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Title: Photogravure
Author: Blaney, Henry R.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  [Illustration: THE S. & A. PHOTOGRAPHIC SERIES.]

  Edited by W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS.


  No. 1. THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AMATEUR.
     By J. TRAILL TAYLOR. A Guide to the Young Photographer, either
     Professional or Amateur. (Second Edition.) Paper covers   =$0.50=

  No. 4. HOW TO MAKE PICTURES.
     By HENRY CLAY PRICE. (Fourth Edition.) The A B C of Dry-Plate
     Photography. Out of print. (See No. 26)

  No. 5. PHOTOGRAPHY WITH EMULSIONS.
     By Capt. W. DE W. ABNEY, R.E., F.R.S. A treatise on the theory
     and practical working of Gelatine and Collodion Emulsion
     Processes. (Second Edition.) Paper covers                   =.75=

  No. 7. THE MODERN PRACTICE OF RETOUCHING.
     As practiced by M. Piquepé, and other celebrated experts. (Eighth
     Edition.) Paper covers, =50= cents: Library Edition         =.75=

  No. 8. THE SPANISH EDITION OF HOW TO MAKE PICTURES.
     Ligeras Lecciones sobre Fotografia Dedicados a los Aficionados,
     Cloth bound, =75= cents. Paper covers                       =.50=

  No. 9. Out of print.

  No. 12. HARDWICH'S PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMISTRY.
     A manual of Photographic Chemistry, theoretical and practical.
     (Ninth Edition) Edited by J. TRAILL TAYLOR.
     Leatherette binding                                        =2.00=

  No. 13. TWELVE ELEMENTARY LESSONS ON SILVER PRINTING.
     (Second Edition.) Paper covers                              =.50=

  No. 14. ABOUT PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHERS.
     A series of interesting essays for the studio and study, to which
     is added European Rambles with a Camera. By H. BADEN PRITCHARD,
     F.C.S. Paper covers, =50= cents. Cloth bound                =.75=

  No. 15. THE CHEMICAL EFFECT OF THE SPECTRUM.
     By Dr. J. M. EDER. Cloth bound, =50= cents. Paper covers    =.25=

  No. 16. PICTURE MAKING BY PHOTOGRAPHY.
     By H. P. ROBINSON, author of Pictorial Effect in Photography.
     Written in popular form and finely illustrated. Library Edition,
     =$1.00=. Paper covers                                       =.75=

  No. 17. FIRST LESSONS IN AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHY.
     Out of print. (See Amateur Photography, by W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS.)

  No. 20. DRY PLATE MAKING FOR AMATEURS.
     By GEORGE L. SINCLAIR, M.D. Pointed, practical and plain.
     Leatherette binding                                         =.50=

  No. 21. THE AMERICAN ANNUAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES
  ALMANAC FOR 1887.
     (Second Edition.) Paper cover (postage, 12 cents
     additional)                                                =0.50=
     Library Edition (postage, 12 cents additional)             =1.00=

  No. 22. PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING METHODS.
     By the Rev. W. H. BURBANK. A Practical Guide to the Professional
     and Amateur Worker. Cloth bound. (Third Edition)           =1.00=

  No. 23. A HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
     Written as a practical guide and an introduction to its latest
     developments. By W. JEROME HARRISON, F.G.S., and containing a
     frontispiece of the author. Cloth bound                    =1.00=

  No. 24. THE AMERICAN ANNUAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES
  ALMANAC FOR 1888.
     Illustrated. (Second Edition.) Paper (by mail, 12 cents
     additional)                                                 =.50=
     Library Edition (by mail, 12 cents additional)             =1.00=

  No. 25. THE PHOTOGRAPHIC NEGATIVE.
     A Practical Guide to the Preparation of Sensitive Surfaces by the
     Calotype, Albumen, Collodion, and Gelatine Processes, on Glass
     and Paper, with Supplementary Chapter on Development, etc., by
     the Rev. W. H. BURBANK. Cloth bound. Reduced from $1.50 to =1.00=

  No. 26. THE PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTOR FOR THE PROFESSIONAL AND AMATEUR.
     Being the comprehensive series of Practical Lessons issued to
     the Students of the Chautauqua School of Photography. Revised
     and enlarged. Edited by W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS, with an Appendix
     by Prof. CHAS. EHRMANN. (Fourth Edition, enlarged and revised.)
     Paper covers                                               =1.00=
     Library Edition                                            =1.50=

  No. 27. LETTERS ON LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY.
     By H. P. ROBINSON. Finely illustrated from the author's own
     photographs and containing a Photogravure frontispiece of the
     author. Cloth bound.                                       =1.50=

  No. 29. THE PROCESSES OF PURE PHOTOGRAPHY.
     By W. K. BURTON and ANDREW PRINGLE. A standard work, very
     complete and freely illustrated. Price, in paper covers, =$2.00=.
     Library Ed.                                                =2.50=

  No. 30. PICTORIAL EFFECT IN PHOTOGRAPHY.
     By H. P. ROBINSON. A new edition. Illustrated. Mr. Robinson's
     first and best work. Cloth bound                           =1.50=

  No. 32. PRACTICAL PHOTO-MICROGRAPHY.
     By ANDREW PRINGLE. Fully illustrated. Cloth bound          =2.50=

  No. 33. THE AMERICAN ANNUAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES
  ALMANAC FOR 1890.
     Paper cover (by mail, 14 cents additional)                  =.50=
     Library Edition (by mail, 14 cents additional)             =1.00=

  No. 34. THE OPTICAL LANTERN.
     Illustrated. By ANDREW PRINGLE. Paper covers, =$1.00=.
     Cloth bound                                                =1.50=

  No. 35. LANTERN SLIDES BY PHOTOGRAPHIC METHODS.
     By ANDREW PRINGLE. Paper covers =75= cents. Cloth bound    =1.25=

  No. 36. THE AMERICAN ANNUAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES
  ALMANAC FOR 1891.
     Paper covers (by mail, 15 cents additional)                 =.50=
     Library Edition (by mail, 15 cents additional)             =1.00=
     Cyclopædic Index for 1891 Annual                            =.10=

  No. 37. PHOTOGRAPHIC OPTICS.
     A Text-Book for the Professional and Amateur. By W. K. BURTON.
     Paper covers, =$1.00=. Library Edition                     =1.50=

  No. 38. PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTION PROCESSES.
     Illustrated. By P. C. DUCHOCHOIS. Paper covers, =$1.00=.
     Cloth                                                      =1.50=

  No. 39. EL INSTRUCTOR FOTOGRAFICO.
     Paper covers, =$1.00=. Library Edition                     =1.50=

  No. 40. THE AMERICAN ANNUAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES
  ALMANAC FOR 1892.
     Out of print.

  No. 41. THE CHEMISTRY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
     By W. JEROME HARRISON. Cloth bound                         =3.00=

  No. 42. PICTURE MAKING IN THE STUDIO.
     By H. P. ROBINSON. Paper covers, =50= cents. Cloth bound (Library
     Edition)                                                   =1.00=

  No. 43. THE AMERICAN ANNUAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES
  ALMANAC FOR 1893.
     Edited by W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS.
     Paper covers (postage extra, 15 cents)                      =.50=
     Cloth bound (Library Edition) (postage extra, 15 cents)    =1.00=

  No. 44. THE LIGHTING IN THE PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO.
     By P. C. DUCHOCHOIS. A new edition. Paper covers, =75= cents.
     Cloth bound (Library Edition)                              =1.00=

  No. 45. THE GRAMMAR OF PHOTO-ENGRAVING.
     By H. D. FARQUHAR. Illustrated. The most complete text-book yet
     published on this subject. Price, in paper covers, =$2.00=. Cloth
     bound (Library Edition)                                    =2.50=

  No. 46. INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.
     Illustrated. By P. C. DUCHOCHOIS. Being a description of the
     various processes of producing Indestructible Photographic Images
     on Glass, Porcelain, Metal, and many other substances. Paper
     covers, =50= cents. Cloth bound                            =1.00=

  No. 47. THE AMERICAN ANNUAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES
  ALMANAC FOR 1894.
     Edited by W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS.
     Paper covers (postage extra, 15 cents)                      =.50=
     Cloth bound (Library Edition) (postage extra, 15 cents)    =1.00=

  No. 48. ARISTOTYPES AND HOW TO MAKE THEM.
     Giving a complete description of the manufacture and treatment of
     Gelatino and Collodio-Chloride Papers. By WALTER E. WOODBURY.
     Illustrated. Paper covers, =$1.50=. Library Edition        =2.00=

  No. 49. THE ENCYCLOPÆDIC DICTIONARY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
     Containing over 2,000 references and about 400 illustrations. By
     WALTER E. WOODBURY. In press.

  No. 50. THE AMERICAN ANNUAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY AND PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES
  ALMANAC FOR 1895.
     With over 200 illustrations In paper covers. Postage extra =50=
     Cloth bound. (Library Edition.) Postage 15 cents extra     =1.00=

  No. 51. THE PHOTO-GRAVURE PROCESS.
     By =Henry R. Blaney=. A very complete and practical book, written
     by an Expert. In paper covers, =50= cents. Cloth bound (Library
     edition).                                                  =1.00=

     For sale by all dealers in Photographic goods, booksellers,
     and sent, post-paid, on receipt of price, by the publishers,

     THE SCOVILL & ADAMS COMPANY OF NEW YORK,
     SEND FOR BOOK CATALOGUE.  423 BROOME STREET.

       *       *       *       *       *


  A Selected List of Books
  FROM THE SCOVILL & ADAMS CO.'S BOOK CATALOGUE.

                                                       Price per Copy.
  Amateur Photography.
     A Practical Guide for the Beginner. By W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS.
     Illustrated. Paper covers, =50c.=; cloth bound            =$1.00=

  Lantern Slides and How to Make Them.
     By A. R. DRESSER. A new book, very complete and practical   =.25=

  Photography at Night.
     By P. C. DUCHOCHOIS. Illustrated. 108 pp. Paper covers     =1.00=

  Bromide Paper and How to Use It.
     Written by an Expert, with a specimen Bromide illustration  =.25=

  The Knack.
     Written expressly to help the beginner in perplexity, reduced
     to                                                          =.25=

  Photographic Lenses; Their Choice and Use.
     By J. H. DALLMEYER. A special edition, edited for American
     photographers. In paper covers                              =.25=

  The Chemistry of Photography.
     By Prof. RAPHAEL MELDOLA                                   =2.00=

  The Photographic Image.
     By P. C. DUCHOCHOIS. A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on
     Development. Paper covers                                  =1.50=
     Cloth bound                                                =2.00=

  The Ferrotyper's Guide.
     For the ferrotyper, this is the only standard work. Seventh
     thousand                                                    =.75=

  The Photographic Studios of Europe.
     By H. BADEN PRITCHARD, F.C.S. Cloth bound, =$1.00=; paper
     covers                                                      =.50=

  Art of Making Portraits in Crayon on Solar Enlargements.
     (Third edition.) By E. LONG                                =1.00=

  History and Hand-Book of Photography.
     With seventy illustrations. Cloth bound, reduced to         =.50=

  Crayon Portraiture.
     Complete instructions for making Crayon Portraits on Crayon Paper
     and on Platinum, Silver and Bromide Enlargements; also directions
     for the use of Transparent Liquid Water Colors, and for making
     French Crystals. By J. A. BARHYDT. A new edition. Paper covers,
     =50c.=; cloth bound                                        =1.00=

  Art Recreations.
     Ladies' popular guide in home decorative work, with a
     chapter on photography. Edited by MARION KEMBLE            =1.00=

  American Carbon Manual.
     For those who want to try the carbon printing process, this
     work gives the most detailed information. Cloth bound.
     Reduced to                                                  =.50=

  Manual de Fotografia.
     By AUGUSTUS LE PLONGEON. (Hand-book for Spanish
     Photographers.)                                            =1.00=

  Secrets of the Dark Chamber.
     By D. D. T. DAVIE                                           =.50=

  The Photographer's Book of Practical Formulas.
     Compiled by Dr. W. D. HOLMES. Ph.D., and E. P. GRISWOLD.
     Paper covers, reduced from =75c.= to =30c.=; cloth bound,
     reduced from =$1.50= to                                     =.60=

  American Hand-Book of the Daguerrotype.
     By S. D. HUMPHREY. (Fifth edition.) This book contains
     the various processes employed in taking heliographic
     impressions                                                 =.25=

       *       *       *       *       *


  AN ANNOUNCEMENT!

