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Title: Spanish Composition
Author: Broomhall, Edith J.
Language: Spanish
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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SPANISH COMPOSITION

BY

EDITH J. BROOMHALL
CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL, MINNEAPOLIS
MINNESOTA

ALLYN AND BACON
BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO
ATLANTA SAN FRANCISCO

COPYRIGHT, 1921,
BY EDITH J. BROOMHALL.

Norwood Press
J. S. Cushing Co.--Berwick & Smith Co.
Norwood, Mass., U.S.A.



PREFACE


This book aims to teach Spanish idiom. The greatest hindrance to the use
of idiomatic Spanish lies in the failure to realize that common English
words have various Spanish meanings.

To meet this difficulty, the notes and exercises of _Spanish
Composition_ are focused on the errors beginners most frequently make.
For instance, attention is drawn to the fact that words like _up_,
_down_, _out_, _in_, _away_ are usually included in the Spanish verb,
which is often entirely different from the English expression. Thus,
while "to get" is _obtener_, "to get up" is _levantarse_.

Of course the treatment cannot be exhaustive, but enough examples are
given to show the pupil the necessity of _thinking_ before translating
even the commonest words and phrases. The aim has been to give a simple
and specific discussion of everyday expressions rather than to try to
cover the entire field of Spanish idiom.

About two hundred and fifty quotations from famous Spanish authors
illustrate the various idioms and acquaint the learner with the great
names of Spanish literature.

I wish to express my hearty thanks to Dr. Harry Kurz of Carleton
College, and to my colleagues in the Minneapolis High Schools, Señor
Fernando García and Señor Julius Arrieta, who have read the work either
in manuscript or in proof.

EDITH J. BROOMHALL.

CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL,
MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA.
January, 1921.



CONTENTS


                                                                    PAGE

LESSON I. English _to be_                                              1

LESSON II. The verb _to ask_                                           4
  English _for_                                                        5

LESSON III. The verb _to have_                                         7
  English _to be to_                                                   8

LESSON IV. English _since_                                            10
  The verb _to go_                                                    10

LESSON V. English _long_                                              13
  The word _before_                                                   14
  The verb _to know_                                                  14

LESSON VI. English _to get_                                           16

LESSON VII. Review exercises                                          19

LESSON VIII. The verb _to look_ or _look at_                          20
  English _little_                                                    20
  English _there_                                                     21

LESSON IX. The verb _to grow_                                         23
  The word _just_                                                     23

LESSON X. English _after_                                             26
  The verb _to help_                                                  27

LESSON XI. English _here_                                             29
  English _well_                                                      29
  The verb _to hold_                                                  30

LESSON XII. The adverb _so_                                           32
  English _to keep_                                                   33

LESSON XIII. Review exercises                                         35

LESSON XIV. English _to leave_                                        37
  _To let_                                                            38

LESSON XV. English _now_                                              40
  English _about_                                                     41
  _To be about to_                                                    41
  The verb _to feel_                                                  41

LESSON XVI. English _will_                                            43
  The word _all_                                                      43

LESSON XVII. The word _way_                                           46
  The adjective _hard_                                                47
  The verb _to give_                                                  47

LESSON XVIII. The verb _to think_                                     49
  The verb _to make_                                                  49

LESSON XIX. The verb _to miss_                                        52
  Emphasis in Spanish                                                 52

LESSON XX. Review exercises                                           55

LESSON XXI. English _time_                                            57
  The verb _to like_                                                  58

LESSON XXII. _Very_ as an adverb                                      60
  The verb _to play_                                                  61
  The verb _to need_                                                  61

LESSON XXIII. The verb _to please_                                    63
  The verb _to mean_                                                  64
  _Without_                                                           64

LESSON XXIV. The word _only_                                          66
  _Alone, single_                                                     67
  The verb _to hear_                                                  67

LESSON XXV. English _right_                                           69
  English _must_                                                      70

LESSON XXVI. The verb _to appear_                                     72
  The verb _to succeed_                                               72
  The word _even_                                                     73
  _Toward_                                                            73

LESSON XXVII. Review exercises                                        75

LESSON XXVIII. The verb _to sit_                                      77
  _To stand_                                                          77
  English _corner_                                                    78

LESSON XXIX. English _self_                                           80
  _Last_                                                              80
  The verb _to tell_                                                  81

LESSON XXX. _To save_                                                 83
  _To see_                                                            83
  _Half_                                                              84

LESSON XXXI. The word _as_                                            86

LESSON XXXII. The verb _to want_                                      89
  _Either, or_                                                        89
  _Neither_                                                           90
  _Because_                                                           90

LESSON XXXIII. The verb _to wonder_                                   92
  _The one_                                                           93

LESSON XXXIV. Review exercises                                        95

LESSON XXXV. The verb _to take_                                       97

LESSON XXXVI. The word _ever_                                        100
  The verb _to pass_                                                 100
  The verb _to pay_ or _pay for_                                     101

LESSON XXXVII. The verb _to turn_                                    103

LESSON XXXVIII. English _can_ and _could_                            106
  _To ring_                                                          107
  English _but_                                                      107

LESSON XXXIX. The verb _to put_                                      109

LESSON XL. _To strike_                                               112
  Spanish vez meaning _time_                                         112
  The verb _to start_                                                113

LESSON XLI. The verb _to do_                                         115
  Adverbial expressions                                              115

LESSON XLII. Review exercises                                        118

APPENDIX                                                             121

SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY                                             1

ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY                                            19



AUTHORS QUOTED


CERVANTES             _Don Quijote_

ECHEGARAY             _El Poder de la Impotencia_, _Siemore en Ridículo_,
                      _El Hijo de Don Juan_

GIL Y ZÁRATE          _Guzmán el Bueno_

CAMPOAMOR             _Poems_

CASTELAR              _Recuerdos y Esperanzas_

ALARCÓN               _El Capitán Veneno_, Short Stories

PÉREZ GALDÓS          _Electra_, _Celia en los Infiernos_

PARDO BAZÁN           _La Piedra Angular_, Short Stories

VALERA                _Pepita Jiménez_

BENAVENTE             _La Princesa Bebé_, _La Malquerida_, _El Collar
                       de Estrellas_

PALACIO VALDÉS        _José_, _La Hermana San Sulpicio_

EDUARDO MARQUINA      _El Rey Trovador_

MARTÍNEZ SIERRA       _Teatro de Ensueño_

LOS QUINTERO          _Malvaloca_, _Doña Clarines_, _Manana de Sol_,
                      _Los Galeotes_

ESCRICH               _Fortuna_

DE LARRA              _Partir a Tiempo_

BLASCO IBAÑEZ         _Los Cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipse_

JOSÉ MÁRMOL           _Amalia_

RAMOS CARRIÓN         _Zaragüeta_, _La Muela del Juicio_



SPANISH COMPOSITION



LESSON I

_El trabajo es buen compañero de la esperanza._[1]

--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.


=1.= English _to be_ is generally translated into Spanish by =ser= or
=estar=, the former with the general idea of permanency, the latter
indicating temporary state. Location is _always_ expressed by =estar=.

_I, who was white, am also brown, because the sun has kissed me._

=Yo, que era blanca, estoy también morena, porque el sol me ha
besado.=--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

(_a_) In expressions referring to the weather _to be_ is rendered
by =hacer=, _to make_, the descriptive adjective becoming in Spanish
a noun of corresponding meaning.

_It was suffocatingly hot._

=Hacía un calor sofocante.=--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_It was very cold in the city to-day._

=Hacía mucho frío hoy en la ciudad.=

_Note._--In all such expressions _very_ must be translated =mucho=,
since =calor=, =frío=, etc., are nouns.

(_b_) When used with a predicate adjective indicating mental or
physical state, _to be_ is translated by =tener=, the adjective
changing to a noun of corresponding meaning.

The commonest of these expressions are _to be hungry_, _thirsty_,
_hot_, _cold_, _sleepy_, _afraid_, _right_, _careful_, _jealous_,
which are rendered =tener hambre=, =sed=, =calor=, =frío=, =sueño=, =miedo=,
=razón=, =cuidado=, =celos=.

_Uncle is right. That can't hurt him._

=Tiene razón el tío. Eso no puede hacerle mal.=--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_While I am so cold I don't want to go out._

=Mientras tengo tanto frío no quiero salir.=

_I wasn't hungry but I was very sleepy._

=No tenía hambre pero tenía mucho sueño.=

_Note._--In all similar expressions _so_ is rendered =tanto=. Cf.
note to (_a_) above.

(_c_) Many phrases consisting of the verb _to be_ and an adjective
denoting age or dimension are translated by =tener= and a noun. Such
are _to be old_, _wide_, _long_, _high_, etc., rendered =tener edad=,
=anchura=, =longitud=, =altitud=. Note also _to be to blame_, _one's
fault_, =tener la culpa=; _to be successful_, =tener éxito=.

_How old are these children?_

=¿Qué edad tienen estos niños?=

_The ribbon is two inches wide._

=La cinta tiene dos pulgadas de anchura.=

(_d_) _To be at_ meaning _to attend_ is translated =asistir a=.

_There were not many at the meeting last night._

=No asistían muchos a la reunión de anoche.=

(_e_) _To be worth_ is translated =valer=. _To be worth while_ is
=valer la pena=.

_I don't know how much it is and it isn't worth while to ask._

=No sé cuanto vale y no vale la pena de preguntar.=


=2.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Hacía tanto calor que no podíamos dormir aunque teníamos mucho
sueño. 2. Ya no tenemos miedo de nada. 3. Dice que tiene mucho frío. 4.
Nos preguntaron si teníamos hambre. 5. Usted cree que este hombre tiene
razón. Pues yo creo que no la tiene. 6. La mesa tiene cuatro pies de
longitud y tres de anchura. 7. Yo no tengo la culpa de que no asistieron
al teatro anoche. 8. Dígale que tendré mucho gusto en aceptar su amable
invitación y asistir al concierto. 9. Ha hecho tanto frío hoy como si
fuéramos en el mes de diciembre. 10. Estoy seguro de que usted tendrá
mucho éxito.

(_b_) 1. Don't be afraid of the dog. He will not bite you. 2. How wide
is this river? 3. If you are so hungry, why don't you eat? 4. Is it my
fault that they are not here yet? 5. It is too cold in this room. Close
the door. 6. The living-room is longer than the dining-room, but it is
not so wide. 7. I don't feel like (_am not desirous of_) studying
to-night. 8. I wasn't at school the day that the President visited it.
9. I gave him the money although I knew that the thing wasn't worth it.
10. It is cool to-day. It was so warm yesterday.



LESSON II


_El día es para trabajar, por eso hay luz._[2]

--TOMAYO Y BAUS.


3. The verb _to ask_ has five common translations. Meaning _to question_
or _to inquire_ it is rendered =preguntar=.

_"Are you asleep, Captain?" the widow asked, greatly alarmed._

=¿Duerme Vd., Capitán?--le preguntó muy alarmada la viuda.=--PEDRO DE
ALARCÓN.

_A girl came to the door asking for him._

=Vino a la puerta una muchacha preguntando por él.=--LOS QUINTERO.

(_a_) _To ask for_, _beg_, is translated =pedir a=.

_He had slipped into the kitchen to ask the cook for something to
eat._

=Se había deslizado en la cocina para pedir algo que comer a la
cocinera.=--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_Note._--With =pedir= the thing asked for is the direct object, the
person of whom it is asked is the indirect, and is introduced by =a=.
Cf. English, "We begged a dollar from father."

(_b_) _To ask_ in the sense of _to request_ is rendered by =pedir= or
=rogar=, the latter being the more formal. Both verbs require the
subjunctive in the dependent verb.

_I asked the children not to make so much noise._

=Pedí a los niños que no hiciesen tanto ruido.=

_I asked Mr. Blanco to come and see me._

=Le rogué al señor Blanco que me viniese a ver (a visitar).=

(_c_) _To ask_, _invite_ is rendered =convidar= or =invitar=.

_They have asked us to dinner._

=Nos han convidado (invitado) a comer con ellos.=

(_d_) _To ask questions_ is rendered =hacer preguntas=.

_And finally he asked himself the same question, wondering that it
had not occurred to him before._

=Y por fin se hizo la misma pregunta, extrañando que no se le
hubiera ocurrido antes la idea.=--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

=4.= English _for_ as a preposition is rendered by =para= or =por=. It is
omitted before a non-emphatic personal pronoun object and after many
verbs.

_He bought it for me yesterday._

=Me lo compró ayer.=

_He bought it for me_ (for my sake).

=Lo compró por mí.===

_Wait for me._

=Espéreme.=

_Ask for it._

=Pídalo.=

_Look for them._

=Búsquelos.=

(_a_) _For_ is rendered =para= when it expresses destination,
purpose, use, future time, and to introduce a qualifying phrase.

_This is the train for Madrid._

=Este es el tren para Madrid.=

_She has enough money for her clothes._

=Tiene bastante dinero para sus vestidos (prendas de vestir).=

_This is a machine for cutting leather._

=Ésta es una máquina para cortar cuero.=

_I have an appointment for to-morrow._

=Tengo cita para mañana.=

_She plays the piano well for her age._

=Toca el piano bien para su edad.=

(_b_) Expressing exchange, cause, motive, or duration of time,
_for_ is rendered =por=.

_I gave him twenty-five dollars for his bicycle._

=Le dí veinticinco duros por su bicicleta.=

_For months at a time we did not see him._

=Por meses enteros no le habíamos visto.=

_They set fire to the house for fun._

=Por burla pegaron fuego a la casa.=

_We could not see the house for the smoke._

=No podíamos ver la casa por el humo.=


=5.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. La señora pregunta por la señorita. 2. Ruéguele que me lo
mande. 3. Pídame Vd. todo lo que quiera. 4. ¿Cuándo parte Vd. para
Europa? 5. Para su edad es un muchacho muy intelligente. 6. No sé
contestar a todas las preguntas que me hacen estos chicos. 7. Le dí mi
gramática española por su libro de lectura. 8. Para el almuerzo he
comprado tocino. 9. Lo hace todo por sus hermanos y no saben
agradecérselo. 10. Murió por la patria como yo muriera por ella.

(_b_) 1. I shall ask them to come and see me in the country. 2. I
promised my mother that I would ask you for some of your beautiful
roses. 3. Ask the children if they are hungry. 4. I will ask his mother
to ask him for it. 5. Shall we ask them to dinner for the day after
to-morrow? 6. Will you wait for me while I look for it? (For _will you_
say =Quiere Vd.=) 7. This is the book father bought for me in London. 8.
It is a beautiful book for the price. 9. If it wasn't for the dust, we
could see the horses. 10. Some friends have asked me to go to the
theater with them this evening. 11. In Spanish they call a typewriter a
"machine for writing." 12. They will sing for joy when they receive this
news.



LESSON III

_Cada uno es como Dios le ha criado._[3]

--PEDRO DE ALARCÓN.


=6.= The verb _to have_ denoting possession is rendered =tener=. With
auxiliary force it is =haber=.

_I used to have it, but I have it no longer._

=Lo tenía sí, pero ya no lo tengo más.=

_He says he has sold it, but I don't know who has bought it._

=Dice que lo ha vendido, pero no sé quien lo ha comprado.=

(_a_) _To have_ meaning _to cause to be done_ or _made_, _let_, is
rendered by =hacer= followed (1) by a direct infinitive, or (2) by
=que= with the subjunctive of indirect command.

_Have them get the trunks down at once._

=Hágales bajar los baúles en seguida= or =Haga Vd. que bajen los
baúles.=

_I like this book very much. I will have the children read it._

=Me gusta mucho este libro. Haré que lo lean los niños.=

_He has had a new house built for his newly married daughter._

=Ha hecho construir una nueva casa para su hija recién casada.=

(_b_) _To have to_ denoting necessity or compulsion is translated
=tener que=, which is followed by the infinitive.

_It is raining torrents. We shall have to stay here till it stops._

=Llueve a cántaros. Tendremos que quedarnos aquí hasta que deje de
llover.=

_I can't go with you because I have to study some lessons._

=No puedo acompañarle porque tengo que estudiar unas lecciones.=

(_c_) _To have on_, _be wearing_, is rendered =tener puesto=, or by
=llevar= or =vestir=. =Puesto= is an adjective and agrees in gender and
number with the thing worn.

_She has on a simple dress and over her shoulders a wide black lace
scarf._

=Viste un traje sencillo y trae sobre los hombros un amplio velo
negro de encaje.=--LOS QUINTERO.

_They all had their hats on when they came out._

=Al salir todos tenían puestos los sombreros.=


=7.= English _to be to_ expressing futurity coupled with a vague necessity
is rendered =haber de= followed by the infinitive.

_I have read in the papers that the president is to visit the city._

=He leído en los diarios que el presidente ha de visitar la ciudad.=

_The teacher told us that we were to finish that lesson._

=El maestro nos dijo que hubiéramos de acabar aquella lección.=


=8.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Aquel día había de ser glorioso para el país. 2. Yo quiero que
nadie tenga noticia de nuestra conferencia. 3. Quien lo haya quebrado
tendrá que remendarlo. 4. Me había ido, pero he vuelto porque tengo que
hablarle a Vd. 5. Pues ya no has de ver más a Paquita. Ella se casa. 6.
Lo compré esta mañana y han de entregármelo mañana. 7. Tengo que subir
al palomar para dar de comer a mis palomitas. 8. Ha mandado hacer un
vestido nuevo para su hijita. 9. Celebro tener el gusto de conocer a Vd.
10. Tengo una viva satisfacción en haber conocido a Vd. 11. Dígales Vd.
que me traigan pronto lo que les he pedido. 12. Tendrán que acostarse en
cuanto lleguen.

(_b_) 1. This strap is good for nothing (_worth nothing_). I had it in
my hand and it broke. 2. The trunks will have to be at the station at
three o'clock. 3. What dress are you going to wear on the train? The one
that I have on. 4. Have a new strap made when you return. 5. We are to
wait for them here. They have gone to look for the others. 6. The
teacher had the pupil read the lesson aloud. 7. You will have to go with
us because we don't know the way. 8. She had on a pair of white gloves
that I had given her. 9. I am to tell her that he has broken the whip
that she had made for him for his birthday. 10. I will have the letter
written at once.



LESSON IV

_Puesto que todo pasa, gocémoslo todo mientras vive._[4]

--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.


=9.= The English _since_ as a preposition is translated =desde=; as an
adverb it is rendered =desde entonces= or =desde aquel tiempo=, literally,
_since then_ and _since that time_. As a conjunction of time it is =desde
que=, and as a conjunction of cause it is =ya que=, =puesto que=, or =visto
que= (cf. English _seeing that_).

_I have not seen him since yesterday._

=No le he visto desde ayer.=

_He left the city last year and I have not seen him since._

=Partió de la ciudad el año pasado y no le he visto desde entonces.=

_I have not seen him since he left the city._

=No le he visto desde que partió de la ciudad.=

_I will speak to him once more since you desire it._

=Le hablaré una vez más ya que Vd. lo desea.=--LOS QUINTERO.


=10.= The verb _to go_ is =ir= or =irse=, the reflexive form being used when
_to be_ is not followed by a complementary infinitive or by a
prepositional phrase denoting direction. _To go away_ may be translated
=irse=, =marcharse=, or =partir=.

_Now I am going to explain it to you._

=Ya se lo voy a explicar.=

_I am going now. Do you want to go with me?_

=Ya me voy. ¿Quiere Vd. acompañarme?=

_We are going to the country to spend a few days._

=Vamos al campo a pasar unos pocos días.=

(_a_) _To go in_ or _into_, _up_, _down_, _through_, are translated
=entrar= (=en=), =subir=, =bajar=, =pasar por=, the preposition being
included in the meaning of the verb except that =en= and =por= are used
with =entrar= and =pasar= when the object of the verb is expressed.

_Did you go into the house? Yes, we went in. We also went upstairs
and went through all the rooms._

=¿Entraron Vds. en la casa? Sí, entramos. También subimos la
escalera y pasamos por todas las habitaciones.=

(_b_) _To go out_ has two translations, =salir=, _to leave_, and
=apagarse=, _to be extinguished_.

_They have all gone out to take a walk._

=Todos han salido a dar un paseo.=

_All of a sudden all the lights in the house went out._

=De repente se apagaron todas las luces en la casa.=

(_c_) _To go on_, _continue_, is rendered =continuar= or =seguir=.

_He went on talking as if he had not seen me._

=Siguió= (=continuó=) =hablando como si no me hubiera visto.=

(_d_) _To go to bed_ is rendered =acostarse=; _to go to sleep_,
=dormirse=.

_I can't go to sleep when I go to bed so early._

=No puedo dormirme cuando me acuesto tan temprano.=

Many other translations of _to go_ may be obtained by paraphrasing. So,
_to go back_, _return_, =volver=; _to go into_, _investigate_, =investigar=;
_to go by_, _judge by_, =juzgar por=, etc.


=11.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Me voy un rato con este amigo. 2. Ya se apagó el fuego. 3.
Todos quedaron menos él, que se fué en seguida. 4. Puesto que llueve a
cántaros no salimos esta mañana. 5. Ya es hora de volver, ¿no? 6. Nos
iremos mañana si hace buen tiempo. 7. No hemos recibido noticias de
ellos desde que se fueron. 8. Entonces vimos que los niños se habían
dormido. 9. Siguen riendo y charlando mientras esperan la llegada de los
otros. 10. Tráeme acá un fósforo. Se me ha apagado la lámpara.

(_b_) 1. Since I can't come to see you, I ask you to come to see me. 2.
I lent him my fountain pen last week and I have not seen it since. 3. I
am sleepy, but I can't go to sleep. 4. Go back at once! The others have
all gone. 5. Don't go out until you see them go in. 6. It is very cold
in this room since the fire went out. 7. I shall go on making
preparations for their visit. 8. It was so warm in the room that we
almost went to sleep. 9. He is ill and has had to go to bed. He hasn't
been well since he came home. 10. Are you going now? Well, I will go
with you.



LESSON V

_Mientras uno es joven, siempre hay esperanza de mejorar la
fortuna._[5]--PALACIO VALDÉS.


=12.= English _long_ is usually rendered =largo=, but in expressions of time
it is often translated =mucho=.

_This is the longest street in the city. We lived here for a long time._

=Esta es la calle más larga de la ciudad. Vivimos aquí por mucho tiempo.=

_I have not seen them for a long time._

=No los he visto desde hace mucho tiempo.=

_Note._--When a phrase expressing duration of time introduced by
_for_ is equivalent to _since ... ago_, _for_ is translated =desde
hace=.

(_a_) The phrase _to be long_ (_in_), followed by a verbal in
_-ing_, expressed or understood, is rendered =tardar= (=en=), followed
by an infinitive expressed or understood.

_Have patience! You will not be long in learning how to do it._

=¡Ten paciencia! No tardarás en aprender a hacerlo.=

_You go now. I will follow.--All right, but don't be long._

=Vete ahora. Yo te seguiré.--Bueno, pero no tardes.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

(_b_) =Tardar en= may also be used to translate the expression _before
long_.

_They will be back before long._

=No tardarán en volver.=

(_c_) The adverbial phrases _no longer_, _any longer_ are translated =ya
no=.

_I wonder why they are so long. I can't wait any longer._

=¿Por qué tardarán tanto? Ya no puedo esperar más.=

(_d_) The conjunctive phrase _as long as is_ rendered =mientras=.

_As long as it was raining we could not go out._

=Mientras llovía no podíamos salir.=


=13.= The word _before_ as an adverb is rendered =antes=; as a conjunction,
=antes que=; as a preposition of time, =antes de=; as a preposition of
place, it is rendered =delante de= or =ante=, the latter being used
especially with the meaning of _in the presence of_.

_I had never done that before._

=No había hecho eso antes.=

_Before he went away he said that he would be back before long._

=Antes que se fué me dijo que no tardaría en volver.=

_Before taking it you ought to have spoken to me._

=Antes de cogerla debió usted hablar conmigo.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

_He wanted to appear before them as a millionaire._

=Quería presentarse delante de ellos como millonario=.

--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_They look at the gypsy who stops before them._

=Miran al húngaro que se para ante ellos.=--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

_Note._--=Antes= also translates English _formerly_.


=14.= The verb _to know_, meaning _to be acquainted with_, is =conocer=;
otherwise _to know_ and _to know how_ are rendered =saber=.

_I know the family, but I don't know where they live._

=Conozco a la familia, pero no sé donde viven.=

_I know how to sew, I know how to cook, I know how to wash clothes._

=Yo sé coser, yo sé guisar, yo sé lavar la ropa.=--LOS QUINTERO.

_Note_.--=Conocer= also translates English _to make the acquaintance
of_.


=15.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. No sé como he vivido tanto tiempo con ellos. 2. ¡Bien ha
tardado Vd. esta noche! 3. ¿Cuánto tiempo espera Vd. pasar aquí? 4.
Dígales que yo quiero verlas antes que salgan. 5. No sé leer el español
pero conozco las obras de Benavente en traducción. 6. No tardamos en
saber lo que había hecho. 7. Antes de escribir los ejercicios tenemos
que estudiar las reglas. 8. Antes era rico, ya no lo es. 9. En el
abecedario viene la _a_ ante la _be_. 10. Puesto que no puedo quedarme
más tiempo, tendrá Vd. que acabarlo solo.

(_b_) 1. Do you know the works of Blasco Ibáñez? 2. How long have you
been here? 3. I don't know how to describe it to you. 4. I don't know
how long he has been ill. 5. Before I speak I want to know how much you
know. 6. Do you know this song? Yes, but I don't know how to sing it. 7.
Before buying the house he told me that he had known the owner for a
long time. 8. Ask him if he knows who has lived in it since. 9. I knew
him before he went to live there. 10. I'm sure I shall see him before
long.



LESSON VI


_Ya ves que no hay que fiar de sueños._[6]

--PALACIO VALDÉS.


=16.= The English _to get_ has so many different translations in Spanish
that it is always advisable to paraphrase it before translating. So: _I
am going to get_ (buy) _some bread. We are going to get_ (fetch _or_
bring) _our books. He gets_ (receives) _his money here. The lion got
out_ (escaped). _We got back_ (arrived, returned) _this morning. It
gets_ (grows, becomes) _dark early._ In such examples as the last,
however, the alternatives are also verbs that present some difficulty in
translations: and many of the compounds of _get_ and a preposition must
be learned literally.

_He got_ (obtained) _what he wanted._

=Obtuvo lo que quería.=

_There is no more sugar. I shall have to go and get some._

=No hay más azúcar. Tendré que ir a comprar más.=

_Have you sent the boy to get the car?_

=¿Ha mandado usted al mozo a traer el automóvil?=

_I get a letter from home every Tuesday._

=Recibo carta de casa todos los martes=.

_There was a fire at the Zoölogical Gardens yesterday and a lion got
out_ (away).

=Hubo incendio en los jardines zoológicos ayer y se escapó un león.=

(_a_) _To get_ meaning _to grow_ or _become_ is translated =ponerse=
or =hacerse=, the former indicating a temporary change of state, the
latter a more permanent one.

_She gets very cross if she has to wait for us._

=Se pone muy enojada= (=enfadada=) =si tiene que esperarnos.=

_He got rich quickly, but his methods couldn't be admired._

=Se hizo rico pronto, pero sus métodos no podían admirarse.=

(_b_) _To get along with_, speaking of persons, may be rendered
=entenderse con=, or =congeniar con=: when the object is a thing, the
translation is =servirse de=. _To get along without_ is translated
=pasarse sin=.

_He doesn't get along very well with his oldest brother._

=No se entiende muy bien con su hermano mayor.=

_I shall have to get along with this knife since there is no
other._

=Tendré que servirme de este cuchillo puesto que no hay otro.=

_I get along without a laundress now that my daughter is at home._

=Yo me paso sin lavandera ya que está en casa mi hija.=

(_c_) _To get into_ and _out of_ vehicles are rendered =subir a= and
=bajar de=.

_They get out of one automobile and into another._

=Bajaron de un automóvil y subieron a otro.=

(_d_) _To get out of the way_ may be rendered =apartarse del camino=
or =quitarse de en medio=.

_You know that to me she is always at home. Get out of the way!_

=Sabe Vd. que para mí siempre está. ¡Quítese de en medio!=

--TOMAYO Y BAUS.

(_e_) _To get up_, _rise_, is rendered =levantárse= or =ponerse de pie=.

_I got up very, very early this morning._

=Esta mañana me levanté muy de madrugada.=

_When the teacher spoke to the pupil the latter got up._

=Cuando habló el maestro al discípulo se puso de pie éste.=


=17.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. El coche se detuvo delante de la puerta y bajaron dos señores.
2. Primero tenemos que apartar del camino este montón de piedras. 3. Se
levantó Vd. tarde hoy. 4. Queremos deshacernos de nuestro viejo
automóvil. 5. Los tejados se ponen blancos. 6. Las abejas sacan la miel
de las flores. 7. No se sabe como han logrado entrar en la casa los
ladrones. 8. Aunque cerramos la puerta con llave lograron salir. 9. Le
he mandado a traerme otro cuchillo, porque éste no corta. 10. Baja de
este muro en seguida si no quieres caer.

(_b_) 1. The fruit is getting ripe now. 2. You ought to get rid of the
old house before you buy a new one. 3. We shall have to get up early to
catch that train. 4. Mother is in the kitchen getting dinner. 5. How
dark the sky is getting. I think there will be a storm. 6. As I was
getting up this morning my mother called to me and said, "Hurry up,
John, I want you to go and get some milk for breakfast." 7. Since there
is no ink we shall have to get along with pencils. 8. My parents do not
like to get letters written in pencil. 9. That company gets out
beautiful illustrated books. 10. He has been ill and has not been able
to get out for a long time.



LESSON VII

_Vale más una sola cosa buena que muchas medianas._[7]

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=18.= =REVIEW EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. We must not remain longer in this house. 2. I must go and I
will go. But, where? Who knows? 3. If you want to know, ask her. 4. He
is here again and he knows that we are in this house. 5. Man, you are
right. You must be right sometimes. 6. I am not to blame because he is
not here. 7. These are for me, but I will give you these for those. 8.
You don't know what you are asking for. 9. He is hungry and cold, but
not ashamed. 10. Send the maid to get some vegetables.

(_b_) 1. Do you know how old he is? 2. How deep is this well? 3. It is
not his fault that he has not been successful. 4. Ask them if they are
hungry? 5. Father has gone out for a lamp because all the electric
lights have gone out. 6. We shall get there before long. 7. Have you
ever been here before? Yes, but not for a long time. 8. Mother's going
to get me a new hat. 9. This store always closes for an hour at noon.
10. It's a pity this young man does not get along better with his
parents. 11. Before you go, go and ask John if he got the tickets for
to-night.



LESSON VIII

_¡Mira las estrellas! Cuentan cuentos dulces las estrellas y hacen
compañía._[8]--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.


=19.= The verb _to look_ or _look at_ is rendered =mirar=, the _at_
remaining untranslated.

_Looking through the window, I saw that my friend was looking at the
flowers._

=Mirando por la ventana, vi que mi amiga miraba las flores.=

(_a_) _To look_ (_as if_) is rendered =parecer=. The impersonal _it
looks as if_ may be translated =según parece=, or =por lo visto=.

_You look very tired. It looks as if you had been working too
hard._

=Parece Vd. muy cansada. Ha trabajado Vd. demasiado según parece.=

_It looks as if he had determined to stop our talking._

=Parece que se ha propuesto impedirnos hablar.=--LOS QUINTERO.

(_b_) _To look for_ or _look up_ is translated =buscar=.

_I don't know where they went. For my part I'm not looking for
them._

=Yo no sé a donde iban. Por mi parte no los busco.=--JOSÉ MÁRMOL.


=20.= English _little_ as an adjective of size is rendered =pequeño=,
=chico=, or =menudo=.

_We have just rented that little house across the street._

=Acabamos de alquilar esa casa pequeña al otro lado de la calle.=

_Are the little folks coming too?_

=¿Vienen también la gente menuda?=

(_a_) Denoting quantity _little_ is rendered =poco=.

_Why, you went to bed a little after ten!_

=¡Si te acostaste a poco más de las diez!=--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_It is a matter of little importance._

=Es asunto de poca importancia.=

(_b_) As an adverb of degree _little_ is rendered =poco=, =algo=, or =un
tanto=.

_The price is a little high, isn't it? A little, yes._

=Es algo subido el precio, ¿no? Un tanto, si.=


=21.= English _there_ as an adverb is translated =ahí=, =allí=, or
=allá=, the last being the form used with verbs of motion. Used with a
verb that doesn't express motion, =allá= indicates approximate situation
while =allí= always indicates definite situation.

_I wonder where my hat can be. I left it there on the table._

=¿Dónde estará mi sombrero? Lo dejé allí en la mesa.=

_I don't know where he has gone, but he went over there._

=No se adónde habrá ido, pero se fué por allá.=

(_a_) _There is_, _there was_, _there will be_, etc., are
translated by the various tenses of =haber=, the verb always being in
the singular.

_There is one here now. There were two before._

=Hay uno aquí ahora. Antes había dos.=

_There are absurdities in the spiritual life as in the natural._

=Hay absurdos en la vida del espíritu como en la naturaleza.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

(_b_) _There_ as an exclamatory word has many renderings which can best
be learned by observation. Note the following examples.

