By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

´╗┐Title: An Alphabet of Quadrupeds - Comprising descriptions of their appearance and habits
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "An Alphabet of Quadrupeds - Comprising descriptions of their appearance and habits" ***

Frost's Juvenile Series.

[Illustration: THE MENAGERIE.]







    *       *       *       *       *


    *       *       *       *       *

    Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852,


    in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States,
    in and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

    *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: APE.]


       *       *       *       *       *


Apes play many odd tricks, and try to act like men, for they are very
fond of imitating every thing they see. They are also very
mischievous, and sometimes spiteful, so they should be either tied up
in a safe place or well watched.

Apes are a species of monkeys. They live in a country called Africa,
where there are a great many forests, and where the trees are much
larger than any in the settled parts of America. The apes can climb to
the top of the very tallest trees, and cling to the branches in
safety. They are very quick in their motions, and can fling themselves
from tree to tree with great readiness, holding on with their long
arms and legs. In their native woods, they are very wild; they go on
all fours; and sometimes visit the Negroes' huts and fight hard
battles with the inhabitants, throwing sticks and branches with great
dexterity. They are usually of a dull brown color, but some are black,
and others grey. They should be fed upon bread soaked in water, and
any kind of fruit that may be convenient to give them; they are very
fond of nuts and biscuit, both of which may be given them in

[Illustration: BEAR.]


The bear is found in Europe and North America, but it is among the icy
regions around the North Pole, that he attains his greatest size and
fierceness. One of his principal modes of attack is the employment of
his fore-legs in hugging his enemy, and few creatures can resist the
crushing embrace of a large bear.

The people of the cold countries, where he mostly lives, make bedding
and clothing of the skins, and either eat the fat or melt it into oil
for their lamps. Bears, when at rest, are in the habit of constantly
sucking their paws, which curious custom has puzzled many wise men to

The bear is a good swimmer, and often takes to the water; he climbs
well, but in descending trees always comes down backwards. His sight
is sharp, and his hearing and smelling is excellent. He walks easily
on his hind-legs, and in that position can support heavy burdens.
Though his gait is awkward, he can, if he pleases, go at a great pace.
He is said to grow to about his twentieth and live to his fiftieth
year. Some bears are black, others brown, and a few grey, but those in
cold countries are always white.



The cow is a very useful, and well known animal. The cow furnishes us
with an abundance of good sweet milk, which we put into our tea and
coffee, or make into butter and cheese. The flesh is most excellent
food, and is called beef. England is a famous country for beef, which
is of such a good quality that the people have an old song about it,
called the "Roast beef of old England." The hide is made into leather,
and is much used in the making of shoes.

The cow is a very quiet animal, and will hurt no body, it feeds upon
grass, which it swallows and brings up again before digesting it, and
chews a very long while, and on that account is called a ruminating

Cows are of different colors, some red, white, black, and others
spotted. The cow will live to the age of fourteen or fifteen years,
and its age may be known by the rings or knots on its horns, for a new
ring grows every year. A great many country people are employed in
selling milk to the people of large cities and towns, and are called
"milk people." Before the white people came to America there were no
cows, but now they are raised in great numbers, especially in the
eastern country.

[Illustration: DOG.]


Dogs are most faithful, attached creatures. They are of all sizes,
from the large Newfoundland dog, as big nearly as a donkey, down to
the little lap-dog, no bigger than a kitten. Dogs are of various
colors, and their skins of all kinds, the hair sometimes smooth and
close, like a grey hound's; sometimes very rough and shaggy, as in the
Scotch terrier; sometimes smooth and flowing, like silk, as in a

They are soon taught to be obedient, and become very clever. The
shepherd's dog knows every sheep in the flock. The house dog knows
the sound of his master's footsteps. The Newfoundland dog will rush
into the water to save any one from drowning. There are many
interesting stories about dogs, which will please you very much to
read when you are older and better able to understand them.


[Illustration: ELEPHANT.]


