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Title: I. Beówulf: an Anglo-Saxon poem. II. The fight at Finnsburh: a fragment.
Author: Sharp, Robert, 1851- [Editor], Harrison, James A. (James Albert), 1848-1911 [Editor]
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "I. Beówulf: an Anglo-Saxon poem. II. The fight at Finnsburh: a fragment." ***

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This text is a corrected version of the fourth edition of Harrison and
Sharp in its entirety. It comes in two basic versions. The base version,
available in 8-bit (Latin-1) text and HTML, presents the original text as
printed. This file contains the original version. It preserves the
source-text's idiosyncratic use of accented vowels with the exception of
y-circumflex, which is replaced by y-acute (ý) to fit within the Latin-1
character set. Manifestly unintentional errors in the text have been
corrected. In general, this has only been done when the text is internally
inconsistent (e.g., a quotation in the glossary does not match the main
text). Forms that represent deliberate editorial choice have not been
altered, even where they appear wrong. (For example, some of the markings
of vowel length do not reflect current scholarly consensus.) Where an
uncorrected problem may confuse the reader, I have inserted a note
explaining the difficulty, signed KTH. A complete list of the changes made
is appended at the end of the file. In order to make the text more useful
to modern readers, I have also produced a revised edition, available in
Unicode (UTF-8) and HTML. Notes from the source text that indicate changes
adopted in later editions have been incorporated directly into the text and
apparatus. Further, long vowels are indicated with macrons, as is the
common practice of most modern editions. Finally, the quantity of some
words has been altered to the values currently accepted as correct.
Quantities have not been changed when the difference is a matter of
editorial interpretation (e.g., gäst vs. gæst in l. 102, etc.) A list of
these altered quantities appears at the end of the list of corrections.
Your browser must support the Unicode character set to use the revised

Explanation of the Vowel Accenting

In general, Harrison and Sharp use circumflex accents over vowels to mark
long vowels. For ash, however, the actual character 'æ' represents the long
vowel. Short ash is rendered with a-umlaut (ä). The long diphthongs (eo,
ea, etc.) are indicated with an acute accent over the _second_ vowel (eó,
eá, etc.).

** End of PG Preface **















Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1883, by


in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.







The favor with which the successive editions of "Beówulf" have been
received during the past thirteen years emboldens the editors to continue
the work of revision in a fourth issue, the most noticeable feature of
which is a considerable body of explanatory Notes, now for the first time
added. These Notes mainly concern themselves with new textual readings,
with here and there grammatical, geographical, and archæological points
that seemed worthy of explanation. Parallelisms and parallel passages are
constantly compared, with the view of making the poem illustrate and
explain itself. A few emendations and textual changes are suggested by the
editors with all possible diffidence; numerous corrections have been made
in the Glossary and List of Names; and the valuable parts of former
Appendices have been embodied in the Notes.

For the Notes, the editors are much indebted to the various German
periodicals mentioned on page 116, to the recent publications of Professors
Earle and J. L. Hall, to Mr. S. A. Brooke, and to the Heyne-Socin edition
of "Beówulf." No change has been made in the system of accentuation, though
a few errors in quantity have been corrected. The editors are looking
forward to an eventual fifth edition, in which an entirely new text will be

October, 1893.


This third edition of the American issue of Beówulf will, the editors hope,
be found more accurate and useful than either of the preceding editions.
Further corrections in text and glossary have been made, and some
additional new readings and suggestions will be found in two brief
appendices at the back of the book. Students of the metrical system of
Beówulf will find ample material for their studies in Sievers' exhaustive
essay on that subject (Beiträge, X. 209-314).

Socin's edition of Heyne's Beówulf (called the fifth edition) has been
utilized to some extent in this edition, though it unfortunately came too
late to be freely used. While it repeats many of the omissions and
inaccuracies of Heyne's fourth edition, it contains much that is valuable
to the student, particularly in the notes and commentary. Students of the
poem, which has been subjected to much searching criticism during the last
decade, will also derive especial help from the contributions of Sievers
and Kluge on difficult questions appertaining to it. Wülker's new edition
(in the Grein _Bibliothek_) is of the highest value, however one may
dissent from particular textual views laid down in the 'Berichtigter Text.'
Paul and Braune's Beiträge contain a varied miscellany of hints,
corrections, and suggestions principally embodying the views of Kluge,
Cosijn, Sievers, and Bugge, some of the more important of which are found
in the appendices to the present and the preceding edition. Holder and
Zupitza, Sarrazin and Hermann Möller (Kiel, 1883), Heinzel (Anzeiger f.d.
Alterthum, X.), Gering (Zacher's Zeitschrift, XII.), Brenner (Eng. Studien,
IX.), and the contributors to Anglia, have assisted materially in the
textual and metrical interpretation of the poem.

The subject of Anglo-Saxon quantity has been discussed in several able
essays by Sievers, Sweet, Ten Brink (Anzeiger, f.d. Alterthum, V.), Kluge
(Beiträge, XI.), and others; but so much is uncertain in this field that
the editors have left undisturbed the marking of vowels found in the text
of their original edition, while indicating in the appendices the now
accepted views of scholars on the quantity of the personal pronouns (mê,
wê, þû, þê, gê, hê); the adverb nû, etc. Perhaps it would be best to banish
absolutely all attempts at marking quantities except in cases where the Ms.
has them marked.

An approximately complete Bibliography of Beówulf literature will be found
in Wülker's _Grundriss_ and in Garnett's translation of the poem.



LEXINGTON, VA., May, 1888.


The editors feel so encouraged at the kind reception accorded their edition
of Beówulf (1883), that, in spite of its many shortcomings, they have
determined to prepare a second revised edition of the book, and thus
endeavor to extend its sphere of usefulness. About twenty errors had,
notwithstanding a vigilant proof-reading, crept into the text,--errors in
single letters, accents, and punctuation. These have been corrected, and it
is hoped that the text has been rendered generally accurate and
trustworthy. In the List of Names one or two corrections have been made,
and in the Glossary numerous mistakes in gender, classification, and
translation, apparently unavoidable in a first edition, have been
rectified. Wherever these mistakes concern _single_ letters, or occupy very
small space, they have been corrected in the plates; where they are longer,
and the expense of correcting them in the plates would have been very
great, the editors have thought it best to include them in an Appendix of
Corrections and Additions, which will be found at the back of the book.
Students are accordingly referred to this Appendix for important longer
corrections and additions. It is believed that the value of the book has
been much enhanced by an Appendix of Recent Readings, based on late
criticisms and essays from the pens of Sievers, Kluge, Cosijn, Holder,
Wülker, and Sweet. A perplexed student, in turning to these suggested
readings, will often find great help in unravelling obscure or corrupt

The objectionable ä and æ, for the short and the long diphthong, have been
retained in the revised edition, owing to the impossibility of removing
them without entirely recasting the plates.

In conclusion, the editors would acknowledge their great indebtedness to
the friends and critics whose remarks and criticisms have materially aided
in the correction of the text,--particularly to Profs. C.P.G. Scott,
Baskervill, Price, and J.M. Hart; to Prof. J.W. Bright; and to the
authorities of Cornell University, for the loan of periodicals necessary to
the completeness of the revision. While the second revised edition still
contains much that might be improved, the editors cannot but hope that it
is an advance on its predecessor, and that it will continue its work of
extending the study of Old English throughout the land.

JUNE, 1885.


The present work, carefully edited from Heyne's fourth edition, (Paderborn,
1879), is designed primarily for college classes in Anglo-Saxon, rather
than for independent investigators or for seekers after a restored or ideal
text. The need of an American edition of "Beówulf" has long been felt, as,
hitherto, students have had either to send to Germany for a text, or
secure, with great trouble, one of the scarce and expensive English
editions. Heyne's first edition came out in 1863, and was followed in 1867
and 1873 by a second and a third edition, all three having essentially the
same text.

So many important contributions to the "Beówulf" literature were, however,
made between 1873 and 1879 that Heyne found it necessary to put forth a new
edition (1879). In this new, last edition, the text was subjected to a
careful revision, and was fortified by the views, contributions, and
criticisms of other zealous scholars. In it the collation of the unique
"Beówulf" Ms. (Vitellius A. 15: Cottonian Mss. of the British Museum), as
made by E. Kölbing in Herrig's _Archiv_ (Bd. 56; 1876), was followed
wherever the present condition of the Ms. had to be discussed; and the
researches of Bugge, Bieger, and others, on single passages, were made use
of. The discussion of the metrical structure of the poem, as occurring in
the second and third editions, was omitted in the fourth, owing to the many
controversies in which the subject is still involved. The present editor
has thought it best to do the same, though, happily, the subject of Old
English _Metrik_ is undergoing a steady illumination through the labors of
Schipper and others.

Some errors and misplaced accents in Heyne's text have been corrected in
the present edition, in which, as in the general revision of the text, the
editor has been most kindly aided by Prof. J.M. Garnett, late Principal of
St. John's College, Maryland.

In the preparation of the present school edition it has been thought best
to omit Heyne's notes, as they concern themselves principally with
conjectural emendations, substitutions of one reading for another, and
discussions of the condition of the Ms. Until Wülker's text and the
photographic fac-simile of the original Ms. are in the hands of all
scholars, it will be better not to introduce such matters in the school
room, where they would puzzle without instructing.

For convenience of reference, the editor has added a head-line to each
"fit" of the poem, with a view to facilitate a knowledge of its episodes.

LEXINGTON, VA., June, 1882.


The editors now have the pleasure of presenting to the public a complete
text and a tolerably complete glossary of "Beówulf." The edition is the
first published in America, and the first of its special kind presented to
the English public, and it is the initial volume of a "Library of
Anglo-Saxon Poetry," to be edited under the same auspices and with the
coöperation of distinguished scholars in this country. Among these scholars
may be mentioned Professors F.A. March of Lafayette College, T.K. Price of
Columbia College, and W.M. Baskervill of Vanderbilt University.

In the preparation of the Glossary the editors found it necessary to
abandon a literal and exact translation of Heyne for several reasons, and
among others from the fact that Heyne seems to be wrong in the translation
of some of his illustrative quotations, and even translates the same
passage in two or three different ways under different headings. The
orthography of his glossary differs considerably from the orthography of
his text. He fails to discriminate with due nicety the meanings of many of
the words in his vocabulary, while criticism more recent than his latest
edition (1879) has illustrated or overthrown several of his renderings. The
references were found to be incorrect in innumerable instances, and had to
be verified in every individual case so far as this was possible, a few
only, which resisted all efforts at verification, having to be indicated by
an interrogation point (?). The references are exceedingly numerous, and
the labor of verifying them was naturally great. To many passages in the
Glossary, where Heyne's translation could not be trusted with entire
certainty, the editors have added other translations of phrases and
sentences or of special words; and in this they have been aided by a
careful study of the text and a comparison and utilization of the views of
Kemble and Professor J.M. Garnett (who takes Grein for his foundation).
Many new references have been added; and the various passages in which
Heyne fails to indicate whether a given verb is weak or strong, or fails to
point out the number, etc., of the illustrative form, have been corrected
and made to harmonize with the general plan of the work. Numerous misprints
in the glossary have also been corrected, and a brief glossary to the
Finnsburh-fragment, prepared by Dr. Wm. Hand Browne, and supplemented and
adapted by the editor-in-chief, has been added.

The editors think that they may without immodesty put forth for themselves
something more than the claim of being re-translators of a translation: the
present edition is, so far as they were able to make it so, an adaptation,
correction, and extension of the work of the great German scholar to whose
loving appreciation of the Anglo-Saxon epic all students of Old English owe
a debt of gratitude. While following his usually sure and cautious
guidance, and in the main appropriating his results, they have thought it
best to deviate from him in the manner above indicated, whenever it seemed
that he was wrong. The careful reader will notice at once the marks of
interrogation which point out these deviations, or which introduce a point
of view illustrative of, or supplementary to, the one given by the German
editor. No doubt the editors are wrong themselves in many
places,--"Beówulf" is a most difficult poem,--but their view may at least
be defended by a reference to the original text, which they have faithfully
and constantly consulted.

A good many cognate Modern English words have been introduced here and
there in the Glossary with a view to illustration, and other addenda will
be found between brackets and parenthetical marks.

It is hoped that the present edition of the most famous of Old English
poems will do something to promote a valuable and interesting study.

_Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va._

_University of Louisiana, New Orleans_.

April, 1883.

The responsibility of the editors is as follows: H. is responsible for the
Text, and for the Glossary from hrînan on; S. for the List of Names, and
for the Glossary as far as hrînan.


The only national [Anglo-Saxon] epic which has been preserved entire is
Beówulf. Its argument is briefly as follows:--The poem opens with a few
verses in praise of the Danish Kings, especially Scild, the son of Sceaf.
His death is related, and his descendants briefly traced down to Hroðgar.
Hroðgar, elated with his prosperity and success in war, builds a
magnificent hall, which he calls Heorot. In this hall Hroðgar and his
retainers live in joy and festivity, until a malignant fiend, called
Grendel, jealous of their happiness, carries off by night thirty of
Hroðgar's men, and devours them in his moorland retreat. These ravages go
on for twelve years. Beówulf, a thane of Hygelac, King of the Goths,
hearing of Hroðgar's calamities, sails from Sweden with fourteen
warriors--to help him. They reach the Danish coast in safety; and, after an
animated parley with Hroðgar's coastguard, who at first takes them for
pirates, they are allowed to proceed to the royal hall, where they are well
received by Hroðgar. A banquet ensues, during which Beówulf is taunted by
the envious Hunferhð about his swimming-match with Breca, King of the
Brondings. Beówulf gives the true account of the contest, and silences
Hunferhð. At night-fall the King departs, leaving Beówulf in charge of the
hall. Grendel soon breaks in, seizes and devours one of Beówulf's
companions; is attacked by Beówulf, and, after losing an arm, which is torn
off by Beówulf, escapes to the fens. The joy of Hroðgar and the Danes, and
their festivities, are described, various episodes are introduced, and
Beówulf and his companions receive splendid gifts. The next night Grendel's
mother revenges her son by carrying off Æschere, the friend and councillor
of Hroðgar, during the absence of Beówulf. Hroðgar appeals to Beówulf for
vengeance, and describes the haunts of Grendel and his mother. They all
proceed thither; the scenery of the lake, and the monsters that dwell in
it, are described. Beówulf plunges into the water, and attacks Grendel's
mother in her dwelling at the bottom of the lake. He at length overcomes
her, and cuts off her head, together with that of Grendel, and brings the
heads to Hroðgar. He then takes leave of Hroðgar, sails back to Sweden, and
relates his adventures to Hygelac. Here the first half of the poem ends.
The second begins with the accession of Beówulf to the throne, after the
fall of Hygelac and his son Heardred. He rules prosperously for fifty
years, till a dragon, brooding over a hidden treasure, begins to ravage the
country, and destroys Beówulf's palace with fire. Beówulf sets out in quest
of its hiding-place, with twelve men. Having a presentiment of his
approaching end, he pauses and recalls to mind his past life and exploits.
He then takes leave of his followers, one by one, and advances alone to
attack the dragon. Unable, from the heat, to enter the cavern, he shouts
aloud, and the dragon comes forth. The dragon's scaly hide is proof against
Beówulf's sword, and he is reduced to great straits. Then Wiglaf, one of
his followers, advances to help him. Wiglaf's shield is consumed by the
dragon's fiery breath, and he is compelled to seek shelter under Beówulf's
shield of iron. Beówulf's sword snaps asunder, and he is seized by the
dragon. Wiglaf stabs the dragon from underneath, and Beówulf cuts it in two
with his dagger. Feeling that his end is near, he bids Wiglaf bring out the
treasures from the cavern, that he may see them before he dies. Wiglaf
enters the dragon's den, which is described, returns to Beówulf, and
receives his last commands. Beówulf dies, and Wiglaf bitterly reproaches
his companions for their cowardice. The disastrous consequences of
Beówulf's death are then foretold, and the poem ends with his funeral.--H.
Sweet, in Warton's _History of English Poetry_, Vol. II. (ed. 1871). Cf.
also Ten Brink's _History of English Literature_.



     Hwät! we Gâr-Dena      in geâr-dagum
     þeód-cyninga      þrym gefrunon,
     hû þâ äðelingas      ellen fremedon.
     Oft Scyld Scêfing      sceaðena þreátum,
5    monegum mægðum      meodo-setla ofteáh.
     Egsode eorl,      syððan ærest wearð
     feá-sceaft funden:      he þäs frôfre gebâd,
     weôx under wolcnum,      weorð-myndum ðâh,
     ôð þät him æghwylc      þâra ymb-sittendra
10   ofer hron-râde      hýran scolde,
     gomban gyldan:      þät wäs gôd cyning!
     þäm eafera wäs      äfter cenned
     geong in geardum,      þone god sende
     folce tô frôfre;      fyren-þearfe ongeat,
15   þät hie ær drugon      aldor-leáse
     lange hwîle.      Him þäs lîf-freá,
     wuldres wealdend,      worold-âre forgeaf;
     Beówulf wäs breme      (blæd wîde sprang),
     Scyldes eafera      Scede-landum in.
20   Swâ sceal geong guma,      gôde gewyrcean,
     fromum feoh-giftum      on fäder wine,
     þät hine on ylde      eft gewunigen
     wil-gesîðas,      þonne wîg cume,
     leóde gelæsten:      lof-dædum sceal
25   in mægða gehwære      man geþeón.
     Him þâ Scyld gewât      tô gescäp-hwîle
     fela-hrôr fêran      on freán wære;
     hi hyne þâ ätbæron      tô brimes faroðe.
     swæse gesîðas,      swâ he selfa bäd,
30   þenden wordum weóld      wine Scyldinga,
     leóf land-fruma      lange âhte.
     Þær ät hýðe stôd      hringed-stefna,
     îsig and ûtfûs,      äðelinges fär;
     â-lêdon þâ      leófne þeóden,
35   beága bryttan      on bearm scipes,
     mærne be mäste.      Þær wäs mâdma fela,
     of feor-wegum      frätwa gelæded:
     ne hýrde ic cymlîcor      ceól gegyrwan
     hilde-wæpnum      and heaðo-wædum,
40   billum and byrnum;      him on bearme läg
     mâdma mänigo,      þâ him mid scoldon
     on flôdes æht      feor gewîtan.
     Nalas hi hine lässan      lâcum teódan,
     þeód-gestreónum,      þonne þâ dydon,
45   þe hine ät frumsceafte      forð onsendon
     ænne ofer ýðe      umbor wesende:
     þâ gyt hie him âsetton      segen gyldenne
     heáh ofer heáfod,      lêton holm beran,
     geâfon on gâr-secg:      him wäs geômor sefa,
50   murnende môd.      Men ne cunnon
     secgan tô soðe      sele-rædende,
     häleð under heofenum,      hwâ þäm hläste onfêng.


     Þâ wäs on burgum      Beówulf Scyldinga,
     leóf leód-cyning,      longe þrage
55   folcum gefræge      (fäder ellor hwearf,
     aldor of earde),      ôð þät him eft onwôc
     heáh Healfdene;      heóld þenden lifde,
     gamol and gûð-reów,      gläde Scyldingas.
     Þäm feówer bearn      forð-gerîmed
60   in worold wôcun,      weoroda ræswan,
     Heorogâr and Hrôðgâr      and Hâlga til;
     hýrde ic, þat Elan cwên      Ongenþeówes wäs
     Heaðoscilfinges      heals-gebedde.
     Þâ wäs Hrôðgâre      here-spêd gyfen,
65   wîges weorð-mynd,      þät him his wine-mâgas
     georne hýrdon,      ôð þät seó geogoð geweôx,
     mago-driht micel.      Him on môd bearn,
     þät heal-reced      hâtan wolde,
     medo-ärn micel      men gewyrcean,
70   þone yldo bearn      æfre gefrunon,
     and þær on innan      eall gedælan
     geongum and ealdum,      swylc him god sealde,
     bûton folc-scare      and feorum gumena.
     Þâ ic wîde gefrägn      weorc gebannan
75   manigre mægðe      geond þisne middan-geard,
     folc-stede frätwan.      Him on fyrste gelomp
     ädre mid yldum,      þät hit wearð eal gearo,
     heal-ärna mæst;      scôp him Heort naman,
     se þe his wordes geweald      wîde häfde.
80   He beót ne âlêh,      beágas dælde,
     sinc ät symle.      Sele hlifade
     heáh and horn-geáp:      heaðo-wylma bâd,
     lâðan lîges;      ne wäs hit lenge þâ gen
     þät se ecg-hete      âðum-swerian
85   äfter wäl-nîðe      wäcnan scolde.
     Þâ se ellen-gæst      earfoðlîce
     þrage geþolode,      se þe in þýstrum bâd,
     þät he dôgora gehwâm      dreám gehýrde
     hlûdne in healle;      þær wäs hearpan swêg,
90   swutol sang scôpes.      Sägde se þe cûðe
     frum-sceaft fira      feorran reccan,
     cwäð þät se älmihtiga      eorðan worhte,
     wlite-beorhtne wang,      swâ wäter bebûgeð,
     gesette sige-hrêðig      sunnan and mônan
95   leóman tô leóhte      land-bûendum,
     and gefrätwade      foldan sceátas
     leomum and leáfum;      lîf eác gesceôp
     cynna gehwylcum,      þâra þe cwice hwyrfað.
     Swâ þâ driht-guman      dreámum lifdon
100  eádiglîce,      ôð þät ân ongan
     fyrene fremman,      feónd on helle:
     wäs se grimma gäst      Grendel hâten,
     mære mearc-stapa,      se þe môras heóld,
     fen and fästen;      fîfel-cynnes eard
105  won-sælig wer      weardode hwîle,
     siððan him scyppend      forscrifen häfde.
     In Caines cynne      þone cwealm gewräc,
     êce drihten,      þäs þe he Abel slôg;
     ne gefeah he þære fæhðe,      ac he hine feor forwräc,
110  metod for þý mâne      man-cynne fram.
     Þanon untydras      ealle onwôcon,
     eotenas and ylfe      and orcnêas,
     swylce gigantas,      þâ wið gode wunnon
     lange þrage;      he him þäs leán forgeald.


115  Gewât þâ neósian,      syððan niht becom,
     heán hûses,      hû hit Hring-Dene
     äfter beór-þege      gebûn häfdon.
     Fand þâ þær inne      äðelinga gedriht
     swefan äfter symble;      sorge ne cûðon,
120  won-sceaft wera.      Wiht unhælo
     grim and grædig      gearo sôna wäs,
     reóc and rêðe,      and on räste genam
     þritig þegna:      þanon eft gewât
     hûðe hrêmig      tô hâm faran,
125  mid þære wäl-fylle      wîca neósan.
     Þâ wäs on uhtan      mid ær-däge
     Grendles gûð-cräft      gumum undyrne:
     þâ wäs äfter wiste      wôp up âhafen,
     micel morgen-swêg.      Mære þeóden,
130  äðeling ær-gôd,      unblîðe sät,
     þolode þrýð-swýð,      þegn-sorge dreáh,
     syððan hie þäs lâðan      lâst sceáwedon,
     wergan gâstes;      wäs þät gewin tô strang,
     lâð and longsum.      Näs hit lengra fyrst,
135  ac ymb âne niht      eft gefremede
     morð-beala mâre      and nô mearn fore
     fæhðe and fyrene;      wäs tô fäst on þâm.
     Þâ wäs eáð-fynde,      þe him elles hwær
     gerûmlîcor      räste sôhte,
140  bed äfter bûrum,      þâ him gebeácnod wäs,
     gesägd sôðlîce      sweotolan tâcne
     heal-þegnes hete;      heóld hine syððan
     fyr and fästor,      se þäm feónde ätwand.
     Swâ rîxode      and wið rihte wan
145  âna wið eallum,      ôð þät îdel stôd
     hûsa sêlest.      Wäs seó hwîl micel:
     twelf wintra tîd      torn geþolode
     wine Scyldinga,      weána gehwelcne,
     sîdra sorga;      forþam syððan wearð
150  ylda bearnum      undyrne cûð,
     gyddum geômore,      þätte Grendel wan,
     hwîle wið Hrôðgâr;--      hete-nîðas wäg,
     fyrene and fæhðe      fela missera,
     singale säce,      sibbe ne wolde
155  wið manna hwone      mägenes Deniga
     feorh-bealo feorran,      feó þingian,
     ne þær nænig witena      wênan þorfte
     beorhtre bôte      tô banan folmum;
     atol äglæca      êhtende wäs,
160  deorc deáð-scûa      duguðe and geogoðe
     seomade and syrede.      Sin-nihte heóld
     mistige môras;      men ne cunnon,
     hwyder hel-rûnan      hwyrftum scrîðað.
     Swâ fela fyrena      feónd man-cynnes,
165  atol ân-gengea,      oft gefremede
     heardra hýnða;      Heorot eardode,
     sinc-fâge sel      sweartum nihtum
     (nô he þone gif-stôl      grêtan môste,
     mâððum for metode,      ne his myne wisse);
170  þät wäs wræc micel      wine Scyldinga,
     môdes brecða.      Monig-oft gesät
     rîce tô rûne;      ræd eahtedon,
     hwät swîð-ferhðum      sêlest wære
     wið fær-gryrum      tô gefremmanne.
175  Hwîlum hie gehêton      ät härg-trafum
     wig-weorðunga,      wordum bædon,
     þät him gâst-bona      geóce gefremede
     wið þeód-þreáum.      Swylc wäs þeáw hyra,
     hæðenra hyht;      helle gemundon
180  in môd-sefan,      metod hie ne cûðon,
     dæda dêmend,      ne wiston hie drihten god,
     ne hie hûru heofena helm      hêrian ne cûðon,
     wuldres waldend.      Wâ bið þäm þe sceal
     þurh slîðne nîð      sâwle bescûfan
185  in fýres fäðm,      frôfre ne wênan,
     wihte gewendan;      wel bið þäm þe môt
     äfter deáð-däge      drihten sêcean
     and tô fäder fäðmum      freoðo wilnian.


     Swâ þâ mæl-ceare      maga Healfdenes
190  singala seáð;      ne mihte snotor häleð
     weán onwendan:      wäs þät gewin tô swýð,
     lâð and longsum,      þe on þâ leóde becom,
     nýd-wracu nîð-grim,      niht-bealwa mæst.
     Þät fram hâm gefrägn      Higelâces þegn,
195  gôd mid Geátum,      Grendles dæda:
     se wäs mon-cynnes      mägenes strengest
     on þäm däge      þysses lîfes,
     äðele and eácen.      Hêt him ýð-lidan
     gôdne gegyrwan;      cwäð he gûð-cyning
200  ofer swan-râde      sêcean wolde,
     mærne þeóden,      þâ him wäs manna þearf.
     Þone sîð-fät him      snotere ceorlas
     lyt-hwôn lôgon,      þeáh he him leóf wære;
     hwetton higerôfne,      hæl sceáwedon.
205  Häfde se gôda      Geáta leóda
     cempan gecorone,      þâra þe he cênoste
     findan mihte;      fîftena sum
     sund-wudu sôhte;      secg wîsade,
     lagu-cräftig mon,      land-gemyrcu.
210  Fyrst forð gewât:      flota wäs on ýðum,
     bât under beorge.      Beornas gearwe
     on stefn stigon;      streámas wundon
     sund wið sande;      secgas bæron
     on bearm nacan      beorhte frätwe,
215  gûð-searo geatolîc;      guman ût scufon,
     weras on wil-sîð      wudu bundenne.
     Gewât þâ ofer wæg-holm      winde gefýsed
     flota fâmig-heals      fugle gelîcost,
     ôð þät ymb ân-tîd      ôðres dôgores
220  wunden-stefna      gewaden häfde,
     þät þâ lîðende      land gesâwon,
     brim-clifu blîcan,      beorgas steápe,
     sîde sæ-nässas:      þâ wäs sund liden,
     eoletes ät ende.      Þanon up hraðe
225  Wedera leóde      on wang stigon,
     sæ-wudu sældon      (syrcan hrysedon,
     gûð-gewædo);      gode þancedon,
     þäs þe him ýð-lâde      eáðe wurdon.
     Þâ of wealle geseah      weard Scildinga,
230  se þe holm-clifu      healdan scolde,
     beran ofer bolcan      beorhte randas,
     fyrd-searu fûslîcu;      hine fyrwyt bräc
     môd-gehygdum,      hwät þâ men wæron.
     Gewât him þâ tô waroðe      wicge rîdan
235  þegn Hrôðgâres,      þrymmum cwehte
     mägen-wudu mundum,      meðel-wordum frägn:
     "Hwät syndon ge      searo-häbbendra
     "byrnum werede,      þe þus brontne ceól
     "ofer lagu-stræte      lædan cwômon,
240  "hider ofer holmas      helmas bæron?
     "Ic wäs ende-sæta,      æg-wearde heóld,
     "þät on land Dena      lâðra nænig
     "mid scip-herge      sceððan ne meahte.
     "Nô her cûðlîcor      cuman ongunnon
245  "lind-häbbende;      ne ge leáfnes-word
     "gûð-fremmendra      gearwe ne wisson,
     "mâga gemêdu.      Næfre ic mâran geseah
     "eorla ofer eorðan,      þonne is eówer sum,
     "secg on searwum;      nis þät seld-guma
250 "wæpnum geweorðad,      näfne him his wlite leóge,
     "ænlîc an-sýn.      Nu ic eówer sceal
     "frum-cyn witan,      ær ge fyr heonan
     "leáse sceáweras      on land Dena
     "furður fêran.      Nu ge feor-bûend,
255  "mere-lîðende,      mînne gehýrað
     "ân-fealdne geþôht:      ôfost is sêlest
     "tô gecýðanne,      hwanan eówre cyme syndon."


     Him se yldesta      andswarode,
     werodes wîsa,      word-hord onleác:
260  "We synt gum-cynnes      Geáta leóde
     "and Higelâces      heorð-geneátas.
     "Wäs mîn fäder      folcum gecýðed,
     "äðele ord-fruma      Ecgþeów hâten;
     "gebâd wintra worn,      ær he on weg hwurfe,
265  "gamol of geardum;      hine gearwe geman
     "witena wel-hwylc      wîde geond eorðan.--
     "We þurh holdne hige      hlâford þinne,
     "sunu Healfdenes,      sêcean cwômon,
     "leód-gebyrgean:      wes þu ûs lârena gôd!
270  "Habbað we tô þäm mæran      micel ærende
     "Deniga freán;      ne sceal þær dyrne sum
     "wesan, þäs ic wêne.      Þu wâst, gif hit is,
     "swâ we sôðlice      secgan hýrdon,
     "þät mid Scyldingum      sceaða ic nât hwylc,
275  "deógol dæd-hata,      deorcum nihtum
     "eáweð þurh egsan      uncûðne nîð,
     "hýnðu and hrâ-fyl.      Ic þäs Hrôðgâr mäg
     "þurh rûmne sefan      ræd gelæran,
     "hû he frôd and gôd      feónd oferswýðeð,
280  "gyf him ed-wendan      æfre scolde
     "bealuwa bisigu,      bôt eft cuman
     "and þâ cear-wylmas      côlran wurðað;
     "oððe â syððan      earfoð-þrage,
     "þreá-nýd þolað,      þenden þær wunað
285  "on heáh-stede      hûsa sêlest."
     Weard maðelode,      þær on wicge sät
     ombeht unforht:      "Æghwäðres sceal
     "scearp scyld-wîga      gescâd witan,
     "worda and worca,      se þe wel þenceð.
290  "Ic þät gehýre,      þät þis is hold weorod
     "freán Scyldinga.      Gewîtað forð beran
     "wæpen and gewædu,      ic eów wîsige:
     "swylce ic magu-þegnas      mîne hâte
     "wið feónda gehwone      flotan eówerne,
295  "niw-tyrwedne      nacan on sande
     "ârum healdan,      ôð þät eft byreð
     "ofer lagu-streámas      leófne mannan
     "wudu wunden-hals      tô Weder-mearce.
     "Gûð-fremmendra      swylcum gifeðe bið,
300  "þät þone hilde-ræs      hâl gedîgeð."
     Gewiton him þâ fêran      (flota stille bâd,
     seomode on sâle      sîd-fäðmed scyp,
     on ancre fäst);      eofor-lîc scionon
     ofer hleór-beran      gehroden golde
305  fâh and fýr-heard,      ferh wearde heóld.
     Gûðmôde grummon,      guman onetton,
     sigon ätsomne,      ôð þät hy säl timbred
     geatolîc and gold-fâh      ongytan mihton;
     þät wäs fore-mærost      fold-bûendum
310  receda under roderum,      on þäm se rîca bâd;
     lixte se leóma      ofer landa fela.
     Him þâ hilde-deór      hof môdigra
     torht getæhte,      þät hie him tô mihton
     gegnum gangan;      gûð-beorna sum
315  wicg gewende,      word äfter cwäð:
     "Mæl is me tô fêran;      fäder alwalda
     "mid âr-stafum      eówic gehealde
     "sîða gesunde!      ic tô sæ wille,
     "wið wrâð werod      wearde healdan."


320  Stræt wäs stân-fâh,      stîg wîsode
     gumum ätgädere.      Gûð-byrne scân
     heard hond-locen,      hring-îren scîr
     song in searwum,      þâ hie tô sele furðum
     in hyra gryre-geatwum      gangan cwômon.
325  Setton sæ-mêðe      sîde scyldas,
     rondas regn-hearde      wið þäs recedes weal,
     bugon þâ tô bence;      byrnan hringdon,
     gûð-searo gumena;      gâras stôdon,
     sæ-manna searo,      samod ätgädere,
330  äsc-holt ufan græg:      wäs se îren-þreát
     wæpnum gewurðad.      Þâ þær wlonc häleð
     oret-mecgas      äfter äðelum frägn:
     "Hwanon ferigeað ge      fätte scyldas,
     "græge syrcan      and grîm-helmas,
335  "here-sceafta heáp?--      Ic eom Hrôðgâres
     "âr and ombiht.      Ne seah ic el-þeódige
     "þus manige men      môdiglîcran.
     "Wên' ic þät ge for wlenco,      nalles for wräc-sîðum,
     "ac for hige-þrymmum      Hrôðgâr sôhton."
340  Him þâ ellen-rôf      andswarode,
     wlanc Wedera leód      word äfter spräc,
     heard under helme:      "We synt Higelâces
     "beód-geneátas;      Beówulf is mîn nama.
     "Wille ic âsecgan      suna Healfdenes,
345  "mærum þeódne      mîn ærende,
     "aldre þînum,      gif he ûs geunnan wile,
     "þät we hine swâ gôdne      grêtan môton."
     Wulfgâr maðelode      (þät wäs Wendla leód,
     wäs his môd-sefa      manegum gecýðed,
350  wîg and wîs-dôm):      "ic þäs wine Deniga,
     "freán Scildinga      frinan wille,
     "beága bryttan,      swâ þu bêna eart,
     "þeóden mærne      ymb þînne sîð ;
     "and þe þâ andsware      ädre gecýðan,
355  "þe me se gôda      âgifan þenceð."
     Hwearf þâ hrädlîce,      þær Hrôðgâr sät,
     eald and unhâr      mid his eorla gedriht;
     eode ellen-rôf,      þät he for eaxlum gestôd
     Deniga freán,      cûðe he duguðe þeáw.
360  Wulfgâr maðelode      tô his wine-drihtne:
     "Her syndon geferede      feorran cumene
     "ofer geofenes begang      Geáta leóde:
     "þone yldestan      oret-mecgas
     "Beówulf nemnað.      Hy bênan synt,
365  "þät hie, þeóden mîn,      wið þe môton
     "wordum wrixlan;      nô þu him wearne geteóh,
     "þînra gegn-cwida      glädnian, Hrôðgâr!
     "Hy on wîg-geatwum      wyrðe þinceað
     "eorla geæhtlan;      hûru se aldor deáh,
370  "se þæm heaðo-rincum      hider wîsade."


     Hrôðgâr maðelode,      helm Scyldinga:
     "Ic hine cûðe      cniht-wesende.
     "Wäs his eald-fäder      Ecgþeó hâten,
     "þäm tô hâm forgeaf      Hrêðel Geáta
375  "ângan dôhtor;      is his eafora nu
     "heard her cumen,      sôhte holdne wine.
     "þonne sägdon þät      sæ-lîðende,
     "þâ þe gif-sceattas      Geáta fyredon
     "þyder tô þance,      þät he þrittiges
380  "manna mägen-cräft      on his mund-grîpe
     "heaðo-rôf häbbe.      Hine hâlig god
     "for âr-stafum      us onsende,
     "tô West-Denum,      þäs ic wên häbbe,
     "wið Grendles gryre:      ic þäm gôdan sceal
385  "for his môd-þräce      mâdmas beódan.
     "Beó þu on ôfeste,      hât hig in gân,
     "seón sibbe-gedriht      samod ätgädere;
     "gesaga him eác wordum,      þät hie sint wil-cuman
     "Deniga leódum."      Þâ wið duru healle
390  Wulfgâr eode,      word inne âbeád:
     "Eów hêt secgan      sige-drihten mîn,
     "aldor Eást-Dena,      þät he eówer äðelu can
     "and ge him syndon      ofer sæ-wylmas,
     "heard-hicgende,      hider wil-cuman.
395  "Nu ge môton gangan      in eówrum guð-geatawum,
     "under here-grîman,      Hrôðgâr geseón;
     "lætað hilde-bord      her onbidian,
     "wudu wäl-sceaftas,      worda geþinges."
     Ârâs þâ se rîca,      ymb hine rinc manig,
400  þryðlîc þegna heáp;      sume þær bidon,
     heaðo-reáf heóldon,      swâ him se hearda bebeád.
     Snyredon ätsomne,      þâ secg wîsode
     under Heorotes hrôf;      hyge-rôf eode,
     heard under helme,      þät he on heoðe gestôd.
405  Beówulf maðelode      (on him byrne scân,
     searo-net seówed      smiðes or-þancum):
     "Wes þu Hrôðgâr hâl!      ic eom Higelâces
     "mæg and mago-þegn;      häbbe ic mærða fela
     "ongunnen on geogoðe.      Me wearð Grendles þing
410  "on mînre êðel-tyrf      undyrne cûð:
     "secgað sæ-lîðend,      þät þes sele stande,
     "reced sêlesta,      rinca gehwylcum
     "îdel and unnyt,      siððan æfen-leóht
     "under heofenes hâdor      beholen weorðeð.
415  "Þâ me þät gelærdon      leóde mîne,
     "þâ sêlestan,      snotere ceorlas,
     "þeóden Hrôðgâr,      þät ic þe sôhte;
     "forþan hie mägenes cräft      mînne cûðon:
     "selfe ofersâwon,      þâ ic of searwum cwom,
420  "fâh from feóndum,      þær ic fîfe geband,
     "ýðde eotena cyn,      and on ýðum slôg
     "niceras nihtes,      nearo-þearfe dreáh,
     "wräc Wedera nîð      (weán âhsodon)
     "forgrand gramum;      and nu wið Grendel sceal,
425  "wið þam aglæcan,      âna gehegan
     "þing wið þyrse.      Ic þe nu þâ,
     "brego Beorht-Dena,      biddan wille,
     "eodor Scyldinga,      ânre bêne;
     "þät þu me ne forwyrne,      wîgendra hleó,
430  "freó-wine folca,      nu ic þus feorran com,
     "þät ic môte âna      and mînra eorla gedryht,
     "þes hearda heáp,      Heorot fælsian.
     "Häbbe ic eác geâhsod,      þät se äglæca
     "for his won-hýdum      wæpna ne rêceð;
435  "ic þät þonne forhicge,      swâ me Higelâc sîe,
     "mîn mon-drihten,      môdes blîðe,
     "þät ic sweord bere      oððe sîdne scyld
     "geolo-rand tô gûðe;      ac ic mid grâpe sceal
     "fôn wið feónde      and ymb feorh sacan,
440  "lâð wið lâðum;      þær gelýfan sceal
     "dryhtnes dôme      se þe hine deáð nimeð.
     "Wên' ic þät he wille,      gif he wealdan môt,
     "in þäm gûð-sele      Geátena leóde
     "etan unforhte,      swâ he oft dyde
445  "mägen Hrêðmanna.      Nâ þu mînne þearft
     "hafalan hýdan,      ac he me habban wile
     "dreóre fâhne,      gif mec deáð nimeð;
     "byreð blôdig wäl,      byrgean þenceð,
     "eteð ân-genga      unmurnlîce,
450  "mearcað môr-hopu:      nô þu ymb mînes ne þearft
     "lîces feorme      leng sorgian.
     "Onsend Higelâce,      gif mec hild nime,
     "beadu-scrûda betst,      þät mîne breóst wereð,
     "hrägla sêlest;      þät is Hrêðlan lâf,
455  "Wêlandes geweorc.      Gæð â Wyrd swâ hió scel!"


     Hrôðgâr maðelode,      helm Scyldinga:
     "for were-fyhtum þu,      wine mîn Beówulf,
     "and for âr-stafum      ûsic sôhtest.
     "Geslôh þin fäder      fæhðe mæste,
460  "wearð he Heaðolâfe      tô hand-bonan
     "mid Wilfingum;      þâ hine Wedera cyn
     "for here-brôgan      habban ne mihte.
     "Þanon he gesôhte      Sûð-Dena folc
     "ofer ýða gewealc,      Âr-Scyldinga;
465  "þâ ic furðum weóld      folce Deninga,
     "and on geogoðe heóld      gimme-rîce
     "hord-burh häleða:      þâ wäs Heregâr deád,
     "mîn yldra mæg      unlifigende,
     "bearn Healfdenes.      Se wäs betera þonne ic!
470  "Siððan þâ fæhðe      feó þingode;
     "sende ic Wylfingum      ofer wäteres hrycg
     "ealde mâdmas:      he me âðas swôr.
     "Sorh is me tô secganne      on sefan mînum
     "gumena ængum,      hwät me Grendel hafað
475  "hýnðo on Heorote      mid his hete-þancum,
     "fær-nîða gefremed.      Is mîn flet-werod,
     "wîg-heáp gewanod;      hie Wyrd forsweóp
     "on Grendles gryre.      God eáðe mäg
     "þone dol-scaðan      dæda getwæfan!
480  "Ful oft gebeótedon      beóre druncne
     "ofer ealo-wæge      oret-mecgas,
     "þät hie in beór-sele      bîdan woldon
     "Grendles gûðe      mid gryrum ecga.
     "Þonne wäs þeós medo-heal      on morgen-tîd,
485  "driht-sele dreór-fâh,      þonne däg lixte,
     "eal benc-þelu      blôde bestýmed,
     "heall heoru-dreóre:      âhte ic holdra þý läs,
     "deórre duguðe,      þe þâ deáð fornam.
     "Site nu tô symle      and onsæl meoto,
490  "sige-hrêð secgum,      swâ þîn sefa hwette!"
     Þâ wäs Geát-mäcgum      geador ätsomne
     on beór-sele      benc gerýmed;
     þær swîð-ferhðe      sittan eodon
     þryðum dealle.      Þegn nytte beheóld,
495  se þe on handa bär      hroden ealo-wæge,
     scencte scîr wered.      Scôp hwîlum sang
     hâdor on Heorote;      þær wäs häleða dreám,
     duguð unlytel      Dena and Wedera.


     Ûnferð maðelode,      Ecglâfes bearn,
500  þe ät fôtum sät      freán Scyldinga;
     onband beadu-rûne      (wäs him Beówulfes sîð,
     môdges mere-faran,      micel äf-þunca,
     forþon þe he ne ûðe,      þät ænig ôðer man
     æfre mærða þon mâ      middan-geardes
505  gehêdde under heofenum      þonne he sylfa):
     "Eart þu se Beówulf,      se þe wið Brecan wunne,
     "on sîdne sæ      ymb sund flite,
     "þær git for wlence      wada cunnedon
     "and for dol-gilpe      on deóp wäter
510  "aldrum nêðdon?      Ne inc ænig mon,
     "ne leóf ne lâð,      beleán mihte
     "sorh-fullne sîð;      þâ git on sund reón,
     "þær git eágor-streám      earmum þehton,
     "mæton mere-stræta,      mundum brugdon,
515  "glidon ofer gâr-secg;      geofon ýðum weól,
     "wintres wylme.      Git on wäteres æht
     "seofon niht swuncon;      he þe ät sunde oferflât,
     "häfde mâre mägen.      Þâ hine on morgen-tîd
     "on Heaðo-ræmas      holm up ätbär,
520  "þonon he gesôhte      swæsne êðel
     "leóf his leódum      lond Brondinga,
     "freoðo-burh fägere,      þær he folc âhte,
     "burg and beágas.      Beót eal wið þe
     "sunu Beánstânes      sôðe gelæste.
525  "Þonne wêne ic tô þe      wyrsan geþinges,
     "þeáh þu heaðo-ræsa      gehwær dohte,
     "grimre gûðe,      gif þu Grendles dearst
     "niht-longne fyrst      neán bîdan!"
     Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
530  "Hwät þu worn fela,      wine mîn Ûnferð,
     "beóre druncen      ymb Brecan spræce,
     "sägdest from his sîðe!      Sôð ic talige,
     "þät ic mere-strengo      mâran âhte,
     "earfeðo on ýðum,      þonne ænig ôðer man.
535  "Wit þät gecwædon      cniht-wesende
     "and gebeótedon      (wæron begen þâ git
     "on geogoð-feore)      þät wit on gâr-secg ût
     "aldrum nêðdon;      and þät geäfndon swâ.
     "Häfdon swurd nacod,      þâ wit on sund reón,
540  "heard on handa,      wit unc wið hron-fixas
     "werian þôhton.      Nô he wiht fram me
     "flôd-ýðum feor      fleótan meahte,
     "hraðor on holme,      nô ic fram him wolde.
     "Þâ wit ätsomne      on sæ wæron
545  "fîf nihta fyrst,      ôð þät unc flôd tôdrâf,
     "wado weallende,      wedera cealdost,
     "nîpende niht      and norðan wind
     "heaðo-grim andhwearf;      hreó wæron ýða,
     "Wäs mere-fixa      môd onhrêred:
550  "þær me wið lâðum      lîc-syrce mîn,
     "heard hond-locen,      helpe gefremede;
     "beado-hrägl broden      on breóstum läg,
     "golde gegyrwed.      Me tô grunde teáh
     "fâh feónd-scaða,      fäste häfde
555  "grim on grâpe:      hwäðre me gyfeðe wearð,
     "þät ic aglæcan      orde geræhte,
     "hilde-bille;      heaðo-ræs fornam
     "mihtig mere-deór      þurh mîne hand.


     "Swâ mec gelôme      lâð-geteónan
560  "þreátedon þearle.      Ic him þênode
     "deóran sweorde,      swâ hit gedêfe wäs;
     "näs hie þære fylle      gefeán häfdon,
     "mân-fordædlan,      þät hie me þêgon,
     "symbel ymb-sæton      sæ-grunde neáh,
565  "ac on mergenne      mêcum wunde
     "be ýð-lâfe      uppe lægon,
     "sweordum âswefede,      þät syððan nâ
     "ymb brontne ford      brim-lîðende
     "lâde ne letton.      Leóht eástan com,
570  "beorht beácen godes;      brimu swaðredon,
     "þät ic sæ-nässas      geseón mihte,
     "windige weallas.      Wyrd oft nereð
     "unfægne eorl,      ðonne his ellen deáh!
     "Hwäðere me gesælde,      þät ic mid sweorde ofslôh
575  "niceras nigene.      Nô ic on niht gefrägn
     "under heofones hwealf      heardran feohtan,
     "ne on êg-streámum      earmran mannan;
     "hwäðere ic fâra feng      feore gedîgde,
     "siðes wêrig.      Þâ mec sæ ôðbär,
580  "flôd äfter faroðe,      on Finna land,
     "wadu weallendu.      Nô ic wiht fram þe
     "swylcra searo-nîða      secgan hýrde,
     "billa brôgan:      Breca næfre git
     "ät heaðo-lâce,      ne gehwäðer incer
585  "swâ deórlîce      dæd gefremede
     "fâgum sweordum      . . . . . . .
     ". . . . . . .      nô ic þäs gylpe;
     "þeáh þu þînum brôðrum      tô banan wurde,
     "heáfod-mægum;      þäs þu in helle scealt
590  "werhðo dreógan,      þeáh þîn wit duge,
     "Secge ic þe tô sôðe,      sunu Ecglâfes,
     "þät næfre Grendel swâ fela      gryra gefremede,
     "atol äglæca      ealdre þînum,
     "hýnðo on Heorote,      gif þîn hige wære,
595  "sefa swâ searo-grim,      swâ þu self talast.
     "Ac he hafað onfunden,      þät he þâ fæhðe ne þearf,
     "atole ecg-þräce      eówer leóde
     "swîðe onsittan,      Sige-Scyldinga;
     "nymeð nýd-bâde,      nænegum ârað
600  "leóde Deniga,      ac he on lust wîgeð,
     "swefeð ond sendeð,      secce ne wêneð
     "tô Gâr-Denum.      Ac him Geáta sceal
     "eafoð and ellen      ungeâra nu
     "gûðe gebeódan.      Gæð eft se þe môt
605  "tô medo môdig,      siððan morgen-leóht
     "ofer ylda bearn      ôðres dôgores,
     "sunne swegl-wered      sûðan scîneð!"
     Þâ wäs on sâlum      sinces brytta
     gamol-feax and gûð-rôf,      geóce gelýfde
610  brego Beorht-Dena;      gehýrde on Beówulfe
     folces hyrde      fäst-rædne geþôht.
     Þær wäs häleða hleahtor;      hlyn swynsode,
     word wæron wynsume.      Eode Wealhþeów forð,
     cwên Hrôðgâres,      cynna gemyndig,
615  grêtte gold-hroden      guman on healle,
     and þâ freólîc wîf      ful gesealde
     ærest Eást-Dena      êðel-wearde,
     bäd hine blîðne      ät þære beór-þege,
     leódum leófne;      he on lust geþeah
620  symbel and sele-ful,      sige-rôf kyning.
     Ymb-eode þâ      ides Helminga
     duguðe and geogoðe      dæl æghwylcne;
     sinc-fato sealde,      ôð þät sæl âlamp,
     þät hió Beówulfe,      beág-hroden cwên,
625  môde geþungen,      medo-ful ätbär;
     grêtte Geáta leód,      gode þancode
     wîs-fäst wordum,      þäs þe hire se willa gelamp,
     þät heó on ænigne      eorl gelýfde
     fyrena frôfre.      He þät ful geþeah,
630  wäl-reów wîga      ät Wealhþeón,
     and þâ gyddode      gûðe gefýsed,
     Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
     "Ic þät hogode,      þâ ic on holm gestâh,
     "sæ-bât gesät      mid mînra secga gedriht,
635  "þät ic ânunga      eówra leóda
     "willan geworhte,      oððe on wäl crunge,
     "feónd-grâpum fäst.      Ic gefremman sceal
     "eorlîc ellen,      oððe ende-däg
     "on þisse meodu-healle      mînne gebîdan."
640  Þam wîfe þâ word      wel lîcodon,
     gilp-cwide Geátes;      eode gold-hroden
     freólîcu folc-cwên      tô hire freán sittan.
     Þâ wäs eft swâ ær      inne on healle
     þryð-word sprecen,      þeód on sælum,
645  sige-folca swêg,      ôð þät semninga
     sunu Healfdenes      sêcean wolde
     æfen-räste;      wiste ät þäm ahlæcan
     tô þäm heáh-sele      hilde geþinged,
     siððan hie sunnan leóht      geseón ne meahton,
650  oððe nîpende      niht ofer ealle,
     scadu-helma gesceapu      scrîðan cwôman,
     wan under wolcnum.      Werod eall ârâs.
     Grêtte þâ giddum      guma ôðerne,
     Hrôðgâr Beówulf,      and him hæl âbeád,
655  wîn-ärnes geweald      and þät word âcwäð:
     "Næfre ic ænegum men      ær âlýfde,
     "siððan ic hond and rond      hebban mihte,
     "þryð-ärn Dena      bûton þe nu þâ.
     "Hafa nu and geheald      hûsa sêlest;
660  "gemyne mærðo,      mägen-ellen cýð,
     "waca wið wrâðum!      Ne bið þe wilna gâd,
     "gif þu þät ellen-weorc      aldre gedîgest."


     Þâ him Hrôðgâr gewât      mid his häleða gedryht,
     eodur Scyldinga      ût of healle;
665  wolde wîg-fruma      Wealhþeó sêcan,
     cwên tô gebeddan      Häfde kyninga wuldor
     Grendle tô-geánes,      swâ guman gefrungon,
     sele-weard âseted,      sundor-nytte beheóld
     ymb aldor Dena,      eoton weard âbeád;
670  hûru Geáta leód      georne trûwode
     môdgan mägnes,      metodes hyldo.
     Þâ he him of dyde      îsern-byrnan,
     helm of hafelan,      sealde his hyrsted sweord,
     îrena cyst      ombiht-þegne,
675  and gehealdan hêt      hilde-geatwe.
     Gespräc þâ se gôda      gylp-worda sum
     Beówulf Geáta,      ær he on bed stige:
     "Nô ic me an here-wæsmum      hnâgran talige
     "gûð-geweorca,      þonne Grendel hine;
680  "forþan ic hine sweorde      swebban nelle,
     "aldre beneótan,      þeáh ic eal mæge.
     "Nât he þâra gôda,      þät he me on-geán sleá,
     "rand geheáwe,      þeáh þe he rôf sîe
     "nîð-geweorca;      ac wit on niht sculon
685  "secge ofersittan,      gif he gesêcean dear
     "wîg ofer wæpen,      and siððan witig god
     "on swâ hwäðere hond      hâlig dryhten
     "mærðo dême,      swâ him gemet þince."
     Hylde hine þâ heaðo-deór,      hleór-bolster onfêng
690  eorles andwlitan;      and hine ymb monig
     snellîc sæ-rinc      sele-reste gebeáh.
     Nænig heora þôhte      þät he þanon scolde
     eft eard-lufan      æfre gesêcean,
     folc oððe freó-burh,      þær he âfêded wäs,
695  ac hie häfdon gefrunen,      þät hie ær tô fela micles
     in þäm wîn-sele      wäl-deáð fornam,
     Denigea leóde.      Ac him dryhten forgeaf
     wîg-spêda gewiofu,      Wedera leódum
     frôfor and fultum,      þät hie feónd heora
700  þurh ânes cräft      ealle ofercômon,
     selfes mihtum:      sôð is gecýðed,
     þät mihtig god      manna cynnes
     weóld wîde-ferhð.      Com on wanre niht
     scrîðan sceadu-genga.      Sceótend swæfon,
705  þâ þät horn-reced      healdan scoldon,
     ealle bûton ânum.      Þät wäs yldum cûð,
     þät hie ne môste,      þâ metod nolde,
     se syn-scaða      under sceadu bregdan;
     ac he wäccende      wrâðum on andan
710  bâd bolgen-môd      beadwa geþinges.


     Þâ com of môre      under mist-hleoðum
     Grendel gongan,      godes yrre bär.
     Mynte se mân-scaða      manna cynnes
     sumne besyrwan      in sele þam heán;
715  wôd under wolcnum,      tô þäs þe he wîn-reced,
     gold-sele gumena,      gearwost wisse
     fättum fâhne.      Ne wäs þät forma sîð,
     þät he Hrôðgâres      hâm gesôhte:
     næfre he on aldor-dagum      ær ne siððan
720  heardran häle,      heal-þegnas fand!
     Com þâ tô recede      rinc sîðian
     dreámum bedæled.      Duru sôna onarn
     fýr-bendum fäst,      syððan he hire folmum hrân;
     onbräd þâ bealo-hydig,      þâ he âbolgen wäs,
725  recedes mûðan.      Raðe äfter þon
     on fâgne flôr      feónd treddode,
     eode yrre-môd;      him of eágum stôd
     lîge gelîcost      leóht unfäger.
     Geseah he in recede      rinca manige,
730  swefan sibbe-gedriht      samod ätgädere,
     mago-rinca heáp:      þâ his môd âhlôg,
     mynte þät he gedælde,      ær þon däg cwôme,
     atol aglæca,      ânra gehwylces
     lîf wið lîce,      þâ him âlumpen wäs
735  wist-fylle wên.      Ne wäs þät wyrd þâ gen,
     þät he mâ môste      manna cynnes
     þicgean ofer þâ niht.      Þrýð-swýð beheóld
     mæg Higelâces,      hû se mân-scaða
     under fær-gripum      gefaran wolde.
740  Ne þät se aglæca      yldan þôhte,
     ac he gefêng hraðe      forman siðe
     slæpendne rinc,      slât unwearnum,
     bât bân-locan,      blôd êdrum dranc,
     syn-snædum swealh:      sôna häfde
745  unlyfigendes      eal gefeormod
     fêt and folma.      Forð neár ätstôp,
     nam þâ mid handa      hige-þihtigne
     rinc on räste;      ræhte ongeán
     feónd mid folme,      he onfêng hraðe
750  inwit-þancum      and wið earm gesät.
     Sôna þät onfunde      fyrena hyrde,
     þät he ne mêtte      middan-geardes
     eorðan sceáta      on elran men
     mund-gripe mâran:      he on môde wearð
755  forht on ferhðe,      nô þý ær fram meahte;
     hyge wäs him hin-fûs,      wolde on heolster fleón,
     sêcan deófla gedräg:      ne wäs his drohtoð þær,
     swylce he on ealder-dagum      ær gemêtte.
     Gemunde þâ se gôda      mæg Higelâces
760  æfen-spræce,      up-lang âstôd
     and him fäste wiðfêng.      Fingras burston;
     eoten wäs ût-weard,      eorl furður stôp.
     Mynte se mæra,      þær he meahte swâ,
     wîdre gewindan      and on weg þanon
765  fleón on fen-hopu;      wiste his fingra geweald
     on grames grâpum.      Þät wäs geócor sîð,
     þät se hearm-scaða      tô Heorute âteáh:
     dryht-sele dynede,      Denum eallum wearð,
     ceaster-bûendum,      cênra gehwylcum,
770  eorlum ealu-scerwen.      Yrre wæron begen,
     rêðe rên-weardas.      Reced hlynsode;
     þâ wäs wundor micel,      þät se wîn-sele
     wiðhäfde heaðo-deórum,      þät he on hrusan ne feól,
     fäger fold-bold;      ac he þäs fäste wäs
775  innan and ûtan      îren-bendum
     searo-þoncum besmiðod.      Þær fram sylle âbeág
     medu-benc monig      mîne gefræge,
     golde geregnad,      þær þâ graman wunnon;
     þäs ne wêndon ær      witan Scyldinga,
780  þät hit â mid gemete      manna ænig
     betlîc and bân-fâg      tôbrecan meahte,
     listum tôlûcan,      nymðe lîges fäðm
     swulge on swaðule.      Swêg up âstâg
     niwe geneahhe;      Norð-Denum stôd
785  atelîc egesa      ânra gehwylcum
     þâra þe of wealle      wôp gehýrdon,
     gryre-leóð galan      godes andsacan,
     sige-leásne sang,      sâr wânigean
     helle häftan.      Heóld hine tô fäste
790  se þe manna wäs      mägene strengest
     on þäm däge      þysses lîfes.


     Nolde eorla hleó      ænige þinga
     þone cwealm-cuman      cwicne forlætan,
     ne his lîf-dagas      leóda ænigum
795  nytte tealde.      Þær genehost brägd
     eorl Beówulfes      ealde lâfe,
     wolde freá-drihtnes      feorh ealgian
     mæres þeódnes,      þær hie meahton swâ;
     hie þät ne wiston,      þâ hie gewin drugon,
800  heard-hicgende      hilde-mecgas,
     and on healfa gehwone      heáwan þôhton,
     sâwle sêcan,      þät þone syn-scaðan
     ænig ofer eorðan      îrenna cyst,
     gûð-billa nân      grêtan nolde;
805  ac he sige-wæpnum      forsworen häfde,
     ecga gehwylcre.      Scolde his aldor-gedâl
     on þäm däge      þysses lîfes
     earmlîc wurðan      and se ellor-gâst
     on feónda geweald      feor sîðian.
810  Þâ þät onfunde      se þe fela æror
     môdes myrðe      manna cynne
     fyrene gefremede      (he wäs fâg wið god)
     þät him se lîc-homa      læstan nolde,
     ac hine se môdega      mæg Hygelâces
815  häfde be honda;      wäs gehwäðer ôðrum
     lifigende lâð.      Lîc-sâr gebâd
     atol äglæca,      him on eaxle wearð
     syn-dolh sweotol,      seonowe onsprungon
     burston bân-locan.      Beówulfe wearð
820  gûð-hrêð gyfeðe;      scolde Grendel þonan
     feorh-seóc fleón      under fen-hleoðu,
     sêcean wyn-leás wîc;      wiste þê geornor,
     þät his aldres wäs      ende gegongen,
     dôgera däg-rîm.      Denum eallum wearð
825  äfter þam wäl-ræse      willa gelumpen.
     Häfde þâ gefælsod,      se þe ær feorran com,
     snotor and swýð-ferhð      sele Hrôðgâres,
     genered wið nîðe.      Niht-weorce gefeh,
     ellen-mærðum;      häfde Eást-Denum
830  Geát-mecga leód      gilp gelæsted,
     swylce oncýððe      ealle gebêtte,
     inwid-sorge,      þe hie ær drugon
     and for þreá-nýdum      þolian scoldon,
     torn unlytel.      Þät wäs tâcen sweotol,
835  syððan hilde-deór      hond âlegde,
     earm and eaxle      (þær wäs eal geador
     Grendles grâpe)      under geápne hrôf.


     Þâ wäs on morgen      mîne gefræge
     ymb þâ gif-healle      gûð-rinc monig:
840  fêrdon folc-togan      feorran and neán
     geond wîd-wegas      wundor sceáwian,
     lâðes lâstas.      Nô his lîf-gedâl
     sârlîc þûhte      secga ænegum,
     þâra þe tîr-leáses      trode sceáwode,
845  hû he wêrig-môd      on weg þanon,
     nîða ofercumen,      on nicera mere
     fæge and geflýmed      feorh-lâstas bär.
     Þær wäs on blôde      brim weallende,
     atol ýða geswing      eal gemenged
850  hâtan heolfre,      heoro-dreóre weól;
     deáð-fæge deóg,      siððan dreáma leás
     in fen-freoðo      feorh âlegde
     hæðene sâwle,      þær him hel onfêng.
     Þanon eft gewiton      eald-gesîðas,
855  swylce geong manig      of gomen-wâðe,
     fram mere môdge,      mearum rîdan,
     beornas on blancum.      Þær wäs Beówulfes
     mærðo mæned;      monig oft gecwäð,
     þätte sûð ne norð      be sæm tweonum
860  ofer eormen-grund      ôðer nænig
     under swegles begong      sêlra nære
     rond-häbbendra,      rîces wyrðra.
     Ne hie hûru wine-drihten      wiht ne lôgon,
     glädne Hrôðgâr,      ac þät wäs gôd cyning.
865  Hwîlum heaðo-rôfe      hleápan lêton,
     on geflît faran      fealwe mearas,
     þær him fold-wegas      fägere þûhton,
     cystum cûðe;      hwîlum cyninges þegn,
     guma gilp-hläden      gidda gemyndig,
870  se þe eal-fela      eald-gesegena
     worn gemunde,      word ôðer fand
     sôðe gebunden:      secg eft ongan
     sîð Beówulfes      snyttrum styrian
     and on spêd wrecan      spel gerâde,
875  wordum wrixlan,      wel-hwylc gecwäð,
     þät he fram Sigemunde      secgan hýrde,
     ellen-dædum,      uncûðes fela,
     Wälsinges gewin,      wîde sîðas,
     þâra þe gumena bearn      gearwe ne wiston,
880  fæhðe and fyrene,      bûton Fitela mid hine,
     þonne he swylces hwät      secgan wolde
     eám his nefan,      swâ hie â wæron
     ät nîða gehwâm      nýd-gesteallan:
     häfdon eal-fela      eotena cynnes
885  sweordum gesæged.      Sigemunde gesprong
     äfter deáð-däge      dôm unlýtel,
     syððan wîges heard      wyrm âcwealde,
     hordes hyrde;      he under hârne stân,
     äðelinges bearn,      âna genêðde
890  frêcne dæde;      ne wäs him Fitela mid.
     Hwäðre him gesælde,      þät þät swurd þurhwôd
     wrätlîcne wyrm,      þät hit on wealle ätstôd,
     dryhtlîc îren;      draca morðre swealt.
     Häfde aglæca      elne gegongen,
895  þät he beáh-hordes      brûcan môste
     selfes dôme:      sæ-bât gehlôd,
     bär on bearm scipes      beorhte frätwa,
     Wälses eafera;      wyrm hât gemealt.
     Se wäs wreccena      wîde mærost
900  ofer wer-þeóde,      wîgendra hleó
     ellen-dædum:      he þäs âron þâh.
     Siððan Heremôdes      hild sweðrode
     eafoð and ellen.      He mid eotenum wearð
     on feónda geweald      forð forlâcen,
905  snûde forsended.      Hine sorh-wylmas
     lemede tô lange,      he his leódum wearð,
     eallum äðelingum      tô aldor-ceare;
     swylce oft bemearn      ærran mælum
     swîð-ferhðes sîð      snotor ceorl monig,
910  se þe him bealwa tô      bôte gelýfde,
     þät þät þeódnes bearn      geþeón scolde,
     fäder-äðelum onfôn,      folc gehealdan,
     hord and hleó-burh,      häleða rîce,
     êðel Scyldinga.      He þær eallum wearð,
915  mæg Higelâces      manna cynne,
     freóndum gefägra;      hine fyren onwôd.

     Hwîlum flîtende      fealwe stræte
     mearum mæton.      Þâ wäs morgen-leóht
     scofen and scynded.      Eode scealc monig
920  swîð-hicgende      tô sele þam heán,
     searo-wundor seón,      swylce self cyning,
     of brýd-bûre      beáh-horda weard,
     tryddode tîr-fäst      getrume micle,
     cystum gecýðed,      and his cwên mid him
925  medo-stîg gemät      mägða hôse.


     Hrôðgâr maðelode      (he tô healle geóng,
     stôd on stapole,      geseah steápne hrôf
     golde fâhne      and Grendles hond):
     "þisse ansýne      al-wealdan þanc
930  "lungre gelimpe!      Fela ic lâðes gebâd,
     "grynna ät Grendle:      â mäg god wyrcan
     "wunder äfter wundre,      wuldres hyrde!
     "Þät wäs ungeâra,      þät ic ænigra me
     "weána ne wênde      tô wîdan feore
935  "bôte gebîdan      þonne blôde fâh
     "hûsa sêlest      heoro-dreórig stôd;
     "weá wîd-scofen      witena gehwylcne
     "þâra þe ne wêndon,      þät hie wîde-ferhð
     "leóda land-geweorc      lâðum beweredon
940  "scuccum and scinnum.      Nu scealc hafað
     "þurh drihtnes miht      dæd gefremede,
     "þe we ealle      ær ne meahton
     "snyttrum besyrwan.      Hwät! þät secgan mäg
     "efne swâ hwylc mägða,      swâ þone magan cende
945  "äfter gum-cynnum,      gyf heó gyt lyfað,
     "þät hyre eald-metod      êste wære
     "bearn-gebyrdo.      Nu ic Beówulf
     "þec, secg betsta,      me for sunu wylle
     "freógan on ferhðe;      heald forð tela
950  "niwe sibbe.      Ne bið þe nænigra gâd
     "worolde wilna,      þe ic geweald häbbe.
     "Ful-oft ic for lässan      leán teohhode
     "hord-weorðunge      hnâhran rince,
     "sæmran ät säcce.      Þu þe self hafast
955  "dædum gefremed,      þät þîn dôm lyfað
     "âwâ tô aldre.      Alwalda þec
     "gôde forgylde,      swâ he nu gyt dyde!"
     Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
     "We þät ellen-weorc      êstum miclum,
960  "feohtan fremedon,      frêcne genêðdon
     "eafoð uncûðes;      ûðe ic swîðor,
     "þät þu hinc selfne      geseón môste,
     "feónd on frätewum      fyl-wêrigne!
     "Ic hine hrädlîce      heardan clammum
965  "on wäl-bedde      wrîðan þôhte,
     "þät he for mund-gripe      mînum scolde
     "licgean lîf-bysig,      bûtan his lîc swice;
     "ic hine ne mihte,      þâ metod nolde,
     "ganges getwæman,      nô ic him þäs georne ätfealh,
970  "feorh-genîðlan;      wäs tô fore-mihtig
     "feónd on fêðe.      Hwäðere he his folme forlêt
     "tô lîf-wraðe      lâst weardian,
     "earm and eaxle;      nô þær ænige swâ þeáh
     "feá-sceaft guma      frôfre gebohte:
975  "nô þý leng leofað      lâð-geteóna
     "synnum geswenced,      ac hyne sâr hafað
     "in nýd-gripe      nearwe befongen,
     "balwon bendum:      þær âbîdan sceal
     "maga mâne fâh      miclan dômes,
980  "hû him scîr metod      scrîfan wille."
     Þâ wäs swîgra secg,      sunu Ecglâfes,
     on gylp-spræce      gûð-geweorca,
     siððan äðelingas      eorles cräfte
     ofer heáhne hrôf      hand sceáwedon,
985  feóndes fingras,      foran æghwylc;
     wäs stêde nägla gehwylc,      stýle gelîcost,
     hæðenes hand-sporu      hilde-rinces
     egle unheóru;      æg-hwylc gecwäð,
     þät him heardra nân      hrînan wolde
990  îren ær-gôd,      þät þäs ahlæcan
     blôdge beadu-folme      onberan wolde.


     Þâ wäs hâten hreðe      Heort innan-weard
     folmum gefrätwod:      fela þæra wäs
     wera and wîfa,      þe þät wîn-reced,
995  gest-sele gyredon.      Gold-fâg scinon
     web äfter wagum,      wundor-sióna fela
     secga gehwylcum      þâra þe on swylc starað
     Wäs þät beorhte bold      tôbrocen swîðe
     eal inne-weard      îren-bendum fäst,
1000 heorras tôhlidene;      hrôf âna genäs
     ealles ansund,      þâ se aglæca
     fyren-dædum fâg      on fleám gewand,
     aldres or-wêna.      Nô þät ýðe byð
     tô befleónne      (fremme se þe wille!)
1005 ac gesacan sceal      sâwl-berendra
     nýde genýdde      niðða bearna
     grund-bûendra      gearwe stôwe,
     þær his lîc-homa      leger-bedde fäst
     swefeð äfter symle.      Þâ wäs sæl and mæl,
1010 þät tô healle gang      Healfdenes sunu;
     wolde self cyning      symbel þicgan.
     Ne gefrägen ic þâ mægðe      mâran weorode
     ymb hyra sinc-gyfan      sêl gebæran.
     Bugon þâ tô bence      blæd-âgende,
1015 fylle gefægon.      Fägere geþægon
     medo-ful manig      mâgas + þâra
     swîð-hicgende      on sele þam heán,
     Hrôðgâr and Hrôðulf.      Heorot innan wäs
     freóndum âfylled;      nalles fâcen-stafas
1020 Þeód-Scyldingas      þenden fremedon.
     Forgeaf þâ Beówulfe      bearn Healfdenes
     segen gyldenne      sigores tô leáne,
     hroden hilte-cumbor,      helm and byrnan;
     mære mâððum-sweord      manige gesâwon
1025 beforan beorn beran.      Beówulf geþah
     ful on flette;      nô he þære feoh-gyfte
     for sceótendum      scamigan þorfte,
     ne gefrägn ic freóndlîcor      feówer mâdmas
     golde gegyrede      gum-manna fela
1030 in ealo-bence      ôðrum gesellan.
     Ymb þäs helmes hrôf      heáfod-beorge
     wîrum bewunden      walan ûtan heóld,
     þät him fêla lâfe      frêcne ne meahton
     scûr-heard sceððan,      þonne scyld-freca
1035 ongeán gramum      gangan scolde.
     Hêht þâ eorla hleó      eahta mearas,
     fäted-hleóre,      on flet teón
     in under eoderas;      þâra ânum stôd
     sadol searwum fâh      since gewurðad,
1040 þät wäs hilde-setl      heáh-cyninges,
     þonne sweorda gelâc      sunu Healfdenes
     efnan wolde;      næfre on ôre läg
     wîd-cûðes wîg,      þonne walu feóllon.
     And þâ Beówulfe      bega gehwäðres
1045 eodor Ingwina      onweald geteáh,
     wicga and wæpna;      hêt hine wel brûcan.
     Swâ manlîce      mære þeóden,
     hord-weard häleða      heaðo-ræsas geald
     mearum and mâdmum,      swâ hý næfre man lyhð,
1050 se þe secgan wile      sôð äfter rihte.


     Þâ gyt æghwylcum      eorla drihten
     þâra þe mid Beówulfe      brim-lâde teáh,
     on þære medu-bence      mâððum gesealde,
     yrfe-lâfe,      and þone ænne hêht
1055 golde forgyldan,      þone þe Grendel ær
     mâne âcwealde,      swâ he hyra mâ wolde,
     nefne him witig god      wyrd forstôde
     and þäs mannes môd:      metod eallum weóld
     gumena cynnes,      swâ he nu git dêð;
1060 forþan bið andgit      æghwær sêlest,
     ferhðes fore-þanc!      fela sceal gebîdan
     leófes and lâðes,      se þe longe her
     on þyssum win-dagum      worolde brûceð.
     Þær wäs sang and swêg      samod ätgädere
1065 fore Healfdenes      hilde-wîsan,
     gomen-wudu grêted,      gid oft wrecen,
     þonne heal-gamen      Hrôðgâres scôp
     äfter medo-bence      mænan scolde
     Finnes eaferum,      þâ hie se fær begeat:
1070 "Häleð Healfdenes,      Hnäf Scyldinga,
     "in Fr..es wäle      feallan scolde.
     "Ne hûru Hildeburh      hêrian þorfte
     "Eotena treówe:      unsynnum wearð
     "beloren leófum      ät þam lind-plegan
1075 "bearnum and brôðrum;      hie on gebyrd hruron
     "gâre wunde;      þät wäs geômuru ides.
     "Nalles hôlinga      Hôces dôhtor
     "meotod-sceaft bemearn,      syððan morgen com,
     "þâ heó under swegle      geseón meahte
1080 "morðor-bealo mâga,      þær heó ær mæste heóld
     "worolde wynne:      wîg ealle fornam
     "Finnes þegnas,      nemne feáum ânum,
     "þät he ne mehte      on þäm meðel-stede
     "wîg Hengeste      wiht gefeohtan,
1085 "ne þâ weá-lâfe      wîge forþringan
     "þeódnes þegne;       ac hig him geþingo budon,
     "þät hie him ôðer flet      eal gerýmdon,
     "healle and heáh-setl,      þät hie healfre geweald
     "wið Eotena bearn      âgan môston,
1090 "and ät feoh-gyftum      Folcwaldan sunu
     "dôgra gehwylce      Dene weorðode,
     "Hengestes heáp      hringum wenede,
     "efne swâ swîðe      sinc-gestreónum
     "fättan goldes,      swâ he Fresena cyn
1095 "on beór-sele      byldan wolde.
     "Þâ hie getrûwedon      on twâ healfa
     "fäste frioðu-wære;      Fin Hengeste
     "elne unflitme      âðum benemde,
     "þät he þâ weá-lâfe      weotena dôme
1100 "ârum heolde,      þät þær ænig mon
     "wordum ne worcum      wære ne bræce,
     "ne þurh inwit-searo      æfre gemænden,
     "þeáh hie hira beág-gyfan      banan folgedon
     "þeóden-leáse,      þâ him swâ geþearfod wäs:
1105 "gyf þonne Frysna hwylc      frêcnan spræce
     "þäs morðor-hetes      myndgiend wære,
     "þonne hit sweordes ecg      syððan scolde.
     "Âð wäs geäfned      and icge gold
     "âhäfen of horde.      Here-Scyldinga
1110 "betst beado-rinca      wäs on bæl gearu;
     "ät þäm âde wäs      êð-gesýne
     "swât-fâh syrce,      swýn eal-gylden,
     "eofer îren-heard,      äðeling manig
     "wundum âwyrded;      sume on wäle crungon.
1115 "Hêt þâ Hildeburh      ät Hnäfes âde
     "hire selfre sunu      sweoloðe befästan,
     "bân-fatu bärnan      and on bæl dôn.
     "Earme on eaxle      ides gnornode,
     "geômrode giddum;      gûð-rinc âstâh.
1120 "Wand tô wolcnum      wäl-fýra mæst,
     "hlynode for hlâwe;      hafelan multon,
     "ben-geato burston,      þonne blôd ätspranc
     "lâð-bite lîces.      Lîg ealle forswealg,
     "gæsta gîfrost,      þâra þe þær gûð fornam
1125 "bega folces;      wäs hira blæd scacen.


     "Gewiton him þâ wîgend      wîca neósian,
     "freóndum befeallen      Frysland geseón,
     "hâmas and heá-burh.      Hengest þâ gyt
     "wäl-fâgne winter      wunode mid Finne
1130 "ealles unhlitme;      eard gemunde,
     "þeáh þe he ne meahte      on mere drîfan
     "hringed-stefnan;      holm storme weól,
     "won wið winde;      winter ýðe beleác
     "îs-gebinde      ôð þät ôðer com
1135 "geâr in geardas,      swâ nu gyt dêð,
     "þâ þe syngales      sêle bewitiað,
     "wuldor-torhtan weder.      Þâ wäs winter scacen,
     "fäger foldan bearm;      fundode wrecca,
     "gist of geardum;      he tô gyrn-wräce
1140 "swîðor þôhte,      þonne tô sæ-lâde,
     "gif he torn-gemôt      þurhteón mihte,
     "þät he Eotena bearn      inne gemunde.
     "Swâ he ne forwyrnde      worold-rædenne,
     "þonne him Hûnlâfing      hilde-leóman,
1145 "billa sêlest,      on bearm dyde:
     "þäs wæron mid Eotenum      ecge cûðe.
     "Swylce ferhð-frecan      Fin eft begeat
     "sweord-bealo slîðen      ät his selfes hâm,
     "siððan grimne gripe      Gûðlaf ond Ôslâf
1150 "äfter sæ-siðe      sorge mændon,
     "ätwiton weána dæl;      ne meahte wäfre môd
     "forhabban in hreðre.      Þâ wäs heal hroden
     "feónda feorum,      swilce Fin slägen,
     "cyning on corðre,      and seó cwên numen.
1155 "Sceótend Scyldinga      tô scypum feredon
     "eal in-gesteald      eorð-cyninges,
     "swylce hie ät Finnes hâm      findan meahton
     "sigla searo-gimma.      Hie on sæ-lâde
     "drihtlîce wîf      tô Denum feredon,
1160 "læddon tô leódum."      Leóð wäs âsungen,
     gleó-mannes gyd.      Gamen eft âstâh,
     beorhtode benc-swêg,      byrelas sealdon
     wîn of wunder-fatum.      Þâ cwom Wealhþeó forð
     gân under gyldnum beáge,      þær þâ gôdan twegen
1165 sæton suhter-gefäderan;      þâ gyt wäs hiera sib ätgädere
     æghwylc ôðrum trýwe.      Swylce þær Ûnferð þyle
     ät fôtum sät freán Scyldinga:      gehwylc hiora his ferhðe treówde,
     þät he häfde môd micel,      þeáh þe he his mâgum nære
     ârfäst ät ecga gelâcum.      Spräc þâ ides Scyldinga:
1170 "Onfôh þissum fulle,      freó-drihten mîn,
     "sinces brytta;      þu on sælum wes,
     "gold-wine gumena,      and tô Geátum sprec
     "mildum wordum!      Swâ sceal man dôn.
     "Beó wið Geátas gläd,      geofena gemyndig;
1175 "neán and feorran      þu nu friðu hafast.
     "Me man sägde,      þät þu þe for sunu wolde
     "here-rinc habban.      Heorot is gefælsod,
     "beáh-sele beorhta;      brûc þenden þu môte
     "manigra mêda      and þînum mâgum læf
1180 "folc and rîce,      þonne þu forð scyle
     "metod-sceaft seón.      Ic mînne can
     "glädne Hrôðulf,      þät he þâ geogoðe wile
     "ârum healdan,      gyf þu ær þonne he,
     "wine Scildinga,      worold oflætest;
1185 "wêne ic, þät he mid gôde      gyldan wille
     "uncran eaferan,      gif he þät eal gemon,
     "hwät wit tô willan      and tô worð-myndum
     "umbor wesendum ær      ârna gefremedon."
     Hwearf þâ bî bence,      þær hyre byre wæron,
1190 Hrêðrîc and Hrôðmund,      and häleða bearn,
     giogoð ätgädere;      þær se gôda sät
     Beówulf Geáta      be þæm gebrôðrum twæm.


     Him wäs ful boren      and freónd-laðu
     wordum bewägned      and wunden gold
1195 êstum geeáwed,      earm-hreáde twâ,
     hrägl and hringas,      heals-beága mæst
     þâra þe ic on foldan      gefrägen häbbe.
     Nænigne ic under swegle      sêlran hýrde
     hord-mâððum häleða,      syððan Hâma ätwäg
1200 tô þære byrhtan byrig      Brosinga mene,
     sigle and sinc-fät,      searo-nîðas fealh
     Eormenrîces,      geceás êcne ræd.
     Þone hring häfde      Higelâc Geáta,
     nefa Swertinges,      nýhstan sîðe,
1205 siððan he under segne      sinc ealgode,
     wäl-reáf werede;      hyne Wyrd fornam,
     syððan he for wlenco      weán âhsode,
     fæhðe tô Frysum;      he þâ frätwe wäg,
     eorclan-stânas      ofer ýða ful,
1210 rîce þeóden,      he under rande gecranc;
     gehwearf þâ in Francna fäðm      feorh cyninges,
     breóst-gewædu      and se beáh somod:
     wyrsan wîg-frecan      wäl reáfedon
     äfter gûð-sceare,      Geáta leóde
1215 hreâ-wîc heóldon.      Heal swêge onfêng.
     Wealhþeó maðelode,      heó fore þäm werede spräc:
     "Brûc þisses beáges,      Beówulf, leófa
     "hyse, mid hæle,      and þisses hrägles neót
     "þeód-gestreóna,      and geþeóh tela,
1220 "cen þec mid cräfte      and þyssum cnyhtum wes
     "lâra lîðe!      ic þe þäs leán geman.
     "Hafast þu gefêred,      þät þe feor and neáh
     "ealne wîde-ferhð      weras ehtigað,
     "efne swâ sîde      swâ sæ bebûgeð
1225 "windige weallas.      Wes, þenden þu lifige,
     "äðeling eádig!      ic þe an tela
     "sinc-gestreóna.      Beó þu suna mînum
     "dædum gedêfe      dreám healdende!
     "Her is æghwylc eorl      ôðrum getrýwe,
1230 "môdes milde,      man-drihtne hold,
     "þegnas syndon geþwære,      þeód eal gearo:
     "druncne dryht-guman,      dôð swâ ic bidde!"
     Eode þâ tô setle.      Þær wäs symbla cyst,
     druncon wîn weras:      wyrd ne cûðon,
1235 geó-sceaft grimme,      swâ hit âgangen wearð
     eorla manegum,      syððan æfen cwom
     and him Hrôðgâr gewât      tô hofe sînum,
     rîce tô räste.      Reced weardode
     unrîm eorla,      swâ hie oft ær dydon:
1240 benc-þelu beredon,      hit geond-bræded wearð
     beddum and bolstrum.      Beór-scealca sum
     fûs and fæge      flet-räste gebeág.
     Setton him tô heáfdum      hilde-randas,
     bord-wudu beorhtan;      þær on bence wäs
1245 ofer äðelinge      ýð-gesêne
     heaðo-steápa helm,      hringed byrne,
     þrec-wudu þrymlîc.      Wäs þeáw hyra,
     þät hie oft wæron      an wîg gearwe,
     ge ät hâm ge on herge,      ge gehwäðer þâra
1250 efne swylce mæla,      swylce hira man-dryhtne
     þearf gesælde;      wäs seó þeód tilu.


     Sigon þâ tô slæpe.      Sum sâre angeald
     æfen-räste,      swâ him ful-oft gelamp,
     siððan gold-sele      Grendel warode,
1255 unriht äfnde,      ôð þät ende becwom,
     swylt äfter synnum.      Þät gesýne wearð,
     wîd-cûð werum,      þätte wrecend þâ gyt
     lifde äfter lâðum,      lange þrage
     äfter gûð-ceare;      Grendles môdor,
1260 ides aglæc-wîf      yrmðe gemunde,
     se þe wäter-egesan      wunian scolde,
     cealde streámas,      siððan Cain wearð
     tô ecg-banan      ângan brêðer,
     fäderen-mæge;      he þâ fâg gewât,
1265 morðre gemearcod      man-dreám fleón,
     wêsten warode.      Þanon wôc fela
     geósceaft-gâsta;      wäs þæra Grendel sum,
     heoro-wearh hetelîc,      se ät Heorote fand
     wäccendne wer      wîges bîdan,
1270 þær him aglæca      ät-græpe wearð;
     hwäðre he gemunde      mägenes strenge,
     gim-fäste gife,      þe him god sealde,
     and him tô anwaldan      âre gelýfde,
     frôfre and fultum:      þý he þone feónd ofercwom,
1275 gehnægde helle gâst:      þâ he heán gewât,
     dreáme bedæled      deáð-wîc seón,
     man-cynnes feónd.      And his môdor þâ gyt
     gîfre and galg-môd      gegân wolde
     sorh-fulne sîð,      suna deáð wrecan.
1280 Com þâ tô Heorote,      þær Hring-Dene
     geond þät säld swæfun.      Þâ þær sôna wearð
     ed-hwyrft eorlum,      siððan inne fealh
     Grendles môdor;      wäs se gryre lässa
     efne swâ micle,      swâ bið mägða cräft,
1285 wîg-gryre wîfes      be wæpned-men,
     þonne heoru bunden,      hamere geþuren,
     sweord swâte fâh      swîn ofer helme,
     ecgum dyhtig      andweard scireð.
     Þâ wäs on healle      heard-ecg togen,
1290 sweord ofer setlum,      sîd-rand manig
     hafen handa fäst;      helm ne gemunde,
     byrnan sîde,      þe hine se brôga angeat.
     Heó wäs on ôfste,      wolde ût þanon
     feore beorgan,      þâ heó onfunden wäs;
1295 hraðe heó äðelinga      ânne häfde
     fäste befangen,      þâ heó tô fenne gang;
     se wäs Hrôðgâre      häleða leófost
     on gesîðes hâd      be sæm tweonum,
     rîce rand-wîga,      þone þe heó on räste âbreát,
1300 blæd-fästne beorn.      Näs Beówulf þær,
     ac wäs ôðer in      ær geteohhod
     äfter mâððum-gife      mærum Geáte.
     Hreám wearð on Heorote.      Heó under heolfre genam
     cûðe folme;      cearu wäs geniwod
1305 geworden in wîcum:      ne wäs þät gewrixle til,
     þät hie on bâ healfa      bicgan scoldon
     freónda feorum.      Þâ wäs frôd cyning,
     hâr hilde-rinc,      on hreón môde,
     syððan he aldor-þegn      unlyfigendne,
1310 þone deórestan      deádne wisse.
     Hraðe wäs tô bûre      Beówulf fetod,
     sigor-eádig secg.      Samod ær-däge
     eode eorla sum,      äðele cempa
     self mid gesîðum,      þær se snottra bâd,
1315 hwäðre him al-walda      æfre wille
     äfter weá-spelle      wyrpe gefremman.
     Gang þâ äfter flôre      fyrd-wyrðe man
     mid his hand-scale      (heal-wudu dynede)
     þät he þone wîsan      wordum hnægde
1320 freán Ingwina;      frägn gif him wære
     äfter neód-laðu      niht getæse.


     Hrôðgâr maðelode,      helm Scildinga:
     "Ne frin þu äfter sælum!      Sorh is geniwod
     "Denigea leódum.      Deád is Äsc-here,
1325 "Yrmenlâfes      yldra brôðor,
     "mîn rûn-wita      and mîn ræd-bora,
     "eaxl-gestealla,      þonne we on orlege
     "hafelan weredon,      þonne hniton fêðan,
     "eoferas cnysedan;      swylc scolde eorl wesan
1330 "äðeling ær-gôd,      swylc Äsc-here wäs.
     "Wearð him on Heorote      tô hand-banan
     "wäl-gæst wäfre;      ic ne wât hwäder
     "atol æse wlanc      eft-sîðas teáh,
     "fylle gefrægnod.      Heó þâ fæhðe wräc,
1335 "þe þu gystran niht      Grendel cwealdest
     "þurh hæstne hâd      heardum clammum,
     "forþan he tô lange      leóde mîne
     "wanode and wyrde.      He ät wîge gecrang
     "ealdres scyldig,      and nu ôðer cwom
1340 "mihtig mân-scaða,      wolde hyre mæg wrecan,
     "ge feor hafað      fæhðe gestæled,
     "þäs þe þincean mäg      þegne monegum,
     "se þe äfter sinc-gyfan      on sefan greóteð,
     "hreðer-bealo hearde;      nu seó hand ligeð,
1345 "se þe eów wel-hwylcra      wilna dohte.
     "Ic þät lond-bûend      leóde mîne
     "sele-rædende      secgan hýrde,
     "þät hie gesâwon      swylce twegen
     "micle mearc-stapan      môras healdan,
1350 "ellor-gæstas:      þæra ôðer wäs,
     "þäs þe hie gewislîcost      gewitan meahton,
     "idese onlîcnes,      ôðer earm-sceapen
     "on weres wästmum      wräc-lâstas träd,
     "näfne he wäs mâra      þonne ænig man ôðer,
1355 "þone on geâr-dagum      Grendel nemdon
     "fold-bûende:      nô hie fäder cunnon,
     "hwäðer him ænig wäs      ær âcenned
     "dyrnra gâsta.      Hie dýgel lond
     "warigeað, wulf-hleoðu,      windige nässas,
1360 "frêcne fen-gelâd,      þær fyrgen-streám
     "under nässa genipu      niðer gewîteð,
     "flôd under foldan;      nis þät feor heonon
     "mîl-gemearces,      þät se mere standeð,
     "ofer þäm hongiað      hrîmge bearwas,
1365 "wudu wyrtum fäst,      wäter oferhelmað.
     "Þær mäg nihta gehwæm      nîð-wundor seón,
     "fýr on flôde;      nô þäs frôd leofað
     "gumena bearna,      þät þone grund wite;
     "þeáh þe hæð-stapa      hundum geswenced,
1370 "heorot hornum trum      holt-wudu sêce,
     "feorran geflýmed,      ær he feorh seleð,
     "aldor on ôfre,      ær he in wille,
     "hafelan hýdan.      Nis þät heóru stôw:
     "þonon ýð-geblond      up âstîgeð
1375 "won tô wolcnum,      þonne wind styreð
     "lâð gewidru,      ôð þät lyft drysmað,
     "roderas reótað.      Nu is ræd gelang
     "eft ät þe ânum!      Eard git ne const,
     "frêcne stôwe,      þær þu findan miht
1380 "sinnigne secg:      sêc gif þu dyrre!
     "Ic þe þâ fæhðe      feó leánige,
     "eald-gestreónum,      swâ ic ær dyde,
     "wundnum golde,      gyf þu on weg cymest."


     Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
1385 "Ne sorga, snotor guma!      sêlre bið æghwæm,
     "þät he his freónd wrece,      þonne he fela murne;
     "ûre æghwylc sceal      ende gebîdan
     "worolde lîfes;      wyrce se þe môte
     "dômes ær deáðe!      þät bið driht-guman
1390 "unlifgendum      äfter sêlest.
     "Ârîs, rîces weard;      uton hraðe fêran,
     "Grendles mâgan      gang sceáwigan!
     "Ic hit þe gehâte:      nô he on helm losað,
     "ne on foldan fäðm,      ne on fyrgen-holt,
1395 "ne on gyfenes grund,      gâ þær he wille.
     "Þys dôgor þu      geþyld hafa
     "weána gehwylces,      swâ ic þe wêne tô!"
     Âhleóp þâ se gomela,      gode þancode,
     mihtigan drihtne,      þäs se man gespräc.
1400 Þâ wäs Hrôðgâre      hors gebæted,
     wicg wunden-feax.      Wîsa fengel
     geatolîc gengde;      gum-fêða stôp
     lind-häbbendra.      Lâstas wæron
     äfter wald-swaðum      wîde gesýne,
1405 gang ofer grundas;      gegnum fôr þâ
     ofer myrcan môr,      mago-þegna bär
     þone sêlestan      sâwol-leásne,
     þâra þe mid Hrôðgâre      hâm eahtode.
     Ofer-eode þâ      äðelinga bearn
1410 steáp stân-hliðo,      stîge nearwe,
     enge ân-paðas,      un-cûð gelâd,
     neowle nässas,      nicor-hûsa fela;
     he feára sum      beforan gengde
     wîsra monna,      wong sceáwian,
1415 ôð þät he færinga      fyrgen-beámas
     ofer hârne stân      hleonian funde,
     wyn-leásne wudu;      wäter under stôd
     dreórig and gedrêfed.      Denum eallum wäs,
     winum Scyldinga,      weorce on môde,
1420 tô geþolianne      þegne monegum,
     oncýð eorla gehwæm,      syððan Äsc-heres
     on þam holm-clife      hafelan mêtton.
     Flôd blôde weól      (folc tô sægon)
     hâtan heolfre.      Horn stundum song
1425 fûslîc fyrd-leóð.      Fêða eal gesät;
     gesâwon þâ äfter wätere      wyrm-cynnes fela,
     sellîce sæ-dracan      sund cunnian,
     swylce on näs-hleoðum      nicras licgean,
     þâ on undern-mæl      oft bewitigað
1430 sorh-fulne sîð      on segl-râde,
     wyrmas and wil-deór;      hie on weg hruron
     bitere and gebolgne,      bearhtm ongeâton,
     gûð-horn galan.      Sumne Geáta leód
     of flân-bogan      feores getwæfde,
1435 ýð-gewinnes,      þät him on aldre stôd
     here-stræl hearda;      he on holme wäs
     sundes þe sænra,      þe hyne swylt fornam.
     Hräðe wearð on ýðum      mid eofer-spreótum
     heoro-hôcyhtum      hearde genearwod,
1440 nîða genæged      and on näs togen
     wundorlîc wæg-bora;      weras sceáwedon
     gryrelîcne gist.      Gyrede hine Beówulf
     eorl-gewædum,      nalles for ealdre mearn:
     scolde here-byrne      hondum gebroden,
1445 sîd and searo-fâh,      sund cunnian,
     seó þe bân-côfan      beorgan cûðe,
     þät him hilde-grâp      hreðre ne mihte,
     eorres inwit-feng,      aldre gesceððan;
     ac se hwîta helm      hafelan werede,
1450 se þe mere-grundas      mengan scolde,
     sêcan sund-gebland      since geweorðad,
     befongen freá-wrâsnum,      swâ hine fyrn-dagum
     worhte wæpna smið,      wundrum teóde,
     besette swîn-lîcum,      þät hine syððan nô
1455 brond ne beado-mêcas      bîtan ne meahton.
     Näs þät þonne mætost      mägen-fultuma,
     þät him on þearfe lâh      þyle Hrôðgâres;
     wäs þäm häft-mêce      Hrunting nama,
     þät wäs ân foran      eald-gestreóna;
1460 ecg wäs îren      âter-teárum fâh,
     âhyrded heaðo-swâte;      næfre hit ät hilde ne swâc
     manna ængum      þâra þe hit mid mundum bewand,
     se þe gryre-sîðas      gegân dorste,
     folc-stede fâra;      näs þät forma sîð,
1465 þät hit ellen-weorc      äfnan scolde.
     Hûru ne gemunde      mago Ecglâfes
     eafoðes cräftig,      þät he ær gespräc
     wîne druncen,      þâ he þäs wæpnes onlâh
     sêlran sweord-frecan:      selfa ne dorste
1470 under ýða gewin      aldre genêðan,
     driht-scype dreógan;      þær he dôme forleás,
     ellen-mærðum.      Ne wäs þäm ôðrum swâ,
     syððan he hine tô gûðe      gegyred häfde.


     Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
1475 "geþenc nu, se mæra      maga Healfdenes,
     "snottra fengel,      nu ic eom sîðes fûs,
     "gold-wine gumena,      hwät wit geó spræcon,
     "gif ic ät þearfe      þînre scolde
     "aldre linnan,      þät þu me â wære
1480 "forð-gewitenum      on fäder stäle;
     "wes þu mund-bora mînum      mago-þegnum,
     "hond-gesellum,      gif mec hild nime:
     "swylce þu þâ mâdmas,      þe þu me sealdest,
     "Hrôðgâr leófa,      Higelâce onsend.
1485 "Mäg þonne on þäm golde ongitan      Geáta dryhten,
     "geseón sunu Hrêðles,      þonne he on þät sinc starað,
     "þät ic gum-cystum      gôdne funde
     "beága bryttan,      breác þonne môste.
     "And þu Ûnferð læt      ealde lâfe,
1490 "wrätlîc wæg-sweord      wîd-cûðne man
     "heard-ecg habban;      ic me mid Hruntinge
     "dôm gewyrce,      oððe mec deáð nimeð."
     Äfter þæm wordum      Weder-Geáta leód
     êfste mid elne,      nalas andsware
1495 bîdan wolde;      brim-wylm onfêng
     hilde-rince.      Þâ wäs hwîl däges,
     ær he þone grund-wong      ongytan mehte.
     Sôna þät onfunde,      se þe flôda begong
     heoro-gîfre beheóld      hund missera,
1500 grim and grædig,      þät þær gumena sum
     äl-wihta eard      ufan cunnode.
     Grâp þâ tôgeánes,      gûð-rinc gefêng
     atolan clommum;      nô þý ær in gescôd
     hâlan lîce:      hring ûtan ymb-bearh,
1505 þät heó þone fyrd-hom      þurh-fôn ne mihte,
     locene leoðo-syrcan      lâðan fingrum.
     Bär þâ seó brim-wylf,      þâ heó tô botme com,
     hringa þengel      tô hofe sînum,
     swâ he ne mihte nô      (he þäs môdig wäs)
1510 wæpna gewealdan,      ac hine wundra þäs fela
     swencte on sunde,      sæ-deór monig
     hilde-tuxum      here-syrcan bräc,
     êhton aglæcan.      Þâ se eorl ongeat,
     þät he in nið-sele      nât-hwylcum wäs,
1515 þær him nænig wäter      wihte ne sceðede,
     ne him for hrôf-sele      hrînan ne mehte
     fær-gripe flôdes:      fýr-leóht geseah,
     blâcne leóman      beorhte scînan.
     Ongeat þâ se gôda      grund-wyrgenne,
1520 mere-wîf mihtig;      mägen-ræs forgeaf
     hilde-bille,      hond swenge ne ofteáh,
     þät hire on hafelan      hring-mæl âgôl
     grædig gûð-leóð.      Þâ se gist onfand,
     þät se beado-leóma      bîtan nolde,
1525 aldre sceððan,      ac seó ecg geswâc
     þeódne ät þearfe:      þolode ær fela
     hond-gemôta,      helm oft gescär,
     fæges fyrd-hrägl:      þät wäs forma sîð
     deórum mâðme,      þät his dôm âläg.
1530 Eft wäs ân-ræd,      nalas elnes lät,
     mærða gemyndig      mæg Hygelâces;
     wearp þâ wunden-mæl      wrättum gebunden
     yrre oretta,      þät hit on eorðan läg,
     stîð and stýl-ecg;      strenge getrûwode,
1535 mund-gripe mägenes.      Swâ sceal man dôn,
     þonne he ät gûðe      gegân þenceð
     longsumne lof,      nâ ymb his lîf cearað.
     Gefêng þâ be eaxle      (nalas for fæhðe mearn)
     Gûð-Geáta leód      Grendles môdor;
1540 brägd þâ beadwe heard,      þâ he gebolgen wäs,
     feorh-genîðlan,      þät heó on flet gebeáh.
     Heó him eft hraðe      and-leán forgeald
     grimman grâpum      and him tôgeánes fêng;
     oferwearp þâ wêrig-môd      wîgena strengest,
1545 fêðe-cempa,      þät he on fylle wearð.
     Ofsät þâ þone sele-gyst      and hyre seaxe geteáh,
     brâd and brûn-ecg      wolde hire bearn wrecan,
     ângan eaferan.      Him on eaxle läg
     breóst-net broden;      þät gebearh feore,
1550 wið ord and wið ecge      ingang forstôd.
     Häfde þâ forsîðod      sunu Ecgþeówes
     under gynne grund,      Geáta cempa,
     nemne him heaðo-byrne      helpe gefremede,
     here-net hearde,      and hâlig god
1555 geweóld wîg-sigor,      witig drihten;
     rodera rædend      hit on ryht gescêd,
     ýðelîce      syððan he eft âstôd.


     Geseah þâ on searwum      sige-eádig bil,
     eald sweord eotenisc      ecgum þyhtig,
1560 wîgena weorð-mynd:      þät wäs wæpna cyst,
     bûton hit wäs mâre      þonne ænig mon ôðer
     tô beadu-lâce      ätberan meahte
     gôd and geatolîc      giganta geweorc.
     He gefêng þâ fetel-hilt,      freca Scildinga,
1565 hreóh and heoro-grim      hring-mæl gebrägd,
     aldres orwêna,      yrringa slôh,
     þät hire wið halse      heard grâpode,
     bân-hringas bräc,      bil eal þurh-wôd
     fægne flæsc-homan,      heó on flet gecrong;
1570 sweord wäs swâtig,      secg weorce gefeh.
     Lixte se leóma,      leóht inne stôd,
     efne swâ of hefene      hâdre scîneð
     rodores candel.      He äfter recede wlât,
     hwearf þâ be wealle,      wæpen hafenade
1575 heard be hiltum      Higelâces þegn,
     yrre and ân-ræd.      Näs seó ecg fracod
     hilde-rince,      ac he hraðe wolde
     Grendle forgyldan      gûð-ræsa fela
     þâra þe he geworhte      tô West-Denum
1580 oftor micle      þonne on ænne sîð,
     þonne he Hrôðgâres      heorð-geneátas
     slôh on sweofote,      slæpende frät
     folces Denigea      fýf-tyne men
     and ôðer swylc      ût of-ferede,
1585 lâðlîcu lâc.      He him þäs leán forgeald,
     rêðe cempa,      tô þäs þe he on räste geseah
     gûð-wêrigne      Grendel licgan,
     aldor-leásne,      swâ him ær gescôd
     hild ät Heorote;      hrâ wîde sprong,
1590 syððan he äfter deáðe      drepe þrowade,
     heoro-sweng heardne,      and hine þâ heáfde becearf,
     Sôna þät gesâwon      snottre ceorlas,
     þâ þe mid Hrôðgâre      on holm wliton,
     þät wäs ýð-geblond      eal gemenged,
1595 brim blôde fâh:      blonden-feaxe
     gomele ymb gôdne      ongeador spræcon,
     þät hig þäs äðelinges      eft ne wêndon,
     þät he sige-hrêðig      sêcean côme
     mærne þeóden;      þâ þäs monige gewearð,
1600 þät hine seó brim-wylf      âbroten häfde.
     Þâ com nôn däges.      Näs ofgeâfon
     hwate Scyldingas; gewât him hâm þonon
     gold-wine gumena.      Gistas sêtan,
     môdes seóce,      and on mere staredon,
1605 wiston and ne wêndon,      þät hie heora wine-drihten
     selfne gesâwon.      Þâ þät sweord ongan
     äfter heaðo-swâte      hilde-gicelum
     wîg-bil wanian;      þät wäs wundra sum,
     þät hit eal gemealt      îse gelîcost,
1610 þonne forstes bend      fäder onlæteð,
     onwindeð wäl-râpas,      se þe geweald hafað
     sæla and mæla;      þät is sôð metod.
     Ne nom he in þæm wîcum,      Weder-Geáta leód,
     mâðm-æhta mâ,      þêh he þær monige geseah,
1615 bûton þone hafelan      and þâ hilt somod,
     since fâge;      sweord ær gemealt,
     forbarn broden mæl:      wäs þät blôd tô þäs hât,
     ættren ellor-gæst,      se þær inne swealt.
     Sôna wäs on sunde,      se þe ær ät säcce gebâd
1620 wîg-hryre wrâðra,      wäter up þurh-deáf;
     wæron ýð-gebland      eal gefælsod,
     eácne eardas,      þâ se ellor-gâst
     oflêt lîf-dagas      and þâs lænan gesceaft.
     Com þâ tô lande      lid-manna helm
1625 swîð-môd swymman,      sæ-lâce gefeah,
     mägen-byrðenne      þâra þe he him mid häfde.
     Eodon him þâ tôgeánes,      gode þancodon,
     þryðlîc þegna heáp,      þeódnes gefêgon,
     þäs þe hi hyne gesundne      geseón môston.
1630 Þâ wäs of þäm hrôran      helm and byrne
     lungre âlýsed:      lagu drusade,
     wäter under wolcnum,      wäl-dreóre fâg.
     Fêrdon forð þonon      fêðe-lâstum
     ferhðum fägne,      fold-weg mæton,
1635 cûðe stræte;      cyning-balde men
     from þäm holm-clife      hafelan bæron
     earfoðlîce      heora æghwäðrum
     fela-môdigra:      feówer scoldon
     on ðäm wäl-stenge      weorcum geferian
1640 tô þäm gold-sele      Grendles heáfod,
     ôð þät semninga      tô sele cômon
     frome fyrd-hwate      feówer-tyne
     Geáta gongan;      gum-dryhten mid
     môdig on gemonge      meodo-wongas träd.
1645 Þâ com in gân      ealdor þegna,
     dæd-cêne mon      dôme gewurðad,
     häle hilde-deór.      Hrôðgâr grêtan:
     Þâ wäs be feaxe      on flet boren
     Grendles heáfod,      þær guman druncon,
1650 egeslîc for eorlum      and þære idese mid:
     wlite-seón wrätlîc      weras onsâwon.


     Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
     "Hwät! we þe þâs sæ-lâc,      sunu Healfdenes,
     "leód Scyldinga,      lustum brôhton,
1655 "tîres tô tâcne,      þe þu her tô lôcast.
     "Ic þät unsôfte      ealdre gedîgde:
     "wîge under wätere      weorc genêðde
     "earfoðlîce,      ät-rihte wäs
     "gûð getwæfed,      nymðe mec god scylde.
1660 "Ne meahte ic ät hilde      mid Hruntinge
     "wiht gewyrcan,      þeáh þät wæpen duge,
     "ac me geûðe      ylda waldend,
     "þät ic on wage geseah      wlitig hangian
     "eald sweord eácen      (oftost wîsode
1665 "winigea leásum)      þät ic þý wæpne gebräd.
     "Ofslôh þâ ät þære säcce      (þâ me sæl âgeald)
     "hûses hyrdas.      Þâ þät hilde-bil
     "forbarn, brogden mæl,      swâ þät blôd gesprang,
     "hâtost heaðo-swâta:      ic þät hilt þanan
1670 "feóndum ätferede;      fyren-dæda wräc,
     "deáð-cwealm Denigea,      swâ hit gedêfe wäs.
     "Ic hit þe þonne gehâte,      þät þu on Heorote môst
     "sorh-leás swefan      mid þînra secga gedryht,
     "and þegna gehwylc      þînra leóda,
1675 "duguðe and iogoðe,      þät þu him ondrædan ne þearft,
     "þeóden Scyldinga,      on þâ healfe,
     "aldor-bealu eorlum,      swâ þu ær dydest."
     Þâ wäs gylden hilt      gamelum rince.
     hârum hild-fruman,      on hand gyfen,
1680 enta ær-geweorc,      hit on æht gehwearf
     äfter deófla hryre      Denigea freán,
     wundor-smiða geweorc,      and þâ þâs worold ofgeaf
     grom-heort guma,      godes andsaca,
     morðres scyldig,      and his môdor eác;
1685 on geweald gehwearf      worold-cyninga
     þäm sêlestan      be sæm tweónum
     þâra þe on Sceden-igge      sceattas dælde.
     Hrôðgâr maðelode,      hylt sceáwode,
     ealde lâfe,      on þäm wäs ôr writen
1690 fyrn-gewinnes:      syððan flôd ofslôh,
     gifen geótende,      giganta cyn,
     frêcne gefêrdon:      þät wäs fremde þeód
     êcean dryhtne,      him þäs ende-leán
     þurh wäteres wylm      waldend sealde.
1695 Swâ wäs on þæm scennum      scîran goldes
     þurh rûn-stafas      rihte gemearcod,
     geseted and gesæd,      hwâm þät sweord geworht,
     îrena cyst      ærest wære,
     wreoðen-hilt and wyrm-fâh.      Þâ se wîsa spräc
1700 sunu Healfdenes      (swîgedon ealle):
     "Þät lâ mäg secgan,      se þe sôð and riht
     "fremeð on folce,      (feor eal gemon
     "eald êðel-weard),      þät þes eorl wære
     "geboren betera!      Blæd is âræred
1705 "geond wîd-wegas,      wine mîn Beówulf,
     "þîn ofer þeóda gehwylce.      Eal þu hit geþyldum healdest,
     "mägen mid môdes snyttrum.      Ic þe sceal mîne gelæstan
     "freóde, swâ wit furðum spræcon;      þu scealt tô frôfre weorðan
     "eal lang-twidig      leódum þînum,
1710 "häleðum tô helpe.      Ne wearð Heremôd swâ
     "eaforum Ecgwelan,      Âr-Scyldingum;
     "ne geweôx he him tô willan,      ac tô wäl-fealle
     "and tô deáð-cwalum      Deniga leódum;
     "breát bolgen-môd      beód-geneátas,
1715 "eaxl-gesteallan,      ôð þät he âna hwearf,
     "mære þeóden.      mon-dreámum from:
     "þeáh þe hine mihtig god      mägenes wynnum,
     "eafeðum stêpte,      ofer ealle men
     "forð gefremede,      hwäðere him on ferhðe greów
1720 "breóst-hord blôd-reów:      nallas beágas geaf
     "Denum äfter dôme;      dreám-leás gebâd,
     "þät he þäs gewinnes      weorc þrowade,
     "leód-bealo longsum.      Þu þe lær be þon,
     "gum-cyste ongit!      ic þis gid be þe
1725 "âwräc wintrum frôd.      Wundor is tô secganne,
     "hû mihtig god      manna cynne
     "þurh sîdne sefan      snyttru bryttað,
     "eard and eorl-scipe,      he âh ealra geweald.
     "Hwîlum he on lufan      læteð hworfan
1730 "monnes môd-geþonc      mæran cynnes,
     "seleð him on êðle      eorðan wynne,
     "tô healdanne      hleó-burh wera,
     "gedêð him swâ gewealdene      worolde dælas,
     "sîde rîce,      þät he his selfa ne mäg
1735 "for his un-snyttrum      ende geþencean;
     "wunað he on wiste,      nô hine wiht dweleð,
     "âdl ne yldo,      ne him inwit-sorh
     "on sefan sweorceð,      ne gesacu ôhwær,
     "ecg-hete eóweð,      ac him eal worold
1740 "wendeð on willan;      he þät wyrse ne con,
     "ôð þät him on innan      ofer-hygda dæl
     "weaxeð and wridað,      þonne se weard swefeð,
     "sâwele hyrde:      bið se slæp tô fäst,
     "bisgum gebunden,      bona swîðe neáh,
1745 "se þe of flân-bogan      fyrenum sceóteð.


     "Þonne bið on hreðre      under helm drepen
     "biteran stræle:      him bebeorgan ne con
     "wom wundor-bebodum      wergan gâstes;
     "þinceð him tô lytel,      þät he tô lange heóld,
1750 "gýtsað grom-hydig,      nallas on gylp seleð
     "fätte beágas      and he þâ forð-gesceaft
     "forgyteð and forgýmeð,      þäs þe him ær god sealde
     "wuldres waldend,      weorð-mynda dæl.
     "Hit on ende-stäf      eft gelimpeð,
1755 "þät se lîc-homa      læne gedreóseð,
     "fæge gefealleð;      fêhð ôðer tô,
     "se þe unmurnlîce      mâdmas dæleð,
     "eorles ær-gestreón,      egesan ne gýmeð.
     "Bebeorh þe þone bealo-nîð,      Beówulf leófa,
1760 "secg se betsta,      and þe þät sêlre geceós,
     "êce rædas;      oferhyda ne gým,
     "mære cempa!      Nu is þînes mägnes blæd
     "âne hwîle;      eft sôna bið,
     "þät þec âdl oððe ecg      eafoðes getwæfeð,
1765 "oððe fýres feng      oððe flôdes wylm,
     "oððe gripe mêces      oððe gâres fliht,
     "oððe atol yldo,      oððe eágena bearhtm
     "forsiteð and forsworceð;      semninga bið,
     "þät þec, dryht-guma,      deáð oferswýðeð.
1770 "Swâ ic Hring-Dena      hund missera
     "weóld under wolcnum,      and hig wîge beleác
     "manigum mægða      geond þysne middan-geard,
     "äscum and ecgum,      þät ic me ænigne
     "under swegles begong      gesacan ne tealde.
1775 "Hwät! me þäs on êðle      edwenden cwom,
     "gyrn äfter gomene,      seoððan Grendel wearð,
     "eald-gewinna,      in-genga mîn:
     "ic þære sôcne      singales wäg
     "môd-ceare micle.      Þäs sig metode þanc,
1780 "êcean drihtne,      þäs þe ic on aldre gebâd,
     "þät ic on þone hafelan      heoro-dreórigne
     "ofer eald gewin      eágum starige!
     "Gâ nu tô setle,      symbel-wynne dreóh
     "wîgge weorðad:      unc sceal worn fela
1785 "mâðma gemænra,      siððan morgen bið."
     Geát wäs gläd-môd,      geóng sôna tô,
     setles neósan,      swâ se snottra hêht.
     Þâ wäs eft swâ ær      ellen-rôfum,
     flet-sittendum      fägere gereorded
1790 niówan stefne.      Niht-helm geswearc
     deorc ofer dryht-gumum.      Duguð eal ârâs;
     wolde blonden-feax      beddes neósan,
     gamela Scylding.      Geát ungemetes wel,
     rôfne rand-wîgan      restan lyste:
1795 sôna him sele-þegn      sîðes wêrgum,
     feorran-cundum      forð wîsade,
     se for andrysnum      ealle beweotede
     þegnes þearfe,      swylce þý dôgore
     heáðo-lîðende      habban scoldon.
1800 Reste hine þâ rûm-heort;      reced hlifade
     geáp and gold-fâh,      gäst inne swäf,
     ôð þät hrefn blaca      heofones wynne
     blîð-heort bodode.      Þâ com beorht sunne
     scacan ofer grundas;      scaðan onetton,
1805 wæron äðelingas      eft tô leódum
     fûse tô farenne,      wolde feor þanon
     cuma collen-ferhð      ceóles neósan.
     Hêht þâ se hearda      Hrunting beran,
     sunu Ecglâfes,      hêht his sweord niman,
1810 leóflîc îren;      sägde him þäs leánes þanc,
     cwäð he þone gûð-wine      gôdne tealde,
     wîg-cräftigne,      nales wordum lôg
     mêces ecge:      þät wäs môdig secg.
     And þâ sîð-frome      searwum gearwe
1815 wîgend wæron,      eode weorð Denum
     äðeling tô yppan,      þær se ôðer wäs
     häle hilde-deór,      Hrôðgâr grêtte.


     Beówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
     "Nu we sæ-lîðend      secgan wyllað
1820 "feorran cumene,      þät we fundiað
     "Higelâc sêcan.      Wæron her tela
     "willum bewenede;      þu ûs wel dohtest.
     "Gif ic þonne on eorðan      ôwihte mäg
     "þînre môd-lufan      mâran tilian,
1825 "gumena dryhten,      þonne ic gyt dyde,
     "gûð-geweorca      ic beó gearo sôna.
     "Gif ic þät gefricge      ofer flôda begang,
     "þät þec ymbe-sittend      egesan þýwað,
     "swâ þec hetende      hwîlum dydon,
1830 "ic þe þûsenda      þegna bringe,
     "häleða tô helpe.      Ic on Higelâce wât,
     "Geáta dryhten,      þeáh þe he geong sý,
     "folces hyrde,      þät he mec fremman wile
     "wordum and worcum,      þät ic þe wel herige,
1835 "and þe tô geóce      gâr-holt bere
     "mägenes fultum,      þær þe bið manna þearf;
     "gif him þonne Hrêðrîc      tô hofum Geáta
     "geþingeð, þeódnes bearn,      he mäg þær fela
     "freónda findan:      feor-cýððe beóð
1840 "sêlran gesôhte      þäm þe him selfa deáh."
     Hrôðgâr maðelode      him on andsware:
     "Þe þâ word-cwydas      wittig drihten
     "on sefan sende!      ne hýrde ic snotorlîcor
     "on swâ geongum feore      guman þingian:
1845 "þu eart mägenes strang      and on môde frôd,
     "wîs word-cwida.      Wên ic talige,
     "gif þät gegangeð,      þät þe gâr nymeð,
     "hild heoru-grimme      Hrêðles eaferan,
     "âdl oððe îren      ealdor þînne,
1850 "folces hyrde,      and þu þîn feorh hafast,
     "þät þe Sæ-Geátas      sêlran näbben
     "tô geceósenne      cyning ænigne,
     "hord-weard häleða,      gif þu healdan wylt
     "mâga rîce.      Me þîn môd-sefa
1855 "lîcað leng swâ wel,      leófa Beówulf:
     "hafast þu gefêred,      þät þâm folcum sceal,
     "Geáta leódum      and Gâr-Denum
     "sib gemænum      and sacu restan,
     "inwit-nîðas,      þe hie ær drugon;
1860 "wesan, þenden ic wealde      wîdan rîces,
     "mâðmas gemæne,      manig ôðerne
     "gôdum gegrêtan      ofer ganotes bäð;
     "sceal hring-naca      ofer heáðu bringan
     "lâc and luf-tâcen.      Ic þâ leóde wât
1865 "ge wið feónd ge wið freónd      fäste geworhte
     "æghwäs untæle      ealde wîsan."
     Þâ git him eorla hleó      inne gesealde,
     mago Healfdenes      mâðmas twelfe,
     hêt hine mid þæm lâcum      leóde swæse
1870 sêcean on gesyntum,      snûde eft cuman.
     Gecyste þâ      cyning äðelum gôd,
     þeóden Scildinga,      þegen betstan
     and be healse genam;      hruron him teáras,
     blonden-feaxum:      him wäs bega wên,
1875 ealdum infrôdum,      ôðres swîðor,
     þät hî seoððan      geseón môston
     môdige on meðle.      Wäs him se man tô þon leóf,
     þät he þone breóst-wylm      forberan ne mehte,
     ac him on hreðre      hyge-bendum fäst
1880 äfter deórum men      dyrne langað
     beorn wið blôde.      Him Beówulf þanan,
     gûð-rinc gold-wlanc      gräs-moldan träd,
     since hrêmig:      sæ-genga bâd
     âgend-freán,      se þe on ancre râd.
1885 Þâ wäs on gange      gifu Hrôðgâres
     oft geæhted:      þät wäs ân cyning
     æghwäs orleahtre,      ôð þät hine yldo benam
     mägenes wynnum,      se þe oft manegum scôd.


     Cwom þâ tô flôde      fela-môdigra
1890 häg-stealdra heáp;      hring-net bæron,
     locene leoðo-syrcan.      Land-weard onfand
     eft-sîð eorla,      swâ he ær dyde;
     nô he mid hearme      of hliðes nosan
     gästas grêtte,      ac him tôgeánes râd;
1895 cwäð þät wilcuman      Wedera leódum
     scawan scîr-hame      tô scipe fôron.
     Þâ wäs on sande      sæ-geáp naca
     hladen here-wædum,      hringed-stefna
     mearum and mâðmum:      mäst hlifade
1900 ofer Hrôðgâres      hord-gestreónum.
     He þäm bât-wearde      bunden golde
     swurd gesealde,      þät he syððan wäs
     on meodu-bence      mâðme þý weorðra,
     yrfe-lâfe.      Gewât him on ýð-nacan,
1905 drêfan deóp wäter,      Dena land ofgeaf.
     Þâ wäs be mäste      mere-hrägla sum,
     segl sâle fäst.      Sund-wudu þunede,
     nô þær wêg-flotan      wind ofer ýðum
     sîðes getwæfde;      sæ-genga fôr,
1910 fleát fâmig-heals      forð ofer ýðe,
     bunden-stefna      ofer brim-streámas,
     þät hie Geáta clifu      ongitan meahton,
     cûðe nässas.      Ceól up geþrang,
     lyft-geswenced      on lande stôd.
1915 Hraðe wäs ät holme      hýð-weard gearo,
     se þe ær lange tîd,      leófra manna
     fûs, ät faroðe      feor wlâtode;
     sælde tô sande      sîd-fäðme scip
     oncer-bendum fäst,      þý läs hym ýða þrym
1920 wudu wynsuman      forwrecan meahte.
     Hêt þâ up beran      äðelinga gestreón,
     frätwe and fät-gold;      näs him feor þanon
     tô gesêcanne      sinces bryttan:
     Higelâc Hrêðling      þær ät hâm wunað,
1925 selfa mid gesîðum      sæ-wealle neáh;
     bold wäs betlîc,      brego-rôf cyning,
     heá on healle,      Hygd swîðe geong,
     wîs, wel-þungen,      þeáh þe wintra lyt
     under burh-locan      gebiden häbbe
1930 Häreðes dôhtor:      näs hió hnâh swâ þeáh,
     ne tô gneáð gifa      Geáta leódum,
     mâðm-gestreóna.      Mod Þryðo wäg,
     fremu folces cwên,      firen ondrysne:
     nænig þät dorste      deór genêðan
1935 swæsra gesîða,      nefne sin-freá,
     þät hire an däges      eágum starede;
     ac him wäl-bende      weotode tealde,
     hand-gewriðene:      hraðe seoððan wäs
     äfter mund-gripe      mêce geþinged,
1940 þät hit sceaðen-mæl      scyran môste,
     cwealm-bealu cýðan.      Ne bið swylc cwênlîc þeáw
     idese tô efnanne,      þeáh þe hió ænlîcu sý,
     þätte freoðu-webbe      feores onsäce
     äfter lîge-torne      leófne mannan.
1945 Hûru þät onhôhsnode      Heminges mæg;
     ealo drincende      ôðer sædan,
     þät hió leód-bealewa      läs gefremede,
     inwit-nîða,      syððan ærest wearð
     gyfen gold-hroden      geongum cempan,
1950 äðelum dióre,      syððan hió Offan flet
     ofer fealone flôd      be fäder lâre
     sîðe gesôhte,      þær hió syððan wel
     in gum-stôle,      gôde mære,
     lîf-gesceafta      lifigende breác,
1955 hióld heáh-lufan      wið häleða brego,
     ealles mon-cynnes      mîne gefræge
     þone sêlestan      bî sæm tweónum
     eormen-cynnes;      forþam Offa wäs
     geofum and gûðum      gâr-cêne man,
1960 wîde geweorðod;      wîsdôme heóld
     êðel sînne,      þonon Eómær wôc
     häleðum tô helpe,      Heminges mæg,
     nefa Gârmundes,      nîða cräftig.