  We have made arrangements with the NEW YORK PHOTOGRAVURE COMPANY by
  which we are enabled to offer a series of magnificent Photogravures
  at a very low price.

  The first is that which has been already published and described by
  us, being the "COURT OF HONOR," at the World's Fair. The companion
  to this is in preparation, and will shortly be ready. It represents
  a view of the "ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND COURT OF HONOR," looking
  up from the Peristyle. These two pictures form a magnificent
  souvenir of the World's Fair, and imperishable ones, which have not
  been approached in artistic or technical excellence. Each measures
  about 18 x 22 inches, and they are printed in the best style, on
  paper 24 x 32 inches.

  The next two pictures are photogravures from negatives made by Mr.
  JOHN E. DUMONT, of Rochester, and form admirable companion pictures.
  Their titles are, "NO DOUBT," and "IN DOUBT," and represent, in one
  case, a monk with a winning hand of cards, and having no doubt what
  his play is to be. In the other, a monk holding a hand of cards
  which evidently is a losing one, and, as evidently, he is in doubt
  as to what to play.

  The story of these pictures is admirably told, and with all the well
  known skill of Mr. DUMONT.

  The next in the series is a "LANDSCAPE WITH SHEEP," by Mr. ROBERT S.
  REDFIELD, of Philadelphia, and can well pass for a reproduction of a
  painting by VERBECK HOVEN, not that it is in any sense a copy of any
  picture, being entirely original, but in sentiment and feeling
  equaling the best and most artistic work of the painter. As a
  companion to this, "A STORM AT BRIGHTON" is published. This was one
  of the prize pictures at the recent exhibition of the joint
  Societies of Amateur Photographers of Boston, Philadelphia and New
  York. It is exceedingly effective as a study of cloud and motion of
  water, and forms an admirably suggestive study for artists. It is
  from a negative by Mr. ERNEST EDWARDS, President of the New York
  Photogravure Company.

  The well-known picture of "Flirtation" has also been engraved for
  this series, and will be very popular. This picture (it will be
  remembered) appeared in the American "Annual of Photography" for
  1892.

  With the exception of the two first, all these pictures measure
  about 16 x 12 inches for size of work, and are printed on etching
  paper, 22 x 28 inches.

  The uniform price of all is $2.00 each. For sale by all dealers.

  Other subjects will follow, from time to time.

     These Photogravures will be sent, post-paid, by mail,
     carefully packed, on receipt of price.

     THE SCOVILL & ADAMS COMPANY.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Twelve: Photographic: Studies.

  THE THIRD EDITION.

  A Collection of Photogravures from the Best Representative
  Photographic Negatives by Leading Photographic Artists.

  COMPILED BY W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS.

  THE COLLECTION INCLUDES

    "Dawn and Sunset,"                        H. P. Robinson.
    "Childhood,"                              H. McMichael.
    "As Age Steals On,"                       J. F. Ryder.
    "A Portrait Study,"                       B. J. Falk.
    "Solid Comfort,"                          John E. Dumont.
    "Ophelia,"                                H. P. Robinson.
    "No Barrier,"                             F. A. Jackson.
    "El Capitan,"                             W. H. Jackson.
    "Still Waters,"                           J. J. Montgomery.
    "Surf,"                                   James F. Cowee
    "A Horse Race,"                           George Barker.
    "Hi, Mister, may we have some Apples?"    Geo. B. Wood.

  Printed on Japan Paper, Mounted on Boards. Size, 11 × 14, in
  ornamental Portfolio and a Box. Price, $3.00.

     Sent, post-paid, on receipt of price, by
     The Scovill & Adams Company.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Artistic Landscapes
  FROM NATURE.

  Representing The Four Seasons.

  These plates were made from photographs taken direct from nature.
  They have been most beautifully reproduced by the highest grade
  (copper-plate) process of the New York Photogravure Company. The
  plates measure 6 x 8 inches, but are printed on extra heavy plate
  paper 11 x 14 inches in size. Each picture is printed in a tint
  especially appropriate for the season which it represents, and the
  entire set of photogravures are in every way =worthy of framing=.

  The negatives were photographed from nature by Mr. W. I. LINCOLN
  ADAMS, and they have been _enthusiastically praised wherever shown_.

  What GEORGE INNESS, America's greatest landscape painter, says of
  these photogravures:

    "They are very charming, and should prove extremely useful in the
    development of the landscape art of our country."

  They are sold singly or in sets.

    Price, per copy      $0.50
    The Set of Four       1.50

     Sent, post-paid, to any address, on receipt of price, by
     The Montclair Photogravure Publishing Company,
     MONTCLAIR, N. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


  THEODORE METCALF CO.

  Chemicals
  Fine, Rare and Crude, of every description.

  From the many years we have dealt in this class of supplies, we claim
  to be leaders in this branch of the drug trade, and by constantly
  replenishing and increasing our stock, and at once procuring or
  manufacturing all new chemical products, we are able to do full
  justice to all orders.

  : Pure Chemicals :
  FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PROCESS WORK.

     Bromide of Potassium.
     Bichromates.
     Ammonium, Potassium and Sodium.
     Powdered Dragon Blood, Light Colored and Dark.
     Metcalf Powdered Bitumen of Judea.

  :: ALSO ::

     Syrian Asphaltum.
     Benzole, Chemically Pure,

  By Can or Barrel.

  Etc., Etc., Etc.

     Boston, U. S. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


  The Grammar of Photo-Engraving.

  By H. D. FARQUHAR.

  (Number Forty-five of the Scovill Photographic Series.)

  CONTAINING INSTRUCTION IN

  Drawing, Chemistry and Optics, as applied to Photo-Engraving.

  AND A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE ART OF

  HALF-TONE, ZINC ETCHING, SWELLED GELATINE, LITHOTYPE AND
  CHALK PLATE ENGRAVING, AS PRACTICED IN THE UNITED STATES.

  ILLUSTRATED.

  The object of this book is to present to the constantly increasing
  number of persons seeking after practical knowledge in the art of
  process engraving, a comprehensive and totally reliable text-book.
  The book has been written with a view to instruct the amateur as
  well as the professional, and the writer has always had in mind the
  beginner, counting no detail too trivial to be fully described.

  It has been written for the most part in the leisure hours, after
  practical service during the day in a photo-engraving establishment,
  so that the instruction goes directly from the shop to the pupil. It
  has been the author's hope, in writing this book, to so carefully
  describe every branch of work connected with the subject, that the
  beginner, who knows absolutely nothing about it, may become a
  practical photo-engraver from a careful reading of the work.

  CONTENTS:

    Chapter I.--Drawings for Photographic Reproduction. The Materials
    Required.

    Chapter II.--Chemicals used in Photo-Engraving.

    Chapter III.--Apparatus and the Workshop.

    Chapter IV.--Photographic Processes as Employed in
    Photo-Engravings. Preparation of the Chemicals.

    Chapter V.--Causes of Failure. Remedies.

    Chapter VI.--The Half-Tone Process. Screen Plates.

    Chapter VII.--Zinc Etching. Preparation of Chemicals Used in Zinc
    Etching.

    Chapter VIII.--Etching in Half-Tone.

    Chapter IX.--Blocking and Finishing. Tools and Materials.

    Chapter X.--Swelled Gelatine Process of Photo-Engraving.

    Chapter XI.--Lithotype Engraving for Color Work.

    Chapter XII.--Photographing on Wood and Other Processes.

     Price, in paper covers                   $2.00
       "    cloth bound (Library Edition)      2.50

     For sale by all dealers in Photographic Materials, and sent,
     post-paid, on receipt of price, by the publishers,

     THE SCOVILL & ADAMS COMPANY,
     423 Broome Street, New York City.

       *       *       *       *       *



  [Illustration: A ROADSIDE COTTAGE IN THE CATSKILLS
  E. EDWARDS PHOTO.      N.Y PHOTOGRAVURE CO.]



  PHOTOGRAVURE.


  BY
  HENRY R. BLANEY.


  _With Introduction and Additions by the Editor._


  NEW YORK:
  THE SCOVILL & ADAMS COMPANY.
  1895.



  [Illustration]

  Copyright, 1895.
  THE SCOVILL & ADAMS COMPANY.



CONTENTS.


                                                                  PAGE
  INTRODUCTION BY THE EDITOR.--Early History of Photogravure--
    Woodbury's Process--Other Methods,                               5

  CHAPTER I.--The Negative.--Quality best Suitable.--Necessity
    for Reversing.--Methods of Obtaining Reversals.--The Powder
    Process,                                                         9

  CHAPTER II.--The Transparency.--The Carbon Process.--Cutting
    up the Tissue.--Sensitizing.--Drying.--Exposing.--Continuing
    Action of Light.--Development.--Carbutt's Transparency
    Plates,                                                         15

  CHAPTER III.--The Carbon Tissue.--Sensitizing and Exposing.--
    The Actinometer,                                                22

  CHAPTER IV.--Cleaning and Graining of the Copper Plate Plate--
    Grade of Copper Necessary.--Where and How to Buy it,            25

  CHAPTER V.--Development of Negative Resist on the Copper
    Plate.--Preparation for Biting with Acid through the
    Gelatine,                                                       29

  CHAPTER VI.--The Acid Baths.--How to Make Them and Method
    of Biting through the Gelatine,                                 32

  CHAPTER VII.--Cleaning and Polishing the Plate, with Tools
    Necessary for Retouching,                                       37

  CHAPTER VIII.--Printing from the Plate.--Steel Facing,            39

  CHAPTER IX.--Materials Necessary for Photogravure--List of
    Firms Supplying Them,                                           41

  CHAPTER X.--Books and Articles on Photogravure, 1888-1893,        44



[Illustration]

INTRODUCTION.


About the year 1820 Nicéphore Niepce made the discovery that bitumen,
under certain conditions, was sensitive to light. He dissolved it in oil
of lavender, and spread a thin layer of the solution thus obtained upon
stone. This he exposed under a drawing (making the paper transparent by
waxing), and after sufficient exposure, oil of lavender was poured on.
Those portions of the bitumen which had been exposed to the action of
the light had become insoluble, and so remained while the lines which
had been protected by the drawing were dissolved away. By treating the
stone with an acid these lines were bitten or eroded, and could be
printed from. Niepce afterward employed metal plates instead of the
stone.

Here we have the foundation for a number of printing processes of the
present day, including photogravure.

For many years, however, progress in processes for intaglio printing was
very slow. In 1852 Talbot introduced a process termed photoglyphy, and
in 1854 Paul Pretsch, of Vienna, patented a process which he termed
photogalvanography. In 1870 the late Walter B. Woodbury, inventor of
the Woodburytype process, suggested to M. Rousselon, of M. M. Goupil &
Co.,[A] a process which he had discovered, and which he describes[B]
as follows:

"The method, as perhaps many of your readers know, is based on the fact
that some pigments used in carbon printing have an unpleasant habit of
granulating when mixed with gelatine and bichromate, destructive to
their use in carbon printing and Woodburytype, but bearing the essence
of success in an engraving process where grain is necessary. The origin
of this method was simply owing to my getting some bad reliefs, in which
this effect was first noticed. Out of this arose the photo-engraving
process which, as I said before, is now claimed as the invention of a
Frenchman. But I am digressing.

"This relief, possessing a suitable grain, could, by hydraulic pressure,
be made to transfer its minutest details to metal without any loss to
fineness, so giving a plate possessing all the properties of a
mezzotint. The methods hitherto used of electrotyping would have proved
useless, as all detail would have been lost. The same thing applies to
the new method I am now about to bring before your readers. The latter
process of getting the grain transferred to a hard metal remains the
same; but the novelty is in the method of producing the grained plate.
To those who have practiced the process of enameling, as used by Geymet
and Alker, and others, my description will be better understood.

"I first coat a thin, polished steel plate (zinc will answer) with a
very thin coating of gum, glucose, and bichromate as used for enameling.
This I dry rapidly, and, while still warm and desiccated, expose under a
glass positive. On removal from the frame after exposure the plate is
made to take up a slight amount of moisture by breathing on it.

"During this stage I brush or dust over it any hard powder, such as
emery, powdered glass, etc, but these I keep of different degrees of
fineness or coarseness. No. 1, is of a coarse quality, and is used
first; No. 2 is finer; and No. 3 is of the finest grain obtainable.
These are obtained by passing through muslin of different degrees of
fineness. Having in the first stage of moisture used the No. 1, or
coarsest, powder, after a time No. 2 is dusted over and adheres to the
middle tints, while the very finest tones, which have almost lost their
sticky qualities by the exposure to light, are treated to No. 3.