How heavy and clumsy the elephant looks! yet he is very active, and
able to do many things with neatness. If you hold a sixpence in your
hand, he will take it up in his large trunk, and place it where the
keeper tells him. With the same trunk he is able to tear up large
trees, and to strike so hard that the blow would kill a man. In
foreign countries he is used to ride upon, as we ride upon horses. He
is a very good swimmer. He is born chiefly in warm climates. His tusks
are ivory, and are very useful for handles of knives, and many other
things. His trunk serves him instead of a hand to feed himself with,
and to hold and carry what he pleases.

He is very clever, and soon learns to do whatever he is taught. His
temper and nature are kind, but when he is teased he becomes very
fierce. He eats grass and hay, but no flesh.

Below is an elephant hunt.


[Illustration: FISHER.]


This is the name of an animal found in the northern and middle states
of our country, and in Canada. He is called the fisher, by the
hunters, probably from his frequenting the lakes and river shores. But
he does not catch fish like the otter. He robs the traps of the hunter
of their captured or dead game, and he kills squirrels, rabbits, and
wood chucks. In the picture he is represented as killing a rabbit.

The fisher was formerly abundant in the state of New York, but he is
seldom found there now. He was greatly detested by the hunters, on
account of his robbing their traps of beaver and other valuable game.
His flesh is unfit for food, and his fur is of very trifling value.


[Illustration: GOAT.]


We have not many goats in America, but you will sometimes see them
about the houses of poor people who live on the out-skirts of large
towns and villages. They abound in many foreign countries, chiefly
those which are wild, and have high hills and mountains. These, let
them be ever so high, the goat climbs very nimbly and safely. The goat
is a very useful creature. Its young are called kids, and its flesh is
very good to eat; out of its skin we make good leather for shoes and
gloves. The goat's milk is pleasant to drink, and to make cheese from.
It eats herbs and delights to nibble the bark of trees. You will
often read in the Bible, that goats in ancient times were offered as
sacrifices. In Switzerland they have a kind of wild goat, called the
chamois. The cut below represents some Swiss hunters pursuing the
chamois over rocks and mountains.


[Illustration: HYENA.]


The hyena is one of the most fierce and disagreeable of all animals.
The hyena is by nature a nocturnal animal; that is, it seeks its prey
by night, and consequently during the day it remains in a state of
repose. The hyena has been unfairly represented to be perfectly
untameable on account of its great ferocity. If properly treated,
however, and well fed, it is far from being savage or dangerous.

It possesses a great propensity for putrid and buried carcasses, which
it will hunt, and dig for, and devour with disgusting greediness.
Unlike many other animals, the hyena is an unsociable animal, for it
lives a solitary life among rocks and ancient ruins. There are two
kinds of hyenas, the spotted and the striped. The figure below
represents the striped, and the other represents the spotted hyena.


[Illustration: IBEX.]


The ibex is an animal of the goat kind, and inhabits the mountainous
districts of the south of Europe, it is the most graceful of all its
tribes; it is extremely active. It is very wild, and difficult to be
shot, as it always keeps on the highest points. The horns of the ibex
are large and knotty, its skin is of a yellow color, and its beard
short and black. The chase of the ibex, although it is not a very
powerful animal, is attended, at times, with considerable danger; it
has been known, when driven hard, to run full-but at the huntsman,
and force him over the rock, although in doing so, it has at the same
time, sacrificed its own life, falling headlong with its pursuer. The
ibex is said to be a short-lived animal. Its flesh is much esteemed,
and its skin is very thin.

Below is a picture of a bear pursuing a male and female ibex.


[Illustration: JERBOA.]


This odd-looking creature has been also called the two-legged rat; its
fore-legs being so extremely small that they can hardly be seen, while
the hind-legs are of enormous length. The tail is long and tufted at
the end. Its general appearance closely resembles the rat. Instead of
walking or running on all fours, it leaps, or hops, on the hind feet,
making great bounds, and only uses the fore-paw for burrowing, or for
carrying food to its mouth, like a squirrel. These curious little
animals live in holes which they dig under ground. They are gentle,
harmless, and not at all timid. Their dwelling places are very quiet,
for they never fight or quarrel with one another, like some very bad
children I could tell you about.