_There, there, don't cry! You'll wake mother._

=¡Vamos, vamos, no llores! Despertarás a la madre.=

_There! I told you you would break it._

=¡Ya se ve! Te dije que ibas a quebrarlo.=

_There's a beautiful house!_

=¡Vaya una casa hermosa!=


=22.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Dígale que yo voy allá en seguida. 2. ¡Vaya una muchacha guapa!
¿Quién es? 3. Parece que nunca van a terminar. 4. Habrá reunión allí
mañana por la mañana. 5. Es muy chico. Me gustaría más si fuese un
tantito más grande. 6. Parece que va a llover. Tal vez habrá tempestad.
7. Los chicos quieren ir a la playa, pero ya es un poco tarde para eso.
8. He perdido un guante. ¿Quieres volver a buscármelo? 9. ¡Mire Vd.
cuánta gente hay en la calle! 10. Parece más joven, pero la verdad es
que tiene algo más edad que yo.

(_b_) 1. Were you there when the accident occurred? 2. There were ten
boys in the class. How many are there in your class? 3. Oh, look! There
goes a deer. There's a pretty little animal! 4. We shall be there for an
hour. We went there last year, too. 5. How does it look to you? I
haven't looked at it well yet. 6. I need a little more milk. Who will go
and get me some? 7. The little money that I had was not sufficient. 8.
There had been a terrible storm and the little city had suffered not a
little damage. 9. Look up these words in the dictionary. 10. Look out!
(=¡Cuidado!=) There comes an automobile. _There's_ a reckless driver (for
you)!



LESSON IX

_Las frutas se comen. Las flores se huelen, nada más._[9]

--LOS QUINTERO.


=23.= The verb _to grow,_ meaning _to cultivate_ or _be cultivated_, is
translated =cultivar= or =cultivarse=; meaning _to increase in size_ it is
=crecer= or =aumentarse=; meaning _to become_ it is rendered =ponerse= or
=hacerse=, the first expressing temporary, the second approximately
permanent, change. _To grow up_ is translated =criarse=.

_In the Argentine Republic they grow much wheat._

=En la República Argentina cultivan= (=se cultiva=) =mucho trigo.=

_Why! How this child has grown!_

=¡Vaya, que ha crecido este niño!=

_The number grows year by year._

=El número se aumenta de año en año.=

_She must be ill. She is growing thinner day by day._

=Debe estar mala. Se pone más delgada de día en día.=

_By means of gymnastic exercises he has grown very strong._

=Por medio de ejercicios gimnásticos se ha hecho muy fuerte.=

_This child grew up with her mother until she was five years old._

=Esta niña se crió junto a su madre hasta tener cinco años.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=24.= The word _just_ has numerous renderings in Spanish. As an adjective
it is =justo=.

_Since our cause is just, we shall win._

=Puesto que es justa nuestra causa, venceremos.=

(_a_) Meaning _only_ it may be translated by the adverb =sólo=, or by
the phrases =nada más= or =no ... más que= (=de= before numerals). =Nada
más= is placed at the end of the sentence.

_There were just twenty persons present._

=Asistieron sólo veinte personas= (=no más de veinte personas=; =veinte
personas nada más=).

_How much do you want? I have just a pound._

=¿Cuánto quiere usted? No tengo más que una libra.=

_Note._--If this sentence meant _exactly_ a pound, the translation
would be =una libra justa=; so always when _just_ equals _exactly_.

_We just came to look for a pencil and paper for Patros._

=No venimos más que a buscar lápiz y papel para Patros.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

_For you must know, my son, that the dreaming of the old is just
remembering._

=Porque has de saber, hijo mío, que el soñar de los viejos es sólo
recordar.=--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

_It was just the door closing._

=Era la puerta que se cerraba, nada más.=

(_b_) Meaning _at this or that moment_, _just_ is translated =en este= or
=ese mismo momento=; or it may be implied in the present or imperfect
tenses.

_The door is just closing._

=Se cierra la puerta.=

_The door was just closing._

=Se cerraba la puerta.=

The phrase =en este mismo momento= makes the _just_ more emphatic.

(_c_) In expressions of time of day _just_ is rendered =en punto=; _just
now_ is =hace poco= or =hace un ratito=, referring to past time, =ahora=
or =al momento= when present time is understood; _just yet_ is rendered
=todavía=.

_What time is it? It is just eight o'clock._

=¿Qué hora es? Son las ocho en punto.=

_I saw them just now and they said they were coming._

=Los vi hace poco y dijeron que iban a venir.=

_I'm sorry I can't go with you, but I'm very busy just now._

=Siento no poder acompañarle, pero al momento estoy muy ocupado.=

_It isn't ready just yet. I will call you as soon as it is._

=No está listo todavía. Le llamaré en cuanto lo esté.=

(_d_) _Have just_ and _had just_ with a past participle are translated
by the present and imperfect of the verb =acabar= followed by =de= and the
infinitive of the verb that in English is in the participle.

_He has just arrived._

=Acaba de llegar.=

_He had just gone._

=Acababa de marcharse.=


=25.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Hacemos este viaje sólo por placer. 2. El sol acababa de
ponerse. 3. No podía soportar que su única hija se criase como un
muchacho. 4. Hablábamos de la posibilidad de su llegada, nada más. 5.
¡Ya se ve! Crióse sin madre casi sin nodriza. 6. Esto ocurrió hace un
año. No, hace tres meses justos. 7. Un momento nada más y sales
diciéndoles que tienes que hacer en la casa. 8. El tabaco no se cultiva
en este estado. 9. Estos niños crecen como la mala hierba. 10. Son las
ocho en punto y dicen que acaban de llegar las distinguidas visitas.

(_b_) 1. I am just going. Do you want to go with me? 2. We grow just
flowers in our garden. 3. What are you doing? I'm just reading. 4. They
have just come in and they say it is just beginning to rain. 5. When we
got there he had just begun to speak. 6. That is just what I was going
to say. 7. It was growing darker and we could only just see. 8. This is
just for the little girls. 9. How you have grown! The other day you were
just a little boy. 10. He is growing weaker every day.



LESSON X

_En Dios confía quien adora la verdad._[10]

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=26.= English _after_ as a preposition of time is rendered =después de=; as
a preposition of place or direction it is =tras= or =en pos de=; as a
conjunction it is =después que=.

_And so the boats kept on appearing one after the other._

=Y así fueron apareciendo unas tras otras las lanchas.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_The boats were disappearing one after the other behind the cape._

=Las lanchas se fueron ocultando una en pos de otra detrás del
cabo.=--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_We will help you after dinner._

=Le ayudaremos después de la comida.=

_After we have finished, we will go._

=Después que hayamos acabado, nos iremos.=

(_a_) _Afterwards_ is =después=. _The day after to-morrow_ is =pasado
mañana=.

_Afterwards I found out that he was earning his living as a public
letter writer._

=Después supe que ganaba la vida trabajando de memorialista.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

_I have to see them the day after to-morrow._

=Tengo que verlos pasado mañana.=


=27.= The verb _to help_ meaning _to assist_, _aid_, is rendered =ayudar= or
=asistir=.

_I have so much to do and nobody wants to help me._

=Tengo tanto que hacer y nadie quiere ayudarme.=

(_a_) _To help_ in the sense of _to prevent_, _avoid_, is rendered
=evitar=.

_I couldn't help his doing it, but he couldn't help it either._

=Yo no podía evitar que él lo hiciese, pero él no podía evitarlo
tampoco.=

(_b_) _Can't help_ and _couldn't help_, followed by an unmodified
present participle, are rendered by the present and the imperfect
of the verb =poder= and the phrase =menos de= with the infinitive.
Otherwise, _I can't help_, _couldn't help_, etc., may be rendered
=Yo no tengo= (=tenía=) =la culpa de que=.

_I can't help confessing that I am sorry._

=No puedo menos de confesar que lo siento.=--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_I couldn't help knowing that you were talking of us._

=No podía menos de saber que Vd. hablaba de nosotros.=

_Note._--When the verbal in _-ing_ is modified by a possessive,
translate as in (_a_).

(_c_) _It can't be helped_ is translated =no hay remedio=.

_I thought it could be avoided, but now it can't be helped._

=Creí que podría evitarse, pero ya no hay remedio.=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.


=28.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Vaya a buscarla después de comer. 2. No querría hacerlo, pero
no había otro remedio. 3. Quisiera dejarlo para después que oscurezca.
4. Después de acabar Vd. con ese libro démelo a mí. 5. La ayudaba, sí,
pero no podía menos de creer que lo hacía sin querer. 6. No me gusta
dejarlo hacer por manos ajenas, pero no hay remedio. 7. Después que
habíamos caminado dos horas, los alcanzamos. 8. No puedo menos de querer
que vengan. 9. Estaba todavía muy débil y teníamos que asistirle cuando
querría andar. 10. Los niños llegan pasado mañana y los padres unos días
después.

(_b_) 1. It isn't ready yet, but I can't help it. 2. Do you want me to
help you? 3. I can't help feeling sorry that they have done that. 4. We
knew that it couldn't be helped. 5. I have just seen him, and I can't
help thinking that he must be ill. 6. She couldn't help hoping that she
would get what she wanted. 7. After a short time he could walk without
our help. 8. The dog ran after his master after he succeeded in getting
out of the house. 9. After the rain had ceased they went out and we did
not see them afterwards. 10. He knows it is not well done, but he says
he can't help it.



LESSON XI

_Cuando uno no quiere, dos no riñen._[11]

--TOMAYO Y BAUS.


=29.= English _here_ is rendered =aquí= denoting _place where_ and =acá= with
a verb of motion.

_Here lived a member of my husband's family._

=Aquí habitaba un individuo de la familia de mi esposo.=

--JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

_Go and tell him to please come here._

=Ve y dile que tenga la bondad de venir acá.=--LOS QUINTERO.

_Note._--=Aquí= is sometimes found with verbs of motion, but =acá= is
the commoner form.

(_a_) _Here_ accompanying the offer of something may be rendered by
the imperative of =tomar=, _to take_, or by =aquí= with the verb =tener=.

_Haven't you a pencil? Well, here. I have two._

=¿No tiene usted lápiz? Pues, tome. Yo tengo dos.=

_Here's the money they gave me for you._

=Aquí tiene usted el dinero que me dieron para usted.=

(_b_) _To be here_ in the sense of _to arrive_ is translated
=llegar=.

_They will be here in time according to what they write me._

=Llegarán a tiempo según me escriben.=


=30.= English _well_ as an adverb is translated =bien=; as an adjective it
is =bueno=. As an introductory word having no grammatical connection with
the rest of the sentence it is rendered =bien=, =bueno=, or =pues=. With
exclamatory force it may be rendered =¡vaya!= or =¡toma!=

_It is very well made, isn't it?_

=Está muy bien hecho, ¿no?=

_He must stay here until he gets well._

=Debe quedar aquí hasta que se ponga bueno.=

_Well, that's done. And now what else is there to do?_

=Bueno= (=bien=), =ya está hecho eso. Y ahora, ¿qué más hay que hacer?=

_Well, I feel ill, very ill._

=Pues yo me siento mal, muy mal.=--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_Well! Here am I to get everybody out of difficulties._

=¡Vaya! Aquí estoy yo para sacar de apuros a todo el mundo.=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.


=31.= The verb _to hold_ as a synonym of _to have_ is translated =tener=;
meaning _to contain_ it is =contener=. When it indicates that a thing has
a certain capacity it is translated =caber en=. In this last sense the
English subject becomes in Spanish the object of the preposition =en=,
while the English object becomes the subject of =caber=.

_He held his hat in his hand all the time._

=Tenía el sombrero en la mano todo el tiempo.=

_This box holds all that I want._

=Este cajón contiene todo lo que yo necesito.=

_We shall have to get another sack. This one holds only a pound._

=Tendremos que buscar otro saco. En éste cabe solo una libra.=

=Contiene solo una libra= would mean _there is only a pound in it_.

_Note._--A very common expression is =no cabe duda=, which translates
_there is no doubt_.

(_a_) The phrase _to hold out_ has many translations, according to
its meanings as here illustrated.

_He held out_ (offered) _his hand to me._

=Me ofreció la mano.=

_He held out his hand for the money._

=Extendió la mano para el dinero.=

_He held out_ (persisted) _for a week._

=Se mantuvo firme por una semana.=

_The coffee held out_ (there was enough).

=Hubo bastante cafe.=


=32.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. El vino acá en el tranvía. 2. Pues, que lo haga tan bien como
yo lo he hecho. 3. No cabían en el barco más de cuatro personas. 4.
Búsqueme un cesto más grande. En éste no caben las manzanas. 5. El cajón
contenía frutas y dulces. 6. ¿Y la familia? Están todos buenos según me
escriben. 7. Con tal que haya bastante harina, no nos falta más. 8. Está
cansadísimo. No sé si se le mantendrán las fuerzas hasta que llegue a
casa. 9. ¡Vaya! ¿Usted aquí? ¿Y desde cuándo?

(_b_) 1. This bottle will not hold all that ink. 2. Well, what shall I
do with what is left? 3. Put it here and get another bottle. 4. New
countries hold out better opportunities to young men than to old ones.
5. Well, everything is ready for them when they get here. 6. He held out
the sack to show me what it held. 7. I can't help thinking that he is
too young for the office that he holds. 8. How much is it? Well, here's
the money. 9. How many books will this bookcase hold? 10. There is not
the least doubt that they knew that the box held money.



LESSON XII

_Dios no hace las cosas a medias._[12]

--JOSÉ MÁRMOL.


=33.= The adverb _so_ expressing manner is rendered =así=, _thus_; as an
adverb of degree _so_ is =tan=. _So much_ and _so many_ are rendered
=tanto=, =-a=, =tantos=, =-as=, when used adjectively or pronominally. As an
adverb _so much_ is =tanto=.

_And I am to live so, as long as I am alone._

=Y así he de vivir mientras esté solo.=--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

_I didn't know that it was so hard to do that._

=Yo no sabía que era tan difícil hacer eso.=

_That's why they make so many mistakes_ (are mistaken so many times).

=De ahí que se equivoquen tantas veces.=--LOS QUINTERO.

_I don't need so much. You take what's left._

=Yo no necesito tanto. Tome usted lo que sobra.=

(_a_) Used in the manner of a neuter pronoun _so_ is rendered =lo=.

_I asked him to call them and he did so at once._

=Le rogué los llamase y lo hizo en seguida.=

(_b_) In such expressions as _I think so_, _I believe so_, _he says
so_, where _so_ stands for an affirmative clause, it is translated
=que sí=.

_Is it going to snow? John says so._

=¿Va a nevar? Juan dice que sí.=

_"I think so," he said, taking the instruments from the man's
hands._

=Creo que sí, dijo, tomando los instrumentos de las manos del
hombre.=

--JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

(_c_) The conjunctive phrase _and so_ is rendered =y así= when it is equal
to _and therefore_. When it is equivalent to _well_, _then_, it is
rendered =conque=.

_We weren't busy, and so we could help them._

=Nosotros no estábamos ocupados y así podíamos ayudarlos.=

_And so you say they are to be here at five o'clock?_

=Conque, ¿dice usted que han de estar aquí a las cinco?=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=34.= English _to keep_ in its simplest meaning of _to retain_ is rendered
=guardar= or =quedarse con=. It has many other meanings, most of which may
be obtained by paraphrase. So: _to keep_ (observe) _a holiday_; _to keep
quiet_ (be still, stop talking); _to keep out_ (not to enter); _to keep
in_ (not to let go out); _to keep on_ (to continue, _or_ not to take
off); _to keep from_ (to hinder, prevent, abstain from).

_Well, I'm going to keep what I have._

=Pues, yo voy a quedarme con lo que tengo.=

_At home we keep all the national holidays._

=En casa observamos todas las fiestas nacionales.=

_Well, I agree, and I keep on sacrificing myself._

=Pues, me conformo, y sigo sacrificándome.=--ECHEGARAY.

_The noise of the street kept him from sleeping._

=El ruido de la calle le impidió el dormir.=--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_Tell them to come back. I will keep them just a moment._

=Dígales que vuelvan. Los detendré un momento, nada más.=


=35.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Así es, por desgracia. No te espero hoy. 2. La cordera siguió
corriendo y llegó a lo alto de las peñas. 3. Guardó un asiento vacío
junto al suyo. 4. Ha retenido la mitad de lo que me debe. 5. Su
enfermedad le impidió que adelantara en sus estudios. 6. Si todos nos
mantenemos quietos, no sabrán que estámos aquí. 7. Yo le dije que
callase, pero siguió hablando. 8. Conque, se marchan ustedes hoy ¿no?

(_b_) 1. I don't know why she wants so much to see me. 2. Of course if
she wants to go, I can't keep her from it. 3. She keeps on writing to
me, asking me not to keep it. 4. Has he kept back more than he should?
They say so. 5. He always keeps out of the house when he sees that the
maid has just cleaned the floors. 6. In Spain and South America they
keep all the church holidays. 7. This lesson is not so hard
(_difficult_). 8. If it keeps on raining, you must keep on your
raincoats. 9. I tried to keep the children from making so much noise.
10. Keep them out of this room for just a few minutes.



LESSON XIII

_Mi opulencia es la sencillez; mi lujo, la sobriedad; mi reposo, el
trabajo._[13]--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=36.= =REVIEW EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. _Ask_ as many questions as you want to. 2. I have not been so
busy _for a long_ time. 3. I _asked_ the young lady how much the hat
_was_. 4. _Well_, we will _look for_ it here and if we can't find it we
will send him to _get_ another. 5. We had been gone _for_ an hour when
they _got here_. 6. This is a situation that cannot last _longer_. 7.
You will _get_ better. Why (=si=), you _are_ better! 8. Did you _know_
that man _before_? Yes, I _made_ his _acquaintance_ last year. 9. I have
_just_ seen your parents _go in_. It is _just_ eight o'clock.

(_b_) 1. He _can't help_ seeing that it is too large. 2. The poor girl
_looks_ ill. 3. I don't _know_ how she has been able to work _so long_.
4. I am waiting _for_ my brother; I can't _get in_ till he comes because
I have lost my key. 5. Ah, _here_ he comes. I was _just_ going to send
some one _to look for_ you. 6. Even the teacher _couldn't_ help
laughing. 7. I have not seen the sun _since_ morning. I'm sure it will
rain _before_ night. 8. It is impossible _to know how_ to speak a
language _well_ without practice. 9. Shall you _be_ here when we _get
back_? 10. If I can _get_ him to lend me the money, I will buy it from
(=a=) you.

(_c_) 1. _How long_ do you think they will be able to _hold out_? 2. In
her arms she _held_ a pretty _little_ girl. 3. I have only a very
_little_, nevertheless this valise won't _hold_ it. 4. This little
basket _just holds_ a dozen. 5. This pitcher _holds just_ a quart. 6.
_Keep_ a place _for_ me near you. 7. I _asked_ him who said _so_. 8. I
don't _know_ what to do with _so_ many books and still you _keep on_
buying more. 9. Who says that? He says _so_. 10. Is he ready? He says
_so_.



LESSON XIV

_El hombre que se avergüenza de ser feliz debe andar en cuatro
pies._[14]--TOMAYO Y BAUS.


=37.= English _to leave_ has three principal translations. Meaning _to
depart_ it is rendered =partir=; meaning _to go out of_ it is =salir=; and
meaning _to allow to remain_ it is =dejar=.

_He left for London yesterday._

=Partió para Londres ayer.=

_For two months I haven't been able to leave the house._

=Hace dos meses que no puedo salir de la casa.=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_The train had left him in the East station._

=El tren le había dejado en la estación del Este.=

--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

(_a_) In the sense of _to let_, =dejar= is used.

_Leave the poor child alone! He's not bothering you._

=¡Déjale al pobre niño! No te molesta a tí.=

(_b_) _To leave off_ in the sense of _to stop_ is rendered =dejar de=
or =cesar de=, followed by the infinitive.

_He left off coming when he found out that he was not congenial to
us._

=Dejó de venir cuando supo que no nos era simpático.=

--BENAVENTE.

(_c_) _To have something left_ is translated =quedar= or =sobrar=.

_I know you have no time left for social life._

=Ya sé que no le sobra tiempo para la vida social.=--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

_I used to have a lot, but I have very little left now._

=Antes tenía mucho, pero me queda muy poco ahora.=

_I gave him four, but he has only two left now._

=Le dí cuatro, pero ya no le quedan más de dos.=

_Note._--In this construction notice that the English subject becomes
the indirect object of the verbs =quedar= and =sobrar=, while the thing
"left" is the subject. The Spanish says literally, _to him are left only
two_. Note also the order: object, verb, subject.


=38.= _To let_, meaning _to allow_, is rendered =dejar=.

_The poor woman has died of fatigue. Let her rest in peace._

=La pobre mujer ha muerto de fatiga. Dejadla que descanse en
paz.=--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

(_a_) When _let_ is used with the third person in the sense of a
command it is translated by =que= with the subjunctive. When the verb
is in the first person plural, the =que= is omitted.

_Let John take these letters to the post-office at once._

=Que Juan lleve estas cartas al correo en seguida.=

_Let's go now. No, let us sit down here for a moment._

=Vámonos ahora. No, sentémonos aquí por unos momentos.=

(_b_) _To let in_, _out_, _up_, _down_, _through_ are translated
=dejar entrar=, =salir=, =subir=, =bajar=, =pasar por=.

_Don't let that dog in. I have just put him out._

=No dejes entrar a ese perro. Acabo de hacerle salir.=

_They couldn't open the door, but they let me in through the
window._

=No podían abrir la puerta, pero me dejaron entrar por la ventana.=


=39.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Salga Vd. de la sala y no vuelva Vd. a entrar. 2. Si no han
partido todavía, dígales que quiero verlos antes que se marchen. 3. No
salimos de la casa antes que dejó de llover. 4. No sé si me dejarán
acompañarla a usted. 5. Que vayan a traérmelo en seguida. 6. ¿Les
sobrará mucho? Creo que sí. 7. Partimos mañana en el tren de la mañana.
8. Su madre no quiere dejarle acompañarnos. 9. Las mujeres dejaban sus
ocupaciones de la casa y salían a las puertas. 10. Todavía me queda la
pequeña casa que me dejó mi padre.

(_b_) 1. We will not let you leave until it leaves off raining. 2. They
have all left their umbrellas at home. 3. When he had paid for his
dinner he had two dollars left. 4. They left five minutes ago. 5. I have
just one old umbrella left for myself. 6. Let Mary let them in through
the kitchen door. 7. Let's ask him how many he has left. 8. If I have
any money left after I have bought all the things that they are asking
me for, I will let you take it. 9. We can't do much with what is left.



LESSON XV

_La ley es Dios--o debe serlo._[15]

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=40.= English _now_ is generally translated =ahora=, but when it means
_already_ it is rendered =ya=.

_I am going to take a walk through the village now._

=Voy a salir a dar una vuelta por el pueblo ahora.=

--LOS QUINTERO.

_I have been a workman in the shops for a week now._

=Soy operario de los talleres hace ya una semana.=

--LOS QUINTERO.

(_a_) The phrases _well, now_, and _now, then_, may be rendered
=ahora bien=. The exclamatory phrase _come, now!_ is expressed
=¡vamos!=, =¡vaya!=, or =¡ea!=

_Come now, Antonio dear, a little patience!_

=¡Ea, Antoñito, un poco de paciencia!=--TOMAYO Y BAUS.

_Come now! Tell me everything. I am your friend._

=¡Vamos! Confíemelo todo. Yo soy su amiga.=

--MARIANO JOSÉ DE LARRA.

(_b_) _Now ... now ..._ is translated =ya ... ya ...= or =ora ... ora ...=.

_Now it was too hot, now it was too cold for him._

=Ya hacía demasiado calor, ya demasiado frío.=

_Note._--The phrase _from now on_ is translated de =aquí en adelante=.


=41.= English _about_ as a preposition meaning _of_ is translated =de=;
meaning _in regard to_ or _concerning_ it is rendered =acerca de=; meaning
_almost_, _nearly_, _in the neighborhood of_ it is =cerca de= or =más o
menos=.

_What are you talking about?_

=¿De qué habla usted?=

_I have to write to him about that matter._

=Tengo que escribirle acerca de ese asunto.=

_I have about a hundred._

=Tengo cerca de ciento= (=ciento más o menos=).


=42.= _To be about to_ is rendered =estar al punto de= or =estar para=.

_When we arrived, the others were about to leave._

=Al llegar nosotros, estaban los otros para salir.=


=43.= The verb _to feel_ meaning _to experience_, _perceive_ is rendered
=sentir=; meaning _to be of the opinion_, _think_ it is rendered
=pensar=, =ser de la opinion=, =parecerle a uno=; meaning _to have the
feeling of_ it is rendered =ser ... al tacto=; meaning _to touch_ it is
=palpar= or =tentar=.

_I feel for this man a tremendous interest._

=Siento por este hombre un interés tremendo.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

_Do you feel ill? Just a little pain._

=¿Te sientes malo? Un dolorcillo, nada más.=

--TOMAYO Y BAUS.

_Well, I feel that it would be better to return now._

=Pues, a mí me parece que sería mejor volver ahora.=

_What's in this bag? It is something that feels hard._

=¿Qué hay en este saco? Es algo que es muy duro al tacto.=

_Feel this. It's too hard, isn't it?_

=Palpe= (=Tiente=) =éste. Es demasiado duro, ¿no?=


=44.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Ahora tengo ganas de bailar. 2. Pero ya no ha de ir usted,
¿verdad? 3. Por desgracia ya me quedan pocos. 4. De aquí en adelante se
ha de trocar mi adversa fortuna en próspera. 5. Palpaba su chaqueta para
ver si estaba mojada. 6. Me gusta mucho esta tela. Es muy blanda al
tacto. 7. Eran cerca de las ocho cuando oimos sonar una campana. 8. Ya
es hora de acabar. 9. Los viejos sienten el frío. 10. Ya lo vi y ya
desapareció de nuevo.

(_b_) 1. He feels better now. It's not necessary to call the doctor. 2.
Do you want to see them? Well, they have come now. 3. He has about two
hundred books in his library. 4. Come now! You know what I told you just
now (see Section 24 (_c_)). 5. Feel his hands. How cold they are! 6. It
was about six o'clock when we felt the first shock of the earthquake. 7.
He was feeling his way (_to feel one's way_, =andar a tientas=) in the
dark corridor. 8. We do not feel safe here, but father feels that it
would be foolish to go out just now.



LESSON XVI

_Hacer bien a los villanos es echar agua en la mar_.[16]

--CERVANTES.


=45.= English _will_ as an auxiliary has two meanings. As denoting simple
futurity it is in Spanish included in the future form of the verb. As a
synonym of _to want to_, _will_ is translated by the present tense of
the verb =querer=.

_They will get here to-morrow and then I will tell them._

=Llegarán mañana y se lo diré entonces.=

_I will tell it to as many as (all who) will listen to me._

=Lo diré a cuantos quieran oirme=.--TOMAYO Y BAUS.

_Note._--In case of doubt substitute _is going to_ or _wants to_
for _will_. If the former keeps the sense, use the future tense; if
the latter, use =querer=.

(_a_) _Shall_, denoting simple futurity, is included in the future
tense.

_I shall not be able to come. Shall you be here?_

=Yo no podré venir. ¿Estará usted aquí?=

Expressing determination on the part of the speaker, _shall_ must
be translated by a clause or by =deber= with the infinitive.

_You say he has stolen your bicycle? Well, he shall return it at
once._

=¿Dice Vd. que se le ha robado su bicicleta? Pues, yo haré que se la
devuelva en seguida=, or =debe devolverla=.


=46=. The word _all_, commonly translated =todo=, has many different
translations which should be learned in the phrases in which they occur.
Of these the commonest are: _all at once_, _all of a sudden_, =de
repente=; _all right_, =bueno=, =bien=, =está bien=; _all alone_,
=solo=, =solito=; _first of all_, =en primer lugar=, =ante todo=; _not
at all_, =de ningún modo=, =no hay de que= (an expression of courtesy in
reply to the person who says _thank you_); _all over_ (_everywhere_),
=por todas partes=.

(_a_) _All that_ or _all the ... that_ may be translated literally
=todo lo que= or =todos los ...= but they are frequently rendered by
=cuanto= and =cuantos=.

_Up to now I did all that was in my power for you._

=Hasta ahora hice cuanto estaba en mis manos por vosotros.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_I have at my disposal all the money that I may need._

=Tengo a mi disposición cuanto dinero pueda necesitar.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

_I am very much obliged to you. Not at all, sir, not at all._

=Le estoy muy agradecido a usted. No hay de que, señor, no hay de que.=

Note also the phrase _it's all the same_ (_it makes no difference_), =lo
mismo da=.


=47.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. No es de ningún modo lo que se llama hombre rico. 2. Ya es
tarde. Tendrá ganas de marcharse. 3. Al decirme la señora "Muchas
gracias," yo respondí "No hay de que, señora." 4. Le hemos convidado a
acompañarnos, pero no quiere venir. 5. Vendrá mañana y le prometemos a
usted que haremos que vuelva en seguida. 6. No queremos dejarte solo
solito. Ven tú también. 7. No quiere callarse, pero lo mismo da. No le
hacemos caso. 8. De repente se puso a buscarlo por todas partes de la
casa. 9. En primer lugar debe devolver todo lo que necesita usted, ante
(_above_) todo los cuadernos. 10. Vamos a ver. ¿Está bien la cuenta?

(_b_) 1. Is that all you have to do? Well, I'm going to look for another
job for you. 2. He says he won't stay here all alone. 3. Is your letter
written? Well, my son shall take it to the post-office with mine. 4.
There will be a masked ball this evening. Shall you go? 5. What shall I
tell them? Tell them that we shall not send the things till they ask for
them. 6. All right. Tell me when it is all over (_to be all over_,
=acabarse=). 7. He will give you all you want if you ask him for it. 8. I
have already asked him many times, but he will not listen to me. 9. All
the brothers I have are older than I am. 10. Well, since they say they
will not do it, I shall have to do it myself.



LESSON XVII

 _Es difícil salvar a quien no quiere salvarse de ningún modo._[17]

--BENAVENTE.


=48.= The word _way_ meaning _road_ is translated =camino=; meaning _manner_
or _mode_ it is rendered =manera= or =modo=.

_Our sailor was on the way to become rich._

=Nuestro marinero estaba en camino de hacerse rico.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_Don't talk to me in that way if you don't want to make me cry._

=No me hables de este modo si no quieres hacerme llorar.=

--TOMAYO Y BAUS.

(_a_) _This way_ and _that way_ indicating direction are rendered
=por aquí= and =por allí=.

_At any rate_ (_any way_) _I shall come this way to see your
nephew._

=De todos modos pasaré por aquí para ver a su sobrino.=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

When strongly demonstrative _this way_ and _that way_ are rendered =así=,
_thus_:

_Do you want me to do it this way or that way?_

=¿Quiere usted que yo lo haga así o así?=

(_b_) _My way_, _your way_, etc., meaning _as I do it_, _as you do it_,
are rendered =como lo hago yo=, =como lo hace usted=, etc.

_To do it your way I should need more time._

=Para hacerlo como lo hace usted yo necesitaría más tiempo.=

(_c_) To have one's own way is translated =hacer su voluntad= or =hacer
como quiere uno=.

_You don't want to do it? Well, have your own way._

=¿No quieres hacerlo? Bueno, haz tu voluntad.=

_They spoil her by letting her have her own way all the time._

=La miman dejándola hacer como quiere todo el tiempo.=


=49.= The adjective _hard_ is rendered =duro= when it means _not soft_;
=difícil=, when it means _not easy_. As an adverb meaning _vigorously_,
_energetically_, _diligently_, it should be rendered by the Spanish
adverb that fits best in the sentence. So, _to study hard_ (diligently);
_to blow hard_ (strongly); _to work hard_ (diligently _or_ much); _to
think hard_ (deeply, intently).

_This bread is so hard that it is hard to cut it._

=Este pan es tan duro que es difícil cortarlo.=

_The wind blew hard all night._

=El viento sopló fuertemente toda la noche.=

_You will have to study harder if you want to pass._

=Tendrá Vd. que estudiar más diligentemente si quiere ser promovido.=

_He has had to work hard all his life._

=Ha tenido que trabajar mucho toda la vida.=


=50.= The verb _to give_ is generally =dar=, but it has many idiomatic
translations. So, _to give back_ (return), =devolver=; _to give in_ or
_give up_ (consent, yield), =consentir=, =ceder=, =rendir=; _to give up_
(renounce), =renunciar=; _to give out_ (publish; fail), =publicar=;
=acabarse=, =concluirse=.

_And now give me something to eat._

=Y ahora dame algo que comer.=--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_This man never gives in._

=Este hombre no se rinde nunca.=--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

_After walking a very short distance, her strength gave out._

=Después de andar muy corta distancia, se le acabaron las fuerzas.=


=51.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Se lo devolví ayer. 2. Primero se acabó la harina y después al
azúcar. 3. Se proclamó (publicó, anunció) que la reunión se verificaría
aquel mismo día. 4. Estaba cansado de tanto correr. 5. Habrá que
renunciar todo eso si quiere tener éxito. 6. Vamos por allí. Es más
corto el camino. 7. Quiere descansar después de tanto trabajar. 8. De
este modo nunca llegaremos. 9. Hemos hecho lo posible para persuadirles,
pero no quieren ceder.