"Now we possess a granular picture having all the true qualities
required in a photo-engraved plate, or, rather, such as will give a
reverse in metal having these qualities. The steel or zinc plate is then
to be exposed to light to completely harden the mixture all over, and is
then treated exactly as in my other engraving process; that is, pressed
into soft metal by hydraulic pressure, electrotyped, and then the
surface is aciercised or coated with steel. The dark parts are thus
represented by a coarse grain, the middle tints by a medium grain, and
the finest shades by the most infinitesimal particles, thus meeting all
requirements necessary to a successful photo engraving process."

This process was taken up by a Frenchman and claimed by him as his own
invention. The chief difficulty with it was that the plates before being
perfect require the work of a skillful engraver, sometimes for weeks.
They were therefore very costly, six dollars per square inch being
charged for the making of the plate alone.

Klic's process, 1886, was the next important improvement in photogravure
or intaglio printing, and since then many other processes and
improvements have been introduced by Obernetter, Waterhouse, Colls,
Zuccato, Sawyer and others.

In the following chapters Mr. H. R. Blaney gives a working description
of the process as practiced to-day by many of the leading firms in this
and other countries. This originally appeared in the columns of THE
PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES, but I have made many additions that I have imagined
may be of value to the student. A dividing line will be found between
Mr. Blaney's writings and my own additions.

                                                            THE EDITOR.

    [A] Now Boussod, Valadon et Cie.

    [B] _British Journal Almanac_, 1874.



CHAPTER I.

THE NEGATIVE.


Any negative may be used for photogravure, that is, taken from nature,
or from a painting or engraving, provided it is reversed, and, in the
case of paintings, should, in addition, be on an orthochromatic plate.
The negative should be soft and brilliant, well exposed, and not hard or
under-exposed. A reversed negative is always necessary if the print from
the copper plate is required to be similar in regard to right and left,
or if no other means are to be taken, to reverse the image upon the
copper plate. Professionals use stripping plates especially made for
this purpose for small work, or the reversed negative may be made in the
copying camera. A fairly good reversed negative can be made by contact
in the printing frame from an albumen print from the original negative,
the print made transparent with white wax by being placed on a piece of
warm, clean metal and the wax rubbed over the face. To have the negative
reversed, the print should first be placed, face out, against the glass
of the printing frame, with its back against the sensitive surface of
the transparency plate, the back closed in and exposed to a large lamp
for about five seconds. Every care must be taken that you use the best
of negatives, carefully retouched if necessary, as the professional
photographic etchers have informed me that (from their standpoint) the
success of the whole process depends on the quality of the original
negative and the care taken in artistic retouching.

       *       *       *       *       *

It will often happen in commercial photogravure work that plates have to
be made from all kinds of original negatives. In cases where these are
flat from over-exposure it is well to make a carbon transparency;
intensifying the image with a strong solution of permanganate of potash,
and from this make a fresh negative upon a slow or Carbutt transparency
plate.

Mr. Horace Wilmer says: "The class of negative most suitable is such as
gives a good result by any of the printing processes. A bright sparkling
negative will always give a good plate, but I do not find that any
satisfactory results can be got from a soft flat negative. The negative
should be as perfect as possible. It is absolutely useless to work from
a faulty negative. Contrasts on it may be increased by retouching. Such
contrasts are desirable because the tendency of the etching is to reduce
them somewhat."

Perhaps the simplest way of obtaining a reversed negative is by placing
the dry plate in the slide film inside and exposing through the glass,
of course after allowing in focusing for the thickness of the glass
plate. With the wet-collodion process, usually the method employed by
large photomechanical printers, this method can be used because it is
a simple matter to carefully examine the glass plate to be employed,
but it will be obvious that with the ordinary dry plate all the
imperfections of the glass, such as dirt, scratches, air-bubbles, etc.,
will be clearly reproduced in the image.

Another method largely employed to produce reversed negatives direct, is
by means of a mirror or prism placed either before or behind the lens.
The prism is the more convenient, but if large sizes are used it becomes
a costly piece of apparatus. The mirror, which should be a plane of
glass silvered on its surface, is a less expensive affair. By either of
these means the reversed negatives can be made direct without suffering
the least in quality.

With celluloid or other flexible films, printing can, of course, be done
from either side. Practical men, however, say that, except with the
very thinnest films, there is an undoubted loss of sharpness in the
grain when these films are reversed and with some mechanical processes.

Against this, however, it may be said that better contact can be
obtained in printing than if the film were upon a piece of uneven glass,
as is often the case, for by backing it with a piece of plate-glass
perfect contact is ensured everywhere.

We come now to the method of stripping the film from the glass. If the
negative is made by the collodion process the matter is a simple one.
The glass is treated with French chalk previous to collodionizing. After
the negative is made and dried it is laid on a leveling stand and a
solution of gelatine poured on it. When dry, it is readily stripped by
running a knife all round. With ordinary dry-plates the method usually
recommended is to immerse them in dilute hydrofluoric acid. The
difficulty often experienced here is in the lateral expansion of the
film. This will largely depend upon the plate, or rather the quality of
the gelatine used. There are, however, two methods of securing the films
to some medium unaffected by moisture, and so prevent expansion or
distortion. The first is that recommended by Mr. A. Pumphrey and the
second by Mr. H. J. Burton, modified descriptions of which are given in
a recent number of _The British Journal of Photography_. If the negative
is varnished this is removed. A thin film of gelatine is moistened in a
dilute solution of hydrofluoric acid, one part of acid to sixty of
water. This gelatine film is secured on paper by a coating of
india-rubber.

The action of the dilute acid is to soften the gelatine, making it very
adhesive. It can, in this state, be readily attached to the negative by
squeegeeing. The acid in the film passes through the negative, and
releases it from the glass. It can then be lifted off and pinned to a
flat surface to dry. The paper can afterward be stripped off, when dry,
by moistening the back with a little benzole to dissolve the
india-rubber. In this manner we get the stripped negative in exactly the
same size as when on the glass, to which it can be restored at any time
desired.

Burton, in his method, employs collodion in place of paper as the
support. The negative is first coated with a thick collodion, and this
is allowed ten minutes or so to set. It is then immersed in plain water
until the film loses all appearance of greasiness. A few drops of
hydrofluoric acid are added to the water, and the dish gently rocked.
The film will soon detach itself, when the plate should be at once
rinsed. Another plate previously coated with gelatine, and dried, is
placed in the dish, and the released film, after reversing, is floated
upon it, the two removed together, and allowed to dry.

So far we have only treated upon reverse negatives, either obtained at
once or reversed afterward. It often happens, however, that we have an
ordinary negative, which is required to be reversed. This negative may
be a valuable one, and the risk involved in stripping it be too great.

Another simple method of obtaining a reversed negative is by means of
the powder process. Although this process is an old one, it appears to
be but little known, for what reason we have never been able to define.
It is by no means difficult, and by its means a negative can be obtained
direct from a negative without the intermediate positive transparency.

The principle of the process is this: An organic tacky substance is
sensitized with potassium dichromate, and exposed under a reversed
positive to the action of light. All those parts acted upon become hard,
the stickiness disappearing according to the strength of the light
action, while those parts protected by the darker parts of the positive
retain their adhesiveness. If a colored powder be dusted over, it will
be understood that it will adhere to the sticky parts only, forming a
visible image, the same being a reproduction of the positive printed
from. The process is very useful for the production of lantern slides
and transparencies, or for the reproduction of negatives. Any of the
following formulæ may be employed for the manufacture of the organic
substance:--


SOLUTION A.

  Gum arabic              25 grammes
  Grape sugar             60 grammes
  Purified honey          15 grammes
  Alcohol, 40 deg         15 c.c.
  Water                   60 c.c.


SOLUTION B.

Saturated solution of ammonium dichromate.

Two solutions to be mixed together before using in proportions 15 A,
25 B, 50 water.


WOODBURY'S FORMULA.

  Gum arabic              60 grains
  Glucose                 45 grains
  Glycerine               10 minims
  Potassium dichromate    30 grains
  Distilled water          2 ounces


OBERNETTER PROCESS.

  Dextrine                60 grains
  White sugar             75 grains
  Ammonium dichromate     30 grains
  Glycerine                2 to 8 minims
  Distilled water          3 ounces

The gum is first dissolved and the remainder of the ingredients added.
It may be necessary to warm the solution in a hot water bath to dissolve
it. It is then filtered through flannel or clean muslin, and preserved
for use in well-stoppered bottles. With this solution clear glass plates
are coated and dried by a gentle heat over a small spirit lamp. The
plate while still warm is exposed under a reversed positive[C] for from
two to five minutes in sunlight, and from 10 to 20 minutes in diffused
light. The image is then but slightly visible. On removing from the
printing frame the plate is laid in the air (protected from light) for a
few minutes to absorb a little moisture from it. The next process is the
"dusting on." If the image is required to be black, fine Siberian
graphite is spread over it with a soft flat brush. This will adhere to
the parts unaffected by light, giving an image of the positive. Any
colored fine powder maybe used, giving images in various colors. When
fully developed the excess of powder is dusted off and the film coated
with collodion. After this it is well washed to remove the unaltered gum
and dichromate salt. The film may, if desired, be detached from the
plate and used for enamels, ivory, wood, textile fabrics, opals, etc.

[Illustration]

    [C] Reversed as regards right and left.



CHAPTER II.

THE TRANSPARENCY.


Regular transparency gelatine dry plates are the handiest for making
positives, especially for amateurs, if one does not care if the subject
is in reverse, or if one has a reversed negative to work from. There is
a "special" carbon tissue, price $4.00 per roll of 2 × 12 feet, made by
the Autotype Company, of London, England, with full instructions
appended; by a system of double transfer, reversed negatives may be
obtained with this tissue. The "special" tissue is only to be used for
the transparency. A safe edge of black paper is required on the
transparency, pasted up exactly to the edge of the picture, on the glass
side; it comes, sold in strips, gummed, ready for use, about 1/4 inch
wide; this is required, as the tissue used for the negative resist on
the copper plate, which is printed from the transparency, must have a
safe edge, shielded from the light, or it will not attach itself to the
copper plate, the tissue coming inside half way. The screw pressure
printing frame should have a piece of heavy felt for backing the
transparency.

The following instructions for making carbon transparencies will no
doubt be found useful:

The carbon tissue prepared for this process consists of paper coated
with gelatine containing carbon, lamp-black, or other pigments.

The Autotype Company, of London, manufacture a special "transparency"
tissue.

CUTTING UP THE TISSUE is performed by unrolling it gently upon a zinc
cutting plate, cut square and true, with the inches marked at the bottom
and right-hand side. By using a T square and observing the numbered
inches marked on the plate, it will not be difficult to cut the tissue
to any dimension. If the tissue is very curly and unmanageable it should
be kept down with convenient weights. After cutting it up to the
required sizes, which should be conveniently smaller than the dish to
be used for sensitizing, it should be kept flat under a metal plate.

SENSITIZING THE TISSUE is the next operation. This is performed in a
solution of potassium dichromate rendered alkaline with ammonia. Tie
over the mouth of a two-gallon jug a piece of muslin, to form a kind of
bag, into which place fifteen ounces of potassium dichromate, then fill
up the jug with water and allow it to stand until the dichromate is
dissolved and the solution becomes cold. It is sometimes advisable to
regulate the quantity of dichromate. In hot weather, or for very thin
negatives, the proportion of water should be doubled, while for very
hard negatives only half the quantity should be used. In very hot
weather it is often advantageous to replace about 30 per cent. of the
water with the same quantity of alcohol.

The operation of sensitizing the tissue must be carried on in a room
lighted by a window covered with a yellow blind. A flat dish of
porcelain, glass, or _papier maché_, a squeegee, and a sheet of glass or
zinc larger than the tissue, will be required.

The solution is poured into the dish, and should be at least two inches
deep. The tissue is then immersed in it, and the air-bells that form
immediately brush away from both sides with a broad camel's-hair brush.
The temperature of the bath should not be higher than 60 deg. Fahr.; and
the time of immersion should be from three to five minutes. After the
tissue has remained in the solution for the allotted time it is gently
removed and laid face downward upon the glass or zinc plate, and the
back squeegeed, removing all superfluous solution. The tissue is
removed from the glass and laid over a sheet of cardboard, bent into the
form of an arch, to dry.