     Gewât him þâ se hearda      mid his hond-scole
1965 sylf äfter sande      sæ-wong tredan,
     wîde waroðas.      Woruld-candel scân,
     sigel sûðan fûs:      hî sîð drugon,
     elne geeodon,      tô þäs þe eorla hleó,
     bonan Ongenþeówes      burgum on innan,
1970 geongne gûð-cyning      gôdne gefrunon
     hringas dælan.      Higelâce wäs
     sîð Beówulfes      snûde gecýðed,
     þät þær on worðig      wîgendra hleó,
     lind-gestealla      lifigende cwom,
1975 heaðo-lâces hâl      tô hofe gongan.
     Hraðe wäs gerýmed,      swâ se rîca bebeád,
     fêðe-gestum      flet innan-weard.
     Gesät þâ wið sylfne,      se þâ säcce genäs,
     mæg wið mæge,      syððan man-dryhten
1980 þurh hleóðor-cwyde      holdne gegrêtte
     meaglum wordum.      Meodu-scencum
     hwearf geond þät reced      Häreðes dôhtor:
     lufode þâ leóde,      lîð-wæge bär
     hælum tô handa.      Higelâc ongan
1985 sînne geseldan      in sele þam heán
     fägre fricgean,      hyne fyrwet bräc,
     hwylce Sæ-Geáta      sîðas wæron:
     "Hû lomp eów on lâde,      leófa Biówulf,
     "þâ þu færinga      feorr gehogodest,
1990 "säcce sêcean      ofer sealt wäter,
     "hilde tô Hiorote?      Ac þu Hrôðgâre
     "wîd-cûðne weán      wihte gebêttest,
     "mærum þeódne?      Ic þäs môd-ceare
     "sorh-wylmum seáð,      sîðe ne trûwode
1995 "leófes mannes;      ic þe lange bäd,
     "þät þu þone wäl-gæst      wihte ne grêtte,
     "lête Sûð-Dene      sylfe geweorðan
     "gûðe wið Grendel.      Gode ic þanc secge,
     "þäs þe ic þe gesundne      geseón môste."
2000 Biówulf maðelode,      bearn Ecgþiówes:
     "Þät is undyrne,      dryhten Higelâc,
     "mære gemêting      monegum fira,
     "hwylc orleg-hwîl      uncer Grendles
     "wearð on þam wange,      þær he worna fela
2005 "Sige-Scildingum      sorge gefremede,
     "yrmðe tô aldre;      ic þät eal gewräc,
     "swâ ne gylpan þearf      Grendeles mâga
     "ænig ofer eorðan      uht-hlem þone,
     "se þe lengest leofað      lâðan cynnes,
2010 "fenne bifongen.      Ic þær furðum cwom,
     "tô þam hring-sele      Hrôðgâr grêtan:
     "sôna me se mæra      mago Healfdenes,
     "syððan he môd-sefan      mînne cûðe,
     "wið his sylfes sunu      setl getæhte.
2015 "Weorod wäs on wynne;      ne seah ic wîdan feorh
     "under heofenes hwealf      heal-sittendra
     "medu-dreám mâran.      Hwîlum mæru cwên,
     "friðu-sibb folca      flet eall geond-hwearf,
     "bædde byre geonge;      oft hió beáh-wriðan
2020 "secge sealde,      ær hió tô setle geóng.
     "Hwîlum for duguðe      dôhtor Hrôðgâres
     "eorlum on ende      ealu-wæge bär,
     "þâ ic Freáware      flet-sittende
     "nemnan hýrde,      þær hió nägled sinc
2025 "häleðum sealde:      sió gehâten wäs,
     "geong gold-hroden,      gladum suna Frôdan;
     "hafað þäs geworden      wine Scyldinga
     "rîces hyrde      and þät ræd talað,
     "þät he mid þý wîfe      wäl-fæhða dæl,
2030 "säcca gesette.      Oft nô seldan hwær
     "äfter leód-hryre      lytle hwîle
     "bon-gâr bûgeð,      þeáh seó brýd duge!


     "Mäg þäs þonne ofþyncan      þeóden Heaðobeardna
     "and þegna gehwâm      þâra leóda,
2035 "þonne he mid fæmnan      on flett gæð,
     "dryht-bearn Dena      duguða biwenede:
     "on him gladiað      gomelra lâfe
     "heard and hring-mæl,      Heaðobeardna gestreón,
     "þenden hie þâm wæpnum      wealdan môston,
2040 "ôð þät hie forlæddan      tô þam lind-plegan
     "swæse gesîðas      ond hyra sylfra feorh.
     "Þonne cwið ät beóre,      se þe beáh gesyhð,
     "eald äsc-wîga,      se þe eall geman
     "gâr-cwealm gumena      (him bið grim sefa),
2045 "onginneð geômor-môd      geongne cempan
     "þurh hreðra gehygd      higes cunnian,
     "wîg-bealu weccean      and þät word âcwyð:
     "'Meaht þu, mîn wine,      mêce gecnâwan,
     "'þone þin fäder      tô gefeohte bär
2050 "'under here-grîman      hindeman sîðe,
     "'dýre îren,      þær hyne Dene slôgon,
     "'weóldon wäl-stôwe,      syððan wiðer-gyld läg,
     "'äfter häleða hryre,      hwate Scyldungas?
     "'Nu her þâra banena      byre nât-hwylces,
2055 "'frätwum hrêmig      on flet gæð,
     "'morðres gylpeð      and þone mâððum byreð,
     "'þone þe þu mid rihte      rædan sceoldest!'"
     "Manað swâ and myndgað      mæla gehwylce
     "sârum wordum,      ôð þät sæl cymeð,
2060 "þät se fæmnan þegn      fore fäder dædum
     "äfter billes bite      blôd-fâg swefeð,
     "ealdres scyldig;      him se ôðer þonan
     "losað lifigende,      con him land geare.
     "Þonne bióð brocene      on bâ healfe
2065 "âð-sweord eorla;      syððan Ingelde
     "weallað wäl-nîðas      and him wîf-lufan
     "äfter cear-wälmum      côlran weorðað.
     "Þý ic Heaðobeardna      hyldo ne telge,
     "dryht-sibbe dæl      Denum unfæcne,
2070 "freónd-scipe fästne.      Ic sceal forð sprecan
     "gen ymbe Grendel,      þät þu geare cunne,
     "sinces brytta,      tô hwan syððan wearð
     "hond-ræs häleða.      Syððan heofones gim
     "glâd ofer grundas,      gäst yrre cwom,
2075 "eatol æfen-grom,      ûser neósan,
     "þær we gesunde      säl weardodon;
     "þær wäs Hondsció      hild onsæge,
     "feorh-bealu fægum,      he fyrmest läg,
     "gyrded cempa;      him Grendel wearð,
2080 "mærum magu-þegne      tô mûð-bonan,
     "leófes mannes      lîc eall forswealg.
     "Nô þý ær ût þâ gen      îdel-hende
     "bona blôdig-tôð      bealewa gemyndig,
     "of þam gold-sele      gongan wolde,
2085 "ac he mägnes rôf      mîn costode,
     "grâpode gearo-folm.      Glôf hangode
     "sîd and syllîc      searo-bendum fäst,
     "sió wäs orþoncum      eall gegyrwed
     "deófles cräftum      and dracan fellum:
2090 "he mec þær on innan      unsynnigne,
     "diór dæd-fruma,      gedôn wolde,
     "manigra sumne:      hyt ne mihte swâ,
     "syððan ic on yrre      upp-riht âstôd.
     "Tô lang ys tô reccenne,      hû ic þam leód-sceaðan
2095 "yfla gehwylces      ond-leán forgeald;
     "þær ic, þeóden mîn,      þîne leóde
     "weorðode weorcum.      He on weg losade,
     "lytle hwîle      lîf-wynna breác;
     "hwäðre him sió swîðre      swaðe weardade
2100 "hand on Hiorte      and he heán þonan,
     "môdes geômor      mere-grund gefeóll.
     "Me þone wäl-ræs      wine Scildunga
     "fättan golde      fela leánode,
     "manegum mâðmum,      syððan mergen com
2105 "and we tô symble      geseten häfdon.
     "Þær wäs gidd and gleó;      gomela Scilding
     "fela fricgende      feorran rehte;
     "hwîlum hilde-deór      hearpan wynne,
     "gomen-wudu grêtte;      hwîlum gyd âwräc
2110 "sôð and sârlîc;      hwîlum syllîc spell
     "rehte äfter rihte      rûm-heort cyning.
     "Hwîlum eft ongan      eldo gebunden,
     "gomel gûð-wîga      gioguðe cwîðan
     "hilde-strengo;      hreðer inne weóll,
2115 "þonne he wintrum frôd      worn gemunde.
     "Swâ we þær inne      andlangne däg
     "nióde nâman,      ôð þät niht becwom
     "ôðer tô yldum.      Þâ wäs eft hraðe
     "gearo gyrn-wräce      Grendeles môdor,
2120 "sîðode sorh-full;      sunu deáð fornam,
     "wîg-hete Wedra.      Wîf unhýre
     "hyre bearn gewräc,      beorn âcwealde
     "ellenlîce;      þær wäs Äsc-here,
     "frôdan fyrn-witan,      feorh ûðgenge;
2125 "nôðer hy hine ne môston,      syððan mergen cwom,
     "deáð-wêrigne      Denia leóde
     "bronde forbärnan,      ne on bæl hladan
     "leófne mannan:      hió þät lîc ätbär
     "feóndes fäðmum      under firgen-streám.
2130 "Þät wäs Hrôðgâre      hreówa tornost
     "þâra þe leód-fruman      lange begeâte;
     "þâ se þeóden mec      þîne lîfe
     "healsode hreóh-môd,      þät ic on holma geþring
     "eorl-scipe efnde,      ealdre genêðde,
2135 "mærðo fremede:      he me mêde gehêt.
     "Ic þâ þäs wälmes,      þe is wîde cûð,
     "grimne gryrelîcne      grund-hyrde fond.
     "Þær unc hwîle wäs      hand gemæne;
     "holm heolfre weóll      and ic heáfde becearf
2140 "in þam grund-sele      Grendeles môdor
     "eácnum ecgum,      unsôfte þonan
     "feorh ôðferede;      näs ic fæge þâ gyt,
     "ac me eorla hleó      eft gesealde
     "mâðma menigeo,      maga Healfdenes.


2145 "Swâ se þeód-kyning      þeáwum lyfde;
     "nealles ic þâm leánum      forloren häfde,
     "mägnes mêde,      ac he me mâðmas geaf,
     "sunu Healfdenes,      on sînne sylfes dôm;
     "þâ ic þe, beorn-cyning,      bringan wylle,
2150 "êstum geýwan.      Gen is eall ät þe
     "lissa gelong:      ic lyt hafo
     "heáfod-mâga,      nefne Hygelâc þec!"
     Hêt þâ in beran      eafor, heáfod-segn,
     heaðo-steápne helm,      hâre byrnan,
2155 gûð-sweord geatolîc,      gyd äfter wräc:
     "Me þis hilde-sceorp      Hrôðgâr sealde,
     "snotra fengel,      sume worde hêt,
     "þät ic his ærest      þe eft gesägde,
     "cwäð þät hyt häfde      Hiorogâr cyning,
2160 "leód Scyldunga      lange hwîle:
     "nô þý ær suna sînum      syllan wolde,
     "hwatum Heorowearde,      þeáh he him hold wære,
     "breóst-gewædu.      Brûc ealles well!"
     Hýrde ic þät þâm frätwum      feówer mearas
2165 lungre gelîce      lâst weardode,
     äppel-fealuwe;      he him êst geteáh
     meara and mâðma.      Swâ sceal mæg dôn,
     nealles inwit-net      ôðrum bregdan,
     dyrnum cräfte      deáð rênian
2170 hond-gesteallan.      Hygelâce wäs,
     nîða heardum,      nefa swýðe hold
     and gehwäðer ôðrum      hrôðra gemyndig.
     Hýrde ic þät he þone heals-beáh      Hygde gesealde,
     wrätlîcne wundur-mâððum,      þone þe him Wealhþeó geaf,
2175 þeódnes dôhtor,      þrió wicg somod
     swancor and sadol-beorht;      hyre syððan wäs
     äfter beáh-þege      breóst geweorðod.
     Swâ bealdode      bearn Ecgþeówes,
     guma gûðum cûð,      gôdum dædum,
2180 dreáh äfter dôme,      nealles druncne slôg
     heorð-geneátas;      näs him hreóh sefa,
     ac he man-cynnes      mæste cräfte
     gin-fästan gife,      þe him god sealde,
     heóld hilde-deór.      Heán wäs lange,
2185 swâ hyne Geáta bearn      gôdne ne tealdon,
     ne hyne on medo-bence      micles wyrðne
     drihten wereda      gedôn wolde;
     swýðe oft sägdon,      þät he sleac wære,
     äðeling unfrom:      edwenden cwom
2190 tîr-eádigum menn      torna gehwylces.
     Hêt þâ eorla hleó      in gefetian,
     heaðo-rôf cyning,      Hrêðles lâfe,
     golde gegyrede;      näs mid Geátum þâ
     sinc-mâððum sêlra      on sweordes hâd;
2195 þät he on Biówulfes      bearm âlegde,
     and him gesealde      seofan þûsendo,
     bold and brego-stôl.      Him wäs bâm samod
     on þam leód-scipe      lond gecynde,
     eard êðel-riht,      ôðrum swîðor
2200 sîde rîce,      þam þær sêlra wäs.
     Eft þät geiode      ufaran dôgrum
     hilde-hlämmum,      syððan Hygelâc läg
     and Heardrêde      hilde-mêceas
     under bord-hreóðan      tô bonan wurdon,
2205 þâ hyne gesôhtan      on sige-þeóde
     hearde hilde-frecan,      Heaðo-Scilfingas,
     nîða genægdan      nefan Hererîces.
     Syððan Beówulfe      brâde rîce
     on hand gehwearf:      he geheóld tela
2210 fîftig wintru      (wäs þâ frôd cyning,
     eald êðel-weard),      ôð þät ân ongan
     deorcum nihtum      draca rîcsian,
     se þe on heáre hæðe      hord beweotode,
     stân-beorh steápne:      stîg under läg,
2215 eldum uncûð.      Þær on innan gióng
     niða nât-hwylces      neóde gefêng
     hæðnum horde      hond . d . . geþ . . hwylc
     since fâhne,      he þät syððan . . . . .
     . . . þ . . . lð . þ . . l . g
2220 slæpende be fýre,      fyrena hyrde
     þeófes cräfte,      þät sie . . . . ðioð . . . . .
     . idh . folc-beorn,      þät he gebolgen wäs.


     Nealles mid geweoldum      wyrm-horda . . . cräft
     sôhte sylfes willum,      se þe him sâre gesceôd,
2225 ac for þreá-nêdlan      þeów nât-hwylces
     häleða bearna      hete-swengeas fleáh,
     for ofer-þearfe      and þær inne fealh
     secg syn-bysig.      Sôna in þâ tîde
     þät . . . . . þam gyste      . . . . br . g . stôd,
2230 hwäðre earm-sceapen . . . . . . .
     . . ð . . . sceapen o . . . . i r . . e se fæs begeat,
     sinc-fät geseah:      þær wäs swylcra fela
     in þam eorð-scräfe      ær-gestreóna,
     swâ hy on geâr-dagum      gumena nât-hwylc
2235 eormen-lâfe      äðelan cynnes
     þanc-hycgende      þær gehýdde,
     deóre mâðmas.      Ealle hie deáð fornam
     ærran mælum,      and se ân þâ gen
     leóda duguðe,      se þær lengest hwearf,
2240 weard wine-geômor      wîscte þäs yldan,
     þät he lytel fäc      long-gestreóna
     brûcan môste.      Beorh eal gearo
     wunode on wonge      wäter-ýðum neáh,
     niwe be nässe      nearo-cräftum fäst:
2245 þær on innan bär      eorl-gestreóna
     hringa hyrde      hard-fyrdne dæl
     fättan goldes,      feá worda cwäð:
     "Heald þu nu, hruse,      nu häleð ne môston,
     "eorla æhte.      Hwät! hit ær on þe
2250 "gôde begeâton;      gûð-deáð fornam,
     "feorh-bealo frêcne      fyra gehwylcne,
     "leóda mînra,      þâra þe þis lîf ofgeaf,
     "gesâwon sele-dreám.      Nâh hwâ sweord wege
     "oððe fetige      fäted wæge,
2255 "drync-fät deóre:      duguð ellor scôc.
     "Sceal se hearda helm      hyrsted golde
     "fätum befeallen:      feormiend swefað,
     "þâ þe beado-grîman      býwan sceoldon,
     "ge swylce seó here-pâd,      sió ät hilde gebâd
2260 "ofer borda gebräc      bite îrena,
     "brosnað äfter beorne.      Ne mäg byrnan hring
     "äfter wîg-fruman      wîde fêran
     "häleðum be healfe;      näs hearpan wyn,
     "gomen gleó-beámes,      ne gôd hafoc
2265 "geond säl swingeð,      ne se swifta mearh
     "burh-stede beáteð.      Bealo-cwealm hafað
     "fela feorh-cynna      feorr onsended!"
     Swâ giômor-môd      giohðo mænde,
     ân äfter eallum      unblîðe hweóp,
2270 däges and nihtes,      ôð þät deáðes wylm
     hrân ät heortan.      Hord-wynne fond
     eald uht-sceaða      opene standan,
     se þe byrnende      biorgas sêceð
     nacod nîð-draca,      nihtes fleógeð
2275 fýre befangen;      hyne fold-bûend
     wîde gesâwon.      He gewunian sceall
     hlâw under hrusan,      þær he hæðen gold
     warað wintrum frôd;      ne byð him wihte þê sêl.
     Swâ se þeód-sceaða      þreó hund wintra
2280 heóld on hrusan      hord-ärna sum
     eácen-cräftig,      ôð þät hyne ân âbealh
     mon on môde:      man-dryhtne bär
     fäted wæge,      frioðo-wære bäd
     hlâford sînne.      Þâ wäs hord râsod,
2285 onboren beága hord,      bêne getîðad
     feá-sceaftum men.      Freá sceáwode
     fira fyrn-geweorc      forman sîðe.
     Þâ se wyrm onwôc,      wrôht wäs geniwad;
     stonc þâ äfter stâne,      stearc-heort onfand
2290 feóndes fôt-lâst;      he tô forð gestôp,
     dyrnan cräfte,      dracan heáfde neáh.
     Swâ mäg unfæge      eáðe gedîgan
     weán and wräc-sîð,      se þe waldendes
     hyldo gehealdeð.      Hord-weard sôhte
2295 georne äfter grunde,      wolde guman findan,
     þone þe him on sweofote      sâre geteóde:
     hât and hreóh-môd      hlæw oft ymbe hwearf,
     ealne ûtan-weardne;      ne þær ænig mon
     wäs on þære wêstenne.      Hwäðre hilde gefeh,
2300 beado-weorces:      hwîlum on beorh äthwearf,
     sinc-fät sôhte;      he þät sôna onfand,
     þät häfde gumena sum      goldes gefandod
     heáh-gestreóna.      Hord-weard onbâd
     earfoðlîce,      ôð þät æfen cwom;
2305 wäs þâ gebolgen      beorges hyrde,
     wolde se lâða      lîge forgyldan
     drinc-fät dýre.      Þâ wäs däg sceacen
     wyrme on willan,      nô on wealle leng
     bîdan wolde,      ac mid bæle fôr,
2310 fýre gefýsed.      Wäs se fruma egeslîc
     leódum on lande,      swâ hyt lungre wearð
     on hyra sinc-gifan      sâre geendod.


     Þâ se gäst ongan      glêdum spîwan,
     beorht hofu bärnan;      bryne-leóma stôd
2315 eldum on andan;      nô þær âht cwices
     lâð lyft-floga      læfan wolde.
     Wäs þäs wyrmes wîg      wîde gesýne,
     nearo-fâges nîð      neán and feorran,
     hû se gûð-sceaða      Geáta leóde
2320 hatode and hýnde:      hord eft gesceát,
     dryht-sele dyrnne      ær däges hwîle.
     Häfde land-wara      lîge befangen,
     bæle and bronde;      beorges getrûwode,
     wîges and wealles:      him seó wên geleáh.
2325 Þâ wäs Biówulfe      brôga gecýðed
     snûde tô sôðe,      þät his sylfes him
     bolda sêlest      bryne-wylmum mealt,
     gif-stôl Geáta.      Þät þam gôdan wäs
     hreów on hreðre,      hyge-sorga mæst:
2330 wênde se wîsa,      þät he wealdende,
     ofer ealde riht,      êcean dryhtne
     bitre gebulge:      breóst innan weóll
     þeóstrum geþoncum,      swâ him geþýwe ne wäs.
     Häfde lîg-draca      leóda fästen,
2335 eá-lond ûtan,      eorð-weard þone
     glêdum forgrunden.      Him þäs gûð-cyning,
     Wedera þióden,      wräce leornode.
     Hêht him þâ gewyrcean      wîgendra hleó
     eall-îrenne,      eorla dryhten
2340 wîg-bord wrätlîc;      wisse he gearwe,
     þät him holt-wudu      helpan ne meahte,
     lind wið lîge.      Sceolde læn-daga
     äðeling ær-gôd      ende gebîdan
     worulde lîfes      and se wyrm somod;
2345 þeáh þe hord-welan      heólde lange.
     Oferhogode þâ      hringa fengel,
     þät he þone wîd-flogan      weorode gesôhte,
     sîdan herge;      nô he him þâ säcce ondrêd,
     ne him þäs wyrmes wîg      for wiht dyde,
2350 eafoð and ellen;      forþon he ær fela
     nearo nêðende      nîða gedîgde,
     hilde-hlemma,      syððan he Hrôðgâres,
     sigor-eádig secg,      sele fælsode
     and ät gûðe forgrâp      Grendeles mægum,
2355 lâðan cynnes.      Nô þät läsest wäs
     hond-gemota,      þær mon Hygelâc slôh,
     syððan Geáta cyning      gûðe ræsum,
     freá-wine folces      Freslondum on,
     Hrêðles eafora      hioro-dryncum swealt,
2360 bille gebeáten;      þonan Biówulf com
     sylfes cräfte,      sund-nytte dreáh;
     + häfde him on earme      ... XXX
     hilde-geatwa,      þâ he tô holme stâg.
     Nealles Hetware      hrêmge þorfton
2365 fêðe-wîges,      þe him foran ongeán
     linde bæron:      lyt eft becwom
     fram þam hild-frecan      hâmes niósan.
     Oferswam þâ sióleða bigong      sunu Ecgþeówes,
     earm ân-haga      eft tô leódum,
2370 þær him Hygd gebeád      hord and rîce,
     beágas and brego-stôl:      bearne ne trûwode,
     þät he wið äl-fylcum      êðel-stôlas
     healdan cûðe,      þâ wäs Hygelâc deád.
     Nô þý ær feá-sceafte      findan meahton
2375 ät þam äðelinge      ænige þinga,
     þät he Heardrêde      hlâford wære,
     oððe þone cyne-dôm      ciósan wolde;
     hwäðre he him on folce      freónd-lârum heóld,
     êstum mid âre,      ôð þät he yldra wearð,
2380 Weder-Geátum weóld.      Hyne wräc-mäcgas
     ofer sæ sôhtan,      suna Ôhteres:
     häfdon hy forhealden      helm Scylfinga,
     þone sêlestan      sæ-cyninga,
     þâra þe in Swió-rîce      sinc brytnade,
2385 mærne þeóden.      Him þät tô mearce wearð;
     he þær orfeorme      feorh-wunde hleát
     sweordes swengum,      sunu Hygelâces;
     and him eft gewât      Ongenþiówes bearn
     hâmes niósan,      syððan Heardrêd läg;
2390 lêt þone brego-stôl      Biówulf healdan,
     Geátum wealdan:      þät wäs gôd cyning.


     Se þäs leód-hryres      leán gemunde
     uferan dôgrum,      Eádgilse wearð
     feá-sceaftum feónd.      Folce gestepte
2395 ofer sæ sîde      sunu Ôhteres
     wîgum and wæpnum:      he gewräc syððan
     cealdum cear-sîðum,      cyning ealdre bineát.
     Swâ he nîða gehwane      genesen häfde,
     slîðra geslyhta,      sunu Ecgþiówes,
2400 ellen-weorca,      ôð þone ânne däg,
     þe he wið þam wyrme      gewegan sceolde.
     Gewât þâ twelfa sum      torne gebolgen
     dryhten Geáta      dracan sceáwian;
     häfde þâ gefrunen,      hwanan sió fæhð ârâs,
2405 bealo-nîð biorna;      him tô bearme cwom
     mâððum-fät mære      þurh þäs meldan hond,
     Se wäs on þam þreáte      þreotteoða secg,
     se þäs orleges      ôr onstealde,
     häft hyge-giômor,      sceolde heán þonon
2410 wong wîsian:      he ofer willan gióng
     tô þäs þe he eorð-sele      ânne wisse,
     hlæw under hrusan      holm-wylme nêh,
     ýð-gewinne,      se wäs innan full
     wrätta and wîra:      weard unhióre,
2415 gearo gûð-freca,      gold-mâðmas heóld,
     eald under eorðan;      näs þät ýðe ceáp,
     tô gegangenne      gumena ænigum.
     Gesät þâ on nässe      nîð-heard cyning,
     þenden hælo âbeád      heorð-geneátum
2420 gold-wine Geáta:      him wäs geômor sefa,
     wäfre and wäl-fûs,      Wyrd ungemete neáh,
     se þone gomelan      grêtan sceolde,
     sêcean sâwle hord,      sundur gedælan
     lîf wið lîce:      nô þon lange wäs
2425 feorh äðelinges      flæsce bewunden.
     Biówulf maðelade,      bearn Ecgþeówes:
     "Fela ic on giogoðe      guð-ræsa genäs,
     "orleg-hwîla:      ic þät eall gemon.
     "Ic wäs syfan-wintre,      þâ mec sinca baldor,
2430 "freá-wine folca      ät mînum fäder genam,
     "heóld mec and häfde      Hrêðel cyning,
     "geaf me sinc and symbel,      sibbe gemunde;
     "näs ic him tô lîfe      lâðra ôwihte
     "beorn in burgum,      þonne his bearna hwylc,
2435 "Herebeald and Hæðcyn,      oððe Hygelâc mîn.
     "Wäs þam yldestan      ungedêfelîce
     "mæges dædum      morðor-bed strêd,
     "syððan hyne Hæðcyn      of horn-bogan,
     "his freá-wine      flâne geswencte,
2440 "miste mercelses      and his mæg ofscêt,
     "brôðor ôðerne,      blôdigan gâre:
     "þät wäs feoh-leás gefeoht,      fyrenum gesyngad
     "hreðre hyge-mêðe;      sceolde hwäðre swâ þeáh
     "äðeling unwrecen      ealdres linnan.
2445 "Swâ bið geômorlîc      gomelum ceorle
     "tô gebîdanne,      þät his byre rîde
     "giong on galgan,      þonne he gyd wrece,
     "sârigne sang,      þonne his sunu hangað
     "hrefne tô hrôðre      and he him helpe ne mäg,
2450 "eald and in-frôd,      ænige gefremman.
     "Symble bið gemyndgad      morna gehwylce
     "eaforan ellor-sîð;      ôðres ne gýmeð
     "tô gebîdanne      burgum on innan
     "yrfe-weardes,      þonne se ân hafað
2455 "þurh deáðes nýd      dæda gefondad.
     "Gesyhð sorh-cearig      on his suna bûre
     "wîn-sele wêstne,      wind-gereste,
     "reóte berofene;      rîdend swefað
     "häleð in hoðman;      nis þær hearpan swêg,
2460 "gomen in geardum,      swylce þær iú wæron.


     "Gewîteð þonne on sealman,      sorh-leóð gäleð
     "ân äfter ânum:      þûhte him eall tô rûm,
     "wongas and wîc-stede.      Swâ Wedra helm
     "äfter Herebealde      heortan sorge
2465 "weallende wäg,      wihte ne meahte
     "on þam feorh-bonan      fæhðe gebêtan:
     "nô þý ær he þone heaðo-rinc      hatian ne meahte
     "lâðum dædum,      þeáh him leóf ne wäs.
     "He þâ mid þære sorge,      þe him sió sâr belamp,
2470 "gum-dreám ofgeaf,      godes leóht geceás;
     "eaferum læfde,      swâ dêð eádig mon,
     "lond and leód-byrig,      þâ he of lîfe gewât.
     "Þâ wäs synn and sacu      Sweona and Geáta,
     "ofer wîd wäter      wrôht gemæne,
2175 "here-nîð hearda,      syððan Hrêðel swealt,
     "oððe him Ongenþeówes      eaferan wæran
     "frome fyrd-hwate,      freóde ne woldon
     "ofer heafo healdan,      ac ymb Hreosna-beorh
     "eatolne inwit-scear      oft gefremedon.
2480 "Þät mæg-wine      mîne gewræcan,
     "fæhðe and fyrene,      swâ hyt gefræge wäs,
     "þeáh þe ôðer hit      ealdre gebohte,
     "heardan ceápe:      Hæðcynne wearð,
     "Geáta dryhtne,      gûð onsæge.
2485 "Þâ ic on morgne gefrägn      mæg ôðerne
     "billes ecgum      on bonan stælan,
     "þær Ongenþeów      Eofores niósade:
     "gûð-helm tôglâd,      gomela Scylfing
     "hreás heoro-blâc;      hond gemunde
2490 "fæhðo genôge,      feorh-sweng ne ofteáh.
     "Ic him þâ mâðmas,      þe he me sealde,
     "geald ät gûðe,      swâ me gifeðe wäs,
     "leóhtan sweorde:      he me lond forgeaf,
     "eard êðel-wyn.      Näs him ænig þearf,
2495 "þät he tô Gifðum      oððe tô Gâr-Denum
     "oððe in Swió-rîce      sêcean þurfe
     "wyrsan wîg-frecan,      weorðe gecýpan;
     "symle ic him on fêðan      beforan wolde,
     "âna on orde,      and swâ tô aldre sceall
2500 "säcce fremman,      þenden þis sweord þolað,
     "þät mec ær and sîð      oft gelæste,
     "syððan ic for dugeðum      Däghrefne wearð
     "tô hand-bonan,      Hûga cempan:
     "nalles he þâ frätwe      Fres-cyninge,
2505 "breóst-weorðunge      bringan môste,
     "ac in campe gecrong      cumbles hyrde,
     "äðeling on elne.      Ne wäs ecg bona,
     "ac him hilde-grâp      heortan wylmas,
     "bân-hûs gebräc.      Nu sceall billes ecg,
2510 "hond and heard sweord      ymb hord wîgan."
     Beówulf maðelode,      beót-wordum spräc
     niéhstan sîðe:      "Ic genêðde fela
     "gûða on geogoðe;      gyt ic wylle,
     "frôd folces weard,      fæhðe sêcan,
2515 "mærðum fremman,      gif mec se mân-sceaða
     "of eorð-sele      ût gesêceð!"
     Gegrêtte þâ      gumena gehwylcne,
     hwate helm-berend      hindeman sîðe,
     swæse gesîðas:      "Nolde ic sweord beran,
2520 "wæpen tô wyrme,      gif ic wiste hû
     "wið þam aglæcean      elles meahte
     "gylpe wiðgrîpan,      swâ ic gió wið Grendle dyde;
     "ac ic þær heaðu-fýres      hâtes wêne,
     "rêðes and-hâttres:      forþon ic me on hafu
2525 "bord and byrnan.      Nelle ic beorges weard
     "oferfleón fôtes trem,      feónd unhýre,
     "ac unc sceal weorðan ät wealle,      swâ unc Wyrd geteóð,
     "metod manna gehwäs.      Ic eom on môde from,
     "þät ic wið þone gûð-flogan      gylp ofersitte.
2530 "Gebîde ge on beorge      byrnum werede,
     "secgas on searwum,      hwäðer sêl mæge
     "äfter wäl-ræse      wunde gedýgan
     "uncer twega.      Nis þät eówer sîð,
     "ne gemet mannes,      nefne mîn ânes,
2535 "þät he wið aglæcean      eofoðo dæle,
     "eorl-scype efne.      Ic mid elne sceall
     "gold gegangan      oððe gûð nimeð,
     "feorh-bealu frêcne,      freán eówerne!"
     Ârâs þâ bî ronde      rôf oretta,
2540 heard under helm,      hioro-sercean bär
     under stân-cleofu,      strengo getrûwode
     ânes mannes:      ne bið swylc earges sîð.
     Geseah þâ be wealle,      se þe worna fela,
     gum-cystum gôd,      gûða gedîgde,
2545 hilde-hlemma,      þonne hnitan fêðan,
     (stôd on stân-bogan)      streám ût þonan
     brecan of beorge;      wäs þære burnan wälm
     heaðo-fýrum hât:      ne meahte horde neáh
     unbyrnende      ænige hwîle
2550 deóp gedýgan      for dracan lêge.
     Lêt þâ of breóstum,      þâ he gebolgen wäs,
     Weder-Geáta leód      word ût faran,
     stearc-heort styrmde;      stefn in becom
     heaðo-torht hlynnan      under hârne stân.
2555 Hete wäs onhrêred,      hord-weard oncniów
     mannes reorde;      näs þær mâra fyrst,
     freóde tô friclan.      From ærest cwom
     oruð aglæcean      ût of stâne,
     hât hilde-swât;      hruse dynede.
2560 Biorn under beorge      bord-rand onswâf
     wið þam gryre-gieste,      Geáta dryhten:
     þâ wäs hring-bogan      heorte gefýsed
     säcce tô sêceanne.      Sweord ær gebräd
     gôd gûð-cyning      gomele lâfe,
2565 ecgum ungleáw,      æghwäðrum wäs
     bealo-hycgendra      brôga fram ôðrum.
     Stîð-môd gestôd      wið steápne rond
     winia bealdor,      þâ se wyrm gebeáh
     snûde tôsomne:      he on searwum bâd.
2570 Gewât þâ byrnende      gebogen scrîðan tô,
     gescîfe scyndan.      Scyld wel gebearg
     lîfe and lîce      lässan hwîle
     mærum þeódne,      þonne his myne sôhte,
     þær he þý fyrste      forman dôgore
2575 wealdan môste,      swâ him Wyrd ne gescrâf
     hrêð ät hilde.      Hond up âbräd
     Geáta dryhten,      gryre-fâhne slôh
     incge lâfe,      þät sió ecg gewâc
     brûn on bâne,      bât unswîðor,
2580 þonne his þiód-cyning      þearfe häfde,
     bysigum gebæded.      Þâ wäs beorges weard
     äfter heaðu-swenge      on hreóum môde,
     wearp wäl-fýre,      wîde sprungon
     hilde-leóman:      hrêð-sigora ne gealp
2585 gold-wine Geáta,      gûð-bill geswâc
     nacod ät nîðe,      swâ hyt nô sceolde,
     îren ær-gôd.      Ne wäs þät êðe sîð,
     þät se mæra      maga Ecgþeówes
     grund-wong þone      ofgyfan wolde;
2590 sceolde wyrmes willan      wîc eardian
     elles hwergen,      swâ sceal æghwylc mon
     âlætan læn-dagas.      Näs þâ long tô þon,
     þät þâ aglæcean      hy eft gemêtton.
     Hyrte hyne hord-weard,      hreðer æðme weóll,
2595 niwan stefne:      nearo þrowode
     fýre befongen      se þe ær folce weóld.
     Nealles him on heápe      hand-gesteallan,
     äðelinga bearn      ymbe gestôdon
     hilde-cystum,      ac hy on holt bugon,
2600 ealdre burgan.      Hiora in ânum weóll
     sefa wið sorgum:      sibb æfre ne mäg
     wiht onwendan,      þam þe wel þenceð.


     Wîglâf wäs hâten      Weoxstânes sunu,
     leóflîc lind-wiga,      leód Scylfinga,
2605 mæg Älfheres:      geseah his mon-dryhten
     under here-grîman      hât þrowian.
     Gemunde þâ þâ âre,      þe he him ær forgeaf
     wîc-stede weligne      Wægmundinga,
     folc-rihta gehwylc,      swâ his fäder âhte;
2610 ne mihte þâ forhabban,      hond rond gefêng,
     geolwe linde,      gomel swyrd geteáh,
     þät wäs mid eldum      Eánmundes lâf,
     suna Ôhteres,      þam ät säcce wearð
     wracu wine-leásum      Weohstânes bana
2615 mêces ecgum,      and his mâgum ätbär
     brûn-fâgne helm,      hringde byrnan,
     eald sweord eotonisc,      þät him Onela forgeaf,
     his gädelinges      gûð-gewædu,
     fyrd-searo fûslîc:      nô ymbe þâ fæhðe spräc,
2620 þeáh þe he his brôðor      bearn âbredwade.
     He frätwe geheóld      fela missera,
     bill and byrnan,      ôð þät his byre mihte
     eorl-scipe efnan,      swâ his ær-fäder;
     geaf him þâ mid Geátum      gûð-gewæda
2625 æghwäs unrîm;      þâ he of ealdre gewât,
     frôd on forð-weg.      Þâ wäs forma sîð
     geongan cempan,      þät he gûðe ræs
     mid his freó-dryhtne      fremman sceolde;
     ne gemealt him se môd-sefa,      ne his mæges lâf
2630 gewâc ät wîge:      þät se wyrm onfand,
     syððan hie tôgädre      gegân häfdon.
     Wîglâf maðelode      word-rihta fela,
     sägde gesîðum,      him wäs sefa geômor:
     "Ic þät mæl geman,      þær we medu þêgun,
2635 "þonne we gehêton      ûssum hlâforde
     "in biór-sele,      þe ûs þâs beágas geaf,
     "þät we him þâ gûð-geatwa      gyldan woldon,
     "gif him þyslîcu      þearf gelumpe,
     "helmas and heard sweord:      þê he ûsic on herge geceás
2640 "tô þyssum sîð-fate      sylfes willum,
     "onmunde ûsic mærða      and me þâs mâðmas geaf,
     "þê he ûsic gâr-wîgend      gôde tealde,
     "hwate helm-berend,      þeáh þe hlâford ûs
     "þis ellen-weorc      âna âþôhte
2645 "tô gefremmanne,      folces hyrde,
     "forþam he manna mæst      mærða gefremede,
     "dæda dollîcra.      Nu is se däg cumen,
     "þät ûre man-dryhten      mägenes behôfað
     "gôdra gûð-rinca:      wutun gangan tô,
2650 "helpan hild-fruman,      þenden hyt sý,
     "glêd-egesa grim!      God wât on mec,
     "þät me is micle leófre,      þät mînne lîc-haman
     "mid mînne gold-gyfan      glêd fäðmie.
     "Ne þynceð me gerysne,      þät we rondas beren
2655 "eft tô earde,      nemne we æror mægen
     "fâne gefyllan,      feorh ealgian
     "Wedra þiódnes.      Ic wât geare,
     "þät næron eald-gewyrht,      þät he âna scyle
     "Geáta duguðe      gnorn þrowian,
2660 "gesîgan ät säcce:      sceal ûrum þät sweord and helm,
     "byrne and byrdu-scrûd      bâm gemæne."
     Wôd þâ þurh þone wäl-rêc,      wîg-heafolan bär
     freán on fultum,      feá worda cwäð:
     "Leófa Biówulf,      læst eall tela,
2665 "swâ þu on geoguð-feore      geâra gecwæde,
     "þät þu ne âlæte      be þe lifigendum
     "dôm gedreósan:      scealt nu dædum rôf,
     "äðeling ân-hydig,      ealle mägene
     "feorh ealgian;      ic þe fullæstu!"
2670 Äfter þâm wordum      wyrm yrre cwom,
     atol inwit-gäst      ôðre sîðe,
     fýr-wylmum fâh      fiónda niósan,
     lâðra manna;      lîg-ýðum forborn
     bord wið ronde:      byrne ne meahte
2675 geongum gâr-wigan      geóce gefremman:
     ac se maga geonga      under his mæges scyld
     elne geeode,      þâ his âgen wäs
     glêdum forgrunden.      Þâ gen gûð-cyning
     mærða gemunde,      mägen-strengo,
2680 slôh hilde-bille,      þät hyt on heafolan stôd
     nîðe genýded:      Nägling forbärst,
     geswâc ät säcce      sweord Biówulfes
     gomol and græg-mæl.      Him þät gifeðe ne wäs,
     þät him îrenna      ecge mihton
2685 helpan ät hilde;      wäs sió hond tô strong,
     se þe mêca gehwane      mîne gefræge
     swenge ofersôhte,      þonne he tô säcce bär
     wæpen wundrum heard,      näs him wihte þê sêl.
     Þâ wäs þeód-sceaða      þriddan sîðe,
2690 frêcne fýr-draca      fæhða gemyndig,
     ræsde on þone rôfan,      þâ him rûm âgeald,
     hât and heaðo-grim,      heals ealne ymbefêng
     biteran bânum;      he geblôdegod wearð
     sâwul-drióre;      swât ýðum weóll.


2695 Þâ ic ät þearfe gefrägn      þeód-cyninges
     and-longne eorl      ellen cýðan,
     cräft and cênðu,      swâ him gecynde wäs;
     ne hêdde he þäs heafolan,      ac sió hand gebarn
     môdiges mannes,      þær he his mæges healp,
2700 þät he þone nîð-gäst      nioðor hwêne slôh,
     secg on searwum,      þät þät sweord gedeáf
     fâh and fäted,      þät þät fýr ongon
     sweðrian syððan.      Þâ gen sylf cyning
     geweóld his gewitte,      wäll-seaxe gebräd,
2705 biter and beadu-scearp,      þät he on byrnan wäg:
     forwrât Wedra helm       wyrm on middan.
     Feónd gefyldan      (ferh ellen wräc),
     and hi hyne þâ begen      âbroten häfdon,
     sib-äðelingas:      swylc sceolde secg wesan,
2710 þegn ät þearfe.      Þät þam þeódne wäs
     sîðast sîge-hwîle      sylfes dædum,
     worlde geweorces.      Þâ sió wund ongon,
     þe him se eorð-draca      ær geworhte,
     swêlan and swellan.      He þät sôna onfand,
2715 þät him on breóstum      bealo-nîð weóll,
     âttor on innan.      Þâ se äðeling gióng,
     þät he bî wealle,      wîs-hycgende,
     gesät on sesse;      seah on enta geweorc,
     hû þâ stân-bogan      stapulum fäste
2720 êce eorð-reced      innan heóldon.
     Hyne þâ mid handa      heoro-dreórigne
     þeóden mærne      þegn ungemete till,
     wine-dryhten his      wätere gelafede,
     hilde-sädne      and his helm onspeón.
2725 Biówulf maðelode,      he ofer benne spräc,
     wunde wäl-bleáte      (wisse he gearwe,
     þät he däg-hwîla      gedrogen häfde
     eorðan wynne;      þâ wäs eall sceacen
     dôgor-gerîmes,      deáð ungemete neáh):
2730 "Nu ic suna mînum      syllan wolde
     "gûð-gewædu,      þær me gifeðe swâ
     "ænig yrfe-weard      äfter wurde,
     "lîce gelenge.      Ic þâs leóde heóld
     "fîftig wintra:      näs se folc-cyning
2735 "ymbe-sittendra      ænig þâra,
     "þe mec gûð-winum      grêtan dorste,
     "egesan þeón.      Ic on earde bâd
     "mæl-gesceafta,      heóld mîn tela,
     "ne sôhte searo-nîðas,      ne me swôr fela
2740 "âða on unriht.      Ic þäs ealles mäg,
     "feorh-bennum seóc,      gefeán habban:
     "forþam me wîtan ne þearf      waldend fira
     "morðor-bealo mâga,      þonne mîn sceaceð
     "lîf of lîce.      Nu þu lungre
2745 "geong, hord sceáwian      under hârne stân,
     "Wîglâf leófa,      nu se wyrm ligeð,
     "swefeð sâre wund,      since bereáfod.
     "Bió nu on ôfoste,      þät ic ær-welan,
     "gold-æht ongite,      gearo sceáwige
2750 "swegle searo-gimmas,      þät ic þý sêft mæge
     "äfter mâððum-welan      mîn âlætan
     "lîf and leód-scipe,      þone ic longe heóld."


     Þâ ic snûde gefrägn      sunu Wihstânes
     äfter word-cwydum      wundum dryhtne
2755 hýran heaðo-siócum,      hring-net beran,
     brogdne beadu-sercean      under beorges hrôf.
     Geseah þâ sige-hrêðig,      þâ he bî sesse geóng,
     mago-þegn môdig      mâððum-sigla fela,
     gold glitinian      grunde getenge,
2760 wundur on wealle      and þäs wyrmes denn,
     ealdes uht-flogan,      orcas stondan,
     fyrn-manna fatu      feormend-leáse,
     hyrstum behrorene:      þær wäs helm monig,
     eald and ômig,      earm-beága fela,
2765 searwum gesæled.      Sinc eáðe mäg,
     gold on grunde,      gumena cynnes
     gehwone ofer-higian,      hýde se þe wylle!
     Swylce he siomian geseah      segn eall-gylden
     heáh ofer horde,      hond-wundra mæst,
2770 gelocen leoðo-cräftum:      of þam leóma stôd,
     þät he þone grund-wong      ongitan meahte,
     wräte giond-wlîtan.      Näs þäs wyrmes þær
     onsýn ænig,      ac hyne ecg fornam.
     Þâ ic on hlæwe      gefrägn hord reáfian,
2775 eald enta geweorc      ânne mannan,
     him on bearm hladan      bunan and discas
     sylfes dôme,      segn eác genom,
     beácna beorhtost;      bill ær-gescôd
     (ecg wäs îren)      eald-hlâfordes
2780 þam þâra mâðma      mund-bora wäs
     longe hwîle,      lîg-egesan wäg
     hâtne for horde,      hioro-weallende,
     middel-nihtum,      ôð þät he morðre swealt.
     Âr wäs on ôfoste      eft-sîðes georn,
2785 frätwum gefyrðred:      hyne fyrwet bräc,
     hwäðer collen-ferð      cwicne gemêtte
     in þam wong-stede      Wedra þeóden,
     ellen-siócne,      þær he hine ær forlêt.
     He þâ mid þâm mâðmum      mærne þióden,
2790 dryhten sînne      driórigne fand
     ealdres ät ende:      he hine eft ongon
     wäteres weorpan,      ôð þät wordes ord
     breóst-hord þurhbräc.      Beówulf maðelode,
     gomel on giohðe      (gold sceáwode):
2795 "Ic þâra frätwa      freán ealles þanc
     "wuldur-cyninge      wordum secge,
     "êcum dryhtne,      þe ic her on starie,
     "þäs þe ic môste      mînum leódum
     "ær swylt-däge      swylc gestrýnan.
2800 "Nu ic on mâðma hord      mîne bebohte
     "frôde feorh-lege,      fremmað ge nu
     "leóda þearfe;      ne mäg ic her leng wesan.
     "Hâtað heaðo-mære      hlæw gewyrcean,
     "beorhtne äfter bæle      ät brimes nosan;
2805 "se scel tô gemyndum      mînum leódum
     "heáh hlifian      on Hrones nässe,
     "þät hit sæ-lîðend      syððan hâtan
     "Biówulfes biorh,      þâ þe brentingas
     "ofer flôda genipu      feorran drîfað."
2810 Dyde him of healse      hring gyldenne
     þióden þrîst-hydig,      þegne gesealde,
     geongum gâr-wigan,      gold-fâhne helm,
     beáh and byrnan,      hêt hyne brûcan well:
     "Þu eart ende-lâf      ûsses cynnes,
2815 "Wægmundinga;      ealle Wyrd forsweóf,
     "mîne mâgas      tô metod-sceafte,
     "eorlas on elne:      ic him äfter sceal."
     Þät wäs þam gomelan      gingeste word
     breóst-gehygdum,      ær he bæl cure,
2820 hâte heaðo-wylmas:      him of hreðre gewât
     sâwol sêcean      sôð-fästra dôm.


     Þâ wäs gegongen      guman unfrôdum
     earfoðlîce,      þät he on eorðan geseah
     þone leófestan      lîfes ät ende
2825 bleáte gebæran.      Bona swylce läg,
     egeslîc eorð-draca,      ealdre bereáfod,
     bealwe gebæded:      beáh-hordum leng
     wyrm woh-bogen      wealdan ne môste,
     ac him îrenna      ecga fornâmon,
2830 hearde heaðo-scearpe      homera lâfe,
     þät se wîd-floga      wundum stille
     hreás on hrusan      hord-ärne neáh,
     nalles äfter lyfte      lâcende hwearf
     middel-nihtum,      mâðm-æhta wlonc
2835 ansýn ýwde:      ac he eorðan gefeóll
     for þäs hild-fruman      hond-geweorce.
     Hûru þät on lande      lyt manna þâh
     mägen-âgendra      mîne gefræge,
     þeáh þe he dæda gehwäs      dyrstig wære,
2840 þät he wið âttor-sceaðan      oreðe geræsde,
     oððe hring-sele      hondum styrede,
     gif he wäccende      weard onfunde
     bûan on beorge.      Biówulfe wearð
     dryht-mâðma dæl      deáðe forgolden;
2845 häfde æghwäðer      ende gefêred
     lænan lîfes.      Näs þâ lang tô þon,
     þät þâ hild-latan      holt ofgêfan,
     tydre treów-logan      tyne ätsomne,
     þâ ne dorston ær      dareðum lâcan
2850 on hyra man-dryhtnes      miclan þearfe;
     ac hy scamiende      scyldas bæran,
     gûð-gewædu,      þær se gomela läg:
     wlitan on Wîglâf.      He gewêrgad sät,
     fêðe-cempa      freán eaxlum neáh,
2855 wehte hyne wätre;      him wiht ne speów;
     ne meahte he on eorðan,      þeáh he ûðe wel,
     on þam frum-gâre      feorh gehealdan,
     ne þäs wealdendes willan      wiht oncirran;
     wolde dôm godes      dædum rædan
2860 gumena gehwylcum,      swâ he nu gen dêð.
     Þâ wäs ät þam geongan      grim andswaru
     êð-begête þâm þe ær      his elne forleás.
     Wîglâf maðelode,      Weohstânes sunu,
     secg sârig-ferð      seah on unleófe:
2865 "Þät lâ mäg secgan,      se þe wyle sôð sprecan,
     "þät se mon-dryhten,      se eów þâ mâðmas geaf,
     "eóred-geatwe,      þe ge þær on standað,
     "þonne he on ealu-bence      oft gesealde
     "heal-sittendum      helm and byrnan,
2870 "þeóden his þegnum,      swylce he þryðlîcost
     "ôhwær feor oððe neáh      findan meahte,
     "þät he genunga      gûð-gewædu
     "wrâðe forwurpe.      Þâ hyne wîg beget,
     "nealles folc-cyning      fyrd-gesteallum
2875 "gylpan þorfte;      hwäðre him god ûðe,
     "sigora waldend,      þät he hyne sylfne gewräc
     "âna mid ecge,      þâ him wäs elnes þearf,
     "Ic him lîf-wraðe      lytle meahte
     "ätgifan ät gûðe      and ongan swâ þeáh
2880 "ofer mîn gemet      mæges helpan:
     "symle wäs þý sæmra,      þonne ic sweorde drep
     "ferhð-genîðlan,      fýr unswîðor
     "weóll of gewitte.      Wergendra tô lyt
     "þrong ymbe þeóden,      þâ hyne sió þrag becwom.
2885 "Nu sceal sinc-þego      and swyrd-gifu
     "eall êðel-wyn      eówrum cynne,
     "lufen âlicgean:      lond-rihtes môt
     "þære mæg-burge      monna æghwylc
     "îdel hweorfan,      syððan äðelingas
2890 "feorran gefricgean      fleám eówerne,
     "dôm-leásan dæd.      Deáð bið sêlla
     "eorla gehwylcum      þonne edwît-lîf!"


     Hêht þâ þät heaðo-weorc      tô hagan biódan
     up ofer êg-clif,      þær þät eorl-weorod
2895 morgen-longne däg      môd-giômor sät,
     bord-häbbende,      bega on wênum
     ende-dôgores      and eft-cymes
     leófes monnes.      Lyt swîgode
     niwra spella,      se þe näs gerâd,
2900 ac he sôðlîce      sägde ofer ealle;
     "Nu is wil-geofa      Wedra leóda,
     "dryhten Geáta      deáð-bedde fäst,
     "wunað wäl-reste      wyrmes dædum;
     "him on efn ligeð      ealdor-gewinna,
2905 "siex-bennum seóc:      sweorde ne meahte
     "on þam aglæcean      ænige þinga
     "wunde gewyrcean.      Wîglâf siteð
     "ofer Biówulfe,      byre Wihstânes,
     "eorl ofer ôðrum      unlifigendum,
2910 "healdeð hige-mêðum      heáfod-wearde
     "leófes and lâðes.      Nu ys leódum wên
     "orleg-hwîle,      syððan underne
     "Froncum and Frysum      fyll cyninges
     "wîde weorðeð.      Wäs sió wrôht scepen
2915 "heard wið Hûgas,      syððan Higelâc cwom
     "faran flot-herge      on Fresna land,
     "þær hyne Hetware      hilde gehnægdon,
     "elne geeodon      mid ofer-mägene,
     "þät se byrn-wîga      bûgan sceolde,
2920 "feóll on fêðan:      nalles frätwe geaf
     "ealdor dugoðe;      ûs wäs â syððan
     "Merewioinga      milts ungyfeðe.
     "Ne ic tô Sweó-þeóde      sibbe oððe treówe
     "wihte ne wêne;      ac wäs wîde cûð,
2925 "þätte Ongenþió      ealdre besnyðede
     "Hæðcyn Hrêðling      wið Hrefna-wudu,
     "þâ for on-mêdlan      ærest gesôhton
     "Geáta leóde      Gûð-scilfingas.
     "Sôna him se frôda      fäder Ôhtheres,
2930 "eald and eges-full      ond-slyht âgeaf,
     "âbreót brim-wîsan,      brýd âheórde,
     "gomela ió-meowlan      golde berofene,
     "Onelan môdor      and Ôhtheres,
     "and þâ folgode      feorh-genîðlan
2935 "ôð þät hî ôðeodon      earfoðlîce
     "in Hrefnes-holt      hlâford-leáse.
     "Besät þâ sin-herge      sweorda lâfe
     "wundum wêrge,      weán oft gehêt
     "earmre teohhe      andlonge niht:
2940 "cwäð he on mergenne      mêces ecgum
     "getan wolde,      sume on galg-treówum
     "fuglum tô gamene.      Frôfor eft gelamp
     "sârig-môdum      somod ær-däge,
     "syððan hie Hygelâces      horn and býman
2945 "gealdor ongeâton.      Þâ se gôda com
     "leóda dugoðe      on lâst faran.


     "Wäs sió swât-swaðu      Sweona and Geáta,
     "wäl-ræs wera      wîde gesýne,
     "hû þâ folc mid him      fæhðe tôwehton.
2950 "Gewât him þâ se gôda      mid his gädelingum,
     "frôd fela geômor      fästen sêcean,
     "eorl Ongenþió      ufor oncirde;
     "häfde Higelâces      hilde gefrunen,
     "wlonces wîg-cräft,      wiðres ne trûwode,
2955 "þät he sæ-mannum      onsacan mihte,
     "heáðo-lîðendum      hord forstandan,
     "bearn and brýde;      beáh eft þonan
     "eald under eorð-weall.      Þâ wäs æht boden
     "Sweona leódum,      segn Higelâce.
2960 "Freoðo-wong þone      forð ofereodon,
     "syððan Hrêðlingas      tô hagan þrungon.
     "Þær wearð Ongenþió      ecgum sweorda,
     "blonden-fexa      on bîd wrecen,
     "þät se þeód-cyning      þafian sceolde
2965 "Eofores ânne dôm:      hyne yrringa
     "Wulf Wonrêding      wæpne geræhte,
     "þät him for swenge      swât ædrum sprong
     "forð under fexe.      Näs he forht swâ þêh,
     "gomela Scilfing,      ac forgeald hraðe
2970 "wyrsan wrixle      wäl-hlem þone,
     "syððan þeód-cyning      þyder oncirde:
     "ne meahte se snella      sunu Wonrêdes
     "ealdum ceorle      ond-slyht giofan,
     "ac he him on heáfde      helm ær gescer,
2975 "þät he blôde fâh      bûgan sceolde,
     "feóll on foldan;      näs he fæge þâ git,
     "ac he hyne gewyrpte,      þeáh þe him wund hrîne,
     "Lêt se hearda      Higelâces þegn
     "brâdne mêce,      þâ his brôðor läg,
2980 "eald sweord eotonisc,      entiscne helm,
     "brecan ofer bord-weal:      þâ gebeáh cyning,
     "folces hyrde,      wäs in feorh dropen.
     "Þâ wæron monige,      þe his mæg wriðon,
     "ricone ârærdon,      þâ him gerýmed wearð,
2985 "þät hie wäl-stôwe      wealdan môston.
     "Þenden reáfode      rinc ôðerne,
     "nam on Ongenþió      îren-byrnan,
     "heard swyrd hilted      and his helm somod;
     "hâres hyrste      Higelâce bär.
2990 "He þâm frätwum fêng      and him fägre gehêt
     "leána fore leódum      and gelæste swâ:
     "geald þone gûð-ræs      Geáta dryhten,
     "Hrêðles eafora,      þâ he tô hâm becom,
     "Jofore and Wulfe      mid ofer-mâðmum,
2995 "sealde hiora gehwäðrum      hund þûsenda
     "landes and locenra beága;      ne þorfte him þâ leán ôðwîtan
     "mon on middan-gearde,      syððan hie þâ mærða geslôgon;
     "and þâ Jofore forgeaf      ângan dôhtor,
     "hâm-weorðunge,      hyldo tô wedde.
3000 "Þät ys sió fæhðo      and se feónd-scipe,
     "wäl-nîð wera,      þäs þe ic wên hafo,
     "þe ûs sêceað tô      Sweona leóde,
     "syððan hie gefricgeað      freán ûserne
     "ealdor-leásne,      þone þe ær geheóld
3005 "wið hettendum      hord and rîce,
     "äfter häleða hryre      hwate Scylfingas,
     "folc-ræd fremede      oððe furður gen
     "eorl-scipe efnde.      Nu is ôfost betost,
     "þät we þeód-cyning      þær sceáwian
3010 "and þone gebringan,      þe ûs beágas geaf,
     "on âd-färe.      Ne scel ânes hwät
     "meltan mid þam môdigan,      ac þær is mâðma hord.
     "gold unrîme      grimme geceápod
     "and nu ät sîðestan      sylfes feore
3015 "beágas gebohte;      þâ sceal brond fretan,
     "äled þeccean,      nalles eorl wegan
     "mâððum tô gemyndum,      ne mägð scýne
     "habban on healse      hring-weorðunge,
     "ac sceall geômor-môd      golde bereáfod
3020 "oft nalles æne      el-land tredan,
     "nu se here-wîsa      hleahtor âlegde,
     "gamen and gleó-dreám.      Forþon sceall gâr wesan
     "monig morgen-ceald      mundum bewunden,
     "häfen on handa,      nalles hearpan swêg
3025 "wîgend weccean,      ac se wonna hrefn
     "fûs ofer fægum,      fela reordian,
     "earne secgan,      hû him ät æte speów,
     "þenden he wið wulf      wäl reáfode."
     Swâ se secg hwata      secgende wäs
3030 lâðra spella;      he ne leág fela
     wyrda ne worda.      Weorod eall ârâs,
     eodon unblîðe      under Earna näs
     wollen-teáre      wundur sceáwian.
     Fundon þâ on sande      sâwul-leásne
3035 hlim-bed healdan,      þone þe him hringas geaf
     ærran mælum:      þâ wäs ende-däg
     gôdum gegongen,      þät se gûð-cyning,
     Wedra þeóden,      wundor-deáðe swealt.
     Ær hî gesêgan      syllîcran wiht,
3040 wyrm on wonge      wiðer-rähtes þær
     lâðne licgean:      wäs se lêg-draca,
     grimlîc gryre-gäst,      glêdum beswæled,
     se wäs fîftiges      fôt-gemearces.
     lang on legere,      lyft-wynne heóld
3045 nihtes hwîlum,      nyðer eft gewât
     dennes niósian;      wäs þâ deáðe fäst,
     häfde eorð-scrafa      ende genyttod.
     Him big stôdan      bunan and orcas,
     discas lâgon      and dýre swyrd,
3050 ômige þurh-etone,      swâ hie wið eorðan fäðm
     þûsend wintra      þær eardodon:
     þonne wäs þät yrfe      eácen-cräftig,
     iú-monna gold      galdre bewunden,
     þät þam hring-sele      hrînan ne môste
3055 gumena ænig,      nefne god sylfa,
     sigora sôð-cyning,      sealde þam þe he wolde
     (he is manna gehyld)      hord openian,
     efne swâ hwylcum manna,      swâ him gemet þûhte.


     Þâ wäs gesýne,      þät se sîð ne þâh
3060 þam þe unrihte      inne gehýdde
     wräte under wealle.      Weard ær ofslôh
     feára sumne;      þâ sió fæhð gewearð
     gewrecen wrâðlîce.      Wundur hwâr, þonne
     eorl ellen-rôf      ende gefêre
3065 lîf-gesceafta,      þonne leng ne mäg
     mon mid his mâgum      medu-seld bûan.
     Swâ wäs Biówulfe,      þâ he biorges weard
     sôhte, searo-nîðas:      seolfa ne cûðe,
     þurh hwät his worulde gedâl      weorðan sceolde;
3070 swâ hit ôð dômes däg      diópe benemdon
     þeódnas mære,      þâ þät þær dydon,
     þät se secg wære      synnum scildig,
     hergum geheaðerod,      hell-bendum fäst,
     wommum gewitnad,      se þone wong strâde.
3075 Näs he gold-hwät:      gearwor häfde
     âgendes êst      ær gesceáwod.
     Wîglâf maðelode,      Wihstânes sunu:
     "Oft sceall eorl monig      ânes willan
     "wræc âdreógan,      swâ ûs geworden is.
3080 "Ne meahton we gelæran      leófne þeóden,
     "rîces hyrde      ræd ænigne,
     "þät he ne grêtte      gold-weard þone,
     "lête hyne licgean,      þær he longe wäs,
     "wîcum wunian      ôð woruld-ende.
3085 "Heóldon heáh gesceap:      hord ys gesceáwod,
     "grimme gegongen;      wäs þät gifeðe tô swîð,
     "þe þone þeóden      þyder ontyhte.
     "Ic wäs þær inne      and þät eall geond-seh,
     "recedes geatwa,      þâ me gerýmed wäs,
3090 "nealles swæslîce      sîð âlýfed
     "inn under eorð-weall.      Ic on ôfoste gefêng
     "micle mid mundum      mägen-byrðenne
     "hord-gestreóna,      hider ût ätbär
     "cyninge mînum:      cwico wäs þâ gena,
3095 "wîs and gewittig;      worn eall gespräc
     "gomol on gehðo      and eówic grêtan hêt,
     "bäd þät ge geworhton      äfter wines dædum
     "in bæl-stede      beorh þone heán
     "micelne and mærne,      swâ he manna wäs
3100 "wîgend weorð-fullost      wîde geond eorðan,
     "þenden he burh-welan      brûcan môste.
     "Uton nu êfstan      ôðre sîðe
     "seón and sêcean      searo-geþräc,
     "wundur under wealle!      ic eów wîsige,
3105 "þät ge genôge      neán sceáwiað
     "beágas and brâd gold.      Sîe sió bær gearo
     "ädre geäfned,      þonne we ût cymen,
     "and þonne geferian      freán ûserne,
     "leófne mannan,      þær he longe sceal
3110 "on þäs waldendes      wære geþolian."
     Hêt þâ gebeódan      byre Wihstânes,
     häle hilde-diór,      häleða monegum
     bold-âgendra,      þät hie bæl-wudu
     feorran feredon,      folc-âgende
3115 gôdum tôgênes:      "Nu sceal glêd fretan
     "(weaxan wonna lêg)      wîgena strengel,
     "þone þe oft gebâd      îsern-scûre,
     "þonne stræla storm,      strengum gebæded,
     "scôc ofer scild-weall,      sceft nytte heóld,
3120 "feðer-gearwum fûs      flâne full-eode."
     Hûru se snotra      sunu Wihstânes
     âcîgde of corðre      cyninges þegnas
     syfone tôsomne      þâ sêlestan,
     eode eahta sum      under inwit-hrôf;
3125 hilde-rinc sum      on handa bär
     äled-leóman,      se þe on orde geóng.
     Näs þâ on hlytme,      hwâ þät hord strude,
     syððan or-wearde      ænigne dæl
     secgas gesêgon      on sele wunian,
3130 læne licgan:      lyt ænig mearn,
     þät hi ôfostlice      ût geferedon
     dýre mâðmas;      dracan êc scufun,
     wyrm ofer weall-clif,      lêton wæg niman,
     flôd fäðmian      frätwa hyrde.
3135 Þær wäs wunden gold      on wæn hladen,
     æghwäs unrîm,      äðeling boren,
     hâr hilde-rinc      tô Hrones nässe.


     Him þâ gegiredan      Geáta leóde
     âd on eorðan      un-wâclîcne,
3140 helmum behongen,      hilde-bordum,
     beorhtum byrnum,      swâ he bêna wäs;
     âlegdon þâ tô-middes      mærne þeóden
     häleð hiófende,      hlâford leófne.
     Ongunnon þâ on beorge      bæl-fýra mæst
3145 wîgend weccan:      wudu-rêc âstâh
     sweart ofer swioðole,      swôgende lêg,
     wôpe bewunden      (wind-blond geläg)
     ôð þät he þâ bân-hûs      gebrocen häfde,
     hât on hreðre.      Higum unrôte
3150 môd-ceare mændon      mon-dryhtnes cwealm;
     swylce giômor-gyd      + lat . con meowle
     . . . . .      wunden heorde . . .
     serg (?) cearig sælde      geneahhe
     þät hio hyre . . . . gas hearde
3155 . . . . . ede      wälfylla wonn . .
     hildes egesan      hyðo
     haf mid      heofon rêce swealh (?)
     Geworhton þâ      Wedra leóde
     hlæw on hliðe,      se wäs heáh and brâd,
3160 wæg-lîðendum      wîde gesýne,
     and betimbredon      on tyn dagum
     beadu-rôfes bêcn:      bronda betost
     wealle beworhton,      swâ hyt weorðlîcost
     fore-snotre men      findan mihton.
3165 Hî on beorg dydon      bêg and siglu,
     eall swylce hyrsta,      swylce on horde ær
     nîð-hydige men      genumen häfdon;
     forlêton eorla gestreón      eorðan healdan,
     gold on greóte,      þær hit nu gen lifað
3170 eldum swâ unnyt,      swâ hit æror wäs.
     Þâ ymbe hlæw riodan      hilde-deóre,
     äðelinga bearn      ealra twelfa,
     woldon ceare cwîðan,      kyning mænan,
     word-gyd wrecan      and ymb wer sprecan,
3175 eahtodan eorl-scipe      and his ellen-weorc
     duguðum dêmdon,      swâ hit ge-dêfe bið,
     þät mon his wine-dryhten      wordum hêrge,
     ferhðum freóge,      þonne he forð scile
     of lîc-haman      læne weorðan.
3180 Swâ begnornodon      Geáta leóde
     hlâfordes hryre,      heorð-geneátas,
     cwædon þät he wære      woruld-cyning
     mannum mildust      and mon-þwærust,
     leódum lîðost      and lof-geornost.


THE ATTACK IN FINNSBURG. [Footnote: See v. 1069 _seqq._]

     ". . . . . . . . . . . näs byrnað næfre."
     Hleoðrode þâ      heaðo-geong cyning:
     "Ne þis ne dagað eástan,      ne her draca ne fleógeð,
     "ne her þisse healle      hornas ne byrnað,
5    "ac fêr forð berað      fugelas singað,
     "gylleð græg-hama,      gûð-wudu hlynneð,
     "scyld scefte oncwyð.      Nu scýneð þes môna
     "waðol under wolcnum;      nu ârîsað weá-dæda,
     "þe þisne folces nîð      fremman willað.
10   "Ac onwacnigeað nu,      wîgend mîne,
     "hebbað eówre handa,      hicgeað on ellen,
     "winnað on orde,      wesað on môde!"
     Þâ ârâs monig gold-hladen þegn,      gyrde hine his swurde;
     þâ tô dura eodon      drihtlîce cempan,
15   Sigeferð and Eaha,      hyra sweord getugon,
     and ät ôðrum durum      Ordlâf and Gûðlâf,
     and Hengest sylf;      hwearf him on lâste.
     Þâ git Gârulf      Gûðere styrode,
     þät hie swâ freólîc feorh      forman sîðe
20   tô þære healle durum      hyrsta ne bæran,
     nu hyt nîða heard      ânyman wolde:
     ac he frägn ofer eal      undearninga,
     deór-môd häleð,      hwâ þâ duru heólde.
     "Sigeferð is mîn nama (cwäð he),      ic eom Secgena leód,
25   "wrecca wîde cûð.      Fela ic weána gebâd,
     "heardra hilda;      þe is gyt her witod,
     "swäðer þu sylf tô me      sêcean wylle."
     Þâ wäs on wealle      wäl-slihta gehlyn,
     sceolde cêlod bord      cênum on handa
30   bân-helm berstan.      Buruh-þelu dynede,
     ôð þät ät þære gûðe      Gârulf gecrang,
     ealra ærest      eorð-bûendra,
     Gûðlâfes sunu;      ymbe hine gôdra fela.
     Hwearf flacra hræw      hräfn, wandrode
35   sweart and sealo-brûn;      swurd-leóma stôd
     swylce eal Finns-buruh      fýrenu wære.
     Ne gefrägn ic næfre wurðlîcor      ät wera hilde
     sixtig sige-beorna      sêl gebæran,
     ne næfre swânas swêtne      medo sêl forgyldan,
40   þonne Hnäfe guldon      his häg-stealdas.
     Hig fuhton fîf dagas,      swâ hyra nân ne feól
     driht-gesîða,      ac hig þâ duru heóldon.
     Þâ gewât him wund häleð      on wäg gangan,
     sæde þät his byrne      âbrocen wære,
45   here-sceorpum hrôr,      and eác wäs his helm þyrl.
     Þâ hine sôna frägn      folces hyrde,
     hû þâ wîgend      hyra wunda genæson
     oððe hwäðer þæra hyssa . . . . . . .



m.: masculine.
f.: feminine.
n.: neuter.
nom., gen.: nominative, genitive, etc.
w.: weak.
w. v.: weak verb.
st.: strong.
st. v.: strong verb.
I., II., III.: first, second, third person.
comp.: compound.
imper.: imperative.
w.: with.
instr.: instrumental.
G. and Goth.: Gothic.
O.N.: Old Norse.
O.S.: Old Saxon.
O.H.G.: Old High German.
M.H.G.: Middle High German.

The vowel ä = _a_ in _glad_      }
The diphthong æ = _a_ in _hair_  } approximately.

The names Leo, Bugge, Rieger, etc., refer to authors of emendations.

Words beginning with ge- will be found under their root-word.

Obvious abbreviations, like subj., etc., are not included in this list.


Abel, Cain's brother, 108.

Älf-here (gen. Älf-heres, 2605), a kinsman of Wîglâf's, 2605.

Äsc-here, confidential adviser of King Hrôðgâr (1326), older brother of
Yrmenlâf (1325), killed by Grendel's mother, 1295, 1324, 2123.

Bân-stân, father of Breca, 524.

Beó-wulf, son of Scyld, king of the Danes, 18, 19. After the death of his
father, he succeeds to the throne of the Scyldings, 53. His son is
Healfdene, 57.

Beó-wulf (Biówulf, 1988, 2390; gen. Beówulfes, 857, etc., Biówulfes, 2195,
2808, etc.; dat. Beówulfe, 610, etc., Biówulfe, 2325, 2843), of the race of
the Geátas. His father is the Wægmunding Ecgþeów (263, etc.); his mother a
daughter of Hrêðel, king of the Geátas (374), at whose court he is brought
up after his seventh year with Hrêðel's sons, Herebeald, Hæðcyn, and
Hygelâc, 2429 ff. In his youth lazy and unapt (2184 f., 2188 f.); as man he
attains in the gripe of his hand the strength of thirty men, 379. Hence his
victories in his combats with bare hands (711 ff., 2502 ff.), while fate
denies him the victory in the battle with swords, 2683 f. His
swimming-match with Breca in his youth, 506 ff. Goes with fourteen Geátas
to the assistance of the Danish king, Hrôðgâr, against Grendel, 198 ff. His
combat with Grendel, and his victory, 711 ff., 819 ff. He is, in
consequence, presented with rich gifts by Hrôðgâr, 1021 ff. His combat with
Grendel's mother, 1442 ff. Having again received gifts, he leaves Hrôðgâr
(1818-1888), and returns to Hygelâc, 1964 ff.--After Hygelâc's last battle
and death, he flees alone across the sea, 2360 f. In this battle he crushes
Däghrefn, one of the Hûgas, to death, 2502 f. He rejects at the same time
Hygelâc's kingdom and the hand of his widow (2370 ff.), but carries on the
government as guardian of the young Heardrêd, son of Hygelâc, 2378 ff.
After Heardrêd's death, the kingdom falls to Beówulf, 2208,
2390.--Afterwards, on an expedition to avenge the murdered Heardrêd, he
kills the Scylfing, Eádgils (2397), and probably conquers his country.
--His fight with the drake, 2539 ff. His death, 2818. His burial, 3135 ff.

Breca (acc. Brecan, 506, 531), son of Beánstân, 524. Chief of the
Brondings, 521. His swimming-match with Beówulf, 506 ff.

Brondingas (gen. Brondinga, 521), Breca, their chief, 521.

Brosinga mene, corrupted from, or according to Müllenhoff, written by
mistake for, Breosinga mene (O.N., Brisinga men, cf. Haupts Zeitschr. XII.
304), collar, which the Brisingas once possessed.

Cain (gen. Caines, 107): descended from him are Grendel and his kin, 107,
1262 ff.

Däg-hrefn (dat. Däghrefne, 2502), a warrior of the Hûgas, who, according to
2504-5, compared with 1203, and with 1208, seems to have been the slayer of
King Hygelâc, in his battle against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hûgas.
Is crushed to death by Beówulf in a hand-to-hand combat, 2502 ff.

Dene (gen. Dena, 242, etc., Denia, 2126, Deniga, 271, etc.; dat. Denum,
768, etc.), as subjects of Scyld and his descendants, they are also called
Scyldings; and after the first king of the East Danes, Ing (Runenlied, 22),
Ing-wine, 1045, 1320. They are also once called Hrêðmen, 445. On account of
their renowned warlike character, they bore the names Gâr-Dene, 1, 1857,
Hring-Dene (Armor-Danes), 116, 1280, Beorht-Dene, 427, 610. The great
extent of this people is indicated by their names from the four quarters of
the heavens: Eást-Dene, 392, 617, etc., West-Dene, 383, 1579, Sûð-Dene,
463, Norð-Dene, 784.--Their dwelling-place "in Scedelandum," 19, "on
Scedenigge," 1687, "be sæm tweónum," 1686.

Ecg-lâf (gen. Ecglâfes, 499), Hûnferð's father, 499.

Ecg-þeów (nom. Ecgþeów, 263, Ecgþeó, 373; gen. Ecgþeówes, 529, etc.,
Ecgþiówes, 2000), a far-famed hero of the Geátas, of the house of the
Wægmundings. Beówulf is the son of Ecgþeów, by the only daughter of Hrêðel,
king of the Geátas, 262, etc. Among the Wylfings, he has slain Heaðolâf
(460), and in consequence he goes over the sea to the Danes (463), whose
king, Hrôðgâr, by means of gold, finishes the strife for him, 470.

Ecg-wela (gen. Ecg-welan, 1711). The Scyldings are called his descendants,
1711. Grein considers him the founder of the older dynasty of Danish kings,
which closes with Heremôd. See Heremôd.

Elan, daughter of Healfdene, king of the Danes, (?) 62. According to the
restored text, she is the wife of Ongenþeów, the Scylfing, 62, 63.

Earna-näs, the Eagle Cape in the land of the Geátas, where occurred
Beówulf's fight with the drake, 3032.

Eádgils (dat. Eádgilse, 2393), son of Ôhthere, and grandson of Ongenþeów,
the Scylfing, 2393. His older brother is

Eánmund (gen. Eánmundes, 2612). What is said about both in our poem
(2201-2207, 2380-2397, 2612-2620) is obscure, but the following may be

The sons of Ôhthere, Eánmund and Eádgils, have rebelled against their
father (2382), and must, in consequence, depart with their followers from
Swiórîce, 2205-6, 2380. They come into the country of the Geátas to
Heardrêd (2380), but whether with friendly or hostile intent is not stated;
but, according to 2203 f., we are to presume that they came against
Heardrêd with designs of conquest. At a banquet (on feorme; or feorme, MS.)
Heardrêd falls, probably through treachery, by the hand of one of the
brothers, 2386, 2207. The murderer must have been Eánmund, to whom,
according to 2613, "in battle the revenge of Weohstân brings death."
Weohstân takes revenge for his murdered king, and exercises upon Eánmund's
body the booty-right, and robs it of helm, breastplate, and sword
(2616-17), which the slain man had received as gifts from his uncle, Onela,
2617-18. But Weohstân does not speak willingly of this fight, although he
has slain Onela's brother's son, 2619-20.--After Heardrêd's and Eánmund's
death, the descendant of Ongenþeów, Eádgils, returns to his home, 2388. He
must give way before Beówulf, who has, since Heardrêd's death, ascended the
throne of the Geátas, 2390. But Beówulf remembers it against him in after
days, and the old feud breaks out anew, 2392-94. Eádgils makes an invasion
into the land of the Geátas (2394-95), during which he falls at the hands
of Beówulf, 2397. The latter must have then obtained the sovereignty over
the Sweonas (3005-6, where only the version, Scylfingas, can give a
satisfactory sense).

Eofor (gen. Eofores, 2487, 2965; dat. Jofore, 2994, 2998), one of the
Geátas, son of Wonrêd and brother of Wulf (2965, 2979), kills the Swedish
king, Ongenþeów (2487 ff., 2978-82), for which he receives from King
Hygelâc, along with other gifts, his only daughter in marriage, 2994-99.

Eormen-rîc (gen. Eormenrîces, 1202), king of the Goths (cf. about him, W.
Grimm, Deutsche Heldensage, p. 2, ff.). Hâma has wrested the Brosinga mene
from him, 1202.

Eomær, son of Offa and Þryðo (cf. Þryðo), 1961.

Finn (gen. Finnes, 1069, etc.; dat. Finne, 1129), son of Folcwalda (1090),
king of the North Frisians, i.e. of the Eotenas, husband of Hildeburg, a
daughter of Hôc, 1072, 1077. He is the hero of the inserted poem on the
Attack in Finnsburg, the obscure incidents of which are, perhaps, as
follows: In Finn's castle, Finnsburg, situated in Jutland (1126-28), the
Hôcing, Hnäf, a relative--perhaps a brother--of Hildeburg is spending some
time as guest. Hnäf, who is a liegeman of the Danish king, Healfdene, has
sixty men with him (Finnsburg, 38). These are treacherously attacked one
night by Finn's men, 1073. For five days they hold the doors of their
lodging-place without losing one of their number (Finnsburg, 41, 42). Then,
however, Hnäf is slain (1071), and the Dane, Hengest, who was among Hnäf's
followers, assumes the command of the beleaguered band. But on the
attacking side the fight has brought terrible losses to Finn's men. Their
numbers are diminished (1081 f.), and Hildeburg bemoans a son and a brother
among the fallen (1074 f., cf. 1116, 1119). Therefore the Frisians offer
the Danes peace (1086) under the conditions mentioned (1087-1095), and it
is confirmed with oaths (1097), and money is given by Finn in propitiation
(1108). Now all who have survived the battle go together to Friesland, the
homo proper of Finn, and here Hengest remains during the winter, prevented
by ice and storms from returning home (Grein). But in spring the feud
breaks out anew. Gûðlâf and Oslâf avenge Hnäf's fall, probably after they
have brought help from home (1150). In the battle, the hall is filled with
the corpses of the enemy. Finn himself is killed, and the queen is captured
and carried away, along with the booty, to the land of the Danes,

Finna land. Beówulf reaches it in his swimming-race with Breca, 580.

Fitela, the son and nephew of the Wälsing, Sigemund, and his companion in
arms, 876-890. (Sigemund had begotten Fitela by his sister, Signý. Cf. more
at length Leo on Beówulf, p. 38 ff., where an extract from the legend of
the Walsungs is given.)

Folc-walda (gen. Folc-waldan, 1090), Finn's father, 1090.

Francan (gen. Francna, 1211; dat. Froncum, 2913). King Hygelâc fell on an
expedition against the allied Franks, Frisians, and Hûgas, 1211, 2917.

Fresan, Frisan, Frysan (gen. Fresena, 1094, Frysna, 1105, Fresna, 2916:
dat. Frysum, 1208, 2913). To be distinguished, are: 1) North Frisians,
whose king is Finn, 1069 ff.; 2) West Frisians, in alliance with the Franks
and Hûgas, in the war against whom Hygelâc falls, 1208, 2916. The country
of the former is called Frysland, 1127; that of the latter, Fresna land,

Fr..es wäl (in Fr..es wäle, 1071), mutilated proper name.

Freáwaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrôðgâr; given in marriage to
Ingeld, the son of the Heaðobeard king, Frôda, in order to end a war
between the Danes and the Heaðobeardnas, 2023 ff., 2065.

Frôda (gen. Frôdan), father of Ingeld, the husband of Freáware, 2026.

Gârmund (gen. Gârmundes, 1963) father of Offa. His grandson is Eómær,

Geátas (gen. Geáta, 205, etc.; dat. Geátum, 195, etc.), a tribe in Southern
Scandinavia, to which the hero of this poem belongs; also called
Wedergeátas, 1493, 2552; or, Wederas, 225, 423, etc.; Gûðgeátas, 1539;
Sægeátas, 1851, 1987. Their kings named in this poem are: Hrêðel; Hæðcyn,
second son of Hrêðel; Hygelâc, the brother of Hæðcyn; Heardrêd, son of
Hygelâc; then Beówulf.

Gifðas (dat. Gifðum, 2495), Gepidæ, mentioned in connection with Danes and
Swedes, 2495.

Grendel, a fen-spirit (102-3) of Cain's race, 107, 111, 1262, 1267. He
breaks every night into Hrôðgâr's hall and carries off thirty warriors, 115
ff., 1583ff. He continues this for twelve years, till Beówulf fights with
him (147, 711 ff.), and gives him a mortal wound, in that he tears out one
of his arms (817), which is hung up as a trophy in the roof of Heorot, 837.
Grendel's mother wishes to avenge her son, and the following night breaks
into the hall and carries off Äschere, 1295. Beówulf seeks for and finds
her home in the fen-lake (1493 ff.), fights with her (1498 ff.), and kills
her (1567); and cuts off the head of Grendel, who lay there dead (1589),
and brings it to Hrôðgâr, 1648.

Gûð-lâf and Oslâf, Danish warriors under Hnäf, whose death they avenge on
Finn, 1149.

Hâlga, with the surname, _til_, the younger brother of the Danish king,
Hrôðgâr, 61. His son is Hrôðulf, 1018, 1165, 1182.

Hâma wrests the _Brosinga mene_ from Eormenrîc, 1199.

Häreð (gen. Häreðes, 1982), father of Hygd, the wife of Hygelâc, 1930,

Hæðcyn (dat. Hæðcynne, 2483), second son of Hrêðel, king of the Geátas,
2435. Kills his oldest brother, Herebeald, accidentally, with an arrow,
2438 ff. After Hrêðel's death, he obtains the kingdom, 2475, 2483. He falls
at Ravenswood, in the battle against the Swedish king, Ongenþeów, 2925. His
successor is his younger brother, Hygelâc, 2944 ff., 2992.

Helmingas (gen. Helminga, 621). From them comes Wealhþeów, Hrôðgâr's wife,

Heming (gen. Heminges, 1945, 1962). Offa is called Heminges mæg, 1945;
Eómær, 1962. According to Bachlechner (Pfeiffer's Germania, I., p. 458),
Heming is the son of the sister of Gârmund, Offa's father.

Hengest (gen. Hengestes, 1092; dat. Hengeste, 1084): about him and his
relations to Hnäf and Finn, see Finn.

Here-beald (dat. Herebealde, 2464), the oldest son of Hrêðel, king of the
Geátas (2435), accidentally killed with an arrow by his younger brother,
Hæðcyn, 2440.

Here-môd (gen. Heremôdes, 902), king of the Danes, not belonging to the
Scylding dynasty, but, according to Grein, immediately preceding it; is, on
account of his unprecedented cruelty, driven out, 902 ff., 1710.

Here-rîc (gen. Hererîces, 2207) Heardrêd is called Hererîces nefa, 2207.
Nothing further is known of him.

Het-ware or Franks, in alliance with the Frisians and the Hûgas, conquer
Hygelâc, king of the Geátas, 2355, 2364 ff., 2917.

Healf-dene (gen. Healfdenes, 189, etc.), son of Beówulf, the Scylding (57);
rules the Danes long and gloriously (57 f.); has three sons, Heorogâr,
Hrôðgâr, and Hâlga (61), and a daughter, Elan, who, according to the
renewed text of the passage, wäs married to the Scylfing, Ongenþeów, 62,

Heard-rêd (dat. Heardrêde, 2203, 2376), son of Hygelâc, king of the Geátas,
and Hygd. After his father's death, while still under age, he obtains the
throne (2371, 2376, 2379); wherefore Beówulf, as nephew of Heardrêd's
father, acts as guardian to the youth till he becomes older, 2378. He is
slain by Ôhthere's sons, 2386. This murder Beówulf avenges on Eádgils,

Heaðo-beardnas (gen. -beardna, 2033, 2038, 2068), the tribe of the
Lombards. Their king, Frôda, has fallen in a war with the Danes, 2029,
2051. In order to end the feud, King Hrôðgâr has given his daughter,
Freáwaru, as wife to the young Ingeld, the son of Frôda, a marriage that
does not result happily; for Ingeld, though he long defers it on account of
his love for his wife, nevertheless takes revenge for his father, 2021-2070
(Wîdsîð, 45-49).

Heaðo-lâf (dat. Heaðo-lâfe, 460), a Wylfingish warrior. Ecgþeów, Beówulf's
father, kills him, 460.

Heaðo-ræmas reached by B. in the swimming-race with Beówulf, 519.

Heoro-gâr (nom. 61; Heregâr, 467; Hiorogâr, 2159), son of Healfdene, and
older brother of Hrôðgâr, 61. His death is mentioned, 467. He has a son,
Heoroweard, 2162. His coat of mail Beówulf has received from Hrôðgâr
(2156), and presents it to Hygelâc, 2158.

Heoro-weard (dat. Heorowearde, 2162), Heorogâr's son, 2161-62.

Heort, 78. Heorot, 166 (gen. Heorotes, 403; dat. Heorote, 475, Heorute,
767, Hiorte, 2100). Hrôðgâr's throne-room and banqueting hall and
assembly-room for his liegemen, built by him with unusual splendor, 69, 78.
In it occurs Beówulf's fight with Grendel, 720 ff. The hall receives its
name from the stag's antlers, of which the one-half crowns the eastern
gable, the other half the western.

Hildeburh, daughter of Hôc, relative of the Danish leader, Hnäf, consort of
the Frisian king, Finn. After the fall of the latter, she becomes a captive
of the Danes, 1072, 1077, 1159. See also under Finn.

Hnäf (gen. Hnäfes, 1115), a Hôcing (Wîdsîð, 29), the Danish King
Healfdene's general, 1070 ff. For his fight with Finn, his death and
burial, see under Finn.

Hond-sció, warrior of the Geátas: dat. 2077.

Hôc (gen. Hôces, 1077), father of Hildeburh, 1077; probably also of Hnäf
(Wîdsîð, 29).

Hrêðel (gen. Hrêðles, 1486), son of Swerting, 1204. King of the Geátas,
374. He has, besides, a daughter, who is married to Ecgþeów, and has borne
him Beówulf, (374), three sons, Herebeald, Hæðcyn, and Hygelâc, 2435. The
eldest of these is accidentally killed by the second, 2440. On account of
this inexpiable deed, Hrêðel becomes melancholy (2443), and dies, 2475.

Hrêðla (gen. Hrêðlan, MS. Hrædlan, 454), the same as Hrêðel (cf. Müllenhoff
in Haupts Zeitschrift, 12, 260), the former owner of Beówulf's coat of
mail, 454.

Hrêð-men (gen. Hrêð-manna, 445), the Danes are so called, 445.

Hrêð-rîc, son of Hrôðgâr, 1190, 1837.

Hrefna-wudu, 2926, or Hrefnes-holt, 2936, the thicket near which the
Swedish king, Ongenþeów, slew Hæðcyn, king of the Geátas, in battle.

Hreosna-beorh, promontory in the land of the Geátas, near which Ongenþeów's
sons, Ôhthere and Onela, had made repeated robbing incursions into the
country after Hrêðel's death. These were the immediate cause of the war in
which Hrêðel's son, King Hæðcyn, fell, 2478 ff.

Hrôð-gâr (gen. Hrôðgâres, 235, etc.; dat. Hrôðgâre, 64, etc.), of the
dynasty of the Scyldings; the second of the three sons of King Healfdene,
61. After the death of his elder brother, Heorogâr, he assumes the
government of the Danes, 465, 467 (yet it is not certain whether Heorogâr
was king of the Danes before Hrôðgâr, or whether his death occurred while
his father, Healfdene, was still alive). His consort is Wealhþeów (613), of
the stock of the Helmings (621), who has borne him two sons, Hrêðrîc and
Hrôðmund (1190), and a daughter, Freáware (2023), who has been given in
marriage to the king of the Heaðobeardnas, Ingeld. His throne-room (78
ff.), which has been built at great cost (74 ff.), is visited every night
by Grendel (102, 115), who, along with his mother, is slain by Beówulf (711
ff., 1493 ff). Hrôðgâr's rich gifts to Beówulf, in consequence, 1021, 1818;
he is praised as being generous, 71 ff., 80, 1028 ff., 1868 ff.; as being
brave, 1041 ff., 1771 ff.; and wise, 1699, 1725.--Other information about
Hrôðgâr's reign for the most part only suggested: his expiation of the
murder which Ecgþeów, Beówulf's father, committed upon Heaðolâf, 460, 470;
his war with the Heaðobeardnas; his adjustment of it by giving his
daughter, Freáware, in marriage to their king, Ingeld; evil results of this
marriage, 2021-2070.--Treachery of his brother's son, Hrôðulf, intimated,

Hrôð-mund, Hrôðgâr's son, 1190.

Hrôð-ulf, probably a son of Hâlga, the younger brother of King Hrôðgâr,
1018, 1182. Wealhþeów expresses the hope (1182) that, in case of the early
death of Hrôðgâr, Hrôð-ulf would prove a good guardian to Hrôðgâr's young
son, who would succeed to the government; a hope which seems not to have
been accomplished, since it appears from 1165, 1166 that Hrôð-ulf has
abused his trust towards Hrôðgâr.

Hrones-näs (dat. -nässe, 2806, 3137), a promontory on the coast of the
country of the Geátas, visible from afar. Here is Beówulf's grave-mound,
2806, 3137.

Hrunting (dat. Hruntinge, 1660), Hûnferð's sword, is so called, 1458, 1660.

Hûgas (gen. Hûga, 2503), Hygelâc wars against them allied with the Franks
and Frisians, and falls, 2195 ff. One of their heroes is called Däghrefn,
whom Beówulf slays, 2503.

[H]ûn-ferð, the son of Ecglâf, þyle of King Hrôðgâr. As such, he has his
place near the throne of the king, 499, 500, 1167. He lends his sword,
Hrunting, to Beówulf for his battle with Grendel's mother, 1456 f.
According to 588, 1168, he slew his brothers. Since his name is always
alliterated with vowels, it is probable that the original form was, as
Rieger (Zachers Ztschr., 3, 414) conjectures, Unferð.

Hûn-lâfing, name of a costly sword, which Finn presents to Hengest, 1144.
See Note.

Hygd (dat. Hygde, 2173), daughter of Häreð, 1930; consort of Hygelâc, king
of the Geátas, 1927; her son, Heardrêd, 2203, etc.--Her noble, womanly
character is emphasized, 1927 ff.

Hyge-lâc (gen. Hige-lâces, 194, etc., Hygelâces, 2387; dat. Higelâce, 452,
Hygelâce, 2170), king of the Geátas, 1203, etc. His grandfather is
Swerting, 1204; his father, Hrêðel, 1486, 1848; his older brothers,
Herebeald and Hæðcyn, 2435; his sister's son, Beówulf, 374, 375. After his
brother, Hæðcyn, is killed by Ongenþeów, he undertakes the government (2992
in connection with the preceding from 2937 on). To Eofor he gives, as
reward for slaying Ongenþeów, his only daughter in marriage, 2998. But much
later, at the time of the return of Beówulf from his expedition to Hrôðgâr,
we see him married to the very young Hygd, the daughter of Häreð, 1930. The
latter seems, then, to have been his second wife. Their son is Heardrêd,
2203, 2376, 2387.--Hygelâc falls during an expedition against the Franks,
Frisians, and Hûgas, 1206, 1211, 2356-59, 2916-17.

Ingeld (dat. Ingelde, 2065), son of Frôda, the Heaðobeard chief, who fell
in a battle with the Danes, 2051 ff. in order to end the war, Ingeld is
married to Freáwaru, daughter of the Danish king, Hrôðgâr, 2025-30. Yet his
love for his young wife can make him forget only for a short while his
desire to avenge his father. He finally carries it out, excited thereto by
the repeated admonitions of an old warrior, 2042-70 (Wîdsîð, 45-59).

Ing-wine (gen. Ingwina, 1045, 1320), friends of Ing, the first king of the
East Danes. The Danes are so called, 1045, 1320.

Mere-wioingas (gen. Mere-wioinga, 2922), as name of the Franks, 2922.

Nägling, the name of Beówulf's sword, 2681.

Offa (gen. Offan, 1950), king of the Angles (Wîdsîð, 35), the son of
Gârmund, 1963; married (1950) to Þryðo (1932), a beautiful but cruel woman,
of unfeminine spirit (1932 ff.), by whom he has a son, Eómær, 1961.

Ôht-here (gen. Ôhtheres, 2929, 2933; Ôhteres, 2381, 2393, 2395, 2613), son
of Ongenþeów, king of the Swedes, 2929. His sons are Eánmund (2612) and
Eádgils, 2393.

Onela (gen. Onelan, 2933), Ôhthere's brother, 2617, 2933.

Ongen-þeów (nom. -þeów, 2487, -þió, 2952; gen. -þeówes, 2476, -þiówes,
2388; dat. -þió, 2987), of the dynasty of the Scylfings; king of the
Swedes, 2384. His wife is, perhaps, Elan, daughter of the Danish king,
Healfdene (62), and mother of two sons, Onela and Ôhthere, 2933. She is
taken prisoner by Hæðcyn, king of the Geátas, on an expedition into Sweden,
which he undertakes on account of her sons' plundering raids into his
country, 2480 ff. She is set free by Ongenþeów (2931), who kills Hæðcyn,
2925, and encloses the Geátas, now deprived of their leader, in the
Ravenswood (2937 ff.), till they are freed by Hygelâc, 2944. A battle then
follows, which is unfavorable to Ongenþeów's army. Ongenþeów himself,
attacked by the brothers, Wulf and Eofor, is slain by the latter, 2487 ff.,
2962 ff.

Ôs-lâf, a warrior of Hnäf's, who avenges on Finn his leader's death, 1149

Scede-land, 19. Sceden-îg (dat. Sceden-îgge, 1687), O.N., Scân-ey, the most
southern portion of the Scandinavian peninsula, belonging to the Danish
kingdom, and, in the above-mentioned passages of our poem, a designation of
the whole Danish kingdom.

Scêf or Sceáf. See Note.

Scyld (gen. Scyldes, 19), a Scêfing. 4. His son is Beówulf, 18, 53: his
grandson, Healfdene, 57; his great-grandson, Hrôðgâr, who had two brothers
and a sister, 59 ff.--Scyld dies, 26; his body, upon a decorated ship, is
given over to the sea (32 ff.), just as he, when a child, drifted alone,
upon a ship, to the land of the Danes, 43 ff. After him his descendants
bear his name.

Scyldingas (Scyldungas, 2053; gen. Scyldinga, 53, etc., Scyldunga, 2102,
2160; dat. Scyldingum, 274, etc.), a name which is extended also to the
Danes, who are ruled by the Scyldings, 53, etc. They are also called
Âr-Scyldingas, 464; Sige-Scyldingas, 598, 2005; Þeód-Scyldingas, 1020;
Here-Scyldingas, 1109.

Scylfingas, a Swedish royal family, whose relationship seems to extend to
the Geátas, since Wîglâf, the son of Wihstân, who in another place, as a
kinsman of Beówulf, is called a Wægmunding (2815), is also called leód
Scylfinga, 2604. The family connections are perhaps as follows:--

     Wægmund.         .......
        |                |
------------------  ----------
Ecgþeów.  Weohstân.  Ongenþeów.
   |         |           |
-------- -------- ---------------
Beówulf.  Wîglâf.  Onela. Ôhthere.
                 Eáumund. Eádgils.

The Scylfings are also called Heaðo-Scilfingas, 63, Gûð-Scylfingas, 2928.

Sige-mund (dat. -munde, 876, 885), the son of Wäls, 878, 898. His (son and)
nephew is Fitela, 880, 882. His fight with the drake, 887 ff.

Swerting (gen. Swertinges, 1204), Hygelâc's grandfather, and Hrêðel's
father, 1204.

Sweon (gen. Sweona, 2473, 2947, 3002), also Sweó-þeód, 2923. The dynasty of
the Scylfings rules over them, 2382, 2925. Their realm is called Swiórice,
2384, 2496.

Þryðo, consort of the Angle king, Offa, 1932, 1950. Mother of Eómær, 1961,
notorious on account of her cruel, unfeminine character, 1932 ff. She is
mentioned as the opposite to the mild, dignified Hygd, the queen of the

Wäls (gen. Wälses, 898), father of Sigemund, 878, 898.

Wæg-mundingas (gen. Wægmundinga, 2608, 2815). The Wægmundings are on one
side, Wihstân and his son Wîglâf; on the other side, Ecgþeów and his son
Beówulf (2608, 2815). See under Scylfingas.

Wederas (gen. Wedera, 225, 423, 498, etc.), or Weder-geátas. See Geátas.

Wêland (gen. Wêlandes, 455), the maker of Beówulf's coat of mail, 455.

Wendlas (gen. Wendla, 348): their chief is Wulfgâr. See Wulfgâr. The
Wendlas are, according to Grundtvig and Bugge, the inhabitants of Vendill,
the most northern part of Jutland, between Limfjord and the sea.

Wealh-þeów (613, Wealh-þeó, 665, 1163), the consort of King Hrôðgâr, of the
stock of the Helmings, 621. Her sons are Hrêðrîc and Hrôðmund, 1190; her
daughter, Freáwaru, 2023.

Weoh-stân (gen. Weox-stânes, 2603, Weoh-stânes, 2863, Wih-stânes, 2753,
2908, etc.), a Wægmunding (2608), father of Wîglâf, 2603. In what
relationship to him Älfhere, mentioned 2605, stands, is not
clear.--Weohstân is the slayer of Eánmund (2612), in that, as it seems, he
takes revenge for his murdered king, Heardrêd. See Eánmund.

Wîg-lâf, Weohstân's son, 2603, etc., a Wægmunding, 2815, and so also a
Scylfing, 2604; a kinsman of Älfhere, 2605. For his relationship to
Beówulf, see the genealogical table under Scylfingas.--He supports Beówulf
in his fight with the drake, 2605 ff., 2662 ff. The hero gives him, before
his death, his ring, his helm, and his coat of mail, 2810 ff.

Won-rêd (gen. Wonrêdes, 2972), father of Wulf and Eofor, 2966, 2979.

Wulf (dat. Wulfe, 2994), one of the Geátas, Wonrêd's son. He fights in the
battle between the armies of Hygelâc and Ongenþeów with Ongenþeów himself,
and gives him a wound (2966), whereupon Ongenþeów, by a stroke of his
sword, disables him, 2975. Eofor avenges his brother's fall by dealing
Ongenþeów a mortal blow, 2978 ff.

Wulf-gâr, chief of the Wendlas, 348, lives at Hrôðgâr's court, and is his
"âr and ombiht," 335.

Wylfingas (dat. Wylfingum, 461). Ecgþeów has slain Heoðolâf, a warrior of
this tribe, 460.

Yrmen-lâf, younger brother of Äschere, 1325.


Eotenas (gen. pl. Eotena, 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. Eotenum, 1146), the
subjects of Finn, the North Frisians: distinguished from eoton, _giant_.
Vid eoton. Cf. Bugge, Beit., xii. 37; Earle, Beowulf in Prose, pp. 146,

Hrêðling, son of Hrêðel, Hygelâc: nom. sg. 1924; nom. pl., the subjects of
Hygelâc, the Geats, 2961.

Scêfing, the son (?) of Scêf, or Sceáf, reputed father of Scyld, 4. See


               B.: Bugge.
              Br.: S.A. Brooke, Hist. of Early Eng. Lit.
               C.: Cosijn.
               E.: Earle, Deeds of Beowulf in Prose.
               G.: Garnett, Translation of Beowulf
              Gr.: Grein.
               H.: Heyne.
              Ha.: Hall, Translation of Beowulf.
           H.-So.: Heyne-Socin, 5th ed.
              Ho.: Holder.
               K.: Kemble.
              Kl.: Kluge.
         Müllenh.: Müllenhoff.
               R.: Rieger.
               S.: Sievers.
              Sw.: Sweet, Anglo-Saxon Reader, 6th ed.
          Ten Br.: Ten Brink.
              Th.: Thorpe.
               Z.: Zupitza.


             Ang.: Anglia.
            Beit.: Paul und Branne's Beiträge.
       Eng. Stud.: Englische Studien.
            Germ.: Germania.
 Haupts Zeitschr.: Haupts Zeitschrift, etc.
 Mod. Lang. Notes: Modern Language Notes.
          Tidskr.: Tidskrift for Philologi.
Zachers Zeitschr.: Zachers Zeitschrift, etc.


l. 1. hwät: for this interjectional formula opening a poem, cf. _Andreas,
Daniel, Juliana, Exodus, Fata Apost., Dream of the Rood_, and the
"Listenith lordinges!" of mediaeval lays.--E. Cf. Chaucer, Prologue, ed.
Morris, l. 853:

     "Sin I shal beginne the game,
     _What_, welcome be the cut, a Goddes name!"

we ... gefrunon is a variant on the usual epic formulæ ic gefrägn (l. 74)
and mîne gefræge (l. 777). _Exodus, Daniel, Phoenix_, etc., open with the
same formula.

l. 1. "Gâr was the javelin, armed with two of which the warrior went into
battle, and which he threw over the 'shield-wall.' It was barbed."--Br.
124. Cf. _Maldon_, l. 296; _Judith_, l. 224; _Gnom. Verses_, l. 22; etc.

l. 4. "Scild of the Sheaf, not 'Scyld the son of Scaf'; for it is too
inconsistent, even in myth, to give a patronymic to a foundling. According
to the original form of the story, Sceáf was the foundling; he had come
ashore with a sheaf of corn, and from that was named. This form of the
story is preserved in Ethelwerd and in William of Malmesbury. But here the
foundling is Scyld, and we must suppose he was picked up with the sheaf,
and hence his cognomen."--E., p. 105. Cf. the accounts of Romulus and
Remus, of Moses, of Cyrus, etc.

l. 6. egsian is also used in an active sense (not in the Gloss.), = _to

l. 15. S. suggests þâ (_which_) for þät, as object of dreógan; and for
aldor-leáse, Gr. suggested aldor-ceare.--_Beit._ ix. 136.

S. translates: "For God had seen the dire need which the rulerless ones
before endured."

l. 18. "Beowulf (that is, Beaw of the Anglo-Saxon genealogists, not our
Beowulf, who was a Geat, not a Dane), 'the son of Scyld in Scedeland.' This
is our ancestral myth,--the story of the first culture-hero of the North;
'the patriarch,' as Rydberg calls him, 'of the royal families of Sweden,
Denmark, Angeln, Saxland, and England.'"--Br., p. 78. Cf. _A.-S. Chron._
an. 855.

H.-So. omits parenthetic marks, and reads (after S., _Beit._ ix. 135)
eaferan; cf. _Fata Apost._: lof wîde sprang þeódnes þegna.

"The name _Beowulf_ means literally 'Bee-wolf,' wolf or ravager of
the bees, = bear. Cf. _beorn_, 'hero,' originally 'bear,' and
_beohata_, 'warrior,' in Cædmon, literally 'bee-hater' or
'persecutor,' and hence identical in meaning with _beowulf_."--Sw.

Cf. "Arcite and Palamon,
    That foughten _breme_, as it were bores two."
         --Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 841, ed. Morris.

Cf. M. Müller, _Science of Lang._, Sec. Series, pp. 217, 218; and Hunt's
_Daniel_, 104.

l. 19. Cf. l. 1866, where Scedenig is used, = _Scania_, in Sweden(?).

l. 21. wine is pl.; cf. its apposition wil-gesîðas below. H.-So. compares
_Héliand_, 1017, for language almost identical with ll. 20, 21.

l. 22. on ylde: cf.
    "_In elde_ is bothe wisdom and usage."
       --Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 1590, ed. Morris.

l. 26. Reflexive objects often pleonastically accompany verbs of motion;
cf. ll. 234, 301, 1964, etc.

l. 28. faroð = _shore, strand, edge._ Add these to the meanings in the

l. 31. The object of âhte is probably geweald, to be supplied from wordum
weóld of l. 30.--H.-So.

R., Kl., and B. all hold conflicting views of this passage: _Beit._ xii.
80, ix. 188; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 382, etc. Kl. suggests lændagas for

l. 32. "hringed-stefna is sometimes translated 'with curved prow,' but it
means, I think, that in the prow were fastened rings through which the
cables were passed that tied it to the shore."--Br., p. 26. Cf. ll. 1132,
1898. Hring-horni was the mythic ship of the Edda. See Toller-Bosworth for
three different views; and cf. wunden-stefna (l. 220), hring-naca (l.

ll. 34-52. Cf. the burial of Haki on a funeral-pyre ship, _Inglinga Saga;_
the burial of Balder, Sinfiötli, Arthur, etc.

l. 35. "And this [their joy in the sea] is all the plainer from the number
of names given to the ship-names which speak their pride and affection. It
is the Ætheling's vessel, the Floater, the Wave-swimmer, the Ring-sterned,
the Keel, the Well-bound wood, the Sea-wood, the Sea-ganger, the Sea-broad
ship, the Wide-bosomed, the Prow-curved, the Wood of the curved neck, the
Foam-throated floater that flew like a bird."--Br., p. 168.

l. 49. "We know from Scandinavian graves ... that the illustrious dead were
buried ... in ships, with their bows to sea-ward; that they were however
not sent to sea, but were either burnt in that position, or mounded over
with earth."--E. See Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, xix.

l. 51. (1) sele-rædende (K., S., C.); (2) sêle-rædenne (H.); (3)
sele-rædende (H.-So.). Cf. l. 1347; and see Ha.

l. 51. E. compares with this canto Tennyson's "Passing of Arthur" and the
legendary burial-journey of St. James of Campostella, an. 800.

l. 53. The poem proper begins with this, "There was once upon a time," the
first 52 lines being a prelude. Eleven of the "fitts," or cantos, begin
with the monosyllable þâ, four with the verb gewîtan, nine with the formula
Hrôðgâr (Beówulf, Unferð) maðelode, twenty-four with monosyllables in
general (him, swâ, sê, hwät, þâ, hêht, wäs, mäg, cwôm, stræt).

l. 58. gamel. "The ... characteristics of the poetry are the use of archaic
forms and words, such as mec for mé, the possessive sín, gamol, dógor, swát
for eald, dæg, blód, etc., after they had become obsolete in the prose
language, and the use of special compounds and phrases, such as hildenædre
(_war-adder_) for 'arrow,' gold-gifa (_gold-giver_) for 'king,' ...
goldwine gumena (_goldfriend of men, distributor of gold to men_) for
'king,'" etc.--Sw. Other poetic words are ides, ielde (_men_), etc.

l. 60. H.-So. reads ræswa (referring to Heorogâr alone), and places a point
(with the Ms.) after Heorogâr instead of after ræswa. Cf. l. 469; see B.,
_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 193.

l. 62. Elan here (OHG. _Elana, Ellena, Elena, Elina, Alyan_) is thought by
B. (_Tidskr_. viii. 43) to be a remnant of the masc. name Onela, and he
reads: [On-]elan ewên, Heaðoscilfingas(=es) healsgebedda.

l. 68. For hê, omitted here, cf. l. 300. Pronouns are occasionally thus
omitted insubord. clauses.--Sw.

l. 70. þone, here = þonne, _than_, and micel = mâre? The passage, by a
slight change, might be made to read, medo-ärn micle mâ gewyrcean,--þone =
_by much larger than_,--in which þone (þonne) would come in naturally.

l. 73. folc-scare. Add _folk-share_ to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.

l. 74. ic wide gefrägn: an epic formula very frequent in poetry, = _men
said._ Cf. _Judith_, ll. 7, 246; _Phoenix_, l. 1; and the parallel (noun)
formula, mîne gefræge, ll. 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ll. 78-83. "The hall was a rectangular, high-roofed, wooden building, its
long sides facing north and south. The two gables, at either end, had
stag-horns on their points, curving forwards, and these, as well as the
ridge of the roof, were probably covered with shining metal, and glittered
bravely in the sun."--Br., p. 32.

l. 84. _Son-in-law and father-in-law;_ B., a so-called _dvanda_ compound.
Cf. l. 1164, where a similar compound means _uncle and nephew;_ and
Wîdsîð's suhtorfædran, used of the same persons.

l. 88. "The word dreám conveys the buzz and hum of social happiness, and
more particularly the sound of music and singing."--E. Cf. l. 3021; and
_Judith_, l. 350; _Wanderer_, l. 79, etc.

ll. 90-99. There is a suspicious similarity between this passage and the
lines attributed by Bede to Cædmon:

    Nû wê sculan herian heofonrices Weard, etc.
      --Sw., p. 47.

ll. 90-98 are probably the interpolation of a Christian scribe.

ll. 92-97. "The first of these Christian elements [in _Beówulf_] is the
sense of a fairer, softer world than that in which the Northern warriors
lived.... Another Christian passage (ll. 107, 1262) derives all the demons,
eotens, elves, and dreadful sea-beasts from the race of Cain. The folly of
sacrificing to the heathen gods is spoken of (l. 175).... The other point
is the belief in immortality (ll. 1202, 1761)."--Br. 71.

l. 100. Cf. l. 2211, where the third dragon of the poem is introduced in
the same words. Beowulf is the forerunner of that other national
dragon-slayer, St. George.

l. 100. onginnan in _Beówulf_ is treated like verbs of motion and modal
auxiliaries, and takes the object inf. without tô; cf. ll. 872, 1606, 1984,
244. Cf. _gan_ (= _did_) in Mid. Eng.: _gan_ espye (Chaucer, _Knightes
Tale_, l. 254, ed. Morris).

l. 101. B. and H.-So. read, feónd on healle; cf. l. 142.--_Beit._ xii.

ll. 101-151. "Grimm connects [Grendel] with the Anglo-Saxon grindel (_a
bolt_ or _bar_).... It carries with it the notion of the bolts and bars of
hell, and hence _a fiend._ ... Ettmüller was the first ... to connect the
name with grindan, _to grind, to crush to pieces, to utterly destroy._
Grendel is then _the tearer, the destroyer_."--Br., p. 83.

l. 102. gäst = _stranger_ (Ha.); cf. ll. 1139, 1442, 2313, etc.

l. 103. See Ha., p. 4.

l. 106. "The perfect and pluperfect are often expressed, as in Modern
English, by hæfð and hæfde with the past participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 433,
408, 940, 205 (p. p. inflected in the last two cases), etc.

l. 106. S. destroys period here, reads in Caines, etc., and puts þone ...
drihten in parenthesis.

l. 108. þäs þe = _because_, especially after verbs of thanking (cf. ll.
228, 627, 1780, 2798); _according as_ (l. 1351).

l. 108. The def. article is omitted with Drihten (_Lord_) and Deofol
(_devil_; cf. l. 2089), as it is, generally, sparingly employed in poetry;
cf. tô sæ (l. 318), ofer sæ (l. 2381), on lande (l. 2311), tô räste (l.
1238), on wicge (l. 286), etc., etc.

l. 119. weras (S., H.-So.); wera (K., Th.).--_Beit._ ix. 137.

l. 120. unfælo = _uncanny_ (R.).

l. 131. E. translates, _majestic rage;_ adopting Gr.'s view that swyð is =
Icel. sviði, _a burn_ or _burning_. Cf. l. 737.

l. 142. B. supposes heal-þegnes to be corrupted from helþegnes; cf. l.
101.--_Beit._ xii. 80. See Gûðlâc, l. 1042.

l. 144. See Ha., p. 6, for S.'s rearrangement.

l. 146. S. destroys period after sêlest, puts wäs ... micel in parenthesis,
and inserts a colon after tîd.

l. 149. B. reads sârcwidum for syððan.

l. 154. B. takes sibbe for accus. obj. of wolde, and places a comma after
Deniga.--_Beit._ xii. 82.

l. 159. R. suggests ac se for atol.

l. 168. H.-So. plausibly conjectures this parenthesis to be a late
insertion, as, at ll. 180-181, the Danes also are said to be heathen.
Another commentator considers the throne under a "spell of enchantment,"
and therefore it could not be touched.

l. 169. ne ... wisse: _nor had he desire to do so_ (W.). See Ha., p. 7, for
other suggestions.

l. 169. myne wisse occurs in _Wanderer_, l. 27.

l. 174. The gerundial inf. with tô expresses purpose, defines a noun or
adjective, or, with the verb be, expresses duty or necessity passively; cf.
ll. 257, 473, 1004, 1420, 1806, etc. Cf. tô + inf. at ll. 316, 2557.

ll. 175-188. E. regards this passage as dating the time and place of the
poem relatively to the times of heathenism. Cf. the opening lines, _In days
of yore_, etc., as if the story, even then, were very old.

l. 177. gâst-bona is regarded by Ettmüller and G. Stephens (_Thunor_, p.
54) as an epithet of Thor (= _giant-killer_), a kenning for Thunor or Thor,
meaning both _man_ and _monster_.--E.

l. 189. Cf. l. 1993, where similar language is used. H.-So. takes both
môd-ceare and mæl-ceare as accus., others as instr.

ll. 190, 1994. seáð: for this use of seóðan cf. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._, ed.
Miller, p. 128, where p. p. soden is thus used.

l. 194. fram hâm = _in his home_ (S., H.-So.); but fram hâm may be for fram
him (_from them_, i.e. _his people_, or _from Hrothgar's_). Cf. Ha., p. 8.

l. 197. Cf. ll. 791, 807, for this fixed phrase.

l. 200. See _Andreas, Elene_, and _Juliana_ for swan-râd (_= sea_). "The
swan is said to breed wild now no further away than the North of Sweden."
--E. Cf. ganotes bäð, l. 1862.

l. 203. Concessive clauses with þeáh, þeáh þe, þeáh ... eal, vary with
subj. and ind., according as fact or contingency is dominant in the mind;
cf. ll. 526, 1168, 2032, etc. (subj.), 1103, 1614 (ind.). Cf. gif, nefne.

l. 204. hæl, an OE. word found in Wülker's Glossaries in various forms, =
_augury, omen, divination_, etc. Cf. hælsere, _augur_; hæl, _omen;_
hælsung, _augurium_, hælsian, etc. Cf. Tac., _Germania_, 10.

l. 207. C. adds "= _impetrare_" to the other meanings of findan given in
the Gloss.

l. 217. Cf. l. 1910; and _Andreas_, l. 993.--E. E. compares Byron's

    "And fast and falcon-like the vessel flew,"
       --_Corsair_, i.17.

and Scott's

    "Merrily, merrily bounds the bark."
      --_Lord of the Isles_, iv. 7.

l. 218. Cf.
    "The fomy stedes on the golden brydel
      --Chaucer, _Knightes Tale_, l. 1648, ed. Morris.

l. 219. Does ân-tîd mean _hour_ (Th.), or _corresponding hour_ = ând-tîd
(H.-So.), or _in due time_ (E.), or _after a time_, when ôþres, etc., would
be adv. gen.? See C., _Beit._ viii. 568.

l. 224. eoletes may = (1) _voyage_; (2) _toil, labor_; (3) _hurried
journey;_ but _sea_ or _fjord_ appears preferable.

ll. 229-257. "The scenery ... is laid on the coast of the North Sea and the
Kattegat, the first act of the poem among the Danes in Seeland, the second
among the Geats in South Sweden."--Br., p. 15.

l. 239. "A shoal of simple terms express in _Beówulf_ the earliest
sea-thoughts of the English.... The simplest term is Sæ.... To this they
added Wæter, Flod, Stream, Lagu, Mere, Holm, Grund, Heathu, Sund, Brim,
Garsecg, Eagor, Geofon, Fifel, Hron-rad, Swan-rad, Segl-rad,
Ganotes-bæð."--Br., p. 163-166.

l. 239. "The infinitive is often used in poetry after a verb of motion
where we should use the present participle."--Sw. Cf. ll. 711, 721, 1163
1803, 268, etc. Cf. German _spazieren fahren reiten_, etc., and similar
constructions in French, etc.

l. 240, W. reads hringed-stefnan for helmas bæron. B. inserts (?) after
holmas and begins a new line at the middle of the verse. S. omits B.'s "on
the wall."

l. 245. Double and triple negatives strengthen each other and do not
produce an affirmative in A.-S. or M. E. The neg. is often prefixed to
several emphatic words in the sentence, and readily contracts with vowels,
and h or w; cf. ll. 863, 182, 2125, 1509, 575, 583, 3016, etc.

l. 249. seld-guma = _man-at-arms in another's house_ (Wood); = _low-ranking
fellow_ (Ha.); stubenhocker, _stay-at-home_ (Gr.), Scott's "carpet knight,"
_Marmion_, i. 5.

l. 250. näfne (nefne, nemne) usually takes the subj., = _unless_; cf. ll.
1057, 3055, 1553. For ind., = _except_, see l. 1354. Cf. bûtan, gif, þeáh.

l. 250. For a remarkable account of armor and weapons in _Beówulf_, see S.
A. Brooke, _Hist. of Early Eng. Lit_. For general "Old Teutonic Life in
Beówulf," see J. A. Harrison, _Overland Monthly_.

l. 252. ær as a conj. generally has subj., as here; cf. ll. 264, 677, 2819,
732. For ind., cf. l. 2020.

l. 253. leás = _loose_, _roving_. Ettmüller corrected to leáse.

l. 256. This proverb (ôfest, etc.) occurs in _Exod_. (Hunt), l. 293.

l. 258. An "elder" may be a very young man; hence yldesta, = _eminent_, may
be used of Beowulf. Cf. _Laws of Ælfred_, C. 17: Nâ þät ælc eald sý, ac þät
he eald sý on wîsdôme.

l. 273. Verbs of hearing and seeing are often followed by acc. with inf.;
cf. ll. 229, 1024, 729, 1517, etc. Cf. German construction with _sehen,
horen_, etc., French construction with _voir, entendre_, etc., and the
classical constructions.

l. 275. dæd-hata = _instigator_. Kl. reads dæd-hwata.

l. 280. ed-wendan, n. (B.; cf. 1775), = edwenden, limited by bisigu. So ten
Br. = _Tidskr_. viii. 291.

l. 287. "Each is denoted ... also by the strengthened forms 'æghwæðer
('ægðer), éghwæðer, etc. This prefixed 'æ, óe corresponds to the Goth,
_aiw_, OHG. _eo_, _io_, and is umlauted from á, ó by the i of the gi which
originally followed."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 190.

l. 292. "All through the middle ages suits of armour are called

l. 303. "An English warrior went into battle with a boar-crested helmet,
and a round linden shield, with a byrnie of ringmail ... with two javelins
or a single ashen spear some eight or ten feet long, with a long two-edged
sword naked or held in an ornamental scabbard.... In his belt was a short,
heavy, one-edged sword, or rather a long knife, called the seax ... used
for close quarters."--Br., p. 121.

l. 303. For other references to the boar-crest, cf. ll. 1112, 1287, 1454;
Grimm, _Myth._ 195; Tacitus, _Germania_, 45. "It was the symbol of their
[the Baltic Æstii's] goddess, and they had great faith in it as a
preservative from hard knocks."--E. See the print in the illus. ed. of
Green's _Short History_, Harper & Bros.

l. 303. "See Kemble, _Saxons in England_, chapter on heathendom, and
Grimm's _Teutonic Mythology_, chapter on Freyr, for the connection these
and other writers establish between the Boar-sign and the golden boar which
Freyr rode, and his worship."--Br., p. 128. Cf. _Elene_, l. 50.

l. 304. Gering proposes hleór-bergan = _cheek-protectors_; cf. _Beit._ xii.
26. "A bronze disk found at Öland in Sweden represents two warriors in
helmets with boars as their crests, and cheek-guards under; these are the
hleór-bergan."--E. Cf. hauberk, with its diminutive habergeon, < A.-S.
heals, _neck_ + beorgan, _to cover_ or _protect_; and harbor, < A.-S. here,
_army_ + beorgan, id.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ xii. 123. Cf. cinberge, Hunt's
_Exod._ l. 175.

l. 305. For ferh wearde and gûðmôde grummon, B. and ten Br. read
ferh-wearde (l. 305) and gûðmôdgum men (l. 306), = _the boar-images ...
guarded the lives of the warlike men_.

l. 311. leóma: cf. Chaucer, _Nonne Preestes Tale_, l. 110, ed. Morris:

    "To dremen in here dremes
    Of armes, and of fyr with rede _lemes_."

l. 318. On the double gender of sæ, cf. Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 147; and
note the omitted article at ll. 2381, 318, 544, with the peculiar tmesis of
_between_ at ll. 859, 1298, 1686, 1957. So _Cædmon_, l. 163 (Thorpe),
_Exod._ l. 562 (Hunt), etc.

l. 320. Cf. l. 924; and _Andreas_, l. 987, where almost the same words
occur. "Here we have manifestly before our eye one of those ancient
causeways, which are among the oldest visible institutions of
civilization." --E.

l. 322. S. inserts comma after scîr, and makes hring-îren (= _ring-mail_)
parallel with gûð-byrne.

l. 325. Cf. l. 397. "The deposit of weapons outside before entering a house
was the rule at all periods.... In provincial Swedish almost everywhere a
church porch is called våkenhus,... i.e. _weapon-house_, because the
worshippers deposited their arms there before they entered the house."--E.,
after G. Stephens.

l. 333. Cf. Dryden's "mingled metal _damask'd_ o'er with gold."--E.

l. 336. "æl-, el-, kindred with Goth. _aljis_, other, e.g. in ælþéodig,
elþéodig, foreign."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 47.

l. 336. Cf. l. 673 for the functions of an ombiht-þegn.

l. 343. Cf. l. 1714 for the same beód-geneátas,--"the predecessor title to
that of the Knights of the Table Round."--E. Cf. _Andreas_ (K.), l. 2177.

l. 344. The future is sometimes expressed by willan + inf., generally with
some idea of volition involved; cf. ll. 351, 427, etc. Cf. the use of
willan as principal vb. (with omitted inf.) at ll. 318, 1372, 543, 1056;
and sculan, ll. 1784, 2817.

l. 353. sîð here, and at l. 501, probably means _arrival_. E. translates
the former by _visit_, the latter by _adventure_.

l. 357. unhâr = _hairless, bald_ (Gr., etc.).

l. 358. eode is only one of four or five preterits of gân (gongan, gangan,
gengan), viz. geóng (gióng: ll. 926, 2410, etc.), gang (l. 1296, etc.),
gengde (ll. 1402, 1413). Sievers, p. 217, apparently remarks that eode is
"probably used only in prose." (?!). Cf. geng, _Gen._ ll. 626, 834; _Exod._
(Hunt) l. 102.

l. 367. The MS. and H.-So. read with Gr. and B. glädman Hrôðgâr, abandoning
Thorkelin's glädnian. There is a glass. hilaris glädman.--_Beit._ xii. 84;
same as gläd.

l. 369. dugan is a "preterit-present" verb, with new wk. preterit, like
sculan, durran, magan, etc. For various inflections, see ll. 573, 590,
1822, 526. Cf. _do_ in "that will _do_"; _doughty_, etc.

l. 372. Cf. l. 535 for a similar use; and l. 1220. Bede, _Eccles. Hist._,
ed. Miller, uses the same expression several times. "Here, and in all other
places where cniht occurs in this poem, it seems to carry that technical
sense which it bore in the military hierarchy [of a noble youth placed out
and learning the elements of the art of war in the service of a qualified
warrior, to whom he is, in a military sense, a servant], before it bloomed
out in the full sense of _knight_."--E.

l. 373. E. remarks of the hyphened eald-fäder, "hyphens are risky toys to
play with in fixing texts of pre-hyphenial antiquity"; eald-fäder could
only = _grandfather_. eald here can only mean _honored_, and the hyphen is
unnecessary. Cf. "old fellow," "my old man," etc.; and Ger. _alt-vater_.

l. 378. Th. and B. propose Geátum, as presents from the Danish to the
Geatish king.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 380. häbbe. The subj. is used in indirect narration and question, wish
and command, purpose, result, and hypothetical comparison with swelce = _as

ll. 386, 387. Ten Br. emends to read: "Hurry, bid the kinsman-throng go
into the hall together."

l. 387. sibbe-gedriht, for Beowulf's friends, occurs also at l. 730. It is
subject-acc. to seón. Cf. ll. 347, 365, and Hunt's _Exod_. l. 214.

l. 404. "Here, as in the later Icelandic halls, Beowulf saw Hrothgar
enthroned on a high seat at the east end of the hall. The seat is sacred.
It has a supernatural quality. Grendel, the fiend, cannot approach
it."--Br., p. 34. Cf. l. 168.

l. 405. "At Benty Grange, in Derbyshire, an Anglo-Saxon barrow, opened in
1848, contained a coat of mail. 'The iron chain work consists of a large
number of links of two kinds attached to each other by small rings half an
inch in diameter; one kind flat and lozenge-shaped ... the others all of
one kind, but of different lengths.'"--Br., p. 126.

l. 407. Wes ... hâl: this ancient Teutonic greeting afterwards grew into
wassail. Cf. Skeat's _Luke_, i. 28; _Andreas_ (K.), 1827; Layamon, l.
14309, etc.

l. 414. "The distinction between wesan and weorðan [in passive relations]
is not very clearly defined, but wesan appears to indicate a state, weorðan
generally an action."--Sw. Cf. Mod. German _werden_ and _sein_ in similar

l. 414. Gr. translates hâdor by _receptaculum_; cf. Gering, _Zachers
Zeitschr._ xii. 124. Toller-Bosw. ignores Gr.'s suggestion.

ll. 420, 421. B. reads: þær ic (_on_) fîfelgeban (= _ocean_) ýðde eotena
cyn. Ten Br. reads: þær ic fîfelgeban ýðde, eotena hâm. Ha. suggests
fîfelgeband = _monster-band_, without further changes.

l. 420. R. reads þæra = _of them_, for þær.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 399;
_Beit._ xii. 367.

l. 420. "niht has a gen., nihtes, used for the most part only adverbially,
and almost certainly to be regarded as masculine."--Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
p. 158.

l. 425. Cf. also ll. 435, 635, 2345, for other examples of Beowulf's
determination to fight single-handed.

l. 441. þe hine = _whom_, as at l. 1292, etc. The indeclinable þe is often
thus combined with personal pronouns, = relative, and is sometimes
separated from them by a considerable interval.--Sw.

l. 443. The MS. has Geotena. B. and Fahlbeck, says H.-So., do not consider
the Geátas, but the Jutes, as the inhabitants of Swedish West-Gothland.
Alfred translates Juti by Geátas, but _Jutland_ by _Gotland_. In the laws
they are called Guti.--_Beit._ xii. 1, etc.

l. 444. B., Gr., and Ha. make unforhte an adv. = _fearlessly_, modifying
etan. Kl. reads anforhte = _timid_.

l. 446. Cf. l. 2910. Th. translates: _thou wilt not need my head to hide_
(i.e. _bury_). Simrock supposes a dead-watch or lyke-wake to be meant.
Wood, _thou wilt not have to bury so much as my head!_ H.-So. supposes
heáfod-weard, _a guard of honor_, such as sovereigns or presumptive rulers
had, to be meant by hafalan hýdan; hence, _you need not give me any guard_,
etc. Cf. Schmid, _Gesetze der A._, 370-372.

l. 447. S. places a colon after nimeð.

l. 451. H.-So., Ha., and B. (_Beit._ xii. 87) agree essentially in
translating feorme, _food_. R. translates _consumption of my corpse.
Maintenance, support_, seems preferable to either.

l. 452. Rönning (after Grimm) personifies Hild.--_Beovulfs Kvadet_, l. 59.
Hildr is the name of one of the Scandinavian Walkyries, or battle-maidens,
who transport the spirits of the slain to Walhalla. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l.
18, etc.

l. 455. "The war-smiths, especially as forgers of the sword, were garmented
with legend, and made into divine personages. Of these Weland is the type,
husband of a swan maiden, and afterwards almost a god."-- Br., p. 120. Cf.
A. J. C. Hare's account of "Wayland Smith's sword with which Henry II. was
knighted," and which hung in Westminster Abbey to a late date.--_Walks in
London_, ii. 228.

l. 455. This is the ælces mannes wyrd of Boethius (Sw., p. 44) and the wyrd
bið swîðost of Gnomic Verses, 5. There are about a dozen references to it
in _Beówulf_.

l. 455. E. compares the fatalism of this concluding hemistich with the
Christian tone of l. 685 _seq._

ll. 457, 458. B. reads wære-ryhtum ( = _from the obligations of

l. 480. Cf. l. 1231, where the same sense, "flown with wine," occurs.

l. 488. "The duguð, the mature and ripe warriors, the aristocracy of the
nation, are the support of the throne."--E. The M. E. form of the word,
_douth_, occurs often. Associated with geogoð, ll. 160 and 622.

l. 489. Kl. omits comma after meoto and reads (with B.) sige-hrêð-secgum, =
_disclose thy thought to the victor-heroes_. Others, as Körner, convert
meoto into an imperative and divide on sæl = _think upon happiness_. But
cf. onband beadu-rûne, l. 501. B. supposes onsæl meoto =_speak courteous
words_. _Tidskr_. viii. 292; _Haupts Zeitschr._ xi. 411; _Eng. Stud_. ii.

l. 489. Cf. the invitation at l. 1783.

l. 494. Cf. Grimm's _Andreas_, l. 1097, for deal, =_proud, elated,
exulting; Phoenix_ (Bright), l. 266.

l. 499. MS. has Hunferð, but the alliteration requires Ûnferð, as at ll.
499, 1166, 1489; and cf. ll. 1542, 2095, 2930. See _List of Names_.

l. 501. sîð = _arrival_ (?); cf. l. 353.

l. 504. þon mâ = _the more_ (?), may be added to the references under þon.

l. 506. E. compares the taunt of Eliab to David, I Sam. xvii. 28.

l. 509. dol-gilp = _idle boasting_. The second definition in the Gloss. is

l. 513. "Eagor-stream might possibly be translated the stream of Eagor, the
awful terror-striking stormy sea in which the terrible [Scandinavian] giant
dwelt, and through which he acted."--Br., p. 164. He remarks, "The English
term _eagre_ still survives in provincial dialect for the tide-wave or bore
on rivers. Dryden uses it in his _Threnod. Angust._ 'But like an _eagre_
rode in triumph o'er the tide.' Yet we must be cautious," etc. Cf. Fox's
_Boethius_, ll. 20, 236; Thorpe's _Cædmon_, 69, etc.

l. 524. Krüger and B. read Bânstânes.--_Beit._ ix. 573.

l. 525. R. reads wyrsan (= wyrses: cf. Mod. Gr. _guten Muthes_) geþinges;
but H.-So. shows that the MS. wyrsan ... þingea = wyrsena þinga, _can
stand_; cf. gen. pl. banan, _Christ_, l. 66, etc.

l. 534. Insert, under eard-lufa (in Gloss.), earfoð, st. n., _trouble,
difficulty, struggle_; acc. pl. earfeðo, 534.

l. 545 _seq._ "Five nights Beowulf and Breca kept together, not swimming,
but sailing in open boats (to swim the seas is to sail the seas), then
storm drove them asunder ... Breca is afterwards chief of the Brondings, a
tribe mentioned in _Wîdsíth_. The story seems legendary, not
mythical."--Br., pp. 60, 61.

ll. 574-578. B. suggests swâ þær for hwäðere, = _so there it befell me_.
But the word at l. 574 seems = _however_, and at l. 578 = _yet_; cf. l.
891; see S.; _Beit._ ix. 138; _Tidskr_. viii. 48; _Zacher_, iii. 387, etc.

l. 586. Gr. and Grundt. read fâgum sweordum (no ic þäs fela gylpe!),
supplying fela and blending the broken half-lines into one. Ho. and Kl.
supply geflites.

l. 599. E. translates nýd-bâde by _blackmail_; adding "nêd bâd, _toll_; nêd
bâdere, _tolltaker_."--Land Charters, Gloss, v.

l. 601. MS. has ond = _and_ in three places only (601, 1149, 2041);
elsewhere it uses the symbol 7 = _and_.

l. 612. _seq._ Cf. the drinking ceremony at l. 1025. "The royal lady offers
the cup to Beowulf, not in his turn where he sate among the rest, but after
it has gone the round; her approach to Beowulf is an act apart."--E.

l. 620. "The [loving] cup which went the round of the company and was
tasted by all," like the Oriel and other college anniversary cups.--E.

l. 622. Cf. ll. 160, 1191, for the respective places of young and old.

l. 623. Cf. the circlet of gold worn by Wealhþeów at l. 1164.

l. 631. gyddode. Cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ l. 237 (ed. Morris):

    "Of _yeddynges_ he bar utterly the prys."