(_b_) 1. If he does it, he will have to do it my way. 2. They have not
yet given out the names of the committee. 3. My ink gave out and I had
to use a pencil. 4. If you write it that way, it will be hard to read
it. 5. He gave up his family for his country. 6. Well, I expect to have
my own way in regard to this matter. 7. We took the longest way to get
home. 8. In that way you will never get to where you want to go. 9. Come
here! Don't get excited in that way. 10. It's raining hard now; if it
doesn't stop soon, it will be hard to get home. 11. It's hard work for
me to believe that (say, _it costs me work_).



LESSON XVIII

_Yo nunca tengo miedo cuando hago lo que debo._[18]

--ECHEGARAY.


=52.= The verb _to think_ in the sense of _to reflect_ or _intend_ is
=pensar= (=en=). As a synonym of _to believe_ it is =creer=. Where _it seems
to me_, _to him_, etc., may be substituted for _I think_, _he thinks_,
etc., the verb =parecer= in the third person is used, the English subject
becoming the Spanish indirect object.

_You will not think of returning to Salamanca to-day._

=Usted no pensará en regresar a Salamanca hoy.=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_Do you think I didn't understand?_

=¿Cree usted que yo no lo he comprendido?=

--JOSÉ MARMÓL.

_Sir, I think you have dropped something._

=Caballero, me parece que se le ha caído algo.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.


=53.= The verb _to make_ in its simplest use is rendered =hacer=. It has,
however, a very large number of idiomatic uses that call for other
translations. Of these, some of the commonest are: _to make haste_,
=darse prisa=; _to make fun of_, =burlarse de=, =mofárse de=; _to make the
acquaintance of_, =conocer=; _to make up one's mind_, =decidirse=,
=resolverse=, or, in the perfect tenses, =tener determinado=.

_The machinery was making so much noise that we could not hear what he
said._

=Hacía tanto ruido la maquinaria que no podíamos oír lo que dijo.=

_Make haste if you don't want to be late._

=Dese prisa si no quiere llegar con retraso.=

_I have come exclusively to make the acquaintance of this young lady._

=He venido exclusivamente por conocer a esta señorita.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

_Her brothers, on the other hand, made fun of her._

=Sus hermanos en cambio se burlaban de ella.=

--BENAVENTE.

_When he makes up his mind to do something he does it, and now he has
made up his mind not to keep on helping them._

=Cuando se resuelve= (=decide=) =a hacer algo lo hace, y ya tiene determinado
que no seguirá amparándolos.=

(_a_) _To make up for_ may mean _recuperate_, _compensate_, or
_recompense_, and in these senses is translated by the cognate
verbs =recuperar=, =compensar=, =recompensar=.

_The money that he has just received from his father will make up
for his losses._

=El dinero que acaba de recibir de su padre le compensará por lo
perdido.=

_I'm sorry I forgot to tell you. How can I make up to you for it?_

=Siento haberme olvidado de decírselo. ¿Cómo puedo recompensárselo?=


=54.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Al pasar por su cuarto la vieron rezando y se burlaron de ella.
2. ¿Qué le parece mi protegido ya que le conoce usted? 3. Ya tengo
bastante en que pensar. 4. ¿Le parecen a usted bien las vendas de este
ancho? 5. ¿No creen ustedes que el trabajar tanto será perjudicial para
su salud? 6. Dígale que se dé prisa. Ya estamos para partir. 7. Si no se
mejora en unos días, creo que debemos llamar al médico. 8. ¿Tiene usted
las manos limpias? Me parece que sí. 9. Le conocí el año pasado en
Londres. 10. Ya se ha recuperado de sus grandes perdidos.

(_b_) 1. We have all made up our minds not to give away all that we
possess. 2. Do you think that what I want to do is all right? 3. If you
don't make haste you will not have the pleasure of making the
acquaintance of the famous author. 4. We shall have to make up to you
what you have suffered through our carelessness. 5. We are thinking of
making up a party to go to the theater to-night. 6. Do you think they
will go with us if we ask them? 7. They very often quarrel, but they are
never long in making up. 8. Wait a minute. I think I dropped something.
9. Who made this? It is very well made, isn't it? 10. They have had
(=llevado=) a great disappointment, but this kind offer will make up to
them for it.



LESSON XIX

_Los sabios en su vanidad suelen olvidarse de Dios._[19]

--BENAVENTE.


=55.= The verb _to miss_ has two translations. Meaning _to feel the
absence of_ it is rendered =echar de menos=; meaning _to note the absence
of_ it is =notar la falta de=. _To be missing_ is translated =faltar=.

_Come! Go at once. Don't let them miss you._

=¡Ea! ¡Vaya pronto! Que no le echen a Vd. de menos.=

--ECHEGARAY.

_When did you miss the things that your servant stole?_

=¿Cuándo ha notado usted la falta de las cosas que le robó su criado?=

_If I were missing, it is possible that the King might suspect._

=Si yo faltara, es posible que el Rey sospechara.=

--NUÑEZ DE ARCE.

_One single boat was missing and that was not to come._

=Faltaba una sola lancha y ésta no había de llegar.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.


=56.= In English, emphasis is usually expressed by additional stress on
the word to be emphasized. In Spanish this is not so common, emphasis
being more generally expressed by the use of some emphatic word with the
word to be emphasized. Such words are =¡vaya!=, =¡toma!=, =¡mira!=, =sí, sí=.

_Let money talk, I said. And it did talk._

=Hable el dinero, dije. ¡Y toma si habló!=

--MARIANO JOSÉ DE LARRA.

_Nobody knows it, nobody! But I know it._

=Nadie lo sabe, nadie. Pero yo sí lo sé.=--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

_What an ovation she received!_

=¡Vaya si ha recibido una ovación!=--LOS QUINTERO.

_Do you remember? Do I remember!_

=¿Se acuerda usted? ¡(Vaya) si me acuerdo!=

--LOS QUINTERO.

_You are good! You are an angel!_

=¡Tú sí que eres buena! ¡Tú sí que eres un ángel!=

--TOMAYO Y BAUS.

Emphasis in a negative sentence may be expressed by repeating the
negative =no= at the end of the sentence or by using the phrase =eso no= at
the end.

_She hasn't stolen anything from me._

=No me ha robado nada, eso no.=--LOS QUINTERO.

_The journey didn't tire me._

=El viaje no me cansó, eso no.=

_I will not let him go, I tell you._

=No le dejaré ir, te digo, que no.=

(_a_) Personal pronouns in the nominative case are usually omitted.
When emphasized, they must be expressed.

_I'll help you if I have time._

=Te ayudaré si tengo el tiempo.=

_I would help you if I had time._

=Yo te ayudaría si tuviera el tiempo.=

In the objective case these pronouns are emphasized by adding the
disjunctive, or prepositional, form of the pronoun to the sentence.

_You may say all you want to to me, but don't insult him._

=A mí puede Vd. decirme cuanto quiera, pero no le ofenda a él.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.

(_b_) To assert emphatic belief in a statement the expressions =¡ya lo
creo!=, =¡cómo no!=, =sí, por cierto=, are used. Equivalent expressions in
the negative form are =¡de ningún modó!=, =¡no, por cierto!=

_He's coming at once, isn't he? Yes, indeed_ (_certainly_; _why, of
course_).

=Viene en seguida, ¿no? ¡Ya lo creo!=--ECHEGARAY.

_He's coming with us, isn't he? No, indeed._

=Va a acompañarnos a nosotros, ¿no? No, por cierto.=


=57.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. _I_ won't do that. 2. _What_ a pretty flower! 3. You _won't_ do
that! 4. That _is_ good. 5. Will he _come_? I should say so! 6. Shall I
give it to _you_? 7. No, give it to _them_. 8. He hasn't missed the
money yet. 9. I miss all the good friends who used to live near me. 10.
I don't know _him_, but I _do_ know his brother. 11. Is that door open?
I don't know, but I _do_ know that I am cold. 12. My, but this lesson is
hard! 13. Do you want it now? Certainly. 14. _There's_ a pretty house!
15. They say they miss us at home. 16. I miss three of my books (_say,
three of my books are missing to me_). 17. Do you want to go with _her_?
I certainly do. 18. I _shall_ miss _you_, but _not_ the others. 19.
There is something missing here and _you_ know what it is. 20. I do
_not_ know.



LESSON XX

_El topo no ve en lo que profundiza, pero el hombre, sí._[20]

--ECHEGARAY.


=58.= =REVIEW EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. _Let's_ prepare for the worst. 2. _Let's go._ We mustn't _let_
our presence here excite suspicion. 3. _Come now!_ you ought to have
more sense. 4. The man of whom we were speaking is here _now_. 5. _All
right._ But I can't see him _just now_. 6. _Come, come!_ _Leave_ me in
peace. 7. _Look at_ the fire! _Now_ it seems that it is dying out
(=morirse=), _now_ it flames up (=alzar=) again. 8. You ought to _know now_
that they were deceiving you. 9. Water the flower beds _first of all_.
10. I paid my creditors and now I can _leave_ the house without fear.

(_b_) 1. _How long_ have you _felt_ ill? 2. _Shall_ I take this away?
No, _leave_ it. _I'll_ eat it. 3. He _shall_ eat nothing. I _will_ see
to that. 4. Has he hurt himself? _Not at all._ 5. He _shall_ not _leave_
the house if he _will_ not tell me what he has done. 6. On the table
were _left_ only the knives, forks, and spoons. 7. Provided their
strength does not _give out_, they will continue their journey to-day.
8. _Think_ well before you speak. 9. She has _made up her mind_ to
_keep_ you in this afternoon. 10. Do you _think_ this lesson is hard?

_Note._--In the exercises above the italics indicate words which
require especial care in translating. In Exercise C the italics
indicate emphasis.

(_c_) 1. They _don't_ miss him, but they _do_ miss her. 2. The
_electric_ light has gone out, but the lamp hasn't. 3. Do I think of
them? Indeed I _do_ think of them! 4. He has never written such a letter
to _me_. 5. I _feel_ ill, but I shall not call the doctor. 6. _That's_
not what I was talking about. 7. I _won't_ do it for _him_! 8. Why, they
are going to leave it _here_! 9. I _don't_ want to go! 10. He _won't_
make haste.



LESSON XXI

_La buena música es como una espuela de las ideas perezosas._[21]

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=59.= English _time_ has various translations. Meaning _time of day_ it is
=hora=.

_When it came time to go to bed he went toward the room._

=Cuando llegó la hora de acostarse fué hacia el cuarto.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_At this time of day_ and _at this time of night_ are translated =a estas
horas=.

_I wonder where Elise is going at this time of night?_

=¿Adónde irá Elisa a estas horas?=--PALACIO VALDÉS.

(_a_) Denoting one _time_ of a series, _time_ is always =vez=.

_Every time it rains the sky sows diamonds._

=Cada vez que llueve el cielo siembra diamantes.=--CAMPOAMOR.

(_b_) Denoting a _period_ of time or _length_ of time the word is
translated =tiempo=.

_This church has been here since the most remote times._

=Esta iglesia se halla aquí desde los tiempos más remotos.=

_In this house I lose the idea of time._

=En esta casa pierdo la noción del tiempo.=--ECHEGARAY.


=60.= _Time_ occurs also in many idiomatic adverbial phrases. The
commonest of these are _from time to time_, =de vez en= =cuando=, =de cuando
en cuando=; _from this time on_, =de hoy en adelante=, =de aquí en adelante=;
_from that time on_, =de ahí en adelante=; _time after time_, _time and
time again_, =una que otra vez=.

_He agreed to return from time to time._

=Se quedó en volver de cuando en cuando.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_From time to time he stopped for a few minutes._

=De vez en cuando se detenía algunos instantes.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_Note._--=De cuando en cuando= and =de vez en cuando= translate also
the English adverbial idioms _every now and then_ or _every once in
a while_.


=61.= The verb _to like_ meaning _to be fond of_ (persons) is generally
translated =querer=, but sometimes =gustar= is used. _To like_ (things) is
=gustar=.

_We don't like our new neighbors very well._

=No queremos mucho a nuestros nuevos vecinos.=

_I don't like this house as well as I did the other._

=No me gusta esta casa tanto como me gustó la otra.=

_He will like these. Let's see if there are any more here._

=Estos le gustarán. A ver si hay más por aquí.=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_Note._--Though the verb =gustar= may be used in the regular way with
a personal subject, it is more commonly used as in these examples,
the _thing_ being considered as the subject and the person as the
indirect object. Cf. 51, note.

(_a_) _Like_ used as a preposition of manner is translated =como= or
=cual=.

_The girl is charming, like her mother._

=La niña es, cual su madre, encantadora.=--CAMPOAMOR.

_This boy sings like a bird._

=Este muchacho canta como un pájaro.=

(_b_) _To feel like_ in the sense of _to want_, _desire_, is
translated =tener ganas de= with the infinitive.

_I don't feel like going to-day._

=No tengo ganas de ir hoy.=

_(c)_ In questions _what's ... like_ is translated =¿qué tal ...?=

_What's the new professor like?_

=¿Qué tal el nuevo profesor?=

_Look at me.--I'm looking.--Well, what do I look like to you?_

=Mírame.--Te miro.--Bueno, ¿qué tal te parezco?=

--TOMAYO Y BAUS.


=62.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. ¿Cuáles le gustan más, éstos o aquéllos? 2. Hay tiempo para
todo. 3. Unas veces le trata usted bien y otras veces mal. 4. Hace
tiempo que noto eso. 5. De aquí en adelante necesitaremos más tiempo. 6.
De vez en cuando me habló. 7. Una que otra vez bajaban al manantial. 8.
Ya es hora de irnos, si no queremos llegar con retraso. 9. No me gusta
escribir con plumatintero. 10. Quiere mucho a todos sus maestros. 11.
¿Qué tal el tiempo en aquella región? A mí no me gusta un clima frío.

(_b_) 1. I don't like this song, I'm not going to learn it. 2. This time
I'm sure you will like what I have brought you. 3. At that time there
was only one school in the town. 4. I get letters from them from time to
time. 5. I asked him what the new play was like and he said it was very
interesting. 6. She had on a big hat that was like a bee-hive. 7. Every
time I see him he talks like that (_in that way_). 8. The river
encircles the city like a silver chain. 9. What time does the train
arrive? Isn't it time to go to the station? 10. Well, _I_ don't like
your new dress. It looks like (=parecer=) an old lady's dress.



LESSON XXII

_En cosas de fe, para ver claro hay que ser ciego._[22]

--CAMPOAMOR.


=63.= _Very_ as an adverb is =muy=. As an adjective it is =mismo=, =-a=.
When it stands alone it is =mucho=. _Very much_ is always =mucho= or
=muchísimo=.

_He was a very intelligent man, fortunate in his mining business._

=Era hombre muy inteligente, afortunado en su comercio de minas.=--PÉREZ
GALDÓS.

_This very afternoon I will go to his house._

=Esta misma tarde iré a su casa.=--LOS QUINTERO.

_"I shall be very glad," she said with a smile._

=Me alegraré mucho,--dijo con una sonrisa.=--JUAN VALERA.

_It would be very much better to leave it for the present._

=Sería muchísimo mejor dejarlo por lo pronto.=

(_a_) Emphatic _very_ is often translated by the suffixes =-ísimo=
and =-ito=.

_There did not appear to be any internal injury, but he did have a
very high fever._

=Lesión interior no parecía que hubiese, pero sí tenía fievre
altísima.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_She fell ill, very_, VERY _ill. The doctor said she was going to die._

=Se puso mala, muy malita. El médico dijo que iba a morir.=

--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.


=64.= The verb _to play_ is translated =jugar a= when it means _to play
games_ or _take a part in a drama_. _To play instruments_ is rendered
=tocar=.

_The children were playing in the street. They were playing ball._

=Los niños jugaban en la calle. Jugaban a la pelota.=

_And the woman, what part does_ SHE _play in all this?_

=Y la mujer, ¿qué papel juega ella en todo ello?=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_Go and play the piano so that these gentlemen may hear you._

=Vete a tocar el píano para que estos señores te oigan.=

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=65.= The verb _to need_ is rendered either =necesitar=, =hacer falta=, or
=faltar=.

_What this boy needs is the pure air of the country._

=Lo que le hace falta a ese muchacho es el aire puro del campo.=--RAMOS
CARRIÓN.

_I do not need to inform you that first I asked for the other one._

=No necesito advertirle a Vd. que primero pedí la otra.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_The tea isn't needed now. You may take it away._

=Ya no hace falta el té. Puede Ud. llevárselo.=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_Less than this was necessary to satisfy the hearers._

=Menos de eso se necesitaba para satisfacer los oyentes.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

Note the order in the first example and compare with Sections 51, note,
and 60.


=66.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. A él no le hace falta (no le falta) mucho, pero a mí me hacen
falta (me faltan) muchas cosas. 2. Necesito un hombre que cuide de los
caballos. 3. Su casa es muchísimo más grande que la nuestra. 4. ¿Quién
ha jugado (_or_ hecho) el papel de Shylock en la representación de
anoche? 5. Tan cansaditos estaban que se acostaron en cuanto llegaron.
6. Llévatelo, que a mí no me hace ninguna falta. 7. Los ví esta misma
mañana. Parecían contentísimos. 8. En la casa siempre hay que hablar
quedito porque siempre hay alguien que está durmiendo. 9. Tomó en la
suya la manecita. La temperatura estaba altísima. 10. Lo primero que
hace falta para querer es el corazón.

(_b_) 1. You do not need to tell me that. I know it already. 2. I heard
somebody playing the violin. 3. That is the very book I need. Will you
lend it to me? 4. She needs a nurse to take care of the children. 5.
(Be) very, very quiet! Mother's asleep. 6. I _do_ like that penknife,
but I don't need one. 7. The street is very long and very, very narrow.
8. The little girls are _very_ pretty. My little daughter likes to play
with them. 9. The last time they were here they gave me many things that
I needed. 10. Are they satisfied with (=de=) what you have sent them? Oh,
yes, very.



LESSON XXIII

_Debe estar el valor de acuerdo con la prudencia._[23]

--NUÑEZ DE ARCE.


=67.= The verb _to please_ meaning _to give pleasure to_ is rendered
=agradar a=; meaning _to satisfy_ it is translated =contentar=; meaning _to
want to_, _be willing to_ it is usually rendered =querer=, though it may
be translated as in (_a_).

_It pleased him very much to hear that we had arrived safe and sound._

=Le agradó muchísimo saber que habíamos llegado salvo y sano.=

_Do what I may I never manage to please her._

=Haga lo que hiciere nunca logro contentarla.=

_Ask him if he will please come and help me._

=Pregúntele si quiere venir a ayudarme.=

(_a_) _Please_ used in the imperative is translated by one of the
following expressions: =haga el favor de=, =tenga la bondad de=;
=sírvase=. Of these the first two are considered the more formally
courteous. All are followed by the infinitive.

_Please be quiet._

=Hágame el favor de callar.=--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_Waiter, please open the window._

=Mozo, sírvase abrir la ventana.=

_Note._--In curter familiar speech, the word =favor= alone may be
used.

_Please answer at once._

=Favor de contestar en seguida.=


=68.= The verb _to mean_, signifying _to intend_, is rendered =tener la
intención de= or =proponerse=.

_He means to finish the work without any one's helping him._

=Se propone= (=tiene la intención de=) =acabar el trabajo sin que nadie le
ayude.=

(_a_) In the sense of _to wish to say_, _mean_ is translated =querer
decir=.

_What does this word mean?_

=¿Qué quiere decir esta palabra?=

When _I mean_ introduces a qualifying phrase, it is often rendered
=digo=, _I say_.

_They call her little Pilar. I wish they'd call me little Pilar--I
mean, little Antonio._

=La llaman Pilarcita. ¡Si me llamasen a mí Pilarcita--digo,
Antoñito!=

--ECHEGARAY.

(_b_) _Not to mean to do something_ is generally rendered by =hacer algo
sin querer=.

_I'm sorry I broke the window. I didn't mean to._

=Yo siento haber quebrado el vidriero. Lo he hecho sin querer.=

(_c_) _To mean_ in the sense of _to dare_ is rendered =atreverse=.

_What do you mean by talking to me in that way?_

=¿Cómo se atreve Vd. hablarme de esta manera?=


=69.= _Without_ is translated =sin=, except when it introduces a verbal noun
in _-ing_, modified by a possessive. In this case, _without_ is rendered
by the conjunction =sin que=, the English verbal noun becomes in Spanish a
verb in the subjunctive mode and its possessive modifier becomes the
subject of the clause.

_He went away without looking at her and without her looking at him._

=Se marchó sin mirarla y sin que ella le mirara a él.=

--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_I won't go without saying good-by to you._

=No iré sin decirte adios.=--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=70.= =EXERCISES=

(=a=) 1. Dígales que hagan el favor de pasar a la sala. 2. ¿Quiere Vd.
hacerme el favor de plancharme este traje? 3. Sírvase Vd. decir al señor
que yo le espero en mi despacho. 4. La representación nos ha agradado
muchísimo. 5. ¡Vaya un tonto! ¿Tendrá la intención de quedar aquí? 6.
Sabe tocar el violin, digo, el piano. 7. ¡Este sí que la contentará! 8.
No debes llorar sin que yo sepa porqué lloras. 9. Mientras llueve no
salimos sin paraguas. 10. No salgas sin que yo te dé permiso.

(_b_) 1. Please tell him that I'm waiting for him. 2. Do you think this
will please him? 3. Don't go without me, please. 4. What do you mean by
eating all the candy! 5. It will be impossible for us to go without
their seeing us. 6. They have three daughters, I mean, two daughters and
one son. 7. Please come as soon as you can if you can come without
bringing the others. 8. I didn't mean to do that; please forgive me. 9.
He means that if you mean to do that without your father's knowing it
you will have to hurry. 10. He wrote without thinking that it was
impossible for him to write without my knowing it.



LESSON XXIV

_Cuando empiezan las manos, las lenguas suelen callar._[24]

--JUAN VALERA.


=71.= The word _only_ is both adjective and adverb. As an adjective it is
in Spanish =único=. (Cf. English _unique_.)

_You are the only person in whom I can confide._

=Tu eres la única persona a quien puedo confiar.=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.


(_a_) _The only thing_ (_fact_) is rendered =lo único=.

_The only thing she knew was that he had taken that train._

=Lo único que sabía era que había tomado aquel tren.=

--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

(_b_) As an adverb _only_ is rendered =sólo=, =solamente=, or, modifying
expressions of quantity, =no más ... que= (=de= before numbers). For the
order of the phrase in the sentence, see the examples.

_If I only had what my father gave me, I shouldn't have enough to pay
the baker._

=Si sólo tuviera lo que me da el padre, no tendría para pagar al
panadero.=

--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_They saw only soldiers on the platforms._

=Veían sólo soldados en los andenes.=--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_I have only three._ (_I have but three. I have just three._)

=Tengo solo tres.= (=Tengo tres solamente. Tengo tres, nada más. No tengo
más de tres.=)

(_c_) _If only_, expressing a wish contrary to fact, is rendered =ojalá=
with imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive.

_If only he were here._

=¡Ojalá que estuviera aquí!=


=72.= =Solo= without the accent means _alone_, or _single_.

_The other compartment was occupied by a single man._

=El otro compartamento estaba ocupado por un hombre solo.=

--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_Bernard loves me alone and I love only him._

=Bernardo me quiere a mí sola y yo quiero sólo a él.=

--ECHEGARAY.

(_a_) _Alone_ (_with_) is often rendered =a solas= (=con=).

_Alone, I weep much and am fearfully sorry for myself._

=A solás lloro mucho y tengo compasión atroz de mí mismo.=

--ECHEGARAY.

_We left him alone with his conscience._

=Le dejamos a solas con su conciencia.=--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.


=73.= The verb _to hear_ is =oír= when actual hearing is meant. Sometimes
=sentir= is used in the same sense.

_I put my ear to the lock and heard voices and laughter._

=Pegué el oído a la cerradura y oí voces y risas.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_Scarcely did she hear the noise and see us, when she got up._

=No bien sintió el ruido y nos vió, se levantó.=--JUAN VALERA.

_(a)_ When _to hear_ has the force of _to find out_, _learn_, it is
rendered =saber=.

_You have heard from my father how much these orchards please me._

=Ha sabido por mi padre lo mucho que me gustan estas huertas.=

--JUAN VALERA.


=74.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Yo no puedo trasnochar. Es lo único que me hace daño. 2. Un día
le vieron solo y se acercaron para hablarle. 3. Hablaba a solas con el
Argentino. 4. Sólo de oirle se puso más animado. 5. Supe por mi hermano
que ustedes asistieron al teatro anoche. 6. Solo aquel hombre podría
adquirir tanto dinero en tan poco tiempo. 7. El tío que había sido el
único apoyo de la familia acababa de morir. 8. ¡Déjele a este niño!
¿Por qué se burla usted de él? 9. Hay solamente tres aquí. ¿Tres, nada
más?

(_b_) 1. He alone knew what had been done for them. 2. I have heard from
home only once this week. 3. He has many books in his library, but only
a few are good. 4. I think I hear a child crying. Well, it's only the
children playing in the yard. 5. Leave the room. I want to speak with
your brother alone. 6. We heard something like a groan, but I think it
was only the wind. 7. Did you hear what happened this morning? You
didn't? (=¿no?=) Well, I meant to tell you when we were alone. 8. We drink
only water. 9. The lesson wasn't hard. It was only that I didn't have
much time. 10. This is the only time that I have been able to see you
alone.



LESSON XXV

_El miedo hace esclavos. La esclavitud hace rebeldes._[25]

--TOMAYO Y BAUS.


=75.= English _right_ as a noun indicating that which is legal, or
permissible, is translated =derecho=.

_I haven't the right to take it away with me._

=No tengo el derecho de llevármelo.=

(_a_) _To be right_ as the opposite of _to be wrong_ or _mistaken_
is rendered =tener razón=; meaning _to be just_ it is =ser justo=.

_Was it right to leave the boy in that deserted place?_

=¿Era justo dejar al muchacho en aquel lugar desierto?=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_Uncle is right. We must send him to Paris._

=Tiene razón el tío. Debemos mandarle a París.=--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

(_b_) As the opposite of _left_, _right_ is =derecho=.

_In her right hand she held a lamp._

=En la mano derecha tenía una lámpara.=

The phrases _on the right_ and _to the right_ are rendered =a la derecha=.

_St. Mark's church is on the right._

=La iglesia de San Marcos se halla a la derecha.=

(_c_) _All right_ is translated =bueno= or =bien=.

_All right, then. I'll give you a dollar for it. That's all right, isn't
it?_

=Bueno, entonces. Le daré un duro por él. Está bien, ¿no?=


=76.= When _duty_ is expressed, English _must_ is translated =deber=. When
_must_ expresses _what is probably true_, =deber de= is the translation.
To express _necessity_, =tener que= is used.

_Children must obey their parents._

=Los niños deben obedecer a sus padres.=

_He must have a high opinion of her._

=Debe de tener un alto concepto de ella.=--JUAN VALERA.

_I must go to the city to-day._

=Tengo que ir a la ciudad hoy.=

(_a_) When _must_ is followed by a passive infinitive, =hay que= or
=ha de= is used with the infinitive. =Hay que= also translates the
impersonal _one_ (_we_, _you_, _they_, _people_) _must_.

_It mustn't be said that this meeting was in vain._

=No ha de decirse que este encuentro fué en vano.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_One must talk of that. One must remember that._

=Hay que hablar de eso. Hay que acordarse de eso.=

--FERNÁN CABALLERO.

(_b_) Expressing conjecture or probability _must_ is often translated by
the future and conditional of the verb which in English is the
complementary infinitive with _must_. The future translates the present,
and the conditional the perfect infinitive.

_He must know something about it. He must have worn something._

=Algo sabrá de eso. Algo se pondría.=--LOS QUINTERO.

_It must be because she did it. It must have been that._

=Será porque ella lo haya hecho. Eso sería.=


=77.= EXERCISES

(_a_) 1. Llaman a la puerta. Serán ellos. 2. Su hermano debe de ser
cómplice. 3. La hazaña debió de suceder anoche. 4. No debes llorar sin
decirme por qué. 5. Ha de perdonarme usted si soy un poco malicioso. 6.
No hay que apurarse. Estará bueno en un momento. 7. Usted debe de haber
visto la casa en donde vivo. 8. Debe de ser esa casa blanca a la
derecha. 9. No hay que esperarlos hoy. Tienen razón en no venir. 10.
Serían las tres cuando al fin llegaron.

(_b_) 1. I must write a letter to a friend who is ill. 2. That man must
have a very poor memory. 3. I have brought you a dozen eggs. Is that all
right? 4. It is not right to tell a child what he must do and not help
him to do it. 5. On the right of the avenue was (=hallarse=) a beautiful
park. 6. Look what I have written. It is all right, isn't it? 7. The
bell rang, didn't it? It must be the postman. 8. It must have been John
who telephoned me last night. 9. Is this bill right? It must be. It
seems to be all right. 10. I must telephone him and tell him that it
must be done before night.



LESSON XXVI

_Santos hay donde menos se piensa._[26]

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=78.= The verb _to appear_ is rendered =parecer= when the meaning is _to
seem_; meaning _to put in an appearance_ it is translated =aparecer=,
=dejarse ver=, =presentarse=, or =asomar=, the last with the idea of _just
coming into view_.

_He appears to be absolutely tired out._

=Parece estar cansado a más no poder.=

_The moon appears and paints blue shadows._

=Aparece= (=asoma=) =la luna y pinta sombras azules.=

--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

_At the same moment the face of the Catalan appeared through the
window._

=Al mismo momento asomó el rostro del Catalán por la ventana.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_He tried to appear in public as little as possible._

=Procuraba presentarse en pública lo menos posible.=--ALARCÓN.


=79.= The verb _to succeed_ is rendered =suceder= when the meaning is _to
follow_; meaning _to be able to_, _manage to_, it is rendered =lograr=
with the direct infinitive; in the sense of _to be successful_ it is
translated =tener éxito=.

_Edward VII. succeeded Queen Victoria._

=Eduardo Séptimo sucedió a la reina Victoria.=

_And so I'm lost if I don't succeed in escaping?_

=¿Conque estoy perdido si no logro escaparme?=--ALARCÓN.

_He'll succeed. Indeed he will!_

=Tendrá éxito. ¡Vaya si lo tendrá!=


=80.= The word _even_ used adverbially is =aun= or =hasta=. Used to emphasize
a noun it is generally =hasta=. _Not even_ is translated =hasta ... no=, or
=ni= (=siquiera=); and the phrase _even if not_ is =ya que no=.

_The landlady, the tailor, and even the night-watchman can wait._

=La patrona, el sastre, y hasta el sereno pueden esperar.=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_Not even so do I trust him._

=Ni aun así me fío de él.=--GIL Y ZÁRATE.

_I don't want anybody, not even her, to share this sacrifice with me._

=Yo no quiero que nadie, ni siquiera ella, comparta este sacrificio
conmigo.=--LOS QUINTERO.

_Even if not rich, they are by no means poor._ =Ya que no ricos, no son
de ningún modo pobres.=


=81.= _Toward_ indicating _direction_ is =hacia=. Denoting _inclination_ it
is rendered =para con=.

_We saw that they were all walking toward the river._

=Vimos que todos caminaban hacia el río.=

_Toward his own children he was always unjust._

=Para con sus propios hijos fué siempre injusto.=


=82.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Pegaron fuego hasta a las iglesias. 2. Le felicito a Vd. y aun
más a su familia. 3. Todavía no se ha dejado ver. 4. ¿Quién sucedió al
Presidente Lincoln? 5. Saltó al agua y logró salvar al niño. 6. Logré
alcanzarlos hacia la noche. 7. Era muy generoso para con sus amigos
menos afortunados. 8. No tenían ni siquiera un duro. 9. Hasta su padre
no sabía lo que habían hecho. 10. Parece que al momento de asomarse él a
la puerta le dijeron que tenía que presentarse ante el juez.

(_b_) 1. They appear to be very happy even if they are not rich. 2.
Toward morning a light appeared in the house. 3. Even so, I don't like
his conduct towards his family. 4. I haven't even answered the letters
that they wrote me. 5. He even shook hands with the beggars in the
street. 6. I think he will succeed in getting the money. 7. He went
toward the door without looking at us. 8. I don't feel any anger toward
him. 9. They have succeeded in opening the door, but even now they can't
get in. 10. Even if not of as good material as mine, it is very well
made.



LESSON XXVII

_De la mentira sale mucha veces la verdad._[27]

--BENAVENTE.


=83.= =REVIEW EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. I have _known_ him _only_ a short _time_. 2. They returned last
night at the usual _time_. 3. They will always _need_ me and so I shall
_keep on_ sacrificing myself for them. 4. She is _very pretty_, isn't
she? Yes, _very_. 5. I don't _feel like playing_ with them now. 6. The
least that it had cost him was money and _time_. 7. In one of the houses
a lady _was playing_ the organ. 8. He _sat down like_ one who is not in
a hurry. 9. They congregate there every day at the same _time_. 10.
_Without_ the money, I don't like to go to (=acudir a=) them. 11. It _must
be_ time _for_ them to arrive.

