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Title: Women Painters of the World - From the Time of Caterina Vigri, 1413-1463, to Rosa Bonheur and the Present Day
Author: Sparrow, Walter Shaw, 1862- [Editor]
Language: English
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The Art and Life Library

Edited by

WALTER SHAW SPARROW.

VOLUME I.

The British Home of To-day

A BOOK OF MODERN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE AND THE APPLIED ARTS.

(_Published June, 1904. Out of Print_).


VOLUME II.

The Gospels in Art

THE LIFE OF CHRIST BY GREAT PAINTERS FROM FRA ANGELICO TO HOLMAN
HUNT.

(_Published November, 1904_).


VOLUME III.

Women Painters of the World

FROM THE TIME OF CATERINA VIGRI (1413-1463) TO ROSA BONHEUR AND
THE PRESENT DAY.

    DEDICATED TO HER MAJESTY QUEEN ALEXANDRA.



(Published March, 1905).

Hodder & Stoughton, 27, Paternoster Row, London.


    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1901
    "JOY AND THE LABOURER." REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL PICTURE IN
    THE COLLECTION OF W. A. CADBURY, ESQ.
    Mrs. Mary Young Hunter, Painter]



Women Painters of the World _from the time of Caterina Vigri
1413-1463 to Rosa Bonheur and the Present Day_

_Edited by Walter Shaw Sparrow_

The Art and Life Library
H&S



1905
Hodder & Stoughton
27 Paternoster Row-London


DEDICATED BY GRACIOVS PERMISSION
TO
HER MAJESTY QVEEN ALEXANDRA
IN THIS YEAR OF OVR LORD ONE THOVSAND NINE HVNDRED & FIVE


Printed by
Percy Lund, Humphries & Co., Ltd.
The Country Press, Bradford.


    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1874
    "MISSED!" REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION OF CHARLES CHESTON, ESQ.,
    FROM: THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR DATED 1874, THE YEAR IN WHICH
    THE PAINTER'S FAMOUS "ROLL-CALL" WAS PURCHASED BY QUEEN VICTORIA
    AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY.
    Lady Elizabeth Butler, Painter]



PREFACE


What is genius? Is it not both masculine and feminine? Are not some of
its qualities instinct with manhood, while others delight us with the
most winning graces of a perfect womanhood? Does not genius make its
appeal as a single creative agent with a two-fold sex?

But if genius has its Mirandas and its Regans no less than its
infinite types of men, ranging from Prospero and Ferdinand to Caliban
and Trinculo, its union of the sexes does not remain always at peace
within the sphere of art. Sometimes, in the genius of men, the female
characteristics gain mastery over the male qualities; at other times
the male attributes of woman's genius win empire and precedence over
the female; and whenever these things happen, the works produced in
art soon recede from the world's sympathies, losing all their first
freshness. They may guide us, perhaps, as finger-posts in history,
pointing the way to some movement of interest; but their first
popularity as art is never renewed. Style is the man in the genius of
men, style is the woman in the genius of the fair. No male artist,
however gifted he may be, will ever be able to experience all the
emotional life to which women are subject; and no woman of abilities,
how much soever she may try, will be able to borrow from men anything
so invaluable to art as her own intuition and the prescient tenderness
and grace of her nursery-nature. Thus, then, the bisexuality of genius
has limits in art, and those limits should be determined by a worker's
sex.

As examples in art of complete womanliness, mention may be made of two
exquisite portraits by Madame Le Brun, in which, whilst representing
her little daughter and herself, the painter discloses the inner
essence and the life of maternal love, and discloses them with a
caressing playfulness of passion unattainable by men, and sometimes
unappreciated by men. Here, indeed, we have the poetry of universal
motherhood, common to the household hearts of good women the wide
world over. Such pictures may not be the highest form of painting, but
highest they are in their own realm of human emotion; and they recall
to one's memory that truth in which Napoleon the Great ranked the
gentler sex as the most potent of all creative artists. "The future
destiny of children," said he, "is always the work of mothers."

But some persons may answer: "Yes, but the achievements of women
painters have been second-rate. Where is there a woman artist equal to
any man among the greatest masters?" Persons who do not think are
constantly asking that question. The greatest geniuses were all
hustled and moulded into shape by the greatest epochs of ambition in
the lives of nations, just as the mountains of Switzerland were thrown
up to their towering heights by tremendous forces underground; and, as
the Alps do not repeat themselves, here and there, for the pleasure of
tourists, so the greatest geniuses do not reappear for the pleasure of
critics or of theorists. And this is not all. Why compare the
differing genius of women and men? There is room in the garden of art
for flowers of every kind and for butterflies and birds of every
species; and why should anyone complain because a daisy is not a rose,
or because nightingales and thrushes, despite their family
resemblance, have voices of their own, dissimilar in compass and in
quality?

The present book, then, is a history of woman's garden in the art of
painting, and its three hundred pictures show what she has grown in
her garden during the last four centuries and a half. The Editor has
tried to free his mind of every bias, so that this book, within the
limits of 332 pages, might be as varied as the subject. The choice of
pictures has not been easy, and a few disappointments have attended
the many communications with the owners of copyrights; but only two
invited artists have declined to contribute. It is not often that so
much willing and generous help has come to an Editor from so many
countries; and it is with gratitude that I acknowledge the assistance
received from the contributors of to-day. Seven pictures are
reproduced in colour-facsimile, thanks to the courtesy of the
following artists and collectors: Mrs. Allingham, Miss Ann Macbeth,
Mr. James Orrock, R.I., Mr. W A. Cadbury, Mr. Charles Cheston, Mr.
Klackner, and Mr. Charles Dowdeswell.

The Dedication Page, the Initials Letters, the End Papers, are all
designs by Miss Ethel Larcombe, while the Title Page and the Cover are
the work of Mr. David Veazey. The silhouettes by Mlle. Nelly
Bodenheim, used as tail-pieces, are published by permission of S. L.
van Looÿ, Amsterdam.

This volume being the first illustrated history of the Women Painters
of the World, Her Majesty Queen Alexandra has honoured it by
graciously accepting the Dedication; and in this encouraging act is
revealed the untiring interest and solicitude with which Her Majesty
has ever followed the progress of women's work.

                                                         THE EDITOR.

    [Illustration: SILHOUETTE BY NELLY BODENHEIM, HOLLAND.]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, CONTEMPORARY
    AN ENGLISH HEBE.
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL DRAWING
    H.R.H. The Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll]



CONTENTS


         Preface: "ON THE SCOPE OF THE PRESENT VOLUME." By the Editor.

       Chapter I: "WOMEN PAINTERS IN ITALY SINCE THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY."
                  By Walter Shaw Sparrow

      Chapter II: "EARLY BRITISH WOMEN PAINTERS." By the Editor.

     Chapter III: "MODERN BRITISH WOMEN PAINTERS." By Ralph Peacock.

      Chapter IV: "WOMEN PAINTERS IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA." By
                  the Editor.

       Chapter V: "OF WOMEN PAINTERS IN FRANCE." By Léonce Bénédite.
                  Translated into English by Edgar Preston.

      Chapter VI: "WOMEN PAINTERS IN BELGIUM AND IN HOLLAND." By N.
                  Jany. Translated into English by Edgar Preston.

     Chapter VII: "WOMEN PAINTERS IN GERMANY AND AUSTRIA, IN RUSSIA,
                  SWITZERLAND AND SPAIN."  By Wilhelm Schölermann.
                  Translated into English by Wilfrid Sparroy.

    Chapter VIII: "SOME FINNISH WOMEN PAINTERS." By Helena Westermarck.



FACSIMILE PLATES IN COLOUR


    1. Mrs. Mary Young Hunter. "JOY AND THE LABOURER"       Frontispiece

                                                                    PAGE
    2. Lady Elizabeth Butler (Elizabeth Thompson). "MISSED!"           9

    3. H.I.M. The Empress Frederick of Germany (1840-1891). "THE
       AKROPOLIS, ATHENS: FROM THE BALCONY OF THE CROWN PRINCE'S
       HOUSE"                                                         56

    4. Miss Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale, A.R.W.S. "YOUTH AND THE
       LADY"                                                          73

    5. Miss Ann Macbeth. "ELSPETH"                                    97

    6. Mrs. Helen Allingham, R.W.S. "A COTTAGE NEAR CROCKEN HILL"    109

    7. Helen Hyde. "DAY DREAMS"                                      145



REMBRANDT PHOTOGRAVURES


    1. Rosalba Carriera. "PORTRAIT OF A LADY UNKNOWN"                 20

    2. Madame Vigée Le Brun. "HERSELF AND HER DAUGHTER"              166

    3. Madame Adèle Romany. "PORTRAIT OF GAËTANO APOLLINO
       BALDASSARE VESTRIS, DANCER"                                   171

    4. Mademoiselle Marie Amélie Cogniet. "PORTRAIT OF MADAME
       ADÉLAÏDE D'ORLÉANS"                                           189

    5. Rosa Bonheur. "SHEPHERD WATCHING HIS SHEEP"                   205

    6. Francine Charderon. "SLEEP"                                   229



MONOCHROME PLATES


    1. H.R.H. the Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll.
       "AN ENGLISH HEBE."                                             13

    2. Sophonisba Anguisciola. "HER THREE SISTERS PLAYING AT CHESS"   25

    3. Artemisia Gentileschi. "MARY MAGDALENE"                        31

    4. Rosalba Carriera. "CHARITY AND JUSTICE"                        37

    5. Elisabetta Sirani. "THE DREAM OF ST. ANTHONY OF PADUA"         43

    6. Signorina Elisa Koch. "THE LITTLE SISTER"                      49

    7. Catharine Read. "THE LADY GEORGIANA SPENCER"                   61

    8. Angelica Kauffman, R.A. "THE SIBYL"                            67

    9. Mrs. Stanhope Forbes, A.R.W.S. "THE FISHER WIFE"               85

    10. Mrs. William De Morgan (Evelyn Pickering). "FLORA"            91

    11. Miss Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale, A.R.W.S. "TO-DAY FOR ME"   103

    12. Miss Cecilia Beaux. "MOTHER AND CHILD"                       121

    13. Miss Kate Greenaway. "A. FOR APPLE PIE: E. EAT IT"           127

    14. Mrs. Annie L. Swynnerton. "THE SENSE OF SIGHT"               133

    15. Mrs. Anna Lea Merritt, R.B.A. "LOVE LOCKED OUT"              139

    16. Miss Cornelia W. Conant. "THE END OF THE STORY"              151

    17. Mary Cassatt. "BABY'S TOILETTE"                              157

    18. Helen Hyde. "THE BAMBOO FENCE"                               163

    19. Madame Vigée Le Brun. "HERSELF AND HER DAUGHTER"             177

    20. Berthe Morisot. "PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG WOMAN SEATED"           211

    21. Madame Jacqueline Comerre-Paton. "MISTLETOE"                 217

    22. Madame Eva Gonzalès. "PORTRAIT OF A LADY"                    223

    23. Madame Fanny Fleury. "THE PATHWAY TO THE VILLAGE CHURCH"     235

    24. Madame Vallet-Bisson. "THE DEPARTURE"                        241

    25. Mlle. Consuélo Fould. "WILL YOU BUY?"                        247

    26. Judith Leyster. "THE MERRY YOUNG MAN"                        257

    27. Mevrouw Bilders van Bosse. "LANDSCAPE NEAR OOSTERBEEK"       267

    28. Mlle. Thérèse Schwartze. "THE CHILDREN OF MR. A. MAY,
        AMSTERDAM"                                                   273

    39. Madame Henriette Ronner. "THE LAST MOVE"                     279

    30. Mlle. Marie Bashkirtseff. "A MEETING"                        293

    31. Mlle. Ottilie Roederstein.  "LE MOIS DE MARIE"               311

    32. Antonia de Bañuelos. "THE LITTLE FISHERS"                    321

    33. Mary Cassatt. "CHILDHOOD IN A GARDEN"                        327

    34. Mary Cassatt. "MOTHER AND TWO CHILDREN"                      327



DUPLEX PLATES


    1. Mrs. Marianne Stokes. "THE QUEEN AND THE PAGE." Duplex Plate   79

    2. Miss Lucy Kemp-Welch, R.B.A. "LABOURERS OF THE NIGHT."
       Duplex Plate                                                  115

    3. Madame Benoits. "MARIE PAULINE, PRINCESSE BORGHESE."
       Duplex Plate                                                  183

    4. Rosa Bonheur. "STUDY OF A BULL." Duplex Plate                 195



Owing to various reasons, the work of several well-known painters
could not be obtained until this book had passed through the press,
and a supplement of pictures has therefore been placed between page
324 and page 325. It includes work by Lady Alma-Tadema, Mrs. Seymour
Lucas, Mrs. Marrable, Miss Maud Earl, Miss Julia B. Folkard, Miss
Maude Goodman, Miss Flora M. Reid, Miss Blanche Jenkins, and Madame
Arsène Darmesteter.

It is hoped that the Women Painters of To-day may be studied again in
a second volume. In the present book, dealing with 450 years of work,
the living painters could not be fully represented, for there are
thousands of ladies who now win a place in the art exhibitions of
Europe and America.



WOMEN PAINTERS REPRESENTED


                                                                  PAGE
    Abbéma, Mlle. Louise                                           237
    Abran, Madame                                                  243
    Allingham, Mrs. Helen, R.W.S.                             109, 137
    Alma-Tadema, Miss Anna                                         156
    Anderson, Mrs. Sophie                                          105
    Angell, Mrs. Coleman                                           102
    Anguisciola, Sophonisba                                 25, 36, 39
    Angus, Christine                                                64
    Art, Mlle. Berthe                                              276
    Bakhuyzen, Mme. C. J. van de Sande                             266
    Bañuelos, Antonia de                                      320, 321
    Barton, Miss Rose, A.R.W.S.                                    143
    Bashkirtseff, Mlle. Marie                                 293, 315
    Bauck, Jeanna                                             300, 301
    Bauerlë, Miss A., A.R.E.                                       132
    Beale, Mary                                                     81
    Beauclerk, Lady Diana                                           82
    Beaux, Miss Cecilia                                       121, 162
    Benoits, Madame                                                183
    Bilders van Bosse, Mme.                              267, 269, 272
    Bisschop-Robertson, Mme. Suse                                  278
    Blatherwick, Lily (Mrs. A. S. Hartrick)                        155
    Blau-Lang, Frau Tina                                      306, 308
    Bodenheim, Mlle. Nelly                            12, 72, 292, 332
    Bonheur, Rosa                         195, 205, 209, 210, 214, 215
    Bouillier, Mlle.                                               194
    Bourbon, de, Infante Paz                                  318, 320
    Bovi, Madame                                                    90
    Boznauska, de, Olga                                            316
    Breslau, Mlle. Louise                                     304, 314
    Brickdale, Miss E. Fortescue, A.R.W.S.               73, 103, 114,
                                                         126, 141, 142
    Brockmann, Doña Elena                                          319
    Brownscombe, Miss Jennie                                       161
    Butler, Lady Elizabeth                                      9, 154
    Byrne, Anne Frances                                             94
    Cameron, Miss Katharine                                        124
    Cameron, Miss Margaret                                    131, 155
    Capet, Marie Gabrielle                                         197
    Carpenter, Mrs. Margaret                                   96, 100
    Carpentier, Madeleine                                          244
    Carriera, Rosalba                                   20, 37, 48, 51
    Cassatt, Miss Mary                                        157, 327
    Cazin, Madame Marie                                       227, 239
    Charderon, Francine                                            229
    Chase, Miss Marian, R.I.                                       130
    Chatillon, de, Mme. Laure                                      219
    Chaudet, Elisabeth                                             202
    Cheviot, Miss Lilian                                           143
    Claudie, Mlle.                                                 252
    Cogniet, Mlle. Marie Amélie                                    189
    Colin-Libour, Madame                                           325
    Comerre-Paton, Mme. J.                                         217
    Conant, Miss Cornelia                                          151
    Cool, de, Mme. Delphine                                        232
    Coomans, Mlle. Diana                                           228
    Cosway, Maria                                                   96
    Curran, Miss A.                                                 90
    Danse, Mlle. Louise                                            278
    Davids, Fräulein                                               300
    Davin, Madame                                                  207
    Dealy, Jane M. (Mrs. Lewis)                                    144
    Demont-Breton, Madame                                     226, 233
    De Morgan, Mrs. Evelyn                                91, 117, 123
    Destrée-Danse, Madame                                          282
    Dieksee, Miss Margaret Isabel                                  112
    Dolci, Agnese                                                   47
    Dubos, Mlle. Angèle                                            216
    Dubourg, Mme. Victoria                                         240
    Dufau, Mlle.                                         231, 240, 243
    Duffield, Mrs. William                                         118
    Ellenrieder, Anna Marie                                        298
    Empress Frederick of Germany                                    56
    Enault, Madame Alix                                            225
    Fanner, Miss Alice                                        135, 156
    Fanshawe, Catherine Maria                                       89
    Fautin-Latour, Mme. (Victoria Dubourg)                         240
    Fichel, Mme. Jeanne                                            216
    Filleul, Madame                                           186, 187
    Fleury, Mme. Fanny                                             235
    Fontana, Lavinia                                        39, 40, 41
    Forbes, Mrs. Stanhope                                 85, 147, 149
    Fould, Mlle. Achille                                           250
    Fould, Mlle. Consuélo                                          247
    Frampton, Mrs. George                                          136
    Gardner, Elizabeth                                        234, 238
    Gentileschi, Artemisia                                  31, 42, 45
    Ghisi, Diana                                                    39
    Gilsoni-Hoppe, Madame                                          266
    Godefroid, Mlle. Marie E.                                      203
    Gonzalès, Eva                                             223, 231
    Gow, Miss Mary L., R.I.                                        107
    Granby, Marchioness of                                         142
    Greenaway, Miss Kate                                      119, 127
    Gutti, Rosina M.                                                53
    Guyard, Madame                                            185, 188
    Hammond, Miss G. Demain, R.I.                                  135
    Hart, Miss Emily                                               113
    Havers, Miss Alice                                             108
    Heitland, Miss Ivy                                             107
    Hemessen, Catharina van                                        263
    Heming, Mrs. Matilda                                            95
    Herford, Mrs. John                                              95
    Herland, Mlle. E.                                              249
    Hilda, Mlle. E.                                                245
    Hitz, Dora                                                302, 303
    Hobson, Miss A. M., R.I.                                       118
    Hogendorp, Baronne van                                         266
    Holroyd, Lady                                                  150
    Hotham, Amelia                                                  88
    Houdon, Mlle. M. J. A.                                         202
    Houssay, Mlle. Joséphine                                       251
    Houten, Mme. Mesdag van                                        269
    Houten, Mlle. Barbara van                                 270, 275
    How, Miss Beatrice                                        142, 148
    Hunter, Mrs. Mary V., Frontispiece,                       126, 130
    Hyde, Miss Helen                                          145, 163
    Jensen, Frau Marie                                             303
    Jopling, Mrs. Louisa, R.B.A.                                   120
    Kauffman, Angelica, R.A.                                67, 83, 87
    Kemp-Welch, Miss L. E., R.B.A.                            115, 125
    King, Miss Jessie M.                                           159
    Koch, Elisa                                                     49
    Kollwitz, Fräulein Käthe                                       302
    Laucota, Fräulein Herstine                                     307
    Larcombe, Miss Ethel,                             Dedication Page,
                                                           End-papers,
                                                       Initial Letters
    Le Brun, Madame Vigée                     166, 177, 191, 192, 193,
                                                    198, 200, 201, 204
    Leleux, Madame Armand                                          220
    Le Roy, Madame                                                 252
    Lescot, Madame Haudebourt                                      208
    Leyster, Judith                                           257, 264
    Longhi, Barbara                                                 41
    Louise, H.R.H. Princess, Duchess of Argyll                      13
    Lucas-Robiquet, Mme.                                           251
    Macbeth, Miss Ann                                               97
    Macdonald, Miss Biddie                                         123
    Macgregor, Miss Jessie                                         148
    Marcotte, Mlle. E.                                             272
    Martineau, Miss Edith, A.R.W.S.                                111
    Maupeou, Caroline von                                          299
    Mayer, Constance                                               199
    Mee, Mrs. Anne                                                  93
    Meen, Mrs. Margaret                                             94
    Merian, Maria S.                                          295, 296
    Merritt, Mrs. Anna Lea, R.B.A.                                 139
    Meunier, Mlle. Georgette                                       282
    Morin, Eulalie                                                 187
    Morisot, Berthe                                           211, 213
    Moser, Mary, R.A.                                               94
    Nicolas, Mlle. Marie                                           222
    Normand, Mrs. (Henrietta Rae)                                  153
    Offor, B. (Mrs. F. Littler)                                    160
    Oppenheim, Mlle. A.                                            246
    Parlaghy, Frau Vilms                                           316
    Paymal-Amouroux, Mme.                                          232
    Petiet, Mlle. Marie                                            219
    Phillott, Miss Constance, A.R.W.S.                             138
    Prestel, Maria C.                                              297
    Réal del Sarte, Mme.                                           351
    Ragnoni, Barbara                                                35
    Read, Catharine                                             61, 84
    Reis, Maria G. Silva                                           301
    Robertson, Mrs. J.                                              93
    Roederstein, Mlle. Ottilie                                305, 311
    Romani, Juana                                                   54
    Romany, Mme. Adèle                                             171
    Rongier, Mlle., Jeanne                                         320
    Ronner, Mme. Henriette                                    279, 281
    Rothschild, de, Baroness Lambert                               277
    Rude, Mme. Sophie                                              207
    Ruysch, Rachel                                                 265
    Salanson, Mlle. Eugénie                                        228
    Salles-Wagner, Adelaïde                                        299
    Sawyer, Miss Amy                                               159
    Schjerfbeck, Helene                                       310, 313
    Schurman, Anna Maria                                           296
    Schneider, Mme. Félicie                                        222
    Schwartze, Thérèse                              270, 271, 273, 275
    Sindici, Doña Stuart                                           317
    Sirani, Elisabetta                                          43, 46
    Sister A, Sienese Nun                                       34, 35
    Sister B, Sienese Nun                                           34
    Smythe, Miss Minnie, A.R.W.S.                                  150
    Sonrel, Élisabeth                                              237
    Spencer, Lavinia, Countess                                      90
    Staples, Mrs. (M. E. Edwards)                                  120
    Starr, Louisa (Mme. Canziana)                                  106
    Stokes, Mrs. Marianne                                      79, 129
    Strong, Mrs. Elizabeth                                         113
    Subleyras, Maria Tibaldi                                        52
    Swon, Mrs. J. M.                                               159
    Swynnerton, Mrs. A. L.                                         133
    Tavernier, de, Mme. E.                                         227
    Templetown, Viscountess                                         94
    Thesleff, Ellen                                                314
    Valory, de, Mme. Caroline                                      192
    Vallet-Bisson, Mme.                                            241
    Vanteuil, de, Mlle.                                            185
    Vigri, Caterina                                                 33
    Waterford, Louisa Lady                                     99, 101
    Waternau, Mlle. Hermine                                        221
    Watson, Caroline                                                89
    Wentworth, Mrs. Cecilia                                        160
    Wesmael, Mlle. E.                                              283
    White, Miss Florence                                           124
    Wiik, Maria                                               309, 313
    Wolfthorn, Frau Julie                                          304
    Wytsman, Mme. Juliette                                         284
    Youngman, Miss A. M., R.I.                                118, 119
    Zappi, Lavinia Fontana                                  39, 40, 41
    Zillhardt, Mlle. Jenny                                         221

    [Illustration: VENETIAN SCHOOL. 1675-1757
    Portrait of a Lady unknown. After the pastel in the Musée de
    Chantilly, from a Photograph
    by Braun, Clément & Co., Paris
    Rosalba Carriera, Pastellist
    1675-1757]



Women Painters in Italy since the Fifteenth Century

By Walter Shaw Sparrow


Older than the authenticated history of Greek art is a tradition that
connects a girl's name with the discovery of a great craft, the craft
of modelling portraits in relief. Kora, known as the virgin of
Corinth, and daughter of a potter named Butades, sat one evening with
her betrothed in her father's house; a torch burned, a fire of wood
bickered in a brasier, throwing on the wall in shadow a clear
silhouette of the young man's profile; and Kora, moved by a sudden
impulse, took from the hearth a charred piece of wood and outlined the
shadow. When the girl's father, Butades, saw the sketch which she had
made, he filled in the outline with his potters' clay, forming the
first medallion.

It is a pretty, chivalrous tradition, and it recalls to one's memory
the fact that the ancient Greeks had really some women artists of
note, like Aristarete, daughter and pupil of Nearchus, celebrated for
her picture of Aesculapius; or like Anaxandra (about B.C. 228),
daughter of the painter Nealces, or like Helena, who painted the
battle of Issus, about B.C. 333.

Passing from Greece to ancient Rome, we find only one woman painter,
Lala by name, and she was a Greek by birth and education. Lala lived
and laboured in the first century before the birth of Christ. She went
to Rome during the last days of the republic, and won for herself a
great reputation by her miniature portraits of ladies.

As the early Christians turned away from all luxury and adornment, the
influence of Christ's life was very slow in gaining its benign
ascendency in the arts; but among the civilisations which were founded
on the ruins of Rome's decline and fall, there were some women who
still deserve to be remembered for their patronage of art.
Amalasontha, daughter of Theodoric the Great, Theodelinda, Queen of
the Lombards, Hroswitha, in her convent at Gandershein, and Ava, the
first German poetess, these ladies, and many others, made colonising
names, names that visited distant lands and gave ambition to other
women.

