophonisba, whom he
married. Scipio, however, fearing her influence over him, demanded
her as a Roman captive, whereupon she took poison. Masinissa was a
courageous prince, but a convenient tool for the Romans.

CATO THE ELDER (_Major_), (234-149,) whose long public career was a
constant struggle with the enemies of the state abroad, and with the
fashions of his countrymen at home, was a type of the _old_ Roman
character, with a stern sense of duty that forbade his neglecting the
interests of state, farm, or household. In 184, in his capacity as
Censor, he acted with extreme rigor. He zealously asserted old-fashioned
principles, and opposed the growing tendency to luxury. All innovations
were in his eyes little less than crimes. He was the author of several
works, one of which, a treatise on agriculture, has been preserved.

Cicero's "Cato Major" represents him in his eighty-fourth year
discoursing about old age with Africánus the younger, and Laelius, a
friend of the latter.



CHAPTER XX. ROME AND SPAIN.-THE NUMANTINE AND SERVILE WARS. (206-132.)


Africanus the elder left Spain in 206. After a provincial government
of nine years (206-197), the country was divided into two provinces,
separated by the IBÉRUS (Ebro), and each province was assigned to a
praetor. It was some time, however, before Spain was really brought into
a state of complete peace and order. The mountains and forests were a
formidable obstacle to the Roman legions, and favored guerilla warfare,
which makes conquest slow and laborious.

The most warlike of the Spanish tribes was the CELTIBÉRI, who
occupied the interior of the peninsula. They were always uncertain and
intractable, continually breaking out into revolt. In 195, Cato the
elder put down a rebellion led by them. He established more firmly the
Roman power east of the Ibérus. He disarmed the inhabitants of this part
of Spain, and compelled all from the Pyrenees to the Guadalquivir to
pull down their fortifications.

Still the smouldering fires of rebellion were not extinguished, for,
sixteen years later (179), we find TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS,
the father of the famous Gracchi, as Governor of Spain, fighting the
troublesome Celtibéri. He captured over one hundred of their towns, but
tempered his victories with moderate measures, showing himself greater
in peace than in war. He granted to the poorer classes lands on
favorable conditions, and did much to produce contentment among the
natives. But farther west, in the valleys of the Douro and Tagus, and in
Lusitania (Portugal), there seems to have been constant warfare.

In 154, MUMMIUS, the same who eight years later sacked Corinth, was
Governor of Farther Spain. His defeat by the Lusitanians encouraged the
Celtibéri to revolt again, and there followed another defeat, with
a massacre of many Roman citizens. Two years later (152), CLAUDIUS
MARCELLUS avenged these losses, founded Corduba, and governed the
country humanely. His successors, LUCIUS LUCULLUS and SERVIUS GALBA,
were so cruel and grasping as to drive the Lusitanians into another open
rebellion, headed by VIRIÁTHUS, a bold and daring bandit. During seven
years (147-140) he defeated again and again the armies sent against him.
The Celtibéri joined his standards, and Spain seemed likely to slip from
the Romans. The only check to these successes was during the command of
METELLUS MACEDONICUS (143); when he was recalled, matters returned to
their former condition.

In 140, the Consul Mancínus was obliged to capitulate, and, to save
himself and his army, made a treaty which the Senate refused to
sanction.

Viriáthus was finally (139) assassinated by persons hired by the Consul
Caepio; his people were then subdued, and the government was ably
conducted (138) by DECIMUS JUNIUS BRUTUS.


THE NUMANTINE WAR (143-133).

The Celtibéri, however, were still in arms. The strong city of NUMANTIA,
the capital of one of their tribes, witnessed more than one defeat of a
Roman Consul before its walls (141-140). Finally Rome sent out her best
general, Africanus the younger.

After devoting several months to the disciplining of his troops, he
began (134) a regular siege of the place. It was defended with the
utmost bravery and tenacity, until, forced by the last extreme of
famine, it surrendered (133). The inhabitants were sold as slaves, and
the town was levelled to the ground. The victor was honored with the
title of NUMANTÍNUS.

The fall of Numantia gave Rome a hold upon the interior of Spain, which
was never lost. The country now, with the exception of its northern
coast, was nominally Roman territory. Several towns were established
with Latin municipal rights _(municipia)_, and, on the whole, order was
maintained. Along the coast of the Mediterranean there sprang up many
thriving and populous towns, which became centres of civilization to the
neighboring districts, and were treated by Rome rather as allies than
as subjects. Some of them were allowed to coin the silver money of Rome.
The civilizing process, due to Roman influence, went on rapidly in these
parts, while the interior remained in barbarism.

In 105 the peninsula was overrun by the Cimbri, a barbarous race from
the north. The country was ravaged, but finally saved by the brave
Celtibéri, who forced the invaders back into Gaul.

 THE SERVILE WAR (134-132).

While the Numantine war was still in progress, a war with the slaves
broke out in Sicily, where they had been treated with special barbarity.

For a long time slave labor had been taking the place of that of
freemen. The supply was rendered enormous by constant wars, and by the
regular slave trade carried on with the shores of the Black Sea and
Greece. The owners of the slaves became an idle aristocracy.

The immediate cause of the outbreak in Sicily was the cruelty of a
wealthy slave-owner, Damophilus. The leader of the slaves was EUNUS, who
pretended to be a Syrian prophet. A number of defeats were suffered
by the Roman armies, until, finally, PUBLIUS RUTILIUS captured the
strongholds of the slaves, TAUROMENIUM and ENNA, and thus closed the
war. For his success he was allowed an ovation.



CHAPTER XXI. INTERNAL HISTORY.--THE GRACCHI. We have seen how the long
struggle between the patricians and plebeians terminated in a nominal
victory for the latter. From about 275, the outward form of the old
constitution had undergone little change. It was nominally that of a
"moderate democracy." The Senate and offices of state were, in law,
open to all alike. In practice, however, the constitution became an
oligarchy. The Senate, not the Comitias, ruled Rome. Moreover, the
Senate was controlled by a class who claimed all the privileges of a
nobility. The Comitias were rarely called upon to decide a question.
Most matters were settled by a DECREE OF THE SENATE (_Senatus
Consultum_). To be sure the Comitia declared for war or peace, but the
Senate conducted the war and settled the conditions of peace. It also
usually assigned the commands, organized the provinces, and managed the
finances.

The causes for this ascendency of the Senate are not hard to find. It
was a body made up of men capable of conducting affairs. It could be
convened at any time, whereas the voters of the Comitias were scattered
over all Italy, and, if assembled, would not be competent to decide
questions demanding knowledge of military matters and foreign policy.

The Senate and the Roman nobility were in the main the same. All
patricians were nobles, but all nobles were not patricians. The
patricians were the descendants of the original founders of the city.
The nobles were the descendants of any one who had filled one of the
following six curule offices, viz. Dictator, Magister Equitum, Consul,
Interrex, Praetor, or Curule Aedile. These nobles possessed the right to
place in their hall, or carry in funeral processions, a wax mask of
this ancestor, and also of any other member of the family who had held a
curule office.

A plebeian who first held this office was called a _novus homo_, or "new
man."

The Senate, thus made up of patricians and nobles, had at this time the
monopoly of power. Legally, however, it had no positive authority.
The right of the people to govern was still valid, and there was only
wanting a magistrate with the courage to remind them of their legal
rights, and urge the exercise of them.

Such a magistrate was found in TIBERIUS SEMPRONIUS GRACCHUS. With him
was ushered in the contest which lasted for more than a century, and
brought to the surface some of the proudest names of Roman history.
On one side or the other we find them,--MARIUS and SULLA, CAESAR and
POMPEY, AUGUSTUS and ANTONY--arraying Rome against herself, until the
glories of the Republic were swallowed up in the misrule and dishonor of
the Empire.

Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus the elder (see Chapter XX.) belonged to the
nobility, but not to the aristocracy. He married CORNELIA, the daughter
of Africánus the elder. They had twelve children, of whom all but three
died young. Two sons and a daughter lived to maturity. The daughter,
SEMPRONIA, married Africánus the younger. The sons, TIBERIUS and GAIUS,
grew up under the care of their noble and gifted mother, who was left a
widow when they were mere boys.

Tiberius (164-133) entered the army, and served under his brother-in-law
during the third Punic war. Ten years later (136) he was Quaestor in
Spain, where he won the affections of the people by adhering to the mild
policy which his father had previously followed. His popular measures
here displeased his brother-in-law, and he ceased to be a favorite
with him. On his return home he passed through Tuscany where he was
astonished to see large tracts of the _ager publicus_ (see Chapter VII.)
cultivated by slave gangs, while the free poor citizens of the Republic
were wandering in towns without employment, and deprived of the land
which, according to law (see the Licinian Rogations), should have
been divided among them, and not held in large quantities by the rich
land-owners.

Tiberius determined to rectify this wrong. In 133 he offered himself as
candidate for the tribuneship, and was elected. He then began boldly the
battle for the commons. He proposed to revise the Agrarian Law, now a
dead letter, which forbade the holding of more than 320 acres of the
_ager publicus_ by one individual. Occupants who had fenced this land
and improved it were to be compensated therefor.

The wealthy classes and the Senate at once took sides against Tiberius,
and the struggle began. One of the other Tribunes, OCTAVIUS CAECÍNA,
who was himself a large land-owner, taking advantage of his authority as
Tribune, interposed his veto to prevent a vote upon the question.

Gracchus, full of enthusiasm over the justice of his cause, obtained,
contrary to all precedent, the removal of his colleague from office, and
passed his Agrarian Law. Three commissioners were appointed, himself,
his brother, and his father-in-law, APPIUS CLAUDIUS, to carry it into
effect.

It was contrary to the law that a person should hold the office of
Tribune for two successive years. But Gracchus, in his desire to carry
out his plans, determined to violate this rule, and offered himself as
candidate for the next year. The election day came, and when it became
evident that he would be re-elected, the aristocrats, who had turned out
in full force on the Campus Martius with their retinues of armed slaves
and clients, raised a riot, and, killing Gracchus with three hundred of
his followers, threw their bodies into the Tiber (133). Thus was shed
the first blood of the civil struggle. The mob was led by SCIPIO NASÍCA,
the uncle of Tiberius. Africánus, when he heard of the murder of his
brother-in-law, exclaimed, "Justly slain."

The agrarian law, however, which had passed, was too evidently just to
be openly ignored. The remaining two commissioners continued their work,
until, within two years, 40,000 families were settled on tracts of
the public land which the patricians were compelled to vacate. But the
commissioners became unpopular, for those who received lands were not
always satisfied, and those who were obliged to leave them were enraged.
The commissioners were suspended, and the law repealed.

The mantle of Tiberius fell on GAIUS GRACCHUS. For a time after his
brother's death he retired from politics, and served in the army in
Africa and Sardinia, where he was Quaestor. His valor, wisdom, and
justice made him justly popular, but caused him to be regarded with
suspicion at Rome. In 123 he was elected Tribune, and twice re-elected.
He revived his brother's agrarian law, and became at once the avowed
enemy of the Senate. As a means of increasing his popularity, he
endeavored to admit all the Italians to the privileges of Roman
citizenship, and to limit the price of bread.

Gains gained the favor of the _Equites_ (Knights), the commercial class,
by carrying through the assembly a law by which all judicial functions
were taken from the Senate and intrusted to the Knights. Heretofore
all civil and criminal cases of importance had been tried before a jury
chosen from the Senate. These juries were often venal and corrupt, and
it was a notorious fact that their verdicts could be bought.

The transferring of the juries to the Equites made Gaius for a time
very powerful. He caused another law to be passed, to the effect that no
Roman citizen should be put to death without legal trial and an appeal
to the assembly of the people.

But the plan of Gaius to extend the franchise to all the Italians ruined
his popularity. The Roman citizens had no desire to share their rights
with the Etruscans and Samnites. Riots again broke out, as ten years
before. The aristocracy again armed itself. Gaius with 3,000 of his
friends was murdered in 121, and the Senate was once more master of the
situation.

However, the results obtained by the Gracchi still remained. Forty
thousand peasants had been settled on public land. The jury law was in
force. No Roman citizen could be put to death without trial, unless the
state was held to be in danger.

Nearly all Roman writers unite in attacking the reputation of the
Gracchi; but viewed in the light of to-day their characters were noble,
and their virtues too conspicuous to be obscured.

A few years previous to this, the younger Africánus died (129). His
remark about the death of Tiberius Gracchus gave dire offence to the
popular party, and a few days later he was found dead in his bed,
probably "a victim of political assassination."

Africánus was a man of refinement and culture, a warm friend of
scholars, a patron of the Greek historian POLYBIUS, and of the poets
LUCILIUS and TERENCE. He was opposed to the tendency of his age towards
luxury and extravagance. He was an orator, as well as a general. The
one blot on his career is the terrible destruction of Carthage, which he
possibly might have averted had he shown firm opposition to it.

SCIPIO NASÍCA, who led the mob against Tiberius, was compelled, though
Pontifex Maximus, to leave the city, and died an exile in Asia.



CHAPTER XXII. EXTERNAL HISTORY.--PERGAMUM.--JUGURTHINE WAR (118-104).


Pergamum was an ancient city of Mysia on the Caícus, fifteen miles from
the sea. It first became important after the death of Alexander. Its
first king, Attalus I. (241-197), added a large territory to the city.
He was an ally of the Romans, and his successors remained their firm
friends. The city became one of the most prosperous and famous in Asia
Minor, noted for its architectural monuments, its fine library, and
its schools. Attalus III., at his death in 133, bequeathed to Rome his
kingdom, which included Lydia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, and Pamphylia. It was
made a province under the name of ASIA.

THE WAR WITH JUGURTHA.

After the destruction of Carthage, the most important kingdom in Africa
was NUMIDIA. It contained a number of flourishing towns, which were
centres of a considerable commerce. Masinissa left this kingdom to his
son Micipsa. The latter had two sons and a nephew, JUGURTHA. The nephew
was a brilliant young man, who had served under Scipio in the Numantine
war, and returned to Africa covered with honors. He was named joint heir
with his cousins to the kingdom of Numidia. Micipsa dying soon after,
Jugurtha murdered one of his cousins, Hiempsal, claimed the whole
kingdom, and attacked his other cousin, Adherbal, who appealed to
Rome. Commissioners were sent to investigate. They were bought off by
Jugurtha, and returned home without accomplishing anything. Adherbal was
afterwards captured, savagely tortured, and finally killed.

The Senate, compelled by the popular indignation to make an
investigation, moved so slowly that some of its members were accused of
accepting bribes. War was declared at last, but the campaign languished,
and peace was soon made on such easy terms for the prince that it was
evident his money had again been freely used. The scandalous transaction
was denounced at Rome by the Tribune MEMMIUS. Jugurtha then repaired to
the city in person, and bought up all the authorities except Memmius,
whom he found incorruptible. He had another cousin in the city, whom he
caused to be murdered. After this the Senate ordered him to leave, and
as he departed, it is said he exclaimed, "Venal city, destined soon to
perish, if a purchaser be found!"

War was now begun in earnest (110), but resulted in a crushing defeat
of the Romans, whose army was sent under the yoke. Humiliated by
the defeat, the Senate in the following year sent QUINTUS CAECILIUS
METELLUS, nephew of Metellus Macedonicus, to take charge of the war. He
was a man of integrity, with some experience as an officer, and a rigid
aristocrat. Realizing the danger of failure, he took with him as his
lieutenant the ablest soldier that he could find, GAIUS MARIUS.

Marius, born at Arpínum in 157, was the son of a farmer, and was
himself bred to the plough. He joined the army at an early age, and soon
attracted notice for his punctual performance of all duties, and his
strictness in discipline. He was present at the siege of Numantia, and
his courage caused Scipio to predict for him a brilliant career. He soon
rose to be Military Tribune. In 119 he was chosen Tribune of the People,
and two years later Praetor. The fact that he was respected and valued
in high circles is shown by his subsequent marriage into the family of
the Caesars. By this marriage with Julia, the aunt of Julius Caesar, he
became a person of social distinction.

The campaign was moderately successful. Jugurtha was defeated near the
river Muthul, and made to retire into the desert, where his stronghold,
Thala, was captured. He sued for peace, but, as unconditional surrender
was demanded, he still held out. The popular party at Rome, irritated
that such a petty prince should give so much trouble, demanded that
Marius should be made Consul and have charge of the war. When the
lieutenant asked Metellus for leave of absence to enable him to be
present at the elections, as was necessary according to the law, his
general ridiculed the idea, and told him to wait another twenty years.
He went, however, and was elected in 107, being the first plebeian
chosen to that office for more than a century.

Metellus was recalled, enjoyed a triumph, and received the agnomen of
NUMIDICUS.

Marius was every inch a soldier. He saw that the Roman legions must be
reorganized and better disciplined. He enlisted men who had no other
occupation, that they might become professional soldiers. Some men of
rank who had a taste for war also went with him. Among these was a young
patrician, CORNELIUS SULLA. With this army Marius soon wrested from
Jugurtha all his strongholds. In less than two years the war was over.
By his ally, Bocchus, King of Mauritania, Jugurtha was betrayed (106)
into the hands of Sulla, who was acting as the Quaestor of Marius.

The western portion of Numidia was given to Bocchus as the reward of
his treachery, while the remainder continued to be governed by native
princes, until the civil war between Caesar and Pompey. In 104 Marius
returned home, and entered Rome in triumph. Jugurtha was thrown into a
dungeon, and there starved to death.



CHAPTER XXIII. THE CIMBRI AND TEUTONES.--POLITICAL QUARRELS.


The war with Jugurtha ended none too soon, for Marius was needed in a
struggle requiring all his talents.

The CIMBRI and TEUTONES, barbarous nations from Northern Europe, were
threatening the frontiers of Italy. Already the Roman armies had met
with five successive defeats at their hands on the banks of the Rhone.
Eighty thousand Romans and forty thousand camp followers are said to
have fallen in these battles. Had the barbarians at this moment chosen
to enter Italy, the destruction of Rome would have been a certain
result. Fortunately, they turned to the Pyrenees, and, sweeping over the
mountains, overran for a season the province of Spain.

Marius, appointed Consul a second time, devoted his energies to forming
and training the army. He selected the plains on the banks of the Rhone
in Southern Gaul as best adapted for his purpose. Here he drilled
his troops, accustoming them to the greatest possible exertions. Many
perished under the strain, but the survivors became hardened soldiers.
Corps of engineers were attached to each legion, and the soldiers were
taught the use of tools, as well as of arms. At length, in his fourth
consulship (102), he felt prepared to meet the enemy.

The barbarians, on their return from Spain, separated their forces, the
Cimbri marching around the northern foot of the Alps towards Noricum,
with the intention of invading Italy from that quarter, while the
Teutones remained in Gaul.

As the latter advanced, Marius took up his position in a fortified camp
near AQUAE SEXTIAE (Aix). He allowed the enemy to march past him, and
then followed cautiously, waiting for a favorable opportunity to fall
upon them. In the battle that followed, the barbarians were no match for
the drilled legionaries, who were irresistible. The contest lasted two
days, and the vast host of the Teutones was cut to pieces (20 July,
102). At the close of this battle word was brought to Marius that he had
been elected Consul for the fifth time.

Meanwhile, the Cimbri had crossed the Alps and were ravaging the fertile
fields of Lombardy, meeting with but slight opposition from Catulus, the
other Consul.

The next year Marius came to his rescue. Near VERCELLAE the Cimbri met
the same fate as their brethren, and Italy was saved (101).

No sooner was the danger from the invasion over than political quarrels
broke out at Rome with great fury. Marius was elected Consul for the
sixth time. The popular heroes of the hour were two demagogues, the
Tribune SATURNÍNUS and the Praetor GLAUCIA. They carried corn laws and
land laws,(Footnote: These were the APPULEIAN LAWS (100):--I. Any Roman
citizen could buy corn of the state at a nominal price. II. The land
in Cisalpine Gaul, which the Cimbrians had occupied, should be divided
among the Italian and Roman citizens. III. Colonies from the veterans
of Marius were to be founded in Sicily, Achaia, and Macedonia.) and
compelled the Senators to take an oath to execute their laws. Metellus
Numidicus refusing to comply with their wishes, Saturnínus sent a guard
to the Senate-House, dragged him out, and expelled him from the city.

During this troublesome time, Marius showed that he was no politician.
He lacked judgment and firmness, and by endeavoring to please all
parties he pleased none.

On the popular side there were two parties, the moderate one, led by
MEMMIUS, who had exposed the Senate in its dealings with Jugurtha, and
the radical one, led by Saturnínus and Glaucia. Memmius and Glaucia
both ran for the consulship, and as the former seemed likely to be
successful, he was murdered. A reaction then set in, and Saturnínus
and Glaucia were declared public enemies. They took refuge in the
Senate-House, the roof of which was torn off, and the wretches were
stoned to death.

The fall of Saturnínus and Glaucia was followed in 99 by the recall
of Metellus from banishment. He died shortly afterwards, and it was
suspected that he was a victim of treachery.

Marius having now become generally unpopular on account of his
vacillating course in the recent troubles, went into voluntary exile,
travelling through Asia Minor, and visiting the court of Mithradátes,
King of Pontus.

For the next eight years (99-91) Rome enjoyed a season of comparative
quiet.



CHAPTER XXIV. INTERNAL HISTORY.-THE SOCIAL WAR (90-88).


At this time there was a bitter rivalry between the Senate and the
equestrian order, or commercial class. From the former were chosen
the governors of the provinces, from the latter came the tax-gatherers
(_publicani_) and the money-brokers (_negotiatores_). It will help us to
understand better the condition of affairs, if we study the composition
of the Senate and the Equites.

The Senators, three hundred in number (later their number was increased
to six hundred), held their office for life. When vacancies occurred
from death, or occasionally from removal, they were filled by the
Censor, (Footnote: See the duties of Censor) who appointed a person that
had held one of the following offices: Dictator, Consul, Praetor, Curule
Aedile, or, after the time of Sulla, Quaestor. All persons who had held
these offices, or that of Tribune, were allowed to join in debate in the
Senate, but not to vote. No Senator could engage in business. Hence he
must be wealthy.

We saw in Chapter IV. that Roman citizens were divided into six classes
according to their property, and that these classes were subdivided into
one hundred and ninety-three other classes called centuries. About 225,
the number was increased to three hundred and seventy-three. Eighteen
of the centuries of the first class were called EQUITES, and must have
property worth twenty thousand dollars or more. This name was given to
them because at first they served in the army as horsemen, though in
later times the cavalry was composed only of allied troops. The Equites
were originally from the aristocracy alone, but, as the plebeians
increased in wealth, many of them became rich enough to be included in
this class.

There was no hostility between the Senate and the Equites until, in 123,
Gaius Gracchus passed the _Lex Judicaria_, which prescribed that the
jurors _(judices)_ should be chosen from the Equites, and not the
Senate. From this time dates the struggle between the two classes,
and the breach widened every year. On the one side were the nobles,
represented by the Senate; on the other side, the equestrian order.
Since the jurors were chosen from the latter, it had control of the
courts, and often made an unscrupulous use of its power, especially in
those courts which were established to try governors for extortion in
the management of provinces _(quaestiones rerum repetundarum)_. From
the Equites, too, were taken the tax-gatherers of the provinces. They
pillaged and robbed the people at will, and, if a governor had the
courage to interfere with them, a threat of prosecution was held over
his head. The average governor preferred to connive at their exactions;
the bolder ones paid with fines or exiles for their courage. Another
trouble was threatening the commonwealth. The Italian allies of Rome did
not possess the franchise belonging to a Roman citizen. For nearly two
centuries they had shared dangers and victories with the Romans; they
now eagerly demanded all their privileges.

In 91, MARCUS LIVIUS DRUSUS, the Tribune, took up the task of reform.
He was noble, wealthy, and popular, and he hoped to settle the
question peacefully and equitably. But his attempt to reform the
courts displeased the Equites, his agrarian and corn laws made him many
enemies, and his attempt to admit the Italians to the rights of Roman
citizenship aroused great opposition.

His laws were passed, but the Senate pronounced them null and void.
He was denounced in that body as a traitor, and was struck down by an
assassin in the same year.

The death of Drusus drove the Italians to despair. Eight nations entered
into a close alliance, chose CORFINIUM, in the Pelignian Apennines, as
their capital, and formed a Federal Republic, to which they gave the
name ITALIA. All Italians were to be citizens of Corfinium, and here was
to be the place of assembly and the Senate-House.

Rome, in the face of this danger, acted promptly and with resolution.
The Consuls, Lucius Julius Caesar and Publius Rutilius Lupus, both took
the field; with each were five lieutenants, among whom were Marius and
Sulla.

This war (90-88), called the SOCIAL WAR, i.e. the war with the allies
(_Socii_), was at first disastrous to Rome. The allies overran Campania,
defeated the Romans several times, and entered into negotiations with
the Northern Italians, whose fidelity began to waver.

It is not strange, therefore, that opinions at Rome began to be turned
in the direction of a more liberal policy. It was decided to make
concessions. Towards the close of the year 90, the Consul Caesar carried
the JULIAN LAW, by which the Roman franchise was extended to all who
had not yet revolted. The next year this law was supplemented by the
PLAUTIAN PAPIRIAN LAW, which allowed every citizen of an Italian town
the franchise, if he handed in his name to the Praetor at Rome within
sixty days. About the same time was passed another law, the CALPURNIAN,
which permitted Roman magistrates in the field to bestow the franchise
on all who wished it. These laws resulted in disorganizing the
rebellion. The Samnites and Lucanians held out the longest, but were
finally put down by Marius.

The end of the Social War brought no peace at Rome. The newly
enfranchised Italians were not fully satisfied. The Senate was torn
asunder by violent personal rivalries. There was no class not affected
by the wide-spread tightness in the money market. The treasury was
empty, and many capitalists became insolvent. War with Mithradátes, King
of Pontus, had been declared, and both Marius and Sulla were eager to
have the command.

At this time (88) the TRIBUNE PUBLIUS SULPICIUS RUFUS brought forward
the following bills:--

1. That the command of the war against Mithradátes be given to Marius.

2. That the new citizens should be distributed through all the tribes.

3. That any Senator who owed more than four hundred dollars be deprived
of his seat.

4. That those exiled on suspicion of having aided in the Italian revolt
be recalled.

In spite of the bitterest opposition, these bills were passed. But the
triumph of Sulpicius was of short duration. Sulla, who with his troops
had been encamping near Nola in Campania, marched upon the city, and for
the first time a Consul entered Rome at the head of his legions.



CHAPTER XXV. MARIUS AND SULLA.-CINNA.


With the name of MARIUS is usually coupled that of LUCIUS CORNELIUS
SULLA (138-78). "He was a patrician of the purest blood, had inherited
a moderate fortune, and had spent it, like other young men of rank,
lounging in theatres and amusing himself with dinner parties. He was
a poet, an artist, and a wit. Although apparently indolent, he was
naturally a soldier, statesman, and diplomatist. As Quaestor under
Marius in the Jugurthine War, he had proved a most active and useful
officer." In these African campaigns he showed that he knew how to
win the hearts and confidence of his soldiers; and through his whole
subsequent career, the secret of his brilliant successes seems to have
been the enthusiastic devotion of his troops, whom he always held well
under control, even when they were allowed to indulge in plunder and
license. It was to Sulla's combined adroitness and courage that Marius
owed the final capture of Jugurtha. He served again under Marius in
the campaigns against the Cimbri and Teutones, and gave efficient help
towards the victory. But the Consul became jealous of his rising power,
and all friendly feeling between the two ceased.

After this campaign Sulla lived at Rome for some years, taking no part
in politics, and during this time his name and that of his rival are
almost unheard. He appeared before the public again in 93, when he was
elected Praetor, and increased his popularity by an exhibition of a
hundred lions in the arena, matched against Numidian archers. In 92 he
went as Propraetor to govern the province of Asia, and here he first met
MITHRADÁTES.

This monarch, who ruled over Pontus, was an extraordinary man. He
spoke many languages, was the idol, of his subjects, and had boundless
ambition. He doubted the durability of the Roman Empire, and began to
enlarge his own territory, with no apparent fear of Rome's interference.

Cappadocia, a neighboring country, was under Roman protection, and was
ruled by a prince, ARIOBARZÁNES, that Rome had recognized. This country
Mithradátes attacked. He killed the prince, and placed on the throne his
own nephew.

Rome interfered, and Sulla was instructed to visit the monarch. He
accomplished his mission with his usual adroitness, and returned to Rome
with new honors. He took an active part in the Social War, eclipsing
the fame of his rival, Marius. He was now the recognized leader of the
conservative and aristocratic party. The feeling between the rivals was
more bitter than ever, for Marius, though old, had by no means lost his
prestige with the popular party.

It was at this time that Mithradátes, learning of the Social War,
thought it a good opportunity to advance his own interests and extend
his realm. He collected all his available forces, and invaded Bithynia.
With his fleets he sailed through the Dardanelles into the Archipelago.
The extortions of the Roman governors had been so great, that Ionia,
Lydia, and Caria, with all the islands near Asia Minor, gladly revolted
from Rome, and accepted his protection. All the Roman residents with
their families were massacred on a single day. It is said that 80,000
persons perished. Mithradátes himself next crossed the Bosphorus, and
marched into Northern Greece, which received him with open arms.

Such was the condition in the East when Sulpicius Rufus carried the
bills mentioned in the last chapter. One of these bills was that Marius
have charge of the war against Mithradátes. This was not to Sulla's
liking. He was in Campania with the legions that had served in the
Social War. The soldiers were devoted to him, and ready to follow him
anywhere. Sulla, therefore, taking matters into his own hands, marched
into the city at the head of his troops. The people resisted; Sulpicius
was slain; Marius fled for his life, and retired to Africa, where he
lived for a time, watching the course of events.

Sulla could not remain long at the capital. The affairs of the East
called him away; and no sooner was he gone than the flames of civil war
burst out anew (87).

LUCIUS CORNELIUS CINNA, a friend of Marius, was Consul that year. He
tried to recall Marius, but was violently opposed and finally driven
from the city. The Senate declared him deposed from his office. He
invoked the aid of the soldiers in Campania, and found them ready to
follow him. The neighboring Italian towns sent him men and money, and
Marius, coming from Africa, joined him with six thousand troops. They
marched upon Rome. The city was captured. Cinna was acknowledged
Consul, and the sentence of outlawry which had been passed on Marius was
revoked.

The next year Marius was made Consul for the seventh time, and Cinna for
the second. Then followed the wildest cruelties. Marius had a body-guard
of slaves, which he sent out to murder whomever he wished. The houses of
the rich were plundered, and the honor of noble families was exposed to
the mercy of the slaves. Fortunately Marius died sixteen days after he
entered office, and the shedding of blood ceased.

For the next three years Cinna ruled Rome. Constitutional government
was practically suspended. For the years 85 and 84 Cinna himself and a
trusty colleague were Consuls, but no regular elections were held. In
84, he was murdered, when on the eve of setting out against Sulla in
Asia.

Sulla left Italy for the East with 30,000 troops. He marched against
Athens, where Archeláus, the general of Mithradátes, was intrenched.
After a long siege, he captured and pillaged the city, March 1, 86. The
same year he defeated Archeláus at CHAERONÉA in Boeotia, and the next
year at ORCHOMENOS.

Meanwhile Sulla's lieutenant, LUCULLUS, raised a fleet and gained two
victories off the coast of Asia Minor. The Asiatic king was now ready
to negotiate. Sulla crossed the Hellespont in 84, and in a personal
interview with the king arranged the terms of peace, which were as
follows. The king was to give up Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Cappadocia,
and withdraw to his former dominions. He was also to pay an indemnity
amounting to about $3,500,000, and surrender eighty ships of war.