(_b_) 1. _Even so_, they _know_ very _little_ about that man. 2. From
_time to time_ he walked _toward_ the door. 3. They have ordered him _to
appear before_ them to-morrow. 4. It _appears_ that I _was not right_
when I _told_ you that. 5. Don't go _without me_. I can't go _without
asking_ permission. 6. It has _grown_ very dark. It _must_ be going to
rain. 7. _Tell_ them it _must_ be done. They _must_ know that already.
8. We _must get_ him what he _needs even_ if it costs a lot of money. 9.
We are very, _very_ tired. We haven't had _even_ a moment to rest all
day. 10. You _need_ not explain. I heard from your companions that you
had been dismissed. 11. It must be dinner _time_. You _must_ dine with
us this evening.

(_c_) 1. _Please tell_ them that I haven't enough _even_ now. 2. I _need
even_ more than that, this _very_ minute. 3. _What's_ the weather _like_
just now? Oh, it rains _every now and then_. 4. You will _have to_ give
me more _time_. I have _only_ two made. 5. _The only thing_ I _need just
now_ is a piece of soap. 6. _The only thing_ I _succeeded in getting_
from him was advice. 7. If _only_ she were not so ill! But I _hear_ that
she is _getting better_. 8. I _heard_ a lady singing. She sang _like_ a
nightingale. 9. If you _mean_ that you _like_ the way he acts (say, _his
manner of acting_) _toward_ others, you are crazy, _I mean_, you are not
wise. 10. You _are right_. It _must_ be he. He _must have_ arrived this
morning. 11. One _mustn't_ think that all things are _like_ these.



LESSON XXVIII

_Cuando me habla el deber, tan sólo escucho su voz._[28]

--GIL Y ZÁRATE.


=84.= The verb _to sit_ (_down_) is rendered =sentarse=. _To be sitting_ is
rendered =estar sentado=.

_I'm going, I'm going, you say, and you sit down._

=Ya voy, ya voy, dices, y te sientas.=--TOMAYO Y BAUS.

_Will you sit_ (_down_) _here a moment, please?_

=¿Quiere usted sentarse aquí un momento?=

_Don Miguel is sitting in an armchair near the stove._

=Don Miguel está sentado en un sillón inmediato al brasero.=

--LOS QUINTERO.

_Note._--It is always well to paraphrase _sit_ before translating.
So, _I sat_ (sat down, took a seat, seated myself) _where they told
me to_; _I sat_ (was sitting) _in the armchair_.


=85.= _To stand_ meaning _to be on one's feet_ is rendered =estar en pie= or
=parado=; meaning _to rise to one's feet_ it is =ponerse de pie=.

_Pardon me, I am troubled with my heart. I can't stand._

=Perdóneme usted. Padezco del corazón. No puedo estar en pie.=--PÉREZ
GALDÓS.

_When they saw the lady enter, everybody stood._

=Al ver entrar a la señora todo el mundo se puso de pie.=

(_a_) Meaning _to be situated_, _stand_ is translated =hallarse= or
=estar situado=.

_That church has stood there for years._

=Aquella iglesia se halla allí desde hace muchos años.=

(_b_) Meaning _to endure_, _bear_, _suffer_, _stand_ is rendered
=aguantar=, =sufrir=, =soportar=.

_He couldn't stand the pain._

=No podía soportar el dolor.=

_I can't stand this noise any longer._

=No puedo sufrir más este ruido.=


=86.= English _corner_ has two translations. Meaning _an exterior angle_,
it is rendered =esquina=; as _an interior angle_, it is =rincón=.

_At the corner of that street stands a house, and in one corner of the
garden of that house is a beautiful tree._

=En la esquina de aquella calle se halla una casa, y en un rincón del
jardín de esa casa se halla un hermoso árbol.=


=87.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. La casa estaba situada en medio de grandes jardines. 2. Junto a
él nos sentábamos nosotros, es decir, el padre cura y yo. 3. Se sentaron
en torno de una mesa junta a la ventana. 4. ¡Ponte de pie cuando yo te
hablo! 5. Estamos muy bien en este rinconcito. 6. Ha de saber usted que
no puedo aguantar a este hombre. 7. En la obscuridad di contra la
esquina de la mesa y me lastimé el brazo. 8. No había asientos para
todos y algunos tenían que quedarse parados (en pie). 9. ¿Cómo ha
soportado el enfermo el largo viaje? 10. Aquí en el rincón hay un banco.
Sentémonos aquí.

(_b_) 1. I am tired of sitting. Let's all stand up for a few minutes. 2.
Who is that boy who is still sitting down? 3. How long are we going to
have to stand this? 4. We sat down to rest a few minutes because we
were tired. 5. The house stands a little to the right of the church. 6.
She has been sitting here so very, very quiet that I had almost
forgotten her. 7. You must always stand when a lady speaks to you. 8.
Turning the corner, he found himself in a little square that he had
never seen before. 9. Put the table in the corner. We want to sit there.
10. There was a lady whom I didn't know standing by the window.



LESSON XXIX

_A quien se apresta a luchar no le abaten pesares._[29]

--EDUARDO MARQUINA.


=88.= English _self_ used reflexively is rendered by the Spanish
reflexive pronouns =me=, =te=, =se=, =nos=, =os=, =se=. Used as an
emphatic modifier _self_ is rendered =mismo= for all persons, changing
only for number and gender. =Mismo= may be used with a reflexive to
emphasize it.

_I hurt myself, as you yourself can see._

=Me he lastimado, como usted mismo puede ver.=

_Give the letter to him himself._

=Entregue la carta a él mismo.=--JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

_I am inclined to believe that the widow loves herself above all._

=Inclino a creer que la viuda ama a sí misma sobre todo.=

--JUAN VALERA.

_He hurts himself in order to annoy the rest._

=Es que se hace daño a sí mismo para dar un disgusto a los
demás.=--ECHEGARAY.

_Note._--=Mismo= may take the emphatic ending =-ísimo=. So =él mismísmo=
..., _the very ... himself_.


=89.= _Last_, meaning _the most recent of a series_, or _the final one of
a series_, is translated =último=. Meaning _the one just past_, it is
translated =pasado=.

_The last French invasion proves how difficult it is to attack our
independence._

=La última irrupción francesa prueba cuán difícil es atacar nuestra
independencia.=--EMILIO CASTELAR.

_We ourselves were there last week._

=Nosotros mismos estábamos allí la semana pasada.=

_I said to myself, "This will be the last time."_

=Dije para mí--Esta será la última vez.=

(_a_) The verb _to last_ is translated =durar=.

_Come! Be patient, for this will not last long._

=¡Vamos! Tenga usted paciencia, que esto no durará mucho.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

(_b_) _Last night_ is rendered =anoche= or =ayer por la noche=.

_They must have stolen them from me last night._

=Debieron de robármelas anoche.=--ALARCÓN.

(_c_) _At last_ is translated =al fin= or, more emphatically, =al fin y al
cabo=.

_At last! I was beginning to think that you were lost._

=¡Al fin y al cabo! Yo empezaba a creer que se había perdido usted.=


=90.= The verb _to tell_ has three common translations. Meaning simply _to
say to_ it is rendered =decir=. Meaning _to relate_ it is =contar=. Meaning
_to be effective_ it is rendered =producir efecto=.

_Tell me, grandfather, what is the name of the queen in your story?_

=Dime, abuelito, ¿cómo se llama la reina de tu cuento?=

--MARTÍNEZ SIERRA.

_I told them the terrible story of the miner._

=Les conté la espantosa narración del minero.=--ALARCÓN.

_It was a telling narrative._

=Fué una narración que produjo efecto.=


=91.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Me dice que está lloviendo en este mismo momento. 2. Contaba a
los niños las aventuras de los conquistadores. 3. María se cortó hace
poco con ese cuchillo. 4. Lo hemos comprado para nosotros mismos, no
para ellos. 5. Bien podía ver que sus palabras habían producido efecto.
6. Esta es la última obra del insigne autor español Pérez Galdós. 7.
Murió el mes pasado. 8. Al fin han venido a contarme lo ocurrido. 9. La
mismísima madre de la niña no hubiera podido hacer más para salvarla.
10. Respeto a la inteligencia de las hormigas se cuentan muchas
anécdotas.

(_b_) 1. Please tell them that this is not the book that I need. 2. I
like to hear him tell how he learned to play the piano. 3. He knows how
to tell it in such a way that every word tells. 4. I myself had
forgotten all my troubles. 5. I was just saying to myself that it is
time to go. 6. The very general himself could not have done more. 7.
This is the last story that I am going to tell you. Last night you went
to bed too late. 8. I was just wondering (say, _asking myself_) whether
I was dreaming or not. 9. I'm going to take her the roses. I myself like
the lilies best. 10. At last, last week, I was able to buy the last one
that I needed.



LESSON XXX

_Digan lo que quieran, la alegría es muy barata._[30]

--ECHEGARAY.


=92.= _To save_ in the sense of _to rescue_ is =salvar=; meaning _to keep_,
_conserve_, it is =ahorrar=, or =conservar=.

_To save a child, I am capable of throwing myself into the fire._

=Por salvar a un niño soy capaz de echarme en el fuego.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_It's a pity that he didn't save more while he was earning more._

=Es lástima que no haya ahorrado más mientras ganaba más.=

_We must save our strength._

=Debemos conservar= (=ahorrar=) =nuestras fuerzas.=


=93.= _To see_ is usually =ver=, but used in conjunction with certain
prepositions it calls for other translations. So _to see to_ (take
charge of) is rendered =cuidar de=, or =tomar a su cargo=; _to see about_
(ask _or_ inquire about) is translated =informarse de= or =pedir informes
sobre=.

_I'll see to the baggage._

=Yo cuidaré del equipaje, or yo tomaré a mi cargo el equipaje.=

_What time do you want me to go and see about it?_

=¿A qué hora quiere usted que yo vaya a informarme de ello?=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

(_a_) _To see through_ may be rendered (=llegar a=) =comprender=. _To
see a thing through_ is rendered =llevar algo a cabo=.

_There's a problem that I shall never be able to see through._

=¡Vaya un problema que yo nunca llegaré a comprender= (or =que yo
nunca comprenderé=)!

_We've begun it and we must see it through._

=Lo hemos empezado y debemos llevarlo a cabo.=

(_b_) The exclamatory _see here!_ is rendered =¡mire Vd.!= and the
imperative forms _let's see_ and _let me see_ are translated =a ver=
or =vamos a ver=.

_See here! You'll have to hurry if you want to overtake them._

=¡Mire Vd.! Tendrá que darse prisa si quiere Vd. alcanzarlos.=

_Let's see if you with your talent can clear this up for me._

=A ver si usted con su talento me aclara esto.=--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_Let's see! Will you tell me what use flowers are?_

=¡Vamos a ver! ¿Quiere usted decirme que utilidad tienen las
flores?=--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_Let's see! What have you to declare?_

=¡A ver! ¿Qué tiene Vd. que declarar?=--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.


=94.= _Half_ as a noun is =la mitad=. As an adjective it is =medio=, which is
also its adverbial form. _Half-way there_ is translated =a mitad del
camino= or =en medio camino=.

_"They offered me the half now," said the old woman._

=Me ofrecieron la mitad ahora,--dijo la anciana.=

--FERNÁN CABALLERO.

_He always stopped when halfway there._

=Siempre se detuvo a la mitad del camino.=--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_Halfway there, there was an inn._

=En medio del camino se hallaba una venta.=

--FERNÁN CABALLERO.


=95.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Si Vd. me da la mitad, yo quedaré satisfecho. 2. Estábamos
medio tristes y medio rabiosos. 3. Queda a media milla de distancia de
aquí. 4. A ver si Vd. puede hacerlo mejor. 5. Ahorró mucho dinero en
poco tiempo. 6. Es muy hábil el médico. Esperemos que salve al niño. 7.
¡Mira! si no quieres que lleguemos con retraso, date prisa. 8. Yo tomaré
todo eso a mí cargo. 9. A mitad del camino tuvieron que volver. 10.
Estaba medio enojada porque no le habían dado más que la mitad.

(_b_) 1. The firemen saved all the people in the house. 2. It is a
strange affair. I can't see through it at all. 3. Half is for me and the
other half for them. 4. Let's see, what's the good of this? 5. I'll see
to the dinner. 6. To save time we sent a servant to see about the
trains. 7. The bandits left their victims there half dead. 8. Halfway
there they all sat down to rest. 9. Don't leave it half done. See it
through! 10. The letter is half written. Let's see! Don't you want to
finish it now?



LESSON XXXI

_El que presta a un amigo pierde el dinero y el amigo._[31]

--FERNÁN CABALLERO.


=96.= The word _as_ as a conjunction of cause is rendered =ya que=, =puesto
que=, or =como=.

_As you have eaten nothing to-day, it occurred to me to get a supper for
you to-night._

=Como hoy no has comido nada, se me ocurrió prepararte una cena esta
noche.=--TOMAYO Y BAUS.

_As they won't go with us, let's invite the others._

=Ya que no quieren acompañarnos ellos, invitemos a los otros.=

(_a_) As a conjunction of time or comparison it is =como=, but a temporal
clause introduced by _as_ may be rendered by =al= with the infinitive.

_He had a slight acquaintance with foreign literature as many have
to-day._

=Tenía un ligero tinte de literatura extranjera como muchos lo tienen
hoy.=--FERNÁN CABALLERO.

_As I entered the room, they all stopped talking._

=Al entrar yo en la sala, todos dejaron de hablar.=

(_b_) The correlative _as ... as_ is rendered =tan ... como=, but _as much
... as_ and _as many ... as_ are rendered =tanto ... como= and =tantos ...
como=.

_My father was as charmed as ever with her._

=Mi padre se mostró tan embelesado como siempre con ella.=

--JUAN VALERA.

_I have as much time as I need, and as many books as I want to read._

=Tengo tanto tiempo como necesito y tantos libros como quiero leer.=

The second _as_ in these phrases may be translated =cuanto=, =cuantos=, or
these words may be used to translate both the first and the second _as_.

_I will buy you as much_ (_as many_) _as you need._

=Te compraré cuanto= (=cuantos=) =le hacen falta.=

(_c_) _As soon as_ may be translated literally =tan pronto como=, but it
is also very frequently rendered =así que=, =en cuanto=, or =luego que=.

_You are going to do it as soon as you know what I am going to tell
you._

=Lo vas a hacer en cuanto sepas lo que yo te voy a decir.=

--LOS QUINTERO.

_As soon as night had closed in, they went again to the judge's house._

=Así que se cerró la noche se dirigieron otra vez a la casa del juez.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

(_d_) _As for_, _as far as ... is concerned_, _as regards ..._, all may
be translated =en cuanto a= or =por lo que toca a=. Otherwise, _as far as_
is translated =hasta=.

_As for him, he said that he had had them also._

=En cuanto a él, dijo que las había tenido también.=--JUAN VALERA.

_"As for me," said old Peter, "I know it by heart."_

=Por lo que me toca a mí,--dijo el tío Perico,--lo sé de memoria.=

--FERNÁN CABALLERO.

(_e_) When _as_ introduces a clause the action of which is represented
as occurring simultaneously with the action of the principal clause, it
is translated =a medida que=.

_The children drew their grandmother toward them as they spoke._

=Los niños tiraron a su abuela hacia sí a medida que hablaban.=

--FERNÁN CABALLERO.


=97.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Sabes tan bien como yo lo que tenemos. 2. En cuanto me den el
dinero, voy a Madrid. 3. Luego que venga la criada, pídeselo Vd. 4. A
medida que las lanchas entraban en la ensenada, el grupo iba mermando
poco a poco. 5. Al salir de la casa vieron al hombre que se escapaba. 6.
Como yo le vi por última vez el año pasado, no sé si se acordará de mí.
7. Al fin y al cabo lo ha hecho como lo quiero yo. 8. Quieren que yo
las acompañe hasta la iglesia. 9. Por lo que le toca a Juan, ya ha
prometido darme el suyo. 10. Tengo cuantos necesito por lo pronto.

(_b_) 1. As I was walking in the park this morning I met an old friend.
2. As for you, some fine (good) day you are going to get what you
deserve. 3. This is not so large as I wanted it. 4. Save your money as
much as you can while you are young. 5. As for me myself, I spend as
much as I earn. 6. Will you go as far as the corner with me? 7. They are
studying Spanish as so many are doing now. 8. You must sign it as well
as (=tan bien como=, or =tanto como=, =lo mismo que=) I. 9. As soon as I find
the man who owes me all that money, I will lend you some. 10. As we
approached the village, the sky was getting darker.



LESSON XXXII

_La libertad nunca puede ser por tiranos defendida ni propagada por
esclavos._[32]--EMILIO CASTELAR.


=98.= The verb _to want_ in the sense of _to wish_ is translated by
=querer=. Meaning _to need_, _be in want of_, it is rendered =necesitar=,
=tener menester=, =hacer falta a=.

_I want you to tell me at once._

=Yo quiero que usted me lo diga en seguida.=--ECHEGARAY.

_I want another book. Have you any more?_

=Necesito= (=tengo menester=, =me hace falta=) =otro libro. ¿Tiene Vd. más?=

_They want three more chairs._

=Necesitan otras tres sillas.=

_Note._--Observe the position of =otras=. The word =otro= regularly
precedes a numeral.


=99.= In the conjunctive phrase _either ... or_, _either_ is translated =o=.
As a pronoun it is translated =o el uno o el otro=. At the end of a
negative sentence _either_ is rendered =tampoco=.

_Either I'm much mistaken or this is going to cause talk._

=O me engaño mucho o esto va a dar que hablar.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_Do you want this pen or the fountain pen? Either will do._

=¿Quiere Vd. esta pluma o la plumafuente?--O la una o la otra servirá.=

_And I don't think I'm a fool, either._

=Y creo que no soy tonto, tampoco.=--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

When _either_ at the end of a negative sentence is used merely for
emphasis, it is expressed by repeating the negative =no=.

_I didn't do it, either!_

=¡No lo he hecho, no!=


=100.= _Neither_ is =ni= as a conjunction and equal to _and ... either_. As
a pronoun it is =ni el uno ni el otro=. Standing as the first word in a
sentence _neither_ is translated =tampoco=.

_I do not look into the mirror, neither to-day nor ever._

=No miro en el espejo, ni hoy ni nunca.=--ECHEGARAY.

_He wouldn't help him, neither would he help me._

=No quería ayudarle a él, tampoco quería ayudarme a mí.=

_I showed him the drawings. Neither of them pleased him._

=Le mostré los dibujos. Ni el uno ni el otro le ha contentado.=


=101.= The conjunction _because_ is =porque=. The prepositional phrase
_because of_ is translated =a causa de=. =Por= with the infinitive is often
used for =porque= with a clause, and may be used for =a causa de= when the
object of the preposition is a participial phrase.

_I won't give you any more because you have enough already._

=No te daré más porque ya tienes bastante.=

_Because of the rain the country was flooded._

=A causa de la lluvia estaba inundado el campo.=

_That tribe obeyed him and respected him because he was_ (_because of
his being_) _older._

=Aquella caterva le obedecía y respetaba por ser él mayor.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.


=102.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. No quiero que Vds. me ofrezcan dinero. 2. No le he devuelto el
dinero que tuvo a bien prestarme.--Ni yo tampoco. 3. O se lo ha llevado
él o el hermano de él, pero ni el uno ni el otro quiere confesarlo. 4.
¿Qué necesita usted?--Un martillo para arrancar estos clavos. 5. O el
uno o el otro libro la contentará. 6. Por haber caído tanta nieve no
quiero que salgan los chicos esta mañana. 7. A causa de la huelga de los
empleados del tranvía tuvimos que ir a pie. 8. O los nuevos o los viejos
debe usted mandarme. 9. Yo quisiera conocer a ese señor porque me dicen
que es de gran talento. 10. Por ser tan tarde, no querían los padres
partir sin los niños.

(_b_) 1. Well, how many more do you want and how much do you want to pay
for them? 2. Do you want to see the picture that they were talking
about? 3. Either the father or the mother must be ill. 4. Neither of my
friends can speak Spanish. 5. I have to serve as (=de=) interpreter
because I speak the language fluently. 6. Because of the illness of my
father, neither my mother nor I were able to go. 7. Because I have a
cold, I want you to read this letter aloud to the others. 8. These
plants want water. Do you want to water them now? 9. Have you seen
either of my sons to-day? Yes. I just saw the older one with three other
boys. 10. I want you to tell _me_ what you want, either by telephone or
by letter. 11. Neither her father nor her mother wanted her to go out,
because it is so cold. She didn't want to go, either.



LESSON XXXIII

_Cuando hay alegría, todo se hace bien._[33]

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=103.= The verb _to wonder_ is variously rendered. In the sense of _to be
surprised_ it is generally =extrañar= or =admirarse=. As a synonym of
_should_ or _would like to know_ it may be translated =quisiera saber=, or
=tener curiosidad por saber=. In the sense of _to be thinking_ or _asking
one's self_, the Spanish uses =preguntarse=.

_No one wondered at the girl's illness._

=Nadie extrañó la indisposición de la niña.=--JUAN VALERA.

_I don't wonder that they say certain things._

=No me admiro de que digan ciertas cosas.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_I was wondering if I should have time to go before they came._

=Yo me preguntaba si tendría el tiempo de ir antes que llegasen ellos.=

_I wonder who did this._

=Yo quisiera saber quién habrá hecho eso.=

The verb _to wonder_ is, however, often best translated by the future of
probability, as illustrated in the following examples:

_Has he come yet, I wonder?_

=¿Habrá venido ya?=

_I wonder if it is time yet._

=¿Será ya la hora?=

_I wonder who that man is._

=¿Quién será ese hombre?=

_Cisneros_ (_observing them curiously_). _I wonder what's going on?_

=Cisneros= (=observándolos con curiosidad=). =¿Qué pasará?=

--NUÑEZ DE ARCE.

This form is used when the English sentence would make complete sense
without _wonder_.


=104.= In English _the one_ has three translations. When used in contrast
with _the other_, it is rendered =el uno=. Before the relative _who_ or
_that_ it is =el=. In adjective phrases such as _the new one_, _the old
one_, etc., the word _one_ is omitted.

_Both boys were busy. The one was helping his mother, the other, his
father._

=Ambos muchachos estaban ocupados. El uno ayudaba a su madre, el otro a
su padre.=

_You are not going from my house. They are the ones that are going._

=Tú no te vas de mi casa. Los que se van son ellos.=

--LOS QUINTERO.

_And the one that hurts most, is it above or below?_

=Y la que le duele más, ¿es de arriba o de abajo?=

--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_You take the big ones. The little one is mine._

=Tome usted los grandes. El pequeño es mío.=


=105.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. No hay peor sordo que el que no quiere oír. 2. El hombre se
extrañó el no hallar a su hijo. 3. Yo soy la que se va de aquí. 4. Los
relojes andan desacordes, porque cuando el de la Puerta del Sol da las
ocho el del Palacio suele dar las ocho y media. 5. ¿Qué hora será? 6.
Envíeles a ellos los viejos y a mí los nuevos. 7. Se preguntaba si valía
la pena de continuar. 8. Vió que el paisano tenía dos caballos, el uno
muy gordo y el otro muy flaco, y se admiraba de la diferencia. 9. ¿Qué
revista será aquél que lee con tanto interés? 10. Llaman a la puerta.
¿Quién será a estas horas?

(_b_) 1. I was wondering if the dog was mad. 2. Take the big one. The
little ones aren't worth anything. 3. Who opened the door, I wonder?
Please shut it. 4. I don't wonder that you don't like that dress. The
other one is much prettier. 5. I don't mean that man. I mean the one who
was here before. 6. Everybody wondered what he would be like. 7. Will
they want this before I return, I wonder? 8. I wonder at their silence.
They must know that I am anxious to know how they stood the journey. 9.
The one that you have in your hand is mine. The one that you dropped is
my sister's. 10. They tell me that I must choose either this one or that
one. I wonder why I can't have the one that I like best.



LESSON XXXIV

_Lo que no puede hacer un gitano, no hay quien lo haga sobre la
tierra._[34]--ALARCÓN.


=106.= =REVIEW EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. _I couldn't help_ smiling when I saw him _stand up_. 2. Who is
that woman _standing_ in the doorway? 3. While it _lasted_ the boy kept
(=tenia=) his eyes fixed on the judge's face. 4. The old man _was sitting_
behind the counter, reading aloud. 5. He _is not to blame_. Nor I
_either_. 6. What do you _want_ (_ask_) for the _half_ of what you have
brought? 7. I can't _stand so much_ heat. 8. We _sat down_ to wait until
they came. 9. _Let's see!_ You _told_ him to come and _see_ me _as soon
as_ he arrived, didn't you? 10. They _looked_ very happy _sitting there_
in the shade of the big trees.

(_b_) 1. That is _the one_ who was at the door when the accident
occurred. 2. I have _half_ of the money _saved_ already. 3. _As_ he has
read many histories, he can cite many examples. 4. It will be better to
put the larger _ones_ in another place. _Here_ in this _corner_. 5. I
_wonder_ if this _one_ is _as_ large _as_ that _one_. 6. I _heard_ from
your companions that you had been dismissed. 7. Have you _heard_ from
home lately? 8. _As for_ those two houses, _neither_ is large enough for
my family. 9. _As_ I approached the man, I saw that he was _getting_
uneasy. 10. _Because_ the horse was older than he had said, they did not
_want_ to buy it.

(_c_) 1. _Well_, as the _one_ that I _want_ is not here, I _must_ take
the _one_ that I have. 2. _Will_ you _see to_ the dessert while I am
_getting_ the rest of the dinner? 3. As _either one_ is large enough,
_will_ you take this _one_ and _leave_ me the other _one_? 4. I _wonder_
if the postman has come yet. 5. They are erecting a large building at
the _corner_ of our street. I _wonder_ what it will be. 6. He _wondered_
that you had not arrived yet. 7. _Tell_ him that he _must_ do it
himself. 8. They are tearing down the church that has _stood_ at that
_corner for so many_ years. 9. I was in Naples when the _last_ eruption
of Vesuvius occurred. That was _last_ year. 10. I _heard last night_
that the governor _himself_ would come _as soon as_ he returned.



LESSON XXXV

_No creer en nada es estar loco._[35]

--CAMPOAMOR.


=107.= The verb _to take_, in its simplest meaning of _to carry_, is
rendered =llevar= or =tomar=.

_I have to take this book to school._

=Tengo que llevar= (=tomar=) =este libro a la escuela.=

(_a_) In the sense of _to use_, =tomar= is the correct translation.

_The lemonade is rather sour. Take some mare sugar._

=Es algo agria la limonada. Tome usted más azúcar.=

(_b_) _To take off_, meaning _to remove_, is =quitar(se)=; meaning
_to imitate_, it is translated =imitar= or =remedar=. _To take out_ is
=sacar=.

_He took off his hat and from it took out a roll of banknotes._

=Se quitó el sombrero y de él sacó un rollo de billetes de banco.=

--JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

_Without taking his eyes off them, he slowly continued his way._

=Sin quitarles de encima la vista, siguió lentamente el camino.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

(_c_) _To take leave of_ is =despedirse de=; _to take steps_ is =dar pasos=;
_to take for granted_ is =dar por supuesto=.

_Before taking leave of me, she wanted to give me the letter._

=Antes de despedirse de mí, quiso darme la carta.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_I take it for granted that you will take the necessary steps to prevent
it._

=Doy por supuesto que Vd. dará los pasos necesarios para impedirlo.=

(_d_) _To take place_ is rendered =tener lugar= or =verificarse=; _to take
possession of_ is translated =apoderarse de=.

_The funeral took place yesterday and the heirs have now taken
possession of the property of the deceased._

=El entierro tuvo lugar= (=se verificó=) =ayer y ya se han apoderado de los
bienes del difunto los herederos.=

(_e_) _To take up room_ is rendered =ocupar lugar= or =espacio=; _to take
care of_, =cuidar de=.

_I'm going to get rid of this table. It takes up too much room._

=Voy a deshacerme de esta mesa. Ocupa demasiado lugar.=

_Don't worry. God will take care of you and of your family._

=No te apures. Dios cuidará de ti y de los tuyos.=

(_f_) _To take advantage of_ is rendered =aprovecharse de=.

_Take advantage of all the opportunities that come to you._

=Aprovéchese Vd. de cuantas oportunidades se le presenten.=

(_g_) _To take back_ in the sense of _to return_ is translated =devolver=;
meaning _to retract_ it is rendered =retractar=.

_Take this letter back to them and tell them that we want them to take
back what they say in it._

=Devuélvales Vd. esta carta y dígales que queremos que retracten lo que
en ella escriben.=


=108.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Dios que cuida de los insectos cuidará de mí y de mi familia.
2. Allí había muchas personas que se habían apoderado de la chimenea. 3.
No se quite Vd. el abrigo que aquí en este cuarto hace mucho frío. 4. Me
aproveché de la oportunidad para contarle lo ocurrido. 5. El cuento de
la desgracia ocupó el primer plan del diario de la mañana. 6. Tenemos
mucho gusto en mandarle lo que nos ha pedido. 7. La recepción que se
verificó con motivo de la visita del insigne autor, atrajó una brillante
asistencia. 8. ¡Cuidado! tengo que devolver ese jarro a la vecina y no
quiero que me lo quiebres antes. 9. El espacio delante de la plataforma
fué ocupado por los bancos de los alumnos. 10. ¡Lléveselo! pero ha de
ser ahora mismo.

(_b_) 1. Take this back and tell them that it is not the one I asked
for. 2. I shall take advantage of your offer. 3. This will take up more
room than that. 4. I think they are taking it for granted that we are
going with them. 5. Don't you think that you ought to take off your
shoes? 6. The trunk took up so much room in the car that there was no
room for me. 7. Tell them that I will take charge (=cargarse=) of all this
so that they may take advantage of this time to go and take leave of
their friends. 8. It was evident that he took (_had_) great pleasure in
telling the children stories when he took care of them. 9. I think he
will take possession of the property next week.



LESSON XXXVI

_Nada existe en la tierra que no sirve para algo._[36]

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=109.= The word _ever_ is translated =nunca= in a negative sentence. Meaning
_at any time_, it is rendered =una= or =alguna vez=. As a suffix it is
=-quiera=, and the compound word is followed by =que= and the subjunctive.

_Now I deserve you less than ever._

=Ahora te merezco menos que nunca.=--JUAN VALERA.

_Do you think he will ever come to see us?_

=¿Cree usted que venga una vez a vernos?=

_I would follow her wherever she went._

=La seguiría adondequiera que fuese.=--PALACIO VALDÉS.


=110.= The verb _to pass_ meaning _to go by_ (_through_, _past_) is
rendered =pasar por delante de=.

_They passed me in groups._

=Pasaron en grupos por delante de mí.=--PALACIO VALDÉS.

(_a_) In reference to time, _pass_ is rendered =transcurrir= when
used intransitively.

_I slept confidently that night and let the next day pass._

=Confiado dormí aquella noche y dejé transcurrir el día siguiente.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

(_b_) _To pass on_ meaning _to continue one's way_ is rendered =seguir el
camino=; meaning _to hand to_, _give to_ it is translated =entregar= or =dar
a=.

_When you have finished with it, pass it on to your friend._

=Cuando Vd. haya acabado con él, entréguelo a su amigo.=

_He stopped to speak to us, but passed on immediately._

=Se detuvo a hablarnos, pero siguió en seguida su camino.=

(_c_) _To pass_ (promote) is rendered =aprobar=; _to pass_ (be promoted)
is =ser aprobado=.

_You will pass of course, but let's see if that professor will pass me._

=Tu serás aprobado, eso sí, pero a ver si aquel profesor me aprobará a
mí.=


=111.= The verb _to pay_ or _pay for_ is usually =pagar=. Meaning _to be
profitable_ it is rendered =ser provechoso=.

_There were many there that paid nothing because they had nothing._

=Muchos había allí que nada pagaron porque nada tenían.=

_Everybody knows that his mines did not pay._

=Todo el mundo sabe que sus minas no le eran provechosas.=

(_a_) _To pay attention to_ has two translations. Meaning _to
listen to_ it is =poner atención=, meaning _to heed_, _act upon_,
_mind_ it is =hacer caso de=.

_They never paid any attention to him when he was talking to them._

=Nunca le ponían atención cuando les hablaba.=

_She used to talk to his aunt without paying any attention to him._

=Hablaba con su tía sin hacer caso de él.=--PALACIO VALDÉS.


=112.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. De todo eso no hice caso sino que siguiera adelante. 2. Ha
pasado muchas noches entregado al trabajo. 3. No hay que afirmar que
pasamos por la casa de Pepita. 4. ¿No querían nunca hacerlo sin que Vd.
los ayudase? 5. Por dondequiera que vayamos tenemos que llevarlos a
ellos. 6. ¿Cómo quieres aprender si nunca pones atención? 7. Parece que
no tienen la intención de pagarle. 8. No le haga Vd. caso que se está
burlando de Vd., nada más. 9. Transcurrió la noche sin que nadie en la
casa lograra dormirse. 10. En plena noche los oimos pasar por delante de
la casa.

(_b_) 1. We have never had the money to pay for the house although we
have always wanted to buy it. 2. Do you know that man who has just
passed the house? 3. My son has written me that he has passed all his
examinations. 4. I don't believe that he will ever finish what he is
doing. 5. Whoever did this knows how to do it well. 6. Don't pay any
attention to them. 7. Whatever book you choose, pay cash for it (=pagar
al contado=). 8. I have finished with this and now I am going to pass it
on to my younger brother. 9. Did you ever see the portrait of my father
that that painter painted? 10. And so a quarter of an hour passed, and
the procession passed the house again.



LESSON XXXVII

_La fe en una gran idea es la vida de la inteligencia._[37]

--EMILIO CASTELAR.