Another method (H. J. Burton's) of sensitizing carbon tissue is to lay
it flat on a sheet of clean blotting paper, and sponge on the back a
very strong sensitizing solution composed as follows:

  Potassium dichromate     4 ounces
  Liquid ammonia fort      1 ounce
  Water                   20 ounces

First mix the ammonia with the water, then grind up and add the
dichromate.

DRYING THE TISSUE should be accomplished in a room perfectly free from
the noxious fumes of other chemicals, and lighted only by non-actinic
light. Tissues sensitized during the evening should be dry on the
following morning. It should then be cut to the sizes required and kept
flat in a pressure frame, or other similar contrivance.

EXPOSING THE TISSUE.--The tissue can be exposed behind the negative in
an ordinary printing frame, or in special frames having no joint in the
back, as no image is visible. The negative must be furnished with a safe
edge, made by painting an edge about one-eighth of an inch round the
negative with black varnish, or by pasting on strips of red or black
paper. Exposure must be judged by an actinometer. A very suitable
instrument for timing the exposure of carbon tissue is Sawyer's
actinometer. It consists of a rectangular tin box with a glass lid,
bearing twelve tints graduated from slight discoloration to a degree of
opacity, representing the extreme amount of deposit upon the lights of
the densest negatives, each division of this screen of tints bearing a
number in opaque pigments; and a roll of sensitive paper is placed in
the box, and the end pulled forward so as to pass under the tints. When
this arrangement is placed in the light, the silver paper commences to
discolor underneath the graduated screen, beginning of course at the
lightest, but the number on the tint being in an opaque pigment is
preserved white, and serves to register the progress of printing; for
if, when the lid is opened, the number one, for instance, shows clearly
on a tinted ground, the instrument is said to have registered one tint;
by that time the number two will have begun to make its appearance, and,
if sufficient exposure be given, the light will print through the whole
scale by successive steps, and show up the numbers, one to twelve. With
an instrument of this kind it is evident that, by exposing alongside the
carbon tissue and determining the number of tints required for the
proper exposure of that negative, the same number of tints with the same
negative will always prove right. A little practice will enable one to
judge the number of tints required for every class of negative.

It will be well to remark here that freshly sensitized tissue will
produce inferior pictures to that used a day or two after; the pictures
are not so hard, and there is less danger of the high-lights being
washed away.

CONTINUING ACTION OF LIGHT.--If the carbon tissue after exposure to the
light, be kept in the dark for a little time the effect on the print
will be precisely the same as if the exposure to light had been
prolonged. This continuing action of light may often be utilized to
advantage. Pictures known to be under-exposed will, if kept till
morning, by that time have acquired the same force as if they had
received the proper exposure.

DEVELOPMENT consists simply in dissolving the gelatine unaffected by
light, with hot water as the solvent.

Immerse the exposed tissue in a bath containing cold water. It will
first of all curl up, but afterward lay flat and limp. It is then placed
in another bath containing cold water together with a sheet of glass
which has previously been coated with a 5 per cent. solution of
gelatine. Bring them together face to face, draw them out, and force
into close contact with a large squeegee; then place between blotting
paper for five or ten minutes. In squeegeeing, the tissue should be
uppermost, and a sheet of American cloth laid over it to prevent the
squeegee from damaging it.

Development should not be attempted for at least twenty minutes, during
which time the glass, with the tissue on it, should be placed between
sheets of blotting paper, and kept under pressure to insure its
adherence to the glass support. After that time it is placed in a dish,
and water heated to a temperature of 100 deg. F. added. The colored
pigment will at once commence to ooze out of the edges, and after a
little time the paper originally holding the carbon film may be removed
with the hand. Then, by gently leveling the picture with the hand, the
superfluous gelatine will be washed away, and if the exposure has been
correct a perfect image should remain. A certain amount of control can
be kept over an autotype picture. An over-exposed print will show itself
by insolubility of the gelatine, and the high light refusing to be
washed clear. The temperature should be raised considerably, and hot
water poured over with a jug. If this fails to reduce the intensity, add
a little ammonia to the water as a last resource, though the better plan
is to make another print, giving less exposure. Under-exposure results
in over-solubility of the gelatine. The half-tones will be washed clean
away. It is rarely an under-exposed print can be saved. All that can be
done is to reduce the temperature of the water. Development should never
be hurried; the slower it is the better the gradation of tone in the
results.

After development is complete the bichromate salt is discharged, and the
image rendered perfectly insoluble by well washing in cold water and
placing in a dish containing a 5 per cent. solution of potash alum,
after which it is again washed and dried.

Another method of making a transparency and one that involves less
trouble is by means of the transparency plates which are now in the
market. Of these we have tried Carbutt's with the greatest success. For
these the following instructions are given:

The requisites are, a deep printing-frame a size larger than the
negative to be used, with a flat glass bottom clear and free from
scratches (crystal plate is best), a dark-room Lantern, or other
artificial light, and Keystone Gelatino-Albumen Plates. Transparencies
can be made same size of negative by contact and exposure to artificial
light, or enlarged or reduced in the camera by daylight, with equal
perfection in result. To make transparencies by contact place one of the
Keystone thin crystal glass transparency plates over the negative in
printing-frame, lay piece of dark soft material over it, close down the
back, and expose to the light of the lantern or to a gas flame or other
artificial light, for 10 to 30 seconds, according to density of
negative, at a distance of 20 inches from the flame. Use the following
developer:


EIKONOGEN AND HYDROCHINON DEVELOPER.

A.

  Metric Weight.                           Avoirdupois Weight.

  600 c.c.m            Distilled Water               20 ounces
  120 grammes     Sulphite of Soda Crystals           4 ounces
   22 grammes            Eikonogen                  330 grains
  10½ grammes           Hydrochinon                 160 grains
  960 c.c.m         Water to make up to              32 ounces

B.

  Metric Weight.                           Avoirdupois Weight.

  600 c.c.m            Distilled Water               20 ounces
   60 grammes        Carbonate of Potash              2 ounces
   60 grammes      Carbonate Soda Crystals            2 ounces
  960 c.c.m          Water to make up to             32 ounces

For use take 1 ounce (30 c.c.) of A, 3/4 ounce (25 c.c.) of B, with 4
ounces (120 c.c.) of water.

More of A will increase density, more of B will increase detail and
softness. Temperature of developer should not vary much below 65 deg.
nor above 75 deg. The after treatment is same as with any other
developer.

Let the development continue until the blacks look quite strong, and
detail showing in the high-lights; wash off developer, then immerse in


CARBUTT'S NEW ACID FIXING AND CLEARING BATH.

     4 c.c.m         Sulphuric Acid         1 drachm
   480 grammes    Hyposulphite of Soda     16 ounces
    60 grammes      Sulphite of Soda        2 ounces
    30 grammes       [D]Chrome Alum         1 ounce
  1920 c.c.m           Warm Water          64 ounces

Dissolve the hyposulphite of soda in 48 ounces (1440 c.c.m.) of water,
the sulphite of soda in 6 ounces (180 c.c.m.) of water; mix the
sulphuric acid with two ounces (60 c.c.m.) of water, and pour slowly
into the sulphite soda solution, and add to the hyposulphite; then
dissolve the chrome alum in 8 ounces (240 c.c.m.) of water and add to
the bulk of solution, and the bath is ready. This fixing bath will not
discolor until after long usage, and both clears up the shadows of the
negative and hardens the film at the same time.

Let remain two or three minutes after transparency is cleared of all
appearance of silver bromide. Then wash in running water for not less
than half an hour to free from any trace of hypo solution. Swab the
surface with wad of wet cotton, rinse, and place in rack to dry
spontaneously. Then varnish with plain collodion.

    [D] N. B.--During cold weather use only half the quantity
        of Chrome Alum in above.



CHAPTER III.

THE CARBON TISSUE--(SENSITIZING AND EXPOSURE).


The carbon tissue used as a resist, which is mounted on the copper
plate, is made by the Autotype Company, London, England. No. 100
Standard Brown is the right grade to use, though I have reached good
results with No. 103. The No. 100 is a heavier grade than No. 103, and
requires two or three minutes longer exposure than the latter. Use a
deep printing frame with a screw pressure to secure absolute contact,
which is known by iridescent markings appearing on the glass of the
printing frame. A Johnson's actinometer is very useful to time the
exposure. From 4 to 6 tints are necessary. Experience here is the only
guide, as the light varies as well as the density of the negative and
the sensitiveness of the tissue. If one does not have an actinometer, a
slip of albumen paper may be used; as soon as the paper has reached the
darkest point, which is then called one tint, extend it so that a fresh
portion comes out to the light, and so on for the different tints. In
September, for instance, the darkest tint is reached in about 3 to 4
minutes; two tints and a half or 8 minutes in the shade at midday on a
clear day in September is about right,--this is understood to be with
medium negatives and No. 103 tissue sensitized within three days.

You should over-expose rather than under-expose, allowance being made
when the acid is used. Print deeply, so that, on development, the
negative tissue on the copper plate shows all the detail clearly in the
shadows. The tissue should not appear very dark on the plate. The copper
should show up through the gelatine clearly and brightly. The thinner
the negative tissue, the quicker the biting of the acid.


SENSITIZING THE TISSUE.

The carbon tissue comes only in rolls of 2½ feet by 12 feet, price
$3.00, not cut. It is not sold in a sensitive condition. Full
instructions with each roll for sensitizing. Tap water will do, but I
would suggest distilled water for making the sensitizing solution of
bichromate of potassium.

  Bichromate of potassium     1 ounce
  Water                      16 ounces
  Alcohol                   1/2 drachm
  Ammonia                    12 drops

The best way to sensitize the tissue, is to place the tissue face up,
keeping it flat so that the solution reaches all parts at once, removing
all air bubbles, and rubbing in the solution with the fingers until
pliant; the time of immersion is three minutes in winter, two minutes in
summer. The hands should be washed directly after handling the solution,
and care must be taken that there are no cuts on the fingers, as the
solution is very harmful, but if due care is exercised and the hands
well washed immediately with soap, little, if any, trouble will be
experienced; use rubber finger tips as much as possible. Keep the
temperature of the solution at 70 deg. both in summer and winter. Take a
piece of glass free from scratches (an inch larger all round than the
tissue); have the glass ready cleaned with ammonia and talcum powder of
fine whiting, squeegee the sensitized carbon tissue directly from the
solution on to the glass and place to dry at night in a light-tight box;
it will be dry in the morning.

The tissue is in the best condition for three days after sensitizing; it
can be used up to seven days; it gradually increases in sensitiveness
from day to day. After a week or ten days has elapsed, it is hard to
manage and becomes unreliable. When the tissue is dry take a sharp knife
and cut inside the edge, and strip off one corner. Fairly good results
can be reached by simply drying over a curved piece of pulp board,
which is tied with string on each end, but squeegeeing on glass gives a
sharper result. The addition of ammonia and alcohol to the sensitizing
solution makes it easier to strip the paper from the copper plate, after
the carbon tissue is mounted on the plate, and enables one to develop
the resist in the water at a lower temperature than without it, thus
avoiding pits in the darker portions and white specks or bubbles in the
lights, should the water reach too high a temperature.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER IV.

THE CLEANING AND GRAINING OF THE COPPER PLATE, AND GRADE OF COPPER
NECESSARY, AND WHERE AND HOW TO BUY IT AT REASONABLE PRICES.


The best copper is recognized by its rosy lustre. Pure copper only
should be used. It can be purchased ready polished and beveled from
several firms in New York. The best way, if large quantities of plates
are required, is to buy the copper in the rough of one firm and have it
polished by another, and bevel it yourself if necessary with a file and
burnish it by hand, or the firm who polish it will do the beveling for
you.

The Scovill & Adams Co. supply copper-plates of the finest quality,
ready polished, for photogravure work.

Total cost by this method about one-third less than by purchasing ready
made. It makes a copper plate 1/16 grade, 9 × 11, cost about $1.10.
Order your copper 1/16 in. grade up to 10 × 12; larger sizes 1/8 in.
grade. If you use 1/16 in. grade above this size, the plate is liable to
buckle. Be sure the plate is free from pits and scratches and with a
high polish. Have what the polishers and engravers call a rouge polish.
If they do not supply it, rouge it yourself with powdered rouge and
turpentine, using a ball of absorbent cotton over a large piece of
smooth cork. A good way to buy rouge is in the stick; it is more
economical. Rub the wet cotton on it and the right quantity is assured.
Pits in the copper may be taken out by tapping upon the back with a nail
set, using a small piece of polished steel to lay the face of the plate
on, and localizing the spot with a pair of calipers. The part raised by
the tapping, cut away with the scraper, then rub the spot with Scotch
stone and water, then a piece of engraver's charcoal (cut to a pencil
point), with machine oil; then burnish with the regular engraver's
burnisher and sperm oil, finishing with rouge and refined turpentine.