Briefly, the Renaissance was heralded by a long, troubled dawn; but it
came at last, and its effects on the destinies of women were immediate
and far-reaching. In Italy, one by one, the Universities were opened
to the fair, that of Bologna leading the way in the 13th century, when
Betisia Gozzadini studied there with success, dressed as a boy, like
Plato's pupil, Axiothea. And a line of girl graduates connects Betisia
Gozzadini with the women lecturers who became so famous at Bologna in
the 18th century: Anna Manzolini, Laura Bassi, Clotilde Tambroni,
Maria Agnesi, and Maria Dalle-Donne.

It is not easy to explain why the Italian towns and universities gave
so much encouragement to the higher aspirations of girls. In poetry,
in art, in learning, that encouragement was equally remarkable, and I
am tempted to assign its origin to the martial temper of the Middle
Ages, which drew many young men from the universities to take part in
the exercises of the tilt-yard or in the perils of the battlefield,
leaving the fields of learning in need of zealous labourers. Women, on
the other hand, exposed their hearts, but not their lives, to the
hazards of duels, tournaments and wars; they lived longer than men, as
a rule, and hence it was worth while to encourage publicly those gifts
of the female mind and spirit which had long been cultivated privately
for the benefit of peaceful nunneries.

Still, whatever the origin of it may have been, the pride taken by the
Italians in their gifted women is among the most important facts in
the history of their Renaissance. But for that pride, the scores of
ladies who became noted in the arts would have remained unknown in
their homes, and the story of those times would lack in its social
life a counterpart of that radiant chivalry that cast so much
tenderness and sanctity about the Motherhood of Mary and the Infancy
of Jesus Christ.

As this chapter is nothing more than a brief introduction to the study
of a very important subject, I can say only a few words about the
different groups of painters into which the women artists of Italy are
divided, beginning with the early nuns, whose art was not so much a
craft as a confession of faith.

Caterina Vigri was the earliest of these nuns, and the picture by
which she is represented on page 33, "St. Ursula and her Maidens," was
painted in the year 1456. Not only is it typical of the young
Bolognese school, but, despite the primitiveness of the drawing, it
has two qualities in which the swift temperaments of women, so
truth-telling in their emotions, commonly manifest themselves in art:
the first is a certain naturalness of gesture and of pose; the second
is an evident wish to impart life and liveliness to the faces, even
although that liveliness and life may not accord with the subject in
its higher spiritual significance. It is this natural wish of women to
be homely and attractive that so frequently brings their art nearer to
the people's sympathies than the work done by men; and if we study the
four illustrations on pages 34 and 35, representing pictures by the
Sienese nuns of Santa Marta, we shall see how motherly in tenderness
was the feminine ideal of Christ's infancy. I can gain no information
about Barbara Ragnoni and the two other sister nuns, whose names have
passed into Time's limbo of forgotten things, and whom I have ventured
to describe as Sister A. and Sister B. They were true artists, each
one having a sweet graciousness of her own, playful, yet devout and
reverent, devotional but not austere. In these pictures the maternal
instincts are at play; the painters are so happy in their subject that
their whole womanhood responds to it, making it a holy experience of
their own glad hearts. There is much to admire also in the way in
which the figures are grouped and co-ordinated; and how charming is
that glympse of country painted by Barbara Ragnoni in her "Adoration
of the Shepherds."

These were not the only gifted and gracious nuns in the early history
of Italian art. There was Plautilla Nelli, who formed her style on
that of Fra Bartolommeo; she became prioress of a convent in Florence,
the convent of St. Catherine, and died in 1588, aged sixty-five.
Barbara Longhi of Ravenna, another painter of the same period, was not
a nun, but I mention her now in order that attention may be drawn to a
painter having a genuine sympathy and style (see page 41).

We pass on to a little bevy of emigrants, women painters who visited
foreign courts where they met with great successes. Sophonisba
Anguisciola, born of a noble family in Cremona, was enriched by Philip
II. of Spain; Artemesia Gentileschi came to London with her father and
found a patron in Charles I.; Maria La Caffa (17th century), a flower
painter, came upon her Mæcenas in the Court of Tyrol; it was in German
Courts that Isabella del Pozzo (17th century), like Felicita Sartori
(18th century), plucked bay leaves and laurels; and Violanta Beatrice
Siries, after making for herself a name in Paris, returned home to
Florence and painted many famous persons of the 18th century. Then we
have Rosalba Carriera, whose career ended in blindness and loss of
reason, and whose whole life is a touching story. As a child she made
Point of Venice lace; at the age of fourteen or fifteen she painted
snuff boxes with flowers and pretty faces; then miniatures of
well-known persons kept her brushes busy; but this minute art tried
her eyes so seriously that Rosalba adopted pastels instead, and soon
became the most famous pastellist of her period. She journeyed pretty
well all over the Continent, winning an extraordinary success wherever
she went, as well as a place in all the Academies of note, from the
Clementina at Bologna to the Royal Academy at Paris. Rosalba Carriera
arrived in Paris in April 1720; she kept a diary of her experiences,
and students of French history should read it in the edition annotated
by Alfred Sensier. But here we are concerned with the art alone of
Rosalba Carriera, an art rich in colour, swift and nervous in drawing,
full of character, and modelled always with vigour and with ease.

Returning now to an earlier traveller, Sophonisba Anguisciola, we meet
with another portraitist of real merit, more self-contained than
Rosalba, less impetuous, but fresh, witty, sincere and charming. It is
probable that she was born in 1533. After studying for some time at
Cremona, under Bernardino Campi, Sophonisba Anguisciola began to make
fun of the little girls of the period. Vasari set the greatest store
by one of these satirical sketches, representing a boy with a lobster
clawed to his finger, and a small girl laughing at his nimbleness. The
subject of another skit was an old woman studying the Alphabet, much
to the amusement of a baby girl.

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF CREMONA, XVI CENTURY
    THREE SISTERS OF SOPHONISBA ANGUISCIOLA PLAYING AT CHESS. FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY HANFSTAENGL AFTER THE PAINTING IN THE RACZYNSKI
    COLLECTION. VASARI SAW THIS PICTURE AND SAID THAT "THE FIGURES
    WANTED ONLY VOICE TO BE ALIVE."
    Sophonisba Anguisciola or Angussola, Painter
    1533(?)-1626]

That Sophonisba Anguisciola was very young when she first attracted
notice from the great, is proved by the fact that she sent a likeness
of herself--a likeness now at Vienna--to Pope Julius III., who died in
1555. It was in her twenty-seventh year that she made her way, with
ten attendants, to the Spanish Court, there to paint a history in
admired portraits of the great age of the _auto-da-fé_: a history
which _tempus edax_ has devoured, leaving us only those works which
Sophonisba turned out in her native country, far away from the dark
tragedies of the Escorial. Philip the Second married his protegée to a
wealthy Sicilian noble, Don Fabrizio de Monçada, giving her a huge
dowry of 12,000 ducats, a pension of 1,400 scudi, and a dress loaded
with pearls, besides other presents.

Sophonisba retired with her husband to Palermo, where she soon became
a widow. Then Philip and his Queen wished her to return to Madrid; but
the artist pleaded an excuse, the excuse of homesickness, and set sail
for Italy. The captain of the galley of war, Orazio Lomellini, was a
handsome man of good family, a native of Genoa; his gallantry had
suffered a sea-change, was altogether breezy, sailor-like, delightful;
and Sophonisba not only fell in love with him, she took him at a
leap-year advantage, and soon changed her "weeds" for a bridal dress.

When Van Dyck met her at Genoa (1622), and painted several members of
her husband's family, Sophonisba was upwards of eighty-seven years
old, and quite blind; but the blithe old lady still went on painting
so well in her familiar conversations that Van Dyck said he had learnt
more from her talk than from his other teachers. Had Steele an
inkling of this magnificent compliment when he said that to love the
Lady Elizabeth Hastings was a liberal education? Addison may have
heard of it in Italy, and in turning over his thoughts before Master
Richard, may have dropped it generously. But, however this may be,
Stirling gives too much point to Van Dyck's words; for he says boldly,
in _The Annals of the Artists of Spain_, that my painter's portraits
are little inferior to those by Titian. "Of this evidence is
afforded," says he, "by that beautiful portrait of her, which is now
no mean gem of the galleries and libraries of Althorp."

Perhaps one may defy critics to name a single latter-day "realist"
among the fair who has attained to Artemisia Gentileschi's masterful
and singular ruthlessness, as in the several pictures of Judith that
she painted. One of these pictures will be found on page 45. It is the
least relentless of the series, but it shows clearly enough the grip
of Artemisia's hand in tragedy. Curiously, the suave Guido was
Artemisia's first teacher, but she learnt more from Domenichino, and
more still from the years she passed at Naples, then known as "the
sink of all iniquity." But Artemisia Gentileschi is sometimes kind in
her work, and gentle; she does not always remind us of that Artemisia
who fought so well at Salamis, causing Xerxes to cry: "Behold! the men
behave like women, and the women like men!" In her excellent
portraits, and in pictures like the "Mary Magdalene," on page 31, she
blends some graciousness of thought with vigour and variety of
technique.

Lavinia Fontana and Elisabetta Sirani were the ablest women painters
whose travels did not extend beyond Italy. The first was a member of
the old Roman Academy, and Pope Gregory XIII. made her his portraitist
in ordinary. She was born of good family in Bologna, anno 1552. It was
her father that shaped the laggard talents of Lodovico Carracci, and
from him came the girl's first lessons in drawing. Lavinia spent most
of her life in Rome, where, for close on two generations, she held
society by the austere truth of her portraiture. Ladies of high rank
vied with one another to become her sitters, and a long red line of
cardinals sat to her. Pope Paul the Fifth was among Lavinia's models;
very high prices were paid readily for her work, and not a few
noblemen wished to marry her; but the artist remained true to the
young Count of Imola, Giovanni Paolo Zappi, a good, kind,
simple-hearted fellow, an aristocratic Barnaby Rudge. Him she married,
and it was her ill-hap to see his simplicity repeat itself in one of
their two sons, a lad who kept the Pope's antechamber merry.

My artist's style, though modelled to some extent on that of the
Carracci, has a distinction of its own. Even the arid Kügler gives
Lavinia his rare good word, reckoning her a better artist than her
father, and adding: "Her work is clever and bold, and in portraiture,
especially, she has left good things."

Does Elisabetta Sirani take precedence of Lady Waterford? Perhaps they
may be regarded as two equal queens in the world of woman's art, each
with a beautiful artistic intellect. Even at the age of nineteen, as
old Bartsch admits, Elisabetta etched exquisite plates; and, before
she was twenty-three, her paintings were sought after by all the
patron-critics of her country. Yet her male rivals hinted that she was
dishonest, that she did not paint her own pictures, but had "ghosts"
to win fame and fortune for her--especially her father, a poor
"ghost," afflicted with inherited gout. Elisabetta happily soon turned
the sneer against her rivals. This she did by working before an
audience of distinguished persons, like Cosimo, Crown Prince of
Tuscany, who on May 13th, 1664, stood by whilst she painted a likeness
of his uncle, the Prince Leopold.

Malvasia gives in his spirited monograph a list of 150 pictures by
Elisabetta Sirani; and Lanzi deemed it marvellous that one who died so
young should yet have brought to completion so many hopeful efforts of
real genius. The brilliant girl painted with great rapidity. One of
her finest achievements--the "Baptism of Christ"--is a very large
picture, and the story of its conception is noteworthy. Elisabetta was
little more than twenty at the time, and the clergy who had been sent
to order the work for the Church of the Certosini at Bologna, looked
on whilst she, radiant with inspiration, made her first impulsive
sketch in pen-and-ink. The beholders were enchanted, and the huge
picture, differing little in essentials from the sketch, was painted
almost as rapidly as Dumas repeopled the distant past. In brief,
Elisabetta Sirani, like all women of genius, worked under an intuitive
rather than technical guidance; and in her art, consequently, as in
Lady Waterford's, we find those blemishes and beauties which belong to
a native habit of spontaneous workmanship.

As to her private life, it is full of heroic virtues. The noble girl
kept the whole family: her mother, who was stricken with paralysis;
her father, who suffered intolerably from the gout; and her two
sisters, whom she educated with a large class of girl art-students.
Then Cupid came, saw, and was overcome, and Elisabetta, by way of
celebrating this unkind victory, painted the little god in the act of
crowning his victor. But the pity of it all was this: the girl had so
many taut strings to her bow that the frail bow could not but break.
Elisabetta's health gave way, a painful disease of the stomach
assailed her; and yet to the last day but one of her short life--i.e.,
August 27th, 1665--she remained true to her colours, and was one of
art's truest soldiers. "The best way not to feel pain is not to think
of it," said she, and then went slowly back to her studio.

The present book contains adequate examples of the work of Elisabetta
Sirani, of Lavinia Fontana Zappi, of Artemisia Gentileschi, of
Sophonisba Anguisciola, of Rosalba Carriera; and there is a good
drawing by Diana Ghisi, the painter-engraver, an excellent copy by
Maria Tibaldi Subleyras, and two characteristic pictures by Agnese
Dolci, sister of Carlo Dolci and his equal in talent. These painters
and the early nuns, Caterina Vigri and the three sisters of Santa
Marta, Siena, are enough to represent the old Italian schools; while
three characteristic pictures by Elisa Koch, Juana Romani, and Rosina
Gutti, unite the present with the far-distant past, a past separated
from the present day by four hundred and fifty years.

                                                WALTER SHAW SPARROW.

    [Illustration: BOLOGNESE SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    "MARY MAGDALENE." AFTER THE PAINTING IN THE PITTI GALLERY
    FLORENCE. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY ANDERSON, ROME
    Artemisia Lomi, called Artemisia Gentileschi, Painter
    1590-1642]

    [Illustration: BOLOGNESE SCHOOL, XV CENTURY
    SAINT URSULA AND HER MAIDENS. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY ALINARI AFTER
    THE ORIGINAL PICTURE IN THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS, VENICE
    Santa Caterina Vigri di Bologna, Painter
    1413-1463]

    [Illustration: SIENESE SCHOOL, XVI CENTURY
    ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE AT SIENA
    IN THE PROVINCIAL INSTITUTE OF FINE ARTS
    Sister A., Convent of Santa Marta, Siena, Painter]

    [Illustration: THE HOLY FAMILY WITH JOHN THE BAPTIST. AFTER THE
    ORIGINAL PICTURE AT SIENA IN THE PROVINCIAL INSTITUTE OF FINE
    ARTS Sister B., Convent of Santa Marta, Siena, Painter About
    1500]

    [Illustration: SIENESE SCHOOL, XVI CENTURY
    THE ADORATION OF THE SHEPHERDS. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE AT
    SIENA IN THE PROVINCIAL INSTITUTE OF FINE ARTS
    Sister Barbara Ragnoni, Painter
    About 1500]

    [Illustration: MADONNA AND CHILD, WITH ST CATHARINE AND OTHER
    SAINTS. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE AT SIENA IN THE PROVINCIAL
    INSTITUTE Sister A., Convent of Santa Marta, Siena, Painter
    About 1500]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF CREMONA, XVI CENTURY
    PORTRAIT (PAINTED BY HERSELF) OF SOPHONISBA ANGUISCIOLA OR
    ANGUSSOLA, FAR-FAMED IN HER TIME AS ONE OF THE LEADING ITALIAN
    ARTISTS; SHE DID MUCH WORK FOR PHILIP II. OF SPAIN. WHEN SHE WAS
    VERY OLD AND BLIND, VAN DYCK MET HER AT GENOA, AND SAID THAT HE
    HAD LEARNT MORE FROM HER TALK THAN FROM HIS OTHER TEACHERS. FROM
    A PHOTOGRAPH BY ANDERSON, ROME, AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING AT
    MILAN IN THE POLDI-PEZZOLI COLLECTION
    Sophonisba Auguisciola or Angussola, Painter
    1533(?)-1626]

    [Illustration: VENETIAN SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    CHARITY AND JUSTICE. AFTER THE PASTEL IN THE ROYAL GALLERY
    DRESDEN. FROM A CARBON PRINT BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Rosalba Carriera, Pastellist
    1675-1757]

    [Illustration: ITALIAN SCHOOL XVI CENTURY
    MARRIAGE OF ST. CATHARINE, AFTER AN ETCHING BY N. MUXEL
    Lavinia Fontana Zappi, Painter
    1552-1614(?)]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF A LADY. AFTER AN ETCHING BY N. MUXEL
    Sophonisba Anguisciola, Painter 1533-(?)1626]

    [Illustration: A VICTOR IN HIS TRIUMPHAL CHARIOT. AFTER THE
    DRAWING IN THE PRINT ROOM OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM, FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY W. E. GRAY
    Diana Ghisi, called Mantuana, Painter-Engraver
    1530-1590]

    [Illustration: BOLOGNESE SCHOOL, XVI CENTURY
    PORTRAIT (EXECUTED BY HERSELF) OF LAVINIA FONTANA ZAPPI, PAINTER
    IN ORDINARY TO POPE GREGORY XIII. FROM A CARBON PRINT BY BRAUN,
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS, AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE UFFIZI
    GALLERY, FLORENCE
    Lavinia Fontana Zappi, Painter
    1552-1614(?)]

    [Illustration: BOLOGNESE SCHOOL, XVI CENTURY
    JESUS CHRIST TALKING WITH THE WOMAN OF SAMARIA. AFTER THE
    ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, NAPLES. FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY ALINARI
    Lavinia Fontana Zappi, Painter
    1552-1614(?)]

    [Illustration: MARY AND THE CHILD JESUS IN THE ACT OF CROWNING A
    SAINT. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE LOUVRE, PARIS, FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY MESSRS. W. A. MANSELL & CO. Barbara Longhi,
    Painter
    End of 16th Century]

    [Illustration: BOLOGNESE SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT: (EXECUTED BY HERSELF) OF ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHI, WHO
    LIVED FOR A TIME IN ENGLAND AND WORKED FOR CHARLES THE FIRST.
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY HANFSTAENGL AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN
    EARL SPENCER'S COLLECTION
    Artemisia Lomi, called Artemisia Gentileschi, Painter
    1590-1642]

    [Illustration: BOLOGNESE SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    "THE DREAM OF SAINT ANTHONY OF PADUA." FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    ANDERSON, ROME, AFTER THE PAINTING IN THE PINACOTECA IN BOLOGNA
    Elisabetta Sirani, Painter
    1638-1665]

    [Illustration: BOLOGNESE SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    JUDITH AND HER MAID WITH THE HEAD OF HOLOFERNES. FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY ALINARI AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE PITTI
    GALLERY, FLORENCE
    Artemisia Lomi, called Artemisia Gentileschi, Painter
    1590-1642]

    [Illustration: BOLOGNESE SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    THE MADONNA WEEPING. FROM AN ORIGINAL ETCHING DATED 1657, IN THE
    BRITISH MUSEUM
    Elisabetta Sirani, Painter-Etcher
    1638-1665]

    [Illustration: THE FLIGHT INTO EGYPT. FROM THE ORIGINAL ETCHING
    IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM
    Elisabetta Sirani, Painter-Etcher
    1638-1665]

    [Illustration: FLORENTINE SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    MARY AND THE CHILD JESUS. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLEMENT &
    CO., PARIS, AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE BESANCON MUSEUM
    "JESUS TOOK BREAD AND BLESSED IT..." FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS, AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE LOUVRE
    Agnese Dolci Painter
    Died about 1686]

    [Illustration: VENETIAN SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT STUDY OF A LADY WITH HER PET MONKEY. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH
    BY LÉVY & SONS AFTER THE ORIGINAL PASTEL IN THE LOUVRE, PARIS
    PORTRAIT STUDY OF CARDINAL DE POLIGNAC. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    ANDERSON AFTER THE ORIGINAL PASTEL IN VENICE
    Rosalba Carriera, Pastellist
    1675-1757]

    [Illustration: ITALIAN SCHOOL, ABOUT 1889
    THE LITTLE SISTER. REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY PERMISSION OF
    BRAUN, CLEMENT & CO., PARIS
    Signorina Elisa Koch Painter]

    [Illustration: VENETIAN SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT STUDY OF A GIRL. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY LÉVY & SONS,
    PARIS, AFTER THE ORIGINAL PASTEL IN THE LOUVRE
    PORTRAIT OF ROSALBA CARRIERA, THE MOST FAMOUS PASTELLIST OF HER
    TIME. FROM ANDERSON'S PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PASTEL IN ROME
    Rosalba Carriera, Pastellist
    1675-1757]

    [Illustration: ROMAN SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    MARY MAGDALENE AT THE FEET OF JESUS CHRIST IN THE HOUSE OF SIMON
    THE PHARISEE. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY ALINARI AFTER THE PAINTING IN
    ROME IN THE GALLERIA CAPITOLINA. IT IS A COPY AFTER A PICTURE BY
    THE ARTIST'S HUSBAND, PIERRE SUBLEYRAS, A PICTURE NOW IN THE
    LOUVRE, PARIS. MARIA TIBALDI SUBLEYRAS PRESENTED THIS COPY TO
    POPE BENEDICT XIV, WHO SENT HER A THOUSAND SCUDI, AND PLACED HER
    WORK IN HIS COLLECTION AT THE CAPITOL
    Maria Tibaldi Subleyras, Painter
    Born 1707]

    [Illustration: ITALIAN SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    THE PEACEMAKER.
    REPRODUCED AFTER THE ORIGINAL DRAWING FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY THE
    AUTOTYPE CO., NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON
    Rosina Mantovani Gutti, Artist]

    [Illustration: ITALIAN SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    STUDY FROM A MODEL. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Juana Romani, Painter]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF ENGLISH WATER COLOUR, XIX. CENTURY
    "THE AKROPOLIS, ATHENS: FROM THE BALCONY OF THE CROWN PRINCE'S
    HOUSE." FROM THE WATER-COLOUR DRAWING IN THE COLLECTION OF JAMES
    ORROCK, ESQ., R.I.
    H.I.M. The Empress Frederick of Germany, R.I.
    1840-1901]



Early British Women Painters


Everybody knows that it has fallen to England's lot to gem the remote
seas with shining repetitions of herself. But everybody does not
remember that she has done this quite at haphazard, just as the winds
carry seeds from a garden to a waste ground. In herself, with fitful
moments of purposeful energy, England has been self-critical and
self-distrustful, disinclined to value her own doings or to take
precautions when in the midst of dangers. But for the individual
enterprise of her children, which she has often disowned and punished,
her colonies would have been the Isle of Man and the Isle of Wight.
And it is singular to note also that the history of England's genius
in art has followed the traditional character of her devious
makeshifts in commerce and in war. Despite all inherent weaknesses,
she has achieved at random a recognised greatness in art, and is so
surprised at it that she hesitates always to encourage the gifts of
her own craftsmen, preferring rather to have confidence in the work
which she can buy from men of genius in other countries. From the time
of Henry VIII. to the coming of the school of Reynolds, she allowed
her own painters to starve in order that she might employ strangers;
and to-day, as in the past, she butterflies from foreign school to
foreign school and treats her own native arts to side-glances and
half-friendly nods.

Now, as this has ever been England's disposition, it is not surprising
to find that Englishwomen, as well as Englishmen, long hesitated to
follow the arts professionally. At a time when Italy and France had
scores of women painters, England had scarcely one. Perhaps the
earliest of any note, if we except Susannah Penelope Gibson, a
miniature painter, was Mrs. Mary Beale, daughter of a Suffolk
clergyman named Cradock. She lived between the years 1632 and 1697.
After modelling her style on that of Lely, she worked with great
courage, showing much real talent, particularly in quiet portraiture.
She painted broadly and well, drew with force and discrimination, and
although she told the truth plainly at a time when other painters
flattered and fawned, she yet achieved success, and was encouraged by
the highest in the land, from King Charles the Second to Archbishop
Tillotson. Time has robbed her colour of its first freshness, but the
character remains, and the portraits on page 81 represent Mary Beale
in a characteristic manner.

The next English women painters in order of merit were Lady Diana
Beauclerk, an amateur with much untutored talent, and Catharine Read,
a distinguished professional artist of the Reynolds period. That she
was appreciated in her day is proved by the fact that her portraits
were engraved, side by side with those of Reynolds and Gainsborough.
To-day she is forgotten, and very little can be learnt about her life
or about the present owners of her pictures. Catharine Read lived near
St. James's and sent frequently to the exhibitions. In 1770 she went
to the East Indies, but in a few years returned to London, where she
died in or about the year 1786.

Angelica Kauffman, R.A., though born at Coire, the capital of the
Grisons, belongs to the British school, and holds in the early history
of that school a position similar to that which has been assigned in
France to Madame Vigée Le Brun. The art of the two ladies differs
widely to be sure, that of Angelica Kauffman having less mirth, less
wit, less sprightliness and homeful sincerity; it is quite artificial
in spirit, with a strong bias towards the sentimental; but it has for
all that considerable charm and ability, qualities, let us remember,
that won the admiration of Reynolds and of Goethe. Turner, also,
possessed two of her drawings, as I am told by his descendant, Mr
Charles Mallord W. Turner. But in recent times Angelica Kauffman has
been remembered for the romance of her personal life and treated with
cool contempt in all that appertains to her work. Critics have
searched in her pictures for manly qualities, and finding there the
temperament of a sentimental woman, their judgment has failed them.
The very men who would be astonished beyond measure if a prima donna
sang to them in a voice like the leading tenor's, do not hesitate to
complain when the voice in a woman's painting is one filled with
womanhood.