Cf. _giddy_.

l. 648. Kl. suggests a period after geþinged, especially as B. (_Tidskr_.
viii. 57) has shown that oþþe is sometimes = ond. Th. supplies ne.

l. 650. oþþe here and at ll. 2476, 3007, probably = _and_.

l. 651. Cf. 704, where sceadu-genga (the _night-ganger_ of _Leechdoms_, ii.
344) is applied to the demon.--E.

l. 659. Cf. l. 2431 for same formula, "to have and to hold" of the Marriage

l. 681. B. considers þeáh ... eal a precursor of Mod. Eng. _although_.

l. 682. gôdra = _advantages in battle_ (Gr.), _battle-skill_ (Ha.), _skill
in war_ (H.-So.). Might not nât be changed to nah = ne + âh (cf. l. 2253),
thus justifying the translation _ability_ (?) --_he has not the ability
to_, etc.

l. 695. Kl. reads hiera.--_Beit._ ix. 189. B. omits hîe as occurring in the
previous hemistich.--_Beit._ xii. 89.

l. 698. "Here Destiny is a web of cloth."--E., who compares the Greek
Clotho, "spinster of fate." Women are also called "weavers of peace," as l.
1943. Cf. Kent's _Elene_, l. 88; _Wîdsîð_, l. 6, etc.

l. 711. B. translates þâ by _when_ and connects with the preceding
sentences, thus rejecting the ordinary canto-division at l. 711. He objects
to the use of com as principal vb. at ll. 703, 711, and 721. (_Beit_, xii.)

l. 711. "Perhaps the Gnomic verse which tells of Thyrs, the giant, is
written with Grendel in the writer's mind,--þyrs sceal on fenne gewunian
âna inuan lande, _the giant shall dwell in the fen, alone in the land_
(Sweet's Read., p. 187)."--Br. p. 36.

l. 717. Dietrich, in _Haupt._ xi. 419, quotes from Ælfric, _Hom._ ii. 498:
hê beworhte þâ bigelsas mid gyldenum læfrum, _he covered the arches with
gold-leaf_,--a Roman custom derived from Carthage. Cf. Mod. Eng. _oriel_ =
_aureolum_, a gilded room.--E. (quoting Skeat). Cf. ll. 2257, 1097, 2247,
2103, 2702, 2283, 333, 1751, for various uses of gold-sheets.

l. 720. B. and ten Br. suggest _hell-thane_ (Grendel) for heal-þegnas, and
make häle refer to Beowulf. Cf. l. 142.

l. 723. Z. reads [ge]hrân.

l. 727. For this use of standan, cf. ll. 2314, 2770; and Vergil, _Ecl._ ii. 26:

    "Cum placidum ventis _staret_ mare."

l. 757. gedräg. _Tumult_ is one of the meanings of this word. Here, appar.
= _occupation, lair_.

l. 759. R. reads môdega for gôda, "because the attribute cannot be
separated from the word modified unless the two alliterate."

l. 762. Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1537, for a similar use of ût = _off_.--E.

l. 769. The foreign words in _Beówulf_ (as ceaster-here) are not numerous;
others are (aside from proper names like _Cain, Abel_, etc.) deófol
(diabolus), candel (l. 1573), ancor (l. 303), scrîfan (for- ge-), segn (l.
47), gigant (l. 113), mîl- (l. 1363), stræt (l. 320), ombeht (l. 287), gim
(l. 2073), etc.

l. 770. MS. reads cerwen, a word conceived by B. and others to be part of a
fem. compd.: -scerwen like -wenden in ed-wenden, -ræden, etc. (cf.
meodu-scerpen in _Andreas_, l. 1528); emended to -scerwen, _a great scare
under the figure of a mishap at a drinking-bout_; one might compare
bescerwan, _to deprive_, from bescyrian (Grein, i. 93), hence ealu-seerwen
would = _a sudden taking away, deprivation, of the beer_.--H.-So., p. 93.
See B., _Tidskr_. viii. 292.

l. 771. Ten Br. reads rêðe, rênhearde, = _raging, exceeding bold_.

l. 792. Instrumental adverbial phrases like ænige þinga, nænige þinga (_not
at all_), hûru þinga (_especially_) are not infrequent. See Cook's Sievers'
Gram., p. 178; March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 182.

l. 811. myrðe. E. translates _in wanton mood_. Toller-Bosw. does not
recognize _sorrow_ as one of the meanings of this word.

ll. 850, 851. S. reads deóp for deóg and erases semicolon after weól, =
_the death-stained deep welled with sword-gore_; cf. l. 1424. B. reads
deáð-fæges deóp, etc., = _the deep welled with the doomed one's
gore_.--_Beit._ xii. 89.

l. 857. The meaning of blaneum is partly explained by fealwe mearas below,
l. 866. Cf. Layamon's "and leop on his _blancke" = steed_, l. 23900; Kent's
_Elene_, l. 1185.

l. 859. Körner, _Eng. Stud_. i. 482, regards the oft-recurring be sæm
tweónum as a mere formula = _on earth_; cf. ll. 1298, 1686. tweóne is part
of the separable prep. _between_; see be-. Cf. Baskerville's _Andreas_, l.

l. 865. Cf. _Voyage of Ôhthere and Wulfstân_ for an account of funeral
horse-racing, Sweet's Read., p. 22.

l. 868. See Ha., p. 31, for a variant translation.

l. 871 _seq._ R. considers this a technical description of improvised
alliterative verse, suggested by and wrought out on the spur of the moment.

l. 872. R. and B. propose secg[an], = _rehearse_, for secg, which suits the
verbs in the next two lines.

ll. 878-98. "It pleases me to think that it is in English literature we
possess the first sketch of that mighty saga [the Volsunga Saga = Wälsinges
gewin] which has for so many centuries engaged all the arts, and at last in
the hands of Wagner the art of music."--Br., p. 63. Cf. _Nibelung. Lied_,
l. 739.

l. 894. Intransitive verbs, as gân, weorðan, sometimes take habban, "to
indicate independent action."--Sw. Cf. hafað ... geworden, l. 2027.

l. 895. "brûcan (_enjoy_) always has the genitive."--Sw.; cf. l. 895; acc.,
gen., instr., dat., according to March, _A.-S. Gram._, p. 151.

l. 898. Scherer proposes hâte, = _from heat_, instr. of hât, _heat_; cf. l.

l. 901. hê þäs âron þâh = _he throve in honor_ (B.). Ten Br. inserts comma
after þâh, making siððan introduce a depend. clause.--_Beit._ viii. 568.
Cf. weorð-myndum þâh, l. 8; ll. 1155, 1243.--H.-So.

l. 902. Heremôdes is considered by Heinzel to be a mere epithet = _the
valiant_; which would refer the whole passage to Sigmund (Sigfrid), the
eotenas, l. 903, being the Nibelungen. This, says H.-So., gets rid of the
contradiction between the good "Heremôd" here and the bad one, l. 1710
_seq._--B. however holds fast to Heremôd.--_Beit._ xii. 41. on feónda
geweald, l. 904,--_into the hands of devils_, says B.; cf. ll. 809, 1721,
2267; _Christ_, l. 1416; _Andreas_, l. 1621; for hine fyren onwôd, cf.
_Gen._ l. 2579; Hunt's _Dan._ 17: hîe wlenco anwôd.

l. 902 _seq._ "Heremôd's shame is contrasted with the glory of Sigemund,
and with the prudence, patience, generosity, and gentleness of Beowulf as a
chieftain."--Br., p. 66.

l. 906. MS. has lemede. Toller-Bosw. corrects to lemedon.

l. 917. Cf. Hunt's _Exod._, l. 170, for similar language.

l. 925. hôs, G. hansa, _company_, "the word from which the mercantile
association of the 'Hanseatic' towns took their designation."--E.

l. 927. on staþole = _on the floor_ (B., Rask, ten Br.).--_Beit._ xii. 90.

l. 927. May not steápne here = _bright_, from its being immediately
followed by golde fâhne? Cf. Chaucer's "his eyen _stepe_," _Prol._ l. 201
(ed. Morris); Cockayne's _Ste. Marherete_, pp. 9, 108; _St. Kath._, l.

l. 931. grynna may be for gyrnna (= _sorrows_), gen. plu. of gyrn, as
suggested by one commentator.

l. 937. B. (_Beit._ xii. 90) makes gehwylcne object of wîd-scofen (häfde).
Gr. makes weá nom. absolute.

l. 940. scuccum: cf. G. scheuche, scheusal; Prov. Eng. _old-shock_; perhaps
the pop. interjection _O shucks!_ (!)

l. 959. H. explains we as a "plur. of majesty," which Beówulf throws off at
l. 964.

l. 963. feónd þone frätgan (B. _Beit._ xii. 90).

l. 976. synnum. "Most abstract words in the poetry have a very wide range
of meanings, diverging widely from the prose usage, synn, for instance,
means simply _injury, mischief, hatred_, and the prose meaning _sin_ is
only a secondary one; hata in poetry is not only _hater_, but _persecutor,
enemy_, just as nîð is both _hatred_ and _violence, strength_; heard is
_sharp_ as well as _hard_."--Sw.

l. 986. S. places wäs at end of l. 985 and reads stîðra nägla, omitting
gehwylc and the commas after that and after sceáwedon. _Beit._ ix. 138;
stêdra (H.-So.); hand-sporu (H.-So.) at l. 987.

l. 986. Miller (_Anglia_, xii. 3) corrects to æghwylene, in apposition to

l. 987. hand-sporu. See _Anglia_, vii. 176, for a discussion of the
intrusion of u into the nom. of n-stems.

l. 988. Cf. ll. 2121, 2414, for similar use of unheóru = ungeheuer.

l. 992. B. suggests heátimbred for hâten, and gefrätwon for -od; Kl.,
hroden (_Beit._ ix. 189).

l. 995, 996. Gold-embroidered tapestries seem to be meant by web =

l. 997. After þâra þe = _of those that_, the depend, vb. often takes sg.
for pl.; cf. ll. 844, 1462, 2384, 2736.--Sw.; Dietrich.

l. 998. "Metathesis of l takes place in seld for setl, bold for botl,"
etc.--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 96. Cf. Eng. proper names, _Bootle,
Battle_field, etc.--Skeat, _Principles_, i. 250.

l. 1000. heorras: cf. Chaucer, _Prol._ (ed. Morris) l. 550:

    "Ther was no dore that he nolde heve of _harre_."

ll. 1005-1007. See _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 391, and _Beit._ xii. 368, for
R.'s and B.'s views of this difficult passage.

l. 1009. Cf. l. 1612 for sæl and mæl, surviving still in E. Anglia in "mind
your _seals and meals_," = _times and occasions_, i.e. have your wits about

ll. 1012, 1013. Cf. ll. 753, 754 for two similar comparatives used in

l. 1014. Cf. l. 327 for similar language.

ll. 1015, 1016. H.-So. puts these two lines in parentheses (fylle ...
þâra). Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 91.

l. 1024. One of the many famous swords spoken of in the poem. See Hrunting,
ll. 1458, 1660; Hûnlâfing, l. 1144, etc. Cf. Excalibur, Roland's sword, the
Nibelung Balmung, etc.

l. 1034. scûr-heard. For an ingenious explanation of this disputed word see
Professor Pearce's article in _Mod. Lang. Notes_, Nov. 1, 1892, and ensuing

l. 1039. eoderas is of doubtful meaning. H. and Toller-Bosw. regard the
word here = _enclosure, palings of the court_. Cf. _Cædmon_, ll. 2439,
2481. The passage throws interesting light on horses and their trappings

l. 1043. Grundt. emends wîg to wicg, = _charger_; and E. quotes Tacitus,
_Germania_, 7.

l. 1044. "Power over each and both"; cf. "all and some," "one and all."

For Ingwin, see _List of Names_.

l. 1065. Gr. contends that fore here = de, _concerning, about_ (Ebert's
_Jahrb._, 1862, p. 269).

l. 1069. H.-So. supplies fram after eaferum, to govern it, = _concerning_
(?). Cf. _Fight at Finnsburg_, Appendix.

l. 1070. For the numerous names of the Danes, "bright-" "spear-" "east-"
"west-" "ring-" Danes, see these words.

l. 1073. Eotenas = _Finn's people, the Frisians_; cf. ll. 1089, 1142, 1146,
etc., and _Beit._ xii. 37. Why they are so called is not known.

l. 1084. R. proposes wiht Hengeste wið gefeohtan (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii.
394). Kl., wið H. wiht gefeohtan.

ll. 1085 and 1099. weá-lâf occurs in Wulfstan, _Hom._ 133, ed. Napier.--E.
Cf. daroða lâf, _Brunanb._, l. 54; âdes lâfe, _Phoenix_, 272 (Bright), etc.

l. 1098. elne unflitme = _so dass der eid (der inhalt des eides) nicht
streitig war_.--B., _Beit._ iii. 30. But cf. 1130, where Hengist and Finn
are again brought into juxtaposition and the expression ealles (?) unhlitme

l. 1106. The pres. part. + be, as myndgiend wære here, is comparatively
rare in original A.-S. literature, but occurs abundantly in translations
from the Latin. The periphrasis is generally meaningless. Cf. l. 3029.

l. 1108. Körner suggests ecge, = _sword_, in reference to a supposed old
German custom of placing ornaments, etc., on the point of a sword or spear
(_Eng. Stud._ i. 495). Singer, ince-gold = _bright gold_; B., andiége =
Goth, _andaugjo, evidently_. Cf. incge lâfe, l. 2578. Possibly: and inge (=
_young men_) gold âhôfon of horde. For inge, cf. Hunt's _Exod._ l. 190.

ll. 1115-1120. R. proposes (hêt þâ ...) bânfatu bärnan ond on bæl dôn,
earme on eaxe = _to place the arms in the ashes_, reading gûðrêc =
_battle-reek_, for -rinc (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 395). B., Sarrazin
(_Beit._ xi. 530), Lichtenfeld (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 330), C., etc.,
propose various emendations. See H.-So., p. 97, and _Beit._ viii. 568. For
gùðrinc âstâh, cf. Old Norse, _stiga á bál_, "ascend the bale-fire."

l. 1116. sweoloðe. "On Dartmoor the burning of the furze up the hillsides
to let new grass grow, is called _zwayling_."--E. Cf. _sultry_, G.
_schwül_, etc.

l. 1119. Cf. wudu-rêc âstâh, l. 3145; and _Exod_. (Hunt), l. 450: wælmist

l. 1122. ätspranc = _burst forth, arose_ (omitted from the Gloss.), < ät +

l. 1130. R. and Gr. read elne unflitme, = _loyally and without contest_, as
at l. 1098. Cf. Ha., p. 39; H.-So., p. 97.

l. 1137. scacen = _gone_; cf. ll. 1125, 2307, 2728.

l. 1142. "The sons of the Eotenas" (B., _Beit._ xii. 31, who conjectures a
gap after 1142).

l. 1144. B. separates thus: Hûn Lâfing, = _Hûn placed the sword Lâfing_,
etc.--_Beit._ xii. 32; cf. R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 396. Heinzel and
Homburg make other conjectures (Herrig's _Archiv_, 72, 374, etc.).

l. 1143. B., H.-So., and Möller read: worod rædenne, þonne him Hûn Lâfing,
= _military brotherhood, when Hûn laid upon his breast_ (the sword)
_Lâfing_. There is a sword _Laufi, Lövi_ in the Norse sagas; but swords,
armor, etc., are often called the _leaving_ (lâf) of files, hammers, etc.,
especially a precious heirloom; cf. ll. 454, 1033, 2830, 2037, 2629, 796,
etc., etc.

l. 1152. roden = _reddened_ (B., _Tidskr_. viii. 295).

l. 1160. For ll. 1069-1160, containing the Finn episode, cf. Möller,
_Alteng. Volksepos_, 69, 86, 94; Heinzel, _Anz. f. dtsch. Altert._, 10,
226; B., _Beit._ xii. 29-37. Cf. _Wîdsîð_, l. 33, etc.

ll. 1160, 1161. leóð (lied = _song, lay_) and gyd here appear synonyms.

ll. 1162-1165. "Behind the wars and tribal wanderings, behind the
contentions of the great, we watch in this poem the steady, continuous life
of home, the passions and thoughts of men, the way they talked and moved
and sang and drank and lived and loved among one another and for one
another."--Br., p. 18.

l. 1163. Cf. _wonderwork_. So _wonder-death, wonder-bidding,
wonder-treasure, -smith, -sight_, etc. at ll. 1748, 3038, 2174, 1682, 996,
etc. Cf. the German use of the same intensive, = _wondrous_, in
_wunder-schön_, etc.

l. 1165. þâ gyt points to some future event when "each" was not "true to
other," undeveloped in this poem, suhtor-gefäderan = Hrôðgâr and Hrôðulf,
l. 1018. Cf. âðum-swerian, l. 84.

l. 1167 almost repeats l. 500, ät fôtum, etc., where Ûnferð is first

l. 1191. E. sees in this passage separate seats for youth and middle-aged
men, as in English college halls, chapels, convocations, and churches

l. 1192. ymbutan, _round about_, is sometimes thus separated: ymb hie ûtan;
cf. _Voyage of Ôhthere_, etc. (Sw.), p. 18, l. 34, etc.; _Beówulf_, ll.
859, 1686, etc.

l. 1194. bewägned, a [Greek: hapax legomenon], tr. _offered_ by Th.
Probably a p. p. wägen, made into a vb. by -ian, like _own, drown_, etc.
Cf. hafenian ( < hafen, < hebban), etc.

l. 1196. E. takes the expression to mean "mantle and its rings or
broaches." "Rail" long survived in Mid. Eng. (_Piers Plow_., etc.).

l. 1196. This necklace was afterwards given by Beowulf to Hygd, ll. 2173,

ll. 1199-1215. From the obscure hints in the passage, a part of the poem
may be approximately dated,--if Hygelâc is the _Chochi-laicus_ of Gregory
of Tours, _Hist. Francorum_, iii. 3,--about A.D. 512-20.

l. 1200. The Breosinga men (Icel. _Brisinga men_) is the necklace of the
goddess Freya; cf. _Elder Edda, Hamarshemt_. Hâma stole the necklace from
the Gothic King Eormenrîc; cf. _Traveller's Song_, ll. 8, 18, 88, 111. The
comparison of the two necklaces leads the poet to anticipate Hygelâc's
history,--a suggestion of the poem's mosaic construction.

l. 1200. For Brôsinga mene, cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 72. C. suggests fleáh, =
_fled_, for fealh, placing semicolon after byrig, and making hê subject of
fleáh and geceás.

l. 1202. B. conjectures geceás êcne ræd to mean _he became a pious man and
at death went to heaven_. Heime (Hâma) in the _Thidrekssaga_ goes into a
cloister = to choose the better part (?). Cf. H.-So., p. 98. But cf.
Hrôðgâr's language to Beowulf, ll. 1760, 1761.

l. 1211. S. proposes feoh, = _property_, for feorh, which would be a
parallel for breóst-gewædu ... beáh below.

l. 1213. E. remarks that in the _Laws of Cnut_, i. 26, the devil is called
se wôdfreca werewulf, _the ravening werwolf_.

l. 1215. C. proposes heals-bêge onfêng. _Beit._ viii. 570. For hreâ- Kl.
suggests hræ-.

l. 1227. The son referred to is, according to Ettmüller, the one that
reigns after Hrôðgâr.

l. 1229. Kl. suggests sî, = _be_, for _is_.

l. 1232. S. gives _wine-elated_ as the meaning of druncne.--_Beit._ ix.
139; Kl. _ibid_. 189, 194. But cf. _Judith_, ll. 67, 107.

l. 1235. Cf. l. 119 for similarity of language.

l. 1235. Kl. proposes gea-sceaft; but cf. l. 1267.

l. 1246. Ring armor was common in the Middle Ages. E. points out the
numerous forms of byrne in cognate languages,--Gothic, Icelandic, OHG.,
Slavonic, O. Irish, Romance, etc. Du Chaillu, _The Viking Age_, i. 126. Cf.
Murray's _Dict._ s. v.

l. 1248. ânwîg-gearwe = _ready for single combat_ (C.); but cf. Ha. p. 43;
_Beit._ ix. 210, 282.

l. 1252. Some consider this _fitt_ the beginning of Part (or Lay) II. of
the original epic, if not a separate work in itself.

l. 1254. K., W., and Ho. read farode = _wasted;_ Kolbing reads furode; but
cf. wêsten warode, l. 1266. MS. has warode.

ll. 1255-1258. This passage is a good illustration of the constant
parallelism of word and phrase characteristic of A.-S. poetry, and is
quoted by Sw. The changes are rung on ende and swylt, on gesýne and wîdcûð,

l. 1259. "That this story of Grendel's mother was originally a separate lay
from the first seems to be suggested by the fact that the monsters are
described over again, and many new details added, such as would be inserted
by a new singer who wished to enhance and adorn the original tale."--Br.,
p. 41.

l. 1259. Cf. l. 107, which also points to the ancestry of murderers and
monsters and their descent from "Cain."

l. 1261. The MS. has se þe, m.; changed by some to seo þe. At ll. 1393,
1395, 1498, Grendel's mother is referred to as m.; at ll. 1293, 1505,
1541-1546, etc., as f., the uncertain pronoun designating a creature female
in certain aspects, but masculine in demonic strength and
savageness.--H.-So.; Sw. p. 202. Cf. the masc. epithets at ll. 1380, 2137,

l. 1270. âglæca = _Grendel_, though possibly referring to Beowulf, as at l.

l. 1273. "It is not certain whether anwalda stands for onwealda, or whether
it should be read ânwealda, = _only ruler_.--Sw.

l. 1279. The MS. has sunu þeod wrecan, which R. changes to sunu
þeód-wrecan, þeód- = _monstrous_; but why not regard þeód as opposition to
sunu, = _her son, the prince?_ See Sweet's Reader, and Körner's discussion,
_Eng. Stud._ i. 500.

l. 1281. Ten Br. suggests (for sôna) sâra = _return of sorrows._

l. 1286. "geþuren (twice so written in MSS.) stands for geþrúen, _forged_,
and is an isolated p. p."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., 209. But see Toller-Bosw.
for examples; Sw., Gloss.; March, p. 100, etc.

ll. 1292. þe hine = _whom;_ cf. ll. 441, 1437, 1292; _Hêliand_, l. 1308.

l. 1298. be sæm tweonum; cf. l. 1192; Hunt's _Exod_. l. 442; and Mod. Eng.
"to _us_-ward, etc.--Earle's _Philol._, p. 449. Cf. note, l. 1192.

l. 1301. C. proposes ôðer him ärn = _another apartment was assigned him_.

l. 1303. B. conjectures under hrôf genam; but Ha., p. 45, shows this to be
unnecessary, under also meaning _in_, as _in_ (or _under_) these

l. 1319. E. and Sw. suggest nægde or nêgde, _accosted_, < nêgan = Mid. Ger.
_nêhwian_, pr. p. _nêhwiandans, approach_. For hnægan, _press down,
vanquish_, see ll. 1275, 1440, etc.

l. 1321. C. suggests neád-lâðum for neód-laðu, _after crushing hostility_;
but cf. freónd-laðu, l. 1193.

l. 1334. K. and ten Br. conjecture gefägnod = _rejoicing in her fill_, a
parallel to æse wlanc, l. 1333.

l. 1340. B. translates: "and she has executed a deed of blood-vengeance of
far-reaching consequence."--_Beit._ xii. 93.

l. 1345. B. reads geó for eów (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 205).

ll. 1346-1377. "This is a fine piece of folk-lore in the oldest extant
form.... The authorities for the story are the rustics (ll. 1346, 1356)."

l. 1347. Cf. sele-rædende at l. 51.

l. 1351. "The ge [of gewitan] may be merely a scribal error,--a repetition
(dittography) of the preceding ge of gewislîcost."--Sw.

l. 1352. ides, like firas, _men_, etc., is a poetic word supposed by Grimm
to have been applied, like Gr. [Greek: númphæ], to superhuman or
semi-divine women.

ll. 1360-1495 _seq._ E. compares this Dantesque tarn and scenery with the
poetical accounts of _Æneid_, vii. 563; _Lucretius_, vi. 739, etc.

l. 1360. firgenstreám occurs also in the _Phoenix_ (Bright, p. 168) l. 100;
_Andreas_, ll. 779, 3144 (K.); _Gnomic Verses_, l. 47, etc.

l. 1363. The genitive is often thus used to denote measure = by or in
miles; cf. l. 3043; and contrast with partitive gen. at l. 207.

l. 1364. The MS. reads hrinde = hrînende (?), which Gr. adopts; K. and Th.
read hrinde-bearwas; hringde, _encircling_ (Sarrazin, _Beit._ xi. 163);
hrîmge = _frosty_ (Sw.); _with frost-whiting covered_ (Ha.). See Morris,
_Blickling Hom_., Preface, vi., vii.

l. 1364. Cf. Ruin, hrîmige edoras behrofene, _rimy, roofless halls_.

l. 1366. nîðwundor may = nið- (as in nið-sele, _q. v._) wundor, _wonder of
the deep_.

l. 1368. The personal pronoun is sometimes omitted in subordinate and even
independent clauses; cf. wite here; and Hunt's _Exod_., l. 319.

l. 1370. hornum. Such "datives of manner or respect" are not infrequent
with adj.

l. 1371. "seleð is not dependent on ær, for in that case it would be in the
subjunctive, but ær is simply an adverb, correlative with the conjunction
ær in the next line: 'he will (sooner) give up his life, before he will,'

l. 1372. Cf. ll. 318 and 543 for willan with similar omitted inf.

l. 1373. heafola is found only in poetry.--Sw. It occurs thirteen or
fourteen times in this poem. Cf. the poetic gamol, swât (l. 2694), etc.,
for eald, blôd.

l. 1391. uton: hortatory subj. of wîtan, _go_, = _let us go;_ cf. French
_allons_, Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_, etc. + inf. Cf. ll. 2649, 3102.

l. 1400. H. is dat. of person indirectly affected, = advantage.

l. 1402. geatolîc probably = _in his equipments_, as B. suggests (_Beit._
xii. 83), comparing searolîc.

ll. 1402, 1413 reproduce the wk. form of the pret. of gân (Goth,
_gaggida_). Cf. _Andreas_, l. 1096, etc.

l. 1405. S. (_Beit._ ix. 140) supplies [þær heó] gegnum fôr; B. (_ibid._
xii. 14) suggests hwær heó.

l. 1411. B., Gr., and E. take ân-paðas = paths wide enough for only one,
like Norwegian _einstig_; cf. stîge nearwe, just above. _Trail_ is the
meaning. Cf. enge ânpaðas, uncûð gelâd, _Exod._ (Hunt), l. 58.

l. 1421. Cf. oncýð, l. 831. The whole passage (ll. 1411-1442) is replete
with suggestions of walrus-hunting, seal-fishing, harpooning of sea-animals
(l. 1438), etc.

l. 1425. E. quotes from the 8th cent. Corpus Gloss., "_Falanx_ foeða."

l. 1428. For other mention of nicors, cf. ll. 422, 575, 846. E. remarks,
"it survives in the phrase 'Old Nick' ... a word of high authority ...
Icel. _nykr_, water-goblin, Dan. _nök, nisse_, Swed. _näcken_, G. _nix,
nixe_, etc." See Skeat, _Nick._

l. 1440. Sw. reads gehnæged, _prostrated_, and regards nîða as gen. pl.
"used instrumentally," = _by force._

l. 1441. -bora = _bearer, stirrer;_ occurs in other compds., as mund-,
ræd-, wæg-bora.

l. 1447. him = _for him_, a remoter dative of reference.--Sw.

l. 1455. Gr. reads brondne, = _flaming_.

l. 1457. león is the inf. of lâh; cf. onlâh (< onleón) at l. 1468. lîhan
was formerly given as the inf.; cf. læne = læhne.

l. 1458. Cf. the similar dat. of possession as used in Latin.

l. 1458. H.-So. compares the Icelandic saga account of Grettir's battle
with the giant in the cave. häft-mêce may be = Icel. _heptisax_ (_Anglia_,
iii. 83), "hip-knife."

l. 1459. "The sense seems to be 'pre-eminent among the old treasures.' ...
But possibly foran is here a prep. with the gen.: 'one before the old
treasures.'".--Sw. For other examples of foran, cf. ll. 985, 2365.

l. 1460. âter-teárum = _poison-drops_ (C., _Beit._ viii. 571; S., _ibid_.
xi. 359).

l. 1467. þät, comp. relative, = _that which_; "we testify _that_ we do

l. 1480. forð-gewitenum is in appos. to me, = _mihi defuncto_.--M.
Callaway, _Am. Journ. of Philol._, October, 1889.

l. 1482. nime. Conditional clauses of doubt or future contingency take gif
or bûton with subj.; cf. ll. 452, 594; of fact or certainty, the ind.; cf.
ll. 442, 447, 527, 662, etc. For bûton, cf. ll. 967, 1561.

l. 1487. "findan sometimes has a preterit funde in W. S. after the manner
of the weak preterits."--Cook's Sievers' Cram., p, 210.

l. 1490. Kl. reads wäl-sweord, = _battle-sword_.

l. 1507. "This cave under the sea seems to be another of those natural
phenomena of which the writer had personal knowledge (ll. 2135, 2277), and
which was introduced by him into the mythical tale to give it a local
color. There are many places of this kind. Their entrance is under the
lowest level of the tide."--Br., p. 45.

l. 1514. B. (_Beit._ xii. 362) explains niðsele, hrôfsele as _roof-covered
hall in the deep_; cf. Grettir Saga (_Anglia_, iii. 83).

l. 1538. Sw., R., and ten Br. suggest feaxe for eaxle, = _seized by the

l. 1543. and-leán (R.); cf. l. 2095. The MS. has hand-leán.

l. 1546. Sw. and S. read seax.--_Beit._ ix. 140.

l. 1557. H.-So. omits comma and places semicolon after ýðelîce; Sw. and S.
place comma after gescêd.

l. 1584. ôðer swylc = _another fifteen_ (Sw.); = _fully as many_ (Ha.).

ll. 1592-1613 _seq._ Cf. _Anglia_, iii; 84 (Grettir Saga).

l. 1595. blondenfeax = _grizzly-haired_ (Bright, Reader, p. 258); cf.
_Brunanb._, l. 45 (Bright).

l. 1599. gewearð, impers. vb., = _agree, decide = many agreed upon this,
that_, etc. (Ha., p. 55; cf. ll. 2025-2027, 1997; B., _Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1605. C. supposes wiston = wîscton = _wished_.--_Beit._ viii. 571.

l. 1607. broden mæl is now regarded as a comp. noun, = _inlaid or
damascened sword_.--W., Ho.

l. 1611. wäl-râpas = _water-ropes = bands of frost_ (l. 1610) (?). Possibly
the Prov. Eng. weele, _whirlpool_. Cf. wæl, _gurges_, Wright, Voc., _Gnom.
Verses_, l. 39.--E.

l. 1611. wægrâpas (Sw.) = _wave-bands_ (Ha.).

l. 1622. B. suggests eatna = eotena, eardas, _haunts of the giants_
(Northumbr. ea for eo).

l. 1635. cyning-holde (B., _Beit._ xii. 369); cf. l. 290.

l. 1650. H., Gr., and Ettmüller understand idese to refer to the queen.

l. 1651. Cf. _Anglia_, iii. 74, _Beit._ xi. 167, for coincidences with the
Grettir Saga (13th cent.).

l. 1657. Restore MS. reading wigge in place of wîge.

l. 1664. B. proposes eotenise ... èste for eácen ... oftost, omitting
brackets (_Zackers Zeitschr._ iv. 206). G. translates _mighty ... often_.

l. 1675. ondrædan. "In late texts the final n of the preposition on is
frequently lost when it occurs in a compound word or stereotyped phrase,
and the prefix then appears as a: abútan, amang, aweg, aright,
adr'ædan."--Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 98.

ll. 1680-1682. Giants and their work are also referred to at ll. 113, 455,
1563, 1691, etc.

l. 1680. Cf. ceastra ... orðanc enta geweorc, _Gnomic Verses_, l. 2;
Sweet's Reader, p. 186.

ll. 1687-1697. "In this description of the writing on the sword, we see the
process of transition from heathen magic to the notions of Christian times
.... The history of the flood and of the giants ... were substitutes for
names of heathen gods, and magic spells for victory."--E. Cf. Mohammedan

ll. 1703, 1704. þät þê eorl nære geboren betera (B., _Tidskr._ 8, 52).

l. 1715. âna hwearf = _he died solitary and alone_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38); =
_lonely_ (Ha.); = _alone_ (G.).

l. 1723. leód-bealo longsum = _eternal hell-torment_ (B., _Beit._ xii. 38,
who compares _Ps. Cott._ 57, lîf longsum).

l. 1729. E. translates on lufan, _towards possession_; Ha., _to

l. 1730. môdgeþonc, like lig, sæ, segn, niht, etc., is of double gender
(m., n. in the case of môdgeþ.).

l. 1741. The doctrine of nemesis following close on [Greek: hubris], or
overweening pride, is here very clearly enunciated. The only protector
against the things that "assault and hurt" the soul is the "Bishop and
Shepherd of our souls" (l. 1743).

l. 1745 appears dimly to fore-shadow the office of the evil archer Loki,
who in the Scandinavian mythology shoots Balder with a mistletoe twig. The
language closely resembles that of Psalm 64.

l. 1748. Kl. regards wom = wô(u)m; cf. wôh-bogen, l. 2828. See Gloss., p.
295, under wam. Contrast the construction of bebeorgan a few lines below
(l. 1759), where the dat. and acc. are associated.

l. 1748. See Cook's Sievers' Gram., p. 167, for declension of wôh, _wrong_
= gen. wôs or wôges, dat. wô(u)m, etc.; pl. gen. wôra, dat. wô(u)m, etc.;
and cf. declension of heáh, hreóh, rûh, etc.

l. 1748. wergan gâstes; cf. _Blickl. Hom._ vii.; _Andreas_, l. 1171. "_Auld
Wearie_ is used in Scotland, or was used a few years ago, ... to mean the
devil."--E. Bede's _Eccles. Hist._ contains (naturally) many examples of
the expression = devil.

l. 1750. on gyld = _in reward_ (B. _Beit._ xii. 95); Ha. translates
_boastfully_; G., _for boasting_; Gr., _to incite to boastfulness_. Cf.
_Christ_, l. 818.

l. 1767. E. thinks this an allusion to the widespread superstition of the
evil eye (_mal occhio, mauvais æil_). Cf. Vergil, _Ecl._ iii. 103. He
remarks that Pius IX., Gambetta, and President Carnot were charged by their
enemies with possessing this weapon.

l. 1784. wigge geweorðad (MS. wigge weorðad) is C.'s conjecture; cf.
_Elene_, l. 150. So G., _honored in war_.

l. 1785. The future generally implied in the present of beón is plainly
seen in this line; cf. ll. 1826, 661, 1830, 1763, etc.

l. 1794. Some impers. vbs. take acc. (as here, Geat) of the person
affected; others (as þyncan) take the dat. of the person, as at ll. 688,
1749, etc. Cf. verbs of dreaming, being ashamed, desiring, etc.--March,
A.-S. Gram., p. 145.

l. 1802. E. remarks that the blaca hrefn here is a bird of good omen, as
opposed to se wonna hrefn of l. 3025. The raven, wolf, and eagle are the
regular epic accompaniments of battle and carnage. Cf. ll. 3025-3028;
_Maldon_, 106; _Judith_, 205-210, etc.

l. 1803. S. emends to read: "then came the light, going bright after
darkness: the warriors," etc. Cf. Ho., p. 41, l. 23. G. puts period before
"the warriors." For onettan, cf. Sw.'s Gloss, and Bright's Read., Gloss.

ll. 1808-1810. Müllenh. and Grundt. refer se hearda to Beowulf, correct
sunu (MS.) to suna Ecglâfes (i.e. Unferth); [_he_] (Beo.) _thanked him_
(Un.) _for the loan_. Cf. ll. 344, 581, 1915.

ll. 1823-1840. "Beowulf departing pledges his services to Hroðgar, to be
what afterwards in the mature language of chivalry was called his 'true

l. 1832. Kl. corrects to dryhtne, in appos. with Higelâce.

l. 1835 gâr-holt more properly means _spear-shaft_; cf. äsc-holt.

l. 1855. sêl = _better_ (Grundt.; B., _Beit._ xii. 96), instead of MS. wel.

ll. 1855-1866. "An ideal picture of international amity according to the
experience and doctrine of the eighth century."--E.

l. 1858. S. and Kl. correct to gemæne, agreeing with sib.--_Beit._ ix. 140,

l. 1862. "The gannet is a great diver, plunging down into the sea from a
considerable height, such as forty feet."--E.

l. 1863. Kl. suggests heafu, = _seas_.

l. 1865. B. proposes geþôhte, = _with firm thought_, for geworhte; cf. l.

l. 1876. geseón = _see again_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 190). S. and B. insert nâ
to modify geseón and explain Hrôðgâr's tears. Ha. and G. follow Heyne's
text. Cf. l. 567.

l. 1881. Is beorn here = bearn (be-arn?) of l. 67? or more likely = born,
barn, = _burned?_--S., Th.

l. 1887. orleahtre is a _[Greek: hapax legomenon]_. E. compares Tennyson's
"blameless" king. Cf. also ll. 2015, 2145; and the gôd cyning of l. 11.

l. 1896. scaðan = _warriors_ (cf. l. 1804) has been proposed by C.; but cf.
l. 253.

l. 1897. The boat had been left, at ll. 294-302, in the keeping of
Hrôðgâr's men; at l. 1901 the bât-weard is specially honored by Beowulf
with a sword and becomes a "sworded squire."--E. This circumstance appears
to weld the poem together. Cf. also the speed of the journey home with ymb
ân-tîd ôþres dôgores of l. 219, and the similarity of language in both
passages (fâmig-heals, clifu, nässas, sælde, brim, etc.).--The nautical
terms in Beowulf would form an interesting study.

l. 1904. R. proposes, gewât him on naca, = _the vessel set out_, on
alliterating as at l. 2524 (_Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 402). B. reads on
nacan, but inserts irrelevant matter (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1913. Cf. the same use of ceól, = _ship_, in the _A.-S. Chron._, ed.
Earle-Plummer; _Gnomic Verses_, etc.

l. 1914. S. inserts þät hê before on lande.

l. 1916. B. makes leófra manna depend on wlâtode, = _looked for the dear
men ready at the coast_ (_Beit._ xii. 97).

l. 1924. Gr., W., and Ho. propose wunade, = _remained;_ but cf. l. 1929. S.
conceives ll. 1924, 1925 as "direct speech" (_Beit._ ix. 141).

l. 1927 _seq._ "The women of Beowulf are of the fine northern type; trusted
and loved by their husbands and by the nobles and people; generous, gentle,
and holding their place with dignity."--Br., p. 67. Thrytho is the
exception, l. 1932 _seq._

l. 1933. C. suggests frêcnu, = _dangerous, bold_, for Thrytho could not be
called "excellent." G. writes "Modthrytho" as her name. The womanly Hygd
seems purposely here contrasted with the terrible Thrytho, just as, at l.
902 _seq._, Sigemund and Heremôd are contrasted. For Thrytho, etc., cf.
Gr., _Jahrb. für rom. u. eng. Lit._ iv. 279; Müllenhoff, _Haupts Zeitschr._
xiv. 216; Matthew Paris; Suchier, _Beit._ iv. 500-521; R. _Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 402; B., _ibid._ iv. 206; Körner, _Eng. Stud._ i. 489-492;
H.-So., p. 106.

l. 1932-1963. K. first pointed out the connection between the historical
Offa, King of Mercia, and his wife Cwendrida, and the Offa and Þryðo (Gr.'s
_Drida_ of the _Vita Offæ Secundi_) of the present passage. The tale is
told of her, not of Hygd.

l. 1936. Suchier proposes andæges, = _eye to eye_; Leo proposes ândæges, =
_the whole day_; G., _by day_. No change is necessary if an be taken to
govqern hire, = _on her_, and däges be explained (like nihtes, etc.) as a
genitive of time, = _by day_.

l. 1943. R. and Suchier propose onsêce, = _seek, require_; but cf. 2955.

l. 1966. Cf. the _heofoncandel_ of _Exod_. l. 115 (Hunt). Shak.'s 'night's

l. 1969. Cf. l. 2487 _seq._ for the actual slayer of Ongenþeów, i.e. Eofor,
to whom Hygelâc gave his only daughter as a reward, l. 2998.

l. 1981. meodu-scencum = _with mead-pourers_ or _mead-cups_ (G., Ha.);
_draught or cup of mead_ (Toller-Bosw.).

l. 1982. K., Th., W., H. supply [heal-]reced; Holler [heá-].

l. 1984. B. defends the MS., reading hæ nû (for hæðnû), which he regards as
= Heinir, the inhabitants of the Jutish "heaths" (hæð). Cf. H.-So., p. 107;
_Beit._ xii. 9.

l. 1985. sînne. "In poetry there is a reflexive possessive of the third
person, sîn (declined like mîn). It is used not only as a true reflexive,
but also as a non-reflexive (= Lat. _ejus_)"--Sw.; Cook's Sievers' Gram.,
p. 185. Cf. ll. 1508, 1961, 2284, 2790.

l. 1994. Cf. l. 190 for a similar use of seáð; cf. to "glow" with emotion,
"boil" with indignation, "burn" with anger, etc. weallan is often so used;
cf. ll. 2332, 2066, etc.

l. 2010. B. proposes fâcne, = _in treachery_, for fenne. Cf. _Juliana_, l.
350; _Beit._ xii. 97.

l. 2022. Food of specific sorts is rarely, if at all, mentioned in the
poem. Drink, on the other hand, occurs in its primitive varieties,--_ale_
(as here: ealu-wæg), _mead, beer, wine, lîð_ (cider? Goth. _leiþus_, Prov.
Ger. _leit-_ in _leit-haus_, ale-house), etc.

l. 2025. Kl. proposes is for wäs.

l. 2027. Cf. l. 1599 for a similar use of weorðan, = _agree, be pleased
with_ (Ha.); _appear_ (Sw., Reader, 6th ed.).

ll. 2030, 2031. Ten Br. proposes: oft seldan ( = _gave_) wære äfter
leód-hryre: lytle hwîle bongâr bûgeð, þeáh seó brýd duge = _oft has a
treaty been given after the fall of a prince: but little while the
murder-spear resteth, however excellent the bride be._ Cf. Kl., _Beit._ ix.
190; B., _Beit._ xii. 369; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ in. 404; Ha., p. 69; G.,
p. 62.

l. 2036. Cf. Kl, _Beit._ ix. 191; R., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iii. 404.

l. 2042. For beáh B. reads bâ, = _both_, i.e. Freaware and the Dane.

l. 2063. Thorkelin and Conybeare propose wîgende, = _fighting_, for

l. 2068. W.'s edition begins section xxx. (not marked in the MS.) with this
line. Section xxxix. (xxxviii. in copies A and B, xxxix. in Thorkelin) is
not so designated in the MS., though þâ (at l. 2822) is written with
capitals and xl. begins at l. 2893.

l. 2095. Cf. l. 1542, and note.

l. 2115 _seq._ B. restores thus:

                      Þær on innan gióng
    niðða nâthwylc,      neóde tô gefêng
    hæðnum horde;      hond ätgenam
    seleful since fâh;      nê hê þät syððan âgeaf,
    þeáh þe hê slæpende      besyrede hyrde
    þeófes cräfte:       þät se þióden onfand,
    bý-folc beorna,       þät hê gebolgen wäs.

--_Beit._ xii. 99; _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 210.

l. 2128. ätbär here = _bear away_, not given in the Gloss.

l. 2129. B. proposes færunga, = _suddenly_, for Gr.'s reading in the
text.--_Beit._ xii. 98.

l. 2132. MS. has þine life, which Leo translates _by thy leave_ (= ON.
_leyfi_); B., _by thy life_.--_Beit._ xii. 369.

l. 2150. B. renders gen, etc., by "now I serve thee alone again as my
gracious king" (_Beit._ xii. 99).

l. 2151. The forms hafu [hafo], hafast, hafað, are poetic archaisms.--Sw.

l. 2153. Kl. proposes ealdor, = _prince_, for eafor. W. proposes the compd.
eafor-heáfodsegn, = _helm_; cf. l. 1245.

l. 2157. The wk. form of the adj. is frequent in the vocative, especially
when postponed: "Beowulf leófa," l. 1759. So, often, in poetry in nom.:
wudu selesta, etc.

l. 2158. ærest is possibly the verbal subs. from ârîsan, _to arise, =
arising, origin_. R. suggested ærist, _arising, origin_. Cf. Bede, _Eccles.
Hist._, ed. Miller, where the word is spelt as above, but = (as usual)
_resurrection_. See Sweet, Reader, p. 211; E.-Plummer's _Chronicle_, p.
302, etc. The MS. has est. See Ha., p. 73; S., _Beit._ x. 222; and cf. l.

l. 2188. Gr., W., H. supply [wên]don, = _weened_, instead of Th.'s [oft

l. 2188. The "slack" Beowulf, like the sluggish Brutus, ultimately reveals
his true character, and is presented with a historic sword of honor. It is
"laid on his breast" (l. 2195) as Hun laid Lâfing on Hengest's breast, l.

l. 2188. "The boy was at first slothful, and the Geats thought him an
unwarlike prince, and long despised him. Then, like many a lazy third son
in the folk tales, a change came, he suddenly showed wonderful daring and
was passionate for adventure."--Br., p. 22.

l. 2196. "Seven of thousands, manor and lordship" (Ha.). Kl., _Beit._ ix.
191, thinks with Ettm. that þûsendo means a hide of land (see Schmid, _Ges.
der Angl_, 610), Bede's familia = 1/2 sq. meter; seofan being used (like
hund, l. 2995) only for the alliteration.

l. 2196. "A vast Honour of 7000 hides, a mansion, and a judgment-seat"

l. 2210. MS. has the more correct wintra.

l. 2211. Cf. similar language about the dragon at l. 100. Beowulf's
"jubilee" is fitly solemnized by his third and last dragon-fight.

l. 2213. B. proposes sê þe on hearge hæðen hord beweotode; cf. Ha., p. 75.

l. 2215. "The dragon lies round the treasures in a cave, as Fafnir, like a
Python, lay coiled over his hoard. So constant was this habit among the
dragons that gold is called Worms' bed, Fafnir's couch, Worms' bed-fire.
Even in India, the cobras ... are guardians of treasure."--Br., p. 50.

l. 2216. neóde. E. translates _deftly_; Ha., _with ardor_. H.-So. reads
neóde, = _with desire, greedily_, instr. of neód.

l. 2223. E. begins his "Part Third" at this point as he begins "Part
Second" at l. 1252, each dragon-fight forming part of a trilogy.

ll. 2224, 2225. B. proposes: nealles mid gewealdum wyrmes weard gäst sylfes
willum.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 100.

l. 2225. For þeów read þegn.--K. and Z.

l. 2225. þeów, st. m., _slave, serf_ (not in H.-So.).

l. 2227. For ofer-þearfe read ærnes þearfa.--Z.

ll. 2229-2231. B. proposes:

    secg synbysig      sôna onwlâtode,
    þeáh þâm gyste      gryrebrôga stôd,
    hwäðre earmsceapen      innganges þearfa
       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .
    feásceapen,      þâ hyne se fær begeat.
                     --_Beit._ xii. 101. Cf. Ha., p. 69.

l. 2232. W. suggests seah or seîr for geseah, and Gr. suggests searolîc.

l. 2233. Z. surmises eorð-hûse (for -scräfe).

l. 2241. B. proposes læn-gestreóna, = _transitory_, etc.; Th., R. propose
leng (= _longer_) gestreóna; S. accepts the text but translates "the
long accumulating treasure."

l. 2246. B. proposed (1) hard-fyndne, = _hard to find_; (2) hord-wynne
dæl,--_a deal of treasure-joy_ (cf. l. 2271).--_Zachers Zeitschr._
iv. 211; _Beit._ xii. 102.

l. 2247. fecword = _banning words_ (?) MS. has fec.

l. 2254. Others read feor-[mie], = _furbish_, for fetige: _I own not one
who may_, etc.

l. 2261. The Danes themselves were sometimes called the "Ring-Danes,"
= clad in ringed (or a ring of) armor, or possessing rings. Cf.
ll. 116, 1280.

l. 2264. Note the early reference to hawking. Minstrelsy (hearpan
wyn), saga-telling, racing, swimming, harpooning of sea-animals, feasting,
and the bestowal of jewels, swords, and rings, are the other amusements
most frequent in _Beówulf_.

l. 2264. Cf. _Maldon_, ll. 8, 9, for a reference to hawking.

l. 2276. Z. suggests swýðe ondrædað; Ho. puts gesêcean for Gr.'s

l. 2277. Z. and K. read: hord on hrûsan. "Three hundred winters,"
at l. 2279, is probably conventional for "a long time," like hund
missera, l. 1499; hund þûsenda, l. 2995; þritig (of Beowulf's strength), l.
379; þritig (of the men slain by Grendel), l. 123; seofan þûsendo, l. 2196,

l. 2285. B. objects to hord as repeated in ll. 2284, 2285; but cf. Ha., p.
77. C. prefers sum to hord. onboren = _inminutus_; cf. B., _Beit._ xii.

l. 2285. onberan is found also at line 991, = _carry off_, with on- = E.
_un--(un-bind, -loose, -tie_, etc.), G. _ent-_. The negro still pronounces
_on-do_, etc.

l. 2299. Cf. H.-So., p. 112, for a defense of the text as it stands. B.
proposes "nor was there any man in that desert who rejoiced in conflict,"
etc. So ten Br.

l. 2326. B. and ten Br,. propose hâm, = _home_, for him.--_Beit._ xii. 103.

l. 2335. E. translates eálond utan by _the sea-board front, the
water-washed land on the (its) outside_. See B., _Beit._ xii. 1, 5.

l. 2346. Cf. l. 425, where Beowulf resolves to fight the dragon
single-handed. E. compares _Guy of Warwick_, ll. 49, 376.

l. 2355. Ten Br. proposes laðan cynne as apposition to mægum.

l. 2360. Cf. Beowulf's other swimming-feat with Breca, ll. 506 _seq._

l. 2362. Gr. inserts âna, = _lone-going_, before xxx.: approved by B.; and
Krüger, _Beit._ ix. 575. Cf. l. 379.

l. 2362. "Beowulf has the strength of thirty men in the original tale.
Here, then, the new inventor makes him carry off thirty coats of
mail."--Br., p. 48.

l. 2364. Hetware = Chattuarii, a nation allied against Hygelâc in his
Frisian expedition; cf. ll. 1208 _seq._, 2917, etc.

l. 2368. B. proposes _quiet sea_ as trans, of sióleða bigong, and compares
Goth. _anasilan_, to be still; Swed. dial, _sil_, still water between
waterfalls.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 214.

l. 2380. hyne--Heardrêd; so him, l. 2358.

l. 2384. E. calls attention to Swió-rîce as identical with the modern
_Sverige_ = Sweden; cf. l. 2496.

l. 2386. Gr. reads on feorme, = _at the banquet_; cf. Möller, _Alteng.
Volksepos_, 111, who reads (f)or feorme. The MS. has or.

l. 2391. Cf. l. 11.

l. 2394. B., Gr., and Mûllenh. understand ll. 2393-2397 to mean that
Eádgils, Ôhthere's son, driven from Sweden, returns later, supported by
Beowulf, takes the life of his uncle Onela, and probably becomes himself
O.'s successor and king of Sweden. For another view see H.-So., p. 115. MS.
has freond (l. 2394), which Leo, etc., change to feónd. G. translates
_friend_.--_Beit._ xii. 13; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert_. iii. 177.

l. 2395. Eádgils is Ôhthere's son; cf. l. 2381; Onela is Ôhthere's brother;
cf. ll. 2933, 2617.

l. 2402. "Twelfsome"; cf. "fifteensome" at l. 207, etc. As _Beówulf_ is
essentially _the_ Epic of Philanthropy, of the true love of man, as
distinguished from the ordinary love-epic, the number twelve in this
passage may be reminiscent of another Friend of Man and another Twelve. In
each case all but one desert the hero.

l. 2437. R. proposes stýred, = _ordered, decreed_, for strêd.--_Zachers
Zeitschr._ iii. 409.

l. 2439. B. corrects to freó-wine = _noble friend_, asking, "How can
Herebeald be called Hæðcyn's freá-wine [MS.], _lord?_"

l. 2442. feohleás gefeoht, "a homicide which cannot be atoned for by
money--in this case an unintentional fratricide."--Sw.

l. 2445. See Ha., pp. 82, 83, for a discussion of ll. 2445-2463. Cf. G., p.

l. 2447. MS. reads wrece, justified by B. (_Tidskr_. viii. 56). W.
conceives wrece as optative or hortative, and places a colon before þonne.

l. 2449. For helpan read helpe.--K., Th., S. (_Zeitschr. f. D. Phil._ xxi.
3, 357).

ll. 2454-2455. (1) Müllenh. (_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 232) proposes:

                    þonne se ân hafað
    þurh dæda nýd      deáðes gefandod.

(2) B. proposes:

    þurh dæda nîð      deáðes gefondad.
       --_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 215.

l. 2458. Cf. sceótend, pl., ll. 704, 1155, like rîdend. Cf. _Judith_, l.
305, etc.

l. 2474. Th. considers the "wide water" here as the Mälar lake, the
boundary between Swedes and Goths.

l. 2477. On oþþe = _and_, cf. B., _Tidskr_. viii. 57. See Ha., p. 83.

l. 2489. B. proposes hreá-blâc for Gr.'s heoro-.--_Tikskr_. viii. 297.

l. 2494. S. suggests êðel-wynne.

l. 2502. E. translates for dugeðum, _of my prowess_; so Ettmüller.

ll. 2520-2522. Gr. and S. translate, "if I knew how else I might combat the
monster's boastfulness."--Ha., p. 85.

l. 2524. and-hâttres is H.'s invention. Gr. reads oreðes and âttres, _blast
and venom_. Cf. oruð, l. 2558, and l. 2840 (where âttor- also occurs).

l. 2526. E. quotes fleón fôtes trym from _Maldon_, l. 247.

l. 2546. Gr., H.-So., and Ho. read standan stân-bogan (for stôd on
stân-bogan) depending on geseah.

l. 2550. Grundt. and B. propose deór, _brave one_, i.e. Beowulf, for deóp.

L. 2565. MS. has ungleaw (K., Th.), unglaw (Grundt.). B. proposes unslâw, =
_sharp_.--_Beit._ xii. 104. So H.-So., Ha., p. 86.

ll. 2570, 2571. (1) May not gescîfe (MS. to gscipe) = German _schief_,
"crooked," "bent," "aslant," and hence be a parallel to gebogen, _bent,
coiled?_ cf. l. 2568, þâ se wyrm gebeáh snûde tôsomne, and l. 2828. Coiled
serpents spring more powerfully for the coiling. (2) Or perhaps destroy
comma after tô and read gescäpe, = _his fate_; cf. l. 26: him þâ Scyld
gewât tô gescäp-hwîle. G. appar. adopts this reading, p. 78.

l. 2589. grund-wong = _the field_, not _the earth_ (so B.); H.-So., _cave_,
as at l. 2771. So Ha., p. 87.

l. 2595. S. proposes colon after stefne.--_Beit._ ix. 141.

l. 2604. Müllenh. explains leód Scylfinga in _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ iii.

l. 2607. âre = _possessions, holding_ (Kl., _Beit._ ix. 192; Ha., p. 88).

l. 2609. folcrihta. Add "folk-right" to the meanings in the Gloss.; and cf.
êðel-, land-riht, word-riht.

l. 2614. H.-So. reads with Gr. wræccan wineleásum Weohstân bana, = _whom, a
friendless exile, W. had slain_.

ll. 2635-61. E. quotes Tacitus, _Germania_, xiv.: "turpe comitatui virtutem
principis non adaequare." Beowulf had been deserted by his _comitatus_.

l. 2643. B. proposes ûser.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 216.

l. 2649. wutun; l. 3102, uton = pres. subj. pl. 1st person of wîtan, _to
go_, used like Mod. Eng. _let us_ + inf., Lat. _eamus_, Ital. _andiamo_,
Fr. _allons_; M. E. (_Layamon_) _uten_. Cf. Psa. ii. 3, etc. March, _A.-S.
Gram._, pp. 104, 196.

l. 2650. B. suggests hât for hyt,.--_Beit._ xii. 105.

l. 2656. fâne = fâh-ne; cf. fâra = fâh-ra, l. 578; so heánne (MS.) =
heáh-ne, etc., l. 984. See Cook's Sievers' Gram.

ll. 2660, 2661. Why not read beadu-scrûd, as at l. 453, = _battle-shirt?_
B. and R. suppose two half-verses omitted between byrdu-scrûd and bâm
gemæne. B. reads býwdu, = _handsome_, etc. Gr. suggests unc nû, = _to us
two now_, for ûrum; and K. and Grundt. read beón gemæne for bâm, etc. This
makes sense. Cf. Ha., p. 89.

l. 2666. Cf. the dat. absolute without preposition.

l. 2681. Nägling; cf. Hrunting, Lâfing, and other famous wundor-smiða
geweorc of the poem.

l. 2687. B. changes þonne into þone (rel. pro.) = _which_.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 2688. B. supports the MS. reading, wundum.

l. 2688. Cf. l. 2278 for similar language.

l. 2698. B. (_Beit._ xii. 105) renders: "he did not heed the head of the
dragon (which Beowulf with his sword had struck without effect), but he
struck the dragon somewhat further down." Cf. Saxo, vi. p. 272.

l. 2698. Cf. the language used at ll. 446 and 1373, where hafelan also
occurs; and hýdan.

l. 2700. hwêne; cf. Lowl. Sc. _wheen_, a number; Chaucer's _woon_, number.

l. 2702. S. proposes þâ (for þät) þät fýr, etc., = _when the fire began_,

l. 2704. "The (hup)-seax has often been found in Saxon graves on the hip of
the skeleton."--E.

l. 2707. Kl. proposes: feorh ealne wräc, = _drove out all the life_; cf.
_Gen._ l. 1385.--_Beit._ ix. 192. S. suggests gefylde,--_he felled the
foe_, etc.--_Ibid_. Parentheses seem unnecessary.

l. 2727. däg-hwîl = _time allotted, lifetime_.

l. 2745, 2745. Ho. removes geong from the beginning of l. 2745 and places
it at the end of l. 2744.

l. 2750. R. proposes sigle searogimmas, as at l. 1158.

l. 2767. (1) B. proposes doubtfully oferhîgean or oferhîgan, = Goth,
_ufarhauhjan_, p. p. _ufarhauhids_ (Gr. [Greek: tuphwtheis]) = _exceed in
value_.--_Tidskr_. viii. 60. (2) Kl. proposes oferhýdian, = _to make
arrogant, infatuate_; cf. oferhýd.--_Beit._ ix. 192.

l. 2770. gelocen leoðocräftum = (1) _spell-bound_ (Th., Arnold, E.); (2)
_wrought with hand-craft_ (G.); (3) _meshed, linked together_ (H., Ho.);
cf. _Elene_, ll. 1251, 522.

l. 2778. B. considers bill ... ealdhlâfordes as Beowulf's short sword, with
which he killed the dragon, l. 2704 (_Tidskr_. viii. 299). R. proposes
ealdhlâforde. Müllenh. understands ealdhlâford to mean the former possessor
of the hoard. W. agrees to this, but conceives ærgescôd as a compd. = ære
calceatus, _sheathed in brass_. Ha. translates ærgescôd as vb. and adv.

l. 2791. Cf. l. 224, eoletes ät ende; landes ät ende, _Exod_. (Hunt).

l. 2792. MS. reads wäteres weorpan, which R. would change to wätere

l. 2806. "Men saw from its height the whales tumbling in the waves, and
called it Whale's Ness (Hrones-næs)."--Br. p. 28. Cf. l. 3137.

l. 2815. Wîglâf was the next of kin, the last of the race, and hence the
recipient of Beowulf's kingly insignia. There is a possible play on the
word lâf (Wîg-_lâf_, ende-_lâf_).

l. 2818. gingeste word; cf. _novissima verba_, and Ger. _jüngst_, lately.

l. 2837. E. translates on lande, _in the world_, comparing _on lîfe, on

l. 2840. geræsde = pret. of geræsan (omitted from the Gloss.), same as
ræsan; cf. l. 2691.

l. 2859. B. proposes deáð ârædan, = _determine death_.--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2861. Change geongum to geongan as a scribal error (?), but cf.
Lichtenheld, _Haupts Zeitschr._ xvi. 353-355.

l. 2871. S. and W. propose ôwêr.--_Beit._ ix. 142.

l. 2873. S. punctuates: wrâðe forwurpe, þâ, etc.

l. 2874. H.-So. begins a new sentence with nealles, ending the preceding
one with beget.

l. 2879. ätgifan = _to render, to afford_; omitted in Gloss.

ll. 2885-2892. "This passage ... equals the passage in Tacitus which
describes the tie of chief to companion and companion to chief among the
Germans, and which recounts the shame that fell on those who survived their
lord."--Br., p. 56.

l. 2886. cyn thus has the meaning of _gens_ or clan, just as in many
Oriental towns all are of one blood. E. compares Tacitus, _Germania_, 7;
and cf. "kith and kin."

l. 2892. Death is preferable to dishonor. Cf. Kemble, _Saxons_, i. 235.

l. 2901. The _[Greek: angelos]_ begins his _[Greek: angelia]_ here.

l. 2910. S. proposes higemêðe, _sad of soul;_ cf. ll. 2853 and 2864
(_Beit._ ix. 142). B. considers higemêðum a dat. or instr. pl. of an
abstract in -u (_Beit._ xii. 106). H. makes it a dat. pl. = _for the dead_.
For heafod-wearde, etc., cf. note on l. 446.

l. 2920-2921. B. explains "he could not this time, as usual, give jewels to
his followers."--_Beit._ xii. 106.

l. 2922. The Merovingian or Frankish race.

l. 2940 _seq._ B. conjectures:

    cwäð hîe on mergenne      mêces ecgum
    gêtan wolde,      sumon galgtreowu
    âheáwan on holte      ond hîe âhôan on þâ
    fuglum tô gamene.

--_Beit._ xii. 107, 372. Cf. S., _Beit._ ix. 143. gêtan = _cause blood to
be shed._

l. 2950. B. proposes gomela for gôda; "a surprising epithet for a Geat to
apply to the 'terrible' Ongentheow."--Ha. p. 99. But "good" does not
necessarily mean "morally excellent," as a "good" hater, a "good" fighter.

l. 2959. See H.-So. for an explanatory quotation from Paulus Diaconus, etc.
B., K., and Th. read segn Higelâces, = H.'s banner uplifted began to pursue
the Swede-men.--_Beit._ xii. 108. S. suggests sæce, = _pursuit_.

l. 2977. gewyrpton: this vb. is also used reflexively in _Exod_. (Hunt), l.
130: wyrpton hie wêrige.

l. 2989. bär is Grundt.'s reading, after the MS. "The surviving victor is
the heir of the slaughtered foe."--H.-So. Cf. _Hildebrands Lied_, ll. 61,

l. 2995. "A hundred of thousands in land and rings" (Ha., p. 100). Cf. ll.
2196, 3051. Cf. B., _Beit._ xii. 20, who quotes Saxo's _bis senas gentes_
and remarks: "Hrolf Kraki, who rewards his follower, for the slaying of the
foreign king, with jewels, rich lands, and his only daughter's hand,
answers to the Jutish king Hygelâc, who rewards his liegeman, for the
slaying of Ongentheów, with jewels, enormous estates, and _his_ only
daughter's hand."

l. 3006. H.-So. suggests Scilfingas for Scyldingas, because, at l. 2397,
Beowulf kills the Scylfing Eádgils and probably acquires his lands. Thus
ll. 3002, 3005, 3006, would indicate that, after Beowulf's death, the
Swedes desired to shake off his hated yoke. Müllenh., however, regards l.
3006 as a thoughtless repetition of l. 2053.--_Haupts Zeitschr._ xiv. 239.

l. 3008. Cf. the same proverb at l. 256; and _Exod._ (Hunt.) l. 293.

l. 3022. E. quotes:

    "Thai token an harp _gle and game_
    And maked a lai and yaf it name."
                --_Weber_, l. 358.

and from Percy, "The word _glee_, which peculiarly denoted their art (the
minstrels'), continues still in our own language ... it is to this day used
in a musical sense, and applied to a peculiar piece of composition."

l. 3025. "This is a finer use than usual of the common poetic attendants of
a battle, the wolf, the eagle, and the raven. The three are here like three
Valkyrie, talking of all that they have done."--Br., p. 57.

l. 3033. Cf. Hunt's _Dan._ l. 731, for similar language.

l. 3039. B. supplies a supposed gap here:

    [banan eác fundon      bennum seócne
    (nê) ær hî þæm      gesêgan syllîcran wiht]
    wyrm on wonge...
             --_Beit._ xii. 372.

Cf. Ha., p. 102. W. and Ho. insert [þær] before gesêgan.

l. 3042. Cf. l. 2561, where gryre-giest occurs as an epithet of the dragon.
B. proposes gry[re-fâh].

l. 3044. lyft-wynne, _in the pride of the air_, E.; _to rejoice in the
air_, Ha.

l. 3057. (1) He (God) is men's hope; (2) he is the heroes' hope; (3) gehyld
= the secret place of enchanters; cf. hêlsmanna gehyld, Gr.'s reading,
after A.-S. hælsere, haruspex, augur.

l. 3060. B. suggests gehýðde, = _plundered_ (i.e. by the thief), for

ll. 3063-3066. (1) B. suggests wundur [deáðe] hwâr þonne eorl ellenrof ende
gefêre = _let a brave man then somewhere meet his end by wondrous venture_,
etc.--_Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 241; cf. l. 3038. (2) S. supposes an indirect
question introduced by hwâr and dependent upon wundur, = _a mystery is it
when it happens that the hero is to die, if he is no longer to linger among
his people_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. (3) Müllenh. suggests: _is it to be wondered
at that a man should die when he can no longer live?_--_Zachers Zeitschr._
xiv. 241. (4) Possibly thus:

                         Wundrað hwät þonne,
    eorl ellen-rôf,      ende gefêre
    lîf-gesceafta,      þonne leng ne mäg (etc.),

in which hwät would = þurh hwät at l. 3069, and eorl would be subject of
the conjectural vb. wundrað: "the valiant earl wondereth then through what
he shall attain his life's end, when he no longer may live.... So Beówulf
knew not (wondered how) through what _his_ end should come," etc. W. and
Ho. join þonne to the next line. Or, for hwâr read wære: Wundur wære þonne
(= gif), etc., = "would it be any wonder if a brave man," etc., which is
virtually Müllenhoff's.

l. 3053. galdre bewunden, _spell-bound_, throws light on l. 2770, gelocen
leoðo-cräftum. The "accursed" gold of legend is often dragon-guarded and
placed under a spell. Even human ashes (as Shakespeare's) are thus banned.
ll. 3047-3058 recall the so-called "Treasury of Atreus."

l. 3073. herh, hearh, _temple_, is conjectured by E. to survive in _Harrow.
Temple, barrow_, etc., have thus been raised to proper names. Cf. Biówulfes
biorh of l. 2808.

l. 3074. H.-So. has strude, = _ravage_, and compares l. 3127. MS. has
strade. S. suggests stride, = _tread_.

l. 3074. H.-So. omits strâdan, = _tread, stride over_, from the Gloss.,
referring ll. 3174 and 3074 to strûdan, q. v.

l. 3075. S. proposes: näs hê goldhwätes gearwor häfde, etc., = _Beowulf had
not before seen the greedy possessor's favor_.--_Beit._ ix. 143. B. reads,
goldhwäte gearwor häfde, etc., making goldhwäte modify êst, = _golden
favor_; but see _Beit._ xii. 373, for B.'s later view.

l. 3086-3087. B. translates, "that which (i.e. the treasure) drew the king
thither was granted indeed, but it overwhelmed us."--_Beit._ xii. 109.

l. 3097. B. and S. propose äfter wine deádum, = _in memory of the dead
friend_.--_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3106. The brâd gold here possibly includes the iú-monna gold of l. 3053
and the wunden gold of l. 3135. E. translates brâd by _bullion_.

l. 3114. B. supposes folc-âgende to be dat. sg. to gôdum, referring to

l. 3116. C. considers weaxan, = Lat. _vescor_, to devour, as a parallel to
fretan, and discards parentheses.--_Beit._ viii. 573.

l. 3120. fûs = _furnished with_; a meaning which must be added to those in
the Gloss.

ll. 3124-3125. S. proposes:

    eóde eahta sum      under inwit-hrôf
    hilderinca:      sum on handa bär, etc.
                            --_Beit._ ix. 144.

l. 3136. H.-So. corrects (after B.) to äðeling_c_, the MS. having _e_.

l. 3145. "It was their [the Icelanders'] belief that the higher the smoke
rose in the air the more glorious would the burnt man be in heaven."--
_Ynglinga Saga_, 10 (quoted by E.). Cf. the funeral pyre of Herakles.

l. 3146-3147. B. conjectures:

                   ... swôgende lêc
    wôpe bewunden      windblonda lêg

(lêc from lâcan, see Gloss.).--_Beit._ xii. 110. Why not windblonda lâc?

l. 3147. Müllenhoff rejected wind-blond geläg because a great fire raises
rather than "lays" the wind; hence B., as above, = "swoughing sported the
flame wound with the howling of wind-currents."

l. 3151 _seq._ B. restores conjecturally:

    swylce giômor-gyd      sio geó-meowle
    [äfter Beówulfe]      bunden-heorde
    [song] sorg-cearig,      sæde geneahhe,
    þät hió hyre [hearm-]dagas      hearde on [dr]êde,
    wälfylla worn,      [w]îgendes egesan,
    hý[n]ðo ond häftnýd,      heóf on rîce wealg.
                   --_Beit._ xii. 100.

Here geó-meowle = _old woman_ or _widow;_ bunden-heorde = _with bound
locks;_ heóf = _lamentation;_ cf. l. 3143. on rîce wealg is less preferable
than the MS. reading, heofon rêce swealg = _heaven swallowed the smoke_.--
H.-So. B. thinks Beowulf's widow (geómeowle) was probably Hygd; cf. ll.
2370, 3017-3021.

l. 3162. H.-So. reads (with MS.) bronda be lâfe, for betost, and omits
colon after bêcn. So B., _Zachers Zeitschr._ iv. 224.

l. 3171. E. quotes Gibbon's accounts of the burial of Attila when the
"chosen squadrons of the Hun, wheeling round in measured evolutions,
chanted a funeral song to the memory of a hero."

ll. 3173-3174. B. proposes:

    woldon gên cwîðan      [ond] kyning
    wordgyd wrecan      ond ymb wel sprecan.
                   --_Beit._ xii. 112.

l. 3183. Z., K., Th. read manna for mannum.

l. 3184. "It is the English ideal of a hero as it was conceived by an
Englishman some twelve hundred years ago."--Br., p. 18.


The original MS. of this fragment has vanished, but a copy had been made
and printed by Hickes in his _Thesaurus Linguarum Septentrionalium_, i.
192. The original was written on a single sheet attached to a codex of
homilies in the Lambeth Library. Möller, _Alteng. Epos_, p. 65, places the
fragment in the Finn episode, between ll. 1146 and 1147. Bugge (_Beit._
xii. 20) makes it illustrate the conflict in which Hnäf fell, _i.e._ as
described in _Beówulf_ as antecedent to the events there given. Heinzel
(_Anzeiger f. d. Altert_.), however, calls attention to the fact that
Hengest in the fragment is called cyning, whereas in _Beówulf_, l. 1086, he
is called þegn. See H.-So., p. 125.

"The _Fight at Finnsburg_ and the lays from which our _Beówulf_ was
composed were, as it seems to me, sung among the English who dwelt in the
north of Denmark and the south of Sweden, and whose tribal name was the
Jutes or Goths."--Br., p. 101.

l. 1. R. supposes [hor]nas, and conjectures such an introductory
conversation as follows: "Is it dawning in the east, or is a fiery dragon
flying about, or are the turrets of some castle burning?" questions which
the king negatives in the same order. Then comes the positive declaration,
"rather they are warriors marching whose armor gleams in the moonlight."
--_Alt- und Angels. Lesebuch_, 1861. Heinzel and B. conjecture, [beorhtor
hor]nas byrnað næfre. So. G.--_Beit._ xii. 22; _Anzeiger f. d. Altert._ x.

l. 5. B. conjectures fugelas to mean _arrows_, and supplies:

    ac hêr forð berað      [fyrdsearu rincas,
    flacre flânbogan],      fugelas singað.

He compares Saxo, p. 95, _cristatis galeis hastisque sonantibus instant_,
as explanatory of l. 6.--_Beit._ xii. 22. But see Brooke, _Early Eng.
Literature_, who supposes fugelas = _raven_ and _eagle_, while græg-hama is
= _wulf_ (the "grey-coated one"), the ordinary accompaniers of battle.

l. 11. hicgeað, etc.: cf. _Maldon_, l. 5; _Exod_. l. 218.

l. 15. Cf. B. (_Beit._ xii. 25), etc., and Saxo, p. 101, for l. 13.

ll. 18-21. H.-So. remarks: "If, according to Möller and Bugge, Gârulf is
one of the attackers, one of Finn's men, this does not harmonize with his
character as Gûðlâf's son (l. 33), who (l. 16, and _Beówulf_, l. 1149) is a
Dane, therefore one of Finn's antagonists." B. (_Beit._ xii. 25)

    þâ gyt Gûðdene      Gârulf styrode,
    þät hê swâ freólîc feorh      forman sîðe
    tô þære healle durum      hyrsta ne bære,
    nû hîe nîða heard      ânyman wolde;

in which Gûðdene is the same as Sigeferð, l. 24; hê (l. 22) refers to
Gârulf; and hîe (l. 21) to hyrsta.

l. 27. swäðer = _either_ (bad or good, life or death).--H.-So.

l. 29. cêlod: meaning doubtful; cf. _Maldon_, l. 283. G. renders "curved
board"; Sw. suggests "round"? "hollow"?

l. 30. B. suggests bâr-helm, = _boar-helm._ Cf. Saxo, p. 96.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 34. B. conjectures: (1) hwearf flacra hræw hräfen, wandrode; (2) hwearf
flacra hræw hräfen fram ôðrum = _flew from one corpse to another_.--_Beit._
xii. 27.

l. 43. B. supposes wund häleð to be a Dane, folces hyrde to be Hnäf, in
opposition to Holtzmann (_Germania_, viii. 494), who supposes the wounded
man to be a Frisian, and folces hyrde to be their king, Finn.--_Beit._ xii.

l. 45. B. adopts Th.'s reading heresceorp unhrôr = _equipments
useless_.--_Beit._ xii. 28.

l. 47. "Though wounded, they had retained their strength and activity in
battle."--B., _Beit._ xii. 28.


ll. 105 and 218. MS. and Ho. read won-sæli and fâmi-heals.

ll. 143, 183, 186, etc. Read þæm for þäm.

l. 299. MS. reads gôd-fremmendra. So H.-So.

l. 338. Ho. marks wräc- and its group long.

l. 530. Hwät should here probably be printed as an interj., hwät! Cf. ll.
1, 943, 2249.

l. 2263. Koeppel suggests nis for näs.

The editors are much indebted to E. Koeppel (in _Eng. Stud._ xiii. 3) for
numerous corrections in text and glossary.

l. 3070. H.-So. begins a new line with swâ.



ac, conj. denoting contrariety: hence 1) _but_ (like N.H.G. sondern), 109,
135, 339, etc.--2) _but_ (N.H.G. aber), _nevertheless_, 602, 697, etc.--3)
in direct questions: nonne, numquid, 1991.

aglæca, ahlæca, äglæca, -cea, w. m. (cf. Goth, aglo, _trouble_, O.N. agi,
_terror_, + lâc, _gift, sport: = misery, vexation, = bringer of trouble_;
hence): 1) _evil spirit, demon, a demon-like being_; of Grendel, 159, 433,
593, etc.; of the drake, 2535, 2906, etc.--2) _great hero, mighty warrior_;
of Sigemund, 894; of Beówulf: gen. sg. aglæcan(?), 1513; of Beówulf and the
drake: nom. pl. þâ aglæcean, 2593.

aglæc-wîf, st. n., _demon, devil, in the form of a woman_; of Grendel's
mother, 1260.

aldor. See ealdor.

al-wealda. See eal-w.

am-biht (from and-b., Goth, and-baht-s), st. m., _servant, man-servant_:
nom. sg. ombeht, of the coast-guard, 287; ombiht, of Wulfgâr, 336.

ambiht-þegn (from ambiht n. officium and þegn, which see), _servant,
man-servant_: dat. sg. ombiht-þegne, of Beówulf's servant, 674.

an, prep, with the dat., _on, in, with respect to_, 678; _with, among, at,
upon_ (position after the governed word), 1936; with the acc., 1248.
Elsewhere on, which see.

ancor, st. m., _anchor_: dat. sg. ancre, 303, 1884.

ancor-bend, m. (?) f. (?), _anchor-cable_: dat. pl. oncer-bendum, 1919.

and, conj. (ond is usual form; for example, 601, 1149, 2041), and 33, 39,
40, etc. (See Appendix.)

anda, w. m., _excitement, vexation, horror_: dat. wrâðum on andan, 709,

and-git, st. n., _insight, understanding_: nom. sg., 1060. See gitan.

and-hâtor, st. m. n., _heat coming against one_: gen. sg. rêðes
and-hâttres, 2524.

and-lang, -long, adj., _very long._ hence 1) _at whole length, raised up
high_: acc. andlongne eorl, 2696 (cf. Bugge upon this point, Zachers
Ztschr., 4, 217).--2) _continual, entire_; andlangne däg, 2116, _the whole
day_; andlonge niht, 2939.

and-leán, st. n., _reward, payment in full_: acc. sg., 1542, 2095 (hand-,
hond-lean, MS.).

and-risno, st. f. (see rîsan, surgere, decere), _that which is to be
observed, that which is proper, etiquette_: dat. pl. for andrysnum,
_according to etiquette_, 1797.

and-saca, w. m., _adversary_: godes andsaca (Grendel), 787, 1683.

and-slyht, st. m., _blow in return_: acc. sg., 2930, 2973 (MS. both times

and-swaru, st. f., _act of accosting_: 1) to persons coming up, _an
address_, 2861.--2) in reply to something said, _an answer_, 354, 1494,

and-weard, adj., _present, existing_: acc. sg. n. swîn ofer helme and-weard
(_the image of the boar, which stands on his helm_), 1288.

and-wlita, w. m., _countenance_: acc. sg. -an, 690.

an-sund, adj., _entirely unharmed_: nom. sg. m., 1001.

an-sýn, f., _the state of being seen_: hence 1) _the exterior, the form_,
251: ansýn ýwde, _showed his form_, i.e. appeared, 2835.--2) _aspect,
appearance_, 929; on-sýn, 2773.

an-walda, w. m., _He who rules over all, God_, 1273. See Note.

atol, adj. (also eatol, 2075, etc.), _hostile, frightful, cruel_: of
Grendel, 159, 165, 593, 2075, etc.; of Grendel's mother's hands (dat. pl.
atolan), 1503; of the undulation of the waves, 849; of battle, 597,
2479.--cf. O.N. atall, fortis, strenuus.

atelîc, adj., _terrible, dreadful_: atelîc egesa, 785.


â, adv. (Goth, áiv, acc. from aiv-s aevum), _ever, always_, 455, 882, 931,
1479: â syððan, _ever afterwards, ever, ever after_, 283, 2921.--_ever_,
780.--Comp. nâ.

âd st. m. _funeral pile_: acc. sg. âd, 3139; dat. sg. âde, 1111, 1115.

âd-faru, st. f., _way to the funeral pile_, dat. sg. on âd-färe, 3011.

âdl, st. f. _sickness_, 1737, 1764, 1849.

âð, st. m., _oath in general_, 2740; _oath of allegiance_, 472 (?); _oath
of reconciliation of two warring peoples_, 1098, 1108.

âð-sweord, st. n., _the solemn taking of an oath, the swearing of an oath_:
nom. pl., 2065. See sweord.

âðum-swerian, m. pl., _son-in-law and father-in-law_: dat. pl., 84.

âgan, verb, pret. and pres., _to have, to possess_, w. acc.: III. prs. sg.
âh, 1728; inf. âgan, 1089; prt. âhte, 487, 522, 533; with object, geweald,
to be supplied, 31. Form contracted with the negative: prs. sg. I. nâh hwâ
sweord wege (_I have no one to wield the sword_), 2253.

âgen, adj., _own, peculiar_, 2677.

âgend (prs. part. of âgan), _possessor, owner, lord_: gen. sg. âgendes, _of
God_, 3076.--Compounds: blæd-, bold-, folc-, mägen-âgend.

âgend-freá, w. m., _owner, lord_: gen. sg. âgend-freán, 1884.

âhsian, ge-âhsian, w. v.: 1) _to examine, to find out by inquiring_: pret.
part. ge-âhsod, 433.--2) _to experience, to endure_: pret. âhsode, 1207;
pl. âhsodon, 423.

âht, st. n. (contracted from â-wiht, which see), _something, anything_: âht
cwices, 2315.

ân, num. The meaning of this word betrays its apparent demonstrative
character: 1) _this, that_, 2411, of the hall in the earth mentioned
before; similarly, 100 (of Grendel; already mentioned), cf. also 2775.--2)
_one_, a particular one among many, a single one, in numerical sense: ymb
âne niht (_the next night_), 135; þurh ânes cräft, 700; þâra ânum, 1038; ân
äfter ânum, _one for the other_ (Hrêðel for Herebeald), 2462: similarly, ân
äfter eallum, 2269; ânes hwät, _some single thing, a part_, 3011; se ân
leóda duguðe, _the one of the heroes of the people_, 2238; ânes willan,
_for the sake of a single one_, 3078, etc.--Hence, again, 3) _alone,
distinguished_, 1459, 1886.--4) _a_, in the sense of an indefinite article:
ân ... feónd, 100; gen. sg. ânre bêne (or to No.2[?]), 428; ân ... draca,
221l--5) gen. pl. ânra, in connection with a pronoun, _single_; ânra
gehwylces, _every single one_, 733; ânra gehwylcum, 785. Similarly, the
dat. pl. in this sense: nemne feáum ânum, _except a few single ones_,
1082.--6) solus, _alone_: in the strong form, 1378, 2965; in the weak form,
145, 425, 431, 889, etc.; with the gen., âna Geáta duguðe, _alone of the
warriors of the Geátas_, 2658.--7) solitarius, _alone, lonely_, see
æn.--Comp. nân.

ân-feald, adj., _simple, plain, without reserve_: acc. sg. ânfealdne
geþôht, _simple opinion_, 256.

ân-genga, -gengea, w. m., _he who goes alone_, of Grendel, 165, 449.

ân-haga, w. m., _he who stands alone_, solitarius, 2369.

ân-hydig, adj. (like the O.N. ein-râd-r, _of one resolve_, i.e. of firm
resolve), _of one opinion_, i.e. firm, brave, decided, 2668.

ânga, adj. (only in the weak form), _single, only_: acc. sg. ângan dôhtor,
375, 2998; ângan eaferan, 1548; dat. sg. ângan brêðer, 1263.

ân-päð, st. m., _lonely way, path_: acc. pl. ânpaðas, 1411.

ân-ræd, adj. (cf. under ân-hydig), _of firm resolution, resolved_, 1530,

ân-tîd, st. f., _one time_, i.e. the same time, ymb ân-tîd ôðres dôgores,
_about the same time the second day_ (they sailed twenty-four hours),
219.--ân stands as in ân-mod, O.H.G. ein-muoti, _harmonious, of the same

ânunga, adv., _throughout, entirely, wholly_, 635.

âr, st. m., _ambassador, messenger_, 336, 2784.

âr, st. f., 1) _honor, dignity_: ârum healdan, _to hold in honor_, 296;
similarly, 1100, 1183.--2) _favor, grace, support_: acc. sg. âre, 1273,
2607; dat. sg. âre, 2379; gen. pl. hwät ... ârna, 1188.--Comp. worold-âr;
also written ær.

âr-fäst, adj., _honorable, upright_, 1169; of Hûnferð (with reference to
588). See fäst.

ârian, w. v., (_to be gracious_), _to spare_: III. sg. prs. w. dat. nænegum
ârað; of Grendel, 599.

âr-stäf, st. m.,(elementum honoris), _grace, favor_: dat. pl. mid ârstafum,
317.--_Help, support_: dat. pl. for âr-stafum, _to the assistance_, 382,
458. See stäf.

âter-teár, m., _poisonous drop_: dat. pl. îren âter-teárum fâh (steel which
is dipped in poison or in poisonous sap of plants), 1460.

âttor, st. n., _poison_, here of the poison of the dragon's bite: nom.,

âttor-sceaða, w. m., _poisonous enemy, of the poisonous dragon_: gen. sg.
-sceaðan, 2840.

âwâ, adv. (certainly not the dative, but a reduplicated form of â, which
see), _ever_: âwâ tô aldre, _fôr ever and ever_, 956.


ädre, adv., _hastily, directly, immediately_, 77, 354, 3107. [ædre.]

äðele, adj., _noble_: nom. sg., of Beówulf, 198, 1313; of Beówulf's father,
263, where it can be understood as well in a moral as in a genealogical
sense; the latter prevails decidedly in the gen. sg. äðelan cynnes, 2235.

äðeling, st. m., _nobleman, man of noble descent_, especially the
appellation of a man of royal birth; so of the kings of the Danes, 3; of
Scyld, 33; of Hrôðgâr, 130; of Sigemund, 889; of Beówulf, 1226, 1245, 1597,
1816, 2189, 2343, 2375, 2425, 2716, 3136; perhaps also of Däghrefn,
2507;--then, in a broader sense, also denoting other noble-born men:
Äschere, 1295; Hrôðgâr's courtiers, 118, 983; Heremôd's courtiers, 907;
Hengest's warriors, 1113; Beówulf's retinue, 1805, 1921, 3172; noble-born
in general, 2889. --Comp. sib-äðeling.

äðelu, st. n., only in the pl., _noble descent, nobility_, in the sense of
noble lineage: acc. pl. äðelu, 392; dat. pl. cyning äðelum gôd, _the king,
of noble birth_, 1871; äðelum dióre, _worthy on account of noble lineage_,
1950; äðelum (hæleþum, MS.), 332.--Comp. fäder-äðelu.

äfnan, w. v. w. acc., _to perform, to carry out, to accomplish_: inf.
ellen-weorc äfnan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1465; pret. unriht äfnde,
_perpetrated wrong_, 1255.

ge-äfnan, 1) _to carry out, to do, to accomplish_: pret. pl. þät geäfndon
swâ, _so carried that out_, 538; pret. part. âð wäs geäfned, _the oath was
sworn_, 1108.--2) _get ready, prepare_: pret. part. geäfned, 3107. See

äfter (comparative of af, Ags. of, which see; hence it expresses the idea
of _forth, away, from, back_), a) adv., _thereupon, afterwards_, 12, 341,
1390, 2155.--ic him äfter sceal, _I shall go after them_, 2817; in word
äfter cwäð, 315, the sense seems to be, _spoke back, having turned_; b)
prep. w. dat., 1) (temporal) _after_, 119, 128, 187, 825, 1939, etc.; äfter
beorne, _after the_ (death of) _the hero_, 2261, so 2262; äfter
mâððum-welan, _after_ (obtaining) _the treasure_, 2751.--2) (causal) as
proceeding from something, denoting result and purpose, hence, _in
consequence of, conformably to_: äfter rihte, _in accordance with right_,
1050, 2111; äfter faroðe, _with the current_, 580; so 1321, 1721, 1944,
2180, etc., äfter heaðo-swâte, _in consequence of the blood of battle_,
1607; äfter wälnîðe, _in consequence of mortal enmity_, 85; _in accordance
with, on account of, after, about_: äfter äðelum (hæleþum, MS.)frägn,
_asked about the descent_, 332; ne frin þu äfter sælum, _ask not after my
welfare_, 1323; äfter sincgyfan greóteð, _weeps for the giver of treasure_,
1343; him äfter deórum men dyrne langað, _longs in secret for the dear
man_, 1880; ân äfter ânum, _one for the other_, 2462, etc.--3) (local),
_along_: äfter gumcynnum, _throughout the races of men, among men_, 945;
sôhte bed äfter bûrum, _sought a bed among the rooms of the castle_ (the
castle was fortified, the hall was not), 140; äfter recede wlât, _looked
along the hall_, 1573; stone äfter stâne, _smelt along the rocks_, 2289;
äfter lyfte, _along the air through the air_, 2833; similarly, 996, 1068,
1317, etc.

äf-þunca, w. m., _anger, chagrin, vexatious affair_: nom., 502.

äglæcea. See aglæcea.

äled (Old Sax. eld, O.N. edl-r), st. m., _fire_, 3016. [æled.]

äled-leóma, w. m., _(fire-light), torch_: acc. sg. leóman, 3126. See leóma.

äl-fylce (from äl-, Goth. ali-s, [Greek: allos], and fylce, O.N. fylki,
collective form from folc), st. n., _other folk, hostile army_: dat. pl.
wið älfylcum, 2372.

äl-mihtig (for eal-m.), adj., _almighty_: nom. sg. m., of the weak form, se
äl-mihtiga, 92.

äl-wiht, st. m., _being of another species, monster_: gen. pl. äl-wihta
eard, of the dwelling-place of Grendel's kindred, 1501.

äppel-fealu, adj., _dappled sorrel_, or _apple-yellow_: nom. pl.
äppel-fealuwe mearas, _apple-yellow steeds_, 2166.

ärn, st. n., _house_, in the compounds heal-, hord-, medo-, þryð-, win-ärn.

äsc, st. m., _ash_ (does not occur in Beówulf in this sense), _lance,
spear_, because the shaft consists of ash wood: dat. pl. (quâ instr.) äscum
and ecgum, _with spears and swords_, 1773.

äsc-holt, st. n., _ash wood, ashen shaft_: nom. pl. äsc-holt ufan græg,
_the ashen shafts gray above_ (spears with iron points), 330.

äsc-wîga, w. m., _spear-fighter, warrior armed with the spear_: nom. sg.,

ät, prep. w. dat., with the fundamental meaning of nearness to something,
hence 1) local, a) _with, near, at, on, in_ (rest): ät hýðe, in _harbor_,
32; ät symle, _at the meal_, 81, ät âde, _on the funeral-pile_, 1111, 1115;
ät þe ânum, _with thee alone_, 1378; ät wîge, _in the fight_, 1338; ät
hilde, 1660, 2682; ät æte, _in eating_, 3027, etc. b) _to, towards, at, on_
(motion to): deáðes wylm hrân ät heortan, _seized upon the heart_, 2271;
gehêton ät härgtrafum, _vowed at_ (or _to_) _the temples of the gods_, 175.
c) with verbs of taking away, _away from_ (as starting from near an
object): geþeah þät ful ät Wealhþeón, _took the cup from W_., 630; fela ic
gebâd grynna ät Grendle, _from Grendel_, 931; ät mînum fäder genam, _took
me from my father to himself_, 2430.--2) temporal, _at, in, at the time
of_: ät frumsceafte, _in the beginning_, 45; ät ende, _at an end_, 224;
fand sînne dryhten ealdres ät ende, _at the end of life, dying_, 2791;
similarly, 2823; ät feohgyftum, _in giving gifts_, 1090; ät sîðestan,
_finally_, 3014.

ät-græpe, adj., _laying hold of_, prehendens, 1270.

ät-rihte, adv., _almost_, 1658.


ædre, êdre, st. f., _aqueduct, canal_ (not in Beów.), _vein_ (not in
Beów.), _stream, violent pouring forth_: dat. pl. swât ædrum sprong, _the
blood sprang in streams_, 2967; blôd êdrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743.

æðm, st. m., _breath, gasp, snort_: instr. sg. hreðer æðme weóll, _the
breast_ (of the drake) _heaved with snorting_, 2594.

æfen, st. m., _evening_, 1236.

æfen-gram, adj., _hostile at evening, night-enemy_: nom. sg. m. æfen-grom,
of Grendel, 2075.

æfen-leóht, st. n., _evening-light_: nom. sg., 413.

æfen-räst, st. f., _evening-rest_: acc. sg. -räste, 647, 1253.

æfen-spræc, st. f., _evening-talk_: acc. sg. gemunde ...æfen-spræce,
_thought about what he had spoken in the evening_, 760.

æfre, adv., _ever, at any time_, 70, 280, 504, 693, etc.: in negative
sentences, æfre ne, _never_, 2601.--Comp. næfre.

æg-hwâ (O.H.G. êo-ga-hwër), pron., _every, each_: dat. sg. æghwæm, 1385.
The gen. sg. in adverbial sense, _in all, throughout, thoroughly_: æghwäs
untæle, _thoroughly blameless_, 1866; æghwäs unrîm, _entirely innumerable
quantity_, i.e. an enormous multitude, 2625, 3136.

æg-hwäðer (O.H.G. êo-ga-hwëdar): 1) _each_ (of two): nom. sg. häfde
æghwäðer ende gefêred, _each of the two_ (Beówulf and the drake) _had
reached the end_, 2845; dat. sg. æghwäðrum wäs brôga fram ôðrum, _to each
of the two_ (Beówulf and the drake) _was fear of the other_, 2565; gen. sg.
æghwäðres ... worda and worca, 287.--2) _each_ (of several): dat. sg. heora
æghwäðrum, 1637.

æg-hwær, adv., _everywhere_, 1060.

æg-hwilc (O.H.G. êo-gi-hwëlih), pron., unusquisque, _every_ (one): 1) used
as an adj.: acc. sg. m. dæl æghwylcne, 622.--2) as substantive, a) with the
partitive genitive: nom. sg. æg-hwylc, 9, 2888; dat. sg. æghwylcum, 1051.
b) without gen.: nom. sg. æghwylc, 985, 988; (wäs) æghwylc ôðrum trýwe,
_each one_ (of two) _true to the other_, 1166.

æg-weard, st. f., _watch on the sea shore_: acc. sg. æg-wearde, 241.

æht (abstract form from âgan, denoting the state of possessing), st. f.: 1)
_possession, power_: acc. sg. on flôdes æht, 42; on wäteres æht, _into the
power of the water_, 516; on æht gehwearf Denigea freán, _passed over into
the possession of a Danish master_, 1680.--2) _property, possessions,
goods_: acc. pl. æhte, 2249.--Comp. mâðm-, gold-æht.

æht (O.H.G. âhta), st. f., _pursuit_: nom. þâ wäs æht boden Sweona leódum,
segn Higelâce, _then was pursuit offered to the people of the Sweonas,
(their) banner to Hygelâc_ (i.e. the banner of the Swedes, taken during
their flight, fell into the hands of Hygelâc), 2958.

ge-æhtan, w. v., _to prize, to speak in praise of_: pret. part. geæhted,
1866. [geähtan.]

ge-æhtla, w. m., or ge-æhtle, w. f., _a speaking of with praise, high
esteem_: gen. sg. hy ... wyrðe þinceað eorla geæhtlan, _seem worthy of the
high esteem of the noble-born_, 369. [geähtla.]

æn (oblique form of ân), num., _one_: acc. sg. m. þone ænne þone..., _the
one whom_..., 1054; oftor micle þonne on ænne sîð, _much oftener than one
time_, 1580; forð onsendon ænne, _sent him forth alone_, 46.

æne, adv., _once_: oft nalles æne, 3020.

ænig, pron., _one, any one_, 474, 503, 510, 534, etc.: instr. sg. nolde ...
0nige þinga, _would in no way, not at all_, 792; lyt ænig mearn, _little
did any one sorrow_ (i.e. no one), 3130.--With the article: näs se
folccyning ... ænig, _no people's king_, 2735.--Comp. nænig.

æn-lîc, adj., _alone, excellent, distinguished_: ænlîc ansýn,
_distinguished appearance_, 251; þeáh þe hió ænlîcu sý, _though she be
beautiful_, 1942.

ær (comparative form, from â): 1) adv., _sooner, before, beforehand_, 15,
656, 695, 758, etc., _for a long time_, 2596; eft swâ ær, _again as
formerly_, 643; ær ne siððan, _neither sooner nor later_, 719; ær and sîð,
_sooner and later_ (all times), 2501; nô þý ær (_not so much the sooner_),
_yet not_, 755, 1503, 2082, 2161, 2467.--2) conjunct., _before, ere_: a)
with the ind.: ær hió tô setle geóng, 2020. b) w. subjunc.: ær ge fyr
fêran, _before you travel farther_, 252; ær he on hwurfe 164, so 677, 2819;
ær þon däg cwôme, _ere the day break_, 732; ær correlative to ær adv.: ær
he feorh seleð, aldor an ôfre, ær he wille ..., _he will sooner_ (rather)
_leave his life upon the shore, before_ (than) _he will_ ..., 1372.--3)
prepos. with dat., _before_ ær deáðe, _before death_, 1389; ær däges hwîle,
_before daybreak_, 2321; ær swylt-däge, _before the day of death_, 2799.

æror, comp. adv., _sooner, before-hand_, 810; _formerly_, 2655.

ærra, comp. adj., _earlier_; instr. pl., ærran mælum, _in former times_,
908, 2238, 3036.

ærest, superl.: 1) adv., _first of all, foremost_, 6, 617, 1698, etc.--2)
as subst. n., _relation to, the beginning_: acc. þät ic his ærest þe eft
gesägde (_to tell thee in what relation it stood at first to the coat of
mail that has been presented_), 2158. See Note.

ær-däg, st. m. (_before-day_), _morning-twilight, gray of morning_: dat.
sg. mid ærdäge, 126; samod ærdäge, 1312, 2943.

ærende, st. n., _errand, trust_: acc. sg., 270, 345.

ær-fäder, st. m., _late father, deceased father_: nom sg. swâ his ærfäder,

ær-gestreón, st. n., _old treasure, possessions dating from old times_: acc
sg., 1758; gen. sg. swylcra fela ærgestreóna, _much of such old treasure_,
2233. See gestreón.

ær-geweorc, st. n., _work dating from old times_: nom. sg. enta ær-geweorc,
_the old work of the giants_ (of the golden sword-hilt from Grendel's
water-hall), 1680. See geweorc.

ær-gôd, adj., _good since old times, long invested with dignity_ or
_advantages_: äðeling ærgôd, 130; (eorl) ærgôd, 1330; îren ærgôd
(_excellent sword_), 990, 2587.

ær-wela, w. m., _old possessions, riches dating from old times_: acc. sg.
ærwelan, 2748. See wela.

æs, st. n., _carcass, carrion_: dat. (instr.) sg. æse, of Äschere's corpse,

æt, st. m., _food, meat_: dat, sg., hû him ät æte speów, _how he fared well
at meat_, 3027.

ættren (see âttor), adj., _poisonous_: wäs þät blôd tô þäs hât, ættren
ellorgâst, se ær inne swealt, _so hot was the blood, (and) poisonous the
demon_ (Grendel's mother) _who died therein_, 1618


bana, bona, w. m., _murderer_, 158, 588, 1103, etc.: acc. sg. bonan
Ongenþeówes, of Hygelâc, although in reality his men slew Ongenþeów (2965
ff.), 1969. Figuratively of inanimate objects: ne wäs ecg bona, 2507; wearð
wracu Weohstânes bana, 2614.--Comp.: ecg-, feorh-, gâst-, hand-, mûð-bana.

bon-gâr, st. m. _murdering spear_, 2032.

ge-bannan, st. v. w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the person, _to command,
to bid_: inf., 74.

bâd, st. f., _pledge_, only in comp.: nýd-bâd.

bân, st. n., _bone_: dat. sg. on bâne (on the bony skin of the drake),
2579; dat. pl. heals ealne ymbefêng biteran bânum (here of the teeth of the
drake), 2693.

bân-côfa, w. m., "cubile ossium" (Grimm) of the body: dat. sg. -côfan,

bân-fâg, adj., _variegated with bones_, either with ornaments made of
bone-work, or adorned with bone, perhaps deer-antlers; of Hrôðgâr's hall,
781. The last meaning seems the more probable.

bân-fät, st. n., _bone-vessel_, i.e. the body: acc. pl. bân-fatu, 1117.

bân-hring, st. m., _the bone-structure, joint, bone-joint_: acc. pl. hire
wið halse ... bânhringas bräc (_broke her neck-joint_), 1568.

bân-hûs, st. n., _bone-house_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bânhûs gebräc, 2509;
similarly, 3148.

bân-loca, w. m., _the enclosure of the bones_, i.e. the body: acc. sg. bât
bânlocan, _bit the body_, 743; nom. pl. burston bânlocan, _the body burst_
(of Grendel, because his arm was torn out), 819.

bât, st. m., _boat, craft, ship_, 211.--Comp. sæ-bât.

bât-weard, st. m., _boat-watcher, he who keeps watch over the craft._ dat.
sg. -wearde, 1901.

bäð, st. n., _bath_: acc. sg. ofer ganotes bäð, _over the diver's bath_
(i.e. the sea), 1862.

bärnan, w. v., _to cause to burn, to burn_: inf. hêt ... bânfatu bärnan,
_bade that the bodies be burned_, 1117; ongan ... beorht hofu bärnan,
_began to consume the splendid country-seats_ (the dragon), 2314.

for-bärnan, w. v., _consume with fire_: inf. hy hine ne môston ...
brondefor-bärnan, _they_ (the Danes) _could not burn him_ (the dead
Äschere) _upon the funeral-pile_, 2127.

bædan (Goth, baidjan, O.N. beðia), _to incite, to encourage_: pret. bædde
byre geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

ge-bædan, w. v., _to press hard_: pret. part. bysigum gebæded, _distressed
by trouble, difficulty, danger_ (of battle), 2581; _to drive, to send
forth_: stræla storm strengum gebæded, _the storm of arrows sent with
strength_, 3118; _overcome_: draca ... bealwe gebæded, _the dragon ...
overcome by the ills of battle_, 2827.

bæl (O.N. bâl), st. n., _fire, flames_: (wyrm) mid bæle fôr, _passed
(through the air) with fire_, 2309; häfde landwara lîge befangan, bæle and
bronde, _with fire and burning_, 2323.--Especially, _the fire of the
funeral-pile, the funeral-pile_, 1110, 1117, 2127; ær he bæl cure, _ere he
sought the burning_ (i.e. died), 2819; hâtað ... hlæw gewyrcean ... äfter
bæle, _after I am burned, let a burial mound be thrown up_ (Beówulf's
words), 2804.

bæl-fýr, st. n., _bale-fire, fire of the funeral-pile_: gen. pl. bælfýra
mæst, 3144.

bæl-stede, st. m., _place for the funeral-pile_: dat. sg. in bæl=stede,

bæl-wudu, st. m., _wood for the funeral-pile_, 3113.

bær, st. f., _bier_, 3106.

ge-bæran, w. v., _to conduct one's self, behave_: inf. w. adv., ne gefrägen
ic þâ mægðe ... sêl gebæran, _I did not hear that a troop bore itself
better, maintained a nobler deportment_, 1013; he on eorðan geseah þone
leófestan lîfes ät ende bleáte gebæran, _saw the best-beloved upon the
earth, at the end of his life, struggling miserably_ (i.e. in a helpless
situation), 2825.

ge-bætan (denominative from bæte, _the bit_), w. v., _to place the bit in
the mouth of an animal, to bridle_: pret. part. þâ wäs Hrôðgâre hors
gebæted, 1400.

be, prep. w. dat. (with the fundamental meaning _near_, "but not of one
direction, as ät, but more general"): 1) local, _near by, near, at, on_
(rest): be ýdlâfe uppe lægon, _lay above, upon the deposit of the waves_
(upon the strand, of the slain nixies), 566; häfde be honda, _held by the
hand_ (Beówulf held Grendel), 815; be sæm tweonum, _in the circuit of both
the seas_, 859, 1686; be mäste, _on the mast_, 1906; by fýre, _by the
fire_, 2220; be nässe, _at the promontory_, 2244; sät be þæm gebrôðrum
twæm, _sat by the two brothers_, 1192; wäs se gryre lässa efne swâ micle
swâ bið mägða cräft be wæpnedmen, _the terror was just so much less, as is
the strength of woman to the warrior_ (i.e. is valued by), 1285, etc.--2)
also local, but of motion from the subject in the direction of the object,
_on, upon, by_: gefêng be eaxle, _seized by the shoulder_, 1538; âlêdon
leófne þeóden be mäste, _laid the dear lord near the mast_, 36; be healse
genam, _took him by the neck, fell upon his neck_, 1873; wæpen hafenade be
hiltum, _grasped the weapon by the hilt_, 1757, etc.--3) with this is
connected the causal force, _on account of, for, according to_: ic þis gid
be þe âwräc, _I spake this solemn speech for thee, for thy sake_, 1724; þû
þe lær be þon, _learn according to this, from this_, 1723; be fäder lâre,
_according to her father's direction_, 1951.--4) temporal, _while, during_:
be þe lifigendum, _while thou livest, during thy life_, 2666. See bî.

bed, st. n., _bed, couch_: acc. sg. bed, 140, 677; gen. sg. beddes, 1792;
dat. pl. beddum, 1241.--Comp: deað-, hlin-, läger-, morðor-, wäl-bed.

ge-bedde, w. f., _bed-fellow_: dat. sg. wolde sêcan ewên tô gebeddan,
_wished to seek the queen as bed-fellow, to go to bed with her_,
666.--Comp. heals-gebedde.

begen, fem. bâ, _both_: nom. m., 536, 770, 2708; acc. fem. on bâ healfa,
_on two sides_ (i.e. Grendel and his mother), 1306; dat. m. bâm, 2197; and
in connection with the possessive instead of the personal pronoun, ûrum
bâm, 2661; gen. n. bega, 1874, 2896; bega gehwäðres, _each one of the two_,
1044; bega folces, of _both peoples_, 1125.

ge-belgan, st. v. (properly, _to cause to swell, to swell_), _to irritate_:
w. dat. (pret. subj.) þät he êcean dryhtne bitre gebulge, _that he had
bitterly angered the eternal Lord_, 2332; pret. part. gebolgen, 1540;
(gebolge, MS.), 2222; pl. gebolgne, 1432; more according to the original
meaning in torne gebolgen, 2402.

â-belgan, _to anger_: pret. sg. w. acc. ôð þät hyne ân âbealh mon on môde,
_till a man angered him in his heart_, 2281; pret. part. âbolgen, 724.

ben, st. f., _wound_: acc. sg. benne, 2725.--Comp.: feorh-, seax-ben.

benc, st. f., _bench_: nom. sg. benc, 492; dat. sg. bence, 327, 1014, 1189,
1244.--Comp.: ealu-, medu-benc.

benc-swêg, st. m., (_bench-rejoicing_), _rejoicing which resounds from the
benches_, 1162.

benc-þel, st. n., _bench-board, the wainscotted space where the benches
stand_: nom. pl. benc-þelu, 486; acc. pl. bencþelu beredon, _cleared the
bench-boards_ (i.e. by taking away the benches, so as to prepare couches),

bend, st. m. f., _bond, fetter_: acc. sg. forstes bend, _frost's bond_,
1610; dat. pl. bendum, 978.--Comp.: fýr-, hell-, hyge-, îren-, oncer-,
searo-, wäl-bend.

ben-geat, st. n., (_wound-gate_), _wound-opening_: nom. pl. ben-geato,

bera (O.N. beri), w. m., _bearer_: in comp. hleor-bera.

beran, st. v. w. acc., _to carry_; III. sg. pres. byreð, 296, 448; þone
mâððum byreð, _carries the treasure_ (upon his person), 2056; pres. subj.
bere, 437; pl. beren, 2654; inf. beran, 48, 231, 291, etc.; hêht þâ se
hearda Hrunting beran, _to bring Hrunting_, 1808; up beran, 1921; in beran,
2153; pret. bär, 495, 712, 847, etc.; mandryhtne bär fäted wæge, _brought
the lord the costly vessel_, 2282; pl. bæron, 213, 1636, etc.; bæran, 2851;
pret. part. boren, 1193, 1648, 3136.--The following expressions are poetic
paraphrases of the forms _go, come_: þät we rondas beren eft tô earde,
2654; gewîtað forð beran wæpen and gewædu, 291; ic gefrägn sunu Wihstânes
hringnet beran, 2755; wîgheafolan bär, 2662; helmas bæron, 240
(conjecture); scyldas bæran, 2851: they lay stress upon the connection of
the man with his weapons.