When the plate is well polished, make a strong solution of caustic
potash (C.P.), which comes in sticks, as strong as possible, as long as
it does not stain the copper. It should register about 40 deg. with an
actinometer used to test silver solutions.

Take a piece of absorbent cotton and clean the copper with potash (by
the way, use finger tips); rinse under tap for five minutes, then a
fresh piece of cotton with alcohol at 95 per cent., rinse again with
water, and place in warm water for final rinsing; stand up on corner, or
place in drying frame usually used for negatives; allow to drain. Should
any stains appear, it must be recleaned and all the operations repeated
until it drains off without streaks, for these streaks and spots of
stain are caused by the caustic potassa, which is difficult to remove.
It is as hard to get rid of from the copper as hyposulphite is from a
negative. These streaks retard the acid on the copper wherever they
appear, and cause defects in the recording of the original tones of the
negative.

The plate is then ready for graining.


II.--GRAINING THE COPPER PLATE.

A grain is required on the copper plate so that the tones will be
reproduced, as copper has not a sufficient grain of its own. The grain
is given to the copper plate by dusting it with powdered Syrian
asphaltum or resin. Have a paste-board box made 18 inches high, 12
inches wide and 8 inches deep, perfectly air-tight, with a small door
running the whole length on the widest side, an inch or two from the
bottom. Have the inside of the box perfectly smooth; place within the
box 4 ounces finely powdered Syrian asphaltum (sold by Messrs. Theodore
Metcalf & Co., Tremont Street, Boston, Mass.); it is difficult to find
in New York. Shake the box vigorously, place on table, insert a piece of
wood an inch high made in shape of cross (or open square, or have
netting of wire raised an inch from the bottom of the box); the copper
plate, previously cleaned, is at once placed face up upon it. Instead of
shaking the box it can be arranged upon supports (see fig. 1), and
revolved.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

Close the door instantly, and let the plate remain about two minutes;
carefully remove the plate and place it on a Florence oil lamp, holding
the plate with a hand vise, watch carefully until the powder disappears
from the surface and the plate slightly smokes, then stand aside to
cool. Do not keep the plate too long on the heater, or the particles of
dust will run together, forming an impenetrable varnish over the plate.
This part of the process is not difficult, but requires practice.
Preserve each atom of dust as much as possible, examine with magnifying
glass and, when cool, test with finger nail; if it rubs off easily, it
has not been heated enough; then the plate must be re-cleaned and again
powdered. To get a good all-round working grain, suitable for medium
subjects, the plate should be placed at once in the box after shaking;
thus the coarser particles that fall first, and the finer, which
gradually settle, will combine after two or three minutes.

Many combinations will be suggested to the student by practice to suit
the subject; for instance, waiting for two minutes and then inserting
the plate, gives a fine grain for delicate subjects. Powdered dragon's
blood (resin) in combination with asphaltum makes a beautiful grain; a
separate box may be used for the dragon's blood; the asphaltum first
dusted on the plate, then inserted in the dragon's blood box for twenty
or thirty seconds, then melted together. The dragon's blood melts first,
then the asphaltum.

The air brush is also used by professionals; it throws a resinous spirit
varnish, coarse or fine, as required.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER V.

DEVELOPMENT OF NEGATIVE RESIST ON THE COPPER PLATE, AND PREPARATION FOR
BITING WITH ACID THROUGH THE GELATINE.


Have a wooden box made 24 inches long, by 12 inches high, 12 inches
wide, with door 6 inches high on side, fastened with hinges, top and
bottom of box open; cover top with sheet zinc. Place inside Florence oil
lamp; the door is valuable to regulate the heat. On top of box place
deep porcelain tray, 11 × 14, fill with water half full; in the water
place two pieces of plate glass 1/2 inch high and 4 inches long, on
which to place copper to keep it from the bottom of the tray. Slide the
copper plate into the water, removing all air bubbles, keeping the
fingers off the surface of the plate. Take the sensitized and exposed
tissue and place face down in the cold water (65 deg.) sliding it
gradually in at further end of the paper so as to avoid air bubbles; the
instant the paper curls backward, place it over the copper plate and
remove it quickly from the water. This has to be done with celerity or
it will be found difficult to mount the tissue with the squeegee on the
copper, and also it should be exactly placed with reference to the top
and sides of the copper; all this, of course, to be done under water,
never allow it to slip up out of it. Place plate on table and squeegee
into place, stroking firmly from the centre, each way. Place face down
on clean blotting paper, under heavy weight for fifteen minutes. While
plate is under pressure (which is necessary to enable the gelatine to
expand and attach itself to the plate), start the lamp gradually, and by
the time the paper is ready the water should register on the thermometer
75 deg. Slide the plate under water removing air bubbles as they
appear, with a ball of absorbent cotton; when the heat of the water
reaches 90 deg. Fahr., the gelatine commences to ooze from all around
the edges of the paper, and after the plate has remained in the water
about ten minutes after the showing up of the gelatine (at the
temperature from 90 to 95 deg.), take a pin and carefully raise the
paper at the corner, gradually pulling away the paper toward the
opposite corner, keeping the hand close to the water; should the
gelatine which adheres to the plate appear to lift, wait a few minutes
longer and start another corner. After the paper is stripped from the
plate, gently develop the negative resist with a piece of fresh
absorbent cotton, delicately rubbing the surface, edges first, and lave
the plate up and down in the water, keeping the temperature steadily at
90 to 95 deg., by raising or lowering the lamp. (Should the paper be
under-exposed and appear very black on the copper, develop at 100 to 110
deg., not over. If over-exposed it will appear very thin, and the heat
of the water must not go over 90 deg.; it will strip at 88 to 90 deg.)
Then the negative image gradually appears, the darks first, which are of
course the brightest portions; when all detail appears in the shadows
and the negative stands out clear and bright, take it out of the
dark-room (which is lighted with an ordinary lamp), and gently wash
under the tap with clean and cold water at 65 to 70 deg.

Dry the resist with alcohol, pouring it over the plate from one end,
starting with half alcohol and half water, gradually adding more alcohol
and eliminating the water, until a final flooding with absolute alcohol
is reached; use fresh solutions of alcohol and water for each copper;
don't use old alcohol for anything except cleaning the copper at the
end, and for removing the spirit varnish. Stand up to dry against the
wall, face out, and standing square on the bottom of the plate, in the
same position as you flooded it with alcohol; it will be dry in twenty
minutes if rightly flooded. The bare copper should now be protected by a
strong varnish in alcohol (it must flow freely off the brush); a good
varnish for this purpose, and the best I know of, is an etcher's
asphaltum stopping-out varnish, sold by Messrs. Devoe & Co., New York;
price 50 cents per bottle. Should it get thick as you come to the bottom
of the bottle, add a little spirits of lavender until it flows again
freely. Take an architect's ruling pen and carefully rule a line with
the varnish up to the edge of the picture, making it exactly true with
the sides of the plate and the space on each side of the work the same
with the top, the bottom space slightly larger; make sure that it
slightly comes inside the picture. Keep the rule away from the surface
of the gelatine, as it is very delicate. Then cover all the rest of the
copper, protecting the bare parts and bevel, and bringing the varnish up
to the line. Allow to dry hard; about twenty minutes will do. Form a
wall about the resist, with walling wax, about an inch high; make a lip
at one corner, the further left hand one, for instance; see that there
are no leaks. There are several grades of wax, but Liedel & Co.'s is the
best; when ordering you should give the name as modeling wax; gray is a
good color. Pans can be used made of tin and varnished, or porcelain
trays, protecting the back and edges of the plate with varnish, but I
find the wax very helpful, especially on large plates.



CHAPTER VI.

THE ACID BATHS.--HOW TO MAKE THEM AND METHOD OF BITING THROUGH THE
GELATINE.


Perchloride of iron C.P. is the acid generally used for this purpose; it
is a still acid, and if the room is well ventilated no harm to health
results, but care must be taken to air the baths after making to get rid
of the surplus chlorine.

Four baths are used, each of different strengths, the strongest is used
first, the weakest last. I quote from the catalogue of the Boston Art
Museum, of the exhibition illustrating the technical methods of the
Reproductive Arts and Photo-Mechanical Processes, held January 8, 1892:
"Photo-aquatint (photogravure) for the production of half-tone intaglio
plates from photographs from nature, paintings, etc. A dry aquatint
ground is laid on a metal plate, and over this is mounted a gelatine
negative film, made by the pigment printing process. To obtain this
negative film a _reversed_ positive on glass has first to be made. The
reason why this positive must be reversed will become clear when the
nature of the manipulations in the pigment printing process, which
involves the turning of the film, are considered. The film mounted on
the plate is a washout relief, thickest in those parts which are to show
white in the impressions from the plate, and gradually growing thinner
toward the darkest parts, where it is thinnest. The film acts as a
'resist' to the mordant, allowing it to pass freely in the thinnest
parts, and less freely as it increases in thickness. If, however, the
film were mounted on the bare plate, and the biting then proceeded with,
the result would be of no practical use, as the plate would present
merely shallow hollows, incapable of holding the ink, and which would
therefore be wiped out in the attempt to clean the surface of the plate.
This is, however, prevented by the aquatint ground, which allows the
mordant to circulate only in the channels around the resinous particles
of which it consists, and thus produces a grain precisely as in ordinary
aquatinting. The mordant used in perchloride of iron, which is a 'still
mordant,' _i.e._, one which does not evolve bubbles of gas. An
effervescent mordant cannot be used as the bubbles rising under the film
would tear it up. In biting, successive baths of varying strength are
made.

"A strong solution of perchloride of iron penetrates only the thinner
parts of the film, whereas a weaker acts also through the thicker parts.
The biting, therefore, begins with a strong solution, which acts only in
the darkest parts, and followed up with weaker and weaker solutions,
which continue the biting in the darks and at the same time carry it on
gradually toward the lights. If necessary, the plate is worked over with
the burnisher to brighten the lights, and with roulettes, etc., to
strengthen the darks."

Purchase nine (9) pounds of perchloride of iron in crystals (45 cents
per pound), take a wide-mouthed gallon jar, place within half a gallon
of distilled water, add the iron until it tests 30 deg. by a Beaumé
hydrometer, pour off enough to fill a one-litre glass stoppered bottle,
after filtering through absorbent cotton. Keep adding the iron to the
jar until the strength of each bath is reached. To the strongest
solution add half a drachm of C. P. muriatic acid, and to the weakest
half a drachm C. P. nitric acid; the nitric acid is added so that in the
last biting a good final nip is given to the copper.

I here give my own formula, with those recommended by others.

The four (4) baths should be well aired for a day (in broad pans) in the
open air before filtering.


FORMULA FOR ACID BATHS.

(H. R. BLANEY.)

  No. 1 should register to Beaumé's scale    42 deg.
  No. 2   "       "     "    "        "      37 deg.
  No. 3   "       "     "    "        "      33 deg.
  No. 4   "       "     "    "        "      30 deg.

The temperature of the bath to be at 63 deg. Fahr. when tested.

(DENISON'S.)

No. 1 should be made to register Beaumé's scale, 45 deg., the percentage
of perchloride in this solution is 47, and the specific gravity 1.444.

  No. 2, 40 deg.; percentage, 41; spec. grav.    1.375
  No. 3, 38  "       "        38;      "         1.339
  No. 4, 35  "       "        35;      "         1.313
  No. 5, 27  "       "        27;      "         1.225

From an article in the _Photographic News_ (English), Nov. 1, 1889, as
practiced in India.


BITING BATH.

(WATERHOUSE.)

  No. 1, sp. grav., 1.444; ap. per ct. of Fe_{2}, Cl_{6} =   47
  No. 2,    "       1.375;      "              "             41
  No. 3,    "       1.339;      "              "             38
  No. 4,    "       1.313;      "              "             35
  No. 5,    "       1.225;      "              "             27

A stronger solution of 48 deg. has been tried (by the above) but has no
penetrating power through even the thinnest film.


ANOTHER FORMULA.