In England, at the close of the 18th century, quite a number of ladies
came to the front in art, like Caroline Watson, the admirable stipple
engraver (page 89), or like Catherine Maria Fanshawe, a painter-etcher
who could put a body into a peasant's smock and could show in a rustic
figure the mingled influences of Morland and Gainsborough, while
keeping a tender sympathy of her own (page 89). Amelia Hotham, too, in
the native art of water-colour, attained to a broad and vigorous style
in landscape, while taking far too many hints from the scenic pomp
that Francis Nicholson made popular in outdoor scenes (page 88).
Nevertheless, Amelia Hotham's work has interest in the history of
British water-colour, like that of three other ladies who followed
her, the Viscountess Templetown (page 94), Matilda Heming and Mrs.
John Herford, the grandmother of Mrs. Allingham. Matilda Heming's
picture on page 95, "Backwater, Weymouth, Dorset," is weak in the
drawing of the hills, but the rest of the design is quite admirable,
the boats particularly being very well drawn. We see, then, that
during the last decades of the 18th century, and at the beginning of
the nineteenth, a little band of Englishwomen studied landscape
painting seriously; and this fact is worth remembering, as women have
seldom been drawn in art to nature in the woods and fields. The
gentler sex, as a rule, has not appreciated landscapes.

On the other hand, they have shown in art a great love for the
beauty of flowers, the colour and the forms of insects, and the
"other-naturalness" of many kinds of animals. Maria Sibylla Merian,
Rachel Ruysch, Rosa Bonheur, Fidelia Bridges, Mrs. Coleman Angell,
Madame Ronner, Mlle. E. Hilda, Miss Lucy Kemp-Welch--these ladies will
not be forgotten, let us hope, as long as there are students who take
delight in plants, flowers, birds and animals.

Among the flower and fruit painters in England, during the 18th
century and the first few decades of the nineteenth, conspicuous
places must be assigned to Mary Moser, R.A., Mrs. Margaret Meen, and
Anne Frances Byrne, illustrations of whose pictures will be found on
page 94; and the reader will do well to compare this early work with
that of Mrs. Coleman Angell, the female counterpart of William Hunt
(page 102).

Whilst these flower-painters were busy, another small group of ladies
won considerable popularity by their little figure-subjects, such as
the Countess Spencer's drawing on page 90, or again, like the fanciful
miniatures by Mrs. Mee or the sentimental portraits by Mrs. J.
Robertson, types of which are given on page 93. Miss Curran's portrait
of Shelley is a valuable portrait-sketch historically (page 90), and
it has something of the charm that distinguishes the able portraits
drawn to-day by the Marchioness of Granby.

What can be said about Mrs. Margaret Carpenter? Is she not to be
placed among those quiet, unpretentious portrait-painters whose
thoughts are so wrapped up in their determination to be true that they
never think of striving after exhibition-room effects? Margaret
Carpenter gives us the character of her sitters, and not technical
displays of her own cleverness. Born at Salisbury, in 1793, the
daughter of Captain Geddes, this able painter came to London in 1814,
and married, in 1817, William Carpenter, who for many years was Keeper
of the Print Room in the British Museum. She exhibited often at the
Royal Academy until 1864, and made a great reputation by her
portraits. She died in 1872, leaving a son, William Carpenter
(1819-1899), to continue the art tradition which she had herself
carried on in her family.

    [Illustration: ENGLISH SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF THE LADY GEORGIANA SPENCER. AFTER THE PAINTING IN THE
    COLLECTION OF EARL SPENCER. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY HANFSTAENGL
    Catharine Read, Painter
    Died about 1786]

Some may think that Margaret Carpenter began the modern history of
women painters in England; others may grant that distinction to the
intuitive and radiant work of Lady Waterford, that most gifted of all
amateurs. It seems truer to say that Margaret Carpenter is best
described as a connecting-link between the old and the new, and that
Lady Waterford is not only so faithful to herself but so spontaneous,
that her good gifts belong to no particular school or period. They
certainly owed much to the colour of the Venetian School, far more
to that old source of inspiration than to any influence of the 19th
century. But the main characteristics of Lady Waterford's appeal come
to us from the painter's own heart and beautiful æsthetic intellect.
The ease with which she composed, and the charming animation of all
her designs, these were natural qualities uninfluenced by any
teaching; and they won the ardent admiration of the late Mr. G. F.
Watts. It is the spirit alone of Lady Waterford's art that we should
admire; we must not look closely at the drawing, for Lady Waterford
neither tried nor wished to perfect her faulty technical equipment.
Most of her art-work was done after a day spent in other charities. It
was Lady Waterford's joy to dole out alms herself, and it never
occurred to her that she might do such good actions by proxy, just as
Queen Charlotte picked up five old books in the booths of Holywell
Street. The truth is that Lady Waterford valued practicalness more
than imagination, as do the great majority of women; she longed to
_see_ the good she did, and she could not realise to herself that art
has a permanent ethical influence. Closing her eyes to this truth,
Lady Waterford wrote as follows to one of her friends:--

"I could never attain to even one work that I see in my mind's eye, and
if I could it would be less than those of the great men of old, _whose
greatest works have not quelled evil or taught good_.... I could not
live for art--it would not be what I am put in the world to do. I do
not despise art, but I should feel that it was not given for that. Two
homes have been given me, and it is to try to do what I can in them
that they are given for brief life."

Is not that pathetic? Is it not the very music of a woman's
rationalism? What has "quelled evil?" But if our hearts and minds rise
to an entire sympathy with Lady Waterford's sketches, we shall
certainly feel that a noble spirit in art does indeed "teach good," is
a spiritual almsgiving for all time, a charity that goes on
ministering, through long generations, to that which is best in human
nature.

                                                WALTER SHAW SPARROW.

    [Illustration: DESIGN BY CHRISTINE ANGUS.]



Modern British Women Painters

By Ralph Peacock


It is the privilege of man, in his youth, to ignore his limitations.
For this ignorance he pays in failure the price of a possible success.
In his wiser middle age he does not repent, he finds that it is only
by some sort of an attack on his limitations that apparent results are
attained, and he learns to take on faith the difference there is in
fact between the attainment and the attempt. The experience of a woman
is, I take it, very similar. It follows in no way that, because her
limitations are different from, and in a physical sense greater than,
man's, the brutal laws which go to produce results are in her case
different. She is marching along the same road, and though she may
have other stopping places by the way and perhaps may take up more
modest quarters in the end, it is a journey and an arrival, an effort
and a result, and the things seen by the wayside become of
significance to her as the painted banners under which she seeks her
way.

Englishwomen do not seem to have done much in painting before the
generation or two that are just past. Public opinion was against them.
The early Victorian conditions under which a woman like Charlotte
Brontë produced her great results in another art are more or less
familiar to all, and in the matter of painting the voice of prejudice
has had still more to say. By these days it has croaked itself into
the feeble hoarseness of a respectable and decent old age, and we can
already look back to a succession of women painters who seem to have
been conscious at first of their leading-strings, but who have shown a
development more than corresponding to that of the conditions under
which they worked. Kate Greenaway, who died only a few years ago, was
no doubt a good example of the charming results to be obtained in
leading-strings. To compare her with an artist who works in a similar
field to-day is to note an advance, not only of a generation, but of
the changing educational conditions within the generation. It is a far
cry from Kate Greenaway to Miss Alice Woodward, for instance, and it
is difficult to imagine that another age will say anything more, or
less, of Miss Woodward than that she was a most distinguished artist.
The leading-strings are gone.

It will always be a special field for women, the production of work in
the first place for children, and it is unnecessary to spend time in
emphasising or over-emphasising its importance. Art itself reckons
little with motives and much with results. In a more general view it
would, perhaps, be better to start this small article with some notice
of the women painters of the seventeenth, eighteenth and early
nineteenth centuries. There is Mrs. Mary Beale, who was a child when
Cromwell was Lord Protector, and who later on painted a most excellent
portrait of Charles II. There is some work of hers in the National
Portrait Gallery, London, work of the quiet, genuine kind, and better
than most of the painting that came for some time afterwards. Then
there is Angelica Kauffman, R.A., who provides us with perhaps the
only well-known name of the early periods, and there are some
portrait-painters of interest, like Miss Catharine Read, of Reynolds'
time, or like Mrs. Anne Mee, of the early part of last century. But it
must be confessed that it would be a sorry list for a couple of
centuries if it were a fact that women had had the same opportunities
and no greater disabilities than the men of the period. It is not
indeed until we reach such painters as Margaret Carpenter, the
portrait painter, Mrs. Matilda Heming, the landscapist, and Lady
Waterford, that more than charming amateur who might have done so
much, that we begin to feel we have a reasonable genesis of the worker
of to-day. These painters show to us now rather the influences of
their time or the limitations of their opportunities, than
personalities which are outside such considerations, but they
nevertheless provide us with evidence of a very genuine and lively
activity.

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    THE SIBYL. AFTER THE PICTURE IN THE ROYAL GALLERY, DRESDEN. FROM
    A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Maria Angelica Kauffman, R.A., Painter
    1741-1807]

The work of Mrs. Heming is interesting in a rather more special way.
It is distinctly rare to find the ordinary landscapist of her time
working with an eye to truth rather than to the making of a so-called
composition of the period, rare enough in fact to place her quite
above the ordinary.

It is at first sight a curious thing that more women painters have not
even in these days been attracted by pure landscape. It is strange in
the sense that they have among them such painters as Lady Butler and
Miss Lucy Kemp-Welch. But no branch of art is more that of the
specialists than landscape. It developed later in history than any
other, and it calls to those who would tire of the didactic in human
thought and who might find in the study of any obviously human affair
something to remind them of a phase of experience they would, in
paint, avoid. No doubt the Empress Frederick turned to landscape as an
occupation of relief from the pressing human affairs in which her life
was involved, and it is just in such a way that the natural
landscapist turns from the human side of life to the more abstract
emotions he finds in the garden of the Great Spirit.

Women, I believe, are more held by the personal than the abstract.
Mrs. Allingham may be one of the exceptions. In any case Mrs.
Allingham claims quite a special place for herself in any
sketch-survey of the work of English women painters. Few women have
shown a more definitely English sympathy in landscape than she has.
Her method is simple, obvious and plain for all to see. For that
reason it would fail to appeal in any way to the Eclectics, or to
those among them, at any rate, who, in the words of a subtle Eclectic,
confound the natural with the commonplace. A distinctly home-bred
feeling, such as Mrs. Allingham has among women, or, in the grand
manner, Fred Walker among men, is however a very rare thing and is
becoming rarer. How far it may, in individual cases, change to other
things may be seen in some of the more modern painters, in the
remarkably strong work of Miss Margaret Cameron, Miss Biddie
Macdonald, Miss Alice Fanner, and Miss Beatrice How. This latter
painter has not merely been affected in matters of technique, but
gives us, most delightfully, the very sentiment of the country people
she paints. It is quite a little miracle of transplanted adaptability.

It has been said that every good woman has in her marching outfit a
supply of adaptability which, in sum total, accounts for most of the
happiness enjoyed by the human race at large. If so, it may be added
that in its superior manifestations the affair is sub-conscious,
artistic, most natural and not at all one of the commonplaces of life.
It perhaps explains, or rather is illustrated by, the number of
painters in the very first rank among women who have shown in their
work the influence of some near relative. In any case, Lady
Alma-Tadema for one has produced work so extraordinarily good in
itself that it is easy to believe the similarity of her technique to
that of Sir Laurence Alma-Tadema to be merely one of the happy chances
of her life. A very similar thought arises in connection with the work
of the late Miss Margaret Dicksee. It is easy to influence technique,
but first causes are not set in action by human hands. If one who did
not know her may say so, there is written on the canvases that Miss
Dicksee has left behind the evidence of a most lovable nature.

Mrs. Stanhope Forbes, Miss Lucy Kemp-Welch and Lady Granby are
isolated examples whose work has no connection in itself and shows
very little affinity, beneath the surface, with the special influences
of their time. The strong brushwork of Mrs. Stanhope Forbes, it is
true, may be said to have arrived by way of Newlyn, but the fanciful
sentiment underlying her work has an arrival quite of its own. Miss
Lucy Kemp-Welch has made, and deserved, a place for herself the last
few years, and she stands alone among women as an animal painter of
power. Lady Granby, who is an amateur, is also an artist. Magna est
ars et prevalet. Ave!

Miss Mary Gow, the late Alice Havers, Miss Jessie Macgregor, Miss Anna
Alma-Tadema, Miss Lily Blatherwick, Miss Amy Sawyer, and Louisa Starr
(Madame Canziana) also make a special appeal, each in her own way.

Mrs. Swynnerton is a lady who has given us a great deal of work of a
very high order indeed. In the first place she has always something to
say that is worth saying. Her work is exuberant with the joy of life,
the joy of colour. Her very brush is surcharged with a high and lavish
spirit. Blue eyes look out, so blue, from happy sunburnt faces, so
sunburnt, that take their places on her canvases as in a drama to tell
us something of her thoughts and of themselves. Mrs. Swynnerton, plus
her faults, is genuine through and through. The work of another
painter, Mrs. De Morgan, naturally comes into consideration when we
turn to symbolism. More tenaciously in earnest and more austere in
every way than Mrs. Swynnerton, her work is as the poles apart. The
one romps, if the term be allowed, in a flower-spangled meadow, the
other's province is the study; and, as is the way with students, her
mind is often on the thought of the past rather than with affairs of
the present. Before one of Mrs. De Morgan's pictures one thinks
through, by way of Burne-Jones, to Botticelli and the great ancestors
of art, and it is saying a very great deal for Mrs. De Morgan that in
such case one can bless the passive hand that gives and the hand that
receives.

Her work may very well lead us to a small band of artists, not
definitely connected in themselves, but allied with each other in the
sense that they work for somewhat similar ends: Mrs. Marianne Stokes,
Miss Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale and Mrs. Young Hunter. To these,
perhaps, may one day be added a name very little known at present,
Miss Milicent E. Gray. It is not unusual in speaking of the work of
either of these first three artists, and more especially of Miss
Eleanor Brickdale, to refer to the pre-Raphaelite influence in art. It
is, however, extremely probable that the influence takes direct effect
in these days more as a method than as a conviction. The great
conviction itself has leavened Art, and the individualities of these
painters are so strong that it becomes in their case a nearer interest
to ignore all potters and regard the clay. Mrs. Young Hunter has a
quaint flitting fancy that wanders over hill and dale and seizes from
life subtle little touches that are full of the elusiveness of tales
told after school hours.

Mrs. Marianne Stokes is made of sterner stuff. She has worked of late
in that most stern and stubborn medium, tempera, and small things of
hers in various exhibitions attract one always with the desire to know
more of her most attractive work. Miss Eleanor Brickdale works, or
plays, always with an idea. And the idea she is not satisfied to leave
until it has taken on for other eyes a most cunning and beautiful
bodily shape, in line, in form, in colour--above all in line. She is
probably, without knowing it, as good an antithesis as may be found of
the Impressionist, so-called. The Impressionist is the incarnation of
the abstract in terms of paint, the Symbolist uses the material to
convey definite abstractions in thought. It is, by contrast with
music, the motive of symphony as compared to the motive of Oratorio or
opera, and the apposite methods may be equally well, or badly, used or
abused. Abuse may lead the militant Impressionist to an impasse of
assertive agnosticism as pedantic in its way as the lucubrations of
the most literary pedant in paint. On the other side of the lantern
you may have Watts, and the painted canvases of a Whistler. So be it.

Art is a long lane with many turnings, and down each there may be
found a little house with a fireside and human hearts thereby.

                                                       RALPH PEACOCK.

    [Illustration: SILHOUETTE BY NELLY BODENHEIM]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, 1900.
    YOUTH AND THE LADY. REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR,
    BY KIND PERMISSION OF CHARLES DOWDESWELL, ESQ., THE OWNER OF THE
    PICTURE AND ITS COPYRIGHT.
    Miss Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale, Painter]



Women Painters in the United States of America


During the 19th century, in the United States of America, there came
slowly into existence a new school of painting--new often in temper
rather than in manner, for its followers usually came to Europe for
their methods. Race, climate, religion, commerce, social life,
influence art, and the painters of the United States reveal in their
work all the characteristics for which their country has long been
famous: vivacity, invention, constant enterprise, a democratic
enthusiasm, a love of truth (truth often united with romance or else
with sensationalism), and last, but not least, a rare felicity in
transforming borrowed knowledge into something quite original. It is
not often that a civilisation embodies itself in the genius of one
man, giving an epitome of all its dominant qualities; but in Mr. John
S. Sargent, R.A., we recognise a painter of tremendous gifts who does
for the United States what the manly, swaggering Rubens did for
Flanders, symbolising a people and a civilisation.

One sign of the democratic spirit in the progress of American Art is
to be noticed in the fact that women have participated largely in the
honours gained by the pioneers. It is noteworthy, for instance, that
the first book on Women Painters should have been written by an
American lady, Mrs Ellet, as far back as 1859. Mrs. Ellet showed great
industry, but following a custom rashly encouraged by writers on art,
she believed that she could teach painting and sculpture by the use of
words alone, in recording biographical facts, and in offering
criticisms on work that her readers could not see in illustrations.
Written history is the phonograph of all past centuries, but the
understanding of art owes little to its words.

Still, the enthusiasm that fired Mrs. Ellet was shared by many of her
countrywomen, and to it we owe some truly clever artists, like the
four sculptors, Harriet Hosmer, Florence Freeman, Edmonia Lewis and
Emma Stebbins, or like the following painters: Emily Sartain
(portraits and genre), Sara M. Peale (portraits), Mrs. J. W. Dewing
(portraits, subject pictures, flowers and still-life), Annie C. Shaw
(cattle and landscapes), Mrs. Adèle Fassett (portraits) Mrs. Elisa
Greatorex (landscapes), Mrs. Henry A. Loop (portraits), Ella A. Moss
(portraits), Jennie Brownscombe (subject pictures), May Alcott (copies
after J. M. W. Turner and still-life), Elizabeth Boott (figure
subjects), Charlotte B. Coman (landscapes in the manner of Corot), and
that delicate recorder of pleasant secrets learnt from nature in the
fields, Fidelia Bridges. The very titles of this lady's pictures have
the fragrance of field flowers or else they glow with the plumage of
birds. It has been said of Fidelia Bridges that her art sings little
pastoral lyrics, and her art is certainly very fresh and sweet,
charmed with much sympathetic appreciation of nature in some of her
unnumbered smiling moods. For Fidelia Bridges, like Birket Foster,
paints as though the year were all springtime, a series of twelve May
months, all full of gaiety and bounty. She seldom takes heed of that
eternal warfare which accompanies Nature's bountifulness, filling the
seed-carrying winds with the presence of death, and setting every
living thing to prey upon another. To this part of Nature's life
Fidelia Bridges usually shuts her eyes, unlike Miss E. M. Carpenter,
whose landscape art reveals at times the menacing suggestion of great
rivers and of high solitary mountains.

It would serve no useful purpose to enumerate all the earlier women
painters of the United States. They worked bravely and well, and if
their doings are now forgotten or undervalued, it is only because the
harvest sowed by them is being reaped by the present generation.
To-day the names of at least two American women painters, Mary Cassatt
and Cecilia Beaux, are known in every country where good art is
studied. Mary Cassatt, the only pupil of Degas, is bracketed always
with Berthe Morisot, for both ladies became Impressionists at about
the same time, adding the charm of their personalities to a rugged
revolt in art. The work of each has great interest, but that of Mary
Cassatt is the more attractive and the more enduring. It is not
overburdened with a heavy adherence to methods originated by men; and
it is richer with the emotions of the painter's own heart. To Mary
Cassatt, Impressionism is a chosen dialect, a means by which she can
express herself in colour and form; to Berthe Morisot, on the other
hand, it was in itself the final word in painting. So, mistaking the
clay of art for the finished statue, she obeyed the methods of a
school with so much zeal and so much self-sacrifice that her own
nature became enslaved to the difficulties of technique. Compare
Berthe Morisot's able study (page 211) with the charming homeliness of
Mary Cassatt's picture (page 157), and you will see at a glance how
wide is the difference between the emotional and æsthetic value of the
subjects represented. Berthe Morisot remains a student, while Mary
Cassatt passes beyond technique to a universal delight in childhood.
She feels both the pathos and the humour of the beginnings of our
life, and she makes infancy welcome in art because she understands it
and shows no maudlin sentiment.

Something of the same kind is done by Miss Cornelia Conant, in her
domestic picture called "The End of the Story" (page 151); and another
view of child-life, delightfully rendered by Helen Hyde, may be seen
in colour on page 145.

The pictures by which Miss Cecilia Beaux is represented in this book
show very clearly that her genius has dramatic strength, sustention,
and flexibility. The portrait on page 182 is handled with a sculptural
vigour that responds admirably to the character of the sitter, while
the "Mother and Child" (page 121) has a quietness of tone, a reserved
simplicity of style, a permeating suggestion of pathos, having much in
common with Whistler's portrait of his mother. Miss Cecilia Beaux is a
dramatist in her studies of character, and her art is probably more
subtle and more various than that of any woman painter who has devoted
her life to portraiture. The reader will do well to contrast her style
with that of Mrs. Anna Lea Merritt, the first woman painter whose
work was purchased by the Chantrey Fund, London (page 139).

It is fitting now that a list should be given of other leading artists
of the United States, though their work is not represented here, owing
to the adventures in delays that attend a despatch of letters from
London to America.

1. Sarah C. Sears (Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears), pupil of Turner, Brush
and Tarbell; prizes at New York, 1893, Chicago, 1893, Paris, 1900,
Buffalo, 1901, Charleston, 1902. 2. Miss Mary L. Macomber, pupil of
Boston Museum; prizes at Boston, 1895, Atlanta, 1895, National Academy
of Design, 1897, Pittsburgh, 1901. 3. Miss Katherine Abbot, bronze
medal at Paris, 1900. 4. Miss Elizabeth F. Bonsall, pupil of Howard
Pyle, prize winner at Philadelphia, 1885, 1888, 1897. 5. Miss Matilda
Browne, pupil of Dewey and Bisbing, medals at Chicago, 1890, National
Academy of Design, 1899 and 1901. 6. Miss Maria Brooks, pupil of the
Royal Academy Schools, London. 7. Mrs. Brewster Sewell, pupil of Duran
in Paris, of Chase in New York; winner of several prizes, as at
Charleston in 1902. 8. Rosina Emmet Sherwood, pupil of Chase and of
Julian's School, Paris; prizes in Paris, 1889, Chicago, 1893, Buffalo,
1901. 9. Mrs. Emily M. Scott, prizes at Buffalo, 1901, New York, 1902.
10. Miss Rhoda H. Nicolls, born in England and studied in England; a
frequent prize-winner. 11. Edith M. Prellwitz, a frequent prize-winner
and a pupil of Brush, in New York, of Julian, in Paris. 12. Lydia
Field Emmet, pupil of Bouguereau, in Paris, of Chase, in New York;
prizes at Chicago, 1893, Atlanta, 1895, Buffalo, 1901. 13. Mrs. Kenyon
Cox, pupil of the National Academy of Design; prize-winner at Paris,
1900, at Buffalo, 1901. 14. Emma L. Cooper, Medals at Chicago, 1893,
Atlanta, 1895. 15. Mrs. Charlotte B. Comans, Medal at San Francisco,
1894. 16. Miss Clara S. MacChesney; and last, but not least, Miss Mary
F. MacMonnies.