[Illustration: KANGAROO.]


This curious animal, called a Kangaroo, hops on his hind-legs, which
are very long; his fore-legs are short, and he has a very long hard
tail. Kangaroos herd together in great numbers, for they are very
timid creatures. At the least alarm they will run away, and leap over
high bushes. They use their short fore feet for digging, and putting
food in their mouths. They feed upon vegetables and grass, and do not
eat flesh. The mother carries her young ones about her in a sort of

The kangaroo is brought from a very large island, a great many
thousand miles from here. We have some in this country, which you may
see by going to the Menagerie, where the keeper will tell you a great
many stories about them. Their nature is not at all fierce. The
picture below shows the manner in which the kangaroo leaps.


[Illustration: LEOPARD.]


The leopard is a beautiful animal. He is of a yellowish fawn color,
marked with black spots of different sizes. This animal in its habits
and appearance much resembles a cat. He is very fierce and savage. He
preys upon those animals which are weaker than himself. He always
avoids man, except when closely pursued, when he offers an obstinate
resistance. From the extraordinary flexibility of his limbs, he can
climb a tree as readily as a cat. When taken young, he can be tamed to
a certain degree.

The flesh of the leopard is said to be excellent, resembling veal.
The skins are very valuable, and often sell for upwards of fifty
dollars. The picture below represents a leopard watching a herd of
antelopes. He is hid from their view behind a rock, and when they come
near enough, he will leap into the herd and catch one of them.


[Illustration: MOOSE.]


This animal is perhaps the only kind of deer whose general appearance
can be called ungraceful. The head is large, the mane short and thick,
and the horns knotty and heavy. The body, which is short and clumsy,
is mounted on tall legs. The motion of the animal is a sort of
shambling trot. The moose inhabits the northern parts of both Europe
and America. Its flesh is much liked by the hunters, and much
resembles beef.

The moose attains to a large size, particularly the male, which
sometimes weighs eleven or twelve hundred pounds. Their skins, when
dressed properly, make a soft, thick, pliable leather, which is useful
for many purposes. Sometimes the moose is attacked by wolves. Here you
have a picture of an unfortunate moose, who is assailed by a whole
band of wolves. One is on his back, and has his teeth in the poor
moose's flesh.


[Illustration: NYL GHAU.]


This animal is a kind of antelope, but is larger than the usual size
of the antelope, and not so handsome in form. It stands upwards of
four feet in height at the shoulder. It is a powerful and vicious
creature, and its temper is not good. When it is about to make an
attack, it drops down upon its fore-legs, and then darts quickly
forward and gives a blow with its head, which is very dangerous. The
hair of the nyl ghau is short and close, and is generally of a slate
color in the male, and a tawny red in the female, except in the under
parts of the body, which are always white. Its fore-legs are longer
than its hinder-legs, and it has the appearance of having a small lump
at its shoulder. It is usually found in the forests of India, where it
becomes the prey of the tigers and wild boars. The cut below shows how
the nyl ghau defends himself when attacked.


[Illustration: OX.]


The ox is very much like the bull and the cow in form, size, and
color, and lives in the fields as they do. As soon as he is large
enough, he is made to work for man; he draws the plough and the wagon,
and in old times used to tread out the corn, instead of thrashing as
people do now. He is not so wild or fierce as the bull, but its flesh
and hide are as useful to us. The ox's foot is of a horny substance,
and is called a hoof, like that of the bull and the cow. It is not
like the horse's hoof, because it is separated in two. The horns of
the ox are made into combs, drinking cups, handles for knives, and
other things. The blood of the ox is very useful, and when boiled with
brown sugar it helps to make it white. The blood also makes a blue
dye. Boys should not tease an ox, or throw stones at him. Sometimes
they turn on their tormentors, and gore them with their horns.


[Illustration: PORCUPINE.]