For large plates, 20 lbs. perchloride of iron and distilled water, until
weight amounts to 1.500 grammes per 1000 c.c. From this four (4)
solutions are made, at

  No. 1, 42 deg. Beaumé; spec. grav.    1.420
  No. 2, 38  "     "          "         1.375
  No. 3, 35  "     "          "         1.330
  No. 4, 31  "     "          "         1.285

The plate is now ready for biting. Keep a record of the bitings, and
length of time for each one, for after-study; also note the time of
exposure of the tissue, age of same, etc., etc.

Pour the acid from a glass graduate with one sweep over the plate,
removing all bubbles with a feather, noting the time of immersion so as
to guide you. Start with 42 deg., having ready the 37 deg. in another
graduate, watch carefully the action of the acid, and if the resist has
been properly printed, the action of the acid will show after a minute;
if longer it means a generally longer biting for each bath.


AVERAGE BITINGS.

  42 deg., No. 1    5 minutes
  37 deg., No. 2    5 minutes
  33 deg., No. 3    2 minutes
  30 deg., No. 4    2 minutes

     Temperature of bath at 70 deg. Fahr., with No. 103 tissue.

Total of different bitings, from 10 to 25 minutes, according to depth of
printing. It always varies. There is no hard and fast rule; you must in
time learn to judge by your eye alone. The acid will first attack the
thinnest part of the film, wherever that may be, and when the darkening
of the copper ceases to spread to the next thickest parts, instantly
pour off the acid, and pour on the 37 deg. Do not allow the atmosphere
to act on the gelatine while biting any longer than is necessary to pour
off one bath and quickly pour on a new one. The 37 and 33 deg. baths are
for the middle tones, the 30 deg. for the most delicate ones. The action
of each bath is cumulative, the 37 deg. biting a little where the 42
deg. had bitten, the 33 deg. doing the same for those before it, besides
taking care of itself, and the 30 deg. attacking all more or less.
During the biting with the 30 deg. solution, it should be continued
until the whites just turn color, and a minute beyond; that is, the
copper should begin to show a very little under the thickest and darkest
film.

(Note that in the carbon resist the shadows are transparent and the high
lights are opaque.)

The length of the last biting very seldom is over two minutes. It is
better to overbite your darks, and underbite your lights, if you vary
any.

The amount of moisture in the air and the heat of the day influences the
length of biting. In hot weather in summer it is very difficult to work
the process, the walling wax being discarded and the copper (back and
edges protected by varnish) placed in a porcelain tray, surrounded by
ice-water and kept at 65 to 70 deg., and the acid pured over the plate
to the depth of one inch.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER VII.

CLEANING AND POLISHING THE PLATE, WITH TOOLS NECESSARY FOR RETOUCHING.


When the biting is finished rapidly place the plate under the tap and
rinse thoroughly, breaking away the film with your fingers; it seems to
have rotted under the action of the acid and is easily removed.

Remove the walling wax, clean off the varnish with chloroform or
turpentine, or alcohol first, and chloroform last. This leaves a dim
picture on the plate, with a kind of scum over it; wet the plate with
turpentine and start heavily with rouge, rubbing to and fro equally all
over the plate with a ball of absorbent cotton; continue this treatment,
using less and less rouge and more turpentine until you give the final
polish to the high lights with a clean dry piece of cotton. Be very
careful not to overdo in rouging; the scum (if the biting of the plate
is of medium strength) should clear from the plate with hardly a touch,
and with very little rouging. Some plates require a great deal of
rouging; it then generally means that you must look to your sensitizer.
I again draw your attention to the rouging; here is where any artistic
feeling you may possess will come into play with taste and patience.

After the plate is rouged sufficiently, an engraver's burnisher is used
to clean up the highest lights and to modify others. Two or three
roulettes of different fineness are valuable to touch up any darks that
need deepening; it matches very well with the grain, but I am always
trying to dispense with the use of the roulettes; one ought to get it
with the acid alone. A No. 6 sewing needle in a holder (dentist's
pin-holder, screw end) is necessary to touch out occasional white
specks. You will have plenty of them at first unless you look out
carefully for dust on the film; keep all your solutions constantly
attended to by occasional filtering, and don't use your sensitizing
solution more than half a dozen times; keep it well corked; if it gets
old it scums the plate too much.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER VIII.

PRINTING THE PLATE AND STEEL FACING.


Before final finishing by hand a working proof should be printed from
the plate by an expert plate printer, by which, what the plate needs can
be determined before final proving.

Have the plate proved on different papers, and with different colored
inks, so as to judge the effect. Imperial Japan is the best paper,
besides etching paper, India, thin Chinese and Japanese papers. The cost
of proving per single proof is 25 cents for a 4 × 6 plate on Imp. Japan,
about $2.00 per doz. same paper; etching paper, about $5.00 per
100--less for large quantities.

A second-hand D press, suitable for printing large or small editions or
for proving, can be bought in Boston or New York for from $75 to $100.
For instructions in printing see Hamerton's "Etchers and Etching."


STEEL FACING.

The life of a photogravure plate without steel facing does not last much
beyond 75 impressions, so that if an edition is needed, send the plate
to any good printer who will have it steel-faced for you; their charges
are very moderate, about 50 cents for a 4 × 6 plate. The steel-facing is
accomplished by first making the plate chemically clean, as before
preparation for graining, only be very thorough in using an old
tooth-brush to get out the dirt and in addition use chloroform before
using potash. Then solder a copper wire on to the back. The negative
wire is attached to the copper plate. To the positive pole of the quart
Smee battery is fastened a bright steel plate same size of copper, in a
gallon jar. The plates are hung from glass rods 1/2 inch apart, a
sufficient quantity of the following solution to be poured into the jar:

(DENISON'S.)

  Warm water                       20 ounces
  Ammonium chloride                 3 ounces
  Sulphate of iron and ammonia      4 ounces

Filter, and let stand for 24 hours. Five (5) minutes will cover the
plate with a thin film of steel.


(OBERNETTER'S.)

"Place the copper plate in a porcelain tray on the bottom of which rests
a brightly burnished copper wire, the negative pole.

"The anode on the positive pole, a bright steel plate, is suspended over
the copper plate, and kept in motion while the circuit is closed. A
precipitate of steel, resembling silver in appearance, must instantly
occur upon the copper plate, any air-bells to be removed. Five minutes
is sufficient to deposit a perfect steel coating." Grease the plate
after steel facing, to keep off the rust. Formula:

(OBERNETTER'S.)

  Distilled water              1 litre
  Chloride of ammonium        60 grammes
  Proto sulphate of iron      30 grammes
  Iron alum                   30 grammes

[Illustration]



CHAPTER IX.

MATERIALS NECESSARY FOR PHOTOGRAVURE, AND LIST OF FIRMS SUPPLYING THEM.


_Materials._

  Printing Frame (deep), 8 × 10, screw pressure, $8.
  Roll Carbon Tissue, No. 100; Standard Brown, $3.
  Johnson Actinometer, $1.25.
  Beaumé Hydrometer, $1.25 (with glass).
  Silver    "        (argentometer) 75c.
  Engravers' Scraper, $1.75, best grade.
      "      Burnisher, $1.75,   "
  Powder Box for graining (paste-board), $1.
  Powdered Syrian Asphaltum, $1 per pound.
  Nine (9) pounds Perchloride of Iron (C. P. crystals), 45c. per pound.
  Stick Rouge, 20c.
  Turpentine, 20c. (refined).
  Alcohol (95 per cent.).
  Modeling Wax, $1.25.
  One Ps. Scotch Stone, 25c.
  One dozen Glass Blowers' Charcoal, $2.00 per dozen sticks (for
          polishing copper).
  One pound Absorbent Cotton, 50c.
  One pound Caustic Potash C. P. (sticks).
  One Porcelain Tray, deep, 11 × 14, $3.50.
  One Florence Hand Lamp, 75c.
  One Squeegee.
  Three Roulettes, $1.50 each.
  Hand Vise, 75c.
  Calipers, 50c.
  Dairy Thermometer, 25 c.
  One bottle Etchers' Varnish, 50c.
  One ounce Chloroform, 20c.
  Six ounces Bichromate Potassium.
  One pound Concentrated Ammonia.


LIST OF FIRMS SUPPLYING MATERIALS FOR PHOTOGRAVURE.

The Scovill & Adams Co., 423 Broome Street. Photographic Materials and
Photo-Engravers' Supplies.

Messrs. Bestgen & Co., 1001 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. Polishers
of Copper Plates.

Mr. George Schard, 116 Wooster Street, New York. Polisher Copper Plates.

Mr. Jos. Wheeler, 299 Washington Street, Boston, Mass. Printer of
Photogravures.

Messrs. J. H. Daniels & Co., Oliver Street, Boston, Mass. Printers of
Photogravures.

Messrs. Frost & Adams, Cornhill, Boston, Mass. Engravers' and Etchers'
Supplies.

Messrs. F. W. Devoe & Co., Fulton Street, New York. Engravers' and
Etchers' Supplies.

Messrs. Fusch & Lang, 29 Warren Street, New York. Engravers' Supplies.

Mr. Alfred Sellers, 58 Fulton Street, New York. Engravers' Supplies
(screw pressure printing frames).

Messrs. John Sellers & Sons, 17 Dey Street, New York. Engravers'
Supplies.

Messrs. Eimer & Amend, 18th Street and 3d Avenue, New York. Chemists,
Glassblowers Charcoal.

Messrs. Theodore Metcalf & Co., Tremont Street, Boston, Mass. Chemists.

Messrs. Kimmel & Voigt, 242 Canal Street, New York. Expert Photogravure
Printers.

Messrs. Whitely & Co., Centre Street, New York. Polisher of Copper
Plates.

Messrs. Gilderslieve & Co., 18th Street, New York. Blankets for Press.

Mr. Charles Creedner, 19 South William Street, Room 4, New York. Japan
Paper.

Mr. Geo. B. Sharp, 13 Baxter Street, New York. Copper Plates.

Messrs. F. A. Ringler, 21 Barclay Street, New York. Steel Facing Copper
Plates, Printers of Photogravures.

Messrs. Leidel & Co., 901 6th Avenue, corner 51st Street, New York.
Modeling Wax; Etchers' Supplies.

Thomas Hall (Electrician), Bromfield Street, Boston, Mass. Hydrometers
(Smee's Battery), etc.

New York Steel and Copper Plate Co., 171 Wallabout Street, Brooklyn,
N. Y.

Mr. Jas. Moffet, 159 Wooster Street, New York. Copper Plates in the
Rough.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER X.

BOOKS AND ARTICLES ON PHOTOGRAVURE. PUBLISHED FROM 1888 TO 1893.


LA PHOTOGRAVURE facile et à bon marché. Par l'Abbé Ferret. Paris. 1889.
Price, 1 fr. 25 cents.

Manuel d'Heliographie et de Photogravure en Relief. Par G. Bonnet. 1890.
Paris. 2 fr. 50 cents.

Photogravure. By W. T. Wilkinson. 1890. London, E. C. Published by
Messrs Iliffe & Son, 3 St. Bride Street. Price, 1_s._ 6_d._

Photo-Engraving and Photo-Etching. By W. T. Wilkinson. Sold by The
Scovill & Adams Co., New York. Price, $3.00.

Hamerton's "Etchers and Etching." Roberts Bros., Boston, Mass. Price,
$4.00.

Photo-Etching in India. Article in _Photographic News_ (English),
November 1, 1889.

"Photogravure, or Photographic Etching on Copper." By Herbert Denison. A
lecture delivered before the Photographic Society of Great Britain.
Printed in THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES, April 21st, 1893, and following
issues.

Photogravure or Photo-Etching. Article in _Wilson's Magazine_,
1890-1891.

Notes on Photo-Aquatint. Catalogue of Exhibition, Illustrating the
Reproductive Arts and Photo-Mechanical Processes. Address S. R. Koehler,
Boston Art Museum, Boston, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *



  Merck's Pyrogallic Acid


  will be found, upon comparison, to be _superior_ in every respect to
  all other brands on the market. Its distinctive points of superiority
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     1ST.--ABSOLUTE PURITY
     2D.--PERFECT CRYSTALLIZATION
     3D.--IMMACULATE WHITENESS
     4TH.--EXTREME LIGHTNESS
     5TH.--MODERATE COST

  (Its price is not higher than that of any other make.)

  [Illustration]


  Merck's Pyrogallic Acid

  produces the highest intensity to be desired in a photographic plate,
  and, at the same time, the finest detail in light and shade required
  for the most perfect printing negative.