                                                              W. S. S.

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    THE QUEEN AND THE PAGE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY DIXON & SON, LONDON
    Mrs. Marianne Stokes, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF THE ENGLISH POET, ABRAHAM COWLEY (1618-1667). FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY W. A. MANSELL & CO., AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    IN THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON
    Mrs. Mary Beale, born Cradock, Painter
    1632-1697]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF KING CHARLES II OF ENGLAND. FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY W. A. MANSELL & CO., AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    IN THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON Mrs. Mary Beale, born
    Cradock, Painter
    1632-1697]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    CARICATURE OF EDWARD GIBBON, HISTORIAN. IN THE PRINT ROOM, THE
    BRITISH MUSEUM
    Lady Diana Beauclerk, Amateur
    1734-1808]

    [Illustration: CUPIDS. AFTER AN ENGRAVING BY F. BARTOLOZZI, R.A.
    Lady Diana Beauclerk, Amateur 1734-1808]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    ARIADNE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE DRESDEN GALLERY,
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY V. A. BRUCKMANN, MUNICH
    Maria Angelica Kauffman. R.A., Painter
    1741-1807]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF MISS HARRIOT POWELL. FROM A MEZZOTINT BY RICHARD
    HOUSTON. THE PROOF LENT BY MR. ALFRED DAVIS
    Miss Catharine Read, Painter
    Died about 1786]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF MISS JONES. FROM AN ENGRAVING BY J.
    WATSON, DATED 1767. THE PRINT LENT BY MR. ALFRED DAVIS Miss
    Catharine Read, Painter Died about 1786]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "THE FISHER WIFE." AFTER THE DRAWING IN WATER-COLOUR AND CRAYON,
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY W. E. GRAY, LONDON
    Mrs. Stanhope Forbes, A.R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT (PAINTED BY HERSELF) OF ANGELICA KAUFFMAN, R.A., AFTER
    THE ORIGINAL PICTURE IN THE UFFIZI GALLERY. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    ALINARI]

    [Illustration: THE VESTAL VIRGIN. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE IN
    THE ROYAL GALLERY, DRESDEN, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY HANFSTAENGL
    Maria Angelica Kauffman, R.A., Painter 1741-1807]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, 1793
    RIVERSIDE LANDSCAPE WITH A CASTLE IN THE DISTANCE. PAINTED IN
    1793, WHEN TURNER AND GIRTIN WERE ONLY EIGHTEEN. THE BREADTH AND
    MANNER OF THIS DRAWING ARE THEREFORE REMARKABLE, ESPECIALLY AS
    COMING FROM A LADY OF THAT TIME. THE SCENIC POMP OF THE DESIGN
    POINTS TO THE INFLUENCE OF FRANCIS NICHOLSON. AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    WATER-COLOUR (19-5/8 INCHES BY 26-3/4 INCHES) IN THE PRINT ROOM
    OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY W. E. GRAY
    Amelia Hotham, Painter
    End of 18th Century]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, END OF XVIII CENTURY AND
    BEGINNING OF XIX CENTURY
    A COUNTRY BOY. REPRODUCED FROM AN ORIGINAL SOFT-GROUND ETCHING
    THAT SHOWS THE MINGLED INFLUENCES OF GAINSBOROUGH AND MORLAND
    Catherine Maria Fanshawe, Painter-Etcher
    1765-1834]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF SARAH, COUNTESS OF KINNOULL, FROM A
    STIPPLE ENGRAVING AFTER A MINIATURE BY SAMUEL SHELLEY Caroline
    Watson, Engraver to Queen Caroline 1760(?)-1814]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, EARLY XIX CENTURY A PINCH OF
    SNUFF. AFTER AN ENGRAVING BY MADAME BOVI, A PUPIL OF F.
    BARTOLOZZI, R.A. THE PRINT LENT BY MR. ALFRED DAVIS
    Lavinia Countess Spencer, Amateur
    Died 1831]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY (1792-1822).
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL DRAWING IN THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY,
    LONDON. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. CASWALL SMITH Miss A. Curran,
    Amateur
    Died 1847]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "FLORA." REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Miss Evelyn Pickering (Mrs. William De Morgan), Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, EARLY XIX CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF MRS. STUART FROM A MEZZOTINT BY S. W. REYNOLDS,
    KINDLY LENT BY MR. ALFRED DAVIS
    Mrs. J. Robertson, Painter
    Worked 1824 to 1844]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF LADY DALRYMPLE HAMILTON, DAUGHTER OF
    ADMIRAL LORD DUNCAN FROM AN ENGRAVING BY J. AGAR Mrs. Anne Mee,
    born Foldsone, Painter Died very old in 1851]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL 1764 TO 1826 VASE OF FLOWERS.
    PAINTED IN 1764 AND FORMERLY IN THE COLLECTION OF QUEEN
    CHARLOTTE. AFTER THE TEMPERA PAINTING AT SOUTH KENSINGTON
    Mary Moser, R.A. (Mrs. Hugh Lloyd)
    1744-1819]

    [Illustration: GROUP OF FLOWERS IN A JAR. PAINTED IN 1806 FOR
    PRINCESS ELIZABETH, DAUGHTER OF GEORGE III. AFTER THE
    WATER-COLOUR AT SOUTH KENSINGTON Mrs. Margaret Meen, Painter
    Worked 1775 to 1810]

    [Illustration: FLOWERS AND GRAPES. PAINTED IN 1826. AFTER THE
    WATER-COLOUR AT SOUTH KENSINGTON
    Miss Anne Frances Byrne, Painter
    1775-1837]

    [Illustration: WOOD SCENE. AFTER THE DRAWING IN INDIA INK ON A
    WATER-COLOUR TINT AT SOUTH KENSINGTON
    Viscountess Templetown, Amateur
    Died 1824]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, EARLY XIX.
    CENTURY BACKWATER, WEYMOUTH, DORSET. AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    WATER-COLOUR IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY W. E.
    GRAY, LONDON Mrs. Matilda Heming, born Lowry, Painter
    1808-1855]

    [Illustration: LANDSCAPE AT KENILWORTH AFTER AN ORIGINAL
    WATER-COLOUR BY THE GRANDMOTHER OF MRS. HELEN ALLINGHAM, R.W.S.
    Mrs. John Herford, Amateur]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, EARLY XIX CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF HENRIETTA SHUCKBURGH, AFTER THE WATER-COLOUR IN THE
    BRITISH MUSEUM
    Mrs. Margaret Carpenter, born Geddes, Painter
    1793-1872]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF MARGARET CARPENTER. AFTER THE
    WATER-COLOUR IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM Mrs. Margaret Carpenter, born
    Geddes, Painter 1793-1872]

    [Illustration: LODONA. FROM POPE'S "WINDSOR FOREST."
    FROM THE ENGRAVING BY F. BARTOLOZZI, R.A.
    Mrs. Maria Cosway, born Hadfield, Painter
    1759-1838]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "ELSPETH." AFTER THE ORIGINAL PORTRAIT IN BODY-COLOUR, BY KIND
    PERMISSION OF MRS. J. M. CURRIE, LONDON
    Miss Ann Macbeth, Painter]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, XIX CENTURY
    PALM BRANCHES. AFTER THE ORIGINAL DRAWING FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    J. CASWALL SMITH, LONDON
    Louisa Marchioness of Waterford, Painter
    1818-1891]

    [Illustration: SPRING. AFTER THE ORIGINAL DRAWING IN
    WATER-COLOUR FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. CASWALL SMITH Louisa
    Marchioness of Waterford, Painter 1818-1891]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF JOHN GIBSON, R.A., SCULPTOR (1791-1866). AFTER THE
    PAINTING IN THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON, FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY W. A. MANSELL & CO.
    Mrs. Margaret Carpenter, born Geddes, Painter
    1793-1872]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF R. P BONINGTON, PAINTER (1801-1828).
    AFTER THE PAINTING IN THE NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY, LONDON,
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY W. A. MANSELL & CO. Mrs. Margaret
    Carpenter, born Geddes, Painter
    1793-1872]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    JESUS CHRIST AMONG THE DOCTORS AFTER THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. CASWALL SMITH
    Louisa Marchioness of Waterford, Painter
    1818-1891]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, XIX CENTURY
    STUDY OF A BIRD'S NEST. REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL DRAWING IN
    WATER-COLOUR BY PERMISSION OF MESSRS. BROWN & PHILLIPS
    Mrs. Helen Cordelia Angell, born Coleman, Painter
    1847-1884]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1901
    "TO-DAY FOR ME." FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY H. DIXON & SON, AFTER THE
    WATER-COLOUR IN THE COLLECTION OF MISS EVANS
    Miss Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale, A.R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1871
    ELAINE. REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY
    PERMISSION OF THE ARTS COMMITTEE, THE WALKER ART GALLERY,
    LIVERPOOL
    Mrs. Sophie Anderson, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1873
    SINTRAM AND HIS MOTHER (VIDE DE LA MOTTE FOUQUE). REPRODUCED
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY PERMISSION OF THE ARTS COMMITTEE, THE
    WALKER GALLERY, LIVERPOOL
    Louisa Starr (Madame Canziana), Painter]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, 1875-1895
    THROUGH THE WOOD. REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR AT
    SOUTH KENSINGTON
    Miss Ivy Heitland, Painter
    1875-1895]

    [Illustration: MOTHER AND CHILD. DATED 1894. FROM THE
    WATER-COLOUR IN THE IONIDES COLLECTION AT SOUTH KENSINGTON Miss
    Mary L. Gow, R.I., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1880
    "BLANCHISSEUSES." REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL
    PAINTING BY PERMISSION OF THE ARTS COMMITTEE, THE WALKER ART
    GALLERY, LIVERPOOL
    Miss Alice Havers, Painter
    Died 1890]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, CONTEMPORARY
    A COTTAGE NEAR CROCKEN HILL
    FROM THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR
    Mrs. Helen Allingham, R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, 1888
    THE POTATO HARVEST. AFTER THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR, DATED 1888,
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH KINDLY LENT BY THE ARTIST
    Miss Edith Martineau, A.R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1890
    IN MEMORIAM. AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY HENRY DIXON & SON, BY KIND
    PERMISSION OF MISS MARY A. DICKSEE AND FRANK DICKSEE, ESQ., R.A.
    Miss Margaret Isabel Dicksee, Painter
    1858-1903]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1887 AND 1890
    GOOD FRIENDS. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, DATED 1887, FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN, PARIS
    Mrs. Elizabeth Strong, Painter]

    [Illustration: THE END OF A STORY. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS Miss Emily
    Hart, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1900
    "SLEEP, THAT KNITS UP THE RAVELL'D SLEAVE OF CARE." FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY DIXON & SON, LONDON, AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    WATER-COLOUR IN THE COLLECTION OF MISS EVANS
    Miss Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    LABOURERS OF THE NIGHT.
    FROM THE STUDY IN OIL-COLOUR ON DRAWING PAPER
    Miss Lucy E. Kemp-Welch, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    STUDY FROM THE LIFE.
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL CHALK DRAWING
    Evelyn Pickering (Mrs. William De Morgan), Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    YELLOW ROSES. AFTER THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR
    Mrs. William Duffield, R.I.
    FROM A NEAPOLITAN VILLA. AFTER THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR
    Miss A. M. Youngman, R.I.]

    [Illustration: ROOM AT LEICESTER IN WHICH SHAKESPEARE IS SAID TO
    HAVE ACTED BEFORE QUEEN ELIZABETH. AFTER THE ORIGINAL SKETCH IN
    WATER-COLOUR DATED 1903
    Miss Alice M. Hobson, R.I., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "A FOR APPLE-PIE: E EAT IT." AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    DRAWING IN THE COLLECTION OF JOHN GREENAWAY, ESQ. REPRODUCED BY
    PERMISSION OF FREDERICK WARNE & CO.
    Miss Kate Greenaway, Illustrator
    1846-1901]

    [Illustration: "WHO LOVES A GARDEN LOVES A GREENHOUSE TOO" AFTER
    THE ORIGINAL PICTURE EXHIBITED AT THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF
    WATER-COLOUR IN 1904
    Miss A. M. Youngman, R.I.]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    ST. BRIDGET. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY R. J. W. HAINES
    Mrs. Louise Jopling, R.B.A., Painter
    WAIFS FROM THE GREAT CITY. COPYRIGHT RESERVED BY THE ARTIST
    Mrs. Staples (M. Ellen Edwards), Illustrator]

    [Illustration:  UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, CONTEMPORARY
    MOTHER AND CHILD
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Miss Cecilia Beaux, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    DRAPERY STUDY. REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL
    DRAWING
    Evelyn Pickering (Mrs. William De Morgan)]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF THE LADY ALIX. EGERTON, FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING Miss Biddie Macdonald,
    Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    WHITE TREASURES AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    THE AUTOTYPE CO. NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON
    Miss Florence White, Painter]

    [Illustration: "HUSH! REMIND NOT EROS OF HIS WINGS." AFTER THE
    ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR Miss Katharine Cameron, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1904
    AFTER WORK
    A STUDY IN LEAD PENCIL
    Miss Lucy Kemp-Welch, Artist]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "OLIVIA." REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL DRAWING BY PERMISSION OF
    MESSRS. BROWN & PHILLIPS, LONDON
    Mrs. Mary Young Hunter, Illustrator]

    [Illustration: "HE MARRIED A WIFE." AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    WATER-COLOUR IN THE COLLECTION OF MISS EVANS Miss Eleanor
    Fortescue Brickdale, A.R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    "A. FOR APPLE PIE: C. CUT IT." AFTER THE WATER COLOUR DRAWING IN
    THE COLLECTION OF JOHN GREENAWAY, ESQ., REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION
    OF MESSRS. FREDERICK WARNE & CO., OWNERS OF THE COPYRIGHT
    Miss Kate Greenaway, Designer
    1846-1901]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT OF THE HON MRS. WALTER JAMES. AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    PICTURE FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY MESSRS. DIXON & SON, LONDON
    Mrs. Marianne Stokes, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    AN INTERESTING STORY
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR
    Miss Marian Chase, Painter]

    [Illustration: "WHERE SHALL WISDOM BE FOUND?" AFTER AN ORIGINAL
    PICTURE PAINTED IN 1902 Mrs. Mary Young Hunter, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1904
    PORTRAIT OF MRS. BLAIR WITH HER DOGS. AFTER AN ORIGINAL PAINTING
    THAT GAINED A "MENTION HONORABLE" IN THE SALON OF 1904
    Miss Margaret Cameron, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    A SONG OF THE SEA
    FROM THE ORIGINAL ETCHING
    Miss Amelia Bauerlë, Painter-Etcher]

    [Illustration: FAUNS FROM THE ORIGINAL ETCHING Miss Amelia
    Bauerlë, Painter-Etcher]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1895
    THE SENSE OF SIGHT. REPRODUCED FROM THE PAINTING IN THE WALKER
    GALLERY, LIVERPOOL, BY PERMISSION OF THE ARTS COMMITTEE
    Mrs. Annie L. Swynnerton, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    RIVERSIDE LANDSCAPE
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Miss Alice Fanner, Painter]

    [Illustration: MEMORIES. AFTER THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR
    EXHIBITED IN 1904 AT THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF PAINTERS IN
    WATER-COLOUR Miss Gertrude Demain Hammond, R.I., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1903
    BLUEBELLS
    FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    THE ROYAL ACADEMY, 1903
    Miss Christabel A. Cockerell (Mrs. Geo. Frampton), Painter]

    [Illustration: SCHOOL OF BRITISH WATER-COLOUR, 1904
    PONTE WIDMAN, VENICE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL OUT-DOOR SKETCH IN
    WATER-COLOUR
    Mrs. Helen Allingham, R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: CAMPANILE SAN STEFANO, VENICE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    OUT-DOOR SKETCH IN WATER-COLOUR Mrs. Helen Allingham, R.W.S.,
    Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1904
    THE HERDSMAN OF ADMETUS AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE EXHIBITED IN
    1904 AT THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF PAINTERS IN WATER-COLOURS.
    COPYRIGHT RESERVED
    Miss Constance Phillott, A.R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 1890
    "LOVE LOCKED OUT." AFTER THE PAINTING IN THE CHANTREY COLLECTION
    IN THE TATE GALLERY, LONDON, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY HANFSTAENGL
    Mrs. Anna Lea Merritt, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    Miss Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale, Illustrator]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL DRAWING IN CRAYONS.
    Miss E. Fortescue Brickdale, Illustrator
    LE REPAS. EXHIBITED AT THE PARIS SALON IN 1903
    Miss Beatrice How, Painter]

    [Illustration: THE LATE CECIL RHODES. AFTER THE PENCIL DRAWING
    THE LATE LORD SALISBURY. AFTER THE PENCIL DRAWING The
    Marchioness of Granby, Portraitist]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    ON THE WAY TO THE HORSE FAIR. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY THE AUTOTYPE
    CO., NEW OXFORD STREET LONDON
    Miss Lilian Cheviot, Painter]

    [Illustration: ALMOND BLOSSOM IN LONDON AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    WATER-COLOUR Miss Rose Barton, A.R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    DAY-DREAMS. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE IN WATER-COLOUR
    Jane M. Dealy (Mrs. Lewis), R.I., Painter
    BABY. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PORTRAIT IN WATER COLOUR
    Jane M. Dealy (Mrs. Lewis), R.I., Painter]

    [Illustration: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, CONTEMPORARY
    "DAY DREAMS." FROM THE COLOURED WOODCUT IN THE JAPANESE MANNER.
    PRINTED IN JAPAN BY NATIVE WORKMEN UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE
    ARTIST. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION OF MR. C. KLACKER. 12,
    HAYMARKET, LONDON. COPYRIGHT IN ALL COUNTRIES
    Miss Helen Hyde, Designer and Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL OF WATER-COLOUR, CONTEMPORARY
    "IN WITH YOU!" REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL PICTURE IN
    BODY-COLOUR]

    [Illustration: "CUCKOO." REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL PICTURE IN
    BODY-COLOUR Mrs. Stanhope Forbes, A.R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    IN THE REIGN OF TERROR. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, DATED 1891,
    IN THE WALKER GALLERY, LIVERPOOL
    Miss Jessie Macgregor, Painter]

    [Illustration: IN A DUTCH COTTAGE. AFTER AN ORIGINAL PAINTING
    EXHIBITED AT THE PARIS SALON IN 1904 Miss Beatrice How,
    Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL OF WATER-COLOUR, 1904
    MAY EVENING
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Mrs. E. Stanhope Forbes, A.R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    A COTTAGE GIRL. REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR
    Miss Minnie Smythe, A.R.W.S., Painter]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF SIR CHARLES HOLROYD. REPRODUCED FROM
    THE ORIGINAL PAINTING Lady Holroyd, Painter]

    [Illustration: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 1880
    THE END OF THE STORY. REPRODUCED FROM A COPYRIGHT PHOTOGRAPH BY
    PERMISSION OF BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Cornelia W. Conant, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1890
    OPHELIA: "THERE'S RUE FOR YOU." REPRODUCED BY KIND PERMISSION OF
    THE ARTS COMMITTEE, THE WALKER ART GALLERY, LIVERPOOL
    Mrs. E. Normand (Henrietta Rae), Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, 1897
    "STEADY THE DRUMS AND FIFES!" FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL
    PICTURE, BY KIND PERMISSION OF LADY ELIZABETH BUTLER AND OF
    MESSRS. GOUPIL & CO., LONDON AND PARIS, PUBLISHERS OF THE LARGE
    REPRODUCTION RECENTLY ISSUED
    Lady Elizabeth Butler, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    AFTER THE BULL-FIGHT
    FROM THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Miss Margaret Cameron, Painter]

    [Illustration: WINTRY WEATHER AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE Lily
    Blatherwick (Mrs. A. S. Hartrick), Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    A YORKSHIRE TROUT STREAM.
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Miss Alice Fanner, Painter
    PORTRAIT OF MISS ANNA ALMA-TADEMA. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Miss Anna Alma-Tadema, Painter]

    [Illustration: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, CONTEMPORARY
    BABY'S TOILETTE. REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL PASTEL, BY
    PERMISSION OF MESSRS. DURAND-RUEL & SONS, PARIS THE OWNERS OF
    THE COPYRIGHT.
    Miss Mary Cassatt, Pastellist and Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    FROM THE ORIGINAL PEN-DRAWING
    Miss Jessie M. King, Illustrator]

    [Illustration: THE MUSIC LESSON Mrs. J. M. Swan, Painter PANEL
    OF A SCREEN AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING Miss Amy Sawyer,
    Painter]

    [Illustration: BRITISH AND AMERICAN SCHOOLS, CONTEMPORARY.
    OPHELIA. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY THE AUTOTYPE CO., NEW OXFORD
    STREET, LONDON
    Miss Offor (Mrs. F. Littler), Painter, England.]

    [Illustration: PRAYER. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE, FROM A
    CARBON-PRINT PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS Mrs.
    Cecilia Wentworth, Painter, U.S.A., America.]

    [Illustration: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, CONTEMPORARY
    THE PEACE BALL AFTER THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: THE FRENCH
    OFFICERS, LAFAYETTE AND ROCHAMBEAU, BEING INTRODUCED TO
    WASHINGTON'S MOTHER. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION OF C. KLACKNER,
    HAYMARKET, LONDON
    Miss Jennie Brownscombe, Painter]

    [Illustration: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, CONTEMPORARY.
    PORTRAIT. REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    KINDLY LENT BY THE ARTIST.
    Miss Cecilia Beaux, Painter.]

    [Illustration: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, CONTEMPORARY
    THE BAMBOO FENCE. FROM A WOODCUT DESIGNED IN THE JAPANESE MANNER
    AND PRINTED IN COLOURS BY JAPANESE WORKMEN. REPRODUCED BY
    PERMISSION OF C. KLACKNER, NEW YORK, U.S.A., AND 12, HAYMARKET,
    LONDON. DATE OF COPYRIGHT, 1904
    Miss Helen Hyde, Designer]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1755-1842
    Portrait of Madame Vigée Le Brun and her Daughter. After the
    painting in the Louvre, from a Photograph by Braun, Clément &
    Co., Paris
    Madame Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, Painter
    1755-1842]



Of Women Painters in France

By Léonce Bénédite. Translated into English by Edgar Preston


Woman in Art is a fruitful subject. It is both psychological and
æsthetic, involving as it does a question of paramount interest. At
the same time it includes a special up-to-date character, by virtue of
the grave questions arising from the position of woman in our social
system of to-day. It is, indeed, the position of woman which has for
so long a period set limits to her production of creations of the
mind, and her position has had a distinct bearing on her inspiration.

Thus it will be grasped, in these times of ours when the movement for
the total emancipation of woman has commenced, and when the first
franchises granted to her have already borne conclusive results, how
it is that our honoured colleague, the editor of this book, has been
led, both as an artist and as a writer on art, to conduct a sort of
historical examination enabling one to understand the position woman
has won in the realms of art in the past, and permitting one to
foresee the place she is called upon to occupy in the future.

With regard to the productions of the mind, it becomes necessary to
establish a well-defined distinction, at least in so far as the past,
anterior to the 19th century, is concerned, between the position of
women artists and that of literary women. The literary woman, like the
man of letters, was not subjected to any special obligation beyond the
official sanction granting her the privilege of publication--a
sanction which bore only on the question of morals and religion. Every
woman was free to write without let or hindrance, without any
preliminary education, and even without going through the formalities
of publication or the necessities of printing, since a famous woman
like Madame de Sévigné owed her celebrity to letters which were not
destined to be made public. This explains the number of charming
writers among women who have added lustre to French literature by
their novels, stories, or simply by their letters, and enables one to
realise how these women authors are, in contradistinction to women
artists, persons of high standing. The chronicles of the Hôtel de
Rambouillet constitute an interesting little chapter in the history of
letters in France, just as the "Précieuses Ridicules" or the "Femmes
Savantes" of Molière reveal to us the defects and eccentricities into
which the literary pretensions of the feminine world had fallen in the
17th century. It cannot, however, be denied that the fair sex freely
infused into the literature of that period spontaneity, life and
spirit, piquancy, affectation, and the delicate sentiments inherent to
its nature, and that it had its share of influence on French taste at
that time.

Altogether different is the position of their sisters, the
women-painters. Let us first look into that of the men. Painters
formerly were part of a Guild such as that of the Drapers, Bakers and
Butchers, and in their case it was a Guild which was far from
occupying the first place in the hierarchy of Guilds. The Butchers
were beyond doubt higher up in the scale than the painters. The
painters were subjected to narrow and despotic regulations; rigorous
conditions governed both apprenticeship and mastership, conditions
hardly encouraging to those who had a vocation, more especially in the
case of women, ill-protected by the weakness of their sex, by
prevalent custom, and ill-adapted for the struggle. The _régime_ of
the Académies, which followed that of the Guilds, did not bring in its
wake conditions in any degree profitable to womankind. The Académie de
Saint-Luc, while pretending to safeguard the professional interests of
artists, displayed such tyrannical pretensions that a certain number
of artists rose in revolt against it, and appealed to the Royal power,
which, approached by its chief painter, Charles Le Brun, came to their
rescue, by helping them to found the celebrated Académie Royale de
Peinture et de Sculpture (1666). The Académie Royale proved itself
somewhat more liberal. It set no limits to the reception of those who
seemed worthy of its suffrages; we know that it welcomed into its
bosom a number of strangers of merit, and that it opened its doors to
women. Therein lies a victory of appreciable importance, if one
considers the energy and the talent which women artists were compelled
to display, in order to conquer ancient prejudices in so signal a
fashion. Henceforth a place was assigned in art to women, a place
still hedged in with limitations, and which could be attained only by
the few privileged ones. For, in its turn, the Académie served the
purpose of a few, but not that of the many. The Académie reserved the
monopoly of exhibitions exclusively for its members; and artists who
did not, in one way or other, belong to this congregation, were
allowed to exhibit their works in public only once a year. It was on
the one day of the Octave of Corpus Christi, for a space of two hours,
in the open air, and within the circumference of the Place Dauphine.
All great artists had to submit to this treatment, ere they could
force the portals of the Académie. But times have changed! Our
contemporaries, so inconstant, so impatient, who wear out the
attention of the public by the excessive multiplicity of their
exhibitory manifestations, should occasionally think of the conditions
under which their forerunners laboured.

Imagine a woman placed in the midst of these quarrels and struggles of
rival Academies, with men in strong and often fierce antagonism on all
sides of her; picture not only these general difficulties, but those
of a more particular sort which arise from the disabilities of her
sex, her subordinate state; think of the drawbacks--the prejudices,
the _convenances_ to be considered, and then the embarrassing
promiscuity of life in studio and school, particularly as regards the
study from the living model--and one can realise how brave, how
energetic, or how ambitious must be the woman who would win the title
of Artist.