ät-beran, _to carry to_: inf. tô beadulâce (_battle_) ätberan, 1562; pret.
þâ hine on morgentîd on Heaðoræmas holm up ätbär, _the sea bore him up to
the Heaðoræmas_, 519; hió Beówulfe medoful ätbär _brought Beówulf the
mead-cup_, 625; mägenbyrðenne ... hider ût ätbär cyninge mînum, _bore the
great burden hither to my king_, 3093; pl. hî hyne ätbæron tô brimes
faroðe, 28.

for-beran, _to hold, to suppress_: inf. þät he þone breóstwylm forberan ne
mehte, _that he could not suppress the emotions of his breast_, 1878.

ge-beran, _to bring forth, to bear_: pret. part. þät lâ mäg secgan se þe
sôð and riht fremeð on folce ... þät þes eorl wære geboren betera (_that
may every just man of the people say, that this nobleman is better born_),

ôð-beran, _to bring hither_: pret. þâ mec sæ ôðbär on Finna land, 579.

on-beran (O.H.G. in bëran, intpëran, but in the sense of carere), auferre,
_to carry off, to take away_: inf. îren ærgôd þät þäs ahlæcan blôdge
beadufolme onberan wolde, _excellent sword which would sweep off the bloody
hand of the demon_, 991; pret. part. (wäs) onboren beága hord, _the
treasure of the rings had been carried off_, 2285.--Compounds with the
pres. part.: helm-, sâwl-berend.

berian (denominative from bär, _naked_), w. v., _to make bare, to clear_:
pret. pl. bencþelu beredon, _cleared the bench-place_ (by removing the
benches), 1240.

berstan, st. v., _to break, to burst_: pret. pl. burston bânlocan, 819;
bengeato burston, 1122.--_to crack, to make the noise of breaking_: fingras
burston, _the fingers cracked_ (from Beówulf's gripe), 761.

for-berstan, _break, to fly asunder_: pret. Nägling forbärst, _Nägling_
(Beówulf's sword) _broke in two_, 2681.

betera, adj. (comp.), _better_: nom. sg. m. betera, 469, 1704.

bet-lîc, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. n., of Hrôðgâr's hall, 781;
of Hygelâc's residence, 1926.

betst, betost (superl.), _best, the best_: nom. sg. m. betst beadurinca,
1110; neut. nu is ôfost betost, þät we ..., _now is haste the best, that
we..._, 3008; voc. m. secg betsta, 948; neut. acc. beaduscrûda betst, 453;
acc. sg. m. þegn betstan, 1872.

bêcn, st. n., _(beacon), token, mark, sign_: acc. sg. betimbredon
beadu-rôfes bêcn (of Beówulf's grave-mound), 3162. See beacen.

bêg. See beág.

bên, st. f., _entreaty_: gen. sg. bêne, 428, 2285.

bêna, w. m., _suppliant_, supplex: nom. sg. swâ þu bêna eart (_as thou
entreatest_), 352; swâ he bêna wäs (_as he had asked_), 3141; nom. pl. hy
bênan synt, 364.

ge-betan: 1) _to make good, to remove_: pret. ac þu Hrôðgâre wîdcûðne weán
wihte gebêttest, _hast thou in any way relieved Hrôðgâr of the evil known
afar_, 1992; pret. part. acc. sg. swylce oncýððe ealle gebêtte, _removed
all trouble_, 831. --2) _to avenge_: inf. wihte ne meahte on þam feorhbonan
fæhðe gebêtan, _could in no way avenge the death upon the slayer_, 2466.

beadu, st. f., _battle, strife, combat_: dat. sg. (as instr.) beadwe, _in
combat_, 1540; gen. pl. bâd beadwa ge-þinges, _waited for the combats_
(with Grendel) _that were in store for him_, 710.

beadu-folm, st. f., _battle-hand_: acc. sg. -folme, of Grendel's hand, 991.

beado-grîma, w. m., _(battle-mask), helmet_: acc. pl. -grîman, 2258.

beado-hrägl, st. n., _(battle-garment), corselet, shirt of mail_, 552.

beadu-lâc, st. n., (_exercise in arms, tilting_), _combat, battle_: dat.
sg. tô beadu-lâce, 1562.

beado-leóma, w. m., (_battle-light_), _sword_: nom. sg., 1524.

beado-mêce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. beado-mêcas, 1455.

beado-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: gen. pl. betst beadorinca,

beadu-rôf, adj., _strong in battle_: gen. sg. -rôfes, of Beówulf, 3162.

beadu-rûn, st. f., _mystery of battle_: acc. sg. onband beadu-rûne, _solved
the mystery of the combat_, i.e. gave battle, commenced the fight, 501.

beadu-scearp, adj., _battle-sharp, sharp for the battle_, 2705.

beadu-scrûd, st. n., (_battle-dress_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: gen. pl.
beaduscrûda betst, 453.

beadu-serce, w. f., (_battle-garment_), _corselet, shirt of mail_: acc. sg.
brogdne beadu-sercean (because it consists of interlaced metal rings),

beado-weorc, st. n., (_battle-work_), _battle_: gen. sg. gefeh
beado-weorces, _rejoiced at the battle_, 2300.

beald, adj., _bold, brave_: in comp. cyning-beald.

bealdian, w. v., _to show one's self brave_: pret. bealdode gôdum dædum
(_through brave deeds_), 2178.

bealdor, st. m., _lord, prince_: nom. sg. sinca baldor, 2429; winia
bealdor, 2568.

bealu, st. n., _evil, ruin, destruction_: instr. sg. bealwe, 2827; gen. pl.
bealuwa, 281; bealewa, 2083; bealwa, 910.--Comp.: cwealm-, ealdor-,
hreðer-, leód-, morðor-, niht-, sweord-, wîg-bealu.

bealu, adj., _deadly, dangerous, bad_: instr. sg. hyne sâr hafað befongen
balwon bendum, _pain has entwined him in deadly bands_, 978.

bealo-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, death by the sword_(?), 2266.

bealo-hycgende, pres. part., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_:
gen. pl. æghwäðrum bealo-hycgendra, 2566.

bealo-hydig, adj., _thinking of death, meditating destruction_: of Grendel,

bealo-nîð, st. m., (_zeal for destruction_), _deadly enmity_: nom. sg.,
2405; _destructive struggle_: acc. sg. bebeorh þe þone bealonîð, _beware of
destructive striving_, 1759; _death-bringing rage_: nom. sg. him on
breóstum bealo-nîð weóll, _in his breast raged deadly fury_ (of the
dragon's poison), 2715.

bearhtm (see beorht): 1) st. m., _splendor, brightness, clearness_: nom.
sg. eágena bearhtm, 1767.--2) _sound, tone_: acc. sg. bearhtm ongeâton,
gûðhorn galan, _they heard the sound, (heard) the battle-horn sound_, 1432.

bearm, m., gremium, sinus, _lap, bosom_: nom. sg. foldan bearm, 1138; acc.
sg. on bearm scipes, 35, 897; on bearm nacan, 214; him on bearm hladan
bunan and discas, 2776.--2) figuratively, _possession, property_, because
things bestowed were placed in the lap of the receiver (1145 and 2195, on
bearm licgan, âlecgan); dat. sg. him tô bearme cwom mâððumfät mære, _came
into his possession_, 2405.

bearn, st. n., 1) _child, son_: nom. sg. bearn Healfdenes, 469, etc.;
Ecglâfes bearn, 499, etc.; dat. sg. bearne, 2371; nom. pl. bearn, 59; dat.
pl. bearnum, 1075.--2) in a broader sense, _scion, offspring, descendant_:
nom. sg. Ongenþeów's bearn, of his grandson, 2388; nom. pl. yldo. bearn,
70; gumena bearn, _children of men_, 879; häleða bearn, 1190; äðelinga
bearn, 3172; acc. pl. ofer ylda bearn, 606; dat. pl. ylda bearnum, 150;
gen. pl. niðða bearna, 1006.--Comp.: brôðor-, dryht-bearn.

bearn-gebyrdu, f., _birth, birth of a son_: gen. sg. þät hyre ealdmetod
êste wære bearn-gebyrdo, _has been gracious through the birth of such a
son_ (i.e. as Beówulf), 947.

bearu, st. m., (_the bearer_, hence properly only the fruit-tree,
especially the oak and the beech), _tree_, collectively _forest_: nom. pl.
hrîmge bearwas, _rime-covered_ or _ice-clad_, 1364.

beácen, st. n., _sign, banner_, vexillum: nom. sg. beorht beácen godes, _of
the sun_, 570; gen. pl. beácna beorhtost, 2778. See bêcn.

ge-beácnian, w. v., _to mark, to indicate_: pret. part. ge-beácnod, 140.

beág, st. m., _ring, ornament_: nom. sg. beáh (_neck-ring_), 1212; acc. sg.
beáh (the collar of the murdered king of the Heaðobeardnas), 2042; bêg
(collective for the acc. pl.), 3165; dat. sg. cwom Wealhþeó forð gân under
gyldnum beáge, _she walked along under a golden head-ring, wore a golden
diadem_, 1164; gen. sg. beáges (of a collar), 1217; acc. pl. beágas (rings
in general), 80, 523, etc.; gen. pl. beága, 35, 352, 1488, 2285, etc.--
Comp.: earm-, heals-beág.

beág-gyfa, w. m., _ring-giver_, designation of the prince: gen. sg. -gyfan,

beág-hroden, adj., _adorned with rings, ornamented with clasps_: nom. sg.
beághroden, cwên, of Hrôðgâr's consort, perhaps with reference to her
diadem (cf. 1164), 624.

beáh-hord, st. m. n., _ring-hoard, treasure consisting of rings_: gen. sg.
beáh-hordes, 895; dat. pl. beáh-hordum, 2827; gen. pl. beáh-horda weard, of
King Hrôðgâr, 922.

beáh-sele, st. m., _ring-hall, hall in which the rings were distributed_:
nom. sg., of Heorot, 1178.

beáh-þegu, st. f., _the receiving of the ring_: dat. sg. äfter beáh-þege,

beáh-wriða, w. m. _ring-band_, ring with prominence given to its having the
form of a band: acc. sg. beáh-wriðan, 2019.

beám, st. m., _tree_, only in the compounds fyrgen-, gleó-beám.

beátan, st. v., _thrust, strike_: pres. sg. mearh burhstede beáteð, _the
steed beats the castle-ground_ (place where the castle is built), i.e. with
his hoofs, 2266; pret. part. swealt bille ge-beáten, _died, struck by the
battle-axe_, 2360.

beorh, st. m.: 1) _mountain, rock_: dat. sg. beorge, 211; gen. sg. beorges,
2525, 2756; acc. pl. beorgas, 222.--2) _grave-mound, tomb-hill_: acc. sg.
biorh, 2808; beorh, 3098, 3165. A grave-mound serves the drake as a retreat
(cf. 2277, 2412): nom. sg. beorh, 2242; gen. sg. beorges, 2323.--Comp.

beorh, st. f., _veil, covering, cap_; only in the comp. heáfod-beorh.

beorgan, st. v. (w. dat. of the interested person or thing), _to save, to
shield_: inf. wolde feore beorgan, _place her life in safety_, 1294;
here-byrne ... seó þe bâncôfan beorgan cûðe, _which could protect his
body_, 1446; pret. pl. ealdre burgan, 2600.

be-beorgan (w. dat. refl. of pers. and acc. of the thing), _to take care,
to defend one's self from_: inf. him be-beorgan ne con wom, _cannot keep
himself from stain_ (fault), 1747; imp. bebeorh þe þone bealontð, 1759.

ge-beorgan (w, dat. of person or thing to be saved), _to save, to protect_:
pret. sg. þät gebearh feore, _protected the life_, 1549; scyld wel gebearg
lîfe and lîce, 2571.

ymb-beorgan, _to surround protectingly_: pret. sg. bring ûtan ymb-bearh,

beorht, byrht, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining, radiant, shimmering_: nom. sg.
beorht, of the sun, 570, 1803; beorhta, of Heorot, 1178; þät beorhte bold,
998; acc. sg. beorhtne, of Beówulf's grave-mound, 2804; dat. sg. tô þære
byrhtan (here-byrhtan, MS.) byrig, 1200; acc. pl. beorhte frätwe, 214, 897;
beorhte randas, 231; bordwudu beorhtan, 1244; n. beorht hofu, 2314.
Superl.: beácna beorhtost, 2778. --2) _excellent, remarkable_: gen. sg.
beorhtre bôte, 158. --Comp.: sadol-, wlite-beorht.

beorhte, adv., _brilliantly, brightly, radiantly_, 1518.

beorhtian, w. v., _to sound clearly_: pret. sg. beorhtode benc-swêg, 1162.

beorn, st. m., _hero, warrior, noble man_: nom. sg. (Hrôðgâr), 1881,
(Beówulf), 2434, etc.; acc. sg. (Beów.), 1025, (Äschere), 1300; dat. sg.
beorne, 2261; nom. pl. beornas (Beówulf and his companions), 211,
(Hrôðgâr's guests), 857; gen. pl. biorna (Beówulf's liege-men),
2405.--Comp.: folc-, gûð-beorn.

beornan, st. v., _to burn_: pres. part. byrnende (of the drake),
2273.--Comp. un-byrnende.

for-beornan, _to be consumed, to burn_: pret. sg. for-barn, 1617, 1668;
for-born, 2673.

ge-beornan, _to be burned_: pret. gebarn, 2698.

beorn-cyning, st. m., _king of warriors, king of heroes_: nom. sg. (as
voc.), 2149.

beódan, st. v.: 1) _to announce, to inform, to make known_: inf. biódan,
2893.--2) _to offer, to proffer_ (as the notifying of a transaction in
direct reference to the person concerned in it): pret. pl. him geþingo
budon, _offered them an agreement_, 1086; pret. part. þâ wäs æht boden
Sweona leódum, _then was pursuit offered the Swedish people_, 2958; inf. ic
þäm gôdan sceal mâðmas beódan, _I shall offer the excellent man treasures_,

â-beódan, _to present, to announce_: pret. word inne âbeád, _made known the
words within_, 390; _to offer, to tender, to wish_: pret. him hæl âbeád,
_wished him health_ (greeted him), 654. Similarly, hælo âbeád, 2419; eoton
weard âbeád, _offered the giant a watcher_, 669.

be-beódan, _to command, to order_: pret. swâ him se hearda bebeád, _as the
strong man commanded them_, 401. Similarly, swâ se rîca bebeád, 1976.

ge-beódan: 1) _to command, to order_: inf. hêt þâ gebeódan byre Wihstânes
häleða monegum, þät hie..., _the son of Wihstan caused orders to be given
to many of the men..._, 3111.--2) _to offer_: him Hygd gebeád hord and
rîce, _offered him the treasure and the chief power_, 2370; inf. gûðe
gebeódan, _to offer battle_, 604.

beód-geneát, st. m., _table-companion_: nom. and acc. pl. geneátas, 343,

beón, verb, _to be_, generally in the future sense, _will be_: pres. sg. I.
gûðgeweorca ic beó gearo sôna, _I shall immediately be ready for warlike
deeds_, 1826; sg. III. wâ bið þäm þe sceal..., _woe to him who_...! 183;
so, 186; gifeðe bið is given, 299; ne bið þe wilna gâd (_no wish will be
denied thee_), 661; þær þe bið manna þearf, _if thou shalt need the
warriors_, 1836; ne bið swylc cwênlîc þeáw, _is not becoming, honorable to
a woman_, 1941; eft sôna bið _will happen directly_, 1763; similarly, 1768,
etc.; pl. þonne bióð brocene, _then are broken_, 2064; feor cýððe beóð
sêlran gesôhte þam þe..., "terrae longinquae meliores sunt visitatu ei
qui..." (Grein), 1839; imp. beó (bió) þu on ôfeste, _hasten!_ 386, 2748;
beó wið Geátas gläd, _be gracious to the Geátas_, 1174.

beór, st. n., _beer_: dat. sg. ät beóre, _at beer-drinking_, 2042; instr.
sg. beóre druncen, 531; beóre druncne, 480.

beór-scealc, st. m., _keeper of the beer, cup-bearer_: gen. pl.
beór-scealca sum (one of Hrôðgâr's followers, because they served the
Geátas at meals), 1241.

beór-sele, st. m., _beer-hall, hall in which beer is drunk_: dat. sg. in
(on) beórsele, 482, 492, 1095; biórsele, 2636.

beór-þegu, st. f., _beer-drinking, beer-banquet_: dat. sg. äfter beórþege,
117; ät þære beórþege, 618.

beót, st. n., _promise, binding agreement to something that is to be
undertaken_: acc. sg. he beót ne âlêh, _did not break his pledge_, 80; beót
eal ... gelæste, _performed all that he had pledged himself to_, 523.

ge-beótian, w. v., _to pledge one's self to an undertaking, to bind one's
self_: pret. gebeótedon, 480, 536.

beót-word, st. n., same as beót: dat. pl. beót-wordum spräc, 2511.

biddan, st. v., _to beg, to ask, to pray_: pres. sg. I. dôð swâ ic bidde!
1232; inf. (w. acc. of the pers. and gen. of the thing asked for) ic þe
biddan wille ânre bêne, _beg thee for one_, 427; pret. swâ he selfa bäd,
_as he himself had requested_, 29; bäd hine blîðne (supply wesan) ät þære
beórþege, _begged him to be cheerful at the beer-banquet_, 618; ic þe lange
bäd þät þu..., _begged you a long time that you_, 1995; frioðowære bäd
hlâford sînne, _begged his lord for protection_ (acc. of pers. and gen. of
thing), 2283; bäd þät ge geworhton, _asked that you_..., 3097; pl. wordum
bædon þät..., 176.

on-bidian, w. v., _to await_: inf. lætað hilde-bord her onbidian ... worda
geþinges, _let the shields await here the result of the conference_ (lay
the shields aside here), 397.

bil, st. n. _sword_: nom. sg. bil, 1568; bill, 2778; acc. sg. bil, 1558;
instr. sg. bille, 2360; gen. sg. billes, 2061, etc.; instr. pl. billum, 40;
gen. pl. billa, 583, 1145.--Comp.: gûð-, hilde-, wîg-bil.

bindan, st. v., _to bind, to tie_: pret. part. acc. sg. wudu bundenne, _the
bound wood_, i.e. the built ship, 216; bunden golde swurd, _a sword bound
with gold_, i.e. either having its hilt inlaid with gold, or having gold
chains upon the hilt (swords of both kinds have been found), 1901; nom. sg.
heoru bunden, 1286, has probably a similar meaning.

ge-bindan, _to bind_: pret. sg. þær ic fîfe geband, _where I had bound
five_(?), 420; pret. part. cyninges þegn word ôðer fand sôðe gebunden, _the
king's man found_ (after many had already praised Beówulf's deed) _other
words_ (also referring to Beówulf, but in connection with Sigemund)
_rightly bound together_, i.e. in good alliterative verses, as are becoming
to a gid, 872; wundenmæl wrättum gebunden, _sword bound with ornaments_,
i.e. inlaid, 1532; bisgum gebunden, _bound together by sorrow_, 1744; gomel
gûðwîga eldo gebunden, _hoary hero bound by old age_ (fettered, oppressed),

on-bindan, _to unbind, to untie, to loose_: pret. onband, 501.

ge-bind, st. n. coll., _that which binds, fetters_: in comp. îs-gebind.

bite, st. m., _bite_, figuratively of the cut of the sword: acc. sg. bite
îrena, _the swords' bite_, 2260; dat. sg. äfter billes bite, 2061.--Comp.

biter (primary meaning that of biting), adj.: 1) _sharp, cutting, cutting
in_: acc. sg. biter (of a short sword), 2705; instr. sg. biteran stræle,
1747; instr. pl. biteran bânum, _with sharp teeth_, 2693.--2) _irritated,
furious_: nom. pl. bitere, 1432.

bitre, adv., _bitterly_ (in a moral sense), 2332.

bî, big (fuller form of the prep. be, which see), prep. w. dat.: 1) _near,
at, on, about, by_ (as under be, No. 1): bî sæm tweónum, _in the circuit of
both seas_, 1957; ârâs bî ronde, _raised himself up by the shield_, 2539;
bî wealle gesät, _sat by the wall_, 2718. With a freer position: him big
stôdan bunan and orcas, _round about him_, 3048.--2) _to, towards_
(motion): hwearf þâ bî bence, _turned then towards the bench_, 1189; geóng
bî sesse, _went to the seat_, 2757.

bîd (see bîdan), st. n., _tarrying hesitation_: þær wearð Ongenþió on bîd
wrecen, _forced to tarry_, 2963.

bîdan, st. v.: 1) _to delay, to stay, to remain, to wait_: inf. nô on
wealle leng bîdan wolde, _would not stay longer within the wall_ (the
drake), 2309; pret. in þýstrum bâd, _remained in darkness_, 87; flota
stille bâd, _the craft lay still_, 301; receda ... on þäm se rîca bâd,
_where the mighty one dwelt_, 310; þær se snottra bâd, _where the wise man_
(Hrôðgâr) _waited_, 1314; he on searwum bâd, _he_ (Beówulf) _stood there
armed_, 2569; ic on earde bâd mælgesceafta, _lived upon the paternal ground
the time appointed me by fate_, 2737; pret. pl. sume þær bidon, _some
remained, waited there_, 400.--2) _to await, to wait for_, with the gen. of
that which is awaited: inf. bîdan woldon Grendles gûðe, _wished to await
the combat with Grendel, to undertake it_, 482; similarly, 528; wîges
bîdan, _await the combat_, 1269; nalas andsware bîdan wolde, _would await
no answer_, 1495; pret. bâd beadwa geþinges, _awaited the event of the
battle_, 710; sægenga bâd âgend-freán, _the sea-goer_ (boat) _awaited its
owner_, 1883; sele ... heaðowylma bâd, lâðan lîges (the poet probably means
to indicate by these words that the hall Heorot was destroyed later in a
fight by fire; an occurrence, indeed, about which we know nothing, but
which 1165 and 1166, and again 2068 ff. seem to indicate), 82.

â-bîdan, _to await_, with the gen.: inf., 978.

ge-bîdan: 1) _to tarry, to wait_: imp. gebîde ge on beorge, _wait ye on the
mountain_, 2530; pret. part. þeáh þe wintra lyt under burhlocan gebiden
häbbe Häreðes dôhtor _although H's daughter had dwelt only a few years in
the castle_, 1929.--2) _to live through, to experience, to expect_ (w.
acc.): inf. sceal endedäg mînne gebîdan, _shall live my last day_, 639; ne
wênde ... bôte gebîdan, _did not hope ... to live to see reparation_, 935;
fela sceal gebîdan leófes and lâðes, _experience much good and much
affliction_, 1061; ende gebîdan, 1387, 2343; pret. he þäs frôfre gebâd,
_received consolation_ (compensation) _therefore_, 7; gebâd wintra worn,
_lived a great number of years_, 264; in a similar construction, 816, 930,
1619, 2259, 3117. With gen.: inf. tô gebîdanne ôðres yrfeweardes, _to await
another heir_, 2453. With depend, clause: inf. tô gebîdanne þät his byre
rîde on galgan, _to live to see it, that his son hang upon the gallows_,
2446; pret. dreám-leás gebâd þät he..., _joyless he experienced it, that
he_..., 1721; þäs þe ic on aldre gebâd þät ic..., _for this, that I, in my
old age, lived to see that_..., 1780.

on-bîdan, _to wait, to await_: pret. hordweard onbâd earfoðlîce ôð þät æfen
cwom, _scarcely waited, could scarcely delay till it was evening_, 2303.

bîtan, st. v., _to bite_, of the cutting of swords: inf. bîtan, 1455, 1524;
pret. bât bânlocan, _bit into his body_ (Grendel), 743; bât unswîðor, _cut
with less force_ (Beówulf's sword), 2579.

blanca, w. m., properly _that which shines_ here of the horse, not so much
of the white horse as the dappled: dat. pl. on blancum, 857.

ge-bland, ge-blond, st. n., _mixture, heaving mass, a turning_.--Comp.:
sund-, ýð-geblond, windblond.

blanden-feax, blonden-feax, adj., _mixed_, i.e. having gray hair,
_gray-headed_, as epithet of an old man: nom. sg. blondenfeax, 1792;
blondenfexa, 2963; dat. sg. blondenfeaxum, 1874; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe,

bläc, adj., _dark, black_: nom. sg, hrefn blaca, 1802.

blâc, adj.: 1) _gleaming, shining_: acc. sg. blâcne leóman, _a brilliant
gleam_, 1518.--2) of the white death-color, _pale_; in comp. heoroblâc.

blæd, st. m.: 1) _strength, force, vigor_: nom. sg. wäs hira blæd scacen
(of both tribes), _strength was gone_, i.e. the bravest of both tribes lay
slain, 1125; nu is þînes mägnes blæd âne hwîle, _now the fulness of thy
strength lasts for a time_, 1762.--2) _reputation, renown, knowledge_ (with
stress upon the idea of filling up, spreading out): nom. sg. blæd, 18;
(þîn) blæd is âræred, _thy renown is spread abroad_, 1704.

blæd-âgend, pt., _having renown, renowned_: nom. pl. blæd-âgende, 1014.

blæd-fäst, adj., _firm in renown, renowned, known afar_: acc. sg.
blædfästne beorn (of Äschere, with reference to 1329), 1300.

bleát, adj., _miserable, helpless_; only in comp. wäl-bleát.

bleáte, adv., _miserably, helplessly_, 2825.

blîcan, st. v., _shine, gleam_: inf., 222

blîðe, adj.: 1) _blithe, joyous, happy_ acc. sg. blîðne, 618.--2)
_gracious, pleasing_: nom. sg. blîðe, 436.--Comp. un-blîðe.

blîð-heort, adj., _joyous in heart, happy_: nom. sg., 1803.

blôd, st. n., _blood_: nom. sg., 1122; acc. sg., 743; dat. sg. blôde, 848;
äfter deórum men him langað beorn wið blôde, _the hero_ (Hrôðgâr) _longs
for the beloved man contrary to blood_, i.e. he loves him although he is
not related to him by blood, 1881; dat. as instr. blôde, 486, 935, 1595,

blôd-fâg, adj., _spotted with blood, bloody_, 2061.

blôdig, adj., _bloody_: acc. sg. f. blôdge, 991; acc. sg. n. blôdig, 448;
instr. sg. blôdigan gâre, 2441.

ge-blôdian, w. v., _to make bloody, to sprinkle with blood_: pret. part.
ge-blôdegod, 2693.

blôdig-tôð, adj., _with bloody teeth_: nom. sg. bona blôdig-tôð (of
Grendel, because he bites his victims to death), 2083.

blôd-reów, adj., _bloodthirsty, bloody-minded_: nom. sg. him on ferhðe
greów breóst-hord blôd-reów, _in his bosom there grew a bloodthirsty
feeling_, 1720.

be-bod, st. n., _command, order_; in comp. wundor-bebod.

bodian, w. v., _(to be a messenger), to announce, to make known_: pret.
hrefn blaca heofones wynne blîð-heort bodode, _the black raven announced
joyfully heaven's delight_ (the rising sun), 1803.

boga, w. m., _bow_, of the bended form; here of the dragon, in comp.
hring-boga; as an instrument for shooting, in the comp. flân-, horn-boga;
bow of the arch, in comp. stân-boga.

bolca, w. m., "forus navis" (Grein), _gangway_; here probably the planks
which at landing are laid from the ship to the shore: acc. sg. ofer bolcan,

bold, st. n., _building, house, edifice_: nom. sg. (Heorot), 998;
(Hygelâc's residence), 1926; (Beówulfs residence), 2197, 2327.--Comp.

bold-âgend, pt., _house-owner, property-holder_: gen. pl. monegum
boldâgendra, 3113.

bolgen-môd, adj., _angry at heart, angry_, 710, 1714.

bolster, st. m., _bolster, cushion, pillow_: dat. pl. (reced) geond-bræded
wearð beddum and bolstrum, _was covered with beds and bolsters_,
1241.--Comp. hleór-bolster.

bon-. See ban-.

bora, w. m., _carrier, bringer, leader_: in the comp. mund-, ræd-,

bord, st. n., _shield_: nom. sg., 2674; acc. sg., 2525; gen. pl. ofer borda
gebräc, _over the crashing of the shields_, 2260.--Comp.: hilde-, wîg-bord.

bord-häbbend, pt., _one having a shield, shield-bearer_: nom. pl. häbbende,

bord-hreóða, w. m., _shield-cover, shield_ with particular reference to its
cover (of hides or linden bark): dat. sg. -hreóðan, 2204.

bord-rand, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg., 2560.

bord-weall, st. m., _shield-wall, wall of shields_: acc. sg., 2981.

bord-wudu, st. m., _shield-wood, shield_: acc. pl. beorhtan beord-wudu,

botm, st. m., _bottom_: dat. sg. tô botme (here of the bottom of the
fen-lake), 1507.

bôt (emendation, cf. bêtan), st. f.: 1) _relief, remedy_: nom. sg., 281;
acc. sg. bôte, 935; acc. sg. bôte, 910.--2) _a performance in expiation, a
giving satisfaction, tribute_: gen. sg. bôte, 158.

brand, brond, st. m.: 1) _burning, fire_: nom. sg. þâ sceal brond fretan
(_the burning of the body_), 3015; instr. sg. by hine ne môston ... bronde
forbärnan (_could not bestow upon him the solemn burning_), 2127; häfde
landwara lîge befangen, bæle and bronde, _with glow, fire, and flame_,
2323.--2) in the passage, þät hine nô brond ne beadomêcas bîtan ne meahton,
1455, brond has been translated _sword, brand_ (after the O.N. brand-r).
The meaning _fire_ may be justified as well, if we consider that the old
helmets were generally made of leather, and only the principal parts were
mounted with bronze. The poet wishes here to emphasize the fact that the
helmet was made entirely of metal, a thing which was very unusual.--3) in
the passage, forgeaf þâ Beówulfe brand Healfdenes segen gyldenne, 1021, our
text, with other editions, has emendated, bearn, since brand, if it be
intended as a designation of Hrôðgâr (perhaps _son_), has not up to this
time been found in this sense in A.-S.

brant, bront, adj., _raging, foaming, going-high_, of ships and of waves:
acc. sg. brontne, 238, 568.

brâd, adj.: 1) _extended, wide_: nom. pl. brâde rîce, 2208.--2) _broad_:
nom. sg. heáh and brâd (of Beówulf's grave-mound), 3159; acc. sg. brâdne
mêce, 2979; (seax) brâd [and] brûnecg, _the broad, short sword with bright
edge_, 1547.--3) _massive, in abundance_. acc, sg. brâd gold, 3106.

ge-bräc, st. n., _noise, crash_: acc. sg. borda gebräc, 2260.

geond-brædan, w. v., _to spread over, to cover entirely_: pret. part.
geond-bræded, 1240.

brecan, st. v.: 1) _to break, to break to pieces_: pret. bânhringas bräc,
(the sword) _broke the joints_, 1568. In a moral sense: pret. subj. þät þær
ænig mon wære ne bræce, _that no one should break the agreement_, 1101;
pret. part. þonne bióð brocene ... âð-sweord eorla, _then are the oaths of
the men broken_, 2064.--2) probably also simply _to break in upon
something, to press upon_, w. acc.: pret. sg. sædeór monig hildetuxum
heresyrcan bräc, _many a sea-animal pressed with his battle-teeth upon the
shirt of mail_ (did not break it, for, according to 1549 f., 1553 f., it
was still unharmed). 1512.--3) _to break out, to spring out_: inf. geseah
... streám ût brecan of beorge, _saw a stream break out from the rocks_,
2547; lêt se hearda Higelâces þegn brâdne mêce ... brecan ofer bordweal,
_caused the broadsword to spring out over the wall of shields_, 2981.--4)
figuratively, _to vex, not to let rest_: pret. hine fyrwyt bräc, _curiosity
tormented_ (N.H.G. brachte die Neugier um), 232, 1986, 2785.

ge-brecan, _to break to pieces_: pret. bânhûs gebräc, _broke in pieces his
body_ (Beówulf in combat with Däghrefn), 2509.

tô-brecan, _to break in pieces_: inf., 781; pret. part. tô-brocen, 998.

þurh-brecan, _to break through_, pret. wordes ord breósthord þurh-bräc,
_the word's point broke through his closed breast_, i.e. a word burst out
from his breast, 2793.

brecð, st. f., _condition of being broken, breach_: nom. pl. môdes brecða
(_sorrow of heart_), 171.

â-bredwian, w. v. w. acc., _to fell to the ground, to kill_ (?): pret.
âbredwade, 2620.

bregdan, st. v., properly _to swing round_, hence: 1) _to swing_: inf.
under sceadu bregdan, _swing among the shadows, to send into the realm of
shadows_, 708; pret. brägd ealde lâfe, _swung the old weapon_, 796; brägd
feorh-genîðlan, _swung his mortal enemy_ (Grendel's mother), threw her
down, 1540; pl. git eágorstreám ... mundum brugdon, _stirred the sea with
your hands_ (of the movement of the hands in swimming), 514; pret. part.
broden (brogden) mæl, _the drawn sword_, 1617, 1668.--2) _to knit, to knot,
to plait_: inf., figuratively, inwitnet ôðrum bregdan, _to weave a
waylaying net for another_ (as we say in the same way, to lay a trap for
another, to dig a pit for another), 2168; pret. part. beadohrägl broden, _a
woven shirt of mail_ (because it consisted of metal rings joined together),
552; similarly, 1549; brogdne beadusercean, 2756.

â-bregdan, _to swing_: pret. hond up â-bräd, _swung, raised his hand_,

ge-bregdan: 1) _swing_: pret. hring-mæl gebrägd, _swung the ringed sword_,
1565; eald sweord eácen ... þät ic þý wæpne gebrägd, _an old heavy sword
that I swung as my weapon_, 1665; with interchanging instr. and acc.
wällseaxe gebräd, biter and beadu-scearp, 2704; also, _to draw out of the
sheath_: sweord ær gebräd, _had drawn the sword before_, 2563.--2) _to
knit, to knot, to plait_: pret. part. bere-byrne hondum gebroden, 1444.

on-bregdan, _to tear open, to throw open_: pret. onbräd þâ recedes mûðan,
_had then thrown open the entrance of the hall_ (onbregdan is used because
the opening door swings upon its hinges), 724.

brego, st. m., _prince, ruler_: nom. sg. 427, 610.

brego-rôf, adj., _powerful, like a ruler, of heroic strength_: nom. sg. m.,

brego-stôl, st. m., _throne_, figuratively for _rule_: acc. sg. him
gesealde seofon þûsendo, bold and brego-stôl, _seven thousand_ see under
sceat), _a country-seat, and the dignity of a prince_, 2197; þær him Hygd
gebeád ... brego-stôl, _where H. offered him the chief power_, 2371; lêt
þone bregostôl Beówulf healdan, _gave over to Beówulf the chief power_ (did
not prevent Beówulf from entering upon the government), 2390.

breme, adj., _known afar, renowned_. nom. sg., 18.

brenting (see brant), st. m., _ship craft_: nom. pl. brentingas, 2808.

â-breátan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. âbreót
brimwîsan, _killed the sea-king_ (King Hæðcyn), 2931. See breótan.

breóst, st. n.: 1) _breast_: nom. sg., 2177; often used in the pl., so acc.
þät mîne breóst wereð, _which protects my breast_, 453; dat. pl. beadohrägl
broden on breóstum läg. 552.--2) _the inmost thoughts, the mind, the heart,
the bosom_: nom. sg. breóst innan weóll þeóstrum geþoncum, _his breast
heaved with troubled thoughts_, 2332; dat. pl. lêt þâ of breóstum word ût
faran, _caused the words to come out from his bosom_, 2551.

breóst-gehygd, st. n. f., _breast-thought, secret thought_: instr. pl.
-gehygdum, 2819.

breóst-gewædu, st. n. pl., _breast-clothing, garment covering the breast_,
of the coat of mail: nom., 1212; acc., 2163.

breóst-hord, st. m., _breast-hoard, that which is locked in the breast,
heart, mind, thought, soul_: nom. sg., 1720; acc. sg., 2793.

breóst-net, st. n., _breast-net, shirt of chain-mail, coat of mail_: nom.
sg. breóst-net broden, 1549.

breóst-weorðung, st. f., _ornament that is worn upon the breast_: acc. sg.
breóst-weorðunge, 2505: here the collar is meant which Beówulf receives
from Wealhþeów (1196, 2174) as a present, and which B., according to 2173,
presents to Hygd, while, according to 1203, it is in the possession of her
husband Hygelâc. In front the collar is trimmed with ornaments (frätwe),
which hang down upon the breast, hence the name breóst-weorðung.

breóst-wylm, st. m., _heaving of the breast, emotion of the bosom_: acc.
sg, 1878.

breótan, st. v., _to break, to break in pieces, to kill_: pret. breát
beódgeneátas, _killed his table-companions_ (courtiers), 1714.

â-breótan, same as above: pret. þone þe heó on räste âbreát, _whom she
killed upon his couch_, 1299; pret. part. þâ þät monige gewearð, þät hine
seó brimwylf âbroten häfde, _many believed that the sea-wolf_ (Grendel's
mother) _had killed him_, 1600; hî hyne ... âbroten häfdon, _had killed
him_ (the dragon), 2708.

brim, st. n., _flood, the sea_: nom. sg., 848, 1595; gen. sg. tô brimes
faroðe, _to the sea_, 28; ät brimes nosan, _at the sea's promontory_, 2804;
nom. pl. brimu swaðredon, _the waves subsided_, 570.

brim-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff, cliff washed by the sea_: acc. pl. -clifu,

brim-lâd, st. f., _flood-way, sea-way_: acc. sg. þâra þe mid Beówulfe
brimlâde teáh, _who had travelled the sea-way with B._, 1052.

brim-lîðend, pt, _sea-farer, sailor_ acc. p. -lîðende, 568.

brim-streám, st. m., _sea-stream, the flood of the sea_: acc. pl. ofer
brim-streámas, 1911.

brim-wîsa, w. m., _sea-king_: acc. sg. brimwîsan, of Hæðcyn, king of the
Geátas, 2931.

brim-wylf, st. f., _sea-wolf_ (designation of Grendel's mother): nom. sg.
seó brimwylf, 1507, 1600.

brim-wylm, st. m., _sea-wave_: nom. sg., 1495.

bringan, anom. v., _to bring, to bear_: prs. sg. I. ic þe þûsenda þegna
bringe tô helpe, _bring to your assistance thousands of warriors_, 1830;
inf. sceal hringnaca ofer heáðu bringan lâc and luftâcen, _shall bring
gifts and love-tokens over the high sea_, 1863; similarly, 2149, 2505;
pret. pl. we þâs sælâc ... brôhton, _brought this sea-offering_ (Grendel's
head), 1654.

ge-bringan, _to bring_: pres. subj. pl. þat we þone gebringan ... on
âdfäre, _that we bring him upon the funeral-pile_, 3010.

brosnian, w. v., _to crumble, to become rotten, to fall to pieces_: prs.
sg. III. herepâd ... brosnað äfter beorne, _the coat of mail falls to
pieces after_ (the death of) _the hero_, 2261.

brôðor, st. m., _brother_: nom. sg., 1325, 2441; dat sg. brêðer, 1263; gen.
sg. his brôðor bearn, 2620; dat. pl. brôðrum, 588, 1075.

ge-brôðru, pl., _brethren, brothers_: dat. pl. sät be þæm gebrôðrum twæm,
_sat by the two brothers_, 1192.

brôga, w. m., _terror, horror_: nom. sg., 1292, 2325, 2566; acc. sg. billa
brôgan, 583.--Comp.: gryre-, here-brôga.

brûcan, st. v. w. gen., _to use, to make use of_: prs. sg. III. se þe longe
her worolde brûceð, _who here long makes use of the world_, i.e. lives
long, 1063; imp. brûc manigra mêda, _make use of many rewards, give good
rewards_, 1179; _to enjoy_: inf. þät he beáhhordes brûcan môste, _could
enjoy the ring-hoard_, 895; similarly, 2242, 3101; pret. breác
lîfgesceafta, _enjoyed the appointed life, lived the appointed time_, 1954.
With the genitive to be supplied: breác þonne môste, 1488; imp. brûc þisses
beáges, _enjoy this ring, take this ring_, 1217. Upon this meaning depends
the form of the wish, wel brûcan (compare the German geniesze froh!): inf.
hêt hine wel brûcan, 1046; hêt hine brûcan well, 2813; imp. brûc ealles
well, 2163.

brûn, adj., _having a brown lustre, shining_: nom. sg. sió ecg brûn, 2579.

brûn-ecg, adj., _having a gleaming blade_: acc. sg. n. (hyre seaxe) brâd
[and] brûnecg, _her broad sword with gleaming blade_, 1547.

brûn-fâg, adj., _gleaming like metal_: acc. sg. brûnfâgne helm, 2616.

bryne-leóma, w. m., _light of a conflagration, gleam of fire _: nom. sg.,

bryne-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire_: dat. pl. -wylmum, 2327.

brytnian (properly _to break in small pieces_, cf. breótan), w. v., _to
bestow, to distribute_: pret. sinc brytnade, _distributed presents_, i.e.
ruled (since the giving of gifts belongs especially to rulers), 2384.

brytta, w. m., _giver, distributer_, always designating the king: nom. sg.
sinces brytta, 608, 1171, 2072; acc. sg. beága bryttan, 35, 352, 1488;
sinces bryttan, 1923.

bryttian (_to be a dispenser_), w. v., _to distribute, to confer_: prs. sg.
III. god manna cynne snyttru bryttað, _bestows wisdom upon the human race_,

brýd, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_: acc. sg. brýd, 2931; brýde, 2957, both
times of the consort of Ongenþeów (?).--2) _betrothed, bride_: nom. sg., of
Hrôðgâr's daughter, Freáware, 2032.

brýd-bûr, st. n., _woman's apartment_: dat. sg. eode ... cyning of
brýdbûre, _the king came out of the apartment of his wife_ (into which,
according to 666, he had gone), 922.

bunden-stefna, w. m., _(that which has a bound prow), the framed ship_:
nom. sg., 1911.

bune, w. f., _can_ or _cup, drinking-vessel_: nom. pl. bunan, 3048; acc.
pl. bunan, 2776.

burh, burg, st. f., _castle, city, fortified house_: acc. sg. burh, 523;
dat. sg. byrig, 1200; dat. pl. burgum, 53, 1969, 2434.--Comp.: freó,
freoðo-, heá-, hleó-, hord-, leód-, mæg-burg.

burh-loca, w. m., _castle-bars_: dat. sg. under burh-locan, _under the
castle-bars_, i.e. in the castle (Hygelâc's), 1929.

burh-stede, st. m., _castle-place, place where the castle_ or _city
stands_: acc. sg. burhstede, 2266.

burh-wela, w. m., _riches, treasure of a castle_ or _city_: gen. sg. þenden
he burh-welan brûcan môste, 3101.

burne, w. f., _spring, fountain_: gen. þære burnan wälm, _the bubbling of
the spring_, 2547.

bûan, st. v.: 1) _to stay, to remain, to dwell_: inf. gif he weard onfunde
bûan on beorge, _if he had found the watchman dwelling on the mountain_,
2843.--2) _to inhabit_, w. acc.: meduseld bûan, _to inhabit the
mead-house_, 3066.

ge-bûan, w. acc., _to occupy a house, to take possession_: pret. part. heán
hûses, hû hit Hring Dene äfter beórþege gebûn häfdon, _how the Danes, after
their beer-carouse, had occupied it_ (had made their beds in it),
117.--With the pres. part. bûend are the compounds ceaster-, fold-, grund-,

bûgan, st. v., _to bend, to bow, to sink; to turn, to flee_: prs. sg. III.
bon-gâr bûgeð, _the fatal spear sinks_, i.e. its deadly point is turned
down, it rests, 2032; inf. þät se byrnwîga bûgan sceolde, _that the armed
hero had to sink down_ (having received a deadly blow), 2919; similarly,
2975; pret. sg. beáh eft under eorðweall, _turned, fled again behind the
earth-wall_, 2957; pret. pl. bugon tô bence, _turned to the bench_, 327,
1014; hy on holt bugon, _fled to the wood_, 2599.

â-bûgan, _to bend off, to curve away from_: pret. fram sylle âbeág medubenc
monig, _from the threshold curved away many a mead-bench_, 776.

be-bûgan, w. acc., _to surround, to encircle_: prs. swâ (_which_) wäter
bebûgeð, 93; efne swâ sîde swâ sæ bebûgeð windige weallas, _as far as the
sea encircles windy shores_, 1224.

ge-bûgan, _to bend, to bow, to sink_: a) intrans.: heó on flet gebeáh,
_sank on the floor_, 1541; þâ gebeáh cyning, _then sank the king_, 2981; þâ
se wyrm gebeáh snûde tôsomne (_when the drake at once coiled itself up_),
2568; gewât þâ gebogen scrîðan tô, _advanced with curved body_ (the drake),
2570.--b) w. acc. of the thing to which one bends or sinks: pret. selereste
gebeáh, _sank upon the couch in the hall_, 691; similarly gebeág, 1242.

bûr, st. n., _apartment, room_: dat. sg. bûre, 1311, 2456; dat. pl. bûrum,
140.--Comp. brýd-bûr.

bûtan, bûton (from be and ûtan, hence in its meaning referring to what is
without, excluded): 1) conj. with subjunctive following, _lest_: bûtan his
lîc swice, _lest his body escape_, 967. With ind. following, _but_: bûton
hit wäs mâre þonne ænig mon ôðer tô beadulâce ätberan meahte, _but it_ (the
sword) _was greater than any other man could have carried to battle_, 1561.
After a preceding negative verb, _except_: þâra þe gumena bearn gearwe ne
wiston bûton Fitela mid hine, _which the children of men did not know at
all, except Fitela, who was with him_, 880; ne nom he mâðm-æhta mâ bûton
þone hafelan, etc., _he took no more of the rich treasure than the head
alone_, 1615.--2) prep, with dat., _except_: bûton folcscare, 73; bûton þe,
658; ealle bûton ânum, 706.

bycgan, w. v., _to buy, to pay_: inf. ne wäs þät gewrixle til þät hie on bâ
healfa bicgan scoldon freónda feorum, _that was no good transaction, that
they, on both sides_ (as well to Grendel as to his mother), _had to pay
with the lives of their friends_, 1306.

be-bycgan, _to sell_: pret. nu ic on mâðma hord mîne bebohte frôde
feorhlege (_now I, for the treasure-hoard, gave up my old life_), 2800.

ge-bycgan, _to buy, to acquire; to pay_: pret. w. acc. nô þær ænige ...
frôfre gebohte, _obtained no sort of help, consolation_, 974; hit (his,
MS.) ealdre gebohte, _paid it with his life_, 2482; pret. part. sylfes
feore beágas [geboh]te, _bought rings with his own life_, 3015.

byldan, w. v. (_to make_ beald, which see), _to excite, to encourage, to
brave deeds_: inf. w. acc. swâ he Fresena cyn on beórsele byldan wolde (by
distributing gifts), 1095.

ge-byrd, st. n., "fatum destinatum" (Grein) (?): acc. sg. hie on gebyrd
hruron gâre wunde, 1075.

ge-byrdu, st. f., _birth_; in compound, bearn-gebyrdu.

byrdu-scrûd, st. n., _shield-ornament, design upon a shield_(?): nom. sg.,

byre, st. m., (_born_) _son_: nom. sg., 2054, 2446, 2622, etc.; nom. pl.
byre, 1189. In a broader sense, _young man, youth_: acc. pl. bædde byre
geonge, _encouraged the youths_ (at the banquet), 2019.

byrðen, st. f., _burden_; in comp. mägen-byrðen.

byrele, st. m., _steward, waiter, cupbearer_: nom. pl. byrelas, 1162.

byrgan, w. v., _to feast, to eat_: inf., 448.

ge-byrgea, w. m., _protector_; in comp. leód-gebyrgea.

byrht. See _beorht_.

byrne, w. f., _shirt of mail, mail_: nom. sg. byrne, 405, 1630, etc.;
hringed byrne, _ring-shirt_, consisting of interlaced rings, 1246; acc. sg.
byrnan, 1023, etc.; sîde byrnan, _large coat of mail_, 1292; hringde
byrnan, 2616; hâre byrnan, _gray coat of mail_ (of iron), 2154; dat. sg. on
byrnan, 2705; gen. sg. byrnan hring, _the ring of the shirt of mail_ (i.e.
the shirt of mail), 2261; dat. pl. byrnum, 40, 238, etc.; beorhtum byrnum,
_with gleaming mail_, 3141.--Comp.: gûð-, here-, heaðo-, îren-,

byrnend. See beornan.

byrn-wîga, w. m., _warrior dressed in a coat of mail_: nom. sg., 2919.

bysgu, bisigu, st. f., _trouble, difficulty, opposition_: nom. sg. bisigu,
281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1744, bysigum, 2581.

bysig, adj., _opposed, in need_, in the compounds lîf-bysig, syn-bysig.

býme, w. f., _a wind-instrument, a trumpet, a trombone_: gen. sg. býman
gealdor, _the sound of the trumpet_, 2944.

býwan, w. v., _to ornament, to prepare_: inf. þâ þe beado-grîman býwan
sceoldon, _who should prepare the helmets_, 2258.


camp, st. m., _combat, fight between two_: dat. sg. in campe (Beówulf's
with Däghrefn; cempan, MS.), 2506.

candel, st. f., _light, candle_: nom. sg. rodores candel, of the sun,
1573.--Comp. woruld-candel.

cempa, w. m., _fighter, warrior, hero_: nom. sg. äðele cempa, 1313; Geáta
cempa, 1552; rêðe cempa, 1586; mære cempa (as voc.), 1762; gyrded cempa,
2079; dat. sg. geongum (geongan) cempan, 1949, 2045, 2627; Hûga cempan,
2503; acc. pl. cempan, 206.--Comp. fêðe-cempa.

cennan, w. v.: 1) _to bear_, w. acc.: efne swâ hwylc mägða swâ þone magan
cende, _who bore the son_, 944; pret. part. þäm eafera wäs äfter cenned,
_to him was a son born_, 12.--2) reflexive, _to show one's self, to reveal
one's self_: imp. cen þec mid cräfte, _prove yourself by your strength_,

â-cennan, _to bear_: pret. part. nô hie fäder cunnon, hwäðer him ænig wäs
ær âcenned dyrnra gâsta, _they_ (the people of the country) _do not know
his_ (Grendel's) _father, nor whether any evil spirit has been before born
to him_ (whether he has begotten a son), 1357.

cênðu, st. f., _boldness_: acc. sg. cênðu, 2697.

cêne, adj., _keen, warlike, bold_: gen. p.. cênra gehwylcum, 769. Superl.,
acc. pl. cênoste, 206.--Comp.: dæd-, gâr-cêne.

ceald, adj., _cold_: acc. pl. cealde streámas, 1262; dat. pl. cealdum
cearsîðum, _with cold, sad journeys_, 2397. Superl. nom. sg. wedera
cealdost, 546;--Comp. morgen-ceald.

cearian, w. v., _to have care, to take care, to trouble one's self_: prs.
sg. III. nâ ymb his lîf cearað, _takes no care for his life_, 1537.

cearig, adj., _troubled, sad_: in comp. sorh-cearig.

cear-sîð, st. m., _sorrowful way, an undertaking that brings sorrow_, i.e.
a warlike expedition: dat. pl. cearsîðum (of Beówulf's expeditions against
Eádgils), 2397.

cearu, st. f., _care, sorrow, lamentation_: nom. sg., 1304; acc. sg.
[ceare], 3173.--Comp.: ealdor-, gûð-, mæl-, môd-cearu.

cear-wälm, st. m., _care-agitation, waves of sorrow in the breast_: dat.
pl. äfter cear-wälmum, 2067.

cear-wylm, st. m., same as above; nom. pl. þâ cear-wylmas, 282.

ceaster-bûend, pt, _inhabitant of a fortified place, inhabitant of a
castle_: dat. pl. ceaster-bûendum, of those established in Hrôðgâr's
castle, 769.

ceáp, st. m., _purchase, transaction_: figuratively, nom. sg. näs þät ýðe
ceáp, _no easy transaction_, 2416; instr. sg. þeáh þe ôðer hit ealdre
gebohte, heardan ceápe, _although the one paid it with his life, a dear
purchase_, 2483.

ge-ceápian, w. v., _to purchase_: pret. part. gold unrîme grimme geceápod,
_gold without measure, bitterly purchased_ (with Beówulf's life), 3013.

be-ceorfan, st. v., _to separate, to cut off_ (with acc. of the pers. and
instr. of the thing): pret. hine þâ heáfde becearf, _cut off his head_,
1591; similarly, 2139.

ceorl, st. m., _man_: nom. sg. snotor ceorl monig, _many a wise man_, 909;
dat. sg. gomelum ceorle, _the old man_ (of King Hrêðel), 2445; so, ealdum
ceorle, of King Ongenþeów, 2973; nom. pl. snotere ceorlas, _wise men_, 202,
416, 1592.

ceól, st. m., _keel_, figuratively for the ship: nom. sg., 1913; acc. sg.
ceól, 38, 238; gen. sg. ceóles, 1807.

ceósan, st. v., _to choose_, hence, _to assume_: inf. þone cynedôm ciósan
wolde, _would assume the royal dignity_, 2377; _to seek_: pret. subj. ær he
bæl cure, _before he sought his funeral-pile_ (before he died), 2819.

ge-ceósan, _to choose, to elect_: gerund, tô geceósenne cyning ænigne
(sêlran), _to choose a better king_, 1852; imp. þe þät sêlre ge-ceós,
_choose thee the better_ (of two: bealonîð and êce rædas), 1759; pret. he
ûsic on herge geceás tô þyssum siðfate, _selected us among the soldiers for
this undertaking_, 2639; geceás êcne ræd, _chose the everlasting gain_,
i.e. died, 1202; similarly, godes leóht geceás, 2470; pret. part. acc. pl.
häfde ... cempan gecorone, 206.

on-cirran, w. v., _to turn, to change_: inf. ne meahte ... þäs wealdendes
[willan] wiht on-cirran, _could not change the will of the Almighty_, 2858;
pret. ufor oncirde, _turned higher_, 2952; þyder oncirde, _turned thither_,

â-cîgan, w. v., _to call hither_: pret. âcîgde of corðre cyninges þegnas
syfone, _called from the retinue of the king seven men_, 3122.

clam, clom, st. m., f. n.? _fetter_, figuratively of a strong gripe: dat.
pl. heardan clammum, 964; heardum clammum, 1336; atolan clommum (horrible
claws of the mother of Grendel), 1503.

clif, cleof, st. n., _cliff, promontory_: acc. pl. Geáta clifu,
1912.--Comp.: brim-, êg-, holm-, stân-clif.

ge-cnâwan, st. v., _to know, to recognize_: inf. meaht þu, mîn wine, mêce
gecnâwan, _mayst thou, my friend, recognize the sword_, 2048.

on-cnâwan, _to recognize, to distinguish_: hordweard oncniów mannes reorde,
_distinguished the speech of a man_, 2555.

cniht, st. m., _boy, youth_: dat. pl. þyssum cnyhtum, _to these boys_
(Hrôðgâr's sons), 1220.

cniht-wesende, prs. part., _being a boy_ or _a youth_: acc. sg. ic hine
cûðe cniht-wesende, _knew him while still a boy_, 372; nom. pl. wit þät
gecwædon cniht-wesende, _we both as young men said that_, 535.

cnyssan, w. v., _to strike, to dash against each other_: pret. pl. þonne
... eoferas cnysedan, _when the bold warriors dashed against each other,
stormed_ (in battle), 1329.

collen-ferhð, -ferð, adj., (properly, _of swollen mind_), _of uncommon
thoughts, in his way of thinking, standing higher than others,
high-minded_: nom. sg. cuma collen-ferhð, of Beówulf, 1807; collen-ferð, of
Wîglâf, 2786.

corðer, st. n., _troop, division of an army, retinue_: dat. sg. þâ wäs ...
Fin slägen, cyning on corðre, _then was Fin slain, the king in the troop_
(of warriors), 1154; of corðre cyninges, _out of the retinue of the king_,

costian, w. v., _to try_; pret. (w. gen.) he mîn costode, _tried me_, 2085.

côfa, w. m., _apartment, sleeping-room, couch_: in comp. bân-côfa.

côl, adj., _cool_: compar. cearwylmas côlran wurðað, _the waves of sorrow
become cooler_, i.e. the mind becomes quiet, 282; him wîflufan ... côlran
weorðað, _his love for his wife cools_, 2067.

cräft, st. m., _the condition of being able_, hence: 1) _physical
strength_: nom. sg. mägða cräft, 1284; acc. sg. mägenes cräft, 418; þurh
ânes cräft, 700; cräft and cênðu, 2697; dat. (instr.) sg. cräfte, 983,
1220, 2182, 2361.--2) _art, craft, skill_: dat. sg. as instr. dyrnum
cräfte, _with secret_ (magic) _art_, 2169; dyrnan cräfte, 2291; þeófes
cräfte, _with thief's craft_, 2221; dat. pl. deófles cräftum, _by devil's
art_ (sorcery), 2089.--3) _great quantity_ (?): acc. sg. wyrm-horda cräft,
2223.--Comp.: leoðo-, mägen-, nearo-, wîg-cräft.

cräftig, adj.: 1) _strong, stout_: nom. sg. eafoðes cräftig, 1467; nîða
cräftig, 1963. Comp. wîg-cräftig.--2) _adroit, skilful_: in comp.
lagu-cräftig.--3) _rich_ (of treasures); in comp. eácen-cräftig.

cringan, st. v., _to fall in combat, to fall with the writhing movement of
those mortally wounded_: pret. subj. on wäl crunge, _would sink into death,
would fall_, 636; pret. pl. for the pluperfect, sume on wäle crungon, 1114.

ge-cringan, same as above: pret. he under rande gecranc, _fell under his
shield_, 1210; ät wîge gecrang, _fell in battle_, 1338; heó on flet
gecrong, _fell to the ground_, 1569; in campe gecrong, _fell in single
combat_, 2506.

cuma (_he who comes_), w. m., _newcomer, guest_: nom. sg. 1807.--Comp.:
cwealm-, wil-cuma.

cuman, st. v., _to come_: pres. sg. II. gyf þu on weg cymest, _if thou
comest from there_, 1383; III. cymeð, 2059; pres. subj. sg. III. cume, 23;
pl. þonne we ût cymen, _when we come out_, 3107; inf. cuman, 244, 281,
1870; pret. sg. com, 430, 569, 826, 1134, 1507, 1601, etc.; cwom, 419,
2915; pret. subj. sg. cwôme, 732; pret. part. cumen, 376; pl. cumene, 361.
Often with the inf. of a verb of motion, as, com gongan, 711; com sîðian,
721; com in gân, 1645; cwom gân, 1163; com scacan, 1803; cwômon lædan, 239;
cwômon sêcean, 268; cwôman scrîðan, 651, etc. [pret. côm, etc.]

be-cuman, _to come, to approach, to arrive_: pret. syððan niht becom,
_after the night had come_, 115; þe on þâ leóde becom, _that had come over
the people_, 192; þâ he tô hâm becom, 2993. And with inf. following: stefn
in becom ... hlynnan under hârne stân, 2553; lyt eft becwom ... hâmes
niósan, 2366; ôð þät ende becwom, 1255; similarly, 2117. With acc. of
pers.: þâ hyne sió þrag becwom, _when this time of battle came over him_,

ofer-cuman, _to overcome, to compel_: pret. þý he þone feónd ofercwom,
_thereby he overcame the foe_, 1274: pl. hie feónd heora ... ofercômon,
700; pret. part. (w. gen.) nîða ofercumen, _compelled by combats_, 846.

cumbol, cumbor, st. m., _banner_: gen. sg. cumbles hyrde, 2506.--Comp.

cund, adj., _originating in, descended from_: in comp. feorran-cund.

cunnan, verb pret. pres.: 1) _to know, to be acquainted with_ (w. acc. or
depend, clause): sg. pres. I. ic mînne can glädne Hrôðulf þät he ... wile,
_I know my gracious H., that he will_..., 1181; II. eard git ne const,
_thou knowest not yet the land_, 1378; III. he þät wyrse ne con, _knows no
worse_, 1740. And reflexive: con him land geare, _knows the land well_,
2063; pl. men ne cunnon hwyder helrûnan scrîðað, _men do not know
whither_..., 162; pret. sg. ic hine cûðe, _knew him_, 372; cûðe he duguð
þeáw, _knew the customs of the distinguished courtiers_, 359; so with the
acc., 2013; seolfa ne cûðe þurh hwät..., _he himself did not know through
what_..., 3068; pl. sorge ne cûðon, 119; so with the acc., 180, 418, 1234.
With both (acc. and depend. clause): nô hie fäder cunnon (scil. nô hie
cunnon) hwäðer him ænig wäs ær âcenned dyrnra gâsta, 1356.--2) with inf.
following, _can, to be able_: prs. sg. him bebeorgan ne con, _cannot defend
himself_, 1747; prs. pl. men ne cunnon secgan, _cannot say_, 50; pret. sg.
cûðe reccan, 90; beorgan cûðe, 1446; pret. pl. hêrian ne cûðon, _could not
praise_, 182; pret. subj. healdan cûðe, 2373.

cunnian, w. v., _to inquire into, to try_, w. gen. or acc.: inf. sund
cunnian (figurative for _roam over the sea_), 1427, 1445; geongne cempan
higes cunnian, _to try the young warrior's mind_, 2046; pret. eard cunnode,
_tried the home_, i.e. came to it, 1501; pl. wada cunnedon, _tried the
flood_, i.e. swam through the sea, 508.

cûð, adj.: 1) _known, well known; manifest, certain_: nom. sg. undyrne cûð,
150, 410; wîde cûð, 2924; acc. sg. fern. cûðe folme, 1304; cûðe stræte,
1635; nom. pl. ecge cûðe, 1146; acc. pl. cûðe nässas, 1913.--2) _renowned_:
nom. sg. gûðum cûð, 2179; nom. pl. cystum cûðe, 868.--3) also, _friendly,
dear, good_ (see un-cûð).--Comp.: un-, wîd-cûð.

cûð-lîce, adv., _openly, publicly_: comp. nô her cûðlîcor cuman ongunnon
lind-häbbende, _no shield-bearing men undertook more boldly to come hither_
(the coast-watchman means by this the secret landing of the Vikings), 244.

cwalu, st. f., _murder, fall_: in comp. deáð-cwalu.

cweccan (_to make alive_, see cwic), w. v., _to move, to swing_: pret.
cwehte mägen-wudu, _swung the wood of strength_ (= spear), 235.

cweðan, st. v., _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: prs. sg. III. cwið ät
beóre, _speaks at beer-drinking_, 2042.--b) w. acc.: pret. word äfter cwäð,
315; feá worda cwäð, 2247, 2663.--c) with þät following: pret. sg. cwäð,
92, 2159; pl. cwædon, 3182.--d) with þät omitted: pret. cwäð he gûð-cyning
sêcean wolde, _said he would seek out the war-king_, 199; similarly, 1811,

â-cweðan, _to say, to speak_, w. acc.: prs. þät word âcwyð, _speaks the
word_, 2047; pret. þät word âcwäð, 655.

ge-cweðan, _to say, to speak_: a) absolutely: pret. sg. II. swâ þu gecwæde,
2665.--b)w. acc.: pret. wel-hwylc gecwäð, _spoke everything_, 875; pl. wit
þät gecwædon, 535.--c) w. þät following: pret. gecwäð, 858, 988.

cwellan, w. v., (_to make die_), _to kill, to murder_: pret. sg. II. þu
Grendel cwealdest, 1335.

â-cwellan, _to kill_: pret. sg. (he) wyrm âcwealde, 887; þone þe Grendel ær
mâne âcwealde, _whom Grendel had before wickedly murdered_, 1056; beorn
âcwealde, 2122.

cwên, st. f.: 1) _wife, consort_ (of noble birth): nom. sg. cwên, 62;
(Hrôðgâr's), 614, 924; (Finn's), 1154.--2) particularly denoting the queen:
nom. sg. beághroden cwên (Wealhþeów), 624; mæru cwên, 2017; fremu folces
cwên (Þryðo), 1933; acc. sg. cwên (Wealhþeów), 666.-Comp. folc-cwên.

cwên-lîc, adj., _feminine, womanly_: nom. sg. ne bið swylc cwênlîc þeáw
(_such is not the custom of women, does not become a woman_), 1941.

cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder, destruction_: acc. sg. þone cwealm
gewräc, _avenged the death_ (of Abel by Cain), 107; mændon mondryhtnes
cwealm, _lamented the ruler's fall_, 3150.--Comp.: bealo-, deáð-,

cwealm-bealu, st. n., _the evil of murder_: acc. sg., 1941.

cwealm-cuma, w. m., _one coming for murder, a new-comer who contemplates
murder_: acc. sg. þone cwealm-cuman (of Grendel), 793.

cwic and cwico, adj., _quick, having life, alive_: acc. sg. cwicne, 793,
2786; gen. sg. âht cwices, _something living_, 2315; nom. pl. cwice, 98;
cwico wäs þâ gena, _was still alive_, 3094.

cwide, st. m., _word, speech, saying_: in comp. gegn-, gilp-, hleó-, ðor-
[non-existant form--KTH], word-cwide.

cwîðan, st. v., _to complain, to lament_: inf. w. acc. ongan ... gioguðe
cwîðan hilde-strengo, _began to lament the_ (departed) _battle-strength of
his youth_, 2113 [ceare] cwîðan, _lament their cares_, 3173.

cyme, st. m., _coming, arrival_: nom. pl. hwanan eówre cyme syndon, _whence
your coming is_, i. e. whence ye are, 257.--Comp. eft-cyme.

cymlîce, adv., (convenienter), _splendidly, grandly_: comp. cymlîcor, 38.

cyn, st. n., _race_, both in the general sense, and denoting noble lineage:
nom. sg. Fresena cyn, 1094; Wedera (gara, MS.) cyn, 461; acc. sg. eotena
cyn, 421; giganta cyn, 1691; dat. sg. Caines cynne, 107; manna cynne, 811,
915, 1726; eówrum (of those who desert Beówulf in battle) cynne, 2886; gen.
sg. manna (gumena) cynnes, 702, etc.; mæran cynnes, 1730; lâðan cynnes,
2009, 2355; ûsses cynnes Wægmundinga, 2814; gen. pl. cynna gehwylcum,
98.--Comp.: eormen-, feorh-, frum-, gum-, man-, wyrm-cyn.

cyn, st. n., _that which is suitable or proper_: gen. pl. cynna (of
etiquette) gemyndig, 614.

ge-cynde, adj., _innate, peculiar, natural_: nom. sg., 2198, 2697.

cyne-dôm, st. m., _kingdom, royal dignity_: acc. sg., 2377.

cyning, st. m., _king_: nom. acc. sg. cyning, II, 864, 921, etc.; kyning,
620, 3173; dat. sg. cyninge, 3094; gen. sg. cyninges, 868, 1211; gen. pl.
kyning[a] wuldor, of God, 666.--Comp. beorn-, eorð-, folc-, guð-, heáh-,
leód-, sæ-, sôð-, þeód-, worold-, wuldor-cyning.

cyning-beald, adj., "_nobly bold_" (Thorpe), _excellently brave_ (?): nom.
pl. cyning-balde men, 1635.

ge-cyssan, w. v., _to kiss_: pret. gecyste þâ cyning ... þegen betstan,
_kissed the best thane_ (Beówulf), 1871.

cyst (_choosing_, see ceósan), st. f., _the select, the best of a thing,
good quality, excellence_: nom. sg. îrenna cyst, _of the swords_, 803,
1698; wæpna cyst, 1560; symbla cyst, _choice banquet_, 1233; acc. sg. îrena
cyst, 674; dat. pl. foldwegas ... cystum cûðe, _known through excellent
qualities_, 868; (cyning) cystum gecýðed, 924.--Comp. gum-, hilde-cyst.

cýð. See on-cýð.

cýðan (see cûð), w. v., _to make known, to manifest, to show_: imp. sg.
mägen-ellen cýð, _show thy heroic strength_, 660; inf. cwealmbealu cýðan,
1941; ellen cýðan, 2696.

ge-cýðan (_to make known_, hence): 1) _to give information, to announce_:
inf. andsware gecýðan, _to give answer_, 354; gerund, tô gecýðanne hwanan
eówre cyme syndon (_to show whence ye come_), 257; pret. part. sôð is
gecýðed þät ... (_the truth has become known_, it has shown itself to be
true), 701; Higelâce wäs sîð Beówulfes snûde gecýðed, _the arrival of B.
was quickly announced_, 1972; similarly, 2325.--2) _to make celebrated_, in
pret. part.: wäs mîn fäder folcum gecýðed (_my father was known to
warriors_), 262; wäs his môdsefa manegum gecýðed, 349; cystum gecýðed, 924.

cýððu (properly, _condition of being known_, hence _relationship_), st. f.,
_home, country, land_: in comp. feor-cýððu. [should be cýð, feor-cýð--KTH]

ge-cýpan, w. v., _to purchase_: inf. näs him ænig þearf þät he ... þurfe
wyrsan wîgfrecan weorðe gecýpan, _had need to buy with treasures no
inferior warrior_, 2497.


daroð, st. m., _spear_: dat. pl. dareðum lâcan (_to fight_), 2849.

ge-dâl, st. n., _parting, separation_: nom. sg. his worulde gedâl, _his
separation from the world_ (his death), 3069.--Comp. ealdor-, lîf-gedâl.

däg, st. m., _day_: nom. sg. däg, 485, 732, 2647; acc. sg. däg, 2400;
andlangne däg, _the whole day_, 2116; morgenlongne däg (_the whole
morning_), 2895; ôð dômes däg, _till judgment-day_, 3070; dat. sg. on þäm
däge þysses lîfes (eo tempore, tunc), 197, 791, 807; gen. sg. däges, 1601,
2321; hwîl däges, _a day's time, a whole day_, 1496; däges and nihtes, _day
and night_, 2270; däges, _by day_, 1936; dat. pl. on tyn dagum, _in ten
days_, 3161.--Comp. ær-, deáð-, ende-, ealdor-, fyrn-, geâr-, læn-, lîf-,
swylt-, win-däg, an-däges.

däg-hwîl, st. f., _day-time_: acc. pl. þät he däghwîla gedrogen häfde
eorðan wynne, _that he had enjoyed earth's pleasures during the days_
(appointed to him), i.e. that his life was finished, 2727.--(After Grein.)

däg-rîm, st. n., _series of days, fixed number of days_: nom. sg. dôgera
dägrîm (_number of the days of his life_), 824.

dæd, st. f., _deed, action_: acc. sg. deórlîce dæd, 585; dômleásan dæd,
2891; frêcne dæde, 890; dæd, 941; acc. pl. Grendles dæda, 195; gen. pl.
dæda, 181, 479, 2455, etc.; dat. pl. dædum, 1228, 2437, etc.--Comp. ellen-,
fyren-, lof-dæd.

dæd-cêne, adj., _bold in deed_: nom. sg. dæd-cêne mon, 1646.

dæd-fruma, w. m., _doer of deeds, doer_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 2091.

dæd-bata, w. m., _he who pursues with his deeds_: nom. sg., of Grendel,

dædla, w. m., _doer_: in comp. mân-for-dædla.

dæl, st. m., _part, portion_: acc. sg. dæl, 622, 2246, 3128; acc. pl.
dælas, 1733.--Often dæl designates the portion of a thing or of a quality
which belongs in general to an individual, as, ôð þät him on innan
oferhygda dæl weaxeð, _till in his bosom his portion of arrogance
increases_: i.e. whatever arrogance he has, his arrogance, 1741. Biówulfe
wearð dryhtmâðma dæl deáðe, forgolden, _to Beówulf his part of the splendid
treasures was paid with death_, i.e. whatever splendid treasures were
allotted to him, whatever part of them he could win in the fight with the
dragon, 2844; similarly, 1151, 1753, 2029, 2069, 3128.

dælan, w. v., _to divide, to bestow, to share with_, w. acc.: pres. sg.
III. mâdmas dæleð, 1757; pres. subj. þät he wið aglæcean eofoðo dæle, _that
he bestow his strength upon_ (strive with) _the bringer of misery_ the
drake), 2535; inf. hringas dælan, 1971; pret. beágas dælde, 80; sceattas
dælde, 1687.

be-dælan, w. instr., _(to divide), to tear away from, to strip of_: pret.
part. dreámum (dreáme) bedæled, _deprived of the heavenly joys_ (of
Grendel), 722, 1276.

ge-dælan: 1) _to distribute_: inf. (w. acc. _of the thing distributed_);
bær on innan eall gedælan geongum and ealdum swylc him god sealde,
_distribute therein to young and old all that God had given him_, 71.--2)
_to divide, to separate_, with acc.: inf. sundur gedælan lîf wið lîce,
_separate life from the body_, 2423; so pret. subj. þät he gedælde ... ânra
gehwylces lîf wið lîce, 732.

denn (cf. denu, dene, vallis), st. n., _den, cave_: acc. sg. þäs wyrmes
denn, 2761; gen. sg. (draca) gewât dennes niósian, 3046.

ge-defe, adj.: 1) (impersonal) _proper, appropriate_: nom. sg. swâ hit
gedêfe wäs (bið), _as was appropriate, proper_, 561, 1671, 3176.--2) _good,
kind, friendly_; nom sg. beó þu suna mînum dædum gedêfe, _be friendly to my
son by deeds_ (support my son in deed, namely, when he shall have attained
to the government), 1228.--Comp. un-ge-dêfelîce.

dêman (see dôm), w. v.: 1) _to judge, to award justly_: pres. subj. mærðo
dême, 688.--2) _to judge favorably, to praise, to glorify_: pret. pl. his
ellenweorc duguðum dêmdon, _praised his heroic deed with all their might_,

dêmend, _judge_: dæda dêmend (of God), 181.

deal, adj., "superbus, clarus, fretus" (Grimm): nom. pl. þryðum dealle,

deád, adj., _dead_: nom. sg. 467, 1324, 2373; acc. sg. deádne, 1310.

deáð, st. m., _death, dying_: nom. sg, deáð, 441, 447, etc.; acc. sg. deáð,
2169; dat. sg. deáðe, 1389, 1590, (as instr.) 2844, 3046; gen. sg. deáðes
wylm, 2270; deáðes nýd, 2455.--Comp. gûð-, wäl-, wundor-deáð.

deáð-bed, st. n., _death-bed_: dat. sg. deáð-bedde fäst, 2902.

deáð-cwalu, st. f., _violent death_, _ruin and death_: dat. pl. tô
deáð-cwalum, 1713.

deáð-cwealm, st. m., _violent death, murder_: nom. sg. 1671.

deáð-däg, st. m., _death-day, dying day_: dat. sg. äfter deáð-däge (_after
his death_), 187, 886.

deáð-fæge, adj., _given over to death_: nom. sg. (Grendel) deáð-fæge deóg,
_had hidden himself, being given over to death_ (mortally wounded), 851.

deáð-scûa, w. m., _death-shadow, ghostly being, demon of death_: nom. sg.
deorc deáð-scûa (of Grendel), 160.

deáð-wêrig, adj., _weakened by death_, i.e. dead: acc. sg. deáð-wêrigne,
2126. See wêrig.

deáð-wîc, st. n. _death's house, home of death_: acc. sg. gewât deáðwîc
seón (_had died_), 1276.

deágan (O.H.G. pret. part. tougan, _hidden_), _to conceal one's self, to
hide_: pret. (for pluperf.) deóg, 851.--Leo.

deorc, adj., _dark_: of the night, nom. sg. (nihthelm) deorc, 1791; dat.
pl. deorcum nihtum, 275, 2212; of the terrible Grendel, nom. sg. deorc
deáð-scûa, 160.

deófol, st. m. n., _devil_: gen. sg. deófles, 2089; gen. pl. deófla, of
Grendel and his troop, 757, 1681.

deógol, dýgol, adj., _concealed, hidden, inaccessible, beyond information,
unknown_: nom. sg. deógol dædhata (of Grendel), 275; acc. sg. dýgel lond,
_inaccessible land_, 1358.

deóp, st. n., _deep, abyss_: acc. sg., 2550.

deóp, adv. _deeply_: acc. sg. deóp wäter, 509, 1905.

diópe, adj., _deep_: hit ôð dômes däg diópe benemdon þeódnas mære, _the
illustrious rulers had charmed it deeply till the judgment-day, had laid a
solemn spell upon it_, 3070.

deór, st. n., _animal, wild animal_: in comp. mere-, sæ-deór.

deór, adj.: 1) _wild, terrible_: nom. sg. diór dæd-fruma (of Grendel),
2091.--2) _bold, brave_: nom. nænig ... deór, 1934.--Comp.: heaðu-,

deóre, dýre, adj.: 1) _dear, costly_ (high in price): acc. sg. dýre îren,
2051; drincfät dýre (deóre), 2307, 2255; instr. sg. deóran sweorde, 561;
dat. sg. deórum mâðme, 1529; nom. pl. dýre swyrd, 3049; acc. pl. deóre
(dýre) mâðmas, 2237, 3132.--2) _dear, beloved, worthy_: nom. sg. f., äðelum
dióre, _worthy by reason of origin_, 1950; dat. sg. äfter deórum men, 1880;
gen. sg. deórre duguðe, 488; superl. acc. sg. aldorþegn þone deórestan,

deór-lîc, adj., _bold, brave_: acc. sg. deórlîce dæd, 585. See deór.

disc, st. m., _disc, plate, flat dish_: nom. acc. pl. discas, 2776, 3049.

ge-dîgan. See ge-dýgan.

dol-gilp, st. m., _mad boast, foolish pride, vain-glory, thoughtless
audacity_: dat. sg. for dolgilpe, 509.

dol-lîc, adj., _audacious_: gen. pl. mæst ... dæda dollîcra, 2647.

dol-sceaða, w. m., _bold enemy_: acc. sg. þone dol-scaðan (Grendel), 479.

dôgor, st. m. n., _day_; 1) day as a period of 24 hours: gen. sg. ymb ântîd
ôðres dôgores, _at the same time of the next day_, 219; morgen-leóht ôðres
dôgores, _the morning-light of the second day_, 606.--2) day in the usual
sense: acc. sg. n. þys dôgor, _during this day_, 1396; instr. þý dôgore,
1798; forman dôgore, 2574; gen. pl. dôgora gehwâm, 88; dôgra gehwylce,
1091; dôgera dägrim, _the number of his days_ (the days of his life),
824.--3) _day_ in the wider sense of time: dat. pl. ufaran dôgrum, _in
later days, times_, 2201, 2393.--Comp. ende-dôgor.

dôgor-gerîm, st. n., _series of days_: gen. sg. wäs eall sceacen
dôgor-gerîmes, _the whole number of his days_ (his life) _was past_, 2729.

dôhtor, st. f., _daughter_: nom. acc. sg. dôhtor, 375, 1077, 1930, 1982,

dôm, st. m.: I., _condition, state in general_; in comp. cyne-,
wis-dôm.--II., having reference to justice, hence: 1) _judgment, judicial
opinion_: instr. sg. weotena dôme, _according to the judgment of the
Witan_, 1099. 2) _custom_: äfter dôme, _according to custom_, 1721. 3)
_court, tribunal_: gen. sg. miclan dômes, 979; ôð dômes däg, 3070, both
times of the last judgment.--III., _condition of freedom_ or _superiority_,
hence: 4) _choice, free will_: acc. sg. on sînne sylfes dôm, _according to
his own choice_, 2148; instr. sg. selfes dôme, 896, 2777. 5) _might,
power_: nom. sg. dôm godes, 2859; acc. sg. Eofores ânne dôm, 2965; dat. sg.
drihtnes dôme, 441. 6) _glory, honor, renown_: nom. sg. [dôm], 955; dôm
unlytel, _not a little glory_, 886; þät wäs forma sîð deórum mâðme þät his
dôm âläg, _it was the first time to the dear treasure_ (the sword Hrunting)
_that its fame was not made good_, 1529; acc. sg. ic me dôm gewyrce, _make
renown for myself_, 1492; þät þu ne âlæte dôm gedreósan, _that thou let not
honor fall_, 2667; dat. instr. sg. þær he dôme forleás, _here he lost his
reputation_, 1471; dôme gewurðad, _adorned with glory_, 1646; gen. sg.
wyrce se þe môte dômes, _let him make himself reputation, whoever is able_,
1389. 7) _splendor_ (in heaven): acc. sôð-fästra dôm, _the glory of the
saints_, 2821.

dôm-leás, adj., _without reputation, inglorious_: acc. sg. f. dômleásan
dæd, 2891.

dôn, red. v., _to do, to make, to treat_: 1) absolutely: imp. dôð swâ ic
bidde, _do as I beg_, 1232.--2) w. acc.: inf. hêt hire selfre sunu on bæl
dôn, 1117; pret. þâ he him of dyde îsernbyrnan, _took off the iron
corselet_, 672; (þonne) him Hûnlâfing, ... billa sêlest, on bearm dyde,
_when he made a present to him of Hûnlâfing, the best of swords_, 1145;
dyde him of healse hring gyldenne, _took off the gold ring from his neck_,
2810; ne him þäs wyrmes wîg for wiht dyde, eafoð and ellen, _nor did he
reckon as anything the drake's fighting, power, and strength_, 2349; pl. hi
on beorg dydon bêg and siglu, _placed in the (grave-) mound rings and
ornaments_, 3165.--3) representing preceding verbs: inf. tô Geátum sprec
mildum wordum! swâ sceal man dôn, _as one should do_, 1173; similarly,
1535, 2167; pres. metod eallum weóld, swâ he nu git dêð, _the creator ruled
over all, as he still does_, 1059; similarly, 2471, 2860, and (sg. for pl.)
1135; pret. II. swâ þu ær dydest, 1677; III. swâ he nu gyt dyde, 957;
similarly, 1382, 1892, 2522; pl. swâ hie oft ær dydon, 1239; similarly,
3071. With the case also which the preceding verb governs: wên' ic þät he
wille ... Geátena leóde etan unforhte, swâ he oft dyde mägen Hrêðmanna, _I
believe he will wish to devour the Geát people, the fearless, as he often
did_ (devoured) _the bloom of the Hrêðmen_, 444; gif ic þät gefricge ...
þät þec ymbesittend egesan þýwað, swâ þec hetende hwîlum dydon, _that the
neighbors distress thee as once the enemy did thee_ (i.e. distressed),
1829; gif ic ôwihte mäg þînre môd-lufan mâran tilian þonne ic gyt dyde, _if
I can with anything obtain thy greater love than I have yet done_, 1825;
similarly, pl. þonne þâ dydon, 44.

ge-dôn, _to do, to make_, with the acc. and predicate adj.: prs. (god)
gedêð him swâ gewealdene worolde dælas, _makes the parts of the world_
(i.e. the whole world) _so subject that ..._, 1733; inf. ne hyne on
medo-bence micles wyrðne drihten wereda gedôn wolde, _nor would the leader
of the people much honor him at the mead-banquet_, 2187. With adv.: he mec
þær on innan ... gedôn wolde, _wished to place me in there_, 2091.

draca, w. m., _drake, dragon_: nom. sg., 893, 2212; acc. sg. dracan, 2403,
3132; gen. sg., 2089, 2291, 2550.--Comp.: eorð-, fýr-, lêg-, lîg-,

on-drædan, st. v., w. acc. of the thing and dat. of the pers., _to fear, to
be afraid of_: inf. þät þu him on-drædan ne þearft ... aldorbealu, _needest
not fear death for them_, 1675; pret. nô he him þâ säcce ondrêd, _was not
afraid of the combat_, 2348.

ge-dräg (from dragan, in the sense se gerere), st. n., _demeanor, actions_:
acc. sg. sêcan deófla gedräg, 757.

drepan, st. v., _to hit, to strike_: pret. sg. sweorde drep ferhð-genîðlan,
2881; pret. part. bið on hreðre ... drepen biteran stræle, _struck in the
breast with piercing arrow_, 1746; wäs in feorh dropen (_fatally hit_),

drepe, st. m., _blow, stroke_: acc. sg. drepe, 1590.

drêfan, ge-drêfan, w. v., _to move, to agitate, to stir up_: inf. gewât ...
drêfan deóp wäter (_to navigate_), 1905; pret. part. wäter under stôd
dreórig and gedrêfed, 1418.

dreám, st. m., _rejoicing, joyous actions, joy_: nom. sg. häleða dreám,
497; acc. sg. dreám hlûdne, 88; þu ... dreám healdende, _thou who livest in
rejoicing_ (at the drinking-carouse), _who art joyous_, 1228: dat. instr.
sg. dreáme bedæled, 1276; gen. pl. dreáma leás, 851; dat. pl. dreámum (here
adverbial) lifdon, _lived in rejoicing, joyously_, 99; dreámum bedæled,
722; the last may refer also to heavenly joys.--Comp. gleó-, gum-, man-,

dreám-leás, adj., _without rejoicing, joyless_: nom. sg. of King Heremôd,

dreógan, st. v.: 1) _to lead a life, to be in a certain condition_: pret.
dreáh äfter dôme, _lived in honor, honorably_, 2180; pret. pl. fyren-þearfe
ongeat, þät hie ær drugon aldorleáse lange hwile, _(God) had seen the great
distress, (had seen) that they had lived long without a ruler_ (?), 15.--2)
_to experience, to live through, to do, to make, to enjoy_: imp. dreóh
symbelwynne, _pass through the pleasure of the meal, to enjoy the meal_,
1783; inf. driht-scype dreógan (_do a heroic deed_), 1471; pret. sundnytte
dreáh (_had the occupation of swimming_, i.e. swam through the sea), 2361;
pret. pl. hie gewin drugon (_fought_), 799; hî sîð drugon, _made the way,
went_, 1967.--3) _to experience, to bear, to suffer_: scealt werhðo
dreógan, _shall suffer damnation_, 590; pret. þegn-sorge dreáh, _bore
sorrow for his heroes_, 131; nearoþearfe dreáh, 422; pret. pl. inwidsorge
þe hie ær drugon, 832; similarly, 1859.

â-dreógan, _to suffer, to endure_: inf. wræc âdreógan, 3079.

ge-dreógan, _to live through, to enjoy_, pret. part. þät he ... gedrogen
häfde eorðan wynne, _that he had now enjoyed the pleasures of earth_ (i.e.
that he was at his death), 2727.

dreór, st. m., _blood dropping or flowing from wounds_: instr. sg. dreóre,
447.--Comp. heoru-, sâwul-, wäl-dreór.

dreór-fâh, adj., _colored with blood, spotted with blood_: nom. sg. 485.

dreórig, adj., _bloody, bleeding_: nom. sg. wäter stôd dreórig, 1418; acc.
sg. dryhten sînne driórigne fand, 2790.--Comp. heoru-dreórig.

ge-dreósan, st. v., _to fall down, to sink_: pres. sg. III. lîc-homa læne
gedreóseð, _the body, belonging to death, sinks down_, 1755; inf. þät þu ne
âlæte dôm gedreósan, _honor fall, sink_, 2667.

drincan, st. v., _to drink_ (with and without the acc.): pres. part. nom.
pl. ealo drincende, 1946; pret. blôd êdrum dranc, _drank the blood in
streams_(?), 743; pret. pl. druncon wîn weras, _the men drank wine_, 1234;
þær guman druncon, _where the men drank_, 1649. The pret. part., when it
stands absolutely, has an active sense: nom. pl. druncne dryhtguman, _ye
warriors who have drunk, are drinking_, 1232; acc. pl. nealles druncne slôg
heorð-geneátas, _slew not his hearth-companions who had drunk with him_,
i.e. at the banquet, 2180. With the instr. it means _drunken_: nom. sg.
beóre (wîne) druncen, 531, 1468; nom. pl. beóre druncne, 480.

drîfan, st. v., _to drive_: pres. pl. þâ þe brentingas ofer flôda genipu
feorran drîfað, _who drive their ships thither from afar over the darkness
of the sea_, 2809; inf. (w. acc.) þeáh þe he [ne] meahte on mere drîfan
hringedstefnan, _although he could not drive the ship on the sea_, 1131.

to-drîfan, _to drive apart, to disperse_: pret. ôð þät unc flôd tôdrâf,

drohtoð, st. m., _mode of living_ or _acting, calling, employment_: nom.
sg. ne wäs his drohtoð þær swylce he ær gemêtte, _there was no employment
for him_ (Grendel) _there such as he had found formerly_, 757.

drusian, w. v. (cf. dreósan, properly, _to be ready to fall_; here of
water), _to stagnate, to be putrid_. pret. lagu drusade (through the blood
of Grendel and his mother), 1631.

dryht, driht, st. f., _company, troop, band of warriors; noble band_: in
comp. mago-driht.

ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. f., _troop, band of noble warriors_: nom. sg. mînra
eorla gedryht, 431; acc. sg. äðelinga gedriht, 118; mid his eorla (häleða)
gedriht (gedryht), 357, 663; similarly, 634, 1673.--Comp. sibbe-gedriht.

dryht-bearn, st. n., _youth from a noble warrior band, noble young man_:
nom. sg. dryhtbearn Dena, 2036.

dryhten, drihten, st. m., _commander, lord_: a) _temporal lord_: nom. sg.
dryhten, 1485, 2001, etc.; drihten, 1051; dat. dryhtne, 2483, etc.;
dryhten, 1832.--b) _God_: nom. drihten, 108, etc.; dryhten, 687, etc.; dat.
sg. dryhtne, 1693, etc.; drihtne, 1399, etc.; gen. sg. dryhtnes, 441;
drihtnes, 941.--Comp.: freá-, freó-, gum-, man-, sige-, wine-dryhten.

dryht-guma, w. m., _one of a troop of warriors, noble warrior_: dat. sg.
drihtguman, 1389; nom. pl. drihtguman, 99; dryhtguman, 1232; dat. pl. ofer
dryhtgumum, 1791 (of Hrôðgâr's warriors).

dryht-lîc, adj., _(that which befits a noble troop of warriors), noble,
excellent_: dryhtlîc îren, _excellent sword_, 893; acc. sg. f. (with an
acc. sg. n.) drihtlîce wîf (of Hildeburh), 1159.

dryht-mâðum, st. m., _excellent jewel, splendid treasure_: gen. pl.
dryhtmâðma, 2844.

dryht-scipe, st. m., _(lord-ship) warlike virtue, bravery; heroic deed_:
acc. sg. drihtscype dreógan, _to do a heroic deed_, 1471.

dryht-sele, st. m., _excellent, splendid hall_: nom. sg. driht-sele, 485;
dryhtsele, 768; acc. sg. dryhtsele, 2321.

dryht-sib, st. f., _peace_ or _friendship between troops of noble
warriors_: gen. sg. dryhtsibbe, 2069.

drync, st. m., _drink_: in comp. heoru-drync.

drync-fät, st. n., _vessel for drink, to receive the drink_: acc. sg.,
2255; drinc-fät, 2307.

drysmian, w. v., _to become obscure, gloomy_ (through the falling rain):
pres. sg. III. lyft drysmað, 1376.

drysne, adj. See on-drysne.

dugan, v., _to avail, to be capable, to be good_: pres. sg. III. hûru se
aldor deáh, _especially is the prince capable_, 369; ðonne his ellen deáh,
_if his strength avails, is good_, 573; þe him selfa deáh, _who is capable
of himself, who can rely on himself_, 1840; pres. subj. þeáh þîn wit duge,
_though, indeed, your understanding be good, avail_, 590; similarly, 1661,
2032; pret. sg. þu ûs wel dohtest, _you did us good, conducted yourself
well towards us_, 1822; similarly, nu seó hand ligeð se þe eów welhwylcra
wilna dohte, _which was helpful to each one of your desires_, 1345; pret.
subj. þeáh þu heaðoræsa gehwær dohte, _though thou wast everywhere strong
in battle_, 526.

duguð (_state of being fit, capable_), st. f.: 1) _capability, strength_:
dat. pl. for dugeðum, _in ability_(?), 2502; duguðum dêmdon, _praised with
all their might_(?), 3176.--2) _men capable of bearing arms, band of
warriors_, esp., _noble warriors_: nom. sg. duguð unlytel, 498; duguð,
1791, 2255; dat. sg. for duguðe, _before the heroes_, 2021; nalles frätwe
geaf ealdor duguðe, _gave the band of heroes no treasure_ (more), 2921;
leóda duguðe on lâst, _upon the track of the heroes of the people_, i.e.
after them, 2946; gen. sg. cûðe he duguðe þeáw, _the custom of the noble
warriors_, 359; deórre duguðe, 488; similarly, 2239, 2659; acc. pl. duguða,
2036.--3) contrasted with geogoð, duguð designates the noted warriors of
noble birth (as in the Middle Ages, knights in contrast with squires): so
gen. sg. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; gehwylc ... duguðe and iogoðe, 1675;
duguðe and geogoðe dæl æghwylcne, 622.

durran, v. pret. and pres. _to dare_; prs. sg. II. þu dearst bîdan, _darest
to await_, 527; III. he gesêcean dear, 685; pres. subj. sêc gyf þu dyrre,
_seek_ (Grendel's mother), _if thou dare_, 1380; pret. dorste, 1463, 1469,
etc.; pl. dorston, 2849.

duru, st. f., _door, gate, wicket_: nom. sg., 722; acc. sg. [duru], 389.

ge-dûfan, st. v., _to dip in, to sink into_: pret. þät sweord gedeáf (_the
sword sank into the drake_, of a blow), 2701.

þurh-dûfan, _to dive through; to swim through, diving_: pret. wäter up
þurh-deáf, _swam through the water upwards_ (because he was before at the
bottom), 1620.

dwellan, w. v., _to mislead, to hinder_: prs. III. nô hine wiht dweleð, âdl
ne yldo, _him nothing misleads, neither sickness nor age_, 1736.

dyhtig, adj., _useful, good for_: nom. sg. n. sweord ... ecgum dyhtig,

dynnan, w. v., _to sound, to groan, to roar_: pret. dryhtsele (healwudu,
hruse) dynede, 768, 1318, 2559.

dyrne, adj.: 1) _concealed, secret, retired_: nom. sg. dyrne, 271; acc. sg.
dryhtsele dyrnne (of the drake's cave-hall), 2321.--2) _secret, malicious,
hidden by sorcery_: dat. instr. sg. dyrnan cräfte, _with secret magic art_,
2291; dyrnum cräfte, 2169; gen. pl. dyrnra gâsta, _of malicious spirits_
(of Grendel's kin), 1358.--Comp. un-dyrne.

dyrne, adv., _in secret, secretly_: him ...äfter deórum men dyrne langað,
_longs in secret for the dear man_, 1880.

dyrstig, adj., _bold, daring_: þeáh þe he dæda gehwäs dyrstig wære,
_although he had been courageous for every deed_, 2839.

ge-dýgan, ge-dîgan, w. v., _to endure, to overcome_, with the acc. of the
thing endured: pres. sg. II. gif þu þät ellenweorc aldre gedîgest, _if thou
survivest the heroic work with thy life_, 662; III. þät þone hilderæs hâl
gedîgeð, _that he survives the battle in safety_, 300; similarly, inf.
unfæge gedîgan weán and wräcsîð, 2293; hwäðer sêl mæge wunde gedýgan,
_which of the two can stand the wounds better_ (come off with life), 2532;
ne meahte unbyrnende deóp gedýgan, _could not endure the deep without
burning_ (could not hold out in the deep), 2550; pret. sg. I. III.
ge-dîgde, 578, 1656, 2351, 2544.

dýgol. See deógol.

dýre. See deóre.


ecg, st. f., _edge of the sword, point_: nom. sg. sweordes ecg, 1107; ecg,
1525, etc.; acc. sg. wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstôd, _defended the
entrance against point and edge_ (i.e. against spear and sword), 1550;
mêces ecge, 1813; nom. pl. ecge, 1146.--_Sword, battle-axe, any cutting
weapon_: nom. sg. ne wäs ecg bona (_not the sword killed him_), 2507; sió
ecg brûn (Beówulf's sword Nägling), 2578; hyne ecg fornam, _the sword
snatched him away_, 2773, etc.; nom. pl. ecga, 2829; dat. pl. äscum and
ecgum, 1773; dat. pl. (but denoting only one sword) eácnum ecgum, 2141;
gen. pl. ecga, 483, 806, 1169;--_blade_: ecg wäs îren, 1460.--Comp.: brûn-,
heard-, stýl-ecg, adj.

ecg-bana, w. m., _murderer by the sword_: dat. sg. Cain wearð tô ecg-banan
ângan brêðer, 1263.

ecg-hete, st. m., _sword-hate, enmity which the sword carries out_: nom.
sg., 84, 1739.

ecg-þracu, st. f., _sword-storm_ (of violent combat): acc. atole ecg-þräce,

ed-hwyrft, st. m., _return_ (of a former condition): þâ þær sôna wearð
edhwyrft eorlum, siððan inne fealh Grendles môdor (i.e. after Grendel's
mother had penetrated into the hall, the former perilous condition, of the
time of the visits of Grendel, returned to the men), 1282.

ed-wendan, w. v., _to turn back, to yield, to leave off_: inf. gyf him
edwendan æfre scolde bealuwa bisigu, _if for him the affliction of evil
should ever cease_, 280.

ed-wenden, st. f., _turning, change_: nom. sg. edwenden, 1775; ed-wenden
torna gehwylces (_reparation for former neglect_), 2189.

edwît-lîf, st. n., _life in disgrace_: nom. sg., 2892.

efn, adj., _even, like_, with preceding on, and with depend. dat., _upon
the same level, near_: him on efn ligeð ealdorgewinna, _lies near him_,

efnan (see äfnan) w. v., _to carry out, to perform, to accomplish_: pres.
subj. eorlscype efne (_accomplish knightly deeds_), 2536; inf. eorlscipe
efnan, 2623; sweorda gelâc efnan (_to battle_), 1042; gerund. tô efnanne,
1942; pret. eorlscipe efnde, 2134, 3008.

efne, adv., _even, exactly, precisely, just_, united with swâ or swylc:
efne swâ swîðe swâ, _just so much as_, 1093; efne swâ sîde swâ, 1224; wäs
se gryre lässa efne swâ micle swâ, _by so much the less as ..._, 1284;
leóht inne stôd efne swâ ... scîneð, _a gleam stood therein_ (in the sword)
_just as when ... shines_, 1572; efne swâ hwylc mägða swâ þone magan cende
(_a woman who has borne such a son_), 944; efne swâ hwylcum manna swâ him
gemet þûhte, _to just such a man as seemed good to him_, 3058; efne swylce
mæla swylce ... þearf gesælde, _just at the times at which necessity
commanded it_, 1250.

eft, adv.: l) _thereupon, afterwards_: 56, 1147, 2112, 3047, etc.; eft sôna
bið, _then it happens immediately_, 1763; bôt eft cuman, _help come again_,
281.--2) _again, on the other side_: þät hine on ylde eft gewunigen
wilgesîðas, _that in old age again_ (also on their side) _willing
companions should be attached to him_, 22;--_anew, again_: 135, 604, 693,
1557, etc.; eft swâ ær, _again as formerly_, 643.--3) retro, rursus,
_back_: 123, 296, 854, etc.; þät hig äðelinges eft ne wêndon (_did not
believe that he would come back_), 1597.

eft-cyme, st. m., _return_: gen. sg. eftcymes, 2897.

eft-sîð, st. m., _journey back, return_: acc. sg. 1892; gen. sg. eft-sîðes
georn, 2784; acc. pl. eftsîðas teáh, _went the road back_, i.e. returned,

egesa, egsa (_state of terror_, active or passive): l) _frightfulness_:
acc. sg. þurh egsan, 276; gen. egesan ne gýmeð, _cares for nothing
terrible, is not troubled about future terrors_(?), 1758.--2) _terror,
horror, fear_: nom. sg. egesa, 785; instr. sg. egesan, 1828, 2737.--Comp.:
glêd-, lîg-, wäter-egesa.

eges-full, adj., _horrible (full of fear, fearful)_, 2930.

eges-lîc, adj., _terrible, bringing terror_: of Grendel's head, 1650; of
the beginning of the fight with the drake, 2310; of the drake, 2826.

egle, adj., _causing aversion, hideous_: nom. pl. neut., or, more probably,
perhaps, adverbial, egle (MS. egl), 988.

egsian (denominative from egesa), w. v., _to have terror, distress_: pret.
(as pluperf.) egsode eorl(?), 6.

ehtian, w. v., _to esteem, to make prominent with praise_: III. pl. pres.
þät þe ... weras ehtigað, _that thee men shall esteem, praise_, 1223.

elde (_those who generate_, cf. O.N. al-a, generare), st. m. only in the
pl., _men_: dat. pl. eldum, 2215; mid eldum, _among men_, 2612.--See ylde.

eldo, st. f., _age_: instr. sg. eldo gebunden, 2112.

el-land, st. n., _foreign land, exile_: acc. sg. sceall ... elland tredan,
(_shall be banished_), 3020.

ellen, st. n., _strength, heroic strength, bravery_: nom. sg. ellen, 573;
eafoð and ellen, 903; Geáta ... eafoð and ellen, 603; acc. sg. eafoð and
ellen, 2350; ellen cýðan, _show bravery_, 2696; ellen fremedon, _exercised
heroic strength, did heroic deeds_, 3; similarly, ic gefremman sceal eorlîc
ellen, 638; ferh ellen wräc, _life drove out the strength_, i.e. with the
departing life (of the dragon) his strength left him, 2707; dat. sg. on
elne, 2507, 2817; as instr. þâ wäs ät þam geongum grim andswaru êðbegête
þâm þe ær his elne forleás, _then it was easy for_ (every one of) _those
who before had lost his hero-courage, to obtain rough words from the young
man_ (Wîglâf), 2862; mid elne, 1494, 2536; elne, alone, in adverbial sense,
_strongly, zealously_, and with the nearly related meaning, _hurriedly,
transiently_, 894, 1098, 1968, 2677, 2918; gen. sg. elnes lät, 1530; þâ him
wäs elnes þearf, 2877.--Comp. mägen-ellen.

ellen-dæd, st. f., _heroic deed_: dat. pl. -dædum, 877, 901.

ellen-gæst, st. m., _strength-spirit, demon with heroic strength_: nom. sg.
of Grendel, 86.

ellen-lîce, adv., _strongly, with heroic strength_, 2123.

ellen-mærðu, st. f., _renown of heroic strength_, dat. pl. -mærðum, 829,

ellen-rôf, adj., _renowned for strength_: nom. sg. 340, 358, 3064; dat. pl.
-rôfum, 1788.

ellen-seóc, adj., _infirm in strength_: acc. sg. þeóden ellensiócne (_the
mortally wounded king, Beówulf_), 2788.

ellen-weorc, st. n., (_strength-work_), _heroic deed, achievement in
battle_: acc. sg. 662, 959, 1465, etc.; gen. pl. ellen-weorca, 2400.

elles, adv., _else, otherwise_: a (modal), _in another manner_, 2521.--b
(local), elles hwær, _somewhere else_, 138; elles hwergen, 2591.

ellor, adv., _to some other place_, 55, 2255.

ellor-gâst, -gæst, st. m., _spirit living elsewhere_ (standing outside of
the community of mankind): nom. sg. se ellorgâst (Grendel), 808; (Grendel's
mother), 1622; ellorgæst (Grendel's mother), 1618; acc. pl. ellorgæstas,

ellor-sîð, st. m., _departure, death_: nom. sg. 2452.

elra, adj. (comparative of a not existing form, ele, Goth. aljis, alius),
_another_: dat. sg. on elran men, 753.

el-þeódig, adj., _of another people: foreign_: acc. pl. el-þeódige men,

ende, st. m., _the extreme_: hence, 1) _end_: nom. sg. aldres (lîfes) ende,
823, 2845; ôð þät ende becwom (scil. unrihtes), 1255; acc. sg. ende
lîfgesceafta (lîfes, læn-daga), 3064, 1387, 2343; häfde eorðscrafa ende
genyttod, _had used the end of the earth-caves_ (had made use of the caves
for the last time), 3047; dat. sg. ealdres (lîfes) ät ende, 2791, 2824;
eoletes ät ende, 224.--2) _boundary_: acc. sg. sîde rîce þät he his selfa
ne mäg ... ende geþencean, _the wide realm, so that he himself cannot
comprehend its boundaries_, 1735.--3) _summit, head_: dat. sg. eorlum on
ende, _to the nobles at the end_ (the highest courtiers), 2022.--Comp.

ende-däg, st. m., _last day, day of death_: nom. sg. 3036; acc. sg. 638.

ende-dôgor, st. m., _last day, day of death_: gen. sg. bega on wênum
endedôgores and eftcymes leótes monnes (_hesitating between the belief in
the death and in the return of the dear man_), 2897.

ende-lâf, st. f., _last remnant_: nom. sg. þu eart ende-lâf ûsses cynnes,
_art the last of our race_, 2814.

ende-leán, st. n., _final reparation_: acc. sg. 1693.

ende-sæta, w. m., _he who sits on the border, boundary-guard_: nom. sg.
(here of the strand-watchman), 241.

ende-stäf, st. m. (elementum finis), _end_: acc. sg. hit on endestäf eft
gelimpeð, _then it draws near to the end_, 1754.

ge-endian, w. v., _to end_: pret. part. ge-endod, 2312.

enge, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. enge ânpaðas, _narrow paths_, 1411.

ent, st. m., _giant_: gen. pl. enta ær-geweorc (the sword-hilt out of the
dwelling-place of Grendel), 1680; enta geweorc (the dragon's cave), 2718;
eald-enta ær-geweorc (the costly things in the dragon's cave), 2775.

entisc, adj., _coming from giants_: acc. sg. entiscne helm, 2980.

etan, st. v., _to eat, to consume_: pres. sg. III. blôdig wäl ... eteð
ân-genga, _he that goes alone_ (Grendel) _will devour the bloody corpse_,
448; inf. Geátena leóde ... etan, 444.

þurh-etan, _to eat through_: pret. part. pl. nom. swyrd ... þurhetone,
_swords eaten through_ (by rust), 3050.


êc. See eác.

êce, adj., _everlasting_; nom. êce drihten (God), 108; acc. sg. êce
eorðreced, _the everlasting earth-hall_ (the dragon's cave), 2720; geceás
êcne ræd, _chose the everlasting gain_ (died), 1202; dat. sg. êcean
dryhtne, 1693, 1780, 2331; acc. pl. geceós êce rædas, 1761.

êdre. See ædre.

êð-begête, adj., _easy to obtain, ready_: nom. sg. þâ wäs ät þam geongum
grim andswaru êð-begête, _then from the young man_ (Wîglâf) _it was an easy
thing to get a gruff answer_, 2862.

êðe. See eáðe.

êðel, st. m., _hereditary possessions, hereditary estate_: acc. sg. swæsne
êðel, 520; dat. sg. on êðle, 1731.--In royal families the hereditary
possession is the whole realm: hence, acc. sg. êðel Scyldinga, _of the
kingdom of the Scyldings_, 914; (Offa) wîsdôme heóld êðel sînne, _ruled
with wisdom his inherited kingdom_, 1961.

êðel-riht, st. n., _hereditary privileges_ (rights that belong to a
hereditary estate): nom. sg. eard êðel-riht, _estate and inherited
privileges_, 2199.

êðel-stôl, st. m., _hereditary seat, inherited throne_: acc. pl.
êðel-stôlas, 2372.

êðel-turf, st. f., _inherited ground, hereditary estate_: dat. sg. on mînre
êðeltyrf, 410.

êðel-weard, st. m., _lord of the hereditary estate_ (realm): nom. sg.
êðelweard (_king_), 1703, 2211; dat. sg. Eást-Dena êðel wearde (King
Hrôðgâr), 617.

êðel-wyn, st. f., _joy in_, or _enjoyment of, hereditary possessions_: nom.
sg. nu sceal ... eall êðelwyn eówrum cynne, lufen âlicgean, _now shall your
race want all home-joy, and subsistence_(?) (your race shall be banished
from its hereditary abode), 2886; acc. sg. he me lond forgeaf, eard
êðelwyn, _presented me with land, abode, and the enjoyment of home_, 2494.

êð-gesýne, ýð-gesêne, adj., _easy to see, visible to all_: nom. sg. 1111,

êfstan, w. v., _to be in haste, to hasten_: inf. uton nu êfstan, _let us
hurry now_, 3102; pret. êfste mid elne, _hastened with heroic strength_,

êg-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer êg-clif (ecg-clif, MS.), 2894.

êg-streám, st. m., _sea-stream, sea-flood_: dat. pl. on êg-streámum, _in
the sea-floods_, 577. See eágor-streám.

êhtan (M.H.G. æchten; cf. æht and ge-æhtla), w. v. w. gen., _to be a
pursuer, to pursue_: pres. part. äglæca êhtende wäs duguðe and geogoðe,
159; pret. pl. êhton aglæcan, _they pursued the bringer of sorrow_
(Beówulf)(?), 1513.

êst, st. m. f., _favor, grace, kindness_: acc. sg. he him êst geteáh meara
and mâðma (_honored him with horses and jewels_), 2166; gearwor häfde
âgendes êst ær gesceáwod, _would rather have seen the grace of the Lord_
(of God) _sooner_, 3076.--dat. pl., adverbial, libenter: him on folce
heóld, êstum mid âre, 2379; êstum geýwan (_to present_), 2150; him wäs ...
wunden gold êstum geeáwed (_presented_), 1195; we þät ellenweorc êstum
miclum fremedon, 959.

êste, adj., _gracious_: w. gen. êste bearn-gebyrdo, _gracious through the
birth_ (of such a son as Beówulf), 946.


eafoð, st. n., _power, strength_: nom, sg. eafoð and ellen, 603, 903; acc.
sg. eafoð and ellen, 2350; we frêcne genêðdon eafoð uncûðes, _we have
boldly ventured against the strength of the enemy_ (Grendel) _have
withstood him_, 961; gen. sg. eafoðes cräftig, 1467; þät þec âdl oððe ecg
eafoðes getwæfed, _shall rob of strength_, 1764; acc. pl. eafeðo (MS.
earfeðo) [This reading cancelled. See note to l. 534--KTH], 534; dat. pl.
hine mihtig god ... eafeðum stêpte, _made him great through strength_,
1718. See Note for l. 534.

eafor, st. m., _boar_; here the image of the boar as banner: acc. sg.
eafor, 2153.

eafora (_offspring_), w. m.: 1) _son_: nom. sg. eafera, 12, 898; eafora,
375; acc. sg. eaferan, 1548, 1848; gen. sg. eafera, 19; nom. pl. eaferan,
2476; dat. pl. eaferum, 1069, 2471; uncran eaferan, 1186.--2) in broader
sense, _successor_: dat. pl. eaforum, 1711.

eahta, num., _eight_: acc. pl. eahta mearas, 1036; eode eahta sum, _went as
one of eight, with seven others_, 3124.

eahtian, w. v.: 1) _to consider; to deliberate_: pret. pl. w. acc. ræd
eahtedon, _consulted about help_, 172; pret. sg. (for the plural) þone
sêlestan þâra þe mid Hrôðgâre hâm eahtode, _the best one of those who with
Hrôðgâr deliberated about their home_ (ruled), 1408.--2) _to speak with
reflection of_ (along with the idea of praise): pret. pl. eahtodan
eorlscipe, _spoke of his noble character_, 3175.

eal, eall, adj., _all, whole_: nom. sg. werod eall, 652; pl. eal bencþelu,
486; sg. eall êðelwyn, 2886; eal worold, 1739, etc.; þät hit wearð eal
gearo, healärna mæst, 77; þät hit (wîgbil) eal gemealt, 1609. And with a
following genitive: þær wäs eal geador Grendles grâpe, _there was all
together Grendel's hand, the whole hand of Grendel_, 836; eall ... lissa,
_all favor_, 2150; wäs eall sceacen dôgorgerîmes, 2728. With apposition:
þûhte him eall tô rûm, wongas and wîcstede, 2462; acc. sg. beót eal, 523;
similarly, 2018, 2081; oncýððe ealle, _all distress_, 831; heals ealne,
2692; hlæw ... ealne ûtan-weardne, 2298; gif he þät eal gemon, 1186, 2428;
þät eall geondseh, recedes geatwa, 3089; ealne wîde-ferhð, _through the
whole wide life, through all time_, 1223; instr. sg. ealle mägene, _with
all strength_, 2668; dat. sg. eallum ... manna cynne, 914; gen. sg. ealles
moncynnes, 1956. Subst. ic þäs ealles mäg ... gefeán habban, 2740; brûc
ealles well, 2163; freán ealles þanc secge, _give thanks to the Lord of
all_, 2795; nom. pl. untydras ealle, 111; sceótend ... ealle, 706; we
ealle, 942; acc. pl. feónd ealle, 700; similarly, 1081, 1797, 2815; subst.
ofer ealle, 650; ealle hie deáð fornam, 2237; lîg ealle forswealg þâra þe
þær gûð fornam, _all of those whom the war had snatched away_, 1123; dat.
pl. eallum ceaster-bûendum, 768; similarly, 824, 907, 1418; subst. âna wið
eallum, _one against all_, 145; with gen. eallum gumena cynnes, 1058; gen.
pl. äðelinga bearn ealra twelfa, _the kinsmen of all twelve nobles_ (twelve
nobles hold the highest positions of the court), 3172; subst. he âh ealra
geweald, _has power over all_, 1728.

Uninflected: bil eal þurhwôd flæschoman, _the battle-axe cleft the body
through and through_, 1568; häfde ... eal gefeormod fêt and folma, _had
devoured entirely feet and hands_, 745; se þe eall geman gâr-cwealm gumena,
_who remembers thoroughly the death of the men by the spear_, 2043, etc.

Adverbial: þeáh ic eal mæge, _although I am entirely able_, 681; hî on
beorg dydon bêg and siglu eall swylce hyrsta, _they placed in the
grave-mound rings, and ornaments, all such adornments_, 3165.--The gen. sg.
ealles, adverbial in the sense of _entirely_, 1001, 1130.

eald, adj., _old_: a) of the age of living beings: nom. sg. eald, 357,
1703, 2211, etc.; dat. sg. ealdum, 2973; gen. sg. ealdes uhtflogan
(_dragon_), 2761; dat. sg. ealdum, 1875; geongum and ealdum, 72.--b) of
things and of institutions: nom. sg. helm monig eald and ômig, 2764; acc.
sg. ealde lâfe (_sword_), 796, 1489; ealde wîsan, 1866; eald sweord, 1559,
1664, etc.; eald gewin, _old_ (lasting years), _distress_, 1782; eald enta
geweorc (_the precious things in the drake's cave_), 2775; acc. pl. ealde
mâðmas, 472; ofer ealde riht, _against the old laws_ (namely, the Ten
Commandments; Beówulf believes that God has sent him the drake as a
punishment, because he has unconsciously, at some time, violated one of the
commandments), 2331.

yldra, compar. _older_: mîn yldra mæg, 468; yldra brôðor, 1325; ôð þät he
(Heardrêd) yldra wearð, 2379.

yldesta, superl. _oldest_, in the usual sense; dat. sg. þam yldestan, 2436;
in a moral sense, _the most respected_: nom. sg. se yldesta, 258; acc. sg.
þone yldestan, 363, both times of Beówulf.

eald-fäder, st. m., _old-father, grandfather, ancestor_: nom. sg. 373.

eald-gesegen, st. f., _traditions from old times_: gen. pl. eal-fela
eald-gesegena, _very many of the old traditions_, 870.

eald-gesîð, st. m., _companion ever since old times, courtier for many
years_: nom. pl. eald-gesîðas, 854.

eald-gestreón, st. n., _treasure out of the old times_: dat. pl.
eald-gestreónum, 1382; gen. pl. -gestreóna, 1459.

eald-gewinna, w. m., _old-enemy, enemy for many years_: nom. sg. of
Grendel, 1777.

eald-gewyrht, st. n., _merit on account of services rendered during many
years_: nom. pl. þät næron eald-gewyrht, þät he âna scyle gnorn þrowian,
_that has not been his desert ever since long ago, that he should bear the
distress alone_, 2658.

eald-hlâford, st. m., _lord through many years_: gen. sg. bill
eald-hlâfordes (of the old Beówulf(?)), 2779.

eald-metod, st. m., _God ruling ever since ancient times_: nom. sg. 946.

ealdor, aldor, st. m., _lord, chief_ (king or powerful noble): nom. sg.
ealdor, 1645, 1849, 2921; aldor, 56, 369, 392; acc. sg. aldor, 669; dat.
sg. ealdre, 593; aldre, 346.

ealdor, aldor, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. aldor, 1372; dat. sg. aldre, 1448,
1525; ealdre, 2600; him on aldre stôd herestræl hearda (in vitalibus),
1435; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not troubled about his life_, 1443; of
ealdre gewât, _went out of life, died_, 2625; as instr. aldre, 662, 681,
etc.; ealdre, 1656, 2134, etc.; gen. sg. aldres, 823; ealdres, 2791, 2444;
aldres orwêna, _despairing of life_, 1003, 1566; ealdres scyldig, _having
forfeited life_, 1339, 2062; dat. pl. aldrum nêðdon, 510, 538.--Phrases: on
aldre (_in life_), _ever_, 1780; tô aldre (_for life_), _always_, 2006,
2499; âwa tô aldre, _for ever and ever_, 956.

ealdor-bealu, st. n., _life's evil_: acc. sg. þu ... ondrædan ne þearft ...
aldorbealu eorlum, _thou needest not fear death for the courtiers_, 1677.

ealdor-cearu, st. f., _trouble that endangers life, great trouble_: dat.
sg. he his leódum wearð ... tô aldor-ceare, 907.

ealdor-dagas, st. m. pl., _days of one's life_: dat. pl. næfre on
aldor-dagum (_never in his life_), 719; on ealder-dagum ær (_in former
days_), 758.

ealdor-gedâl, st. n., _severing of life, death, end_: nom. sg. aldor-gedâl,

ealdor-gewinna, w. m., _life-enemy, one who strives to take his enemy's
life_ (in N.H.G. the contrary conception, Tod-feind): nom. sg.
ealdorgewinna (_the dragon_), 2904.

ealdor-leás, adj., _without a ruler_(?): nom. pl. aldor-leáse, 15.

ealdor-leás, adj., _lifeless, dead_: acc. sg. aldor-leásne, 1588;
ealdor-leásne, 3004.

ealdor-þegn, st. m., _nobleman at the court, distinguished courtier_: acc.
sg. aldor-þegn (Hrôðgâr's confidential adviser, Äschere), 1309.

eal-fela, adj., _very much_: with following gen., eal-fela eald-gesegena,
_very many old traditions_, 870; eal-fela eotena cynnes, 884.

ealgian, w. v., _to shield, to defend, to protect_: inf. w. acc. feorh
ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; pret. siððan he (Hygelâc) under segne sinc
eal-gode, wälreáf werede, _while under his banner he protected the
treasures, defended the spoil of battle_ (i.e. while he was upon the Viking
expeditions), 1205.

eal-gylden, adj., _all golden, entirely of gold_: nom. sg. swýn ealgylden,
1112; acc. sg. segn eallgylden, 2768.

eal-îrenne, adj., _entirely of iron_: acc. sg. eall-îrenne wîgbord, _a
wholly iron battle-shield_, 2339.

ealu, st. n., _ale, beer_: acc. sg. ealo drincende, 1946.

ealu-benc, st. f., _ale-bench, bench for those drinking ale_: dat. sg. in
ealo-bence, 1030; on ealu-bence, 2868.

ealu-scerwen, st. f., _terror_, under the figure of a mishap at an
ale-drinking, probably the sudden taking away of the ale: nom. sg. Denum
eallum wearð ... ealuscerwen, 770.

ealu-wæge, st. n., _ale-can, portable vessel out of which ale is poured
into the cups_: acc. sg. 2022; hroden ealowæge, 495; dat. sg. ofer ealowæge
(_at the ale-carouse_), 481.

eal-wealda, w. adj., _all ruling_ (God): nom. sg. fäder alwalda, 316;
alwalda, 956, 1315; dat. sg. al-wealdan, 929.

eard, st. m., _cultivated ground, estate, hereditary estate_; in a broader
sense, _ground in general, abode, place of sojourn_: nom. sg. him wäs bâm
... lond gecynde, eard êðel-riht, _the land was bequeathed to them both,
the land and the privileges attached to it._ 2199; acc. sg. fîfel-cynnes
eard, _the ground of the giant race, place of sojourn_, 104; similarly,
älwihta eard, 1501; eard gemunde, _thought of his native ground, his home_,
1130; eard git ne const, _thou knowest not yet the place of sojourn._ 1378;
eard and eorlscipe, _prædium et nobilitatem_, 1728; eard êðelwyn, _land and
the enjoyment of home_, 2494; dat. sg. ellor hwearf of earde, _went
elsewhere from his place of abode_, i.e. died, 56; þät we rondas beren eft
tô earde, _that we go again to our homes_, 2655; on earde, 2737; nom. pl.
eácne eardas, _the broad expanses_ (in the fen-sea where Grendel's home
was), 1622.

eardian, w. v.: 1) _to have a dwelling-place, to live; to rest_: pret. pl.
dýre swyrd swâ hie wið eorðan fäðm þær eardodon, _costly swords, as they
had rested in the earth's bosom_, 3051.--2) also transitively, _to
inhabit_: pret. sg. Heorot eardode, 166; inf. wîc eardian elles hwergen,
_inhabit a place elsewhere_ (i.e. die), 2590.

eard-lufa, w. m., _the living upon one's land, home-life_: acc. sg.
eard-lufan, 693.

earfoð-lîce, adv., _with trouble, with difficulty_, 1637, 1658; _with
vexation, angrily_, 86; _sorrowfully_, 2823; _with difficulty, scarcely_,
2304, 2935.

earfoð-þrag, st. f., _time full of troubles, sorrowful time_: acc. sg.
-þrage, 283.

earh, adj., _cowardly_: gen. sg. ne bið swylc earges sîð (_no coward
undertaken that_), 2542.

earm, st. m., _arm_: acc. sg. earm, 836, 973; wið earm gesät, _supported
himself with his arm_, 750; dat. pl. earmum, 513.

earm, adj., _poor, miserable, unhappy_: nom. sg. earm, 2369; earme ides,
_the unhappy woman_, 1118; dat. sg. earmre teohhe, _the unhappy band_,
2939.--Comp. acc. sg. earmran mannan, _a more wretched, more forsaken man_,

earm-beág, st. m., _arm-ring, bracelet_: gen. pl. earm-beága fela searwum
gesæled, _many arm-rings interlaced_, 2764.

earm-hreád, st. f., _arm-ornament_. nom. pl. earm-hreáde twâ, 1195 (Grein's
conjecture, MS. earm reade).

earm-lîc, adj., _wretched, miserable_: nom. sg. sceolde his ealdor-gedâl
earmlîc wurðan, _his end should be wretched_, 808.

earm-sceapen, pret. part. as adj. (_properly, wretched by the decree of
fate_), _wretched_: nom. sg. 1352.

earn, st. m., _eagle_: dat. sg. earne, 3027.

eatol. See atol.

eaxl, st. f., _shoulder_: acc. sg. eaxle, 836, 973; dat. sg. on eaxle, 817,
1548; be eaxle, 1538; on eaxle ides gnornode, _the woman sobbed on the
shoulder_ (of her son, who has fallen and is being burnt), 1118; dat. pl.
sät freán eaxlum neáh, _sat near the shoulders of his lord_ (Beówulf lies
lifeless upon the earth, and Wîglâf sits by his side, near his shoulder, so
as to sprinkle the face of his dead lord), 2854; he for eaxlum gestôd
Deniga freán, _he stood before the shoulders of the lord of the Danes_
(i.e. not directly before him, but somewhat to the side, as etiquette
demanded), 358.

eaxl-gestealla, w. m., _he who has his position at the shoulder_ (sc. of
his lord), _trusty courtier, counsellor of a prince_: nom. sg. 1327; acc.
pl. -gesteallan, 1715.


eác, conj., _also_: 97, 388, 433, etc.; êc, 3132.

eácen (pret. part. of a not existing eacan, augere), adj., _wide-spread_,
_large_: nom. pl. eácne eardas, _broad plains_, 1622.--_great, heavy_: eald
sweord eácen, 1664; dat. pl. eácnum ecgum, 2141, both times of the great
sword in Grendel's habitation.--_great, mighty, powerful_: äðele and eácen,
of Beówulf, 198.

eácen-cräftig, adj., _immense_ (of riches), _enormously great_: acc. sg.
hord-ärna sum eácen-cräftig, _that enormous treasure-house_, 2281; nom. sg.
þät yrfe eácen-cräftig, iúmonna gold, 3052.

eádig, adj., _blessed with possessions, rich, happy by reason of property_:
nom. sg. wes, þenden þu lifige, äðeling eádig, _be, as long as thou livest,
a prince blessed with riches_, 1226; eádig mon, 2471.--Comp. sige-, sigor-,

eádig-lîce, adv., _in abundance, in joyous plenty_: dreámum lifdon
eádiglîce, _lived in rejoicing and plenty_, 100.

eáðe, êðe, ýðe, adj., _easy, pleasant_: nom. pl. gode þancedon þäs þe him
ýð-lâde eáðe wurdon, _thanked God that the sea-ways_ (the navigation) _had
become easy to them_, 228; ne wäs þät êðe sîð, _no pleasant way_, 2587; näs
þät ýðe ceáp, _no easy purchase_, 2416; nô þät ýðe byð tô befleónne, _not
easy_ (as milder expression for _in no way, not at all_), 1003.

eáðe, ýðe, adv., _easily_. eáðe, 478, 2292, 2765.

eáð-fynde, adj., _easy to find_: nom. sg. 138.

eáge, w. n., _eye_: dat. pl. him of eágum stôd leóht unfäger, _out of his
eyes came a terrible gleam_, 727; þät ic ... eágum starige, _see with eyes,
behold_, 1782; similarly, 1936; gen. pl. eágena bearhtm, 1767.

eágor-streám, st. m., _sea-stream sea_: acc. sg. 513.

eá-land, st. n., _land surrounded by water_ (of the land of the Geátas):
acc. sg. eá-lond, 2335; _island_.

eám, st. m., _uncle, mothers brother_: nom. sg. 882.

eástan, adv., _from the east_, 569.

eáwan, w. v., _to disclose, to show, to prove_: pres. sg. III. eáweð ...
uncûðne nîð, _shows evil enmity_, 276. See eówan, ýwan.

ge-eáwan, _to show, to offer_: pret. part. him wäs ... wunden gold êstum
ge-eáwed, _was graciously presented_, 1195.


eode. See gangan.

eodor, st. m., _fence, hedge, railing_. Among the old Germans, an estate
was separated by a fence from the property of others. Inside of this fence
the laws of peace and protection held good, as well as in the house itself.
Hence eodor is sometimes used instead of _house_: acc. pl. hêht eahta
mearas on flet teón, in under eoderas, _gave orders to lead eight steeds
into the hall, into the house_, 1038.--2) figuratively, _lord, prince_, as
protector: nom. sg. eodor, 428, 1045; eodur, 664.

eofoð, st. n., _strength_: acc. pl. eofoðo, 2535. See eafoð.

eofer, st. m.: 1) _boar_, here of the metal boar-image upon the helmet:
nom. sg. eofer îrenheard, 1113.--2) figuratively, _bold hero, brave
fighter_ (O.N. iöfur): nom. pl. þonne ... eoferas cnysedan, _when the
heroes rushed upon each other_, 1329, where eoferas and fêðan stand in the
same relation to each other as cnysedan and hniton.

eofor-lîc, st. n. _boar-image_ (on the helmet): nom. pl. eofor-lîc scionon,

eofor-spreót, st. m., _boar-spear_: dat. pl. mid eofer-spreótum
heóro-hôcyhtum, _with hunting-spears which were provided with sharp hooks_,

eoguð, ioguð. See geogoð.

eolet, st. m. n., _sea_(?): gen. sg. eoletes, 224.

eorclan-stân, st. m., _precious stone_: acc. pl. -stânas, 1209.

eorð-cyning, st. m., _king of the land_: gen. sg. eorð-cyninges (Finn),

eorð-draca, w. m., _earth-drake, dragon that lives in the earth_: nom. sg.
2713, 2826.

eorðe, w. f.: 1) _earth_ (in contrast with heaven), _world_: acc. sg.
älmihtiga eorðan worhte, 92; wîde geond eorðan, _far over the earth,
through the wide world_, 266; dat. sg. ofer eorðan, 248, 803; on eorðan,
1823, 2856, 3139; gen. sg. eorðan, 753.--2) _earth, ground_: acc. sg. he
eorðan gefeóll, _fell to the ground_, 2835; forlêton eorla gestreón eorðan
healdan, _let the earth hold the nobles' treasure_, 3168; dat. sg. þät hit
on eorðan läg, 1533; under eorðan, 2416; gen. sg. wið eorðan fäðm (_in the
bosom of the earth_), 3050.

eorð-reced, st. n., _hall in the earth, rock-hall_: acc. sg. 2720.

eorð-scräf, st. n., _earth-cavern, cave_: dat. sg. eorð-[scräfe], 2233;
gen. pl. eorð-scräfe, 3047.

eorð-sele, st. m., _hall in the earth, cave_: acc. sg. eorð-sele, 2411; dat
sg. of eorðsele, 2516.

eorð-weall, st. m., _earth-wall_: acc. sg. (Ongenþeów) beáh eft under
eorðweall, _fled again under the earth-wall_ (into his fortified camp),
2958; þâ me wäs ... sîð âlýfed inn under eorðweall, _then the way in, under
the earth-wall was opened to me_ (into the dragon's cave), 3091.

eorð-weard, st. m., _land-property, estate_: acc. sg. 2335.

eorl, st. m., _noble born man, a man of the high nobility_: nom. sg. 762,
796, 1229, etc.; acc. sg. eorl, 573, 628, 2696; gen. sg. eorles, 690, 983,
1758, etc.; acc. pl. eorlas, 2817; dat. pl. eorlum, 770, 1282, 1650, etc.;
gen. pl. eorla, 248, 357, 369, etc.--Since the king himself is from the
stock of the eorlas, he is also called eorl, 6, 2952.

eorl-gestreón, st. n., _wealth of the nobles_: gen. pl. eorl-gestreóna ...
hardfyrdne dæl, 2245.

eorl-gewæde, st. n., _knightly dress, armor_: dat. pl. -gewædum, 1443.

eorlîc (i.e. eorl-lîc), adj., _what it becomes a noble born man to do,
chivalrous_: acc. sg. eorlîc ellen, 638.

eorl-scipe, st. m., _condition of being noble born, chivalrous nature,
nobility_: acc. sg. eorl-scipe, 1728, 3175; eorl-scipe efnan, _to do
chivalrous deeds_, 2134, 2536, 2623, 3008.

eorl-weorod, st. n., _followers of nobles_: nom. sg. 2894.

eormen-cyn, st. n., _very extensive race, mankind_: gen. sg. eormen-cynnes,

eormen-grund, st. m., _immensely wide plains, the whole broad earth_: acc.
sg. ofer eormen-grund, 860.

eormen-lâf, st. f., _enormous legacy_: acc. sg. eormen-lâfe äðelan cynnes
(_the treasures of the dragon's cave_) 2235.

eorre, adj., _angry, enraged_: gen. sg. eorres, 1448.

eoton, st. m.: 1) _giant_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel), 762; dat. sg.
uninflected, eoton (Grendel), 669; nom. pl. eotenas, 112.--2) Eotens,
subjects of Finn, the N. Frisians: 1073, 1089, 1142; dat. pl. 1146. See
List of Names, p. 114.

eotonisc, adj., _gigantic, coming from giants_: acc. sg. eald sweord
eotenisc (eotonisc), 1559, 2980, (etonisc, MS.) 2617.


eóred-geatwe, st. f. pl., _warlike adornments_: acc. pl., 2867.

eówan, w. v., _to show, to be seen_: pres. sg. III. ne gesacu ôhwær,
ecghete eóweð, _nowhere shows itself strife, sword-hate_, 1739. See eáwan,

eówer: 1) gen. pl. pers. pron., vestrum: eówer sum, _that one of you_
(namely, Beówulf), 248; fæhðe eówer leóde, _the enmity of the people of
you_ (of your people), 597; nis þät eówer sîð ... nefne mîn ânes, 2533.--2)
poss. pron., _your_, 251, 257, 294, etc.


ge-fandian, -fondian, w. v., _to try, to search for, to find out, to
experience_: w. gen. pret. part. þät häfde gumena sum goldes gefandod,
_that a man had discovered the gold_, 2302; þonne se ân hafað þurh deâðes
nýd dæda gefondad, _now the one_ (Herebeald) _has with death's pang
experienced the deeds_ (the unhappy bow-shot of Hæðcyn), 2455.

fara, w. m., _farer, traveller_: in comp. mere-fara.

faran, st. v., _to move from one place to another, to go, to wander_: inf.
tô hâm faran, _to go home_, 124; lêton on geflît faran fealwe mearas, _let
the fallow horses go in emulation_, 865; cwom faran flotherge on Fresna
land, _had come to Friesland with a fleet_, 2916; com leóda dugoðe on lâst
faran, _came to go upon the track of the heroes of his people_, i.e. to
follow them, 2946; gerund wæron äðelingas eft tô leódum fûse tô farenne,
_the nobles were ready to go again to their people_, 1806; pret. sg. gegnum
fôr [þâ] ofer myrcan môr, _there had_ (Grendel's mother) _gone away over
the dark fen_, 1405; sægenga fôr, _the seafarer_ (the ship) _drove along_,
1909; (wyrm) mid bæle fôr, (the dragon) _fled away with fire_, 2309; pret.
pl. þät ... scawan scîrhame tô scipe fôron, _that the visitors in
glittering attire betook themselves to the ship_, 1896.

gefaran, _to proceed, to act_: inf. hû se mânsceaða under færgripum gefaran
wolde, _how he would act in his sudden attacks_, 739.