This is an animal of whom the most ridiculous stories have been told,
particularly as to its power of darting its quills to a considerable
distance when attacked, and in this manner wounding its enemies.
Instead, however of being an enemy to be feared, there is not,
perhaps, a more timid creature in existence. But still, as a means of
defence, these quills are of great service to their possessor, and
preserve it from the attack of most of its enemies; its teeth are very
strong and sharp; and if it had courage enough to use them, it would
become rather a dangerous foe. When full grown, it measures nearly
two feet in length. Its general color is a grizzled, dusky black. The
upper part of the head and neck is furnished with long light hairs.
Most parts of the back and sides are armed with long, sharp pointed
quills, which are raised in a threatening manner whenever the animal
is excited. The porcupine sleeps during the day, and at night searches
for food. Below is a picture of an odd kind of porcupine. It is called
a Brazilian porcupine.


[Illustration: QUAGGA.]


This animal is somewhat like the horse, but most like the zebra, as
you may see by comparing the two together. It is found in the southern
parts of Africa, living mostly in the plains in large herds. It is not
so large or so beautiful as the zebra. Its skin is of a dull brownish
white, striped with darker color on the head and neck, and somewhat on
the sides of its body; the upper parts of its legs are greyish, and
the under parts white. It is a wild creature, and rather vicious in
temper. It is made to draw by the natives of the country where it is
found, and its flesh is eaten by them.

The quagga differs from the zebra in his stripes. You may see by the
figure of the zebra, below, that he is striped all over his body and
limbs, while the quagga has stripes only on the head and the fore part
of the body.


[Illustration: RABBIT.]


Rabbits are timid little animals, prettily formed, with beautiful long
ears. They run swiftly, and jump very nimbly. Wild rabbits live in
woods and burrow holes in banks of earth, where they hide themselves
from danger. The wild rabbits are of a greyish brown color, but the
tame rabbits are white, black, brown, black and white, and reddish.
The white have pink eyes. Their fur is soft, and is used for making
hats. Their flesh is white and very good to eat. The tame rabbits are
kept in very small huts, and little boys and girls are fond of
feeding them, for they will eat out of their hand, carrots, lettuce,
and other green vegetables. Below is a picture of a pretty kind of
tame rabbits with very long ears.


[Illustration: SHEEP.]


The sheep is perhaps the most useful animal we have in our country;
the flesh, called mutton, is most wholesome food. The hair of the
skin, called wool, is made into cloth, flannel, and worsted. The skin
is made into parchment to write upon, and leather; and from other
parts of its body are made the strings for harps and violins, &c. The
finest wool is procured from the sheep which are bred in Spain. The
sheep is very timid and harmless, and lives as you often may see in
flocks, feeding on the grass of the fields and mountains. The hills
and mountains which are too steep and barren for growing corn afford
pasturage for the sheep. It very soon knows the shepherd who is set
over it, and is easily guided by him. The young of the sheep are
called lambs. Here is a picture of a Scotch shepherd keeping sheep in
the Highlands.


[Illustration: TIGER.]


This very beautiful animal, is called a tiger, and is a native of
India, a very hot country in Asia. Tigers are very fierce, and will
often kill men, and animals a great deal larger than themselves. They
live in the woods and thickets, called jungles, where they are hunted.
Tigers eat the flesh of animals which they kill. We have none in
America, except a few carried about for show. The tiger is as big as a
lion, and like the cat in shape, but much larger; he has a long tail,
and a handsome striped skin, covered with short hair, which is used
for a variety of useful and ornamental purposes. He is very active
and can spring far. The tiger has sometimes been tamed by menagerie
keepers, but he is a very sly and dangerous creature, and never to be


[Illustration: URUS.]


This name is given to the wild buffalo, of which there are several
kinds. The one represented by our picture is the Cape Buffalo, which
is found in various parts of Southern Africa. He is a very formidable
animal, with spiteful looking eyes, and strong, crooked, sharp horns.
He is very strong and hard to kill. The hunters consider him a worse
enemy than the lion or the tiger.

This buffalo loves to wallow in pools and swamps, and when the hunters
attack him, he charges upon them with his terrible horns, and often
overturns a horse and his rider, trampling them under his feet, and
goring them with his sharp horns.