It is clear that the Royal Academy's liberal measure in opening its
doors to women of talent was an event of some importance, from the
moral point of view at any rate. It was the public recognition of
woman's capacity in matters of art, the official consecration of merit
which might come to light; also it afforded a goal to strive for--a
goal hard to reach and very remote, doubtless, but still a goal
possible of attainment to the most courageous and the most hopeful
among women. The real, as distinct from the moral, advantages were,
however, rather limited. From 1663, the date which marks the admission
of the first woman artist, to 1783, when the last was admitted--that
is to say during a period of eighty years--exactly fifteen women
painters were elected, and among them were three foreigners. In 1770,
indeed, on the nomination of Mlle. Giroust, wife of Roslin, the
painter, it was decided that, as there were already in the company two
other women previously elected, there must not be more than four women
in all within the Academy. This measure of restriction was renewed in
1783 and ratified by Royal ordinance on the election of Mme. Vigée Le
Brun.

Nevertheless there was an appreciable number of women artists in
France throughout the course of the 18th century. Their social rank
was strictly confined. There were no "women of quality," such as were
to be found in the world of letters, no representatives of the
_bourgeoisie_ even. The women artists, with very rare exceptions, all
belonged to artist families. They were the wives, the daughters, the
sisters or the nieces of artists, and this tradition, as we shall see,
even continued long into the 19th century. Catherine Duchemin, the
first woman elected to the Academy, was the wife of the sculptor,
Girardon, while Geneviève and Madelaine Boulogne, both academicians,
were related to distinguished painters of that name. Mlle. Reboul was
Mme. Vien, and Mme. Labille des Vertus became Mme. Vincent on her
second marriage. Then we have Mlle. Natoire, sister of the director of
the Academy of France, Catherine van Loo, one of the innumerable
family of Van Loo, Mme. de Valsaureaux, _née_ Parrocel, of the no less
numerous family of Parrocel, Mme. Therbouch, _née_ Liscewska, all this
family, father, mother, and daughters alike, being painters; and Mme.
Vigée herself, who married the picture dealer Le Brun, was the
daughter of a portrait painter.

During the 17th and 18th centuries these great artist families
intermarried to such an extent as to form a series of veritable
dynasties--for instance, those of the Coypels, the Coustous, the Van
Loos, the Boulognes, the Parrocels, and the Vernets, to name but a few
of the most renowned. Artist families became allied just as do those
of lawyers and merchants. Thus their social life grew more limited,
each category more and more distinct and apart, for these artist
families rarely strayed beyond their own _milieu_. And those very
circumstances which tended to retard the development of the artistic
calling in woman exerted their influence over the inspiration of the
female artist. The impossibility of pursuing very far the study of
anatomical drawing, owing to the nudity of the model, diverted them
almost entirely to the studies of observation and of imitation, to
portrait work, and flowers and animals and still-life. Later, when
they obtained greater liberty, they devoted themselves to _genre_ of a
size and kind demanding less substantial preparation. But as for
composition, they never touched "history," as it was termed--that is,
lofty, heroic or allegorical subjects--and if there should chance to
have been any exception to this rule, it was simply in the direction
of religious _motifs_.

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, ABOUT 1793-1824
    Portrait of Gaëtano Apollino Baldassare Vestris, Dancer
    (1729-1808). Reproduced from a Photograph by permission of
    Braun, Clément & Co., Paris
    Madame Adèle Romany, née de Romance, Painter
    exhibited from 1793 to 1824]

Further, they long affected what may be called medium processes:
pastel, water-colour, miniature, all kinds of work offering
opportunity of finish and _éclat_. They showed a partiality for oil
painting after the manner of the smaller Dutch masters, who had no
more faithful imitators in all France. Mme. Vien, Mme. de Valsaureaux,
_née_ Parrocel, and particularly Mme. Vallayer Coster--"_femme qui fut
un habile homme_," according to the verses written in her
honour--excelled in this style.

Some of the "_Académistes_"--to use the old French expression--won
real celebrity, but few there were who achieved lasting glory. In the
reign of Louis XIV, the woman artist whose reputation shone with the
clearest lustre was Elisabeth Sophie Chéron, who excelled in all the
arts--for she was a clever painter, a consummate musician, a poet of
merit and _femme d'esprit_ into the bargain. Following the general
rule she belonged to one of the numerous artist families. Daughter of
a painter (Louis Chéron), she was also sister of a painter. This
latter, who was her junior, had talent, but not to the extent of the
elder. Élisabeth Sophie Chéron was of Huguenot family, as was
frequently the case among the Academicians, although, from what absurd
prejudice I know not, the _réformés_ were regarded as less artistic
than other folk. But in 1668,--she was twenty then--terrified no doubt
by the ever-increasing persecution of the Protestants--a persecution
which was soon to result in the Edict of Nantes--she, like her sister,
abjured her faith, whereas her brother, remaining true to the family
faith, was forced to take refuge in London, where he died.[1]

[1] Several Académiciens of the reformed religion were excluded, or
obliged to submit to the Catholic religion.

Sophie translated into French the Psalms of David, which her brother
illustrated admirably, and she has left at least one important
engraved work, but above all, she has left a number of portraits of
well-known people of her time, portraits that the sitters made her
copy four and even five times.

Among other "_Académistes_," interesting if not so well known, was
that sister of the "_Visitandine_" order, Anne Marie Trésor, who
decorated with religious subjects the church of the monastery of the
"Dames de Ste. Marie de Chaillot." She was received by the Academy in
1676, and the choice of the Academy showed, as its accepted members
were of such different views, that the body was after all somewhat
broad in character. Another proof of this liberal spirit is to be
found in the fact that the Academy received foreign artists within its
body. There were three of them; the first was Mlle. Haverman, of Dutch
origin, who was, however, excluded shortly after her election--she
attempted to justify her election by sending in a painting which was
not her own, but the work of her master, Van Huysum. The second
foreign "_Académiste_" was specially illustrious and worthy of the
honour conferred on her. She was Rosalba Carriera, a Venetian, a woman
who was really original, and whose reputation has lived through the
centuries, but about whom, in this chapter devoted to France, I must
not speak at length. The last of the three was Mme. Terbouche, or,
more exactly, Therbousch, who, although born in 1728 at Berlin, was
numbered by our old museum catalogues in the ranks of the French
School.

May 31st, 1783, was an exceptionally important date for the Academy,
in respect of women artists. On that day were received Mme. Vigée Le
Brun and Mme. Adélaïde Labille Guyard (or Guiard). One may say that at
that very hour began officially the rivalry which constantly existed
between the two women, both of real merit, throughout their careers--a
rivalry which has been maintained in the preference shown for one or
the other, after death, by their historians. Mme. Vigée Le Brun was
the more celebrated of the two, and rightly so, for one might say that
of all the women painters of her time she had a personality quite her
own, quite feminine, rich in grace, ease, variety of attitude, gesture
and composition, discreet and delicate affectedness, freshness and
brightness. Mme. Vigée Le Brun was the daughter of a somewhat mediocre
painter, and the wife of a well-known picture dealer, whom she married
when quite young. She had lessons from Doyen, Greuze and Joseph
Vernet, and her success was quickly achieved. Mlle. Adélaïde Labille
des Vertus, the daughter of a mercer, was married to a certain Guyard,
a neighbour. She did not live long with him, and had lessons from an
old friend, the painter Vincent (the father), and afterwards from La
Tour. While Mme. Le Brun, whose work was admired by Marie Antoinette,
was supported by the Court, Mme. Guyard secretly made friends in the
body of the Academy itself, painting the portraits of first one member
and then another. On the day of the election, she seemed to be
overcoming her rival, whom her friends succeeded in putting on one
side because the rules of the Academy forbade the traffic in pictures.
Mme. Le Brun was received only by order of the King. Her own
autobiography, as well as the pamphlets of the time, depict for us the
powerful rivalry which existed, and also the many calumnies with which
the three women painters were attacked (there was a third candidate,
Mme. Vallayer Coster), even in their private life, the persecution of
offensive insinuations, and the existence of the accusation so often
levelled against women painters, that their work is not their own.
Posterity has reconciled the rivals on the walls of our galleries. If
Mme. Vigée Le Brun certainly holds pride of place, Mme. Guyard, by her
more solid talent, perhaps more characteristic, has an enviable
position at her side.

By the side of these celebrated women there are a few others of whom
the recollection is not quite so keen, but who were not without a
touching grace, though they lived their life within the sphere of
their masters' influence, illuminated by the renown of these masters
and breathing their atmosphere. It would not be right to say that
these women artists copied their masters, or slavishly imitated them,
but they transposed their qualities, elevated them by feminising them.
Of these, I may mention Mlle. Ledoux, who followed in the wake of
Greuze; Mlle. Marguerite Gérard, who lived under the shadow of
Fragonard; and that exquisite and sorrowful figure, Mlle. Constance
Mayer, whose devotion for her master Prudhon found its supreme
expression in her tragic end. Less brilliant, rather hidden in the
twilight of history, these women yet exercise on our thoughts an
influence more subtle and delicate, and more penetrating.

The approach of the great national crisis, and even the worst days of
that period, at the same time glorious yet barbaric, did not
extinguish the zeal of the women painters. It seems rather as though
they shut themselves up in the study of their art so as to secure a
refuge for their hopes and their dreams. In the first "Salons" of the
century, one is surprised to find works by a comparatively large
number of women painters. In 1800, of 180 exhibitors they number 25;
eight years later, in the "Salon" of 1808, they are 46 out of 311. The
difficulties set up by the Academy were overcome, the liberty to
exhibit was a fresh encouragement, even an exceptional stimulus. The
figures, therefore, rise still further in the first quarter of the
century, so that in 1831 the women number 149 out of 873 exhibitors.
The "staff," so to speak, of the women artists of that day,
surrounding Mme. Vigée Le Brun, whose glorious and somewhat
chequered career did not close till 1842, included a number of
distinguished women, such as Mlle. Bevic and Mlle. Capet, pupils of
Mme. Guyard; Mme. Chaudet, the wife of the sculptor; Mlle. Eulalie
Morin; Mme. Adèle Romance, who also signed Romany, or Romany de
Romance; the "good" Mlle. Godefroid, pupil of Baron Gérard, who helped
him in so many of the portraits of contemporary cosmopolitan people of
distinction, commissions for which rained in the master's studio,
after the entry of the allied forces into Paris. Later on, we have
Mlle. Cogniet; Mme. Filleul; Mme. Rude, the wife of the great
sculptor, who had a severe yet confident talent. Lastly, there was the
woman artist who benefited by all the advantages of fashion, Mme.
Haudebourt-Lescot.

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1755-1842
    MADAME VIGÉE LE BRUN AND HER DAUGHTER. AFTER THE PAINTING IN THE
    LOUVRE, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Madame Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, Painter
    1755-1842]

Mlle. Lescot, wife of Haudebourt, the architect, and pupil of
Lethière--mischievous tongues, of course, declared that he painted her
pictures--was a strange creature, who, at the start, owed the
popularity she obtained as much to her personal charm as to her real
talent. Her first success was in the drawing-room, where people
admired her dances. "She was," says a writer, "ugly and captivating,
with crooked eyes and a charming expression, her mouth ill-shaped, but
tender and inviting," such as Ingres represented her in one of his
finest pencil drawings.

Hitherto, women had certainly banished themselves into the domain of
portrait or still-life painting, that is to say, they had done little
that was not sheer copying. But, little by little, under the influence
of the lesser Dutch masters, who had been passionately appreciated
since the close of the previous reign, and thanks to the opening of
the Royal Collections at the Luxembourg Palace, where they could be
studied and copied, the women-painters, following the example of the
masters who gained inspiration therefrom, began to devote themselves
to landscape and to _genre_. They sought out little touching subjects,
which very frequently bordered on the ridiculous. For example, "the
child's bed catches fire through the carelessness of the nurse who has
fallen asleep, and the dog attempts to waken her."

Mlle. Lescot cut herself adrift from all these insipidities. The
opportunity came for her to spend several years in Rome. She was
struck by the popular customs of the country, by its colour and that
singular and picturesque charm which Granet had been the first to
discover--the charm which, after her own time, was to be made further
known by the paintings of the well-known Léopold Robert. As a matter
of fact, she was practically the creator of the type of exotic
subjects borrowed from Italy, to which numerous artists in France
devoted themselves--Hébert, Bonnat and Jules Lefebvre, to name but a
few of the most important of them. In choosing her _motifs_ she
displayed wit and inventiveness, and at times a delicate grace,
notably in her first pictures, before the desire to satisfy a daily
increasing connection had driven her into unduly hurried work. Her
technique, too, was brisk, yet careful, as it should be in small works
such as hers. Her lightly-touched lithographs, together with those
which she did "after" her own pictures, contributed to popularise her
special subjects and her name.

The novelty of these paintings, devoted to the cult of "local colour,"
caused them to be adopted as "romantic." It was the same with Schnetz
and Léopold Robert, who shared the popularity. But the real "Young
romantic" among artists was Mlle. de Fauveau. What one discovers with
regard to her is that she is not a painter but a sculptor. The Royal
Academy of the 17th century had already boasted certain wood carvings
by _la demoiselle_ Massé. Also, there was Mme. Falconet. But the great
and austere art was cultivated only as a rare exception by woman.
Mlle. Félicie de Fauveau was the first pre-Raphaelite, although the
return to the primitive Italian masters of the 16th century dates
further back, but with cropped head under a velvet toque, after the
style of Raphael himself, she unceasingly uttered curses against that
noble personality, whose brush produced the highest incarnation of the
art of painting.

But the naturalist movement it was that witnessed the development of
the greatest artistic personality in the feminine world of
to-day--Rosa Bonheur. The _rôle_ played by Rosa Bonheur is important
from the feminine point of view, for the reason that she broke away
from ancient traditions. She revealed what woman was capable of in the
matter of energy, of continuity of purpose, of method, of scientific
direction, in a word, in the indispensable impetus of inspiration.
Before her day, the woman-painter had always been looked upon rather
as a phenomenon, or her place in the domain of art was conceded to her
on the grounds that she was indulging in an elevating and tasteful
pastime, coming under the category of "accomplishments." Rosa Bonheur
gave to woman a position equal to that of man. She won for herself
unanimous admiration, based, not on the singularity of her life, not
on looseness of morals, not on social triumphs, not on friends at
Court, but on her robust, virile, observant and well-considered
talent, which in its turn was based on a primary study of anatomy and
osteology, developed by a continuous observation of the constitution
and the life of the animal world. Her long life was crowned with
glory. She held an exceptional place in art, akin to that of George
Sand in the world of letters.

From that day forth, there appeared a new phase in the artistic life
of woman. Art became for her, not merely an intellectual pastime, but
a vocation and a career. Rosa Bonheur lived nearly to the close of the
nineteenth century, seeing many revolutions both in French life and in
French art, but remaining always quite true to herself. Perhaps the
most uncertain period of all, historically, so far as women were
concerned, was that period of wave-like fluctuation in French art that
occurred in the seventies and eighties, reflecting itself in the work
of such women painters as Angèle Dubos, Jeanne Fichel, Marie Petiet,
Laure de Chatillon, Félicie Schneider, Eva Gonzalès, Marie Nicolas,
and Rosa Bonheur's successor--her heiress, so to speak--Madame
Virginie Demont-Breton, the daughter, wife and niece of a family of
distinguished artists. She has achieved a well-deserved popularity
with her subjects of popular and rustic life, and, like Rosa Bonheur,
has attained the rank of officer of the Legion of Honour. Two other
feminine personalities have attracted the attention of both public
and artists, the one, the sister-in-law of Manet, the delightful
Mademoiselle Morisot, who has, so to speak, improved on the refinement
of her master; the other, that strange and alluring young Russian
girl, who adopted France as her Fatherland, and whom France adopted as
artist. Marie Bashkirtseff, struck down by a cruel and premature
death, at the age of twenty-three, revealed something far more than
mere happy gifts. One is surprised at the amount of studies produced
by the unfortunate and beautiful creature in the short space allotted
to her for her life-work.

We now enter upon the present period of woman's artistic life, the
active period, let us call it. We no longer trouble about her place at
our exhibitions, since she has nowadays her own exhibition, or rather
exhibitions proper to herself. Among the many youthful _amateurs_ who
constitute the bulk of feminine artists, one finds a number of true
artists. To name a few: Mademoiselle Louise Abbéma, Madame Madeleine
Lemaire, Madame Nanny Adam, Mlle. Fiérard, Mme. Vallet-Bisson, Madame
Chatrousse, Madame Darmesteter, Mme. Delacroix-Garnier, Mme.
Baury-Saurel, and many others, as this book proves.

Several women-artists have won their place in the National Museum,
wherein first rank is held, after Rosa Bonheur and Mme. Demont-Breton,
by Madame Marie Cazin, painter and sculptor, Madame Victoria Dubourg
(widow of Fantin-Latour), Mlle. Dufau, who has just been commissioned
to execute some important decorations for the Sorbonne, Mlle.
Delasalle, Mlle. Marie Gautier, Señora Eva Gonzalès, and a couple of
semi-naturalised foreigners, Miss Mary Cassatt, an American, and Mlle.
Breslau, a Swiss--both dames of the Legion of Honour.

To conclude, women are proving just now not only that the domain of
art should be open to them as freely as it is to men, on the grounds
of right and reason, but also that they are specially gifted by their
delicate sensitiveness, their quickness of comprehension, their
initiative faculty, and lastly, by all the phases of their natural
temperament, and by their intelligence to endow art with the elements
of expression and beauty proper to womankind.

                                                      LÉONCE BÉNÉDITE.

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1768-1826
    PORTRAIT OF MARIE PAULINE, PRINCESSE BORGHESE. AFTER THE
    PAINTING AT VERSAILLES, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN, PARIS
    Madame Marie Guilhelmine Benoits, Painter
    1768-1826]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVII AND XVIII CENTURIES
    PORTRAIT OF MADAME VICTOIRE DE FRANCE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    PAINTING AT VERSAILLES, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN CLEMENT AND
    CO., PARIS
    Madame Guyard, née Labille des Vertus, Painter
    1749-1803]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF MARIE DE RABUTIN-CHANTAL, MARQUISE DE
    SÉVIGNÉ (1626-1696) AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING AT VERSAILLES,
    FROM A COPYRIGHT PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN, PARIS Mademoiselle de
    Vanteuil, Painter
    17th Century]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    THE SONS OF CHARLES X. OF FRANCE. AFTER AN ORIGINAL PICTURE IN
    THE MUSÉE DE VERSAILLES, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN, PARIS
    Madame Anna Rosalie Filleul, née Bocquet, Painter
    Died 1794]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF THE DUC D'ANGOULÊME, SON OF CHARLES X FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS, AFTER AN ORIGINAL
    PASTEL AT VERSAILLES
    Madame Filleul, née Bocquet, Pastellist
    Died 1794]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF MADAME RÉCAMIER IN THE YEAR 1799.
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., AFTER AN ORIGINAL
    PAINTING AT VERSAILLES Madame Eulalie Morin, Painter Late 18th
    Century]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVIII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF ELISABETH OF FRANCE, DUCHESS OF PARMA. AFTER THE
    ORIGINAL PAINTING AT VERSAILLES FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN,
    PARIS
    Madame Adélaïde Guyard, née Labille des Vertus, Painter
    In second marriage Mme. F. A. Vincent
    1749-1803]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    Portrait of Madame Adélaïde D'Orléans (1777-1847). After the
    painting at Chantilly, from a Photograph by Braun, Clément &
    Co., Paris
    Mademoiselle Marie Amélie Cogniet, Painter
    1798-1869]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES
    PORTRAIT OF QUEEN MARIE ANTOINETTE AND HER CHILDREN. AFTER THE
    ORIGINAL PAINTING AT VERSAILLES, FROM A CARBON PRINT BY BRAUN,
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Madame Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, Painter
    1755-1842]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, BETWEEN 1792 AND 1820
    PORTRAIT IN THE PINACOTECA AT TURIN DATED 1792. FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY ALINARI
    Madame Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, Painter
    1755-1842]

    [Illustration: "THE MINIATURE." FROM THE PAINTING IN THE GLASGOW
    GALLERY AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY HANFSTAENGL Madame Caroline de
    Valory, Pupil of Greuze, Painter Early 19th Century]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES
    PORTRAIT OF MADAME LE BRUN, AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE
    NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY HANFSTAENGL
    PORTRAIT OF LOUISE MARIE ADÉLAÏDE DE BOURBON (1753-1821). AFTER
    THE ORIGINAL PAINTING AT VERSAILLES, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    NEWIDEIN, PARIS
    Madame Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, Painter
    1755-1842]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, EARLY XIX CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF AN ACTRESS, PROBABLY MLLE. BÉLIER. REPRODUCED FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY PERMISSION OF BRAUN,
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Mademoiselle Bouilliar, Painter
    Early 19th Century]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    STUDY OF A BULL REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH, BY PERMISSION OF
    BRAUN, CLEMENT & CO., PARIS, OWNERS OF THE COPYRIGHT
    Mademoiselle Rosa Bonheur, Painter
    1822-1899]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, EARLY XIX CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF DAME DE LONGROIS (1763-1826). AFTER THE PASTEL IN
    THE TROCADÉRO FROM A CARBON PRINT BY BRAUN, CLEMENT & CO., PARIS
    Mlle. Marie Gabrielle Capet, Pupil of Madame Guyard, Painter
    1761-1818]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES
    MADAME VIGÉE LE BRUN AT HER EASEL. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    IN THE UFFIZI, FLORENCE, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY W. A. MANSELL &
    CO.
    Madame Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, Painter
    1755-1842]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1778-1821
    THE HAPPY MOTHER. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE LOUVRE,
    PARIS, FROM A COPYRIGHT PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Mademoiselle Marie Françoise Constance Mayer, Painter
    1778-(committed suicide)1821]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES
    PORTRAIT OF MARIE ANTOINETTE, QUEEN OF FRANCE (1755-1793). AFTER
    THE ORIGINAL PAINTING AT VERSAILLES FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN,
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Madame Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, Painter
    1755-1842]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES
    PORTRAIT OF THE DUCHESS OF POLIGNAC. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN,
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Madame Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, Painter
    1755-1842]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1767 TO 1830
    PORTRAIT OF MADAME VILLOT, NÉE BARBIER. FROM A CARBON PRINT BY
    BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Mme. Jeanne Élisabeth Chaudet, née Gabiou, Painter
    1767-1830]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF MARGUERITE J. A. HOUDON, FIRST COUSIN
    OF HOUDON THE SCULPTOR. PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN CLÉMENT & CO. Mlle.
    Marguerite J. A. Houdon, Painter 1771-1795]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1778-1849
    PORTRAIT OF MADAME DE STAËL (1766-1817). AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    PAINTING AT VERSAILLES, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN
    PORTRAIT OF CHARLES MAURICE, PRINCE OF TALLEYRAND-PERIGORD
    (1754-1838). FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN, AFTER THE PAINTING
    AT VERSAILLES
    Mademoiselle Marie Eléonore Godefroid, Painter
    1778-1849]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES
    PORTRAIT OF MADAME MOLÉ-RAYMOND, ACTRESS OF THE
    COMÉDIE-FRANÇAISE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE LOUVRE,
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Madame Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, Painter
    1755-1842]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    "Shepherd Watching his Sheep." After the picture in the Musée de
    Chantilly, from a Copyright Photograph by Braun, Clément & Co.,
    Paris
    Rosa Bonheur, Painter
    1822-1899]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF MARSHAL LEFÈVRE, DUKE OF DANTZIC. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH
    BY NEWIDEIN AFTER THE PAINTING AT VERSAILLES
    Madame C. H. F. Davin, née Mirvault, Painter
    1773-1844]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT (PAINTED BY HERSELF) OF MADAME RUDE,
    PUPIL OF DAVID. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN, PARIS, AFTER THE
    ORIGINAL PAINTING AT DIJON Madame Sophie Rude, née Frémiet,
    Painter
    1797-1867]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, EARLY XIX CENTURY
    A GOOD DAUGHTER. REPRODUCED AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE, FROM AN
    ENGRAVING BY S. W. REYNOLDS
    Madame Antoinette Cécile Haudebourt Lescot, Painter
    1784-1845]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1847
    PLOUGHING IN THE NIVERNAIS. DATED 1847. AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    PAINTING IN THE MUSÉE DU LUXEMBOURG, FROM A CARBON PRINT BY
    BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Mademoiselle Rosa Bonheur, Painter
    1822-1899]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    THE HORSE FAIR. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE IN THE TATE GALLERY,
    LONDON, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY THE AUTOTYPE COMPANY, NEW OXFORD
    STREET, LONDON
    Mademoiselle Rosa Bonheur, Painter
    1822-1899]

    [Illustration: FRENCH IMPRESSIONIST SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF A YOUNG WOMAN SEATED. REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL
    PAINTING BY PERMISSION OF MESSRS. DURAND-RUEL & SONS, PARIS AND
    NEW YORK
    Berthe Morisot, Painter
    1840-1895]