Having thus settled matters with the king, Sulla punished the Lydians
and Carians, in whose territory the Romans had been massacred, by
compelling them to pay at one time five years' tribute. He was now ready
to return to Rome.

The same year that Cinna died, Sulla landed at Brundisium, with 40,000
troops and a large following of nobles who had fled from Rome. Every
preparation was made by the Marian party for his reception; but no
sooner did he land in Italy than the soldiers were induced to desert to
him in immense numbers, and he soon found himself in possession of all
Lower Italy. Among those who hastened to his standard was young POMPEY,
then but twenty-three years old, and it was to his efforts that Sulla's
success was largely due. The next year, 83, the Marian party was joined
by the Samnites, and the war raged more fiercely than ever. At length,
however, Sulla was victorious under the walls of Rome. The city lay at
his mercy. His first act, an order for the slaughter of 6,000 Samnite
prisoners, was a fit prelude to his conduct in the city. Every effort
was made to eradicate the last trace of Marian blood and sympathy from
the city. A list of men, declared to be outlaws and public enemies,
was exhibited in the Forum, and a succession of wholesale murders and
confiscations throughout Rome and Italy, made the name of Sulla forever
infamous.

Having received the title of Dictator, and celebrated a splendid triumph
for the Mithradátic war, he carried (80-79) his political measures.
The main object of these was to invest the Senate, the thinned ranks
of which he filled with his own creatures, with full control over the
state, over every magistrate and every province.

In 79 he resigned his dictatorship and went to Puteoli, where he died
the next year, from a loathsome disease brought on by his excesses.


THE REFORMS OF SULLA.

Sulla restricted the power of the magistrates to the advantage of the
Senate. Senators were alone made eligible for the tribuneship, and no
former Tribune could hold any curule office. No one could be Praetor
without having first been Quaestor, or Consul without having held the
praetorship. Every candidate for the office of Quaestor must be at
least thirty years old. The number of Praetors was increased from six
to eight; that of Quaestors, from twelve to twenty. The Consuls and
Praetors were to remain at Rome during their first year of office, and
then go to the provinces as Proconsuls and Propraetors.

Three hundred new Senators, taken from the Equites, were added, and all
who had been Quaestors were made eligible to the Senate.

The control of the courts was transferred from the Equites to the
Senate.

On the death of Sulla, in 78, CRASSUS and LEPIDUS were chosen Consuls;
but such was the instability of the times that they were sworn not to
raise an army during their consulship. Lepidus attempted to evade his
oath by going to Gaul, and, when summoned by the Senate to return,
marched against the city at the head of his forces. He was defeated by
Crassus and Pompey in 78, and soon after died.



CHAPTER XXVI. SERTORIUS.--SPARTACUS.--LUCULLUS.--POMPEY AND CRASSUS.


Quintus Sertorius (121-72), a native of the little Sabine village of
Nursia under the Apennines, had joined the party of Marius, and served
under him in the campaigns against the Cimbri and Teutones. In 97 he
served in Spain, and became acquainted with the country with which his
fame is chiefly associated. In 91 he was Quaestor in Cisalpine Gaul. He
was a partisan of Marius during his troubles with Sulla, and on Sulla's
return from the East he left Rome for Spain, where he took the lead
of the Marian party. His bravery, kindness, and eloquence pleased the
Spaniards. Many Roman refugees and deserters joined him. He defeated
one of Sulla's generals, and drove out of Lusitania (Portugal) METELLUS
PIUS,(Footnote: Son of Metellus Numidicus. He received the agnomen of
Pius on account of the love which he displayed for his father, whom
he begged the people to recall from banishment in 99.) who had been
specially sent against him from Rome.

The object of Sertorius was to establish a government in Spain after the
Roman model. He formed a Senate of three hundred members, and founded at
Osca a school for native children. He was strict and severe towards his
soldiers, but kind to the people. A white fawn was his favorite pet and
constant follower. He ruled Spain for six years. In 77 he was joined by
PERPERNA a Roman officer. The same year Pompey, then a young man, was
sent to co-operate with Metellus. Sertorius proved more than a match for
both of these generals, and defeated them near Saguntum.

The position of the Romans was becoming critical, for Sertorius now
formed a league with the pirates of the Mediterranean. He also entered
into negotiations with Mithradátes, and opened correspondence with the
slaves in Italy, who were rebelling.

But intrigues and jealousies arose in his camp. The outcome of these was
that he was treacherously murdered by Perperna at a banquet in 72, and
with his death fell the Marian party in Spain.

Meanwhile a dangerous enemy was threatening Italy within her own
borders. In 73 a band of gladiators, under the leadership of one of
their number, named SPARTACUS escaped from the training school at Capua
and took up a strong position on Mount Vesuvius. They were joined by
large numbers of slaves and outcasts of every description, and were soon
in a position to defeat two Praetors who were sent against them.

The next year they assumed the offensive; and Spartacus found himself at
the head of 100,000 men. Four generals sent against him were defeated;
and for two years he ravaged Italy at will, and even threatened Rome.
But intestine division showed itself in his ranks; his lieutenants grew
jealous of him, and his strength began to wane.

In 71 the command of the war was given to CRASSUS, who finished it in
six months. Spartacus fell, fighting bravely, near Brundisium. Pompey,
returning from the Sertorian war in Spain, met five thousand of those
who had escaped from the array of Spartacus. These he slew to a man.
Crassus pointed the moral of his victory by hanging, along the road from
Rome to Capua, six thousand captives whom he had taken.

Mithradátes meanwhile, taking advantage of the troubles at Rome, was
again in arms, and in 74 LUCIUS LICINIUS LUCULLUS was sent against him.

Lucullus, of plebeian birth, first distinguished himself in the Social
War, where he gained the favor of Sulla, and accompanied him, as
Quaestor, in his campaign against Mithradátes in 88. With Cotta he was
chosen to the consulship in 74. The province of Cilicia was assigned to
him, Bithynia to Cotta. Mithradátes invaded Bithynia, defeated Cotta,
and besieged him at Chalcédon.

Lucullus, after reorganizing and disciplining his army, went to the aid
of his colleague, drove the king into Pontus, and defeated him at Cabíra
in 72, and his fleet at Tenedos in 71, compelling him to take refuge
with his son-in-law, TIGRÁNES, King of Armenia.

Lucullus endeavored to work reforms in the administration of provincial
governments in the East. The revenues of the provinces were farmed out,
and the measures of Lucullus were intended to protect the tax-payers
against the tax-gatherers (_publicani_). His reforms met with bitter
opposition at Rome, especially from the Equites, whose chief source of
income was often this same tax-farming. Intrigues against him by persons
sent from Rome began to create dissatisfaction among his troops. He had
been a severe disciplinarian, and so it was all the easier to turn the
soldiers against him.

In 68 he won a victory over Tigránes and Mithradátes, at the river
Arsanias; but his legions refused to follow him farther, and he was
obliged to lead them into winter quarters in Mesopotamia. The next year
his soldiers again mutinied, and he was replaced by Pompey.

Returning to Rome, Lucullus spent the rest of his days in retirement,
dying about 57. He was very rich, and was famed for the luxurious
dinners which he gave.


POMPEY AND CRASSUS.

The Sullan system stood for nine years, and was then overthrown, as
it had been established, by a soldier. It was the fortune of Pompey, a
favorite officer of Sulla, to cause the first violation of the laws laid
down by his general.

GNEIUS POMPEIUS MAGNUS (106-48) led a soldier's life from his boyhood to
his death. When a youth of seventeen he fought by his father's side in
the civil struggles between Marius and Sulla. He was a partisan of the
latter, and connected himself with the cause of the aristocracy. He
defeated the followers of Marius in Sicily and Africa, and in 81 was
allowed to enjoy a triumph, though still an Eques and not legally
qualified. Sulla then greeted him with the surname of Magnus, which he
ever afterwards bore. He was then sent to Spain, with what success we
have seen in the previous chapter. In 70 Pompey and MARCUS LICINIUS
CRASSUS were elected Consuls amid great enthusiasm.

Crassus (108-53), the conqueror of Spartacus, had amassed immense wealth
by speculation, mining, dealing in slaves, and other methods. Avarice is
said to have been his ruling passion, though he gave large sums to the
people for political effect.

Neither Pompey nor Crassus, according to the laws passed by Sulla, was
eligible to the consulship. The former had never been Quaestor, and was
only thirty-five years old; the latter was still Praetor, and ought to
have waited two years.

The work of Sulla was now quickly undone. The Tribunes regained
their prerogative, the veto. The control of the criminal courts was
transferred again from the Senate to the Equites, and the former body
was cleared of its most worthless members, who had been appointed by
Sulla.

For three years (70-67) after the expiration of his consulship, Pompey
remained quietly at Rome. He was then put in charge of an expedition
against the Greek pirates. From the earliest times these marauders had
been in the habit of depredating on the shores of the Mediterranean.
During the civil wars of Rome they had become much bolder, so that
the city was compelled to take an active part against them. They had
paralyzed the trade of the Mediterranean, and even the coasts of Italy
were not safe from their raids.

GABINIUS, a Tribune, proposed that Pompey should hold his command
for three years; that he should have supreme authority over all Roman
magistrates in the provinces throughout the Mediterranean, and over the
coasts for fifty miles inland. He was to have fifteen lieutenants, all
ex-praetors, two hundred ships, and all the troops he needed.

In three months the pirates were swept from the sea.

The next year (66) Pompey's powers were still further enlarged by the
MANILIAN LAW, proposed by the Tribune Manilius. By this law the entire
control of the Roman policy in the East was given to Pompey. His
appointment was violently opposed by the Senate, especially by CATULUS,
the "father of the Senate," and by the orator HORTENSIUS; but CICERO
with his first political speech (_Pro Lege Manilia_) came to Pompey's
assistance, and to him was given the command by which he became
virtually dictator in the East. His operations there were thoroughly
successful, and, though he doubtless owed much to the previous victories
of Lucullus, he showed himself an able soldier. Mithradátes was obliged
to flee across the Black Sea to Panticapaeum (Kertch).

In the year 64 Pompey went to Syria, took possession of the country in
the name of Rome, and made it a province.

Next he was invited to act as judge between Hyrcánus and Aristobúlus,
two aspirants to the Jewish throne. His decision was contrary to
the wishes of the people, and to enforce it he led his army against
Jerusalem, which he captured after a siege of three months. He installed
Hyrcánus on the throne on condition of an annual tribute.

Meanwhile Mithradátes had returned to Pontus for the prosecution of his
old design; but so great was the terror inspired by the Roman arms, that
even his own son refused to join him. Desperate at the turn affairs had
taken, the aged monarch put an end to his own life in 63, after a reign
of fifty-seven years. With him ceased for many years all formidable
opposition to Rome in Asia.

Besides Syria, Pontus, to which Bithynia was joined, and Crete were now
made provinces. Cilicia was reorganized, and enlarged by the addition
of Pamphylia and Isauria. The three countries in Asia Minor not
yet provinces, but dependencies, were Galatia, ruled by Deiotarus;
Cappadocia, by Ariobarzánes; and Paphlagonia, by Attalus.

After an absence of nearly seven years, Pompey returned to Rome, January
1, 61, and enjoyed a well earned triumph. He was forty-five years old,
had accomplished a really great work, had founded several cities which
afterwards became centres of Greek life and civilization, and was hailed
as the conqueror of Spain, Africa, and Asia.

The rest of Pompey's life is closely connected with that of Caesar. His
wife, Julia, was Caesar's daughter, and thus far the relations between
the two men had been friendly.

Pompey's absence in the East was marked at Rome by the rise to political
importance of CAESAR and CICERO, and by the conspiracy of CATILINE.



CHAPTER XXVII. CAESAR.--CICERO.--VERRES.


The Caesars were a family belonging to the Julian _gens_, which claimed
descent from IÚLUS, the son of AENÉAS. Eight generations of Caesars
had held prominent places in the commonwealth. They had been Consuls,
Praetors, Censors, Aediles, and were aristocrats of the moderate wing.
The direct ancestry of GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR can be traced no further
back than his grandfather. This gentleman, of the same name as the great
Caesar, married Marcia, who claimed descent from Ancus Marcius, the
fourth King of Rome. They had three children, Gaius Julius, the father
of the Dictator, Sextus Julius, and Julia, who became the wife of
Marius. Gaius Julius held no higher office than Praetor. He was married
to Aurelia, a stately woman of simple and severe tastes. Their son Gaius
was born on July 12th, 100.

During Cinna's consulship (86), Caesar is first mentioned as a youth,
tall, slight, handsome, with dark, piercing eyes, sallow complexion,
and features refined and intellectual. The bloody scenes attending the
proscription of his uncle Marius, to whose party his father belonged,
must have made a deep impression upon him. One of his most intimate
companions was CICERO, who was six years his senior.

Marius had seen in his nephew the materials which make great men, and
determined to help him to promotion. He made him, when scarcely fifteen,
a priest of Jupiter (_flamen dialis_), which sacred office carried with
it a handsome income.

Shortly after the death of his father, in 84, Caesar married Cornelia,
the daughter of Cinna. By this marriage he was connected more closely
with the popular party, whose champion he remained.

When Sulla returned to Rome from his Eastern campaign, Caesar was but
eighteen. In the wholesale murders that followed, his party was ruined,
his nearest friends dispersed or killed. He himself was yet free from
proscription, for Sulla wished to win such a promising young man to his
own side. He made proposals that Caesar divorce his wife and marry
one whom he might select. Caesar refused. Force was then tried. His
priesthood was taken from him, and his wife's dowry. His estate was
confiscated, and, when this had no effect, he was himself declared an
outlaw, and a price was set on his head. Influential friends, however,
interceded in his behalf, and the Dictator was finally persuaded to
pardon him; but with reluctance, and with the remark that in Caesar was
the making of many a Marius. The youth then left Italy, and joined the
army in Asia.

Here Caesar served his apprenticeship as a soldier. He joined the forces
of the Praetor Thermus, who had been sent against the pirates that were
making their head-quarters in Lesbos. The Praetor, finding his troops
insufficient to accomplish his work, sent Caesar to Nicomédes, a Roman
ally and the King of Bithynia, to obtain additional forces. He was
successful in his mission, and, upon his return to Lesbos, distinguished
himself for his bravery in the attack upon Mityléne, and was awarded the
oak wreath, a coveted honor, for saving the life of a fellow-soldier.

Caesar is next seen in Cilicia, serving under Servilius, in a campaign
against the pirates who were marauding along the coast of that country.
While here he was informed of Sulla's death, and at once left the army
and returned home (77). The next year he began his struggle with the
nobility by prosecuting for extortion Dolabella, a former Governor of
Macedonia. Dolabella was a favorite of the Senate, and his cause was
theirs. The best talent was engaged to defend him, and Caesar lost the
case.

Feeling his deficiency as an orator, Caesar went to Rhodes and studied
rhetoric under the famous Apollonius. He had recovered his property
and priesthood, and could well afford the time. While on his way he was
captured by pirates, and not released until a ransom of some $50,000 was
raised and paid. Upon arriving at Milétus he at once got together some
vessels, returned to the island where he had been in captivity,
seized the crew of pirates, took them to Pergamus, and had them tried,
convicted, and crucified. He then resumed his journey to Rhodes, where
he remained two years in the pursuit of his studies. Then the report of
the uprisal of Mithradátes reached him, and he at once crossed over to
the mainland, collected a body of volunteers, and saved Caria to Rome.

Having finished his studies, Caesar returned to Rome and lived quietly
for a time with his wife and mother, watching the course of events.

While Caesar was thus preparing himself for the great struggle in which
he was destined to take the leading part, Cicero, the companion of his
youth, was beginning to attract attention at Rome.

MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO (106-43) was a townsman of Marius. He belonged
to the Equites, and received a good education under the best Greek
teachers. As he ripened into manhood, he chose in politics the party
opposed to Caesar, and for a profession he selected the bar, hoping to
gain fame as a speaker before the Senate, and finally to become one
of its members. He took part in the Social War (89), but during the
troubled times that followed he remained quietly engaged in literary
pursuits. His first public oration (80), the defence of Roscius, who
was falsely accused of murdering his father, was a great success, and
guaranteed for him a brilliant future. Cicero improved the next few
years by study and travel in Asia and Greece. Shortly after his return,
in 75, he was elected Quaestor, and thus became a member of the Senate.
His year of office he spent in Sicily, in the performance of his duties.
There he obtained an insight into the corrupt extortions of the Roman
governors. Five years later, he conducted his famous case against
Verres.

VERRES had been a follower of Sulla, and during the proscriptions had
amassed some property. Afterwards he held official positions in Greece
and Asia, where he became notorious for his greediness and cruelty. With
the money thus acquired, he had bought his election to the praetorship,
became Senator, and was sent by his colleagues to govern Sicily.
His government there may have been no worse than that of many other
proconsuls in the different provinces, but we have a fuller account of
it owing to the prosecution of Cicero, whose speeches against Verres are
preserved.

Verres was Governor of Sicily for three years. In his official position,
he was judge of all civil and criminal cases. Every suit brought
before him he gave to the party that could pay him best. Property was
confiscated on false charges, and works of art of great value were
stolen. By such a course Verres collected, it is said, property to
the value of $4,000,000. Two thirds of this he expected to spend in
silencing accusations. The rest he hoped to enjoy in peace, but Cicero's
eloquence forced him to abandon his defence and retire into exile.

It was about this time that Caesar finished his rhetorical studies
abroad, and returned home. He was elected Military Tribune as a reward
for what he had accomplished in Caria. Two years later, in 68, he was
elected Quaestor, thereby acquiring a seat in the Senate. At this time
his aunt Julia died, and, as one of her nearest relatives, he delivered
the funeral oration.

Caesar was now beginning to know Pompey, and saw that their interests
were common. The latter, although but six years older, was already a
great man and a distinguished soldier. Cornelia, Caesar's wife, died,
and he married for a second wife Pompeia, the cousin of Pompey. When
sent as Quaestor to Farther Spain, in 67, he completed the work begun by
Pompey and settled the finances of the troubled country, a task which
he found the easier as he was known to belong to the popular party, of
which Marius and Sertorius had been leaders.



CHAPTER XXVIII. TROUBLES AT ROME.--CONSPIRACY OF CATILINE.


While Pompey was absent in the East, matters at Rome were daily becoming
worse, and shaping themselves for the speedy overthrow of the Republic.
There were many who had suffered under Sulla, and who were anxious to
regain what they had lost, and there were many who, enriched by the
Dictator, had squandered their ill-gotten wealth, and now only waited
a leader to renew the assault upon the state. The Senate was jealous of
the power of the people, and the people distrusted the Senate.

Among the patricians who were aspiring to the consulship was LUCIUS
SERGIUS CATILÍNA, a villain steeped in every crime, but adroit, bold,
and withal captivating. In 68 he had been Praetor, the next year
Governor in Africa, where by his extortions he had obtained enough
money, as he hoped, to purchase his election to the consulship. On
his return home he was impeached for his misgovernment, but acquitted
through Cicero's defence and the careful selection of a jury.

He then came forward as candidate for the consulship of the next year
(63). There were two other candidates, Antonius, the uncle of Mark
Antony, and Cicero himself. Antony was sure of an election, so the
struggle was really between Catiline and Cicero. The latter was elected,
owing to the popularity he had acquired by his prosecution of Verres and
his defence of the Manilian Law. Thus Cicero reached the goal for which
he had been so long striving.

Caesar was rising at the same time. The year previous (65) he had
been Curule Aedile, had built a row of costly columns in front of the
Capitol, and erected a temple to the Dioscúri (Castor and Pollux). But
what made him especially pleasing to the populace was his lavish display
at the public games and exhibitions.

Caesar was now looked upon as a prominent democratic leader. In 63
the office of Pontifex Maximus, the head of the state religion, became
vacant by the death of its occupant, Metellus Pius. Caesar became a
candidate for the office, and was elected, receiving more votes than
both the rival candidates combined. He also received further evidence of
the popular favor by being chosen Praetor for the next year (62).

Cicero's consulship would have closed without adding anything to his
fame had it not been for Catiline. The latter's failure to be elected
caused him to enter into a plot to seize and burn the city. He had many
followers, men of noble families, among whom were the former Consul
Lentulus, who had been recently expelled from the Senate by the Censors,
and Cethégus, a bankrupt spendthrift, who was anxious to regain a
fortune by a change in government. There were veterans of Sulla,
starving peasants who had been dispossessed of their farms, and outlaws
of every description. The conspirators were divided into two parties;
those outside of the city, headed by Marcus Manlius, whose head-quarters
were at Faesulae (Fiesole), where was gathered an army of trained
soldiers; and those inside of the city, headed by Catiline. Here secret
meetings were held, the purpose of which was to excite an uprising, kill
the magistrates, seize the government, and then unite with the army in
Etruria. Cicero was informed of these meetings by spies, and just
before the plans for the uprising were matured, he disclosed them to the
Senate.

Catiline fled from Rome; but his accomplices, of whom Lentulus and
Cethégus were the most prominent, were arrested in the city. A serious
difficulty now arose as to the disposition of the prisoners. Lentulus
was at that time Praetor, and the persons of public officers were
sacred. The Sempronian Law of Gracchus forbade the executing of any
Roman citizen without giving him a right of appeal to the Assembly. Too
many were implicated in the conspiracy for this to be safe.

In the debate in the Senate, the principal speakers were Caesar, Cato,
and Cicero.

Cato and Cicero advocated immediate death; Caesar, imprisonment for
life. The motives of the men are so characteristic that they form a
complete key to their several public careers. Cicero, vain and selfish,
weak in council, and distrustful of the temper of the people and of
his own ability to rule their factions, feared that they would become
dangerous enemies to himself; Cato, desiring the reformation of the
state, would make an example and warning for the future. The one,
forgetful of the state, was overcome by personal fears; the other,
unmindful of self, would have purity at any cost.

Caesar, on the other hand, wished everything done in strict accordance
with the laws; as a bold and wise statesman, he urged that nothing was
more impolitic than lawless violence on the part of the rulers. Cicero
was the timid magistrate; Cato, the injudicious reformer; but Caesar,
with his keener knowledge and stronger hand, was the safer guide.

A sentence of death was voted; and Cicero, with unseemly haste, caused
the conspirators to be strangled that same night (December 5, 63). The
suppression of the conspiracy in the city was followed by the defeat
of the army in Etruria. Thither Catiline had fled, and there he fell
fighting with desperate courage at the head of his motley force of
soldiers near Pistoria.

The name of "Father of his Country" was given to Cicero for the
vigilance shown in this affair.

The execution of Lentulus and Cethégus resulted as Caesar had expected.
It was a lawless act on the part of the Consul and the Senate, and it
was felt that by it the constitution was still more endangered. The
people demanded that Pompey return. In him they thought to have a
deliverer from internal strifes.

Cicero was wrapped up in his own conceit, imagining himself a second
Romulus. On the last day of the year (63), as was the custom of the
retiring Consuls, he arose in the Forum to deliver a speech, reviewing
the acts of his year of consulship. Metellus Nepos, a Tribune, forbade
his speaking, on the ground that one who had put to death Roman citizens
without a hearing did not deserve to be heard. Amid the uproar Cicero
could only shout that he had saved his country. Metellus threatened to
impeach him, and excitement in the city was at fever heat. The Tribune
moved before the Assembly that Pompey be recalled. The Senate feared his
coming. Caesar, who was now Praetor (judge), favored it, and earnestly
seconded the proposal of Metellus. Cato, who was also Tribune, ordered
Metellus to stop speaking, and snatched his manuscript from his
hand. The aristocrats drew their swords, and broke up the meeting.
Constitutional law was trampled under foot on all sides. The Senate was
riding rough-shod over all opponents. Metellus and Caesar were declared
deposed from their offices. The people, however, believed in Caesar. He
was followed to his home by crowds, who begged him to be their leader,
and make an example of the law-breakers in the Senate. But Caesar
refused. He would have nothing to do with lawlessness; he let his
opponents play that _rôle_, and awaited the results. The Senate soon saw
its mistake, and requested him to resume his official duties.

The next year (61) Caesar was sent to Farther Spain as Propraetor. He
had already left a favorable impression there as Quaestor. Portions of
the country were still unsubdued. Many of the mountain passes were held
by robbers, whose depredations caused much trouble. He completed the
subjugation of the peninsula, put down the brigands, reorganized the
government, and sent large sums of money to the treasury at Rome. His
administration was thorough and complete, and a just reward for it
would, he hoped, be the consulship.

Meanwhile Pompey had returned from the East. He landed at Brundisium in
December, 62, and proceeded with a large band of captured princes
and immense treasures to Rome, which he entered in triumph amidst the
greatest enthusiasm. By a special vote of the Senate he was permitted to
wear his triumphal robe in that body whenever he pleased.

Caesar returned from Spain in 60, with wealth and military fame. Though
feared and detested by the Senate, he was the favorite of the people,
and could depend upon their support. Pompey had the army behind him.
He received Caesar with pleasure, for he had been a friend in all his
career.

Caesar felt that, with the people and the army through Pompey on his
side, he only needed the capitalists to make his success sure. CRASSUS
was counted as the richest man at Rome. He was won over. These three
then formed what is known as the FIRST TRIUMVIRATE,--"a union of
shrewdness, renown, and riches," by which Caesar expected to rise to
great power, Pompey to retain his power, and Crassus to gain greater
wealth.



CHAPTER XXIX. THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE.


Pompey was ostensibly at the head of the first Triumvirate, and in
return supported Caesar in his candidacy for the consulship. Crassus was
to contribute his wealth to influence the election. Caesar was elected
without opposition (59); his colleague, the Senate's tool, was Marcus
Bibulus.

Caesar had now reached the highest round in the ladder of political
offices. He had shown himself in all his course to be careful in
keeping within the bounds of the constitution, never exerting himself in
political quarrels except to defend the law against lawlessness. Now
he was in a position to push his ideas of reform, and to show the
aristocracy of what stuff he was made.

It would have been well for Cicero, and better for the state, had the
orator been willing to join hands with Caesar and Pompey; but he was too
vain of his own glory to join hands with those who were his superiors,
and he clung to the Senate, feeling that his talents would shine there
more, and be more likely to redound to his own personal fame.

Caesar's consulship increased his popularity among all except the
aristocrats. His AGRARIAN LAW, carefully framed and worded, was bitterly
opposed by the Senate, especially by his colleague, Bibulus, and by
Cato. The law provided that large tracts of the _ager publicus_, then
held on easy terms by the rich patricians, be distributed among the
veterans of Pompey. Caesar proposed to pay the holders a reasonable sum
for their loss, though legally they had no claim whatever on the land.
Although Bibulus interfered, Cato raved, and the Tribunes vetoed, still
the Assembly passed the law, and voted in addition that the Senate be
obliged to take an oath to observe it.

The LEGES JULIAE were a code of laws which Caesar drew up during his
year of office. They mark an era in Roman law, for they cover many
crimes the commission of which had been for a long time undermining the
state.

The most important of these was the LEX DE REPETUNDIS, aimed at the
abuses of governors of provinces. It required all governors to make a
double return of their accounts, one to be left in the province open for
inspection, the other to be kept at Rome.

When Caesar's term of office was nearly ended, he obtained from the
reluctant Senate his appointment as Proconsul of Gaul for five years.
He must leave the city, however, in safe hands, otherwise all his work
would be undone. He managed the consular elections for the next year
(58) so adroitly, that Piso and Gabinius, on whose friendship he could
rely, were elected.

There were in Rome, however, two men whom it would be dangerous for
Caesar to leave behind. Cato, the ultra aristocrat, hated him bitterly.
Cicero, whose ambition was to lead the Senate, a body only too willing
to crush Caesar, might do him great harm. It was Caesar's good fortune,
or, as some believe, the result of his own scheming, that both these men
were put temporarily out of the way.

CLODIUS PULCHER was a young aristocrat, notorious for his wildness. At
one time, by assuming the dress of a woman, he had gained admittance to
the festival of _Bona Dea_, which was celebrated only by women. He was
discovered and brought to trial before the Senate, but acquitted by
means of open bribery. Cicero had been instrumental in bringing him
to trial, and Clodius never forgot it. He got adopted into a plebeian
family in order to be a candidate for the tribuneship, and was
successful. He then proposed to the Assembly that any person who had put
to death a Roman citizen without allowing him to appeal to the people be
considered a violator of the constitution. The proposal was carried.
All knew that Cicero was meant, and he fled at once to Macedonia. His
property was confiscated, his houses were destroyed, and his palace in
the city was dedicated to the Goddess of Liberty.

The kingdom of Cyprus, which had long been attached to that of Egypt,
had been bequeathed to Rome at the death of Ptolemy Alexander in 80. The
Senate had delayed to accept the bequest, and meanwhile the island was
ruled by Ptolemy of Cyprus, one of the heirs of the dead king.

Clodius, on the plea that this king harbored pirates, persuaded the
Assembly to annex the island, and to send Cato to take charge of it.
He accepted the mission, and was absent two years. His duties were
satisfactorily performed, and he returned with about $7,000,000 to
increase the Roman treasury. Thus, Cicero and Cato being out of the
city, the Senate was without a leader who could work injury in Caesar's
absence.



CHAPTER XXX. CAESAR'S CAMPAIGNS IN GAUL. Caesar was now in the prime of
manhood, in the full vigor of mind and body. His previous experience in
camp life had been comparatively small. His early service in Asia, and
his more recent campaigns in Spain, however, had shown his aptitude for
military life.

The Romans had already obtained a foothold in Gaul. Since 118, the
southern part of the country along the seaboard had been a Roman
province, called GALLIA NARBONENSIS, from the colony of Narbo which the
Romans had founded. The rest of Gaul included all modern France, and a
part of Switzerland, Holland, and Belgium. The inhabitants were all
of the Celtic race, except a few Germans who had crossed the Rhine and
settled in the North, and the AQUITÁNI, who lived in the Southwest and
who are represented by the Basques of to-day.

The Gauls were more or less civilized since they had come into contact
with the Romans, but they still had the tribal form of government, like
the early Romans. There were more than fifty of these tribes, which were
mostly hostile to one another, as well as divided into factions among
themselves. This condition favored a conquest, for the factions were
frequently Roman and non-Roman. Two of the chief tribes were the AEDUI
and SEQUANI. The former had been taken under the protection of Rome; the
latter, impatient of control and Roman influence, had invited a tribe
of Germans under Ariovistus to come into Gaul and settle, and be their
allies. These Germans had attacked and conquered the Aeduans, taken from
them hostages, and with the Sequanians were in the ascendency.

In Switzerland lived the HELVETII. They had so increased in numbers
that their country was too small for them. They therefore proposed to
emigrate farther into Gaul, and the Sequanians, whose lands bordered
on those of the Helvetians, gave them permission to march through their
country.

Such was the state of affairs when Caesar arrived in Gaul. Feeling that
the passage of such a large body of emigrants (368,000) through Gaul
would be dangerous to the province (Gallia Narbonensis), he determined
to interfere. The Helvetians were met at BIBRACTE, near Autun, and after
a terrible battle, which raged from noon until night, were defeated
with great slaughter (58). The survivors, about one third, were treated
kindly, and most of them sent back to Switzerland.

Caesar now turned his attention to the Germans who had settled west of
the Rhine. After several fruitless attempts at negotiation, during
which the bad faith of Ariovistus became conspicuous, the forces came
together. Though the Germans were brave, they were no match for the
drilled legionaries, who fought with the regularity of a machine. Few of
the barbarians escaped, but among these was Ariovistus.

The campaigns of this year being ended, the legions were sent into
winter quarters among the Sequanians under Labiénus, the lieutenant of
Caesar. He himself went into Cisalpine Gaul to attend to his duties as
administrator, and to have communication with his friends at Rome.