=113.= The verb _to turn_ has many translations. _To turn_ (_round_) is
=volver= or =volverse=.

_He turned and looked him straight in the face._

=Se volvio y le miró cara a cara.=--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_All heads turned towards him._

_Todas las cabezas se volvieron hacia él._--JUAN VALERA.

(_a_) In the sense of _to grow_, _get_, _become_, _to turn_ is
rendered =ponerse=.

_Auntie turned all the colors of the rainbow_ (literally,
_twenty-five colors_).

=La tía se puso de veinticinco colores.=--PALACIO VALDÉS.

(_b_) In the sense of _to go round_ or _to make go round_, _turn_
is =dar vuelta(s)=. In the phrase, _to turn the corner_, the verb may
be translated =doblar=.

_He was turning the wheel._

=Daba vueltas a la rueda.=

_It was two o'clock when he turned_ (_the corner_) _into
Reconquista Street._

=Eran las dos cuando dobló por la calle Reconquista.=

--JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

_Upon turning the corner he found himself in a small plaza._

=Al dar vuelta a la esquina se halló en una plazuela.=

(_c_) _To turn to_ in the sense of _to address_, _appeal to_, _have
recourse to_ is rendered =dirigirse a=. Where the appeal is specifically
for help, =recurrir a= may be used.

_"Now you have heard it," he continued, turning to the young lady._

=Ya lo ha oido Vd.,--prosiguió dirigiéndose a la señorita.=

--JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

_Since my family will not help me, I turn to my friends._

=Ya que mi familia no quiere ayudarme, me dirijo a mis amigos.=

(_d_) _To turn over_ (invert) is =invertir=; meaning _to revolve_ it is
=revolver=.

_When he turned the plate over he found what had been hidden._

=Al invertir el plato halló lo escondido.=

_But, man alive, I can hardly turn over myself!_

=¡Pero, hombre de Dios, si apenas puedo revolverme yo!=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

(_e_) _To turn out_ (prove to be) is rendered =resultar ser= or =resultar=
alone.

_It turns out that you are the father of a genius._

=Resulta que eres el padre de un genio.=--ECHEGARAY.

Meaning _to put out_, _expel_, _dismiss_, it is rendered =expeler=, =echar=,
=poner de patitas en la calle=, or =despedir=.

_This servant is absolutely worthless. I am going to turn him out._

=Este criado no vale absolutamente nada. Voy a ponerle de patitas en la
calle.=

(_f_) _To turn into_ (become) is rendered =convertirse en= or =cambiar(se)
en=.

_I told the children the story of the prince who turned into a dragon._

=Conté a los niños el cuento del principe que se cambió en un dragón.=

_The witch turned the princess into a cat._

=La bruja cambió a la princesa en un gato.=

_We took the furniture out of the room and turned it into a gymnasium._

=Sacamos los muebles del cuarto y lo convertimos en= (=un=) =gimnasio.=

(_g_) _To turn up_ in the sense of _to appear_ is rendered =aparecer=,
=llegar=, =dejarse ver=; in the sense of _to happen_ it may be rendered
=suceder=, =ocurrir=, =acaecer=.

_That man always turns up when he is least wanted. I hope something will
turn up to keep him from coming to-day._

=Aquel hombre aparece siempre cuando menos queremos verle. ¡Ojalá que
suceda algo que le impida el venir hoy!=


=114.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. La alfombra se había puesto roja donde la había manchado el
ácido. 2. Apenas hube dado vuelta a la esquina cuando vi al que buscaba.
3. Dirigiéndome entonces a la señora que acababa de hablar, vi que se
había puesto muy pálida. 4. Compramos un erial y resultó que el subsuelo
era un inmenso almacén de carbón. 5. Entonces se convirtió en una hada
con alas blancas. 6. Al fin cuando íbamos perdiendo la paciencia se
dejaron ver. 7. Tan pequeña era la habitación que apenas podíamos
revolvernos en ella. 8. Me he puesto a revolver papeles. 9. Mi buen
deseo resultó ser inútil.

(_b_) 1. I wonder how that affair will turn out. 2. He turned the glass
upside down. 3. Turn them all out if they bother you. 4. It is not worth
while to do that, because they will surely turn up again. 5. They have
turned that building into a school for the blind. 6. When you turn the
next corner you will see the building that you are looking for. 7. The
poor woman does not know to whom to turn in her distress. 8. The leaves
are turning yellow and red. They will fall soon. 9. He was turning the
handle of a little organ that belonged to a blind man. 10. All eyes
turned in the direction of the speaker.



LESSON XXXVIII

_Vale más errar por generosidad que acertar por egoísmo._[38]

--EMILIO CASTELAR.


=115.= English _can_ and _could_, translated by the present and past
tenses of =poder= when _possibility_ is implied, are differently
translated to express _conjecture_. In the latter case, Spanish uses the
future and conditional of the verbs that in English are the complements
of _can_ and _could_. The examples should be very carefully studied and
compared with those given under section 102.

_What can be the matter with the poor boy?_

=¿Qué tendrá el pobrecillo?=--RAMOS CARRIÓN.

_Where could Telmo be hidden?_

=¿Dónde estaría metido Telmo?=--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_The first man who made a friend--what could he have been thinking
about?_

=El primer hombre que se hizo amigo--¿en qué estaría pensando?=--TOMAYO Y
BAUS.

_"It wasn't Peter apparently." "It wasn't? Who could it have been?"_

=No era Pedro a lo visto.--¿No? ¿Quién estaría?=

--TOMAYO Y BAUS.

Note that the conditional translates both _could be_ and _could have
been_.


=116.= _To ring_ is =tocar= as a transitive and =sonar= as an intransitive
verb.

_We rang twice before we heard the bell ring within the house._

=Tocamos dos veces antes de oír sonar la campanilla dentro de la casa.=

_At that moment a shot rang out very close._

=En aquel mismo instante sonó un tiro muy próximo.=

--ALARCÓN.


=117.= English _but_ as a synonym of _however_ is =pero=; as an adversative
conjunction it is rendered =sino=; in the sense of _only_ or _except_ it
may be rendered =sino= or =no ... más de= (=que=).

_He is not here at present, but I am expecting him at any moment._

=No está aquí en este momento, pero le estoy esperando de un momento a
otro.=

_She is not Spanish, but Italian._

=No es española sino italiana.=

_No one knows it but you._

=Nadie lo sabe sino tú.=

_Remember that now you have no father but this gentleman._

=Acuérdate de que ya no tienes más padre que este señor.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.


=118.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. ¿Quién será?--exclamó la joven que se había puesto pálida. 2.
¿Sería mi hermano el que ha hecho eso? 3. Sonó la campanilla, pero el
viejo no la oyó por ser él sordo. 4. ¿Serán ya las tres? ¿Sonaría la
campanilla sin que nosotros la oyésemos? 5. Voy a mandarle todo lo que
me ha pedido menos este libro, que no puedo pasarme sin él. 6. Me dijo
que a las doce de la noche había sonado la campanilla del teléfono.
¿Quién me telefonaría a esas horas? 7. Ya no le queda más dinero que la
pequeña suma que heredó de su padre el año pasado. 8. ¿Sería el vecino
que me robó el caballo? 9. Es la primera vez que ha faltado a la cita.
¿Estará mala? 10. Yo no sabía de quien sería el bolsillo que acababa de
hallar. 11. No hay quien toque las campanas como usted.

(_b_) 1. Ring the bell and when they open the door ask for him. 2. Who
can that man be? There is no one here who knows him. 3. We heard the
coins ring as they fell on the table. 4. He speaks no language but
English, but he reads Spanish and French. 5. I have no friend but you in
the whole city. 6. Could it have been your father who telephoned you
last night? 7. Where can my brother be? I hope he has not lost his way.
8. I was wondering if _he_ could have taken them. _She_ could not have
lifted them. 9. We had nothing but bread and butter to eat, but it was
enough as we were not hungry. 10. What can he be reading that seems to
interest him so much? Generally he reads nothing but the daily paper.



LESSON XXXIX

_No necesitamos ser serios para ser buenos._[39]

--PÉREZ GALDÓS.


=119.= The verb _to put_ in its simplest meaning of _to place_, _lay_,
_set_, is =poner=. It has a very large number of idiomatic uses that call
for different translations. Many of these may be learned easily by
paraphrasing _put_. So, _to put away_, _put by_ (save), =guardar=,
=ahorrar=; _to put back_ (retard), =retardar=; (return a thing to where it
was), =volver a poner una cosa en donde estaba=; _to put out_ (extend),
=extender=; (extinguish), =apagar=; (expel), =expeler=, =echar=; (disturb,
trouble, annoy), =estorbar=, =molestar=; _to put down_ (make a note of),
=apuntar=, =poner por escrito=; (to suppress), =suprimir=.

_Don't scold me. Put yourself in my place._

=No me reprenda usted. Póngase en mi caso.=

--LOS QUINTERO.

_I picked up the money and put it in my pocket._

=Recogí el dinero y lo guardé en el bolsillo.=--JUAN VALERA.

_They say that he has a lot of money put away._

=Dicen que tiene ahorrado muchísimo dinero.=

_We will put down the names in this little book._

=Apuntaremos los nombres en este librito.=

_I shall not be satisfied until they have put it down in writing._

=No quedaré satisfecho hasta que lo hayan puesto por escrito.=

_Can it be the change of teachers that has put him back so much?_

=¿Será el cambio de maestros que le ha retardado tanto?=

(_a_) _To put on_ is translated by the reflexive =ponerse=.

_They are torn, I know, but I put them on fully aware of it._

=Estan rotas, sí, pero me las he puesto con todo conocimiento.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_Note._--Cf. _to have on_, =tener puesto=, =-a=, =-os=, =-as=.

_They had their hats on._

=Tenían puestos los sombreros.=

(_b_) _To put in_ (add) is =añadir=; _to put in mind of_ is rendered
=recordar=; _to put in time_ is =gastar= or =pasar tiempo=.

_This house puts me in mind of the house where I was born. I should like
to put in a few weeks here._

=Esta casa me recuerda la casa en donde nací yo. Quisiera pasar unas
semanas aquí.=

_The lemonade is not very sweet. Put in a little more sugar._

=No es muy dulce la limonada. Añada usted un poco de azúcar.=


=120.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Apunte usted todo lo que yo le voy a decir pues ya sé que tiene
Vd. corta memoria. 2. Vuelva Vd. a poner todas esas cosas en donde
estaban. 3. Guarda tus libros en este cajón. 4. Ya van a apagar las
luces. Salgamos antes de que nos echen a la calle. 5. Me olvidé de poner
por escrito sus señas en cuanto me las dió. 6. Ponte este vestido. Te
cae más bien que aquél. 7. La llegada inesperada de tantos amigos a la
vez estorbó no poco a la señora. 8. Extendió la mano para recibir la
limosna. 9. Apaga esa luz que aquí se puede ver bastante bien sin ella.
10. Si, fuera yo usted no me estorbaría por ellos.

(_b_) 1. I must put it down before I forget it. 2. The children have
gone to bed without putting their toys away. 3. Put a little more water
in (=a=) the tea. 4. There is much sickness in that family. They put it
down (=atribuir=) to the water from that well. 5. We hoped to finish
before night, but the rain has put us back. 6. Shall I put the lamp on
this table? (_Use present tense of verb._) 7. If we don't let her know
that we are coming, we may put her out. 8. He put the knife back into
his pocket when he saw that we didn't need to cut the string. 9. The
wind had put out all the lights, but it had not put out the fire. 10. Do
you think they will be able to put down the revolution that has broken
out in the southern provinces?



LESSON XL

_Do (donde) el honor muerto está no hay ya de vida esperanza._[40]

--GIL Y ZÁRATE.


=121.= _To strike_ in the sense of _to hit_ is =pegar=; _to strike against_
is =dar contra=; _to strike the hour_ is =dar la hora=; _to strike_ (cease
work) is =declararse en huelga=.

_It was I who struck him the blow with the ax._

=Yo fuí quien le pegué el hachazo.=--JOSÉ MÁRMOL.

_Has it struck ten yet?_

=¿Han dado ya las diez?=

_He struck his head against the door and hurt himself cruelly._

=Dió con la cabeza contra la puerta y se lastimó cruelmente.=

_All the employes of the railroads have struck._

=Todos los empleados de las empresas ferroviarias se han declarado en
huelga.=


=122.= Spanish =vez= meaning _time_ (see section 59) occurs in many
adverbial phrases which in English do not always contain the word
_time_. So, =otra vez=, _again_; =a la vez=, _at once_, _at the same time_,
_together_; =de una vez y para siempre=, _once and for all_; =tal vez=,
_perhaps_; =en vez de=, _instead of_; =rara vez=, _rarely_, _seldom_; =cada
vez más=, _more and more_.

_That surprised me and at the same time amused me._

=Eso me sorprendió y a la vez me hacía gracía.=

--PALACIO VALDÉS.

_Of thirteen or fourteen stones all thrown together, wouldn't one hit
him?_

=De trece o catorce piedras todas lanzadas a la vez, ¿no había de tocarle
una?=--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_I will answer you once and for all._

=Yo os responderé de una vez y para siempre.=--ESCRICH.

_He rarely entered the Casino. He had no time to spare._

=Entró rara vez en el Casino. No le sobraba tiempo.=

--EMILIA PARDO BAZÁN.

_Instead of saying "I'm not going," I take my hat and go._

=En vez de decir--no voy--tomo el sombrero y me voy.=

--JUAN VALERA.

_And so once here he insisted that we should stay a few days._

=Con que una vez aquí, se empeñó en que quedásemos unos pocos
días.=--ECHEGARAY.


=123.= The verb _to start_ is rendered =comenzar=, =empezar=, =principiar=,
=ponerse a=, when the meaning is _to begin_. Meaning _to set in motion_ it
is translated =poner en movimiento=. In the sense of _to leave_, _depart_,
it is rendered =ponerse en marcha= or =en camino=, or =partir=. _To start
from_ is rendered =arrancar de=.

_"With much pleasure," I said, and I started to unload._

=Con mucho gusto, dije, y me puse a descargar.=--ALARCÓN.

_Scarcely had he started the engine when it stopped again._

=No bien hubo puesto en movimiento la máquina cuando volvió a pararse.=

_The train starts from the north station._

=El tren arranca de la estación del norte.=

_The vehicle started at full speed._

=El vehículo se puso en marcha a toda velocidad.=

--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.


=124.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Es necesario que no salgamos a la vez. 2. En vez de marcharse
por la noche se largó de madrugada. 3. No necesita usted hablarle otra
vez. 4. Es algo que tal vez sea una alucinación, pero lo he notado. 5.
Me pegó sin que yo le hubiera dicho nada. 6. En los últimos meses del
año pasado se declararon en huelga más de siete mil obreros. 7. El tren
estaba para ponerse en marcha. 8. Al oír lo que le dijimos nosotros se
puso a correr hacia la aldea. 9. Antes arrancaba el tren de esta
estación, pero ya no. 10. Al oír que daban las tres en el reloj del
cabildo, todos se pusieron a caminar hacia el palacio.

(_b_) 1. It is not right for them to strike now. 2. Starting from (=a
partir de=) to-day I must start for school at eight o'clock. 3. Half an
hour later they succeeded in starting the machine. 4. Perhaps you will
have more time next time. 5. She became more and more tired as she
approached the end of her journey. 6. Do you remember the last time the
coal miners struck? 7. It strikes me (=se me ocurre=) that it would be
better to finish it now once and for all. 8. Instead of starting at
half-past seven they waited until after it had struck eight. 9. They all
called me at once, but I was more and more determined not to go with
them. 10. He struck him a blow with a whip, but the horse would not
start.



LESSON XLI

_Para los grandes intentos son los grandes corazones._[41]

--NUÑEZ DE ARCE.


=125.= The verb _to do_ is generally =hacer=. Used as an auxiliary in
interrogative or negative sentences it is untranslated.

_Now that he is here let him see what he has to do._

=Ya que está aquí que vea lo que tiene que hacer.=

--BENAVENTE.

_Didn't I tell you? Do you think she is happy?_

=¿No te lo decía yo? ¿Crees que sea feliz?=--JOSÉ DE LARRA.

(_a_) In the sense of _to be enough_, _to do_ is rendered =bastar=.
Meaning _to serve as_, _be good for_, it is translated =servir= (=de=).

_That will do. You have taken too much time already._

=Basta. Ya ha ocupado usted demasiado tiempo.=

_I have no letter paper. Will this postcard do?_

=No tengo papel de cartas. ¿Servirá esta tarjeta postal?=

_If it rains, this newspaper will do for an umbrella._

=Si llueve, este diario nos servirá de paraguas.=


=126.= In addition to the adverbial expressions given in the preceding
lessons the following are important:

_by day_, =de día=

_by night_, =de noche=

_at daybreak_, =al amanecer=

_at nightfall_, =al anochecer=

_in the morning_, =por la mañana=

_in the afternoon_, =por la tarde=

_in the evening_ (or _at night_), =por la noche=

_day by day_, _from day to day_, =de día en día=

_a week from to-day_, =de hoy en ocho días=

_two weeks from to-day_, =de hoy en quince días=

_at six o'clock_, =a las seis=

_at six o'clock sharp_, =a las seis en punto=

_at a little after six_, =a eso de las seis=, or =a las seis y pico=

_about six o'clock_, =como a las seis=

_within a few minutes_, _in a few minutes_, =dentro de pocos minutos=,
=a los pocos minutos=

_Note._--When the hour is mentioned, the phrases _in the morning_, _in
the afternoon_, etc., are rendered =de la mañana=, =de la tarde=. So _at
six in the morning_, =a las seis de la mañana=.

_At night there were banquets on board._

=Por la noche hubo banquetes abordo.=--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_Within two months after entering the army he was a sergeant._

=A los dos meses de haber entrado en el ejército era sargento.=

--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.

_One afternoon at a little after five the robbers returned._

=Una tarde a eso de las cinco los ladrones regresaron.=

--ALARCÓN.

_Day by day he feared that she would find him out._

=De día en día temía que le descubriese.=--BLASCO IBÁÑEZ.


=127.= =EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. Todas las noches a eso de las once me dirigía hacia aquella
calle. 2. A los pocos días supe que habían llegado. 3. ¿Qué te parece?
¿Servirá éste? 4. Por la mañana trabajo, por la tarde y por la noche me
divierto. 5. Le dije que tendría mucho gusto en hacer lo que me acababa
de pedir. 6. Al amanecer llegó uno de los soldados para decirnos que la
compañía se pondría en marcha a las ocho en punto. 7. Como son malos de
día y de noche no tienen más que malos pensamientos. 8. Los alimentos
que tenemos son pocos y malos, pero creo que bastarán para los que
tienen mucha hambre. 9. ¿Lo han comprado ellos? No quieren comprarlo?
10. Esta roca llana nos servirá de mesa. 11. Tenemos que hacerlo antes
de hoy en quince días.

(_b_) 1. I want him to be here about eight o'clock. 2. I shall not have
time to do all that I wanted to do. It is a little after one now. 3. I
have only a small knife. Will that do? 4. It has struck four. Didn't
they say that they would be here at four exactly? 5. This newspaper will
do for a tablecloth. 6. At what time did the accident occur? At a little
after six in the morning. 7. Day by day they had more to do. They worked
more by day than by night. 8. He wants to wait until a week from
Tuesday, but that will _never_ do (_never_ is here only an emphatic
_not_). 9. This ink won't do. It's green. 10. They woke me a little bit
after eight to ask me what they should do.



LESSON XLII

_La mentira es siempre cobarde._[42]

--LOS QUINTERO.


=REVIEW EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. It is _the one_ who _told_ you a _little_ while ago that you
had dropped something. 2. I don't _like_ children. They _turn_
everything upside down. 3. What _can_ he be doing that he doesn't come?
4. "_Can_ the dog be mad?" the man wondered. 5. Who _could_ have spilled
the milk? 6. _Take_ this. It _takes up_ too much room in this drawer. 7.
The boy _took off_ his hat when the old man spoke to him. 8. Don't you
_ever pass_ my house on the _way_ to your office? 9. It is a pity that
he will not _take advantage_ of your offer. 10. Why do you never _pay
attention to_ what I say to you?

(_b_) 1. I advised him not _to pay_ for it, but he _paid no attention_
to my advice. 2. It _turned out_ that they _wanted_ to _start_ earlier.
3. They were small and _at the same time_ they cost too much. 4.
_Perhaps_ if you _turn_ the glass _over_ you will find what you are
_looking for_. 5. At that _very_ moment we saw him _turn_ the corner and
come _toward_ us. 6. To whom shall I _turn_, now that my best friend has
deserted me? 7. Has your purse _turned up_ yet? 8. He arrived at
twelve-thirty _sharp_, and told us that he had _taken steps_ to prevent
any accident. 9. It is a good rule to work _by day_ and rest _by night_.
10. Has it _struck_ one yet? Well, then, we need not _wait for_ them
_any longer_.

(_c_) 1. This is the old man who used _to ring_ the church bell. 2. The
workmen in that factory are not satisfied with their pay. It is feared
that they will _strike_. 3. _But_ do you think it _could have been_ my
book that was burned? 4. _Put_ the things here and don't _put yourself
out_ any more _for_ me. 6. It's too bad that it is so cold. This will
_put_ the crops _back_. 7. _Put_ your shoes _on_. It is too cold to wear
slippers. 8. Are you going to _put on_ your white dress? I don't _like_
the one you _have on_. 9. That will _do_ for the present. But we shall
_want_ a larger one later. 10. I don't _like_ to work _at night_ when _I
am sleepy_.


=GENERAL REVIEW EXERCISES=

(_a_) 1. _Here's_ my card. And what is _your_ name? 2. _Does_ the noise
_keep_ you from sleeping? 3. He hasn't any change, nor I _either_. 4. I
don't _like_ velvet. It isn't stylish _any longer_. 5. If I _have made a
mistake_, I _ask_ you to pardon me. 6. _There! Now_ everything is ready.
7. _Help yourself_ to vegetables. 8. We are taking this journey _just_
for pleasure. 9. I _think_ we shall _get there in time_ if we hurry. 10.
She _gets up now_ and _goes out to take a walk_ in the garden when it
_is_ not too cold. 11. _What is_ her husband's mother _like_? 12. I
can't _stand_ the life in the city when it _is so_ hot.

(_b_) 1. I _miss all_ that we used to have _before_ we _left_ our
country home. 2. At each step that we _took_ our shoes _got_ dirtier. 3.
The rain beats _hard_ against the window panes. 4. Have you known them
long? I have only known them a few months myself. 5. Listen! It's
_striking_ twelve. We must _go now_. 6. My duties have _kept_ me from
going to see him. 7. Have you a railroad guide? Yes. _Here_ it is. _But_
it is an old _one_. 8. Turn into the glass _all_ that the bottle won't
_hold_. 9. We are _getting near_ the city _now_, aren't we? 10. _Will_
you _please_ come _this way_, gentlemen. The others are waiting for you.
11. _Now_ we _have only_ two things _left to ask for_.

(_c_) 1. _Since_ his son went to war he has _to take_ his morning walk
alone. 2. They would never _make fun of_ a _poor_ young man who _wanted_
to _help_ them _because_ he _thought_ they were _poor_. _From day to
day_ she _was_ afraid he would discover it and _go away_ from her. 4.
_Two days after getting_ her letter he found out everything that had
happened. 5. _Let_ them _think_ what they _will_, it doesn't matter to
me. 6. He _wants_ me now more than _ever_. I _will_ spend my whole life
_taking care of_ him. 7. You _needn't do_ that again. I will do it
myself. 8. But I _do_ appreciate this young man! 9. _But even so_ he had
_succeeded_ in _getting together_ the respectable sum of forty thousand
francs. 10. He _got into_ the automobile hastily, anxious to _get away_.
11. The vehicle _started_ at full speed _because_ the driver _knew_ that
he would _have to hurry_ if he _wanted_ to _get to_ the station _before_
the train _left_.

(_d_) 1. _Within_ a few days he felt great esteem for the new employe.
2. _Do_ what you _will_ but _don't_ talk to me _about_ them. 3. One day
the oldest daughter _appeared_ at the farm and said she _wanted_ to see
her mother. 4. One day when they saw him _alone_ they _went up_ to him
and _asked_ him where he was going. 5. It was useless to _have_ teachers
come _for_ him. Nobody could _get_ him to study. 6. He _told_ his
relatives of the great fortune that he _had just_ inherited. 7. He
wished to _appear before_ them _as_ a millionaire. 8. He couldn't
_stand_ it that his _only_ daughter should _grow up like_ a boy. 9. If I
_only_ had what my father gives me, I shouldn't have much. 10. And
finally he _asked_ me the same _question_, _wondering_ that the idea had
not occurred to him _before_. 11. _Can_ it be that this is the _last_
sentence that we are to write?



APPENDIX


TO BE

to be, =estar= _when location or temporary state is expressed, otherwise_
=ser=.

to be able to, =poder=.

to be about to, =estar para=.

to be accustomed to, =acostumbrarse a=, =soler= (_used only in the present
and the imperfect, rd. ch._).

to be astonished, =pasmarse=.

to be at one's ease, =estar a sus anchas=.

to be back, =estar de vuelta=.

to be better to, =valer más=.

to be born, =nacer=.

to be composed of, =constar de=.

to be enough, =bastar=.

to be for (_used for_), =servir para=.

to be glad, =alegrarse=, =celebrar=.

to be ignorant of, =ignorar=.

to be out (_not at home_), =no estar en casa=.

to be out (_lights, fires_), =estar apagado=.

to be out of, without, =estar sin=.

to be sorry, =sentir=.

to be up (_in the morning_), =estar levantado=.

to be up (_not gone to bed_), =no haberse acostado=, =velar=.


TO DO

to do away with, =abolir=, =deshacerse de=.

to do for oneself (_earn one's living_), =ganar la vida=.

to do one's best, =esmerarse=, =hacer lo posible=.

to do well (_be prosperous_), =prosperar=.

to do without, =pasar sin=.


TO GO

to go astray, =extraviarse=, =descarriarse=.

to go beyond (_be more than_), =pasar más allá de=, =exceder=.

to go crazy, =volverse loco=.

to go hard with, =pasarle mal a uno=.

to go into (_be contained in_), =caber en=.

to go off well _or_ ill, =salir bien= _or_ =mal=.

to go on (_continue_), =hacer progresos=.

to go one's way, =seguir el camino=.

to go over (_review_), =repasar=.

to go to ruin, =echarse a perder=.

go on! =¡vaya!= =¡anda!= =¡quita!=

how goes it? =¿qué tal?=


TO GET

to get a lesson, =aprender= _or_ =estudiar una lección=.

to get at (_begin_), =ponerse a=, =meterse a=.

to get behind (_lose ground_), =perder terreno=, =quedar atras.=

to get hold of (_seize_), =asir=, =agarrar=, =apoderarse de=.

to get lost, =extraviarse=, =perderse=.

to get off (_start_), =partir=, =marcharse=, =irse=, =ponerse en marcha=.

to get off (_escape_), =escaparse=.

to get off (_be exonerated_), =lograr a exonerarse=.

to get on (_be successful_), =tener buena suerte=, =tener éxito=.

to get on with (_continue_), =seguir=, =continuar= (_see_ to get along
with).

to get one's bearings, =orientarse=.

to get over (_recover from_), =recobrar de=, =restablecerse de= (_illnesses,
losses_), =dejar= (_timidity, fear, modesty, etc._).

to get ready, =preparar=, =aparejarse= (_said of people getting themselves
ready_).

to get time, =hallar el tiempo=.

to get tired, =cansarse=.

to get to be, =llegar a ser=.

to get wind of, =llegar a saber de=, =recibir informes de=.

get up! =¡arriba!= (_to people_), =¡arre!= (_to animals_).


TO GIVE

to give evidence, =atestiguar=.

to give notice _or_ warning, =avisar=, =advertir=, (_in sense of_ warn)
=poner sobre aviso=.

to give one's mind to a thing, =aplicarse bien a una cosa=.

to give the slip to, =escapar=.

to give trouble, =incomodar=, =hacer que hacer a=.


TO GROW

to grow larger, =dilatarse=, =ponerse más grande=.

to grow longer, =extenderse=.

to grow richer, =enriquecer=, =hacerse rico=.

to grow young again, =remozarse=.


TO HOLD

to hold (_be of the opinion_), =juzgar=, =mantener la opinión=.

to hold (_possess_), =tener=, =poseer=.

to hold (_be valid_), =ser válido=.

to hold (_be strong enough not to give way_), =tener fuerza=, =tener
solidez=.

to hold on (_not to let go of a thing seized_), =no dejar una cosa=.

to hold off (_delay an action_), =hesitar=, =diferir una acción=.

to hold one's tongue, =callarse=.

to hold up (_raise_), =alzar=, =levantar=.


TO KEEP

to keep accounts, =llevar cuentas=.

to keep at, =persistir en=, =perseverar en=.

to keep awake (_not to go to sleep_), =quedar despierto=.

to keep somebody awake, =impedir el dormir a alguien=.

to keep books (_commercial_), =tener libros=, =llevar libros=.

to keep down (_keep in subjection_), =sujetar=.

to keep down (_keep in moderation_), =moderar=.

to keep house, =manejar la casa=.

to keep hold of, =no dejar=.

to keep in sight, =tener a la vista=.

to keep in touch with, =no perder comunicación con=.

to keep out of sight, =no dejarse ver=.

to keep to, =adherir a=.

to keep watch, velar, =vigilar=.

to keep up, =no cesar=, =continuar=.


TO LET

to let (_houses, etc._), =arrendar=, =alquilar=.

to let a word fall, =soltar una palabra=.

to let go (_loosen hold on_), =soltar=.

to let off (_guns, etc._), =disparar=.

to let off (_excuse_), =excusar=, =exonerar=.


TO MAKE

to make a long story short, =para abreviar=.

to make amends, =compensar=, =indemnizar=.

to make a mistake, =equivocarse=.

to make angry, =enfadar=, =enojar=, =poner rabioso=, =dar rabia a=.

to make a point clear, =sacar en limpio un punto=.

to make believe, =fingir=, =pretender=.

to make for (_contribute toward_), =contribuir a=.

to make good (_be successful_), =tener buena suerta=, =tener buen éxito=.

to make good (_prove_), =probar=.

to make good a promise, =cumplir con una promesa=.

to make head or tail of, =llegar a comprender=.

to make known, =hacer saber=, =dar a conocer=, =enterar=.

to make light of, =no hacer caso de=, =menospreciar=.

to make no difference, =no importar=.

to make one's escape, =escaparse=, =salvarse huyendo=.

to make out (_come to understand_), =llegar a comprender=.

to make out (_be able to read_), =descifrar=.

to make sense of, =hallar sentido a=.

to make use of, =servirse de=, =emplear=.


TO MISS

to miss an opportunity, =perder una oportunidad=.

to miss the mark, =no dar en el blanco=, =errar el tiro=.

to miss the significance of, =no llegar a comprender=.

to miss the train, =perder el tren=.


TO PUT

to put forward (_one's best foot_), =hacer todo lo posible=.

to put oneself forward (_try to attract notice_), =tratar de atraer la
atención=.

to put in (_insert_), =insertar=.

to put into words, =expresar en palabras=.

to put off (_postpone_), =posponer=, =diferir=, =dejar por otro tiempo=.

to put a person off (_make him wait_), =hacerle a una persona que espere=.

to put out of joint, =dislocar=.

to put to death, =matar=, =quitarle a uno la vida=.

to put to flight, =hacer huir=.

to put together, =juntar=, =acumular=.

to put up (_put away temporarily_), =guardar=, =dejar=.

to put up at (_stop at_), =pararse en=, =alojarse en=.

to put up fruits, =conservar frutas=, =hacer conservas=.

to put up money, =avanzar dinero=.

to put up to (_leave decision to_), =dejar a=.

to put up to (_incite to_), =incitar a=, =instigar a=.

to put up with (_bear, suffer_), =sufrir=, =aguantar=, =tolerar=.


TO RUN

to run, =correr=.

to run across (_find_), =dar con=, =tropezar con=.

to run a machine, =manejar una máquina=.

to run against (_bump into_), =dar contra=, =chocar con=.

to run against (_oppose_), =oponer a=.

to run ahead, =ir= _or_ =correr adelante=.

to run along (_be situated along_), =extenderse a lo largo de=.

to run away, =escaparse=, =huirse=.

to run away with a thing, =llevarse una cosa=.

to run away with (_get the better of_), =apoderarse de=.

to run back, =volver corriendo=.

to run down (_clock or machine_), =parar=.

to run down (_find, overtake_), =hallar=, =alcanzar=.

to run down (_speak ill of_), =calumniar=, =enviliar=.

to run in the blood, =estar en el sangre=.

to run out (_be all used up_), =acabarse=, =concluirse=.

to run out of, =estar sin=, =acabársele a uno=.

to run over a list, =repasar una lista=, =mirar atentamente=.

to run up an account, =incurrir una cuenta=.

to run up figures, =sumar números=.

to run up prices, =aumentar precios=.

to run up and down, =correr por todas partes=.