    [Illustration: FRENCH IMPRESSIONIST SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    THE JETTY.--AN OUTDOOR IMPRESSION. REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL
    PAINTING BY PERMISSION OF MESSRS. DURAND-RUEL & SONS, PARIS AND
    NEW YORK
    Berthe Morisot, Painter
    1840-1895]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1879
    THE KING OF THE DESERT. FROM AN ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE PRADO,
    MADRID, DATED 1879. AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. LAURENT & CO.,
    MADRID
    Mademoiselle Rosa Bonheur, Painter
    1822-1899]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, ABOUT 1879
    'BRISCO,' A SHEPHERD'S DOG. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE
    WALLACE COLLECTION, LONDON, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY W. A. MANSELL &
    CO.
    Mademoiselle Rosa Bonheur, Painter
    1822-1899]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1878 AND 1879
    A NEW SONG. FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, DATED 1879, AFTER A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Mademoiselle Angèle Dubos, Painter]

    [Illustration: THE BOUQUET. FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, DATED
    1878, AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS Madame
    Jeanne Fichel, née Samson, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    MISTLETOE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    MESSRS. BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Madame Jacqueline Comerre-Paton, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1878 AND 1881
    THE KNITTER ASLEEP. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE, DATED 1881, FROM
    A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Mademoiselle Marie Petiet, Painter]

    [Illustration: A YOUNG ADOLESCENT. FROM A PICTURE EXHIBITED AT
    THE SALON IN 1878, AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Madame Laure de Chatillon, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1880
    PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL. AFTER AN ORIGINAL PICTURE EXHIBITED AT
    THE PARIS SALON IN 1880
    Madame Armand Émilie Leleux, Painter]

    [Illustration: SITTING FOR A PORTRAIT IN 1806. AFTER THE
    ORIGINAL PICTURE FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.,
    PARIS Mademoiselle Jeanne Rongier, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, ABOUT 1881
    "RÉGALEZ-VOUS, MESDAMES!" AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, DATED
    1881, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Mlle. Jenny Zillhardt, Painter
    BY THE BANK OF A STREAM. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT &
    CO., PARIS
    Mlle. Hermine Waternau. Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1882
    FATHER RICARD. AFTER A PAINTING EXHIBITED AT THE SALON IN 1882,
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Mlle. Marie Nicolas, Painter]

    [Illustration: THE LAST SURVIVORS OF A FAMILY. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH
    OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS Madame
    Félicie Schneider, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF A LADY SEATED. AFTER THE PASTEL IN THE MUSÉE DU
    LUXEMBOURG, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN, PARIS
    Madame Eva Gonzalès, Pastellist
    1849-1883]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, BETWEEN 1882 AND 1898
    CHARITY. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN,
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Madame Uranie Colin-Libour, Painter]

    [Illustration: "FLEURS DE SERRE." FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE
    ORIGINAL PAINTING BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS Madame Alix
    Enault, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1883
    ON THE SEA-SHORE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE LUXEMBOURG,
    PARIS, DATED 1883, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY MESSRS. LÉVY & SONS,
    PARIS
    Madame Virginie Demont-Breton, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1887 TO ABOUT 1892
    BEFORE THE DANCE. AFTER AN ORIGINAL PAINTING DATED 1887, FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN, PARIS
    Madame E. de Tavernier, Painter]

    [Illustration: DESOLATION. AFTER THE ORIGINAL STUDY FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY THE ARTIST Madame Marie Cazin, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1885 AND 1890
    IN THE GYNÆCEUM. DATED 1885. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL
    PAINTING BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Mlle. Diana Coomans, Painter]

    [Illustration: AT LOW TIDE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE, DATED
    1890. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO. Mlle. Eugénie
    Salanson, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "Sleep." Reproduced from a Photograph by permission of Braun,
    Clément & Co., the Owners of the Copyright.
    Francine Charderon, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, FROM 1880 TO THE PRESENT DAY
    THE FRUIT GIRL. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE BY PERMISSION OF
    MESSRS. DURAND-RUEL & SONS, PARIS
    Madame Eva Gonzalès, Painter
    1849-1883]

    [Illustration: STUDY FROM A MODEL. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY THE ARTIST Mademoiselle Dufau,
    Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1880 AND 1894
    A GOOD CIGARETTE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, DATED 1880, FROM
    A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Madame Delphine de Cool, née Fortin, Painter]

    [Illustration: A HOLIDAY AT SOSTHÈNE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    PAINTING, DATED 1894, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Madame Blanche Paymal-Amouroux, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1894
    "STELLA MARIS." AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, DATED 1894, AND
    EXHIBITED AT THE SALON IN 1895, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN,
    PARIS
    Madame Virginie Demont-Breton, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    MATERNAL LOVE. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    BRAUN, CLEMENT & CO., PARIS
    Elizabeth Gardner (Madame W. A. Bouguereau), Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "THE PATHWAY TO THE VILLAGE CHURCH." AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Madame Fanny Fleury, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    THE GODDESSES BEFORE PARIS.
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Élisabeth Sonrel, Painter]

    [Illustration: WINTER. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLEMENT & CO. Mlle. Louise Abbéma,
    Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Elizabeth Gardner (Madame W. A. Bouguereau), Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    MOTHER AND CHILD
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Madame Marie Cazin, Painter]

    [Illustration: THE SHEPHERD AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING Madame
    Marie Cazin, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    IMPRESSION OF A CITY.
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Mademoiselle Dufau, Painter]

    [Illustration: A BASKET OF FLOWERS. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Madame Victoria Dubourg (Fantin-Latour), Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "THE DEPARTURE." REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Madame Vallet-Bisson, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    CHARACTER IN SPAIN
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL STUDY
    Mademoiselle Dufau, Painter]

    [Illustration: STUDY OF TIGERS. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Madame Abran, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "LES CHANDELLES." AFTER AN ORIGINAL PAINTING EXHIBITED AT THE
    SALON IN 1896, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN, PARIS
    Madeleine Carpentier, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    IN SEARCH OF PREY. AFTER AN ORIGINAL PICTURE EXHIBITED AT THE
    PARIS SALON IN 1900, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN
    Mademoiselle E. Hilda, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    ROMEO AND JULIET. AFTER AN ORIGINAL PAINTING EXHIBITED AT THE
    PARIS SALON IN 1900, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN
    Mademoiselle A. Oppenheim, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, ABOUT 1892.
    WILL YOU BUY? AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    MESSRS. BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Mademoiselle Consuélo Fould, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    CHILDREN EATING SOUP IN A CHARITY SCHOOL. FROM AN ORIGINAL
    PICTURE EXHIBITED AT THE PARIS SALON IN 1901. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH
    BY NEWIDEIN
    Mademoiselle E. Herland, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    COURTSHIP FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY BRAUN,
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Mdlle. Achille-Fould, Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "BÉBÉ ET ZIZON." REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN
    Madame Lucas-Robiquet, Painter
    "DO YOU WANT A MODEL?" FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY NEWIDEIN
    Madame Réal del Sarte, Painter]

    [Illustration: THE LESSON. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN CLÉMENT & CO. Mlle. Joséphine Houssay,
    Painter]

    [Illustration: FRENCH SCHOOL, 1903 AND 1904
    PORTRAIT. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Madame Le Roy, Painter]

    [Illustration: FLORA. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS Mademoiselle Claudie,
    Painter]



Women Painters in Belgium and in Holland

By N. Jany. Translated by Edgar Preston


As far as we are able to ascertain, the history of the present subject
takes us back to the time of Hubert and Jean Van Eyck, whose sister
Marguerite made a name for herself in art. In the important volume by
M. J. du Jardin, "L'Art Flamand," there is reproduced a drawing
"after" a miniature by Marguerite Van Eyck, representing St. Catherine
and St. Agnes, but we read elsewhere that "no work can with certainty
be attributed to her."

Among women workers a century later, we find: Clara de Keyzer, Suzanne
Horebout and Anna Smyters, all three of Ghent. Clara de Keyzer, who
flourished about 1530, visited Germany, Italy, France and Spain.
Suzanne Horebout (1503-1545) was the daughter of Gerard Horebout, a
painter of Ghent, who betook himself to England, and became painter to
Henry VIII. Dürer knew him at Antwerp, in 1521, and there paid homage
to the skill of his daughter, who was then barely 18 years of age. She
accompanied her father to England, and was there received with the
utmost favour; she made a rich marriage with John Parcker (or Parker),
one of the King's archers, and died full of honours in her adopted
country.

Anne Smyters who flourished about 1540, is named in words of praise by
Van Mander, Vaernewyck and Guicciardini. She married the celebrated
sculptor, Jean de Heere, and was the mother of Luc de Heere, the
painter, who made a long stay in England, where, among other works of
importance, he did a series of decorative paintings for the Earl of
Lincoln.

Siret's "Dictionnaire" tells us that "in 1868, M. Lescart, a barrister
of Mons, was the possessor of the only known picture by Catherine van
Hemessen. This is a half-length study of the Virgin fondling the
infant Christ, with a background of landscape wherein one perceives
snow. It is painted on wood, and bears the signature: 'Caterina de
Hemessen pingebat.'" But there is in London an interesting portrait of
a man, by her, dated 1552, and an illustration of it will be found on
page 263.

Then comes a series of daughters (and a sister) of famous painters,
viz: Justine van Dyck; Gertrude van Veen; Catherine Pepyn; Catherine
Peeters; Anne-Marie, Françoise-Catherine and Marie-Thérèse van
Thielen; and Laurence-Catherine Ykens. The daughter of Antony van Dyck
was born in London, in 1641. "She was wedded at the age of 12," says
Siret's "Dictionnaire," "to Sir John Stepney de Prendergast, and
abjured Protestantism at Antwerp on the 19th of August, 1660. Left a
widow, she made a second marriage with Martin de Carbonell. Van Dyck's
daughter was unfortunate, for she found herself compelled to ask the
King for a pension, which she obtained."

The daughter of Otto van Veen, known as Venius, the teacher of Rubens,
was born at Antwerp in 1602. She was a pupil of her father, and
married Louis Malo. The Brussels gallery contains a portrait of her
father, from her brush. She died in 1643. The daughter of Martin Pepyn
lived in Antwerp about 1619. She specialised in portrait work, and was
received into the Corporation of St. Luke, of that city, in 1650, by
virtue of being a daughter of the master.

The success obtained by the flower-paintings of Seghers and Breughel
suddenly caused a great development of this special branch of art, to
which, moreover, the celebrated Dutchman Jean-David de Heem, then
domiciled in Antwerp, was a notable contributor. Among the women who
became inspired by their example and followed their technique may be
mentioned: Catherine Peeters, and the three daughters, pupils of the
painter, Jean-Philippe van Thielen (himself a direct disciple of
Seghers), and Laurence-Catherine Ykens.

The registers of the Antwerp Academy for 1784 contain the name of
Marie Baesten, _née_ Ommeganck. Siret's "Dictionnaire" also mentions
(at Bruges), the daughter of Louis de Deyster, the painter. Anne de
Deyster (1690-1747) attracted notice by the perfection with which she
copied her father's pictures. Gertrude de Pelichy, of Utrecht
(1743-1825), was appointed an honorary member of the Imperial and
Royal Academy of Painting in Vienna, and at Bruges she painted the
portrait of the Emperor Joseph II., and that of the Empress
Maria-Theresa.

At the opening of the 19th Century, the Art of the Miniature was
cultivated--as they expressed it in those days--by Marie-Josephe
Dargent of Liège, a daughter and pupil of Michel Dargent, the elder,
Hortense van Baerlen, and Amélie van Assche, whose sister, Isabelle
Catherine, a pupil of her uncle, Henry van Assche, had devoted herself
to landscape painting.

Siret's dictionary then notices a large number of women painters both
historical and _genre_.

Marie-Adelaide Kindt of Brussels, who was a pupil of David and of
Navez, and visited Germany and France; Julie-Anne-Marie Noël,
wife of the painter, J. B. van Eycken, of Brussels; Mme.
Isabelle-Marie-Françoise Geefs, _née_ Corr, of Brussels, a pupil of
Navez; Mme. de Keyzer, _née_ Marie Isabelle Telghuis, wife of the
former director of the Antwerp Academy, Nicaise de Keyzer. As to Mme.
O'Connel, _née_ Frédérique Miethe, of Berlin, a pupil of Begas and of
Gallait, "there is (writes C. Lemonnier in his 'Histoire des Beaux
Arts en Belgique'), in her wild paintings, as it were, a reflection of
Rubens."

Mlle. C. de Vrient, of Ghent, sister of the painters Albert and
Julien, was a flower painter of distinction, like Mlle. Renoz, Mlle.
de Franchimont, Mlle. F. Capesius and Mlle. E. de Vigne. Marie
Ommeganck, a sister of the renowned Balthazar Ommeganck, surnamed the
"Racine des Moutons," painted several landscapes in the manner of her
brother; Mlle. Euphrosine Beernaert, of Ostend, a pupil of L. Kuhnen,
painted landscapes characteristic of Zeeland and the Campine. The
Brussels Gallery has several of her works, including _Les Vieux
Chênes, île de Walcheren_, and a _Lisière de Bois en Hollande_.

Before citing the names of the professional women painters who
continue to contribute to the fame of the Belgian School, let me say a
word in admiration of the talent of sundry "amateurs" (as they are
called, to distinguish them from the others), chief among whom is
H.R.H. the Comtesse de Flandre. The small-sized portraits in oils
painted by the Duchesse d'Ursel are restrained in manner and full of
charm.

Furthermore, the pastel portraits by the Baroness Lambert de
Rothschild attract attention by the richness of their colouring and
their firm drawing, while those of the Comtesse Ghislaine de Caraman
impress one by their distinction and their style. Madame Philippson,
who is at present devoting herself specially to sculpture, has
exhibited oil paintings, boldly handled and decorative in effect, and
Madame Rolin-Jacquemyns has engraved in most skilful fashion several
etchings representing "The Desolate Spots of the Campine."

The most notable of the women-painters of the Belgian School to-day is
certainly Madame Marie Collart, who with rare skill, has chosen a path
to herself whereon she walks alone with an admirable instinct for
intimate rusticity, showing much deep feeling. The painting of Mlle.
Anna Boch, on the other hand, is bright and gay. She formed one of the
famous group of the XX., and following the example of several of its
members, she has now turned her attention to the special study of
light in the open air. Mlle. Louise Héger, after painting the lonely
_dunes_ of Flanders, and the Campine, has been studying and skilfully
representing the slaty tints of the high plateau of the Ardennes.

The most interesting of the "Ménages d'artistes" existing at present
in the Belgian School is that of the Wytsmans. While Rodolph Wytsman
seeks out the characteristic aspects of the landscapes of Brabant and
the silent spots among the Flemish towns, Mme. Juliette Wytsman, for
her part represents, so to speak, the floral life of the sites chosen
by her husband. She has indeed created a _genre_ in which she is
without a rival.

The daughters of the German engraver, Hoppe, one of whom has married
Bernier, the animal painter, and the other the landscapist, Gilsoul,
have likewise attained celebrity.

    [Illustration: DUTCH SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    THE MERRY YOUNG MAN. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY HANFSTAENGL AFTER THE
    PAINTING IN THE RIJKSMUSEUM AMSTERDAM.
    Judith Leyster, Painter
    1600(?)-1660]

The daughters and granddaughters of famous artists form yet another
section. Mlle. Alice Ronner, of Brussels, daughter of Mme. Henriette
Ronner, is beyond dispute the foremost painter of still-life in
Belgium to-day. Her technical qualities are of the highest order, her
_mise-en-page_, her draughtsmanship and her colour are in the grand
style, and her works one and all have a really masterly air. Mlle.
Marguerite Verboeckhoven, the granddaughter of the famous animal
painter, has set herself to study the delicate gradations of colour
seen on the Belgian littoral. Mlle. Verwée, daughter of the painter of
the _Beau Pays de Flandre_, exhibits portraits, which display the
wealth of her palette; and the still-life subjects by Mlle. Georgette
Meunier, daughter of the engraver, Jean Baptiste, and niece of the
great Constantin Meunier, are delicate both in design and in
colouring. She is a pupil of Alfred Stevens.

Mme. Destrée-Danse and Mlle. Louise Danse, daughters of Auguste Danse,
the engraver, have revealed themselves worthy of their father's high
gifts. Mlle. Wesmael, in some remarkable landscapes, and Mme. Marie
Durand, who has done some interesting heads, both prove that in
Auguste Danse the teacher is fully worthy of the artist.

With regard to Mlle. Alix d'Anethan, C. Lemonnier, in his "History of
Belgian Fine Art," writes in the following terms:--"In the Antwerp
Salon of 1882 were two canvases by Mlle. d'Anethan, _L'affiche_ and
_L'Enfant malade_, which had the freshness and the limpidity of
Chardin, with a grace, a delicacy of touch, a feminine sense revealing
the teaching of that most imperious of masters, Alfred Stevens." Mlle.
Berthe Art, too, followed this prodigious master painter. She has made
her position by means of pastels which, while preserving their natural
charm, have all the solidity of oil-paintings.

Mlle. Marie Antoinette Marcotte at first devoted herself to the
representation of the life of the poor. Since then, however, she has
created an altogether original _genre_, which has won for her many a
success--the painting of glass-house interiors. She was "coached" by
Emile Claus, the landscapist, among whose pupils were Mme. de Weert
and Mlle. Montigny.

The number of women painters is ever on the increase. There were as
many as thirty-nine represented at the Brussels Salon of 1848, while
at the last Brussels Salon in 1903, they were more than a hundred; and
to close this rapid survey of feminine art in Belgium, I may record a
success of another kind. In 1904, Mlle. L. Brohée, after the various
eliminating trials, found herself among the half-dozen artists
permitted to take part in the final examination for the Prix de Rome.

Machteld van Lichtenberg, wife of Egbert van Boecop, is the first name
of a Dutch woman painter given in Siret's "Historical Dictionary." She
was born at Utrecht, of noble family, and made a speciality in
portrait painting. Her name is mentioned by J. van Beverwyck. Her
daughter Cornélie also took up painting, and died at a great age in
1629.

Marguerite Godewyck, of Dordrecht (1627-1677), was styled a "second
Anne Schurman." She was one of the most learned women of her time, and
was further surnamed "La Perle de la Jeunesse de Dordrecht," and "La
Fleur du Paradis des Arts et des Sciences." She specialised in
portrait painting. Judith Leyster, of Haarlem, likewise enjoyed great
fame. From the year 1613 she was a member of the Guild of St. Luke,
of Haarlem. In 1635 she had a pupil, Guillaume Wauters by name, who on
leaving her entered the studio of Franz Hals. She was married at
Heemstede on the 1st of June, 1636, to the painter Jean Molenaer, also
a native of Haarlem. She is eulogistically mentioned by Th.
Schrevelius, the historian of Haarlem, who describes her as a famous
woman, justly, as he remarks, called "the true guide in the
arts"--(_de Ware Leyster in de Konst_), her name Leyster signifying
'Guide.' She died in 1660.

The most celebrated of the Dutch women painters of the 18th century
was Rachel Ruysch, of Haarlem. Her flowers and fruit, painted with
keen spirit and with extraordinary firmness, are extremely rich and
varied in their arrangement. She was a pupil of Guillaume Aelst. In
1695 she married Jurian Pool, and was admitted into the Hague
Corporation of Painters in 1701, the same year as her husband. Without
neglecting her duties as a mother (she had ten children) she was
constantly devoted to her art. In 1708 she was appointed Court Painter
of the Elector Palatine. Poets have sung the virtues and the gifts of
this renowned woman.

Agathe and Cornélie van der Myn, sister and daughter of Herman van der
Myn, accompanied the latter when he settled in London. Notable work
was produced by three miniaturists: Henriette van Pee, wife of Herman
Wolters, was born at Amsterdam, in 1692, and became her father's
pupil. Peter the Great and the King of Prussia visited her studio,
which had a high reputation, and the customary poets wrote the
customary verses in her honour. Caroline-Petronille van Cuyck was made
an honorary member of the _Pictura_ of the Hague, in 1777. Anne
Folkema, who lived between 1695 and 1768, was an active assistant of
her brother, Jacques, in his numerous works. Nor must one forget Alida
Carré, who confined herself, for the most part, to painting fans;
Mlle. Van Kooten, whose name was inscribed in 1765 on the registers of
the Confrérie de St. Luc, at Utrecht; Marguerite Wulfraat, of Arnhem
(1678-1738), and Elisabeth Gertrude Wassenberg, of Groningue,
(1726-1782), who painted _genre_ and portraits.

At the opening of the 19th century the women painters of still-life,
flowers and fruit, were still in large numbers.

An interesting figure who has left a poetical memory is Cornélie
Lamme, of Dordrecht, who married J. B. Scheffer, and was the mother of
the celebrated painters Henry and Ary, who belong to the French
School. After the death of her husband she settled in Paris, and there
ended her days. Her attainments, her wit, her eminent merits, made her
one of the most remarkable women of her day. She was a draughtsman and
an engraver.

The name of Henriette Ronner is one of great popularity. This
indefatigable artist is known as "the painter of cats," and she has
charmingly "hit off" both the heavy laziness of the mature animal, and
the frolicsomeness of the kitten.

The flower pictures by Mme. van de Sande-Bakhuyzen, of the Hague, so
well known, tempted that excellent engraver, Philippe Zilcken, who has
"translated" with marvellous success their freshness and their
_éclat_. Mme. Bilders van Bosse, of the Hague, is well known by her
skilfully drawn and powerfully painted landscapes, and Mlle. Thérèse
Schwartze, of Amsterdam, a painter of high merit, has the art of
giving character to a portrait; and knows how to group her figures and
paint them in strong and sombre tones. Mme. Mesdag van Houten, of the
Hague, wife of the famous marine painter, affects the landscape at
dark, and realises fully the melancholy tenderness of the hour.

It may be interesting now to name a truly remarkable artist who never
exhibits--Mlle. Barbara van Houten, niece of Mme. Mesdag van Houten.
She is an excellent painter of figure pictures and still-life; her
etchings are of the highest quality, and embrace a large number of
subjects--interiors with lamp effects, children's heads, landscapes,
dead birds, bouquets of enormous sunflowers and gaudy tulips. Further,
she has interpreted in masterly fashion, Eugène Delacroix, Jules
Dupré, Gustave Courbet and other great masters of the French School.

Mention must be made of Mme. Bisschop-Robertson, who paints popular
subjects with astounding vigour; Mme. Marie Heyermans, whose pictures
deal with the life and surroundings of the poor; Mlles. Anna Abrahams
and Anna Kerling, whose charming still-life pieces are coloured now in
bright, now in sombre, tones; Mme. la baronne Hogendorp S' Jacob, of
the Hague, who has turned her attention to flower painting; Mlle.
Nelly Bodenheim, who does some very clever comic scenes, for the
benefit of children; and Mlle. Wally Moes, of Amsterdam, a painter of
portraits and peasant subjects.

Last we come to Mlle. Marius, whose fair-tinted and most distinguished
still-life works have been seen and admired. She is an excellent art
critic, and is now publishing an important work on Dutch painting of
the 19th century.