ût faran, _to go out_: w. acc. lêt of breóstum ... word ût faran, _let
words go out of his breast, uttered words_, 2552.

faroð, st. m., _stream, flood of the sea_: dat. sg. tô brimes faroðe, 28;
äfter faroðe, _with the stream_, 580; ät faroðe, 1917.

faru, st. f., _way, passage, expedition_: in comp. âd-faru.

fâcen-stäf (elementum nequitiae), st. m., _wickedness, treachery, deceit_.
acc. pl. fâcen-stafas, 1019.

fâh, fâg, adj., _many-colored, variegated, of varying color_ (especially
said of the color of gold, of bronze, and of blood, in which the beams of
light are refracted): nom. sg. fâh (_covered with blood_), 420; blôde fâh,
935; âtertânum fâh (sc. îren) [This is the MS reading; emmended to
âterteárum in text--KTH], 1460; sadol searwum fâh (_saddle artistically
ornamented with gold_), 1039; sweord swâte fâh, 1287; brim blôde fâh, 1595;
wäldreóre fâg, 1632; (draca) fýrwylmum fâh (_because he spewed flame_),
2672; sweord fâh and fäted, 2702; blôde fâh, 2975; acc. sg. dreóre fâhne,
447; goldsele fättum fâhne, 717; on fâgne flôr treddode, _trod the shining
floor_ (of Heorot), 726; hrôf golde fâhne, _the roof shining with gold_,
928; nom. pl. eoforlîc ... fâh and fýr-beard, 305; acc. pl. þâ hilt since
fâge, 1616; dat. pl. fâgum sweordum, 586.--Comp. bân-, blôd-, brûn-,
dreór-, gold-, gryre-, searo-, sinc-, stân-, swât-, wäl-, wyrm-fâh.

fâh, fâg, fâ, adj.: 1) _hostile_: nom. sg. fâh feónd-scaða, 554; he wäs fâg
wið god (Grendel), 812; acc. sg. fâne (_the dragon_), 2656; gen. pl. fâra,
578, 1464.--2) _liable to pursuit, without peace, outlawed_: nom. sg. fâg,
1264; mâne fâh, _outlawed through crime_, 979; fyren-dædum fâg,
1002.--Comp. nearo-fâh.

fâmig-heals, adj., _with foaming neck_: nom. sg. flota fâmig-heals, 218;
(sægenga) fâmig-heals, 1910.

fäc, st. n., _period of time_: acc. sg. lytel fäc, _during a short time_,

fäder, st. m., _father_: nom. sg. fäder, 55, 262, 459, 2609; of God, 1610;
fäder alwalda, 316; acc. sg. fäder, 1356; dat. sg. fäder, 2430; gen. sg.
fäder, 21, 1480; of God, 188--Comp.: ær, eald-fäder.

fädera, w. m., _father's brother_ in comp. suhter-gefäderan.

fäder-äðelo, st. n. pl., _paternus principatus_ (?): dat. pl. fäder-äðelum,

fäderen-mæg, st. m., _kinsman descended from the same father,
co-descendant_: dat. sg. fäderen-mæge, 1264.

fäðm, st. m.: 1) _the outspread, encircling arms_: instr. pl. feóndes
fäð[mum], 2129.--2) _embrace, encircling_: nom. sg. lîges fäðm, 782; acc.
sg. in fýres fäðm, 185.--3) _bosom, lap_: acc. sg. on foldan fäðm, 1394;
wið eorðan fäðm, 3050; dat. pl. tô fäder (God's) fäðmum, 188.--4) _power,
property_: acc. in Francna fäðm, 1211.--Cf. sîd-fäðmed, sîð-fäðme.

fäðmian, w. v., _to embrace, to take up into itself_: pres. subj. þät minne
lîchaman ... glêd fäðmie, 2653; inf. lêton flôd fäðmian frätwa hyrde, 3134.

ge-fäg, adj., _agreeable, desirable_ (Old Eng., fawe, _willingly_): comp.
ge-fägra, 916.

fägen, adj., _glad, joyous_: nom. pl. ferhðum fägne, _the glad at heart_,

fäger, adj., _beautiful, lovely_: nom. sg. fäger fold-bold, 774; fäger
foldan bearm, 1138; acc. sg. freoðoburh fägere, 522; nom. pl. þær him
fold-wegas fägere þûhton, 867.--Comp. un-fäger.

fägere, fägre, adv., _beautifully, well, becomingly, according to
etiquette_: fägere geþægon medoful manig, 1015; þâ wäs flet-sittendum
fägere gereorded, _becomingly the repast was served_, 1789; Higelâc ongan
... fägre fricgean, 1986; similarly, 2990.

fär, st. n., _craft, ship_: nom. sg., 33.

fäst, adj., _bound, fast_: nom. sg. bið se slæp tô fäst, 1743; acc. sg.
freóndscipe fästne, 2070; fäste frioðuwære, 1097.--The prep. on stands to
denote the where or wherein: wäs tô fäst on þâm (sc. on fæhðe and fyrene),
137; on ancre fäst, 303. Or, oftener, the dative: feónd-grâpum fäst,
_(held) fast in his antagonist's clutch_, 637; fýrbendum fäst, _fast in the
forged hinges_, 723; handa fäst, 1291, etc.; hygebendum fäst (beorn him
langað), _fast (shut) in the bonds of his bosom, the man longs for_ (i.e.
in secret), 1879.--Comp: âr-, blæd-, gin-, sôð-, tîr-, wîs-fäst.

fäste, adv., _fäst_ 554, 761, 774, 789, 1296.--Comp. fästor, 143.

be-fästan, w. v., _to give over_: inf. hêt Hildeburh hire selfre sunu
sweoloðe befästan, _to give over to the flames her own son_, 1116.

fästen, st. n., _fortified place, or place difficult of access_: acc. sg.
leóda fästen, _the fastness of the Geátas_ (with ref. to 2327), 2334;
fästen (Ongenþeów's castle or fort), 2951; fästen (Grendel's house in the
fen-sea), 104.

fäst-ræd, adj., _firmly resolved_: acc. sg. fäst-rædne geþôht, _firm
determination_, 611.

fät, st. m., _way, journey_: in comp. sîð-fät.

fät, st. n., _vessel; vase, cup_: acc. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, _the
(drinking-) vessels of men of old times_, 2762.--Comp.: bân-, drync-,
mâððum-, sinc-, wundor-fät.

fät, st. n. (?), _plate, sheet of metal_, especially _gold plate_ (Dietrich
Hpt. Ztschr. XI. 420): dat. pl. gold sele ... fättum fâhne, _shining with
gold plates_ (the walls and the inner part of the roof were partly covered
with gold), 717; sceal se hearda helm hyrsted golde fätum befeallen (sc.
wesan), _the gold ornaments shall fall away from it_, 2257.

fäted, fätt, part., _ornamented with gold beaten into plate-form_: gen. sg.
fättan goldes, 1094, 2247; instr. sg. fättan golde, 2103. Elsewhere,
_covered, ornamented with gold plate_: nom. sg. sweord ... fäted, 2702;
acc. sg. fäted wæge, 2254, 2283; acc. pl. fätte scyldas, 333; fätte beágas,
1751. [fæted, etc.]

fäted-hleór, adj., phaleratus gena (Dietr.): acc. pl. eahta mearas
fäted-hleóre (_eight horses with bridles covered with plates of gold_),

fät-gold, st. n., _gold in sheets_ or _plates_: acc. sg., 1922.

fæge, adj.: 1) _forfeited to death, allotted to death by fate_: nom. sg.
fæge, 1756, 2142, 2976; fæge and ge-flýmed, 847; fûs and fæge, 1242; acc.
sg. fægne flæsc-homan, 1569; dat. sg. fægum, 2078; gen. sg. fæges,
1528.--2) _dead_: dat. pl. ofer fægum (_over the warriors fallen in the
battle_), 3026.--Comp.: deáð-, un-fæge.

fæhð (_state of hostility_, see fâh), st. f., _hostile act, feud, battle_:
nom. sg. fæhð, 2404, 3062; acc. sg. fæhðe, 153, 459, 470, 596, 1334, etc.;
also of the unhappy bowshot of the Hrêðling, Hæðcyn, by which he killed his
brother, 2466; dat. sg. fore fæhðe and fyrene, 137; nalas for fæhðe mearn
(_did not recoil from the combat_), 1538; gen. sg, ne gefeah he þære fæhðe,
109; gen. pl. fæhða gemyndig, 2690.--Comp. wäl-fæhð.

fæhðo, st. f., same as above: nom. sg. sió fæhðo, 3000; acc. fæhðo, 2490.

fælsian, w. v., _to bring into a good condition, to cleanse_: inf. þät ic
môte ... Heorot fælsian (from the plague of Grendel), 432; pret. Hrôðgâres
... sele fælsode, 2353.

ge-fælsian, w. v., same as above: pret. part. häfde gefælsod ... sele
Hrôðgâres, 826; Heorot is gefælsod, 1177; wæron ýð-gebland eal gefælsod,

fæmne, w. f., _virgin, recens nupta_: dat. sg. fæmnan, 2035; gen. sg.
fæmnan, 2060, both times of Hrôðgâr's daughter Freáware.

fær, st. m., _sudden, unexpected attack_: nom. sg. (attack upon Hnäf's band
by Finn's), 1069, 2231.

fær-gripe, st. m., _sudden, treacherous gripe, attack_: nom. sg. fær-gripe
flôdes, 1517; dat. pl. under færgripum, 739.

fær-gryre, st. m., _fright caused by a sudden attack_: dat. pl. wið
fær-gryrum (against the inroads of Grendel into Heorot), 174.

færinga, adv., _suddenly, unexpectedly_, 1415, 1989.

fær-nîð, st. m., _hostility with sudden attacks_: gen. pl. hwät me Grendel
hafað ... færnîða gefremed, 476.

feðer-gearwe, st. f. pl. _(feather-equipment), the feathers of the shaft of
the arrow_: dat. (instr.) pl. sceft feðer-gearwum fûs, 3120.

fel, st. n., _skin, hide_: dat. pl. glôf ... gegyrwed dracan fellum, _made
of the skins of dragons_, 2089.

fela, I., adj. indecl., _much, many_: as subst.: acc. sg. fela fricgende,
2107. With worn placed before: hwät þu worn fela ... ymb Brecan spræce,
_how very much you spoke about Breca_, 530.--With gen. sg.: acc. sg. fela
fyrene, 810; wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426; worna fela sorge, 2004; tô fela micles
... Denigea leóde, _too much of the race of the Danes_, 695; uncûðes fela,
877; fela lâðes, 930; fela leófes and lâðes, 1061.--With gen. pl.: nom. sg.
fela mâdma, 36; fela þæra wera and wîfa, 993, etc.; acc. sg. fela missera,
153; fela fyrena, 164; ofer landa fela, 311; mâððum-sigla fela (falo, MS.),
2758; ne me swôr fela âða on unriht, _swore no false oaths_, 2739, etc.;
worn fela mâðma, 1784; worna fela gûða, 2543.--Comp. eal-fela.

II., adverbial, _very_, 1386, 2103, 2951.

fela-hrôr, adj., valde agitatus, _very active against the enemy, very
warlike_, 27.

fela-môdig, adj., _very courageous_: gen. pl. -môdigra, 1638, 1889.

fela-synnig, adj., _very criminal, very guilty_: acc. sg. fela-sinnigne
secg (in MS., on account of the alliteration, changed to simple sinnigne),

feólan, st. v., _to betake one's self into a place, to conceal one's self_:
pret. siððan inne fealh Grendles môdor (in Heorot), 1282; þær inne fealh
secg syn-bysig (in the dragon's cave), 2227.--_to fall into, undergo,
endure_: searonîðas fealh, 1201.

ät-feólan, w. dat., insistere, adhærere: pret. nô ic him þäs georne ätfealh
_(held him not fast enough_, 969.

fen, st. n., _fen, moor_: acc. sg. fen, 104; dat. sg. tô fenne, 1296;
fenne, 2010.

fen-freoðo, st. f., _refuge in the fen_: dat. sg. in fen-freoðo, 852.

feng, st. m., _gripe, embrace_: nom. sg. fýres feng, 1765; acc. sg. fâra
feng (of the hostile sea-monsters), 578.--Comp. inwit-feng.

fengel (probably _he who takes possession_, cf. tô fôn, 1756, and fôn tô
rîce, _to enter upon the government_), st. m., _lord, prince, king_: nom.
sg. wîsa fengel, 1401; snottra fengel, 1476, 2157; hringa fengel, 2346.

fen-ge-lâd, st. n., _fen-paths, fen with paths_: acc. pl. frêcne fengelâd
(_fens difficult of access_), 1360.

fen-hlið, st. n., _marshy precipice_: acc. pl. under fen-hleoðu, 821.

fen-hop, st. n., _refuge in the fen_: acc. pl. on fen-hopu, 765.

ferh, st. m. n., _life_; see feorh.

ferh, st. m., _hog, boar_, here of the boar-image on the helmet: nom. sg.,

ferhð, st. m., _heart, soul_: dat. sg. on ferhðe, 755, 949, 1719; gehwylc
hiora his ferhðe treówde, þät ..., _each of them trusted to his_
(Hûnferð's) _heart, that_ ..., 1167; gen. sg. ferhðes fore-þanc, 1061; dat.
pl. (adverbial) ferhðum fägne, _happy at heart_, 1634; þät mon ... ferhðum
freóge, _that one ... heartily love_, 3178.--Comp.: collen-, sarig-,
swift-, wide-ferhð.

ferhð-frec, adj., _having good courage, bold, brave_: acc. sg. ferhð-frecan
Fin, 1147.

ferhð-genîðla, w. m., _mortal enemy_: acc. sg. ferhð-genîðlan, of the
drake, 2882.

ferian, w. v. w. acc., _to bear, to bring, to conduct_: pres. II. pl.
hwanon ferigeað fätte scyldas, 333; pret. pl. tô scypum feredon eal
ingesteald eorðcyninges, 1155; similarly, feredon, 1159, 3114.

ät-ferian, _to carry away, to bear off_: pret. ic þät hilt þanan feóndum
ätferede, 1669.

ge-ferian, _bear, to bring, to lead_: pres. subj. I. pl. þonne (we)
geferian freán ûserne, 3108; inf. geferian ... Grendles heáfod, 1639; pret.
þät hi ût geferedon dýre mâðmas, 3131; pret. part. her syndon geferede
feorran cumene ... Geáta leóde, _men of the Geátas, come from afar, have
been brought hither_ (by ship), 361.

ôð-ferian, _to tear away, to take away_: pret. sg. I. unsôfte þonan feorh
ôð-ferede, 2142.

of-ferian, _to carry off, to take away, to tear away_: pret. ôðer swylc ût
offerede, _took away another such_ (sc. fifteen), 1584.

fetel-hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_, with the gold chains fastened to it: acc.
(sg. or pl.?), 1564. (See "Leitfaden f. nord. Altertumskunde," pp.45, 46.)

fetian, w. v., _to bring near, bring_: pres. subj. nâh hwâ ... fe[tige]
fäted wæge, _bring the gold-chased tankard_, 2254; pret. part. hraðe wäs tô
bûre Beówulf fetod, 1311.

ge-fetian, _to bring_: inf. hêt þâ eorla hleó in gefetian Hrêðles lâfe,
_caused Hrêðel's sword to be brought_, 2191.

â-fêdan, w. v., _to nourish, to bring up_: pret. part. þær he âfêded wäs,

fêða (O.H.G. fendo), w. m.: 1) _foot-soldiers_: nom. pl. fêðan, 1328,
2545.--2) collective in sing., _band of foot-soldiers, troop of warriors_:
nom. fêða eal gesät, 1425; dat. on fêðan, 2498, 2920.--Comp. gum-fêða.

fêðe, st. n., _gait, going, pace_: dat. sg. wäs tô foremihtig feónd on
fêðe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (i.e. could flee too fast), 971.

fêðe-cempa, w. m., _foot-soldier_: nom. sg., 1545, 2854.

fêðe-gäst, st. m., _guest coming on foot_: dat. pl. fêðe-gestum, 1977.

fêðe-lâst, st. m., _signs of going, footprint_: dat. pl. fêrdon forð þonon
fêðe-lâstum, _went forth from there upon their trail_, i.e. by the same way
that they had gone, 1633.

fêðe-wîg, st. m., _battle on foot_: gen. sg. nealles Hetware hrêmge þorfton
(sc. wesan) fêðe-wîges, 2365.

fêl (= feól), st. f. _file_: gen. pl. fêla lâfe, _what the files have left
behind_ (that is, the swords), 1033.

fêran, w. v., iter (A.S. fôr) facere, _to come, to go, to travel_: pres.
subj. II. pl. ær ge ... on land Dena furður fêran, _ere you go farther into
the land of the Danes_, 254; inf. fêran on freán wære (_to die_), 27;
gewiton him þâ fêran (_set out upon their way_), 301; mæl is me tô fêran,
316; fêran ... gang sceáwigan, _go, so as to see the footprints_, 1391;
wîde fêran, 2262; pret. fêrdon folctogan ... wundor sceáwian, _the princes
came to see the wonder_, 840; fêrdon forð, 1633.

ge-fêran: 1) adire, _to arrive at_: pres. subj. þonne eorl ende gefêre
lîfgesceafta, _reach the end of life_, 3064; pret. part. häfde æghwäðer
ende gefêred lænan lîfes, _frail life's end had both reached_, 2845.--2)
_to reach, to accomplish, to bring about_: pret. hafast þu gefêred þät ...,
1222, 1856.--3) _to behave one's self, to conduct one's self_: pret. frêcne
gefêrdon, _had shown themselves daring_, 1692.

feal, st. m., _fall_: in comp. wäl-feal.

feallan, st. v., _to fall, to fall headlong_: inf. feallan, 1071; pret. sg.
þät he on hrusan ne feól, _that it_ (the hall) _did not fall to the
ground_, 773; similarly, feóll on foldan, 2976; feóll on fêðan (dat. sg.),
_fell in the band_ (of his warriors), 2920; pret. pl. þonne walu feóllon,

be-feallen, pret. part. w. dat. or instr., _deprived of, robbed_: freóndum
befeallen, _robbed of friends_, 1127; sceal se hearda helm ... fätum
befeallen (sc. wesan), _be robbed of its gold mountings_ (the gold mounting
will fall away from it moldering), 2257.

ge-feallan, _to fall, to sink down_: pres. sg. III. þät se lîc-homa ...
fæge gefealleð, _that the body doomed to die sinks down_, 1756.--Also, with
the acc. of the place whither: pret. meregrund gefeóll, 2101; he eorðan
gefeóll, 2835.

fealu, adj., _fallow, dun-colored, tawny_: acc. sg. ofer fealone flôd
(_over the sea_), 1951; fealwe stræte (with reference to 320), 917; acc.
pl. lêton on geflît faran fealwe mearas, 866.--Comp. äppel-fealo.

feax, st. n., _hair, hair of the head_: dat. sg. wäs be feaxe on flet boren
Grendles heáfod, _was carried by the hair into the hall_, 1648; him ...
swât ... sprong forð under fexe, _the blood sprang out under the hair of
his head_, 2968.--Comp.: blonden-, gamol-, wunden-feax.

ge-feá, w. m., _joy_: acc. sg. þære fylle gefeán, _joy at the abundant
repast_, 562; ic þäs ealles mäg ... gefeán habban (_can rejoice at all
this_), 2741.

feá, adj., _few_ dat. pl. nemne feáum ânum, _except some few_, 1082; gen.
pl. feára sum, _as one of a few, with a few_, 1413; feára sumne, _one of a
few (some few)_, 3062. With gen. following: acc. pl. feá worda cwäð, _spoke
few words_, 2663, 2247.

feá-sceaft, adj., _miserable, unhappy, helpless_: nom. sg. syððan ærest
wearð feásceaft funden, 7; feásceaft guma (Grendel), 974; dat. sg.
feásceaftum men, 2286; Eádgilse ... feásceaftum, 2394; nom. pl. feásceafte
(the Geátas robbed of their king, Hygelâc), 2374.

feoh, feó, st. n., (_properly cattle, herd_) here, _possessions, property,
treasure_: instr. sg. ne wolde ... feorh-bealo feó þingian, _would not
allay life's evil for treasure_ (tribute), 156; similarly, þâ fæhðe feó
þingode, 470; ic þe þâ fæhðe feó leánige, 1381.

ge-feohan, ge-feón, st. v. w. gen. and instr., _to enjoy one's self, to
rejoice at something_: a) w. gen.: pret. sg. ne gefeah he þære fæhðe, 109;
hilde gefeh, beado-weorces, 2299; pl. fylle gefægon, _enjoyed themselves at
the bounteous repast_, 1015; þeódnes gefêgon, _rejoiced at_ (the return of)
_the ruler_, 1628.--b) w. instr.: niht-weorce gefeh, ellen-mærðum, 828;
secg weorce gefeh, 1570; sælâce gefeah, mägen-byrðenne þâra þe he him mid
häfde, _rejoiced at the gift of the sea, and at the great burden of that_
(Grendel's head and the sword-hilt) _which he had with him_, 1625.

feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., _bestowing of gifts_ or _treasures_: gen. sg.
þære feoh-gyfte, 1026; dat. pl. ät feohgyftum, 1090; fromum feohgiftum,
_with rich gifts_, 21.

feoh-leás, adj., _that cannot be atoned for through gifts_: nom. sg. þät
wäs feoh-leás gefeoht, _a deed of arms that cannot be expiated_ (the
killing of his brother by Hæðcyn), 2442.

ge-feoht, st. n., _combat; warlike deed_: nom. sg. (the killing of his
brother by Hæðcyn), 2442; dat. sg. mêce þone þîn fader tô gefeohte bär,
_the sword which thy father bore to the combat_, 2049.

ge-feohtan, st. v., _to fight_: inf. w. acc. ne mehte ... wîg Hengeste wiht
gefeohtan (_could by no means offer Hengest battle_), 1084.

feohte, w. f., _combat_: acc. sg. feohtan, 576, 960. See were-fyhte.

feor, adj., _far, remote_: nom. sg. nis þät feor heonon, 1362; näs him feor
þanon tô gesêcanne sinces bryttan, 1922; acc. sg. feor eal (_all that is
far, past_), 1702.

feor, adv., _far, far away_: a) of space, 42, 109, 809, 1806, 1917; feor
and (oððe) neáh, _far and (or) near_, 1222, 2871; feorr, 2267.--b) of time:
ge feor hafað fæhðe gestæled (_has placed us under her enmity henceforth_),

Comparative, fyr, feorr, and feor: fyr and fästor, 143; fyr, 252; feorr,
1989; feor, 542.

feor-bûend, pt., _dwelling far away_: nom. pl. ge feor-bûend, 254.

feor-cýð, st. f., _home of those living far away, distant land_: nom, pl.
feor-cýððe beóð sêlran gesôhte þäm þe him selfa deáh, _foreign lands are
better sought by him who trusts to his own ability_, 1839.

feorh, ferh (Goth. fairhvu-s, _world_), st. m. and n., _life, principle of
life, soul_: nom. sg. feorh, 2124; nô þon lange wäs feorh äðelinges flæsce
bewunden, _not for much longer was the soul of the prince enveloped in the
body_ (he was near death), 2425; ferh ellen wräc, _life expelled the
strength_ (i.e. with the departing life the strength disappeared also),
2707; acc. sg. feorh ealgian, 797, 2656, 2669; feorh gehealdan, _preserve
his life_, 2857; feorh âlegde, _gave up his life_, 852; similarly, ær he
feorh seleð, 1371; feorh oðferede, _tore away her life_, 2142; ôð þät hie
forlæddan tô þam lindplegan swæse gesîðas ond hyra sylfra feorh, _till in
an evil hour they carried into battle their dear companions and their
lives_ (i.e. led them to their death), 2041; gif þu þîn feorh hafast, 1850;
ymb feorh sacan (_to fight for life_), 439; wäs in feorh dropen, _was
wounded into his life_, i.e. mortally, 2982; wîdan feorh, as temporal acc.,
_through a wide life_, i.e. always, 2015; dat. sg. feore, 1294, 1549; tô
wîdan feore, _for a wide life_, i.e. at all times, 934; on swâ geongum
feore (_at a so youthful age_), 1844; as instr., 578, 3014; gen. sg.
feores, 1434, 1943; dat. pl. bûton ... feorum gumena, 73; freónda feorum,
1307.--Also, _body, corpse_: þâ wäs heal hroden feónda feorum (_the hall
was covered with the slain of the enemy_), 1153; gehwearf þâ in Francna
fäðm feorh cyninges, _then the body of the king_ (Hygelâc) _fell into the
power of the Franks_, 1211. --Comp. geogoð-feorh.

feorh-bana, w. m., _(life-slayer), man-slayer, murderer_: dat. sg.
feorh-bonan, 2466.

feorh-ben, st. f., _wound that takes away life, mortal wound_: dat.
(instr.) pl. feorh-bennum seóc, 2741.

feorh-bealu, st. n., _evil destroying life, violent death_: nom. sg., 2078,
2251, 2538; acc. sg., 156.

feorh-cyn, st. n., _race of the living, mankind_: gen. pl. fela
feorh-cynna, 2267.

feorh-genîðla, w. m., _he who seeks life, life's enemy_ (N.H.G. Tod-feind),
_mortal enemy_: acc. sg. -genîðlan, 1541; dat. sg. -genîðlan, 970; acc. sg.
brægd feorh-genîðlan, 1541; acc. pl. folgode feorh-genîðlan, (Ongenþeów)
_pursued his mortal enemies_, 2934.

feorh-lagu, st. f., _the life allotted to anyone, life determined by fate_:
acc. sg. on mâðma hord mine (mînne, MS.) bebohte frôde feorh-lege, _for the
treasure-hoard I sold my old life_, 2801.

feorh-lâst, st. m., _trace of (vanishing) life, sign of death _: acc. pl.
feorh-lâstas bär, 847.

feorh-seóc, adj., _mortally wounded_: nom. sg., 821.

feorh-sweng, st. m., _(stroke robbing of life), fatal blow_: acc. sg.,

feorh-wund, st. f., _mortal wound, fatal injury_: acc. sg. feorh-wunde
hleát, 2386.

feorm, st. f., _subsistence, entertainment_: acc. sg. nô þu ymb mînes ne
þearft lîces feorme leng sorgian, _thou needest no longer have care for the
sustenance of my body_, 451.--2) _banquet_: dat. on feorme (or feorme,
MS.), 2386.

feormend-leás, adj., _wanting the. cleanser_: acc. pl. geseah ...
fyrn-manna fatu feormend-leáse, 2762.

feormian, w. v., _to clean, to cleanse, to polish_: pres. part. nom pl.
feormiend swefað (feormynd, MS.), 2257.

ge-feormian, w. v., _to feast, to eat_; pret. part. sôna häfde unlyfigendes
eal gefeormod fêt and folma, 745.

feorran, w. v., w. acc., _to remove_: inf. sibbe ne wolde wið manna hwone
mägenes Deniga feorh-bealo feorran, feó þingian, (Grendel) _would not from
friendship free any one of the men of the Danes of life's evil, nor allay
it for tribute_, 156.

feorran, adv., _from afar_: a) of space, 361, 430, 826, 1371, 1820, etc.;
siððan äðelingas feorran gefricgean fleám eówerne, _when noble men afar
learn of your flight_ (when the news of your flight reaches distant lands),
2890; fêrdon folctogan feorran and neán, _from far and from near_, 840;
similarly, neán and feorran þu nu [friðu] hafast, 1175; wäs þäs wyrmes wîg
wîde gesýne ... neán and feorran, _visible from afar, far and near_,
2318.--b) temporal: se þe cûðe frumsceaft fira feorran reccan (_since
remote antiquity_), 91; similarly, feorran rehte, 2107.

feorran-cund, adj., _foreign-born_: dat. sg. feorran-cundum, 1796.

feor-weg, st. m., _far way_: dat. pl. mâdma fela of feorwegum, _many
precious things from distant paths_ (from foreign lands), 37.

ge-feón. See feohan.

feónd, st. m., _enemy_: nom. sg., 164, 726, 749; feónd on helle (Grendel),
101; acc. sg., 279, 1865, 2707; dat. sg. feónde, 143, 439; gen. sg.
feóndes, 985, 2129, 2290; acc, pl. feónd, 699; dat. pl. feóndum, 420, 1670;
gen. pl. feonda 294, 809, 904.

feónd-grâp, st. f., _foe's clutch_: dat. (instr.) pl. feónd-grâpum fäst,

feónd-sceaða, w. m., _one who is an enemy and a robber_: nom. sg. fâh
feónd-scaða (_a hostile sea-monster_), 554.

feónd-scipe, st. m., _hostility_: nom. sg., 3000.

feówer, num., _four_: nom. feówer bearn, 59; feówer mearas, 2164; feówer,
as substantive, 1638; acc. feówer mâðmas, 1028.

feówer-tyne, num., _fourteen_: nom. with following gen. pl. feówertyne
Geáta, 1642.

findan, st. v., _to find, to invent, to attain_: a) with simple object in
acc.: inf. þâra þe he cênoste findan mihte, 207; swylce hie at Finnes-hâm
findan meahton sigla searo-gimma, 1157; similarly, 2871; mäg þær fela
freónda findan, 1839; wolde guman findan, 2295; swâ hyt weorðlîcost
fore-snotre men findan mihton, _so splendidly as only very wise men could
devise it_, 3164; pret. sg. healþegnas fand, 720; word ôðer fand, _found
other words_, i.e. went on to another narrative, 871; grimne gryrelîcne
grund-hyrde fond, 2137; þät ic gôdne funde beága bryttan, 1487; pret. part.
syððan ærest wearð feásceaft funden (_discovered_), 7.--b) with acc. and
pred. adj.: pret. sg. dryhten sînne driórigne fand, 2790.--c) with acc. and
inf.: pret. fand þâ þær inne äðelinga gedriht swefan, 118; fand wäccendne
wer wîges bîdan, 1268; hord-wynne fond opene standan, 2271; ôð þät he
fyrgen-beámas ... hleonian funde, 1416; pret. pl. fundon þâ sâwulleásne
hlim-bed healdan, 3034.--d) with dependent clause: inf. nô þý ær feásceafte
findan meahton ät þam äðelinge þät he Heardrêde hlâford wære (_could by no
means obtain it from the prince_), 2374.

on-findan, _to be sensible of, to perceive, to notice_: a) w. acc.: pret.
sg. landweard onfand eftsîð eorla, _the coast-guard observed the return of
the earls_, 1892; pret. part. þâ heó onfunden wäs (_was discovered_),
1294.--b) w. depend, clause: pret. sg. þâ se gist onfand þät se beado-leóma
bîtan nolde, _the stranger_ (Beówulf) _perceived that the sword would not
cut_, 1523; sôna þät onfunde, þät ..., _immediately perceived that_...,
751; similarly, 810, 1498.

finger, st. m., _finger_: nom. pl. fingras, 761; acc. pl. fingras, 985;
dat. (instr.) pl. fingrum, 1506; gen. pl. fingra, 765.

firas, fyras (O.H.G. firahî, i.e. _the living_; cf. feorh), st. m., only in
pl., _men_: gen. pl. fira, 91, 2742; monegum fira, 2002; fyra gehwylcne
leóda mînra, 2251; fira fyrngeweorc, 2287.

firen, fyren, st. f., _cunning waylaying, insidious hostility, malice,
outrage_: nom. sg. fyren, 916; acc. sg. fyrene and fæhðe, 153; fæhðe and
fyrene, 880, 2481; firen' ondrysne, 1933; dat. sg. fore fæhðe and fyrene,
137; gen. pl. fyrena, 164, 629; and fyrene, 812; fyrena hyrde (of Grendel),
751. The dat. pl., fyrenum, is used adverbially in the sense of
_maliciously_, 1745, or _fallaciously_, with reference to Hæðcyn's killing
Herebeald, which was done unintentionally, 2442.

firen-dæd, st. f., _wicked deed_: acc. pl. fyren-dæda, 1670; instr. pl.
fyren-dædum, 1002; both times of Grendel and his mother, with reference to
their nocturnal inroads.

firen-þearf, st. f., _misery through the malignity of enemies_: acc. sg.
fyren-þearfe, 14.

firgen-beám, st. m., _tree of a mountain-forest_: acc. pl. fyrgen-beámas,

firgen-holt, st. m., _mountain-wood, mountain-forest_: acc. sg. on
fyrgen-holt, 1394.

firgen-streám, st. m., _mountain-stream_: nom. sg. fyrgen-streám, 1360;
acc. sg. under fyrgen-streám (marks the place where the mountain-stream,
according to 1360, empties into Grendel's sea), 2129.

fisc, st. m., _fish_: in comp. hron-, mere-fisc.

fîf, num., _five_: uninflect. gen. fîf nihta fyrst, 545; acc. fîfe (?),

fîfel-cyn (O.N. fîfl, stultus and gigas), st. n., _giant-race_: gen. sg.
fîfelcynnes eard, 104.

fîf-tene, fîf-tyne, num., _fifteen_: acc. fýftyne, 1583; gen. fîftena sum,

fîf-tig, num., _fifty_: 1) as substantive with gen. following; acc. fîftig
wintra, 2734; gen. se wäs fîftiges fôt-gemearces lang, 3043.--2) as
adjective: acc. fîftig wintru, 2210.

flân, st. m., _arrow_: dat. sg. flâne, 3120; as instr., 2439.

flân-boga, w. m., _bow which shoots the flân, bow_: dat. sg. of flân-bogan,
1434, 1745.

flæsc, st. n., _flesh, body in contrast with soul_: instr. sg. nô þon lange
wäs feorh äðelinges flæsce bewunden, _not much longer was the son of the
prince contained in his body_, 2425.

flæsc-hama, w. m., _clothing of flesh_, i.e. the body: acc. sg.
flæsc-homan, 1569.

flet, st. n.: 1) _ground, floor of a hall_: acc. sg. heó on flet gebeáh,
_fell to the ground_, 1541; similarly, 1569.--2) _hall, mansion_: nom. sg.
1977; acc. sg. flet, 1037, 1648, 1950, 2018, etc.; flett, 2035; þät hie him
ôðer flet eal gerýmdon, _that they should give up entirely to them another
hall_, 1087; dat. sg. on flette, 1026.

flet-räst, st. f., _resting-place in the hall_: acc. sg. flet-räste gebeág,
_reclined upon the couch in the hall_, 1242.

flet-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_: acc. pl -sittende, 2023;
dat. pl. -sittendum, 1789.

flet-werod, st. n., _troop from the hall_: nom. sg., 476.

fleám, st. m., _flight_: acc. sg. on fleám gewand, _had turned to flight_,
1002; fleám eówerne, 2890.

fleógan, st. v., _to fly_: prs. sg. III. fleógeð, 2274.

fleón, st. v., _to flee_: inf. on heolster fleón, 756; fleón on fenhopu,
765; fleón under fen-hleoðu, 821; pret. hete-swengeas fleáh, 2226.

be-fleón, w. acc., _to avoid, to escape_: gerund nô þät ýðe byð tô
befleónne, _that is not easy_ (i.e. not at all) _to be avoided_, 1004.

ofer-fleón, w. acc., _to flee from one, to yield_: inf. nelle ic beorges
weard oferfleón fôtes trem, _will not yield to the warder of the mountain_
(the drake) _a foot's breadth_, 2526.

fleótan, st. v., _to float upon the water, to swim_: inf. nô he wiht fram
me flôd-ýðum feor fleótan meahte. hraðor on helme, _no whit, could he swim
from me farther on the waves_ (regarded as instrumental, so that the waves
marked the distance), _more swiftly in the sea_, 542; pret. sægenga fleát
fâmigheals forð ofer ýðe, _floated away over the waves_, 1910.

fliht. See flyht.

flitme. See un-flitme.

flîtan, st. v., _to exert one's self, to strive, to emulate_: pres. part.
flîtende fealwe stræte mearum mæton (_rode a race_), 917; pret. sg. II.
eart þu se Beówulf, se þe wið Brecan ... ymb sund flite, _art thou the
Beówulf who once contended with Breca for the prize in swimming?_ 507.

ofer-flîtan, _to surpass one in a contest, to conquer, to overcome_: pret.
w. acc. he þe ät sunde oferflât (_overcome thee in a swimming-wager_), 517.

ge-flît, st. n., _emulation_: acc. sg. lêton on geflît faran fealwe mearas,
_let the fallow horses go in emulation_, 866.

floga, w. m., _flyer_; in the compounds: gûð-, lyft-, uht-, wîð-floga.

flota (see fleótan), w. m., _float, ship, boat_: nom. sg., 210, 218, 301;
acc. sg. flotan eówerne, 294.--Comp. wæg-flota.

flot-here, st. m., _fleet_: instr. sg. cwom faran flotherge on Fresna land,

flôd, st. m., _flood, stream, sea-current_: nom. sg., 545, 580, 1362, etc.;
acc. sg. flôd, 3134; ofer fealone flôd, 1951; dat. sg. tô flôde, 1889; gen.
pl. flôda begong, _the region of floods_, i.e. the sea, 1498, 1827; flôda
genipu, 2809.

flôd-ýð, st. f., _flood-wave_: instr. pl. flôd-ýðum, 542.

flôr, st. m., _floor, stone-floor_: acc. sg. on fâgne flôr (the floor was
probably a kind of mosaic, made of colored flags), 726; dat. sg. gang þâ
äfter flôre, _along the floor_ (i.e. along the hall), 1317.

flyht, fliht, st. m., _flight_: nom. sg. gâres fliht, _flight of the
spear_, 1766.

ge-flýman, w. v., _to put to flight_: pret. part. geflýmed, 847, 1371.

folc, st. n., _troop, band of warriors; folk_, in the sense of the whole
body of the fighting men of a nation: acc. sg. folc, 522, 694, 912; Sûðdene
folc, 464; folc and rîce, 1180; dat. sg. folce, 14, 2596; folce Deninga,
465; as instr. folce gestepte ofer sæ sîde, _went with a band of warriors
over the wide sea_, 2394; gen. sg. folces, 1125; folces Denigea, 1583.--The
king is called folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2645, 2982; freáwine folces, 2358;
or folces weard, 2514. The queen, folces cwên, 1933.--The pl., in the sense
of _warriors, fighting men_: nom. pl. folc, 1423, 2949; dat. pl. folcum,
55, 262, 1856; gen. pl. freó- (freá-) wine folca, _of the king_, 430, 2430;
friðu-sibb folca, _of the queen_, 2018.--Comp. sige-folc.

folc-âgend, pres. part., _leader of a band of warriors_: nom. pl.
folc-âgende, 3114.

folc-beorn, st. m., _man of the multitude, a common man_: nom. sg.
folc-beorn, 2222.

folc-cwên, st. f., _queen of a warlike host_: nom. sg., of Wealhþeów, 642.

folc-cyning, st. m., _king of a warlike host_: nom. sg., 2734, 2874.

folc-ræd, st. m, _what best serves a warlike host_: acc. sg., 3007.

folc-riht, st. n., _the rights of the fighting men of a nation_: gen. pl.
him ær forgeaf ... folcrihta gehwylc, swâ his fäder âhte, 2609.

folc-scearu, st. f., _part of a host of warriors, nation_: dat. sg.
folc-scare, 73.

folc-stede, st. m., _position of a band of warriors, place where a band of
warriors is quartered_: acc. sg. folcstede, of the hall, Heorot, 76;
folcstede fâra (_the battle-field_), 1464.

folc-toga, w. m., _leader of a body of warriors, duke_: nom. pl., powerful
liege-men of Hrôðgâr are called folc-togan, 840.

fold-bold, st. n., _earth-house_ (i.e. a house on earth in contrast with a
dwelling in heaven): nom. sg. fäger fold-bold, of the hall, Heorot, 774.

fold-bûend, pres. part. _dweller on earth, man_: nom. pl. fold-bûend, 2275;
fold-bûende, 1356; dat. pl. fold-bûendum, 309.

folde, w. f., _earth, ground_: acc. sg. under foldan, 1362; feóll on
foldan, 2976; gen. sg. foldan bearm, _the bosom of the earth_, 1138; foldan
sceátas, 96; foldan fäðm, 1394.--Also, _earth, world_: dat. sg. on foldan,

fold-weg, st. m., _field-way, road through the country_: acc. sg. fold-weg,
1634; acc. pl. fold-wegas, 867.

folgian, w. v.: 1) _to perform vassal-duty, to serve, to follow_: pret. pl.
þeáh hie hira beággyfan banan folgedon, _although they followed the
murderer of their prince_, 1103.--2) _to pursue, to follow after_: folgode
feorh-genîðlan (acc. pl.) 2934.

folm, st. f, _hand_: acc. sg. folme, 971, 1304; dat. sg. mid folme, 743;
acc. pl. fêt and folma, _feet and hands_, 746; dat. pl. tô banan folmum,
158; folmum (instr.), 723, 993.--Comp.: beado-, gearo-folm.

for, prep. w. dat., instr., and acc.: 1) w. dat. local, _before_, ante: þät
he for eaxlum gestôd Deniga freán, 358; for hlâwe, 1121.--b) _before_,
coram, in conspectu: no he þære feohgyfte for sceótendum scamigan þorfte,
_had no need to be ashamed of the gift before the warriors_, 1027; for þäm
werede, 1216; for eorlum, 1650; for duguðe, _before the noble band of
warriors_, 2021.--Causal, a) to denote a subjective motive, _on account of,
through, from_: for wlenco, _from bravery, through warlike courage_, 338,
1207; for wlence, 508; for his wonhýdum, 434; for onmêdlan, 2927, etc.--b)
objective, partly denoting a cause, _through, from, by reason of_: for
metode, _for the creator, on account of the creator_, 169; for þreánýdum,
833; for þreánêdlan, 2225; for dolgilpe, _on account of, in accordance with
the promise of bold deeds_ (because you claimed bold deeds for yourself),
509; him for hrôfsele hrînan ne mehte fær-gripe flôdes, _on account of the
roofed hall the malicious grasp of the flood could not reach him_, 1516;
lîg-egesan wäg for horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the treasure_,
2782; for mundgripe mînum, _on account of, through the gripe of my hand_,
966; for þäs hildfruman hondgeweorce, 2836; for swenge, _through the
stroke_, 2967; ne meahte ... deóp gedýgan for dracan lêge, _could not hold
out in the deep on account of the heat of the drake_, 2550. Here may be
added such passages as ic þäm gôdan sceal for his môdþräce mâðmas beódan,
_will offer him treasures on account of his boldness of character, for his
high courage_, 385; ful-oft for lässan leán teohhode, _gave often reward
for what was inferior_, 952; nalles for ealdre mearn, _was not uneasy about
his life_, 1443; similarly, 1538. Also denoting purpose: for ârstafum, _to
the assistance_, 382, 458.--2) w. instr. causal, _because of, for_: he hine
feor forwräc for þý mane, 110.--3) w. acc., _for, as, instead of_: for sunu
freógan, _love as a son_, 948; for sunu habban, 1176; ne him þäs wyrmes wîg
for wiht dyde, _held the drake's fighting as nothing_, 2349.

foran, adv., _before, among the first, forward_: siððan ... sceáwedon
feóndes fingras, foran æghwylc (_each before himself_), 985; þät wäs ân
foran ealdgestreóna, _that was one among the first of the old treasures_,
i.e. a splendid old treasure, 1459; þe him foran ongeán linde bæron, _bore
their shields forward against him_ (went out to fight against him), 2365.

be-foran: 1) adv., local, _before_: he ... beforan gengde, _went before_,
1413; temporal, _before, earlier_, 2498.--2) prep. w. acc. _before_, in
conspectu: mære mâððum-sweord manige gesâwon beforan beorn beran, 1025.

ford, st. m., _ford, water-way_: acc. sg. ymb brontne ford, 568.

forð: 1) local, _forth, hither, near_: forð near ätstôp, _approached
nearer_, 746; þâ cwom Wealhþeó forð gân, 1163; similarly, 613; him seleþegn
forð wîsade, _led him_ (Beówulf) _forth_ (to the couch that had been
prepared for him in Heorot), 1796; þät him swât sprong forð under fexe,
_forth under the hair of his head_, 2968. _Forward, further_: gewîtað forð
beran wæpen and gewædu, 291; he tô forð gestôp, 2290; freoðo-wong þone forð
ofereodon, 2960. _Away, forth_, 45, 904; fyrst forð gewât, _the time_ (of
the way to the ship) _was out_, i.e. they had arrived at the ship, 210; me
... forð-gewitenum, _to me the departed_, 1480; fêrdon forð, _went forth_
(from Grendel's sea), 1633; þonne he forð scile, _when he must (go) forth_,
i.e. die, 3178; hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede, _carried
him forth, over all men_, 1719.--2) temporal, _forth, from now on_: heald
forð tela niwe sibbe, 949; ic sceal forð sprecan gen ymbe Grendel, _shall
from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2070. See furðum and furðor.

forð-gerîmed, pres. part., _in unbroken succession_, 59.

forð-gesceaft, st. f., _that which is determined for farther on, future
destiny_: acc. sg. he þâ forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgýmeð, 1751.

forð-weg, st. m., _road that leads away, journey_: he of ealdre gewât frôd
on forð-weg (_upon the way to the next world_), 2626.

fore, prep. w. dat., local, _before_, coram, in conspectu: heó fore þäm
werede spräc, 1216. Causal, _through, for, because of_: nô mearn fore fæhðe
and fyrene, 136; fore fäder dædum, _because of the father's deeds_,
2060,--Allied to this is the meaning, _about_, de, super: þær wäs sang and
swêg samod ätgädere fore Healfdenes hildewîsan, _song and music about
Healfdene's general_ (the song of Hnäf), 1065.

fore-mære, adj., _renowned beyond (others)_, præclarus: superl. þät wäs
fore-mærost foldbûendum receda under roderum, 309.

fore-mihtig, adj., _able beyond (others)_, præpotens: nom. sg. wäs tô
foremihtig feónd on fêðe, _the enemy was too strong in going_ (could flee
too rapidly), 970.

fore-snotor, adj., _wise beyond (others)_, sapientissimus: nom. pl.
foresnotre men, 3164.

fore-þanc, st. m., _forethought, consideration, deliberation_: nom. sg.,

forht, adj., _fearful, cowardly_: nom. sg. forht, 2968; he on môde wearð
forht on ferhðe, 755.--Comp. unforht.

forma, adj., _foremost, first_: nom. sg. forma sîð (_the first time_), 717,
1464, 1528, 2626; instr. sg. forman sîðe, 741, 2287; forman dôgore, 2574.

fyrmest, adv. superl., _first of all, in the first place_: he fyrmest läg,

forst, st. m., _frost, cold_: gen. sg. forstes bend, 1610.

for-þam, for-þan, for-þon, adv. and conj., _therefore, on that account,
then_: forþam, 149; forþan, 418, 680, 1060; forþon þe, _because_, 503.

fôn, st. v., _to catch, to grasp, to take hold, to take_: prs. sg. III.
fêhð ôðer tô, _another lays hold_ (takes possession), 1756; inf. ic mid
grâpe sceal fôn wið feónde, 439; pret. sg. him tôgeánes fêng, _caught at
him, grasped at him_, 1543; w. dat. he þâm frätwum fêng, _received the rich
adornments_ (Ongenþeów's equipment), 2990.

be-fôn, _to surround, to ensnare, to encompass, to embrace_: pret. part.
hyne sâr hafað ... nearwe befongen balwon bendum, 977; heó äðelinga ânne
häfde fäste befangen (_had seized him firmly_), 1296; helm ... befongen
freáwrâsnum (_encircled by an ornament like a diadem_), 1452; fenne
bifongen, _surrounded by the fen_, 2010; (draca) fýre befongen, _encircled
by fire_, 2275, 2596; häfde landwara lîge befangen, _encompassed by fire_,

ge-fôn, w. acc., _to seize, to grasp_: pret. he gefêng slæpendne rinc, 741;
gûðrinc gefêng atolan clommum, 1502; gefêng þâ be eaxle ... Gûðgeáta leód
Grendles môdor, 1538; gefêng þâ fetelhilt, 1564; hond rond gefêng, geolwe
linde, 2610; ic on ôfoste gefêng micle mid mundum mägen-byrðenne, _hastily
I seized with my hands the enormous burden_, 3091.

on-fôn, w. dat., _to receive, to accept, to take_: pres. imp. sg. onfôh
þissum fulle, _accept this cup_, 1170; inf. þät þät þeódnes bearn ...
scolde fäder-äðelum onfôn, _receive the paternal rank_, 912; pret. sg. hwâ
þäm hläste onfêng, _who received the ship's lading_, 52; hleór-bolster
onfêng eorles andwlitan, _the pillow received the nobleman's face_, 689;
similarly, 853, 1495; heal swêge onfêng, _the hall received the loud
noise_, 1215; he onfêng hraðe inwit-þancum, _he_ (Beówulf) _at once
clutched him_ (Grendel) _devising malice_, 749.

þurh-fôn, w. acc., _to break through with grasping, to destroy by
grasping_: inf. þät heó þone fyrd-hom þurh-fôn ne mihte, 1505.

wið-fôn, w. dat., _(to grasp at), to seize, to lay hold of_: pret. sg. him
fäste wið-fêng, 761.

ymbe-fôn, w. acc., _to encircle_: pret. heals ealne ymbefêng biteran bânum,
_encircled his_ (Beówulf's) _whole neck with sharp bones_ (teeth), 2692.

fôt, st. m., _foot_: gen. sg. fôtes trem (_the measure of a foot, a foot
broad_), 2526; acc. pl. fêt, 746; dat. pl. ät fôtum, _at the feet_, 500,

fôt-gemearc, st. n., _measure, determining by feet, number of feet_: gen.
sg. se wäs fîftiges fôtgemearces lang (_fifty feet long_), 3043.

fôt-lâst, st. m., _foot-print_: acc. sg. (draca) onfand feóndes fôt-lâst,

fracod, adj., _objectionable, useless_. nom. sg. näs seó ecg fracod
hilde-rince, 1576.

fram, from, I. prep. w. dat. loc. _away from something_: þær fram sylle
âbeág medubenc monig, 776, 1716; þanon eft gewiton ealdgesîðas ... fram
mere, 856; cyning-balde men from þäm holmclife hafelan bæron, 1636;
similarly, 541, 543, 2367. Standing after the dat.: he hine feor forwräc
... mancynne fram, 110; similarly, 1716. Also, _hither from something_: þâ
ic cwom ... from feóndum, 420; æghwäðrum wäs ... brôga fram ôðrum,
2566.--Causal with verbs of saying and hearing, _of, about, concerning_:
sägdest from his sîðe, 532; nô ic wiht fram þe swylcra searo-nîða secgan
hýrde, 581; þät he fram Sigemunde secgan hyrde, 876. II adv., _away,
thence_: nô þý ær fram meahte, 755; _forth, out_: from ærest cwom oruð
aglæcean ût of stâne, _the breath of the dragon came forth first from the
rock_ 2557.

fram, from, adj.: 1) _directed forwards, striving forwards_; in comp.
sîð-fram.--2) _excellent, splendid_, of a man with reference to his warlike
qualities: nom. sg. ic eom on môde from, 2528; nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477. Of things: instr. pl. fromum feoh-giftum, 21.--Comp. un-from;
see freme, forma.

ge-frägen. See frignan.

frätwe, st. f. pl., _ornament, anything costly_, originally _carved
objects_ (cf. Dietrich in Hpts. Ztschr. X. 216 ff.), afterwards of any
costly and artistic work: acc. pl. frätwe, 2920; beorhte frätwe, 214;
beorhte frätwa, 897; frätwe.. eorclan-stânas, 1208; frätwe,...
breóst-weorðunge, 2504, both times of Hygelâc's collar; frätwe and
fät-gold, 1922; frätwe (Eanmund's sword and armor), 2621; dat. instr. pl.
þâm frätwum, 2164; on frätewum, 963; frätwum (Heaðobeard sword) hrêmig,
2055; frätwum, of the drake's treasures, 2785; frätwum (Ongenþeów's armor),
2990; gen. pl. fela ... frätwa, 37; þâra frätwa (drake's treasure), 2795;
frätwa hyrde (drake), 3134.

frätwan, w. v., _to supply with ornaments, to adorn_: inf. folc-stede
frätwan, 76.

ge-frätwian, w. v., _to adorn_: pret. sg. gefrätwade foldan sceátas leomum
and leáfum, 96; pret. part. þâ wäs hâten Heort innanweard folmum gefrätwod,

ge-fræge, adj., _known by reputation, renowned_: nom. sg. leód-cyning ...
folcum gefræge, 55; swâ hyt gefræge wäs, 2481.

ge-fræge, st. n., _information through hearsay_: instr. sg. mine gefræge
(_as I learned through the narrative of others_), 777, 838, 1956, etc.

ge-frægnian, w. v., _to become known through hearsay_: pret. part. fylle
gefrægnod (of Grendel's mother, who had become known through the carrying
off of Äschere), 1334?

freca, w. m., properly _a wolf_, as one that breaks in, robs; here a
designation of heroes: nom. sg. freca Scildinga, of Beówulf, 1564.--Comp.:
gûð-, hilde-, scyld-, sweord-, wîg-freca; ferð-frec (adj.).

fremde, adj., properly _distant, foreign_; then _estranged, hostile_: nom
sg. þät wäs fremde þeód êcean dryhtne, of the giants, 1692.

freme, adj., _excellent, splendid_: nom. sg. fem. fremu folces cwên, of
Þryðo, 1933(?).

fremman, w. v., _to press forward, to further_, hence: 1) in general, _to
perform, to accomplish, to do, to make_: pres. subj. without an object,
fremme se þe wille, _let him do (it) whoever will_, 1004. With acc.: imp.
pl. fremmað ge nu leóda þearfe, 2801; inf. fyrene fremman, 101; säcce
fremman, 2500; fæhðe ... mærðum fremman, 2515, etc.; pret. sg. folcræd
fremede (_did what was best for his men_, i.e. ruled wisely), 3007; pl. hû
þâ äðelingas ellen fremedon, 3; feohtan fremedon, 960; nalles fâcenstafas
... þenden fremedon, 1020; pret. subj. þät ic ... mærðo fremede, 2135. --2)
_to help on, to support_: inf. þät he mec fremman wile wordum and worcum
(to an expedition), 1833.

ge-fremman, w. acc., _to do, to make, to render_: inf. gefremman eorlîc
ellen, 637; helpan gefremman, _to give help_, 2450; äfter weáspelle wyrpe
gefremman, _to work a change after sorrow_ (to give joy after sorrow),
1316; gerund, tô gefremmanne, 174, 2645; pret. sg. gefremede, 135, 165,
551, 585, etc.; þeáh þe hine mihtig god ... ofer ealle men forð gefremede,
_placed him away, above all men_, i.e. raised him, 1719; pret. pl.
gefremedon, 1188, 2479; pret. subj. gefremede, 177; pret. part. gefremed,
476; fem, nu scealc hafað ... dæd gefremede, 941; absolutely, þu þe self
hafast dædum gefremed, þät ..., _hast brought it about by thy deeds that_,

fretan, st. v., _to devour, to consume_: inf. þâ (the precious things)
sceal brond fretan, 3015; nu sceal glêd fretan wîgena strengel, 3115; pret.
sg. (Grendel) slæpende frät folces Denigea fýftyne men, 1582.

frêcne, adj., _dangerous, bold_: nom. sg. frêcne fýr-draca, 2690;
feorh-bealo frêcne, 2251, 2538; acc. sg. frêcne dæde, 890; frêcne fengelâd,
1360; frêcne stôwe, 1379; instr. sg. frêcnan spræce (_through provoking
words_), 1105.

frêcne, adv., _boldly, audaciously_, 960, 1033, 1692.

freá, w. m., _ruler, lord_, of a temporal ruler: nom. sg. freá, 2286; acc.
sg. freán, 351, 1320, 2538, 3003, 3108; gen. sg. freán, 359, 500, 1167,
1681; dat. sg. freán, 271, 291, 2663. Of a husband: dat. sg. eode ... tô
hire freán sittan, 642. Of God: dat. sg. freán ealles, _the Lord of all_,
2795; gen. sg. freán, 27.-- Comp.: âgend-, lîf-, sin-freá.

freá-dryhten, st. m., _lord, ruling lord_: gen. sg. freá-drihtnes, 797.

freá-wine, st. m., _lord and friend, friendly ruler_: nom. sg. freá-wine
folces (folca), 2358, 2430; acc. sg. his freá-wine, 2439.

freá-wrâsn, st. f., _encircling ornament like a diadem_: instr. pl. helm
... befongen freáwrâsnum, 1452; see wrâsn.

freoðu, friðu, f., _protection, asylum, peace_: acc. sg. wel bið þäm þe môt
... tô fäder fäðmum freoðo wilnian, _who may obtain an asylum in God's
arms_, 188; neán and feorran þu nu [friðu] hafast, 1175.--Comp. fen-freoðo.

freoðo-burh, st. f., _castle, city affording protection_: acc. sg.
freoðoburh fägere, 522.

freoðo-wong, st. m., _field of peace, field of protection_: acc. sg., 2960;
seems to have been the proper name of a field.

freoðo-wær, st. f., _peace-alliance, security of peace_: acc. sg. þâ hie
getrûwedon on twâ healfa fäste frioðu-wære, 1097; gen. sg. frioðowære bäd
hlâford sînne, _entreated his lord for the protection of peace_ (i.e. full
pardon for his delinquency), 2283.

freoðo-webbe, w. f., _peace-weaver_, designation of the royal consort
(often one given in marriage as a confirmation of a peace between two
nations): nom. sg., 1943.

freó-burh, st. f., = freá-burg (?), _ruler's castle_ (?) (according to
Grein, arx ingenua): acc. sg. freóburh, 694.

freód, st. f., _friendship_: acc. sg. freóde ne woldon ofer heafo healdan,
2477; gen. sg. näs þær mâra fyrst freóde tô friclan, _was no longer time to
seek for friendship_, 2557; --_favor, acknowledgement_: acc. sg. ic þe
sceal mîne gelæstan freóde (_will show myself grateful_, with reference to
1381 ff.), 1708.

freó-dryhten (= freá-dryhten), st. m., _lord, ruler_; according to Grein,
dominus ingenuus vel nobilis: nom. sg. as voc. freó-drihten min! 1170; dat.
sg. mid his freó-dryhtne, 2628.

freógan, w. v., _to love; to think of lovingly_: pres. subj. þät mon his
wine-dryhten ... ferhðum freóge, 3178; inf. nu ic þec ... me for sunu wylle
freógan on ferhðe, 949.

freó-lîc, adj., _free, free-born_ (here of the lawful wife in contrast with
the bond concubine): nom. sg. freólîc wîf, 616; freólîcu folc-cwên, 642.

freónd, st. m., _friend_: acc. sg. freónd, 1386, 1865; dat. pl. freóndum,
916, 1019, 1127; gen. pl. freónda, 1307, 1839.

freónd-laðu, st. f., _friendly invitation_: nom. sg. him wäs ful boren and
freónd-laðu (_friendly invitation to drink_) wordum bewägned, 1193.

freónd-lâr, st. f., _friendly counsel_: dat. (instr.) pl. freónd-lârum,

freónd-lîce, adv., _in a friendly manner, kindly_: compar. freónd-lîcor,

freónd-scipe, st. m., _friendship_: acc. sg. freónd-scipe fästne, 2070.

freó-wine, st. m. (see freáwine), _lord and friend, friendly ruler_;
according to Grein, amicus nobilis, princeps amicus: nom. sg. as voc.
freó-wine folca! 430.

fricgean, w. v., _to ask, to inquire into_: inf. ongan sînne geseldan fägre
fricgean hwylce Sæ-Geáta sîðas wæron, 1986; pres. part, gomela Scilding
fela fricgende feorran rehte, _the old Scilding, asking many questions_
(having many things related to him), _told of old times_ (the conversation
was alternate), 2107.

ge-fricgean, _to learn, to learn by inquiry_: pres. pl. syððan hie
ge-fricgeað freán ûserne ealdorleásne, _when they learn that our lord is
dead_, 3003; pres. subj. gif ic þät gefricge, þät..., 1827; pl. syððan
äðelingas feorran gefricgean fleám eówerne, 2890.

friclan (see freca), w. v. w. gen., _to seek, to desire, to strive for_:
inf. näs þær mâra fyrst freóde tô friclan, 2557.

friðo-sib, st. f., _kin for the confirming of peace_, designation of the
queen (see freoðo--webbe), _peace-bringer_: nom. sg. friðu-sibb folca,

frignan, fringan, frinan, st. v., _to ask, to inquire_: imp. ne frin þu
äfter sælum, _ask not after the well-being!_ 1323; inf. ic þäs wine Deniga
frinan wille ... ymb þînne sîð, 351; pret. sg. frägn, 236, 332; frägn gif
..., _asked whether_ ..., 1320.

ge-frignan, ge-fringan, ge-frinan, _to find out by inquiry, to learn by
narration._ pret. sg. (w. acc.) þät fram hâm gefrägn Higelâces þegn
Grendles dæda, 194; nô ic gefrägn heardran feohtan, 575; (w. acc. and inf.)
þâ ic wîde gefrägn weorc gebannan, 74; similarly, 2485, 2753, 2774; ne
gefrägen ic þâ mægðe mâran weorode ymb hyra sincgyfan sêl gebæran, _I never
heard that any people, richer in warriors, conducted itself better about
its chief_, 1012; similarly, 1028; pret. pl. (w. acc.) we þeódcyninga þrym
gefrunon, 2; (w. acc. and inf.) geongne gûðcyning gôdne gefrunon hringas
dælan, 1970; (parenthetical) swâ guman gefrungon, 667, (after þonne)
medo-ärn micel (_greater_) ... þone yldo bearn æfre gefrunon, 70; pret.
part. häfde Higelâces hilde gefrunen, 2953; häfdon gefrunen þät..., _had
learned that_ ..., 695; häfde gefrunen hwanan sió fæhð ârâs, 2404;
healsbeága mæst þâra þe ic on foldan gefrägen häbbe, 1197.

from, See fram.

frôd, adj.: 1) ætate provectus, _old, gray_: nom. sg. frôd, 2626, 2951;
frôd cyning, 1307, 2210; frôd folces weard, 2514; wintrum frôd, 1725, 2115,
2278; se frôda, 2929; ac. sg. frôde feorhlege (_the laying down of my old
life_), 2801; dat. sg. frôdan fyrnwitan (may also, from its meaning, belong
under No. 2), 2124.--2) mente excellentior, _intelligent, experienced,
wise_: nom. sg. frôd, 1367; frôd and gôd, 279; on môde frôd, 1845.--Comp.:
in-, un-frôd.

frôfor, st. f., _consolation, compensation, help_: nom. sg. frôfor, 2942;
acc. sg. frôfre, 7, 974; fyrena frôfre, 629; frôfre and fultum, 1274;
frôfor and fultum, 699; dat. sg. tô frôfre, 14, 1708; gen. sg. frôfre, 185.

fruma (see forma), w. m., _the foremost_, hence: l) _beginning_: nom. sg.
wäs se fruma egeslîc leódum on lande, swâ hyt lungre wearð on hyra
sincgifan sâre geendod (_the beginning of the dragon-combat was terrible,
its end distressing through the death of Beówulf_), 2310.--2) _he who
stands first, prince_; in comp. dæd-, hild-, land-, leód-, ord-, wîg-fruma.

frum-cyn, st. n., (genus primitivum), _descent, origin_: acc. sg. nu ic
eówer sceal frumcyn witan, 252.

frum-gâr, st. m., primipilus, _duke, prince_: dat. sg. frumgâre (of
Beówulf), 2857.

frum-sceaft, st. f., prima creatio, _beginning_: acc. sg. se þe cûðe
frumsceaft fira feorran reccan, _who could tell of the beginning of mankind
in old times_, 91; dat. sg. frum-sceafte, _in the beginning_, i.e at his
birth, 45.

fugol, st. m., _bird_: dat. sg. fugle gelîcost, 218; dat. pl. [fuglum] tô
gamene, 2942.

ful, adj., _full, filled_: nom. sg. w. gen. pl. se wäs innan full wrätta
and wîra, 2413.--Comp.: eges-, sorh-, weorð-ful.

ful, adv., plene, _very_: ful oft, 480; ful-oft, 952.

ful, st. n., _cup, beaker_: nom. sg., 1193; acc. sg. ful, 616, 629, 1026;
ofer ýða ful, _over the cup of the waves_ (the basin of the sea filled with
waves), 1209; dat. sg. onfôh þissum fulle, 1170.--Comp.: medo-, sele-full.

fullæstian, w. v. w. dat, _to give help_: pres. sg. ic þe fullæstu, 2669.

fultum, st. m., _help, support, protection_: acc. sg. frôfor (frôfre) and
fultum, 699, 1274; mägenes fultum, 1836; on fultum, 2663.--Comp.

fundian, w. v., _to strive, to have in view_: pres. pl. we fundiað Higelâc
sêcan, 1820; pret. sg. fundode of geardum, 1138.

furðum, adv., primo, _just, exactly; then first_: þâ ic furðum weóld folce
Deninga, _then first governed the people of the Danes_ (had just assumed
the government), 465; þâ hie tô sele furðum ... gangan cwômon, 323; ic þær
furðum cwom tô þam hringsele, 2010;--_before, previously_: ic þe sceal mîne
gelæstan freóde, swâ wit furðum spræcon, 1708.

furður, adv., _further, forward, more distant_, 254, 762, 3007.

fûs, adj., _inclined to, favorable, ready_: nom. sg. nu ic eom sîðes fûs,
1476; leófra manna fûs, _prepared for the dear men_, i.e. expecting them,
1917; sigel sûðan fûs, _the sun inclined from the south_ (midday sun),
1967; se wonna hrefn fûs ofer fægum, _eager over the slain_, 3026; sceft
... feðer-gearwum fûs, 3120; nom. pl. wæron ... eft to leódum fûse tô
farenne, 1806.--Sometimes fûs means _ready for death_, moribundus: fûs and
fæge, 1242.--Comp.: hin-, ût-fûs.

fûs-lîc, adj., _prepared, ready_: acc. sg. fûs-lîc f[yrd]-leóð, 1425;
fyrd-searo fûs-lîc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fûs-lîcu, 232.

fyl, st. m., _fall_: nom. sg. fyll cyninges, _the fall of the king_ (in the
dragon-fight), 2913; dat. sg. þät he on fylle wearð, _that he came to a
fall, fell_, 1545.--Comp. hrâ-fyl.

fylce (collective form from folc), st. n., _troop, band of warriors_: in
comp. äl-fylce.

ge-fyllan (see feal), w. v., _to fell, to slay in battle_: inf. fâne
gefyllan, _to slay the enemy_, 2656; pret. pl. feónd gefyldan, _they had
slain the enemy_, 2707.

â-fyllan (see ful), w. v., _to fill_: pret. part. Heorot innan wäs freóndum
âfylled (_was filled with trusted men_), 1019.

fyllo, st. f. (_plenty, abundant meal_: dat. (instr.) sg. fylle gefrægnod,
1334; gen. sg. näs hie þære fylle gefeán häfdon, 562; fylle gefægon,
1015.--Comp.: wäl-, wist-fyllo.

fyl-wêrig, adj., _weary enough to fall, faint to death_, moribundus: acc.
sg. fyl-wêrigne, 963.

fyr. See feor.

fyrian, w. v. w. acc. (= ferian) _to bear, to bring, carry_: pret. pl. þâ
þe gif-sceattas Geáta fyredon þyder tô þance, 378.

fyras. See firas.

fyren. See firen.

fyrde, adj., _movable, that can be moved_.--Comp. hard-fyrde.--Leo.

fyrd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade on an expedition, companion in battle_:
dat. pl. fyrd-gesteallum, 2874

fyrd-ham, st. m., _war-dress, coat of mail_: acc. sg. þone fyrd-hom, 1505.

fyrd-hrägl, st. n., _coat of mail, war-dress_: acc. sg. fyrd-hrägl, 1528.

fyrd-hwät, adj., _sharp, good in war, warlike_: nom. pl. frome fyrd-hwate,
1642, 2477.

fyrd-leóð, st. n., _war-song, warlike music_: acc. sg. horn stundum song
fûslîc f[yrd]leoð, 1425.

fyrd-searu, st. n., _equipment for an expedition_: acc. sg. fyrd-searu
fûslîc, 2619; acc. pl. fyrd-searu fûslîcu, 232.

fyrd-wyrðe, adj., _of worth in war, excellent in battle_: nom. sg.
fyrd-wyrðe man (Beówulf), 1317.

ge-fyrðran (see forð), w. v., _to bring forward, to further_: pret. part.
âr wäs on ôfoste, eftsîðes georn, frätwum gefyrðred, _he was hurried
forward by the treasure_ (i.e. after he had gathered up the treasure, he
hasted to return, so as to be able to show it to the mortally-wounded
Beówulf), 2785.

fyrmest. See forma.

fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., _by-gone days_: dat. pl. fyrndagum (_in old
times_), 1452.

fyrn-geweorc, st. n., _work, something done in old times_: acc. sg. fira
fyrn-geweorc (the drinking-cup mentioned in 2283), 2287.

fyrn-gewin, st. n., _combat in ancient times_: gen. sg. ôr fyrn-gewinnes
(_the origin of the battles of the giants_), 1690.

fyrn-man, st. m., _man of ancient times_: gen. pl. fyrn-manna fatu, 2762.

fyrn-wita, w. m., _counsellor ever since ancient times, adviser for many
years_: dat. sg. frôdan fyrnwitan, of Äschere, 2124.

fyrst, st. m., _portion of time, definite time, time_: nom. sg. näs hit
lengra fyrst, ac ymb âne niht ..., 134; fyrst forð gewât, _the time_ (of
going to the harbor) _was past_, 210; näs þær mâra fyrst freóde tô friclan,
2556; acc. sg. niht-longne fyrst, 528; fîf nihta fyrst, 545; instr. sg. þý
fyrste, 2574; dat. sg. him on fyrste gelomp ..., _within the fixed time_,

fyr-wit, -wet, -wyt, st. n., _prying spirit, curiosity_: nom. sg. fyrwyt,
232; fyrwet, 1986, 2785.

ge-fýsan (fûs), w. v., _to make ready, to prepare_: part. winde gefýsed
flota, _the ship provided with wind_ (for the voyage), 217; (wyrm) fýre
gefýsed, _provided with fire_, 2310; þâ wäs hringbogan (of the drake)
heorte gefýsed säcce tô sêceanne, 2562; with gen., in answer to the
question, for what? gûðe gefýsed, _ready for battle, determined to fight_,

fýr, st. n., _fire_: nom. sg., 1367, 2702, 2882; dat. sg. fýre, 2220; as
instr. fýre, 2275, 2596; gen. sg. fýres fäðm, 185; fýres feng, 1765.--
Comp.: âd-, bæl-, heaðu-, wäl-fýr.

fýr-bend, st. m., _band forged in fire_: dat. pl. duru ... fýr-bendum fäst,

fýr-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, fire-spewing dragon_: nom. sg., 2690.

fýr-heard, adj., _hard through fire, hardened in fire_: nom. pl. (eoforlîc)
fâh and fýr-heard, 305.

fýr-leóht, st. n., _fire-light_: acc. sg., 1517.

fýr-wylm, st. m., _wave of fire, flame-wave_: dat. pl. wyrm ... fýrwylmum
fâh, 2672.


galan, st. v., _to sing, to sound_: pres. sg. sorh-leóð gäleð, 2461; inf.
gryre-leóð galan, 787; bearhtm ongeâton, gûðhorn galan, _heard the clang,
the battle-trumpet sound_, 1433.

â-galan, _to sing, to sound_: pret. sg. þät hire on hafelan hringmæl âgôl
grædig gûðleóð, _that the sword caused a greedy battle-song to sound upon
her head_, 1522.

gamban, or, according to Bout., gambe, w. f., _tribute, interest_: acc. sg.
gomban gyldan, 11.

gamen, st. n., _social pleasure, rejoicing, joyous doings_: nom. sg. gamen,
1161; gomen, 2460; gomen gleóbeámes, _the pleasure of the harp_, 2264; acc.
sg. gamen and gleódreám, 3022; dat. sg. gamene, 2942; gomene, 1776.--Comp.

gamen-wâð, st. f., _way offering social enjoyment, journey in joyous
society_: dat. sg. of gomen-wâðe, 855.

gamen-wudu, st. m., _wood of social enjoyment_, i.e. harp: nom. sg. þær wäs
... gomenwudu grêted, 1066; acc. sg. gomenwudu grêtte, 2109.

gamol, gomol, gomel, adj., _old_; of persons, _having lived many years,
gray_: gamol, 58, 265; gomol, 3096; gomel, 2113, 2794; se gomela, 1398;
gamela (gomela) Scylding, 1793, 2106; gomela, 2932; acc. sg. þone gomelan,
2422; dat. sg. gamelum rince, 1678; gomelum ceorle, 2445; þam gomelan,
2818; nom. pl. blondenfeaxe gomele, 1596.--Also, _late, belonging to former
time_: gen. pl. gomelra lâfe (_legacy_), 2037.--Of things, _old, from old
times_: nom. sg. sweord ... gomol, 2683; acc. sg. gomele lâfe, 2564; gomel
swyrd, 2611; gamol is a more respectful word than eald.

gamol-feax, adj., _with gray hair_: nom. sg., 609.

gang, st. m.: 1) _gait, way_: dat. sg. on gange, 1885; gen. sg. ic hine ne
mihte ... ganges ge-twæman, _could not keep him from going_, 969.--2)
_step, foot-step_: nom. sg. gang (the foot-print of the mother of Grendel),
1405; acc. sg. uton hraðe fêran Grendles mâgan gang sceáwigan, 1392.--Comp.

be-gang, bi-gang, st. m., (_so far as something goes_), _extent_: acc. sg.
ofer geofenes begang, _over the extent of the sea_, 362; ofer flôda begang,
1827; under swegles begong, 861, 1774; flôda begong, 1498; sioleða bigong,

gangan. See under gân.

ganot, st. m., _diver_, fulica marina: gen. sg. ofer ganotes bäð (i.e. the
sea), 1862.

gâd, st. n., _lack_: nom. sg. ne bið þe wilna gâd (_thou shalt have no lack
of desirable_ [valuable] _things_), 661; similarly, 950.

gân, _expanded =_ gangan, st. v., _to go_: pres. sg. III. gæð â Wyrd swâ
hió scel, 455; gæð eft ... tô medo, 605; þonne he ... on flett gæð, 2035;
similarly, 2055; pres. subj. III. sg. gâ þær he wille, _let him go whither
he will_, 1395; imp. sg. II. gâ nu tô setle, 1783; nu þu lungre geong, hord
sceáwian, under hârne stân, 2744; inf. in gân, _to go in_, 386, 1645 'forð
gân, _to go forth, to go thither_, 1164; þat hie him tô mihton gegnum
gangan, _to go towards, to go to_, 314; tô sele ... gangan cwômon, 324; in
a similar construction, gongan, 1643; nu ge môton gangan ... Hrôðgâr
geseón, 395; þâ com of môre ... Grendel gongan, _there came Grendel (going)
from the fen_, 712; ongeán gramum gangan, _to go to meet the enemy, to go
to the war_, 1035; cwom ... tô hofe gongan, 1975; wutun gangan tô, _let us
go thither_, 2649.--As preterite, serve, 1) geóng or gióng: he tô healle
geóng, 926; similarly, 2019; se þe on orde geóng, _who went at the head,
went in front, _3126; on innan gióng, _went in_, 2215; he ... gióng tô þäs
þe he eorðsele ânne wisse, _went thither, where he knew of that earth-hall,
_2410; þâ se äðeling, gióng, þät he bî wealle gesät, _then went the prince_
(Beówulf) _that he might sit down by the wall_, 2716.--2) gang: tô healle
gang Healfdenes sunu, 1010; similarly, 1296; gang þâ äfter flôre, _went
along the floor, along the hall_, 1317.--3) gengde (Goth. gaggida): he ...
beforan gengde ..., wong sceáwian, _went in front to inspect the fields_,
1413; gengde, also of riding, 1402.--4) from another stem, eode (Goth.
iddja): eode ellenrôf, þät he for eaxlum gestôd Deniga freán, 358;
similarly, 403; [wið duru healle Wulfgâr eode], _went towards the door of
the hall_, 390; eode Wealhþeów forð, _went forth_, 613; eode tô hire freán
sittan, 641; eode yrremôd, _went with angry feeling_, 727; eode ... tô
sele, 919; similarly, 1233; eode ... þær se snottra bâd, 1313; eode weorð
Denum äðeling tô yppan, _the prince_ (Beówulf), _honored by the Danes, went
to the high seat_, 1815; eode ... under inwit-hrôf, 3124; pl. þær
swîðferhðe sittan eodon, 493; eodon him þâ tôgeánes, _went to meet him_,
1627; eodon under Earna näs, 3032.

â-gangan, _to go out, to go forth, to befall_: pret. part. swâ bit âgangen
wearð eorla manegum (_as it befell many a one of the earls_), 1235.

full-gangan, _to emulate, to follow after_: pret. sg. þonne ... sceft nytte
heóld, feðer-gearwum fûs flâne full-eode, _when the shaft had employment,
furnished with feathers it followed the arrow, did as the arrow_, 3120.

ge-gân, ge-gangan: 1) _to go, to approach_: inf. (w. acc.) his môdor ...
gegân wolde sorhfulne sîð, 1278; se þe gryre-sîðas gegân dorste, _who dared
to go the ways of terror_ (to go into the combat), 1463; pret. sg. se maga
geonga under his mæges scyld elne geeode, _went quickly under his kinsman's
shield_, 2677; pl. elne geeodon tô þäs þe ..., _went quickly thither where_
..., 1968; pret. part. syððan hie tô-gädre gegân häfdon, _when they_
(Wîglâf and the drake) _had come together_, 2631; þät his aldres wäs ende
gegongen, _that the end of his life had come_, 823; þâ wäs endedäg gôdum
gegongen, þät se gûðcyning ... swealt, 3037.--2) _to obtain, to reach_:
inf. (w. acc.) þonne he ät gûðe gegân þenceð longsumne lof, 1536; ic mid
elne sceall gold gegangan, 2537; gerund, näs þät ýðe ceáp tô gegangenne
gumena ænigum, 2417; pret. pl. elne geeodon ... þät se byrnwîga bûgan
sceolde, 2918; pret. part. häfde ... gegongen þät, _had attained it, that_
..., 894; hord ys gesceáwod, grimme gegongen, 3086.--3) _to occur, to
happen_: pres. sg. III. gif þät gegangeð þät ..., _if that happen, that_
..., 1847; pret. sg. þät geiode ufaran dôgrum hilde-hlämmum, _it happened
in later times to the warriors_ (the Geátas), 2201; pret. part. þâ wäs
gegongen guman unfrôdum earfoðlîce þät, _then it had happened to the young
man in sorrowful wise that_ ..., 2822.

ôð-gangan, _to-go thither_: pret. pl. oð þät hi ôðeodon ... in Hrefnesholt,

ofer-gangan, w. acc., _to go over_: pret. sg. ofereode þâ äðelinga bearn
steáp stân-hliðo, _went over steep, rocky precipices_, 1409; pl.
freoðo-wong þone forð ofereodon, 2960.

ymb-gangan, w. acc., _to go around_: pret. ymb-eode þâ ides Helminga duguðe
and geogoðe dæl æghwylcne, _went around in every part, among the superior
and the inferior warriors_, 621.

gâr, st. m., _spear, javelin, missile_: nom. sg., 1847, 3022; instr. sg.
gâre, 1076; blôdigan gâre, 2441; gen. sg. gâres fliht, 1766; nom. pl.
gâras, 328; gen. pl., 161(?).--Comp.: bon-, frum-gâr.

gâr-cêne, adj., _spear-bold_: nom. sg., 1959.

gâr-cwealm, st. m., _murder, death by the spear_: acc. sg. gâr-cwealm
gumena, 2044.

gâr-holt, st. n., _forest of spears_, i.e. crowd of spears: acc. sg., 1835.

gâr-secg, st. m. (cf. Grimm, in Haupt l. 578), _sea, ocean_: acc. sg. on
gâr-secg, 49, 537; ofer gâr-secg, 515.

gâr-wîga, w. m., _one who fights with the spear_: dat. sg. geongum
gâr-wîgan, of Wîglâf, 2675, 2812.

gâr-wîgend, pres. part., _fighting with spear, spear-fighter_: acc. pl.
gâr-wîgend, 2642.

gâst, gæst, st. m., _ghost, demon_: acc. sg. helle gâst (Grendel), 1275;
gen. sg. wergan gâstes (of Grendel), 133; (of the tempter), 1748; gen. pl.
dyrnra gâsta (Grendel's race), 1358; gæsta gîfrost (_flames consuming
corpses_), 1124.--Comp.: ellor-, geó-sceaft-gâst; ellen-, wäl-gæst.

gâst-bana, w. m., _slayer of the spirit_, i.e. the devil: nom. sg.
gâst-bona, 177.

gädeling, st. m., _he who is connected with another, relation, companion_:
gen. sg. gädelinges, 2618; dat. pl. mid his gädelingum, 2950.

ät-gädere, adv., _together, united_: 321, 1165, 1191; samod ätgädere, 329,
387, 730, 1064.

tô-gadere, adv., _together_, 2631.

gäst, gist, gyst, st. m., _stranger, guest_: nom. sg. gäst, 1801; se gäst
(the drake), 2313; se grimma gäst (Grendel), 102; gist, 1139, 1523; acc.
sg. gryre-lîcne gist (the nixy slain by Beówulf), 1442; dat. sg. gyste,
2229; nom. pl. gistas, 1603; acc. pl. gäs[tas], 1894.--Comp.: fêðe-,
gryre-, inwit-, nîð-, sele-gäst (-gyst).

gäst-sele, st. m., _hall in which the guests spend their time, guest-hall_:
acc. sg., 995.

ge, conj., _and_, 1341; ge ... ge ..., _as well ... as ..._, 1865; ge ...
ge ..., ge ..., 1249; ge swylce, _and likewise, and moreover_, 2259.

ge, pron., _ye, you_, plur. of þu, 237, 245, etc.

gegn-cwide, st. m., _reply_: gen. pl. þînra gegn-cwida, 367.

gegnum, adv., _thither, towards, away_, with the prep, tô, ofer, giving the
direction: þät hie him tô mihton gegnum gangan (_that they might go
thither_), 314; gegnum fôr [þâ] ofer myrcan môr, _away over the dark moor_,

gehðu, geohðu, st. f., _sorrow, care_: instr. sg. giohðo mænde, 2268; dat.
sg. on gehðo, 3096; on giohðe, 2794.

gen (from gegn), adv., _yet, again_. ne wäs hit lenge þâ gen, þät ..., _it
was not then long before_ ..., 83; ic sceal forð sprecan gen ymb Grendel,
_shall from now on speak again of Grendel_, 2071; nô þý ær ût þâ gen ...
gongan wolde (_still he would not yet go out_), 2082; gen is eall ät þe
lissa gelong (_yet all my favor belongs to thee_), 2150; þâ gen, _then
again_, 2678, 2703; swâ he nu gen dêð, _as he still does_, 2860; furður
gen, _further still, besides_, 3007; nu gen, _now again_, 3169; ne gen, _no
more, no farther_: ne wäs þät wyrd þâ gen, _that was no more fate_ (fate no
longer willed that), 735.

gena, _still_: cwico wäs þâ gena, _was still living_, 3094.

genga, w. m., _goer_; in comp. in-, sæ-, sceadu-genga.

gengde. See gân(3).

genge. See ûð-genge.

genunga (from gegnunga), adv., _precisely, completely_, 2872.

gerwan, gyrwan, w. v.: 1) _to prepare, to make ready, to put in condition_:
pret. pl. gestsele gyredon, 995.--2) _to equip, to arm for battle_: pret.
sg. gyrede hine Beówulf eorl-gewædum (_dressed himself in the armor_),

ge-gyrwan: 1) _to make, to prepare_: pret. pl. him þâ gegiredan Geáta leóde
âd ... unwâclîcne, 3138; pret. part. glôf ... eall gegyrwed deófles cräftum
and dracan fellum, 2088.--2) _to fit out, to make ready_: inf. ceól
gegyrwan hilde-wæpnum and heaðowædum, 38; hêt him ýðlidan gôdne gegyrwan,
_had (his) good ship fitted up for him_, 199. Also, _to provide warlike
equipment_: pret. part. syððan he hine tô gûðe gegyred häfde, 1473.--3) _to
endow, to provide, to adorn_: pret. part. nom. sg. beado-hrägl ... golde
gegyrwed, 553; acc. sg. lâfe ... golde gegyrede, 2193; acc. pl. mâdmas ...
golde gegyrede, 1029.

getan, w. v., _to injure, to slay_: inf., 2941.

be-gête, adj., _attainable_; in comp. êð-begête.

geador, adv., _unitedly, together, jointly_, 836; geador ätsomne, 491.

on-geador, adv., _unitedly, together_, 1596.

gealdor, st. n.: 1) _sound_: acc. sg. býman gealdor, 2944.--2) _magic song,
incantation, spell_: instr. sg. þonne wäs þät yrfe ... galdre bewunden
(_placed under a spell_), 3053.

gealga, w. m., _gallows_: dat. sg. þät his byre rîde giong on galgan, 2447.

gealg-môd, adj., _gloomy_: nom. sg. gîfre and galgmôd, 1278.

gealg-treów, st. n., _gallows_: dat. pl. on galg-treówu[m], 2941.

geard, st. m., _residence_; in Beówulf corresponding to the house-complex
of a prince's residence, used only in the plur.: acc. in geardas (_in
Finn's castle_), 1135; dat. in geardum, 13, 2460; of geardum, 1139; ær he
on weg hwurfe ... of geardum, _before he went away from his
dwelling-place_, i.e. died, 265.--Comp. middan-geard.

gearo, adj., properly, _made, prepared_; hence, _ready, finished,
equipped_: nom. sg. þät hit wearð eal gearo, heal-ärna mæst, 77; wiht
unhælo ... gearo sôna wäs, _the demon of destruction was quickly ready, did
not delay long_, 121; Here-Scyldinga betst beadorinca wäs on bæl gearu,
_was ready for the funeral-pile_ (for the solemn burning), 1110; þeód (is)
eal gearo, _the warriors are altogether ready, always prepared_, 1231;
hraðe wäs ät holme hýð-weard gearo (geara, MS.), 1915; gearo gûð-freca,
2415; sîe sió bær gearo ädre geäfned, _let the bier be made ready at once_,
3106. With gen.: gearo gyrnwräce, _ready for revenge for harm done_, 2119,
acc. sg. gearwe stôwe, 1007; nom. pl. beornas gearwe, 211; similarly, 1814.

gearwe, gearo, geare, adv., _completely, entirely_: ne ge ... gearwe ne
wisson, _you do not know at all_ ..., 246; similarly, 879; hine gearwe
geman witena welhwyle (_remembers him very well_), 265; wisse he gearwe þät
..., _he knew very well that_ ..., 2340, 2726; þät ic ... gearo sceáwige
swegle searogimmas (_that I may see the treasures altogether, as many as
they are_), 2749; ic wât geare þät ..., 2657.--Comp. gearwor, _more
readily, rather_, 3077.--Superl. gearwost, 716.

gearo-folm, adj., _with ready hand_, 2086.

gearwe, st. f., _equipment, dress_; in comp. feðer-gearwe.

geat, st. n., _opening, door_; in comp. ben-, hilde-geat.

geato-lîc, adj., _well prepared, handsome, splendid_: of sword and armor,
215, 1563, 2155; of Heorot, 308. Adv.: wîsa fengel geatolîc gengde, _passed
on in a stately manner_, 1402.

geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment, adornment_: acc. recedes geatwa, _the
ornaments of the dragon's cave_ (its treasures), 3089.--Comp.: eóred-,
gryre-, gûð-, hilde-, wîg-geatwe.

geán (from gegn), adv. in

on-geán, adv. and prep., _against, towards_: þät he me ongeán sleá, 682;
ræhte ongeán feónd mid folme, 748; foran ongeán, _forward towards_, 2365.
With dat.: ongeán gramum, _against the enemy_, 1035.

tô-geánes, tô-genes, prep, _against, towards_: Grendle tôgeánes, _towards
Grendel, against Grendel_, 667; grâp þâ tôgeánes, _she grasped at_
(Beówulf), 1502; similarly, him tôgeánes fêng, 1543; eodon him þâ tôgeánes,
_went towards him_, 1627; hêt þâ gebeódan ... þät hie bæl-wudu feorran
feredon gôdum tôgênes, _had it ordered that they should bring the wood from
far for the funeral-pyre towards the good man_ (i.e. to the place where the
dead Beówulf lay), 3115.

geáp, adj., _roomy, extensive, wide_: nom. sg. reced ... geáp, _the roomy
hall_, 1801; acc. sg. under geápne hrôf, 837.--Comp.: horn-, sæ-geáp.

geâr, st. n., _year_: nom. sg., 1135; gen. pl. geâra, in adverbial sense,
olim, _in former times_, 2665. See un-geâra.

geâr-dagas, st. m. pl., _former days_: dat. pl. in (on) geâr-dagum, 1,

geofe. See gifu.

geofon, gifen, gyfen (see Kuhn Zeitschr. I. 137), st. n., _sea, flood_:
nom. sg. geofon, 515; gifen geótende, _the streaming flood_, 1691; gen. sg.
geofenes begang, 362; gyfenes, 1395.

geogoð, st. f.: 1) _youth, time of youth_: dat. sg. on geogoðe, 409, 466,
2513; on giogoðe, 2427; gen. gioguðe, 2113.--2) contrasted with duguð, _the
younger warriors of lower rank_ (about as in the Middle Ages, the squires
with the knights): nom. sg. geogoð, 66; giogoð, 1191; acc. sg. geogoðe,
1182; gen. duguðe and geogoðe, 160; duguðe and iogoðe (geogoðe), 1675, 622.

geoguð-feorh, st. n., _age of youth_, i.e. age in which one still belongs
in the ranks of the geogoð: on geogoð- (geoguð-) feore, 537, 2665.

geohðo. See gehðo.

geolo, adj., _yellow_: acc. sg. geolwe linde (_the shield of yellow linden
bark_), 2611.

geolo-rand, st. m., _yellow shield_ (shield with a covering of interlaced
yellow linden bark): acc. sg., 438.

geond, prep. w. acc., _through, throughout, along, over_: geond þisne
middangeard, _through the earth, over the earth_, 75; wide geond eorðan,
266, 3100; fêrdon folctogan ... geond wîd-wegas, _went along the ways
coming from afar_, 841; similarly, 1705; geond þät säld, _through the hall,
through the extent of the hall_, 1281; similarly, 1982, 2265.

geong, adj., _young, youthful_: nom. sg., 13, 20, 855, etc.; giong, 2447;
w. m. se maga geonga, 2676; acc. sg. geongne gûðcyning, 1970; dat. sg.
geongum, 1949, 2045, 2675, etc.; on swâ geongum feore, _at a so youthful
age_, 1844; geongan cempan, 2627; acc. pl. geonge, 2019; dat. pl. geongum
and ealdum, 72.--Superl. gingest, _the last_: nom. sg. w. f. gingeste word,

georn, adj., _striving, eager_, w. gen. of the thing striven for: eft sîðes
georn, 2784.--Comp. lof-georn.

georne, adv., _readily, willingly_: þät him wine-mâgas georne hýrdon, 66;
georne trûwode, 670.--_zealously, eagerly_: sôhte georne äfter grunde,
_eagerly searched over the ground_, 2295.--_carefully, industriously_: nô
ic him þäs georne ätfealh (_held him not fast enough_), 969.--_completely,
exactly_: comp. wiste þê geornor, 822.

geó, iú, adv., _once, formerly, earlier_, 1477; gió, 2522; iú, 2460.

geóc, st. f., _help, support_: acc. sg. geóce gefremman, 2675; þät him
gâst-bona geóce gefremede wið þeód-þreáum, 177; geóce gelýfde, _believed in
the help_ (of Beówulf), 609; dat. sg. tô geóce, 1835.

geócor, adj., _ill, bad_: nom. sg., 766.--See Haupt's Zeitschrift 8, p. 7.

geó-man, iú-man, st. m., _man of former times_: gen. pl. iú-manna, 3053.

geó-meowle, w. f., (_formerly a virgin), wife_: acc. sg. ió-meowlan, 2932.

geômor, adj., _with depressed feelings, sad, troubled_: nom. sg. him wäs
geômor sefa, 49, 2420, 2633, 2951; môdes geômor, 2101; fem. þät wäs geômuru
ides, 1076.

geômore, adv., _sadly_, 151.

geômor-gid, st. n., _dirge_: acc. sg. giômor-gyd, 3151.

geômor-lîc, adj., _sad, painful_: swâ bið geômorlîc gomelum ceorle tô
gebîdanne þät..., _it is painful to an old man to experience it, that ..._,

geômor-môd, adj., _sad, sorrowful_: nom. sg., 2045, 3019; giômor-môd, 2268.

geômrian, w. v., _to complain, to lament_: pret. sg. geômrode giddum, 1119.

geó-sceaft, st. f., (_fixed in past times), fate_: acc. sg. geósceaft
grimme, 1235.

geósceaft-gâst, st. m., _demon sent by fate_: gen. pl. fela
geósceaft-gâsta, of Grendel and his race, 1267.

geótan, st. v. intrans., _to pour, to flow, to stream_: pres. part. gifen
geótende, 1691.

gicel, st. m., _icicle_: in comp. hilde-gicel.

gid, gyd, st. n., _speech, solemn alliterative song_: nom. sg. þær wäs ...
gid oft wrecen, 1066; leóð wäs âsungen, gleómannes gyd, _the song was sung,
the gleeman's lay_, 1161; þær wäs gidd and gleó, 2106; acc. sg. ic þis gid
âwräc, 1724; gyd âwräc, 2109; gyd äfter wräc, 2155; þonne he gyd wrece,
2447; dat. pl. giddum, 151, 1119; gen. pl. gidda gemyndig, 869.--Comp.:
geômor-, word-gid.

giddian, w. v., _to speak, to speak in alliteration_: pret. gyddode, 631.

gif, conj.: 1) _if_, w. ind., 442, 447, 527, 662, etc.; gyf, 945, etc. With
subj., 452, 594, 1482, etc.; gyf, 280, 1105, etc.--2) _whether_, w. ind.,
272; w. subj., 1141, 1320.

gifa, geofa, w. m., _giver_; in comp. gold-, sinc-, wil-gifa (-geofa).

gifan, st. v., _to give_: inf. giofan, 2973; pret. sg. nallas beágas geaf
Denum, 1720; he me [mâðmas] geaf, 2147; and similarly, 2174, 2432, 2624,
etc.; pret. pl. geâfon (hyne) on gârsecg, 49; pret. part. þâ wäs Hrôðgâre
here-spêd gyfen, 64; þâ wäs gylden hilt gamelum rince ... on hand gyfen,
1679; syððan ærest wearð gyfen ... geongum cempan (_given in marriage_),

â-gifan, _to give, to impart_: inf. andsware ... âgifan, _to give an
answer_, 355; pret. sg. sôna him se frôda fäder Ôhtheres ... ondslyht âgeaf
(_gave him a counter-blow_), (_hand-blow_?), 2930.

for-gyfan, _to give, to grant_: pret. sg. him þäs lîf-freá ... worold-âre
forgeaf, 17; þäm tô hâm forgeaf Hrêðel Geáta ângan dôhtor (_gave in
marriage_), 374; similarly, 2998; he me lond forgeaf, _granted me land_,
2493; similarly, 697, 1021, 2607, 2617; mägen-ræs forgeaf hilde-bille, _he
gave with his battle-sword a mighty blow_, i.e. he struck with full force,

of-gifan, (_to give up_), _to leave_: inf. þät se mæra maga Ecgþeówes
grund-wong þone ofgyfan wolde (_was fated to leave the earth-plain_), 2589;
pret. sg. þâs worold ofgeaf gromheort guma, 1682; similarly, gumdreám
ofgeaf, 2470; Dena land ofgeaf, 1905; pret. pl. näs ofgeâfon hwate
Scyldingas, _left the promontory_, 1601; þät þâ hildlatan holt ofgêfan,
_that the cowards left the wood_ (into which they had fled), 2847; sg.
pret. for pl. þâra þe þis [lîf] ofgeaf, 2252.

gifeðe, adj., _given, granted_: Gûðfremmendra swylcum gifeðe bið þät...,
_to such a warrior is it granted that_..., 299; similarly, 2682; swâ me
gifeðe wäs, 2492; þær me gifeðe swâ ænig yrfeweard äfter wurde, _if an
heir_, (living) _after me, had been given me_, 2731.--Neut. as subst.: wäs
þät gifeðe tô swîð, þe þone [þeóden] þyder ontyhte, _the fate was too harsh
that has drawn hither the king_, 3086; gyfeðe, 555, 820.--Comp. un-gifeðe.

gif-heal, st. f., _hall in which fiefs were bestowed, throne-hall_: acc.
sg. ymb þâ gifhealle, 839.

gif-sceat, st. m., _gift of value_: acc. pl. gif-sceattas, 378.

gif-stôl, st. m., _seat from which fiefs are granted, throne_: nom. sg.,
2328; acc. sg., 168.

gift, st. f., _gift, present_: in comp. feoh-gift.

gifu, geofu, st. f., _gift, present, grant; fief_: nom. sg. gifu, 1885 acc.
sg. gimfäste gife þe him god sealde, _the great gift that God had granted
him_ (i.e. the enormous strength), 1272; ginfästan gife þe him god sealde,
2183; dat. pl. (as instr.) geofum, 1959; gen. pl. gifa, 1931; geofena,
1174.--Comp.: mâððum-, sinc-gifu.

gigant, st. m., _giant_: nom. pl. gigantas, 113; gen. pl. giganta, 1563,

gild, gyld, st. n., _reparation_: in comp. wiðer-gyld(?).

gildan, gyldan, st. v., _to do something in return, to repay, to reward, to
pay_: inf. gomban gyldan, _pay tribute_, 11; he mid gôde gyldan wille
uncran eaferan, 1185; we him þâ gûðgeatwa gyldan woldon, 2637; pret. sg.
heaðoræsas geald mearum and mâðmum, _repaid the battles with horses and
treasures_, 1048; similarly, 2492; geald þone gûðræs ... Jofore and Wulfe
mid ofermâðmum, _repaid Eofor and Wulf the battle with exceedingly great
treasures_, 2992.

an-gildan, _to pay for_: pret. sg. sum sâre angeald æfenräste, _one_
(Äschere) _paid for the evening-rest with death's pain_, 1252.