THE WAR WITH THE BELGAE.

While Caesar was in Hither Gaul, he learned from Labiénus that the
BELGAE were forming a league to resist the Romans. This people occupied
the northeastern part of Gaul, and embraced several tribes, of which
the principal were the REMI, BELLOVACI, SUESSIÓNES, and NERVII. The last
were the fiercest and least civilized.

Caesar raised two new legions, making eight in all, and marched against
the Belgae as soon as the spring opened. His sudden approach alarmed
the Remi, who lived nearest to Central Gaul, and they immediately put
themselves under his protection. From them he learned that the Belgae
could muster about 300,000 men.

By skilful tactics and a successful attack he put to flight and nearly
annihilated the Suessiónes. The Bellovaci now put themselves under his
protection, but the Nervii remained in arms. One day, while the six
legions were forming camp on the bank of the river Sabis, the Nervii and
their allies suddenly rushed upon them from an ambuscade in the woods on
the opposite bank. The troops were entirely unprepared, and so quick was
the enemy's charge that the Romans had not time to put on their helmets,
to remove the covering from their shields, or to find their proper
places in the ranks. Great confusion followed, and they became almost
panic-stricken. Caesar rushed into their midst, snatched a shield from
a soldier, and by his presence and coolness revived their courage. The
Nervii were checked, and victory was assured. But the enemy fought on
with a bravery that excited the admiration of Caesar. Of sixty thousand
men scarcely five hundred survived. The women and children were cared
for kindly by Caesar, and settled in their own territory.

The Aduatuci, who had assisted the Nervii in their struggle, were
conquered by Caesar and sold into slavery.

Thus ended the Belgian campaign (57). The legions were put into winter
quarters near where the war had been waged, and Caesar went to Italy. In
his honor was decreed a thanksgiving lasting fifteen days.


THE VENETI.--INVASION OF GERMANY.

All the tribes in the northwestern part of Gaul (Brittany) except
the VENETI had given hostages to Crassus, son of the Triumvir, and
lieutenant of Caesar. This tribe refused to give hostages, and, inducing
others to join them, seized some Roman officers sent among them by
Crassus. The campaign of the third year (56) was directed against these
people. They were mostly sailors and fishermen, with villages built
on the end of promontories and easily defended by land. In a naval
engagement, which lasted nearly all day, their whole fleet was
destroyed. The leaders of the Veneti were put to death for their
treachery in seizing Roman officers, and the rest were sold into
slavery.

The legions spent the winter of 56-55 in the northern part of Gaul,
among the Aulerci and neighboring tribes.

During this winter another wave of Germans passed over the Rhine into
Gaul. They had been driven from their homes by a powerful tribe called
the SUEVI. In the spring of 55 Caesar collected his troops and advanced
to within twelve miles of the German camp, and gave the invaders
twenty-four hours to leave the country. Before the expiration of the
time, they attacked Caesar's outposts, killing several Knights, and two
men of aristocratic families. In the general engagement that followed,
the Germans were totally routed and most of them were slain.

Caesar next determined to cross the Rhine into Germany, thinking thus to
inspire the Germans with greater fear of the Romans. He built his famous
bridge, crossed it, remained eighteen days in Germany, and, thinking his
object accomplished, returned to Gaul, destroying the bridge behind him.


INVASION OF BRITAIN.

It was now August and Caesar occupied the rest of the season by crossing
the Channel to Britain (England). Landing near Deal, with but little
resistance on the part of the natives, he explored the country for a
short time, and returned in September, as the equinox was near and the
weather unsettled. The legions were sent into winter quarters among the
Belgae, and Caesar set out for Cisalpine Gaul.

During this winter (55-54), orders were given to build a large fleet,
as Caesar intended to return to Britain the next year. After all
preparations were completed, he set sail, July 20, 54, and the next
day landed on the island. He defeated the Britons under their leader
CASSIVELAUNUS, and compelled them to pay tribute and give hostages. Many
thousand prisoners were taken, and sold in Italy as slaves.


FINAL STRUGGLES OF THE GAULS.

In the winter of 54-53 the legions were distributed among several
tribes. That stationed in the territory of the Eburónes was commanded
by the lieutenants, Gabínus and Cotta. News reached the encampment that
there was an uprisal of the Eburónes. It was decided to break up camp,
and go, if possible, to the winter quarters of their nearest companions.
On the march they were surprised and nearly all killed. Only a few
stragglers carried the news to Labiénus, who was wintering with a legion
among the Remi.

This success moved the Nervii to attack Quintus Cicero, the lieutenant
who was wintering with his legion among them. Word was sent to Caesar,
who had fortunately not yet left Gaul. He hastened to Cicero's relief,
raised the siege, and all but annihilated the revolting Nervii.

In 53 Caesar punished the Eburónes for their action in the previous
winter. The tribe was completely destroyed, but their leader, Ambiorix,
escaped and was never captured. During this summer Caesar again crossed
the Rhine. At the close of the summer he returned to Cisalpine Gaul,
supposing that the Gauls were totally subdued. He was mistaken. The
patriotism of the people was not yet extinguished. The chiefs of all
the tribes secretly established communication with each other. A day was
settled upon for a general uprising. The Roman inhabitants of Genabum,
on the Liger, were massacred. The leading spirit in this last struggle
of the Gauls was VERCINGETORIX, chief of the Averni.

Caesar hastened across the Alps, surmounted the difficulties of crossing
the Cevennes when the snow was very deep, collected his legions, marched
upon Genabum, and plundered and burnt the town.

Vercingetorix saw that he was no match for the legions in open battle.
He proposed, therefore, to cut off Caesar's supplies by burning all the
towns of the Bituriges, and laying the country waste. Avaricum alone
was spared. Within its walls were placed the best of their goods and
a strong garrison. Thither Caesar marched, and, after a well defended
siege, captured the town and killed every person in it, excepting eight
hundred, who escaped to the camp of Vercingetorix. Large quantities
of corn were taken, with which Caesar supplied his soldiers. He then
marched against Gergovia, the capital of the Averni. As the town was
on a high plateau, and too strong to be stormed, he laid siege to it. A
part of the army, contrary to instructions, one day attempted to assault
the place. The battle which followed was disastrous to the Romans, and
the only defeat Caesar received in Gaul. Forty-six officers and seven
hundred men fell. The siege was raised. It was a serious position for
Caesar. All Gaul was in flames. Retreating at once, he formed a junction
with Labiénus at Agendicum, and with all his troops started for Gallia
Narbonensis to protect it from invasion.

On his route was ALESIA. Here Vercingetorix was intrenched with
eighty thousand troops. It was, like Gergovia, situated on a hill
and considered impregnable. Caesar laid siege to this place (52).
Vercingetorix appealed to all Gaul for aid. Hardly had the fortress been
invested when Caesar's army was surrounded by an immense force of Gauls
that had come to the rescue. Caesar needed now all his skill and genius.
But they did not fail him. The relieving army, though five times as
large as his, was driven back and sent flying home.

Seeing that all was over, Vercingetorix called a council of his chiefs
and advised surrender. A message was sent to Caesar. He demanded
unconditional surrender, and was obeyed. The people were sold into
slavery, and the money obtained distributed among the soldiers.
Vercingetorix was kept to be exhibited in the triumph at Rome, and
afterwards died in a dungeon.

With the fall of Alesia, the subjugation of Gaul was practically
completed.

The next year (51) Caesar honored several chiefs with privileges; some
of the nobles were granted the franchise, and some admitted to the
Senate. The work of Romanizing Gaul was fairly begun. Two provinces were
formed, Gallia and Belgica, and later (17 A. D.) the former of these was
subdivided into Lugdunensis and Aquitania. Roman money was introduced,
and Latin became the official language.



CHAPTER XXXI. CLODIUS AND MILO.--DEATH OF CRASSUS.


During the nine years (59-50) passed by Caesar in Gaul, great confusion
prevailed at Rome. The Republic needed a strong, firm hand, which would
stop the shedding of blood and insure security of person and property.
Pompey had attempted to bring about this result, but had failed. There
were two prominent factions, one led by CLODIUS, the other by MILO.

"Clodius is the most extraordinary figure in this extraordinary period.
He had no character. He had no distinguished talent save for speech; he
had no policy; he was ready to adopt any cause or person which for the
moment was convenient to him; and yet for five years this man was the
leader of the Roman mob. He could defy justice, insult the Consuls, beat
the Tribunes, parade the streets with a gang of armed slaves, killing
persons disagreeable to him; and in the Senate itself he had high
friends and connections, who threw a shield over him when his audacity
had gone beyond endurance." Milo was as disreputable as Clodius. His
chief fame had been gained in the schools of the gladiators. Gangs
of armed slaves accompanied him everywhere, and there were constant
collisions between his retainers and those of Clodius.

In 57 Consuls were elected who favored Cicero, and his recall was
demanded. Clodius and his followers opposed the recall. The nobles, led
by their tool Milo, pressed it. Day after day the opposing parties met
in bloody affrays. For seven months the brawl continued, till Milo's
party finally got the ascendancy; the Assembly was convened, and the
recall voted.

For seventeen months Cicero had been in Greece, lamenting his hard lot.
He landed at Brundisium on August 5, 57, and proceeded to Rome. Outside
the city all men of note, except his avowed enemies, were waiting to
receive him. The Senate voted to restore his property, and to rebuild
his palace on the Palatine Hill and his other villas at the public
expense. But Clodius, with his bands of ruffians, interrupted the
workmen engaged in the repair of his Palatine house, broke down the
walls, and, attacking Cicero himself, nearly murdered him.

At last Clodius even attempted to burn the house of Milo. The long
struggle between these two ruffians culminated when Milo was a candidate
for the consulship, and Clodius for the praetorship. The two meeting by
accident in the Via Appia at Bovillae, Clodius was murdered, 20 January,
52. This act of violence strengthened Pompey, who was nominated sole
Consul. Milo was impeached. His guilt was evident, and he went into
exile at Massilia. Cicero prepared an elaborate speech in his defence,
but did not dare to deliver it.

During the interval between the two campaigns of 57 and 56, Caesar
renewed his alliance with his two colleagues in interviews that were
held at Ravenna and Luca. He retained the command of Gaul; Pompey, that
of Spain; Crassus, that of Syria.

CRASSUS now undertook the war against the Parthians. He was accompanied
by his son, who had done good service under Caesar in Gaul. They arrived
at Zeugma, a city of Syria, on the Euphrátes; and the Romans, seven
legions strong, with four thousand cavalry, drew themselves up along the
river. The Quaestor, CASSIUS, a man of ability, proposed to Crassus a
plan of the campaign, which consisted in following the river as far as
Seleucia, in order not to be separated from his fleet and provisions,
and to avoid being surrounded by the cavalry of the enemy. But Crassus
allowed himself to be deceived by an Arab chief, who lured him to the
sandy plains of Mesopotamia at Carrhae.

The forces of the Parthians, divided into many bodies, suddenly rushed
upon the Roman ranks, and drove them back. The young Crassus attempted
a charge at the head of fifteen hundred horsemen. The Parthians yielded,
but only to draw him into an ambush, where he perished, after great
deeds of valor. His head, carried on the end of a pike, was borne before
the eyes of his unhappy father, who, crushed by grief and despair, gave
the command into the hands of Cassius. Cassius gave orders for a general
retreat. The Parthians subjected the Roman army to continual losses, and
Crassus himself was killed in a conference (53).

In this disastrous campaign there perished more than twenty thousand
Romans. Ten thousand were taken prisoners and compelled to serve as
slaves in the army of the Parthians.

The death of Crassus broke the Triumvirate; that of Julia, in 54,
had sundered the family ties between Caesar and Pompey, who married
Cornelia, the widow of the young Crassus, and daughter of Metellus
Scipio.



CHAPTER XXXII. CAESAR'S STRUGGLE WITH POMPEY.--BATTLE OF PHARSALIA.


Pompey was elected sole Consul in February, 52. He at once threw off
all pretence of an alliance with Caesar, and devoted himself to the
interests of the Senate and aristocracy.

The brilliant successes of Caesar in Gaul had made a profound impression
upon the minds of the citizens, to whom the name of the northern
barbarians was still fraught with terror. Caesar had won for himself
distinction as a soldier greater than the Scipios, or Sulla, or Pompey.
"He was coming back to lay at his country's feet a province larger than
Spain, not only subdued, but reconciled to subjugation; a nation of
warriors, as much devoted to him as his own legions." The nobility had
watched his successes with bitter envy; but they were forced to vote a
thanksgiving of twenty days, which "the people made sixty."

Caesar now declared through his followers at Rome that he desired a
second consulship. But he wished first to celebrate his triumph, and on
this account would not disband his army; for, according to the custom,
he could not triumph without it. According to another custom, however,
he must disband it before he could offer himself as a candidate for the
consulship. But he asked permission to set aside this custom, and to
become a candidate while he was in the province in command of the army.

The law requiring a candidate to give up his command had been suspended
several times before this; so that Caesar's request was reasonable. His
enemies in the city were numerous and powerful, and he felt that, if he
returned as a private citizen, his personal safety would be in danger;
whereas, if he were a magistrate, his person would be considered sacred.

The Senate, on the other hand, felt that, if he carried his point, the
days of their influence were numbered. Their first step, therefore, was
to weaken Caesar, and to provide their champion, Pompey, with a force in
Italy, They voted that Caesar should return to Pompey a legion which had
been loaned him, and also should send another legion back to Italy. The
vote was taken on the ostensible plea that the troops were needed in
Asia Minor against the Parthians; but when they reached Italy they were
placed under Pompey's command in Campania. The Consuls chosen for the
year 49 were both bitter enemies of Caesar. He had taken up his winter
quarters at Ravenna, the last town in his province bordering on Italy.
From here he sent a messenger with letters to the Senate, stating
that he was ready to resign his command, if Pompey did the same. The
messenger arrived at Rome, January 1, 49, on the day in which the new
Consuls entered upon their duties.

The letters were read in the Senate, and there followed a spirited
discussion, resulting in a decree that Caesar should resign his command.
The Tribunes opposed; but, being threatened by the Consuls, they were
compelled to leave the city, and went directly to Ravenna.

When the action of the Senate was reported to Caesar, he called together
his soldiers, and addressed them thus: "For nine years I and my army
have served our country loyally and with some degree of success. We have
driven the Germans across the Rhine; we have made Gaul a province; and
the Senate, for answer, has broken the constitution in setting aside the
Tribunes who spoke in my defence. It has voted the state in danger, and
has called Italy to arms, when no single act of mine can justify it in
this course." The soldiers became enthusiastic, and were eager to follow
their leader without pay. Contributions were offered him by both men and
officers. LABIENUS, his trusted lieutenant, alone proved false. He stole
away, and joined Pompey. Caesar then sent for two legions from across
the Alps. With these legions he crossed the RUBICON into Italy, and
marched to Ariminum.

Meanwhile the report of his movements reached Rome. The aristocracy had
imagined that his courage would fail him, or that his army would desert.
Thoroughly frightened, Consuls, Praetors, Senators,-leaving wives,
children, and property to their fate,-fled from the city to seek safety
with Pompey in Capua. They did not stop even to take the money from the
treasury, but left it locked.

Caesar paused at Ariminum, and sent envoys to the Senate, stating that
he was still desirous of peace. If Pompey would depart to his province
in Spain, he would himself disband his own troops. He was even willing
to have a personal interview with Pompey. This message was received by
the Senate after its flight from Rome. The substance of its reply was,
that Pompey did not wish a personal interview, but would go to Spain,
and that Caesar must leave Ariminum, return to his province, and give
security that he would dismiss his army.

These terms seemed to Caesar unfair, and he would not accept them.
Accordingly he sent his lieutenant, Mark Antony, across the mountains
to Arretium, on the road to Rome. He himself pushed on to Ancóna, before
Pompey could stop him. The towns that were on his march threw open
their gates, their garrisons joined his army, and their officers fled.
Steadily he advanced, with constantly increasing forces, until when he
reached Corfinium his army had swelled to thirty thousand troops.

This place had been occupied by Domitius with a party of aristocrats
and a few thousand men. Caesar surrounded the town, and when Domitius
endeavored to steal away, his own troops took him and delivered him over
to Caesar. The capture of Corfinium and the desertion of its garrison
filled Pompey and his followers with dismay. They hurried to Brundisium,
where ships were in readiness for them to depart.

Hoping to intercept Pompey, Caesar hastened to this port. On his arrival
outside of the town, the Consuls, with half the army, had already
gone. Pompey, however, was still within the place, with twelve thousand
troops, waiting for transports to carry them away. He refused to see
Caesar; and, though the latter endeavored to blockade the port, he was
unsuccessful, owing to want of ships.

Thus Pompey escaped. With him were the Consuls, more than half the
Senate, and the aristocracy. Caesar would have followed them, but a
fleet must first be obtained, and matters nearer home demanded his
attention.

In sixty days Caesar had made himself master of Italy. On his way
to Rome he met Cicero, and invited him to attend the Senate, but
he preferred to stay away. Caesar entered the city unattended, and
assembled the Senate through the Tribunes, Mark Antony and Cassius
Longínus. The attendance was small, as most of the members were with
Pompey. In his address to the Senate Caesar spoke of his own forbearance
and concessions, of their unjust demands, and their violent suppression
of the authority of the Tribunes. He was still willing to send envoys to
treat with Pompey, but no one was found willing to go. After three days
spent in useless discussion, Caesar decided to act for himself. By
his own edict, he restored the children of the victims of Sulla's
proscription to their rights and property. The money in the treasury
was voted him by the Assembly of the people. He took as much of it as
he needed, and started at once for Gaul to join his troops on his way to
Spain.

He had much to accomplish. Spain was in the hands of Pompey's
lieutenants, Afranius, Petreius, and Varro, who had six legions and
allied troops. From Sicily and Sardinia came most of the grain supplies
of Rome, and it was important to hold these islands. To Sicily he sent
Curio and to Sardinia Valerius. Cato, who was in charge of Sicily,
immediately abandoned it and fled to Africa. Sardinia received Caesar's
troops with open arms.

Upon his arrival in Gaul, Caesar found that the inhabitants of Massilia
had risen against his authority, led by the same Domitius whom he had
sent away unharmed from Corfinium. Caesar blockaded the city, and,
leaving Decimus Brutus in charge of operations, continued his journey to
Spain. He found Afranius and Petreius strongly intrenched at ILERDA in
Catalonia (Northern Spain). Within forty days he brought them to terms,
and Varro, who was in Southern Spain, was eager to surrender. All Spain
was at his feet.

Before leaving Spain, Caesar summoned the leading Spaniards and Romans
to Cordova, for a conference. All promised obedience to his authority.
He then set sail from Gades to Tarragóna, where he joined his legions
and marched back to Massilia, which he found hard pressed and ready to
surrender. The gates were opened. All were pardoned, and Domitius was
allowed to escape a second time.

Caesar left a portion of his forces in Gaul, and with the rest arrived
at Rome in the early winter of 49-48. Thus far he had been successful.
Gaul, Spain, Sardinia, Sicily, and Italy were his. He had not succeeded,
however, in getting together a naval force in the Adriatic, and he had
lost his promising lieutenant, Curio, who had been surprised and
killed in Africa, whither he had gone in pursuit of Cato and Pompey's
followers.

During Caesar's absence, affairs at Rome had resumed their usual course.
He had left the city under charge of his lieutenant, Aemilius Lepidus,
and Italy in command of Mark Antony. Caesar was still at Massilia,
when he learned that the people of Rome had proclaimed him Dictator.
Financial troubles in the city had made this step necessary. Public
credit was shaken. Debts had not been paid since the civil war began.
Caesar allowed himself only eleven days in Rome. In this time estimates
were drawn of all debts as they were one year before, the interest was
remitted and the principal declared still due. This measure relieved the
debtors somewhat.

It was now nearly a year since Caesar crossed the Rubicon. Pompey,
during the nine months that had elapsed since his escape from
Brundisium, had been collecting his forces in Epírus. Here had gathered
many princes from the East, a majority of the Senatorial families
of Rome, Cato and Cicero, the vanquished Afranius, and the renegade
Labiénus. There were nine full legions, with cavalry and auxiliaries,
amounting in all to 100,000 men.

Caesar reached Brundisium at the end of the year 49. His forces were
fewer in number than those of his adversary, amounting to not more than
15,000 infantry and 600 cavalry. But his legionaries were all veterans,
inured to toil and hunger, to heat and cold, and every man was devoted
to his leader.

On the 4th of January he set sail from Brundisium, landing after
an uneventful voyage at Acroceraunia. He advanced at once towards
Dyrrachium where were Pompey's head-quarters, occupied Apollonia, and
intrenched himself on the left bank of the river Apsus. The country was
well disposed and furnished him with ample supplies.

Caesar sent back the vessels on which he crossed to transport his
remaining troops, but they were intercepted on their way across and
many of them destroyed. He was therefore compelled to confine himself to
trifling operations, until his lieutenant, Mark Antony, could fit out
a second fleet and bring over the remainder of his legions. When Antony
finally crossed, he landed one hundred miles up the coast. Pompey's
forces were between him and Caesar, and his position was full of danger;
but Caesar marched rapidly round Dyrrachium, and joined him before
Pompey knew of his movements.

The great general was now ready for action. He built a line of strongly
fortified forts around Pompey's camp, blockading him by land. He turned
the streams of water aside, causing as much inconvenience as possible to
the enemy. So the siege dragged on into June.

Two deserters informed Pompey of a weak spot in Caesar's line. At
this point Pompey made a sudden attack. For once Caesar's troops were
surprised and panic-stricken. Even his own presence did not cause them
to rally. Nearly one thousand of his men fell, thirty-two standards, and
a few hundred soldiers were captured.

This victory was the ruin of Pompey's cause. Its importance was
exaggerated. His followers were sure that the war was practically over;
and so certain were they of ultimate success that they neglected to
follow up the advantage gained, and gave Caesar opportunity to recover
from the blow.

The latter now retired from the sea-board into Thessaly. Pompey
followed, confident of victory. The nobles in his camp amused themselves
with quarrelling about the expected spoils of war. Cato and Cicero
remained behind in Epirus, the former disgusted at the actions of the
degenerate nobility, the latter pleading ill health.

The two armies encamped on a plain in Thessaly near the river Enipeus,
only four miles apart. Between them lay a low hill called PHARSÁLUS,
which gave name to the battle which followed.

"The battle of PHARSALIA (August 9, 48) has acquired a special place
in history, because it was fought by the Roman aristocracy in their
own persons in defence of their own supremacy. Senators and the sons
of Senators, the heirs of the names and fortunes of the ancient Roman
families, the leaders of society in Roman salons, and the chiefs of the
political party of the optimates (aristocracy) were here present on
the field. The other great actions were fought by the ignoble multitude
whose deaths were of less significance. The plains of Pharsalia were
watered by the precious blood of the elect of the earth."

For several days the armies watched each other without decisive action.
One morning towards the end of May (August 9, old style) Caesar noticed
a movement in Pompey's lines that told him the expected attack was
coming.

The position of the Senatorial army was well taken. Its right wing
rested on the Enipeus, its left was spread out on the plain. Pompey
himself commanded the left with the two legions the Senate had taken
from Caesar. Outside him on the plain were his allies covered by the
cavalry. Opposite Pompey was Caesar, with the famous Tenth Legion.
His left and centre were led by his faithful Tribunes, Mark Antony and
Cassius Longínus.

At the given signal Caesar's front ranks advanced on a run, threw
their darts, drew their swords, and closed in. At once Pompey's cavalry
charged, outflanking the enemy's right wing, and driving back the
opposing cavalry, who were inferior in numbers. But as they advanced
flushed with victory, Caesar's fourth line, which he had held in
reserve, and which was made up of the flower of his legions, appeared
in their way. So fierce was their attack that the Pompeians wavered,
turned, and fled. They never rallied. The fourth line threw themselves
upon Pompey's left wing, which was now unprotected. This wing, composed
of Caesar's old veterans, was probably in no mood to fight its former
comrades in arms. At any rate, it turned and fled. Pompey himself
mounted his horse and rode off in despair. Thus the battle ended in a
rout. But two hundred of Caesar's men fell, while fifteen thousand of
the enemy lay dead on the field.

The abandoned camp was a remarkable sight. The luxurious patricians
had built houses of turf with ivy trained over the entrances to protect
their delicate skins from the sun's rays; couches were stretched out
ready for them to take repose after their expected victory, and tables
were spread with dainty food and wines on which to feast. As he saw
these preparations Caesar exclaimed, "These are the men who accused my
suffering, patient army, which needed the common necessaries of life,
of dissoluteness and profligacy." But Caesar could not delay. Leaving a
portion of his forces in camp, by rapid marching he cut off the retreat
of the enemy. Twenty-four thousand surrendered, all of whom were
pardoned. Domitius, whom we saw at Corfinium and Massilia, was killed
trying to escape. Labiénus, Afranius, and Petreius managed to steal away
by night. Thus ended the battle of Pharsalia.



CHAPTER XXXIII. CAESAR'S OPERATIONS IN EGYPT, ASIA, AFRICA, AND SPAIN.


Pompey, in his flight from Pharsalia, hastened by the shortest way
to the sea, and, seeing a vessel weighing anchor, embarked with a few
companions who had accompanied him in his flight. He went to Mityléne,
and from there to Egypt, hoping to obtain an asylum with the young
PTOLEMY; but he was seized upon his arrival, and beheaded, 28 September,
48.

Just before his death Pompey had completed his fifty-eighth year.
"Though he had some great and good qualities, he hardly deserved the
surname of GREAT. He was certainly a good soldier, and is said to
have excelled in all athletic sports, but he fell short of being
a first-class general. He won great successes in Spain, and more
especially in the East; but for these he was, no doubt, partly indebted
to what others had already done. Of the gifts which make a good
statesman, he had really none. He was too weak and irresolute to choose
a side and stand by it. Pitted against such a man as Caesar, he could
not but fail. But to his credit be it said, that in a corrupt time he
never used his opportunities for plunder and extortion."

Meanwhile Caesar, pursuing his victory with indefatigable activity, set
sail for Egypt. Upon his arrival the head of his enemy was brought to
him. He turned from the sight with tears in his eyes. The murderers now
saw what would be their fate. Ptolemy was at variance with his sister,
the famous CLEOPÁTRA, Caesar sided with her. The inhabitants of
Alexandría revolted, and besieged Caesar in the palace; but with a
handful of soldiers he bravely baffled their attacks. Setting fire
to the neighboring buildings, he escaped to his ships. Afterwards he
returned and wreaked vengeance upon the Alexandrians, establishing
CLEOPÁTRA upon the throne (47).

Satisfied with this vengeance, Caesar left Egypt, and went to Pontus,
where PHARNACES, son of Mithradátes, was inciting a revolt against Rome.
Caesar attacked and defeated him at ZELA (47), with a rapidity rendered
proverbial by his words, _Veni, vidi, vici_, I CAME, I SAW, I CONQUERED.

He now passed quickly down the Hellespont, and had landed in Italy
before it was known that he had left Pontus. During his absence from
the capital there had been some minor disturbances; but the mass of the
citizens were firmly attached to him. Few could distrust the genius and
fortune of the irresistible conqueror. In October of 48 he had been made
Dictator a second time, and appointed Tribune for life.

Caesar's return in September, 47, was marked by no proscription. He
insisted that all debts should be paid, and the rights of property
respected. He restored quiet, and after a brief stay of three months
prepared to transport his army to Africa. The army was in Campania,
but discontented and mutinous because of not receiving the expected
privilege of pillage and plunder. They refused to move until certain
promised rewards were received. The Tenth Legion broke out into open
revolt, and marched from Campania to Rome to obtain their rights. Caesar
collected them in the Campus Martins, and asked them to state their
grievances. They demanded their discharge. "I grant it, citizens"
(_Quirites_), said the Imperator. Heretofore he had always addressed
them as "fellow soldiers," and the implied rebuke was so keen, that a
reaction at once began, and they all begged to be received again into
his service. He accepted them, telling them that lands had been allotted
to each soldier out of the _ager publicus_, or out of his own estates.

Africa must now be subdued. Since the defeat and death of Curio, King
JUBA had found no one to dispute his authority. Around him now rallied
all the followers of Pompey, Metellus Scipio, Cato, Labiénus, Afranius,
Petreius, and the slain general's two sons, Sextus and Gnaeus Pompeius.

Utica was made their head-quarters. Here Cato collected thirteen legions
of troops of miscellaneous character. Raids were made upon Sicily,
Sardinia, and the coasts of Italy. Caesar's officers, if captured, were
put to death without mercy.

Cicero alone of the old Pompeian party protested against such cruelties.
He remained in Italy, was denounced by them as a traitor, and charged
with currying favor of the Dictator.

Caesar sailed from Lilybaeum (December 19), effected a landing near
Leptis, and maintained himself in a fortified position until he formed
useful alliances among the Mauretanians. Many Roman residents in the
province came to him, indignant at Metellus Scipio's promise to Juba to
give the province to him in case of success. Many deserters also came
in, enraged that precedence was given to Juba over Scipio in councils of
war. But the enemy's army was kept full of new recruits sent from Utica
by Cato.

For three months Caesar failed to bring on the desired engagement;
Scipio had learned caution from Pompey's experience at Pharsalia.
Finally, at THAPSUS, one hundred miles southeast of Carthage, April 4,
46, the armies met. Caesar's men were so enthusiastic that they rushed
to the charge with one impulse. There was no real battle, but rather a
slaughter. Officers and men fled for their lives. Scipio was intercepted
in his flight and slain. Juba and Petreius fled together, but, finding
their retreat cut off, engaged, it is said, in mortal combat; when
the first, Petreius, fell, the other threw himself on his own sword.
Labiénus and the two sons of Pompey managed to escape to Spain. Afranius
was captured and executed.

Cato, when he heard of the defeat, retired to his chamber in Utica, and
committed suicide.

Thus ended the African campaign.

On his return from Africa, Caesar celebrated four triumphs, on four
successive days; one over the Gauls, one over Ptolemy of Egypt, one
over Pharnaces, and one over Juba. He gratified his armed followers with
liberal gifts, and pleased the people by his great munificence. They
were feasted at a splendid banquet, at which were twenty-two thousand
tables, each table having three couches, and each couch three persons.
Then followed shows in the circus and theatre, combats of wild beasts
and gladiators, in which the public especially delighted.

Honors were now heaped upon Caesar without stint. A thanksgiving of
forty days was decreed. His statue was placed in the Capitol. Another
was inscribed to Caesar the Demigod. A golden chair was allotted to him
in the Senate-House. The name of the fifth month (_Quintilis_) of the
Roman calendar was changed to JULIUS (July). He was appointed Dictator
for two years, and later for life. He received for three years the
office of Censor, which enabled him to appoint Senators, and to be
guardian of manners and morals. He had already been made Tribune
(48) for life, and Pontifex Maximus (63). In a word, he was king in
everything excepting name.

Caesar's most remarkable and durable reform at this period was the
REVISION OF THE CALENDAR. The Roman method of reckoning time had been
so inaccurate, that now their seasons were more than two months behind.
Caesar established a calendar, which, with slight changes, is still in
use. It went into operation January 1st, 45. He employed Sosigenes, an
Alexandrian astronomer, to superintend the reform.

While Sosigenes was at work on the calendar, Caesar purified the Senate.
Many who were guilty of extortion and corruption were expelled, and the
vacancies filled with persons of merit.

Meanwhile matters in Spain were not satisfactory. After the battle of
Pharsalia, Cassius Longinus, Trebonius, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus had
been sent to govern the province. They could not agree. The soldiers
became mutinous. To Spain flocked all who were dissatisfied with Roman
affairs. The remnant of Scipio's African army rested there in its
wanderings. Thus Labiénus and Pompey's two sons managed to collect an
army as numerous as that which had been defeated at Thapsus. There were
thirteen legions in all.