                                                              N. JANY.

    [Illustration: FLEMISH SCHOOL, 1552
    PORTRAIT OF A FLEMISH GENTLEMAN. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN
    THE NATIONAL GALLERY, LONDON, FROM A CARBON PRINT BY BRAUN,
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Catharina van Hemessen, Painter
    16th Century]

    [Illustration: DUTCH SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    YOUNG MAN ENCOURAGING A GIRL TO SMOKE AND DRINK. FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY W. A. MANSELL & CO., AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE IN
    A PRIVATE COLLECTION
    Judith Leyster, Painter
    1600(?)-1660]

    [Illustration: DUTCH SCHOOL, XVII AND XVIII CENTURIES
    PICTURE OF FRUIT WITH INSECTS AND LIZARDS. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    ANDERSON AFTER THE ORIGINAL MASTERPIECE IN THE PITTI GALLERY,
    FLORENCE
    Rachel Ruysch, Painter
    1664-1750]

    [Illustration: DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS, LATE XIX CENTURY
    AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING.
    Mme. Gilsoul-Hoppe, Painter
    Belgium]

    [Illustration: AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Baronne van Hogendorp, Painter Holland]

    [Illustration: STUDY OF STILL LIFE: ROSES IN A BASKET. FROM A
    TRANSLATOR'S-ETCHING BY P. ZILCKEN Madame G. J. van de Sande
    Bakhuyzen, Painter Holland, 1826-1895]

    [Illustration: DUTCH SCHOOL, BETWEEN 1880-1890
    LANDSCAPE NEAR OOSTERBEEK
    FROM THE ORIGINAL CHALK DRAWING
    Mevrouw Marie Philippine Bilders van Bosse, Painter
    1837-1900]

    [Illustration: DUTCH SCHOOL, LATE XIX CENTURY
    A BLEAK PASTORAL SCENE
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR
    Madame Mesdag van Houten, Painter]

    [Illustration: WINDMILL AT HEELSUM AFTER THE ORIGINAL OIL
    PAINTING Madame Marie Philippine Bilders van Bosse, Painter
    1837-1900]

    [Illustration: DUTCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT STUDY OF A GIRL AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Mlle. Barbara van Houten, Painter]

    [Illustration: ORPHANS. FROM A PHOTOGRAVURE OF THE ORIGINAL
    PICTURE PAINTED IN 1887 Mlle. Thérèse Schwartze, Painter]

    [Illustration: DUTCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT OF MLLE. THÉRÈSE SCHWARTZE. PAINTED BY HERSELF FOR THE
    UFFIZI GALLERY, FLORENCE, BY REQUEST OF THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT.
    REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BROGI
    Mlle. Thérèse Schwartze, Painter]

    [Illustration: DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS, CONTEMPORARY
    A POOL NEAR OOSTERBEEK. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Madame Bilders van Bosse, Painter
    1837-1900]

    [Illustration: WITH THE POOR AT HOME. REPRODUCED FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING Mademoiselle E. Marcotte,
    Painter Belgium]

    [Illustration: DUTCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAITS OF THE CHILDREN OF MR A. MAY, AMSTERDAM. REPRODUCED
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PASTEL
    Mademoiselle Thérèse Schwartze, Painter and Pastellist]

    [Illustration: DUTCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "LOUTJE."
    FROM A SKETCH
    Mlle. Barbara van Houten, Painter]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF A. G. C. VAN DUYL, AUTHOR. FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PASTEL Mlle. Thérèse Schwartze,
    Pastellist and Painter]

    [Illustration: FLEMISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    STUDY OF STILL LIFE: GRAPES AND PARTRIDGES.
    AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Mademoiselle Berthe Art, Painter]

    [Illustration: FLEMISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT STUDY OF THE COUNTESS FLORENCE FABBRICOTTI
    Baroness Lambert de Rothschild, Painter]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF MONSIEUR GEVAERT. REPRODUCED FROM THE
    ORIGINAL PAINTING Baroness Lambert de Rothschild, Painter]

    [Illustration: FLEMISH AND DUTCH SCHOOLS, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT OF MLLE. DETHIER. AFTER A PROOF OF THE ORIGINAL ETCHING
    Mlle. Louise Danse, Painter-Etcher
    Belgium]

    [Illustration: A DUTCH PEASANT WOMAN. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE
    ORIGINAL PAINTING Madame Suse Bisschop-Robertson, Painter
    Holland]

    [Illustration: FLEMISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "THE LAST MOVE." REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY
    PERMISSION OF MESSRS. BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS, OWNERS OF THE
    COPYRIGHT
    Madame Henriette Ronner, Painter]

    [Illustration: FLEMISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    NEW TENANTS--NOUVEAUX LOCATAIRES. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE,
    FROM A CARBON PRINT BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS, OWNERS OF
    THE COPYRIGHT
    Madame Henriette Ronner, Painter]

    [Illustration: FLEMISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    STUDY OF A HERON. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Mlle. Georgette Meunier, Painter]

    [Illustration: THE MASSACRE OF THE INNOCENTS. AFTER MATTEO DI
    GIOVANNI DA SIENA Madame Marie Destrée-Danse, Etcher]

    [Illustration: FLEMISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    A SUNSET IN THE CAMPINE. REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION FROM AN
    ETCHING AFTER THE PAINTING BY JOSEPH COOSEMANS IN THE BRUSSELS
    MUSEUM
    Mademoiselle E. Wesmael, Etcher]

    [Illustration: FLEMISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    LILIES IN THE COURTYARD OF A HOUSE OF REST AT BRUGES.
    AFTER A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Madame Juliette Wytsman, Painter]



In Germany and Austria, in Russia, Switzerland and Spain

By Wilhelm Schölermann. Translated into English by Wilfrid Sparroy


When we look into the past history of the present subject, the first
German name we come upon is that of the Nun of Nuremberg, Sister
Margareta, who worked from 1459 to 1470, and who copied many religious
works. A century later, at Udina, in Italy, Irene von Spilimberg was
born, descending from a noble German family; and although Irene died
at the age of nineteen, she yet lived long enough to win the hearty
admiration of her great master, Titian. As a picture by Irene von
Spilimberg could not be obtained for this book, the editor has begun
the German section with Anna Maria Schurman and with Maria Sibylla
Merian. The first was a clever painter-etcher as well as the most
learned lady of her time; the second was the daughter of Matthew
Merian, and the exquisite studies she made, in water-colour, of
insects and of plants and flowers, have never been excelled in their
own line.

From Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717) we pass on to an admirable
mezzotint, after Morland, by Maria Prestel, who died in 1794; and then
we are brought into the heart of the 19th century by the searching
industry and skill of Anna Maria Ellenrieder, a very capable
painter-etcher, who lived between the years 1791 and 1863. Ellenrieder
looked to the past for her inspiration, going to the art of the early
Dutch masters. She has little or nothing in common with the other
German women artists of her time. How different is her ideal, for
instance, from that of the well-known painter of historical subjects,
the Baroness Hermione von Preuschen, whose dramatic and sensational
spirit appeals so strongly to the great public, as in that canvas in
which is represented the Corpse of Irene von Spilimberg, young and
beautiful, lying in state in her Venetian gondola, draped with black
and covered with flowers. Artists do not often care for pictures of
this romantic type; and they find higher and more subtle qualities in
the quiet wisdom of Julie Wolfthorn, a Berlin painter of note, and a
follower of the modern school of psychological portraiture. Julie
Wolfthorn combines depth of feeling and refinement of taste with
keenness of penetration into the mystery of individual character. Her
portrait of a young sculptor, given in the illustration on page 304,
is a good example of the painter's methods.

Another Berlin artist of note is Fräulein Käthe Kollwitz, whose
principal field of artistic expression has hitherto been restricted to
the burin and copper plate. She has studied etching almost entirely by
herself, and by dint of persistent courage and skill has developed her
gifts in a direction all her own. The subjects that appeal most
forcibly to her mind are taken with scarcely an exception from the
darkest and most painful sides of social life and social unrest. Take
a glance at the father, mother, and child, reproduced on page 302, and
entitled "Destitution and Despair." Are you not inclined to marvel,
almost, how a woman had the courage to depict, without flinching, the
sad truths of such bitter poverty? Can you not fancy that you hear the
moan of misery, the shrill scream of starvation, the cries of
rebellion and death, as when, on the outbreak of the strike, the bulk
of the working classes casts itself upon the streets? Such masses in
motion have been made real to us in her series of plates from the
"Peasants' War."

An artist of considerable versatility and intuition is Dora Hitz, of
Berlin. Born at Altdorf, near Nürnberg, she began her studies at
Munich, afterwards continuing them at intervals in Paris. In 1878 she
acted upon the invitation of Carmen Silva, the Poet-Queen of Roumania,
and executed a series of decorative panels for the royal castle of
Pétès, at Sinaivo, the pictorial subjects of which were chosen from
the literary works of her Majesty. Four years later she settled in
Paris, and there she remained till 1891. During all that time her
industry never flagged, and she was much indebted to the friendly
interest which Eugène Carrière took in her work. The portrait of a
little girl which may be seen here on page 303, belongs to the modern
collection in the Berlin National Gallery.

Our next lady painter, though of German descent, her grandfather being
a native of Hamburg, was herself born in Sweden. Her name is Jeanna
Bauck. When she was twenty-three years of age she saw the fulfilment
of her life-long yearning to go to Germany for the purpose of studying
painting, and there, with a few short breaks, she has remained ever
since, first in Dresden and Düsseldorf, and then at Munich, where she
has now taken up her abode. She was also in Paris for a while, for the
sake of study. At first exclusively a landscapist, she afterwards
turned to portrait painting, an example of which may be found on page
300. For seven years (1897-1904) she lived in Berlin, and painted
landscapes and portraits alternately, whilst superintending a
flourishing school of art for ladies. In drawing your attention to her
landscape on page 301, I should like to add that Jeanna Bauck takes
rank among the most serious women painters of to-day.

There is yet another portrait painter who deserves a memory for the
sake of her refinement and sensibility. I refer to the wife of Wilhelm
Jensen, the historical novelist and poet of Schleswig-Holstein. Now,
Frau Marie Jensen (Munich), once a pupil of the late Emil Lugo,
devotes herself to her art in private. Most of her portraits, too,
give proof of this same love of retirement, originating as they do in
the family circle (see page 303).

The portrait of a lady, on page 300, is the work of that very gifted
portrait painter, Fräulein Maria Davids. This capable artist has
produced some excellent likenesses; among others those of the poet
Gustav Frenssen, of Professor Weber, of Freiburg, of Fräulein von
Sydow, a daughter of the Minister of State, and of Frau Vermehren of
Lübeck. Another portrait painter of fame and much power of expression,
is Frau Vilma Parlaghy, her draughtsmanship being particularly good.
Hungarian by birth, she lives and works for the most part in the
German capital. Her handling of the brush is vigorous, yet sober, her
colouring is warm and harmoniously balanced, and her insight into
character quite strikingly true and convincing. The finest and most
successful efforts, in my opinion, are the portrait of the aged
Field-marshal Count von Moltke, taken in his eighty-ninth year,
shortly before his death, and that of Windhorst, the German statesman.

In Austria, in the dominions of the Emperor Francis Joseph, women
painters are numerous, but those of more than average gifts are not
perhaps so plentiful as elsewhere. In the Bohemian capital of Prague,
Fräulein Hermine Laucota has worked her way up to a position of
distinction quite on her own grounds. Leading a most retired life,
devoted chiefly to the pursuit of natural history and art, she studied
first in Prague, and then partly at Antwerp and in Munich, but since
the year 1888 she has resided altogether in her native town. It is not
in colours so much as in etching on the copper plate that she has
found her medium of artistic expression, and the subjects she has
chosen are for the most part of a symbolical character, as in the
distinguished etching on page 307.

To come to Vienna, a couple of names of good repute occur to me: Frau
Olga Wisinger-Florian and Frau Tina Blau-Lang, the latter a refined
landscapist (see pages 306 and 308). The two views of the Prater will
speak for themselves. With their charming freshness and their genial
breadth of handling, they tell us as plain as words that "all's right
with the world" in the springtime. Every touch is so bracing that it
needs no praise. Frau Blau-Lang is an optimist beyond a doubt, and
that as much by temperament as by choice of motive.

And when we look beyond Austria and Germany, we find everywhere among
women the same enthusiasm for art, and the same unflagging courage in
mastering the difficulties that thwart their every effort. That their
persistence has been crowned with much success is shown in a very
remarkable manner by this present book. How admirable, for instance,
is the work done in Finland by Maria Wiik and Helene Schjerfbeck! In
Switzerland, too, if we take a glance at the country where Anna
Wasser, at the beginning of the 18th century, achieved fame by her
paintings--there, too, we are welcomed by a particularly interesting
painter's painter, Mdlle. Louise Breslau, who, with her thorough
knowledge of modern realism, never truckles to the taste of the
general public; and there, also, we find another woman painter whose
art has been inspired on several occasions by the life of Christ: a
woman painter so much occupied with the conception of her pictures
that her technique has a tendency to lag behind the almost literary
eloquence of her design. But Mdlle. Ottilie Roederstein is
nevertheless an artist of real ability.

From Switzerland we must turn to Spain if we would do for ourselves
what the accompanying illustrations will do for us in the pleasantest
of pleasant ways. Take, for example, the airy, fresh, excellent
landscape, a "Scene at Comillas," painted in water-colour by the
Infante Doña Paz de Bourbon. Then, again, the "Carriage Race at
Naples," by Doña Stuart Sindici, with its splendid dash and dexterity
of composition, and the court outside a "Roman Hostelry," by Elena
Brockmann, likewise a sunny scene, simply teem with warmth and colour,
and with life and beauty. Not quite so strong and independent are the
"Fisher Boys," by Antonia de Bañuelos, the conception and the
execution alike being apparently inspired by that mild and noble
master of Spanish painting, Esteban Murillo. Again, in Russia, we meet
with a portrait-painter, Olga de Boznanska (page 316), whose work
unites a certain independent character of its own with the influences
of her Parisian training: qualities that marked in a much higher and
more perfect degree the pictorial appeals of that young and
marvellously spirited genius whose premature death cut short a career
of infinite promise: Marie Bashkirtseff, the friend of Bastien Lepage,
and a realist full of subtlety and of penetration.

                                                  WILHELM SCHÖLERMANN.



Some Finnish Women Painters

By Helena Westermarck, Critic and Painter


Art in Finland, pictorial art, like much else in that country, is a
young growth. It is in the nineteenth century that we are first able
to verify its existence, and it is only in the year 1840, or
thereabouts, that we find any traces of women who seriously devoted
themselves to the study of painting. The pioneers in this may be said
to be Mathilda Rotkirch and Victoria Abey.

Somewhat later, in or about 1870, Fanny Churberg, after working in
Düsseldorf and Paris, evinced much independent and original talent in
landscape painting, her art having also an inaugural character, in
that she was the first who applied herself to the decoration of
textile fabrics, adapting to her purpose the old national Finnish
patterns, a practice which has since then had a large following in the
field of applied design. Her career, unfortunately, was soon ended by
illness and an early death. After her came the generation of women
artists who are at present carrying forward a young school of
enthusiastic workers.

In the sphere of painting, the women artists of Finland study under
much the same circumstances as their male comrades. The Schools of Art
subsidized by the State are open both to male and to female pupils,
and this applies also to all prizes and rewards of merit. Some account
of the principal women painters may be of interest.

Maria Wiik (1853), after an apprenticeship in the Finnish Schools of
Art and in Professor Becker's Private Academy, spent several years of
study in Paris--occasionally moving her easel in the summers to
Brittany, to Normandy, or even to St. Ives, in England. She has
further developed her art in later years by visits to Holland and to
Italy. Her talent lies in the direction of portrait and genre painting
and she has now the name of being among the best Finnish portrait
painters. She has executed many public commissions, such as the
portrait of the Professor at the Rein University in Helsingfors, for
the Finnish Literary Society, and that of the poet, Z. Topelius, for a
large public school for girls. Many will remember her portrait of the
School Inspector, Ohberg, which now hangs in the Helsingfors Board
School. Maria Wiik has exhibited at the Paris Salons, and at picture
exhibitions in Moscow, Copenhagen, and Dresden, and besides the prizes
awarded her in her own country, she has received a bronze medal in
Paris (1900) for a picture painted in St. Ives, called, "Out into the
World."

Helene Schjerfbeck (1863), also a pupil of the Finnish Schools of Art
and of Prof. Becker's Private Academy, continued her studies in Paris
and afterwards visited Brittany, England, Austria and Italy. She has
painted some important historical pictures, taking her subjects from
Finnish and Swedish history, as in her two admirable paintings,
"Liuköping's Prison in 1600" and "The Death of W. v. Schwerin." She
has also painted a few landscapes and a number of genre pictures, many
of them with subjects taken from French and English life. Helene
Schjerfbeck has exhibited both at home and at the Paris Salons, has
twice been awarded the lesser money prize given yearly by the Finnish
State (for the two historical pictures mentioned above), while at the
Exhibition in Paris in 1889, she received a bronze medal. She has also
held an appointment as teacher in the Finnish Academy of Art, in the
department of painting and in the drawing class from the living model.
Her many pictures have been among the best that our women artists have
produced.

Venny Soldan-Brofeldt (1860) is another pupil of the Finnish Schools
of Art and of Prof. Becker's Academy, and has studied later in Paris,
and in Spain and Italy. Her best work is in the genre style, many of
her pictures being very characteristic and true scenes of Finnish
peasant life, such as "Meal time in a Peasant's Hut" and "Pietists."
Her landscapes, too, are remarkable for a sensitive conception of
Nature; especially is this true of her pictures of our coast scenery,
with its low granite rocks, washed over by the sea waves. Mrs.
Soldan-Brofeldt has illustrated also some books for children, among
others a part of a large Scandinavian edition of Topelius' Saga tales
for children. At the Paris Exhibition of 1889, she received a "Mention
Honorable," and in 1900, a bronze medal. She is the wife of the
author, Juhani Aho. Brofeldt. Mrs. Soldan-Brofeldt's work is not
illustrated in this book, as a photograph of her most important
picture was broken into fragments in its journey from Finland to
London.

It is characteristic of all these painters that their artistic bias
was determined by their study in Paris of the French naturalists, who
inspired them with a stern respect for drawing, and taught them to
study Nature seriously. Starting from this common standpoint, they
have, whilst working in their own way, developed along their own
individual lines.

Many another woman artist deserves mention, but the limited space at
my disposal permits me to give only a list of their names.

There is Ellen Thesleff, a figure painter; there is Elin
Danielson-Gambogi (wife of the Italian painter, R. Gambogi),
well-known for her portraits and landscapes; there is Julia Stigzelius
de Cock (wife of the Belgian artist, Césare de Cock), a clever
landscape painter; there is Amélie Lundahl, figure painter; and Ada
Thilén, with her landscapes; and Hanna Rönnberg, with her subject
pictures and outdoor scenes; and Anna Sahlstén, a figure painter; and
last, but not least, I name Annie Torselles-Schybergson, a good
painter of animals.

                                                   HELENA WESTERMARCK.

    [Illustration: SILHOUETTE BY NELLY BODENHEIM.]

    [Illustration: RUSSIAN SCHOOL, 1884
    "A MEETING." AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING IN THE LUXEMBOURG,
    PARIS, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY LEVY & SONS, PARIS
    Mademoiselle Marie Bashkirtseff, Painter
    1860-1884]

    [Illustration: GERMAN SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    PLANT STUDY PAINTED IN WATER-COLOUR ON VELLUM. AFTER ONE OF THE
    MANY DRAWINGS BY THE SAME ARTIST IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. THEY
    ONCE BELONGED TO SIR HANS SLOANE, WHO PURCHASED THEM AT A HIGH
    PRICE.
    Maria Sibylla Merian (Frau Graff), Painter
    1647-1717]

    [Illustration: GERMAN SCHOOL, XVII CENTURY
    PORTRAIT ETCHED BY HERSELF OF ANNA MARIA SCHURMAN PERHAPS THE
    MOST FAMOUS LINGUIST OF HER TIME IN EUROPE
    Anna Maria Schurman, Painter-Etcher
    1607-1678]

    [Illustration: PLANT STUDY PAINTED IN WATER-COLOUR ON VELLUM.
    REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL DRAWING IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM Maria
    Sibylla Merian (Frau Graff), Painter 1647-1717]

    [Illustration: GERMAN SCHOOL, END OF XVIII CENTURY
    GYPSIES ON A COMMON
    AFTER GEORGE MORLAND
    Frau Maria Catharina Prestel, Engraver
    Died 1794]

    [Illustration: GERMAN SCHOOL, 1817 AND 1820
    PORTRAIT OF A WOMAN. FROM THE ORIGINAL ETCHING IN THE BRITISH
    MUSEUM]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF A MAN. REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL
    ETCHING IN BRITISH MUSEUM Anna Marie Ellenrieder, Painter-Etcher
    1791-1863]

    [Illustration: GERMAN SCHOOL, LATE XIX CENTURY
    A GIRL OF BOHEMIA. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.,
    PARIS
    Caroline von Maupeou, Painter]

    [Illustration: BRETON GIRL PRAYING. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN,
    CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS Frau Adelaïde Salles-Wagner, Painter]

    [Illustration: GERMAN SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT OF FRÄULEIN VON SYDOW. FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Fräulein Maria Davids, Painter
    PORTRAIT. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY HANFSTAENGL KINDLY LENT BY THE
    ARTIST
    Jeanna Bauck, Painter]

    [Illustration: GERMAN AND SPANISH SCHOOLS, CONTEMPORARY
    A WOODLAND LAKE.
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Jeanna Bauck, Painter, Germany]

    [Illustration: THE CASTLE AND PALACE OF PENA IN CINTRA. AFTER
    THE ORIGINAL PICTURE FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. LAURENT & CO.,
    MADRID Maria G. Silva Reis, Painter, Spain]

    [Illustration: GERMAN SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    MOTHERHOOD. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY THE ARTIST
    Dora Hitz, Painter]

    [Illustration: DESOLATION AND DESPAIR AFTER THE ORIGINAL ETCHING
    Fräulein Käthe Kollwitz, Painter-Etcher]

    [Illustration: GERMAN SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT OF A LITTLE GIRL. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY FRANZ KULLRICH, BERLIN, LENT BY THE ARTIST
    Dora Hitz, Painter]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF WILHELM JENSEN, POET AND HISTORICAL
    NOVELIST. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A PHOTOGRAPH LENT BY
    THE ARTIST
    Frau Marie Jensen, Painter]

    [Illustration: GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT OF A SCULPTOR. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY FRANZ KULLRICH
    KINDLY LENT BY THE ARTIST
    Frau Julie Wolfthorn, Painter
    Germany]

    [Illustration: "ANAÏS." AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO. Mlle.
    Louise Breslau, Painter
    Switzerland]

    [Illustration: SWISS SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    THEIR DAILY BREAD. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, REPRODUCED BY
    PERMISSION FROM A CARBON PRINT BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Mademoiselle Ottilie Roederstein, Painter]

    [Illustration: AUSTRIAN SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    SPRINGTIME IN THE PRATER, VIENNA. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. LÖWY, VIENNA, KINDLY LENT BY THE ARTIST
    Frau Tina Blau-Lang, Painter]

    [Illustration: AUSTRIAN SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    BY THE SHORE OF LETHE LAKE
    AFTER A PROOF OF THE ORIGINAL ETCHING
    Fräulein Hermine Laucota, Painter-Etcher]

    [Illustration: AUSTRIAN SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    VIEW IN THE PRATER, VIENNA. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY J. LÖWY, VIENNA, KINDLY LENT BY THE ARTIST
    Frau Tina Blau-Lang, Painter]

    [Illustration: FINNISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT OF A LADY.
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Maria Wiik, Painter]

    [Illustration: FINNISH SCHOOL, 1887
    THE CONVALESCENT
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING
    Helene Schjerfbeck, Painter]

    [Illustration: SWISS SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "LE MOIS DE MARIE." REPRODUCED AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING FROM
    A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO.
    Mademoiselle Ottilie Roederstein, Painter]

    [Illustration: FINNISH SCHOOL, FROM 1887 TO ABOUT 1895
    PREPARING TO LEAVE HOME. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL
    PAINTING, DATED 1887
    Maria Wiik, Painter]

    [Illustration: AT WORK. REPRODUCED FROM A CARBON-PRINT
    PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PAINTING Helene Schjerfbeck,
    Painter]

    [Illustration: FINNISH AND SWISS SCHOOLS, ABOUT 1904
    A FINNISH PEASANT GIRL
    FROM THE ORIGINAL DRAWING
    Ellen Thesleff, Painter
    Finland]

    [Illustration: A PORTRAIT-GROUP OF FRIENDS. AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    PICTURE FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO Mlle. Louise
    Breslau, Painter Switzerland]

    [Illustration: RUSSIAN SCHOOL, XIX CENTURY
    PORTRAIT OF MARIE BASHKIRTSEFF. AFTER THE ORIGINAL PASTEL IN THE
    MUSÉE DU LUXEMBOURG, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY LÉVY & SONS, PARIS
    Mlle. Marie Bashkirtseff, Pastellist
    1860-1884]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF THE COMTESSE DE TOULOUSE. AFTER THE
    ORIGINAL PASTEL IN THE MUSÉE DU LUXEMBOURG, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    NEWIDEIN Mlle. Marie Bashkirtseff, Pastellist 1860-1884]

    [Illustration: GERMAN AND RUSSIAN SCHOOLS, 1870 AND 1903
    PORTRAIT (DATED 1870) OF THE LATE LUDWIG WINDHORST, GERMAN
    STATESMAN FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY V. A. BRUCKMANN, MUNICH
    Frau Vilma Parlaghy, Painter
    Germany]

    [Illustration: PORTRAIT OF A LADY (DATED 1903), RECENTLY
    PURCHASED FOR THE LUXEMBOURG, PARIS Mlle. Olga de Boznanska,
    Painter Russia]

    [Illustration: SPANISH SCHOOL, 1875
    A CARRIAGE RACE AT NAPLES
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. LAURENT & CO., MADRID
    Doña Stuart Sindici, Painter]

    [Illustration: SPANISH SCHOOL, 1881
    A SCENE AT COMILLAS. REPRODUCED AFTER THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR,
    DATED 1881, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. LAURENT & CO., MADRID
    Infante Doña Paz de Bourbon, Painter]

    [Illustration: SPANISH SCHOOL, 1887
    OUTSIDE A ROMAN HOSTELRY
    FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. LAURENT & CO., MADRID
    Doña Elena Brockmann, Painter]

    [Illustration: SPANISH SCHOOL, 1881 AND 1890
    MY MODEL. AFTER THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY
    LAURENT, MADRID
    Infante Doña Paz de Bourbon, Painter]

    [Illustration: STUDY OF A BABY LAUGHING. AFTER THE ORIGINAL
    PICTURE, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY J. LAURENT & CO., MADRID Antonia
    de Bañuelos, Painter]

    [Illustration: SPANISH SCHOOL, 1883
    "THE LITTLE FISHERS." AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING, FROM A
    PHOTOGRAPH BY BRAUN, CLÉMENT & CO., PARIS
    Antonia de Bañuelos, Painter]



INDEX


    ABBÉMA, MLLE. LOUISE: "Winter," 237.

    ABRAN, MADAME: "Study of Tigers," 243.

    ALLINGHAM, MRS. HELEN, R.W.S.: "A Cottage near Crocken Hill," 109;
      "Ponte Widman, Venice," 137;
      "Campanile San Stefano, Venice," 137.

    ALMA-TADEMA, MISS ANNA: "Portrait of Miss Anna Alma-Tadema," 156.

    ANDERSON, MRS. SOPHIE: "Elaine," 105.

    ANGELL, MRS. HELEN CORDELIA: "Study of a Bird's Nest," 102.

    ANGUISCIOLA, SOPHONISBA: "Three Sisters of Sophonisba Anguisciola
         Playing at Chess," 25;
      "Portrait of Sophonisba Anguisciola," 36;
      "Portrait of a Lady," 39.