Mr. Cumming, the English traveller in South Africa, often encountered
these animals, and had severe battles with them.

Here is a picture of the American bison, which is commonly called a


[Illustration: VICUGNA.]


The vicugna has sometimes been called the Chilian sheep, from the name
of the country it inhabits. It is covered with a fine, valuable wool,
which is of a red rose color on the back, but white on the other parts
of the body. Vicugnas congregate in large herds, and feed on grass and
small shrubs, and so long as they can procure enough of such food,
they are never known to drink. They are very timid, but swift and sure
at running. Their legs are slender and well formed, and the head tall
and erect. Their ears are long and pointed, and their eyes large and
brilliant. From the form of their feet, they are well fitted to travel
mountainous countries, and are said to be even safer than mules. The
vicugna is upwards of five feet in height and six in length. The tame
ones will carry a load of over fifty pounds, but they are kept
principally for the sake of the wool, and the flesh, which is said to
taste like mutton. Here is a picture of the llama, which is like the
vicugna in many respects.


[Illustration: WOLF.]


The wolf is something like a large dog. He is very fierce, and carries
off young lambs and kids, which he kills and eats. Throughout Europe
there are still many wolves, and the shepherds have great trouble to
drive them away from the places where their sheep feed. We see in this
picture that the wolf has killed a lamb, and is going to eat him.

We have no wolves in the settled portions of our country, for the
whites hunted and killed them all, because they were such troublesome
and dangerous neighbors. But in the western country, and among the
forests and mountains, they are still pretty plenty. Wolves go about
in large packs, or companies, and having scented their prey, pursue it
like a pack of hounds, uttering the most dismal and ferocious cries.

Below is a picture of a wolf and two cubs.


[Illustration: YAK.]


We could not procure the drawing of any quadruped whose name begins
with this letter.


This animal is seldom seen in Europe, but it is a common one in
Tartary, where it is a native. It is like a small ox in its size and
form, and has horns and hoofs. Like the ox it is used sometimes as a
beast of burden. Its colors are chiefly black and white. The hair is
long and rather curly, particularly at its tail. The Chinese make
ornaments out of the hair of the tails, which they dye various colors
and wear them in their bonnets. The Turks and Persians use the tails
as we do flags, for war-standards, which they call "horse tails."

The hump on the back of the yak, like that of the bison, is formed of
flesh, better flavored and more palatable than any other part of the
animal. Hence it is esteemed a great delicacy, and is much prized by
the natives of the countries where it is found.


[Illustration: ZEBU.]


The zebu is an animal of the cow kind, and a native of India, and on
that account is often called the Indian ox. There are many varieties
of the zebu. Some of them are as large as our largest oxen. Others
when full grown are no bigger than a small calf. Its horns are short
and thick, and bent a little backwards; there is also a lump on the
shoulder, which makes it look clumsy. It is a very useful and docile
animal. In India it is used as a common beast of burden; it is also
made to draw light wagons, and is even used for riding.

The Zebu is found not only in India, but in China, Eastern Africa, and
the East India Islands. Figures representing the zebu are found on
some of the most ancient monuments of that country. The Brahmins
esteem the zebu a sacred animal; and for this reason it has received
the name of the Brahmin ox.

The picture below, shows several different kinds of zebus.


[Illustration: MARMOT.]


The Alpine Marmot inhabits the Alps, Pyrenees, and other high
mountains immediately below the region of perpetual snow. It is about
the size of a hare, of a yellowish green color, tinted with an ashen
hue about the head; the upper lip is cleft and whiskered. Marmots live
in families, who mutually aid each other in excavating a common
dwelling,--a chamber lined with dried grass, at the end of a passage,
six or eight feet, in the form of the letter Y, one of the branches
serving as an entrance, the other as a sewer. During winter, the
mouth is closed by earth. They feed in company, but always place a
sentinel, who, on the first appearance of danger, utters a shrill cry,
when the whole retreat.


[Illustration: KOODOO.]