TO STAND

to stand the expense of, =pagar los gastos de=.

to stand alone, =estar solo=, =ser el único de su clase=.

to stand aloof, =mantenerse lejos=.

to stand by (_be near_), =estar cerca=, =hallarse presente=.

to stand by (_help_), =ayudar=, =auxiliar=.

to stand for, (_represent_), =representar=.

to stand for (_signify, indicate_), =significar=, =indicar=.

to stand in one's light (_literally_), =quitarle a uno la luz=;
(_figuratively_), =causarle a uno perjuicio=.

to stand in need of, =necesitar=, =tener necesidad de=.

to stand one in good stead, =ser útil a uno=, =ser de buen provecho a uno=.

to stand off (_be at some distance_), =mantenerse a algun distancia=.

to stand on tip-toe, =ponerse de puntillas=.

to stand to reason, =conformar a razón=, =ser conforme a razón=.

to stand up for (_defend_), =defender=, =apoyar=.

to stand upon ceremony, =gastar ceremonias= _or_ =cumplimientos=, =hacer
ceremonias=.

to stand upon one's right, =insistir en sus derechos=.


TO SET

to set at naught, =tener en nada=.

to set a time, =señalar un tiempo=.

to set back (_retard_), =atrasar=.

to set forth, show, =manifestar=, =promulgar=.

to set off (_beautify_), =embellecer=.

to set on (_incite_), =incitar=.

to set one thinking, =hacerle a uno pensar=.

to set oneself against something, =oponerse a algo=.

to set on fire, =pegar fuego a=.

to set store by, =dar importancia a=.

to set prices, =fijar precios=.

to set right, =corregir=, =rectificar=.

to set up in business, =establecerse=.

to set upon (_attack_), =atacar=, =acometer=.


TO SEE

to see a joke, =caer en un chiste=.

to see (_call upon, visit_), =visitar=.

to see into (_investigate_), =examinar=, =investigar=.

to see into (_understand_), =comprender=.

to see some one home, =acompañar a uno a casa=.


TO TAKE

to take after (_resemble_), =salir a=.

to take an oath, =jurar=, =hacer juramento=.

to take apart, =deshacer=, =separar=, despegar.

to take a liking to, =aficionarse a=, =llegar a querer=.

to take a course in, =cursar=.

to take a hint, =darse por entendido=.

to take a photograph, =sacar una fotografía=, =retratar=.

to take fright, =asustarse=.

to take a trip, =hacer un viaje=.

to take care, =cuidar=.

to take care of, =cuidar=, =tener cuidado de=.

to take charge of, =encargarse de=, =tomar a su cargo=.

to take down (_make a note of_), =apuntar=, =hacer apuntes=.

to take for granted, =dar por supuesto=.

to take hold (_seize_), =agarrar=, =asir=.

to take hold (_assume responsibilities_), =cargarse de=, =tomar a su cargo=.

to take in (_include_), =incluir=.

to take in (_deceive_), =engañar=.

to take something into one's head, =ponérsele a uno en la cabeza=,
=occurrírsele a uno=.

to take long, =necesitar mucho tiempo=, =tardar en=.

to take notice, =poner atención=, =hacer caso de=.

to take offense, =ofenderse=, =picarse=.

to take out, =sacar=.

to take pains, =darse pena=, =esmerarse en=.

to take pleasure in, =tener gusto en=.

to take to pieces, =hacer pedazos=, =deshacer=, =despegar=.


TO STRIKE

to strike one (_occur to one_), =occurrírsele a uno=.

to strike a bargain, =hacer un convenio=, =cerrar un trato=.

to strike a balance, =hacer un balance=.

to strike at, =lanzar un golpe a=.

to strike back, =dar golpe por golpe=.

to strike home (_hit a sensitive spot_), =dar en el hito=.

to strike out (_cancel_), =borrar=, =cancelar=.

to strike up a tune, =tocar= _or_ =tañer una melodia=.


TO TURN

to turn away (_refuse admission to_), =no dejar entrar=, =hacer a uno que
se vaya=.

to turn down (_refuse_), =negar=, =rehusar=.

to turn down (_fold over_), =doblar=, =plegar=.

to turn in (_deliver, hand in_), =entregar=.

to turn off (_water, gas, etc._), =cerrar la canilla= _or_ =la llave del
agua=, =del gas=, _etc._

to turn one's head, =trastornarle a uno la cabeza=.

to turn over a new leaf, =enmendarse=, =empezar a vivir vida nueva=.

to turn over to, =traspasar a=, =transferir a=.

to turn to account _or_ advantage, =sacar utilidad=, =ventaja= _or_ =provecho
de=.

to turn upon (_attack_), =atacar=.

to turn upon (_depend upon_), =depender de=, =fundarse en=.


TO LOOK

to look down upon (_despise_), =menospreciar=, =despreciar=.

to look out (_be on one's guard_), =estar sobre aviso=.

to look over (_examine_), =examinar=, =repasar=.

to look to (_for help, favors, etc._), =esperar de=.

to look up to (_respect_), =respetar=.

to look well (_seem to be in good health_), =parecer estar bien de salud=.

to look well (_have a pleasing appearance_) (_clothes_), =sentar bien=,
=caer bien=.

to look well (_seem fitting or proper_), =ser conveniente=.


TO PAY

to pay back (_take revenge for_), =pagar en la misma moneda=.

to pay cash, =pagar al contado=.

to pay attention to a lady, =cortejar= _or_ =galantear a una señora=.

to pay a call, =hacer una visita=.

to pay in full, =pagar por completo=.

to pay on the installment plan, =pagar a plazos=.

to pay off employees, =despedir= _or_ =despachar empleados=.


TO PASS

to pass on to (_hand over to_), =entregar a=.

to pass off (_disappear_), =disiparse=.

to pass off as (_treat as_), =tratar de=.

to pass oneself off as, =darse por=.

to pass sentence, =pronunciar sentencia=.


TO PLAY

to play a trick _or_ joke, =hacer una mala pasada= _or_ =jugada=.

to play the fool, =hacer el tonto=; _so also_ to play _or_ act blind,
=ciego=; deaf, =sordo=; lame, =cojo=, _etc._

to play truant, =hacer novillos=.



SPANISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY


A

=a=, at, to, in, by, from.

=abajo=, under, below, down.

=abatir=, to overthrow, defeat, cast down.

=abecedario=, _m._, alphabet.

=abeja=, _f._, bee.

=abordo=, on board.

=abrigo=, _m._, overcoat.

=abrir=, to open.

=absolutamente=, absolutely.

=absurdo=, =-a=, absurd.

=absurdos=, _m. pl._, absurdities.

=abuela=, _f._, grandmother.

=abuelito=, _m._, granddaddy.

=abuelo=, _m._, grandfather.

=acá=, here (_with verb of motion_).

=acabar=, to finish; =---- de= (_followed by the infin._), to have just;
=--se=, to give out (_section 50_), be exhausted.

=acaecer=, to happen.

=aceptar=, to accept.

=acercarse=, to approach.

=acertar=, to succeed.

=ácido=, _m._, acid.

=aclarar=, to clear up, explain.

=acompañar=, to accompany, go with.

=acordarse=, to remember.

=acostarse=, to go to bed.

=acuerdo=, _m._, accord, harmony; =de---- con=, in accord with.

=adelante=, forward; =de ahí en---- =, from this time on; =en---- =,
henceforth, from now on.

=adiós=, good-by.

=admirarse (de)=, to wonder at (_section 103_).

=¿adónde?=, where to?

=adondequiera=, wherever.

=adorar=, to adore, love.

=adquirir=, to acquire.

=adverso=, =-a=, adverse.

=advertir=, to advise, give notice of, warn.

=afición (a)=, _f._, fondness, liking for, inclination toward.

=afirmar=, to affirm, assert.

=afortunado=, =-a=, fortunate.

=agradable=, agreeable.

=agradar (a)=, to please (_section 67_).

=agradecer=, to oblige.

=agradecido=, =-a=, obliged.

=agrio=, =-a=, sour.

=agua=, _f._, water.

=aguantar=, to bear, endure, stand.

=ahí=, there.

=ahora=, now.

=ahorrar=, to save, conserve.

=aire=, _m._, air.

=ajeno=, =-a=, strange, belonging to some one else.

=al=, _contraction of_ =a= _and_ =el=; _see_ =a=.

=ala=, _f._, wing.

=alarmar=, to alarm.

=alcanzar=, to overtake.

=aldea=, _f._, village.

=alegrarse=, to be glad.

=alegría=, _f._, joy, happiness.

=alfrombra=, _f._, carpet.

=algo=, something, anything, somewhat.

=alguien=, somebody.

=alguno=, =-a=, some, any (=algún= _before m. sing. nouns_).

=alimento,= _m._, food.

=allá=, there (_with verbs of motion, or to denote indefinite place
where_).

=allí=, there, in that place.

=almacén=, _m._, store, storehouse.

=almuerzo=, _m._, breakfast.

=alquilar=, to rent.

=altitud=, _f._, height, altitude.

=alto=, =-a=, high; =a lo---- de=, at the top of.

=alucinación=, _f._, hallucination, fancy.

=alumno=, _m._, pupil, student.

=amable=, _m. and f._, kind.

=amanecer=, _m._, daybreak, dawn.

=amar=, to love.

=ambos=, =-as=, both.

=amigo=, =-a=, friend.

=amparar=, to help, protect.

=amplio=, =-a=, ample, wide.

=anciana=, _f._, old woman.

=ancho=, =-a=, wide.

=anchura=, _f._, width.

=andar=, to walk.

=andén=, _m._, platform (_station_).

=anécdota=, _f._, anecdote.

=animado=, =-a=, animated, lively, cheerful.

=anoche=, last night.

=anochecer=, _m._, nightfall, twilight.

=ante=, before, in the presence of; =---- todo=, above all.

=antes=, before, formerly; =---- que=, before (_conj._); =---- de=, before
(_prep. of time_).

=anunciar=, to announce.

=añadir=, to add, put in.

=año=, _m._, year.

=apagar=, to put out, extinguish; =--se=, to go out, be extinguished
(_section 117_).

=aparecer=, to appear.

=apartar=, to put aside; =--se=, to stand aside, get out of the way.

=apenas=, hardly, scarcely.

=apoderarse (de)=, to take possession of.

=apoyo=, _m._, help, support.

=aprender=, to learn.

=aprestar=, to get ready, prepare for.

=aprobar=, to approve, pass (_in examination_).

=aprovecharse (de)=, take advantage of.

=apuntar=, to make a note of, put down.

=apurarse=, to worry.

=apuro=, _m._, trouble, difficulty, worry.

=aquel=, =aquella=, that (_demons. adj._).

=aquél=, =aquélla=, that, that one (_demons. pron._).

=aquí=, here (_section 29_).

=árbol=, _m._, tree.

=argentino=, =-a=, Argentine.

=arrancar=, to start (_from_), to pull out.

=arriba=, up, above.

=asiento=, _m._, seat.

=asistencia=, _f._, people present, guests, spectators.

=asistir a=, to be present at, attend.

=asomar=, to appear.

=asunto=, _m._, affair, business, matter.

=atacar=, to attack.

=atraer=, to attract.

=atreverse=, to dare.

=atribuir=, to attribute, put down to.

=atroz=, _m. and f._, terrible, atrocious.

=aun=, yet, still (_accented when it follows the word modified_).

=aunque=, although.

=automóvil=, _m._, automobile.

=autor=, _m._, author.

=aventura=, adventure.

=avergonzarse=, to be ashamed.

=ayer=, yesterday.

=ayudar=, to help.

=ayudo=, _m._, aid, help.

=azúcar=, _m._, sugar.

=azul=, _m. and f._, blue.


B

=bailar=, to dance.

=bajar=, to go down, get down, pull down.

=banco=, _m._, bench, seat, bank (_financial institution_).

=banquete=, _m._, banquet.

=barato=, =-a=, cheap.

=barco=, _m._, bark, boat.

=bastante=, enough.

=bastar=, to be enough, do (_section 123_).

=baúl=, _m._, trunk.

=Benavente (Jacinto)=, Spanish author.

=besar=, to kiss.

=bicicleta=, _f._, bicycle.

=bien=, well, all right.

=bienes=, _m. pl._, property, possessions.

=billete=, _m._, ticket; =---- de banco=, banknote.

=blanco=, =-a=, white.

=blando=, =-a=, soft.

=bolsillo=, _m._, purse, pocket.

=bondad=, _f._, goodness; =tenga usted la---- =, please (_section 67_).

=brasero=, _m._, charcoal stove.

=brazo=, _m._, arm.

=brillante=, _m. and f._, brilliant.

=bruja=, _f._, witch.

=bueno=, =-a=, good, well, all right.

=burla=, _f._, fun, mockery, joke.

=burlarse (de)=, to make fun of, mock at, joke about.

=buscar=, to look for; =mandar a---- =, to send for.


C

=caballero=, _m._, gentleman, sir.

=caballo=, _m._, horse.

=caber (en)=, to hold, be contained in (_section 31_).

=cabeza=, _f._, head.

=cabildo=, _m._, city hall.

=cabo=, _m._, cape, headland; =llevar a---- =, to carry out, end, finish,
conclude; =al fin y al---- =, finally, at last.

=cada=, each.

=caer=, to fall; =dejar---- =, to drop.

=café=, _m._, coffee, café, restaurant.

=cajón=, _m._, box, drawer.

=calor=, _m._, heat; =hacer---- =, to be hot (_weather_); =tener---- =, to be
hot (_persons_).

=callarse=, to be quiet, stop talking.

=calle=, _f._, street.

=cambiar=, to change; =--se en=, to turn into (_section 113_).

=cambio=, _m._, change.

=caminar=, to walk.

=camino=, _m._, way (_section 48_).

=campana=, _f._, bell.

=campanilla=, _f._, little bell, doorbell.

=campo=, _m._, country (_as opposed to city_; _see_ =país=).

=cansadísimo=, =-a=, very tired.

=cansadito=, =-a=, very tired.

=cansado=, =-a=, tired.

=cansar=, to tire.

=cantar=, to sing.

=cántaro=, _m._, pitcher; =llover a--s=, to rain torrents.

=capaz=, _m. and f._, capable.

=capitán=, _m._, captain.

=cara=, _f._, face; =---- a---- =, face to face, straight in the face.

=carbón=, _m._, coal.

=cargo=, _m._, charge.

=carta=, _f._, letter.

=casa=, _f._, house; =en---- =, at home; =a---- =, home (_with verbs of
motion_).

=casado=, =-a=, married.

=casar=, to marry, give in marriage; =--se con=, to be married to, marry.

=caso=, _m._, case, place; =hacer---- de=, to pay attention to.

=Catalán=, _m._, Catalonian (_a native of Catalonia, the northeast section
of Spain_).

=caterva=, _f._, tribe, band, number.

=causa=, _f._, cause; =a---- de=, because of.

=causar=, to cause.

=ceder=, to yield, give up (_section 50_).

=celebrar=, to celebrate, to be glad.

=celos=: =tener---- =, to be jealous.

=cena=, _f._, supper.

=cerca de=, near, about.

=cerradura=, _f._, lock, keyhole.

=cerrar=, to close.

=cesar (de)=, to cease, stop.

=cesto=, _m._, basket.

=ciego=, =-a=, blind.

=cielo=, _m._, sky, heaven.

=ciento=, hundred.

=cierto=, =-a=, certain; =por---- =, indeed, certainly.

=cinco=, five.

=cinta=, _f._, ribbon.

=cita=, _f._, quotation, appointment.

=ciudad=, _f._, city.

=claro=, =-a=, clear.

=clavo=, _m._, nail.

=clima=, _m._, climate.

=cobarde=, _m. and f._, cowardly.

=cocina=, _f._, kitchen.

=cocinera=, _f._, cook.

=coche=, _m._, carriage.

=coger=, to take, pick up.

=color=, _m._, color.

=comer=, to eat.

=comercio=, _m._, business, commerce.

=comida=, _f._, meal, dinner.

=como=, how, as (_section 96_); =¿cómo?= how?

=compañero=, =-a=, companion.

=compañía=, _f._, company.

=compartamento=, _m._, compartment.

=compartir=, to share.

=compasión=, _f._, compassion.

=compensar=, to compensate, make up for.

=cómplice=, _m._, accomplice.

=comprar=, to buy.

=comprender=, to understand, see through.

=con=, with.

=concepto=, _m._, conception, opinion.

=conciencia=, _f._, conscience.

=concierto=, _m._, concert.

=concluirse=, to come to an end, give out.

=conferencia=, _f._, conference.

=confesar=, to confess.

=confiado=, =-a=, confident, trusting in.

=conformarse=, to agree.

=congeniar (con)=, to agree, get along well with.

=conmigo=, with me.

=conocer=, to know, be acquainted with, become acquainted with.

=conocimiento=, _m._, knowledge, acquaintance.

=conque=, and so.

=conquistador=, _m._, conqueror.

=consentir (en)=, to consent to, agree to.

=construir=, to build, construct.

=contar=, to tell (_section 90_).

=contener=, to hold, contain.

=contentar=, to please (_section 66_).

=continuar=, to continue, keep on (_section 34_).

=contra=, against.

=convertirse (en)=, to change into, turn into (_section 113_).

=convidar=, to invite.

=corazón=, _m._, heart.

=cordero=, =-a=, lamb.

=cortar=, to cut.

=corto=, =-a=, short.

=correo=, _m._, mail, post office.

=correr=, to run.

=cosa=, _f._, thing.

=coser=, to sew.

=crecer=, to grow (_section 23_).

=creer=, to believe, think.

=criado=, =-a=, servant.

=criar(se)=, to grow, grow up (_section 23_).

=cruelmente=, cruelly.

=cuaderno=, _m._, note-book.

=¿cuánto=, =-a?= how much?

=¿cuántos=, =-as?= how many?

=cuarto=, _m._, room.

=cuatro=, four.

=cuchillo=, _m._, knife.

=cuenta=, _f._, bill.

=cuento=, _m._, story.

=¡cuidado!= take care!

=cuidarse=, to take care.

=cura=, _m._, priest.


CH

=chaqueta=, _f._, jacket.

=charlar=, to chat.

=chico=, =-a=, small; =los--s=, the children.

=chimenea=, _f._, fireplace.


D

=daño=, _m._, hurt, harm; =hacerse--=, to hurt oneself.

=dar=, to give; =---- contra=, to bump into, run into.

=de=, of, from, by.

=deber=, _m._, duty.

=deber=, must, ought, should (_section 76_).

=débil=, _m. and f._, weak.

=decidirse=, to decide, make up one's mind (_section 53_).

=decir=, to say, tell (_section 90_).

=declarar=, to declare; =--se en huelga=, to strike (_section 121_).

=defendido=, =-a=, defended.

=dejar=, to leave (_section 37_); =--de=, to cease, stop; let (_section
38_).

=delante=, forward; =---- de=, in front of; =de ahí en---- =, from now on.

=delgado=, =-a=, thin, slender.

=demás=: =lo---- =, the rest, what's left; =los (las)---- =, the others.

=demasiado=, too, too much.

=dentro de=, within.

=derecho=, =-a=, right (_section 75_).

=desacorde=, _m. and f._, out of harmony, not in agreement.

=desaparecer=, to disappear.

=descansar=, =--se=, to rest.

=descubrir=, to discover, find out.

=desde=, since (_prep._); =---- que=, since (_conj._).

=desear=, to desire.

=deseo=, _m._, desire.

=desgracia=, _f._, misfortune.

=deshacerse (de)=, to get rid of.

=desierto=, =-a=, deserted.

=deslizarse=, to slip.

=despacho=, _m._, office.

=despedirse=, to say farewell, take one's leave (_section 107_).

=después=, afterwards.

=después de=, after (_prep._); =---- que=, after (_conj._) (_section 26_).

=detenerse=, to stop.

=determinado=, =-a=: =tener---- =, to have made up one's mind.

=devolver=, to return, give back.

=día=, _m._, day; =de---- en---- =, from day to day.

=diamante=, _m._, diamond.

=diario=, =-a=, daily.

=diario=, _m._, newspaper.

=dibujo=, _m._, drawing.

=diciembre=, _m._, December.

=diez=, ten.

=diferencia=, _f._, difference.

=difícil=, _m. and f._, difficult.

=diligente=, _m. and f._, diligent.

=diligentemente=, diligently, hard (_section 49_).

=dinero=, _m._, money.

=Dios=, _m._, God.

=dirigirse=, to turn (_section 113_).

=discípulo=, =-a=, pupil.

=disgusto=, _m._, annoyance, vexation.

=disposición=, _f._, disposition, disposal.

=distancia=, _f._, distance.

=distinguido=, =-a=, distinguished.

=divertirse=, to amuse oneself, have a good time, enjoy oneself.

=doblar=, to double, turn (_section 113_).

=doce=, twelve.

=dolor=, _m._, pain, grief, sorrow.

=dolorcillo=, _m._, a little pain.

=dormir=, to sleep; =--se=, to go to sleep.

=dos=, two.

=dulce=, _m. and f._, sweet.

=dulces=, _m. pl._, sweets, candy.

=duro=, =-a=, hard (_section 49_).

=duro=, _m._, dollar.


E

=¡ea!= come!

=echar=, to throw, to put out (_section 119_).

=echar de menos=, to miss (_section 55_).

=edad=, _f._, age.

=efecto=, _m._, effect.

=egoísmo=, _m._, egoism, selfishness.

=ejercicio=, _m._, exercise.

=ejército=, _m._, army.

=el=, _m._, the.

=él=, he.

=Elisa=, Elise, Eliza.

=ella=, she, her.

=embelesado=, =-a=, charmed, delighted.

=empeñarse en=, to insist upon.

=empezar=, to begin.

=empleado=, =-a=, employé.

=empresa=, _f._, undertaking; company (_commercial or industrial_).

=en=, in, on.

=encaje=, _m._, lace.

=encantador=, =-a=, charming, delightful.

=encuentro=, _m._, meeting.

=enfadado=, =-a=, angry, vexed, annoyed.

=enfermedad=, _f._, illness, sickness.

=enfermo=, =-a=, ill; _as noun_, invalid.

=engañar=, to deceive, take in; =--se=, to be deceived, be mistaken.

=enojado=, =-a=, annoyed, vexed.

=ensenada=, _f._, bay.

=entenderse=, to understand one another, agree.

=entero=, =-a=, entire, whole; =días= _or_ =meses--s=, days _or_ months at a
time.

=entierro=, _m._, funeral.

=entrar=, to enter.

=entregar=, to deliver, hand over to.

=enviar=, to send.

=equipaje=, _m._, baggage.

=equivocarse=, to make a mistake, be mistaken.

=erial=, _m._, uncultivated land.

=errar=, to err.

=escalera=, _f._, stairs.

=escaparse=, to escape, get away (_section 16_).

=esclavitud=, _f._, slavery.

=esclavo=, =-a=, slave.

=escondido=, =-a=, hidden.

=escribir=, to write.

=escrito=: =por---- =, in writing.

=escuchar=, to listen, listen to.

=ese=, =esa=, that (_demons. adj._); =ése=, =ésa= (_demons, pron._).

=eso=, that (_neut. demons. pron._); =a---- de= (_in time expressions_), a
little after.

=espacio=, _m._, space.

=espantoso=, =-a=, frightful.

=español=, =-a=, Spanish, Spaniard.

=espejo=, _m._, mirror.

=esperanza=, _f._, hope.

=esperar=, to hope, wait, expect.

=espíritu=, _m._, spirit.

=esposo=, =-a=, husband, wife.

=espuela=, _f._, spur.

=esquina=, _f._, corner (_exterior angle_; _see_ =rincón=).

=estación=, _f._, season, station.

=estado=, _m._, state.

=estar=, to be (_section 1_).

=este=, =esta=, this (_demons. adj._); =éste=, =ésta= (_demons. pron._).

=esto=, this (_neut. demons. pron._).

=estorbar=, to disturb, put out (_section 118_).

=estrella=, _f._, star.

=estudiar=, to study.

=estudio=, _m._, study.

=evitar=, to avoid, help (_section 27_).

=exclamar=, to exclaim.

=exclusivamente=, exclusively.

=existir=, to exist.

=éxito=, _m._, outcome, success.

=explicar=, to explain.

=extender=, to extend, put out (_section 119_).

=extranjero=, =-a=, strange, stranger, foreign, foreigner.

=extrañar=, to wonder (_section 103_).


F

=falta=, _f._, lack, need; =hacer---- a=, to need, want.

=faltar (a)=, to need, want (_sections 65, 98_).

=familia=, _f._, family.

=fatiga=, _f._, fatigue.

=favor=, _m._, favor; please (_section 67_).

=fe=, _f._, faith.

=felicitar=, to congratulate.

=feliz=, _m. and f._, happy.

=ferroviario=, =-a=, pertaining to railroads.

=fiar=, to trust.

=fiesta=, _f._, holiday.

=fievre=, _f._, fever.

=fin=, _m._, end, conclusion; =al---- =, at last; =por---- =, finally.

=flaco=, =-a=, thin.

=flor=, _f._, flower.

=fortuna=, _f._, fortune.

=fósforo=, _m._, match.

=frío=, _m._, cold; =hacer---- =, to be cold (_weather_); =tener---- =, to be
cold (_persons_).

=fruta=, _f._, fruit.

=fuego=, _m._, fire; =pegar---- a=, to set fire to.

=fuerte=, _m. and f._, strong.

=fuerza=, _f._, strength.


G

=gana=, _f._, desire; =tener--s de= (_with infin._), to feel like.

=ganar=, to earn.

=gato=, _m._, cat.

=generoso=, =-a=, generous.

=genio=, _m._, genius, talent.

=gente=, _f._, people.

=gimnasio=, _m._, gymnasium.

=gimnástico=, =-a=, gymnastic.

=gitano=, =-a=, gipsy.

=glorioso=, =-a=, glorious.

=gordo=, =-a=, fat.

=gozarse=, to rejoice, enjoy.

=gracia=, _f._, favor, jest, joke.

=gracias=, _f. pl._, thanks.

=gramática=, _f._, grammar.

=grande=, _m. and f._, large.

=grupo=, _m._, group.

=guante=, _m._, glove.

=guapo=, =-a=, pretty, charming.

=guardar=, to keep, put away (_sections 34, 119_).

=guisar=, to cook, stew.

=gustar=, to like (_section 60_).

=gusto=, _m._, pleasure.


H

=haber=, to have (_section 6_); =---- de=, must (_section 75_).

=hábil=, _m. and f._, clever, skillful.

=habitación=, _f._, room.

=habitar=, to live, inhabit, occupy.

=hablar=, to speak, talk.

=hacer=, to make, do (_section 125_); =--se=, to become, grow (_section
23_).

=hacia=, toward (_section 80_).

=hachazgo=, _m._, blow with an ax _or_ hatchet.

=hada=, _f._, fairy.

=hallar=, to find; =--se=, to be (_section 1_).

=hambre=, _f._, hunger; =tener---- =, to be hungry.

=harina=, _f._, flour.

=hasta=, until (_prep._); even (_section 80_); =---- que=, until (_conj._).

=hay=, there is, there are; =---- que=, one must, it is necessary (_section
76_).

=hazaña=, _f._, adventure, exploit.

=heredar=, to inherit.

=heredero=, =-a=, heir.

=hermano=, _m._, brother.

=hierba=: =mala---- =, _f._, weed.

=hija=, _f._, daughter.

=hijo=, _m._, son.

=hombre=, _m._, man; =¡---- de Dios!= man alive!

=hombro=, _m._, shoulder.

=honor=, _m._, honor.

=hora=, _f._, hour, time (_section 59_).

=hormiga=, _f._, ant.

=huele=, _see_ =oler=.

=huelga=, _f._, strike; =declararse en--=, to strike (_section 121_).

=huerto=, _m._, orchard.

=humo=, _m._, smoke.

=húngaro=, =-a=, Hungarian, gipsy.


I

=idea=, _f._, idea.

=iglesia=, _f._, church.

=impedir=, to hinder, prevent, keep (_section 34_).

=importancia=, _f._, importance.

=importante=, _m. and f._, important.

=incendio=, _m._, fire, conflagration.

=inclinarse=, to be inclined.

=independencia=, _f._, independence.

=indisposición=, _f._, illness.

=individuo=, _m._, individual, person.

=inesperado=, =-a=, unexpected, unhoped for.

=injusto=, =-a=, unjust.

=insecto=, _m._, insect.

=inserto=, =-a=, inserted, included.

=insigne=, _m. and f._, famous, celebrated.

=instrumento=, _m._, instrument.

=inteligencia=, _f._, intelligence.

=intención=, _f._, intention; =tener la--=, to mean (_section 68_).

=intento=, _m._, purpose, intention.

=interés=, _m._, interest.

=interior=, _m._, interior.

=inútil=, useless.

=inundado=, =-a=, inundated, flooded.

=invertir=, to invert, turn over (_section_ 113).

=investigar=, to investigate, look into.

=invitación=, _f._, invitation.


J

=jardín=, _m._, garden.

=jarro=, _m._, pitcher, jug.

=joven=, _m. and f._, young person, young man, young woman.

=juez=, _m._, judge.

=jugar=, to play (_section 63_).

=junto (-a) a=, near to, next to.

=justo=, =-a=, just, right (_section 74_).

=juzgar=, to judge.


L

=la=, the, her.

=lado=, _m._, side.

=ladrón=, _m._, robber.

=lámpara=, _f._, lamp.

=lancha=, _f._, boat.

=lanzar=, to lance, throw.

=lápiz=, _m._, pencil.

=largarse=, to run away, "skip."

=largo=, =-a=, long.

=lástima=, _f._, pity.

=lastimar=, to hurt.

=lavandera=, _f._, laundress.

=lavar=, to wash.

=le=, him, you, to him, to you, to her.

=lección=, _f._, lesson.

=lectura=, _f._, reading.

=leer=, to read.

=lengua=, _f._, tongue.

=león=, _m._, lion.

=lesión=, _f._, lesion, wound.

=levantarse=, to get up (_section 16_).

=ley=, _f._, law (_single statute_).

=libertad=, _f._, liberty.

=libra=, _f._, pound.

=libro=, _m._, book.

=ligero=, =-a=, light, quick, slight.

=limonada=, _f._, lemonade.

=limosna=, _f._, alms.

=limpio=, =-a=, clean.

=listo=, =-a=, ready, quick.

=literatura=, _f._, literature.

=lo=, it, him.

=loco=, =-a=, crazy, mad.

=lograr=, to succeed, manage (_section 79_).

=Londres=, London.

=longitud=, _f._, length, longitude.

=luego=, later, afterwards; =---- que=, as soon as.

=lugar=, _m._, place; =en primer---- =, first of all; =tener---- =, to take
place.

=lujo=, _m._, luxury.

=luna=, _f._, moon.

=luz=, _f._, light.


LL

=llamar=, to call.

=llano=, =-a=, flat, smooth.

=llave=, _f._, key.

=llegada=, _f._, arrival.

=llegar=, to arrive.

=llevar=, to carry, take.

=llorar=, to cry, weep.

=llover=, to rain.


M

=madre=, _f._, mother.

=madrugada=, _f._, early morning; =de--=, early in the morning.

=maestro=, _m._, teacher.

=mal=, badly; bad (_before mas. sing. nouns_).

=malicioso=, =-a=, malicious, sharp.

=malo=, =-a=, bad, ill.

=manantial=, _m._, spring (_of water_).

=manchar=, to spot, blot.

=manecita=, _f._, little hand.

=manera=, _f._, manner, way (_section 48_).

=mano=, _f._, hand.

=mantenerse=, to keep (_section 34_).

=manzana=, _f._, apple.

=mañana=, _f._, morning; (_as adv._), to-morrow.

=máquina=, _f._, machine.

=maquinaria=, _f._, machinery.

=mar=, _m. and f._, sea.

=Marco=, _m._, Mark (_proper noun_).

=marcharse=, to go away, leave (_section 37_).

=marinero=, _m._, sailor.

=martes=, _m._, Tuesday.

=martillo=, _m._, hammer.

=más=, more; =no---- que=, just (_section 24_).

=mayor=, _m. and f._, older, greater.

=me=, me, to me, for me.

=mediano=, =-a=, medium, mediocre, half-way.

=medias=, =a=, half-way, by halves.

=médico=, _m._, doctor.

=medida=: =a---- que=, in a measure as, as (_section 96_).

=medio=, =-a=, half (_section 93_); =en--de=, in the midst of.

=mejor=, _m. and f._, better.

=mejorarse=, to get better, improve.

=memoria=, _f._, memory; =de---- =, by heart.

=memorialista=, _m._, public letter writer.

=menos=, less; =a---- que=, unless; =por lo---- =, at least.

=mentira=, _f._, lie, untruth.

=menudo=, =-a=, often.

=merecer=, to merit, deserve.

=mermar=, to diminish.

=mes=, _m._, month.

=mesa=, _f._, table.

=metido=, =-a=, put, hidden.

=método=, _m._, method.

=mi=, my.

=mí=, me (_with prep._).

=miedo=, _m._, fear; =tener---- =, to be afraid.

=miel=, _f._, honey.

=mientras=, while, as long as (_section 12)_.

=milla=, mile.

=millonario=, =-a=, millionaire.

=mimar=, to pet, spoil.

=mina=, _f._, mine.

=minero=, _m._, miner.

=mío=, =-a=, mine.

=mirar=, to look (_section 19_).

=¡mira!= see here!

=mismo=, =-a=, same, very (_section 62_); =lo---- da=, it's all the same; it
doesn't matter.

=mitad=, _f._, half (_section 93_).

=modo=, _m._, mode, manner, way (_section 43_).