Caesar saw that he must make one more struggle. He set out for the
province accompanied by his nephew OCTAVIUS (afterwards the Emperor
AUGUSTUS), and by his trusted friend and officer, DECIMUS BRUTUS. The
struggle in Spain was protracted for several months, but the decisive
battle was fought at MUNDA, 17 March, 45, on the Guadalquivir, near
Cordova. The forces were well matched. The advantage in position was on
the side of the enemy. The battle was stubbornly fought, most of it hand
to hand, with short swords. So equal was the struggle, so doubtful at
one time the issue, that Caesar himself sprang from his horse, seized a
standard, and rallied a wavering legion. Finally, Labiénus was seen to
gallop across the field. It was thought he was fleeing. Panic seized his
troops, they broke and ran. Thirty thousand were slain, including three
thousand Roman Knights, and Labiénus himself.

Gnaeus Pompey shortly after lost his life, but Sextus lived for a number
of years.

Caesar tarried in Spain, regulating affairs, until late in the autumn,
when he returned to Rome and enjoyed another triumph over the Iberians
(Spaniards). The triumph was followed, as usual, by games and festivals,
which kept the populace in a fever of delight and admiration.


CATO.-METELLUS SCIPIO.

MARCUS PORTIUS CATO UTICENSIS (Footnote: Cato the Younger, called
UTICENSIS on account of his death at Utica.) (95-46) was the
great-grandson of Cato the Censor. He was the last of the Romans of the
old school. Like his more famous ancestor, he was frugal and austere in
his habits, upright, unselfish, and incorruptible. But he was a fanatic,
who could not be persuaded to relinquish his views on any subject. As a
general, he was a failure, having neither taste nor genius for military
exploits. He held various offices at Rome, as Quaestor and Praetor; but
when candidate for the consulship he was defeated, because he declined
to win votes by bribery and other questionable methods then in vogue.

QUINTUS CAECILIUS METELLUS PIUS belonged to the illustrious family of
the Scipios by birth, and to that of the Metelli by adoption. He was one
of the most unjust and dishonest of the Senators that opposed Caesar.
He was the father-in-law of Pompey, by whom he was made a pliant tool
against the great conqueror.



CHAPTER XXXIV. MURDER OF CAESAR.


Upon his return from Spain, Caesar granted pardon to all who had fought
against him, the most prominent of whom were GAIUS CASSIUS, MARCUS
BRUTUS, and CICERO. He increased the number of the Senate to nine
hundred. He cut off the corn grants, which nursed the city mob in
idleness. He sent out impoverished men to colonize old cities. He
rebuilt Corinth, and settled eighty thousand Italians on the site of
Carthage. As a censor of morals he was very rigid. His own habits were
marked by frugality. The rich young patricians were forbidden to be
carried about in litters, as had been the custom. Libraries were formed.
Eminent physicians and scientists were encouraged to settle in Rome. The
harbor of Ostia was improved, and a road constructed from the Adriatic
to the Tyrrhenian Sea, over the Apennines. A temple to Mars was built,
and an immense amphitheatre was erected at the foot of the Tarpeian
Rock.

In the midst of this useful activity he was basely murdered.

CASSIUS LONGINUS and MARCUS JUNIUS BRUTUS were the leaders in the
conspiracy to effect Caesar's death, Cassius, a former lieutenant of
Crassus, had shown great bravery in the war with the Parthians. At
Pharsalia he fought on the side of Pompey, but was afterwards pardoned
by Caesar. He was married to a sister of Brutus. The latter, a nephew
and son-in-law of Cato, had also fought at Pharsalia against Caesar, and
also been pardoned by him. Cassius, it was said, hated the tyrant, and
Brutus tyranny.

These conspirators were soon joined by persons of all parties; and men
who had fought against each other in the civil war now joined hands.
Cicero was not taken into the plot. He was of advanced years, and all
who knew him must have felt that he would never consent to the taking
the life of one who had been so lenient towards his conquered enemies.

On the morning of the IDES (15th) OF MARCH, 44, as Caesar entered the
Senate and took his seat, he was approached by the conspirators, headed
by Tullius Cimber, who prayed for the pardon of his exiled brother; and
while the rest joined him in the request, he, grasping Caesar's hand,
kissed his head and breast. As Caesar attempted to rise, Cimber dragged
his cloak from his shoulders, and Casca, who was standing behind his
chair, stabbed him in the neck. The first blow was struck, and the whole
pack fell upon their noble victim. Cassius stabbed him in the face, and
Marcus Brutus in the groin. He made no further resistance; but, wrapping
his gown over his head and the lower part of his body, he fell at the
base of POMPEY'S STATUE, which was drenched with the martyr's blood.

Great tumult and commotion followed; and, in their alarm, most of the
Senators fled. It was two days before the Senate met, the conspirators
meanwhile having taken refuge in the Capitol. Public sentiment was
against them. Many of Caesar's old soldiers were in the city, and many
more were flocking there from all directions. The funeral oration of
Mark Antony over the remains produced a deep impression upon the crowd.
They became so excited when the speaker removed the dead man's toga, and
disclosed his wounds, that, instead of allowing the body to be carried
to the Campus Martius for burial, they raised a funeral pile in the
Forum, and there burned it. The crowd then dispersed in troops, broke
into and destroyed the houses of the conspirators. Brutus and Cassius
fled from the city for their lives, followed by the other murderers.

 As a general Caesar was probably superior to all others, excepting
possibly Hannibal. He was especially remarkable for the fertility of
his resources. It has been said that Napoleon taught his enemies how
to conquer him; but Caesar's enemies never learned how to conquer him,
because he had not a mere system of tactics, but a new stratagem for
every emergency. He was, however, not only a great general, but a
pre-eminent statesman, and second only to Cicero in eloquence. As
a historian, he wrote in a style that was clear, vigorous, and also
simple. Most of his writings are lost; but of those that remain Cicero
said that fools might try to improve on them, but no wise man would
attempt it.



CHAPTER XXXV. THE SECOND TRIUMVIRATE.--PHILIPPI AND ACTIUM.


Caesar in his will had appointed GAIUS OCTAVIUS, the grandson of his
sister Julia, heir to three fourths of his property; and his other
relatives were to have the remaining fourth.

Young Octavius was in his nineteenth year when Caesar was murdered.
He went at once to Rome to claim his inheritance. Caesar's widow,
Calpurnia, had intrusted to Mark Antony all the money in the house,--a
large sum,--and had also delivered to his care all the Dictator's
writings and memoranda.

Octavius was cool and sagacious, without passion or affection, and
showed himself a match for all his opponents. His arrival at Rome
was disagreeable to Antony, who was unwilling to surrender Caesar's
property. He claimed that he had already expended it for public
purposes. Octavius at once paid the dead Dictator's legacies, mostly out
of his own fortune, thus making himself very popular among the people.
He then joined the party of the Senate, and during the autumn and winter
of 44 was its chief champion. He was helped by the eloquent Cicero, who
was delivering against Antony his famous fourteen PHILIPPICS,--so called
from their resemblance to the great orations of Demosthenes against
Philip.

During the spring of 43 Octavius advanced against Antony, who was at
Mutina (Modena), and defeated him in two battles. He was then appointed
Consul, and, finding it for his interest, he deserted the Senate, made
friends with Antony, and with him and Lepidus formed (27 November, 43)
the SECOND TRIUMVIRATE, assuming full authority to govern and reorganize
the state, and to hold office for five years.

The provinces were divided as follows: Lepidus was to have Spain and
Gallia Narbonensis; Antony, the rest of Gaul beyond the Alps and Gallia
Cisalpína; Octavius, Sicily, Sardinia, and Africa. A bloody prescription
followed. Among its victims were CICERO, who was surrendered to please
Antony, 300 Senators, and 2,000 Equites.


PHILIPPI AND ACTIUM.

The Triumvirs could now concentrate their energies upon the East,
whither BRUTUS and CASSIUS, the murderers of Caesar, had fled. These two
had organized in the provinces of the East an army amounting to 80,000
infantry and 20,000 cavalry. They were employed in plundering various
towns of Asia Minor, and finally, in the spring of 42, assembled their
forces at Sardis preparatory to an invasion of Europe. After marching
through Thrace they entered Macedonia, and found Antony and Octavius
opposed to them at PHILIPPI, with an army of 120,000 troops. There were
two battles at Philippi in November, 42. In the first, Brutus defeated
Octavius; but Cassius was defeated by Antony, and, unaware of his
colleague's victory, committed suicide. In the second battle, three
weeks later, Brutus was defeated by the united armies of the Triumvirs,
and, following the example of Cassius, put an end to his life. With
Brutus fell the Republic. The absolute ascendency of individuals, which
is monarchy, was then established.

The immediate result of Philippi was a fresh arrangement of the Roman
world among the Triumvirs. Antony preferred the East, Octavius took
Italy and Spain, and Africa fell to Lepidus.

Octavius tried to establish order in Italy, but many obstacles were to
be overcome. Sextus Pompeius, who had escaped from Munda, was in
command of a strong naval force. He controlled a large part of the
Mediterranean, and, by waylaying the corn ships bound for Rome, exposed
the city to great danger from famine. Octavius was obliged to raise
a fleet and meet this danger. At first he was defeated by Pompey, but
later, in 36, in the great sea fight off NAULOCHUS in Sicily, the
rebel was overcome. He fled to Asia with a few followers, but was taken
prisoner at Milétus by one of the lieutenants of Antony, and put to
death.

Lepidus now claimed Sicily as a part of his province, and an equal share
in the government of the Roman world with the other Triumvirs. But his
soldiers were induced to desert him, and he was obliged to surrender
to Octavius. His life was spared, but he was deprived of his power and
provinces. He lived twenty years longer (until 13), but ceased to be a
factor in public affairs. Having rid themselves of all rivals, Octavius
and Antony redivided the Empire, the former taking the West, the latter
the East.

Antony now repaired to Alexandría, and surrendered himself to the
fascinations of the famous Cleopátra. He assumed the habits and dress of
an Eastern monarch, and by his senseless follies disgusted his friends
and supporters. He resigned himself to luxury and idleness, and finally
divorced himself from his wife Octavia, sister of Octavius, disregarding
his good name and the wishes of his friends. Thus gradually he became
more and more estranged from Octavius, until finally the rupture
resulted in open war.

The contest was decided by the naval battle off Cape Actium, in Greece,
September 2, 31. Antony had collected from all parts of the East a
large army, in addition to his fleet, which was supported by that
of Cleopátra. He wished to decide the contest on land; but Cleopátra
insisted that they should fight by sea. The fleet of Octavius was
commanded by Agrippa, who had been in command at the sea-fight off
Naulochus. The battle lasted a long time, and was still undecided, when
Cleopátra hoisted sail and with her sixty vessels hastened to leave the
line. Antony at once followed her. The battle, however, continued until
his remaining fleet was destroyed, and his army, after a few days'
hesitation, surrendered.

Octavius did not follow Antony for about a year. He passed the winter in
Samos, sending Agrippa to Italy with the veterans. His time was occupied
in restoring order in Greece and Asia, in raising money to satisfy the
demands of his troops, and in founding new colonies. At length he
turned his attention to Egypt. After capturing Pelusium, the key of
the country, he marched upon Alexandría. Antony, despairing of success,
committed suicide, expiring in the arms of Cleopátra. The queen,
disdaining to adorn the triumph of the conqueror, followed his example,
and was found dead on her couch, in royal attire, with her two faithful
attendants also dead at her feet.

Octavius was now sole ruler of Rome. Before returning to the capital
to celebrate his triumphs, he organized Egypt as a province, settled
disputes in Judaea, and arranged matters in Syria and Asia Minor. He
arrived at Rome (August 29), and enjoyed three magnificent triumphs. The
gates of the temple of JANUS--which were open in time of war, and had
been closed but twice before, once during Numa's reign, and once between
the First and Second Punic Wars--were closed, and Rome was at peace with
all the world.


MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO.

CICERO'S public life covered a period of nearly forty years, from the
dictatorship of Sulla to the fall of the Republic. Although endowed by
nature with great talents, he was always under the sway of the moment,
and therefore little qualified to be a statesman; yet he had not
sufficient self-knowledge to see it. Hence the attempts he made to play
a part in politics served only to lay bare his utter weakness. Thus it
happened that he was used and then pushed aside, attracted and repelled,
deceived by the weakness of his friends and the strength of his
adversaries; and at last threatened by both the parties between which he
tried to steer his course.



CHAPTER XXXVI. AUGUSTUS (30 B.C.-14 A.D.)


After enjoying his triple triumph, Octavius should, according to the
precedents of the Republic, have given up the title of IMPERATOR; but he
allowed the Senate, which was only too glad to flatter him, to give him
that name for ten years,--a period which was repeatedly renewed. In
this way he became permanent commander of the national forces. Next the
Imperator (Emperor) caused himself to be invested with the authority of
Censor. This enabled him to revise the list of Senators, and to restore
to this body something of its ancient respectability. By judicious
pruning he reduced the number to six hundred, and required a property
qualification for membership. He placed himself at its head as PRINCEPS
(prince), a title which implied that the Emperor was the _first_
citizen, without claiming any rights of royalty, thus lulling any
suspicions of the populace.

The Senate still decided the most important questions. It had
jurisdiction in criminal matters, and the right of ratifying new laws.
It was convened three times each month; viz. on the 1st, 5th (or 7th),
and 13th (or 15th). The Emperor voted with the other Senators.

The Senate next conferred upon Octavius the title of AUGUSTUS; then it
made him Proconsul (an officer with the right to govern provinces), and
Consul, with the privilege of having twelve lictors, and of sitting
in the curule chair between the two Consuls. The regular Consuls, of
course, were only too ready to follow his wishes. Finally, he was made
Pontifex Maximus, the head of the Roman religion.

Augustus was now supreme ruler in fact, if not in name. The Senate was
practically subject to his will. The Assemblies gradually lost all
voice in the government, and finally disappeared entirely. The Senate,
however, continued nominally to act until the time of Diocletian (284 A.
D.).

As Augustus had exclusive command of the armies, he chose to govern as
Proconsul those provinces which required military forces. He himself
resided at the capital, and sent deputies (_legati_) to oversee them.
The other provinces, called Senatorial, were governed by Proconsuls
appointed by the Senate. These were at this time Sicily, Africa,
Achaia (Greece), Macedonia, Asia (Minor), Hispania Ulterior, and Gallia
Narbonensis.

The city government now included all Italy. In this Augustus was
assisted by three _Praefects_; one in charge of the corn supplies, a
second in charge of the city proper, and a third in charge of his body
guard of nine thousand men, called the PRAETORIAN GUARD. These Praefects
soon overshadowed all the regular magistrates, and through them Augustus
reigned supreme.

The Roman Empire at this time included all the countries bordering on
the Mediterranean, extending east to the Parthian kingdom (the Upper
Euphrátes) and the Arabian Desert, south to the Desert of Sahara, and
west to the Atlantic Ocean. On the north the boundary was unsettled,
and subject to inroads of barbarians. In the early part of his reign
Augustus joined to the Empire a new province, Moesia, comprising the
territory along the Lower Danube, and making nineteen in all.

Augustus next devoted himself to the task of conquering the territory
between the Lower Rhine and Moesia, which was occupied by hardy
mountaineers whose resistance was likely to be stubborn. His two
step-sons, Drusus and Tiberius, were in charge of this important work.
They were so successful as to acquire enough territory to form two new
provinces, Rhaetia and Noricum (15 B.C.).

Tiberius also conquered the valley of the Save, and made it the province
of Pannonia (Western Hungary), 10 B.C.

Drusus, while his brother Tiberius was engaged in Pannonia, made a
campaign against the Germans near the Rhine. He had nearly finished the
conquest of Germany from the Rhine to the Elbe, when he died (9, B.C.),
and was succeeded by his brother Tiberius, who completed his work.

Drusus received the cognomen of Germanicus for his conquests in Germany.
His wife was Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony, by whom he had two sons,
Germanicus and Claudius, the latter of whom was afterwards Emperor.

In 7 A.D. Lucius Varus was appointed governor of the newly acquired
territory in Germany. When he endeavored to subject these recently
conquered peoples to the forms of the Roman provincial government, they
rose in rebellion under the lead of Arminius (Herman), a powerful chief.

Varus was allured from his fortified camp (9 A.D.) into a pass in the
Teutoberger Forests, where he was suddenly attacked on all sides. After
three days' fighting, he succeeded with great loss in making his way
through the pass into the open plain, but was there met by the enemy
in full force, and his troops were annihilated. In despair Varus killed
himself. Germany was practically lost and the Rhine became again the
Roman frontier. This defeat caused a great stir at Rome, and the Emperor
is said to have exclaimed in his sorrow, "Varus, Varus, give me back my
legions!"

Five years later (14 A.D.) Augustus died. In his last moments he asked
his friends if he had not played well his part in the comedy of life.

Although married three times, the Emperor had but one child, JULIA (39
B.C.--14 A.D.), by his second wife, Scribonia. She was noted for her
beauty and talents, but infamous for her intrigues. She was married
three times; first, to Marcellus, her cousin; secondly, to Agrippa, by
whom she had five children; and thirdly, to the Emperor Tiberius. She
was banished on account of her conduct, and died in want.

OCTAVIA, the sister of Augustus, was noted for her beauty and
accomplishments, as well as for the nobility of her character. Her
son MARCELLUS was adopted by his uncle, but died young (23 B. C.).
The famous lines of Virgil upon this promising young man (Aeneid VI.
869-887) were read before the Emperor and his sister, moving them to
tears, and winning for the author a munificent reward.

After the death of her first husband, Octavia was married to Mark
Antony, by whom she had two daughters, through whom she was the
ancestress of three Emperors, CLAUDIUS, CALIGULA, and NERO.

AGRIPPA (63-12), an eminent general and statesman, was a warm friend and
counsellor of Augustus. At the battle of Actium he commanded the fleet
of Octavius. He married Julia, the only daughter of the Emperor, and had
three sons, two of whom were adopted by Augustus, but died before him;
the third was murdered by Tiberius.

Augustus died at the age of seventy-six. He was frugal and correct in
his personal habits, quick and shrewd in his dealings with men, bold and
ambitious in the affairs of state. His greatness consisted rather in
the ability to abstain from abusing the advantages presented by fortune,
than in the genius which moulds the current of affairs to the will.
His success depended on the temper of the people and the peculiar
circumstances of the time. His clearest title to greatness is found in
the fact that he compelled eighty millions of people to live in peace
for more than forty years, He made the world to centre on one will, and
the horrors which mark the reigns of his successors were the legitimate
result of the irresponsible sovereignty he established. He formed his
empire for the present, to the utter ignoring of the future. Thus it
would seem that the part he played was that of a shrewd politician,
rather than that of a wise statesman.



CHAPTER XXXVII. THE AUGUSTAN AGE.


In speaking of Augustus, we must take into account the writers whose
names have given to his its brightest lustre, and have made the AUGUSTAN
AGE a synonym for excellence in culture, art, and government. Virgil,
Ovid, Horace, Livy, and a host of others, have given his reign a
brilliancy unmatched in time, which is rather enhanced than diminished
by the fame of Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust, who preceded, and that of
Tacitus, Seneca, and others, who followed; for they belong to an epoch
in which Augustus stands the central figure in all which pertains to the
arts of peace.

In literature the name of VIRGIL stands first in the Augustan age. Born
at Andes, near Mantua, 15 October, 70, he was educated at Cremona and
Mediolánum. After completing his education he retired to his paternal
estate. In the division of land among the soldiers after the battle of
Philippi (42), he was deprived of his property, which was subsequently
restored to him by Augustus. He lived partly at Rome, partly in
Campania. His health was never good, and he died in his fifty-second
year (22 September, 19 B. C.).

Virgil had neither original nor creative genius. Though he mainly
imitated Greek poetry, his style is graceful and eloquent, his tone
inspiring and elevating.

In disposition he was childlike, innocent, and amiable,--a good son,
a faithful friend, honest, and full of devotion to persons and ideal
interests. He was not, however, fitted to grapple with the tasks and
difficulties of practical life.

In his fortunes and friends he was a happy man. Munificent patronage
gave him ample means of enjoyment and leisure; and he had the friendship
of all the most accomplished men of his day, among whom was Horace, who
entertained a strong affection for him. His fame, which was established
in his lifetime, was cherished after his death as an inheritance in
which every Roman had a share; and his works became school-books even
before the death of Augustus, and have continued such ever since.

HORACE (65-8 B. C.) was born at Venusia, but received his education at
Rome and Athens. He was present at the battle of Philippi (42), where he
fought as Tribune under Brutus. His first writings were his _Satires_.
These he read to his friends, and their merit was at once recognized.
His great patron was MAECÉNAS, who introduced him to the Emperor, and
gave him a fine country seat near Tivoli, among the Sabine Mountains.
He died the same year as his patron, and was buried beside him at the
Esquiline Gate.

The poems of Horace give us a picture of refined and educated life in
the Rome of his time. They are unsurpassed in gracefulness and felicity
of thought. Filled with truisms, they were for centuries read and quoted
more than those of any other ancient writer.

OVID (43 B. C.-18 A. D.), a native of Sulmo, is far inferior to Virgil
and Horace as a poet, but ranks high on account of his great gift for
narration.

"Of the Latin poets he stands perhaps nearest to modern civilization,
partly on account of his fresh and vivid sense of the beauties of
nature, and partly because his subject is love. His representations of
this passion are graceful, and strikingly true. He also excelled other
poets in the perfect elegance of his form, especially in the character
and rhythm of his verses." He spent his last days in exile, banished by
Augustus for some reason now unknown. Some of his most pleasing verses
were written during this period.

One of the most noted men of the Augustan age was MAECÉNAS, the
warm friend and adviser of Augustus. He was a constant patron of the
literature and art of his generation. He was very wealthy, and his
magnificent house was the centre of literary society in Rome, He helped
both Virgil and Horace in a substantial manner, and the latter is
constantly referring to him in his poetry. He died (8 B. C.) childless,
and left his fortune to Augustus.

The prose writers who lived at this period were Livy, Sallust, and
Nepos.

LIVY is the best of these. He was a native of Patavium (Padua), a man of
rhetorical training, who spent most of his time in Rome. The historical
value of his work cannot be overestimated, on account of the scarcity,
and in many cases the utter lack, of other historical documents on the
times of which he wrote. His style is spirited, and always interesting.
His accuracy, however, is not to be compared with that of Caesar. Only
thirty-five out of the one hundred and forty-two books that he wrote are
preserved.

NEPOS was a prolific writer, but only a portion of one of his works,
_De Viris Illustribus_, has come down to us; it is neither accurate nor
interesting, and of little value.

SALLUST left two historical productions, one on the conspiracy of
Catiline, the other on the war with Jugurtha. His style is rhetorical.
He excels in delineating character, but he is often so concise as to be
obscure.

GAIUS ASINIUS POLLIO was a statesman and orator of marked attainments of
this time. He was strongly attached to the old republican institutions,
a man of great independence of character, and a poet of no mean merit,
as his contemporaries testify. Unfortunately, none of his writings are
preserved.

 The age of Augustus is also noted for the architectural improvements
in Rome. Augustus is said to have found a city of stone, and left one
of marble. He himself built twelve temples, and repaired eighty-two that
had fallen into decay. The FORUM was beautified by five halls of justice
(_Basilicae_), which were erected around its borders. The most famous
of these was the BASILICA JULIA, begun by Julius Caesar and finished
by Augustus. Public squares were planned and begun north of the great
Forum, the finest of which was the FORUM OF TRAJAN, finished by the
Emperor of that name.

The finest building outside of the city, in the Campus Martius, was the
PANTHEON, built by Agrippa, and now used as a Christian church. Here are
buried many distinguished men. Near by, Augustus erected a mausoleum
for himself. Here too was a theatre, built by Pompey,--the first stone
theatre of Rome.



CHAPTER XXXVIII. THE JULIAN AND CLAUDIAN EMPERORS.

TIBERIUS (14-37 A.D.)


Augustus was succeeded by TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS NERO CAESAR (born 42 B.
C.), the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia. His mother obtained a
divorce from Tiberius, and married Augustus.

Tiberius had great military talent. He was a severe disciplinarian,
and commanded the full confidence of his soldiers. As commander in
Cantabria, Armenia, Rhaetia, Dalmatia, and Germany, he conducted his
campaigns with success, and honor to himself. Returning to Rome in 7 B.
C., he celebrated a triumph, and afterwards married Julia, the dissolute
daughter of Augustus. This marriage proved to be the ruin of Tiberius,
developing everything that was bad in his character, and making him
jealous, suspicious, and hypocritical.

Augustus, not relishing the changes in his character, sent him to
Rhodes, where he lived seven years in retirement. Through his mother's
influence, however, he was recalled in 2 A. D., and was afterwards
appointed the Emperor's successor. He ascended the throne at the age of
fifty-six. A silent man, "all his feelings, desires, and ambitions were
locked behind an impenetrable barrier." He is said but once to have
taken counsel with his officers. He was a master of dissimulation, and
on this account an object of dislike and suspicion. But until his
later years, his intellect was clear and far-seeing, penetrating all
disguises.

Throughout his reign Tiberius strove to do his duty to the Empire at
large, and maintained with great care the constitutional forms which had
been established by Augustus. Only two changes of importance were made.
First, the IMPERIAL GUARD, hitherto seen in the city only in small
bodies, was permanently encamped in full force close to the walls. By
this course the danger of riots was much lessened. Secondly, the old
COMITIAS were practically abolished. But the Senate was treated with
great deference.

Tiberius expended great care on the provinces. His favorite maxim was,
that a good shepherd should shear, and not flay, his sheep. Soldiers,
governors, and officials of all kinds were kept in a wholesome dread of
punishment, if they oppressed those under them. Strict economy in public
expenses kept the taxes down. Commerce was cherished, and his reign on
the whole was one of prosperity for the Empire.

Tiberius was noted especially for prosecutions for MAJESTAS, on the
slightest pretext. _Majestas_ nearly corresponds to treason; but it
is more comprehensive. One of the offences included in the word was
effecting, aiding in, or planning the death of a magistrate, or of one
who had the _imperium_ or _potestas_. Tiberius stretched the application
of this offence even to words or conduct which could in any way be
considered dangerous to the Emperor. A hateful class of informers
(_delatores_) sprung up, and the lives of all were rendered unsafe.
The dark side of this ruler's character is made specially prominent by
ancient historians; but their statements are beginning to be taken with
much allowance.

After a reign of twenty-three years, Tiberius died, either in a fainting
fit or from violence, at the age of seventy-nine.

LIVIA, the mother of Tiberius, deserves more than a passing notice. She
exercised almost a boundless influence on her husband, Augustus. She
had great ambition, and was very cruel and unscrupulous. She managed
to ruin, one after another, the large circle of relatives of Augustus,
until finally the aged Emperor found himself alone in the palace with
Livia and her son, Tiberius. All Rome execrated the Empress, and her son
feared and hated her. She survived Augustus fifteen years, and died in
29. Tiberius refused to visit her on her death-bed, and was not present
at her funeral.

SEJÁNUS was the commander of the Praetorian Guard of Tiberius. He was
trusted fully by the Emperor, but proved to be a deep-dyed rascal. He
persuaded Livilla, the daughter-in-law of the Emperor, to poison her
husband, the heir apparent, and then he divorced his own wife to marry
her. He so maligned Agrippína, the widow of Germanicus and daughter of
Agrippa and Julia, that Tiberius banished her, with her sons Nero and
Drusus. In 26 he induced the Emperor to retire to the island of Capreae,
and he himself became the real master of Rome.

Tiberius at last finding out his true character, Sejánus was arrested
and executed in 31. His body was dragged through the streets, torn in
pieces by the mob, and thrown into the Tiber.


CALIGULA (37-41).

Tiberius having left no son, the Senate recognized Gaius Caesar, son
of Germanicus and Agrippína, grandson of Julia, and great-grandson of
Augustus, as Emperor. He is better known as CALIGULA,--a nickname given
him by the soldiers from the buskins he wore. He was twenty-five years
of age when he began to reign, of weak constitution, and subject to
fits. After squandering his own wealth, he killed rich citizens, and
confiscated their property. He seemed to revel in bloodshed, and is said
to have expressed a wish that the Roman people had but one neck, that
he might slay them all at a blow. He was passionately fond of adulation,
and often repaired to the Capitoline temple in the guise of a god,
and demanded worship. Four years of such a tyrant was enough. He was
murdered by a Tribune of his Praetorian Guard.


THE CLAUDIAN EMPERORS.

CLAUDIUS (41-54).


A strong party was now in favor of returning to a republican form of
government; but while the Senate was considering this question, the
Praetorian Guard settled it by proclaiming CLAUDIUS Emperor.

Claudius was the uncle of Caligula and the nephew of Tiberius. He was a
man of learning and good parts, but a glutton, and the slave of his
two wives, who were both bad women. His first wife, MESSALÍNA, was so
notorious that her name has became almost a synonym for wickedness. His
second wife, his niece AGRIPPÍNA, sister of Caligula, was nearly as bad.
This woman had by her former husband, Domitius, a son, whom she induced
the Emperor to adopt under the name of NERO. The faithless wife then
caused her husband to be poisoned, and her son to be proclaimed Emperor.

At Rome the rule of Claudius was mild, and on the whole beneficial. In
the government of the provinces he was rigorous and severe. He undertook
the CONQUEST OF BRITAIN, and in a campaign of sixteen days he laid the
foundation of its final subjugation, which occurred about forty years
later, under the noted general AGRICOLA: It remained a Roman province
for four hundred years, but the people never assimilated Roman customs,
as did the Gauls, and when the Roman garrisons were withdrawn, they
quickly returned to their former condition. However, many remains of
Roman buildings in the island show that it was for the time well under
subjection.

The public works of Claudius were on a grand scale. He constructed a new
harbor at the mouth of the Tiber, and built the great aqueduct called
the AQUA CLAUDIA, the ruined arches of which can be seen to this day.
He also reclaimed for agriculture a large tract of land by draining the
Fucine Lake.


NERO (54-68).

NERO was but sixteen years old when he began to reign. For two or three
years he was under the influence of his tutor, SENECA, the author, and
BURRHUS, the Praefect of the Praetorian Guard, and his government
was during this period the most respectable of any since the time of
Augustus. His masters kept the young Emperor amused, and removed from
the cares of state. But he soon became infatuated with an unscrupulous
woman, POPPAEA SABÍNA, for whom he neglected and finally killed his
wife, Octavia.

It would be useless to follow in detail the crimes of Nero from this
time. A freedman, TIGELLÍNUS, became his adviser, and was the real ruler
of the Empire. He encouraged his master in all his vices and wickedness.
Poppaea died from a kick administered by Nero in anger; Burrhus was
disposed of; Agrippína, and Britannicus, the true heir to the throne,
were murdered. The wealthy were plundered, and the feelings of his
subjects outraged in every conceivable manner. The Emperor appeared in
public, contending first as a musician, and afterwards in the sports of
the circus.

The great fire of 18 July, 64, which destroyed a large part of the city,
was ascribed to him, but without sufficient evidence; and the stories of
his conduct during the conflagration are doubtless pure fictions. It
was necessary, however, to fix the guilt on some one; so the CHRISTIANS,
then a small sect, made up chiefly of the poorer people, were accused
of the crime, and persecuted without mercy. They were often enclosed in
fagots covered with pitch, and burned alive.

In rebuilding Rome, Nero took every precaution against the recurrence
of a conflagration. Broad regular streets replaced the narrow winding
alleys. The new houses were limited in height, built partly of hard
stone, and protected by open spaces and colonnades. The water supply was
also carefully regulated.