The Koodoo combines many of the characteristics of the sheep, ox, and
antelope. He is a large and beautiful animal, a native of the
woodlands of Caffraria, the male standing four feet high, and from the
insertion of the tail to the muzzle measuring about eight. The horns
rise perpendicularly in large spiral whorls, three feet nine inches in
length; a bristling of black hairs runs along the ridge of the neck,
and a line of the same color hangs from the dewlap: the general color
is brown, fading into grey, with a dorsal stripe of white, and
stripes of the same color behind the shoulders and across the back.
They are fleet but can not run long.

More nearly allied to the deer, from which they are distinguished by
their horns being permanent and without antlers, but marked with
circular elevated rings, which increase, in size with their growth and
years, one or two species alone exhibit a short ramification.


[Illustration: MOUFFLON.]


This is a sort of sheep living wild on the mountains of Corsica and
Sardinia; a similar species is also scattered over European Turkey and
some of the islands of the Archipelago. They are about the ordinary
size of sheep, and breed with the domestic races. The head is long,
with the muzzle compressed, the nose somewhat raised, and the forehead
swollen; the horns of the male (the female being without) are large,
long, and triangular, bending backward like a half circle, attenuated
from the base to the tip, which is obtuse; the body is large and
muscular, the tail short, and bare on the inside; the legs are pretty
long, and the hoofs short.

They wander in flocks of about a hundred, led by some old and
courageous male. Their habits are like those of our own sheep, docile
and gentle, though sometimes an amorous or a churlish old ram will
butt down a child, a woman, or a man, who may happen to stand in his
road, when the fit is upon him.


[Illustration: RED DEER.]


The European Stag, or Red Deer, is a fine looking animal, the tallest
of the deer kind. The pride of the north, he delights in the highest
mountains and the thickest forests, and is famed for long life, though
the natural term of his existence be often exaggerated, and which,
when exposed to human observation, he has never yet been accurately
known to reach. He comes to full growth at five years, when his horns
send out as many antlers, and he is called a hart, and the female a

Every year the male sheds his horns, and conscious of his temporary
weakness, hides himself till his new ones are hardened. His color, as
his name imports, is a bright reddish-brown, of a darker shade near
the belly, which is white. When fatigued in the chase, he takes the
water if near, and will cross with ease considerable and rapid
streams; when wounded or taken, he sheds tears like a child; but
though timid, when at bay he sometimes takes ample vengeance upon the
hounds before he is subdued.


[Illustration: LION.]


The African Lion, now driven from the coast, is scattered over the
interior. He measures from seven to nine feet in length, with a tail
about four, tufted at the point; the height at the shoulder from three
to five; but when he is newly whelped, his size does not exceed that
of a puppy dog, and it requires four, or according to some writers,
six years, till he attains his full stature. He lives to a great but
uncertain age; one in the Tower reached upwards of seventy years.

There are three varieties described; one of a deep yellowish brown;
the other of a lighter shade: and the Cape Lion, of which the mane is
nearly black. The appearance of the lion, from which he has derived
the title of the king of beasts, is majestic when at rest, but
terrible when roused. He has a broad face, surrounded with long shaggy
hair, and a flowing mane, increasing in length as his years advance,
adorns his neck.


[Illustration: LLAMA.]


The Llama of the New are analogous to the camel of the Old World, but
smaller in size, being only about four feet four inches high at the
shoulder. The dromedary is from five to seven. It is a native of the
mountainous regions of South America. It has cloven hoofs, adapted for
aiding its progress in hilly districts. It has no hunch on the back,
but has one on the breast. Its color is a greyish-white, spotted. It
is equally abstemious in its habits with the camel, and will travel
four or even five days without seeking repose; but like the camel, it
will not be forced to carry more or move faster than it chooses and
will rather kill itself, by striking its head on the ground, than be
driven forward by harshness or blows. In a wild state it is
gregarious, but is easily domesticated, and is still used as a beast
of burden.


*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "An Alphabet of Quadrupeds - Comprising descriptions of their appearance and habits" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files. We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's search system for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.