  Under ordinary precaution, it retains all its superior qualities
  undiminished for an indefinite length of time.

     WHEN ORDERING SPECIFY "=MERCK'S.="
     TO BE HAD OF ALL DEALERS.


  TESTIMONIALS.


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    pyros at present on the market, and I find that it is superior to
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      Prof. CHARLES EHRMANN,
      Instructor of the Chautauqua School of Photography.


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      ALFRED STIEGLITZ,
      Editor _American Amateur Photographer_.


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      ST. LOUIS AND CANADIAN PHOTOGRAPHER.


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      Amateur Photographer, New York.


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      W. H. SHERMAN,
      Professional Photographer, Milwaukee.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Scovill & Adams Photo-Engraving Materials,
  Combined in a small outfit for Half-tone Photo-Engraving.

  The articles contained in this outfit are all that is necessary for
  the Half-tone Process, except when the installation of large and
  expensive machinery is warranted.

     1 10 x 12 American Optical Co. Enlarging, Reducing and
         Copying Camera, fitted with Patent Screen Plate
         Holder                                               $56.00
     1 Camera Swing                                            20.00
     1 Copy Board                                               2.00
     1 Max Levy Screen, 133 lines to the inch, 10 x 12         80.00
     1 Max Levy Screen, 150 lines to the inch, 10 x 12         95.00
     1 Rectilinear Lens, Rapid Paragon, 10 x 12, w. D.         68.00
     2 2-qt. Funnels, glass, 25c.                                .50
     6 8-oz.   "        "    12c.                                .72
     1 pkg. No. 33 Filtering Paper                               .75
     2 Hydrometers, 50c.                                        1.00
     2 11 x 14 Glass Baths in Studio Box, $7                   14.00
     1 Rubber Dipper                                             .60
     1 2-gall. Evap. Dish                                       3.00
     2 10 x 12 Porcelain Trays, $1.66                           3.32
     2 10 x 12 Vulcanite Trays, $1.75                           3.50
     2 16-oz. Graduates, 75c.                                   1.50
     4 4-oz.     "       30c.                                   1.20
     1 9 x 11 Printing Frame, 1-in. glass                       9.50
     1 8 x 10 Retouching Frame                                  3.75
     2 large Neg. Racks                                         6.00
     1 13-in. French Hand Roller                                7.00
     1 Composition Roller, 12-in.                               4.00
     2 Pincers                                                  2.00
     2 Acid Brushes                                             3.50
     1 Ink Spatula                                              1.00
     1 Hook for cutting Zinc Plates                             1.50
     Retouching Brushes                                          .50
     1 gal. Absolute Alcohol                                    4.00
     3½ lbs. Ether                                              2.63
     4 oz. Pary's Gun Cotton, 50c.                              2.00
     4 oz. Iodide Potass., 30c.                                 1.20
     2 oz. Resubl. Iodine, 35c.                                  .70
     3 lbs. Nitrate Silver Crystal, $8.50                      25.50
     1 lb. Absorbent Cotton, 1 lb. packages                      .75
     5 lbs. Protosulph. Iron, 10c.                               .50
     1 lb. Citric Acid                                           .70
     1 "   Bichloride Mercury                                   1.00
     5 "   Cyanide Potash                                       3.25
     1 "   Glycerine                                             .30
     5 b'ks Blue Litmus Paper, 5c.                               .25
     1 lb. Aqua Ammonia fort.                                    .32
     1/2 lb. Nitric Acid, C. P.                                  .45
     1 gall. Benzole                                            1.50
     1 lb. Bichromate Ammonia                                    .75
     1 "   Caustic Potash                                        .15
     8 "   Com'l Nitric Acid, 45c.                              3.60
     1 "   Ferri Chloride, 1 bot.                                .30
     1 "   Rubber Cement, 1 can                                  .30
     1 "   Nitrate Lead, 1 bot.                                 1.00
     1 "   Ferricyan. Potash, 1 bot.                            1.00
     1/2 " Transfer Ink                                         2.50
     1/2 " Engraver's Charcoal                                  1.50
     1 "   Pumice Stone                                          .10
     5 "   Sulphate Copper, 40c.                                2.00
     2 "   3/8-in. Brass Pins, 40c.                              .80
     1 "   Lith. Ink, black                                     3.50
     2 galls. Le Page's Liquid Glue, $2.25                      4.50
     1 Shoot Board and Plane                                   25.00
     1 set Engraving Tools                                      1.50
     1  "  Finishing   "                                        2.50
     1 ½-in. Flat File                                           .50
     1 1-in.       "                                             .85
     1 set Ass'd Sable Pencils, Nos. 1 to 6                      .62
     1 Darlot Focusing Glass                                    2.50
     1 5-in. Engraver's Pad, filled                             1.00
     1 Egg Beater                                                .30
     1 set Roulettes                                            6.00
     1 ream Proof Paper                                        10.00
     1 16-oz. plain Collodion Vial                               .55
     1 lb. best Dragon's Blood                                   .85
     Polished Zinc Plates, sq. in.                               .01
         "   Copper   "      "                                   .01¼

  SEND FOR THE PHOTO-ENGRAVERS' CATALOGUE to
  THE SCOVILL & ADAMS CO., 423 Broome St., N.Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Copying Cameras
  FOR
  PHOTO-ENGRAVING.

  The Scovill Enlarging, Reducing and Copying Cameras.

  With S. & A. Photo-Engravers' Adjustable Screen Plate Holder.

  [Illustration]

     No. 61. Size, 6½ × 8½, 4 ft. bed        Price, $38.00
      "  62.   "   8 × 10, 5 ft. bed                 "     43.00
      "  63.   "  10 × 12, 5    "                    "     56.00
      "  64.   "  11 × 14, 5    "                    "     68.00
      "  65.   "  14 × 17, 6    "                    "     80.00
      "  66.   "  17 × 20, 7    "                    "     95.00
      "  67.   "  20 × 24, 7    "                    "    118.00

  _Special sizes and styles made to order._

  The form of construction of this Camera is made apparent
  by the illustration here shown.

       *       *       *       *       *


  SCOVILL
  COPYING CAMERAS.

  With S. & A. Photo-Engravers' Adjustable Screen Plate Holder.

  [Illustration]

  These Cameras are made of hardwood, shellacked, not varnished.
  Naturally they are without swing, but in every requisite they are
  complete; and for this particular service, as well as others, the
  American Optical Company's make is sought for before all others.
  Such varied lengths of bed are required and ordered, that we can
  only give a price list for Copying Cameras with the regulation
  length of bed. We make them to order of any length of platform
  desired, either rigid or detachable, and with either single or
  double bellows.

  Estimates promptly and cheerfully furnished.

     No. 70.  6½ × 8½, with bed 3 feet in length     Price, $33.00
      "  71.  8 × 10,      "    3¾       "              "    38.00
      "  72. 10 × 12,      "    4        "              "    46.00
      "  73. 11 × 14,      "    4½       "              "    53.00
      "  74. 14 × 17,      "    5        "              "    66.00
      "  75. 17 × 20,      "    6        "              "    72.00
      "  76. 20 × 24,      "    6        "              "    98.00

  _Larger sizes made to order._

  When ordering Copying Camera, please give length of cone, if that is
  needed.

       *       *       *       *       *


  The S. & A. Photo-Engravers' Adjustable Screen Plate Holder.

  [Illustration]

  (Patent applied for.)

  This Holder, as is shown in the cut above, is a great improvement
  over any heretofore manufactured for photo-engraving purposes. Its
  principal points of superiority are, briefly:

  First.--The ease with which it is adjusted for different size plates
  and screens, by a simple sliding movement of the two inside frames
  to or from the centre, and thus dispensing with the expensive and
  troublesome use of kit frames.

  Second.--The convenience by which the screen plate is accurately
  adjusted to the sensitized plate by means of the metallic sliding
  adjusters. (Heretofore it has been necessary to do the adjusting by
  means of inserting different thicknesses of cardboard, paper, etc.)

  Third.--Different thicknesses in the screen plates are allowed for
  by means of a spring which always holds the plate in accurate place,
  no matter what its thickness may be.

  Fourth.--A graduated scale on each screen adjuster makes it easy to
  always insure absolute accuracy in determining the distance of the
  screen plate from the wet plate.

  Fifth.--The simplicity of construction and excellent workmanship of
  the entire holder, being made, as it is, in the factory of the
  famous American Optical Company.

  And, altogether, it is an ingeniously designed and beautifully
  constructed holder, which will be found of indispensable aid to the
  practical photographer.

  These holders are thicker than the ordinary plate holders, and if it
  is desired to use them on a camera the ground glass of which is
  focused for the ordinary plate holder, a new ground glass frame is
  necessary in order to adjust the focus. When ordering a holder to
  fit a camera in use, send the old holder or the old ground glass
  frame, so that the new ones can be made to fit the camera. Also
  state the size of largest and smallest screen plate to be used in
  holder.

  It is made in various sizes. Prices as follows:      Frames _only_;
                                                     for Ground Glass.

      8 × 10 size                         $15.50                $1.50
     10 × 12  "                            21.00                 1.50
     11 × 14  "                            26.50                 1.88
     14 × 17  "                            29.00                 2.25
     17 × 20  "                            32.50                 2.63
     18 × 22  "                            36.00                 2.63
     20 × 24  "                            40.75                 3.00

  If adjustment from the outside of holder is desired, add $2.00 to
  above prices.

  THE SCOVILL & ADAMS CO., 423 Broome St., New York City.

       *       *       *       *       *


  The Scovill Printing Frames for Photo-Engraving.

  [Illustration]

  The Printing Frames made by the American Optical Co. for
  photo-engraving are like everything else manufactured by this
  factory, of the highest degree of perfection, and the utmost care
  was given to the comparative distance of screws so as to produce an
  even pressure. Many negatives have been either ruined or snapped by
  the use of imperfect Printing Frames.

  [Illustration]

  The American Optical Co. Printing Frames for photo-engraving are the
  only safe ones on the market.

  PRICES.

       8 × 10, including one-inch glass       $8.00
      10 × 12,     "        "       "         11.02
       9 × 11,     "        "       "          9.50
      11 × 14,     "        "       "         13.00
      14 × 17,     "        "       "         19.00

  Larger and special sizes made to order.

       *       *       *       *       *


  To Photo Engravers:

  Having systematically undertaken the improvement of photo engravers'
  appliances, we follow the S. & A. Photo Engravers' Adjustable Screen
  Plate Holder, and the S. & A. accurately adjusted Photo-Engraving
  Printing Frames, with the

     S. & A.
     Photo-Engraving Etching Tub,

  to which we call the attention of those interested in this business.
  We extend to them a cordial invitation to examine the same at our
  salesrooms.

  [Illustration]

  These Photo-Engraving Etching Tubs will "fill a long felt want" with
  the photo engravers, as they are constructed so as to resist the
  strongest acids, and combine the features suggested by practical
  experience.

  The tub measures, inside, 48½ inches long, 20¼ inches wide,
  and 7-5/8 inches deep, and the price of same is $10.00.

                              Very truly yours,

                                             =The Scovill & Adams Co.=

       *       *       *       *       *


  [Illustration]

  IN OLDEN TIMES

  people were satisfied to worry along with whatever crude appliances
  came easiest to hand....

  =The material progress= of the nineteenth century, however, has
  created a demand for a higher order of mechanical products than was
  formerly deemed essential, and this is peculiarly the case with....

     Process Engravers.

  =To meet this demand=, the firm of JOHN ROYLE & SONS have devoted the
  best part of their time, for the past 25 years, to the improvement of
  the mechanical accessories to Process Engraving, and with what
  success is best testified to by the fact that their machinery is
  used exclusively by the _best_ Process Engravers, both in the United
  States and abroad.

     JOHN ROYLE & SONS,
     Paterson, N. J., U. S. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Chrome=Gelatine and
  Photo=Gelatine.

  Chrome-Gelatine is a perfected modification of the three-color
  printing process. It is so named from the Gelatine process of
  printing being used to produce the resulting pictures, which are
  allowed to be really wonderful, and which may be reproductions from
  original Oil Paintings, Water-colors, Views from Nature, Objects of
  Still Life, Textile Fabrics--indeed, all classes of work copied from
  originals in color. The results, in all cases, are produced from
  three-color negatives. Artists, whose works have been reproduced by
  this method, express their satisfaction of the results in the
  highest terms, without qualification.

     N. Y. Photogravure Co.
     137 West 23d Street,
     New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Photogravure and Aquarelle

  (_Photogravure in Colors._)

  Photogravures are of all classes of subjects.