In addition to rebuilding the city, Nero gratified his love for the
magnificent by erecting a splendid palace, called the GOLDEN HOUSE. Its
walls were adorned with gold, precious stones, and masterpieces of art
from Greece. The grounds around were marvellous in their meadows,
lakes, groves, and distant views. In front was a colossal statue of Nero
himself, one hundred and ten feet high.

Conspiracies having been formed in which Seneca and Lucan were
implicated, both men were ordered to take their own lives. Nero's life
after this became still more infamous. In a tour made in Greece, he
conducted himself so scandalously that even Roman morals were shocked,
and Roman patience could endure him no longer. The Governor of Hither
Spain, GALBA, proclaimed himself Emperor, and marched upon Rome.
Verginius, the Governor of Upper Germany, also lent his aid to the
insurrection. The Senate proclaimed Nero a public enemy, and condemned
him to death. He fled from the city and put an end to his life, June 9,
68, just in time to escape capture. His statues were broken down, his
name everywhere erased, and his Golden House demolished. With him ended
the Claudian line of Emperors.

LUCIUS ANNAEUS SENECA (8 B. C.-65 A. D.) was born at Corduba in Spain,
of a Spanish Roman family, and was educated at Rome. His father was a
teacher of rhetoric, a man of wealth and literary attainments. Seneca
began to practise at the bar at Rome, and was gaining considerable
reputation, when in 41 he was banished to Corsica. Eight years later he
was recalled to be tutor of the young Nero, then eleven years old. He
was Consul in 57, and during the first years of Nero's reign he shared
the administration of affairs with the worthy Burrhus. His influence
over Nero, while it lasted, was salutary, though often maintained by
doubtful means. In course of time Nero began to dislike him, and when
Burrhus died his fate was sealed. By the Emperor's command he committed
suicide. Opening the veins in his feet and arms, he discoursed with his
friends on the brevity of life till death ensued.

Seneca is the most eminent of the writers of his age. He wrote moral
essays, philosophical letters, physical treatises, and tragedies. Of the
last, the best are HERCULES FURENS, PHAEDRA, and MEDEA.


GALBA (68-69).--OTHO (69).--VITELLIUS (69).

GALBA entered the city as a conqueror, without much trouble, but on
account of his parsimony and austerity he soon became unpopular, and was
murdered by his mutinous soldiers fifteen days after he reached Rome.
He belonged to an old patrician family, and his overthrow was sincerely
regretted by the better element in the city.

OTHO, the first husband of Poppaea, and the leader in the insurrection
against Galba, was now declared Emperor. No sooner did the news of his
accession reach Gaul than VITELLIUS, a general of the army of the Rhine,
revolted. Otho marched against the rebels, was defeated, and committed
suicide after a reign of three months.

VITELLIUS had been a good soldier, but as a ruler he was weak and
incapable. He was killed after a reign of less than a year, during which
he had distinguished himself by gluttony and vulgar sensuality.



CHAPTER XXXIX. THE FLAVIAN EMPERORS.

VESPASIAN (69-79).


The East now made a claim for the Emperor, and on July 1, 69, the
soldiers who were engaged in war against the revolted Jews in Judaea
proclaimed as Emperor their commander, TITUS FLAVIUS VESPASIÁNUS. He
left the conduct of the war in charge of his son Titus, and arrived at
Rome in 70. Here he overthrew and put to death Vitellius. In the course
of this struggle the Capitol was burned. This he restored, rebuilding
also a large part of the city.

In his own life Vespasian was simple, putting to shame the luxury and
extravagance of the nobles, and causing a marked improvement in the
general tone of society. He removed from the Senate many improper
members, replacing them by able men, among whom was AGRICOLA. In 70 he
put down a formidable rebellion in Gaul; and when his son Titus returned
from the capture of Jerusalem, (Footnote: Jerusalem was taken in
70, after a siege of several months, the horrors of which have been
graphically detailed by the Jewish historian Joséphus, who was present
in the army of Titus. The city was destroyed, and the inhabitants sold
into slavery.) they enjoyed a joint triumph. The Temple of Janus was
closed, and peace prevailed during the remainder of his reign.

Much money was spent on public works, and in beautifying the city. A
new Forum was built, a Temple of Peace, public baths, and the famous
COLOSSÉUM was begun, receiving its name from the Colossus, a statue of
Nero, which had stood near by.

On the whole, Vespasian was active and prudent in public affairs, frugal
and virtuous in private life. The decade of his reign was marked by
peace and general prosperity.

One of the ablest men of this age was AGRICOLA (37-93). Born at Forum
Julii in Gaul, he was made Governor of Aquitania by Vespasian in 73.
Four years later he was Consul, and the next year was sent to Britain,
which he conquered, and governed with marked ability and moderation,
increasing the prosperity of the people and advancing their
civilization. He remained in Britain until 85, when he was recalled. His
life was written by his son-in-law, the historian Tacitus.


TITUS (79-81).

Vespasian was succeeded by his son TITUS, who emulated the virtues of
his father. He finished the Colosséum, begun by Vespasian, and built a
triumphal arch to commemorate his victories over the Jews. This arch,
called the ARCH OF TITUS, was built on the highest part of the Via
Sacra, and on its walls was carved a representation of the sacred
candlestick of the Jewish temple, which can still be seen.

It was during this reign that HERCULANEUM and POMPEII were destroyed by
an eruption of Vesuvius. In this eruption perished PLINY THE ELDER, the
most noted writer of his day. His work on _Natural History_, the only
one of his writings that is preserved, shows that he was a true student.
His passion for investigation led him to approach too near the volcano,
and caused his death.


DOMITIAN (81-96).

DOMITIAN was the opposite of his brother Titus,--cruel, passionate,
and extravagant. He was murdered after a reign of fifteen years, during
which he earned the hatred and contempt of his subjects by his crimes
and inconsistencies.

In his foreign policy Domitian showed considerable ability. He added to
the Empire that part of Germany which corresponds to modern Baden and
Wirtemberg, and built a line of fortifications from Mentz on the Rhine
to Ratisbon on the Danube.

With him ended the line of the FLAVIAN EMPERORS, and he was also the
last of the so called TWELVE CAESARS, a name given them by the historian
Suetonius.



CHAPTER XL. THE FIVE GOOD EMPERORS.

NERVA (96-98).


NERVA was appointed by the Senate to succeed Domitian, and was the first
Emperor who did not owe his advancement to military force or influence.
He associated with himself MARCUS ULPIUS TRAJANUS, then in command of
the army on the Rhine. Nerva ruled only sixteen months; but during that
time he restored tranquillity among the people, conferring happiness and
prosperity upon every class.


TRAJAN (98-117).

Nerva was succeeded by TRAJAN, whose character has its surest guaranty
in the love and veneration of his subjects; and it is said that, long
afterwards, the highest praise that could be bestowed on a ruler was
that he was "more fortunate than Augustus, and better than Trajan."
Trajan was a soldier, and, if he lacked the refinements of a peaceful
life, he was nevertheless a wise and firm master.

He added to the Empire Dacia, the country included between the Danube
and the Theiss, the Carpathians and the Pruth. This territory became
so thoroughly Romanized that the language of its inhabitants to-day is
founded on that of their conquerors nearly eighteen centuries ago.
It was in honor of this campaign into Dacia that the famous COLUMN OF
TRAJAN, which still remains, was erected.

Trajan also annexed to the Empire Arabia Petraea, which afforded an
important route between Egypt and Syria. His invasion of Parthia,
however, resulted in no permanent advantage.

During the reign of Trajan the Roman Empire REACHED THE SUMMIT OF ITS
POWER; but the first signs of decay were beginning to be seen in the
financial distress of all Italy, and the decline of the free peasantry,
until in the next century they were reduced to a condition of practical
serfdom.

The literature of Trajan's reign was second only to that of the Augustan
age. His time has often been called the SILVER AGE. Its prose writers
were, however, unlike those of the Augustan age, far superior to its
poets. The most famous prose writers were TACITUS, PLINY THE YOUNGER,
and QUINTILIAN.

The poets of this period were JUVENAL, PERSIUS, MARTIAL, LUCAN, and
STATIUS, of whom the last two were of an inferior order.


HADRIAN (117-138).

Trajan was succeeded by his cousin's son, HADRIAN, a native of Spain.
One of the first acts of Hadrian was to relinquish the recent conquests
of Trajan, and to restore the old boundaries of the Empire. The reasons
for this were that they had reached the utmost limits which could lend
strength to the power of Rome, or be held in subjection without
constant and expensive military operations. The people occupying the
new conquests were hardy and warlike, scattered over a country easy of
defence, and certain to strive constantly against a foreign yoke.

Hadrian displayed constant activity in travelling over the Empire,
to overlook personally its administration and protection. He visited
Britain, where he crushed the inroads of the Caledonians and built a
fortified line of works, known as the PICTS' WALL, extending from sea to
sea. The remains of this great work are still to be seen, corresponding
nearly to the modern boundary between England and Scotland. He also
visited the East, where the Jews were making serious trouble, and
completed their overthrow.

On his return to the city, the Emperor devoted himself to its adornment.
Several of his works, more or less complete, still remain. The most
famous of these is the MAUSOLÉUM (Tomb) OF HADRIAN, now known as the
Castle of San Angelo.

Hadrian was afflicted with bad health, suffering much from diseases
from which he could find no relief. On account of this, and to secure
a proper succession, he associated with himself in the government TITUS
AURELIUS ANTONÍNUS, and required him to adopt Marcus Annius Verus and
Lucius Verus. In 138, soon after this arrangement was made, Hadrian
died, leaving the Empire to Titus.


TITUS AURELIUS ANTONÍNUS PIUS (138-161).

ANTONÍNUS, a native of Gaul, was fifty-two years old when he succeeded
to the throne. The cognomen PIUS was conferred upon him by the Senate on
account of the affectionate respect which he had shown for Hadrian.
He was a man of noble appearance, firm and prudent, and under him the
affairs of state moved smoothly.


MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONÍNUS (161-180).

On the death of Antonínus, Marcus Annius Verus succeeded him under the
title of Marcus Aurelius Antonínus.

The Moors made an invasion into Spain; the barbarians broke into
Gaul; the army in Britain attempted to set up another Emperor; and the
Parthians in the East were in an uneasy state. The Eastern war, however,
ended favorably, and the Parthian king purchased peace by ceding
Mesopotamia to Rome. But the returning army brought with it a
pestilence, which spread devastation throughout the West. The Christians
were charged with being the cause of the plague, and were cruelly
persecuted. Among the victims were Justin Martyr at Rome, and Polycarp
at Smyrna.

The death of Lucius Verus in 168 released Aurelius from a colleague who
attracted attention only by his unfitness for his position. The Emperor
was thus relieved of embarrassments which might well have become his
greatest danger. The remainder of his reign, however, was scarcely less
unhappy.

The dangers from the troublesome barbarians grew greater and greater.
Rome had now passed the age of conquest, and began to show inability
even to defend what she had acquired. For fourteen years Aurelius was
engaged on the frontiers fighting these barbarians, and endeavoring
to check their advance. He died at Vienna while thus occupied, in the
fifty-ninth year of his life (180).

Peace was shortly afterwards made with the barbarians, a peace bought
with money; an example often followed in later times, when Rome lacked
the strength and courage to enforce her wishes by force of arms.

Marcus Aurelius was the PHILOSOPHER of the Empire. His tastes were
quiet; he was unassuming, and intent on the good of the people. His
faults were amiable weaknesses; his virtues, those of a hero. His
_Meditations_ have made him known as an author of fine tastes and
thoughts. With him ended the line of the GOOD EMPERORS. After his death,
Rome's prosperity and power began rapidly to wane.


THE CHRISTIANS.

The CHRISTIANS, who were gradually increasing in numbers, were
persecuted at different times throughout the Empire. One ground for
these persecutions was that it was a crime against the state to refuse
to worship the gods of the Romans under whom the Empire had flourished.
It was also the custom to burn incense in front of the Emperor's statue,
as an act of adoration. The Christians not only refused homage to
the Roman gods, but denounced the burning of incense as sacrilegious.
AURELIUS gave his sanction to the most general persecution this sect
had yet suffered. The last combined effort to suppress them was under
DIOCLETIAN, in 284, but it ended with the EDICT OF MILAN in 312, which
famous decree gave the imperial license to the religion of Christ.



CHAPTER XLI. PERIOD OF MILITARY DESPOTISM.--DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE.

COMMODUS (180-192).


On the death of Aurelius, his son, Commodus, hastened to Rome, and was
received by both the Senate and army without opposition. His
character was the opposite of that of his good father. In ferocity and
vindictiveness he was almost unequalled, even among the Emperors of
unhappy Rome. By means of informers, who were well paid, he rid himself
of the best members of the Senate. His government became so corrupt,
he himself so notorious in crime, that he was unendurable. His proudest
boasts were of his triumphs in the amphitheatre, and of his ability to
kill a hundred lions with as many arrows. After a reign of twelve years
his servants rid the Empire of his presence.


PERTINAX (192-193).

PERTINAX, the Praefect of the city, an old and experienced Senator,
followed Commodus. His reign of three months was well meant, but as it
was not supported by the military it was of no effect. His attempted
reforms were stopped by his murder.


JULIANUS (193).--SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (193-211).

The Praetorians now offered the crown to the highest bidder, who proved
to be DIDIUS JULIÁNUS, a wealthy Senator. He paid about a thousand
dollars to each soldier of the Guard, twelve thousand in number. After
enjoying the costly honor two months he was deposed and executed.

In the mean time several soldiers had been declared Emperor by their
respective armies. Among them was SEPTIMIUS SEVÉRUS, an African,
belonging to the army of the Danube.

Sevérus was an able soldier. He disarmed the Praetorians, banished them
from Rome, and filled their place with fifty thousand legionaries, who
acted as his body guard. The person whom he placed in command of this
guard was made to rank next to himself, with legislative, judicial, and
financial powers. The Senate he reduced to a nonentity.

After securing the capital, Sevérus carried on a campaign against the
Parthians, and was victorious over the rulers of Mesopotamia and Arabia.
In 203 he erected, in commemoration of these victories, a magnificent
arch, which still stands at the head of the Forum. He died at Eboracum
(York), in Britain, while making preparations for a campaign against the
Caledonians.


CARACALLA, MACRINUS, AND HELIOGABALUS.

Sevérus left two sons, both of whom he had associated with himself in
the government. No sooner was he dead than they quarrelled, and the
elder, CARACALLA, murdered the other with his own hand in the presence
of their mother.

Caracalla was blood-thirsty and cruel. After a short reign (211-216) he
was murdered by one of his soldiers. By him were begun the famous
baths which bore his name, and of which extensive remains still exist.
Caracalla was succeeded by MACRÍNUS, who reigned but one year, and
was followed by HELIOGABALUS (218-222), a priest of the sun, a
true Oriental, with but few virtues. His end was like that of his
predecessors. The Praetorians revolted and murdered him.


FROM ALEXANDER SEVERUS TO THE AGE OF THE THIRTY TYRANTS (222-268).

ALEXANDER SEVÉRUS was a good man, and well educated. But he endeavored
in vain to check the decline of the state. The military had become
all powerful, and he could effect nothing against it. During his reign
(222-235), the famous baths begun by Caracalla were finished.

Sevérus was killed in a mutiny led by MAXIMIN, who was Emperor for three
years (235-238), and was then murdered by his mutinous soldiers.

GORDIAN, his successor (238-244), was also slain by his own soldiers
in his camp on the Euphrates, and PHILIP (244-249) and DECIUS (249-251)
both fell in battle. Under Decius was begun a persecution of the
Christians severer than any that preceded it.

The next seventeen years (251-268) is a period of great confusion.
Several generals in different provinces were declared Emperor. The
Empire nearly fell to pieces, but finally rallied without loss of
territory. Its weakness, however, was apparent to all. This period is
often called the AGE OF THE THIRTY TYRANTS.


FIVE GOOD EMPERORS (268-283).


FIVE GOOD EMPERORS now ruled and revived somewhat the shattered strength
of the government: CLAUDIUS (268-270); AURELIAN (270-275); TACITUS
(275-276); PROBUS (276-282); and CARUS (282-283). Aurelian undertook a
campaign against the famous ZENOBIA, Queen of PALMÝRA. In her he found
a worthy foe, one whose political ability was rendered more brilliant by
her justice and courage. Defeated in the field, she fortified herself
in Palmýra, which was taken after a siege and destroyed. Zenobia was
carried to Rome, where she graced the triumph of her conqueror, but was
afterwards permitted to live in retirement. Aurelian was the first who
built the walls of Rome in their present position.


DIOCLETIAN (284-305).

With this ruler, the last vestige of the old republican form of
government at Rome disappears. Old Rome was dead. Her Senate had lost
the last remnant of its respectability. Seeing the necessity of a more
united country and a firmer rule, DIOCLETIAN associated with himself
MAXIMIAN, a gigantic soldier, who signalized his accession by subduing
a dangerous revolt in Gaul. He also appointed two officers, GALERIUS and
CONSTANTIUS, whom he called CAESARS,--one to have charge of the East,
and the other of the West. By means of these assistants he crushed all
revolts, strengthened the waning power of the Empire, and imposed peace
and good order upon the world.

Diocletian and Maximian afterwards resigned, and allowed their two
Caesars to assume the rank of AUGUSTI, and they in their turn appointed
Caesars as assistants.

Soon after his accession Constantius died, and his son CONSTANTINE was
proclaimed Caesar, against the wishes of Galerius. A bitter struggle
followed, in which Constantine finally overcame all his opponents, and
was declared sole Emperor. For his successes he was named the GREAT.


CONSTANTINE THE GREAT (306-337).

Constantine determined to build for his Empire a new capital, which
should be worthy of him. He selected the site of BYZANTIUM as offering
the greatest advantages; for, being defended on three sides by the sea
and the Golden Horn, it could easily be made almost impregnable, while
as a seaport its advantages were unrivalled,--a feature not in the least
shared by Rome. The project was entered upon with energy; the city was
built, and named CONSTANTINOPLE. To people it, the seat of government
was permanently removed thither, and every inducement was offered to
immigration. Thus was born the GREEK EMPIRE, destined to drag out a
miserable existence for nearly a thousand years after Rome had fallen a
prey to the barbarians. Its founder died, after a reign of thirty years,
in his sixty-fourth year (337).

Constantine is entitled to great credit for the uniform kindness with
which he treated his Christian subjects. It is said that his mother,
HELENA, was a Christian, and that it was to her influence that this
mildness was due. The sect, notwithstanding many persecutions, had kept
on increasing, until now we find them a numerous and quite influential
body. It was during his reign that the DECREE OF MILAN was issued, in
313, giving the imperial license to the religion of Christ; and also in
this reign the famous COUNCIL OF NICE, in Bithynia (325), met to settle
questions of creed.

In person Constantine was tall and majestic: he was dexterous in all
warlike accomplishments; intrepid in war, affable in peace; patient and
prudent in council, bold and unhesitating in action. Ambition alone
led him to attack the East; and the very madness of jealousy marked his
course after his success. He was filial in his affection towards his
mother; but he can scarcely be called affectionate who put to death
his father-in-law, his brother-in-law, his wife, and his son. If he was
great in his virtues, in his faults he was contemptible.


DECLINE OF THE EMPIRE.

Constantine was succeeded by his three sons, CONSTANTINE II.,
CONSTANTIUS, and CONSTANS, who divided the Empire among themselves
(337-353). Constantine and Constans almost at once quarrelled over the
possession of Italy, and the difficulty was ended only by the death
of the former. The other two brothers lived in harmony for some time,
because the Persian war in the East occupied Constantius, while Constans
was satisfied with a life of indolence and dissipation. Constans was
murdered in 350, and his brother was sole Emperor. He died ten years
later, and was succeeded by his cousin, Julian (360-363)

JULIAN was a good soldier, and a man calculated to win the love and
respect of all. But he attempted to restore the old religion, and thus
gained for himself the epithet of APOSTATE. The Christians, however, had
too firm a hold on the state to admit of their powers being shaken. The
failure of Julian precluded any similar attempt afterward. After a reign
of three years, he was killed in an expedition against the Persians. His
successor, JOVIAN (363-364), who was chosen by the army, died after a
reign of only seven months.

VALENTINIAN and VALENS (364-375). After a brief interregnum, the throne
was bestowed on Valentinian, who associated with himself his
brother Valens. The Empire was divided. Valens took the East, with
Constantinople as his capital. Valentinian took the West, making MILAN
the seat of his government. So completely had Rome fallen from her
ancient position, that it is very doubtful if this monarch ever
visited the city during his reign. (Footnote: Since the building of
Constantinople no Emperor had lived in Rome. She had ceased to be
mistress even of the West, and rapidly fell to the rank of a provincial
city.) He died during a campaign on the Danube. His son GRATIAN
(375-383) succeeded him. He discouraged Paganism, and under him
Christianity made rapid strides. His uncle Valens was slain in a battle
against the Goths; but so completely were the Eastern and Western
Empires now separated, that Gratian did not attempt to make himself sole
ruler, but appointed THEODOSIUS to the empty throne. Gratian, like
so many of his predecessors, was murdered. His successors, MAXIMUS
(383-388), VALENTINIAN II. (388-392), and EUGENIUS (392-394), were
either deposed or assassinated, and again there was, for a short time,
one ruler of the whole Empire, THEODOSIUS, whom Gratian had made Emperor
of the East. He was sole Emperor for one year (394-395). On his death
his two sons divided the Empire, HONORIUS (395-423) taking the West, and
Arcadius the East.

Honorius was only six years old when he began to reign. He was placed
under the care of a Vandal named STILICHO, to whom he was allied by
marriage. Stilicho was a man of ability. The barbarians were driven
from the frontiers on the Rhine and in Britain; a revolt in Africa was
suppressed. Honorius himself was weak and jealous. He did not hesitate
to murder Stilicho as soon as he was old enough to see the power he was
wielding. With Stilicho's death his fortune departed. Rome was besieged,
captured, and sacked by the barbarian ALARIC, in 410. When this evil was
past, numerous contestants arose in different parts of the Empire, each
eager for a portion of the fabric which was now so obviously crumbling
to pieces.

Honorius was succeeded, after one of the longest reigns of the imperial
line, by VALENTINIAN III. (423-455). The Empire was but a relic of its
former self. Gaul, Spain, and Britain were practically lost; Illyria
and Pannonia were in the hands of the Goths; and Africa was soon after
seized by the barbarians. Valentinian was fortunate in the possession
of AETIUS, a Scythian by birth, who for a time upheld the Roman name,
winning for himself the title of LAST OF THE ROMANS. He was assassinated
by his ungrateful master. A few months later, in 455, the Emperor
himself was killed by a Senator, MAXIMUS, who succeeded him, but for
only three months, when AVÍTUS (455-456), a noble of Gaul, became
Emperor. He was deposed by RICIMER (457-467), a Sueve, of considerable
ability, who for some time managed the affairs of the Empire, making
and unmaking its monarchs at pleasure. After the removal of Avítus, ten
months were allowed to elapse before a successor was appointed; and then
the crown was bestowed upon MAJORIAN (457-461). SEVÉRUS followed him, a
man too weak to interfere with the plans of Ricimer.

After his death, Ricimer ruled under the title of PATRICIAN, until the
people demanded an Emperor, and he appointed ANTHEMIUS (467-472), who
attempted to strengthen his position by marrying a daughter of Ricimer;
but jealousy soon sprang up between them. Ricimer invited a horde of
barbarians from across the Alps, with whom he captured and sacked Rome,
and killed Anthemius. Shortly after, Ricimer himself died.

Names which appear only as names now follow each other in rapid
succession. Finally, in 476, ZENO, Emperor of the East, declared the
office of EMPEROR OF THE WEST abolished, and gave the government of the
DIOCESE OF ITALY to ODOÁCER, with the title of Patrician.



CHAPTER XLII. INVASIONS AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BARBARIANS.


The sieges and captures of Rome by the Barbarians we present in a
separate chapter, instead of in the narrative of the Emperors,
because by this plan a better idea of the operations can be given; and
especially because we can thus obtain a clearer and more comprehensive
conception of the rise of the nations, which, tearing in pieces the
Roman Empire, have made up Modern Europe.

The HUNS, who originated the movement which overthrew the Western
Empire, came, it is supposed, from the eastern part of Asia. As they
moved westward, their march was irresistible. In 395 they met and
defeated the GOTHS, a powerful tribe that lived to the north of the
Danube, and who were ruled by a king named Hermanric.

The Gothic nation consisted of two branches, the OSTROGOTHS, Eastern
Goths, and the VISIGOTHS, Western Goths, Of these the Ostrogoths were
the more powerful, but on the approach of the Huns they were obliged to
submit. The Huns moved on, and found but little trouble in overrunning
the country of the Visigoths, who were so terrified by the hideous
appearance and wild shouts of the Huns that they fled to the Danube, and
besought the Romans to allow them to cross the river and take refuge in
their territory. The favor was granted, but the refugees were treated
with indignity, and compelled to undergo every privation.

Subsequently a remnant of the Ostrogoths arrived at the Danube, also
desiring to cross. To them permission was refused, but they seized
shipping and crossed, despite the prohibition of the Romans. They found
the condition of their brethren, the Visigoths, so sad, that they united
with them in open revolt, defeated a Roman army sent against them, and
ravaged Thrace. The Emperor Valens took the field in person, and was
defeated (378). The Goths then moved southward and westward into Greece,
everywhere pillaging the country.

When Theodosius became Emperor, he acted cautiously, fortifying strong
points from which to watch the enemy and select a favorable moment
for an attack. At length he surprised their camp and gained a complete
victory. The Goths were taken into the service of the Empire, and the
first chapter of the barbarian invasion of the Empire was brought to a
close.

We now meet two of the great names connected with the fall of Rome,
ALARIC and STILICHO.

Theodosius was succeeded by Arcadius, and before the end of the year
the Goths broke into open revolt under their leader, Alaric. Athens was
compelled to pay a ransom; Corinth, Argos, and Sparta were taken and
plundered. No place was strong enough to offer effectual resistance. At
this juncture, Stilicho, General of the Western Empire, hastened to the
scene, and succeeded in surrounding the Goths, but Alaric burst through
his lines and escaped. He then made peace with Constantinople, and the
office of Master-General of Illyricum was bestowed upon him. How sincere
the barbarian was in his offers of peace may be seen from the fact that
in two years he invaded Italy (400).

Honorius, who was then Emperor of the West, was a man so weak that even
the genius of Stilicho could not save him. No sooner did he hear of the
approach of Alaric, than he hastened to a place of safety for himself,
leaving Stilicho to defend Rome. Troops were called from Britain, Gaul,
and the other provinces far and near, leaving their places vacant
and defenceless. Honorius, who had attempted to escape to Gaul, was
surprised by Alaric, and, taking refuge in the fortified town of Asta,
was there besieged until the arrival of the brave Stilicho, who attacked
the besiegers, and after a bloody fight utterly routed them. In his
retreat, Alaric attempted to attack Verona, but he was again defeated,
and escaped only by the fleetness of his horse. Honorius returned home
(404), and enjoyed a triumph.

Rome had scarcely time to congratulate herself upon her escape from the
Goths, when she was threatened by a new enemy.

The Huns, pushing westward, had dislodged the northern tribes of Germany
who dwelt on the Baltic. These were the Alans, Sueves, Vandals, and
Burgundians. Under the leadership of RADAGAISUS, these tribes invaded
Italy with about two hundred thousand men. They were met near Florence
by Stilicho, and totally defeated (406). Radagaisus himself was killed.
The survivors turned backward, burst into Gaul, ravaged the lower
portion of the country, and finally separated. One portion, the
Burgundians, remained on the frontier, and from their descendants comes
the name of Burgundy.

The Alans, Sueves, and Vandals pushed on into Spain, where they
established kingdoms. The Alans occupied the country at the foot of
the Pyrenees, but were soon after subdued by the Visigoths. The Sueves
settled in the northwest of Spain, but met the same fate as the Alans.
The Vandals occupied the southern part, and from there crossed over to
Africa, where they maintained themselves for nearly a century, and at
one time were powerful enough, as we shall see, to capture Rome itself.

Rome was now for a time delivered from her enemies, and the Emperor, no
longer needing Stilicho, was easily persuaded that he was plotting for
the throne. He was put to death, with many of his friends.

With Stilicho Rome fell. Scarcely two months after his death,
Alaric again appeared before Rome. He sought to starve the city into
submission. Famine and pestilence raged within its walls. Finally peace
was purchased by a large ransom, and Alaric withdrew, but soon returned.
The city was betrayed, and after a lapse of eight centuries became the
second time a prey to the barbarians (24 August, 410).

The city was plundered for five days, and then Alaric withdrew to ravage
the surrounding country. But the days of this great leader were almost
spent. Before the end of the year he died, and shortly after his army
marched into France, where they established a kingdom reaching from the
Loire and the Rhone to the Straits of Gibraltar.

The GERMANS, under their king, CLODION, prompted by the example of the
Burgundians and Visigoths, began, about 425, a series of attempts to
enlarge their boundaries. They succeeded in establishing themselves
firmly in all the country from the Rhine to the Somme, and under the
name of FRANKS founded the present French nation in France (447).

Clodion left two sons, who quarrelled over the succession. The elder
appealed to the Huns for support, the younger to Rome.

The Huns at this time were ruled by ATTILA, "the Scourge of God." The
portrait of this monster is thus painted. His features bore the mark
of his Eastern origin. He had a large head, a swarthy complexion, small
deep-seated eyes, a flat nose, a few hairs in the place of a beard,
broad shoulders, and a short square body, of nervous strength though
disproportioned form. This man wielded at will, it is said, an army of
over half a million troops.

At the time he received from the son of Clodion the invitation to
interfere in the affairs of Gaul, Attila was already contemplating an
invasion of both the Western and Eastern Empires; but the prospect of an
ally in Gaul, with an opportunity of afterwards attacking Italy from the
west, was too favorable to be neglected.

A march of six hundred miles brought the Huns to the Rhine. Crossing
this, they continued their progress, sacking and burning whatever cities
lay in their route.

The Visigoths under Theodoric, joining the Romans under Aetius, met the
Huns near Orleans. Attila retreated towards Chalons, where, in 451, was
fought a great battle, which saved the civilization of Western Europe.
Attila began the attack. He was bravely met by the Romans; and a charge
of the Visigoths completed the discomfiture of the savages. Aetius did
not push his victory, but allowed the Huns to retreat in the direction
of Italy. The "Scourge" first attacked, captured, and rased to the
ground Aquileia. He then scoured the whole country, sparing only those
who preserved their lives by the surrender of their wealth.

It was to this invasion that VENICE owed its rise. The inhabitants, who
fled from the approach of the Huns, found on the islands in the lagoons
at the head of the Adriatic a harbor of safety.

Attila died shortly after (453) from the bursting of a blood-vessel, and
with his death the empire of the Huns ceased to exist. The VANDALS, we
have seen, had established themselves in Africa. They were now ruled by
GENSERIC. Carthage was their head-quarters, and they were continually
ravaging the coasts of the Mediterranean with their fleets.

Maximus, Emperor of Rome (455), had forcibly married Eudoxia, the widow
of the previous Emperor, Valentinian, whom he had killed. She in revenge
sent to Genseric a secret message to attack Rome. He at once set sail
for the mouth of the Tiber. The capital was delivered into his hands
on his promise to spare the property of the Church (June, 455), and for
fourteen days the Vandals ravaged it at pleasure. Genseric then left
Rome, taking with him Eudoxia.

This was the last sack of the city by barbarians. But twenty-one years
elapsed before the Roman Empire came to an end (476).