    ANGUS, CHRISTINE: Design, 64.

    ART, MLLE. BERTHE: "Study of Still Life: Grapes and Partridges,"
        276.


    BAKHUYZEN, MME. G. J. VAN DE SANDE: "Study of Still Life: Roses in a
        Basket," 266.

    BAÑUELOS, ANTONIA DE: "Study of a Baby Laughing," 320;
      "The Little Fishers," 321.

    BARTON, MISS ROSE, A.R.W.S.: "Almond Blossom in London," 143.

    BASHKIRTSEFF, MLLE. MARIE: "A Meeting," 293;
      "Portrait of Marie Bashkirtseff," 315;
      "Portrait of the Comtesse de Toulouse," 315.

    BAUCK, JEANNA, "Portrait," 300;
      "A Woodland Lake," 301.

    BAUERLË, MISS A., A.R.E.: "A Song of the Sea," 132;
      "Fauns," 132.

    BEALE, MARY: "Portrait of the English Poet, Abraham Cowley," 81;
      "Portrait of King Charles II. of England," 81.

    BEAUCLERK, LADY DIANA: "Caricature of Edward Gibbon," 82;
      "Cupids," 82.

    BEAUX, MISS CECILIA: "Mother and Child," 121;
      "Portrait," 162.

    BENOITS, MADAME: "Portrait of Marie Pauline, Princesse Borghese,"
        183.

    BILDERS VAN BOSSE, MME.: "Landscape near Oosterbeek," 267;
      "Windmill at Heelsum," 269;
      "A Pool near Oosterbeek," 272.

    BISSCHOP-ROBERTSON, MME. SUSE: "A Dutch Peasant Woman," 278.

    BLATHERWICK, LILY (MRS. A. S. HARTRICK): "Wintry Weather," 155.

    BLAU-LANG, FRAU TINA: "Springtime in the Prater, Vienna," 306;
      "View in the Prater, Vienna," 308.

    BODENHEIM, MLLE. NELLY: Silhouettes, 12, 72, 292, 332.

    BONHEUR, ROSA: "Study of a Bull," 195;
      "Shepherd Watching His Sheep," 205;
      "Ploughing in the Nivernais," 209;
      "The Horse Fair," 210;
      "The King of the Desert," 214;
      "Brisco," 215.

    BOUILLIAR, MLLE.: "Portrait of an Actress," 194.

    BOURBON, DE, INFANTE PAZ: "A Scene at Comillas," 318;
      "My Model," 320.

    BOVI, MADAME: 90.

    BOZNANSKA, DE, OLGA: "Portrait of a Lady," 316.

    BRESLAU, MLLE. LOUISE: "Anaïs," 304;
      "A Portrait-Group of Friends," 314.

    BRICKDALE, MISS ELEANOR FORTESCUE, A.R.W.S.: "Youth and the Lady,"
        73;
      "To-day for Me," 103;
      "Sleep, that knits up the Ravell'd Sleave of Care," 114;
      "He Married a Wife," 126;
      "Designs," 141;
      "Iseult of Brittany," 142.

    BROCKMANN, DOÑA ELENA: "Outside a Roman Hostelry," 319.

    BROWNSCOMBE, MISS JENNIE: "The Peace Ball After the Declaration of
        Independence," 161.

    BUTLER, LADY ELIZABETH: "Missed," 9;
      "Steady the Drums and Fifes!" 154.

    BYRNE, ANNE FRANCES: "Flowers and Grapes," 94.


    CAMERON, MISS KATHARINE: "Hush! Remind not Eros of His Wings," 124.

    CAMERON, MISS MARGARET: "Portrait of Mrs. Blair with her Dogs," 131;
      "After the Bull-Fight," 155.

    CAPET, MARIE GABRIELLE: "Portrait of Dame de Longrois," 197.

    CARPENTER, MRS. MARGARET: "Portrait of Henrietta Shuckburgh," 96;
      "Portrait of Margaret Carpenter," 96;
      "Portrait of John Gibson, R.A., Sculptor," 100;
      "Portrait of R. P. Bonington, Painter," 100.

    CARPENTIER, MADELEINE: "Les Chandelles," 244.

    CARRIERA, ROSALBA: "Portrait of a Lady Unknown," 20;
      "Charity and Justice," 37;
      "Portrait Study of a Lady with her Pet Monkey," 48;
      "Portrait Study of Cardinal de Polignac," 48;
      "Portrait Study of a Girl," 51;
      "Portrait of Rosalba Carriera," 51.

    CASSATT, MISS MARY: "Baby's Toilette," 157;
      "Childhood in a Garden," 327;
      "Mother and Two Children," 327.

    CAZIN, MADAME MARIE: "Desolation," 227;
      "Mother and Child," 239;
      "The Shepherd," 239.

    CHARDERON, FRANCINE: "Sleep," 229.

    CHASE, MISS MARIAN, R.I.: "An Interesting Story," 130.

    CHATILLON, DE, MME. LAURE: "A Young Adolescent," 219.

    CHAUDET, MME JEANNE ELISABETH: "Portrait of Madame Villot, née
        Barbier," 202.

    CHEVIOT, MISS LILIAN: "On the Way to the Horse Fair," 143.

    CLAUDIE, MLLE.: "Flora," 252.

    COGNIET, MLLE. MARIE AMÉLIE: "Portrait of Madame Adélaïde
        d'Orléans," 189.

    COLIN-LIBOUR, MADAME: "Charity," 225.

    COMERRE-PATON, MME. J.: "Mistletoe," 217.

    CONANT, MISS CORNELIA W.: "The End of the Story," 151.

       *       *       *       *       *

    [Illustration: SUPPLEMENT. BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "WE ARE BUT LITTLE CHILDREN WEAK, NOR BORN TO ANY HIGH ESTATE."
    FROM A LARGE PHOTOGRAVURE OF THE ORIGINAL PICTURE BY PERMISSION
    OF THE BERLIN PHOTOGRAPHIC COMPANY, LONDON, W.
    Mrs. Marie Seymour Lucas, Painter]

    [Illustration: SUPPLEMENT. BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "HER MORNING RIDE"
    AFTER THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Miss Blanche Jenkins, Painter]

    [Illustration: SUPPLEMENT. BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "FAITH"
    FROM THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Miss Flora M. Reid, Painter]

    [Illustration: SUPPLEMENT. BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "HUSH!" FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE ORIGINAL PICTURE BY PERMISSION
    OF THE BERLIN PHOTOGRAPHIC CO., LONDON, W.
    Miss Maude Goodman, Painter]

    [Illustration: THE CHILD HANDEL. FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF THE
    ORIGINAL PICTURE BY PERMISSION OF THE BERLIN PHOTOGRAPHIC CO.,
    LONDON, W.
    Miss Margaret Isabel Dicksee, Painter
    1858-1903]

    [Illustration: SUPPLEMENT. BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    "NOTHING VENTURE, NOTHING HAVE." FROM A LARGE PHOTOGRAVURE OF
    THE ORIGINAL PICTURE BY PERMISSION OF THE BERLIN PHOTOGRAPHIC
    COMPANY, LONDON, W.
    Lady Alma-Tadema, Painter]

    [Illustration: SUPPLEMENT. BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    ISOLA BELLA LAGO MAGGIORE
    FROM THE ORIGINAL WATER-COLOUR
    Mrs. Marrable, Painter]

    [Illustration: "I SHOWED HER THE RING AND IMPLORED HER TO MARRY"
    FROM THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Miss Julia B. Falkard, Painter]

    [Illustration: SUPPLEMENT. BRITISH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    SKIRMISHERS: COCKER SPANIELS. FROM "BRITISH HOUNDS AND
    GUN-DOGS"]

    [Illustration: BULL TERRIER: POSITION OF TRUST. FROM THE SERIES
    ON "TERRIERS AND TOYS" PUBLISHED BY THE BERLIN PHOTOGRAPHIC
    COMPANY, LONDON, W.]

    [Illustration: FOXHOUNDS: A BURNING SCENT. FROM "BRITISH HOUNDS
    AND GUN-DOGS"
    Miss Maud Earl, Painter]

    [Illustration: SUPPLEMENT. FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    PORTRAIT (PAINTED BY HERSELF) OF MADAME ARSÈNE DARMESTETER
    Madame Arsène Darmesteter, Painter]

    [Illustration: SUPPLEMENT. FRENCH SCHOOL, CONTEMPORARY
    STUDY
    FROM THE ORIGINAL PICTURE
    Madame Arsène Darmesteter, Painter]

       *       *       *       *       *

    COOL, DE, MME. DELPHINE: "A Good Cigarette," 232.

    COOMANS, MLLE. DIANA: "In the Gynæceum," 228.

    COSWAY, MRS. MARIA: "Lodona," 96.

    CURRAN, MISS A.: "Portrait of Percy Bysshe Shelley," 90.


    DANSE, MLLE. LOUISE: "Portrait of Mlle. Dethier," 278.

    DAVIDS, FRÄULEIN: "Portrait of Fräulein von Sydow," 300.

    DAVIN, MADAME C. H. F.: "Portrait of Marshal Lefèvre, Duke of
        Dantzic," 207.

    DEALY, JANE M. (LADY LEWIS), R.I.: "Day-Dreams," 144;
      "Baby," 144.

    DEMONT-BRETON, MADAME: "On the Sea-Shore," 226;
      "Stella Maris," 233.

    DE MORGAN, MRS. EVELYN: "Flora," 91;
      "Study from the Life," 117;
      "Drapery Study," 123.

    DESTRÉE-DANSE, MADAME: "The Massacre of the Innocents," 282.

    DICKSEE, MISS MARGARET ISABEL: "In Memoriam," 112.

    DOLCI, AGNESE: "Mary and the Child Jesus," 47;
      "Jesus Took Bread and Blessed It," 47.

    DUBOS, MLLE. ANGÈLE: "A New Song," 216.

    DUBOURG, MME. VICTORIA: "A Basket of Flowers," 240.

    DUFAU, MLLE.: "Study from a Model," 231;
      "Impression of a City," 240;
      "Character in Spain," 243.

    DUFFIELD, MRS. WILLIAM, R.I.: "Yellow Roses," 118.


    ELLENRIEDER, ANNA MARIE: "Portrait of a Woman," 298;
      "Portrait of a Man," 298.

    EMPRESS FREDERICK OF GERMANY, THE: "The Akropolis, Athens," 56.

    ENAULT, MADAME ALIX: "Fleurs de Serre," 225.


    FANNER, MISS ALICE: "Riverside Landscape," 135;
      "A Yorkshire Trout Stream," 156.

    FANSHAWE, CATHERINE MARIA: "A Country Boy," 89.

    FANTIN-LATOUR, MME. (VICTORIA DUBOURG): "A Basket of Flowers," 240.

    FICHEL, MME. JEANNE: "The Bouquet," 216.

    FILLEUL, MADAME: "The Sons of Charles X. of France," 186;
      "Portrait of the Duc d'Angoulême," 187.

    FLEURY, MME. FANNY: "The Pathway to the Village Church," 235.

    FONTANA, LAVINIA: "Marriage of St. Catharine," 39;
      "Portrait of Lavinia Fontana Zappi," 40;
      "Jesus Christ Talking with the Women of Samaria," 41.

    FORBES, MRS. STANHOPE, A.R.W.S.: "The Fisher Wife," 85;
      "In With You!" 147;
      "Cuckoo," 147;
      "May Evening," 149.

    FOULD, MLLE. ACHILLE: "Courtship," 250.

    FOULD, MLLE. CONSUÉLO: "Will You Buy?" 247.

    FRAMPTON, MRS. GEORGE (CHRISTABEL A. COCKERELL): "Bluebells," 136.


    GARDNER, ELIZABETH: "Maternal Love," 234;
      "The Judgment of Paris," 238.

    GENTILESCHI, ARTEMISIA: "Mary Magdalene," 31;
      "Portrait of Artemisia Gentileschi," 42;
      "Judith and her Maid with the Head of Holofernes," 45.

    GHISI, DIANA: "A Victor in his Triumphal Chariot," 39.

    GILSOUL-HOPPE, MADAME: "Interior," 266.

    GODEFROID, MLLE. MARIE E.: "Portrait of Madame de Staël," 203;
      "Portrait of Charles Maurice, Prince of Talleyrand-Périgord," 203.

    GONZALÈS, EVA: "Portrait of a Lady Seated," 223;
      "The Fruit Girl," 231.

    GOW, MISS MARY L., R.I.: "Mother and Child," 107.

    GRANBY, MARCHIONESS OF: "The Late Cecil Rhodes," 142;
      "The Late Lord Salisbury," 142.

    GREENAWAY, MISS KATE: "A. for Apple Pie: E. Eat it," 119;
      "A. for Apple Pie: C. Cut it," 127.

    GUTTI, ROSINA M.: "The Peacemaker," 53.

    GUYARD, MADAME: "Portrait of Madame Victoire de France," 185;
      "Portrait of Elisabeth of France, Duchess of Parma," 188.


    HAMMOND, MISS G. DEMAIN, R.I.: "Memories," 135.

    HART, MISS EMILY: "The End of a Story," 113.

    HAVERS, MISS ALICE: "Blanchisseuses," 108.

    HEITLAND, MISS IVY: "Through the Wood," 107.

    HEMESSEN, CATHARINA VAN: "Portrait of a Flemish Gentleman," 263.

    HEMING, MRS. MATILDA: "Backwater, Weymouth, Dorset," 95.

    HERFORD, MRS. JOHN: "Landscape at Kenilworth," 95.

    HERLAND, MLLE. E.: "Children Eating Soup in a Charity School," 249.

    HILDA, MLLE. E.: "In Search of Prey," 245.

    HITZ, DORA: "Motherhood," 302;
      "Portrait of a Little Girl," 303.

    HOBSON, MISS A. M., R.I.: "Room at Leicester in which Shakespeare is
        said to have Acted before Queen Elizabeth," 118.

    HOGENDORP, BARONNE VAN: "Flowers," 266.

    HOLROYD, LADY: "Portrait of Sir Charles Holroyd," 150.

    HOTHAM, AMELIA: "Riverside Landscape," 88.

    HOUDON, MLLE. M. J. A.: "Portrait of Marguerite J. A. Houdon," 202.

    HOUSSAY, MLLE. JOSÉPHINE: "The Lesson," 251.

    HOUTEN, MME. MESDAG VAN: "A Bleak Pastoral Scene," 269.

       *       *       *       *       *

    [Illustration: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, CONTEMPORARY
    CHILDHOOD IN A GARDEN. REPRODUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY
    PERMISSION OF MESSRS. DURAND-RUEL & SONS, PARIS AND NEW YORK
    Miss Mary Cassatt, Painter]

    [Illustration: MOTHER AND TWO CHILDREN. REPRODUCED FROM THE
    ORIGINAL PAINTING BY PERMISSION OF MESSRS. DURAND-RUEL & SONS,
    PARIS AND NEW YORK
    Miss Mary Cassatt, Painter]

       *       *       *       *       *

    HOUTEN, MLLE. BARBARA VAN: "Portrait Study of a Girl," 270;
      "Loutje," 275.

    HOW, MISS BEATRICE: "Le Repas," 142;
      "In a Dutch Cottage," 148.

    HUNTER, MRS. MARY Y.: "Joy and the Labourer," Frontispiece;
      "Olivia," 126;
      "Where Shall Wisdom be Found?" 130.

    HYDE, MISS HELEN: "Day Dreams," 145;
      "The Bamboo Fence," 163.


    JENSEN, FRAU MARIE: "Portrait of Wilhelm Jensen," 303.

    JOPLING, MRS. LOUISE, R.B.A.: "St. Bridget," 120.


    KAUFFMAN, ANGELICA, R.A. "The Sibyl," 67;
      "Ariadne," 83;
      "Portrait of Angelica Kauffman, R.A.," 87;
      "The Vestal Virgin," 87.

    KEMP-WELCH, MISS L. E., R.B.A.: "Labourers of the Night," 115;
      "After Work," 125.

    KING, MISS JESSIE M.: "The Court-Yard," 159.

    KOCH, ELISA: "The Little Sister," 49.

    KOLLWITZ, FRÄULEIN KÄTHE: "Desolation and Despair," 302.


    LAUCOTA, FRÄULEIN HERMINE: "By the Shore of Lethe Lake," 307.

    LARCOMBE, MISS ETHEL: Dedication Page;
      End-Papers;
      Initial Letters.

    LE BRUN, MADAME VIGÉE: "Portrait of Madame Vigée Le Brun and her
        Daughter," 166;
      "Madame Vigée Le Brun and her Daughter," 177;
      "Portrait of Queen Marie Antoinette and her Children," 191;
      "Portrait in the Pinacoteca at Turin," 192;
      "Portrait of Madame Le Brun," 193;
      "Portrait of Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon," 193;
      "Madame Vigée Le Brun at her Easel," 198;
      "Portrait of Marie Antoinette, Queen of France," 200;
      "Portrait of the Duchess of Polignac," 201;
      "Portrait of Madame Molé-Raymond," 204.

    LELEUX, MADAME ARMAND: "Private and Confidential," 220.

    LE ROY, MADAME: "Portrait," 252.

    LESCOT, MADAME HAUDEBOURT: "A Good Daughter," 208.

    LEYSTER, JUDITH: "The Merry Young Man," 257;
      "Young Man Encouraging a Girl to Smoke and Drink," 264.

    LONGHI, BARBARA: "Mary and the Child Jesus in the Act of Crowning a
        Saint," 41.

    LOUISE, H.R.H. PRINCESS, DUCHESS OF ARGYLL: "An English Hebe," 13.

    LUCAS-ROBIQUET, MME.: "Bébé et Zizon," 251.


    MACBETH, MISS ANN: "Elspeth." 97.

    MACDONALD, MISS BIDDIE: "Portrait of the Lady Alix Egerton," 123.

    MACGREGOR, MISS JESSIE: "In the Reign of Terror," 148.

    MARCOTTE, MLLE. E.: "With the Poor at Home," 272.

    MARTINEAU, MISS EDITH, A.R.W.S.: "The Potato Harvest," 111.

    MAUPEOU, CAROLINE VON: "A Girl of Bohemia," 299.

    MAYER, CONSTANCE: "The Happy Mother," 199.

    MEE, MRS. ANNE: "Portrait of Lady Dalrymple Hamilton," 93.

    MEEN, MRS. MARGARET: "Group of Flowers in a Jar," 94.

    MERIAN, MARIA S.: "Plant Study," 295; "Plant Study," 296.

    MERRITT, MRS. ANNA LEA, R.B.A.: "Love Locked Out," 139.

    MEUNIER, MLLE. GEORGETTE: "Study of a Heron," 282.

    MORIN, EULALIE: "Portrait of Madame Récamier," 187.

    MORISOT, BERTHE: "Portrait of a Young Woman Seated," 211;
      "The Jetty," 213.

    MOSER, MARY, R.A.: "Vase of Flowers," 94.


    NICOLAS, MLLE. MARIE: "Father Ricard," 222.

    NORMAND, MRS. (HENRIETTA RAE): "Ophelia: 'There's Rue for you,'"
        153.


    OFFOR, B. (MRS. F. LITTLER): "Ophelia," 160.

    OPPENHEIM, MLLE. A.: "Romeo and Juliet," 246.


    PARLAGHY, FRAU VILMA: "Portrait of the late Ludwig Windhorst," 316.

    PAYMAL-AMOUROUX, MME.: "A Holiday at Sosthène," 232.

    PETIET, MLLE. MARIE: "The Knitter Asleep," 219.

    PHILLOTT, MISS CONSTANCE, A.R.W.S.: "The Herdsman of Admetus," 138.

    PRESTEL, MARIA C.: "Gypsies on a Common," 297.


    RÉAL DEL SARTE, MME.: "Do you want a Model?" 251.

    RAGNONI, BARBARA: "The Adoration of the Shepherds," 35.

    READ, CATHARINE: "Portrait of the Lady Georgiana Spencer," 61;
      "Portrait of Miss Harriot Powell," 84;
      "Portrait of Miss Jones," 84.

    REIS, MARIA G. SILVA: "The Castle and Palace of Pena in Cintra,"
        301.

    ROBERTSON, MRS. J.: "Portrait of Mrs. Stuart," 93.

    ROEDERSTEIN, MLLE. OTTILIE: "Their Daily Bread," 305;
      "Le Mois de Marie," 311.

    ROMANI, JUANA: "Study from a Model," 54.

    ROMANY, MME. ADÈLE: "Portrait of Gaëtano Apollino Baldassare
        Vestris, Dancer," 171.

    RONGIER, MLLE. JEANNE: "Sitting for a Portrait," 220.

    RONNER, MME. HENRIETTE: "The Last Move," 279;
      "New Tenants," 281.

    ROTHSCHILD, DE, BARONESS LAMBERT: "Portrait Study of the Countess
        Florence Fabbricotti," 277;
      "Portrait of Monsieur Gevaert," 277.

    RUDE, MME. SOPHIE: "Portrait of Madame Rude," 207.

    RUYSCH, RACHEL: "Picture of Fruit with Insects and Lizards," 265.


    SALANSON, MLLE. EUGENIE: "At Low Tide," 228.

    SALLES-WAGNER, ADELAÏDE: "Breton Girl Praying," 299.

    SAWYER, MISS AMY: "Panel of a Screen," 159.

    SCHJERFBECK, HELENE: "The Convalescent," 310;
      "At Work," 313.

    SCHURMAN, ANNA MARIA: "Portrait of Anna Maria Schurman," 296.

    SCHNEIDER, MME. FÉLICIE: "The Last Survivors of a Family," 222.

    SCHWARTZE, THÉRÈSE: "Orphans," 270;
      "Portrait of Mlle. Thérèse Schwartze," 271;
      "Portraits of the Children of Mr. A. May," 273;
      "Portrait of A. G. C. van Duyl," 275.

    SINDICI, DOÑA STUART: "A Carriage Race at Naples," 317.

    SIRANI, ELISABETTA: "The Dream of Saint Anthony of Padua," 43;
      "The Madonna Weeping," 46;
      "The Flight into Egypt," 46.

    SISTER A., SIENESE NUN: "Adoration of the Shepherds," 34;
      "Madonna and Child with St. Catharine and other Saints," 35.

    SISTER B., SIENESE NUN: "The Holy Family with John the Baptist," 34.

    SMYTHE, MISS MINNIE, A.R.W.S.: "A Cottage Girl," 150.

    SONREL, ÉLISABETH: "The Goddesses before Paris," 237.

    SPENCER, LAVINIA, COUNTESS: "A Pinch of Snuff," 90.

    STAPLES, MRS. (M. E. EDWARDS): "Waifs from the Great City," 120.

    STARR, LOUISA (MME. CANZIANA): "Sintram and his Mother," 106.

    STOKES, MRS. MARIANNE: "The Queen and the Page," 79;
      "Portrait of the Hon. Mrs. Walter James," 129.

    STRONG, MRS. ELIZABETH: "Good Friends," 113.

    SUBLEYRAS, MARIA TIBALDI: "Mary Magdalene at the Feet of Jesus
        Christ," 52.

    SWAN, MRS. J. M.: "The Music Lesson," 159.

    SWYNNERTON, MRS. A. L.: "The Sense of Sight," 133.


    TAVERNIER, DE, MME. E.: "Before the Dance," 227.

    TEMPLETOWN, VISCOUNTESS: "Wood Scene," 94.

    THESLEFF, ELLEN: "A Finnish Peasant Girl," 314.


    VALORY, DE, MME. CAROLINE: "The Miniature," 192.

    VALLET-BISSON, MME.: "The Departure," 241.

    VANTEUIL, DE, MLLE.: "Portrait of Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise
        de Sévigné," 185.

    VIGRI, CATERINA: "Saint Ursula and her Maidens," 33.


    WATERFORD, LOUISA MARCHIONESS OF: "Palm Branches," 99;
      "Spring," 99;
      "Jesus Christ among the Doctors," 101.

    WATERNAU, MLLE. HERMINE: "By the Bank of a Stream," 221.

    WATSON, CAROLINE: "Portrait of Sarah, Countess of Kinnoull," 89.

    WENTWORTH, MRS. CECILIA: "Prayer," 160.

    WESMAEL, MLLE. E.: "A Sunset in the Campine," 283.

    WHITE, MISS FLORENCE: "White Treasures," 124.

    WIIK, MARIA: "Portrait of a Lady," 309;
      "Preparing to Leave Home," 313.

    WOLFTHORN, FRAU JULIE: "Portrait of a Sculptor," 304.

    WYTSMAN, MME. JULIETTE: "Lilies in the Courtyard of a House of Rest
        at Bruges," 284.


    YOUNGMAN, MISS A. M., R.I.: "In a Neapolitan Villa," 118;
      "Who Loves a Garden loves a Greenhouse too," 119.


    ZAPPI, LAVINIA FONTANA: "Marriage of St. Catharine," 39;
      "Portrait of Lavinia Fontana Zappi," 40;
      "Jesus Christ Talking with the Woman of Samaria," 41.

    ZILLHARDT, MLLE. JENNY: "Régalez-vous, Mesdames!" 221.

    [Illustration: SILHOUETTE BY NELLY BODENHEIM.]



       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's note:

Archaic and inconsistent punctuation, spelling and syntax were retained.

The original had illustrations imbedded in the index.





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