=mofarse (de)=, to mock at, make fun of (_section 53_).

=mojar=, to wet, soak.

=molestar=, to trouble, disturb, put out (_section 119_).

=momento=, _m._, moment.

=montón=, _m._, heap, pile.

=moreno=, =-a=, brown.

=morir=, to die.

=motivo=: =con---- de=, on the occasion of, because of.

=movimiento=, _m._, movement, motion.

=mozo=, =-a=, young man, young woman, waiter.

=muchacha=, _f._, girl.

=muchacho=, _m._, boy.

=mucho=, =-a=, much.

=muebles=, _m. pl._, furniture.

=mujer=, _f._, woman.

=muerto=, =-a=, dead.

=mundo=, _m._, world; =todo el---- =, everybody.

=muro=, _m._, wall.

=música=, _f._, music.


N

=nacer=, to be born.

=nacional=, _m. and f._, national.

=nada=, nothing; =---- más que (de)=, nothing but, just (_section 24_).

=narración=, _f._, narrative, story.

=naturaleza=, _f._, nature.

=necesario=, =-a=, necessary.

=necesitar=, to need, want (_section 98_).

=negro=, =-a=, black.

=nevar=, to snow.

=nieve=, _f._, snow.

=ningún=, _see_ =ninguno=.

=ninguno=, =-a=, no, not any, not one.

=niñera=, _f._, nurse-maid.

=niño=, =-a=, child.

=no=, no, not.

=noción=, _f._, notion, idea.

=noche=, _f._, night.

=nodriza=, _f._, nurse.

=nombre=, _m._, name.

=norte=, _m._, north.

=nos=, us, ourselves.

=nosotros=, =-as=, we, us (_with prep._).

=notar=, to notice, note.

=noticia=, _f._, notice, news.

=nuestro=, =-a=, our.

=nuevo=, =-a=, new.

=número=, _m._, number.

=nunca=, never.


O

=obedecer=, to obey.

=obra=, _f._, work (_accomplished; as, the works of an author; see_
=trabajo=).

=obrero=, _m._, workman.

=obscuridad=, _f._, darkness.

=obscuro=, =-a=, dark.

=observar=, to observe, notice.

=ocultarse=, to hide oneself.

=ocupación=, _f._, occupation.

=ocupado=, =-a=, occupied, busy.

=ocurrido=: =lo---- =, what has happened.

=ocho=, eight.

=ofender=, to offend, insult.

=ofrecer=, to offer.

=oído=, _m._, hearing, ear (_inner_).

=oír=, to hear.

=¡ojalá!= (_an interjection that expresses keen desire_), I hope, I wish,
would that, _etc._

=ojo=, _m._, eye.

=oler=, to smell.

=olvidarse=, to forget.

=operario=, _m._, workman, operative.

=oportunidad=, _f._, opportunity.

=opulencia=, _f._, wealth, opulence.

=oscurecer=, to grow dark.

=otro=, =-a=, other, another.

=ovación=, _f._, ovation.


P

=paciencia=, _f._, patience.

=padre=, _m._, father.

=padres=, _m. pl._, parents.

=pagar=, to pay (_section 111_).

=pago=, _m._, pay, wages.

=país=, _m._, country (_geographical division; see_ =campo= _and_ =patria=).

=paisano=, _m._, countryman, villager.

=pájaro=, _m._, bird.

=palabra=, _f._, word.

=palacio=, _m._, palace.

=pálido=, =-a=, pale.

=palomar=, _m._, dovecote, pigeon house.

=palomita=, _f._, little dove, little pigeon.

=palpar=, to feel (_section 43_).

=pan=, _m._, bread.

=panadero=, _m._, baker.

=papel=, _m._, paper; =hacer un---- =, to play a part, act a rôle.

=para=, for (_section 4_); =---- con=, toward (_section 81_); =---- que=, in
order that.

=parado=, =-a=, standing.

=paraguas=, _m._, umbrella.

=parar=, to stop.

=parecer=, to appear, seem, think (_section 52_).

=parte=, _f._, part.

=partir=, to depart, leave (_section 37_).

=pasar=, to pass (_section 110_); =--se sin=, to get along without, do
without.

=paseo=, _m._, walk, promenade; =dar un---- =, to take a walk.

=patitas=: =poner de---- en la calle=, to dismiss, discharge, turn out.

=patria=, _f._, native country; _see_ =campo= _and_ =país=.

=patrona=, _f._, landlady.

=Patros=, _f._, _proper noun, name of woman_.

=paz=, _f._, peace.

=pedir=, to ask for, beg (_section 3_).

=pegar=, to strike (_section 121_); =--fuego a=, to set fire to.

=pena=, trouble; =valer la---- =, to be worth while.

=pensamiento=, _m._, thought.

=pensar=, to think (_section 52_).

=peña=, _f._, cliff.

=Pepita=, _proper noun_, _f._

=pequeño=, =-a=, small, little (_section 20_).

=perder=, to lose.

=perdido=, _m._, loss.

=perdonar=, to pardon, excuse.

=perezoso=, =-a=, lazy.

=perjudicial=, _m. and f._, prejudicial, harmful.

=permiso=, _m._, permission.

=pero=, but (_section 117_).

=perro=, _m._, dog.

=persona=, _f._, person.

=persuadir=, to persuade, get (_section 16_).

=pesar=: =a---- de=, in spite of.

=piano=, _m._, piano.

=pie=, foot; =a---- =, on foot; =de---- =, standing.

=piedad=, _f._, pity, piety.

=piedra=, _f._, stone.

=pintar=, to paint.

=placer=, _m._, pleasure.

=plan=, _m._, plan, page (_of newspaper_).

=planchar=, to iron, press.

=plataforma=, _f._, platform.

=playa=, _f._, beach, shore.

=plaza=, _f._, square.

=plazuela=, _f._, small square.

=pluma=, _f._, pen.

=plumafuente=, _f._, fountain pen (_also_; =plumatintero=, _m._).

=pobre=, _m. and f._, poor.

=poco=, =-a=, little (_quantity; see section 20_).

=pocos=, =-as=, few.

=poder=, to be able; =a más no---- =, to the utmost of one's ability, as
hard as one can.

=poner=, to put (_section 119_); =--se=, to grow, put on (_sections 23 and
119_); =--se de pie=, to stand up (_section 84_).

=por=, by, through, in, for (_section 4_).

=porque=, because.

=¿por qué?= why?

=posibilidad=, _f._, possibility.

=posible=, _m. and f._, possible; =lo---- =, what is possible.

=precio=, _m._, price.

=preguntar=, to ask (_section 3_); =--se=, to wonder (_section 103_).

=prendas de vestir=, _f. pl._, clothes.

=presentarse=, to appear (_section 77_).

=presente=, _m. and f._, present.

=presidente=, _m._, president.

=prestar=, to lend.

=primero=, =-a=, first.

=primo=, =-a=, cousin.

=principiar=, to begin.

=prisa=, _f._, haste; =tener---- =, =estar de---- =, to be in a hurry.

=problema=, _m._, problem.

=proclamar=, to proclaim, publish.

=procurar=, to try.

=producir=, to produce.

=profesor=, _m._, teacher, professor.

=profundizar=, to go deeply into a thing _or_ a matter, dig deeper.

=prometer=, to promise.

=promovido=, =-a=: =ser---- =, to pass, be promoted (_section 110_).

=pronto=, soon, quickly.

=pronto=, =-a=, ready, quick.

=propagado=, =-a=, propagated.

=propio=, =-a=, own.

=proseguir=, to continue.

=prospero=, =-a=, prosperous, fortunate.

=protegido=, =-a=, protégé.

=próximo=, =-a=, next.

=prudencia=, _f._, prudence.

=publicar=, to publish, give out (_section 50_).

=público=, =-a=, public.

=pueblo=, _m._, town, village.

=puerta=, _f._, door.

=pues=, well (_section 30_), then, for (_conj._).

=puesto=, =-a=, on (_section 119_); =---- que=, since (_section 9_).

=pulgada=, _f._, inch.

=punto=, _m._, point; =en---- =, exactly (_with time expressions_).

=puro=, _m. and f._, pure.


Q

=que=, what, that, who, which, whom.

=¿qué?= what?

=quebrar=, to break.

=quedar=, to remain, be left (_section 37_); =--se con=, to keep (_section
34_).

=quedo=, =-a=, quiet, quietly; =-ito=, =-a=, very quietly.

=querer=, to love, wish, want (_section 98_).

=quien=, who.

=¿quién?= who?

=quieto=, =-a=, quiet.

=quince=, fifteen; =---- días=, two weeks, a fortnight.

=quitar=, to take away; =--se=, to take off (_section 106_); =--se de en
medio=, to get out of the way.


R

=rabioso=, =-a=, rabid, mad.

=raro=, =-a=, rare.

=rato=, _m._, while.

=razón=, _f._, reason, right (_section 75_).

=rebelde=, _m._, rebel.

=recepción=, _f._, reception.

=recibir=, to receive, get.

=recién=, recently (_form used only to modify past participle_).

=recoger=, to pick up, gather together.

=recompensar=, to recompense, make up for (_section 53_).

=recordar=, to remember, remind of.

=recuperar=, to recuperate.

=región=, _f._, region.

=regla=, _f._, rule.

=regresar=, to return, come back.

=reina=, _f._, queen.

=reír=, to laugh.

=reloj=, _m._, watch, clock.

=remedar=, to imitate, take off (_section 107_).

=remedio=, _m._, remedy; =no hay---- =, it can't be helped.

=remendar=, to mend.

=remoto=, =-a=, remote.

=rendir=, to give up (_section 50_).

=renunciar=, to renounce, give up (_section 50_).

=reñir=, to quarrel.

=repente=: =de---- =, suddenly, all at once.

=reposo=, _m._, repose, rest.

=reprender=, to censure, scold.

=representación=, _f._, performance.

=república=, _f._, republic.

=resolver=, to resolve, make up one's mind.

=respeto a=, with regard to.

=retardar=, to retard, keep back (_section 34_).

=retener=, to keep (_section 34_).

=retirar=, to retire, take back (_section 106_).

=retractar=, to retract, take back (_section 106_).

=retraso=: =con---- =, late.

=reunión=, _f._, meeting.

=revista=, _f._, magazine.

=revolver=, to turn (_section 113_).

=rey=, _m._, king.

=rezar=, to pray.

=rico=, =-a=, rich.

=rincón=, _m._, corner (_inside angle; see_ =esquina=).

=río=, _m._, river.

=risa=, _f._, laughter.

=robar=, to steal.

=roca=, _f._, rock.

=rogar=, to ask (_section 3_).

=rojo=, =-a=, red.

=rollo=, _m._, roll.

=ropa=, _f._, clothes.

=rostro=, _m._, face.

=roto=, =-a=, broken, torn.

=rueda=, _f._, wheel.

=ruido=, _m._, noise.


S

=saber=, to know (_section 14_).

=sabio=, =-a=, wise.

=sacar=, to take out (_section 107_).

=saco=, _m._, sack, bag.

=sacrificar=, to sacrifice.

=sacrificio=, _m._, sacrifice.

=sala=, _f._, room, living-room.

=salir=, to go out, leave (_section 37_).

=saltar=, to leap, spring.

=salud=, _f._, health.

=salvar=, to save (_section 92_).

=salvo y sano=, safe and sound.

=santo=, =-a=, saint.

=sargento=, _m._, sergeant.

=satisfacer=, to satisfy.

=satisfecho=, =-a=, satisfied.

=sastre=, _m._, tailor.

=se=, self (_reflexive pronoun of the third person, also of the second
person formal_); _also used as pers. pron., 2nd and 3rd pers., ind.
obj., before_ =lo=, =la=, =los=, =las=.

=sed=, _f._, thirst.

=seguida=: =en---- =, immediately, at once.

=según=, according to.

=seguro=, =-a=, sure, certain.

=semana=, _f._, week.

=sembrar=, to sow.

=sencillez=, _f._, simplicity.

=sencillo=, =-a=, simple.

=sentar mal a=, to disagree with (_physically_).

=sentarse=, to sit down (_section 84_).

=sentir=, to be sorry, feel (_section 43_).

=señas=, _f. pl._, directions, address.

=señor=, _m._, gentleman, sir, Mr.

=señora=, lady, madam, Mrs.

=señorita=, _f._, young lady, Miss.

=séptimo=, =-a=, seventh.

=ser=, to be (_section 1_).

=serio=, =-a=, serious.

=servir=, to serve; =---- de=, to serve as; =---- para=, to do for, be good
for (_section 125_).

=si=, if.

=sí=, yes, self (_used for_ =se= _with a prep._).

=siempre=, always, ever; =para--jamás=, for ever and ever.

=silla=, _f._, chair.

=sillón=, _m._, armchair.

=sin=, without (_prep._); =---- que=, without (_conj.; section 69_).

=sino=, except, but (_section 117_).

=siquiera=, even (_section 80_).

=sírvase=, please (_section 67_).

=situado=, =-a=, situated.

=sobrar=, to be left over, be superfluous, be too much.

=sobre=, _m._, envelope.

=sobre=, over, above, on (_prep._).

=sobriedad=, _f._, sobriety.

=sobrino=, _m._, nephew.

=social=, _m. and f._, social.

=sociedad=, _f._, society.

=sofocante=, _m. and f._, suffocating.

=sol=, _m._, sun.

=solamente=, only (_section 71_).

=solas=: =a---- con=, alone with (_section 72_).

=soldado=, _m._, soldier.

=soler=, to be wont, be accustomed.

=solito=, =-a=, all alone, entirely alone.

=solo=, =-a=, alone (_section 72_).

=sólo=, only (_section 71_), just (_section 24_).

=sombra=, _f._, shade, shadow.

=sombrero=, _m._, hat.

=sonar=, to ring (_section 116_).

=sonrisa=, _f._, smile.

=soplar=, to blow.

=soportar=, to bear, endure, stand (_section 85_).

=sordo=, =-a=, deaf.

=sorprender=, to surprise.

=sospechar=, to suspect.

=su=, his, her, your, their.

=subir=, to go up (_section 10_), take up (_section 107_).

=subsuelo=, _m._, subsoil.

=suceder=, to happen, succeed (_section 79_).

=suelen=, _see_ =soler=.

=sueño=, _m._, sleep; =tener---- =, to be sleepy.

=sufrir=, to bear, suffer, stand (_section 85_).

=suma=, _f._, sum.

=supuesto=: =por---- =, of course.

=suyo=, =-a=, his, hers, yours, theirs.


T

=tabaco=, _m._, tobacco.

=tacto=, _m._, touch.

=tal=, _m. and f._, such; =---- vez=, perhaps; =¿qué--?= what's ... like?
(_section 61_).

=talento=, _m._, talent.

=también=, too, also.

=tampoco=, either, neither (_sections 99 and 100_).

=tan=, so (_section 33_).

=tantito=, slightly, rather, a little bit (_section 20_).

=tanto=, =-a=, as much, so much (_sections 33 and 96_).

=tardar=, to be long in (_section 12_).

=tarde=, _f._, afternoon.

=tarde=, _m. and f._, late.

=tarjeta=, _f._, card; =---- postal=, post card.

=té=, _m._, tea.

=te=, (_pron._) thyself, thee, you.

=teatro=, _m._, theater.

=tela=, _f._, cloth.

=telefonar=, to telephone.

=teléfono=, _m._, telephone.

=temer=, to fear, be afraid.

=temperatura=, _f._, temperature.

=tempestad=, _f._, tempest, storm.

=temprano=, early.

=terminar=, to end.

=tía=, _f._, aunt.

=tiempo=, _m._, time (_section 59_).

=tierra=, _f._, earth, land.

=tinta=, _f._, ink.

=tirano=, =-a=, tyrant.

=tiro=, _m._, shot.

=tocar=, to touch, play (_section 64_); concern.

=tocino=, _m._, bacon.

=todavía=, yet, still.

=todo=, =-a=, all (_section 46_).

=tomar=, to take (_section 107_).

=tonto=, =-a=, foolish, silly.

=topo=, _m._, mole.

=trabajar=, to work.

=trabajo=, _m._, work.

=traducción=, _f._, translation.

=traer=, to bring, get (_section 16_).

=traje=, _m._, suit, clothes.

=transcurrir=, to pass (_section 110_).

=tranvía=, _m._, street car.

=tras=, behind, after (_section 26_).

=trasnochar=, to sit up all night, spend a sleepless night.

=tratar=, to treat.

=tremendo=, =-a=, tremendous.

=tren=, _m._, train.

=tres=, three.

=trigo=, _m._, wheat.

=triste=, _m. and f._, sad.

=trocar=, to exchange.

=tu=, thy.

=tú=, thou.


U

=último=, =-a=, last (_of a series_).

=un=, _see_ =uno=.

=único=, =-a=, only (_section 71_).

=un(o)=, =-a=, one (_section 103_).

=usted=, you.

=utilidad=, _f._, use, usefulness.


V

=vacio=, =-a=, empty.

=valer=, to be worth.

=valor=, _m._, valor.

=vanidad=, _f._, vanity.

=¡vamos!= come!

=vano=, =-a=, vain.

=¡vaya!= come! well! why! there! (_section 56_).

=vecino=, =-a=, neighbor.

=vehículo=, _m._, vehicle.

=veinte=, twenty.

=veinticinco=, twenty-five.

=velo=, _m._, veil.

=velocidad=, _f._, speed; =a toda---- =, at full speed.

=vencer=, to conquer, overthrow.

=venda=, _f._, bandage.

=vender=, to sell.

=venir=, to come.

=venta=, _f._, inn, tavern.

=ventana=, _f._, window.

=ventanilla=, _f._, small window.

=ver=, to see (_section 93_).

=verdad=, _f._, truth.

=verificarse=, to take place (_section 107_).

=vestido=, _m._, dress.

=vestir=, to dress, wear; =--se=, to get dressed.

=vez=, _f._, time (_section 122_).

=viaje=, _m._, journey.

=victoria=, _f._, victory, Victoria (_proper noun_).

=vida=, _f._, life.

=viejo=, =-a=, old, old man, old woman.

=viento=, _m._, wind.

=villano=, =-a=, evil, wicked.

=violín=, _m._, violin.

=visita=, _f._, visit, visitor.

=visitar=, to visit, call upon.

=visto=: =por lo---- =, apparently.

=viuda=, _f._, widow.

=vivir=, to live.

=voluntad=, _f._, will, way (_section 48_).

=volver=, to turn (_section 113_); =--a= (_followed by the infin._), to do
something again.

=voz=, voice.

=vuelta=, _f._: =dar una---- =, to take a walk; =estar de---- =, to be back;
=dar--s a=, to turn (_section 113_).


Y

=y=, and.

=ya=, already; =---- que=, since (_section 9_); =---- no=, no longer
(_section 12_); =---- que no=, even, if not (_section 79_).

=yo=, I.


Z

=zoológico=, =-a=, zoölogical.



ENGLISH-SPANISH VOCABULARY


A

=able, to be=, poder.

=about=, de, acerca de (_concerning_); cerca de, más o menos (_nearly,
approximately_) (_section 41_).

=above=, arriba, sobre; =---- all=, sobre todo, ante todo.

=abroad=, al extranjero, en el extranjero.

=absence=, ausencia, _f._

=absolutely=, absolutamente.

=absurdity=, absurdo, _m._

=accident=, accidente, _m._; desgracia, _f._

=accord=: =in---- with=, de acuerdo con.

=according to=, según.

=account=: =on---- of=, a causa de, por (_section 101_).

=acquaintance=: =to make the---- of=, conocer.

=acquainted with, to be=, conocer.

=across=, al otro lado de.

=act=, obrar, portarse (_to behave_).

=admire, to=, admirar.

=advantage of, to take=, aprovecharse de.

=advice=, consejo, _m._

=advise, to=, aconsejar.

=affair=, asunto, _m._

=afraid, to be=, tener miedo.

=after=, tras, después de (_section 26_).

=afternoon=, tarde, _f._

=afterwards=, después.

=again=, otra vez, de nuevo, volver a, _with infinitive_.

=against=, contra.

=age=, edad, _f._

=ago=, hace, ha (_the first precedes, the second follows, the expression
of time_; hace _is used when definite time is expressed_, ha _when the
time is indefinite_).

=agree with, to=, sentar bien.

=air=, aire, _m._

=alarm, to=, alarmar.

=alive=, vivo,-a; =man--!= ¡hombre!

=all=, todo,-a; =---- of a sudden=, de repente (_section 46_).

=almost=, casí.

=alone=, solo,-a (_section 72_).

=aloud=, en alta voz.

=already=, ya.

=also=, también.

=although=, aunque.

=among=, entre.

=amused, to be=, divertirse.

=an=, un, una.

=and=, y.

=angel=, ángel, _m._

=anger=, ira, cólera, _f._; enojo, _m._

=animal=, animal, _m._

=another=, otro,-a.

=answer, to=, contestar, responder.

=answer=, contestación, _f._

=anxious=, ansioso,-a.

=any=, algún, alguno,-a.

=apparently=, a lo visto, según parece, según parecía.

=appear, to=, aparecer, parecer, dejarse ver (_section 78_).

=appearance, to put in=, dejarse ver.

=appreciate, to=, estimar, apreciar.

=approach, to=, acercarse.

=Argentine=, argentino,-a.

=arm=, brazo, _m._

=armchair=, sillón, _m._; butaca, _f._

=army=, ejército, _m._

=arrive, to=, llegar.

=as=, como (_section 96_).

=ashamed, to be=, tener vergüenza.

=ask, to=, preguntar, pedir, rogar (_section 3_).

=asleep, to be=, estar dormido,-a; =to be sleepy=, tener sueño.

=at=, a, en; =---- once=, en seguida; =to be---- = (_to attend_), asistir a.

=attention=, atención, _f._

=aunt=, tía, _f._

=author=, autor,-ra.

=automobile=, automóvil, _m._

=avoid, to=, evitar, prevenir.

=aware=, a sabiendas; =to be---- =, saber.

=away, to be=, estar ausente. (_This word should generally be looked for
in connection with the verb with which it is used, as it is in Spanish
usually included in the verb; as_, marcharse, =to go---- =; llevarse, =to
take---- =, _etc._)


B

=bad=, malo,-a.

=back, to be=, estar de vuelta. (_Ordinarily it is best to look for this
word under the verb with which it is used; as_, =to give--=, devolver; =to
go---- =, volver, _etc._)

=bag=, saco, _m._

=baggage=, equipaje, _m._

=baker=, panadero, _m._

=ball= (_dance_), baile, _m._

=bandit=, bandito, _m._; bandolero, _m._

=bank=, banco, _m._; =--note=, billete de banco.

=banquet=, banquete, _m._

=basket=, cesto, _m._; cesta, _f._

=be, to=, estar, ser (_section 1_).

=beautiful=, hermoso,-a; bello,-a.

=because=, porque, a causa de, por (_section 101_).

=become, to=, ponerse (_to grow_); sentar bien (_to suit_).

=bed=, cama, _f._; =to go to---- =, acostarse.

=bee-hive=, colmena, _f._

=before=, antes, ante, delante de, antes que (_section 13_).

=beg, to=, pedir, rogar.

=beggar=, pordiosero,-a; mendigo,-a.

=behind=, atrás, atrasado,-a; detrás de.

=believe, to=, creer.

=bell=, campana, _f._; campanilla, _f._

=belong, to=, pertenecer.

=below=, abajo.

=best=, el _or_ la mejor; más (_as adverb_).

=better=, mejor, _m. and f._

=bicycle=, bicicleta, _f._

=big=, grande, _m. and f._

=bill=, cuenta, _f._

=bird=, pájaro, _m._

=birthday=, (día de) cumpleaños, _m._

=bit=, poquito (_a small quantity_); tanto, tantito (_to a slight
degree_).

=bite=, to, morder.

=blame=, culpa, _f._; =to be to---- =, tener la culpa.

=blind=, ciego,-a.

=blow, to=, soplar.

=blow with hatchet=, hachazo, _m._; =---- with whip=, latigazo, _m._

=blue=, azul, _m. and f._

=boat=, bote, _m._; lancha, _f._

=book=, libro, _m_.

=bookcase=, estante, _m._

=born, to be=, nacer.

=both=, ambos,-as; el uno (la una) y el otro (la otra); los _or_ las dos.

=bother, to=, molestar.

=bottle=, botella, _f._

=box=, cajón, _m._; caja, _f._

=boy=, muchacho, _m._

=bread=, pan, _m._

=break, to=, romper, quebrar.

=breakfast=, desayuno, _m._; almuerzo, _m._

=bring, to=, traer.

=brother=, hermano, _m._

=brown=, moreno,-a.

=building=, edificio, _m._

=burn, to=, quemar.

=business=, comercio, _m._; negocio, _m._

=busy=, ocupado,-a.

=but=, pero, sino (_section 116_).

=butter=, mantequilla, _f._

=buy, to=, comprar.

=by=, por, de.


C

=call, to=, llamar.

=can=, _present tense of_ poder (_section 115_).

=candy=, dulces, _m. pl._

=capable=, capaz, _m. and f._

=cape= (_geographical_), cabo, _m._

=captain=, capitán, _m._

=car= (_auto_), automóvil, _m._

=card=, tarjeta, _f._

=care of, to take=, cuidar; =take--!= ¡cuidado!

=careful=, cuidadoso,-a.

=carelessness=, descuido, _m._

=cash=, dinero, _m._; =to pay---- =, pagar al contado.

=casino=, casino, _m._ (_a social club_).

=cast down=, to, abatir.

=catch, to=, coger.

=cause, to=, causar.

=cause=, causa, _f._

=cat=, gato, _m._

=Catalonian=, Catalán,-a (_native of Catalonia, Spanish Cataluña_).

=cease, to=, cesar, dejar de.

=certainly=, ciertamente, por cierto, por supuesto (_section 56 b_).

=chain=, cadena, _f._

=chair=, silla, _f._; =arm--=, sillón, _m._; butaca, _f._

=change=, cambio, _m._

=change, to=, cambiar.

=charge of, to take=, cuidar, tomar a su cargo.

=charmed=, embelesado,-a.

=charming=, encantador,-a; simpático,-a.

=cheap=, barato,-a.

=child=, niño,-a.

=choose, to=, escoger.

=church=, iglesia, _f._

=cite, to=, citar.

=city=, ciudad, _f._

=class=, clase, _f._

=clean, to=, limpiar.

=clean=, limpio,-a.

=clear up, to=, aclarar.

=close, to=, cerrar.

=close to=, cerca de, junto (-a) a.

=clothes=, ropa, _f._; prendas de vestir.

=coal=, carbón, _m._

=coat=, chaqueta, _f._; =rain--=, impermeable, _m._; =over--=, abrigo, _m._

=coffee=, café, _m._

=coin=, moneda, _f._

=cold=, frío,-a; =to be---- =, tener frío (_persons_); =to be---- =, hacer
frío (_weather_); =to take---- =, resfriarse, coger un resfriado.

=color=, color, _m._

=come, to=, venir.

=committee=, comisión, _f._

=companion=, compañero,-a.

=company=, compañía, _f._; =to keep one---- =, hacer compañía a uno.

=compartment=, compartamento, _m._

=compel, to=, compeler.

=conduct=, conducto, _m._

=confess, to=, confesar.

=confident=, confiado,-a.

=congenial=, simpático,-a.

=congregate, to=, congregar.

=conqueror=, conquistador, _m._

=conscience=, conciencia, _f._

=consent, to=, consentir (en).

=contain, to=, contener.

=continue, to=, continuar, seguir.

=cook, to=, cocinar, guisar.

=cook=, cocinero,-a.

=cool=, fresco,-a.

=corner=, esquina, rincón (_section 85_).

=corridor=, corredor, _m._; pasillo, _m._

=cost, to=, costar.

=could=, _past tenses and subjunctive of_ poder (_section 115_).

=counter=, contador, _m._

=country=, país, _m._ (_geographical division_); campo, _m._ (_opposed to
city_); =native---- =, patria.

=course, of=, por supuesto, ¡cómo no! ya lo creo (_section 56 (b)_).

=cowardly=, cobarde, _m. and f._

=crazy=, loco,-a.

=creditor=, acreedor,-ra.

=crops=, mieses, _f. pl._

=cruelly=, cruelmente.

=cry, to=, llorar (_to weep_); gritar (_to call out_).

=curious=, curioso,-a.

=cut, to=, cortar.


D

=daily=, diario,-a; (_adv._), diariamente.

=daily= (_newspaper_), diario, _m._

=damage=, daño, _m._

=dark=, obscuro,-a.

=darkness=, obscuridad, _f._

=daughter=, hija, _f._

=dawn=, amanecer, _m._; alba, _f._

=day=, día, _m._; =---- after to-morrow=, pasado mañana.

=daybreak=, amanecer, _m._

=dead=, muerto,-a.

=dear=, querido,-a (_term of affection_); caro,-a (_expensive_).

=deceive, to=, engañar.

=declare, to=, declarar.

=deep=, hondo,-a.

=deer=, ciervo, _m._

=defend, to=, defender.

=depart, to=, partir.

=depths=, profundidad, _f._

=describe, to=, describir.

=desert, to=, abandonar.

=deserted=, desierto,-a.

=deserve, to=, merecer.

=desirous, to be=, tener ganas.

=dessert=, postre, _m._

=determine, to=, determinar.

=devoted to, to be=, estar dedicado (-a) a.

=diamond=, diamante, _m._

=dictionary=, diccionario, _m._

=die, to=, morir.

=difficult=, difícil, _m. and f._

=difficulty=, dificultad, _f._

=dine, to=, comer.

=dining-room=, comedor, _m._

=dinner=, comida, _f._; =---- time=, la hora de comer.

=direction=, dirección, _f._

=dirty=, sucio,-a.

=disagree, to=, sentar mal a (_physical_).

=disappear, to=, desaparecer.

=disappointment=, chasco, _m._

=discover, to=, descubrir.

=dismiss, to=, despedir.

=disposal=, disposición, _f._

=distance=, distancia, _f._

=distress=, desgracia, _f._; aflicción, _f._

=do, to=, hacer, servir (_section 125_).

=doctor=, doctor, _m._; médico, _m._

=dog=, perro, _m._

=dollar=, dólar, _m._; duro, _m._; peso, _m._

=door=, puerta, _f._

=doorway=, puerta, _f._

=doubt=, duda, _f._; =there is no---- =, no cabe duda.

=down=, abajo. (_Also often included in the meaning of the verb with which
it is used; as_, =to take---- =, =to pull---- =, bajar; =to run---- =, bajar
corriendo; =to put---- =, =to jot---- =, apuntar, _etc._)

=dozen=, docena, _f._

=dragon=, dragón, _m._

=draw, to=, tirar (_to pull_); dibujar (_to outline, sketch_).

=drawing=, dibujo, _m._

=dream, to=, soñar.

=dress=, vestido, _m._

=dress, to=, vestir.

=driver=, cochero, _m._; chauffeur, _m._

=drop, to=, dejar caer (_let fall_); caer (_to fall_).

=dust=, polvo, _m._

=duty=, deber, _m._


E

=each=, cada uno, (-a).

=ear=, oído, _m._ (_inner ear_); oreja, _f._ (_outer ear_).

=early=, temprano,-a.

=earn, to=, ganar.

=earth=, tierra, _f._

=earthquake=, terremoto, _m._

=eat, to=, comer.

=egg=, huevo, _m._

=eight=, ocho.

=either=, o; o el (la) uno (-a) o el (la) otro (-a); tampoco (_section
99_).

=electric=, eléctrico,-a.

=else=, más; =or---- =, si no.

=employé=, empleado,-a.

=encircle, to=, rodear.

=engine=, locomotora, _f._; máquina, _f._

=English=, inglés,-a.

=enjoy, to=, gozarse en, gozar (en).

=enough=, bastante.

=enter, to=, entrar.

=erect, to=, erigir, edificar.

=eruption=, erupción, _f._

=escape, to=, escaparse.

=esteem=, estimación, _f._

=even=, aun, hasta, siquiera (_section 80_).

=evening=, tarde, _f._

=ever=, jamás, nunca (_section 109_).

=everybody=, todo el mundo.

=everything=, todo.

=evident=, evidente, _m. and f._

=evil=, malo,-a; villano,-a.

=exactly=, justo, exacto, exactamente, en punto (_when naming the hour_).

=examination=, examen, _m._

=example=, ejemplo, _m._

=exercise=, ejercicio, _m._

=excited, to get=, animarse.

=exclusively=, exclusivamente.

=expect, to=, esperar.

=experience=, experiencia, _f._

=expert=, experto,-a; experimentado,-a.

=explain, to=, explicar.

=eye=, ojo, _m._


F

=face=, cara, _f._

=fact=, hecho, _m._

=factory=, fábrica, _f._

=fail, to=, faltar, dejar de.

=faith=, fe, _f._

=fall, to=, caer.

=fault=, culpa, _f._; =to be one's---- =, tener la culpa.

=family=, familia, _f._

=famous=, famoso,-a; insigne, _m. and f._

=farm=, hacienda, _f._

=father=, padre, _m._

=fatigue=, fatiga, _f._

=fear, to=, temer.

=fear=, temor, _m._

=fearful=, terrible, _m. and f._; atroz, _m. and f._

=feel, to=, sentir, palpar, tocar (_section 43_).

=feeling=, sentimiento, _m._

=fever=, fiebre, _f._

=few=, pocos,-as.

=finally=, al fin, por fin.

=fine=: =some---- day=, un buen día.