CHAPTER XLIII. ROMAN LITERATURE.

PLAUTUS (254-184).


PLAUTUS, the comic poet, was one of the earliest of Roman writers. Born
at Sarsina in Umbria, of free parentage, he at first worked on the stage
at Rome, but lost his savings in speculation. Then for some time he
worked in a treadmill, but finally gained a living by translating Greek
comedies into Latin. Twenty of his plays have come down to us. They are
lively, graphic, and full of fun, depicting a mixture of Greek and Roman
life.


TERENCE (195-159).

TERENCE was a native of Carthage. He was brought to Rome at an early
age as a slave of the Senator Terentius, by whom he was educated and
liberated. Six of his comedies are preserved. Like the plays of Plautus,
they are free translations from the Greek, and of the same general
character.


ENNIUS (139-69).

QUINTUS ENNIUS, a native of Rudiae, was taken to Rome by Cato the
Younger. Here he supported himself by teaching Greek. His epic poem, the
_Annàles_, relates the traditional Roman history, from the arrival of
Aenéas to the poet's own day.


CICERO (106-43).

MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO, a native of Arpínum, ranks as the first prose
writer in Roman literature. As an orator Cicero had a very happy natural
talent. The extreme versatility of his mind, his lively imagination, his
great sensitiveness, his inexhaustible richness of expression, which was
never at a loss for a word or tone to suit any circumstances or mood,
his felicitous memory, his splendid voice and impressive figure, all
contributed to render him a powerful speaker. He himself left nothing
undone to attain perfection. Not until he had spent a long time in
laborious study and preparation did he make his _début_ as an orator;
nor did he ever rest and think himself perfect, but, always working,
made the most careful preparation for every case. Each success was to
him only a step to another still higher achievement; and by continual
meditation and study he kept himself fully equipped for his task. Hence
he succeeded, as is universally admitted, in gaining a place beside
Demosthenes, or at all events second only to him.

There are extant fifty-seven orations of Cicero, and fragments of twenty
more. His famous _Philippics_ against Antony caused his proscription
by the Second Triumvirate, and his murder near his villa at Formiae, in
December, 43.

His chief writings on rhetoric were _De Oratore; Brutus de Claris
Oratoribus;_ and _Orator ad M. Brutum_. Cicero was a lover of
philosophy, and his writings on the subject were numerous. Those most
read are _De Senectute, De Amicitia,_ and _De Officiis_.

Eight hundred and sixty-four of Cicero's letters are extant, and they
furnish an inexhaustible treasure of contemporaneous history.


CAESAR (100-44).

Of CAESAR'S literary works the most important are his _Commentarii_,
containing the history of the first seven years of the Gallic war, and
the history of the civil strife down to the Alexandrine war. The account
of his last year in Gaul was written probably by Aulus Hirtius; that of
the Alexandrine, African, and Spanish wars, by some unknown hand. As an
orator, Caesar ranks next to Cicero.


NEPOS (94-24).

CORNELIUS NEPOS, a native of Northern Italy, was a friend of both
Cicero and Atticus. He was a prolific writer, but only his _De Viris
Illustribus_ is preserved. It shows neither historical accuracy nor good
style.


LUCRETIUS (98-55).

TITUS LUCRETIUS CARUS has left a didactic poem, _De Rerum Natura_. The
tone of the work is sad, and in many places bitter.


CATULLUS (87-47).

GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS, of Veróna, is the greatest lyric poet of Roman
literature. One hundred and sixteen of his poems are extant.


VIRGIL (70-19).

The great epic Roman poet was VIRGIL. His _Aenéis_, in twelve books,
gives an account of the wanderings and adventures of Aenéas, and his
struggles to found a city in Italy. The poem was not revised when Virgil
died, and it was published contrary to his wishes.

Besides the _Aenéis_, Virgil wrote the _Bucolica_, ten Eclogues imitated
and partially translated from the Greek poet Theocritus. The _Georgica_,
a poem of four books on agriculture in its different branches, is
considered his most finished work, and the most perfect production of
Roman art-poetry. (See page 179.)


HORACE (65-8).

QUINTUS HORATIUS FLACCUS left four books of Odes, one of Epodes, two of
Satires, two of Epistles, and the _Ars Poetica_. (See page 180.)


TIBULLUS (54-29).

ALBIUS TIBULLUS, an elegiac poet, celebrated in exquisitely fine poems
the beauty and cruelty of his mistresses.


PROPERTIUS (49-15).

SEXTUS PROPERTIUS, a native of Umbria, was also an elegiac poet, and
wrote mostly on love.


OVID (43 B.C.--18 A.D.)

PUBLIUS OVIDIUS NASO left three books of _Amores_; one of _Heroides_;
the _Ars Amatoria_; _Remedia Amoris_; the _Metamorphoses_ (fifteen
books); the _Tristia_; and the _Fasti_. (See page 181.)


LIVY (59 B.C.--17 A.D.).

TITUS LIVIUS left a history of Rome, of which thirty-five books have
been preserved. (See page 181.)


PHAEDRUS.

PHAEDRUS, a writer of fables, flourished in the reign of Tiberius
(14-37). He was originally a slave. His fables are ninety-seven in
number, and are written in iambic verse.


SENECA (8 B.C.--65 A.D.)

For an account of this writer see the chapter on the Emperor Nero, page
189.


CURTIUS.

QUINTUS CURTIUS RUFUS was a historian who lived in the reign of Claudius
(50 A.D.). He wrote a history of the exploits of Alexander the Great.


PERSIUS (34-62).

PERSIUS, a poet of the reign of Nero, was a native of Volaterrae. He
wrote six satires, which are obscure and hard to understand.


LUCAN (39-65).

LUCAN, a nephew of Seneca, wrote an epic poem (not finished) called
_Pharsalia_, upon the civil war between Caesar and Pompey.


PLINY THE ELDER (23-79).

GAIUS PLINIUS SECUNDUS, of Northern Italy, was a great scholar in
history, grammar, rhetoric, and natural science. His work on _Natural
History_ has come down to us.


STATIUS, MARTIAL, QUINTILIAN, JUVENAL. STATIUS (45-96), a native of
Naples, had considerable poetical talent. He wrote the _Thebaid_, the
_Achilleis_ (unfinished), and the _Silvae_.

MARTIAL (42-102), wrote sharp and witty epigrams, of which fifteen books
are extant. He was a native of Spain.

QUINTILIAN (35-95), was also a native of Spain. He was a teacher of
eloquence for many years in Rome. His work _On the Training of an
Orator_, is preserved.

JUVENAL(47-130), of Aquínum, was a great satirist, who described and
attacked bitterly the vices of Roman society. Sixteen of his satires are
still in existence.

TACITUS (54-119). CORNELIUS TACITUS was the great historian of his age.
His birthplace is unknown. His writings are interesting and of a high
tone, but often tinged with prejudice, and hence unfair. He wrote,--

1. A dialogue on orators. 2. A biography of his father-in-law, Agricola.
3. A description of the habits of the people of Germany. 4. A history of
the reigns of Galba, Otho, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian (_Historiae_).
5. _Annales_, a narrative of the events of the reigns of Tiberius,
Caligula, Claudius, and Nero.


PLINY THE YOUNGER (62-113). Pliny the Younger was the adopted son of
Pliny the Elder. He was a voluminous correspondent. We have nine books
of his letters, relating to a large number of subjects, and presenting
vivid pictures of the times in which he lived. Their diction is fluent
and smooth.



CHAPTER XLIV. ROMAN ROADS.--PROVINCES.


The Romans were famous for their excellent public roads, from thirteen
to fifteen feet wide. The roadbed was formed of four distinct layers,
placed above the foundation. The upper layer was made of large polygonal
blocks of the hardest stone, fitted and joined together so as to make
an even surface. On each side of the road were footpaths strewn
with gravel. Stone blocks for the use of equestrians were at regular
distances, and also milestones telling the distance from Rome.

There were four main public roads:--

1. VIA APPIA, from Rome to Capua, Beneventum, Tarentum, and Brundisium.

2. VIA LATÍNA, from Rome to Aquínum and Teánum, joining the Via Appia at
Beneventum.

3. VIA FLAMINIA, the great northern road. In Umbria, near Ocriculum and
Narnia, a branch went east through Spoletium, joining the main line at
Fulsinia. It then continued through Fanum, Flaminii, and Nuceria, where
it again divided, one branch going to Fanum Fortúnae on the Adriatic,
the other to Ancóna, and from there along the coast to Fanum Fortúnae,
where the two branches, again uniting, passed on to Ariminum through
Pisaurum. From here it was extended, under the name of VIA AEMILIA,
into the heart of Cisalpine Gaul, through Bononia, Mutina, Parma, and
Placentia, where it crossed the Po, to Mediolánum.

4. VIA AURELIA, the great coast road, reached the west coast at Alsium,
following the shore along through Etruria and Liguria, by Genua, as far
as Forum Julii, in Gaul.


PROVINCES.

After the conquest of Italy, all the additional Roman dominions were
divided into provinces. Sicily was the first Roman province. At first
Praetors were appointed to govern these provinces; but afterwards
persons who had been Praetors at Rome were appointed at the expiration
of their office, with the title of PROPRAETOR. Later, the Consuls also,
at the end of their year of office, were sent to govern provinces,
with the title of PROCONSUL. Such provinces were called _Provinciae
Consuláres_. The provinces were generally distributed by lot, but their
distribution was sometimes arranged by agreement among those entitled
to them. The tenure of office was usually a year, but it was frequently
prolonged. When a new governor arrived in the province, his predecessor
was expected to leave within thirty days.

The governor was assisted by two QUAESTORS, who had charge of the
financial duties of the government. Originally the governor was obliged
to account at Rome for his administration, from his own books and those
of the Quaestors; but after 61 B. C., he was obliged to deposit two
copies of his accounts in the two chief cities of his province, and to
forward a third to Rome.

If the governor misconducted himself in the performance of his official
duties, the provincials might apply for redress to the Senate, and to
influential Romans who were their patrons.

The governor received no salary, but was allowed to exact certain
contributions from the people of the province for the support of himself
and his retinue, which consisted of quaestors, secretary, notary,
lictors, augurs, and public criers. His authority was supreme in
military and civil matters, and he could not be removed from office. But
after his term had ended, he could be tried for mismanagement.

Many of the governors were rascals, and obtained by unfair means vast
sums of money from the provincials. One of the most notorious of these
was Verres, against whom Cicero delivered his Verrine orations.

At the time of the battle of Actium there were eighteen provinces; viz.
Sicilia (227 (Footnote: The figures in parentheses indicate the date
at which the province was established.)), Sardinia and Corsica (227),
Hispania Citerior (205), Hispania Ulterior (205), Illyricum (167),
Macedonia (146), Africa (146), Asia (133), Achaia (146), Gallia Citerior
(80), Gallia Narbonensis (118), Cilicia (63), Syria (64), Bithynia and
Pontus (63), Cyprus (55), Cyrenaica and Crete (63), Numidia (46), and
Mauritania (46).

Under the Emperors the following sixteen were added: Rhoetia, Noricum,
Pannonia, Moesia, Dacia, Britannia, Aegyptus, Cappadocia, Galatia,
Rhodus, Lycia, Judaea, Arabia, Mesopotamia. Armenia, and Assyria.



CHAPTER XLV.

(Footnote: Most of the information given in this chapter is scattered in
different parts of the history; but it seems well to condense it into
one chapter for readier reference.)


ROMAN OFFICERS, ETC.

The magistrates of Rome were of two classes; the _Majores_, or higher,
and the _Minores_, or lower. The former, except the Censor, had the
_Imperium_; the latter did not. To the former class belonged the
Consuls, Praetors, and Censors, who were all elected in the Comitia
Centuriáta. The magistrates were also divided into two other classes,
viz. Curule and Non-Curule. The Curule offices were those of Dictator,
Magister Equitum, Consul, Praetor, Censor, and Curule Aedile. These
officers had the right to sit in the _sella curúlis_, chair of state.
This chair was displayed upon all public occasions, especially in
the circus and theatre; and it was the seat of the Praetor when he
administered justice. In shape it was plain, resembling a common folding
camp-stool, with crooked legs. It was ornamented with ivory, and later
overlaid with gold.

The descendants of any one who had held a curule office were nobles,
and had the right to place in their halls and to carry at funeral
processions a wax mask of this ancestor, as well as of any other
deceased members of the family of curule rank.

A person who first held a curule office, and whose ancestors had never
held one, was called a _novus homo_, i. e. a new man. The most famous
new men were Marius and Cicero.

The magistrates were chosen only from the patricians in the early
republic; but in course of time the plebeians shared these honors. The
plebeian magistrates, properly so called, were the plebeian Aediles and
the Tribúni Plebis.

All the magistrates, except the Censor, were elected for one year; and
all but the Tribunes and Quaestors began their term of office on January
1st. The Tribune's year began December 10th; that of the Quaestor,
December 5th.

The offices, except that of Tribune, formed a gradation, through which
one must pass if he desired the consulship. The earliest age for holding
each was, for the quaestorship, twenty-seven years; for the aedileship,
thirty-seven; for the praetorship, forty; and for the consulship,
forty-three. No magistrate received any salary, and only the wealthy
could afford to hold office.


THE CONSULS.

The two Consuls were the highest magistrates, except when a Dictator was
appointed, and were the chiefs of the administration. Their power was
equal, and they had the right before all others of summoning the Senate
and the Comitia Centuriáta, in each of which they presided. "When both
Consuls were in the city, they usually took turns in performing the
official duties, each acting a month; and during this time the Consul
was always accompanied in public by twelve lictors, who preceded him in
single file, each carrying on his shoulders a bundle of rods (_fasces_),
to signify the power of the magistrate to scourge criminals. Outside the
city, these fasces showed an axe projecting from each bundle, signifying
the power of the magistrate to behead criminals."

At the expiration of his year of office, the Consul was sent to govern a
province for one year, and was then called the _Proconsul_. He was chief
in his province in all military, civil, and criminal cases.


PRAETORS.

There were eight Praetors, whose duties were to administer justice
(judges). After the expiration of their year of office, they went,
as _Propraetors_, to govern provinces. The most important Praetor was
called _Praetor Urbánus_. He had charge of all civil suits between Roman
citizens. In the absence of both Consuls from the city, he acted in
their place. Each Praetor was attended by two lictors in the city, and
by six outside. The _Praetor Peregrínus_ had charge of civil cases in
which one or both parties were aliens. The other six Praetors presided
over the permanent criminal courts.


AEDILES.

The Aediles were four officers who had the general superintendence of
the police of the city, and the care of the public games and buildings.
Two of the Aediles were taken from the plebeians, and two, called Curule
Aediles, ranked with the higher magistrates, and might be patricians.
They were elected in the Comitia Tributa. Their supervision of the
public games gave them great opportunities for gaining favor with the
populace, who then, as now, delighted in circuses and contests. A small
sum was appropriated from the public treasury for these games; but
an Aedile usually expended much from his own purse to make the show
magnificent, and thus to gain votes for the next office, that of
Praetor. Only the very wealthy could afford to hold this office.


QUAESTORS.

There were twenty Quaestors. Two were city treasurers at Rome, having
charge also of the archives. The others were assigned to the different
governors of the provinces, and acted as quartermasters. Through their
clerks, the two city Quaestors kept the accounts, received the taxes,
and paid out the city's money, as directed by the Senate. A Quaestor
always accompanied every Imperator (general) in the field as his
quartermaster. The elections for Quaestors were held in the Comitia
Tribúta.


TRIBUNI PLEBIS.

There were ten Tribunes, elected in the Comitia Tribúta. They were
always plebeians, and their chief power lay in their right to veto any
decree of the Senate, any law of the Comitia, and any public act of
a magistrate. Their persons were considered sacred, and no one could
hinder them in the discharge of their official duties under penalty
of death. They called together the Comitia Tribúta, and they also had
authority to convene the Senate and to preside over it. Sulla succeeded
in restricting their power; but Pompey restored it. The Tribunes did not
possess the _imperium_.


CENSORS.

There were two Censors, chosen from Ex-Consuls, and they held office for
eighteen months. They were elected once every five years, this period
being called a _lustrum_. They ranked as higher magistrates without
possessing the _imperium_. Their duties were:

(1) To take the census, i.e. register the citizens and their amount of
property, and to fill all vacancies in the Senate. (2) To have a general
oversight of the finances, like our Secretary of the Treasury; to
contract for the erecting of public buildings, and for the making or
repairing of public roads, sewers, etc.; to let out the privilege of
collecting the taxes, for five years, to the highest bidder.(Footnote:
In the intervals of the censorship, the duties under (2) fell to the
Aediles. ) (3) To punish gross immorality by removal of the guilty
parties from the Senate, the Equites, or the tribe.


DICTATOR.

In cases of great danger the Senate called upon the Consuls to appoint
a Dictator, who should possess supreme power, but whose tenure of
office could never exceed six months. In later times Dictators were
not appointed, but Consuls were invested with the authority if it was
thought necessary. Sulla and Caesar, however, revived the office, but
changed its tenure, the latter holding it for life.


MAGISTER EQUITUM.

This was an officer appointed by the Dictator, to stand next in
authority to him, and act as a sort of Vice-Dictator.


PONTIFICES.

The priests formed a body (_collegium_) of fifteen members, at the head
of whom was the Pontifex Maximus (high priest). Their tenure of office
was for life, and they were responsible to no one in the discharge of
their duties. Their influence was necessarily very great.


IMPERIUM.

This was a power to command the armies, and to exercise judicial
functions conferred upon a magistrate (Dictator, Consul, or Praetor)
by a special law passed by the Comitia Curiáta. The _Imperium_ could
be exercised only outside of the city walls (_pomoerium_), except
by special permission of the Senate for the purpose of celebrating a
triumph. The one receiving the _Imperium_ was called IMPERATOR.


POTESTAS.

This was the power, in general, which _all_ magistrates possessed.



CHAPTER XLVI. HOUSES, CUSTOMS, INSTITUTIONS, ETC.


The private houses of the Romans were poor affairs until after the
conquest of the East, when money began to pour into the city. Many
houses of immense size were then erected, adorned with columns,
paintings, statues, and costly works of art. Some of these houses are
said to have cost as much as two million dollars.

The principal parts of a Roman house were the _Vestibulum_, _Ostium_,
_Atrium_, _Alae_, _Tablínum_, _Fauces_, and _Peristylium_. The
VESTIBULUM was a court surrounded by the house on three sides, and open
on the fourth to the street. The OSTIUM corresponded in general to our
front hall. From it a door opened into the ATRIUM, which was a large
room with an opening in the centre of its roof, through which the
rain-water was carried into a cistern placed in the floor under the
opening. To the right and left of the Atrium were side rooms called the
ALAE, and the TABLÍNUM was a balcony attached to it. The passages
from the Atrium to the interior of the house were called FAUCES.
The PERISTYLIUM, towards which these passages ran, was an open court
surrounded by columns, decorated with flowers and shrubs. It was
somewhat larger than the Atrium.

The floors were covered with stone, marble, or mosaics. The walls were
lined with marble slabs, or frescoed, while the ceilings were either
bare, exposing the beams, or, in the finer houses, covered with ivory,
gold, and frescoing.

The main rooms were lighted from above; the side rooms received their
light from these, and not through windows looking into the street. The
windows of rooms in upper stories were not supplied with glass until the
time of the Empire. They were merely openings in the wall, covered with
lattice-work. To heat a room, portable stoves were generally used, in
which charcoal was burned. There were no chimneys, and the smoke passed
out through the windows or the openings in the roofs.

The rooms of the wealthy were furnished with great splendor. The walls
were frescoed with scenes from Greek mythology, landscapes, etc. In
the vestibules were fine sculptures, costly marble walls, and doors
ornamented with gold, silver, and rare shells. There were expensive rugs
from the East, and, in fact, everything that could be obtained likely to
add to the attractiveness of the room.

Candles were used in early times, but later the wealthy used lamps,
which were made of terra-cotta or bronze. They were mostly oval, flat
on the top, often with figures in relief. In them were one or more round
holes to admit the wick. They either rested on tables, or were suspended
by chains from the ceiling.


MEALS.

The meals were the JENTACULUM, PRANDIUM, and COENA. The first was our
breakfast, though served at an early hour, sometimes as early as four
o'clock. It consisted of bread, cheese, and dried fruits. The prandium
was a lunch served about noon. The coena, or dinner, served between
three and sunset, was usually of three courses. The first course
consisted of stimulants, eggs, or lettuce and olives; the second, which
was the main course, consisted of meats, fowl, or fish, with condiments;
the third course was made up of fruits, nuts, sweetmeats, and cakes.

At elaborate dinners the guests assembled, each with his napkin and full
dress of bright colors. The shoes were removed so as not to soil the
couches. These couches usually were adapted for three guests, who
reclined, resting the head on the left hand, with the elbow supported by
pillows. The Romans took the food with their fingers. Dinner was
served in a room called the TRICLINIUM. In Nero's "Golden House," the
dining-room was constructed like a theatre, with shifting scenes to
change with every course.


DRESS.--BATHING.

The Roman men usually wore two garments, the TUNICA and TOGA. The former
was a short woollen under garment with short sleeves. To have a long
tunic with long sleeves was considered a mark of effeminacy. The tunic
was girded round the waist with a belt. The toga was peculiarly a Roman
garment, and none but citizens were allowed to wear it. It was also
the garment of peace, in distinction from the SAGUM, which was worn by
soldiers. The toga was of white wool and was nearly semicircular, but
being a cumbrous garment, it became customary in later times to wear it
only on state occasions. The poor wore only the tunic, others wore, in
place of the toga, the LACERNA, which was an open cloak, fastened to the
right shoulder by a buckle. Boys, until about sixteen, wore a toga with
a purple hem.

The women wore a TUNIC, STOLA, and PULLA. The stola was a loose garment,
gathered in and girdled at the waist with a deep flounce extending to
the feet. The pulla was a sort of shawl to throw over the whole figure,
and to be worn out of doors. The ladies indulged their fancy for
ornaments as freely as their purses would allow.

Foot-gear was mostly of two kinds, the CALCEUS and the SOLEAE. The
former was much like our shoe, and was worn in the street. The latter
were sandals, strapped to the bare foot, and worn in the house. The poor
used wooden shoes.

Bathing was popular among the wealthy. Fine buildings were erected, with
elegant decorations, and all conveniences for cold, warm, hot, and vapor
baths. These bath-houses were very numerous, and were places of popular
resort. Attached to many of them were rooms for exercise, with seats
for spectators. The usual time for bathing was just before dinner. Upon
leaving the bath, it was customary to anoint the body with oil.


FESTIVALS, GAMES, ETC.

The SATURNALIA was the festival of Saturn, to whom the inhabitants
of Latium attributed the introduction of agriculture and the arts
of civilized life. It was celebrated near the end of December,
corresponding to our Christmas holidays, and under the Empire lasted
seven days. During its continuance no public business was transacted,
the law courts were closed, the schools had a holiday, and slaves were
relieved from all ordinary toil. All classes devoted themselves to
pleasure, and presents were interchanged among friends.

The LUPERCALIA; a festival in honor of Lupercus, the god of fertility,
was celebrated on the 15th of February. It was one of the most ancient
festivals, and was held in the Lupercal, where Romulus and Remus were
said to have been nursed by the she wolf (_lupa_). The priests of
Lupercus were called LUPERCI. They formed a collegium, but their tenure
of office is not known. On the day of the festival these priests met at
the Lupercal, offered sacrifice of goats, and took a meal, with
plenty of wine. They then cut up the skins of the goats which they had
sacrificed. With some of these they covered parts of their bodies, and
with others, they made thongs, and, holding them in their hands, ran
through the streets of Rome, striking with them all whom they met,
especially women, as it was believed this would render them fruitful.

The QUIRINALIA was celebrated on the 17th of February, when Quirínus
(Romulus) was said to have been carried up to heaven.

Gladiators were men who fought with swords in the amphitheatre and
other places, for the amusement of the people. These shows were first
exhibited at Rome in 264 B. c., and were confined to public funerals;
but afterwards gladiators were to be seen at the funerals of most men of
rank. Under the Empire the passion for this kind of amusement increased
to such an extent, that gladiators were kept and trained in schools
(_ludi_) and their trainers were called _Lanistae_. The person who gave
an exhibition was called an EDITOR. He published (_edere_), some time
before the show, a list of the combatants. In the show the fights began
with wooden swords, but at the sound of the trumpet these were exchanged
for steel weapons. When a combatant was wounded, if the spectators
wished him spared, they held their thumbs down, but turned them up if
they wanted him killed. Gladiators who had served a long time, were
often discharged and presented with a wooden sword (_rudis_), Hence they
were called _rudiarii_.


THE AMPHITHEATRE, THEATRE, AND CIRCUS.

The AMPHITHEATRE was a place for the exhibition of gladiatorial shows,
combats of wild beasts, and naval engagements. Its shape was that of an
ellipse, surrounded by seats for the spectators. The word Amphitheatre
was first applied to a wooden building erected by Caesar. Augustus built
one of stone in the Campus Martius, but the most celebrated amphitheatre
was built by Vespasian and Titus, and dedicated in 80 A. D. It is still
standing, though partly in ruins, covers nearly six acres, and could
seat ninety thousand people. The name given to it to-day is the
COLOSSÉUM. The open space in the centre was called the ARÉNA, and was
surrounded by a wall about fifteen feet high to protect the spectators
from the wild beasts. Before the time of Caesar the shows were held in
the Forum and in the Circus.

The THEATRE was never as popular with the Romans as with the Greeks. The
plays of Plautus and Terence were acted on temporary wooden stages. The
first stone theatre was built by Pompey in 55 B. C., near the Campus
Martius. It was a fine building, with a seating capacity of forty
thousand. The seats were arranged in a semicircle, as at present,
the orchestra being reserved for the Senators and other distinguished
persons. Then came fourteen rows of seats for the Equites, and behind
these sat the ordinary crowd.

The CIRCUS MAXIMUS. between the Palatine and Aventine Hills, was built
for chariot races, boxing, and gymnastic contests. It was an immense
structure, with galleries three stories high, and a canal called
Eurípus, and it accommodated one hundred thousand spectators. In the
centre Caesar erected an obelisk one hundred and thirty-two feet high,
brought from Egypt. The seats were arranged as in the theatre. Six kinds
of games were celebrated: 1st, chariot racing; 2d, a sham-fight between
young men on horseback; 3d, a sham-fight between infantry and cavalry;
4th, athletic sports of all kinds; 5th, fights with wild beasts, such
as lions, boars, etc.; 6th, sea fights. Water was let into the canal
to float ships. The combatants were captives, or criminals condemned
to death, who fought until one party was killed, unless saved by the
kindness of the Emperor.


A TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION.

The Imperator, when he returned from a successful campaign, was
sometimes allowed to enjoy a triumphal procession, provided he had been
Dictator, Consul, or Praetor. No one desiring a triumph ever entered
the city until the Senate decided whether or not he deserved one. When
a favorable decision was reached, the temples were all thrown open,
garlands of flowers decorated every shrine and image, and incense smoked
on every altar. The Imperator ascended the triumphal car and entered a
city gate, where he was met by the whole body of the Senate, headed by
the magistrates.

The procession then proceeded in the following order:--

1. The Senate, headed by the magistrates. 2. A troop of trumpeters. 3.
Carts laden with spoils, often very costly and numerous. 4. A body of
flute-players. 5. White bulls and oxen for sacrifice. 6. Elephants and
rare animals from the conquered countries. 7. The arms and insignia
of the leaders of the conquered enemy. 8. The leaders themselves, with
their relatives and other captives. 9. The lictors of the Imperator
in single file, their fasces wreathed with laurel. 10. The Imperator
himself, in a circular chariot drawn by four horses. He was attired in
a gold-embroidered robe, and a flowered tunic; he held a laurel bough in
his right hand, a sceptre in his left, and his brow was encircled with a
laurel wreath. 11. The grown up sons and officers of the Imperator. 12.
The whole body of infantry, with spears adorned with laurel.

The OVATION was a sort of smaller triumph. The commander entered the
city on foot, or in later times on horseback. He was clothed in a
purple-bordered robe. His head was crowned with laurel, and a sheep
(_ovis_) was sacrificed, instead of a bull as in the case of a triumph.


POMOERIUM.

The Pomoerium was the sacred enclosure of the city, inside of which no
person holding the _Imperium_ was allowed to enter. It did not always
run parallel to the city walls.


NAMES.

Every man in Rome had three names. The given name (_praenomen_), as
Lucius, Marcus, Gaius. The name of the gens (_nomen_), as Cornelius,
Tullius, Julius. The name of the family (_cognómen_), as Scipio, Cicero,
Caesar. To these names was sometimes added another, the _agnomen_, given
for some exploit, or to show that the person was adopted from some
other gens. Thus Scipio the elder was called AFRICÁNUS, and all his
descendants had the right to the name. Africánus the younger was adopted
from the Cornelian gens into the Aemilian gens; therefore he added to
his other names AEMILIÁNUS.

The women were called only by the name of their gens. The daughter of
Scipio was called, for example, CORNELIA, and to distinguish her from
others of the Cornelian gens she was called Cornelia daughter of Scipio.
If there were more than one daughter, to the name of the eldest was
added _prima_ (first), to that of the next, _secunda_ (second), etc.


MARRIAGE.

Intermarriage (_connubium_) between patricians and plebeians was
forbidden previous to 445, and after that the offspring of such
marriages took the rank of the father. After the parties had agreed, to
marry, and the consent of the parents or persons in authority was given,
the marriage contract was drawn up and signed by both parties. The
wedding day was then fixed upon. This could not fall upon the Kalends,
Nones, or Ides of any month, or upon any day in May or February. The
bride was dressed in a long white robe, with a bridal veil, and shoes
of a bright yellow color. She was conducted in the evening to her future
husband's home by three boys, one of whom carried before her a torch,
the other two supporting her by the arm. They were accompanied by
friends of both parties. The groom received the bride at the door, which
she entered with distaff and spindle in hand. The keys of the house were
then delivered to her. The day ended with a feast given by the husband,
after which the bride was conducted to the bridal couch, in the atrium,
which was adorned with flowers. On the following day another feast was
given by the husband, and the wife performed certain religious rites.

The position of the Roman woman after marriage was very different from
that of the Greek. She presided over the whole household, educated her
children, watched over and preserved the honor of the house, and shared
the honors and respect shown to her husband.


FUNERALS.

When a Roman was at the point of death, his nearest relative present
endeavored to catch the last breath with his mouth. The ring was removed
from the dying person's hand, and as soon as he was dead his eyes and
mouth were closed by the nearest relative, who called upon the deceased
by name, exclaiming "Farewell!" The body was then washed, and anointed
with oil and perfumes, by slaves or undertakers. A small coin was placed
in the mouth of the body to pay the ferryman (Charon) in Hades, and the
body was laid out on a couch in the vestibulum, with its feet toward the
door. In early times all funerals were held at night; but in later times
only the poor followed this custom, mainly because they could not afford
display. The funeral, held the ninth day after the death, was headed by
musicians playing mournful strains, and mourning women hired to lament
and sing the funeral song. These were sometimes followed by players and
buffoons, one of whom represented the character of the deceased, and
imitated his words and actions. Then came the slaves whom the deceased
had liberated, each wearing the cap of liberty. Before the body were
carried the images of the dead and of his ancestors, and also the crown
and military rewards which he had gained. The couch on which the body
was carried was sometimes made of ivory, and covered with gold and
purple. Following it were the relatives in mourning, often uttering loud
lamentations, the women beating their breasts and tearing their hair.

The procession of the most illustrious dead passed through the Forum,
and stopped before the _Rostra_, where a funeral oration was delivered.
From here the body was carried to its place of burial, which must be
outside the city. Bodies were sometimes cremated, and in the later times
of the Republic this became quite common.