â-gildan, _to offer one's self_: pret. sg. þâ me sæl âgeald, _when the
favorable opportunity offered itself_, 1666; similarly, þâ him rûm âgeald,

for-gildan, _to repay, to do something in return, to reward_: pres. subj.
sg. III. alwalda þec gôde forgylde, _may the ruler of all reward thee with
good_, 957; inf. þone ænne hêht golde forgyldan, _he ordered that the one_
(killed by Grendel) _be paid for_ (atoned for) _with gold_, 1055; he ...
wolde Grendle for-gyldan gûðræsa fela, _wished to pay Grendel for many
attacks_, 1578; wolde se lâða lîge forgyldan drinc-fät dýre, _the enemy
wished to repay with fire the costly drinking vessel_ (the theft of it),
2306; pret. sg. he him þäs leán forgeald, _he gave them the reward
therefore_, 114; similarly, 1542, 1585, 2095; forgeald hraðe wyrsan wrixle
wälhlem þone, _repaid the murderous blow with a worse exchange_, 2969.

gilp, gylp, st. m., _speech in which one promises great things for himself
in a coming combat, defiant speech, boasting speech_: acc. sg. häfde ...
Geát-mecga leód gilp gelæsted (_had fulfilled what he had claimed for
himself before the battle_), 830; nallas on gylp seleð fätte beágas, _gives
no chased gold rings for a boastful speech_, 1750; þät ic wið þone
gûðflogan gylp ofersitte, _restrain myself from the speech of defiance_,
2529; dat. sg. gylpe wiðgrîpan (_fulfil my promise of battle_),
2522.--Comp. dol-gilp.

gilpan, gylpan, st. v. w. gen., acc., and dat., _to make a defiant speech,
to boast, to exult insolently_: pres. sg. I. nô ic þäs gilpe (after a break
in the text), 587; sg. III. morðres gylpeð, _boasts of the murder_, 2056;
inf. swâ ne gylpan þearf Grendles maga ænig ... uhthlem þone, 2007; nealles
folc-cyning fyrdgesteallum gylpan þorfte, _had no need to boast of his
fellow-warrior_, 2875; pret. sg. hrêðsigora ne gealp goldwine Geáta, _did
not exult at the glorious victory_ (could not gain the victory over the
drake), 2584.

gilp-cwide, st. m., _speech in which a man promises much for himself for a
coming combat, speech of defiance_: nom. sg., 641.

gilp-hläden, pret. part., _laden with boasts of defiance_ (i.e. he who has
made many such boasts, and consequently has been victorious in many
combats), _covered with glory_: nom. sg. guma gilp-hläden, 869.

gilp-spræc, same as gilp-cwide, _speech of defiance, boastful speech_: dat.
sg. on gylp-spræce, 982.

gilp-word, st. n., _defiant word before the coming combat, vaunting word_:
gen. pl. gespräc ... gylp-worda sum, 676.

gim, st. m., _gem, precious stone, jewel_: nom. sg. heofones gim, _heaven's
jewel_, i.e. the sun, 2073. Comp. searo-gim.

gimme-rîce, adj., _rich in jewels_: acc. sg. gimme-rîce hord-burh häleða,

gin (according to Bout., ginne), adj., properly _gaping_, hence, _wide,
extended_: acc. sg. gynne grund (_the bottom of the sea_), 1552.

gin-fäst, adj., _extensive, rich_: acc. sg. gim-fäste gife (gim-, on
account of the following _f_), 1272; in weak form, gin-fästan gife, 2183.

ginnan, st. v., original meaning, _to be open, ready_; in

on-ginnan, _to begin, to undertake_: pret. ôð þät ân ongan fyrene fremman
feónd on helle, 100; secg eft ongan sîð Beówulfes snyttrum styrian, 872; þâ
þät sweord ongan ... wanian, _the sword began to diminish_, 1606; Higelâc
ongan sînne geseldan ... fägre fricgean, _began with propriety to question
his companion_, 1984, etc.; ongon, 2791; pret. pl. nô her cûðlîcor cuman
ongunnon lindhäbbende, _no shield-bearing men e'er undertook more openly to
come hither_, 244; pret. part. häbbe ic mærða fela ongunnen on geogoðe,
_have in my youth undertaken many deeds of renown_, 409.

gist. See gäst.

gistran, adv., _yesterday_: gystran niht, _yesterday night_, 1335.

git, pron., _ye two_, dual of þu, 508, 512, 513, etc.

git, gyt, adv., _yet; then still_, 536, 1128, 1165, 2142; _hitherto_, 957;
næfre git, _never yet_, 583; _still_, 945, 1059, 1135; _once more_, 2513;
_moreover_, 47, 1051, 1867.

gitan (original meaning, _to take hold of, to seize, to attain_), in

be-gitan, w. acc., _to grasp, to seize, to reach_: pret. sg. begeat, 1147,
2231; þâ hine wîg beget, _when war seized him, came upon him_, 2873;
similarly, begeat, 1069; pret. pl. hit ær on þe gôde be-geâton, _good men
received it formerly from thee_, 2250; subj. sg. for pl. þät wäs Hrôðgâre
hreówa tornost þâra þe leódfruman lange begeâte, _the bitterest of the
troubles that for a long time had befallen the people's chief_, 2131.

for-gitan, w. acc., _to forget_: pres. sg. III. he þâ forðgesceaft forgyteð
and forgýmeð, 1752.

an-gitan, on-gitan, w. acc.: 1) _to take hold of, to grasp_: imp. sg.
gumcyste ongit, _lay hold of manly virtue, of what becomes the man_, 1724;
pret. sg. þe hine se brôga angeat, _whom terror seized_, 1292.--2) _to
grasp intellectually, to comprehend, to perceive, to distinguish, to
behold_: pres. subj. I. þät ic ærwelan ... ongite, _that I may behold the
ancient wealth_ (the treasures of the drake's cave), 2749; inf. säl timbred
... ongytan, 308, 1497; Geáta clifu ongitan, 1912; pret. sg. fyren-þearfe
ongeat, _had perceived their distress from hostile snares_, 14; ongeat ...
grund-wyrgenne, _beheld the she-wolf of the bottom_, 1519; pret. pl.
bearhtm ongeâton, gûðhorn galan, _perceived the noise_, (heard) _the
battle-trumpet sound_, 1432; syððan hie Hygelâces horn and býman gealdor
ongeâton, 2945.

gîfre, adj., _greedy, eager_: nom. sg. gîfre and galgmôd, of Grendel's
mother, 1278.--Superl.: lîg..., gæsta gîfrost, 1124.--Comp. heoro-gîfre.

gîtsian, w. v., _to be greedy_: pres. sg. III. gýtsað, 1750.

gio-, gió-. See geo-, geó-.

gladian, w. v., _to gleam, to shimmer_: pres. pl. III. on him gladiað
gomelra lâfe, _upon him gleams the legacy of the men of ancient times_
(armor), 2037.

gläd, adj., _gracious, friendly_ (as a form of address for princes): nom.
sg. beó wið Geátas gläd, 1174; acc. sg. glädne Hrôðgâr, 864; glädne
Hrôðulf, 1182; dat. sg. gladum suna Frôdan, 2026.

gläde, adv., _in a gracious, friendly way_, 58.

glädnian, w. v., _to rejoice_: inf. w. gen., 367.

gläd-môd, adj., _joyous, glad_, 1786.

glêd, st. f., _fire, flame_: nom. sg., 2653, 3115; dat. (instr.) pl.
glêdum, 2313, 2336, 2678, 3042.

glêd-egesa, w. m., _terror on account of fire, fire-terror_: nom. sg.
glêd-egesa grim (_the fire-spewing of the drake_), 2651.

gleáw (Goth, glaggwu-s), adj., _considerate, well-bred_, of social conduct;
in comp. un-gleáw.

gleó, st. n., _social entertainment_, (especially by music, play, and
jest): nom. sg. þær wäs gidd and gleó, 2106.

gleó-beám, st. m., _(tree of social entertainment, of music), harp._ gen.
sg. gleó-beámes, 2264.

gleó-dreám, st. _m., joyous carrying-on in social entertainment, mirth,
social gaiety_: acc. sg. gamen and gleó-dreám, 3022.

gleó-man, m., _(gleeman, who enlivens the social entertainment, especially
with music), harper_: gen. sg. gleómannes gyd, 1161.

glitinian (O.H.G. glizinôn), w. v., _to gleam, to light, to glitter_: inf.
geseah þâ ... gold glitinian, 2759.

glîdan, st. v., _to glide_: pret. sg. syððan heofones gim glâd ofer
grundas, _after heaven's gem had glided over the fields_ (after the sun had
set), 2074; pret. pl. glidon ofer gârsecg, _you glided over the ocean_
(swimming), 515.

tô-glîdan _(to glide asunder), to separate, to fall asunder_: pret.
gûð-helm tô-glâd (Ongenþeów's helmet was split asunder by the blow of
Eofor), 2488.

glôf, st. f., _glove_: nom. sg. glôf hangode, (on Grendel) _a glove hung_,

gneáð, adj., _niggardly_: nom. sg. f. näs hió ... tô gneáð gifa Geáta
leódum, _was not too niggardly with gifts to the people of the Geátas_,

gnorn, st. m., _sorrow, sadness_: acc. sg. gnorn þrowian, 2659.

gnornian, w. v., _to be sad, to complain_: pret. sg. earme ... ides
gnornode, 1118.

be-gnornian, w. acc., _to bemoan, to mourn for_: pret. pl. begnornodon ...
hlâfordes [hry]re, _bemoaned their lord's fall_, 3180.

god, st. m., _god_: nom. sg., 13, 72, 478, etc.; hâlig god, 381, 1554;
witig god, 686; mihtig god, 702; acc. sg. god, 812; ne wiston hie drihten
god, _did not know the Lord God_, 181; dat. sg. gode, 113, 227, 626, etc.;
gen. sg. godes, 570, 712, 787, etc.

gold, st. n., _gold_: nom. sg., 3013, 3053; icge gold, 1108; wunden gold,
_wound gold, gold in ring-form_, 1194, 3136; acc. sg. gold, 2537, 2759,
2794, 3169; hæðen gold, _heathen gold_ (that from the drake's cave), 2277;
brâd gold, _massive gold_, 3106; dat. instr. sg. golde, 1055, 2932, 3019;
fättan golde, _with chased gold, with gold in plate-form_, 2103; gehroden
golde, _covered with gold, gilded_, 304; golde gegyrwed (gegyrede),
_provided with, ornamented with gold_, 553, 1029, 2193; golde geregnad,
_adorned with gold_, 778; golde fâhne (hrôf), _the roof shining with gold_,
928; bunden golde, _bound with gold_ (see under bindan), 1901; hyrsted
golde (helm), _the helmet ornamented with, mounted with gold_, 2256; gen.
sg. goldes, 2302; fättan goldes, 1094, 2247; scîran goldes, _of pure gold_,
1695. --Comp. fät-gold.

gold-æht, st. f., _possessions in gold, treasure_: acc. sg., 2749.

gold-fâh, adj., _variegated with gold, shining with gold_: nom. sg. reced
... gold-fâh, 1801; acc. sg. gold-fâhne helm, 2812; nom. pl. gold-fâg
scinon web äfter wagum, _variegated with gold, the tapestry gleamed along
the walls_, 995.

gold-gifa, w. m., _gold-giver_, designation of the prince: acc. sg. mid
mînne goldgyfan, 2653.

gold-hroden, pret. part., _(covered with gold), ornamented with gold_: nom.
sg., 615, 641, 1949, 2026; epithet of women of princely rank.

gold-hwät, adj., _striving after gold, greedy for gold_: näs he goldhwät,
_he_ (Beówulf) _was not greedy for gold_ (he did not fight against the
drake for his treasure, cf. 3067 ff.) 3075.

gold-mâðm, st. m., _jewel of gold_: acc. pl. gold-mâðmas (the treasures of
the drake's cave), 2415.

gold-sele, st. m., _gold-hall_, i.e. the hall in which the gold was
distributed, ruler's hall: acc. sg., 716, 1254; dat. sg. gold-sele, 1640,

gold-weard, st. m., _gold-ward, defender of the gold_: acc. sg. (of the
drake), 3082.

gold-wine, st. m., _friend who distributes gold_, i.e. ruler, prince: nom.
sg. (partly as voc.) goldwine gumena, 1172, 1477, 1603; goldwine Geáta,
2420, 2585.

gold-wlanc, adj., _proud of gold_: nom. sg. gûðrinc goldwlanc (Beówulf
rewarded with gold by Hrôðgâr on account of his victory), 1882.

gomban, gomel, gomen. See gamban, gamal, gamen.

gong, gongan. See gang, gangan.

gôd, adj., _good, fit_, of persons and things: nom. sg., 11, 195, 864,
2264, 2391, etc.; frôd and gôd, 279; w. dat. cyning äðelum gôd, _the king
noble in birth_, 1871; gumcystum gôd, 2544; w. gen. wes þu ûs lârena gôd,
_be good to us with teaching_ (help us thereto through thy instruction),
269; in weak form, se gôda, 205, 355, 676, 1191, etc.; acc. sg. gôdne, 199,
347, 1596, 1970, etc.; gumcystum gôdne, 1487; neut. gôd, 1563; dat. sg.
gôdum, 3037, 3115; þäm gôdan, 384, 2328; nom. pl. gôde, 2250; þâ gôdan,
1164; acc. pl. gôde, 2642; dat. pl. gôdum dædum, 2179; gen. pl. gôdra
gûðrinca, 2649.--Comp. ær-gôd.

gôd, st. n.: 1) _good that is done, benefit, gift_: instr. sg. gôde, 20,
957, 1185; gôde mære, _renowned on account of her gifts_ (Þryðo), 1953;
instr. pl. gôdum, 1862.--2) _ability_, especially in fight: gen. pl. nât he
þâra gôda, 682.

gram, adj., _hostile_: gen. sg. on grames grâpum, _in the gripe of the
enemy_ (Beówulf), 766; nom. pl. þâ graman, 778; dat. pl. gramum, 424, 1035.

gram-heort, adj., _of a hostile heart, hostile_: nom. sg. grom-heort guma,

gram-hydig, adj., _with hostile feeling, maliciously inclined_: nom. sg.
gromhydig, 1750.

grâp, st. f., _the hand ready to grasp, hand, claw_: dat. sg. mid grâpe,
438; on grâpe, 555; gen. sg. eal ... Grendles grâpe, _all of Grendel's
claw, the whole claw_, 837; dat. pl. on grames grâpum, 766; (as instr.)
grimman grâpum, _with grim claws_, 1543.--Comp.: feónd-, hilde-grâp.

grâpian, w. v., _to grasp, to lay hold of, to seize_: pret. sg. þät hire
wið halse heard grâpode, _that_ (the sword) _griped hard at her neck_,
1567; he ... grâpode gearofolm, _he took hold with ready hand_, 2086.

gräs-molde, w. f., _grass-plot_: acc. sg. gräsmoldan träd, _went over the
grass-plot_, 1882.

grædig, adj., _greedy, hungry, voracious_: nom. sg. grim and grædig, 121,
1500; acc. sg. grædig gûðleóð, 1523.

græg, adj., _gray_: nom. pl. äsc-holt ufan græg, _the ashen wood, gray
above_ (the spears with iron points) 330; acc. pl. græge syrcan, _gray_
(i.e. iron) _shirts of mail_, 334.

græg-mæl, adj., _having a gray color_, here = _iron_: nom. sg. sweord
Beówulfes gomol and grægmæl, 2683.

græpe. See ät-græpe.

grêtan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute_: inf. hine swâ gôdne
grêtan, 347; Hrôðgâr grêtan, 1647, 2011; eówic grêtan hêt (_bade me bring
you his last greeting_), 3096; pret. sg. grêtte Geáta leód, 626; grêtte þâ
guma ôðerne, 653; Hrôðgâr grêtte, 1817.-- 2) _to come on, to come near, to
seek out; to touch; to take hold of_: inf. gifstôl grêtan, _take possession
of the throne, mount it as ruler_, 168; näs se folccyning ænig ... þe mec
gûðwinum grêtan dorste (_attack with swords_), 2736; Wyrd ... se þone
gomelan grêtan sceolde, 2422; þät þone sin-scaðan gûðbilla nân grêtan
nolde, _that no sword would take hold upon the irreconcilable enemy_, 804;
pret. sg. grêtte goldhroden guman on healle, _the gold-adorned_ (queen)
_greeted the men in the hall_, 615; nô he mid hearme ... gästas grêtte,
_did not approach the strangers with insults_, 1894; gomenwudu grêtte,
_touched the wood of joy, played the harp_, 2109; pret. subj. II. sg. þät
þu þone wälgæst wihte ne grêtte, _that thou shouldst by no means seek out
the murderous spirit_ (Grendel), 1996; similarly, sg. III. þät he ne grêtte
goldweard þone, 3082; pret. part. þær wäs ... gomenwudu grêted, 1066.

ge-grêtan, w. acc.: 1) _to greet, to salute, to address_: pret. sg. holdne
gegrêtte meaglum wordum, _greeted the dear man with formal words_, 1981;
gegrêtte þâ gumena gehwylcne ... hindeman siðe, _spoke then the last time
to each of the men_, 2517.--2) _to approach, to come near, to seek out_:
inf. sceal ... manig ôðerne gôdum gegrêtan ofer ganotes bäð, _many a one
will seek another across the sea with gifts_, 1862.

greót, st. m., _grit, sand, earth_: dat. sg. on greóte, 3169.

greótan, st. v., _to weep, to mourn, to lament_: pres. sg. III. se þe äfter
sincgyfan on sefan greóteð, _who laments in his heart for the
treasure-giver_, 1343.

grim, adj., _grim, angry, wild, hostile_: nom. sg., 121, 555, 1500, etc.;
weak form, se grimma gäst, 102; acc. sg. m. grimne, 1149, 2137; fem,
grimme, 1235; gen. sg. grimre gûðe, 527; instr. pl. grimman grâpum,
1543.--Comp.: beado-, heaðo-, heoro-, searo-grim.

grimme, adv., _grimly, in a hostile manner, bitterly_, 3013, 3086.

grim-lîc, adj., _grim, terrible_: nom. sg. grimlîc gry[re-gäst], 3042.

grimman, st. v., (properly _to snort_), _to go forward hastily, to hasten_:
pret. pl. grummon, 306.

grindan, st. v., _to grind_, in

for-grindan, _to destroy, to ruin_: pret. sg. w. dat. forgrand gramum,
_destroyed the enemy, killed them_ (?), 424; pret. part. w. acc. häfde
lîgdraca leóda fästen ... glêdum forgrunden, _had with flames destroyed the
people's feasts_, 2336; þâ his âgen (scyld) wäs glêdum forgrunden, _since
his own (shield) had been destroyed by the fire_, 2678.

gripe, st. m., _gripe, attack_: nom. sg. gripe mêces, 1766; acc. sg. grimne
gripe, 1149.--Comp.: fær-, mund-, nîð-gripe.

grîma, w. m., _mask, visor_: in comp. beado-, here-grîma.

grîm-helm, st. m., _mask-helmet, helmet with visor_: acc. pl. grîm-helmas,

grîpan, st. v., _to gripe, to seize, to grasp_: pret. sg. grâp þâ tôgeánes,
_then she caught at_, 1502.

for-grîpan _(to gripe vehemently), to gripe so as to kill, to kill by the
grasp_, w. dat.: pret. sg. ät gûðe forgrâp Grendeles mægum, 2354.
wið-grîpan, w. dat., _(to seize at), to maintain, to hold erect_: inf. hû
wið þam aglæcean elles meahte gylpe wið-grîpan, _how else I might maintain
my boast of battle against the monster_, 2522.

grôwan, st. v., _to grow, to sprout_: pret. sg. him on ferhðe greów
breósthord blôdreów, 1719.

grund, st. m.: 1) _ground, plain, fields_ in contrast with highlands;
_earth_ in contrast with heaven: dat. sg. sôhte ... äfter grunde, _sought
along the ground_, 2295; acc. pl. ofer grundas, 1405, 2074.--2) _bottom,
the lowest part_: acc. sg. grund (of the sea of Grendel), 1368; on gyfenes
grund, 1395; under gynne grund (_bottom of the sea_) 1552; dat. sg. tô
grunde (of the sea), 553; grunde (of the drake's cave) getenge, 2759; so,
on grunde, 2766.--Comp.: eormen-, mere-, sæ-grund.

grund-bûend, pres. part., _inhabitant of the earth_: gen. pl.
grund-bûendra, 1007.

grund-hyrde, st. m., _warder of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg. (of
Grendel's mother), 2137.

grund-sele, st. m., _hall at the bottom_ (of the sea): dat sg. in þam
[grund]sele, 2140.

grund-wang, st. m., _ground surface, lowest surface_: acc. sg. þone
grund-wong (_bottom of the sea_), 1497; (bottom of the drake's cave), 2772,

grund-wyrgen, st. f., _she-wolf of the bottom_ (of the sea): acc. sg.
grund-wyrgenne (Grendel's mother), 1519.

gryn (cf. Gloss. Aldh. "retinaculum, rete grin," Hpts. Ztschr. IX. 429),
st. n., _net, noose, snare_: gen. pl. fela ... grynna, 931. See gyrn.

gryre, st. m., _horror, terror, anything causing terror_: nom. sg., 1283;
acc. sg. wið Grendles gryre, 384; hie Wyrd forsweóp on Grendles gryre,
_snatched them away into the horror of Grendel, to the horrible Grendel_,
478; dat. pl. mid gryrum ecga, 483; gen. pl. swâ fela gryra, 592.--Comp.:
fær-, wîg-gryre.

gryre-brôga, w. m., _terror and horror, amazement_: nom. sg.
[gryre-]br[ô]g[a], 2229.

gryre-fâh, adj., _gleaming terribly_: acc. sg. gryre-fâhne (_the
fire-spewing drake_, cf. also [draca] fýrwylmum fâh, 2672), 2577.

gryre-gäst, st. m., _terror-guest, stranger causing terror_: nom. sg.
grimlîc gry[regäst], 3042; dat. sg. wið þam gryregieste (the dragon), 2561.

gryre-geatwe, st. f. pl., _terror-armor, warlike equipment_: dat. pl. in
hyra gryre-geatwum, 324.

gryre-leóð, st. n., _terror-song, fearful song_: acc. sg. gehýrdon
gryreleóð galan godes and-sacan (_heard Grendel's cry of agony_), 787.

gryre-lîc, adj., _terrible, horrible_: acc. sg. gryre-lîcne, 1442, 2137.

gryre-sîð, st. m., _way of terror, way causing terror_, i.e. warlike
expedition: acc. pl. se þe gryre-sîðas gegân dorste, 1463.

guma, w. m., _man, human being_: nom. sg., 653, 869, etc.; acc. sg. guman,
1844, 2295; dat. sg. guman (gumum, MS.), 2822; nom pl. guman, 215, 306,
667, etc.; acc. pl. guman, 615; dat. pl. gumum, 127, 321; gen. pl. gumena,
73, 328, 474, 716, etc.--Comp.: driht-, seld-guma.

gum-cyn, st. n., _race of men, people, nation_: gen. sg. we synt gumcynnes
Geáta leóde, _people from the nation of the Geátas_, 260; dat. pl. äfter
gum-cynnum, _along the nations, among the nations_, 945.

gum-cyst, st. f., _man's excellence, man's virtue_: acc. sg. (or pl.)
gumcyste, 1724; dat. pl. as adv., _excellently, preeminently_: gumcystum
gôdne beága bryttan, 1487; gumcystum gôd ... hilde-hlemma (Beówulf), 2544.

gum-dreám, st. m., _joyous doings of men_: acc. sg. gum-dreám ofgeaf
(died), 2470.

gum-dryhten, st. m., _lord of men_: nom. sg. 1643.

gum-fêða, w. m., _troop of men going on foot_: nom. sg., 1402.

gum-man, st. m., _man_: gen. pl. gum-manna fela, 1029.

gum-stôl, st. m., _man's seat_ [Greek: kat'ezochæn] _ruler's seat, throne_:
dat. sg. in gumstôle, 1953.

gûð, st. f., _combat, battle_: nom. sg., 1124, 1659, 2484, 2537; acc. sg.
gûðe, 604; instr. sg. gûðe, 1998; dat. sg. tô (ät) gûðe, 438, 1473. 1536,
2354, etc.; gen. sg. gûðe, 483, 527, 631, etc.; dat. pl. gûðum, 1959, 2179;
gen. pl. gûða, 2513, 2544.

gûð-beorn, st. m., _warrior_: gen. pl. gûð-beorna sum (_the strand-guard on
the Danish coast_), 314.

gûð-bil, st. n., _battle-bill_: nom. sg. gûðbill, 2585; gen. pl. gûð-billa
nân, 804.

gûð-byrne, w. f., _battle-corselet_: nom. sg., 321.

gûð-cearu, st. f., _sorrow which the combat brings_: dat. sg. äfter
gûð-ceare, 1259.

gûð-cräft, st. m., _warlike strength, power in battle_: nom. sg. Grendles
gûð-cräft, 127.

gûð-cyning, st. m., _king in battle, king directing a battle_: nom. sg.,
199, 1970, 2336, etc.

gûð-deáð, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 2250.

gûð-floga, w. m., _flying warrior_: acc. sg. wið þone gûðflogan (the
drake), 2529.

gûð-freca, w. m., _hero in battle, warrior_ (see freca): nom. sg. gearo
gûð-freca, of the drake, 2415.

gûð-fremmend, pres. part., _fighting a battle, warrior_: gen. pl.
gûð-fremmendra, 246; gûð- (gôd-, MS.) fremmendra swylcum, _such a warrior_
(meaning Beówulf), 299.

gûð-gewæde, st. n., _battle-dress, armor_: nom. pl. gûð-gewædo, 227; acc.
pl. -gewædu, 2618, 2631(?), 2852, 2872; gen. pl. -gewæda, 2624.

gûð-geweorc, st. n., _battle-work warlike deed_: gen. pl., -geweorca, 679,
982, 1826.

gûð-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for combat_: acc. þâ gûð-geatwa
(-getawa, MS.), 2637; dat. in eówrum gûð-geatawum, 395.

gûð-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet_: nom. sg., 2488.

gûð-horn, st. n., _battle-horn_: acc. sg., 1433.

gûð-hrêð, st. f., _battle-fame_: nom. sg., 820.

gûð-leóð, st. n., _battle-song_: acc., sg., 1523.

gûð-môd, adj., _disposed to battle, having an inclination to battle_. nom.
pl. gûð-môde, 306.

gûð-ræs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack_: acc. sg., 2992; gen. pl.
gûð-ræsa, 1578, 2427.

gûð-reów, adj., _fierce in battle_: nom. sg., 58.

gûð-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 839, 1119,
1882; acc. sg., 1502; gen. pl. gûð-rinca, 2649.

gûð-rôf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 609.

gûð-sceaða, w. m., _battle-foe, enemy in combat_: nom. sg., of the drake,

gûð-scearu, st. f., _decision of the battle_: dat. sg. äfter gûð-sceare,

gûð-sele, st. m., _battle-hall, hall in which a battle takes place_: dat
sg. in þäm gûðsele (in Heorot), 443.

gûð-searo, st. n. pl., _battle-equipment, armor_; acc., 215, 328.

gûð-sweord, st. n., _battle-sword_: acc. sg., 2155.

gûð-wêrig, adj., _wearied by battle dead_: acc. sg. gûð-wêrigne Grendel,

gûð-wine, st. m., _battle-friend, comrade in battle_ designation of the
sword: acc. sg., 1811; instr. pl. þe mec gûð-winum grêtan dorste, _who
dared to attack me with his war-friends_, 2736.

gûð-wîga, w. m., _fighter of battles, warrior_: nom. sg., 2112.

gyd. See gid.

gyfan. See gifan.

gyldan. See gildan.

gylden, adj., _golden_: nom. sg. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. segen
gyldenne, 47, 1022; bring gyldenne, 2810; dat. sg. under gyldnum beáge,
1164.--Comp. eal-gylden.

gylp. See gilp.

gyrdan, w. v., _to gird, to lace_: pret. part. gyrded cempa, _the (sword-)
girt warrior_, 2079.

gyrn, st. n., _sorrow, harm_: nom. sg., 1776.

gyrn-wracu, st. f., _revenge for harm_: dat. sg. tô gyrn-wräce, 1139; gen.
sg. þâ wäs eft hraðe gearo gyrn-wräce Grendeles môdor, _then was Grendel's
mother in turn immediately ready for revenge for the injury_, 2119.

gyrwan. See gerwan.

gystran. See gistran.

gýman, w. v. w. gen., _to take care of, to be careful about_: pres. III.
gýmeð, 1758, 2452; imp. sg. oferhyda ne gým! _do not study arrogance_
(despise it), 1761.

for-gýman, w. acc., _to neglect, to slight_: pres. sg. III. he þâ
forð-gesceaft forgyteð and forgýmeð, 1752.

gýtsian. See gîtsian.

gyt. See git.


habban, w. v., _to have_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. I. þäs ic wên häbbe (_as I
hope_), 383; þe ic geweald häbbe, 951; ic me on hafu bord and byrnan, _have
on me shield and coat of mail_, 2525; hafo, 3001; sg. II. þu nu [friðu]
hafast, 1175; pl. I. habbað we ... micel ærende, 270; pres. subj. sg. III.
þät he þrittiges manna mägencräft on his mundgripe häbbe, 381. Blended with
the negative: pl. III. þät be Sæ-Geátas sêlran näbben tô geceósenne cyning
ænigne, _that the Sea-Geátas will have no better king than you to choose_,
1851; imp. hafa nu and geheald hûsa sêlest, 659; inf. habban, 446, 462,
3018; pret. sg. häfde, 79, 518, 554; pl. häfdon, 539.--2) used as an
auxiliary with the pret. part.: pres. sg. I. häbbe ic ... ongunnen, 408;
häbbe ic ... geâhsod, 433; II. hafast, 954, 1856; III. hafað, 474, 596;
pret. sg. häfde, 106, 220, 666, 2322, 2334, 2953, etc.; pl. häfdon, 117,
695, 884, 2382, etc. Pret. part. inflected: nu scealc hafað dæd gefremede,
940; häfde se gôda ... cempan gecorone, 205. With the pres. part. are
formed the compounds: bord-, rond-häbbend.

for-habban, _to hold back, to keep one's self_: inf. ne meahte wäfre môd
forhabban in hreðre, _the expiring life could not hold itself back in the
breast_, 1152; ne mihte þâ for-habban, _could not restrain himself_, 2610.

wið-habban, _to resist, to offer resistance_: pret. þät se wînsele
wið-häfde heaðo-deórum, _that the hall resisted them furious in fight_,

hafela, heafola, w. m., _head_: acc. sg. hafelan, 1373, 1422, 1615, 1636,
1781; nâ þu mînne þearft hafalan hýdan, 446; þonne we on orlege hafelan
weredon, _protected our heads, defended ourselves_, 1328; se hwîta helm
hafelan werede, 1449; dat. sg. hafelan, 673, 1522; heafolan, 2680; gen. sg.
heafolan, 2698; nom. pl. hafelan, 1121.--Comp. wîg-heafola.

hafenian, w. v., _to raise, to uplift_: pret. sg. wæpen hafenade heard be
hiltum, _raised the weapon, the strong man, by the hilt_, 1574.

hafoc, st. m., _hawk_: nom. sg., 2264.

haga, w. m., _enclosed piece of ground, hedge, farm-enclosure_: dat. sg. tô
hagan, 2893, 2961.

haga, w. m. See ân-haga.

hama, homa, w. m., _dress_: in the comp. flæsc-, fyrd-, lîc-hama, scîr-ham

hamer, st. m., _hammer_: instr. sg. hamere, 1286; gen. pl. homera lâfe
(swords), 2830.

hand, hond, st. f., _hand_: nom. sg. 2138; sió swîðre ... hand, _the right
hand_, 2100; hond, 1521, 2489, 2510; acc. sg. hand, 558, 984; hond, 657,
687, 835, 928, etc.; dat. sg. on handa, 495, 540; mid handa, 747, 2721; be
honda, 815; dat. pl. (as instr.) hondum, 1444, 2841.

hand-bana, w. m., _murderer with the hand_, or _in hand-to-hand combat_:
dat. sg. tô hand-bonan (-banan), 460, 1331.

hand-gemôt, st. n., _hand-to-hand conflict, battle_: gen. pl. (ecg) þolode
ær fela hand-gemôta, 1527; nô þät läsest wäs hond-gemôta, 2356.

hand-gesella, w. m., _hand-companion, man of the retinue_: dat. pl.
hond-gesellum, 1482.

hand-gestealla, w. m., _(one whose position is near at hand), comrade,
companion, attendant_: dat. sg. hond-gesteallan, 2170; nom. pl.
hand-gesteallan, 2597.

hand-geweorc, st. n., _work done with the hands_, i.e. achievement in
battle: dat. sg. for þäs hild-fruman hondgeweorce, 2836.

hand-gewriðen, pret. part. _hand-wreathed, bound with the hand._ acc. pl.
wälbende ... hand-gewriðene, 1938.

hand-locen, pret. part., _joined, united by hand_: nom. sg. (gûð-byrne,
lîc-syrce) hondlocen (because the shirts of mail consisted of interlaced
rings), 322, 551.

hand-ræs, st. m., _hand-battle_, i.e. combat with the hands: nom. sg.
hond-ræs, 2073.

hand-scalu, st. f., _hand-attendance, retinue_: dat. sg. mid his hand-scale
(hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

hand-sporu, st. f., _finger_ (on Grendel's hand), under the figure of a
spear: nom. pl. hand-sporu, 987.

hand-wundor, st. n., _wonder done by the hand, wonderful handwork_: gen.
pl. hond-wundra mæst, 2769.

hangan. See hôn.

hangian, w. v., _to hang_: pres. sg. III. þonne his sunu hangað hrefne to
hrôðre, _when his son hangs, a joy to the ravens_, 2448; pl. III. ofer þäm
(mere) hongiað hrîmge bearwas, _over which frosty forests hang_, 1364; inf.
hangian, 1663; pret. hangode, _hung down_, 2086.

hatian, w. v. w. acc., _to hate, to be an enemy to, to hurt_: inf. he þone
heaðo-rinc hatian ne meahte lâðum dædum (_could not do him any harm_),
2467; pret. sg. hû se gûð-sceaða Geáta leóde hatode and hýnde, 2320.

hâd, st. m., _form, condition, position, manner_: acc. sg. þurh hæstne hâd,
_in a powerful manner_, 1336; on gesîðes hâd, _in the position of follower,
as follower_, 1298; on sweordes hâd, _in the form of a sword_, 2194. See
under on.

hâdor, st. m., _clearness, brightness_: acc. sg. under heofenes hâdor, 414.

hâdor, adj., _clear, fresh, loud_: nom. sg. scop hwîlum sang hâdor on
Heorote, 497.

hâdre, adv., _clearly, brightly_, 1572.

hâl, adj., _hale, whole, sound, unhurt_: nom. sg. hâl, 300. With gen.
heaðo-lâces hâl, _safe from battle_, 1975. As form of salutation, wes ...
hâl, 407; dat. sg. hâlan lîce, 1504.

hâlig, adj., _holy_: nom. sg. hâlig god, 381, 1554; hâlig dryhten, 687.

hâm, st. m., _home, residence, estate, land_: acc. sg. hâm, 1408; Hrôðgâres
hâm, 718. Usually in adverbial sense: gewât him hâm, _betook himself home_,
1602; tô hâm, 124, 374, 2993; fram hâm, _at home_, 194; ät hâm, _at home_,
1249, 1924, 1157; gen. sg. hâmes, 2367; acc. pl. hâmas, 1128.--Comp.
Finnes-hâm, 1157.

hâm-weorðung, st. f., _honor_ or _ornament of home_: acc. sg. hâm-weorðunge
(designation of the daughter of Hygelâc, given in marriage to Eofor), 2999.

hâr, adj., _gray_: nom. sg. hâr hilde-rinc, 1308, 3137; acc. sg. under
(ofer) hârne stân, 888, 1416, 2554; hâre byrnan (i.e. iron shirt of mail),
2154; dat. sg. hârum hildfruman, 1679; f. on heáre hæðe (on heaw ... h ...
ðe, MS.), 2213; gen. sg. hâres, _of the old man_, 2989.--Comp. un-hâr.

hât, adj., _hot, glowing, flaming_ nom sg., 1617, 2297, 2548, 2559, etc.;
wyrm hât gemealt, _the drake hot_ (of his own heat) _melted_, 898; acc.
sg., 2282(?); inst. sg. hâtan heolfre, 850, 1424; g. sg. heaðu-fýres hâtes,
2523; acc. pl. hâte heaðo-wylmas, 2820.--Sup.: hâtost heaðo-swâta, 1669.

hât, st. n., _heat, fire_: acc. sg. geseah his mondryhten ... hât þrowian,
_saw his lord endure the_ (drake's) _heat_, 2606.

hata, w. m., _persecutor_; in comp. dæd-hata.

hâtan, st. v.: 1) _to bid, to order, to direct_, with acc. and inf., and
acc. of the person: pres. sg. I. ic maguþegnas mîne hâte ... flotan eówerne
ârum healdan, _I bid my thanes take good care of your craft_, 293; imp. sg.
II. hât in gân ... sibbegedriht, 386; pl. II. hâtað heaðo-mære hlæw
gewyrcean, 2803; inf. þät healreced hâtan wolde ... men gewyrcean, _that he
wished to command men to build a hall-edifice_, 68. Pret. sg. hêht: hêht
... eahta mearas ... on flet teón, _gave command to bring eight horses into
the hall_, 1036; þonne ænne hêht golde forgyldan, _commanded to make good
that one with gold_, 1054; hêht þâ þät heaðo-weorc tô hagan biódan,
_ordered the combat to be announced at the hedge_(?), 2893; swâ se snottra
hêht, _as the wise_ (Hrôðgâr) _directed_, 1787; so, 1808, 1809. hêt: hêt
him ýðlidan gôdne gegyrwan, _ordered a good vessel to be prepared for him_,
198; so, hêt, 391, 1115, 3111. As the form of a wish: hêt hine wel brûcan,
1064; so, 2813; pret. part. þâ wäs hâten hraðe Heort innan-weard folmum
gefrätwod, _forthwith was ordered Heorot, adorned by hand on the inside_
(i.e. that the edifice should be adorned by hand on the inside), 992.--2)
_to name, to call_: pres. subj. III. pl. þät hit sælîðend ... hâtan
Biówulfes biorh, _that mariners may call it Beówulf's grave-mound_, 2807;
pret. part. wäs se grimma gäst Grendel hâten, 102; so, 263, 373, 2603.

ge-hâtan, _to promise, to give one's word, to vow, to threaten_: pres. sg.
I. ic hit þe gehâte, 1393; so, 1672; pret. sg. he me mêde gehêt, _promised
me reward_, 2135; him fägre gehêt leána (gen. pl.), _promised them proper
reward_, 2990; weán oft gehêt earmre teohhe, _with woe often threatened the
unhappy band_, 2938; pret. pl. gehêton ät härgtrafum wig-weorðunga, _vowed
offerings at the shrines of the gods_, 175; þonne we gehêton ûssum hlâforde
þät ..., _when we promised our lord that_..., 2635; pret. part. sió gehâten
[wäs] ... gladum suna Frôdan, _betrothed to the glad son of Froda_, 2025.

hâtor, st. m. n., _heat_: in comp. and-hâtor.

häft, adj., _held, bound, fettered_: nom. sg., 2409; acc. sg. helle häftan,
_him fettered by hell_ (Grendel), 789.

häft-mêce, st. m., _sword with fetters_ or _chains_ (cf. fetel-hilt): dat.
sg. þäm häft-mêce, 1458. See Note.

häg-steald, st. m., _man, liegeman, youth_: gen. pl. häg-stealdra, 1890.

häle, st. m., _man_: nom. sg., 1647, 1817, 3112; acc. sg. häle, 720; dat.
pl. hælum (hænum, MS.), 1984.

häleð, st. m., _hero, fighter, warrior, man_: nom. sg., 190, 331, 1070;
nom. pl. häleð, 52, 2248, 2459, 3143; dat. pl. häleðum 1710, 1962, etc.;
gen. pl. häleða, 467, 497, 612, 663, etc.

härg. See hearg.

hæð, st. f., _heath_: dat. sg. hæðe, 2213.

hæðen, adj., _heathenish_; acc. sg. hæðene sâwle, 853; dat. sg. hæðnum
horde, 2217; gen. sg. hæðenes, _of the heathen_ (Grendel), 987; gen. pl.
hæðenra, 179.

hæð-stapa, w. m., _that which goes about on the heath_ (stag): nom. sg.,

hæl, st. f.: 1) _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. him hæl âbeád, 654; mid
hæle, 1218.--2) _favorable sign, favorable omen_: hæl sceáwedon, _observed
favorable signs_ (for Beówulf's undertaking), 204.

hælo, st. f., _health, welfare, luck_: acc. sg. hælo âbeád heorð-geneátum,
2419.--Comp. un-hælo.

hæst (O.H.G. haisterâ hantî, manu violenta; heist, ira; heistigo,
iracunde), adj., _violent, vehement_: acc. sg. þurh hæstne hâd, 1336.

he, fem. heó, neut. hit, pers. pron., _he, she, it_; in the oblique cases
also reflexive, _himself, herself, itself_: acc. sg. hine, hî, hit; dat.
sg. him, hire, him; gen. sg. his, hire, his; plur. acc. nom. hî, hig, hie;
dat. him; gen. hira, heora, hiera, hiora.--he omitted before the verb, 68,
300, 2309, 2345.

hebban, st. v., _to raise, to lift_, w. acc.: inf. siððan ic hond and rond
hebban mihte, 657; pret. part. hafen, 1291; häfen, 3024.

â-hebban, _raise, to lift from, to take away_: wäs ... icge gold âhafen of
horde, _taken up from the hoard_, 1109; þâ wäs ... wôp up âhafen, _a cry of
distress raised_, 128

ge-hegan [ge-hêgan], w. v., _to enclose, to fence_: þing gehegan, _to mark
off the court, hold court_. Here figurative: inf. sceal ... âna gehegan
þing wið þyrse (_shall alone decide the matter with Grendel_), 425.

hel, st. f., _hell_: nom. sg., 853; acc. sg. helle, 179; dat. sg. helle,
101, 589; (as instr.), 789; gen. sg. helle, 1275.

hel-bend, st. m. f. _bond of hell_: instr. pl. hell-bendum fäst, 3073.

hel-rûna, w. m., _sorcerer_: nom. pl. helrûnan, 163.

be-helan, st. v., _to conceal, to hide_: pret. part. be-holen, 414.

helm, st. m.: 1) _protection in general, defence, covering that protects_:
acc. sg. on helm, 1393; under helm, 1746.--2) _helmet_: nom. sg., 1630;
acc. sg. helm, 673, 1023, 1527, 2988; (helo, MS.), 2724; brûn-fâgne,
gold-fâhne helm, 2616, 2812; dat. sg. under helme, 342, 404; gen. sg.
helmes, 1031; acc. pl. helmas, 240, 2639.--3) _defence, protector_,
designation of the king: nom. sg. helm Scyldinga (Hrôðgâr), 371, 456, 1322;
acc. sg. heofena helm _(the defender of the heavens_ = God), 182; helm
Scylfinga, 2382.--Comp.: grîm-, gûð-, heaðo-, niht-helm.

ofer-helmian, w. v. w. acc., _to cover over, to overhang_: pres. sg. III.
ofer-helmað, 1365.

helm-berend, pres. part., _helm-wearing_ (warrior): acc. pl. helmberend,
2518, 2643.

helpan, st. v., _to help_: inf. þät him holt-wudu helpan ne meahte, lind
wið lîge, _that a wooden shield could not help him, a linden shield against
flame_, 2341; þät him îrenna ecge mihton helpan ät hilde, 2685; wutun
gangan to, helpan hildfruman, _let us go thitherto help the battle-chief_,
2650; w. gen. ongan ... mæges helpan, _began to help my kinsman_, 2880; so,
pret. sg. þær he his mæges (MS. mägenes) healp, 2699.

help, m. and f., _help, support, maintenance_: acc. sg. helpe, 551, 1553;
dat. sg. tô helpe, 1831; acc. sg. helpe, 2449.

hende, _-handed_: in comp. îdel-hende.

her, adv., _here_, 397, 1062, 1229, 1655, 1821, 2054, 2797, etc.; _hither_,
244, 361, 376.

here (Goth, harji-s), st. m., _army, troops_: dat. sg. on herge, _in the
army, on a warlike expedition, 1249; in the army, among the fighting men_,
2639; as instr. herge, 2348.--Comp.: flot-, scip-, sin-here.

here-brôga, w. m., _terror of the army, fear of war_: dat. sg. for
here-brôgan, 462.

here-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, coat of mail_: nom. sg., 1444.

here-grîma, w. m., _battle-mask_, i.e. helmet (with visor): dat. sg.
-grîman, 396, 2050, 2606.

here-net, st. n., _battle-net_, i.e. coat of mail (of interlaced rings):
nom. sg., 1554.

here-nîð, st. m., _battle-enmity, battle of armies_: nom. sg., 2475.

here-pâd, st. f., _army-dress_, i.e. coat of mail, armor: nom. sg., 2259.

here-rinc, st. m., _army-hero, hero in battle, warrior_: acc. sg. here-rinc
(MS. here ric), 1177.

here-sceaft, st. m., _battle-shaft_, i.e. spear: gen. pl. here-sceafta
heáp, 335.

here-spêd, st. f., _(war-speed), luck in war_: nom. sg., 64.

here-stræl, st. m., _war-arrow, missile_: nom. sg., 1436.

here-syrce, w. f., _battle-shirt, shirt of mail_: acc. sg. here-syrcan,

here-wæd, st. f., _army-dress, coat of mail, armor_: dat. pl. (as instr.)
here-wædum, 1898.

here-wæsma, w. m., _war-might, fierce strength in battle_: dat. pl. an
here-wæsmum, 678.--Leo.

here-wîsa, w. m., _leader of the army_, i.e. ruler, king: nom. sg., 3021.

herg, hearg, st. m., _image of a god, grove where a god was worshipped_,
hence to the Christian a wicked place(?): dat. pl. hergum geheaðerod,
_confined in wicked places_ (parallel with hell-bendum fäst), 3073.

herigean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to provide with an army, to support with
an army_: pres. sg. I. ic þe wel herige, 1834.--Leo.

hete, st. m., _hate, enmity_: nom. sg. 142, 2555.--Comp.: ecg-, morðor-,

hete-lîc, adj., _hated_: nom. sg., 1268.

hetend, hettend, (pres. part. of hetan, see hatian), _enemy_, hostis: nom.
pl. hetende, 1829; dat. pl. wið hettendum, 3005.

hete-nîð, st. m., _enmity full of hate_: acc. pl. hete-nîðas, 152.

hete-sweng, st. m., _a blow from hate_: acc. pl. hete-swengeas, 2226.

hete-þanc, st. m., _hate-thought, a hostile design_: dat. pl. mid his
hete-þancum, 475.

hêdan, ge-hêdan, w. v. w. gen.: 1) _to protect_: pret. sg. ne hêdde he þäs
heafolan, _did not protect his head_, 2698.--2) _to obtain_: subj. pret.
sg. III. gehêdde, 505.

hêrian, w. v. w. acc., _to praise, to commend_: with reference to God, _to
adore_: inf. heofena helm hêrian ne cûðon, _could not worship the defence
of the heavens_ (God), 182; ne hûru Hildeburh hêrian þorfte Eotena treówe,
_had no need to praise the fidelity of the Eotens_, 1072; pres. subj. þät
mon his wine-dryhten wordum hêrge, 3177.

ge-heaðerian, w. v., _to force, to press in_: pret. part. ge-heaðerod,

heaðo-byrne, w. f., _battle-mail, shirt of mail_: nom. sg., 1553.

heaðo-deór, adj., _bold in battle, brave_: nom. sg., 689; dat. pl.
heaðo-deórum, 773.

heaðo-fyr, st. n., _battle-fire, hostile fire_: gen. sg. heaðu-fýres, 2523;
instr. pl. heaðo-fýrum, 2548, of the drake's fire-spewing.

heaðo-grim, adj., _grim in battle_, 548.

heaðo-helm, st. m., _battle-helmet, war-helmet_: nom. sg., 3157(?).

heaðo-lâc, st. n., _battle-play, battle_: dat. sg. ät heaðo-lâce, 584; gen.
sg. heaðo-lâces hâl, 1975.

heaðo-mære, adj., _renowned in battle_: acc. pl. -mære, 2803.

heaðo-ræs, st. m., _storm of battle, attack in battle, entrance by force_:
nom. sg., 557; acc. pl. -ræsas, 1048; gen. pl. -ræsa, 526.

heaðo-reáf, st. n., _battle-dress, equipment for battle_: acc. sg.
heaðo-reáf heóldon (_kept the equipments_), 401.

heaðo-rinc, st. m., _battle-hero, warrior_: acc. sg. þone heaðo-rinc
(Hrêðel's son, Hæðcyn), 2467; dat. pl. þæm heaðo-rincum, 370.

heaðo-rôf, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg., 381; nom. pl. heaðo-rôfe,

heaðo-scearp, adj., _sharp in battle, bold_: n. m. pl. (-scearde, MS.),

heaðo-seóc, adj., _battle-sick_: dat. sg. -siócum, 2755.

heaðo-steáp, adj., _high in battle, excelling in battle_: nom. sg. in weak
form, heaðo-steápa, 1246; acc. sg. heaðo-steápne, 2154, both times of the

heaðo-swât, st. m., _blood of battle_: dat. sg. heaðo-swâte, 1607; as
instr., 1461; gen. pl. hâtost heaðo-swâta, 1669.

heaðo-sweng, st. m., _battle-stroke_ (blow of the sword): dat. sg. äfter
heaðu-swenge, 2582.

heaðo-torht, adj., _loud, clear in battle_: nom. sg. stefn ... heaðo-torht,
_the voice clear in battle_, 2554.

heaðo-wæd, st. f., _battle-dress, coat of mail, armor_: instr. pl.
heaðo-wædum, 39.

heaðo-weorc, st. n., _battle-work, battle_: acc. sg., 2893.

heaðo-wylm, st. m., _hostile (flame-) wave_: acc. pl. hâte heaðo-wylmas,
2820; gen. pl. heaðo-wylma, 82.

heaf, st. n., _sea_: acc. pl. ofer heafo, 2478. See Note.

heafola. See hafela.

heal, st. f., _hall, main apartment, large building_ (consisting of an
assembly-hall and a banqueting-hall): nom. sg. heal, 1152, 1215; heall,
487; acc. sg. healle, 1088; dat. sg. healle, 89, 615, 643, 664, 926, 1010,
1927, etc.; gen. sg. [healle], 389.--Comp.: gif-, meodo-heal.

heal-ärn, st. n., _hall-building, hall-house_: gen. sg. heal-ärna, 78.

heal-gamen, st. n., _social enjoyment in the hall, hall-joy_: nom. sg.,

heal-reced, st. n., _hall-building_: acc. sg., 68.

heal-sittend, pres. part., _sitting in the hall_ (at the banquet): dat. pl.
heal-sittendum, 2869; gen. pl. heal-sittendra, 2016.

heal-þegn, st. m., _hall-thane_, i.e. a warrior who holds the hall: gen.
sg. heal-þegnes, of Grendel, 142; acc. pl. heal-þegnas, of Beówulfs band,

heal-wudu, _hall-wood_, i.e. hall built of wood: nom. sg., 1318.

healdan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to hold, to hold fast; to support_: pret. pl.
hû þâ stânbogan ... êce eorðreced innan heóldon (MS. healde), _how the
arches of rock within held the everlasting earth-house_, 2720. Pret. sg.,
with a person as object: heóld hine to fäste, _held him too fast_, 789; w.
the dat. he him freóndlârum heóld, _supported him with friendly advice_,
2378.--2) _to hold, to watch, to preserve, to keep_; reflexive, _to
maintain one's self, to keep one's self_: pres. sg. II. eal þu hit geþyldum
healdest, mägen mid môdes snyttrum, _all that preservest thou continuously,
strength and wisdom of mind_, 1706; III. healdeð hige-mêðum heáfod-wearde,
_holds for the dead the head-watch_, 2910; imp. sg. II. heald forð tela
niwe sibbe, _keep well, from now on, the new relationship_, 949; heald
(heold, MS.) þu nu hruse ... eorla æhte, _preserve thou now, Earth, the
noble men's possessions_, 2248; inf. se þe holmclifu healdan scolde, _watch
the sea-cliffs_, 230; so, 705; nacan ... ârum healdan, _to keep well your
vessel_, 296; wearde healdan, 319; forlêton eorla gestreón eorðan healdan,
3168; pres. part. dreám healdende, _holding rejoicing_ (i.e. thou who art
rejoicing), 1228; pret. sg. heóld hine syððan fyr and fästor, _kept himself
afterwards afar and more secure_, 142; ægwearde heóld, _I have (hitherto)
kept watch on the sea_, 241; so, 305; hióld heáh-lufan wið häleða brego,
_preserved high love_, 1955; ginfästan gife ... heóld, 2184; gold-mâðmas
heóld, _took care of the treasures of gold_, 2415; heóld mîn tela,
_protected well mine own_, 2738; þonne ... sceft ... nytte heóld, _had
employment, was employed_, 3119; heóld mec, _protected_, i.e. brought me
up, 2431; pret. pl. heaðo-reáf heóldon, _watched over the armor_, 401; sg.
for pl. heáfodbeorge ... walan ûtan heóld, _outwards, bosses kept guard
over the head_, 1032.--Related to the preceding meaning are the two
following: 3) _to rule and protect the fatherland_: inf. gif þu healdan
wylt maga rice, 1853; pret. heóld, 57, 2738.--4) _to hold, to have, to
possess, to inhabit_: inf. lêt þone brego-stôl Beówulf healdan, 2390;
gerund. tô healdanne hleóburh wera, 1732; pret. sg. heóld, 103, 161, 466,
1749, 2752; lyftwynne heóld nihtes hwîlum, _at night-time had the enjoyment
of the air_, 3044; pret. pl. Geáta leóde hreâwic heóldon, _the Geátas held
the place of corpses_ (lay dead upon it), 1215; pret. sg. þær heó ær mæste
heóld worolde wynne, _in which she formerly possessed the highest earthly
joy_, 1080.--5) _to win, to receive_: pret. pl. I. heoldon heáh gesceap,
_we received a heavy fate, heavy fate befell us_, 3085.

be-healdan, w. acc.: 1) _to take care of, to attend to_: pret. sg. þegn
nytte beheóld, _a thane discharged the office_, 494; so, 668.--2) _to
hold_: pret. sg. se þe flôda begong ... beheóld, 1499.--3) _to look at, to
behold_: þryðswyð beheóld mæg Higelâces hû ..., _great woe saw H.'s
kinsman, how ..._, 737.

for-healdan, w. acc., _(to hold badly), to fall away from, to rebel_: pret.
part. häfdon hy forhealden helm Scylfinga, _had rebelled against the
defender of the Scylfings_, 2382.

ge-healdan: 1) _to hold, to receive, to hold fast_: pres. sg. III. se þe
waldendes hyldo gehealdeð, _who receives the Lord's grace_, 2294; pres.
subj. fäder alwalda ... eówic gehealde sîða gesunde, _keep you sound on
your journey_, 317; inf. ne meahte he ... on þam frum-gâre feorh gehealdan,
_could not hold back the life in his lord_, 2857.--2) _to take care, to
preserve, to watch over; to stop_: imp. sg. hafa nu and geheald hûsa
sêlest, 659; inf. gehealdan hêt hilde-geatwe, 675; pret. sg. he frätwe
geheóld fela missera, 2621; þone þe ær geheóld wið hettendum hord and rîce,
_him who before preserved treasure and realm_, 3004.--3) _to rule_: inf.
folc gehealdan, 912; pret. sg. geheóld tela (brâde rîce), 2209.

healf, st. f., _half, side, part_: acc. sg. on þâ healfe, _towards this
side_, 1676; dat. sg. häleðum be healfe, _at the heroes' side_, 2263; acc.
pl. on twâ healfa, _upon two sides, mutually_, 1096; on bâ healfa (healfe),
_on both sides_ (to Grendel and his mother), 1306; _on two sides, on both
sides_, 2064; gen. pl. on healfa gehwone, _in half, through the middle_,

healf, adj., _half_: gen. sg. healfre, 1088.

heals, st. m., _neck_: acc. sg. heals, 2692; dat. sg. wið halse, 1567; be
healse, 1873.--Comp.: the adjectives fâmig-, wunden-heals.

heals-beáh, st. m., _neck-ring, collar_: acc. sg. þone heals-beáh, 2173;
gen. pl. heals-beága, 1196.

heals-gebedde, w. f., _beloved bedfellow, wife_: nom. sg. healsgebedde (MS.
healsgebedda), 63.

healsian, w. v. w. acc., _to entreat earnestly, to implore_: pret. sg. þâ
se þeóden mec ... healsode hreóh-môd þät..., _entreated me sorrowful,
that_..., 2133.

heard, adj.: 1) of persons, _able, efficient in war, strong, brave_: nom.
sg. heard, 342, 376, 404, 1575, 2540, etc.; in weak form, se hearda, 401,
1964; se hearda þegn, 2978; þes hearda heáp, 432; nom. pl. hearde
hilde-frecan, 2206; gen. pl. heardra, 989. Comparative: acc. sg. heardran
häle, 720. With accompanying gen.: wîges heard, _strong in battle_, 887;
dat. sg. nîða heardum, 2171.--2) of the implements of war, _good, firm,
sharp, hard_: nom. sg. (gûð-byrne, lîc-syrce) heard, 322, 551. In weak
form: masc. here-stræl hearda, 1436; se hearda helm, 2256; neutr. here-net
hearde, 1554; acc. sg. (swurd, wæpen), heard, 540, 2688, 2988; nom. pl.
hearde ... homera lâfe, 2830; heard and hring-mæl Heaðobeardna gestreón,
2038; acc. pl. heard sweord, 2639. Of other things, _hard, rough, harsh,
hard to bear_: acc. sg. hreðer-bealo hearde, 1344; nom. sg. wrôht ...
heard, 2915; here-nîð hearda, 2475; acc. sg. heoro-sweng heardne, 1591;
instr. sg. heardan ceápe, 2483; instr. pl. heardan, heardum clammum, 964,
1336; gen. pl. heardra hýnða, 166. Compar.: acc. sg. heardran feohtan,
576.--Comp.: fýr-, îren-, nîð-, regn-, scûr-heard.

hearde, adv., _hard, very_, 1439.

heard-ecg, adj., _sharp-edged, hard, good in battle_: nom. sg., 1289.

heard-fyrde, adj., _hard to take away, heavy_: acc. sg. hard-fyrdne,

heard-hycgend, pres. part. _of a warlike disposition, brave_: nom. pl.
-hicgende, 394, 800.

hearg-träf, st. n., _tent of the gods, temple_: dat. pl. ät härg-trafum
(MS. hrærg trafum), 175.

hearm, st. m., _harm, injury, insult_: dat. sg. mid hearme, 1893.

hearm-sceaða, w. m., _enemy causing injury_ or _grief_: nom. sg.
hearm-scaða, 767.

hearpe, w. f., _harp_: gen. sg. hearpan swêg, 89, 3024; hearpan wynne
(wyn), 2108, 2263.

heáðu, st. f., _sea, waves_: acc. sg. heáðu, 1863?

heáðu-lîðend, pres. part., _sea-farer, sailor_: nom. pl. -lîðende, 1799;
dat. pl. -lîðendum (designation of the Geátas), 2956.

heáfod, st. n., _head_: acc. sg., 48, 1640; dat. sg. heáfde, 1591, 2291,
2974; dat. pl. heáfdum, 1243.

heáfod-beorh, st. f., _head-defence, protection for the head_: acc. sg.
heáfod-beorge, 1031.

heáfod-mæg, st. m., _head-kinsman, near blood-relative_: dat. pl.
heáfod-mægum (_brothers_), 589; gen. pl. heáfod-mâga, 2152.

heáfod-segn, st. n., _head-sign, banner_: acc. sg., 2153.

heáfod-weard, st. f., _head-watch_ acc. sg. healdeð ... heáfod-wearde
leófes and lâðes, _for the friend and the foe_ (Beówulf and the drake, who
lie dead near each other), 2910.

heáh, heá, adj., _high, noble_ (in composition, also primus): nom. sg. heáh
Healfdene, 57; heá (Higelâc), 1927; heáh (sele), 82; heáh hlæw, 2806, 3159;
acc. sg. heáh (segn), 48, 2769; heáhne (MS. heánne) hrôf, 984; dat. sg. in
(tô) sele þam heán, 714, 920; gen. sg. heán hûses, 116.--_high, heavy_:
acc. heáh gesceap (_an unusual, heavy fate_), 3085.

heá-burh, st. f., _high city, first city of a country_: acc. sg., 1128.

heáh-cyning, st. m., _high king, mightiest of the kings_: gen. sg.
-cyninges (of Hrôðgâr), 1040.

heáh-gestreón, st. n., _splendid treasure_: gen. pl. -gestreóna, 2303.

heáh-lufe, w. f., _high love_: acc. sg. heáh-lufan, 1955.

heáh-sele, st. m., _high hall, first hall in the land, hall of the ruler_:
dat. sg. heáh-sele, 648.

heáh-setl, st. n., _high seat, throne_: acc. sg., 1088.

heáh-stede, st. m., _high place, ruler's place_: dat. sg. on heáh-stede,

heán, adj., _depressed, low, despised, miserable_: nom. sg., 1275, 2100,
2184, 2409.

heáp, st. m., _heap, crowd, troop_: nom. sg. þegna heáp, 400; þes hearda
heáp, _this brave band_, 432; acc. sg. here-sceafta heáp, _the crowd of
spears_, 335; mago-rinca heáp, 731; dat. sg. on heápe, _in a compact body_,
as many as there were of them, 2597.--Comp. wîg-heáp.

heáwan, st. v., _to hew, to cleave_: inf., 801.

ge-heáwan, _cleave_: pres. subj. ge-heáwe, 683.

heoðu, st. f., _the interior of a building_: dat. sg. þät he on heoðe
gestôd, _in the interior_ (of the hall, Heorot), 404.

heofon, st. m., _heaven_: nom. sg., 3157; dat. sg. hefene, 1572; gen. sg.
heofenes, 414, 576, 1802, etc.; gen. pl. heofena, 182; dat. pl. under
heofenum, 52, 505.

heolfor, st. n., _gore, fresh_ or _crude blood_: dat. instr. sg. hâtan
heolfre, 850, 1424; heolfre, 2139; under heolfre, 1303.

heolster, st. n., _haunt, hiding-place_: acc. sg. on heolster, 756.

heonan, adv., _hence, from here_: heonan, 252; heonon, 1362.

heor, st. m., _door-hinge_: nom. pl. heorras, 1000.

heorde, adj. See wunden-heorde.

heorð-geneát, st. m., _hearth-companion_, i.e. a vassal of the king, in
whose castle he receives his livelihood: nom. pl. heorð-geneátas, 261,
3181; acc. pl. heorð-geneátas, 1581, 2181; dat. pl. heorð-geneátum, 2419.

heorot, st. m., _stag_: nom. sg., 1370.

heorte, w. f., _heart_: nom. sg., 2562; dat. sg. ät heortan, 2271; gen. sg.
heortan, 2464, 2508.--Comp.: the adjectives blîð-, grom-, rûm-,

heoru, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg. heoru bunden (cf. under bîndan), 1286. In
some of the following compounds heoro- seems to be confounded with here-
(see here).

heoro-blâc, adj., _pale through the sword, fatally wounded_: nom. sg.
[heoro-]blâc, 2489.

heoru-dreór, st. m., _sword-blood_: instr. sg. heoru-dreóre, 487;
heoro-dreóre, 850.

heoro-dreórig, adj., _bloody through the sword_: nom. sg., 936; acc. sg.
heoro-dreórigne, 1781, 2721.

heoro-drync, st. m., _sword-drink_, i.e. blood shed by the sword: instr.
pl. hioro-dryncum swealt, _died through sword-drink_, i.e. struck by the
sword, 2359.

heoro-gîfre, adj., _eager for hostile inroads_: nom. sg., 1499.

heoro-grim, adj., _sword-grim, fierce in battle_: nom. sg. m., 1565; fem.
-grimme, 1848.

heoro-hôcihte, adj., _provided with barbs, sharp like swords _: instr. pl.
mid eofer-spreótum heoro-hôcyhtum, 1439.

heoro-serce, w. f., _shirt of mail_: acc. sg. hioro-sercean, 2540.

heoro-sweng, st. m., _sword-stroke_: acc. sg. 1591.

heoro-weallende, pres. part., _rolling around fighting_, of the drake,
2782. See weallian.

heoro-wearh, st. m. _he who is sword-cursed, who is destined to die by the
sword_: nom. sg., 1268.

heófan, w. v., _to lament, to moan_: part. nom. pl. hiófende, 3143.

â-heóran, _to free_ (?): w. acc. pret. sg. brýd âheórde, 2931.

heóre, adj., _pleasant, not haunted, secure_: nom. sg. fem, nis þät heóru
stôw, _that is no secure place_, 1373.--Comp. un-heóre (-hýre).

hider, adv., _hither_, 240, 370, 394, 3093, etc.

ofer-higian, w. v. (according to the connection, probably), _to exceed_,
2767. (O.H.G. ubar-hugjan, _to be arrogant_.)

hild, st. f., _battle, combat_: nom. sg., 452, 902, 1482, 2077; hild
heoru-grimme, 1848; acc. sg. hilde, 648; instr. sg. hilde, _through
combat_, 2917; dat. sg. ät hilde, 1461.

hilde-bil, st. n., _battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1667; instr. dat. sg.
hilde-bille, 557, 1521.

hilde-bord, st. n., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. hilde-bord, 397; instr. pl.
-bordum, 3140.

hilde-cyst, st. f., _excellence in battle, bravery in battle_: instr. pl.
-cystum, 2599.

hilde-deór, adj., _bold in battle, brave in battle_: nom. sg., 312, 835,
1647, 1817; hilde-diór, 3112; nom. pl. hilde-deóre, 3171.

hilde-freca, w. m., _hero in battle_: nom. pl. hilde-frecan, 2206; dat. sg.
hild-frecan, 2367.

hilde-geatwe, st. f. pl., _equipment for battle, adornment for combat_:
acc. hilde-geatwe, 675; gen. -geatwa, 2363.

hilde-gicel, st. m., _battle-icicle_, i.e. the blood which hangs upon the
sword-blades like icicles: instr. pl. hilde-gicelum, 1607.

hilde-grâp, st. f., _battle-gripe_: nom. sg., 1447, 2508.

hilde-hlemma, w. m., _one raging in battle, warrior, fighter_: nom. sg.,
2352, 2545; dat. pl. eft þät ge-eode ... hilde-hlämmum, _it happened to the
warriors_ (the Geátas), 2202.

hilde-leóma, w. m., _battle-light, gleam of battle_, hence: 1) the
fire-spewing of the drake in the fight: nom. pl. -leóman, 2584.--2) _the
gleaming sword_: acc. sg. -leóman, 1144.

hilde-mecg, st. m., _man of battle, warrior_: nom. pl. hilde-mecgas, 800.

hilde-mêce, st. m., _battle-sword_: nom. pl. -mêceas, 2203.

hilde-rand, st. m., _battle-shield_: acc. pl. -randas, 1243.

hllde-ræs, st. m., _storm of battle_: acc. sg., 300.

hilde-rinc, st. m., _man of battle, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 1308, 3125,
3137; dat. sg. hilde-rince, 1496; gen. sg. hilde-rinces, 987.

hilde-säd, adj., _satiated with battle, not wishing to fight any more_:
acc. sg. hilde-sädne, 2724.

hilde-sceorp, st. n., _battle-dress, armor, coat of mail_: acc. sg., 2156.

hilde-setl, st. n., _battle-seat_ (saddle): nom. sg., 1040.

hilde-strengo, st. f., _battle-strength, bravery in battle_: acc., 2114.

hilde-swât, st. m., _battle-sweat_: nom. sg. hât hilde-swât (the hot, damp
breath of the drake as he rushes on), 2559.

hilde-tux, st. m., _battle-tooth_: instr. pl. hilde-tuxum, 1512.

hilde-wæpen, st. m., _battle-weapon_: instr. pl. -wæpnum, 39.

hilde-wîsa, w. m., _leader in battle, general_: dat. sg. fore Healfdenes
hildewîsan, _Healfdene's general_ (Hnäf), 1065.

hild-freca. See hilde-freca

hild-fruma, st. m., _battle-chief_: dat. sg. -fruma, 1679, 2650; gen. sg.
þäs hild-fruman, 2836.

hlld-lata, w. m., _he who is late in battle, coward_: nom. pl. þâ
hild-latan, 2847.

hilt, st. n., _sword-hilt_: nom. gylden hilt, 1678; acc. sg. þät hilt,
1669; hylt, 1668. Also used in the plural; acc. þâ hilt, 1615; dat. pl, be
hiltum, 1575.--Comp.: fetel-, wreoðen-hilt.

hilte-cumbor, st. n., _banner with a staff_: acc. sg., 1023.

hilted, pret. part., _provided with a hilt_ or _handle_: acc. sg. heard
swyrd hiked, _sword with a_ (rich) _hilt_, 2988.

hin-fûs, adj., _ready to die_: nom. sg. hyge wäs him hinfûs (i.e. he felt
that he should not survive), 756.

hindema, adj. superl., _hindmost, last_: instr. sg. hindeman sîðe, _the
last time, for the last time_, 2050, 2518.

hirde, hyrde, st. m., (_herd_) _keeper, guardian, possessor_: nom. sg.
folces hyrde, 611, 1833, 2982; rîces hyrde, 2028; fyrena hyrde, _the
guardian of mischief, wicked one_, 751, 2220; wuldres hyrde, _the king of
glory, God_, 932; hringa hyrde, _the keeper of the rings_, 2246; cumbles
hyrde, _the possessor of the banner, the bearer of the banner_, 2506;
folces hyrde, 1850; frätwa hyrde, 3134; rîces hyrde, 3081; acc. pl. hûses
hyrdas, 1667.--Comp.: grund-hyrde.

hit (O.N. hita), st. f. (?), _heat_: nom. sg. þenden hyt sý, 2650.

hladan, st. v.: 1) _to load, to lay_: inf. on bæl hladan leófne mannan,
_lay the dear man on the funeral-pile_, 2127; him on bearm hladan bunan and
discas, _laid cups and plates upon his bosom, loaded himself with them_,
2776; pret. part. þær wäs wunden gold on wæn hladen, _laid upon the wain_,
3135.--2) _to load, to burden_: pret. part. þâ wäs ... sægeáp naca hladen
herewædum, _loaded with armor_, 1898.--Comp. gilp-hläden.

ge-hladan, w. acc., _to load, to burden_: pret. sg. sæbât gehlôd (MS
gehleod), 896.

hlâford, st. m., _lord, ruler_: nom. sg., 2376; acc. sg., 267; dat. sg.
hlâforde, 2635; gen. sg. hlâfordes, 3181.--Comp. eald-hlâford.

hlâford-leás; adj., _without a lord_: nom. pl. hlâford-leáse, 2936.

hlâw, hlæw, st. m., _grave-hill_: acc. sg. hlæw, 2803, 3159, 3171; dat. sg.
for hlâwe, 1121. Also, _grave-chamber_ (the interior of the grave-hill),
_cave_: acc. sg. hlâw [under] hrusan, 2277; hlæw under hrusan, 2412; dat.
sg. on hlæwe, 2774. The drake dwells in the rocky cavern which the former
owner of his treasure had chosen as his burial-place, 2242-2271.

hläst, st. n., _burden, load_: dat. sg. hläste, 52.

hlem, st. m., _noise, din of battle, noisy attack_: in the compounds, uht-,

hlemma, w. m., _one raging, one who calls_; see hilde-hlemma.

â-hlehhan, st. v., _to laugh aloud, to shout, to exult_: pret. sg. his môd
âhlôg, _his mood exulted_, 731.

hleahtor, st. m., _laughter_: nom. sg., 612; acc. sg., 3021.

hleápan, st. v., _to run, to trot, to spring_: inf. hleápan lêton ...
fealwe mearas, 865.

â-hleapan, _to spring up_: pret. âhleóp, 1398.

hleoðu. See hlið.

hleonian, w. v., _to incline, to hang over_: inf. oð þät he ...
fyrgen-beámas ofer hârne stân hleonian funde, _till he found mountain-trees
hanging over the gray rocks_, 1416.

hleó, st. m., _shady, protected place; defence, shelter_; figurative
designation of the king, or of powerful nobles: wîgendra hleó, of Hrôðgâr,
429; of Sigemund, 900; of Beówulf, 1973, 2338; eorla hleó, of Hrôðgâr,
1036, 1867; of Beówulf, 792; of Hygelâc, 2191.

hleó-burh, st. f., _ruler's castle_ or _city_: acc. sg., 913, 1732.

hleóðor-cwyde, st. m., _speech of solemn sound, ceremonious words_, 1980.

hleór, st. n., _cheek, jaw_: in comp. fäted-hleór (adj.).

hleór-bera, w. m., _cheek-bearer_, the part of the helmet that reaches down
over the cheek and protects it: acc. pl. ofer hleór-beran (_visor_?), 304.

hleór-bolster, st. m., _cheek-bolster, pillow_: nom. sg., 689.

hleótan, st. v. w. acc., _to obtain by lot, to attain, to get_: pret. sg.
feorh-wunde hleát, 2386.

hlifian, w. v., _to rise, to be prominent_: inf. hlifian, 2806; pret.
hlifade, 81, 1800, 1899.

hlið, st. n., _cliff, precipice of a mountain_: dat. sg. on hliðe, 3159;
gen. sg. hliðes, 1893; pl. hliðo in composition, stân-hliðo; hleoðu in the
compounds fen-, mist-, näs-, wulf-hleoðu.

hlin-bed (Frisian hlen-bed, Richthofen 206^28, for which another text has
cronk-bed), st. n., [Greek: klinidion], _bed for reclining, sick-bed_: acc.
sg. hlim-bed, 3035.

tô-hlîdan, st. v., _to spring apart, to burst_: pret. part. nom. pl.
tô-hlidene, 1000.

hlûd, adj., _loud_: acc. sg. dreám ... hlûdne, 89.

hlyn, st. m., _din, noise, clatter_: nom. sg., 612.

hlynnan, hlynian, w. v., _to sound, to resound_: inf. hlynnan (of the
voice), 2554; of fire, _to crackle_: pret. sg. hlynode, 1121.

hlynsian, w. v., _to resound, to crash_: pret. sg. reced hlynsode, 771.

hlytm, st. m., _lot_: dat. sg. näs þâ on hlytme, hwâ þät hord strude, _it
did not depend upon lot who should plunder the hoard_, i.e. its possession
was decided, 3127.

hnâh, adj.: 1) _low, inferior_: comp. acc. sg. hnâgran, 678; dat. sg.
hnâhran rince, _an inferior hero, one less brave_, 953.--2) _familiarly
intimate_: nom. sg. näs hió hnâh swâ þeáh, _was nevertheless not familiarly
intimate_ (with the Geátas, i.e. preserved her royal dignity towards them),
(_niggardly_?), 1930.

hnægan, w. v. w. acc., (for nægan), _to speak to, to greet_: pret. sg. þät
he þone wîsan wordum hnægde freán Ingwina, 1319.

ge-hnægan, w. acc., _to bend, to humiliate, to strike down, to fell_: pret.
sg. ge-hnægde helle gâst, 1275; þær hyne Hetware hilde gehnægdon, 2917.

hnitan, st. v., _to dash against, to encounter_, here of the collision of
hostile bands: pret. pl. þonne hniton (hnitan) fêðan, 1328, 2545.

hoðma, w. m., _place of concealment, cave_, hence, _the grave_: dat. sg. in
hoðman, 2459.

hof, st. n., _enclosed space, court-yard, estate, manor-house_: acc. sg.
hof (Hrôðgâr's residence), 312; dat. sg. tô hofe sînum (Grendel's home in
the sea), 1508; tô hofe (Hygelâc's residence), 1975; acc. pl. beorht hofu,
2314; dat. pl. tô hofum Geáta, 1837.

hogode. See hycgan.

hold, adj., _inclined to, attached to, gracious, dear, true_: nom. sg. w.
dat. of the person, hold weorod freán Scyldinga, _a band well disposed to
the lord of the Scyldings_, 290; mandrihtne hold, 1230; Hygelâce wäs ...
nefa swýðe hold, _to H. was his nephew_ (Beówulf) _very much attached_,
2171; acc. sg. þurh holdne hige, _from a kindly feeling, with honorable
mind_, 267; holdne wine, 376; holdne, 1980; gen. pl. holdra, 487.

hold. See healdan.

holm, st. m., _deep sea_: nom. sg., 519, 1132, 2139; acc. sg., 48, 633;
dat. sg. holme, 543, 1436, 1915; acc. pl. holmas, 240.--Comp. wæg-holm.

holm-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: dat. sg. on þam holm-clife, 1422; from þäm
holmclife, 1636; acc. pl. holm-clifu, 230.

holm-wylm, st. m., _the waves of the sea_: dat. sg. holm-wylme, 2412.

holt, st. n., _wood, thicket, forest._ acc. sg. on holt, 2599; holt,
2847.--Comp.: äsc-, fyrgen-, gâr-, Hrefnes-holt.

holt-wudu, st. m., _forest-wood_: 1) of the material: nom. sg., 2341.--2) =
_forest_: acc. sg., 1370.

hord, st. m. and n., _hoard, treasure_: nom. sg., 2284, 3085; beága hord,
2285; mâðma hord, 3012; acc. sg. hord, 913, 2213, 2320, 2510, 2745, 2774,
2956, 3057; sâwle hord, 2423; þät hord, 3127; dat. sg. of horde, 1109; for
horde, _on account of_ (the robbing of) _the hoard_, 2782; hæðnum horde,
2217; gen. sg. hordes, 888.--Comp.: beáh-, breóst-, word-, wyrm-hord.

hord-ärn, st. n., _place in which a treasure is kept, treasure-room_: dat.
hord-ärne, 2832; gen. pl. hord-ärna, 2280.

hord-burh, st. f., _city in which is the treasure_ (of the king's),
_ruler's castle_: acc. sg., 467.

hord-gestreón, st. n., _hoard-treasure, precious treasure_: dat. pl.
hord-gestreónum, 1900; gen. pl. mägen-byrðenne hord-gestreóna, _the great
burden of rich treasures_, 3093.

hord-mâððum, st. m., _treasure-jewel, precious jewel_: acc. sg. (-madmum,
MS.), 1199.

hord-wela, w. m., _treasure-riches, abundance of treasures_: acc. sg.
hord-welan, 2345.

hord-weard, st. m., _warder of the treasure, hoard-warden_: 1) of the king:
nom. sg., 1048; acc. sg., 1853.--2) of the drake: nom. sg., 2294, 2303,
2555, 2594.

hord-weorðung, st. f., _ornament out of the treasure, rich ornament_: acc.
sg.--weorðunge, 953.

hord-wyn, st. f., _treasure-joy, joy-giving treasure_: acc. sg. hord-wynne,

horn, st. m., _horn_: 1) upon an animal: instr. pl. heorot hornum trum,
1370.--2) wind-instrument: nom. sg., 1424; acc. sg., 2944.--Comp. gûð-horn.

horn-boga, w. m., _bow made of horn_: dat. sg. of horn-bogan, 2438.

horn-geáp, adj., of great extent between the (stag-)horns adorning the
gables(?): nom. sg. sele ... heáh and horn-geáp, 82.

horn-reced, st. n., building whose two gables are crowned by the halves of
a stag's antler(?): acc. sg., 705. Cf. Heyne's Treatise on the Hall,
Heorot, p. 44.

hors, st. n., _horse_: nom. sg., 1400.

hôciht, adj., _provided with hooks, hooked_: in comp. heoro-hôciht.

be-hôfian, w. v. w. gen., _to need, to want_: pres. sg. III. nu is se däg
cumen þat ûre man-dryhten mägenes behôfað gôdra gûðrinca, _now is the day
come when our lord needs the might of strong warriors_, 2648.

on-hôhsnian, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. sg. þät onhôhsnode Heminges mæg (on
hohsnod, MS.), 1945.

hôlinga, adv., _in vain, without reason_, 1077.

be-hôn, st. v., _to hang with_: pret. part. helmum behongen, 3140.

hop, st. n., _protected place, place of refuge, place of concealment_, in
the compounds fen-, môr-hop.

hôs (Goth, hansa), st. f., _accompanying troop, escort_: instr. sg. mägða
hôse, _with an accompanying train of servingwomen_, 925.

hräðe, adv., _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 224, 741, 749, 1391, etc.;
hraðe, 1438; hreðe, 992; compar. hraðor, 543.

hran-fix, st. m., _whale_: acc. pl. hron-fixas, 540.

hran-râd, st. f., _whale-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. ofer hron-râde, 10.

hrâ, st. n., _corpse_: nom. sg., 1589.

hrâ-fyl, st. m., _fall of corpses, killing, slaughter_: acc. sg., 277.

hrädlîce, adv., _hastily, immediately_, 356, 964.

hräfn, hrefn, st. m., _raven_: nom. sg. hrefn blaca, _black raven_, 1802;
se wonna hrefn, _the dark raven_, 3025; dat. sg. hrefne, 2449.

hrägl, st. n., _dress, garment, armor_: nom. sg., 1196; gen. sg., hrägles,
1218; gen. pl. hrägla, 454--Comp.: beado-, fyrd-, mere-hrägl.

hreðe. See hraðe.

hreðer, st. m., _breast, bosom_ nom. sg. hreðer inne weóll _(it surged in
his breast_), 2114; hreðer æðme weóll, 2594; dat. sg. in hreðre, 1152; of
hreðre, 2820.--_Breast_ as the seat of feeling, _heart_: dat. sg. þät wäs
... hreðre hygemêðe, _that was depressing to the heart_ (of the slayer,
Hæðcyn), 2443; on hreðre, 1879, 2329; gen. pl. þurh hreðra gehygd,
2046.--_Breast_ as seat of life: instr. sg. hreðre, parallel with aldre,

hreðer-bealo, st. n., _evil that takes hold on the heart, evil severely
felt_: acc. sg., 1344.

hrefn. See hräfn.

hrêð, st. f., _glory_; in composition, gûð-hrêð; _renown, assurance of
victory_, in sige-hrêð.

hrêðe, adj., _renowned in battle_: nom. sg. hrêð (on account of the
following ät, final _e_ is elided, as wênic for wêne ic, 442; frôfor and
fultum for frôfre and fultum, 699; firen ondrysne for firene ondr., 1933),

hrêð-sigor, st. m., _glorious victory_: dat. sg. hrêð-sigora, 2584.

hrêmig, adj., _boasting, exulting_: with instr. and gen. hûðe hrêmig, 124;
since hrêmig, 1883; frätwum hrêmig, 2055; nom. pl. nealles Hetware hrêmge
þorfton (sc. wesan) fêðe-wîges, 2365.

on-hrêran, w. v., _to excite, to stir up_: pret. part. on-hrêred, 549,

hreâ-wîc, st. n., _place of corpses_: acc. sg. Geáta leóde hreâ-wîc
heóldon, _held the place of corpses_, 1215.

hreád, st. f., _ornament_(?), in comp. earm-hreád. See hreóðan.

hreám, st. m., _noise, alarm_:: nom. sg., 1303.

hreóða, w. m., _cover_, in the compound bord-hreóða.

hreóðan, ge-hreóðan, st. v., _to cover, to clothe_; only in the pret. part.
hroden, gehroden, _dressed, adorned_: hroden, 495, 1023; þâ wäs heal hroden
feónda feorum, _then was the hall covered with the corpses of the enemy_,
1152; ge-hroden golde, _adorned with gold_, 304.--Comp.: beág-,

hreóh, hreów, hreó, adj., _excited, stormy, wild, angry, raging; sad,
troubled_: nom. sg. (Beówulf) hreóh and heoro-grim, 1565; þät þam gôdan wäs
hreów on hreðre, (_that came with violence upon him, pained his heart_),
2329; hreó wæron ýða, _the waves were angry, the sea stormy_, 548; näs him
hreóh sefa, _his mind was not cruel_, 2181; dat. sg. on hreón môde, _of sad
heart_, 1308; on hreóum môde, _angry at heart_, 2582.

hreóh-môd, adj., _of sad heart_, 2133; _angry at heart_, 2297.

hreósan, st. v., _to fall, to sink, to rush_: pret. hreás, 2489, 2832;
pret. pl. hruron, 1075; hie on weg hruron, _they rushed away_, 1431; hruron
him teáras, _tears burst from him_, 1873.

be-hreósan, _to fall from, to be divested of_: pret. part. acc. pl.
fyrn-manna fatu ... hyrstum behrorene, _divested of ornaments_ (from which
the ornaments had fallen away), 2760.

hreów, st. f., _distress, sorrow_: gen. pl. þät wäs Hrôðgâre hreówa
tornost, _that was to Hrôðgâr the bitterest of his sorrows_, 2130.

hring, st. m.: 1) _ring_: acc. sg. þone hring, 1203; hring gyldenne, 2810;
acc. pl. hringas, 1196, 1971, 3035; gen. pl. hringa, 1508, 2246.--2) _shirt
of mail_ (of interlaced rings): nom. sg. hring, 1504; byrnan hring,
2261.--Comp. bân-hring.

hringan, w. v., _to give forth a sound, to ring, to rattle_: pret. pl.
byrnan hringdon, 327.

hring-boga, w. m., _one who bends himself into a ring_: gen. sg.
hring-bogan (of the drake, bending himself into a circle), 2562.

hringed, pret. part., _made of rings_: nom. sg. hringed byrne, 1246; acc.
sg. hringde byrnan, 2616.

hringed-stefna, w. m., _ship whose stem is provided with iron rings_
(cramp-irons), especially of sea-going ships (cf. Frið-þiofs saga, I:
þorsteinn âtti skip þat er Ellidi hêt, ... borðit war spengt iarni): nom.
sg., 32, 1898; acc. sg. hringed-stefnan, 1132.

hring-îren, st. n., _ring-iron, ring-mail_: nom. sg., 322.

hring-mæl, adj., _marked with rings_, i.e. ornamented with rings, or marked
with characters of ring-form: nom. acc. sg., of the sword, 1522, 1562(?);
nom. pl. heard and hring-mæl Heaðobeardna gestreón (_rich armor_), 2038.

hring-naca, w. m., _ship with iron rings, sea-going ship_: nom. sg., 1863.

hring-net, st. n., _ring-net_, i.e. a shirt of interlaced rings: acc. sg.,
2755; acc. pl. hring-net, 1890.

hring-sele, st. m., _ring-hall_, i.e. hall in which are rings, or in which
rings are bestowed: acc. sg., 2841; dat. sg., 2011, 3054.

hring-weorðung, st. f., _ring-ornament_: acc. sg. -weorðunge, 3018.

hrînan, st. v. w. dat.: 1) _to touch, lay hold of_: inf. þät him heardra
nân hrînan wolde îren ærgôd (_that no good sword of valiant men would make
an impression on him_), 989; him for hrôf-sele hrînan ne mehte færgripe
flôdes (_the sudden grip of the flood might not touch him owing to the
hall-roof_), 1516; þät þam hring-sele hrînan ne môste gumena ænig _(so that
none might touch the ringed-hall), _3054; pret. sg. siððan he hire folmum
[hr]ân (_as soon as he touched it with his hands_), 723; ôð þät deáðes wylm
hrân ät heortan (_seized his heart_), 2271. Pret. subj. þeáh þe him wund
hrîne (_although he was wounded_), 2977.--2) (O.N. hrîna, _sonare,
clamare), to resound, rustle_: pres. part. nom. pl. hrînde bearwas (for
hrînende) 1364; but see Note.

hroden. See hreóðan.

hron-fix. See hran-fix.

hrôðor, st. m., _joy, beneficium_: dat sg. hrefne tô hrôðre, 2449; gen. pl.
hrôðra, 2172.

hrôf, st. m., _roof, ceiling of a house_: nom. sg., 1000; acc. sg. under
Heorotes hrôf, 403; under geápne hrôf, 838; geseah steápne hrôf (here
_inner roof, ceiling_), 927; so, ofer heáhne hrôf, 984; ymb þäs helmes
hrôf, 1031; under beorges hrôf, 2756.--Comp. inwit-hrôf.

hrôf-sele, st. m., _covered hall_: dat. sg. hrôf-sele, 1516.

hrôr, adj., _stirring, wide-awake, valorous_: dat. sg. of þäm hrôran,
1630.--Comp. fela-hrôr.

hruron. See hreósan.

hruse, w. f., _earth, soil_: nom. sg., 2248, 2559; acc. sg. on hrusan, 773,
2832; dat. sg. under hrusan, 2412.

hrycg, st. m., _back_: acc. sg. ofer wäteres hrycg (_over the water's back,
surface_), 471.

hryre, st. m., _fall, destruction, ruin_: acc. sg., 3181; dat. sg., 1681,
3006.--Comp.: leód-, wîg-hryre.

hrysian, w. v., _to shake, be shaken, clatter_: pret. pl. syrcan hrysedon
(_corselets rattled_, of men in motion), 226.

hund, st. m., _dog_: instr. pl. hundum, 1369.

hund, num., _hundred_: þreó hund, 2279; w. gen. pl. hund missera, 1499;
hund þûsenda landes and locenra beága, 2995.

hû, adv., _how, quomodo_, 3, 116, 279, 738, 845, 2319, 2520, 2719, etc.

huð, st. f., _booty, plunder_: dat. (instr.) sg. hûðe, 124.

hûru, adv., _above all, certainly_, 369; _indeed, truly_, 182, 670, 1072,
1466, 1945, 2837; _yet, nevertheless_, 863; _now_, 3121.

hûs, st. n., _house_: gen. sg. hûses, 116; gen. pl. hûsa sêlest (Heorot),
146, 285, 659, 936.

hwan, adv., _whither_: tô hwan syððan wearð hondræs häleða (_what issue the
hand-to-hand fight of the heroes had_), 2072.

hwanan, hwanon, adv., _whence_: hwanan, 257, 2404; hwanon, 333.

hwâ, interrog. and indef. pron., _who_: nom. sg. m. hwâ, 52, 2253, 3127;
neut. hwät, 173; ânes hwät (_a part only_), 3011; hwät þâ men wæron (_who
the men were_), 233, etc.; hwät syndon ge searo-häbbendra (_what armed men
are ye?_), 237; acc. sg. m. wið manna hwone (_from (?) any man_), 155;
neut. þurh hwät, 3069; hwät wit geó spræcon, 1477; hwät ... hýnðo (gen.),
fær-nîða (_what shame and sudden woes_), 474; so, hwät þu worn fela (_how
very much thou_), 530; swylces hwät, 881; hwät ... ârna, 1187; dat. m.
hwâm, 1697.--Comp. æg-hwâ.

hwät, interj., _what! lo! indeed!_ 1, 943, 2249.

ge-hwâ, w. part, gen., _each, each one_: acc. sg. m. wið feónda gehwone,
294; nîða gehwane, 2398; mêca gehwane, 2686; gum-cynnes gehwone, 2766; fem,
on healfa gehwone, 801; dat. sg. m. dôgora gehwâm, 88; ät nîða gehwâm, 883;
þegna gehwâm, 2034; eorla gehwæm, 1421; fem. in mægða ge-hwære, 25; nihta
gehwæm, 1366; gen. sing. m. manna gehwäs, 2528; fem. dæda gehwäs, 2839.

hwâr. See hwær.

hwäder. See hwider.

hwäðer, pron., _which of two_: nom. sg. hwäðer ... uncer twega, 2531; swâ
hwäðer, _utercunque_: acc. sg. on swâ hwäðere hond swâ him gemet þince,
687.--Comp. æg-hwäðer.

ge-hwäðer, _each of two, either-other_: nom. sg. m. wäs gehwäðer ôðrum
lifigende lâð, 815; wäs ... gehwäðer ôðrum hrôðra gemyndig, 2172; ne
gehwäðer incer (_nor either of you two_), 584; nom. sg. neut. gehwäðer þâra
(_either of them_, i.e. ready for war or peace), 1249; dat. sg. hiora
gehwäðrum, 2995; gen. sg. bega gehwäðres, 1044.

hwäðer, hwäðere, hwäðre, 1) adv., _yet, nevertheless_: hwäðre, 555, 891,
1271, 2099, 2299, 2378, etc.; hwäðre swâ þeáh, _however, notwithstanding_,
2443; hwäðere, 574, 578, 971, 1719--2) conj., = _utrum, whether_: hwäðre,
1315; hwäðer, 1357, 2786.

hwät, adj., _sharp, bold, valiant_: nom. sg. se secg hwata, 3029; dat. sg.
hwatum, 2162; nom. pl. hwate, 1602, 2053; acc. pl. hwate, 2643,
3006.--Comp.: fyrd-, gold-hwät.

hwät. See hwâ.

hwær, adv., _where_: elles hwær, _elsewhere_, 138; hwær, _somewhere_, 2030.
In elliptical question: wundur hwâr þonne..., _is it a wonder when...?_
3063.--Comp. ô-hwær.

ge-hwær, _everywhere_: þeáh þu heaðo-ræsa gehwær dohte (_everywhere good in
battle_), 526.

hwele. See hwyle.

hwergen, adv., _anywhere_: elles hwergen, _elsewhere_, 2591.

hwettan, w. v., _to encourage, urge_: pres. subj. swâ þin sefa hwette (_as
thy mind urges, as thou likest_), 490; pret. pl. hwetton higerôfne (_they
whetted the brave one_), 204.

hwêne, adv., _a little, paululum_, 2700.

hwealf, st. f., _vault_: acc. sg. under heofones hwealf, 576, 2016.

hweorfan, st. v., _to stride deliberately, turn, depart, move, die_: pres.
pl. þâra þe cwice hwyrfað, 98; inf. hwîlum he on lufan læteð hworfan monnes
môd-geþonc (_sometimes on love_ (?) _possessions_ (?) _permits the thoughts
of man to turn_), 1729; londrihtes môt ... monna æghwylc îdel hweorfan (_of
rights of land each one of men must be deprived_), 2889; pret. sg. fäder
ellor hwearf ... of earde (_died_), 55; hwearf þâ hrädlîce þær Hrôðgâr sät,
356; hwearf þâ bî bence (_turned then to the bench_), 1189; so, hwearf þâ
be wealle, 1574; hwearf geond þät reced, 1982; hlæw oft ymbe hwearf (_went
oft round the cave_), 2297; nalles äfter lyfte lâcende hwearf (_not at all
through the air did he go springing_), 2833; subj. pret. sg, ær he on weg
hwurfe ... of geardum (_died_), 264.

and-hweorfan, _to move against_: pret. sg. ôð þät ... norðan wind
heaðo-grim and-hwearf (_till the fierce north wind blew in our faces_),

ät-hweorfan, _to go to_: pret. sg. hwîlum he on beorh ät-hwearf (_at times
returned to the mountain_), 2300.

ge-hweorfan, _to go, come_: pret. sg. gehwearf þâ in Francna fäðm feorh
cyninges, 1211; hit on æht gehwearf ... Denigea freán, 1680; so, 1685,

geond-hweorfan, _to go through from end to end_: pres. sg. flet eall
geond-hwearf, 2018.

hwider, adv., _whither_: hwyder, 163; hwäder (hwäðer, MS.), 1332.

hwîl, st. f., _time, space of time_: nom. sg. wäs seó hwîl micel (_it was a
long time_), 146; þâ wäs hwîl däges (_the space of a day_), 1496; acc. sg.
hwîle, _for a time_, 2138; _a while_, 105, 152; lange (longe) hwîle, _a
long while_, 16, 2781; âne hwîle, _a while_, 1763; lytle hwîle, _brief
space_, 2031, 2098; ænige hwîle, _any while_, 2549; lässan hwîle, _a lesser
while_, 2572; dat. sg. ær däges hwîle, _before daybreak_, 2321; dat. pl.
nihtes hwîlum, _sometimes at night_, 3045. Adv., _sometimes, often_:
hwîlum, 175, 496, 917, 1729, 1829, 2017, 2112, etc.; hwîlum ... hwîlum,
2108-9-10.--Comp.: däg-, gescäp-, orleg-, sige-hwîl.

hwît, adj., _brilliant, flashing_: nom. sg. se hwîta helm, 1449.

hworfan. See hweorfan.

hwôpan, st. v., _to cry, cry out mourn_: pret. sg. hweóp, 2269.

hwyder. See hwider.

hwylc, pron., _which, what, any_: 1) adj.: nom. sg. m. sceaða ic nât hwylc,
274; fem, hwylc orleghwîl, 2003; nom. pl. hwylce Sægeáta sîðas wæron,
1987.--2) subst., w. gen. pl. nom. m.: Frisna hwylc, 1105; fem, efne swâ
hwylc mägða swâ þone magan cende (_whatever woman brought forth this son_),
944; neut. þonne his bearna hwylc (_than any one of his sons_), 2434; dat.
sg. efne swâ hwylcum manna swâ him gemet þûhte, 3058.--Comp.: æg-, nât-,

ge-hwylc, ge-hwilc, ge-hwelc, w. gen. pl., _each_: nom. sg. m. gehwylc,
986, 1167, 1674; acc. sg. m. gehwylcne, 937, 2251, 2517; gehwelcne, 148;
fem, gehwylce, 1706; neut. gehwylc, 2609; instr. sg. dôgra gehwylce, 1091;
so, 2058, 2451; dat. sg. m. gehwylcum, 412, 769, 785, etc.; fem, ecga
gehwylcre, 806; neut. cynna gehwylcum, 98; gen. sg. m. and neut. gehwylces,
733, 1397, 2095.

hwyrft, st. m., _circling movement, turn_: dat. pl. adv. hwyrftum scrîðað
(_wander to and fro_), 163.--Comp. ed-hwyrft.

hycgan, w. v., _to think, resolve upon_: pret. sg. ic þät hogode þät ...
(_my intention was that ..._), 633.--Comp. w. pres. part.: bealo-, heard-,
swîð-, þanc-, wîs-hycgend.

for-hycgan, _to despise, scorn, reject with contempt_: pres. sg. I. ic þät
þonne for-hicge þät ..., _reject with scorn the proposition that ..._, 435.

ge-hycgan, _to think, determine upon_: pret. sg. þâ þu ... feorr gehogodest
säcce sêcean, 1989.

ofer-hycgan, _to scorn_: pret. sg. ofer-hogode þâ hringa fengel þät he þone
wîdflogan weorode gesôhte (_scorned to seek the wide-flier with a host_),

hydig (for hygdig), adj., _thinking, of a certain mind_: comp. ân-, bealo-,
grom-, nîð-, þrîst-hydig.

ge-hygd, st. n., _thought, sentiment_: acc. sg. þurh hreðra gehygd,
2046.--Comp.: breóst-, môd-gehygd, won-hyd.

hyge, hige, st. m., _mind, heart, thought_: nom. sg. hyge, 756; hige, 594;
acc. sg. þurh holdne hige, 267; gen. sg. higes, 2046; dat. pl. higum, 3149.

hyge-bend, st. m. f., _mind-fetter, heart-band_: instr. pl. hyge-bendum
fäst, _fast in his mind's fetters, secretly_, 1879.

hyge-geômor, adj., _sad in mind_: nom. sg. hyge-giômor, 2409.

hyge-mêðe, adj.: 1) _sorrowful, soul-crushing_: nom. sg., 2443.--2)
_life-weary, dead_: dat. pl. hyge-mêðum (-mæðum, MS.), 2910.

hyge-rôf, adj., _brave, valiant, vigorous-minded_: nom. sg. [hygerôf], 403;
acc. sg. hige-rôfne, 204.

hyge-sorh, st. f., _heart-sorrow_: gen. pl. -sorga, 2329.

hyge-þyhtig, adj., _doughty, courageous_: acc. sg. hige-þihtigne (of
Beówulf), 747. See þyhtig.

hyge-þrym, st. m., _animi majestas, high-mindedness_: dat. pl. for
hige-þrymmum, 339.

hyht, st. m., _thought, pleasant thought, hope_ (Dietrich): nom. sg., 179.

ge-hyld (see healdan), st. n., _support, protection_: nom. sg., 3057.--Leo.

hyldan, w. v., _to incline one's self, lie down to sleep_: pret. sg. hylde
hine, _inclined himself, lay down_, 689.

hyldo, st. f., _inclination, friendliness, grace_: acc. sg. hyldo, 2068,
2294; gen. sg. hyldo, 671, 2999.

â-hyrdan, w. v., _harden_: pret. part. â-hyrded, 1461.

hyrde. See hirde.

hyrst, st. f., _accoutrements, ornament, armor_: acc. sg. hyrste
(Ongenþeów's _equipments and arms_), 2989; acc. pl. hyrsta, 3166; instr.
pl. hyrstum, 2763.

hyrstan, w. v., _to deck, adorn_: pret. part. hyrsted sweord, 673; helm
[hyr]sted golde, 2256.

hyrtan, w. v., _to take heart, be emboldened_: pret. sg. hyrte hyne
hord-weard (_the drake took heart_; see 2566, 2568, 2570), 2594.

hyse, st. m., _youth, young man_: nom. sg. as voc., 1218.

hyt. See hit.

hýdan, w. v., _to hide, conceal, protect, preserve_: pres. subj. hýde
[hine, _himself_] se þe wylle, 2767; inf. w. acc. nô þu mînne þearft
hafalan hýdan, 446; ær he in wille hafelan [hýdan] (_ere in it he_ [the
stag] _will hide his head_), 1373.

ge-hýdan, w. acc., _to conceal, preserve_: pret. sg. gehýdde, 2236, 3060.

hýð, st. f., _haven_: dat. sg. ät hýðe, 32.

hýð-weard, st. m., _haven-warden_: nom. sg., 1915.

hýnan (see heán), w. v. w. acc., _to crush, afflict, injure_: pret. sg.
hýnde, 2320.

hýnðu, st. f., _oppression, affliction, injury_: acc. sg. hýnðu, 277; gen.
sg. hwät ... hýnðo, 475; fela ... hýnðo, 594; gen. pl. heardra hýnða, 166.

hýran, w. v.: 1) _to hear, perceive, learn_: a) w. inf. or acc. with inf.:
I. pret. sg. hýrde ic, 38, 582, 1347, 1843, 2024; III. sg. þät he fram
Sigemunde secgan hýrde, 876; I. pl. swâ we sôðlîce secgan hýrdon, 273. b)
w. acc.: nænigne ic ... sêlran hýrde hordmâððum (_I heard of no better
hoard-jewel_), 1198. c) w. dependent clause: I. sg. pret. hýrde ic þät ...,
62, 2164, 2173.--2) w. dat. of person, _to obey_: inf. ôð þät him æghwylc
þâra ymbsittendra hýran scolde, 10; hýran heaðo-siócum, 2755; Pret. pl. þät
him winemâgas georne hýrdon, 66.

ge-hýran, _to hear, learn_: a) w. acc.: II. pers. sg. pres. mînne gehýrað
ânfealdne geþôht, 255; III. sg. pret. gehýrde on Beówulfe fästrædne geþôht,
610. b) w. acc. and inf.: III. pl. pret. gehýrdon, 786. c) w. depend.
clause: I. pres. sg. ic þät gehýre þät ..., 290.


ic, pers. pron. _I_: acc. mec, dat. me, gen. mîn; dual nom. wit, acc.
uncit, unc, dat. unc, gen. uncer; pl. nom. we, acc. ûsic, ûs, dat. ûs, gen.
ûser. ic omitted before the verb, 470.

icge, _gold_ (perhaps related to Sanskrit îç, = dominare, imperare, O.H.G.
êht, _wealth_, opes), _treasure?, sword_ (edge)?, 1108.--Körner.

ides, st. f., _woman, lady, queen_: nom. sg., 621, 1076, 1118, 1169; dat.
sg. idese, 1650, 1942. Also of Grendel's mother: nom. sg., 1260; gen. sg.
idese, 1352.

in. See inn.

in: I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat. (local, indicating rest), _in_:
in geardum, 13, 2460; in þäm gûðsele, 443; in beórsele, 2636; so, 89, 482,
589, 696, 729, 2140, 2233, etc.; in mægða gehwære, 25; in þýstrum, 87; in
Caines cynne, 107; in hyra gryregeatwum (_in their accoutrements of terror,
war-weeds_), 324; so, 395; in campe (_in battle_), 2506; hiora in ânum (_in
one of them_), 2600. Prep. postpositive: Scedelandum in, 19. Also, _on,
upon_, like on: in ealo-bence, 1030; in gumstôle, 1953; in þam wongstede
(_on the grassy plain, the battle-field_), 2787; in bælstede, 3098.
Temporal: in geâr-dagum, 1.--2) w. acc. (local, indicating motion), _in,
into_: in woruld, 60; in fýres fäðm, 185; so, 1211; in Hrefnesholt, 2936.
Temporal, _in, at, about, toward_: in þâ tîde (in watide, MS.), 2228.

II. adv., _in_ (here or there), 386, 1038, 1372, 1503, 1645, 2153, 2191,
2228; inn, 3091.

incge, adj. (perhaps related to icge), instr. sg. incge lâfe (_with the
costly sword_ ? or _with mighty sword_?), 2578.--[_Edge_: incge lâfe, _edge
of the sword_.--K. Körner?]

in-frôd, adj., _very aged_: nom. sg., 2450; dat. sg. in-frôdum, 1875.

in-gang, st. m., _entrance, access to_: acc. sg., 1550.

in-genga, w. m., _in-goer, visitor_: nom. sg., of Grendel, 1777.

in-gesteald, st. m., _house-property, possessions in the house_: acc. sg.,

inn, st. n., _apartment, house_: nom. sg. in, 1301.

innan, adv., _within, inside_, 775, 1018, 2413, 2720; on innan (_in the
interior_), _within_, 1741, 2716; þær on innan (_in there_), 71; burgum on
innan (_within his city_), 1969. Also, _therein_: þær on innan, 2090, 2215,

innan-weard, adv., _inwards, inside, within_, 992, 1977; inne-weard, 999.

inne, adv.: 1) _inside, within_, 643, 1282, 1571, 2114, 3060; word inne
âbeád (_called, sent word, in_, i.e. standing in the hall door), 390; _in
it_ (i.e. the battle), 1142; þær inne (_therein_), 118, 1618, 2116, 2227,
3088.--2) = _insuper, still further, besides_, 1867.

inwit, st. n., _evil, mischief, spite, cunning hostility_, as in

inwit-feng, st. m., _malicious grasp, grasp of a cunning foe_: nom. sg.,

inwit-gäst, st. m., _evil guest, hostile stranger_: nom. sg., 2671.

inwit-hrôf, st. m., _hostile roof, hiding-place of a cunning foe_: acc. sg.
under inwit-hrôf, 3124.

inwit-net, st. n., _mischief-net, cunning snare_: acc. sg., 2168.

inwit-nîð, st. n., _cunning hostility, hostile contest_: nom. pl.
inwit-nîðas (_hostility through secret attack_), 1859; gen. pl. inwit-nîða,

inwit-scear, st. m., _massacre through cunning, murderous attack_: acc. sg.
eatolne inwit-scear, 2479.

inwit-searo, st. n., _cunning, artful intrigue_: acc. sg. þurh inwit-searo,
1102. See searo.

inwit-sorh, st. f., _grief, remorse, mourning springing from hostile
cunning_: nom. sg., 1737; acc. sg. inwid-sorge, 832.

inwit-þanc, adj., _ill-disposed, malicious_: dat. sg. he onfêng hraðe
inwit-þancum (_he quickly grasped the cunning-in-mind_ [Grendel]), 749.

irnan (for rinnan), st. v., _to run_: so be-irnan, _to run up to_, occur_:
pret. sg him on môd be-arn (_came into his mind_), 67.

on-irnan, _to open_: pret. sg. duru sôna onarn, 722.

irre-môd, adj. See yrre-môd.


îdel, adj., _empty, bare; deprived of_: nom. sg., 145, 413; w. gen.
lond-rihtes þære mægburge îdel (_deprived of his land-possessions among the
people_ [of the Geátas]), 2889.

îdel-hende, adj., _empty-handed_, 2082.

îren, st. n., _iron, sword_: nom. sg. dryhtlîc îren (_the doughty, lordly
sword_), 893; îren ær-gôd, 990; acc. sg. leóflîc îren, 1810; gen. pl. îrena
cyst (_choicest of swords_), 674; îrenna cyst, 803; îrenna ecge (_edges of
swords_), 2684.

îren, adj., _of iron_: nom. sg. ecg wäs îren, 1460.

îren-bend, st. f., _iron band, bond, rivet_: instr. pl. îren-bendum fäst
(bold), 775, 999.

îren-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. îren-byrnan, 2987. See

îren-heard, adj., _hard as iron_: nom. sg., 1113.

îrenne, adj., _of iron_: in comp. eall-îrenne.

îren-þreát, st. m., _iron troop, armored band_: nom. sg., 330.

îs, st. n., _ice_: dat. sg. îse, 1609.

îsern-byrne, w. f., _iron corselet_: acc. sg. îsern-byrnan, 672. See

îsern-scûr, st. f., _iron shower, shower of arrows_: gen. sg. þone þe oft
gebâd îsern-scûre, 3117.

îs-gebind, st. n., _fetters of ice_: instr. sg. îs-gebinde, 1134.

îsig, adj., _shining, brilliant_ (like brass): nom. sg. îsig (said of a
vessel covered with plates(?) of metal), 33.--Leo.


iú. See geó.

iú-man. See geó-man.

ió-meówle. See geó-meówle.


laðu, st. f., _invitation_.--Comp.: freónd-, neód-laðu.

ge-lafian, w. v. w. acc. pers. and instr. of the thing, _to refresh, lave_:
pret. sg. wine-dryhten his wätere gelafede, 2723.

lagu, st. m., _lake, sea_: nom. sg., 1631.

lagu-cräftig, adj., _acquainted with the sea_: nom. sg. lagu-cräftig mon
(_pilot_), 209.

lagu-stræt, st. f., _path over the sea_: acc. sg. ofer lagu-stræte, 239.

lagu-streám, st. m., _sea-current, flood_: acc. pl. ofer lagu-streámas,

land, st. n., _land_: nom. sg. lond, 2198; acc. sg. land, 221, 2063; lond,
2472, 2493; land Dena, 242, 253; lond Brondinga, 521; Finna land, 580; dat.
sg. on lande (_in the land_), 2311, 2837; _at near, land, shore_, 1914; tô
lande (_to the land, ashore_), 1624; gen. sg. landes, 2996; gen. pl. ofer
landa fela (_over much country, space; afar_), 31l.--Comp.: el-, eá-land.

land-bûend, part, pres., terricola, _inhabitant of the land_: nom. pl.
lond-bûend, 1346; dat. pl. land-bûendum, 95.

land-fruma, w. m., _ruler, prince of the country_: nom. sg., 31.

land-gemyrcu, st. n. pl., _frontier, land-mark_: acc. pl., 209.

land-geweorc, st. n., _land-work, fortified place_: acc. sg. leóda
land-geweorc, 939. See weorc, geweorc.

land-riht, st. n., _prerogatives based upon land-possessions, right to
possess land_, hence _real estate_ itself: gen. sg. lond-rihtes îdel, 2887.

land-waru, st. f., _inhabitants, population_: acc. pl. land-wara, 2322.

land-weard, st. m., _guard, guardian of the frontier_: nom. sg., 1891.

lang, long, adj., _long_: 1) temporal: nom. sg. tô lang, 2094; näs þâ long
(lang) tô þon (_not long after_), 2592, 2846; acc. sg. lange hwîle (_for a
long time_), 16, 2160, 2781; longe (lange) þrage, 54, 114, 1258; lange tîd,
1916. Compar. nom. sg. lengra fyrst, 134.--2) local, nom. sg. se wäs
fîftiges fôtgemearces lang, 3044.--Comp.: and-, morgen-, niht-, up-lang.

lange, longe, adv., _long_: lange, 31, 1995, 2131, 2345, 2424; longe, 1062,
2752, 3109; tô lange (_too long, excessively long_), 906, 1337, 1749.
Compar. leng, 451, 1855, 2802, 3065; nô þý leng (_none the longer_), 975.
Superl. lengest (_longest_), 2009, 2239.

ge-lang, adj., _extending, reaching to something_ or _somebody_, hence
_ready, prepared_: nû is ræd gelang eft ät þe ânum (_now is help [counsel]
at hand in thee alone_), 1377; gen is eall ät þe lissa gelong (_all of
favor is still on thee dependent, is thine_), 2151. See ge-lenge.

lang-ge-streón, st. n., _long-lasting treasure_: gen. pl. long-gestreóna,

langian, w. v., reflex, w. dat, _to long, yearn_: pres. sg. III. him
...äfter deórum men dyrne langað beorn (_the hero longeth secretly after
the dear man_), 1880.

lang-sum, adj., _long-lasting, continuing_: nom. sg. longsum, 134, 192,
1723; acc. sg. long-sumne, 1537.

lang-twidig, adj., _long-granted, assured_: nom. sg., 1709.

lata, w. m., _a lazy, cowardly one_; in comp. hild-lata.

lâ, interj., _yes! indeed!_ 1701, 2865.

lâc, st. n.: 1) _measured movement, play_: in comp. beadu-, heaðo-lâc.--2)
_gift, offering_: acc. pl. lâc, 1864; lâðlîcu lâc (_loathly offering,
prey_), 1585; dat. pl. lâcum, 43, 1869.--Comp. sæ-lâc.

ge-lâc, st. n., _sport, play_: acc. pl. sweorda gelâc (_battle_), 1041;
dat. pl. ät ecga gelâcum, 1169.

lâcan, st. v., _to move in measured time, dancing, playing, fighting,
flying_, etc.: inf. dareðum lâcan (_fight_), 2849; part. pres. äfter lyfte
lâcende (_flying through the air_), 2833.

for-lâcan, _to deceive, betray_: part, pret. he wearð on feónda geweald
forð forlâcen (_deceitfully betrayed into the enemy's hands_), 904.

lâd, st. f., _street, way, journey_: dat. sg. on lâde, 1988; gen. sg. lâde,
569.--Comp.: brim-, sæ-lâd.

ge-lâd, st. n., _way, path, road_: acc. sg. uncûð gelâd, 1411.

lâð, adj., _loathly, evil, hateful, hostile_: nom. sg. lâð, 816; lâð
lyft-floga, 2316; lâð (_enemy_), 440; ne leóf ne lâð, 511; neut. lâð, 134,
192; in weak form, se lâða (of the dragon), 2306; acc. sg. lâðne (wyrm),
3041; dat. sg. lâðum, 440, 1258; gen. sg. lâðes (of the enemy), 842; fela
lâðes (_much evil_), 930; so, 1062; lâðan lîges, 83; lâðan cynnes, 2009,
2355; þäs lâðan (of the enemy), 132; acc. pl. neut. lâð gewidru (_hateful
storms_), 1376; dat. instr. pl. wið lâðum, 550; lâðum scuccum and scinnum,
939; lâðum dædum (_with evil deeds_), 2468; lâðan fingrum, 1506; gen. pl.
lâðra manna, spella, 2673, 3030; lâðra (_the enemy_), 242. Compar. nom. sg.
lâðra ... beorn, 2433.

lâð-bite, st. m., _hostile bite_: dat. sg. lâð-bite lîces (_the body's
hostile bite_ = the wound), 1123.

lâð-geteóna, w. m., _evil-doer, injurer_: nom. sg., 975; nom. pl.
lâð-geteónan, 559.

lâð-lîc, adj., _loathly, hostile_: acc. pl. lâð-lîcu, 1585.

lâf, st. f.: 1) _what is left, relic; inheritance, heritage, legacy_: nom.
sg. Hrêðlan lâf (Beówulf's corselet), 454; nom. pl. fêla lâfe (_the
leavings of files_ = swords, Grein), 1033; so, homera lâfe, 2830; on him
gladiað gomelra lâfe, heard and hringmæl Heaðobeardna gestreón (_on him
gleams the forefather's bequest, hard and ring-decked, the Heaðobeardas'
treasure_, i.e. the equipments taken from the slain king of the
Heaðobeardas), 2037; acc. sg. sweorda lâfe (_leavings of the sword_, i.e.
those spared by the sword), 2937.--2) _the sword as a specially precious
heir-loom_: nom. sg., 2629; acc. sg. lâfe, 796, 1489, 1689, 2192, 2564;
instr. sg. incge lâfe, 2578.--Comp.: ende-, eormen-, weá-, yrfe-, ýð-lâf.

lâr, st. f., _lore, instruction, prescription_: dat. sg. be fäder lâre,
1951; gen. pl. lâra, 1221; lârena, 269.--Comp. freónd-lâr.

lâst, st. m., _footstep, track_: acc. sg. lâst, 132, 972, 2165; on lâst
(_on the traces of, behind_), 2946; nom. pl. lâstas, 1403; acc. pl. lâstas,
842.--Comp.: fêðe-, feorh-, fôt-, wräc-lâst.

läger. See leger.

lâger-bed, st. n., _bed to lie on_ : instr. sg. leger-bedde, 1008.

läs, adj., _less_, 1947; þý läs (_the less_), 487; conjunct, _that not,
lest_, 1919.

lässa, adj., _less, fewer_: nom. sg. lässa, 1283; acc. sg. m. lässan, 43;
fem, lässan hwîle, 2572; dat. sg. for lässan (_for less, smaller_), 952.
Superl. nom. sg. nô þät läsest wäs hond-gemôt[a], 2355.

lät, adj., _negligent, neglectful_; w. gen.: nom. sg. elnes lät, 1530.

lædan, w. v. w. acc.: _to lead, guide, bring_: inf. lædan, 239; pret. pl.
læddon, 1160.

for-1ædan, _to mislead_: pret. pl. for-læddan, 2440 (?).

ge-lædan, _lead, bring_: part. pret. ge-læded, 37.

læfan, w. v.: 1), _to bequeathe, leave_: imper. sg. þînum magum læf folc
and rîce, 1179; pret. sg. eaferum læfde ... lond and leódbyrig, 2471.--2)
_spare, leave behind_: âht cwices læfan (_to spare aught living_), 2316.

læn-dagas, st. m. pl., _loan-days, transitory days_ (of earthly existence
as contrasted with the heavenly, unending): acc. pl. læn-dagas, 2592; gen.
pl. læn-daga, 2342.

læne, adj., _inconstant, perishable, evanescent, given over to death or
destruction_: nom. sg., 1755, 3179; acc. sg. of rust-eaten treasures, 3130;
þâs lænan gesceaft (_this fleeting life_), 1623; gen. sg. lænan lîfes,

læran, w. v., _to teach, instruct_: imper. sg. þu þe lær be þon (_learn
this, take this to heart_), 1723.

ge-læran, _to teach, instruct, give instruction_: inf. ic þäs Hrôðgâr mäg
... ræd gelæran (_I can give H. good advice about this_), 278; so, 3080;
pret. pl. þâ me þät ge-lærdon leóde mîne (_gave me the advice_), 415.

læstan, w. v.: 1) _to follow, to sustain, serve_: inf. þät him se lîc-homa
læstan nolde (_that his body would not sustain him_), 813.--2) _perform_:
imper. læst eall tela (_do all well_), 2664.

ge-læstan: 1) _to follow, serve_: pret. sg. (sweord) þät mec ær and oft
gelæste, 2501.--2) _to fulfil, grant_: subj. pres. pl. þät ... wilgesîðas,
þonne wîg cume, leóde gelæstan (_render war service_), 24; inf. ic þe sceal
mîne gelæstan freóde (_shall grant thee my friendship, be grateful_), 1707;
pret. sg. beót ... gelæste (_fulfilled his boast_), 524; gelæste swâ (_kept
his word_), 2991; pres. part. häfde Eást-Denum ... gilp gelæsted (_had
fulfilled for the East Danes his boast_), 830.

lætan, st. v., _to let, allow_, w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. III. læteð,
1729; imper. pl. II. lætað, 397; sg. II. læt, 1489; pret. sg. lêt, 2390,
2551, 2978, 3151(?); pret. pl. lêton, 48, 865, 3133; subj. pret. sg. II.
lête, 1997; sg. III. lête, 3083.

â-lætan: 1) _to let, allow_: subj. pres. sg. II. þät þu ne âlæte ... dôm
ge-dreósan, 2666.--2) _to leave, lay aside_: inf. âlætan læn-dagas (_die_)
2592; so, âlætan lîf and leódscipe, 2751.

for-lætan: 1) _to let, permit_, w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg. for-lêt, 971;
pret. pl. for-lêton, 3168. Also with inf. omitted: inf. nolde eorla hleó
... þone cwealmcuman cwicne (i.e. wesan) forlætan (_would not let the
murderous spirit go alive_), 793.--2) _to leave behind, leave_: pret. sg.
in þam wong-stede ... þær he hine ær forlêt (_where he had previously left
him_), 2788.

of-lætan, _to leave, lay aside_: pres. sg. II. gyf þu ær þonne he worold
oflætest (_leavest the world, diest_), 1184; so pret. sg. oflêt lîf-dagas
and þâs lænan gesceaft, 1623.

on-lætan, _to release, liberate_: pres. sg. III. þonne forstes bend fäder
on-læteð (_as soon as the Father looseth the frost's fetters_), 1610.

â-lecgan, w. v.: 1) _to lay, lay down_: pret. sg. syððan hilde-deór hond
â-legde ... under geápne hrôf, 835; þät he on Beówulfes bearm â-legde
(_this_ [the sword] _he laid in B.'s bosom, presented to him_), 2195; pret.
pl. â-ledon þâ leófne þeóden ... on bearm scipes, 34; â-legdon þâ tô middes
mærne þeóden _(laid the mighty prince in the midst_ [of the pyre]),
3142.--2) _to lay aside, give up_: siððan ... in fen-freoðo feorh â-legde
(_laid down his life, died_), 852; nu se here-wîsa hleahtor â-legde, gamen
and gleó-dreám _(now the war-chief has left laughter_, etc.), 3021.

leger, st. n., _couch, bed, lair_: dat. sg. on legere, 3044.

lemian, w. v., _to lame, hinder, oppress_: pret. sg. (for pl.) hine
sorh-wylmas lemede tô lange, 906. MS.

leng. See lang.

lenge, adj., _extending along_ or _to, near_ (of time): nom. sg. neut. ne
wäs hit lenge þâ gen (_nor was it yet long_), 83.

ge-lenge, adj., _extending, reaching to, belonging_: nom. sg. yrfe-weard
... lîce gelenge (_an heir belonging to one's body_), 2733.

let, st. m., _place of rest, sojourn?_ in comp. eo-let (_voyage?_).

lettan, w. v., _to hinder_: pret. pl. (acc. pers. and gen. thing), þät
syððan nâ ... brim-lîðende lâde ne letton (_might no longer hinder
seafarers from journeying_), 569.

â-lêdon. See â-lecgan.

lêg, st. m., _flame, fire_: nom. sg. wonna lêg (_the lurid flame_), 3116;
swôgende lêg, 3146; dat. sg. for dracan lêge, 2550. See lîg.

lêg-draca, w. m., _fire-drake, flaming dragon_: nom. sg., 3041.

*leahan, leán, st. v. w. acc. _to scold, blame_: pres. sg. III. lyhð, 1049;
pret. sg. lôg, 1812; pret. pl. lôgon, 203, 863.

be-leán, _to dissuade, prevent_: inf. ne inc ænig mon ... beleán mihte
sorhfullne sîð (_no one might dissuade you twain from your difficult
journey_), 511.

leahtre. See or-leahtre.

leáf, st. n., _leaf, foliage_: instr. pl. leáfum, 97.

leáfnes-word, st. n., _permission, leave_: acc. pl., 245.

leán. See leahan.

leán, st. n., _reward, compensation_: acc. sg., 114, 952, 1221, 1585, 2392;
dat. sg. leáne, 1022. Often in the pl.: acc. þâ leán, 2996; dat. þam
leánum, 2146; gen. leána, 2991.--Comp.: and-, ende-leán.

leân (for læn, O.H.G. lêhan), st. n, _loan_, 1810.

leánian, w. v., _to reward, compensate_: pres. sg. I. ic þe þâ fæhðe feó
leánige (_repay thee for the contest with old-time treasures_), 1381; pret.
sg. me þone wäl-ræs wine Scyldinga fättan golde fela leánode (_the friend
of the Scyldings rewarded me richly for the combat with plated gold_),

leás, adj., _false_: nom. pl. leáse, 253.

leás, adj., _deprived of, free from_, w. gen.: nom. sg. dreáma leás, 851;
dat. sg. winigea leásum, 1665.--Comp.: dôm-, dreám-, ealdor-, feoh-,
feormend-, hlâford-, sâwol-, sige-, sorh-, tîr-, þeóden-, wine-, wyn-leás.

leásig, adj., _concealing one's self_; in comp. sin-leásig(?).

leoðo-cräft, st. m., _the art of weaving_ or _working in meshes, wire_,
etc.: instr. pl. segn eall-gylden ... gelocen leoðo-cräftum (_a banner all
hand-wrought of interlaced gold_), 2770.

leoðo-syrce, w. f., _shirt of mail (limb-sark)_: acc. sg. locene
leoðo-syrcan (_locked linked sark_), 1506; acc. pl. locene leoðo-syrcan,

leomum. See lim.

leornian, w. v., _to learn, devise, plan_: pret. him þäs gûð-cyning ...
wräce leornode (_the war-king planned vengeance therefor_), 2337.

leód, st. m., _prince_: nom. sg., 341, 348, 670, 830, 1433, 1493, 1613,
1654, etc.; acc. leód, 626.

leód, st. f., _people_: gen. sg. leóde, 597, 600, 697. In pl. indicates
_individuals, people, kinsmen_: nom. pl. leóde, 362, 415, 1214, 2126, etc.;
gum-cynnes Geáta leóde (_people of the race of the Geátas_), 260; acc. pl.
leóde, 192, 443, 1337, 1346, etc.; dat. pl. leódum, 389, 521, 619, 698,
906, 1160, etc.; gen. pl. leóda, 205, 635, 794, 1674, 2034, etc.

leód-bealo, st. n., (_mischief, misfortune affecting an entire people_),
_great, unheard-of calamity_: acc. sg., 1723; gen. pl. leód-bealewa, 1947.

leód-burh, st. f., _princely castle, stronghold of a ruler, chief city_:
acc. pl. -byrig, 2472.

leód-cyning, st. m., _king of the people_: nom. sg., 54.

leód-fruma, w. m., _prince of the people, ruler_: acc. sg. leód-fruman,

leód-gebyrgea, w. m., _protector of the people, prince_: acc. sg.
-gebyrgean, 269.

leód-hryre, st. m., _fall, overthrow, of the prince, ruler_: dat. sg. äfter
leód-hryre (_after the fall of the king of the Heaðobeardas_, Frôda, cf.
2051), 2031; gen. sg. þäs leód-hryres (of the fall of Heardred, cf. 2389),

leód-sceaða, w. m., _injurer of the people_: dat. sg. þam leód-sceaðan,

leód-scipe, st. m., _the whole nation, people_: acc. sg., 2752; dat. sg. on
þam leód-scipe, 2198.

leóð, st. n., _song, lay_: nom. sg., 1160.--Comp.: fyrd-, gryre-, gûð-,

leóf, adj., _lief, dear_: nom. sg., 31, 54, 203, 511, 521, 1877, 2468; weak
form m., leófa, 1217, 1484, 1855, 2664; acc. sg. m. leófne, 34, 297, 619,
1944, 2128, 3109, 3143; gen. sg. leófes (m.), 1995, 2081, 2898; (neut.),
1062, 2911; dat. pl. leófum, 1074; gen. pl. leófra, 1916. Compar. nom. sg.
neut. leófre, 2652. Superl. nom. sg. m. leófost, 1297; acc. sg. þone
leófestan, 2824.

leóflîc, _dear, precious, valued_: nom. sg. m. leóflîc lind-wîga, 2604;
acc. sg. neut. leóflîc îren, 1810.

leógan, st. v., _to lie, belie, deceive_. subj. pres. näfne him his wlite
leóge (_unless his looks belie him_), 250; pret. sg. he ne leág fela wyrda
ne worda, 3030.

â-leógan, _to deceive, leave unfulfilled_: pret. sg. he beót ne â-lêh (_he
left not his promise unfulfilled_), 80.

ge-leógan, _to deceive, betray_: pret. sg. him seó wên geleáh (_hope
deceived him_), 2324.

leóht, st. n., _light, brilliance_: nom. sg., 569, 728, 1751 (?); acc. sg.
sunnan leóht, 649; godes leóht geceás (_chose God's light, died_), 2470;
dat. sg. tô leóhte, 95.--Comp.: æfen-, fýr-, morgen-leóht.

leóht, adj., _luminous, bright_: instr. sg. leóhtan sweorde, 2493.

leóma, w. m.: 1) _light, splendor_: nom. sg., 311, 2770; acc. sg. leóman,
1518; sunnan and mônan leóman (_light of sun and moon_), 95.--2) (as beadu-
and hilde-leóma), _the glittering sword_: nom. sg. lixte se leóma (_the
blade-gleam flashed_), 1571.

leósan, st. v., = amitti, in

be-leósan, _to deprive, be deprived of_: pres. part. (heó) wearð beloren
leófum bearnum and brôðrum (_was deprived of her dear children and
brethren_), 1074.

for-leósan, with dat. instr., _to lose something_: pret. sg. þær he dôme
for-leás, ellen-mærðum (_there lost he the glory, the repute, of his heroic
deeds_), 1471; pret. sg. for pl. þâm þe ær his elne for-leás (_to him who,
before, had lost his valor_), 2862; part. pret. nealles ic þâm leánum
for-loren häfde (_not at all had I lost the rewards_), 2146.

libban, w. v., _to live, be, exist_: pres. sing. III. lifað, 3169; lyfað,
945; leofað, 975, 1367, 2009; subj. pres. sg. II. lifige, 1225; pres. part.
lifigende, 816, 1954, 1974, 2063; dat. sg. be þe lifigendum (_in thy
lifetime_), 2666; pret. sg. lifde, 57, 1258; lyfde, 2145; pret. pl. lifdon,
99. See unlifigende.

licgan, st. v.: 1) _to lie, lie down_ or _low_: pres. sg. nu seó hand ligeð
(_now the hand lies low_), 1344; nu se wyrm ligeð, 2746, so 2904; inf.
licgan, 3130; licgean, 967, 3083; pret. sg. läg, 40, 552, 2078; syððan
Heardrêd läg (_after Heardrêd had fallen_), 2389; pret. pl. lâgon, 3049;
lægon, 566.--2) _to lie prostrate, rest, fail_: pret. sg. næfre on ôre läg
wîd-cûðes wîg (_never failed the far-famed one's valor at the front_),
1042; syððan wiðer-gyld läg (_after vengeance failed_, or, _when Withergyld
lay dead_, if _W._ is a proper name), 2052.

â-licgan, _to succumb, fail, yield_: inf. 2887; pret. sg. þät his dôm â-läg
(_that its power failed it_), 1529.

ge-licgan, _to rest, lie still_: pret. sg. wind-blond geläg, 3147.

lida, w. m., _boat, ship_ (as in motion); in comp.: sund-, ýð-lida.

lid-man, st. m., _seafarer, sailor_: gen. pl. lid-manna, 1624.

lim, st. n., _limb, branch_: instr. pl. leomum, 97.

limpan, st. v., _to happen, befall_ (well or ill); impers. w. dat. pret.
sg. hû lomp eów on lâde (_how went it with you on the journey?_), 1988.

â-limpan, _to come about, offer itself_: pret. sg. ôð þät sæl â-lamp (_till
the opportunity presented itself_), 623; pret. part, þâ him â-lumpen wäs
wistfylle wên (_since a hope of a full meal had befallen him_), 734.

be-limpan, _to happen to, befall_: pret. sg. him sió sâr belamp, 2469.

ge-limpan, _to happen, occur, turn out_: pres. sg. III. hit eft gelimpeð
þät..., 1754; subj. pres. þisse ansýne alwealdan þanc lungre gelimpe
(_thanks to the Almighty forthwith for this sight!_), 930; pret. sg. him on
fyrste gelamp þät..., 76; swâ him ful-oft gelamp (_as often happened to
them_), 1253; þäs þe hire se willa gelamp þät ... (_because her wish had
been fulfilled_), 627; frôfor eft gelamp sârig-môdum, 2942; subj. pret. gif
him þyslîcu þearf gelumpe, 2638; pret. part. Denum eallum wearð ... willa
gelumpen, 825.

lind, st. f. (properly _linden_; here, a a wooden shield covered with
linden-bark or pith): nom. sg., 2342; acc. sg. geolwe linde, 2611; acc. pl.
linde, 2366.

lind-gestealla, w. m., _shield-comrade, war-comrade_: nom. sg., 1974.

lind-häbbend, pres. part., _provided with a shield_, i.e. warrior: nom. pl.
-häbbende, 245; gen. pl. häbbendra, 1403.

lind-plega, w. m., _shield-play_, i.e. battle: dat. sg. lind-plegan, 1074,

lind-wîga, w. m., _shield-fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 2604.

linnan, st. v., _to depart, be deprived of_: inf. aldre linnan (_depart
from life_), 1479; ealdres linnan, 2444.

lis, st. f., _favor, affection_: gen. pl. eall ... lissa, 2151.

list, st. m., _art, skill, cleverness, cunning_: dat. pl. adverbial, listum
(_cunningly_), 782.

lixan, w. v., _to shine, flash_: pret. sg. lixte, 311, 485, 1571.

lîc, st. n.: 1) _body, corpse_: nom. sg., 967; acc. sg. lîc, 2081; þät lîc
(_the body, corpse_), 2128; dat. sg. lîce, 734, 1504, 2424, 2572, 2733,
2744; gen. sg. lîces, 451, 1123.-- 2) _form, figure_: in comp. eofor-,

ge-lîc, adj., _like, similar_: nom. pl. m. ge-lîce, 2165. Superl.
ge-lîcost, 218, 728, 986, 1609.

lîc-hama, -homa, w. m. _(body-home, garment), body_: nom. sg. lîc-homa,
813, 1008, 1755; acc. sg. lîc-haman, 2652; dat. sg. lîc-haman, 3179.

lîcian, w. v., _to please, like_ (impers.): pres. sg. III. me þîn môd-sefa
lîcað leng swâ wel, 1855; pret. pl. þam wîfe þâ word wel lîcodon, 640.

lîcnes. See on-lîcnes.

lîc-sâr, st. n., _bodily pain_: acc. sg. lîc-sâr, 816.

lîc-syrce, w. f., _body-sark, shirt of mail covering the body_: nom. sg.,

1îðan, st. v., _to move, go_: pres. part. nom. pl. þâ lîðende (_navigantes,
sailors_), 221; þâ wäs sund liden (_the water was then traversed_),
223.--Comp.: heáðu-, mere-, wæg-lîðend.

lîðe (O.H.G. lindi), adj., _gentle, mild, friendly_: nom. sg. w. instr.
gen. lâra lîðe, 1221. Superl. nom. sg. lîðost, 3184.

lið-wæge, st. n., _can in which lîð_ (a wine-like, foaming drink) _is
contained_: acc. sg., 1983.

lîf, st. n., _life_: acc. sg. lîf, 97, 734, 1537, 2424, 2744, 2752; dat.
sg. lîfe, 2572; tô lîfe (_in one's life, ever_) 2433; gen. sg. lîfes, 197,
791, 807, 2824, 2846; worolde lîfes (_of the earthly life_), 1388,
2344.--Comp. edwît-lîf.

lîf-bysig, adj. _(striving for life or death), weary of life, in torment of
death_: nom. sg., 967.

lîf-dagas, st. m. pl., _lifetime_: acc.-dagas, 794, 1623.

lîf-freá, w. m., _lord of life, God_: nom. sg., 16.

lîf-gedâl, st. n., _separation from life_: nom. sg., 842.

lîf-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, destiny_: gen. pl.-gesceafta, 1954, 3065.

lîf-wraðu, st. f., _protection for one's life, safety_: acc. sg. lîf-wraðe,
2878; dat. sg. tô lîf-wraðe, 972.

lîf-wyn, st. f., _pleasure, enjoyment, joy_ (of life): gen. pl. lîf-wynna,

lîg, st. m. n., _flame, fire_: nom. sg., 1123; dat. instr. sg. lîge, 728,
2306, 2322, 2342; gen. sg. lîges, 83, 782. See lêg.

lîg-draca, w. m., _ fire-drake, flaming dragon_; nom. pl., 2334. See

lîg-egesa, w. m., _horror arising through fire, flaming terror_: acc. sg.,

lîge-torn, st. m., _false, pretended insult_ or _injury, fierce anger_(?):
dat. sg. äfter lîge-torne _(on account of a pretended insult?_ or _fierce
anger?_ cf. Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 208), 1944.

lîg-ýð, st. m., _wave of fire_: instr. pl. lîg-ýðum, 2673.

león, st. v., _to lend_: pret. sg. þät him on þearfe lâh þyle Hrôðgâres
(_which H.'s spokesman lent him in need_), 1457.

on-leóon, _to lend, grant as a loan_, with gen. of thing and dat. pers.:
pret. sg. þâ he þäs wæpnes on-lâh sêlran sweord-frecan, 1468.

loca, w. m., _bolt, lock_: in comp. bân-, burh-loca.

locen. See lûcan.

lond, long. See land, lang.

lof, st. m. n., _praise, repute_: acc. sg. lof, 1537.

lof-dæd, st. f., _deed of praise_: instr. pl. lof-dædum, 24.

lof-georn, adj., _eager for praise, ambitious_: superl. nom. sg.
lof-geornost, 3184.

loga, w. m., _liar_; in comp. treów-loga.

losian, w. v., _to escape, flee_: pres. sg. III. losað, 1393, 2063; pret.
sg. he on weg losade (_fled away_), 2097.

lôcian, w. v., _to see, look at_: pres. sg. II. sæ-lâc ... þe þu her tô
lôcast (_booty of the sea that thou lookest on_), 1655.

ge-lôme, adv., _often, frequently_, 559.

lufe, w. f., _love_: in comp. heáh-, môd-, wîf-lufe.

lufa (cf. and-leofa, big-leofa, _nourishment_), w. m., _food, subsistence;
property, real estate_: acc. sg. on lufan (_on possessions_), 1729.--Comp.

lufen, st. f. (cf. lufa), _subsistence, food; real estate, (enjoyment?)_:
nom. sg. lufen (parallel with êðel-wyn), 2887.

luf-tâcen, st. n., _love-token_: acc. pl. luf-tâcen, 1864.

lufian, w. v., _to love, serve affectionately_: pret. sg. III. lufode þâ
leóde (_was on affectionate terms with the people_), 1983.

lungre, adv.: 1) _hastily, quickly, forthwith_, 930, 1631, 2311, 2744.--2)
_quite, very, fully_: feówer mearas lungre gelîce (_four horses quite
alike_), 2165.

lust, st. m., _pleasure, joy_: dat. pl. adv. lustum (_joyfully_), 1654; so,
on lust, 619, cf. 600.

lûcan, st. v., _to twist, wind, lock, interweave_: pret. part. acc. sg. and
pl. locene leoðo-syrcan (_shirt of mail wrought of meshes or rings
interlocked_), 1506, 1891; gen. pl. locenra beága (_rings wrought of gold
wire_), 2996.

be-lûcan: 1) _to shut, close in or around_: pret. sg. winter ýðe be-leác
îs-gebinde (_winter locked the waves with icy bond_), 1133.-- 2) _to shut
in, off, preserve, protect_: pret. sg. I. hig wîge beleác manegum mægða (_I
shut them in, protected them, from war arising from many a tribe_), 1771.
Cf. me wîge belûc wrâðum feóndum (_protect me against mine enemies_), Ps.
34, 3.

ge-lûcan, _to unite, link together, make_: pret. part. gelocen, 2770.

on-lûcan, _to unlock, open_: pret. sg. word-hord on-leác (_opened the
word-hoard, treasure of speech_), 259.

tô-lucan, _(to twist, wrench, in two) to destroy_: inf., 782.

lyft, st. f. (m. n.?), _air_: nom. sg., 1376; dat. sg. äfter lyfte (_along,
through, the air_), 2833.

lyft-floga, w. m., _air-flier_: nom. sg. (of the dragon), 2316.

lyft-geswenced, pret. part., _urged, hastened on, by the wind_, 1914.

lyft-wyn, st. f., _enjoyment of the air_: acc. sg. lyft-wynne, 3044.

lyhð. See leahan.

lystan, w. v., _to lust after, long for_: pret. sg. Geát ungemetes wel ...
restan lyste(_the Geát_ [Beówulf] _longed sorely to rest_), 1794.

lyt, adj. neut. (= parum), _little, very little, few_: lyt eft becwom ...
hâmes niósan (_few escaped homeward_), 2366; lyt ænig (_none at all_),
3130; usually with gen.: wintra lyt, 1928; lyt ... heáfod-mâga, 2151;
wergendra tô lyt (_too few defenders_), 2883; lyt swîgode nîwra spella (_he
kept to himself little, none at all, of the new tidings_), 2898; dat. sg.
lyt manna (_too few of men_), 2837.

lytel, adj., _small, little_: nom. sg. neut. tô lytel, 1749; acc. sg. f.
lytle hwîle (_a little while_), 2031, 2098; lif-wraðe lytle (_little
protection for his life_), 2878.--Comp. un-lytel.

lyt-hwôn, adv., _little = not at all_: lyt-hwôn lôgon, 204.

lýfe, st. n., _leave, permission, (life?)_: instr. sg. þîne lýfe (life,
MS.), 2132.--Leo. Cf. O.N. leyfi, n., _leave, permission_, in Möbius'
Glossary, p. 266.

lýfan, w. v., (fundamental meaning _to believe, trust_) in

â-lýfan, _to allow, grant, entrust_: pret. sg. næfre ic ænegum men ær
âlýfde ... þryð-ärn Dena (_never before to any man have I entrusted the
palace of the Danes_), 656; pret. part. (þâ me wäs) sîð ... âlýfed inn
under eorð-weall (_the way in under the wall of earth was allowed me_),

ge-lýfan, w. v., _to believe, trust_: 1) w. dat.: inf. þær gelýfan sceal
dryhtnes dôme se þe hine deáð nimeð (_whomever death carrieth away, shall
believe it to be the judgment of God_, i.e. in the contest between Beówulf
and Grendel), 440.--2) w. acc.: pret. sg. geóce gelýfde brego Beorht-Dena
(_believed in, expected, help_, etc.), 609; þät heó on ænigne eorl gelýfde
fyrena frôfre (_that she at last should expect from any earl comfort, help,
out of these troubles_), 628; se þe him bealwa tô bôte gelýfde (_who
trusted in him as a help out of evils_), 910; him tô anwaldan âre gelýfde
(_relied for himself on the help of God_), 1273.