=find, to=, hallar, encontrar; =to--out=, saber, llegar a saber.

=fire=, fuego, _m._; =to set---- to=, pegar fuego a.

=fireman=, bombero, _m._

=first=, primero,-a; =---- of all=, en primer lugar, antes.

=five=, cinco.

=fixed=, fijado,-a.

=flame=, llama, _f._

=flooded=, inundado,-a.

=floor=, suelo, _m._

=flower=, flor, _f._

=fluently=, corrientemente.

=folks, little=, los chicos, la gente menuda.

=follow, to=, seguir.

=fond of, to be=, tener afición a, querer.

=fool=, tonto,-a.

=foolish=, tonto,-a.

=foot=, pie, _m._

=for=, por, para (_section 40_).

=foreign=, extranjero,-a.

=forget, to=, olvidar, olvidarse de.

=forgive, to=, perdonar.

=fork=, tenedor, _m._

=forty=, cuarenta.

=fountain pen=, plumafuente, _f._; plumatintero, _m._

=four=, cuatro.

=franc=, franco, _m._

=French=, francés,-a.

=friend=, amigo,-a.

=fruit=, fruta, _f._

=full=, lleno,-a; =at---- speed=, a todo escape, a todo correr.

=fully=, del todo.

=fun=, diversión, _f._; burla, _f._; =to make---- of=, burlarse de.

=funeral=, entierro, _m._


G

=garden=, jardín, _m._

=general=, general, _m._

=general=, general, _m. and f._ (_adj._).

=generally=, generalmente; por lo general.

=genius=, genio, _m._

=gentleman=, señor, _m._; caballero, _m._

=get, to=, obtener (_section 16_).

=gipsy=, gitano,-a.

=girl=, muchacha, _f._

=give, to=, dar, entregar (_section 50_).

=glad, to be=, alegrarse.

=glass=, vaso, _m._ (_for drinking_); vidriero, _m._ (_of window_).

=glove=, guante, _m._

=go, to=, ir (_section 10_).

=God=, Dios, _m._

=good=, bueno,-a.

=good-by=, adiós.

=good-for-nothing=, que no vale nada.

=governor=, gobernador, _m._

=grandfather=, abuelo, _m._

=grandmother=, abuela, _f._

=great=, grande, _m. and f._

=green=, verde, _m. and f._

=groan=, gemido, _m._

=groan, to=, gemir.

=group=, grupo, _m._

=grow, to=, crecer, aumentar, criarse (_section 23_).

=guide=, guia, _m._; =---- book=, guia, _f._

=gymnasium=, gimnasio, _m._

=gymnastic=, gimnástico,-a.


H

=half=, medio,-a.

=half=, mitad, _f._

=half-way=, a medias; =---- there=, en medio (a la mitad) del camino.

=hand=, mano, _f._

=handle=, manija, _f._

=happen, to=, acaecer, acontecer, ocurrir; =to---- to be=, hallarse.

=happiness=, alegría, _f._

=happy=, alegre, _m. and f._; contento,-a.

=hard=, duro,-a; difícil, _m. and f._ (_section_ 49).

=hardly=, apenas.

=haste, to make=, darse prisa.

=hastily=, aceleradamente.

=hat=, sombrero, _m._

=have, to=, tener, haber, hacer (_section 2_).

=he=, él.

=head=, cabeza, _f._

=hear, to=, oír, entender, sentir (_section 73_).

=hearer=, oyente, _m. and f._

=heart=, corazón, _m._; =to know by--=, saber de memoria.

=heat=, calor, _m._

=help=, ayuda, _f._

=help, to=, ayudar, asistir, amparar (_section 27_).

=heir=, heredero,-a.

=her=, su (_poss. adj._); la, le (_pers. pron._).

=here=, aquí, acá (_section_ 29).

=hide, to=, esconder, ocultar.

=high=, alto,-a.

=him=, le (_or_ lo).

=himself=, se, él mismo.

=his=, su, suyo,-a.

=history=, historia, _f._

=hit, to=, pegar; =---- against=, dar contra.

=hold, to=, contener, detener, caber en (_section 21_).

=holiday=, día de fiesta, _f._

=home=, a casa (_with verb of motion_); =at---- =, en casa.

=honor=, honor, _m._

=hope, to=, esperar.

=horse=, caballo, _m._

=hot=, caliente, _m. and f._; =to be---- =, tener calor (_persons_); hacer
calor (_weather_).

=hour=, hora, _f._

=house=, casa, _f._

=how= (_interr._), ¿cómo? =to know---- =, saber.

=how= (_excl._), ¡cómo! ¡cuán! ¡qué!

=hundred=, ciento; cien (_before nouns_).

=hungry, to be=, tener hambre.

=hurry, to=, darse prisa.

=hurry, to be in a=, tener prisa, estar de prisa.

=hurt, to=, lastimar, hacer daño a.

=husband=, marido, _m._; esposo, _m._


I

=I=, yo.

=idea=, idea, _f._

=if=, si.

=ill=, malo,-a; enfermo,-a.

=illness=, enfermedad, _f._

=illustrated=, ilustrado,-a.

=imitate, to=, imitar, remedar.

=immediately=, inmediatamente, en seguida, al momento.

=importance=, importancia, _f._

=important=, importante, _m. and f._

=impossible=, imposible, _m. and f._

=in=, en, dentro de.

=inch=, pulgada, _f._

=inclined, to be=, inclinar.

=increase, to=, aumentar.

=indeed=, ¿de veras? =yes---- =, ¡ya lo creo! ¡si por cierto! (_section 54
(b)_).

=independence=, independencia, _f._

=inform, to=, hacer saber, enterar.

=inherit, to=, heradar.

=initiate, to=, iniciar, empezar.

=injury=, lesión, _f._

=ink=, tinta, _f._

=inn=, venta, _f._; posada, _f._

=insist, to=, empeñarse.

=instead of=, en lugar de.

=instrument=, instrumento, _m._

=insult, to=, ofender.

=intelligence=, inteligencia, _f._

=interest, to=, interesar.

=interesting=, interesante, _m. and f._

=internal=, interior, _m. and f._

=interpreter=, intérprete, _m. and f._

=invasion=, invasión, _f._; irrupción, _f._

=invitation=, invitación, _f._

=invite, to=, invitar.

=it=, lo, la, ello. (_Omitted when used as subject._)

=Italian=, italiano,-a.


J

=job=, tarea, _f._

=journey=, viaje, _m._

=joy=, gozo, _m._; alegría, _f._

=judge=, juez, _m._

=just=, justo,-a; nada más de _or_ que, exactamente (_section 24_).


K

=keep, to=, guardar, quedarse con, seguir (_section 34_).

=key=, llave, _f._

=kind=, amable, _m. and f._

=king=, rey, _m._

=kiss, to=, besar.

=kitchen=, cocina, _f._

=knife=, cuchillo, _m._

=know, to=, saber, conocer (_section 14_).


L

=lace=, encaje, _m._

=lady=, señora, _f._

=lamp=, lámpara, _f._

=landlady=, patrona, _f._

=language=, idioma, _m._

=large=, grande, _m. and f._

=late=, tarde.

=lately=, recientemente.

=latter, the=, éste, ésta.

=last=, último,-a; pasado,-a (_section 89_); =---- night=, anoche.

=last, to=, durar.

=laugh, to=, reír; =to---- at=, reírse de.

=laughter=, risa, _f._

=lay, to=, poner.

=lazy=, perezoso,-a.

=learn, to=, aprender.

=learned=, sabio,-a.

=least=, menor, _m. and f._; =at---- =, a lo menos, por lo menos.

=leather=, cuero, _m._

=leave, to=, dejar, partir, salir (_section 37_).

=left=, izquierdo,-a.

=left, to be=, quedar, sobrar (_section 37_).

=lemonade=, limonada, _f._

=lend, to=, prestar.

=less=, menos.

=lesson=, lección, _f._

=let, to=, dejar (_section 38_).

=letter=, carta, _f._

=liberty=, libertad, _f._

=library=, biblioteca, _f._

=life=, vida, _f._

=lift, to=, alzar, levantar.

=light=, luz, _f._

=like, to=, querer, gustar a (_section 61_).

=like=, como, cual (_section 60_).

=lily=, lirio, _m._

=lion=, león, _m._

=listen, to=, escuchar.

=literature=, literatura, _f._

=little=, pequeño,-a; chico,-a; poco,-a, (_section 20_).

=live, to=, vivir.

=living=, vida, _f._

=living-room=, sala, _f._

=lock=, cerradura, _f._

=London=, Londres.

=long=, largo,-a; =---- time=, mucho tiempo (_section 12_).

=look, to=, mirar, aparecer; =---- for=, buscar (_section 19_).

=lose, to=, perder.

=loss=, perdido, _m._

=lot of, a=, mucho,-a,-os,-as.

=love, to=, amar, querer.

=luxury=, lujo, _m._


M

=machine=, máquina, _f._

=machinery=, maquinaria, _f._

=mad=, rabioso,-a; loco,-a.

=maid=, criada, _f._

=make, to=, hacer (_section 53_).

=man=, hombre, _m._

=manage, to=, lograr, manejar.

=many=, muchos,-as (_section_ 20).

=masked= (_ball_), de máscaras.

=master=, amo, _m._; dueño, _m._

=material=, materia, _f._

=matter=, asunto, _m._

=matter, to=, importar.

=me=, me, mí (_with preposition_).

=mean, to=, querer decir, tener la intención de (_section 68_).

=means of, by=, por medio de.

=mediocre=, mediano,-a.

=meet, to=, encontrar, dar con.

=meeting=, reunión, _f._

=member=, miembro, _m._; individuo, _m._

=memory=, memoria, _f._

=method=, método, _m._

=milk=, leche, _f._

=millionaire=, millonario,-a.

=mind of, to put in=, recordar a, hacer pensar en.

=mine=, mío,-a.

=mine=, mina, _f._

=miner=, minero, _m._

=minute=, minuto, _m._

=mirror=, espejo, _m._

=miss, to=, echar de menos, faltar, notar la falta de (_section 55_).

=mistake=, equivocación, _f._; error, _m._; falta, _f._

=mistake, to make a=, equivocarse, hacer un error.

=mistaken, to be=, equivocarse.

=mole=, topo, _m._

=moment=, momento, _m._

=money=, dinero, _m._

=month=, mes, _m._

=moon=, luna, _f._

=more=, más; =---- and---- =, cada vez más; =no---- = (_longer_), ya no;
=once ---- =, otra vez.

=morning=, mañana, _f._

=mother=, madre, _f._

=much=, mucho,-a.

=music=, música, _f._

=must=, haber de, deber, tener que (_section 75_).

=my=, mi; ¡vaya! (_with exclamatory force_).

=myself=, me, mismo,-a (_section 88_).


N

=name=, nombre, _m._

=narrative=, narración, _f._

=narrow=, estrecho,-a.

=national=, nacional, _m. and f._

=natural=, natural, _m. and f._

=nature=, naturaleza, _f._

=near=, cerca de, junto (-a) a.

=necessary=, necesario,-a.

=need, to=, necesitar.

=neighbor=, vecino,-a.

=neither=, ni; ni el (la) uno (-a) ni el (la) otro (-a); tampoco (_section
9_).

=nephew=, sobrino, _m._

=never=, nunca, jamás.

=nevertheless=, sin embargo.

=new=, nuevo,-a.

=newly=, recientemente, recién (_before past participles_).

=news=, noticias, _f. pl._

=newspaper=, periódico, _m._; diario, _m._

=next=, próximo,-a; que viene.

=night=, noche, _f._; =at---- =, de noche, por la noche; =last---- =, anoche.

=nightfall=, anochecer, _m._

=nightingale=, ruiseñor, _m._

=night-watchman=, sereno, _m._

=no=, no.

=nobody=, nadie.

=noise=, ruido, _m._

=noon=, medio día, _m._

=north=, norte, _m._

=not=, no; =---- at all=, de ningún modo, no hay de que (_section 46_).

=note, to=, notar, fijarse en.

=nothing=, nada.

=notice=, noticia, _f._

=now=, ahora, ya (_section 40_); =every---- and then=, de vez en cuando.

=number=, número, _m._

=nurse-maid=, niñera, _f._


O

=obey, to=, obeir.

=oblige, to=, obligar a.

=obliged to, to be=, agradecer a.

=observe, to=, observar.

=obtain, to=, obtener.

=occupy, to=, ocupar.

=occur, to=, ocurrir, acaecer.

=o'clock=: =it is one---- =, es la una; =it is two, three, four---- =,
son las dos, las tres, las cuatro.

=of=, de.

=offer=, oferto, _m._

=offer, to=, ofrecer.

=office=, despacho, _m._ (_place of business_); oficio, _m._
(_occupation_).

=often=, a menudo, muchas veces.

=old=, viejo,-a; antiguo,-a.

=oldest=, mayor, _m. and f._

=on=, en, sobre.

=once=, una vez; =---- and for all=, una vez y para siempre; =at--=,
inmediatamente, en seguida; =all at---- =, de repente (_suddenly_); a la
vez (_all together_).

=one=, un, uno,-a.

=only=, sólo, solamente, nada más que (_section 71_).

=open, to=, abrir.

=open=, abierto,-a.

=opinion=, opinión, _f._; concepto, _m._

=opportunity=, oportunidad, _f._

=or=, o.

=orchard=, huerta, _f._

=order, to=, mandar.

=order to, in=, para, para que, a fin de que.

=organ=, órgano, _m._

=other=, otro,-a.

=ought=, deber.

=our=, nuestro,-a.

=ourselves=, nos, nosotros (_-as_) mismos (_-as_).

=out=, fuera. (_It is best usually to look for this word in connection
with the verb with which it is used, in which it is very often included;
as_, sacar, =to take---- =; salir, =to go---- =; apagar, =to put--=, _etc._)

=owe, to=, deber.

=own=, propio,-a.

=owner=, dueño,-a.

=ovation=, ovación, _f._

=over=, sobre; =all---- =, acabado,-a (_finished_); por todas partes
(_everywhere, in all directions_).


P

=pain=, dolor, _m._; =little---- =, dolorcillo.

=paint, to=, pintar.

=painter=, pintor, _m._

=pair=, par, _m._

=pane=, vidriero, _m._

=paper=, papel, _m._; =news--=, periódico, _m._; diario, _m._

=pardon, to=, perdonar.

=parents=, padres, _m._

=park=, parque, _m._

=party=, partido, _m._; compañía, _f._

=pass, to=, pasar (_section 110_).

=past=, pasado,-a.

=patient=, paciente, _m. and f._ (_adj._); enfermo,-a.

=patience=, paciencia, _f._

=Patros=, _proper name_, _f._

=pay, to=, pagar, ser provechoso,-a (_section 111_).

=pay=, pago, _m._; sueldo, _m._

=peace=, paz, _f._

=pen=, pluma, _f._

=pencil=, lápiz, _m._

=penknife=, cortaplumas, _m._

=perhaps=, tal vez, acaso.

=people=, gente, _f._

=perceive, to=, percibir, ver.

=permission=, permiso, _m._

=person=, persona, _f._

=piano=, piano, _m._

=pick up, to=, coger, recoger.

=picture=, cuadro, _m._; pintura, _f._ (_painting_); retrato, _m._;
fotografía, _f._ (_photograph_).

=piece=, pedazo, _m._

=pitcher=, jarra, _f._ (_wide-mouthed_); jarro, _m._ (_narrow-mouthed_).

=pity=, lástima, _f._

=place=, lugar, _m._; sitio, _m._; =to take--=, tener lugar, verificarse.

=plant=, planta, _f._

=plate=, plato, _m._

=platform=, andén, _m._ (_railway station_); plataforma, _f._

=play, to=, jugar (_games_); tocar (_musical instruments_); representar
(_dramas_); =to---- a part=, hacer _or_ desempeñar un papel.

=play=, drama, _m._

=please, to=, agradar, contentar, querer (_section 67_).

=pleasure=, gusto, _m._; placer, _m._

=pocket=, bolsillo, _m._

=poor=, pobre, _m. and f._

=portrait=, retrato, _m._

=possess, to=, poseer.

=possession=, posesión, _f._; =to take---- of=, apoderarse de.

=possible=, posible, _m. and f._

=postcard=, tarjeta postal, _f._

=postman=, cartero, _m._

=post office=, correo, _m._

=pound=, libra, _f._

=power=, poder, _m._

=practice=, práctica, _f._

=practice, to=, practicar.

=preparation=, preparación, _f._; preparativo, _m._

=prepare, to=, preparar.

=presence=, presencia, _f._

=present=, presente, _m. and f._; =for the---- =, a presente, al momento,
por lo pronto.

=present at, to be=, asistir a.

=president=, presidente, _m._

=pretty=, bonito,-a.

=prevent, to=, evitar.

=price=, precio, _m._

=prince=, príncipe, _m._

=princess=, princesa, _f._

=problem=, problema, _m._

=procession=, procesión, _f._

=profession=, profesión, _f._

=professor=, profesor,-ra.

=promise, to=, prometer.

=propagate, to=, propagar.

=property=, bienes, _m. pl._

=prove, to=, probar; =to---- to be=, resultar ser.

=provided that=, con tal que.

=province=, provincia, _f._

=prudence=, prudencia, _f._

=public=, público,-a; =---- letter writer=, memorialista, _m._

=publish, to=, publicar, dar a luz.

=pupil=, discípulo,-a; alumno,-a.

=pure=, puro,-a.

=purse=, bolsa, _f._

=put, to=, poner (_section 119_).


Q

=quarrel, to=, reñir.

=quart=, cuarta, _f._

=quarter=, cuarto,-a.

=queen=, reina, _f._

=question=, pregunta, _f._ (_to be answered_); cuestión, _f._ (_to be
discussed_); =to ask---- =, hacer preguntas.

=quick=, pronto,-a; rápido,-a.

=quickly=, prontamente, rápidamente.

=quiet=, quieto,-a; quedo,-a.


R

=railroad=, ferrocarril, _m._

=rain, to=, llover.

=rain=, lluvia, _f._

=rainbow=, arco iris, _m._

=raincoat=, impermeable, _m._

=rarely=, raramente, raras veces.

=rate, at any=, de todos modos.

=rather=, algo, un tanto, un poco; =---- than=, más bien que.

=read, to=, leer.

=ready=, listo,-a.

=rebel=, rebelde, _m._

=receive, to=, recibir.

=reckless=, descuidado,-a.

=red=, rojo,-a.

=regard to, in=, respeto a.

=relative=, pariente, _m. and f._

=remain, to=, quedar.

=remember, to=, acordarse de.

=remove, to=, quitar, apartar.

=rent, to=, alquilar.

=repeat, to=, repetir.

=republic=, república, _f._

=rest, to=, descansar.

=respectable=, respetable, _m. and f._

=rest=, descanso, _m._

=return, to=, volver (_to come back_); devolver (_to give back_).

=revolution=, revolución, _f._

=rich=, rico,-a.

=rid of, to get=, deshacerse de.

=right=, derecho,-a; justo,-a; =to be---- =, tener razón, ser justo
(_section 74_).

=ring, to=, tocar, sonar (_section 116_).

=ripe=, maduro,-a.

=river=, río, _m._

=road=, camino, _m._

=robber=, ladrón, _m._

=roll=, rollo, _m._

=room=, cuarto, _m._; sala, _f._; habitación, _f._; =to take up---- =,
ocupar lugar _or_ espacio; =there is---- =, hay lugar.

=rose=, rosa, _f._

=rule, to=, gobernar.

=rule=, regla, _f._

=run, to=, correr.


S

=sack=, saco, _m._

=sacrifice, to=, sacrificar.

=sacrifice=, sacrificio, _m._

=safe=, seguro,-a; =---- and sound=, sano y salvo.

=sailor=, marinero, _m._

=saint=, santo,-a; san (_before masculine nouns_).

=sake of, for the=, por.

=same=, mismo,-a.

=satisfied=, satisfecho,-a.

=satisfy, to=, satisfacer.

=save, to=, ahorrar, salvar (_section 92_).

=say, to=, decir.

=scarcely=, apenas.

=scarf=, velo, _m._

=school=, escuela, _f._

=scold, to=, reprender, reñir.

=see, to=, ver, comprender (_section 93_).

=self=, se, mismo,-a (_section 88_).

=selfishness=, egoismo, _m._

=sell, to=, vender.

=send, to=, mandar, enviar.

=sense=, sentido, _m._; inteligencia, _f._

=sentence=, sentencia, _f._; oración, _m._

=sergeant=, sargento, _m._

=serious=, serio,-a.

=servant=, criado,-a.

=serve, to=, servir.

=set, to=, poner.

=sew, to=, coser.

=shade=, sombra, _f._

=shadow=, sombra, _f._

=shake hands, to=, dar la mano a.

=shall=, _expressed by the endings of the future tense_ (_section 46_).

=share, to=, compartir.

=shine, to=, brillar.

=shock= (_earthquake_), sacudida, _f._

=shoe=, zapato, _m._

=shop= (_work_), taller, _m._

=short=, corto,-a.

=shot=, tiro, _m._

=shoulder=, espalda, _f._; hombro, _m._

=show, to=, mostrar, enseñar, dejar ver.

=shut, to=, cerrar.

=sickness=, enfermedad, _f._

=sign=, señal, _m._

=silver=, plata, _f._

=simple=, sencillo,-a.

=simplicity=, sencillez, _f._

=sin=, pecado, _m._

=since=, desde, desde que, ya que, puesto que (_section 9_).

=sing, to=, cantar.

=single=, solo,-a.

=sir=, señor.

=sit, to=, sentarse (_section 84_).

=situated=, situado,-a.

=situation=, situación, _f._

=six=, seis.

=sky=, cielo, _m._

=slave=, esclavo,-a.

=slavery=, esclavitud, _f._

=sleep, to=, dormir; =to go to---- =, dormirse.

=sleepy, to be=, tener sueño.

=slipper=, chinela, _f._; babucha, _f._

=small=, pequeño,-a.

=smell, to=, oler; =---- of=, oler a.

=smile, to=, sonreír.

=smile=, sonrisa, _f._

=snow, to=, nevar.

=snow=, nieve, _f._

=so=, así, tan, conque (_section 33_).

=soap=, jabón, _m._

=sobriety=, sobriedad, _f._

=social=, social, _m. and f._

=soldier=, soldado, _m._

=some=, unos,-as. (_Often omitted in Spanish when used in the partitive
sense; so_, =I have---- money=, yo tengo dinero.)

=something=, algo.

=son=, hijo, _m._

=song=, canción, _f._

=soon=, pronto.

=sorry, to be=, sentir.

=sour=, agrio,-a.

=south=, sur, _m._

=southern=, sud, _m. and f._, del sur.

=Spain=, España, _f._

=Spanish=, español,-a.

=spare, to=, tener de sobra, sobrar, dar.

=speak, to=, hablar.

=speaker=, el (la) que habla.

=speed, at full=, a todo escape, a todo correr.

=spend, to=, gastar.

=spill, to=, derramar.

=spiritual=, espiritual, _m. and f._

=spoil, to=, mimar (_children_).

=spoon=, cuchara, _f._

=spur=, espuela, _f._

=square=, plaza, _f._, =little---- =, plazuela, _f._

=stairs=, escalera, _f._

=stand, to=, estar en pie, ponerse de pie, estar parado,-a (_section 85_).

=start, to=, ponerse en marcha, marcharse, poner en movimiento (_section
123_).

=station=, estación, _f._

=stay, to=, quedar.

=stop, to=, parar, cesar, dejar de.

=story=, cuento, _m._

=strength=, fuerza, _f._

=strike, to=, pegar, declarse en huelga (_section 121_).

=string=, cuerda, _f._

=succeed, to=, suceder, tener éxito, lograr a (_section 79_).

=suffer=, sufrir.

=sum=, suma, _f._

=sun=, sol, _m._

=suspicion=, sospecho, _m._


T

=table=, mesa, _f._

=tablecloth=, mantel, _m._

=tailor=, sastre, _m._

=take, to=, tomar, llevar, coger (_section 107_).

=tale=, cuento, _m._

=talent=, talento, _m._

=talk, to=, hablar.

=tea=, té, _m._

=teacher=, maestro,-a.

=tear down, to=, derribar.

=telephone, to=, telefonar.

=telephone=, teléfono, _m._

=tell, to=, decir, contar, producir efecto (_section 90_).

=Telmo=, _proper name_, _m._

=ten=, diez.

=tennis=, tenis, _m._

=terrible=, terrible, _m. and f._

=that=, que (_rel. pron. and conj._), aquel, aquella; ese, esa (_demons.
adj._); aquél, aquélla; eso (_demons. pron._).

=the=, el, la, los, las.

=theater=, teatro, _m._

=their=, su, sus (_adj._); suyo,-a (_pron._).

=them=, los, las, les; ellos,-as (_with prep._).

=then=, entonces.

=there=, allí, allá, ahí, ¡vaya! (_section 21_).

=these=, estos,-as (_demons. adj._); éstos,-as (_demons. pron._).

=thin=, delgado,-a.

=thing=, cosa, _f._

=think, to=, pensar, creer, parecer (_section 52_).

=thirsty, to be=, tener sed.

=thirteen=, trece.

=this=, este, esta (_adj._); éste, ésta (_pron._).

=those=, aquellos,-as; esos,-as (_adj._); aquéllos,-as; ésos,-as
(_pron._).

=though=, aunque.

=thought=, pensamiento, _m._

=thousand=, mil, _m._

=three=, tres.

=through=, por.

=throw, to=, echar, tirar.

=ticket=, billete, _m._

=time=, tiempo, _m._; vez, _f._; hora, _f._ (_section 59_).

=tire, to=, cansar.

=tired-out=, cansado (-a) a más no poder.

=to=, a.

=to-day=, hoy.

=together=, juntos,-as.

=to-morrow=, mañana.

=tongue=, lengua, _f._

=to-night=, esta noche.

=too=, demasiado, también.

=torn=, roto,-a.

=torrents, to rain=, llover a cántaros.

=touch, to=, tocar.

=touch=, tacto, _m._

=toward=, hacia, para con (_section 81_).

=town=, pueblo, _m._; ciudad, _f._

=toy=, juguete, _m._

=train=, tren, _m._

=tree=, árbol, _m._

=tremendous=, tremendo,-a.

=tribe=, caterva, _f._

=trouble, to=, molestar, afligir.

=trouble=, pesar, _m._

=trunk=, baúl, _m._

=trust, to=, confiar, fiar.

=truth=, verdad, _f._

=try, to=, tratar de, procurar.

=Tuesday=, martes, _m._

=turn, to=, volver, ponerse, dar vuelta a (_section 113_).

=twelve=, doce.

=twenty=, veinte.

=twenty-five=, veinticinco.

=twice=, dos veces.

=two=, dos.

=type=, tipo, _m._; =---- writer=, máquina de escribir, _f._

=tyrant=, tirano,-a.


U

=umbrella=, paraguas, _m._

=unable, to be=, no poder.

=uncle=, tío, _m._

=understand, to=, comprender, entender.

=uneasy=, inquieto,-a; intranquilo,-a.

=unjust=, injusto,-a.

=unload, to=, descargar.

=until=, hasta (_prep._); hasta que (_conjunction_).

=untruth=, mentira, _f._

=up=, arriba. (_This word is in Spanish very often untranslatable, being
included in the meaning of the verb with which it is used; as_, =to pick
---- =, recoger; =to look---- =, buscar; =to get---- =, levantarse, _etc._)

=upside-down=, de arriba abajo.

=us=, nos, nosotros,-as (_with prep._).

=use, to=, usar, emplear, servirse de.

=use=, utilidad, _f._

=used to, to be=, soler, acostumbrarse.

=usual=, usual, _m. and f._; acostumbrado,-a.


V

=vain=, vanidoso,-a; =in---- =, en vano.

=valise=, maleta, _f._

=valor=, valor, _m._

=vanity=, vanidad, _f._

=vegetable=, legumbre, _f._; verdura, _f._

=vehicle=, vehículo, _m._

=velvet=, terciopelo, _m._

=very=, muy (_section 63_).

=victim=, víctima, _f._

=village=, aldea, _f._; pueblo, _m._

=violin=, violín, _m._

=visit=, visita, _f._

=visit, to=, visitar.

=voice=, voz, _f._


W

=wait, to=, esperar.

=wake, to=, despertar; =to---- up=, despertarse.

=walk=, paseo, _m._

=walk, to=, andar, caminar.

=want, to=, querer, necesitar (_section 98_).

=war=, guerra, _f._

=warm, to be=, tener calor (_persons_); hacer calor (_weather_).

=wash, to=, lavar.

=water=, agua, _f._

=water, to=, regar.

=way=, camino, _m._; modo, _m._ (_section 48_).

=we=, nosotros,-as.

=weak=, débil, _m. and f._

=wealth=, riqueza, _f._; opulencia, _f._

=wear, to=, llevar, vestir, tener puesto,-a.

=weather=, tiempo, _m._

=week=, semana, _f._

=well=, bien, pues (_section 30_).

=well=, pozo, _m._

=what=, ¿qué? lo que (_conj._); =---- a!= ¡qué! =---- a lot of!= ¡qué de!
¡cuántos,-as!

=wheat=, trigo, _m._

=wheel=, rueda, _f._

=where=, donde; =--?= ¿dónde?

=whether=, si.

=while, to be worth=, valer la pena.

=whip=, látigo, _m._

=white=, blanco,-a.

=who=, ¿quién? el (la) cual; el (la) que; que.

=whole=, entero,-a; toda,-a.

=whose=, cuyo,-a; de quien.

=whose?= cúyo,-a; de quién.

=why?= ¿por qué?

=why!= ¡vaya! ¡toma! (_section 56_).

=wide=, ancho,-a.

=widow=, viuda, _f._

=will=, _expressed in the future tense endings or by_ querer (_section
45_).

=will=, voluntad, _f._

=win, to=, ganar.

=wind=, viento, _m._

=window=, ventana, _f._

=wise=, sabio,-a.

=wish, to=, querer; =I---- = ¡ojalá! (_when the wish is unrealizable at the
moment_).

=witch=, bruja, _f._

=with=, con.

=without=, sin, sin que (_section 69_).

=woman=, mujer, _f._

=wonder, to=, extrañarse, admirarse, preguntarse (_section 103_).

=wont to, to be=, soler, acostumbrarse.

=word=, palabra, _f._

=work, to=, trabajar.

=work=, trabajo, _m._ (_labor_); obra, _f._ (_accomplishment_).

=workman=, operario, _m._

=worry, to=, apurarse.

=worst=, peor, _m. and f._

=worth, to be=, valer.

=worthless=, sin valor, que no vale nada.

=would=, _expressed in conditional endings or by past tenses of_ querer
(_section 45_).

=written=, escrito,-a.


Y

=yellow=, amarillo,-a.

=yesterday=, ayer.

=yet=, todavía (_temporal_); aun (_concessive_).

=yield, to=, ceder.

=you=, usted, ustedes (_abbreviated_, Vd., Vds., Ud., Uds.); le, les,
(_obj. case_).

=young=, joven, _m, and f._; =---- lady=, señorita, _f._

=your=, su.

=yours=, suyo,-a.



FOOTNOTES:

[1] _Work is a good companion for hope._

[2] _The day is for work, that is why (for that) there is light._

[3] _Each one is as God has created him._

[4] _Since everything passes away, let us enjoy everything while it
lasts._

[5] _While one is young there is always hope of bettering one's
fortune._

[6] _Now you see that one mustn't trust in dreams._

[7] _One good thing is worth more than many mediocre ones._

[8] _Look at the stars! They tell sweet tales, the stars, and keep one
company._

[9] _Fruits are eaten. One just smells the flowers._

[10] _He who loves truth, trusts in God._

[11] _When one is unwilling, two don't quarrel._

[12] _God doesn't do things by halves._

[13] _My wealth is simplicity; my luxury, sobriety; my rest, work._

[14] _The man who is ashamed of being happy ought to walk on four feet._

[15] _Law is God--or ought to be._

[16] _To do good to the evil is to cast water into the sea._

[17] _It is hard to save some one who does not want to be saved at all._

[18] _I'm never afraid when I am doing my duty_ (_what I ought to do_).

[19] _The learned in their vanity are wont to forget God._

[20] _The mole doesn't see into what depths he's going, but a man does._

[21] _Good music is like a spur to lazy ideas._

[22] _In matters of faith in order to see clearly one must be blind._

[23] _Valor must be in accord with prudence._

[24] _When hands begin, tongues usually cease._

[25] _Fear makes slaves, slavery makes rebels._

[26] _Saints are found where least expected._

[27] _Truth often comes out of falsehood._

[28] _When duty speaks, I listen only to its voice._

[29] _He who is preparing for a struggle, is not cast down by troubles._

[30] _Let them say what they will, happiness is very cheap._

[31] _He who lends to a friend loses money and friend._

[32] _Liberty can never be defended by tyrants, nor propagated by
slaves._

[33] _When there is happiness everything is well done._

[34] _What a gipsy can't do nobody on earth can do._

[35] _Not to believe in anything is to be crazy._

[36] _There is nothing in the world that is not good for something._

[37] _Faith in a great idea is the life of the intelligence._

[38] _It is better to fail through generosity than to succeed through
selfishness._

[39] _We don't need to be serious to be good._

[40] _Where honor is dead there is no longer hope of life._

[41] _Great hearts are for great undertakings._

[42] _Untruth is always cowardly._





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