EDUCATION.

In early times the education of the Romans was confined to reading,
writing, and arithmetic; but as they came in contact with the Greeks a
taste for higher education was acquired. Greek slaves (_paedagogi_)
were employed in the wealthy families to watch over the children, and to
teach them to converse in Greek.

A full course of instruction included the elementary branches mentioned
above, and a careful study of the best _Greek_ and Latin writers,
besides a course in philosophy and rhetoric, under some well known
professor abroad, usually at Athens or Rhodes.


BOOKS.--LETTER WRITING.

The most common material on which books were written was the thin rind
of the Egyptian papyrus tree. Besides the papyrus, parchment was often
used. The paper or parchment was joined together so as to form
one sheet, and was rolled on a staff, whence the name volume (from
_volvere_, to roll).

Letter writing was very common among the educated. Letters were usually
written with the _stylus_, an iron instrument like a pencil in size
and shape, on thin slips of wood or ivory covered with wax, and folded
together with the writing on the inside. The slips were tied together
by a string, and the knot was sealed with wax and stamped with a
signet ring. Letters were also written on parchment with ink. Special
messengers were employed to carry letters, as there was no regular mail
service. Roman letters differed from ours chiefly in the opening and
close. The writer always began by sending "greeting" to the person
addressed, and closed with a simple "farewell," without any signature.
Thus "Cicero S. D. Pompeio" (S. D. = sends greeting) would be the usual
opening of a letter from Cicero to Pompey.



CHAPTER XLVII. PUBLIC BUILDINGS, SQUARES, ETC.


_Rome_ was built on seven hills,--the Palatine, the Aventine, the
Capitoline, the Esquiline (the largest), the Quirínal, the Viminal, and
the Coelian.

There were various public squares (_forum_ = square or park). Some
were places of resort for public business, and most were adorned with
porticos. The most celebrated square was the _Forum Románum_, or simply
_The Forum_. There were also the _Forum Caesaris_ and _Forum Trajáni_.
Some served as markets; as _Forum Boarium_, the cattle market; _Forum
Suarium_, the hog market, etc.

Temples were numerous. The _Pantheon_ (temple of all the gods), built
by Agrippa and restored by Hadrian, was dedicated to Jupiter. It was
situated outside of the city, in the Campus Martius, and is now used as
a Christian church. The Temple of Apollo Palatínus, built by Augustus,
was on the Palatine Hill. It contained a library, which was founded by
Augustus. The Temple of Aesculapius was on an island in the Tiber; that
of Concordia, on the slope of the Capitoline Hill, was dedicated in
377 B.C., and restored by Tiberius. The Temple of Janus was an arched
passage east of the Forum, the gates of which were open during war. Up
to the time of Ovid the gates had been closed but three times, once in
Numa's reign, again at the close of the battle of Actium. Janus was
one of the oldest Latin divinities, and was represented with a face in
front and another on the back of his head. From him is named the month
of January.

(Illustration: ROME AND ENVIR.)

There were several temples of Jupiter, the most famous of which was that
of Jupiter Optimus, Maximus, or Capitolínus, built during the dynasty of
the Tarquins, and splendidly adorned. (See Chapter V.) There were also
numerous temples of Juno, of Mars, and of other deities.

The COLOSSÉUM was the largest building in Rome.

There were three theatres; that of Pompey, of Marcellus, and of Balbus;
and several circuses, the most famous of which was the Circus Maximus.

The BASILICAE were halls of justice (court-houses). The most important
was the Basilica Julia, begun by Caesar and finished by Augustus, which
was situated on the south side of the Forum, and the foundations of
which can still be seen.

The CURIA, or Senate-house, was in the Forum. Each of the thirty curiae
had a place of meeting, called also a curia, where were discussed public
questions pertaining to politics, finance, or religion.

The PUBLIC BATHS were numerous. There were Thermae (hot baths) of Nero,
of Titus, of Trajan, of Caracalla, and of others, ruins of which still
exist.

Pure water was brought into the city from the surrounding hills by
fourteen different aqueducts, all of which were well built, and three of
which are still in use. The first aqueduct (Aqua Appia) was built about
313 B.C., by Appius Claudius.

SEWERS intersected Rome in all directions, and some were of immense
size. The CLOÁCA MAXIMA, built by Tarquin, was the largest, and is still
in use. Its innermost arch has a diameter of fourteen feet.

There are said to have been twenty TRIUMPHAL ARCHES, of which five now
remain, 1. The ARCH OF DRUSUS, on the Appian Way, erected in honor of
Claudius Drusus. 2. The ARCH OF TITUS, at the foot of the Palatine Hill,
built by Titus to commemorate his conquest of Judaea, The bas-reliefs
on this arch represent the spoils taken from the temple at Jerusalem,
carried in triumphal procession. 3. The ARCH OF SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, built
by the Senate in 207 A. D., at the end of the Via Sacra, in honor of
the Emperor and his two sons for their conquest of the Parthians and
Arabians. 4. The ARCH OF GALLIÉNUS. 5. The ARCH OF CONSTANTINE.

There were two famous MAUSOLÉA, that of Augustus, now in ruins, and that
of Hadrian, which, stripped of its ornaments, is now the Castle of San
Angelo.

The COLUMNS commemorating persons or events were numerous. The most
remarkable of these were erected for naval victories, and called
COLUMNAE ROSTRÁTAE. The one of Duilius, in honor of the victory at Mylae
(261 B. C.), still stands. It has three ship-beaks attached to each
side. Columns were built in honor of several Emperors. That of Trajan is
perhaps best known.

The COLUMNA MILLIARIA was a milestone set up by Augustus in the Forum,
from which all distances on the different public roads were measured. It
was called _Milliarium Aureum_, or the golden milestone.



CHAPTER XLVIII. COLONIES.--THE CALENDAR.--RELIGION.


Colonies were established by Rome throughout its whole history. They
were intended to keep in check a conquered people, and also to repress
hostile incursions. Many were founded to provide for veteran soldiers; a
practice which was begun by Sulla, and continued under the Emperors.

No colony was established without a _lex_, _plebiscítum_, or _senatus
consultum_. Religious ceremonies always accompanied their foundation,
and the anniversary was observed.

The colonies were divided into two classes, viz. Roman, and Latin
or military. Members of the former class had all the rights of Roman
citizens; those of the latter could not vote in the Comitia at Rome.
The _Latíni_, who were once Roman citizens, and who always felt equal to
them, were uneasy in their subordinate position. But by the Julian law,
passed in 90 B. C., they acquired the right of voting at Rome, and were
placed on the same footing as Roman colonists.


THE CALENDAR.

The Roman year began with March. There were twelve months, and each
month had three divisions, the KALENDS, NONES, and IDES. The Kalends
fell on the first of the month; the Nones, on the 7th of March, May,
July, and October; in other months, on the 5th. The Ides came eight days
after the Nones. If an event happened on these divisions, it was said
to occur on the Kalends, Nones, or Ides of the month. If it happened
between any of these divisions, it was said to occur so many days
_before_ the division _following_ the event. The year was reckoned
from the foundation of the city (753 B.C.), and often the names of the
Consuls of that year were added.


RELIGION.

The Romans were religious, and had numerous gods and goddesses: JUPITER
and JUNO, the god and goddess of light; SATURN, the god of seed-sowing;
TELLUS, the goddess of the nourishing earth; CERES, the goddess of
growth; CONSUS and OPS, who presided over the harvest; PALES, the god of
the flocks; and LUPERCUS, the god of fertility. Various festivals
were celebrated in honor of these, as the Saturnalia, in December; the
Tellilia (Tellus), Cerialia (Ceres), and Palilia (Pales), in April; and
the Lupercalia, in February.

VESTA was the goddess of the house, and as every family had an altar
erected for her worship, so the state, as a combination of families, had
a common altar to her in the temple of Vesta. In this temple were also
worshipped the Penátes and Lares.

The LARES were special guardians of private houses. Some protected
fields and cities. Images of Lares of diminutive size, clad often in
dog-skins, were ranged along the hearth. The people honored them on the
Kalends of May and other festival days by decking them with flowers, and
by offering them wine, incense, flour, and portions of their meals upon
plates.

The PENÁTES were kept and worshipped only in the inmost chambers of
houses and temples. Their statues, made of wax, wood, or ivory, were
also kept in the inner hall.

The priestesses of Vesta were six in number, and were called VESTAL
VIRGINS. When a vestal was to be elected, the Pontifex Maximus chose
twenty young girls from high families. Of these one was chosen by lot
to fill the vacancy, and she was bound to serve for thirty years. The
Vestals were preceded by a lictor when in public. They had private seats
in the public shows, and had the power of delivering from punishment
any condemned person they happened to meet. They wore white dresses and
white fillets. Their chief duty was to keep the fire always burning on
the hearth (_focus publicus_) in the temple. They could not marry.


FLAMINES.

The FLAMINES were priests devoted to the service of some particular god.
There were fifteen, and they were chosen first in the Comitia Curiáta,
and afterwards probably in the Tributa. The most distinguished of all
the Flamines was the FLAMEN DIÁLIS (Jupiter). He had the right to a
lictor, to the _sella curulis_, and to a seat in the Senate. If one in
bonds took refuge in his house, the chains were at once removed. This
priest, however, could not be away from the city a single night, and was
forbidden to sleep out of his own bed for three consecutive nights. He
was not allowed to mount a horse, or even to touch one, or to look upon
an army outside of the city walls.


THE SALII. These were priests of Mars, twelve in number, and always
chosen from the patricians. They celebrated the festival of Mars on the
1st of March, and for several successive days.


THE AUGURES.

This body varied in number, from three, in early times, to sixteen
in the time of Caesar. It was composed of men who were believed to
interpret the will of the gods, and to declare whether the omens were
favorable or otherwise. No public act of any kind could be performed, no
election held, no law passed, no war waged, without first consulting the
omens. There was no appeal from the decision of the Augurs, and hence
their power was great. They held office for life, and were a close
corporation, filling their own vacancies until 103 B. C.


THE FETIALES.

This was another body of priests holding office for life, and numbering
probably twenty. They were expected, whenever any dispute arose with
other nations, to demand satisfaction, to determine whether hostilities
should be begun, and to preside at any ratification of peace.



CHAPTER XLIX. THE ROMAN ARMY IN CAESAR'S TIME.


The LEGIO was composed of infantry, and, though larger, corresponded to
our regiment. It was divided into ten cohorts (battalions), each cohort
into three maniples (companies), and each maniple into two centuries
(platoons). In theory the number in each legion was six thousand, in
practice about four thousand. The usual order of battle was to draw up
each legion in three lines (_acies_ triplex), the first consisting of
four cohorts, the second and third of three each. The defensive armor of
the legionary soldier was a helmet of metal or leather, a shield (four
feet by two and a half), greaves, and corselets of various material.
The outer garment was a woollen blanket, fastened to the shoulders by
a buckle. Higher officers wore a long purple cloak. The offensive armor
was a short, straight two-edged sword (_gladius_), about two feet long,
worn by privates on the right side, so as not to interfere with the
shield, but on the left side by officers. The javelin (_pilum_) was a
heavy wooden shaft with an iron head, the whole about seven feet
long and weighing fully ten pounds. All legionary soldiers were Roman
citizens. The auxiliaries were hired or drafted troops, and were always
light-armed. The cavalry in Caesar's time was made up of auxiliaries
taken from the different provinces.

The officers were:--1. The IMPERATOR, or commander in chief. 2. The
LEGÁTI, or staff officers, varying in number. Caesar had ten. 3. The
QUAESTOR, or quartermaster. 4. The TRIBÚNI MILITUM, numbering six in
each legion, and assisting   the Imperator in his duties.
 5. The PRAEFECTI, who held various subordinate commands. 6. The
CENTURIÓNES, who were non-commissioned officers, and rose in rank for
good service. There were sixty centurions in each legion, six in each
cohort, and one in each century. They were promoted from the ranks, but
rarely rose above centurion of the first rank. All the officers, except
the centurions, came from either senatorial or equestrian families.

The COHORS PRAETORIA was a body of picked troops that acted as body
guard to the Imperator.

The STANDARD (_signum_) of the legion was an eagle with outstretched
wings, perched upon a pole.

The Romans when on the march fortified their camp every night. They made
it rectangular in shape, and threw up fortifications always in the same
way. It was surrounded by a ditch and rampart. The legionary soldiers
encamped next to the wall on the inside of the fortifications, thus
surrounding the cavalry, the auxiliaries, the general and his staff. The
general's tent was called the _Praetorium_, and the entrance to the
camp in front of his tent was called the Praetorian Gate. The opposite
entrance was called the Decuman Gate.



CHAPTER L. LEGENDARY ROME.


AENEAS, son of Anchíses and Venus, fled from Troy after its capture
by the Greeks (1184?) and came to Italy. He was accompanied by his son
IÚLUS and a number of brave followers. LATÍNUS, who was king of the
district where Aenéas landed, received him kindly, and gave him his
daughter, LAVINIA, in marriage. Aenéas founded a city, which he named
LAVINIUM, in honor of his wife. After his death, Iúlus, also called
ASCANIUS, became king. He founded on Mount Albánus a city, which he
called ALBA LONGA, and to it transferred the capital.

Here a number of kings ruled in succession, the last of whom was SILVIUS
PROCAS, who left two sons, NUMITOR, the older, and AMULIUS. They divided
the kingdom, the former choosing the property, the latter the crown.
Numitor had two children, a son and a daughter. Amulius, fearing
that they might aspire to the throne, murdered the son, and made the
daughter, RHEA SILVIA, a Vestal virgin. This he did to prevent her
marrying, for this was forbidden to Vestal virgins. She, however, became
pregnant by Mars, and had twin sons, whom she named ROMULUS and REMUS.
When Amulius was informed of this, he cast their mother into prison, and
ordered the boys to be drowned in the Tiber.

At this time the river was swollen by rains, and had overflowed its
banks. The boys were thrown into a shallow place, escaped drowning, and,
the water subsiding, they were left on dry land. A she wolf, hearing
their cries, ran to them and suckled them. FAUSTULUS, a shepherd who was
near by, seeing this, took the boys home and reared them. When they grew
up and learned who they were, they killed Amulius, and gave the kingdom
to their grandfather, Numitor. Then (753) they founded a city on Mount
Palatínus, which they called ROME, after Romulus. While they were
building a wall around this city, Remus was killed in a quarrel with his
brother.

Romulus, first king of Rome, ruled for thirty-seven years (753-716).
He found the city needed inhabitants, and to increase their number he
opened an asylum, to which many refugees fled. But wives were needed.
To supply this want, he celebrated games, and invited the neighboring
people, the SABINES, to attend the sports. When all were engaged in
looking on, the Romans suddenly made a rush and seized the Sabine
virgins. This bold robbery caused a war, which finally ended in a
compromise, and a sharing of the city with the Sabines. Romulus then
chose one hundred Senators, whom he called PATRES. He also divided the
people into thirty wards. In the thirty-seventh year of his reign he
disappeared, and was believed to have been taken up into heaven.

One year followed without any king, and then NUMA POMPILIUS(716-673), a
Sabine from Cures, was chosen. He was a good man, and a great lawgiver.
Many sacred rites were instituted by him to civilize his barbarous
subjects. He reformed the calendar, and built a temple to the god Janus.
TULLUS HOSTILIUS(673-641) succeeded him. His reign was noted for the
fall of Alba Longa. Then came ANCUS MARCIUS (640-616), the grandson of
Numa. He was a good ruler and popular. He conquered the Latins, enlarged
the city, and built new walls around it. He was the first to build a
prison, and to bridge the Tiber. (Footnote: This bridge was called the
_pons sublicius_ i. e. a bridge resting on piles.) He also founded a
city at its mouth, which he called OSTIA.

The next three kings were of Etruscan origin. LUCIUS TARQUINIUS PRISCUS
(616-578) went to Rome first during the reign of Ancus, and, becoming a
favorite of his, was appointed guardian of his sons. After the death of
Ancus, he wrested the government from them, and became king himself.
He increased the Senators to two hundred, carried on many wars
successfully, and thus enlarged the territory of the city. He built the
CLOÁCA MAXIMA, or great sewer, which is used to-day. Tarquin also began
the temple of JUPITER CAPITOLÍNUS, on the Capitoline Hill. He was killed
in the thirty-eighth year of his reign by the sons of Ancus, from whom
he had snatched the kingdom.

His successor was his son-in-law, SERVIUS TULLIUS (578-534), who
enlarged the city still more, built a temple to Diána, and took a census
of the people. It was found that the city and suburbs contained 83,000
souls. Servius was killed by his daughter, Tullia, and her husband,
Tarquinius Superbus, son of Priscus.

TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS succeeded to the throne (534-510). He was energetic
in war, and conquered many neighboring places, among which was Ardea,
a city of the Rutuli. He finished the temple of Jupiter, begun by his
father. He also obtained the SIBYLLINE BOOKS. A woman from Cumae, a
Greek colony, came to him, and offered for sale nine books of oracles
and prophecies; but the price seemed exorbitant, and he refused to
purchase them. The sibyl then burned three, and, returning, asked the
same price for the remaining six. The king again refused. She burned
three more, and obtained from the monarch for her last three the
original price. These books were preserved in the Capitol, and held in
great respect. They were destroyed with the temple by fire, on July 6,
83. Two men had charge of them, who were called _duoviri sacrórum_.
The worship of the Greek deities, Apollo and Latóna, among others, was
introduced through these books.

In 510 a conspiracy was formed against Tarquin by BRUTUS, COLLATÍNUS,
and others, and the gates of the city were closed against him.
(Footnote: The cause of the conspiracy was the violence offered by
Sextus, Tarquin's son, to Lucretia, wife of Collatínus. Unable to bear
the humiliation, she killed herself in the presence of her family,
having first appealed to them to avenge her wrongs) A Republic was then
formed, with two Consuls at the head of the government.

Tarquin made three attempts to recover his power at Rome, all
unsuccessful. (Footnote: The victory of Lake Regillus, which has been
painted by Macaulay in glowing colors, was gained over Tarquin in 509.)
In the last attempt (508), he was assisted by PORSENA, king of the
Etruscans. They advanced against the city from the north. HORATIUS
COCLES, a brave young man, alone defended the bridge (_pans sublicius_)
over the Tiber until it was torn down behind him. He then swam the river
in safety to his friends. (Footnote: See Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient
Rome.")

During the siege of the city, QUINTUS MUCIUS SCAEVOLA, a courageous
youth, stole into the camp of the enemy with the intention of killing
King Porsena, but by mistake killed his secretary instead. He was seized
and carried to Porsena, who tried to frighten him by threats of burning.
Instead of replying, Scaevola held his right hand on the burning altar
until it was consumed. The king, admiring this heroic act, pardoned him.
Out of gratitude, Scaevola told the king that three hundred other men as
brave as himself had sworn to kill him. Porsena was so alarmed, that
he made peace, and withdrew from the city. Mucius received his name
Scaevola (left-handed) on account of this loss of his right hand.

Tarquin went to Tusculum, where he spent the rest of his days in
retirement.

In 494 the plebeians at Rome rebelled, because they were exhausted by
taxes and military service. A large part of them left the city, and
crossed the Anio to a mountain (Mons Sacer) near by. The Senate sent
MENENIUS AGRIPPA to treat with them. By his exertions (Footnote:
Menenius is said to have related for them the famous fable of the belly
and members.) the people were induced to return to the city, and for the
first time were allowed to have officers chosen from their own ranks to
represent their interests. These officers were called Tribúni Plebis.

Two years later (492) Gaius Marcius, one of the patricians, met and
defeated the Volsci, a neighboring tribe, at CORIOLI. For this he
received the name of CORIOLÁNUS. During a famine, he advised that grain
should not be distributed to the plebeians unless they relinquished
their right to choose the Tribúni Plebis. For this he was banished.
Having obtained command of a Volscian army, he marched against Rome, and
came within five miles of the city. Here he was met by a deputation of
his own citizens, who begged him to spare the city. He refused; but,
when his wife and mother added their tears, he was induced to withdraw
the army. He was afterwards killed by the Volscians as a traitor.
(Footnote: See Shakespeare's "Coriolanus.")

After the expulsion of Tarquin, the FABII were among the most
distinguished men at Rome. There were three brothers, and for seven
consecutive years one of them was Consul. It looked as if the Fabian
gens would get control of the government. The state took alarm, and the
whole gens, numbering 306 males and 4,000 dependents, was driven from
Rome. For two years they carried on war alone against the Veientes,
but finally were surprised and slain (477). One boy, Quintus Fabius
Vibulánus, alone survived to preserve the name and gens of the Fabii.

In 458 the Romans were hard pressed by the Aequi. Their territory
had been overrun, and their Consuls, cut off in some defiles, were
in imminent danger of destruction. LUCIUS QUINCTUS CINCINNÁTUS was
appointed Dictator. He was one of the most noted Roman warriors of this
period. The ambassadors sent to inform him of his appointment found him
working with bare arms in his field. Cincinnátus told his wife to throw
over him his mantle, that he might receive the messengers of the state
with proper respect. Such was the simplicity of his character, and yet
so deeply did he reverence authority. The Aequi could not withstand his
vigorous campaign, but were obliged soon to surrender, and made to pass
under the yoke as a sign of humiliation. The Dictator enjoyed a well
earned triumph.

In 451 one of the Decemviri, APPIUS CLAUDIUS, was captivated by the
beauty of a patrician maiden, VIRGINIA, (Footnote: See Macaulay's "Lays
of Ancient Rome.") a daughter of Lucius Virginius, and the betrothed of
Lucius Icilius. He formed, with one of his tools, an infamous plot to
obtain possession of Virginia, under pretence that she was a slave.
When, in spite of all the efforts of the girl's father and lover, the
Decemvir had, in his official capacity, adjudged her to be the slave
of his tool, Virginius plunged a knife into his daughter's bosom, in
presence of the people in the Forum. The enraged populace compelled the
Decemviri to resign, and Appius, to escape worse punishment, put an end
to his own life.

MARCUS FURIUS CAMILLUS was a famous man of a little later period. He
was called a second Romulus for his distinguished services. In 396 he
captured Veii, after a siege of ten years. On his return he celebrated
the most magnificent triumph yet seen at Rome. He was afterwards
impeached for not having fairly divided the spoils obtained at Veii,
and went into exile at Ardea. When Rome was besieged by the Gauls under
Brennus, in 390, Camillus was recalled and made Dictator. At the head of
forty thousand men he hastened to the city, raised the siege, and in the
battle which followed annihilated the Gauls. He was Dictator five times,
Interrex three times, Military Tribune twice, and enjoyed four triumphs.
He died at the advanced age of eighty-eight.

BRENNUS was the famous leader of the Senones, a tribe of Gauls, who
invaded Italy about 390. He defeated the Romans at the River Allia (July
18, 390), and captured the city, except the Capitol, which he besieged
for six months.

 During the siege he tried to surprise the garrison, but was repulsed
by Manlius, who was awakened by the cackling of some geese. Peace was
finally purchased by the Romans by the payment of a thousand pounds of
gold. To increase the weight, Brennus is said to have thrown his sword
on the scales. At this juncture, as the story runs, Camillus appeared
with his troops, ordered the gold to be removed, saying that Rome must
be ransomed with steel, and not gold. In the battle which followed, the
Gauls were defeated.



CHRONOLOGY.

     (The dates previous to 389 B.C. are uncertain.)

     B.C.
     753.     Foundation of Rome by Romulus.
     753-510. REGAL PERIOD.
     753-716. Romulus.
     716-673. Numa Pompilius.
     673-641. Tullus Hostilius.
     640-616. Ancus Marcius.
     616-578. Tarquinius Priscus.
     578-534. Servius Tullius.
     534-510. Tarquinius Superbus.
     510-30.  THE REPUBLIC.
     509.     Battle of Lake Regillus.
     508.     Porsena. Horatius Codes.
     494.     Tribúni Plebis. Menenius Agrippa.
     492.     Corioli. Coriolánus.
     477.     Destruction of the Fabian Gens.
     458.     War with the Aequians. Cincinnátus.
     451.     The Decemviri. Appius Claudius. Virginia.
     396.     Capture of Veil. Camillus.
     390.     Siege of Rome by Brennus. Battle at the Allia river (July 18).
     387.     The planting of the first military or Latin colonies.
     367.     The Licinian Rogations.
     353.     Caere: the first Municipium.
     343-341. First Samnite War.
     340-338. The Latin War.
     338.     Antium, the first Roman or maritime colony.
     326-304, The Second Samnite War.
     321.     The Caudine Forks.
     298-290. The Third Samnite War.
     295.     Sentínum.
     283.     Lake Vadimónis.
     281-272. Pyrrhus.
     280.     Heracléa. Cineas.
     279.     Asculum.
     274.     Beneventum.
     272.     Rome mistress of Italy; morality at its height.
     264.     Period of foreign conquest begins.
     264-241. First Punic War.
     260.     Lipara; Mylae.
     257.     Tyndaris.
     256.     Ecnomus. Regulus at Clupea.
     249.     Drepana.
     241.     Aegátes Insulae. Catulus. Hamilcar Barca.
     237.     Sardinia and Corsica acquired, and provincial system established.
     229.     Illyrican War. Important results.
     222.     Gallia Cisalpína acquired by battle of Telamon.
     220.     Hannibal in Spain.
     219.     Saguntum.
     218-202. Second Punic War.
     218.     Ticinus. Trebia.
     217.     Trasiménus. Casilínum.
     216.     Cannae.
     212.     Capture of Syracuse. Archimédes.
     207.     Baecula. Metaurus.
     202.     Zama.
     214-205. First Macedonian War.
     200-197. Second Macedonian War.
     198.     Cynoscephalae.
     190.     Magnesia.
     183.     Death of Africánus, Hannibal, and Philopoemen.
     171-168. Third Macedonian War.
     168.     Pydna.
     149-146. Third Punic War.
     149.,    Death of Cato the elder.
     146.     Destruction of Carthage and Corinth.
     143-133. The Numantine War.
     134-132. The Servile War.
     133.     Tiberius Gracchus.
     129.     Death of Africánus the younger.
     123-121. Gaius Gracchus.
     118-104. The Jugurthine War. Metellus. Marius. Sulla.
     102.     Aquae Sextiae.
     101.     Vercellae.
     90-89.   The Italian or Social War.
     86.      Death of Marius.
     86-84.   Sulla's campaign against Mithradátes.
     84.      Death of Cinna.
     80.      Reforms of Sulla.
     78.      Death of Sulla.
     80-72.   Sertorius in Spain.
     73-71.   Spartacus.
     72-67.   Campaign of Lucullus against Mithradátes.
     67.      Pompey conquers the pirates.
     67-61.   Pompey in the East.
     63.      Cicero Consul. Catiline.
     59.      First Triumvirate formed. Caesar's first Consulship.
     59.      The Leges Juliae. Clodius. Cicero's banishment.
              Cato sent to Cyprus.
     58-49.   Caesar in Gaul.
     57.      Recall of Cicero. Return of Cato.
     53.      Death of Crassus.
              Murder of Clodius. Pompey's consulship and
     52       separation from Caesar.
     49.      Caesar crosses the Rubicon.
     49.      Siege and capture of Ilerda.
     48 (Jan. 4). Caesar sails from Brundisium.
     48.          Victory of Pompey near the sea-board.
     48 (Aug. 9). Pharsalia. (Sept 28) Murder of Pompey.
                  Caesar establishes Cleopatra on the throne of Egypt.
     47.          Battle of Zela.
     47 (Sept.).  Caesar returns to Rome.
     46 (Apr. 4). Thapsus. Death of Cato the younger.
     45 (Mar. 17). Munda.
     44 (Mar. 15). Murder of Caesar.
     43 (Nov. 27). The Second Triumvirate.
     43 (Dec.)     Murder of Cicero.
     42 (Nov.).    Philippi.
     36.           Naulochus.
     31 (Sept. 2). Actium.

     THE EMPIRE.

     B.C. / A.D.
     30-41. THE JULIAN EMPERORS.
     30-14. Augustus.

     A.D.
     14-37.     Tiberius.
     37-41.     Caligula.
     41-68.     THE CLAUDIAN EMPERORS.
     41-54.     Claudius.
     54-68.     Nero.
     68-69.     Galba.
     69.        Otho.
     69-96.     THE FLAVIAN EMPERORS.
     69-79.     Vespasian.
     79.        Destruction of Jerusalem.
     79-81.     Titus.
     80.        Destruction of Herculaneum and Pompeii.
     81-96.     Domitian.
     96-180.    THE FIVE GOOD EMPERORS.
     96-98.     Nerva.
     98-117.    Trajan. Limit of Empire reached.
     117-138.   Hadrian.
     138-161.   Antonínus Pius.
     161-180.   Marcus Aurelius.
     180-192.   Commodus.
     192-284.   From Pertinax to Diocletian.
     284-305.   Diocletian.
     306-337.   Constantine the Great.
     312.       Edict of Milan.
     325.       Council of Nice.
     337-476.   From Constantine to Romulus Augustulus.



SPECIMEN EXAMINATION PAPERS.

HARVARD COLLEGE.

JUNE, 1889.

1. Place or explain the following: Capua; Numidia; Veii; Pharsálus;
Comitia Centuriata; Decemvir; law of Majestas. With what important
events was each connected? (Omit one; answer very briefly.)

2. The campaigns of Pyrrhus in Italy.

3. The causes and results of the Samnite Wars.

4. Cato's efforts to reform the government of Rome.

5. (_a_) Education in Rome. (_b_) Amusements at Rome. (Take one)

1888.

1. Basilica; Lex Publilia; Patrician; Triumvir; Tribune; Roman
citizen,--what were they? (Take four.)

2. (_a_) How did Augustus obtain his power? (_b_) The reign of Hadrian;
(_c_) The first Punic war. (Take one.)

3. (_a_) The Roman religion; (_b_) Decay of the Empire, (Take one)

4. Sulla's rule in Rome.

5. The tribes at the time of the Second Punic War. (4 and 5 are for
"additional readings.")



1887.

(a) (Take five.) The Allia, Agrigentum, Lilybaeum, Placentia, Cannae,
Numantia, Massilia,-where? Mention (with dates) historical events
connected with four of these places. (Take any two.)

1. How were the members of the Roman Senate chosen at different times?

2. The origin of the Praetorship. What were the duties of the Praetor?

3. Describe or explain any five: Pater Patratus, Feriae Latinae, Curia,
Equites, Flamines, the Licinian Laws, the law of Majestas.

_Questions on the "additional reading."_

(Candidates who have read the books recommended for additional reading
may substitute one of the following questions for one of the first three
in this group.)

4. (TIGHE.) How did the practical powers of the Roman Senate differ from
its theoretical powers?

5. (BEESLEY.) What can be said in defence of the Lex Frumentaria of
Gaius Gracchus?

September, 1886.

1. Give an account of the races which inhabited Italy before the
founding of Rome.

2. What were the principal Greek colonies on the shores of the
Mediterranean? For what were three of them celebrated?

3. Describe the three forms of the Roman _comitia_, and trace the
development of the _comitia tributa_.

4. What were some causes of the victory of Rome in the Punic wars? The
effect of this victory upon Italy?

5. Explain _patria potestas_, _princeps senatus_, _municipium_, _ager
Romanus_, _equites_.



YALE COLLEGE.

EXAMINATION FOR ADMISSION.

June, 1889.

1. The Patricians and Plebeians: first causes of strife between them.
Steps in the political progress of the Plebeians. Censors. Tribunes.
Licinian Laws.

2. Greek influences on Roman life: what were they? In what ways and at
what times introduced?

3. The Second Punic War: its causes. Hannibal's great march. Battles in
Italy. Hasdrubal. Transference of the war. The result. Why did Hannibal
fail?