  An important modification of this process has recently been perfected
  (patent applied for), by which the delicacy of the gelatine print is
  maintained, at the same time that great strength and color is produced
  in the shadows. The plates thus made are very durable, and show but
  little wear after many thousands of impressions have been produced.
  Moreover, they require no finishing or handling after having been
  etched, and are quite easily printed.

  Aquarelles are printed from photogravure plates, inked up locally in a
  variety of colors. When the whole of the plate has been so inked, the
  impression is pulled. The results are beautiful, but the process of
  printing is exceedingly slow--three or four impressions a day, only,
  being obtainable from a moderate sized plate.

     N. Y. Photogravure Co.
     137 West 23d Street,
     New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Publications

  THE N. Y. PHOTOGRAVURE CO. has on hand thousands of subjects of all
  classes, available for the purposes of illustration, and at the
  service of its customers. The newest and best subjects are being
  continually added to this collection. Sets of illustrations selected
  with the greatest care and skill, for any desired purpose.

     The N. Y. Photogravure Co.
     137 West 23d Street,
     New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


  SUN AND SHADE.

  An Artistic Periodical.
  Published Monthly.

  Forty cents a number. Four dollars a year. Each number contains eight
  exquisite Photogravures, Photo-gelatines or Color Prints, by the
  new Chrome-gelatine process, printed on paper 11 × 14 inches, with
  descriptive letter-press. Six volumes are now complete, price $4.00
  each. Each volume contains nearly one hundred plates. The whole six
  volumes form a complete gallery of current art.

  "SUN AND SHADE reproduces not only the most notable paintings
  and portraits, but the best work of amateur and professional
  photographers. If it gave nothing but the latter work it would be
  deserving of the most liberal patronage that it receives; but it is
  an admirable record of the greatest paintings at the Metropolitan
  Museum of Art, of living American players, of portraits of celebrated
  Americans, of great American painters, with reproductions of their
  work, and it is a monument of the N. Y. Photogravure Co., which is a
  monument of artistic New York."

     The N. Y. Photogravure Co.
     137 West 23d Street,
     New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


  ALFRED SELLERS & CO.

  MANUFACTURERS OF ZINC COPPER AND BRASS PLATES FOR Photo-Engravers.

  Printing Frames, Etching Tubs, Etching Powders, Rollers, Etc.

  SELLERS' SPECIAL TRANSFER.
  ETCHING AND PROVING INKS.

  Inking Slabs, Chemicals (Chas. Cooper & Co.'s), Formulas, and
  all Supplies for Photo-Engravers.

  Photo-Engraving Taught
  IN ALBUMEN, BITUMEN, OR THE ENAMEL PROCESS.

  TRY THE NEW RUSSELL ETCHING POWDER.

  Supplies in General. Send for Price List.

     59 Beekman Street, New York, N. Y.
     U. S. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


  [Illustration: E. C. MEINECKE· ERNEST BURTT· H W ROWLAND·

    PHOTO-GRAVURE.
    PHOTO-GELATINE.
    PHOTO-LITHOGRAPHY.
    LITHOGRAPHY.
    PHOTO-ENGRAVING.
    TYPE-PRINTING.

    WORKS. BROOKLYN. N.Y.

  E. C. MEINECKE & CO.
  ROOM 5. 63 WEST 22ND STREET.
  NEW YORK.]

  The favorable comments received from all sources testify to the
  unrivaled results obtained by the PHOTOGRAVURE PROCESS, as worked
  by our method.

  In reviewing a set of photogravures of the Clifton Water Garden,
  from negatives by the proprietor, Mr. S. C. Nash, the _Florists'
  Exchange_, says:

    "In his work he has been ably seconded by Messrs. E. C. Meinecke &
    Co., of New York, the makers and printers of the plates. Without
    fear of contradiction, we state there is no method of reproducing a
    picture to compare with the photogravure process, except, possibly,
    the expensive and tedious steel plate. For fidelity to detail,
    sharpness of outline, contrast of light and shadow, breadth and
    depth, and absolute fidelity to life, we choose this.

  The Photogravure Process _IS THE BEST FOR_

    =Book Illustrations=
    =Art and Trade Catalogues=
    =Calendars, Menus, Etc.=

  where the most artistic results are desired. Either

    =PLATES SUPPLIED=

  combining the BEST WEARING QUALITIES with the most Artistic
  Finish, or editions ready for the binder.

  Your correspondence is solicited, and a trial order requested, which
  will be executed promptly and in the best manner.

       *       *       *       *       *


  =AMATEURS!=

  In order to get the =Best Results= You must use the

  =CRAMER PLATE=

  Manufactured by

  =G. Cramer Dry Plate Works, St. Louis, Mo.=

  =Your Dealer does not KEEP Cramer Plates, he SELLS them.=

       *       *       *       *       *


  =If you want to secure the best Photogravure results,=
  =Then you must use the best plates, and these are=
  =Wuestner's "White Label" 50 Sens. Plate.=

  =WUESTNER'S=
  =New Eagle Dry Plate Works.=

     For Sale by all Dealers.

       *       *       *       *       *


  [Illustration: OUR BUSINESS is to sell EVERYTHING USED IN PHOTOGRAPHY
  DOUGLASS & SHUEY CO. III STATE ST. CHICAGO.]

  =Photogravure Worker.=

  =Have you tried=
  =THE ORIGINAL=

  ZEISS LENS?

  =NO?=

  _BETTER DO SO AT ONCE._

     THE SCOVILL & ADAMS CO.
     HAVE THEM!

       *       *       *       *       *


  =ZEISS-ANASTIGMAT LENSES=

  =Manufactured by=
  =BAUSCH & LOMB OPTICAL CO.=

  =ARE UNAPPROACHED for all Process Work, and are rapidly
  displacing other forms of Lenses.=

  =515-543 N. St. Paul Street, Rochester, N. Y.,=
  =New York City, Corner Fulton & Nassau Sts.=

       *       *       *       *       *


  [Illustration: THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES

  AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINE
  DEVOTED TO THE INTERESTS OF
  ARTISTIC & SCIENTIFIC PHOTOGRAPHY

  THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHING
  ASSOCIATION 423 BROOME STREET NEW YORK

  EDITED BY WALTER E. WOODBURY.]

  Each number contains from 50 to 60 Illustrations!
  besides a magnificent PHOTOGRAVURE FRONTISPIECE.

  The Most "up to date" Photographic Magazine in the world.

  ALL THE BEST AND LATEST IMPROVEMENTS CHRONICLED BY THE BEST WRITERS.

  Reproductions of all the finest photographic work from all parts of
  the world.

       *       *       *       *       *


  A FEW UNSOLICITED OPINIONS OF
  The Photographic Times.

    "It is a daisy."--Hon. A. A. ADEE.

    "It is a veritable triumph of photographic literature."--J. J.
    CARTER.

    "One of the finest illustrated magazines received by us is THE
    PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES."--_Chenango Telegraph._

    "If my opinion is of any value, I will tell you that it is far and
    away ahead of anything that has ever been attempted."--H. J. AIKEN.

    "You have certainly reached the very height of possibilities in a
    photographic magazine."--ARTHUR J. BENTON.

    "The photographic art has hitherto had no better exponent, and the
    publishers of this magazine are determined to keep at the head of
    the literature of their profession. The many original articles are
    fully illustrated."--_The Portland Transcript._

    "Be sure and continue sending it. Can't keep house without it."--J.
    E. CRAIG.

    "It is a beauty in every sense."--CHAS. WAGER HULL.

    "The subject-matter, the number and quality of the illustrations,
    the typographic work and the general appearance of THE PHOTOGRAPHIC
    TIMES, monthly, are, separately and collectively, cause for hearty
    congratulation. Permit me to hereby extend mine, together with
    sincere wishes for your continued success."--C. D. CHENEY.

                                               ________________ 189

     The Photographic Times Publishing Association,
     =423 Broome Street, New York, N. Y.=

  _Please send me_ =The Photographic Times=, _commencing with_
  _______________ 189 , _for_ _______________ _to my address_:

       _Name_, ______________________________________
       _P. O._, _____________________________________
       _County_, ____________________________________
       _State_, _____________________________________

  Subscription rates, one year, $4.00; six months, $2.00; three months,
  $1.00; single copies, 35 cents.

  Remit by Express, Money Order, Draft, P. O. Order, or Registered
  Letter.

  Subscriptions to THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES received by all dealers
  in photographic materials in this and foreign countries; also by
  The American News Company and all its branches.

       *       *       *       *       *


  =The Photographic Appetite=

  increases by what it feeds on. The beginner is usually content to
  start with a modest outfit, but as interest grows the hunger for more
  artistic results calls for better facilities so that the apparatus
  must constantly be of a more improved pattern and contain all the
  latest fixings, till finally the question of improvement is entirely
  one of the value of the lens.

     4 × 5 Size

  The Empire,                =$5.00=
  The New Waterbury,        =$15.00=
  The Henry Clay 2d,        =$15.00=
  The Waterbury,            =$25.00=
  The Henry Clay, Jr.       =$30.00=
  The Henry Clay,           =$50.00=

  To suit this growing appetite we make a line of camera boxes unequaled
  for workmanship and convenient appliances. We can supply any stage of
  hunger, and make to order to suit any whim. Any photographic question
  cheerfully answered. Send for our Catalogue.

     The Scovill & Adams Co.
     423 Broome Street, New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


  ANTHION-SCHERING
  The Best Hypo Eliminator.


  DIRECTIONS FOR USE.

  THE SOLUTION.

  Five grammes (75 grains) =Anthion= are dissolved in one litre (one
  quart) of luke-warm distilled water. The solution keeps for at least
  one month.


  A. For Gelatine Plates.

  _a._ The plate (13 × 18 centimetres--5 × 7 inches) or film, after
  fixing, is allowed to drain and then washed for about five minutes
  in a dish with about 600 cubic centimetres (20 fluid ounces) water;
  it is then again allowed to drain.

  _b._ Afterward it is laid in a second dish with 200 c.c. (7 fluid
  ounces) =Anthion solution=, and again allowed to remain for five
  minutes with occasional stirring.

  _c._ The plate is then once more laid in 600 c.c. (20 fluid ounces)
  fresh water, exactly according to direction _a_.

  _d._ The operations _b_ and _c_ are repeated.

  The plate is then =free from fixing soda=. (In order to determine
  this, proceed as follows:)


  Test.

  To be certain that all the fixing soda is completely destroyed,
  proceed as follows: Several c.c. (half to one teaspoonful) of the
  last washing water are poured into a test-tube, and three or four
  drops silver nitrate solution (1 to 20) added. A white precipitate
  generally forms. If this gradually acquires a =yellow= tint, fixing
  soda is still present.

  In such a case operations _a_ and _b_ are to be repeated.


  B. For Positive Paper Prints.

  The operations are carried out as under A, but instead of one plate
  five fixed copies (13 × 18 c.c.--5 × 7 inches) are taken, allowed to
  drain one by one, then laid singly in water (vide _a_), afterward in
  =Anthion solution= (vide _b_), then again in water (vide _c_), again
  in =Anthion solution= (vide _d_), and finally in water.

  =It is important that the paper prints are frequently separated in
  the different baths.= If the prints stick together, the solution
  does not penetrate and cannot act.


  = IMPORTANT =

  For large plates and prints it is not only necessary to use larger
  dishes, but also more liquid, both =Anthion solution= and water. An
  excess of =Anthion= or of water is decidedly useful, but less is
  disadvantageous.

  The above directions for washing relate to those who have no
  continual flow of water at hand.

  If a continual flow of water is obtainable, it is advisable to wash
  the plates or prints in flowing water for a quarter of an hour, and
  then dip in the =Anthion solution= and test the result as above.

     Send orders to your Dealers, or to
     The Scovill & Adams Co., New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


  When purchasing a Developer please be particular to specify
  Schering's the oldest and most favorably known brand.

  _Put up with labels and seals as per fac-similes here given._

  [Illustration: ONE OUNCE =PYROGALLIC ACID= RESUBLIMED
  From E. SCHERING, MANUFACTURING CHEMIST, BERLIN, GERMANY.]

  THE STANDARD OF THE LAST--THIRD--EDITION OF THE GERMAN PHARMACOPOEIA.

  See that you get the Genuine "Schering's." Excelled by none.

     Send Orders to your Dealers, or to
     THE SCOVILL & ADAMS COMPANY, NEW YORK.





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