â-lýsan, w. v., _to loose, liberate_: pret. part. þâ wäs of þäm hrôran helm
and byrne lungre â-lýsed (_helm and corselet were straightway loosed from
him_), 1631.


maðelian, w. v. (sermocinari), _to speak, talk_: pret. sg. maðelode, 286,
348, 360, 371, 405, 456, 499, etc.; maðelade, 2426.

maga, w. m., _son, male descendant, young man_: nom. sg. maga Healfdenes
(Hrôðgâr), 189, 1475, 2144; maga Ecgþeówes (Beówulf), 2588: maga (Grendel),
979; se maga geonga (Wîglâf), 2676; Grendeles maga (_a relative of
Grendel_), 2007; acc. sg. þone magan, 944.

magan, v. with pret.-pres. form, _to be able_: pres. sg. I. III. mäg, 277,
478, 931, 943, 1485, 1734, etc.; II. meaht þu, 2048; subj. pres. mæge,
2531, 2750; þeáh ic eal mæge (_even though I could_), 681; subj. pl. we
mægen, 2655; pret. sg. meahte, 542, 755, 1131, 1660, 2465, etc.; mihte,
190, 207, 462, 511, 571, 657, 1509, 2092, 2610; mehte, 1083, 1497, 1516,
1878; pl. meahton, 649, 942, 1455, 1912, 2374, 3080; mihton, 308, 313,
2684, 3164; subj. pret. sg. meahte, 243, 763, 2521; pres. sg. mäg,
sometimes = licet, _may, can, will_ (fut.), 1366, 1701, 1838, 2865.

mago (Goth. magu-s), st. m., _male, son_: nom. sg. mago Ecglâfes (Hunferð),
1466; mago Healfdenes (Hrôðgâr), 1868, 2012.

mago-dryht, st. f., _troop of young men, band of men_: nom. sg. mago-driht,

mago-rinc, st. m., _hero, man_ (preeminently): gen. pl. mago-rinca, heáp,

magu-þegn, mago-þegn, st. m., _vassal, war-thane_: nom. sg. 408, 2758; dat.
sg. magu-þegne, 2080; acc. pl. magu-þegnas, 293; dat. pl. mago-þegnum,
1481; gen. pl. mago-þegna ... þone sêlestan (_the best of vassals_), 1406.

man, mon, st. m.: 1) _man, human being_: nom. sg. man, 25, 503, 534, 1049,
1354, 1399, 1535, 1877, etc.; mon, 209, 510, 1561, 1646, 2282, etc.; acc.
sg. w. mannan, 297, 577, 1944, 2128, 2775; wîd-cûðne man, 1490; dat. sg.
men, 656, 753, 1880; menn, 2190; gen. sg. mannes, 1195 (?), 2081, 2534,
2542; monnes, 1730; nom. pl. men, 50, 162, 233, 1635, 3167; acc. pl. men,
69, 337, 1583, 1718; dat. pl. mannum, 3183; gen. pl. manna, 155, 201, 380,
702, 713, 736, etc.; monna, 1414, 2888.--2) indef. pron. = _one, they,
people_ (Germ. _man_): man, 1173, 1176; mon, 2356, 3177.--Comp.: fyrn-,
gleó-, gum-, iú-, lid-, sæ-, wæpned-man.

man. See munan.

man-cyn, st. n., _mankind_: dat. sg. man-cynne, 110; gen. sg. man-cynnes,
164, 2182; mon-cynnes, 196, 1956.

man-dreám, st. m., _human joy, mundi voluptas_: acc. sg. man-dreám, 1265;
dat. pl. mon-dreámum, 1716.

man-dryhten, st. m. (_lord of men_), _ruler of the people, prince, king_:
nom. sg. man-dryhten, 1979, 2648; mon-drihten, 436; mon-dryhten, 2866; acc.
sg. mon-dryhten, 2605; dat. sg. man-drihtne, 1230; man-dryhtne, 1250, 2282;
gen. sg. man-dryhtnes, 2850; mon-dryhtnes, 3150.

ge-mang, st. m., _troop, company_: dat. sg. on gemonge (_in the troop_ [of
the fourteen Geátas that returned from the sea]), 1644.

manian, w. v., _to warn, admonish_: pres. sg. III. manað swâ and myndgað
... sârum wordum (_so warneth and remindeth he with bitter words_), 2058.

manig, monig, adj., _many, many a, much_: 1) adjectively: nom. sg. rinc
manig, 399; geong manig (_many a young man_), 855; monig snellîc sæ-rinc,
690; medu-benc monig, 777; so 839, 909, 919, 1511, 2763, 3023, etc.; acc.
sg. medo-ful manig, 1016; dat. sg. m. þegne monegum, 1342, 1420; dat. sg.
f. manigre mægðe, 75; acc. pl. manige men, 337; dat. pl. manegum mâðmum,
2104; monegum mægðum, 5; gen. pl. manigra mêda, 1179.--2) substantively:
nom. sg. manig, 1861; monig, 858; dat. sg. manegum, 349, 1888; nom. pl.
manige, 1024; monige, 2983; acc. pl. monige, 1599; gen. pl. manigra,
2092.--3) with depend. gen. pl.: dat. manegum mægða, 1772; monegum fira,
2002; häleða monegum bold-âgendra, 3112; acc. pl. rinca manige, 729;
(mâðm)-æhta monige, 1614.

manig-oft, adv., _very often, frequently_, 171 [if manig and oft are to be

man-lîce, adv., _man-like, manly_, 1047.

man-þwære, adj., _kind, gentle toward men, philanthropic_: nom. sg. superl.
mon-þwærust, 3183.

mâ, contracted compar., _more_: with partitive gen., 504, 736, 1056.

mâðum, mâððum, st. m., _gift, jewel, object of value_: acc. sg. mâððum,
169, 1053, 2056, 3017; dat. instr. sg. mâðme, 1529, 1903; nom. pl. mâðmas,
1861; acc. pl. mâdmas, 385, 472, 1028, 1483, 1757, 1868, etc.; dat. instr.
pl. mâðmum, mâdmum, 1049, 1899, 2104, 2789; gen. pl. mâðma, 1785, 2144,
2167, etc.; mâdma, 36, 41.--Comp.: dryht-, gold-, hord-, ofer-, sinc-,

mâðm-æht, st. f., _treasure in jewels, costly objects_: gen. pl. mâðm-æhta,
1614, 2834.

mâððum-fät, st. n., _treasure-casket_ or _cup, costly vessel_: nom. sg.,

mâðm-gestreón, st. n., _precious jewel_: gen. pl. mâðm-gestreóna, 1932.

mâðum-gifu, st. f., _gift of valuable objects, largess of treasure_: dat.
sg. äfter mâððum-gife, 1302.

mâðum-sigl, st. n., _costly, sun-shaped ornament, valuable decoration_:
gen. pl. mâððum-sigla, 2758.

mâðum-sweord, st. n., _costly sword_ (inlaid with gold and jewels): acc.
sg., 1024.

mâðum-wela, w. m., _wealth of jewels, valuables_:: dat. sg.
äfter-mâððum-welan (_after the sight of the wealth of jewels_), 2751.

mâgas. See mæg.

mâge, w. f., _female relative_: gen. sg. Grendles mâgan (_mother_), 1392.

mân, st. n., _crime, misdeed_: instr. sg. mâne, 110, 979; adv.,
_criminally_, 1056.

mân-for-dædla, w. m., _evil-doer, criminal_: nom. pl. mân-for-dædlan, 563.

mân-scaða, w. m., _mischievous, hurtful foe, hostis nefastus_: nom. sg.
713, 738, 1340; mân-sceaða, 2515.

mâra (comp. of micel), adj., _greater, stronger, mightier_: nom. sg. m.
mâra, 1354, 2556; neut. mâre, 1561; acc. sg. m. mâran, 2017; mund-gripe
mâran (_a mightier hand-grip_), 754; with following gen. pl. mâran ...
eorla (_a more powerful earl_), 247; fem. mâran, 533, 1012; neut. mâre,
518; with gen. pl. morð-beala mâre _(more, greater, deeds of murder_), 136;
gen. sg. f. mâran, 1824.

mæst (superl. of micel, mâra), _greatest, strongest_: nom. sg. neut. (with
partitive gen.), mæst, 78, 193; fem. mæst, 2329; acc. sg. fem. fæhðe mæste,
459; mæste ... worolde wynne (_the highest earthly pleasure_), 1080; neut.
n. (with partitive gen.) mæst mærða, 2646; hond-wundra mæst, 2769; bæl-fýra
mæst, 3144; instr. sg. m. mæste cräfte, 2182.

mäcg. See mecg.

mägð, st. f., _wife, maid, woman_: nom. sg., 3017; gen. pl. mägða hôse
(_accompanied by her maids of honor_), 925; mägða, 944, 1284.

mägen, st. n.: 1) _might, bodily strength, heroic power_: acc. sg. mägen,
518, 1707; instr. sg. mägene, 780(?), 2668; gen. sg. mägenes, 418, 1271,
1535, 1717, etc.; mägnes, 671, 1762; mägenes strang, strengest (_great in
strength_), 1845, 196; mägenes rôf (id.), 2085.--2) _prime, flower_ (of a
nation), _forces available in war_: acc. sg. swâ he oft (i.e. etan) dyde
mägen Hrêðmanna (_the best of the Hreðmen_), 445; gen. sg. wið manna hwone
mägenes Deniga (_from(?) any of the men of the Danes_), 155.--Comp.

mägen-âgend, pres. part., _having great strength, valiant_: gen. pl.
-âgendra, 2838.

mägen-byrðen, st. f., _huge burthen_: acc. sg. mägen-byrðenne, 3092; dat.
(instr.) sg., 1626.

mägen-cräft, st. m., _great, hero-like, strength_: acc. sg., 380.

mägen-ellen, st. n. (the same), acc. sg., 660.

mägen-fultum, st. m., _material aid_: gen. pl. näs þät þonne mætost
mägen-fultuma (_that was not the least of strong helps_, i.e. the sword
Hrunting), 1456.

mägen-ræs, st. m., _mighty attack, onslaught_: acc. sg., 1520.

mägen-strengo, st. f., _main strength, heroic power_: acc. sg., 2679.

mägen-wudu, st. m., _might-wood_, i.e. the spear, lance: acc. sg., 236.

mäst, st. m., _mast_: nom. sg., 1899; dat. sg. be mäste (_beside the
mast_), 36; _to the mast_, 1906.

mæðum. See mâðum, hyge-mæðum.

mæg, st. m., _kinsman by blood_: nom. sg. mæg, 408, 738, 759, 814, 915,
1531, 1945, etc; (_brother_), 468, 2605? acc. sg. mæg (_son_), 1340;
(_brother_), 2440, 2485, 2983; dat. sg. mæge, 1979; gen. sg. mæges, 2629,
2676, 2699, 2880; nom. pl. mâgas, 1016; acc. pl. mâgas, 2816; dat. pl.
mâgum, 1179, 2615, 3066; (_to brothers_), 1168; mægum, 2354; gen. pl. mâga,
247, 1080, 1854, 2007, 2743.--Comp.: fäderen-, heáfod-, wine-mæg.

mæg-burh, st. f., _borough of blood-kinsmen, entire population united by
ties of blood_; (in wider sense) _race, people, nation_: gen. sg.
lond-rihtes ... þære mæg-burge (_of land possessions among the people_,
i.e. of the Geátas), 2888.

mægð, st. f., _race, people_: acc. sg. mægðe, 1012; dat. sg. mægðe, 75;
dat. pl. mægðum, 5; gen. pl. mægða, 25, 1772.

mæg-wine, st. m., _blood kinsman, friend_, 2480 (nom. pl.).

mæl, st. n.: l) _time, point of time_: nom. sg. 316; þâ wäs sæl and mæl
(_there was_ [appropriate] _chance and time_), 1009; acc. sg. mæl, 2634;
instr. pl. ærran mælum, 908, 2238, 3036; gen. pl. mæla, 1250; sæla and
mæla, 1612; mæla gehwylce (_each time, without intermission_), 2058.--2)
_sword, weapon_: nom. sg. broden (brogden) mæl (_the drawn sword_), 1617,
1668 (cf. Grimm, Andreas and Elene, p. 156).--3) _mole, spot,
mark_.--Comp.: græg-, hring-, sceaðen-, wunden-mæl.

mæl-cearu, st. f., _long-continued sorrow, grief_: acc. sg. mæl-ceare, 189.

mæl-gesceaft, st. f., _fate, appointed time_: acc. pl. ie on earde bâd
mæl-gesceafta (_awaited the time allotted for me by fate_), 2738.

mænan, w. v., with acc. in the sense of (1) _to remember, mention,
proclaim_: inf. mænan, 1068; pret. part. þær wäs Beówulfes mærðo mæned,
858.--2) _to mention sorrowfully, mourn_: inf. 3173; pret. sg. giohðo mænde
(_mourned sorrowfully_), 2268; pret. pl. mændon, 1150, 3150.

ge-mænan (see mân), w. v. with acc., _to injure maliciously, break_: subj.
pret. pl. ge-mænden, 1102.

ge-mæne, adj., _common, in common_: nom. sg. gemæne, 2474; þær unc hwîle
wäs hand gemæne (i.e. in battle), 2138; sceal ûrum þät sweord and helm bâm
gemæne (i.e. wesan), 2661; nom. pl. gemæne, 1861; dat. pl. þät þâm folcum
sceal ... sib gemænum (attraction for gemæne, i.e. wesan), 1858; gen. pl.
unc sceal (i.e. wesan) fela mâðma gemænra (_we two shall share many
treasures together_), 1785.

mærðu, st. f.: 1) _glory, a heroes fame_: nom. sg. 858; acc. sg. mærðo,
660, 688; acc. pl. mærða, 2997; instr. pl. mærðum (_gloriously_), 2515:
gen. pl. mærða, 504, 1531.--2) _deed of glory, heroism_: acc. sg. mærðo,
2135; gen. pl. mærða, 408, 2646.--Comp. ellen-mærðu.

mære, adj., _memorable; celebrated, noble; well known, notorious_: nom. sg.
m. mære, 103, 129, 1716, 1762; se mæra, 763, 2012, 2588; also as vocative
m. se mæra, 1475; nom. fem. mæru, 2017; mære, 1953; neut. mære, 2406; acc.
sg. m. mærne, 36, 201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2789, 3099; neut. mære, 1024;
dat. sg. mærum, 345, 1302, 1993, 2080, 2573; tô þäm mæran, 270; gen. sg.
mæres, 798; mæran, 1730; nom. pl. mære, 3071; superl. mærost, 899,--Comp.:
fore-, heaðo-mære.

mæst. See mâra.

mæte, adj., _moderate, small_: superl. nom. sg. mætost, 1456.

mecg, mäcg, st. m., _son, youth, man_. in comp. hilde-, oret-mecg,

medla. See on-medla.

medu, st. m., _mead_: acc. sg. medu, 2634; dat. sg. tô medo, 605.

medo-ärn, st. n., _mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-ärn (Heorot), 69.

medu-benc, st. f., _mead-bench, bench in the mead-hall_: nom. sg.
medu-benc, 777; dat. sg. medu-bence, 1053; medo-bence, 1068, 2186;
meodu-bence, 1903.

medu-dreám, st. m., _mead-joy, joyous carousing during mead-drinking_: acc.
sg. 2017.

medo-ful, st. n., _mead-cup_: acc. sg. 625, 1016.

medo-heal, st. f., _mead-hall_: nom. sg., 484; dat. sg. meodu-healle, 639.

medu-scenc, st. m., _mead-can, vessel_: instr. pl. meodu-scencum, 1981.

medu-seld, st. n., _mead-seat, mead-house_: acc. sg., 3066.

medo-setl, st. n., _mead-seat upon which one sits mead-drinking_: gen. pl.
meodo-setla, 5.

medo-stîg, st. f., _mead-road, road to the mead-hall_: acc. sg. medo-stîg,

medo-wang, st. m., _mead-field_ (where the mead-hall stood): acc. pl.
medo-wongas, 1644.

meðel, st. n., _assembly, council_: dat. sg. on meðle, 1877.

meðel-stede, st. m., (properly _place of speech, judgment-seat_), here
_meeting-place, battle-field_ (so, also 425, the battle is conceived under
the figure of a parliament or convention): dat. sg. on þäm meðel-stede,

meðel-word, st. n., _words called forth at a discussion; address_: instr.
pl. meðel-wordum, 236.

melda, w. m., _finder, informer, betrayer_: gen. sg. þäs meldan, 2406.

meltan, st. v. intrans., _to consume by fire, melt or waste away_: inf.,
3012; pret. sg. mealt, 2327; pl. multon, 1121.

ge-meltan, the same: pret. sg. gemealt, 898, 1609, 1616; ne gemealt him se
môd-sefa (_his courage did not desert him_), 2629.

men. See man.

mene, st. m., _neck ornament, necklace, collar_: acc. sg., 1200.

mengan, w. v., _to mingle, unite, with_, w. acc. of thing: inf. se þe
mere-grundas mengan scolde, 1450.

ge-mengan, _to mix with, commingle_: pret. part. 849, 1594.

menigu, st. f., _multitude, many_: nom. and acc. sg. mâðma menigeo
(_multitude of treasures, presents_), 2144; so, mänigo, 41.

mercels, st. m., _mark, aim_: gen. sg. mercelses, 2440.

mere, st. m., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg. se mere, 1363; acc. sg. on mere, 1131,
1604; on nicera mere, 846; dat. sg. fram mere, 856.

mere-deór, st. n., _sea-beast_: acc. sg., 558.

mere-fara, w. m., _seafarer_: gen. sg. mere-faran, 502.

mere-fix, st. m., _sea-fish_: gen. pl. mere-fixa (_the whale_, cf. 540),

mere-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom_: acc. sg., 2101; acc. pl. mere-grundas,

mere-hrägl, st. n., _-sea-garment_, i.e., sail: gen. pl. mere-hrägla sum,

mere-lîðend, pres. part., _moving on the sea, sailor_: nom. pl.
mere-lîðende, 255.

mere-stræt, st. f., _sea-street, way over the sea_: acc. pl. mere-stræta

mere-strengo, st. f., _sea-power, strength in the sea_: acc. sg., 533.

mere-wîf, st. n., _sea-woman, mer-woman_: acc. sg. (of Grendel's mother),

mergen. See morgen.

met, st. n., _thought, intention_ (cf. metian = meditari): acc. pl. onsæl
meoto, 489 (meaning doubtful; see Bugge, Journal 8, 292; Dietrich, Haupt's
Zeits. 11, 411; Körner, Eng. Stud. 2, 251).

ge-met, st. n., _an apportioned share; might, power, ability _: nom. sg.
nis þät ... gemet mannes nefne mîn ânes (_nobody, myself excepted, can do
that_), 2534; acc. sg. ofer mîn gemet (_beyond my power_), 2880; dat. sg.
mid gemete, 780.

ge-met, adj., _well-measured, meet, good_: nom. sg. swâ him gemet þince
(þûhte), (_as seemed meet to him_), 688, 3058. See un-gemete, adv.

metan, st. v., _to measure, pass over_ or _along_: pret. pl. fealwe stræte
mearum mæton (_measured the yellow road with their horses_), 918; so, 514,

ge-metan, the same: pret. sg. medu-stîg gemät.(_measured, walked over, the
road to the mead-hall_), 925.

metod, st. m. (the measuring, arranging) _Creator, God_: nom. sg., 110,
707, 968, 1058, 2528; scîr metod, 980; sôð metod, 1612; acc. sg. metod,
180; dat. sg. metode, 169, 1779; gen. sg. metodes, 671.--Comp. eald-metod.

metod-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _the Creator's determination, divine purpose,
fate_: acc. sg. -sceaft, 1078.--2) _the Creators glory_: acc. sg.
metod-sceaft seón (i.e. die), 1181; dat. sg. tô metod-sceafte, 2816.

mêce, st. m., _sword_: nom. sg., 1939; acc. sg. mêce, 2048; brâdne mêce,
2979; gen. sg. mêces, 1766, 1813, 2615, 2940; dat. pl. instr. mêcum, 565;
gen. pl. mêca, 2686.--Comp.: beado-, häft-, hilde-mêce.

mêd, st. f., _meed, reward_: acc. sg. mêde, 2135; dat. sg. mêde, 2147; gen.
pl. mêda, 1179.

ge-mêde, st. n., _approval, permission_ (Grein): acc. pl. ge-mêdu, 247.

mêðe, adj., _tired, exhausted, dejected_: in comp. hyge-, sæ-mêðe.

mêtan, w. v., _to meet, find, fall in with_: with acc., pret. pl. syððan
Äscheres ... hafelan mêtton, 1422; subj. pret. sg. þät he ne mêtte ... on
elran man mundgripe mâran (_that he never met, in any other man, with a
mightier hand-grip_), 752.

ge-mêtan, with acc., the same: pret. sg. gemêtte, 758, 2786; pl. näs þâ
long tô þon, þät þâ aglæcean hy eft gemêtton (_it was not long after that
the warriors again met each other_), 2593.

ge-mêting, st. f., _meeting, hostile coming together_: nom. sg., 2002.

meagol, adj., _mighty, immense; formal, solemn_: instr. pl. meaglum wordum,

mearc, st. f., _frontier, limit, end_: dat. sg. tô mearce (_the end of
life_), 2385.--Comp. Weder-mearc, 298.

ge-mearc, st. n., _measure, distance_: comp. fôt-, mîl-ge-mearc.

mearcian, w. v., _to mark, stain_: pres. ind. sg. mearcað môrhopu (_will
stain, mark, the moor with the blood of the corpse_), 450.

ge-mearcian, the same: pret. part. (Cain) morðre gemearcod (_murder-marked_
[cf. 1 Book Mos. IV. 15]), 1265; swâ wäs on þæm scennum ... gemearcod ...
hwâm þät sweord geworht wære (_engraved for whom the sword had been
wrought_), 1696.

mearc-stapa, w. m., _march-strider, frontier-haunter_ (applied to Grendel
and his mother): nom. sg., 103; acc. pl. mearc-stapan, 1349.

mearh, st. m., _horse, steed_: nom. pl. mearas, 2164; acc. pl. mearas, 866,
1036; dat. pl. inst. mearum, 856, 918; mearum and mâðmum, 1049, 1899; gen.
pl. meara and mâðma, 2167.

mearn. See murnan.

meodu. See medu.

meoto. See met.

meotud. See metod.

meowle, w. f., _maiden_: comp. geó-meowle.

micel, adj., _great, huge, long_ (of time): nom. sg. m., 129, 502; fem.,
67, 146, 170; neut., 772; acc. sg. m. micelne, 3099; fem, micle, 1779,
3092; neut. micel, 270, 1168. The comp. mâre must be supplied before þone
in: medo-ärn micel ... (mâre) þone yldo beam æfre ge-frunon, 69; instr. sg.
ge-trume micle, 923; micle (_by much, much_); micle leófre (_far dearer_),
2652; efne swâ micle (lässa), (_[less] even by so much_), 1284; oftor micle
(_much oftener_), 1580; dat. sg, weak form miclan, 2850; gen. sg. miclan,
979. The gen. sg. micles is an adv. = _much, very_: micles wyrðne gedôn
(_deem worthy of much_, i.e. honor very highly), 2186; tô fela micles (_far
too much, many_), 695; acc. pl. micle, 1349. Compar., see mâra.

mid, I. prep. w. dat., instr., and acc., signifying preëminently _union,
community, with_, hence: 1) w. dat.: a) _with, in company, community,
with_; mid Finne, 1129; mid Hrôðgâre, 1593; mid scip-herge, 243; mid
gesîðum (_with his comrades_), 1314; so, 1318, 1964, 2950, etc.; mid his
freó-drihtne, 2628; mid þæm lâcum (_with the gifts_), 1869; so, 2789, 125;
mid hæle (_with good luck!_), 1218; mid bæle fôr (_sped off amid fire_),
2309. The prep. postponed: him mid (_with him, in his company_), 41; _with
him_, 1626; ne wäs him Fitela mid (_was not with him_), 890. b) _with,
among_: mid Geátum (_among the Geátas_), 195, 2193, 2624; mid Scyldingum,
274; mid Eotenum, 903; mid yldum (eldum), 77, 2612; mid him (_with, among,
one another_), 2949. In temporal sense: mid ær-däge (_at dawn_), 126.--2)
_with, with the help of, through_, w. dat.: mid âr-stafum (_through his
grace_), 317; so, 2379; mid grâpe (_with the fist_), 438; so, 1462, 2721;
mid his hete-þoncum (_through his hatred_), 475; mid sweorde, 574; so,
1660, 2877; mid gemete (_through, by, his power_), 780; so, 1220, 2536,
2918; mid gôde (_with benefits_), 1185; mid hearme (_with harm, insult_),
1893; mid þære sorge (_with [through?] this sorrow_), 2469; mid rihte (_by
rights_), 2057. With instr.: mid þý wîfe (_through [marriage with] the
woman_), 2029.--3) w. acc., _with, in community, company, with_: mid his
eorla gedriht, 357; so, 634, 663, 1673; mid hine, 880; mid mînne
gold-gyfan, 2653.

II. adv., mid, _thereamong, in the company_, 1643; _at the same time,
likewise_, 1650.

middan-geard, st. m., _globe, earth_: acc. sg., 75, 1772; dat. sg. on
middan-gearde, 2997; gen. sg. middan-geardes, 504, 752.

midde, w. f., _middle = medius_: dat. sg. on middan (_through the middle,
in two_), 2706; gen. sg. (adv.) tô-middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

middel-niht, st. f., _midnight_: dat. pl. middel-nihtum, 2783, 2834.

miht, st. f., _might, power, authority_: acc. sg. þurh drihtnes miht
(_through the Lord's help, power_), 941; instr. pl. selfes mihtum, 701.

mihtig, adj.: 1) _physically strong, powerful_: acc. sg. mihtig mere-deór,
558; mere-wîf mihtig, 1520.--2) _possessing authority, mighty_: nom. sg.
mihtig god, 702, 1717, 1726; dat. sg. mihtigan drihtne, 1399.--Comp.: äl-,

milde, adj., _kind, gracious, generous_: nom. sg. môdes milde
(_kind-hearted_), 1230; instr. pl. mildum wordum (_graciously_), 1173.
Superl. nom. sg. worold-cyning mannum mildust (_a king most liberal to
men_), 3183.

milts, st. f., _kindness, benevolence_: nom. sg., 2922.

missan, w. v. with gen., _to miss, err in_: pret. sg. miste mercelses
(_missed the mark_), 2440.

missere, st. n., _space of a semester, half a year_: gen. pl. hund missera
(_fifty winters_), 2734, 2210; generally, _a long period of time, season_,
1499, 1770; fela missera, 153, 2621.

mist-hlið, st. n., _misty cliff, cloud-capped slope_: dat. pl. under
mist-hleoðum, 711.

mistig, adj., _misty_: acc. pl. mistige môras, 162.

mîl-gemearc, st. n., _measure by miles_: gen. sg. mîl-gemearces, 1363.

mîn: 1) poss. pron., _my, mine_, 255, 345, etc.; Hygelâc mîn (_my lord_, or
_king, H._), 2435.--2) gen. sg. of pers. pron. ic, _of me_, 2085, 2534,

molde, w. f., _dust; earth, field_: in comp. gräs-molde.

mon. See man.

ge-mong. See ge-mang.

morð-bealu, st. n., _murder, deadly hale_ or _deed of murder_: gen. pl.
morð-beala, 136.

morðor, st. n., _deed of violence, murder_: dat. instr. sg. morðre, 893,
1265, 2783; gen. sg. morðres, 2056; morðres scyldig (_guilty of murder_),

morðor-bed, st. n., _bed of death, murder-bed_: acc. sg. wäs þam yldestan
... morðor-bed strêd (_a bed of death was spread for the eldest_, i.e.
through murder his death-bed was prepared), 2437.

morðor-bealu, st. n., _death-bale, destruction by murder_: acc. sg.
morðor-bealo, 1080, 2743.

morðor-hete, st. m., _murderous hate_: gen. sg. þäs morðor-hetes, 1106.

morgen, morn, mergen, st. m., _morning, forenoon_; also _morrow_: nom. sg.
morgen, 1785, 2125; (_morrow_), 2104; acc. sg. on morgen (_in the
morning_), 838; dat. sg. on morgne, 2485; on mergenne, 565, 2940; gen. pl.
morna gehwylce (_every morning_), 2451.

morgen-ceald, adj., _morning-cold, dawn-cold_: nom. sg. gâr morgen-ceald
(_spear chilled by the early air of morn_), 3023.

morgen-lang, adj., _lasting through the morning_: acc. sg. morgen-longne
däg (_the whole forenoon_), 2895.

morgen-leóht, st. n., _morning-light_: nom. sg., 605, 918.

morgen-swêg, st. m., _morning-cry, cry at morn_: nom. sg., 129.

morgen-tîd, st. f., _morning-tide_: acc. sg. on morgen-tîde, 484, 818(?)

morn. See morgen.

môd, st. n.: 1) _heart, soul, spirit, mood, mind, manner of thinking_: nom.
sg., 50, 731; wäfre môd (_the flicker ing spirit, the fading breath_),
1151; acc. sg. on môd (_into his mind_), 67; dat. instr. sg. môde geþungen
(_of mature, lofty spirit_), 625; on môde (_in heart, mind_), 754, 1845,
2282? 2528; on hreóum môde (_fierce of spirit_), 2582; gen. sg. modes, 171,
811, 1707; modes blîðe (_gracious-minded, kindly disposed_), 436; so, môdes
milde, 1230; môdes seóce (_depressed in mind_), 1604.--2) _boldness,
courage_: nom. and acc. sg., 1058, 1168. 3) _passion, fierceness_: nom.
sg., 549.--Comp. form adj.: galg-, geômor-, gläd-, gûð-, hreóh-, irre-,
sârig-, stîð-, swîð-, wêrig-môd.

môd-cearu, st. f., _grief of heart_: acc. sg. môd-ceare, 1993, 3150.

môd-gehygd, st. f ., _thought of the heart; mind_: instr. pl. môd-gehygdum,

môd-ge-þanc, st. n., _mood-thought, meditation_: acc. sg. môd-ge-þonc,

môd-giômor, adj., _grieved at heart, dejected_: nom. sg., 2895.

môdig, adj., _courageous_: nom. sg., 605, 1644, 1813, 2758; he þäs (þäm,
MS.) môdig wäs (_had the courage for it_), 1509; se môdega, 814; dat. sg.
mid þam môdigan, 3012; gen. sg. môdges, 502; môdiges, 2699; Geáta leód
georne trûwode môdgan mägnes (_trusted firmly in his bold strength_), 671;
nom. pl. môdge, 856; môdige, 1877; gen. pl. môdigra, 312, 1889.--Comp,

môdig-lîc, adj., _of bold appearance_: compar. acc. pl. môdiglîcran, 337.

môd-lufe, w. f., _hearts affection, love_: gen. sg. þînre môd-lufan, 1824.

môd-sefa, w. m., _thought of the heart; brave, bold temper; courage_: nom.
sg., 349, 1854, 2629; acc. sg. môd-sefan, 2013; dat. sg. môd-sefan, 180.

môd-þracu, st. f., _boldness, courage, strength of mind_: dat. sg. for his
môd-þräce, 385.

môdor, f., _mother_: nom. sg., 1259, 1277, 1283, 1684, 2119; acc. sg.
môdor, 1539, 2140, 2933.

môna, w. m., _moon_: gen. sg. mônan, 94.

môr, st. m., _moor, morass, swamp_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan môr, 1406; dat.
sg. of môre, 711; acc. pl. môras, 103, 162, 1349.

môr-hop, st. n., _place of refuge in the moor, hiding-place in the swamp_:
acc. pl. môr-hopu, 450.

ge-môt, st. n., _meeting_: in comp. hand-, torn-ge-môt.

môtan, pret.-pres. v.: 1) _power_ or _permission to have something, to be
permitted; may, can_: pres. sg. I., III. môt, 186, 442, 604; II. môst,
1672; pl. môton, 347, 365, 395; pres. subj. ic môte, 431; III. se þe môte,
1388; pret sg. môste, 168, 707, 736, 895, 1488, 1999, 2242, 2505, etc.; pl.
môston, 1629, 1876, 2039, 2125, 2248; pres. subj. sg. II. þät þu hine
selfne geseón môste (_mightest see_), 962.--2) _shall, must, be obliged_:
pres. sg. môt, 2887; pret. sg. môste, 1940; þær he þý fyrste forman dôgore
wealdan môste, swâ him Wyrd ne gescrâf, hrêð ät hilde (_if he must for the
first time that day be victorious, as Fate had denied him victory_, cf.
2681, 2683 seqq.), 2575.

ge-munan, pret.-pres. v., _to have in mind, be mindful; remember, think
of_, w. acc.: pres. sg. hine gearwe geman witena wel-hwylc (_each of the
knowing ones still remembers him well_), 265; ic þe þäs leán geman (_I
shall not forget thy reward for this_), 1221; ic þät eall gemon (_I
remember all that_), 2428; so, 1702, 2043; gif he þät eall gemon hwät ...
(_if he is mindful of all that which_ ...), 1186; ic þät mæl gemon hwær...
(_I remember the time when_...), 2634; pret. sg. w. gemunde... æfen-spræce
(_recalled his evening speech_), 759; so, 871, 1130, 1260, 1271, 1291,
2115, 2432, 2607, 2679; se þäs leód-hryres leán ge-munde (_was mindful of
reward for the fall of the ruler_), 2392; þät he Eotena bearn inne gemunde
(_that he in this should remember, take vengeance on, the children of the
Eotens_), 1142; so, hond gemunde fæhðo genôge (_his hand remembered strife
enough_), 2490; ne ge-munde mago Ecglâfes þät ... (_remembered not that
which_ ...), 1466; pret. pl. helle gemundon in môd-sefan (_their thoughts_
[as heathens] _fixed themselves on, remembered, hell_), 179.

on-munan, w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to admonish, exhort_: pret. sg.
onmunde ûsic mærða (_exhorted us to deeds of glory_), 2641.

mund, st. f., _hand_: instr. pl. mundum, mid mundum, 236, 514, 1462, 3023,

mund-bora, w. m., _protector, guardian, preserver_: nom. sg., 1481, 2780.

mund-gripe, st. m., _hand-grip, seizure_: acc. sg. mund-gripe, 754; dat.
sg. mund-gripe, 380, 1535; äfter mund-gripe (_after having seized the
criminal_), 1939.

murnan, st. v., _to shrink from, be afraid of, avoid_: pret. sg. nô mearn
fore fæhðe and fyrene, 136; so, 1538; nalles for ealdre mearn (_was not
apprehensive for his life_), 1443.--2) _to mourn, grieve_: pres. part. him
wäs ... murnende môd, 50; pres. subj., þonne he fela murne (_than that he
should mourn much_), 1386.

be-murnan, be-meornan, with acc., _to mourn over_: pret. be-mearn, 908,

murn-lîce. See un-murn-lîce.

mûð-bana, w. m., _mouth-destroyer_: dat. sg. tô mûð-bonan (of Grendel
because he bit his victim to death), 2080.

mûða, w. m., _mouth, entrance_: acc. sg. recedes mûðan (_mouth of the
house, door_), 725.

ge-mynd, st. f., _memory, memorial, remembrance_: dat. pl. tô gemyndum,
2805, 3017. See weorð-mynd.

myhdgian, w. v., _to call to mind, remember_: pres. sg. myndgað, 2058;
pres. part. w. gen. gif þonne Fresna hwylc ... þäs morðor-hetes myndgiend
wære (_were to call to mind the bloody feud_), 1106.

ge-myndgian, w. v. w. acc., _to remember_: bið gemyndgad ... eaforan
ellor-sîð (_is reminded of his son's decease_), 2451.

ge-myndig, adj., _mindful_: nom. sg. w. gen., 614, 869, 1174, 1531, 2083,

myne, st. m.: 1) _mind, wish_: nom. sg., 2573.--2) _love_(?): ne his myne
wisse (_whose_ [God's] _love he knew not_), 169.

ge-mynian, w. v. w. acc., _to be mindful of_: imper. sg. gemyne mærðo! 660.

myntan, w. v., _to intend, think of, resolve_: pret. sg. mynte ... manna
cynnes sumne besyrwan (_meant to entrap all_(?) [see sum], _some one of
(?), the men_), 713; mynte þät he gedælde ... (_thought to sever_), 732;
mynte se mæra, þær he meahte swâ, wîdre gewindan (_intended to flee_), 763.

myrce, adj., _murky, dark_: acc. sg. ofer myrcan môr, 1406.

myrð, st. f., _joy, mirth_: dat. (instr.) sg. môdes myrðe, 8n.


naca, w. m., _vessel, ship_: acc. sg. nacan, 295; gen. sg. nacan,
214.--Comp.: hring-, ýð-naca.

nacod, adj., _naked_: nom. and acc. sg. swurd, gûð-bill nacod, 539, 2586;
nacod nîð-draca, 2274.

nalas, nales, nallas. See nealles.

nama, w. m., _name_: nom. sg. Beówulf is mîn nama, 343; wäs þäm häft-mêce
Hrunting nama, 1458; acc. sg. scôp him Heort naman (_gave it the name
Hart_), 78.

nâ (from ne-â), strength, negative, _never, not all_, 445, 567, 1537.

nâh, from ne-âh. See âgan.

nân (from ne-ân), indef. pron., _none, no_: with gen. pl. gûð-billa nân,
804; adjectively, nân ... îren ærgôd, 990.

nât, from ne-wât: _I know not=nescio_. See witan.

nât-hwylc (nescio quis, ne-wât-hwylc, _know not who, which_, etc.), indef.
pron., _any, a certain one, some or other_: 1) w. partitive gen.: nom. sg.
gumena nât-hwylc, 2234;. gen. sg. nât-hwylces (þâra banena), 2054; niða
nât-hwylces(?), 2216; nât-hwylces häleða bearna, 2225.--2) adjectively:
dat. sg. in nið-sele nât-hwylcum, 1514.

näbben, from ne-häbben (subj. pres.). See habban.

näfne. See nefne.

nägel, st. m., _nail_: gen. pl. nägla (of the finger-nails), 986.

nägled, part., _nailed?, nail-like?, buckled?_: acc. sg. neut. nägled (MS.
gled) sinc, 2024.

näs, st. m., _naze, rock projecting into the sea, cliff, promontory_: acc.
sg. näs, 1440, 1601, 2899; dat. sg. nässe, 2244, 2418; acc. pl. windige
nässas, 1412; gen. pl. nässa, 1361.

näs, from ne-wäs (_was not_). See wesan.

näs, neg. adv., _not, not at all_, 562, 2263.

näs-hlið, st. n., _declivity, slope of a promontory that sinks downward to
the sea_: dat. pl. on näs-hleoðum, 1428.

næfre, adv., _never_, 247, 583, 592, 656, 719, 1042, 1049, etc.; also
strengthened by ne: næfre ne, 1461.

ge-nægan, w. v. w. acc. pers. and gen. of thing, _to attack, press_; pret.
pl. nîða genægdan nefan Hererîces (_in combats pressed hard upon H.'s
nephew_), 2207; pret. part. wearð ... nîða genæged, 1440.

nænig (from ne-ænig), pron., _not any, none, no_: 1) substantively w. gen.
pl.: nom. sg., 157, 242, 692; dat. sg. nænegum, 599; gen. pl. nænigra,
950.--2) adjectively: nom. sg. ôðer nænig, 860; nænig wäter, 1515; nænig
... deór, 1934; acc. sg. nænigne ... hord-mâððum, 1199.

nære, from ne-wære (_were not, would not be_). See wesan.

ne, simple neg., _not_, 38, 50, 80, 83, 109, etc.; before imper. ne sorga!
1385; ne gým! 1761, etc. Doubled =_certainly not, not even that_: ne ge ...
gearwe ne wisson (_ye certainly have not known_, etc.), 245; so, 863; ne ic
... wihte ne wêne (_nor do I at all in the least expect_), 2923; so, 182.
Strengthened by other neg.: nôðer ... ne, 2125; swâ he ne mihte nô ... (_so
that he absolutely could not_), 1509.

ne ... ne, _not ... and not, nor; neither ... nor_, 154-157, 511,
1083-1085, etc. Another neg. may supply the place of the first ne: so, nô
... ne, 575-577, 1026-1028, 1393-1395, etc.; næfre ... ne, 583-584; nalles
... ne, 3016-3017. The neg. may be omitted the first time: ær ne siððan
(_neither before nor after, before nor since_), 719; sûð ne norð (_south
nor north_), 859; âdl ne yldo (_neither illness nor old age_), 1737; wordum
ne worcum (_neither by word nor deed_), 1101; wiston and ne wêndon (_knew
not and weened not_), 1605.

nefa, w. m., _nephew, grandson_: nom. sg. nefa (_grandson_), 1204; so,
1963; (_nephew_), 2171; acc. sg. nefan (_nephew_), 2207; dat. sg. nefan
(_nephew_), 882.

nefne, näfne, nemne (orig. from ne-gif-ne): 1) subj.: a) with depend.
clause = _unless_: nefne him witig god wyrd forstôde (_if fate, the wise
God, had not prevented him_), 1057; nefne god sylfa ... sealde (_unless God
himself_, etc.), 3055; näfne him his wlite leóge (MS. næfre) (_unless his
face belie him_), 250; näfne he wäs mâra (_except that he was huger_),
1354; nemne him heaðo-byrne helpe ge-fremede, 1553; so, 2655.--b) w.
follow. substantive = _except, save, only_: nefne sin-freá (_except the
husband_), 1935; ic lyt hafo heáfod-mâga nefne Hygelâc þec (_have no near
kin but thee_), 2152; nis þät eówer (gen. pl.) sîð ... nefne mîn ânes,
2534.--2) Prep. with dat., _except_: nemne feáum ânum, 1082.

ge-nehost. See ge-neahhe.

nelle, from ne-wille (_I will not_). See willan.

nemnan, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to name, call_: pres. pl. þone yldestan
oret-mecgas Beówulf nemnað (_the warriors call the most distinguished one
Beówulf_), 364; so inf. nemnan, 2024; pret. pl. nemdon, 1355.--2) _to
address_, as in

be-nemnan, _to pronounce solemnly, put under a spell_: pret. sg. Fin
Hengeste ... âðum be-nemde þät (_asserted, promised under oath that_ ...),
1098; pret. pl. swâ hit ôð dômes däg diópe benemdon þeódnas mære (_put
under a curse_), 3070.

nemne. See nefne.

nerian, ge-nerian, w. v., _to save, rescue, liberate_: pres. sg. Wyrd oft
nereð unfægne eorl, 573; pret. part. häfde ... sele Hrôðgâres ge-nered wið
nîðe (_saved from hostility_), 828.

ge-nesan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to remain over, be preserved_: pret. sg.
hrôf âna genäs ealles ansund (_the roof alone was quite sound_), 1000.--2)
w. acc., _to endure successfully, survive, escape from_: pret. sg. se þâ
säcce ge-näs, 1978; fela ic ... gûð-ræsa ge-näs, 2427; pret. part. swâ he
nîða gehwane genesen häfde, 2398.

net, st. n., _net_: in comp. breóst-, here-, hring-, inwit-, searo-net.

nêdla, w. m., _dire necessity, distress_: in comp. þreá-nêdla.

nêðan (G. nanþjan), w. v., _to venture, undertake boldly_: pres. part.
nearo nêðende (_encountering peril_), 2351; pret. pl. þær git ... on deóp
water aldrum nêðdon (_where ye two risked your lives in the deep water_),
510; so, 538.

ge-nêðan, the same: inf. ne dorste under ýða gewin aldre ge-nêðan, 1470.
With depend. clause: nænig þät dorste genêðan þät (_none durst undertake
to_ ...), 1934; pret. sg. he under hârne stân âna genêðde frêcne dæde (_he
risked alone the bold deed, venturing under the grey rock_), 889; (ic) wîge
under wätere weorc genêðde earfoð-lîce (_I with difficulty stood the work
under the water in battle_, i.e. could hardly win the victory), 1657; ic
genêðde fela gûða (_ventured on, risked, many contests_), 2512; pres. pl.
(of majesty) we ... frêcne genêðdon eafoð uncûðes (_we have boldly risked,
dared, the monster's power_), 961.

nêh. See neáh.

ge-neahhe, adv., _enough, sufficiently_, 784, 3153; superl. genehost brägd
eorl Beówulfes ealde lâfe (_many an earl of B.'s_), 795.

nealles (from ne-ealles), adv., _omnino non, not at all, by no means_:
nealles, 2146, 2168, 2180, 2223, 2597, etc.; nallas, 1720, 1750; nalles,
338, 1019, 1077, 1443, 2504, etc.; nalas, 43, 1494, 1530, 1538; nales,

nearo, st. n., _strait, danger, distress_: acc. sg. nearo, 2351, 2595.

nearo, adj., _narrow_: acc. pl. f. nearwe, 1410.

nearwe, adv., _narrowly_, 977.

nearo-cräft, st. m., _art of rendering difficult of access?,
inaccessibility_ (see 2214 seqq.): instr. pl. nearo-cräftum, 2244.

nearo-fâh, m., _foe that causes distress, war-foe_: gen. sg. nearo-fâges,

nearo-þearf, st. f., _dire need, distress_: acc. sg. nearo-þearfe, 422.

ge-nearwian, w. v., _to drive into a corner, press upon_: pret. part.
genearwod, 1439.

neáh, nêh: 1) adj., _near, nigh_: nom. sg. neáh, 1744, 2729. In superl.
also = _last_: instr. sg. nýhstan sîðe (_for the last time_), 1204;
niéhstan sîðe, 2512.

2) adv., _near_: feor and (oððe) neáh, 1222, 2871; 3) prep, sæ-grunde neáh,
564; so, 1925, 2243; holm-wylme nêh, 2412. Compar. neár, 746.

neán, adv., _near by, (from) close at hand_, 528; (neon, MS.), 3105;
feorran and neán, 840; neán and feorran, 1175, 2318.

ge-neát, st. m., _comrade, companion_: in comp. beód-, heorð-geneát.

nioðor. See niðer.

neowol, adj., _steep, precipitous_: acc. pl. neowle, 1412.

neód, st. f., _polite intercourse regulated by etiquette?, hall-joy?_: acc.
sg. nióde, 2117; inst. (= _joy_), 2216.

neód-laðu, st. f., _polite invitation; wish_: dat. sg. äfter neód-laðu
(_according to his wishes_), 1321.

neósan, neósian, w. v. w. gen., _to seek out, look for; to attack_: inf.
neósan, 125, 1787, 1792, 1807, 2075; niósan, 2389, 2672; neósian, 115,
1126; niósian, 3046; pret. sg. niósade, 2487.

neótan, st. v., _to take, accept_, w. gen.; _to use, enjoy_: imper. sg.
neót, 1218.

be-neótan, w. dat., _to rob, deprive of_: inf. hine aldre be-neótan, 681;
pret. sg. cyning ealdre bi-neát (_deprived the king of life_), 2397.

nicor, st. m., _sea-horse, walrus, sea-monster_ (cf. Bugge in Zacher's
Journal, 4, 197): acc. pl. niceras, 422, 575; nicras, 1428; gen. pl.
nicera, 846.

nicor-hûs, st. n., _house_ or _den of sea-monsters_: gen. pl. nicor-hûsa,

nið st. m., _man, human being_: gen. pl. niðða, 1006; niða? (passage
corrupt), 2216.

niðer, nyðer, neoðor, adv., _down, downward_: niðer, 1361; nioðor, 2700;
nyðer, 3045.

nið-sele, st. m., _hall, room, in the deep_ (Grein): dat. sg. [in] nið-sele
nât-hwylcum, 1514.

nigen, num., _nine_: acc. nigene, 575.

niht, st. f. _night_: nom. sg., 115, 547. 650, 1321, 2117; acc. sg. niht,
135, 737, 2939; gystran niht (_yester-night_), 1335; dat. sg. on niht, 575,
684; on wanre niht, 703; gen. sg. nihtes hwîlum (_sometimes at night, in
the hours of the night_), 3045; as adv. = _of a night, by night_, G.
nachts, 422, 2274; däges and nihtes, 2270; acc. pl. seofon niht
(_se'nnight, seven days_, cf. Tac. Germ, 11), 517; dat. pl. sweartum
nihtum, 167; deorcum nihtum, 275, 221; gen. pl. nihta, 545, 1366.--Comp.:
middel-, sin-niht.

niht-bealu, st. n., _night-bale, destruction by night_: gen. pl.
niht-bealwa, 193.

niht-helm, st. m., _veil_ or _canopy of night_: nom. sg., 1790.

niht-long, adj., _lasting through the night_: acc. sg. m. niht-longne fyrst
(_space of a night_), 528.

niht-weorc, st. n., _night-work, deed done at night_: instr. sg.
niht-weorce, 828.

niman, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to take, hold, seize, undertake_: pret. sg. nam
þâ mid handa hige-þihtigne rinc, 747; pret. pl. we . . . nióde nâman,
2117.--2) _to take, take away, deprive of_: pres. sg. se þe hine deáð nimeð
(_he whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 447; nymeð, 1847; nymeð nýd-bâde,
599; subj. pres. gif mec hild nime, 452, 1482; pret. sg. ind. nam on
Ongenþió îren-byrnan, 2987; ne nom he ... mâðm-æhta mâ (_he took no more of
the rich treasures_), 1613; pret. part. þâ wäs ... seó cwên numen (_the
queen carried off_), 1154.

be-niman, _to deprive of_: pret. sg. ôð þät hine yldo benam mägenes wynnum
(_till age bereft him of joy in his strength_), 1887.

for-niman, _to carry off_: pres. sg. þe þâ deáð for-nam (_whom death
carried off_), 488; so, 557, 696, 1081, 1124, 1206, 1437, etc. Also, dat.
for acc.: pret. pl. him îrenna ecge fornâmon, 2829.

ge-niman: 1) _to take, seize_: pret. sg. (hine) be healse ge-nam (_clasped
him around the neck, embraced him_), 1873.--2) _to take, take away_: pret.
on reste genam þritig þegna, 122; heó under heolfre genam cûðe folme, 1303;
segn eác genom, 2777; þâ mec sinca baldor ... ät mînum fäder genam (_took
me at my father's hands, adopted me_), 2430; pret. part. genumen, 3167.

ge-nip, st. n., _darkness, mist, cloud_: acc. pl. under nässa genipu, 1361;
ofer flôda genipu, 2809.

nis, from ne-is (_is not_): see wesan.

niwe, niówe, adj., _new, novel; unheard-of_: nom. sg. swêg up â-stâg niwe
geneahhe (_a monstrous hubbub arose_), 784; beorh ... niwe (_a
newly-raised(?) grave-mound_), 2244; acc. sg. niwe sibbe (_the new
kinship_), 950; instr. sg. niwan stefne (properly, novâ voce; here = de
novo, iterum, _again_), 2595; niówan stefne (_again_), 1790; gen. pl. niwra
spella (_new tidings_), 2899.

ge-niwian, w. v., _to renew_: pret. part. ge-niwod, 1304, 1323; geniwad,

niw-tyrwed, pret. part., _newly-tarred_: acc. sg. niw-tyrwedne (-tyrwydne,
MS.) nacan, 295.

nîð, st. m., properly only _zeal, endeavor_; then _hostile endeavor,
hostility, battle, war_: nom. sg., 2318; acc. sg. nîð, 184, 276; Wedera nîð
(_enmity against the W., the sorrows of the Weders_), 423; dat. sg. wið
(ät) nîðe, 828, 2586; instr. nîðe, 2681; gen. pl. nîða, 883, 2351, 2398,
etc.; also instr. = _by, in, battle_, 846, 1440, 1963, 2171, 2207.--Comp.:
bealo-, fær-, here-, hete-, inwit-, searo-, wäl-nîð.

nîð-draca, w. m., _battle-dragon_: nom. sg., 2274.

nîð-gast, st. m., _hostile alien, fell demon_: acc. sg. þone nîð-gäst (_the
dragon_), 2700.

nîð-geweorc, st. n., _work of enmity, deed of evil_: gen. pl. -geweorca,

nîð-grim, adj., _furious in battle, savage_: nom. sg., 193.

nîð-heard, adj., _valiant in war_: nom. sg., 2418.

nîð-hydig, adj., _eager for battle, valorous_: nom. pl. nîð-hydige men,

ge-nîðla, w. m., _foe, persecutor, waylayer_: in comp. ferhð-,

nîð-wundor, st. n., _hostile wonder, strange marvel of evil_: acc. sg.,

nîpan, st. v., _to veil, cover over, obscure_; pres. part. nîpende niht,
547, 650.

nolde, from ne-wolde (_would not_); see willan.

norð, adv., _northward_, 859.

norðan, adv., _from the north_, 547.

nose, w. f., _projection, cliff, cape_: dat. sg. of hliðes nosan, 1893; ät
brimes nosan, 2804.

nô (strengthened neg.), _not, not at all, by no means_, 136, 244, 587, 755,
842, 969, 1736, etc.; strengthened by following ne, 459(?), 1509; nô ... nô
(_neither ... nor_), 541-543; so, nô ... ne, 168. See ne.

nôðer (from nâ-hwäðer), neg., _and not, nor_, 2125.

ge-nôh, adj., _sufficient, enough_: acc. sg. fæhðo genôge, 2490; acc. pl.
genôge ... beágas, 3105.

nôn, st. f., [Eng. _noon_], ninth hour of the day, three o'clock in the
afternoon of our reckoning_ (the day was reckoned from six o'clock in the
morning; cf. Bouterwek Screádunga, 24 _2_: we hâtað ænne däg fram sunnan
upgange ôð æfen): nom. sg. nôn, 1601.

nu, adv.: l) _now, at present_, 251, 254, 375, 395, 424, 426, 489, etc.: nu
gyt (_up to now, hitherto_), 957; nu gen (_now still, yet_), 2860; (_now
yet, still_), 3169.--2) conj., _since, inasmuch as_: nu þu lungre geong ...
nu se wyrm ligeð (_go now quickly, since the dragon lieth dead_), 2746; so,
2248; þät þu me ne forwyrne ... nu ic þus feorran com (_that do not thou
refuse me, since I am come so far_), 430; so, 1476; nu ic on mâðma hord
mîne bebohte frôde feorh-lege, fremmað ge nu (_as I now..., so do ye_),
2800; so, 3021.

nymðe, conj. w. subj., _if not, unless_, 782; nymðe mec god scylde (_if God
had not shielded me_), 1659.

nyt, st. f., _duty, service, office, employment_: acc. sg. þegn nytte
beheóld (_did his duty_), 494; so, 3119.--Comp.: sund-, sundor-nyt.

nyt, adj., _useful_: acc. pl. m. nytte, 795; comp. un-nyt.

ge-nyttian, w. v., _to make use of, enjoy_: pret. part. häfde eorð-scrafa
ende ge-nyttod (_had enjoyed, made use of_), 3047.

nýd, st. f., _force, necessity, need, pain_: acc. sg. þurh deáðes nýd,
2455; instr. sg. nýde, 1006. In comp. (like nýd-maga, consanguineus, in
Æthelred's Laws, VI. 12, Schmid, p. 228; nêd-maga, in Cnut's Laws, I. 7,
ibid., p. 258); also, _tie of blood._--Comp. þreá-nýd.

ge-nýdan, w. v.: 1) _to force, compel_: pret. part. nîðe ge-nýded (_forced
by hostile power_), 2681.--2) _to force upon_: pret. part. acc. sg. f. nýde
genýdde ... gearwe stôwe (_the inevitable place prepared for each_, i.e.
the bed of death), 1006.

nýd-bâd, st. f., _forced pledge, pledge demanded by force_: acc. pl.
nýd-bâde, 599.

nýd-gestealla, w. m., _comrade in need_ or _united by ties of blood_: nom.
pl. nýd-gesteallan, 883.

nýd-gripe, st. m., _compelling grip_: dat. sg. in nýd-gripe (mid-gripe,
MS.), 977.

nýd-wracu, st. f., _distressful persecution, great distress_: nom. sg.,

nýhst. See neáh.


oððe, conj.: 1) _or; otherwise_, 283, 437, 636, 638, 694, 1492, 1765,
etc.--2) _and_(?), _till_(?), 650, 2476, 3007.

of, prep. w. dat., _from, off from_: 1) _from some point of view_: ge-seah
of wealle (_from the wall_), 229; so, 786; of hefene scîneð (_shineth from
heaven_), 1572; of hliðes nosan gästas grêtte (_from the cliff's
projection_), 1893; of þam leóma stôd (_from which light streamed_), 2770;
þær wäs mâðma fela of feorwegum ... gelæded (_from distant lands_), 37; þâ
com of môre (_from the moor_), 711, 922.--2) _forth from, out of_: hwearf
of earde (_wandered from his home, died_), 56; so, 265, 855, 2472; þâ ic of
searwum com (_when I had escaped from the persecutions of the foe_), 419;
þâ him Hrôðgâr gewât ... ût of healle (_out of the hall_), 664; so, 2558,
2516; 1139, 2084, 2744; wudu-rêc â-stâh sweart of (ofer) swioðole (_black
wood-reek ascended from the smoking fire_), 3145; (icge gold) â-häfen of
horde (_lifted from the hoard_), 1109; lêt þâ of breóstum ... word ût faran
(_from his breast_), 2551; dyde ... helm of hafelan (_doffed his helmet_),
673; so, 1130; sealdon wîn of wunder-fatum (_presented wine from wondrous
vessels_), 1163; siððan hyne Hæðcyn of horn-bogan ... flâne geswencte
(_with an arrow shot from the horned bow_), 2438; so, 1434. Prep.
postponed: þâ he him of dyde îsern-byrnan (_doffed his iron corselet_),

ofer, prep. w. dat. and acc., _over, above_: 1) w. dat, _over_ (rest,
locality): Wîglâf siteð ofer Biówulfe, 2908; ofer äðelinge, 1245; ofer
eorðan, 248, 803, 2008; ofer wer-þeóde (_over the earth, among mankind_),
900; ofer ýðum, 1908; ofer hron-râde (_over the sea_), 10; so, 304, 1287,
1290, etc.; ofer ealowæge (_over the beer-cup, drinking_), 481.--2) w. acc.
of motion: a) _over_ (local): ofer ýðe (_over the waves_), 46, 1910; ofer
swan-râde (_over the swan-road, the sea_), 200; ofer wægholm, 217; ofer
geofenes be-gang, 362; so, 239, 240, 297, 393, 464, 471, etc.; ofer bolcan
(_over the gangway_), 231; ofer landa fela (_over many lands_), 311; so,
1405, 1406; ofer heáhne hrôf (_along upon (under?) the high roof_), 984;
ofer eormen-grund (_over the whole earth_), 860; ofer ealle (_over all, on
all sides_), 2900, 650; so, 1718;--606, 900, 1706; ofer borda gebräc
(_over, above, the crashing of shields_), 2260; ofer bord-(scild) weall,
2981, 3119. Temporal: ofer þâ niht (_through the night, by night_), 737. b)
w. verbs of saying, speaking, _about, of, concerning_: he ofer benne spräc,
2725. c) _beyond, over_: ofer mîn ge-met (_beyond my power_), 2880;--hence,
_against, contrary to_: he ofer willan gióng (_went against his will_),
2410; ofer ealde riht (_against the ancient laws_, i.e. the ten
commandments), 2331;--also, _without_: wîg ofer wæpen (_war sans,
dispensing with, weapons_), 686;--temporal = _after_: ofer eald-gewin
(_after long, ancient, suffering_), 1782.

ofer-hygd, st. n., _arrogance, pride, conceit_: gen. pl. ofer-hygda, 1741;
ofer-hyda, 1761.

ofer-mâðum, st. m., _very rich treasure_: dat. pl. ofer-mâðmum, 2994.

ofer-mägen, st. n., _over-might, superior numbers_: dat. sg. mid
ofer-mägene, 2918.

ofer-þearf, st. f., _dire distress, need_: dat. sg. [for ofer] þea[rfe],

oft, adv., _often_, 4, 165, 444, 572, 858, 908, 1066, 1239, etc.; oft [nô]
seldan, 2030; oft nalles æne, 3020; so, 1248, 1888. Compar. oftor, 1580.
Superl. oftost, 1664.

om-, on-. See am-, an-.

ombiht. See ambiht.

oncer. See ancer.

ond. See and.

onsýn. See ansýn.

on, prep. w. dat. and acc., signifying primarily _touching on, contact
with_: I. local, w. dat.: a) _on, upon, in at_ (of exterior surface): on
heáh-stede (_in the high place_), 285; on mînre êðel-tyrf (_in my native
place_), 410; on þäm meðel-stede, 1083; so, 2004; on þam holmclife, 1422;
so, 1428; on foldan (_on earth_), 1197; so, 1533, 2997; on þære medu-bence
(_on the mead-bench_), 1053; beornas on blancum (_the heroes on the
dapple-greys_), 857, etc.; on räste (_in bed_), 1299; on stapole (_at,
near, the pillar_), 927; on wealle, 892; on wage (_on the wall_), 1663; on
þäm wäl-stenge (_on the battle-lance_), 1639; on eaxle (_on his shoulder_),
817, 1548; on bearme, 40; on breóstum, 552; on hafelan, 1522; on handa (_in
his hand_), 495, 540; so, 555, 766; on him byrne scân (_on him shone the
corselet_), 405; on ôre (_at the front_), 1042; on corðre (_at the head of,
among, his troop_), 1154; scip on ancre (_the ship at anchor_), 303; þät he
on heoðe ge-stôd (_until he stood in the hall_), 404; on fäder stäle (_in a
father's place_), 1480; on ýðum (_on the waves, in the water_), 210, 421,
534, 1438; on holme, 543; on êg-streámum, 577; on segl-râde, 1438, etc.; on
flôde, 1367. The prep. postponed: Freslondum on, 2358.--b) _in, inside of_
(of inside surface): secg on searwum (_a champion in armor_), 249; so, 963;
on wîg-geatwum, 368; (reced) on þäm se rîca bâd (_in which the mighty one
abode_), 310; on Heorote (_in Heorot_), 475, 497, 594, 1303; on beór-sele,
492, 1095; on healle, 615, 643; so, 639, 1017, 1026, etc.; on burgum (_in
the cities, boroughs_), 53; on helle, 101; on sefan mînum (_in my mind_),
473; on môde, 754; so, 755, 949, 1343, 1719, etc.; on aldre (_in his
vitals_), 1435; on middan (in medio), 2706.--c) _among, amid_: on searwum
(_among the arms_), 1558; on gemonge (_among the troop_), 1644; on þam
leód-scipe (_among the people_), 2198; nymðe lîges fäðm swulge on swaðule
(_unless the embracing flame should swallow it in smoke_), 783;--_in, with,
touched by, possessing something_: þâ wäs on sâlum sinces brytta (_then was
the dispenser of treasure in joy_), 608; so, 644, 2015; wäs on hreón môde,
1308; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582, 2296; heó wäs on ôfste (_she was in
haste_), 1293; so, 1736, 1870; þâ wäs on blôde brim weallende (_there was
the flood billowing in, with, blood_), 848; (he) wäs on sunde (_was
a-swimming_), 1619; wäs tô fore-mihtig feónd on fêðe (_too powerful in
speed_), 971; þær wäs swîgra secg ... on gylpspræce (_there was the
champion more silent in his boasting speech_), 982;--_in; full of,
representing, something_: on weres wästmum (_in man's form_), 1353.--d)
_attaching to_, hence _proceeding from; from something_: ge-hýrde on
Beówulfe fäst-rædne ge-þôht (_heard in, from, B. the fixed resolve_), 610;
þät he ne mêtte ... on elran men mund-gripe mâran, 753;--hence, with verbs
of taking: on räste genam (_took from his bed_), 122; so, 748, 2987; hit ær
on þe gôde be-geâton (_took it before from thee_), 2249.--e) _with_: swâ
hit lungre wearð on hyra sinc-gifan sâre ge-endod (_as it, too, soon
painfully came to an end with the dispenser of treasure_), 2312.--f) _by_:
mäg þonne on þäm golde ongitan Geáta dryhten (_the lord of the Geatas may
perceive by the gold_), 1485.--g) _to_, after weorðan: þät he on fylle
wearð (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.

With acc.: a) w. verbs of moving, doing, giving, seeing, etc., _up to, on,
upon, in_: â-lêdon þâ leófne þeóden ... on bearm scipes, 35; on stefn (on
wang) stigon, 212, 225; þâ him mid scoldon on flôdes æht feor ge-wîtan, 42;
se þe wið Brecan wunne on sîdne sæ (_who strovest in a swimming-match with
B. on the broad sea_), 507, cf. 516; þät ic on holma ge-þring eorlscipe
efnde (_that I should venture on the sea to do valiant deeds_), 2133; on
feónda geweald sîðian, 809; þâra þe on swylc starað, 997; so, 1781; on
lufan læteð hworfan (_lets him turn his thoughts to love?, to
possessions?_), 1729; him on môd bearn (_came into his mind, occurred to
him_), 67; ræsde on þone rôfan (_rushed on the powerful one_), 2691; (cwom)
on worðig (_came into the palace_), 1973; so, 27, 242, 253, 512, 539, 580,
677, 726, etc.; on weg (_away_), 764, 845, 1383, 1431, 2097.--b) _towards,
on_: gôde gewyrcean ... on fäder wine (pl.), 21.--c) aim or object, _to,
for the object, for, as, in, on_: on þearfe (_in his need, in his strait_),
1457; so, on hyra man-dryhtnes miclan þearfe, 2850; wrâðum on andan (_as a
terror to the foe_), 709; Hrôðgâr maðelode him on andsware (_said to him in
reply_), 1841; betst beado-rinca wäs on bæl gearu (_on the pyre ready_),
1110; wîg-heafolan bär freán on fultum (_for help_), 2663; wearð on bîd
wrecen (_forced to wait_), 2963.--d) ground, reason, _according to, in
conformity with_: rodera rædend hit on ryht gescêd (_decided it in
accordance with right_), 1556; ne me swôr fela âða on unriht (_swore no
oaths unjustly, falsely_), 2740; on spêd (_skilfully_), 874; nallas on gylp
seleð fätte beágas (_giveth no gold-wrought rings as he promised_), 1750;
on sînne selfes dôm (_boastingly, at his own will_), 2148; him eal worold
wendeð on willan (_according to his will_), 1740.--e) w. verbs of buying,
_for, in exchange for_: me ic on mâðma hord mîne be-bohte frôde feorh-lege
(_for the hoard of jewels_), 2800.--f) _of, as to_: ic on Higelâce wât,
Geáta dryhten (_I know with respect to, as to, of, H._), 1831; so, 2651;
þät heó on ænigne eorl ge-lýfde fyrena frôfre (_that she should rely on any
earl for help out of trouble_), 628; þâ hie ge-trûwedon on twâ healfa (_on
both sides, mutually_), 1096; so, 2064; þät þu him ondrædan ne þearft ...
on þâ healfe (_from, on this side_), 1676.--g) after superlatives or
virtual superlatives = _among_: näs ... sinc-mâððum sêlra (= þät wäs
sinc-mâðma sêlest) on sweordes hâd (_there was no better jewel in sword's
shape_, i.e. among all swords there was none better), 2194; se wäs Hrôðgâre
häleða leófost on ge-sîðes hâd (_dearest of men as, in the character of,
follower_, etc.), 1298.

II. Of time: a) w. dat., _in, inside of, during, at_: on fyrste (_in time,
within the time appointed_), 76; on uhtan (_at dawn_), 126; on mergenne
(_at morn, on the morrow_), 565, 2940; on niht, 575; on wanre niht, 703; on
tyn dagum, 3161; so, 197, 719, 791, 1063, etc.; on geogoðe (_in youth_),
409, 466; on geogoð-feore, 537; so, 1844; on orlege (_in, during, battle_),
1327; hû lomp eów on lâde (_on the way_), 1988; on gange (_in going, en
route_), 1885; on sweofote (_in sleep_), 1582.--b) w. acc., _towards,
about_: on undern-mæl (_in the morning, about midday_), 1429; on
morgen-tîd, 484, 518; on morgen, 838; on ende-stäf (_toward the end, at
last_), 1754; oftor micle þonne on ænne sîð (_far oftener than once_),

III. With particles: him on efn (_beside, alongside of, him_), 2904; on
innan (_inside, within_), 71, 1741, 1969, 2453, 2716; þær on innan (_in
there_), 2090, 2215, 2245. With the relative þe often separated from its
case: þe ic her on starie (_that I here look on, at_), 2797; þe ge þær on
standað (_that ye there stand in_), 2867.

on-cýð (cf. Dietrich in Haupt's Zeits. XI., 412), st. f., _pain,
suffering_: nom. sg., 1421; acc. sg. or pl. on-cýððe, 831.

on-drysne, adj., _frightful, terrible_: acc. sg. firen on-drysne, 1933.

onettan (for anettan, from root an-, Goth. inf. anan, _to breathe, pant_),
w. v., _to hasten_: pret. pl. onetton, 306, 1804.

on-lîcnes, st. f., _likeness, form, figure_: nom. sg., 1352.

on-mêdla, w. m., _pride, arrogance_: dat. sg. for on-mêdlan, 2927. Cf.
Bugge in Zacher's Zeits. 4, 218 seqq.

on-sæge, adj., _tending to fall, fatal_: nom. sg. þâ wäs Hondsció (dat.)
hild on-sæge, 2077; Hæðcynne wearð ... gûð on-sæge, 2484.

on-weald, st. m., _power, authority_: acc. sg. (him) bega ge-hwäðres ...
onweald ge-teáh (_gave him power over, possession of, both_), 1044.

open, adj., _open_: acc. sg. hord-wynne fond ... opene standan, 2272.

openian, w. v., _to open_, w. acc.: inf. openian, 3057.

orc (O.S. orc, Goth. aúrkei-s), st. m., _crock, vessel, can _: nom. pl.
orcas, 3048; acc. pl. orcas, 2761.

orcnê, st. m., _sea-monster_: nom. pl. orcnêas, 112.

ord, st. n. _point_: nom. sg. ôð þät wordes ord breóst-hord þurh-bräc
(_till the word-point broke through his breast-hoard, came to utterance_),
2792; acc. sg. ord (_sword-point_), 1550; dat. instr. orde (id.), 556; on
orde (_at the head of, in front_ [of a troop]), 2499, 3126.

ord-fruma, w. m., _head lord, high prince_: nom. sg., 263.

oret-mecg, st. m., _champion, warrior, military retainer_: nom. pl.
oret-mecgas, 363, 481; acc. pl. oret-mecgas, 332.

oretta, w. m., _champion, fighter, hero_: nom. sg., 1533, 2539.

or-leg, st. n., _war, battle_: dat. sg. on orlege, 1327; gen. sg. or-leges,

or-leg-hwîl, st. f., _time of battle, war-time_: nom. sg. [or-leg]-hwîl,
2003; gen. sg. orleg-hwîle, 2912; gen. pl orleg-hwîla, 2428.

or-leahtre, adj., _blameless_: nom. sg 1887.

or-þanc (cf. Gloss. Aldhelm. mid or-þance = argumento in Haupt XI., 436;
orþancum = machinamentis, _ibid._ 477; or-þanc-scipe = mechanica, 479), st.
m., _mechanical art, skill_: instr. pl. or-þoncum, 2088; smiðes or-þancum,

or-wêna, adj. (weak form), _hopeless, despairing_, w. gen.: aldres or-wêna
(_hopeless of life_), 1003, 1566.

or-wearde, adj., _unguarded, without watch_ or _guard_: adv., 3128.

oruð, st. n., _breath, snorting_: nom. sg., 2558; dat. oreðe, 2840.


ôð (Goth. und, O.H.G. unt, unz): 1) prep. w. acc., _to, till, up to_, only
temporal: ôð þone ânne däg, 2400; ôð dômes däg, 3070; ô woruld-ende,
3084.--2) ôð þät, conj. w. depend, indicative clause, _till, until_, 9, 56,
66, 100, 145. 219, 296, 307, etc.

ôðer (Goth. anþar), num.: 1) _one or other of two, a second_, = alter: nom.
sg. subs.: se ôðer, 2062; ôðer(_one_ i.e. of my blood-relations, Hæðcyn and
Hygelâc), 2482; ôðer ... ôðer (_the one ... the other_), 1350-1352. Adj.:
ôðer ... mihtig mân-sceaða (_the second mighty, fell foe_, referring to
1350), 1339; se ôðer ... häle, 1816; fem. niht ôðer, 2118; neut. ôðer geâr
(_the next, second, year_), 1134; acc. sg. m. ôðerne, 653, 1861, 2441,
2485; þenden reáfode rinc ôðerne(_whilst one warrior robbed the other_,
i.e. Eofor robbed Ongenþeów), 2986; neut. ôðer swylc(_another such, an
equal number_), 1584; instr. sg. ôðre sîðe (_for the second time, again_),
2671, 3102; dat. sg. ôðrum, 815, 1030, 1166, 1229, 1472, 2168, 2172, etc.;
gen. sg. m. ôðres dôgores, 219, 606; neut. ôðres, 1875.--2) _another, a
different one_, = alius: nom. sg., subs. ôðer, 1756; ôðer nænig (_no
other_), 860. Adj.: ænig ôðer man, 503, 534; so, 1561; ôðer in (_a
different house_ or _room_), 1301; acc. sg. ôðer flet, 1087; gen. sg. ôðres
... yrfe-weardes, 2452; acc. pl. ealo drincende ôðer sædan (_ale drinkers
said other things_), 1946; acc. pl. neut. word ôðer, 871.

ôfer, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. on ôfre, 1372.

ôfost, st. f., _haste_: nom. sg. ôfost is sêlest tô gecýðanne (_haste is
best to make known, best to say at once_), 256; so, 3008; dat. sg. beó þu
on ôfeste (ôfoste) (_be in haste, hasten_), 386, 2748; on ôfste, 1293; on
ôfoste, 2784, 3091.

ôfost-lîce, adv., _in haste, speedily_, 3131.

ô-hwær, adv., _anywhere_, 1738, 2871.

ômig, adj., _rusty_: nom. sg., 2764; nom. pl. ômige, 3050.

ôr, st. n., _beginning, origin; front_: nom. sg., 1689; acc. sg., 2408;
dat. sg. on ôre, 1042.

ô-wiht, _anything, aught_: instr. sg. ô-wihte (_in any way_), 1823, 2433.


pâd, st. f., _dress_; in comp. here-pâd.

päð, st. m., _path, road, way_; in comp. ân-päð.

plega, w. m., _play, emulous contest_; lind-plega, 1074.


raðe, adv., _quickly, immediately_, 725, Cf. hrâðe.

rand, rond, st. m., _shield_: acc. sg, rand, 683; rond, 657, 2567, 2610;
dat. ronde (rond, MS.), 2674; under rande, 1210; bî ronde, 2539; acc. pl.
randas, 231; rondas, 326, 2654.--Comp.: bord-, hilde-, sîd-rand.

rand-häbbend, pres. part., _shield-bearer_, i.e. _man at arms, warrior_:
gen. pl. rond-häbbendra, 862.

rand-wîga, w. m., _shield-warrior, shield-bearing warrior_: nom. sg., 1299;
acc. sg. rand-wîgan, 1794.

râd, st. f., _road, street_; in comp. hran-, segl-, swan-râd.

ge-râd, adj., _clever, skilful, ready_: acc. pl. neut. ge-râde, 874.

râp, st. m., _rope, bond, fetter_: in comp. wäl-râp.

râsian, w. v., _to find, discover_: pret. part. þâ wäs hord râsod, 2284.

räst. See rest.

ræcan, w. v., _to reach, reach after_: pret. sg. ræhte ongeán feónd mid
folme (_reached out his hand toward the foe_), 748.

ge-ræcan, _to attain, strike, attack_: pret. sg. hyne ... wæpne ge-ræhte
(_struck him with his sword_), 2966; so, 556.

ræd, st. m.: 1) _advice, counsel, resolution; good counsel, help_: nom. sg.
nu is ræd gelong eft ät þe ânum (_now is help to be found with thee
alone_), 1377; acc. sg. ræd, 172, 278, 3081.--2) _advantage, gain, use_:
acc. sg. þät ræd talað (_counts that a gain_), 2028; êcne ræd (_the eternal
gain, everlasting life_), 1202; acc. pl. êce rædas, 1761.--Comp.: folc-ræd,
and adj., ân-, fäst-ræd.

rædan, st. v., _to rule; reign; to possess_: pres. part. rodera rædend
(_the ruler of the heavens_), 1556; inf. þone þe þu mid rihte rædan
sceoldest (_that thou shouldst possess by rights_), 2057; wolde dôm godes
dædum rædan gumena gehwylcum (_God's doom would rule over, dispose of,
every man in deeds_), 2859. See sele-rædend.

ræd-bora, w. m. _counsellor, adviser_: nom. sg., 1326.

ræden, st. f., _order, arrangement, law_: see Note on 1143; comp.

â-ræran, w. v.: 1) _to raise, lift up_: pret. pl. þâ wæron monige þe his
mæg ... ricone â-rærdon (_there were many that lifted up his brother
quickly_), 2984.--2) figuratively, _to spread, disseminate_: pret. part.
blæd is â-ræred (_thy renown is far-spread_), 1704.

ræs, st. m., _on-rush, attack, storm_: acc. sg. gûðe ræs (_the storm of
battle, attack_), 2627; instr. pl. gûðe ræsum, 2357.--Comp.: gûð-, hand-,
heaðo-, mägen-, wäl-ræs.

(ge-)ræsan, w. v., _to rush (upon)_: pret. sg. ræsde on þone rôfan, 2691,

ræswa, w. m., _prince, ruler_: dat. sg. weoroda ræswan, 60.

reccan, w. v., _to explicate, recount, narrate_: inf. frum-sceaft fira
feorran reccan (_recount the origin of man from ancient times_), 91;
gerund, tô lang is tô reccenne, hû ic ... (_too long to tell how I_...),
2094; pret. sg. syllîc spell rehte (_told a wondrous tale_), 2111; so
intrans. feorran rehte (_told of olden times_), 2107.

reced, st. n., _building, house; hall_ (complete in itself): nom. sg., 412,
771, 1800; acc. sg., 1238; dat. sg. recede, 721, 729, 1573; gen. sg.
recedes, 326, 725, 3089; gen. pl. receda, 310.--Comp.: eorð-, heal-, horn-,

regn-heard, adj., _immensely strong, firm_: acc. pl. rondas regn-hearde,

regnian, rênian, w. v., _to prepare, bring on_ or _about_: inf. deáð
rên[ian] hond-gesteallan (_prepare death for his comrade_), 2169.

ge-regnian, _to prepare, deck out, adorn_: pret. part. medu-benc monig ...
golde ge-regnad, 778.

regn-, rên-weard, st. m., _mighty guardian_: nom. pl. rên-weardas (of
Beówulf and Grendel contending for the possession of the hall), 771.

rest, räst, st. f.: 1) _bed, resting-place_: acc. sg. räste, 139; dat. sg.
on räste (genam) (_from his resting-place_), 1299, 1586; tô räste (_to
bed_), 1238. Comp.: flet-räst, sele-rest, wäl-rest.--2) _repose, rest_; in
comp. æfen-räst.

ge-reste (M.H.G. reste), f., _resting-place_: in comp. wind-gereste.

restan, w. v.: 1) _to rest_: inf. restan, 1794; pret. sg. reflex. reste
hine þâ rûm-heort, 1800.--2) _to rest, cease_: inf., 1858.

rêc (O.H.G. rouh), st. m., _reek, smoke_: instr. sg. rêce, 3157.--Comp.:
wäl-, wudu-rêc.

rêcan (O.H.G. ruohjan), w. v. w. gen., _to reck, care about something, be
anxious_: pres. sg. III. wæpna ne rêceð (_recketh not for weapons, weapons
cannot hurt him_), 434.

rêðe, adj., _wroth, furious_: nom. sg., 122, 1586; nom. pl. rêðe, 771.
Also, of things, _wild, rough, fierce_: gen. sg. rêðes and-hâttres
(_fierce, penetrating heat_), 2524.

reáf, st. n., _booty, plunder in war; clothing, garments_ (as taken by the
victor from the vanquished): in comp. heaðo-, wäl-reáf.

reáfian, w. v., _to plunder, rob_, w. acc.: inf. hord reáfian, 2774; pret.
sg. þenden reáfode rinc ôðerne, 2986; wäl reáfode, 3028; pret. pl. wäl
reáfedon, 1213.

be-reáfian, w. instr., _to bereave, rob of_: pret. part. since be-reáfod,
2747; golde be-reáfod, 3019.

reord, st. f., _speech, language; tone of voice_: acc. sg. on-cniów mannes
reorde (_knew, heard, a human voice_), 2556.

reordian, w. v., _to speak, talk_: inf. fela reordian _(speak much_), 3026.

ge-reordian, _to entertain, to prepare for_: pret. part. þâ wäs eft swâ ær
... flet-sittendum fägere ge-reorded (_again, as before, the guests were
hospitably entertained_), 1789

reót, st. m.?, f.?, _noise, tumult_? (_grave_?): instr. sg. reóte, 2458.
Bugge, in Zachers Zeits. 4, 215, takes reóte as dat. from reót (_rest,

reóc, adj., _savage, furious_: nom. sg., 122.

be-reófan, st. v., _to rob of, bereave_: pret. part. w. instr. acc. sg.
fem. golde berofene, 2932; instr. sg. reóte berofene, 2458.

reón. See rôwan.

reótan, st. v., _to weep_: pres. pl. ôð þät ... roderas reótað, 1377.

reów, adj., _excited, fierce, wild_: in comp. blôd-, gûð-, wäl-reów. See

ricone, _hastily, quickly, immediately_, 2984.

riht, st. n., _right_ or _privilege; the_ (abstract) _right_: acc. sg. on
ryht (_according to right_), 1556; sôð and riht (_truth and right_), 1701;
dat. sg. wið rihte, 144; äfter rihte (_in accordance with right_), 1050;
syllîc spell rehte äfter rihte _(told a wondrous tale truthfully_), 2111;
mid rihte, 2057; acc. pl. ealde riht (_the ten commandments_), 2331;
--Comp. in êðel-, folc-, land-, un-, word-riht.

riht, adj., _straight, right_: in comp. up-riht.

rihte, adv., _rightly, correctly_, 1696. See ät-rihte.

rinc, st. m., _man, warrior, hero_: nom. sg., 399, 2986; also of Grendel,
721; acc. sg. rinc, 742, 748; dat. sg. rince, 953; of Hrôðgâr, 1678; gen.
pl. rinca, 412, 729.--Comp. in beado-, gûð-, here-, heaðo-, hilde-, mago-,

ge-risne, ge-rysne, adj., _appropriate, proper_: nom. sg. n. ge-rysne,

rîce, st. n.: 1) _realm, land ruled over_: nom. sg., 2200, 2208; acc. sg.
rîce, 913, 1734, 1854, 3005; gen. sg. rîces, 862, 1391, 1860, 2028, 3081.
Comp. Swió-rîce.--2) _council of chiefs, the king with his chosen
advisers_(?): nom. sg. oft gesät rîce tô rûne, 172.

rîce, adj., _mighty, powerful_: nom. sg. (of Hrôðgâr), 1238; (of Hygelâc),
1210; (of Äsc-here), 1299; weak form, se rîca (Hrôðgâr), 310; (Beówulf),
399; (Hygelâc), 1976.--Comp. gimme-rîce.

rîcsian, rîxian, w. v. intrans., _to rule, reign_: inf. rîcsian, 2212;
pret. sg. rîxode, 144.

rîdan, st. v., _to ride_: subj. pres. þät his byre rîde giong on galgan,
2446; pres. part. nom. pl. rîdend, 2458; inf. wicge rîdan, 234; mearum
rîdan, 856; pret. sg. sæ-genga ... se þe on ancre râd, 1884; him tô-geánes
râd (_rode to meet them_), 1894; pret. pl. ymbe hlæw riodan (_rode round
the grave-mound_), 3171.

ge-rîdan, w. acc., _to ride over_: pret. sg. se þe näs ge-râd (_who rode
over the promontory_), 2899.

rîm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. däg-, un-rîm.

ge-rîm, st. n., _series, number_: in comp. dôgor-ge-rim.

ge-rîman, w. v., _to count together, enumerate in all_: pret. part. in
comp. forð-gerîmed.

â-rîsan, st. v., _to arise, rise_: imper. sg. â-rîs, 1391; pret. sg. â-râs
þâ se rîca, 399; so, 652, 1791, 3031; â-râs þâ bî ronde (_arose by his
shield_), 2539; hwanan sió fæhð â-râs (_whence the feud arose_), 2404.

rodor, st. m., _ether, firmament, sky_ (from _radius_?, Bugge): gen. sg.
rodores candel, 1573; nom. pl. roderas, 1377; dat. pl. under roderum, 310;
gen. pl. rodera, 1556.

rôf, adj., _fierce, of fierce, heroic, strength, strong_: nom. sg., 2539;
also with gen. mägenes rôf (_strong in might_), 2085; so, þeáh þe he rôf
sîe nîð-geweorca, 683; acc. sg. rôfne, 1794; on þone rôfan, 2691.--Comp.:
beadu-, brego-, ellen-, heaðo-, hyge-, sige-rôf.

rôt, adj., _glad, joyous_: in comp. un-rôt.

rôwan, st. v., _to row_ (with the arms), _swim_: pret. pl. reón (for
reówon), 512, 539.

rûm, st. m., _space, room_: nom. sg., 2691.

rûm, adj.: 1) _roomy, spacious_: nom. sg. þûhte him eall tô rûm, wongas and
wîc-stede (_fields and dwelling seemed to him all too broad_, i.e. could
not hide his shame at the unavenged death of his murdered son), 2462.--2)
in moral sense, _great, magnanimous, noble-hearted_: acc. sg. þurh rûmne
sefan, 278.

rûm-heort, adj., _big-hearted, noble-spirited_: nom. sg., 1800, 2111.

ge-rûm-lîc, adj., _commodious, comfortable_: compar. ge-rûm-lîcor, 139.

rûn, st. f., _secrecy, secret discussion, deliberation_ or _council_: dat.
sg. ge-sät rîce tô rûne, 172.--Comp. beado-rûn.

rûn-stäf, st. m., _rune-stave, runic letter_: acc. pl. þurh rûn-stafas,

rûn-wita, w. m., _rune-wit, privy councillor, trusted adviser_: nom. sg.,

ge-rysne. See ge-risne.

ge-rýman, w. v.: 1) _to make room for, prepare, provide room_: pret. pl.
þät hie him ôðer flet eal ge-rýmdon, 1087; pret. part. þâ wäs Geát-mäcgum
... benc gerýmed, 492; so, 1976.--2) _to allow, grant, admit_: pret. part.
þâ me ge-rýmed wäs (sîð) (_as access was permitted me_), 3089; þâ him
gerýmed wearð, þät hie wäl-stôwe wealdan môston, 2984.


ge-saca, w. m., _opponent, antagonist, foe_: acc. sg. ge-sacan, 1774.

sacan, st. v., _to strive, contend_: inf. ymb feorh sacan, 439.

ge-sacan, _to attain, gain by contending_ (Grein): inf. gesacan sceal
sâwl-berendra ... gearwe stôwe _(gain the place prepared_, i.e. the
death-bed), 1005.

on-sacan: 1) (originally in a lawsuit), _to withdraw, take away, deprive
of_: pres. subj. þätte freoðuwebbe feores on-säce ... leófne mannan,
1943.--2) _to contest, dispute, withstand_: inf. þät he sæmannum on-sacan
mihte (i.e. hord, bearn, and brýde), 2955.

sacu, st. f., _strife, hostility, feud_: nom. sg., 1858, 2473; acc. sg.
säce, 154; säcce, 1978, 1990, 2348, 2500, 2563; dat. sg. ät (tô) säcce,
954, 1619, 1666, 2613, 2660, 2682, 2687; gen. sg. secce, 601; gen. pl.
säcca, 2030.

ge-sacu, st. f., _strife, enmity_: nom. sg., 1738.

sadol, st. m., _saddle_: nom. sg., 1039.

sadol-beorht, adj., _with bright saddles_ (?): acc. pl. sadol-beorht, 2176.

ge-saga. See secgan.

samne, somne, adv., _together, united_; in ät-somne, _together, united_,
307, 402, 491, 544, 2848.

tô-somne (_together_), 3123; þâ se wyrm ge-beáh snûde tô-somne (_when the
dragon quickly coiled together_), 2569.

samod, somod: I. adv., _simultaneously, at the same time_: somod, 1212,
1615, 2175, 2988; samod, 2197; samod ät-gädere, 387, 730, 1064.--II. prep.
w. dat., _with, at the same time with_: samod ær-däge (_with the break of
day_), 1312; somod ær-däge, 2943.

sand, st. n., _sand, sandy shore_: dat. sg. on sande, 295, 1897, 3043(?);
äfter sande (_along the shore_), 1965; wið sande, 213.

sang, st. m., _song, cry, noise_: nom. sg. sang, 1064; swutol sang scôpes,
90; acc. sg. sige-leásne sang (Grendel's cry of woe), 788; sârigne sang
(Hrêðel's dirge for Herebeald), 2448.

sâl, st. m., _rope_: dat. sg. sâle, 1907; on sâle (sole, MS.), 302.

sâl. See sæl.

sâr, st. n., _wound, pain_ (physical or spiritual): nom. sg. sâr, 976; sió
sâr, 2469; acc. sg. sâr, 788; sâre, 2296; dat. (instr.) sg. sâre, 1252,
2312, 2747.--Comp. lîc-sâr.

sâr, adj., _sore, painful_: instr. pl. sârum wordum, 2059.

sâre, adv., _sorely, heavily, ill_, graviter: se þe him [sâ]re gesceôd
(_who injured him sorely_), 2224.

sârig, adj., _painful, woeful_: acc. sg. sârigne sang, 2448.

sârig-ferð, adj., _sore-hearted, grieved_: nom. sg. sârig-ferð (Wîglâf),

sârig-môd, adj., _sorrowful-minded, saddened_: dat. pl. sârig-môdum, 2943.

sâr-lîc, adj., _painful_: nom. sg., 843; acc. sg. neut., 2110.

sâwol, sâwl, st. f., _soul_ (the immortal principle as contrasted with lîf,
the physical life): nom. sg. sâwol, 2821; acc. sg. sâwle, 184, 802; hæðene
sâwle, 853; gen. sg. sâwele, 1743; sâwle, 2423.

sâwl-berend, pres. part., _endowed with a soul, human being_: gen. pl.
sâwl-berendra, 1005.

sâwul-dreór, st. n., (blood gushing from the seat of the soul), _soul-gore,
heart's blood, life's blood_: instr. sg. sâwul-drióre, 2694.

sâwul-leás, adj., _soulless, lifeless_: acc. sg. sâwol-leásne, 1407;
sâwul-leásne, 3034.

säce, säcce. See sacu.

säd, adj., _satiated, wearied_: in comp. hilde-säd.

säl, st. n., _habitable space, house_, _hall_: dat. sg. sel, 167; säl, 307,
2076, 2265.

säld, st. n., _hall, king's hall_ or _palace_: acc. sg. geond þät säld
(Heorot), 1281.

sæ, st. m. and f., _sea, ocean_: nom. sg., 579, 1224; acc. sg. on sîdne sæ,
507; ofer sæ, 2381; ofer sæ sîde, 2395; dat. sg. tô sæ, 318; on sæ, 544;
dat. pl. be sæm tweonum, 859, 1298, 1686, 1957.

sæ-bât, st. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg., 634, 896.

sæ-cyning, st. m., _sea-king, king ruling the sea_: gen. pl. sæ-cyninga,

sæ-deór, st. n., _sea-beast, sea-monster_: nom. sg., 1511.

sæ-draca, w. m., _sea-dragon_: acc. pl. sæ-dracan, 1427.

ge-sægan, w. v., _to fell, slay_: pret. part. häfdon eal-fela eotena cynnes
sweordum ge-sæged (_felled with the sword_), 885.

sæge. See on-sæge.

sæ-genga, w. m., _sea-goer_, i.e. sea-going ship: nom. sg., 1883, 1909.

sæ-geáp, adj., _spacious_ (broad enough for the sea): nom. sg. sæ-geáp
naca, 1897.

sæ-grund, st. m., _sea-bottom, ocean-bottom_: dat. sg. sæ-grunde, 564.

sæl, sâl, sêl, st. f.: 1) _favorable opportunity, good_ or _fit time_: nom.
sg. sæl, 623, 1666, 2059; sæl and mæl, 1009; acc. sg. sêle, 1136; gen. pl.
sæla and mæla, 1612.--2) _Fate_(?): see Note on l. 51.--3) _happiness,
joy_: dat. pl. on sâlum, 608; sælum, 644, 1171, 1323. See sêl, adj.

ge-sælan, w. v., _to turn out favorably, succeed_: pret. sg. him ge-sælde
þät ...(_he was fortunate enough to_, etc.), 891; so, 574; efne swylce
mæla, swylce hira man-dryhtne þearf ge-sælde (_at such times as need
disposed it for their lord_), 1251.

sælan (see sâl), w. v., _to tie, bind_: pret. sg. sælde ... sîð-fäðme scip,
1918; pl. sæ-wudu sældon, 226.

ge-sælan, _to bind together, weave, interweave_: pret. part. earm-beága
fela searwum ge-sæled (_many curiously interwoven armlets_, i.e. made of
metal wire: see Guide to Scandinavian Antiquities, p. 48), 2765.

on-sælan, with acc., _to unbind, unloose, open_: on-sæl meoto, sige-hrêð
secgum (_disclose thy views to the men, thy victor's courage_; or, _thy
presage of victory_?), 489.

sæ-lâc, st. n., _sea-gift, sea-booty_: instr. sg. sæ-lâce, 1625; acc. pl.
þâs sæ-lâc, 1653.

sæ-lâd, st. f., _sea-way, sea-journey_: dat. sg. sæ-lâde, 1140, 1158.

sæ-lîðend, pres. part., _seafarer_: nom. pl. sæ-lîðend, 411, 1819, 2807;
sæ-lîðende, 377.

sæ-man, m., _sea-man, sea-warrior_: dat. pl. sæ-mannum, 2955; gen. pl.
sæ-manna, 329 (both times said of the Geátas).

sæmra, weak adj. compar., _the worse, the weaker_: nom. sg. sæmra, 2881;
dat. sg. sæmran, 954.

sæ-mêðe, adj., _sea-weary, exhausted by sea-travel_: nom. pl. sæ-mêðe, 325.

sæ-näs, st. m., _sea-promontory, cape, naze_: acc. pl. sæ-nässas, 223, 571.

sæne, adj., _careless, slow_: compar. sg. nom. he on holme wäs sundes þê
sænra, þe hyne swylt fornam (_was the slower in swimming in the sea, whom
death took away_), 1437.

sæ-rinc, st. m., _sea-warrior_ or _hero_: nom. sg., 691.

sæ-sîð, st. m., _sea-way, path, journey_: dat. sg. äfter sæ-sîðe, 1150.

sæ-wang, st. m., _sea-shore_ or _beach_: acc. sg. sæ-wong, 1965.

sæ-weal, st. m., _(sea-wall), seashore_: dat. sg. sæ-wealle, 1925.

sæ-wudu, st. m., _(sea-wood), vessel, ship_: acc. sg. sæ-wudu, 226.

sæ-wylm, st. m., _sea-surf, billow_: acc. pl. ofer sæ-wylmas, 393.

scacan, sceacan, st. v., properly, _to shake one's self_; hence, _to go,
glide, pass along_ or _away_: pres. sg. þonne mîn sceaceð lîf of lîce,
2743; inf. þâ com beorht [sunne] scacan [ofer grundas], (_the bright sun
came gliding over the fields_), 1804; pret. sg. duguð ellor scôc _(the
chiefs are gone elsewhither_, i.e. have died), 2255; þonne stræla storm ...
scôc ofer scild-weall (_when the storm of arrows leapt over the wall of
shields_), 3119; pret. part. wäs hira blæd scacen (_their bravest men had
passed away_), 1125; þâ wäs winter scacen (_the winter was past_), 1137;
so, sceacen, 2307, 2728.

scadu, sceadu, st. f., _shadow, concealing veil of night_: acc. sg. under
sceadu bregdan (i.e. kill), 708.

scadu-genga, w. m., _shadow-goer, twilight-stalker_ (of Grendel): nom. sg.
sceadu-genga, 704.

scadu-helm, st. m., _shadow-helm, veil of darkness_: gen. pl. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu (_shapes of the shadow, evil spirits wandering by night_), 651.

scalu, st. f., _retinue, band_ (part of an armed force); in comp.
hand-scalu: mid his hand-scale (hond-scole), 1318, 1964.

scamian, w. v., _to be ashamed_: pres. part. nom. pl. scamiende, 2851; nô
he þære feoh-gyfte ... scamigan þorfte (_needed not be ashamed of his
treasure-giving_), 1027.

scawa (see sceáwlan), w. m., _observer, visitor_: nom. pl. scawan, 1896.

ge-scâd, st. n., _difference, distinction_: acc. sg. æg-hwäðres gescâd,
worda and worca (_difference between, of, both words and deeds_), 288.

ge-scâdan, st. v., _to decide, adjudge_: pret. sg. rodera rædend hit on
ryht gescêd (_decided it in accordance with right_), 1556.

scânan? See scînan, pret. pl. scionon, 303; the imaginary scânan having
been abandoned.

ge-scäp-hwîle, st. f., _fated hour, hour of death (appointed rest?)_: dat.
sg. tô gescäp-hwîle (_at the fated hour_), 26.

sceððan, w. v., _to scathe, injure_: inf. w. dat. pers., 1034; aldre
sceððan (_hurt her life_), 1525; þät on land Dena lâðra nænig mid scipherge
sceððan ne meahte (_injure through robber incursions_), 243; pret. sg. þær
him nænig wäter wihte ne sceðede, 1515.

ge-sceððan, the same: inf. þät him ... ne mihte eorres inwit-feng aldre
gesceððan, 1448.

scenc, st. m., _vessel, can_: in comp. medu-scenc.

scencan, w. v., _to hand drink, pour out_: pret. sg. scencte scîr wered,
496 (cf. skinker = cup-bearer).

scenne, w. f.?, _sword-guard?_: dat. pl. on þæm scennum scîran goldes,

sceran, st. v., _to shear off, cleave, hew to pieces_: pres. sg. þonne
heoru bunden ... swîn ofer helme andweard scireð (_hews off the boar-head
on the helm_), 1288.

ge-sceran, _to divide, hew in two_: pret. sg. helm oft ge-scär (_often
clove the helm in two_), 1527; so, gescer, 2974.

scerwen, st. f.?, in comp. ealu-scerwen (_ale-scare_ or _panic_?), 770.

scêt. See sceótan.

sceadu. See scadu.

sceaða, w. m.: 1) _scather, foe_: gen. pl. sceaðena, 4.--2) _fighter,
warrior_: nom. pl. scaðan, 1804.--Comp.: âttor-, dol-, feónd-, gûð-,
hearm-, leód-, mân-, sin-, þeód-, uht-sceaða.

sceaðan, st. v. w. dat., _to scathe, injure, crush_: pret. sg. se þe oft
manegum scôd (_which has oft oppressed many_), 1888.

ge-sceaðan, w. dat., the same: pret. sg. swâ him ær gescôd hild ät Heorote,
1588; se þe him sâre ge-sceôd (_who injured him sorely_), 2224; nô þý ær in
gescôd hâlan lîce, 1503; bill ær gescôd eald-hlâfordes þam þâra mâðma
mund-bora wäs (_the weapon of the ancient chieftain had before laid low the
dragon, the guardian of the treasure_), 2778 (or, _sheathed in brass_?, if
ær and gescôd form compound).

sceaðen-mæl, st. n., _deadly weapon, hostile sword_: nom. sg., 1940.

sceaft, st. m., _shaft, spear, missile_: nom. sg. sceft, 3119.--Comp.:
here-, wäl-sceaft.

ge-sceaft, st. f.: 1) _creation, earth, earthly existence_: acc. sg. þâs
lænan ge-sceaft, 1623.--2) _fate, destiny_: in comp. forð-, lîf-,

scealc, st. m., _servant, military retainer_: nom. sg., 919; (of Beówulf),
940.--Comp beór-scealc.

ge-sceap, st. n.: 1) _shape, creature_: nom. pl. scadu-helma ge-sceapu,
651.--2) _fate, providence_: acc. sg. heáh ge-sceap (_heavy fate_), 3085.

sceapan, sceppan, scyppan, st. v., _to shape, create, order, arrange,
establish_: pres. part. scyppend (_the Creator_), 106; pret. sg. scôp him
Heort naman (_shaped, gave, it the name Heorot_), 78; pres. part. wäs sió
wrôht scepen heard wið Hûgas, syððan Hygelâc cwom (_the contest with the
Hûgas became sharp after H. had come_), 2915.

ge-sceapan, _to shape, create_: pret. sg. lîf ge-sceôp cynna gehwylcum, 97.

scear, st. m., _massacre_: in comp. gûð-, inwit-scear, 2429, etc.

scearp, adj., _sharp, able, brave_: nom. sg. scearp scyld-wîga,
288.--Comp.: beadu-, heaðo-scearp.

scearu, st. f., _division, body, troop_: in comp. folc-scearu; _that is
decided_ or _determined_, in gûð-scearu (_overthrow_?), 1214.

sceat, st. m., _money_; also _unit of value in appraising_ (cf. Rieger in
Zacher's Zeits. 3, 415): acc. pl. sceattas, 1687. When numbers are given,
sceat appears to be left out, cf. 2196, 2995 (see þûsend).--Comp.

sceát, st. m., _region, field_: acc. pl. gefrätwade foldan sceátas leomum
and leáfum, 96;--_top, surface, part_: gen. pl. eorðan sceáta, 753.

sceáwere, st. m., _observer, spy_: nom. pl. sceáweras, 253.

sceáwian, w. v. w. acc., _to see, look at, observe_: inf. sceáwian, 841,
1414, 2403, 2745, 3009, 3033; sceáwigan, 1392; pres. sg. II. þät ge genôge
neán sceáwiað beágas and brâd gold, 3105; subj. pres. þät ic ... sceáwige
swegle searo-gimmas, 2749; pret. sg. sceáwode, 1688, 2286, 2794; sg. for
pl., 844; pret. pl. sceáwedon, 132, 204, 984, 1441.

ge-sceáwian, _to see, behold, observe_: pret. part. ge-sceáwod, 3076, 3085.

sceorp, st. n., _garment_: in comp. hilde-sceorp.

sceótan, st. v., _to shoot, hurl missiles_: pres. sg. se þe of flân-bogan
fyrenum sceóteð, 1745; pres. part. nom. pl. sceótend (_the warriors,
bowmen_), 704, 1155; dat. pl. for sceótendum (MS. scotenum), 1027.

ge-sceótan, w. acc., _to shoot off, hurry_: pret. sg. hord eft gesceát
(_the dragon darted again back to the treasure_), 2320.

of-sceótan, _to kill by shooting_: pret. sg. his mæg of-scêt ... blôdigan
gâre _(killed his brother with bloody dart_), 2440.

scild, scyld, st. m., _shield_: nom. sg. scyld, 2571; acc. sg. scyld, 437,
2076; acc. pl. scyldas, 325, 333, 2851.

scildan, scyldan, w. v., _to shield, protect_: pret. subj. nymðe mec god
scylde (_if God had not shielded me_), 1659.

scild-freca, w. m., _shield-warrior_ (warrior armed with a shield): nom.
sg. scyld-freca, 1034.

scild-weall, st. m., _wall of shields_: acc. sg. scild-weall, 3119.

scild-wîga, w. m., _shield-warrior_: nom. sg. scyld-wîga, 288.

scinna, w. m., _apparition, evil spirit_: dat. pl. scynnum, 940.

scip, st. n., _vessel, ship_: nom. sg., 302; acc. sg., 1918; dat. sg. tô
scipe, 1896; gen. sg. scipes, 35, 897; dat pl. tô scypum (scypon, MS.),

scip-here, st. m., (exercitus navalis) _armada, fleet_: dat. sg. mid
scip-herge, 243.

ge-scîfe (for ge-scýfe), adj., _advancing_ (of the dragon's movement),
2571; = G. _schief_?

scînan, st. v., _to shine, flash_: pres. sg. sunne ... sûðan scîneð, 607;
so, 1572; inf. geseah blâcne leóman beorhte scînan, 1518; pret. sg.
(gûð-byrne, woruld--candel) scân, 321, 1966; on him byrne scân, 405; pret.
pl. gold-fâg scinon web äfter wagum, 995; scionon, 303.

scîr, adj., _sheer, pure, shining_: nom. sg. hring-îren scîr, 322; scîr
metod, 980; acc. sg. n. scîr wered, 496; gen. sg. scîran goldes, 1695.

scîr-ham, adj., _bright-armored, clad in bright mail_: nom. pl. scîr-hame,

scoten. See sceóten.

ge-scôd, pret. part., _shod_ (calceatus), _covered_: in comp.
ær-ge-scôd(?). See ge-sceaðan, and Note.

scôp, st. m., _singer, shaper, poet_: nom. sg., 496, 1067; gen. sg. scôpes,

scräf, st. n., _hole in the earth, cavern_: in comp. eorð-scräf.

scrîðan, st. v., _to stride, go_: pres. pl. scrîðað, 163; inf. scrîðan,
651, 704; scrîðan tô, 2570.

scrîfan, st. v., _to prescribe, impose_ (punishment): inf. hû him (Grendel)
scîr metod scrîfan wille, 980.

for-scrîfan, w. dat. pers., _to proscribe, condemn_: pret. part. siððan him
scyppend for-scrifen häfde, 106.

ge-scrîfan, _to permit, prescribe_: pret. sg. swâ him Wyrd ne ge-scrâf (_as
Weird did not permit him_), 2575.

scrûd, st. m., _clothing, covering; ornament_: in comp. beadu-,

scucca, w. m., _shadowy sprite, demon_: dat. pl. scuccum, 940.

sculan, aux. v. w. inf.: 1) _shall, must_ (obligation): pres. sg. I., III.
sceal, 20, 24, 183, 251, 271, 287, 440, 978, 1005, 1173, 1387, 1535, etc.;
scel, 455, 2805, 3011; II. scealt, 589, 2667; subj. pres. scyle, 2658;
scile, 3178; pret. ind. sg. I., III. scolde, 10, 806, 820, 966, 1071, 1444,
1450, etc.; sceolde, 2342, 2409, 2443, 2590, 2964; II. sceoldest, 2057; pl.
scoldon, 41, 833, 1306, 1638; subj. pret. scolde, 1329, 1478; sceolde,
2709.--2) w. inf. following it expresses futurity, = _shall, will_: pres.
sg. I., III. sceal beódan (_shall offer_), 384; so, 424, 438, 602, 637,
1061, 1707, 1856, 1863, 2070; sceall, 2499, 2509, etc.; II. scealt, 1708;
pl. wit sculon, 684; subj. pret. scolde, 280, 692, 911; sceolde, 3069.--3)
sculan sometimes forms a periphrastic phrase or circumlocution for a simple
tense, usually with a slight feeling of obligation or necessity: pres. sg.
he ge-wunian sceall (_he inhabits; is said to inhabit?_), 2276; pret. sg.
se þe wäter-egesan wunian scolde, 1261; wäcnan scolde (_was to awake_), 85;
se þone gomelan grêtan sceolde (_was to, should, approach_), 2422; þät se
byrn-wîga bûgan sceolde (_the corseleted warrior had to bow, fell_), 2919;
pl. þâ þe beado-grîman býwan sceoldon (_they that had to polish or deck the
battle-masks_), 2258; so, 230, 705, 1068.--4) w. omitted inf., such as
wesan, gangan: unc sceal worn fela mâðma ge-mænra (i.e. wesan). 1784; so,
2660; sceal se hearda helm ... fätum befeallen (i.e. wesan), 2256; ic him
äfter sceal (i.e. gangan), 2817; subj. þonne þu forð scyle (i.e. gangan),
1180. A verb or inf. expressed in an antecedent clause is not again
expressed with a subsequent sceal: gæð â Wyrd swâ hió scel (_Weird goeth
ever as it shall_ [go]), 455; gûð-bill ge-swâc swâ hit nô sceolde (i.e.
ge-swîcan), 2586.

scûa, w. m., _shadowy demon_: in comp. deáð-scûa.

scûfan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to move forward, hasten_: pret. part. þâ wäs
morgen-leóht scofen and scynded, 919.--2) w. acc., _to shove, push_: pret.
pl. guman ût scufon ... wudu bundenne (_pushed the vessel from the land_),
215; dracan scufun ... ofer weall-clif (_pushed the dragon over the
wall-like cliff_), 3132. See wîd-scofen(?)

be-scûfan, w. acc., _to push, thrust down, in_: inf. wâ bið þäm þe sceal
... sâwle be-scûfan in fýres fäðm (_woe to him that shall thrust his soul
into fire's embrace_), 184.

scûr, st. m., _shower, battle-shower_: in comp. îsern-scûr.

scûr-heard, adj., _fight-hardened? (file-hardened?_): nom. pl. scûr-heard,

scyld, scyldan. See scild, scildan.

scyldig, adj., _under obligations_ or _bound for; guilty of_, w. gen. and
instr.: ealdres (morðres) scyldig, 1339, 1684, 2062; synnum scyldig
(_guilty of evil deeds_), 3072.

scyndan, w. v., _to hasten_: inf. scyndan, 2571; pret. part, scynded, 919

scynna. See scinna.

scyppend. See sceapan.

scyran, w. v., _to arrange, decide_: inf. þät hit sceaðen-mæl scyran môste
(_that the sword must decide it_), 1940. O.N. skora, _to score, decide_.

scýne, adj., _sheen, well-formed, beautiful_: nom. sg. mägð scýne, 3017.

se, pron. dem. and article, _the_: m. nom., 79, 84, 86, 87, 90, 92, 102,
etc.; fem, seó, 66, 146, etc.; neut. þät;--relative: se (_who_), 1611,
2866; se þe (_he who_), 2293; seó þe (_she who_), 1446; se þe (for seó þe),
1345, 1888, 2686; cf. 1261, 1498; (Grendel's mother, as a wild, demonic
creature, is conceived now as man, now as woman: woman, as having borne a
son; man, as the incarnation of savage cunning and power); se for seó,
2422; dat. sg. þam (for þam þe), 2780.

secce. See sacu.

secg, st. m., _man, warrior, hero, spokesman_ (secgan?): nom. sg., 208,
872, 2228, 2407, etc.; (Beówulf), 249, 948, 1312, 1570, 1760, etc.;
(Wulfgâr), 402; (Hûnferð), 981; (Wîglâf), 2864; acc. sg. sinnigne secg
(Grendel's mother, cf. se), 1380; dat. sg. secge, 2020; nom. pl. secgas,
213, 2531, 3129; dat. pl. secgum, 490; gen. pl. secga, 634, 843, 997, 1673.

secg, st. f., _sword_ (sedge?): acc. sg. secge, 685.

secgan, w. v., _to say, speak_: 1) w. acc.: pres. sg. gode ic þanc secge,
1998; so, 2796; pres. part. swâ se secg hwata secgende wäs lâðra spella
(partitive gen.), 3029; inf. secgan, 582, 876, 881, 1050; pret. sg. sägde
him þäs leánes þanc, 1810; pret. sg. II. hwät þu worn fela ... sägdest from
his sîðe, 532.--2) without acc inf. swâ we sôðlîce secgan hýrdon, 273;
pret. sg. sägde, 2633, 2900--3) w. depend. clause: pres. sg. ic secge, 591;
pl. III. secgað, 411; inf. secgan, 51, 391, 943, 1347, 1701, 1819, 2865,
3027; gerund. tô secganne, 473, 1725; pret. sg. sägde, 90, 1176; pl.
sägdon, 377, 2188; sædan, 1946.

â-secgan (edicere), _to say out, deliver_: inf. wille ic â-secgan suna
Healfdenes ... mîn ærende, 344.

ge-secgan, _to say, relate_: imper. sg. II. ge-saga, 388; þät ic his ærest
þe eft ge-sägde (_that I should, after, tell thee its origin_), 2158; pret.
part. gesägd, 141; gesæd, 1697.

sefa, w. m., _heart, mind, soul, spirit_: nom. sg., 49, 490, 595, 2044,
2181, 2420, 2601, 2633; acc. sg. sefan, 278, 1727, 1843; dat. sg. sefan,
473, 1343, 1738.--Comp. môd-sefa.

ge-segen, st. f., _legend, tale_: in comp. eald-ge-segen.

segl, st. n., _sail_: nom. sg., 1907.

segl-râd, st. f., _sail-road_, i.e. sea: dat. sg. on segl-râde, 1430.

segn, st. n., _banner_, vexillum: nom. sg., 2768, 2959; acc. sg. segen, 47,
1022; segn, 2777; dat. sg. under segne, 1205.--Comp. heáfod-segn.

sel, st. n., _hall, palace_. See säl.

seld, st. n., _dwelling, house_: in comp. medu-seld.

ge-selda, w. m., contubernalis, _companion_: acc. sg. geseldan, 1985.

seldan, adv., _seldom_: oft [nô] seldan, 2030.

seld-guma, w. m., _house-man, home-stayer(?); common man?, house-carl?_:
nom. sg., 249.

sele, st. m. and n., _building consisting of one apartment; apartment,
room_: nom. sg., 81, 411; acc. sg. sele, 827, 2353; dat. sg. tô sele, 323,
1641; in (on, tô) sele þam heán, 714, 920, 1017, 1985; on sele (_in the den
of the dragon_), 3129.--Comp.: beáh-, beór-, dryht-, eorð-, gest-, gold-,
grund-, gûð-, heáh-, hring-, hrôf-, nið-, win-sele.

sele-dreám, st. m., _hall-glee, joy in the hall_: acc. sg. þâra þe þis lîf
ofgeaf, gesâwon sele-dreám (referring to the joy of heaven?), 2253.

sele-ful, st. n., _hall-goblet_: acc. sg., 620.

sele-gyst, st. m., _hall-guest, stranger in hall_ or _house_: acc. sg. þone
sele-gyst, 1546.

sele-rædend, pres. part., _hall-ruler, possessor of the hall_: nom. pl.,
51; acc. leóde mîne sele-rædende, 1347.

sele-rest, st. f., _bed in the hall_: acc. sg. sele-reste, 691.

sele-þegn, st. m., _retainer, hall-thane, chamberlain_: nom. sg., 1795.

sele-weard, st. m., _hall-ward, guardian of the hall_: acc. sg., 668.

self, sylf, pron., _self_: nom. sg. strong form, self, 1314, 1925 (?
selfa); þu self, 595; þu þe self, 954; self cyning (_the king himself, the
king too_), 921, 1011; sylf, 1965; in weak form, selfa, 1469; he selfa, 29,
1734; þäm þe him selfa deáh (_that can rely upon, trust to, himself_),
1840; seolfa, 3068; he sylfa, 505; god sylfa, 3055; acc. sg. m. selfne,
1606; hine selfne (_himself_), 962; hyne selfne (_himself_, reflex.), 2876;
wið sylfne (_beside_), 1978; gen. sg. m. selfes, 701, 896; his selfes,
1148; on sînne sylfes dôm (_at his own will_), 2148; sylfes, 2224, 2361,
2640, 2711, 2777, 3014; his sylfes, 2014, 2326; fem. hire selfre, 1116;
nom. pl. selfe, 419; Sûð-Dene sylfe, 1997.

ge-sella, w. m., _house-companion, comrade_: in comp. hand-gesella.

sellan, syllan, w. v.: 1) w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to give,
deliver; permit, grant, present_: pres. sg. III. seleð him on êðle eorðan
wynne, 1731; inf. syllan, 2161, 2730; pret. sg. sealde, 72, 673, 1272,
1694, 1752, 2025, 2156, 2183, 2491, 2995; nefne god sylfa sealde þam þe he
wolde hord openian (_unless God himself gave to whom he would to open the
hoard_), 3056; pret. sg. II. sealdest, 1483.--2) _to give, give up_ (only
w. acc. of thing): ær he feorh seleð (_he prefers to give up his life_),
1371; nallas on gylp seleð fätte beágas (_giveth out gold-wrought rings_,
etc.), 1750; pret. sg. sinc-fato sealde, 623; pl. byrelas sealdon wîn of
wunder-fatum, 1162.

ge-sellan, w. acc. and dat. of pers., _to give, deliver; grant, present_:
inf. ge-sellan, 1030; pret. sg. ge-sealde, 616, 1053, 1867, 1902, 2143,

sel-lîc, syl-lîc (from seld-lîc), adj., _strange, wondrous_: nom. sg. glôf
... syllîc, 2087; acc. sg. n. syllîc spell, 2110; acc. pl. sellîce
sæ-dracan, 1427. Compar. acc. sg. syllîcran wiht (the dragon), 3039.

semninga, adv., _straightway, at once_ 645, 1641, 1768.

sendan, w. v. w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers., _to send_: pret. sg. þone
god sende folce tô frôfre (_whom God sent as a comfort to the people_), 13;
so, 471, 1843.

for-sendan, _to send away, drive off_ pret. part. he wearð on feónda
geweald ... snûde for-sended, 905.

on-sendan, _to send forth, away_, w. acc. of thing and dat. of pers.:
imper. sg. on-send, 452, 1484; pret. sg. on-sende, 382; pl. þe hine ...
forð on-sendon ænne ofer ýðe (_who sent him forth alone over the sea_), 45;
pret. part. bealo-cwealm hafað fela feorh-cynna feorr on-sended, 2267.

sendan (cf. Gl. Aldhelm, sanda = ferculorum, epularum, in Haupt IX. 444),
w. v., _to feast, banquet_: pres. sg. III. sendeð, 601.--Leo.

serce, syrce, w. f., _sark, shirt of mail_: nom. sg. syrce, 1112; nom. pl.
syrcan, 226; acc. pl. græge syrcan, 334.--Comp.: beadu-, heoro-serce;
here-, leoðo-, lîc-syrce.

sess, st. m., _seat, place for sitting_: dat. sg. sesse, 2718; þâ he bî
sesse geóng (_by the seat_, i.e. before the dragon's lair), 2757.

setl, st. n., _seat, settle_: acc. sg., 2014; dat. sg. setle, 1233, 1783,
2020; gen. sg. setles, 1787; dat. pl. setlum, 1290.--Comp.: heáh-, hilde-,

settan, w. v., _to set_: pret. sg. setton sæ-mêðe sîde scyldas ... wið þäs
recedes weall (_the sea-wearied ones set their broad shields against the
wall of the hall_), 325; so, 1243.