4. Give some account of the members of the First Triumvirate.

5. Arrange in chronological order, with dates: Actium. The Gracchi.
First Samnite War. Pharsálus Regulus. Teutones and Cimbri. Numantia.
Capture of Rome by the Gauls. Cicero's first oration against Catiline.


1887.

(Time allowed, 30 minutes.)

1. What powers did Octavianus Augustus take to himself? What change did
he make in the government of Rome? What changes did Constantine make?

2. The gradual extension of the right of Roman citizenship, the causes
of each extension, and dates.

3. What were the possessions of Rome at the beginning of the Christian
era? How were they acquired, and when?

4. Explain _praetorian guards; provincia; colonia; tribunus plebis;
comitia centuriata_.

5. _Allia, Beneventum, Saguntum, Metaurus, Pharsalia;_ where were they?
what happened there, and when?


1886.

1. Describe the circumstances under which the tribunate was established.

2. When and where did the principal military events in the war between
the Caesarians and Pompeians occur?

3. Sketch briefly the career of Pompeius.

4. What persons composed the Second Triumvirate? In what essential
points did the Second Triumvirate differ from the First?

5. When and for what reasons was the right of citizenship given to the
provinces?

6. What radical changes in the government were made by Diocletian?


June, 1885.

1. Give an account of the Second Punic War (with dates).

2. Explain _tribunus plebis, censor, dictator, imperator_.

3. How were the provinces governed under the Republic, and how under the
Empire?

4. What were the causes of the Social War, and what the results?

5. When and where did the following events take place: the defeat of
Varus; the first Roman naval victory; the decisive victory over Pyrrhus;
the death of Brutus and Cassius; the conquest of the first Roman
province?



UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK.

35TH ACADEMIC EXAMINATION November 22, 1889.--Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M.,
only. 48 _credits; necessary to pass_, 36.

1. Mention two prominent characteristics of the Roman people. (2)

2. Mention one element which Rome has contributed to the civilization of
the world. (1)

3. Mention two foreign enemies that fought Rome on Italian soil; state
the result in each contest. (4)

4. Describe the situation of any two of the following places, and
state an important historical event connected with each: Caudine Forks;
Pharsalia; Pompeii; Cannae. (4)

5. Which occurred first: (1) Fall of Carthage, or captivity of Jugurtha;
(2) Battle of Actium, or battle of Philippi; (3) Death of Antony, or
death of Cicero? (3)

6. What do you understand by a "proscription"? Mention the two which
occur in Roman history. (3)

7. What were gladiators? who was their leader when they rebelled? (2)

8. What notable service was rendered to his country by Camillus;
Tiberius Gracchus; Marius; Cicero? (4)

9. Mention two laws that are landmarks in Roman history. (2)

10. Give the boundaries of the Roman Empire at the beginning of the
Christian era. (3)

11. Briefly describe the system of slavery as it existed in Rome.(2)

12. What was the Haruspex? how did he determine future events? (2)

13. Was the Roman government usually tolerant of religion? on what
ground were the Christians punished? (2)

14. Describe the way in which the Romans attacked fortified towns.
Describe two engines used by them for this purpose.(3)

15. Whence did Rome derive literature and art? (2)


THE LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF CORNELIUS SULLA.

16. To which of the two great parties in Rome did Sulla belong? (1)

17. Tell something of the reforms which he instituted. (2)

18. Mention two wars in which Sulla was engaged. (2)

19. Briefly describe his dictatorship and how it came to an end. (2)

20. Give a sketch of the character of Sulla. (2)


34TH ACADEMIC EXAMINATION.

June 14, 1889.--Time, 9 30 A.M. to 12 M., only.

48 _credits; necessary to pass,_ 36.

1. Give a brief account of any two races which inhabited Italy before
the founding of Rome.(2)

2. On how many hills was Rome built? Give the names of three of them.
(4)

3. Narrate the circumstances under which the Tribunes were first
elected. (1)

4. What were the "public lands"? what political question arose in
connection with them? (2)

5. What king of Epirus made war on the Romans? Why? What grounds had he
for hoping to succeed? (3)

6. Mention two reasons why Hannibal hoped to overcome Rome. Why did he
fail? (3)

7. What importance in Roman history is attached to the following dates:
B.C. 55, 44, 42? (3)

8. Briefly describe the political situation when Caesar crossed the
Rubicon. What were the chief consequences of his act? what was "the
Rubicon"? (3)

9. What power was intrusted to a Roman Dictator? Mention two instances
of this. (3)

10. Give the names of the Flavian Emperors, with some account of one of
them. (4)

11. What radical change in the Roman government was made by Diocletian?
(1)

12. Give a brief description of Julian the Apostate; tell why he was so
called. (2)

13. Mention three objects which a Roman would be sure to point out to a
stranger visiting Rome at the time of the Emperor Titus.(3)

14. Mention any three writers of the Augustan age, and the character of
the writings of each. (6)

15. Mention two principal causes which contributed to the downfall of
Rome. (2)


THE LIFE AND PUBLIC SERVICES OF CAIUS MARIUS.

16. To what class of the people did Marius belong? (1)

17. In what war did he first gain great distinction? (1)

18. By the defeat of what peoples did he gain the title of "Saviour of
his Country"? (1)

19. How many times was Marius elected Consul? (1)

20. What prolonged struggle had its beginning in the quarrels of Marius
and Sulla? what was the result to the Republic? (2)


33d ACADEMIC EXAMINATION.

March 8, 1889.--Time, 9.30 A M. to 12 M., only.

44 _credits; necessary to pass_, 33.

1. What was the early form of government in Rome? (1)

2. Tell what you know about the (_a_) Patricians, (_b_) Plebeians, (_c_)
Tribune, (_d_) Consul. (4)

3. Give a brief account of the origin of the Comitia Tributa. (2)

4. What was meant by an Agrarian law? who secured the first one? (2)

5. Who compiled the laws of the Twelve Tables? (2)

6. Tell briefly the story of Cincinnatus. (2)

7. Describe the system of Roman roads, and tell something of their
effect upon the Republic. (2)

8. Give the immediate cause of the First Punic War. What was its result?
(2)

9. Give the name of Rome's first province. (1)

10. In what battle did the Romans finally overthrow Macedonia? What
Roman general commanded in this battle? (2)

11. Briefly describe the siege of Numantia. (2)

12. What was the effect of their great conquests upon the character of
the Roman people? (2)

13. What was the cause of the Social War? Give the result of this war.
(2)

14. Describe the campaign of Pompey against the pirates, giving the
cause of the campaign, its length, and the result. (3)

15. What great religious event occurred during the reign of the Emperor
Augustus? (1)

16. For what were the following men noted: (_a_) Juvenal, (_b_) Seneca,
(_c_) Cato the Censor, (_d_) Fabius, (_e_) Caligula? (5)


THE GRACCHI. 17. Of what great movement did the agitations of the
Gracchi form a part? (1)

18. What measure was proposed by Tiberius Gracchus? what measure by
Caius Gracchus? (2)

19. Briefly describe the death of each of the Gracchi. (2)

20. With which order of the Roman people were the Gracchi allied by
birth? with which, by sympathy? (2)

21. Why was the failure of the agitation of the Gracchi of very great
significance? (2)


31st Advanced Academic Examination,

June 15, 1888.--Time, 9.30 A. M. to 12 M., only.

48 _credits; necessary to pass_, 36.

1. Into what three principal classes (or races) may the inhabitants of
Italy be divided? To what great race did they belong? (4)

2. Who established the _comitia centuriata_? How did it differ from the
_comitia curiata_? (2)

3. Who made the first code of Roman law? (1)

4. What king aided the Greek colonies in their war with Rome? What was
the result of the war? (2)

5. In what war was Syracuse taken by the Romans? What was the cause of
the siege? Give the name of a famous man who was slain, and state the
circumstances of his death. (4)

6. Mention five provinces gained by Rome during the period of conquest,
266-133 B.C. (5)

7. Give the effects upon Rome of the Eastern conquests, in regard to
literature and morals. (2)

8. What political parties did Marius and Sulla represent? (2)

9. What two foreign wars were conducted by Marius. (2)

10. What was the decisive battle in the civil war between Pompey and
Caesar? (1)

11. Who formed the Second Triumvirate? What illustrious man was slain in
their proscription? (4)

12. To what one of the Caesars was Seneca tutor? (1)

13. In whose reign occurred the last great persecution of the
Christians? (1)

14. Give a brief sketch of the life and character of Constantine? (3)

15. Who was the last Western Roman Emperor? (1)


THE SAMNITE WARS, AND THE RELATIONS OF ROME TO SUBJECT STATES.

16. What caused Rome to bring the First Samnite War to an end? (1)

17. Give a brief account of the battle of the Caudine Forks, and of the
treaty made there. (4)

18. What was the result of the battle of Sentinum? Give the terms of the
final peace between the Romans and the Samnites. (3)

19. In the Roman State what three rights did Rome reserve for herself?
(3)

20. Distinguish between _Roman citizens_ and _subjects_ (_or Latins_)
(2)


30TH ADVANCED ACADEMIC EXAMINATION.

March 2, 1888.--Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only.

48 _credits; necessary to pass,_ 36.

1. Draw an outline map of Italy, and upon it indicate the location of
Rome and sketch the river Tiber and the outline of Latium (6)

2. When was the Republic established, and who were the first Consuls?
(3)

3. What was the cause of the first Secession, and what were the two
conditions of the return? (3)

4. Give an account of the appointment of the Decemvirs and the powers
intrusted to them. (2)

5. Mention two provisions of the Licinian laws or rogations. (2)

6. What part of Italy did the Samnites possess, and what was the cause
of the First Samnite War? (2)

7. Give the name of one of the Roman military roads, tell in which
direction it led, and what towns were at its extremities. (3)

8. In what locality were most of the contests of the First Punic War?
(1)


ANCIENT ROME.

9. Mention one Roman and one Carthaginian general noted in the conduct
of the First Punic War. (2)

10. Describe the battle of Cannae, and tell the result of the battle.(2)

11. Mention two reforms or measures favored by the Gracchi.(2)

12. Compare the character of Marius with that of Sulla.(2)

13. Who formed the First Triumvirate, and what element of strength did
each contribute to it? (3)

14. What cause was assigned for the assassination of Caesar? (1)

15. Describe in a sentence the character of each of the following: Nero;
Trajan. (2)


THE EARLY HISTORY OF ROME.

16. Into what two principal branches were the early Italians divided,
and what part of Italy did they occupy? (3)

17. Tell briefly the traditional story of the founding of Rome. (2)

18. What was the first form of government at Rome, and after what was it
modelled? (2)

19. How did the Senate differ from the Comitia Curiata in its
membership? (2)

20. What authority did the king have, and what duties did the Senate
perform? (2)

21. Describe the religion of the early Romans. (1)


_29th Advanced Academic Examination._

November 18, 1887.--Time, 9.30 A.M. to 12 M., only.

_48 credits; necessary to pass, 36._

1. When was Rome founded? (1)

2. Under what king was the constitution remodelled, and what was the
basis of the new constitution? (2)

3. Who was the last king? By whom was the government by kings
overturned, and to whom was the power then intrusted? (3)

4. What caused the struggle between the patricians and plebeians, how
long did it continue, and how did it result? (3)

5. Give briefly the story of Coriolanus (2)

6. What induced the Gauls to invade Italy 390 B.C., where did they
contend with the Roman army, and with what result? (3)

7. Where was Carthage, by what means did it attain its power and wealth,
and when did the Romans and Carthaginians first contend in arms? (3)

8. Under what circumstances was Fabius sent against Hannibal, what
policy did he pursue, and with what result? (3)

9. Compare Publius Scipio Africanus with Marcus Cato in character and
habits. (2)

10. What was the object of Catiline's conspiracy, by what Consul was it
defeated, and in what manner? (3)

11. What causes led to the formation of the First Triumvirate? (1)

12. What was the cause of the battle of Actium, and what was its result?
(2)

13. Describe the manner in which Octavius Augustus became Emperor, and
the character of his reign. (2)

14. By what Emperor was Jerusalem captured, and in what year? (2)

15. Describe the customs of the Romans at meals, and mention some
articles used by them for food. (2)


THE GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY, AND ITS EARLY INHABITANTS.

16. Draw a map of Italy, and upon it sketch the Apennine mountains, and
the rivers Tiber and Arno. (4)

17. Upon the map indicate the location of the following: Rome, Naples,
Tarentum. (3)

18. What three races occupied Italy in the earliest known times, what
part of Italy did each occupy, and from which of these were the Latins
descended? (7)



INDEX.


     Achaeans
     Achaia
     Acroceraunia
     Actium
     Adherbal
     Aduatuci
     Aediles
     Aedui
     Aegátes Islands
     Aegyptus
     Aemilian Way
     Aemilius
     Aenéas
     Aequians
     Aesis, R.
     Aetius
     Aetna
     Aetolians
     Afranius
     Africa
     Africánus
     Agendicum
     Ager occupátus
     Ager privátus
     Ager publicus
     Ager Románus
     Agrarian Laws
     Agricola
     Agrigentum
     Agrippa
     Agrippína, daughter of Agrippa
     Agrippína, sister of Caligula
     Alae
     Alans
     Alaric
     Alba Longa
     Alban Lake
     Alban Mts.
     Alesia
     Alexander the Great
     Alexandría
     Allia
     Allies
     Alsium
     Ambiorix
     Amphitheatres
     Amulius
     Anchíses
     Ancóna
     Ancus Marcius
     Andes
     Andriscus
     Anio, R.
     Anthemius
     Antiochus III.
     Antiochus IV.
     Antium
     Antonia
     Antonius
     Antonínus, Marcus Aurelius
     Antonínus Pius
     Antony
     Aóus, R.
     Apennines
     Apollo, worship of
     Apollonia
     Apollonius
     Appeal, right of
     Appian Way
     Appius Claudius, Decemvir
     Appius Claudius, father-in-law of Gracchus
     Appius Claudius Caecus
     Appuleian Laws
     Apsus, R.
     Apulia
     Aqua Claudia
     Aquae Sextiae
     Aqueducts
     Aquileia
     Aquínum
     Aquitáni
     Arabia
     Arabia Petraea
     Arcadius
     Archeláus
     Arches
     Archimédes
     Ardea
     Argos
     Aricia
     Ariminum
     Ariobarzánes
     Ariovistus
     Aristobúlus
     Armenia
     Arminius
     Armor
     Army
     Arnus
     Arpi
     Arpínum
     Arretium
     Arsanias, R.
     Aryan Race
     Ascanius
     Asculum in Apulia
     Asia
     Assyria
     Aternus
     Athens
     Athesis
     Atrium
     Attalus II.
     Attalus III.
     Attila
     Aufidus, R.
     Augurs
     Augustan Age
     Augusta Taurinórum
     Augusti
     Augustus
     Aulerci
     Aurelia
     Aurelian
     Aurelian Way
     Aurelius, M. Antonínus
     Avaricum
     Averni
     Avernus, Lake

     Baeculae
     Baetis, R.
     Baiae
     Basilicae
     Basilica Julia
     Bathing
     Baths
     Bellovaci
     Beneventum
     Bibracte
     Bibulus
     Bithynia
     Bocchus
     Boian Gauls
     Bononia
     Books
     Bovillae
     Brennus
     Bridge, Rhine
     Bridge, Tiber
     Britain
     Britannia
     Britannicus
     Brittany
     Brundisium
     Bruttium
     Brutus, nephew of Tarquin
     Brutus
     Brutus, Decimus Junius
     Brutus, Marcus
     Burgundians
     Burrhus
     Byzantium

     Cabíra
     Caecína
     Caepio
     Caere
     Caesar, Gaius Julius
     Caesar, Lucius Julius
     Caesars
     Caícus
     Calabria
     Calceus
     Caledonians
     Calendar
     Caligula
     Calpurnia
     Calpurnian Law
     Camarína
     Camerínum
     Camillus
     Campania
     Campus Martius
     Candles
     Cannae
     Canuleian Law
     Canuleius
     Canusium
     Capéna
     Capitoline Hill
     Capitolium
     Cappadocia
     Capreae
     Capua
     Caracalla
     Carrhae
     Carthage
     Carthaginians
     Carthágo Nova
     Carus
     Casca
     Casilínum
     Cassius.
     Cassivelaunus
     Catalonia
     Catana
     Catiline
     Cato, the elder
     Cato, the younger
     Catullus
     Catulus, father of the Senate
     Catulus, Gaius Lutatius
     Caudine Forks
     Caudium
     Celtibéri
     Celts
     Cenománi
     Censors
     Centuries
     Centurions
     Ceres
     Cerialia
     Cethégus
     Chaeronéa
     Chalcédon
     Chalons
     Christians
     Cicero, Marcus Tullius
     Cicero, Quintus Tullius
     Cilicia
     Cimber
     Cimbri
     Cincinnátus
     Cineas
     Cinna
     Circeii
     Circeium, Promontory
     Circus
     Circus Maximus
     Citizenship
     City walls
     Claudian Emperors
     Claudius, Emperor
     Claudius, Publius
     Cleopátra
     Clients
     Cloáca Maxima
     Clodion
     Clodius
     Clupea
     Clusium
     Coena
     Cohors Praetoria
     Collatínus
     Colonies, Latin
     Colonies, Maritime
     Colonies, Military.
     Comitia Centuriáta
     Comitia Curiáta
     Comitia Tribúta
     Comitium
     Colosséum
     Colossus
     Column of Trajan
     Columna Milliaria
     Columns
     Commodus
     Constans
     Constantine the Great
     Constantine II.
     Constantinople
     Constantius I.
     Constantius II.
     Conscripti, Patres
     Consuls
     Consus
     Cora
     Corcýra
     Corduba
     Corfinium
     Corinth
     Coriolánus
     Corioli
     Corn laws
     Cornelia, daughter of Cinna
     Cornelia, daughter of Metellus Scipio
     Cornelia, daughter of Scipio Africánus
     Corsica
     Cotta
     Council of Nice
     Court-houses
     Courts
     Crassus, the Triumvir
     Crassus, son of the Triumvir
     Cremóna
     Crete
     Croton
     Cumae
     Cures
     Curia
     Curiae
     Curio.
     Curtius
     Curule Aedile
     Curule chair
     Curule offices
     Cynoscephalae
     Cyprus
     Cyrenaica

     Dacia
     Damophilus
     Deal
     Debts, Debtors
     Decemvirs
     Decius, Emperor
     Decius, Publius
     Decree of the Senate
     Deiotarus
     Dentátus
     Dependent Communities
     Dictator
     Diocletian
     Dolabella
     Domitian
     Domitius.
     Drepana
     Dress
     Drusus, Germanicus
     Drusus, Marcus Livius
     Duilius
     Duoviri Sacrórum
     Dyrrachium

     Eburónes
     Ecnomus
     Edict of Milan
     Editor.
     Education
     Egesta
     Egnatius
     Egypt
     Elba
     Elections
     Enipeus, R.
     Enna
     Ennius
     Epidamnus
     Epiphanes
     Epírus
     Equites
     Eryx
     Etruria
     Etruscans
     Eudoxia
     Eugenius
     Eunus
     Euphrátes
     Examination Papers

     Fabii
     Fabius, Cunctátor
     Fabius Quintus
     Fabius Vibulánus
     Fabricius
     Faesulae
     Farming the revenues
     Fauces
     Faustulus
     Festivals
     Fetiales
     Five Good Emperors
     Flamen Diális
     Flamines
     Flaminian Way
     Flaminínus
     Flaminius
     Flavian Emperors
     Floors
     Florentia
     Foreigners resident at Rome
     Formiae
     Forum
     Forum Boarium
     Forum Caesaris
     Forum Holitorium
     Forum Julii, in Gaul
     Forum Julii, in Venetia
     Forum Suarium
     Forum of Trajan
     Forum of Vespasian
     Franks
     Freedmen
     Fundi
     Funerals
     Furniture

     Gabii
     Gabinius
     Gabínus
     Gades
     Galatia
     Galba, Emperor
     Galba, Servius
     Galerius
     Gallia Cisalpína
     Gallia Narbonensis
     Gaul
     Gauls
     Games
     Gela
     Genabum
     Gens, Gentes
     Genseric
     Genua
     Genucius
     Gergovia
     Germanicus, Drusus
     Germanicus, son of Drusus Germ.
     Germans
     Glabrio
     Gladiators
     Glass
     Glaucia
     Golden House of Nero
     Good Emperors
     Gordian
     Goths
     Gracchi
     Gracchus, Gains
     Gracchus, Tiberius (senior)
     Gracchus, Tiberius
     Gratian
     Greece
     Greek Empire

     Hadrian
     Hadrumétum
     Hamilcar Barca
     Hannibal, son of Gisco
     Hannibal, son of Hamilcar
     Hanno
     Hasdrubal, son-in-law of Hamilcar
     Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal
     Hasdrubal, son of Gisco
     Helena
     Heliogabalus
     Helvetii
     Heracléa
     Herculaneum
     Herméan Promontory
     Hiempsal
     Hiero II.
     Hieronymus
     Hirtius
     Hispania Citerior
     Hispania Ulterior
     Honorius
     Horace
     Horatius Codes
     Hortensius, Quintus
     Hortensius, the Orator
     Homesteads
     Houses
     Huns
     Hyrcánus

     Iapygia
     Iapygians
     Ibérus, R.
     Icilius
     Igilium
     Ilerda
     Illyrican War
     Illyricum
     Ilva
     Imperator
     Imperium
     Intermarriage
     Interest
     Interrex
     Isara, R.
     Isauria
     Isthmian Games
     Italians
     Italy
     Iúlus

     Janiculum
     Janus
     Jentaculum
     Jerusalem
     Jews
     Joséphus
     Jovian
     Juba
     Judaea
     Jugurtha
     Julia, daughter of Caesar
     Julia, daughter of Augustus
     Julian Emperors
     Julian the Apostate
     Julian Law
     Juliánus
     Juno
     Jupiter
     Juries
     Justin Martyr
     Juvenal

     Kaeso, Quinctius
     King of Rome
     Knights.

     Labiénus
     Lacerna
     Lacinian Promontory
     Laevínus
     Laevínus, Marcus
     Lamps
     Land-owners, classes of
     Lanistae
     Lanuvium
     Lares
     Last of the Romans
     Latin Confederacy
     Latínus
     Latium
     Latóna
     Laurentum
     Lavinia
     Lavinium
     Legáti
     Leges Juliae
     Legion
     Lentulus
     Leontíni
     Lepidus, Consul
     Lepidus, Triumvir
     Leptis
     Lesbos
     Letter-writing
     Lex de Repetundis
     Licinian Rogations
     Licinius
     Liger
     Lights
     Liguria
     Lilybaeum
     Lipara Islands
     Liris, R.
     Literature
     Livia
     Livilla
     Livius
     Locri
     Longínus
     Luca
     Lucan
     Lucania
     Luceres
     Luceria
     Lucilius
     Lucretia
     Lucretius
     Lucullus
     Lupercalia
     Luperci
     Lupercus
     Lupus
     Lycia

     Macedonia
     Macedonian War
     Macrínus
     Maecénas
     Maenius
     Magister Equitum
     Magna Graecia
     Magnesia
     Mago
     Majestas
     Majorian
     Mamertines
     Mancínus
     Manilian Law
     Manilius
     Manlius, Marcus
     Manlius Capitolínus
     Mantua
     Marcellus
     Marcellus, nephew of Augustus
     Marius,
     Marriage
     Mars
     Martial
     Masinissa.
     Massilia
     Mauretania
     Mausoléum of Augustus
     Mausoléum of Hadrian
     Maximian
     Maximin
     Maximus I.
     Maximus II.
     Meals
     Mediolánum
     Memmius
     Menenius Agrippa
     Mesopotamia
     Messalína
     Messána
     Metapontum
     Metaurus, R.
     Metellus Macedonicus
     Metellus Nepos
     Metellus Numidicus
     Metellus Pius
     Micipsa
     Milan, Edict of
     Milétus
     Military Tribunes
     Milliarium Aureum
     Milo
     Minerva
     Minturnae
     Minucius
     Mithradátes
     Mityléne
     Moesia
     Money brokers
     Mons Sacer
     Moors
     Mucra, R.
     Mummius
     Munda
     Municipia
     Muthul
     Mutina
     Mylae
     Mysia

     Names
     Naples
     Naulochus
     Navy
     Nepos
     Nero, Consul
     Nero, Emperor
     Nerva
     Nervii
     Nicaea
     Nicomédes
     Nobles
     Nola
     Noricum
     Novus Homo
     Numantia
     Numantian War
     Numa Pompilius
     Numidia
     Numitor
     Nursia

     Octavia, sister of Augustus
     Octavia, wife of Nero
     Octavius
     Odoácer
     Offices and officers
     Ops
     Orchomenos
     Osca
     Ostia
     Ostium
     Ostrogoths
     Otho
     Ovation
     Ovid

     Padua (Patavium)
     Palatine
     Pales, Palilia
     Palmýra
     Pannonia
     Panormus
     Pantheon
     Parma
     Parthia, Parthians
     Pater-familias
     Patres
     Patrician
     Patricians
     Patrons
     Paullus
     Pelusium
     Penátes
     Pergamum
     Peristylium
     Perperna
     Perseus
     Persius
     Pertinax
     Petreius
     Phaedrus
     Pharnaces
     Pharsalia, Pharsálus
     Philip, Emperor
     Philip of Macedonia
     Philippi
     Philippics
     Philopoemen
     Phoenicia
     Picénum
     Picts'
     Pirates
     Pisae
     Pisaurum
     Piso
     Placentia
     Plautian-Papirian Law
     Plautus
     Plebeians
     Plebiscita
     Pliny, the elder
     Pliny, the younger
     Pollio
     Polybius
     Polycarp
     Pomoerium
     Pompeia
     Pompeii
     Pompeius, Gnaeus
     Pompeius, Sextus
     Pompey the Great
     Pomptine Marshes
     Pontifices
     Pontius
     Pontus
     Poppaea Sabína
     Porsena
     Postumius
     Potestas
     Praefect
     Praefectúrae
     Praeneste
     Praetor
     Praetorian Guard
     Praetorium
     Prandium
     Private Lands
     Private Rights
     Probus
     Proconsul
     Propertius
     Propraetor
     Provinces
     Provincial System
     Prusias
     Ptolemy, brother of Cleopátra
     Ptolemy of Cyprus
     Ptolemy V., Epiphanes
     Ptolemy Alexander
     Publicani
     Public Lands
     Public Rights
     Publilian Law, Publilius
     Punic Wars
     Puteoli
     Pydna
     Pyrrhus

     Quaestors
     Quinctius Cincinnátus
     Quinctius, Kaeso
     Quintilian
     Quirínal
     Quirinalia

     Radagaisus
     Ramnes
     Ravenna
     Reáte
     Reforms of Caesar
     Reforms of Sulla
     Regillus, Lake
     Regulus
     Remi
     Remus
     Rents
     Republic
     Rhaetia
     Rhea Silvia
     Rhegium
     Rhodes
     Ricimer
     Roads
     Roman Empire
     Romans
     Rome
     Rome, Hills of
     Romulus
     Roscius
     Rostra
     Rubicon
     Rutilius

     Sabines
     Sabis, R.
     Sacred Mount
     Sacredness of Officials
     Sagum
     Saguntum
     Salernum
     Salii
     Sallust
     Samnites
     Samnite Wars
     Samnium
     Samos
     Sardinia
     Sardis
     Saturn
     Saturnalia
     Saturnínus
     Scaevola
     Scarpheia
     Scipio, Gnaeus
     Scipio, Consul 218 B. C.
     Scipio Africánus, the elder
     Scipio Africánus, the younger
     Scipio Asiaticus
     Scipio, Metellus
     Scipio Nasíca
     Scribonia
     Segesta
     Sejánus
     Seleucia
     Selínus
     Sempronia
     Sempronius
     Sena Gallica
     Senate
     Senones
     Sentínum
     Sequani
     Sertorius
     Servian Reform
     Servile War
     Servilius
     Servius Tullius
     Setia
     Sevérus, Alexander
     Sevérus, Septimius
     Sevérus III.
     Sewers
     Sextus Lateránus
     Sextus, son of Tarquin
     Ships
     Sibylline Books
     Sicily
     Silver Age
     Silvius Procas
     Sinuessa
     Slaves.
     Social War
     Soleae
     Solon
     Sophonisba
     Soracte, Mt.
     Sosigenes
     Spain
     Sparta
     Spartacus
     Spoletium
     Spurius Cassius
     Standards
     Statius
     Stilicho
     Stola
     Strongyle Islands
     Suessiónes
     Sueves, Suevi
     Sulla
     Sulmo
     Sulpicius Galba
     Sulpicius Rufus
     Sutrium
     Sybaris
     Syphax
     Syracuse
     Syria

     Tablinum
     Tacitus, Emperor
     Tacitus, Historian
     Tarentum.
     Tarquinii
     Tarquinius Priscus
     Tarquinius Superbus
     Tarracína
     Tarragóna
     Tauromenium
     Tax-gatherers
     Teánum
     Telamon
     Tellilia, Tellus
     Temple of Aesculapius
     Temple of Apollo Palatínus
     Temple of Ceres
     Temple of Concordia
     Temple of Diána
     Temple of Janus
     Temple of Juno
     Temple of Jupiter
     Temple of Mars
     Temple of Peace
     Tenth Legion, revolt of
     Terence
     Terentilius, Terentilian Rogations
     Teutoberger Forest
     Teutones
     Thala
     Thapsus
     Theatre
     Theatre of Balbus
     Theatre of Marcellus
     Theatre of Pompey
     Theodosius
     Thermae
     Thermus
     Thessaly
     Thirty Tyrants
     Thurii
     Tibullus
     Tibur
     Tiberius
     Ticínus, R.
     Tigellínus
     Tigránes
     Time, mode of reckoning
     Tities
     Titus
     Tivoli
     Toga
     Torquátus
     Trajan
     Trasiménus, Lake
     Trebia, R.
     Trebonius
     Tribes
     Tribunes
     Tribúni Militum
     Tribútum
     Triclinium
     Trigánum
     Trinacria
     Triumphal Arches
     Triumphal Procession
     Triumvirate, First
     Triumvirate, Second,
     Tullia, daughter of Servius Tullius
     Tullus Hostilius
     Tunica
     Tunis
     Tusculum
     Twelve Caesars
     Twelve Tables
     Tyndaris

     Umbria, Umbrians
     Utica

     Vadimónis, Lake
     Valens
     Valentinian I.
     Valentinian II.
     Valentinian III.
     Valerius, Valerio-Horatian Laws
     Valerius, Caesar's Lieutenant
     Valero Publilius
     Vandals
     Varro, Consul at Cannae
     Varro, Pompey's Lieutenant
     Varus
     Veii, Veientes
     Velítrae
     Veneti
     Venetia
     Venice
     Venusia
     Vercellae
     Vercingetorix
     Verginius
     Veróna
     Verres
     Verus, Annius
     Verus, Lucius
     Vespasian
     Vesta.
     Vestal Virgins
     Vestibulum
     Vesuvius, Mt.
     Veto
     Veturius
     Via Aemilia
     Via Appia
     Via Aurelia
     Via Flaminia
     Via Latína
     Via Sacra
     Vienna
     Villius
     Virgil
     Virginia, Virginius
     Viriáthus
     Visigoths
     Vitellius
     Volaterrae
     Volsci
     Volsinii
     Volturnus
     Voting
     Vulso

     Windows
     Writing
     Written Code of Laws

     York

     Zama
     Zela
     Zeno
     Zenobia
     Zeugma
     Zeugma





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