â-settan, _to set, place, appoint_: pret. pl. hie him â-setton segen
[gyl]-denne heáh ofer heáfod, 47; pret. part. häfde kyninga wuldor Grendle
tô-geánes ... sele-weard â-seted, 668.

be-settan, _to set with, surround_: pret. sg. (helm) besette swîn-lîcum
(_set the helm with swine-bodies_), 1454.

ge-settan: 1) _to set, set down_: pret. part. swâ wäs ...þurh rûn-stafas
rihte ge-mearcod, ge-seted and ge-sæd (_thus was ... in rune-staves rightly
marked, set down and said_), 1697.--2) _to set, ordain, create_: pret. sg.
ge-sette ... sunnan and mônan leóman tô leóhte land-bûendum, 94.--3) =
componere, _to lay aside, smooth over, appease_: pret. sg. þät he mid þý
wîfe wäl-fæhða ... dæl ... ge-sette, 2030.

sêcan, w. v., _to follow after_, hence: 1) _to seek, strive for_, w. acc.:
pret. sg. sinc-fät sôhte _(sought the costly cup_), 2301; ne sôhte
searo-nîðas, 2739; so, 3068. Without acc.: þonne his myne sôhte (_than his
wish demanded_), 2573; hord-weard sôhte georne äfter grunde (_the
hoard-warden sought eagerly along the ground_), 2294.--2) _to look for,
come_ or _go some whither, attain something_, w. acc.: pres. sg. III. se þe
... biorgas sêceð, 2273; subj. þeáh þe hæð-stapa holt-wudu sêce, 1370;
imper. sêc gif þu dyrre (_look for her_, i.e. Grendel's mother, _if thou
dare_), 1380; inf. sêcean, 200, 268, 646, 1598, 1870, 1990, 2514(?), 3103,
etc.; sêcan, 665, 1451; drihten sêcean (_seek, go to, the Lord_), 187;
sêcean wyn-leás wîc (_Grendel was to seek a joyless place_, i.e. Hell),
822; so, sêcan deófla gedräg, 757; sâwle sêcan (_seek the life, kill_),
802; so, sêcean sâwle hord, 2423; gerund. säcce tô sêceanne, 2563; pret.
sg. I., III. sôhte, 139, 208, 376, 417, 2224; II. sôhtest, 458; pl. sôhton,
339.--3) _to seek, attack_: þe ûs sêceað tô Sweóna leóde, 3002; pret. pl.
hine wräc-mäcgas ofer sæ sôhtan, 2381.

ge-sêcan: 1) _to seek_, w. acc.: inf. gif he gesêcean dear wîg ofer wæpen,
685.--2) _to look for, come_ or _go to attain_, w. acc.: inf. ge-sêcean,
693; gerund, tô ge-sêcanne, 1923; pret. sg. ge-sôhte, 463, 520, 718, 1952;
pret. part. nom. pl. feor-cýððe beóð sêlran ge-sôhte þam þe hine selfa
deáh, 1840.--3) _to seek with hostile intent, to attack_: pres. sg.
ge-sêceð 2516; pret. sg. ge-sôhte, 2347; pl. ge-sôhton, 2927; ge-sôhtan,

ofer-sêcan, w. acc., _to surpass, outdo_ (in an attack): pres. sg. wäs sió
hond tô strong, se þe mêca gehwane ... swenge ofer-sôhte, þonne he tô säcce
bär wæpen wundrum heard (_too strong was the hand, that surpassed every
sword in stroke, when he_ [Beówulf] _bore the wondrous weapon to battle_,
i.e. the hand was too strong for any sword; its strength made it useless in
battle), 2687.

sêl, st. f. See sæl.

sêl, sæl, adj., _good, excellent, fit_, only in compar.: nom. sg. m. sêlra,
861, 2194; þæm þær sêlra wäs (_to the one that was the better_, i.e.
Hygelâc), 2200; deáð bið sêlla þonne edwît-lîf, 2891; neut. sêlre, 1385;
acc. sg. m. sêlran þe (_a better than thee_), 1851; sêlran, 1198; neut. þät
sêlre, 1760; dat. sg. m. sêlran sweord-frecan, 1469; nom. pl. fem. sêlran,
1840. Superl., strong form: nom. sg. neut. sêlest, 173, 1060; hûsa sêlest,
146, 285, 936; ôfost is sêlest, 256; bolda sêlest, 2327; acc. sg. neut.
hrägla sêlest, 454; hûsa sêlest, 659; billa sêlest, 1145;--weak form: nom.
sg. m. reced sêlesta, 412; acc. sg. m. þone sêlestan, 1407, 2383; (þäs,
MS.), 1957; dat. sg. m. þäm sêlestan, 1686; nom. pl. sêlestan, 416; acc.
pl. þâ sêlestan, 3123.

sêl, compar. adv., _better, fitter, more excellent_, 1013, 2531; ne byð him
wihte þê sêl (_he shall be nought the better for it_), 2278; so, 2688.

sealma (Frisian selma, in bed-selma), w. m., _bed-chamber, sleeping-place_:
acc. sg. on sealman, 2461.

sealt, adj., _salty_: acc. sg. neut. ofer sealt wäter (_the sea_), 1990.

searo (G. sarwa, pl.), st. n.: 1) _armor, accoutrements, war-gear_: nom.
pl. sæ-manna searo, 329; dat. pl. secg on searwum (_a man, warrior, in
panoply_), 249, 2701; in (on) searwum, 323, 1558; 2531, 2569; instr. pl.
searwum, 1814.--2) _insidiae, ambuscade, waylaying, deception, battle_: þâ
ic of searwum cwom, fâh from feóndum, 419.--3) _cunning, art, skill_:
instr. pl. sadol searwum fâh (_saddle cunningly ornamented_), 1039;
earmbeága fela, searwum ge-sæled (_many cunningly-linked armlets_),
2765.--Comp. fyrd-, gûð-, inwit-searo.

searo-bend, st. f., _band, bond, of curious workmanship_: instr. pl.
searo-bendum fäst, 2087.

searo-fâh, adj., _cunningly inlaid, ornamented, with gold_: nom. sg.
here-byrne hondum ge-broden, sîd and searo-fâh, 1445.

searo-ge-þräc, st. n., _heap of treasure-objects_: acc. sg., 3103.

searo-gim, st. m., _cunningly set gem, rich jewel_: acc. pl. searo-gimmas,
2750; gen. pl. searo-gimma, 1158.

searo-grim, adj., _cunning and fierce_: nom. sg., 595.

searo-häbbend, pres. part. as subst., _arms-bearing, warrior with his
trappings_: gen. pl. searo-häbbendra, 237.

searo-net, st. n., _armor-net, shirt of mail, corselet_: nom. sg., 406.

searo-nîð, st. m.: 1) _cunning hostility, plot, wiles_: acc. pl.
searo-nîðas, 1201, 2739.--2) also, only _hostility, feud, contest_: acc.
pl. searo-nîðas, 3068; gen. pl. searo-nîða, 582.

searo-þanc, st. m., _ingenuity_: instr. pl. searo-þoncum, 776.

searo-wundor, st. n., _rare wonder_: acc. sg., 921.

seax, st. n., _shortsword, hip-knife; dagger_: instr. sg. seaxe,
1546.--Comp. wäl-seax.

seax-ben, st. f., _dagger-wound_: instr. pl. siex-bennum, 2905.

seofon, num., _seven_, 517; seofan, 2196; decl. acc. syfone, 3123.

seomian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to be tied; lie at rest_: inf. siomian, 2768;
pret. sg. seomode, 302.--2) w. acc., _to put in bonds, entrap, catch_:
pret. sg. duguðe and geogoðe seomade (cf. 2086-2092), 161.

seonu, st. f., _sinew_: nom. pl. seonowe, 818.

seóc, adj., _feeble, weak; fatally ill_: nom. sg. feorh-bennum seóc (of
Beówulf, _sick unto death_), 2741; siex-bennum seóc (of the dead dragon),
2905; nom. pl. môdes seóce (_sick of soul_), 1604.--Comp.: ellen-, feorh-,

seóðan, st. v. w. acc., _to seethe, boil_; figuratively, _be excited over,
brood_: pret. sg. ic þäs môd-ceare sorh-wylmum seáð (_I pined in
heart-grief for that_), 1994; so, 190.

seóloð, st. m.?, _bight, bay_ (cf. Dietrich in Haupt XI. 416): gen. pl.
sióleða bi-gong (_the realm of bights_ = the [surface of the] sea?), 2368.

seón, sýn, st. f., _aspect, sight_: in comp. wlite-, wundor-seón, an-sýn.

seón, st. v., _to see_: a) w. acc.: inf. searo-wunder seón, 921; so, 387,
1181, 1276, 3103; þær mäg nihta ge-hwæm nîð-wundor seón (_there may every
night be seen a repulsive marvel_), 1366; pret. sg. ne seah ic ...
heal-sittendra medudreám mâran, 2015.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj.: ne
seah ic elþeódige þus manige men môdiglîcran, 336.--c) w. prep. or adv.:
pret. sg. seah on enta ge-weorc, 2718; seah on un-leófe, 2864; pl. folc tô
sægon (_looked on_), 1423.

ge-seón, _to see, behold_: a) w. acc.: pres. sg. III. se þe beáh ge-syhð,
2042; inf. ge-seón, 396, 571, 649, 962, 1079, etc.; pret. sg. geseah, 247,
927, 1558, 1614; pl. ge-sâwon, 1606, 2253.--b) w. acc. and predicate adj.,
pres. sg. III. ge-syhð ... on his suna bûre win-sele wêstne (_sees in his
son's house the wine-hall empty_; or, _hall of friends_?), 2456.--c) w.
inf.: pret. sg. ge-seah ... beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas (_saw shining
shields borne over the gang-plank_), 229; pret. pl. mære mâððum-sweord
monige ge-sâwon beforan beorn beran, 1024.--d) w. acc. and inf.: pret. sg.
ge-seah, 729, 1517, 1586, 1663, 2543, 2605, etc.; pl. ge-sâwon, 221, 1348,
1426; ge-sêgan, 3039; ge-sêgon, 3129.--e) w. depend, clause: inf. mäg þonne
... geseón sunu Hrêðles, þät ic (_may the son of H. see that I..._), 1486;
pret. pl. ge-sâwon, 1592.

geond-seón, _to see, look through, over_, w. acc.: pret. sg. (ic) þät eall
geond-seh, 3088.

ofer-seón, _to see clearly, plainly_: pret. pl. ofer-sâwon, 419.

on-seón, _to look on, at_, w. acc.: pret. pl. on-sâwon, 1651.

seówian, w. v., _to sew, put together, link_: pret. part. searo-net seówed
smiðes or-þancum (_the corselet woven by the smith's craft_), 406.

sib, st. f., _peace, friendship, relationship_: nom. sg., 1165, 1858; sibb,
2601; acc. sibbe, 950, 2432, 2923; instr. sg. sibbe (_in peace_?),
154.--Comp.: dryht-, friðo-sib.

sib-äðeling, st. m., _nobilis consanguineus, kindred prince_ or _nobleman_:
nom. pl. -äðelingas, 2709.

sibbe-gedryht, st. f., _body of allied_ or _related warriors_: acc. sg.
sibbe-gedriht (the Danes), 387; (the Geátas), 730.

siððan, syððan: 1) adv.: a) _since, after, from now on, further_, 142, 149,
283, 567, 1903, 2052, 2065, 2176, 2703, 2807, 2921; seoððan, 1876.--b)
_then, thereupon, after_, 470, 686, 1454, 1557, 1690, 2208; seoððan, 1938;
ær ne siððan (_neither before nor after_), 719.

2) Conj.: a) w. ind. pres., _as soon as, when_, 413, 605, 1785, 2889,
2912.--b) w. ind. pret., _when, whilst_, 835, 851, 1205, 1207, 1421, 1590,
2357, 2961, 2971, 3128; seoððan, 1776;--_since_, 649, 657, 983, 1199, 1254,
1309, 2202;--_after_, either with pluperf.: siððan him scyppend forscrifen
häfde (_after the Creator had proscribed him_), 106; so, 1473; or with
pret. = pluperf.: syððan niht becom (_after night had come on_), 115; so,
6, 132, 723, 887, 902, 1078, 1149, 1236, 1262, 1282, 1979, 2013, 2125; or
pret. and pluperf. together, 2104-2105.

siex. See seax.

sige-dryhten, st. m., _lord of victory, victorious lord_: nom. sg.
sige-drihten, 391.

sige-eádig, adj., _blest with victory, victorious_: acc. sg. neut.
sige-eádig bil, 1558.

sige-folc, st. n., _victorious people, troop_: gen. pl. sige-folca, 645.

sige-hrêð, st. f., _confidence of victory_(?): acc. sg., 490. See Note.

sige-hrêðig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 94, 1598, 2757.

sige-hwîl, st. f., _hour_ or _day of victory_: gen. sg. sige-hwîle, 2711.

sige-leás, adj., _devoid of victory, defeated_: acc. sg. sige-leásne sang,

sige-rôf, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg., 620.

sige-þeód, st. f., _victorious warrior troop_: dat. sg. on sige-þeóde,

sige-wæpen, st. n., _victor-weapon, sword_: dat. pl. sige-wæpnum, 805.

sigl, st. n.: 1) _sun_: nom. sg. sigel, 1967.--2) _sun-shaped ornament_:
acc. pl. siglu, 3165; sigle (bracteates of a necklace), 1201; gen. pl.
sigla, 1158.--Comp. mâððum-sigl.

sigor, st. m., _victory_: gen. sg. sigores, 1022; gen. pl. sigora, 2876,
3056.--Comp.: hrêð-, wîg-sigor.

sigor-eádig, adj., _victorious_: nom. sg. sigor-eádig secg (of Beówulf),
1312, 2353.

sin. See syn.

sinc, st. n., _treasure, jewel, property_: nom. sg., 2765; acc. sg. sinc,
81, 1205, 1486, 2384, 2432; instr. sg. since, 1039, 1451, 1616, 1883, 2218,
2747; gen. sg. sinces, 608, 1171, 1923, 2072; gen. pl. sinca, 2429.

sinc-fâh, adj., _treasure-decked_: acc. sg. neut. weak form, sinc-fâge sel,

sinc-fät, st. n., _costly vessel_: acc. sg., 2232, 2301;--_a costly
object_: acc. sg., 1201 (i.e. mene); acc. pl. sinc-fato, 623.

sinc-ge-streón, st. n., _precious treasure, jewel of value _: instr. pl.
-gestreónum, 1093; gen. pl. -gestreóna, 1227.

sinc-gifa, w. m., _jewel-giver, treasure-giver = prince, ruler_: acc. sg.
sinc-gyfan, 1013; dat. sg. sinc-gifan (of Beówulf), 2312; (of Äschere),

sinc-mâððum, st. m., _treasure_: nom. sg., 2194.

sinc-þego, f., _acceptance, taking, of jewels_: nom. sg., 2885.

sin-dolh, st. n., _perpetual_, i.e. incurable, _wound_: nom. sg. syn-dolh,

sin-freá, w. m., _wedded lord, husband_: nom. sg., 1935.

sin-gal, adj., _continual, lasting_: acc. sg. fem, sin-gale säce, 154.

sin-gales, adv. gen. sg., _continually, ever_, 1778; syngales, 1136.

singala, adv. gen. pl., the same, 190.

singan, st. v., _to sound, ring, sing_: pret. sg. hring-îren scîr song in
searwum (_the ringed iron rang in the armor_), 323; horn stundum song
fûs-lîc f[yrd]-leóð (_at times the horn rang forth a ready battle-song_),
1424; scôp hwîlum sang (_the singer sang at whiles_), 496.

â-singan, _to sing out, sing to an end_: pret. part. leóð wäs â-sungen,

sin-here, st. m., (_army without end_?), _strong army, host_: instr. sg.
sin-herge, 2937.

sin-niht, st. f., _perpetual night, night after night_: acc. pl. sin-nihte
(_night after night_), 161.

sin-sceaða, w. m., _irreconcilable foe_: nom. sg. syn-scaða, 708; acc. sg.
syn-scaðan, 802.

sin-snæd, st. f., (_continuous biting_) _bite after bite_: dat. pl.
syn-snædum swealh (_swallowed bite after bite, in great bites_), 744.

sittan, st. v.: 1) _to sit_: pres. sg. Wîglâf siteð ofer Biówulfe, 2907;
imper. sg. site nu tô symle, 489; inf. þær swîð-ferhðe sittan eodon
(_whither the strong-minded went and sat_), 493; eode ... tô hire freán
sittan (_went to sit by her lord_), 642; pret. sg. on wicge sät (_sat on
the horse_), 286; ät fôtum sät (_sat at the feet_), 500, 1167; þær Hrôðgâr
sät (_where H. sat_), 356; so, 1191, 2895; he gewêrgad sät ... freán eaxlum
neáh, 2854; pret. pl. sæton, 1165; gistas sêtan (MS. sêcan) ... and on mere
staredon (_the strangers sat and stared on the sea_), 1603.--2) _to be in a
certain state_ or _condition_ (_quasi_ copula): pret. sg. mære þeóden ...
unblîðe sät, 130.--Comp.: flet-, heal-sittend.

be-sittan, obsidere, _to surround, besiege_, w. acc.: besät þâ sin-herge
sweorda lâfe wundum wêrge (_then besieged he with a host the leavings of
the sword, wound-weary_), 2937.

for-sittan, obstrui, _to pass away, fail_: pres. sg. eágena bearhtm
for-siteð (_the light of the eyes passeth away_), 1768.

ge-sittan: 1) _to sit, sit together_: pret. sg. monig-oft ge-sät rîce to
rûne (_very often sat the king deliberating with his council_ (see rîce),
171; wið earm ge-sät (_supported himself upon his arm, sat on his arm_?),
750; fêða eal ge-sät (_the whole troop sat down_), 1425; ge-sät þâ wið
sylfne (_sat there beside, near to, him_, i.e. Hygelâc), 1978;

ge-sät þâ on nässe, 2418; so, 2718; pret. part. (syððan) ... we tô symble
ge-seten häfdon, 2105.--2) w. acc., _to seat one's self upon_ or _in
something, to board_: pret. sg. þâ ic ... sæ-bât ge-sät, 634.

of-sittan, w. acc., _to sit over_ or _upon_: pret. sg. of-sät þâ þone
sele-gyst, 1546.

ofer-sittan, w. acc., _to dispense with, refrain from_ (cf. ofer, 2 [c]):
pres. sg. I. þät ic wið þone gûð-flogan gylp ofer-sitte, 2529; inf. secge
ofer-sittan, 685.

on-sittan (O.H.G. int-sizzan, _to start from one's seat, to be startled_),
w. acc., _to fear_: inf. þâ fæhðe, atole ecg-þräce eówer leóde sîwðe
onsittan _to dread the hostility, the fierce contest, of your people_, 598.

ymb-sittan, _to sit around_, w. acc.: pret. pl. (þät hie) ... symbel
ymb-sæton (_sat round the feast_), 564. See ymb-sittend.

sîd, adj.: 1) _wide, broad, spacious, large_: nom. sg. (here-byrne, glôf)
sîd, 1445, 2087; acc. sg. m. sîdne scyld, 437; on sîdne sæ, 507; fem.
byrnan sîde (of a corselet extending over the legs), 1292; ofer sæ sîde,
2395; neut. sîde rîce, 1734, 2200; instr. sg. sîdan herge, 2348; acc. pl.
sîde sæ-nässas, 223; sîde scyldas, 325; gen. pl. sîdra sorga (_of great
sorrows_), 149.--2) in moral sense, _great, noble_: acc. sg. þurh sîdne
sefan, 1727.

side, adv., _far and wide, afar_, 1224.

sîd-fäðme, adj., _broad-bosomed_: acc. sg. sîd-fäðme scip, 1918.

sîd-fäðmed, _quasi_ pret. part., the same: nom. sg. sîd-fäðmed scip, 302.

sîd-rand, st. m., _broad shield_: nom. sg., 1290.

sîð (G. seþu-s), adj., _late_: superl. nom. sg. sîðast sige-hwîle (_the
last hour, day, of victory_), 2711; dat. sg. ät sîðestan (_in the end, at
last_), 3014.

sîð, adv. compar., _later_: ær and sîð (_sooner and later, early and
late_), 2501.

sîð (G. sinþ-s), st. m.: l) _road, way, journey, expedition_; esp., _road
to battle_: nom. sg., 501, 3059, 3090; näs þät êðe sîð (_that was no easy
road, task_), 2587; so, þät wäs geócor sîð, 766; acc. sg. sîð, 353, 512,
909, 1279, 1430, 1967; instr. dat. sîðe, 532, 1952, 1994; gen. sg. sîðes,
579, 1476, 1795, 1909. Also, _return_: nom. sg., 1972.--2) _undertaking,
enterprise_; esp., _battle-work_: nom. sg. nis þät eówer sîð, 2533; ne bið
swylc earges sîð (_such is no coward's enterprise_), 2542; acc. sg. sîð,
873. In pl.= _adventures_: nom. sîðas, 1987; acc. sîðas, 878; gen. sîða,
318.--3) time (as iterative): nom. sg. näs þät forma sîð (_that was not the
first time_), 717, 1464; so, 1528, 2626; acc. sg. oftor micle þonne on ænne
sîð, 1580; instr. sg. (forman, ôðre, þriddan) sîðe, 741, 1204, 2050, 2287,
2512, 2518, 2671, 2689, 3102.--Comp.: cear-, eft-, ellor-, gryre-, sæ-,
wil-, wræc-sîð.

ge-sîð, st. m., _comrade, follower_: gen. sg. ge-sîðes, 1298; nom. pl.
ge-sîðas, 29; acc. pl. ge-sîðas, 2041, 2519; dat. pl. ge-sîðum, 1314, 1925,
2633; gen. pl. ge-sîða, 1935.--Comp.: eald-, wil-gesîð.

sîð-fät, st. m., _way, journey_: acc. sg. þone sîð-fät, 202; dat. sg.
sîð-fate, 2640.

sîð-fram, -from, adj., _ready for the journey_: nom. pl. sîð-frome, 1814.

sîðian, w. v., _to journey, march_: inf., 721, 809; pret. sg. sîðode, 2120.

for-sîðian, _iter fatale inire_ (Grein): pret. sg. häfde þâ for-sîðod sunu
Ecg-þeówes under gynne grund _(would have found his death_, etc.), 1551.

sîe, sý. See wesan.

sîgan, st. v., _to descend, sink, incline_: pret. pl. sigon ät-somne
(_descended together_), 307; sigon þâ tô slæpe _(they sank to sleep_),

ge-sîgan, _to sink, fall_: inf. ge-sîgan ät säcce (_fall in battle_), 2660.

sîn, poss. pron., _his_: acc. sg. m. sînne, 1961, 1985, 2284, 2790; dat.
sg. sînum, 1508.

slæp, st. m., _sleep_: nom. sg., 1743; dat. sg. tô slæpe, 1252.

slæpan, st. v., _to sleep_: pres. part. nom. sg. slæpende, 2220; acc. sg.
he gefêng ... slæpendne rinc (_seized a sleeping warrior]_, 742; acc. pl.
slæpende frät folces Denigea fîftyne men _(devoured, sleeping, fifteen of
the people of the Danes_), 1582.

sleac, adj., _slack, lazy_: nom. sg., 2188.

sleahan, sleán: 1) _to strike, strike at_: a) intrans.: pres. subj. sg. þät
he me ongeán sleá (_that he should strike at me_), 682; pret. sg. yrringa
slôh (_struck angrily_), 1566; so, slôh hilde-bille, 2680. b) trans.: pret.
sg. þät he þone nîð-gäst nioðor hwêne slôh _(that he struck the dragon
somewhat lower_, etc.), 2700.--2) w. acc.: _to slay, kill_: pret. sg. þäs
þe he Abel slôg (_because he slew A._), 108; so, slôg, 421, 2180; slôh,
1582, 2356; pl. slôgon, 2051; pret. part. þâ wäs Fin slägen, 1153.

ge-sleán, w. acc.: 1) _to fight a battle_: pret. sg. ge-slôh þîn fäder
fæhðe mæste, 459.--2) _to gain by fighting_: syððan hie þâ mærða ge-slôgon,

of-sleán, _to ofslay, kill_, w. acc.: pret. sg. of-slôh, 574, 1666, 3061.

slîðe (G. sleiþ-s), adj., _savage, fierce, dangerous_: acc. sg. þurh slîðne
nîð, 184; gen. pl. slîðra ge-slyhta, 2399.

slîðen, adj., _furious, savage, deadly_ nom. sg. sweord-bealo slîðen, 1148.

slîtan, st. v., _to slit, tear to pieces_, w. acc.: pret. sg. slât
(slæpendne rinc), 742.

slyht, st. m., _blow_: in comp. and-slyht.

ge-slyht, st. n. (collective), _battle, conflict_: gen. pl. slîðra
ge-slyhta, 2399.

smið, st. m., _smith, armorer_: nom. sg. wæpna smið, 1453; gen. sg. smiðes,
406.--Comp. wundor-smið.

be-smiðian, w. v., _to surround with iron-work, bands_, etc.: pret. part.
he (the hall Heorot) þäs fäste wäs innan and ûtan îren-bendum searo-þoncum
besmiðod (i.e. the beams out of which the hall was built were held together
skilfully, within and without, by iron clamps), 776.

snell, adj., _fresh, vigorous, lively; of martial temper_: nom. sg. se
snella, 2972.

snellîc, adj., the same: nom. sg., 691.

snotor, snottor, adj., _clever, wise, intelligent_: nom. sg. snotor, 190,
827, 909, 1385; in weak form, (se) snottra, 1314, 1476, 1787; snotra, 2157,
3121; nom. pl. snotere, 202, 416; snottre, 1592.--Comp. fore-snotor.

snotor-lîce, adv., _intelligently, wisely_: compar. snotor-lîcor, 1483.

snûde, adv., _hastily, quickly, soon_, 905, 1870, 1972, 2326, 2569, 2753.

be-snyðian, w. v., _to rob, deprive of_: pret. sg. þätte Ongenþió ealdre
be-snyðede Hæðcyn, 2925.

snyrian, w. v., _to hasten, hurry_: pret. pl. snyredon ät-somne (_hurried
forward together_), 402.

snyttru, f., _intelligence, wisdom_: acc. sg. snyttru, 1727; dat. pl. mid
môdes snyttrum, 1707; þe we ealle ær ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed
which all of us together could not accomplish before with all our wisdom_),
943. Adv., _wisely_, 873.

somne. See samne.

sorgian, w. v.: 1) _to be grieved, sorrow_: imper. sg. II. ne sorga!
1385.--2) _to care for, trouble one's self about_: inf. nô þu ymb mînes ne
þearft lîces feorme leng sorgian (_thou needst not care longer about my
life's [body's] sustenance_), 451.

sorh, st. f., _grief, pain, sorrow_: nom. sg., 1323; sorh is me tô secganne
(_pains me to say_), 473; acc. sg. sorge, 119, 2464; dat. instr. sg. mid
þære sorge, 2469; sorge (_in sorrow, grieved_), 1150; gen. sg. worna fela
... sorge, 2005; dat. pl. sorgum, 2601; gen. pl. sorga, 149.--Comp.: hyge-,
inwit-, þegn-sorh.

sorh-cearig, adj., _curis sollicitus, heart-broken_: nom. sg., 2456.

sorh-ful, adj., _sorrowful, troublesome, difficult_: nom. sg., 2120; acc.
sg. sorh-fullne (sorh-fulne) sîð, 512, 1279, 1430.

sorh-leás, adj., _free from sorrow_ or _grief_: nom. sg., 1673.

sorh-leoð, st. n., _dirge, song of sorrow_: acc. sg., 2461.

sorh-wylm, st. m., _wave of sorrow_ nom. pl. sorh-wylmas, 905.

sôcn, st. f., _persecution, hostile pursuit_ or _attack_ (see sêcan): dat,
(instr.) þære sôcne (by reason of Grendel's persecution), 1778.

sôð, st. n., _sooth, truth_:: acc. sg. sôð, 532, 701, 1050, 1701, 2865;
dat. sg. tô sôðe (_in truth_), 51, 591, 2326.

sôð, adj., _true, genuine_: nom. sg, þät is sôð metod, 1612; acc. sg. n.
gyd âwräc sôð and sâr-lîc, 2110.

sôðe, adv., _truly, correctly, accurately_, 524; sôðe gebunden (of
alliterative verse: _accurately put together_), 872.

sôð-cyning, st. m., _true king_: nom. sg. sigora sôð-cyning (_God_), 3056.

sôð-fäst, adj., _soothfast, established in truth, orthodox_ (here used of
the Christian martyrs): gen. pl. sôð-fästra dôm (_glory, realm, of the
saints_), 2821.

sôð-lîce, adv., _in truth, truly, truthfully_, 141, 273, 2900.

sôfte, adv., _gently, softly_: compar. þý sêft (_the more easily_),
2750.--Comp. un-sôfte.

sôna, adv., _soon, immediately_, 121, 722, 744, 751, 1281, 1498, 1592,
1619, 1763, etc.

on-spannan, st. v., _to un-span, unloose_: pret. sg. his helm on-speón
(_loosed his helm_), 2724.

spel, st. n., _narrative, speech_: acc. sg. spell, 2110; acc. pl. spel,
874; gen. pl. spella, 2899, 3030.--Comp. weá-spel.

spêd, st. f.: 1) _luck, success_: in comp. here-, wîg-spêd.--2) _skill,
facility_: acc. sg. on spêd (_skilfully_), 874.

spîwan, st. v., _to spit, spew_, w. instr.: inf. glêdum spîwan (_spit
fire_), 2313

spor, st. n., _spur_: in comp. hand-spor.

spôwan, st. v., _to speed well, help, avail_: pret. sg. him wiht ne speów
(_availed him naught_), 2855; hû him ät æte speów (_how he sped in the
eating_), 3027.

spræc, st. f., _speech, language_: instr. sg. frêcnan spræce (_through
bold, challenging, discourse_), 1105.--Comp.: æfen-, gylp-spræc.

sprecan, st. v., _to speak_: inf. ic sceal forð sprecan gen ymbe Grendel
_(I shall go on speaking about G._), 2070; w. acc. se þe wyle sôð sprecan
(_he who will speak the truth_), 2865; imper. tô Geátum sprec (spræc, MS.),
1172; pret. sg. III. spräc, 1169, 1699, 2511, 2725; word äfter spräc, 341;
nô ymbe þâ fæhðe spräc, 2619; II. hwät þu worn fela ... ymb Brecan spræce
(_how much thou hast spoken of Breca!_), 531; pl. hwät wit geó spræcon
(_what we two spoke of before_), 1477; gomele ymb gôdne on-geador spræcon,
þät big ... _(the graybeards spoke together about the valiant one, that
they ..._), 1596; swâ wit furðum spræcon (_as we two spoke, engaged,
before_), 1708; pret. part. þâ wäs ... þryð-word sprecen, 644.

ge-sprecan, w. acc., _to speak_: pret. sg. ge-spräc, 676, 1399, 1467, 3095.

spreót, st. m., _pole; spear, pike_: in comp. eofor-spreót.

springan, st. v., _to jump, leap; flash_: pret. sg. hrâ wîde sprong _(the
body bounded far_), 1589; swât ædrum sprong forð under fexe (_the blood
burst out in streams from under his hair_), 2967; pl. wîde sprungon
hilde-leóman (_flashed afar_), 2583. Also figuratively: blæd wîde sprang
(_his repute spread afar_), 18.

ge-springan, _to spring forth_: pret. sg. swâ þät blôd ge-sprang (_as the
blood burst forth_), 1668. Figuratively, _to arise, originate_: pret. sg.
Sigemunde gesprong äfter deáð-däge dôm un-lytel, 885.

on-springan, _to burst in two, spring asunder_: pret. pl. seonowe
onsprungon, burston bânlocan 818.

standan, st. v.: 1) absolutely or with prep., _to stand_: pres. III. pl.
eóred-geatwe þe ge þær on standað (_the warlike accoutrements wherein ye
there stand_), 2867; inf. ge-seah ... orcas stondan (_saw vessels
standing_), 2761; pret. sg. ät hýðe stôd hringed-stefna (_in the harbor
stood the curved-prowed?, metal-covered?, ship_), 32; stôd on stapole
(_stood near the [middle] column_), 927; so, 1914, 2546; þät him on aldre
stôd here-stræl hearda (_that the sharp war-arrow stood in his vitals_),
1435; so, 2680; pl. gâras stôdon ... samod ät-gädere (_the spears stood
together_), 328; him big stôdan bunan and orcas (_by him stood cans and
pots_), 3048. Also of still water: pres. sg. III. nis þät feor heonon ...
þät se mere standeð, 1363.--2) with predicate adj., _to stand, continue in
a certain state_: subj. pres. þät þes sele stande ... rinca ge-hwylcum îdel
and unnyt (_that this hall stands empty and useless for every warrior_),
411; inf. hord-wynne fand eald uht-sceaða opene standan, 2272; pret. sg. ôð
þät îdel stôd hûsa sêlest, 145; so, 936; wäter under stôd dreórig and
ge-drêfed, 1418--3) _to belong_ or _attach to; issue_: pret. sg. Norð-Denum
stôd atelîc egesa (_great terror clung to, overcame, the North Danes_),
784; þâra ânum stôd sadol searwum fâh (_on one of the steeds lay an
ingeniously-inlaid saddle_), 1038; byrne-leóma eldum on andan (_burning
light stood forth, a horror to men_), 2314; leóht inne stôd (_a light stood
in it_, i.e. the sword), 1571; him of eágum stôd ... leóht unfäger (_an
uncanny light issued from his eyes_), 727; so, þät [fram] þam gyste
[gryre-] brôga stôd, 2229.

â-standan, _to stand up, arise_: pret. sg. â-stôd, 760, 1557, 2093.

ät-standan, _to stand at, near_, or _in_: pret. sg. þät hit (i.e. þät
swurd) on wealle ät-stôd, 892.

for-standan, _to stand against_ or _before_, hence: 1) _to hinder,
prevent_: pret. sg. (breóst-net) wið ord and wið ecge in-gang for-stôd
(_the shirt of mail prevented point or edge from entering_), 1550; subj.
nefne him witig god wyrd for-stôde (_if the wise God had not warded off
such a fate from them_, i.e. the men threatened by Grendel), 1057.--2)
_defend_, w. dat. of person against whom: inf. þät he ... mihte
heáðo-lîðendum hord for-standan, bearn and brýde (_that he might protect
his treasure, his children, and his spouse from the sea-farers_), 2956.

ge-standan, intrans., _to stand_: pret. sg. ge-stôd, 358, 404, 2567; pl.
nealles him on heápe hand-gesteallan ... ymbe gestôdon (_not at all did his
boon-companions stand serried around him_), 2597.

stapa, w. m., _stepper, strider_: in comp. hæð-, mearc-stapa.

stapan, st. v., _to step, stride, go forward_: pret. sg. eorl furður stôp,
762; gum-fêða stop lind-häbbendra (_the troop of shield-warriors strode
on_), 1402.

ät-stapan, _to stride up_ or _to_: pret. sg. forð neár ät-stôp (_strode up
nearer_), 746.

ge-stapan, _to walk, stride_: pret. sg. he to forð gestôp dyrnan cräfte,
dracan heáfde neáh (_he_, i.e. the man that robbed the dragon of the
vessel, _had through hidden craft come too near the dragon's head_), 2290.

stapol, st. m., (=[Greek: básis]), _trunk of a tree_; hence, _support,
pillar, column_: dat. sg. stôd on stapole (_stood by_ or _near the wooden
middle column of Heorot_), 927; instr. pl. þâ stân-bogan stapulum fäste
(_the arches of stone upheld by pillars_), 2719. See Note.

starian, w. v., _to stare, look intently at_: pres. sg. I. þät ic on þone
hafelan ... eágum starige (_that I see the head with my eyes_), 1782; þâra
frätwa ... þe ic her on starie (_for the treasures ... that I here look
upon_), 2797; III. þonne he on þät sine starað, 1486; sg. for pl. þâra þe
on swylc starað, 997; pret. sg. þät (sin-freá) hire an däges eágum starede,
1936; pl. on mere staredon, 1604.

stân, st. m., 1) _stone_: in comp. eorclan-stân.--2) _rock_: acc. sg. under
(ofer) hârne stân, 888, 1416, 2554, 2745; dat. sg. stâne, 2289, 2558.

stân-beorh, st. m., _rocky elevation, stony mountain_: acc. sg. stân-beorh
steápne, 2214.

stân-boga, w. m., _stone arch, arch hewn out of the rock_: dat. sg.
stân-bogan, 2546; nom. pl. stân-bogan, 2719.

stân-clif, st. n., _rocky cliff_: acc. pl. stân-cleofu, 2541.

stân-fâh, adj., _stone-laid, paved with stones of different colors_: nom.
sg. stræt wäs stân-fâh (_the street was of different colored stones_), 320.

stân-hlið, st. n., _rocky slope_: acc. pl. stân-hliðo, 1410.

stäf, st. m.: 1) _staff_: in comp. rûn-staf.--2) _elementum_: in comp. âr-,
ende-, fâcen-stäf.

stäl, st. m., _place, stead_: dat. sg. þät þu me â wære forð-gewitenum on
fäder stäle (_that thou, if I died, wouldst represent a father's place to
me_), 1480.

stælan, w. v., _to place; allure_ or _instigate_: inf. þâ ic on morgne
ge-frägn mæg ôðerne billes ecgum on bonan stælan _(then I learned that on
the morrow one brother instigated the other to murder with the sword's
edge_; or, _one avenged the other on the murderer_?, cf. 2962 seqq.), 2486.

ge-stælan, _to place, impose, institute_: pret. part. ge feor hafað fæhðe
ge-stæled (_Grendel's mother has further begun hostilities against us_),

stede, st. m., _place, -stead_: in comp. bæl-, burh-, folc-, heáh-, meðel-,
wang-, wîc-stede.

stefn, st. f., _voice_: nom. sg., 2553; instr. sg. niwan (niówan) stefne
(properly novâ voce) = denuo, _anew, again_, 2595, 1790.

stefn, st. m., _prow of a ship_: acc. sg., 213; see bunden-, hringed-,

on-stellan, w. v., _constituere, to cause, bring about_: pret. sg. se þäs
or-leges ôr on-stealde, 2408.

steng, st. m., _pole, pike_: in comp wäl-steng.

ge-steppan, w. v., _to stride, go_: pret. sg. folce ge-stepte ofer sæ sîde
sunu Ôhtheres (_O.'s son_, i.e. Eádgils, _went with warriors over the broad
sea_), 2394.

stede (O.H.G. stâti, M.H.G. stæte), adj., _firm, steady_: nom. sg. wäs
stêde nägla ge-hwylc stýle ge-lîcost (_each nail-place was firm as steel_),

stêpan, w. v. w. acc., _to exalt, honor_: pret. sg. þeáh þe hine mihtig god
... eafeðum stêpte, 1718.

ge-steald, st. n., _possessions, property_: in comp. in-gesteald, 1156.

ge-stealla, w. m., (contubernalis), _companion, comrade_: in comp. eaxl-,
fyrd-, hand-, lind-, nýd-ge-stealla.

stearc-heort, adj., (fortis animo), _stout-hearted, courageous_: nom. sg.
(of the dragon), 2289; (of Beówulf), 2553.

steáp, adj., _steep, projecting, towering_: acc. sg. steápne hrôf, 927;
stân-beorh steápne, 2214; wið steápne rond, 2567; acc. pl. m. beorgas
steápe, 222; neut. steáp stân-hliðo, 1410.--Comp. heaðo-steáp.

stille, adj., _still, quiet_: nom. sg. wîd-floga wundum stille, 2831.

stille, adv., _quietly_, 301.

stincan, st. v., _to smell; snuff_: pret. sg. stonc þâ äfter stâne
(_snuffed along the stone_), 2289.

stîð, adj., _hard, stiff_: nom. sg. wunden-mæl (swurd) ... stîð and
stýlecg, 1534.

stîð-môd, adj., _stout-hearted, unflinching_: nom. sg., 2567.

stîg, st. m., _way, path_: nom. sg., 320, 2214; acc. pl. stîge nearwe,
1410--Comp. medu-stîg.

stîgan, st. v., _to go, ascend_: pret. sg. þâ he tô holme [st]âg (_when he
plunged forward into the sea_), 2363; pl. beornas ... on stefn stigon, 212;
Wedera leóde on wang stigon, 225; subj. pret. ær he on bed stige, 677.

â-stîgan, _to ascend_: pres. sg. þonon ýð-geblond up â-stîgeð won tô
wolcnum, 1374; gûð-rinc â-stâh (_the fierce hero ascended_, i.e. was laid
on the pyre? or, _the fierce smoke_ [rêc] _ascended?_), 1119; gamen eft
â-stâh (_joy again went up, resounded_), 1161; wudu-rêc â-stâh sweart of
swioðole, 3145; swêg up â-stâg, 783.

ge-stîgan, _to ascend, go up_: pret. sg. þâ ic on holm ge-stâh, 633.

storm, st. m., _storm_: nom. sg. stræla storm (_storm of missiles_), 3118;
instr. sg. holm storme weól (_the sea billowed stormily_), 1132.

stôl, st. m., _chair, throne, seat_: in comp. brego-, êðel-, gif-,

stôw, st. f., _place, -stow_: nom. sg. nis þät heóru stôw (_a haunted
spot_), 1373; acc. sg. frêcne stôwe, 1379; grund-bûendra gearwe stôwe _(the
place prepared for men_, i.e. death-bed; see gesacan and ge-nýdan), 1007:
comp. wäl-stow.

strang, strong, adj., _strong; valiant; mighty_: nom. sg. wäs þät ge-win tô
strang (_that sorrow was too great_), 133; þu eart mägenes strang (_strong
of body_), 1845; wäs sió hond tô strong (_the hand was too powerful_),
2685; superl. wîgena strengest (_strongest of warriors_), 1544; mägenes
strengest (_strongest in might_), 196; mägene strengest, 790.

strâdan? (cf. stræde = passus, gressus), _to tread_, (be)-_stride, stride
over_ (Grein): subj. pres. se þone wong strâde, 3074. See Note.

stræl, st. m., _arrow, missile_: instr. sg. biteran stræle, 1747; gen. pl.
stræla storm, 3118.

stræt, st. f., _street, highway_: nom. sg., 320; acc. sg. stræte, 1635;
fealwe stræte, 917.--Comp.: lagu-, mere-stræt.

strengel, st. m., (_endowed with strength_), _ruler, chief_: acc. sg.
wîgena strengel, 3116.

strengo, st. f., _strength, power, violence_: acc. sg. mägenes strenge,
1271; dat. sg. strenge, 1534; strengo, 2541;--dat. pl. strengum =
_violently, powerfully_ [_loosed from the strings_?], 3118: in comp.
hilde-, mägen-, mere-strengo.

strêgan (O.S. strôwian), w. v., _to strew, spread_: pret. part, wäs þäm
yldestan ... morðorbed strêd (_the death-bed was spread for the eldest
one_), 2437.

streám, st. m., _stream, flood, sea_: acc. sg. streám, 2546; nom. pl.
streámas, 212; acc. pl. streámas, 1262: comp. brim-, eágor-, firgen-,

ge-streón (cf. streón = robur, vis), st. n., _property, possessions_;
hence, _valuables, treasure, jewels_: nom. pl. Heaðo-beardna ge-streón
(_the costly treasure of the Heathobeardas_, i.e. the accoutrements
belonging to the slain H.), 2038; acc. pl. äðelinga, eorla ge-streón, 1921,
3168.--Comp.: ær-, eald-, eorl-, heáh-, hord-, long-, mâðm-, sinc-,

strûdan, st. v., _to plunder, carry off_: subj. pres. näs þâ on hlytme hwâ
þät hord strude, 3127.

ge-strýnan, w. v. w. acc., _to acquire, gain_: inf. þäs þe (_because_) ic
môste mînum leódum ... swylc ge-strýnan, 2799.

stund, st. f., _time, space of time, while_: adv. dat. pl. stundum (_at
times_), 1424.

styrian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to arrange, put in order, tell_: inf. secg eft
on-gan sîð Beówulfes snyttrum styrian (_the poet then began to tell B.'s
feat skilfully_, i.e. put in poetic form), 873.--2) _to rouse, stir up_:
pres. sg. III. þonne wind styreð lâð ge-widru (_when the wind stirreth up
the loathly weather_), 1375.--3) _to move against, attack, disturb_: subj.
pres. þät he ... hring-sele hondum styrede (_that he should attack the
ring-hall with his hands_), 2841.

styrman, w. v., _to rage, cry out_: pret. sg. styrmde, 2553.

stýle, st. n., _steel_: dat. sg. stýle, 986.

stýl-ecg, adj., _steel-edged_: nom. sg., 1534.

be-stýman, w. v., _to inundate, wet, flood_: pret. part. (wæron) eal
benc-þelu blôde be-stýmed, 486.

suhtor-ge-fäderan (collective), w. m. pl., _uncle and nephew, father's
brother and brother's son_: nom. pl., 1165.

sum, pron.: 1) indef., _one, a, any, a certain_; neut. _something_: a)
without part. gen.: nom. sg. sum, 1252; hilde-rinc sum, 3125; neut. ne
sceal þær dyrne sum wesan (_naught there shall be hidden_), 271; acc. sg.
m. sumne, 1433; instr. sg. sume worde (_by a word, expressly_), 2157; nom.
pl. sume, 400, 1114; acc. pl. sume, 2941. b) with part. gen.: nom. sg.
gumena sum (_one of men, a man_), 1500, 2302; mere-hrägla sum, 1906; þät
wäs wundra sum, 1608; acc. sg. gylp-worda sum, 676. c) with gen. of
cardinals or notions of multitude: nom. sg. fîftena sum (_one of fifteen,
with fourteen companions_), 207; so, eahta sum, 3124; feára sum (_one of
few, with a few_), 1413; acc. sg. manigra sumne (_one of many, with many_),
2092; manna cynnes sumne (_one of the men_), i.e. one of the watchmen in
Heorot), 714; feára sumne (_some few, one of few_; or, _one of the foes_?),
3062.--2) with part. gen. sum sometimes = _this, that, the
afore-mentioned_: nom. sg. eówer sum (_a certain one, that one, of you_,
i.e. Beówulf), 248; gûð-beorna sum (_the afore-mentioned warrior_, i.e. who
had shown the way to Hrôðgâr's palace), 314; eorla sum (_the said knight_,
i.e. Beówulf), 1313; acc. sg. hord-ärna sum (_a certain hoard-hall_), 2280.

sund, st. m.: 1) _swimming_: acc. sg. ymb sund, 507; dat. sg. ät sunde (_in
swimming_), 517; on sunde (_a-swimming_), 1619; gen. sg. sundes, 1437.--2)
_sea, ocean, sound_: nom. sg., 223; acc. sg. sund, 213, 512, 539, 1427,

ge-sund, adj., _sound, healthy, unimpaired_: acc. sg. m. ge-sundne, 1629,
1999; nom. pl. ge-sunde, 2076; acc. pl. w. gen. fäder alwalda ... eówic
ge-healde sîða ge-sunde (_the almighty Father keep you safe and sound on
your journey!_), 318.--Comp. an-sund.

sund-ge-bland, st. n., (_the commingled sea_), _sea-surge, sea-wave_: acc.
sg., 1451.

sund-nyt, st. f., _swimming-power_ or _employment, swimming_: acc. sg.
sund-nytte dreáh (_swam through the sea_), 2361.

sundur, sundor, adv., _asunder, in twain_: sundur gedælan (_to separate,
sunder_), 2423.

sundor-nyt, st. f., _special service_ (service in a special case): acc. sg.
sundor-nytte, 668.

sund-wudu, st. m., (_sea-wood_), _ship_: nom. acc. sg. sund-wudu, 208,

sunne, w. f., _sun_: nom. sg., 607; gen. sg. sunnan, 94, 649.

sunu, st. m., _son_: nom. sg., 524, 591, 646, 981, 1090, 1486, etc.; acc.
sg. sunu, 268, 948, 1116, 1176, 1809, 2014, 2120; dat. sg. suna, 344, 1227,
2026, 2161, 2730; gen. sg. suna, 2456, 2613, (1279); nom. pl. suna, 2381.

sûð, adv., _south, southward_, 859.

sûðan, adv., _from the south_, 607; sigel sûðan fûs (_the sun inclined from
the south_), 1967.

swaðrian, w. v., _to sink to rest, grow calm_: brimu swaðredon (_the waves
became calm_), 570. See sweðrian.

swaðu, st. f., _trace, track, pathway_: acc. sg. swaðe, 2099.--Comp.:
swât-, wald-swaðu.

swaðul, st. m.? n.?, _smoke, mist_ (Dietrich in Haupt V. 215): dat. sg. on
swaðule, 783. See sweoðol.

swancor, adj., _slender, trim_: acc. pl. þrió wicg swancor, 2176.

swan-râd, st. f., _swan-road, sea_: acc. sg. ofer swan-râde, 200.

and-swarian, w. v., _to answer_: pret. sg. him se yldesta and-swarode, 258;
so, 340.

swâ: 1) demons, adv., _so, in such a manner, thus_: swâ sceal man dôn,
1173, 1535; swâ þâ driht-guman dreámum lifdon, 99; þät ge-äfndon swâ (_that
we thus accomplished_), 538; þær hie meahton (i.e. feorh ealgian), 798; so,
20, 144, 189, 559, 763, 1104, 1472, 1770, 2058, 2145, 2178, 2991; swâ
manlîce _(so like a man_), 1047; swâ fela (_so many_), 164, 592; swâ
deórlîce dæd (_so valiant a deed_), 585; hine swâ gôdne (_him so good_),
347; on swâ geongum feore (_in so youthful age_), 1844; ge-dêð him swâ
ge-wealdene worolde dælas þät ... (_makes parts of the world so subject to
him that_...), 1733. In comparisons = _ever, the_ (adv.): me þîn môd-sefa
lîcað leng swâ wel (_thy mind pleases me ever so well, the longer the
better_), 1855. As an asseverative = _so_: swâ me Higelâc sîe ... môdes
blîðe (_so be Higelac gracious-minded to me!_), 435; swâ þeáh
(_nevertheless, however_), 973, 1930, 2879; swâ þêh, 2968; hwäðre swâ þeáh
(_yet however_), 2443.--2): a) conj., _as, so as_: ôð þät his byre mihte
eorlscipe efnan swâ his ærfäder (_until his son might do noble deeds, as
his old father did_), 2623; eft swâ ær (_again as before_), 643;--with
indic.: swâ he selfa bäd (_as he himself requested_), 29; swâ he oft dyde
(_as he often did_), 444; gæð â Wyrd swâ hió sceal, 455; swâ guman
gefrungon, 667; so, 273, 352, 401, 561, 1049, 1056, 1059, 1135, 1232, 1235,
1239, 1253, 1382, etc.;--with subj.: swâ þîn sefa hwette _(as pleases thy
mind_, i.e. any way thou pleasest), 490. b) _as, as then, how_, 1143; swâ
hie â wæron ... nýd-gesteallan (_as they were ever comrades in need_), 882;
swâ hit diópe ... be-nemdon þeódnas mære (_as, [how?] the mighty princes
had deeply cursed it_), 3070; swâ he manna wäs wîgend weorðfullost (_as he
of men the worthiest warrior was_), 3099. c) _just as, the moment when_:
swâ þät blôd gesprang, 1668. d) _so that_: swâ he ne mihte nô (_so that he
might not..._), 1509; so, 2185, 2007.--3) = qui, quae, quod, German so:
worhte wlite-beorhtne wang swâ wäter bebûgeð (_wrought the beauteous plain
which_ (acc.) _water surrounds_), 93.--4) swâ ... swâ = _so ... as_, 595,
687-8, 3170; efne swâ ... swâ (_even so ... as_), 1093-4, 1224, 1284; efne
swâ hwylc mägða swâ (_such a woman as, whatsoever woman_), 944; efne swâ
hwylcum manna swâ (_even so to each man as_), 3058.

for-swâfan, st. v., _to carry away, sweep off_: pret. sg. ealle Wyrd
for-sweóf mîne mâgas tô metod-sceafte, 2815.

for-swâpan, st. v., _to sweep off, force_: pret. sg. hie Wyrd forsweóp on
Grendles gryre, 477.

swât, st. m., (_sweat_), _wound-blood_: nom. sg., 2694, 2967; instr. sg.
swâte, 1287.--Comp. heaðo-, hilde-swât.

swât-fâh, adj., _blood-stained_: nom. sg., 1112.

swâtig, adj., _gory_: nom. sg., 1570.

swât-swaðu, st. f., _blood-trace_: nom. sg., 2947.

be-swælan, w. v., _to scorch_: pret. part. wäs se lêg-draca ... glêdum
beswæled, 3042.

swæs, adj., _intimate, special, dear_: acc. sg. swæsne êðel, 520; nom. pl.
swæse ge-sîðas, 29; acc. pl. leóde swæse, 1869; swæse ge-sîðas, 2041; gen.
pl. swæsra ge-sîða, 1935.

swæs-lîce, adv., _pleasantly, in a friendly manner_, 3090.

swebban, w. v., (_to put to sleep_), _to kill_: inf. ic hine sweorde
swebban nelle, 680; pres. sg. III. (absolutely) swefeð, 601.

â-swebban, _to kill, slay_: pret. part. nom. pl. sweordum â-swefede, 567.

sweðrian, w. v., _to lessen, diminish_: inf. þät þät fyr ongan sweðrian,
2703; pret. siððan Heremôdes hild sweðrode, 902.

swefan, st. v.: 1) _to sleep_: pres. sg. III. swefeð, 1742; inf. swefan,
119, 730, 1673; pret. sg. swäf, 1801; pl. swæfon, 704; swæfun, 1281.--2)
_to sleep the death-sleep, die_: pres. sg. III. swefeð, 1009, 2061, 2747;
pl. swefað, 2257, 2458.

swegel, st. n., _ether, clear sky_: dat. sg. under swegle, 1079, 1198; gen.
sg. under swegles begong, 861, 1774.

swegle, adj., _bright, etherlike, clear_: acc. pl. swegle searo-gimmas,

swegel-wered, _quasi_ pret. part., _ether-clad_: nom. sg. sunne
swegl-wered, 607.

swelgan, st. v., _to swallow_: pret. sg. w. instr. syn-snædum swealh
(_swallowed in great bites_), 744; object omitted, subj. pres. nymðe lîges
fäðm swulge on swaðule, 783.

for-swelgan, w. acc., _to swallow, consume_: pret. sg. for-swealg, 1123,

swellan, st. v., _to swell_: inf. þâ sió wund on-gan ... swêlan and
swellan, 2714.

sweltan, st. v., _to die, perish_: pret. sg. swealt, 1618, 2475; draca
morðre swealt (_died a violent death_), 893, 2783; wundor-deáðe swealt,
3038; hioro-dryncum swealt, 2359.

swencan, w. v., _to swink, oppress, strike_: pret. sg. hine wundra þäs fela
swencte (MS. swecte) on sunde, 1511.

ge-swencan, _to oppress, strike, injure_: pret. sg. syððan hine Hæðcyn ...
flâne geswencte, 2439; pret. part. synnum ge-swenced, 976; hæðstapa hundum
ge-swenced, 1369.--Comp. lyft-ge-swenced.

sweng, st. m., _blow, stroke_: dat. sg. swenge, 1521, 2967; swenge _(with
its stroke_), 2687; instr. pl. sweordes swengum, 2387.--Comp.: feorh-,
hete-, heaðo-, heoro-sweng.

swerian, st. v., _to swear_: pret. w. acc. I. ne me swôr fela âða on unriht
(_swore no false oaths_), 2739; he me âðas swôr, 472.

for-swerian, w. instr., _to forswear, renounce (protect with magic
formulæ?)_: pret. part. he sige-wæpnum for-sworen häfde, 805.

swêg, st. m., _sound, noise, uproar_: nom. sg. swêg, 783; hearpan swêg, 89,
2459, 3024; sige-folca swêg, 645; sang and swêg, 1064; dat. sg. swêge,
1215.--Comp.: benc-, morgen-swêg.

swêlan, w. v., _to burn_ (here of wounds): inf. swêlan, 2714. See swælan.

sweart, adj., _swart, black, dark_: nom. sg. wudu-rêc sweart, 3146; dat.
pl. sweartum nihtum, 167.

sweoðol (cf. O.H.G. suedan, suethan = cremare; M.H.G. swadem = vapor; and
Dietrich in Haupt V., 215), st. m.? n.?, _vapor, smoke, smoking flame_:
dat. sg. ofer swioðole (MS. swic ðole), 3146. See swaðul.

sweofot, st. m., _sleep_: dat. sg. on sweofote, 1582, 2296.

sweoloð, st. m., _heat, fire, flame_: dat. sg. sweoloðe, 1116. Cf. O.H.G.
suilizo, suilizunga = ardor, cauma.

sweorcan, st. v., _to trouble, darken_. pres. sg. III. ne him inwit-sorh on
sefan sweorceð (_darkens his soul_), 1738.

for-sweorcan, _to grow dark_ or _dim_: pres. sg. III. eágena bearhtm
for-siteð and for-sworceð, 1768.

ge-sweorcan (intrans.), _to darken_: pret. sg. niht-helm ge-swearc, 1790.

sweord, swurd, swyrd, st. n., _sword_: nom. sg. sweord, 1287, 1290, 1570,
1606, 1616, 1697; swurd, 891; acc. sg. sweord, 437, 673, 1559, 1664, 1809,
2253, 2500, etc.; swurd, 539, 1902; swyrd, 2611, 2988; instr. sg. sweorde,
561, 574, 680, 2493, 2881; gen. sg. sweordes, 1107, 2194, 2387; acc. pl.
sweord, 2639; nom. pl., 3049; instr. pl. sweordum, 567, 586, 885; gen. pl.
sweorda, 1041, 2937, 2962.--Comp.: gûð-, mâððum-, wæg-sweord.

sweord, st. f., _oath_: in comp. âð-sweord _(sword-oath_?), 2065.

sweord-bealo, st. n., _sword-bale, death by the sword_: nom. sg., 1148.

sweord-freca, w. m., _sword-warrior_: dat. sg. sweord-frecan, 1469.

sweord-gifu, st. f., _sword-gift, giving of swords_: nom. sg. swyrd-gifu,

sweotol, swutol, adj.: 1) _clear, bright_: nom. sg. swutol sang scôpes,
90.--2) _plain, manifest_: nom. sg. syndolh sweotol, 818; tâcen sweotol,
834; instr. sg. sweotolan tâcne, 141.

sweóf, sweóp. See swâfan, swâpan.

swið, st. n.? (O.N. swiði), _burning pain_: in comp. þryð-swið(?).

swift, adj., _swift_: nom. sg. se swifta mearh, 2265.

swimman, swymman, st. v., _to swim_: inf. swymman, 1625.

ofer-swimman, w. acc., _to swim over_ or _through_: pret. sg. ofer-swam
sioleða bigong (_swam over the sea_), 2368.

swincan, st. v., _to struggle, labor, contend_: pret. pl. git on wäteres
æht seofon niht swuncon, 517.

ge-swing, st. n., _surge, eddy_: nom. sg. atol ýða geswing, 849.

swingan, st. v., _to swing one's self, fly_: pres. sg. III. ne gôd hafoc
geond säl swingeð, 2265.

swîcan, st. v.: 1) _to deceive, leave in the lurch, abandon_: pret. sg.
næfre hit (_the sword_) ät hilde ne swâc manna ængum, 1461.--2) _to
escape_: subj. pret. bûtan his lîc swice, 967.

ge-swîcan, _to deceive, leave in the lurch_: pret. sg. gûð-bill ge-swâc
nacod ät nîðe, 2585, 2682; w. dat. seó ecg ge-swâc þeódne ät þearfe (_the
sword failed the prince in need_), 1525.

swîð, swýð (Goth, swinþ-s), adj., _strong, mighty_: nom. sg. wäs þät ge-win
tô swýð, 191.--Comp. nom. sg. sió swîðre hand (_the right hand_), 2099;
_harsh_, 3086.

swîðe, adv., _strongly, very, much_, 598, 998, 1093, 1744, 1927; swýðe,
2171, 2188. Compar. swîðor, _more, rather, more strongly_, 961, 1140, 1875,
2199--Comp. un-swîðe.

ofer-swîðian, w. v., _to overcome, vanquish_, w. acc. of person: pres. sg.
III. oferswýðeð, 279, 1769.

swîð-ferhð, adj., (_fortis animo_), _strong-minded, bold, brave_: nom. sg.
swýð-ferhð, 827; gen. sg. swîð-ferhðes, 909; nom. pl. swîð-ferhðe, 493;
dat. pl. swîð-ferhðum, 173.

swîð-hycgend, pres. part. (_strenue cogitans_), _bold-minded, brave in
spirit_: nom. sg. swîð-hycgende, 920; nom. pl. swîð-hycgende, 1017.

swîð-môd, adj., _strong-minded_: nom. sg., 1625.

on-swîfan, st. v. w. acc., _to swing, turn, at_ or _against, elevate_:
pret. sg. biorn (Beówulf) bord-rand on-swâf wið þam gryre-gieste, 2560.

swîgian, w. v., _to be silent, keep silent_: pret. sg. lyt swîgode niwra
spella (_kept little of the new tidings silent_), 2898; pl. swîgedon ealle,

swîgor, adj., _silent, taciturn_: nom, sg. weak, þâ wäs swîgra secg ... on
gylp-spræce gûð-ge-weorca, 981.

swîn, swýn, st. n., _swine, boar_ (image on the helm): nom. sg. swýn, 1112;
acc. sg. swîn, 1287.

swîn-lîc, st. n., _swine-image_ or _body_: instr. pl. swîn-lîcum, 1454.

swôgan, st. v., _to whistle, roar_: pres. part. swôgende lêg, 3146.

swutol. See sweotol.

swylc, swilc (Goth, swa-leik-s), demons, adj. = _talis, such, such a_;
relative = _qualis, as, which_: nom. sg. swylc, 178, 1941, 2542, 2709;
swylc ... swylc=talis ... qualis, 1329; acc. sg. swylc, 2799; eall ...
swylc (_all ... which, as_), 72; ôðer swylc (_such another_, i.e. hand),
1584; on swylc (_on such things_), 997; dat. sg. gûð-fremmendra swylcum
(_to such a battle-worker_, i.e. Beówulf), 299; gen. sg. swylces hwät
(_some such_), 881; acc. pl. swylce, 2870; call swylce ... swylce, 3166;
swylce twegen (_two such_), 1348; ealle þearfe swylce (_all needs that_),
1798; swylce hie ... findan meahton sigla searo-gimma (_such as they might
find of jewels and cunning gems_), 1157; efne swylce mæla swylce (_at just
such times as_), 1250; gen. pl. swylcra searo-nîða, 582; swylcra fela ...
ær-gestreóna, 2232.

swylce, adv., _as, as also, likewise, similarly_, 113, 293, 758, 831, 855,
908, 921, 1147, 1166, 1428, 1483, 2460, 2825; ge swylce (_and likewise_),
2259; swilce, 1153.

swylt, st. m., _death_: nom. sg., 1256, 1437.

swylt-däg, st. m., _death-day_: dat. sg. ær swylt-däge, 2799.

swynsian, w. v., _to sound_: pret. sg. hlyn swynsode, 612.

swyrd. See sweord.

swýðl. See swîð.

swýn. See swîn.

syððan (seðian, Gen. 1525), w. v., _to punish, avenge_, w. acc.: inf. þonne
hit sweordes ecg syððan scolde (_then the edge of the sword should avenge
it_), 1107.

syððan. See siððan.

syfan-wintre, adj., _seven-winters-old_: nom. sg., 2429.

syhð. See seón.

syl (O.H.G. swella), st. f., _sill, bench-support_: dat. sg. fram sylle,

sylfa. See selfa.

syllan. See sellan.

syllîc. See sellîc.

symbol, syml, st. n., _banquet, entertainment_: acc. sg. symbel, 620, 1011;
geaf me sinc and symbel (_gave me treasure and feasting_, i.e. made me his
friend and table-companion), 2432; þät hie ... symbel ymbsæton (_that they
might sit round their banquet_), 564; dat. sg. symle, 81, 489, 1009;
symble, 119, 2105; gen. pl. symbla, 1233.

symble, symle, adv., _continually, ever_: symble, 2451; symle, 2498; symle
wäs þý sæmra (_he was ever the worse, the weaker_, i.e. the dragon), 2881.

symbel-wyn, st. f., _banqueting-pleasure, joy at feasting_: acc. sg.
symbel-wynne dreóh, 1783.

syn, st. f., _sin, crime_: nom. synn and sacu, 2473; dat. instr. pl.
synnum, 976, 1256, 3072.

syn. See sin.

syn-bysig, adj., (culpa laborans), _persecuted on account of guilt?_
(Rieger), _guilt-haunted?_: nom. sg. secg syn-[by]sig, 2228.

ge-syngian, w. v., _to sin, commit a crime_: pret. part. þät wäs feohleás
ge-feoht, fyrenum ge-syngad, 2442.

synnig, adj., _sin-laden, sinful_: acc. sg. m. sinnigne secg, 1380.--Comp.:
fela-, un-synnig.

ge-synto, f., _health_: dat. pl. on gesyntum, 1870.

syrce. See serce.

syrwan, w. v. w. acc., _to entrap, catch unawares_: pret. sg. duguðe and
geogoðe seomade and syrede, 161.

be-syrwan: 1) _to compass_ or _accomplish by finesse; effect_: inf. dæd þe
we ealle ær ne meahton snyttrum be-syrwan (_a deed that all of us could not
accomplish before with all our wisdom_), 943.--2) _to entrap by guile and
destroy_: inf. mynte se mânscaða manna cynnes sumne be-syrwan (_the fell
foe thought to entrap some one (all?_, see sum) _of the men_), 714.

sýn, f., _seeing, sight, scene_: comp, an-sýn.

ge-sýne, adj., _visible, to be seen_: nom. sg. 1256, 1404, 2948, 3059,
3160.--Comp.: êð-ge-sýne, ýð-ge-sêne.


taligean, w. v.: 1) _to count, reckon, number; esteem, think_: pres. sg. I.
nô ic me ... hnâgran gûð-geweorca þonne Grendel hine (_count myself no
worse than G. in battle-works_), 678; wên ic talige ...þät (_I count on the
hope ... that_), 1846; telge, 2068; sg. III. þät ræd talað þät (_counts it
gain that_), 2028.--2) _to tell, relate_: sôð ic talige (_I tell facts_),
532; swâ þu self talast (_as thou thyself sayst_), 595.

tâcen, st. n., _token, sign, evidence_: nom. sg. tâcen sweotol, 834; dat.
instr. sg. sweotolan tâcne, 141; tîres tô tâcne, 1655.--Comp. luf-tâcen.

tân, st. m., _twig_: in comp. âter-tân. [emended to âter-teárum in

ge-tæcan, w. v., _to show, point out_: pret. sg. him þâ hilde-deór hof
môdigra torht ge-tæhte (_the warrior pointed out to them the bright
dwelling of the bold ones_, i.e. Danes), 313. Hence, _to indicate, assign_:
pret. sôna me se mæra mago Healfdenes ... wið his sylfes sunu setl getæhte
(_assigned me a seat by his own son_), 2014.

tæle, adj., _blameworthy_: in comp. un-tæle.

ge-tæse, adj., _quiet, still_: nom. sg. gif him wære ... niht ge-tæse
(_whether he had a pleasant, quiet, night_), 1321.

tela, adv., _fittingly, well_, 949, 1219, 1226, 1821, 2209, 2738.

telge. See talian.

tellan, w. v., _to tell, consider, deem_: pret. sg. ne his lîf-dagas leóda
ænigum nytte tealde (_nor did he count his life useful to any man_), 795;
þät ic me ænigne under swegles begong ge-sacan ne tealde (_I believed not
that I had any foe under heaven_), 1774; cwäð he þone gûð-wine gôdne tealde
(_said he counted the war-friend good_), 1811; he ûsic gâr-wîgend gôde
tealde (_deemed us good spear-warriors_), 2642; pl. swâ (_so that_) hine
Geáta beam gôdne ne tealdon, 2185.--2) _to ascribe, count against, impose_:
pret. sg. (Þryðo) him wälbende weotode tealde hand-gewriðene, 1937.

ge-tenge, adj., _attached to, lying on_: w. dat. gold ... grunde ge-tenge,

teár, st. m., _tear_: nom. pl. teáras, 1873.

teoh, st. f., _troop, band_: dat. sg. earmre teohhe, 2939.

(ge?)-teohhian, w. v., _to fix, determine, assign_: pret. sg. ic for lässan
leán teohhode ... hnâhran rince, 952; pres. part. wäs ôðer in ær geteohhod
(_assigned_)... mærum Geáte, 1301.

teón, st. v., _to draw, lead_: inf. hêht ... eahta mearas ... on flet teón
(_bade eight horses be led into the hall_), 1037; pret. sg. me tô grunde
teáh fâh feónd-sceaða (_the many-hued fiend-foe drew me to the bottom_),
553; eft-sîðas teáh (_withdrew, returned_), 1333; sg. for pl. æg-hwylcum
...þâra þe mid Beówulfe brim-lâde teáh (_to each of those that crossed the
sea with B._) 1052; pret. part. þâ wäs ... heard ecg togen (_then was the
hard edge drawn_), 1289; wearð ... on näs togen (_was drawn to the
promontory_), 1440.

â-teón, _to wander, go_, intrans.: pret. sg. tô Heorute â-teáh (_drew to
Heorot_), 767.

ge-teón: 1) _to draw_: pret. sg. gomel swyrd ge-teáh, 2611; w. instr. and
acc. hyre seaxe ge-teáh, brad brûn-ecg, 1546.--2) _to grant, give, lend_:
imp. nô þu him wearne geteóh þînra gegn-cwida glädnian (_refuse not to
gladden them with thy answer_), 366; pret. sg. and þâ Beówulfe bega
gehwäðres eodor Ingwina onweald ge-teáh (_and the prince of the Ingwins
gave B. power over both_), 1045; so, he him êst geteáh (_gave possession
of_), 2166.

of-teón, _to deprive, withdraw_, w. gen. of thing and dat. pers.: pret. sg.
Scyld Scêfing ... monegum mægðum meodo-setla of-teáh, 5; w. acc. of thing,
hond ... feorh-sweng ne of-teáh, 2490; w. dat. hond (hord, MS.) swenge ne
of-teáh, 1521.

þurh-teón, _to effect_: inf. gif he torn-gemôt þurh-teón mihte, 1141.

teón (cf. teóh, _materia_, O.H.G. ziuc), w. v. w. acc., _to make, work_:
pret. sg. teóde, 1453;--_to furnish out, deck_: pret. pl. nalas hi hine
lässan lâcum teódan (_provided him with no less gifts_), 43.

ge-teón, _to provide, do, bring on_: pres. sg. unc sceal weorðan ... swâ
unc Wyrd ge-teóð, 2527; pret. sg. þe him ... sâre ge-teóde (_who had done
him this harm_), 2296.

ge-teóna, w. m., _injurer, harmer_: in comp. lâð-ge-teóna.

til, adj., _good, apt, fit_: nom. sg. m. Hâlga til, 61; þegn ungemete till
(of Wîglâf), 2722; fem. wäs seó þeód tilu, 1251; neut. ne wäs þät ge-wrixle
til, 1305.

tilian, w. v. w. gen., _to gain, win_: inf. gif ic ... ôwihte mäg þînre
môd-lufan mâran tilian (_if I ... gain_), 1824.

timbrian, w. v., _to build_: pret. part. acc. sg. säl timbred (_the
well-built hall_), 307.

be-timbrian, (construere), _to finish building, complete_: pret. pl.
betimbredon on tyn dagum beadu-rôfes bêcn, 3161.

tîd, st. f., _-tide, time_: acc. sg. twelf wintra tîd, 147; lange tîd,
1916; in þâ tîde, 2228.--Comp.: ân-, morgen-tîd.

ge-tîðian (from tigðian), w. v., _to grant_: pret. part. impers. wäs ...
bêne (gen.) ge-tîðad feásceaftum men, 2285.

tîr, st. m., _glory, repute in war_. gen. sg. tîres, 1655.

tîr-eádig, adj., _glorious, famous_: dat. sg. tîr-eádigum menn (of
Beówulf), 2190.

tîr-fäst, adj., _famous, rich in glory_. nom. sg. (of Hrôðgâr), 923.

tîr-leás, adj., _without glory, infamous_: gen. sg. (of Grendel), 844.

toga, w. m., _leader_: in comp. folc-toga.

torht, adj., _bright, brilliant_: acc. sg. neut. hof ... torht,
313.--Comp.: wuldor-torht, heaðo-torht (_loud in battle_).

torn, st. n.: 1) _wrath, insult, distress_: acc. sg. torn, 147, 834; gen.
pl. torna, 2190.--2) _anger_: instr. sg. torne ge-bolgen, 2402.--Comp.

torn, adj., _bitter, cruel_: nom. sg, hreówa tornost, 2130.

torn-ge-môt, st. n., (_wrathful meeting_), _angry engagement, battle_: acc.
sg., 1141.

tô, I. prep. w. dat. indicating direction or tending to, hence: 1) local =
whither after verbs of motion, _to, up to, at_: com tô recede (_to the
hall_), 721; eode tô sele, 920; eode tô hire freán sittan, 642; gæð eft ...
tô medo (_goeth again to mead_), 605; wand tô wolcnum (_wound to the
welkin_), 1120; sigon tô slæpe (_sank to sleep_), 1252; 28, 158, 234, 438,
553, 926, 1010, 1014, 1155, 1159, 1233, etc.; lîð-wæge bär hælum tô handa
(_bore the ale-cup to the hands of the men? at hand?_), 1984; ôð þät niht
becom ôðer tô yldum, 2118; him tô bearme cwom mâððum-fät mære (_came to his
hands, into his possession_), 2405; sælde tô sande sîd-fäðme scip
(_fastened the broad-bosomed ship to the shore_), 1918; þat se harm-scaða
tô Heorute â-teáh (_went forth to Heorot_), 767. After verb sittan: site nu
tô symble (_sit now to the meal_), 489; siððan ... we tô symble geseten
häfdon, 2105; tô ham (_home, at home_), 124, 374, 2993. With verbs of
speaking: maðelode tô his wine-drihtne (_spake to his friendly lord_), 360;
tô Geátum sprec, 1172; so, hêht þät heaðo-weorc tô hagan biódan (_bade the
battle-work be told at the hedge_), 2893.--2) with verbs of bringing and
taking (cf. under on, I., d): hraðe wäs tô bûre Beówulf fetod (_B. was
hastily brought from a room_), 1311; siððan Hâma ät-wäg tô þære byrhtan
byrig Brôsinga mene (_since H. carried the Brosing-necklace off from the
bright city_), 1200; weán âhsode. fæhðo to Frysum (_suffered woe, feud as
to, from, the Frisians_), 1208.--3) =end of motion, hence: a) _to, for, as,
in_: þone god sende folce tô frôfre (_for, as, a help to the folk_), 14;
gesette ... sunnan and mônan leóman to leóhte (_as a light_), 95; ge-sät
... tô rune (_sat in counsel_), 172; wearð he Heaðo-lâfe tô hand-bonan,
460; bringe ... tô helpe (_bring to, for, help_), 1831; Jofore forgeaf
ângan dôhtor ... hyldo tô wedde (_as a pledge of his favor_), 2999; so,
508(?), 666, 907, 972, 1022, 1187, 1263, 1331, 1708, 1712, 2080, etc.;
secgan tô sôðe (_to say in sooth_), 51; so, 591, 2326. b) with verbs of
thinking, hoping, etc., _on, for, at, against_: he tô gyrn-wräce swîðor
þôhte þonne tô sæ-lâde (_thought more on vengeance than on the
sea-voyage_), 1139; säcce ne wêneð tô Gâr-Denum (_nor weeneth of conflict
with the Spear-Danes_), 602; þonne wêne ic tô þe wyrsan geþinges (_then I
expect for thee a worse result_), 525; ne ic to Sweóþeóde sibbe oððe treówe
wihte ne wêne (_nor expect at all of, from, the Swedes_ ...), 2923; wiste
þäm ahlæcan tô þäm heáh-sele hilde ge-þinged (_battle prepared for the
monster in the high hall_), 648; wel bið þäm þe mot tô fäder fäðmum freoðo
wilnian (_well for him that can find peace in the Father's arms_), 188;
þâra þe he ge-worhte tô West-Denum (_of those that he wrought against the
West-Danes_), 1579.--4) with the gerund, inf.: tô gefremmanne (_to do_),
174; tô ge-cýðanne (_to make known_), 257; tô secganne (_to say_), 473; to
befleónne (_to avoid, escape_), 1004; so, 1420, 1725, 1732, 1806, 1852,
1923, 1942, etc. With inf.: tô fêran, 316; tô friclan, 2557.--5) temporal:
gewât him tô gescäp-hwîle (_went at(?) the hour of fate_; or, _to his fated
rest?_), 26; tô wîdan feore (_ever, in their lives_), 934; âwa tô aldre
(_for life, forever_), 956; so, tô aldre, 2006, 2499; tô life (_during
life, ever_), 2433.--6) with particles: wôd under wolcnum tô þäs þe ...
(_went under the welkin to the point where_ ...), 715; so, elne ge-eodon tô
þäs þe, 1968; so, 2411; he him þäs leán for-geald ... tô þäs þe he on reste
geseah Grendel licgan (_he paid him for that to the point that he saw G.
lying dead_), 1586; wäs þät blôd tô þäs hât (_the blood was hot to that
degree_), 1617; näs þâ long tô þon þät (_'twas not long till_), 2592, 2846;
wäs him se man tô þon leóf þät (_the man was dear to him to that degree_),
1877; tô hwan siððan wearð hond-ræs häleða (_up to what point, how, the
hand-contest turned out_), 2072; tô middes (_in the midst_), 3142.

II. Adverbial modifier, _quasi_ preposition [better explained in many cases
as prep. postponed]: l) _to, towards, up to, at_: geóng sôna tô, 1786; so,
2649; fêhð ôðer tô, 1756; sæ-lâc ... þe þu her tô lôcast (_upon which thou
here lookest_), 1655; folc tô sægon (_the folk looked on_), 1423; þät hî
him tô mihton gegnum gangan (_might proceed thereto_), 313; se þe him
bealwa tô bôte gelýfde (_who believed in help out of evils from him_, i.e.
Beówulf), 910; him tô anwaldan âre ge-lyfde (_trusted for himself to the
Almighty's help_), 1273; þe ûs sêceað tô Sweóna leóde (_that the Swedes
will come against us_), 3002.--2) before adj. and adv., _too_: tô strang
(_too mighty_), 133; tô fäst, 137; tô swýð, 191; so, 789, 970, 1337, 1743,
1749, etc.; tô fela micles (_far too much_), 695; he tô forð ge-stôp (_he
had gone too far_), 2290.

tôð (G. tunþu-s), st. m., _tooth_: in comp. blôdig-tôð (adj.).

tredan, st. v. w. acc., _to tread_: inf. sæ-wong tredan, 1965; el-land
tredan, 3020; pret. sg. wräc-lâstas träd, 1353; medo-wongas träd, 1644;
gräs-moldan träd, 1882.

treddian, tryddian (see trod), w. v., _to stride, tread, go_: pret. sg.
treddode, 726; tryddode getrume micle (_strode about with a strong troop_),

trem, st. n., _piece, part_: acc. sg. ne ... fôtes trem (_not a foot's
breadth_), 2526.

treów, st. f., _fidelity, good faith_: acc. sg. treówe, 1073; sibbe oððe
treówe, 2923.

treów, st. n., _tree_: in comp. galg-treów.

treówian. See trûwian.

treów-loga, w. m., _troth-breaker, pledge-breaker_: nom. pl. treów-logan,

trodu, st. f., _track, step_: acc. sg. or pl. trode, 844.

ge-trum, st. n., _troop, band_: instr. sg. ge-trume micle, 923.

trum, adj., _strong, endowed with_: nom. sg. heorot hornum trum, 1370.

ge-trûwan, w. v. w. acc., _to confirm, pledge solemnly_: pret. sg. þâ hie
getrûwedon on twâ healfe fäste frioðu-wære, 1096.

trûwian, treówan, w. v., _to trust in, rely on, believe in_: 1) w. dat.:
pret. sg. sîðe ne trûwode leófes mannes (_I trusted not in the dear man's
enterprise_), 1994; bearne ne trûwode þät he ... (_she trusted not the
child that_ ...), 2371; gehwylc hiora his ferhðe treówde þät he ... (_each
trusted his heart that_ ...), 1167.--2) w. gen.: pret. sg. Geáta leód
georne trûwode môdgan mägnes, 670; wiðres ne trûwode, 2954.

ge-trûwian, _to rely on, trust in_, w. dat.: pret. sg. strenge ge-trûwode,
mund-gripe mägenes, 1534;--w. gen. pret. sg. beorges ge-trûwode, wîges and
wealles, 2323; strenge ge-trûwode ânes mannes, 2541.

tryddian. See treddian.

trýwe, adj., _true, faithful_: nom. sg. þâ gyt wäs ... æghwylc ôðrum trýwe,

ge-trýwe, adj., _faithful_: nom. sg. her is æghwylc eorl ôðrum ge-trýwe,

turf, st. f., _sod, soil, seat_: in comp. êðel-turf.

tux, st. m., _tooth, tusk_: in comp. hilde-tux.

ge-twæfan, w. v. w. acc. of person and gen. thing, _to separate, divide,
deprive of, hinder_: pres. sg. III. þät þec âdl oððe ecg eafoðes ge-twæfeð
(_robs of strength_), 1764; inf. god eáðe mäg þone dol-scaðan dæda
ge-twæfan (_God may easily restrain the fierce foe from his deeds_), 479;
pret. sg. sumne Geáta leód ... feores getwæfde (_cut him off from life_),
1434; nô þær wæg-flotan wind ofer ýðum sîðes ge-twæfde (_the wind hindered
not the wave-floater in her course over the water_), 1909; pret. part. ät
rihte wäs gûð ge-twæfed (_almost had the struggle been ended_), 1659.

ge-twæman, w. v. acc. pers. and gen. thing, _to hinder, render incapable
of, restrain_: inf. ic hine ne mihte ... ganges getwæman, 969.

twegen, m. f. n. twâ, num., _twain, two_: nom. m. twegen, 1164; acc. m.
twegen, 1348; dat. twæm, 1192 gen. twega, 2533; acc. f. twâ, 1096, 1195.

twelf, num., _twelve_, gen. twelfa, 3172.

tweone (Frisian twine), num. = _bini, two_: dat. pl. be sæm tweonum, 859,
1298; 1686.

twidig, adj., in comp. lang-twidig (_long-assured_), 1709.

tyder, st. m., _race, descendant_: in comp. un-tyder, 111.

tydre (Frisian teddre), adj., _weak, unwarlike, cowardly_: nom. pl. tydre,

tyn, num., _ten_: uninflect. dat. on tyn dagum, 3161; inflect. nom. tyne,

tyrwian, w. v., _to tar_: pret. part. tyrwed in comp.: niw-tyrwed.

on-tyhtan, w. v., _to urge on, incite, entice_: pret. sg. on-tyhte, 3087.


þafian, w. v. w. acc., _to submit to, endure_: inf. þät se þeód-cyning
þafian sceolde Eofores ânne dôm, 2964.

þanc, st. m.: 1) _thought_: in comp. fore-, hete-, or-, searo-þanc;
inwit-þanc (adj.).--2) _thanks_ (w. gen. of thing): nom. sg., 929, 1779;
acc. sg. þanc, 1998, 2795.--3) _content, favor, pleasure_: dat. sg. þâ þe
gif-sceattas Geáta fyredon þyder tô þance (_those that tribute for the
Geâtas carried thither for favor_). 379.

ge-þanc, st. m., _thought_: instr. pl. þeóstrum ge-þoncum, 2333.--Comp.

þanc-hycgende, pres. part., _thoughtful_, 2236.

þancian, w. v., _to thank_: pret. sg. gode þancode ... þäs þe hire se willa
ge-lamp (_thanked God that her wish was granted_), 626; so, 1398; pl.
þancedon, 627(?).

þanon, þonon, þonan, adv., _thence_: 1) local: þanon eft gewât (_he went
thence back_), 123; þanon up ... stigon (_went up thence_), 224; so, þanon,
463, 692, 764, 845, 854, 1293; þanan, 1881; þonon, 520, 1374, 2409; þonan,
820, 2360, 2957.--2) personal: þanon untydras ealle on-wôcon (_from him_,
i.e. Cain, etc.), 111; so, þanan, 1266; þonon, 1961; unsôfte þonon feorh
ôð-ferede (i.e. from Grendel's mother), 2141.

þâ, adv.: l) _there, then_, 3, 26, 28, 34, 47, 53, etc. With þær: þâ þær,
331. With nu: nu þâ (_now then_), 658.--2) conjunction, _when, as, since_,
w. indic., 461, 539, 633, etc.;--_because, whilst, during, since_, 402,
465, 724, 2551, etc.

þät, I. demons, pron. acc. neut. of se: demons, nom. þät (_that_), 735,
766, etc.; instr. sg. þý, 1798, 2029; þät ic þý wæpne ge-bräd (_that I
brandished as(?) a weapon; that I brandished the weapon?_), 1665; þý
weorðra (_the more honored_), 1903; þý sêft (_the more easily_), 2750; þý
läs hym ýðe þrym wudu wynsuman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the
waves the winsome boat might carry away_), 1919; nô þý ær (_not sooner_),
755, 1503, 2082, 2374, 2467; nô þý leng (_no longer, none the longer_),
975. þý =adv., _therefore, hence_, 1274, 2068; þê ... þê = _on this
account; for this reason ... that, because_, 2639-2642; wiste þê geornor
(_knew but too well_), 822; he ... wäs sundes þê sænra þe hine swylt fornam
(_he was the slower in swimming as [whom?] death carried him off_), 1437;
näs him wihte þê sêl (_it was none the better for him_), 2688; so, 2278.
Gen. sg. þäs = adv., _for this reason, therefore_, 7, 16, 114, 350, 589,
901, 1993, 2027, 2033, etc. þäs þe, especially after verbs of thanking, =
_because_, 108, 228, 627, 1780, 2798;--also = secundum quod: þäs þe hie
gewislîcost ge-witan meahton, 1351;--_therefore, accordingly_, 1342, 3001;
tô þäs (_to that point; to that degree_), 715, 1586, 1617, 1968, 2411; þäs
georne (_so firmly_), 969; ac he þäs fäste wäs ... besmiðod (_it was too
firmly set_), 774; nô þäs frôd leofað gumena bearna þät þone grund wite
(_none liveth among men so wise that he should know its bottom_), 1368; he
þäs (þäm, MS.) môdig wäs (_had the courage for it_), 1509.

II. conj. (relative), _that, so that_, 15, 62, 84, 221, 347, 358, 392, 571,
etc.; ôð þät (_up to that, until_); see ôð.

þätte (from þät þe, see þe), _that_, 151, 859, 1257, 2925, etc.; þät þe
(_that_), 1847.

þær: 1) demons. adv., _there (where)_, 32, 36, 89, 400, 757, etc.;
morðor-bealo mâga, þær heó ær mæste heóld worolde wynne (_the death-bale of
kinsmen where before she had most worldly joy_), 1080. With þâ: þâ þær,
331; þær on innan (_therein_), 71. Almost like Eng. expletive _there_, 271,
550, 978, etc.;--_then, at that time_, 440;--_thither_: þær swîð-ferhðe
sittan eodon (_thither went the bold ones to sit_, i.e. to the bench), 493,
etc.--2) relative, _where_, 356, 420, 508, 513, 522, 694, 867, etc.; eode
... þær se snottra bâd (_went where the wise one tarried_), 1314; so,
1816;--_if_, 763, 798, 1836, 2731, etc.;--_whither_: gâ þær he wille, 1395.

þe, I. relative particle, indecl., partly standing alone, partly associated
with se, seó, þät: Hunferð maðelode, þe ät fôtum sät (_H., who sat at his
feet, spake_), 500; so, 138, etc.; wäs þät gewin tô swýð þe on þâ leóde
be-com (_the misery that had come on the people was too great_), 192, etc.;
ic wille ... þe þâ and-sware ädre ge-cýðan þe me se gôda â-gifan þenceð (_I
will straightway tell thee the answer that the good one shall give_), 355;
ôð þone ânne däg þe he ... (_till that very day that he_ ...), 2401; heó þâ
fæhðe wräc þe þu ... Grendel cwealdest (_the fight in which thou slewest
G._), 1335; mid þære sorge þe him sió sâr belamp (_with the sorrow
wherewith the pain had visited him_), 2469; pl. þonne þâ dydon þe ...
(_than they did that_ ...), 45; so, 378, 1136; þâ mâðmas þe he me sealde
(_the treasures that he gave me_), 2491; so, ginfästan gife þe him god
sealde (_the great gifts that God had given him_), 2183. After þâra þe (_of
those that_), the depend. verb often takes sg. instead of pl. (Dietrich,
Haupt XI., 444 seqq.): wundor-sióna fela secga ge-hwylcum þâra þe on swylc
starað (_to each of those that look on such_), 997; so, 844, 1462, 2384,
2736. Strengthened by se, seó, þät: sägde se þe cûðe (_said he that knew_),
90; wäs se grimma gäst Grendel hâten, se þe môras heóld (_the grim stranger
hight Grendel, he that held the moors_), 103; here-byrne ... seó þe
bân-cofan beorgan cûðe (_the corselet that could protect the body_), 1446,
etc.; þær ge-lýfan sceal dryhtnes dôme se þe hine deáð nimeð (_he shall
believe in God's judgment whom death carrieth off_), 441; so, 1437, 1292
(cf. Heliand I., 1308).

þäs þe. See þät.

þeáh þe. See þeáh.

for þam þe. See for-þam.

þý, þê, _the, by that_, instr. of se: âhte ic holdra þý läs ... þe deáð
for-nam (_I had the less friends whom death snatched away_), 488; so, 1437.

þeccan, w. v., _to cover_ (thatch), _cover over_: inf. þâ sceal brond
fretan, äled þeccean (_fire shall eat, flame shall cover, the treasures_),
3016; pret. pl. þær git eágor-streám earmum þehton (_in swimming_), 513.

þegn, st. m., _thane, liegeman, king's higher vassal; knight_: nom. sg.,
235, 494, 868, 2060, 2710; (Beówulf), 194; (Wîglâf), 2722; acc. sg. þegen
(Beówulf, MS. þegn), 1872; dat. sg. þegne, 1342, 1420; (Hengest), 1086;
(Wîglâf), 2811; gen. sg. þegnes, 1798; nom. pl. þegnas, 1231; acc. pl.
þegnas, 1082, 3122; dat. pl. þegnum, 2870; gen. pl. þegna, 123, 400, 1628,
1674, 1830, 2034, etc.--Comp.: ambiht-, ealdor-, heal-, magu-, sele-þegn.

þegnian, þênian, w. v., _to serve, do liege service_: pret. sg. ic him
þênode deóran sweorde (_I served them with my good sword_, i.e. slew them
with it), 560.

þegn-sorh, st. f., _thane-sorrow, grief for a liegeman_: acc. sg.
þegn-sorge, 131.

þegu, st. f., _taking_: in comp.: beáh-, beór-, sinc-þegu.

þel, st. n., _deal-board, board for benches_: in comp. benc-þel, 486, 1240.

þencan, w. v.: 1) _to think_: absolutely: pres. sg. III. se þe wel þenceð,
289; so, 2602. With depend. clause: pres. sg. nænig heora þôhte þät he ...
(_none of them thought that he_), 692.--2) w. inf., _to intend_: pres. sg.
III. þâ and-sware ... þe me se gôda â-gifan þenceð (_the answer that the
good one intendeth to give me_), 355; (blôdig wäl) byrgean þenceð, 448;
þonne he ... gegân þenceð longsumne lof (_if he will win eternal fame_),
1536; pret. sg. ne þät aglæca yldan þôhte (_the monster did not mean to
delay that_), 740; pret. pl. wit unc wið hronfixas werian þôhton, 541;
(hine) on healfa ge-hwone heáwan þôhton, 801.

â-þencan, _to intend, think out_: pret. sg. (he) þis ellen-weorc âna
â-þôhte tô ge-fremmanne, 2644.

ge-þencan, w. acc.: 1) _to think of_: þät he his selfa ne mäg ... ende
ge-þencean (_so that he himself may not think of, know, its limit_),
1735.--2) _to be mindful_: imper. sg. ge-þenc nu ... hwät wit geó spræcon,

þenden: 1) adv., _at this time, then, whilst_: nalles fâcen-stafas
Þeód-Scyldingas þenden fremedon (_not at all at this time had the Scyldings
done foul deeds_), 1020 (referring to 1165; cf. Wîdsîð, 45 seqq.); þenden
reáfode rinc ôðerne (_whilst one warrior robbed another_, i.e. Eofor robbed
Ongenþeów), 2986.--2) conj., _so long as, whilst_, 30, 57, 284, 1860, 2039,
2500, 3028;--_whilst_, 2419. With subj., _whilst, as long as_: þenden þu
môte, 1178; þenden þu lifige, 1255; þenden hyt sý (_whilst the heat
lasts_), 2650.

þengel, st. m., _prince, lord, ruler_: acc. sg. hringa þengel (Beówulf),

þes (m.), þeós (f.), þis (n.), demons. pron., _this_: nom. sg. 411, 432,
1703; f., 484; nom. acc. neut., 2156, 2252, 2644; þys, 1396; acc. sg. m.
þisne, 75; f. þâs, 1682; dat. sg. neut. þissum, 1170; þyssum, 2640; f.
þisse, 639; gen. m. þisses, 1217; f. þisse, 929; neut. þysses, 791, 807;
nom. pl. and acc. þâs, 1623, 1653, 2636, 2641; dat. þyssum, 1063, 1220.

þê. See þät.

þêh. See þeáh.

þearf, st. f., _need_: nom. sg. þearf, 1251, 2494, 2638; þâ him wäs manna
þearf (_as he was in need of men_), 201; acc. sg. þearfe, 1457, 2580, 2850;
fremmað ge nu leóda þearfe (_do ye now what is needful for the folk_),
2802; dat. sg. ät þearfe, 1478, 1526, 2695, 2710; acc. pl. se for andrysnum
ealle beweotede þegnes þearfe (_who would supply in courtesy all the
thane's needs_), 1798 (cf. sele-þegn, 1795).--Comp.: firen-, nearo-,

þearf. See þurfan.

ge-þearfian, w. v., = _necessitatem imponere_: pret. part. þâ him swâ
ge-þearfod wäs (_since so they found it necessary_), 1104.

þearle, adv., _very, exceedingly_, 560.

þeáh, þêh, conj., _though, even though_ or _if_: 1) with subj. þeáh, 203,
526, 588, 590, 1168, 1661, 2032, 2162. Strengthened by þe: þeáh þe, 683,
1369, 1832, 1928, 1942, 2345, 2620; þeáh ... eal (_although_), 681.--2)
with indic.: þeáh, 1103; þêh, 1614.--3) doubtful: þeáh he ûðe wel, 2856;
swâ þeáh (_nevertheless_), 2879; nô ... swâ þeáh (_not then however_), 973;
näs þe forht swâ þêh (_he was not, though, afraid_), 2968; hwäðre swâ þeáh
(_yet however_), 2443.

þeáw, st. m., _custom, usage_: nom. sg., 178, 1247; acc. sg. þeáw, 359;
instr. pl. þeáwum (_in accordance with custom_), 2145.

þeód, st. f.: 1) _war-troop, retainers_: nom. sg., 644, 1231, 1251.--2)
_nation, folk_: nom. sg., 1692; gen. pl. þeóda, 1706.--Comp.: sige-,

þeód-cyning, st. m., (=folc-cyning), _warrior-king, king of the people_:
nom. sg. (Hrôðgâr), 2145; (Ongenþeów), 2964, 2971; þiód-cyning (Beówulf),
2580; acc. sg. þeód-cyning (Beówulf), 3009; gen. sg. þeód-cyninges
(Beówulf), 2695; gen. pl. þeód-cyninga, 2.

þeóden, st. m., _lord of a troop, war-chief, king; ruler_: nom. sg., 129,
365, 417, 1047, 1210, 1676, etc.; þióden, 2337, 2811; acc. sg. þeóden, 34,
201, 353, 1599, 2385, 2722, 2884, 3080; þióden, 2789; dat. sg. þeódne, 345,
1526, 1993, 2573, 2710, etc.; þeóden, 2033; gen. sg. þeódnes 798, 911,
1086, 1628, 1838, 2175; þiódnes, 2657; nom. pl. þeódnas, 3071.

þeóden-leás, adj., _without chief_ or _king_: nom. pl. þeóden-leáse, 1104.

þeód-gestreón, st. n., _people's-jewel, precious treasure_: instr. pl.
þeód-ge-streónum, 44; gen. pl. þeód-ge-streóna, 1219.

þeódig, adj., _appertaining to a_ þeód: in comp. el-þeódig.

þeód-scaða, w. m., _foe of the people, general foe_: nom. sg. þeód-sceaða
(_the dragon_), 2279, 2689.

þeód-þreá, st. f. m., _popular misery, general distress_: dat. pl. wið
þeód-þreáum, 178.

þeóf, st. m., _thief_: gen. sg. þeófes cräfte, 2221.

þeón, st. v.: 1) _to grow, ripen, thrive_: pret. sg. weorðmyndum þâh (_grew
in glory_), 8.--2) _to thrive in, succeed_: pret. sg. hûru þät on lande lyt
manna þâh (_that throve to few_), 2837. See Note, l. 901.

ge-þeón, _to grow, thrive; increase in power and influence_: imper. ge-þeóh
tela, 1219; inf. lof-dædum sceal ... man geþeón, 25; þät þät þeódnes bearn
ge-þeón scolde, 911.

on-þeón? _to begin, undertake_, w. gen.: pret. he þäs ær onþâh, 901. [In
MS. Emended in text.--KTH] See Note, l. 901.

þeon (for þeówan), w. v., _to oppress, restrain_: inf. näs se folc-cyning
ymb-sittendra ænig þâra þe mec ... dorste egesan þeón (_that durst oppress
me with terror_), 2737.

þeóstor, adj., _dark, gloomy_: instr. pl. þeóstrum ge-þoncum, 2333.

þicgan, st. v. w. acc., _to seize, attain, eat, appropriate_: inf. þät he
(Grendel) mâ môste manna cynnes þicgean ofer þâ niht, 737; symbel þicgan
(_take the meal, enjoy the feast_), 1011; pret. pl. þät hie me þêgon, 563;
þær we medu þêgun, 2634.

ge-þicgan, w. acc., _to grasp, take_: pret. sg. (symbel and sele-ful, ful)
ge-þeah, 619, 629; Beówulf ge-þah ful on flette, 1025; pret. pl. (medo-ful
manig) ge-þægon, 1015.

þider, þyder, adv., _thither_: þyder, 3087, 379, 2971.

þihtig, þyhtig, adj., _doughty, vigorous, firm_: acc. sg. neut. sweord ...
ecgum þyhtig, 1559.--Comp. hyge-þihtig.

þincan. See þyncan.

þing, st. n.: 1) _thing_: gen. pl. ænige þinga (_ullo modo_), 792, 2375,
2906.--2) _affair, contest, controversy_: nom. sg. me wearð Grendles þing
... undyrne cûð (_Grendel's doings became known to me_), 409.--3)
_judgment, issue, judicial assembly_(?): acc. sg. sceal ... âna gehegan
þing wið þyrse (_shall bring the matter alone to an issue against the
giant_: see hegan), 426.

ge-þing, st. n.: 1) _terms, covenant_: acc. pl. ge-þingo, 1086.--2) _fate,
providence, issue_: gen. sg. ge-þinges, 398, 710; (ge-þingea, MS.), 525.

ge-þingan, st. v., _to grow, mature, thrive_ (Dietrich, Haupt IX., 430):
pret. part. cwên môde ge-þungen (_mature-minded, high-spirited, queen_),
625. See wel-þungen.

ge-þingan (see ge-þing), w. v.: 1) _to conclude a treaty_: w. refl. dat,
_enter into a treaty_: pres. sg. III. gif him þonne Hrêðrîc tô hofum Geáta
ge-þingeð _(if H. enters into a treaty_ (seeks aid at?) _with the court of
the Geátas_, referring to the old German custom of princes entering the
service or suite of a foreign king), 1838. Leo.--2) _to prepare, appoint_:
pret. part. wiste [ät] þäm ahlæcan ... hilde ge-þinged, 648; hraðe wäs ...
mêce ge-þinged, 1939.

þingian, w. v.: 1) _to speak in an assembly, make an address_: inf. ne
hýrde ic snotor-lîcor on swâ geongum feore guman þingian (_I never heard a
man so young speak so wisely_), 1844.--2) _to compound, settle, lay aside_:
inf. ne wolde feorh-bealo ... feó þingian (_would not compound the
life-bale for money_), 156; so, pret. sg. þâ fæhðe feó þingode, 470.

þîhan. See þeón.

þin, possess, pron., _thy, thine_, 267, 346, 353, 367, 459, etc.

ge-þôht, st. m., _thought, plan_: acc. sg. ân-fealdne ge-þôht, 256;
fäst-rædne ge-þôht, 611.

þolian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to endure, bear_: inf. (inwid-sorge) þolian,
833; pres. sg. III. þreá-nýd þolað, 284; pret. sg. þolode þryðswyð,
131.--2) _to hold out, stand, survive_: pres. sg. (intrans.) þenden þis
sweord þolað (_as long as this sword holds out_), 2500; pret. sg. (seó ecg)
þolode ær fela hand-gemôta, 1526.

ge-þolian: 1) _to suffer, bear, endure_: gerund. tô ge-þolianne, 1420;
pret. sg. earfoð-lice þrage ge-þolode..., þät he ... dreám gehýrde (_bore
ill that he heard the sound of joy_), 87; torn ge-þolode (_bore the
misery_), 147.--2) _to have patience, wait_: inf. þær he longe sceal on þäs
waldendes wære ge-þolian, 3110.

þon (Goth, þan) = _tum, then, now_, 504; äfter þon (_after that_), 725; ær
þon däg cwôme (_ere day came_), 732; nô þon lange (_it was not long till
then_), 2424; näs þâ long tô þon (_it was not long till then_), 2592, 2846;
wäs him se man tô þon leóf þät ... _(the man was to that degree dear to him
that ..._), 1877.

þonne: 1) adv., _there, then, now_, 377, 435, 525, 1105, 1456, 1485, 1672,
1823, 3052, 3098(?).--2) conj., _if, when, while_: a) w. indic., 573, 881,
935, 1034, 1041, 1043, 1144, 1286, 1327, 1328, 1375, etc.; þät ic
gum-cystum gôdne funde beága bryttan, breác þonne môste (_that I found a
good ring-giver and enjoyed him whilst I could_), 1488. b) w. subj., 23,
1180, 3065; þonne ...þonne (_then ... when_), 484-85, 2447-48; gif þonne
...þonne (_if then ... then_), 1105-1107. c) _than_ after comparatives, 44,
248, 469, 505, 534, 679, 1140, 1183, etc.; a comparative must be supplied,
l. 70, before þone: þät he ... hâtan wolde medo-ärn micel men ge-wyrcean
þone yldo bearn æfre ge-frunon (_a great mead-house_ (greater) _than men
had ever known_).

þracu, st. f., _strength, boldness_: in comp. môd-þracu; = impetus in

þrag, st. f., _period of time, time_: nom. sg. þâ hine sió þrag be-cwom
(_when the_ [battle]-_hour befell him_), 2884; acc. sg. þrage (_for a
time_), 87; longe (lange) þrage, 54, 114.--Comp. earfoð-þrag.

ge-þräc, st. n., _multitude, crowd_: in comp. searo-ge-þräc.

þrec-wudu, st. m., (_might-wood_), _spear_ (cf. mägen-wudu): acc. sg.,

þreá, st. m. f., _misery, distress_: in comp. þeód-þreá, þreá-nêdla, -nýd.

þreá-nêdla, w. m., _crushing distress, misery_: dat. sg. for þreá-nêdlan,

þrea-nýd, st. f., _oppression, distress_: acc. sg. þreá-nýd, 284; dat. pl.
þreá-nýdum, 833.

þreát, st. m., _troop, band_: dat. sg. on þam þreáte, 2407; dat. pl.
sceaðena þreátum, 4.--Comp. îren-þreát.

þreátian, w. v. w. acc., _to press, oppress_: pret. pl. mec ...þreátedon,

þreot-teoða, num. adj. w. m., _thirteenth_: nom. sg. þreot-teoða secg,

þreó, num. (neut.), _three_: acc. þrió wicg, 2175; þreó hund wintra, 2279.

þridda, num. adj. w. m., _third_: instr. þriddan sîðe, 2689.

ge-þring, st. n., _eddy, whirlpool, crush_: acc. on holma ge-þring, 2133.

þringan, st. v., _to press_: pret. sg. wergendra tô lyt þrong ymbe þeóden
(_too few defenders pressed round the prince_), 2884; pret. pl. syððan
Hrêðlingas tô hagan þrungon (_after the Hrethlingas had pressed into the
hedge_), 2961.

for-þringan, _to press out; rescue, protect_: inf. þät he ne mehte ...þâ
weá-lâfe wîge for-þringan þeódnes þegne (_that he could not rescue the
wretched remnant from the king's thane by war_), 1085.

ge-þringan, _to press_: pret. sg. ceól up geþrang (_the ship shot up_),
i.e. on the shore in landing), 1913.

þritig, num., _thirty_ (neut. subst.): acc. sg. w. partitive gen.: þritig
þegna, 123; gen. þrittiges (XXXtiges MS.) manna, 379.

þrîst-hydig, adj., _bold-minded, valorous_: nom. sg. þióden þrîst-hydig
(Beówulf), 2811.

þrowian, w. v. w. acc., _to suffer, endure_: inf. (hât, gnorn) þrowian,
2606, 2659; pret. sg. þrowade, 1590, 1722; þrowode, 2595.

þryð, st. f., _abundance, multitude_, _excellence, power_: instr. pl.
þryðum (_excellently, extremely; excellent in strength?_), 494.

þryð-ärn, st. n., _excellent house, royal hall_: acc. sg. (of Heorot), 658.

þryðlîc, adj., _excellent, chosen_: nom. sg. þryð-lîc þegna heáp, 400,
1628; superl. acc. pl. þryð-lîcost, 2870.

þrýð-swýð, st. n.?, _great pain_ (?): acc., 131, 737 [? adj., _very
powerful, exceeding strong_].

þryð-word, st. n., _bold speech, choice discourse_: nom. sg., 644. (Great
store was set by good table-talk: cf. Lachmann's Nibelunge, 1612; Rîgsmâl,
29, 7, in Möbius, p. 79b, 22.)

þrym, st. m.: 1) _power, might, force_: nom. sg. ýða þrym, 1919; instr. pl.
= adv. þrymmum (_powerfully_), 235.--2) _glory, renown_: acc. sg. þrym,
2.--Comp. hyge-þrym.

þrym-lîc, adj., _powerful, mighty_: nom. sg. þrec-wudu þrym-lîc (_the
mighty spear_), 1247.

þu, pron., _thou_, 366, 407, 445, etc.; acc. sg. þec (poetic), 948, 2152,
etc.; þe, 417, 426, 517, etc.; after compar. sêlran þe (_a better one than
thee_), 1851. See ge.

þunca, w. m. See äf-þunca.

ge-þungen. See ge-þingan, st. v.

þurfan, pret.-pres. v., _to need_: pres. sg. II. nô þu ne þearft ...
sorgian (_needest not care_), 450; so, 445, 1675; III. ne þearf ...
onsittan (_need not fear_), 596; so, 2007, 2742; pres. subj. þät he ...
sêcean þurfe, 2496; pret. sg. þorfte, 157, 1027, 1072, 2875, 2996; pl.
nealles Hetware hrêmge þorfton (i.e. wesan) fêðe-wîges (_needed not boast
of their foot-fight_), 2365.

ge-þuren. See þweran.

þurh, prep. w. acc. signifying motion through, hence: I. local, _through,
throughout_: wôd þâ þurh þone wäl-rêc (_went then through the
battle-reek_), 2662.--II. causal: l) _on account of, for the sake of, owing
to_: þurh slîðne nîð (_through fierce hostility, heathenism_), 184; þurh
holdne hige (_from friendliness_), 267; so, þurh rûmne sefan, 278; þurh
sîdne sefan, 1727; eóweð þurh egsan uncûðne nîð (_shows unheard-of
hostility by the terror he causes_), 276; so, 1102, 1336, 2046. 2) _by
means of, through_: heaðo-ræs for-nam mihtig mere-deór þurh mîne hand, 558;
þurh ânes cräft, 700; so, 941, 1694, 1696, 1980, 2406, 3069.

þus, adv., _so, thus_, 238, 337, 430.

þunian, w. v., _to din, sound forth_: pret. sg. sund-wudu þunede, 1907.

þûsend, num., _thousand_: 1) fem. acc. ic þe þûsenda þegna bringe tô helpe,
1830.--2) neut. with measure of value (sceat) omitted: acc. seofan þûsendo,
2196; gen. hund-þûsenda landes and locenra beága (100,000 _sceattas' worth
of land and rings_), 2995.--3) uninflected: acc. þûsend wintra, 3051.

þwære, adj., _affable, mild_: in comp. man-þwære.

ge-þwære, adj., _gentle, mild_: nom. pl. ge-þwære, 1231.

ge-þweran, st. v., _to forge, strike_: pret. part. heoru ... hamere
ge-þuren (for ge-þworen) (_hammer-forged sword_), 1286.

þyhtig. See þihtig.

ge-þyld (see þolian), st. f.: 1) _patience, endurance_: acc. sg. ge-þyld,
1396.--2) _steadfastness_: instr. pl. = adv.: ge-þyldum (_steadfastly,
patiently_), 1706.

þyle, st. m., _spokesman, leader of the conversation at court_: nom. sg.,
1166, 1457.

þyncan, þincean, w. v. w. dat. of pers., _to seem, appear_: pres. sg. III.
þinceð him tô lytel (_it seems to him too little_), 1749; ne þynceð me
gerysne, þät we _(it seemeth to me not fit that we_ ...), 2654; pres. pl.
hy ... wyrðe þinceað eorla ge-æhtlan (_they seem worthy contenders with_
(?) _earls_; or, _worthy warriors_), 368; pres. subj. swâ him ge-met þince,
688; inf. þincean, 1342; pret. sg. þûhte, 2462, 3058; nô his lîf-gedâl
sâr-lîc þûhte secga ænigum (_his death seemed painful to none of men_),
843; pret. pl. þær him fold-wegas fägere þûhton, 867.

of-þincan, _to displease, offend_: inf. mäg þäs þonne of-þyncan þeóden
(dat.) Heaðo-beardna and þegna gehwâm þâra leóda, 2033.

þyrs, st. m., _giant_: dat. sg. wið þyrse (Grendel), 426.

þys-lîc, adj., _such, of such a nature_: nom. sg. fem. þys-lîcu þearf,

þý. See þät.

þýwan (M.H.G. diuhen, O.H.G. duhan), w. v., _to crush, oppress_: inf. gif
þec ymb-sittend egesan þýwað (_if thy neighbors oppress thee with dread_),

þýstru, st. f., _darkness_: dat. pl. in þýstrum, 87.

ge-þýwe, adj., _customary, usual_: nom. sg. swâ him ge-þýwe ne wäs (_as was
not his custom_), 2333.


ufan, _adv., from above_, 1501; _above_, 330.

ufera (prop. _higher_), adj., _later_: dat. pl. ufaran dôgrum, 2201, 2393.

ufor, adv., _higher_, 2952.

uhte, w. f., _twilight_ or _dawn_: dat. or acc. on uhtan, 126.

uht-floga, w. m., _twilight-flier, dawn-flier_ (epithet of the dragon):
gen. sg. uht-flogan, 2761.

uht-hlem, st. m., _twilight-cry, dawn-cry_: acc. sg., 2008.

uht-sceaða, w. m., _twilight-_ or _dawn-foe_: nom. sg., 2272.

umbor, st. n., _child, infant_: acc. sg., 46; dat. sg., 1188.

un-blîðe, adv.(?), _unblithely, sorrowfully_, 130, 2269; (adj., nom. pl.?),

un-byrnende, pres. part., _unburning, without burning_, 2549.

unc, dat. and acc. of the dual wit, _us two, to us two_, 1784, 2138, 2527;
gen. hwäðer ... uncer twega (_which of us two_), 2533; uncer Grendles (_of
us two, G. and me_), 2003.

uncer, poss. pron., _of us two_: nom. sg. [uncer], 2002(?); dat. pl. uncran
eaferan, 1186.

un-cûð, adj.: 1) _unknown_: nom. sg. stîg ... eldum uncûð, 2215; acc. sg.
neut. uncûð ge-lâd (_unknown ways_), 1411.--2) _unheard-of, barbarous,
evil_: acc. sg. un-cûðne nîð, 276; gen. sg. un-cûðes (_of the foe_,
Grendel), 961.

under, I. prep. w. dat. and acc.: 1) w. dat., answering question where? =
_under_ (of rest), contrasted with _over_: bât (wäs) under beorge, 211; þâ
cwom Wealhþeó forð gân under gyldnum beáge (_W. walked forth under a golden
circlet_, i.e. decked with), 1164; siððan he under segne sine ealgode
(_under his banner_), 1205; he under rande ge-cranc (_sank under his
shield_), 1210; under wolcnum, 8, 1632; under heofenum, 52, 505; under
roderum, 310; under helme, 342, 404; under here-grîman, 396, 2050, 2606;
so, 711, 1198, 1303, 1929, 2204, 2416, 3061, 3104.--2) w. acc.: a)
answering question whither? = _under_ (of motion): þâ secg wîsode under
Heorotes hrôf, 403; siððan æfen-leóht under heofenes hâdor be-holen
weorðeð, 414; under sceadu bregdan, 708; fleón under fen-hleoðu, 821; hond
âlegde ... under geápne hrôf, 837; teón in under eoderas, 1038; so, 1361,
1746, 2129, 2541, 2554, 2676, 2745; so, häfde þâ for-sîðod sunu Ecg-þeówes
under gynne grund, 1552 (for-sîðian requires acc.). b) after verbs of
venturing and fighting, with acc. of object had in view: he under hârne
stân ...âna ge-nêðde frêcne dæde, 888; ne dorste under ýða ge-win aldre
ge-nêðan, 1470. c) indicating extent, with acc. after expressions of limit,
etc.: under swegles begong (_as far as the sky extends_), 861, 1774; under
heofenes hwealf (_as far as heaven's vault reaches_), 2016.

II. Adv., _beneath, below_: stîg under läg (_a path lay beneath_, i.e. the
rock), 2214.

undern-mæl, st. n., _midday_: acc. sg., 1429.

un-dyrne, un-derne, adj., _without concealment, plain, clear_: nom. sg.,
127, 2001; un-derne, 2912.

un-dyrne, adv., _plainly, evidently_; un-dyrne cûð, 150, 410.

un-fäger, adj., _unlovely, hideous_: nom. sg. leóht un-fäger, 728.

un-fæcne, adj., _without malice, sincere_: nom. sg., 2069.

un-fæge, adj., _not death-doomed_ or "_fey_": nom. sg., 2292; acc. sg.
un-fægne eorl, 573.

un-flitme, adv., _solemnly, incontestably_: Finn Hengeste elne unflitme
âðum benemde (_F. swore solemnly to H. with oaths_) [if an adj., elne un-f.
= _unconquerable in valor_], 1098.

un-forht, adj., _fearless, bold_: nom. sg., 287; acc. pl. unforhte (adv.?),
444. See Note.

un-from, adj., _unfit, unwarlike_: nom. sg., 2189.

un-frôd, adj., _not aged, young_: dat sg. guman un-frôdum, 2822.

un-gedêfelîce, adv., _unjustly, contrary to right and custom_, 2436.

un-gemete, adv., _immeasurably, exceedingly_, 2421, 2722, 2729.

un-gemetes, adv. gen. sg., the same, 1793.

un-geâra, adv., (_not old_), _recently, lately_, 933; _soon_, 603.

un-gifeðe, adj., _not to be granted; refused_: nom. sg., 2922.

un-gleáw, adj., _regardless, reckless_: acc. sg. sweord ... ecgum ungleáw
(of a sharp-edged sword), 2565.

un-hâr, adj., _very gray_: nom. sg., 357; (_bald_?).

un-hælo, st. f., _mischief, destruction_: gen. sg. wiht un-hælo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120.

un-heóre, un-hýre, adj., _monstrous, horrible_: nom. sg. m., weard un-hióre
(the dragon), 2414; neut. wîf un-hýre (Grendel's mother), 2121; nom. pl.
neut. hand-sporu ... unheóru (of Grendel's claws), 988.

un-hlytme, un-hlitme, adv. (cf. A.S. hlytm = _lot_; O.N. hluti = _part
division_), _undivided, unseparated_, _united_, 1130 [unless = un-flitme,
1098]. See Note.

un-leóf, adj., _hated_: acc. pl. seah on un-leófe, 2864.

un-lifigende, pres. part., _unliving, lifeless_: nom. sg. un-lifigende,
468; acc. sg. un-lyfigendne, 1309; dat. sg. un-lifgendum, 1390; gen. sg.
un-lyfigendes, 745.

un-lytel, adj., _not little, very large_: nom. sg. duguð un-lytel (_a great
band of warriors_? or _great joy_?), 498; dôm un-lytel (_no little glory_),
886; acc. sg. torn un-lytel (_very great shame, misery_), 834.

un-murnlîce, adv., _unpityingly, without sorrowing_, 449, 1757.

unnan, pret.-pres. v., _to grant, give; wish, will_: pret.-pres. sg. I. ic
þe an tela sinc-gestreóna, 1226; weak pret. sg. I. ûðe ic swîðor þät þu
hine selfne ge-seón môste, 961; III. he ne ûðe þät ...(_he granted not that
..._), 503; him god ûðe þät ... he hyne sylfne ge-wräc (_God granted to him
that he avenged himself_), 2875; þeáh he ûðe wel (_though he well would_),

ge-unnan, _to grant, permit_: inf. gif he ûs ge-unnan wile þät we hine ...
grêtan môton, 346; me ge-ûðe ylda waldend, þät ic ... ge-seah hangian (_the
Ruler of men permitted me to see hanging ..._), 1662.

un-nyt, adj., _useless_: nom. sg., 413, 3170.

un-riht, st. n., _unright, injustice, wrong_: acc. sg. unriht, 1255, 2740;
instr. sg. un-rihte (_unjustly, wrongly_), 3060.

un-rîm, st. n., _immense number_: nom. sg., 1239, 3136; acc. sg., 2625.

un-rîme, adj., _countless, measureless_: nom. sg. gold un-rîme, 3013.

un-rôt, adj., _sorrowing_: nom. pl. un-rôte, 3149.

un-snyttru, st. f., _lack of wisdom_: dat. pl. for his un-snyttrum (_for
his unwisdom_), 1735.

un-softe, adv., _unsoftly, with violence_ (_hardly_?), 2141; _scarcely_,

un-swýðe, adv., _not strongly_ or _powerfully_: compar. (ecg) bât unswîðor
þonne his þiód-cyning þearfe häfde (_the sword bit less sharply than the
prince of the people needed_), 2579; fýr unswîðor weóll, 2882.

un-synnig, adj., _guiltless, sinless_: acc. sg. un-synnigne, 2090.

un-synnum, adv. instr. pl., _guiltlessly_, 1073.

un-tæle, adj., _blameless_: acc. pl. un-tæle, 1866.

un-tyder, st. m., _evil race, monster_: nom. pl. un-tydras, 111. [Cf. Ger.

un-wâclîc, adj., _that cannot be shaken; firm, strong_: acc. sg. âd ...
un-wâclîcne, 3139.

un-wearnum, adv. instr. pl., _unawares, suddenly_; (_unresistingly_?), 742.

un-wrecen, pret. part., _unavenged_, 2444.

up, adv., _up, upward_, 224, 519, 1374, 1620, 1913, 1921, 2894; (of the
voice), þâ wäs ... wôp up âhafen, 128; so, 783.

up-lang, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 760.

uppe (adj., ûfe, ûffe), adv., _above_, 566.

up-riht, adj., _upright, erect_: nom. sg., 2093.

uton. See wuton.


ûð-genge, adj., _transitory, evanescent, ready to depart_, (_fled_?): þær
wäs Äsc-here ... feorh ûð-genge, 2124.

ûs, pers. pron. dat. and acc. of we (see we), _us, to us_, 1822, 2636,
2643, 2921, 3002, 3079; acc. (poetic), ûsic, 2639, 2641, 2642;--gen. ûre:
ûre æg-hwylc (_each of us_), 1387; ûser, 2075.

ûser, possess, pron.: nom. sg. ûre man-drihten, 2648; dat. sg. ûssum
hlâforde, 2635; gen. sg. neut. ûsses cynnes, 2814; dat. pl. ûrum ... bâm
(_to us both, two_) (for unc bâm), 2660.

ût, adv., _out_, 215, 537, 664, 1293, 1584, 2082, 2558, 3131.

ûtan, adv., _from without, without_, 775, 1032, 1504, 2335.

ût-fûs, adj., _ready to go_: nom. sg. hringed-stefna îsig and ût-fûs, 33.

ût-weard, adj., _outward, outside, free_: nom. sg. eoten (Grendel) wäs
ût-weard, 762.

ûtan-weard, adj., _without, outward, from without_: acc. sg. hlæw ... ealne
ûtan-weardne, 2298.


*wacan, st. v., _to awake, arise, originate_: pret. sg. þanon (from Cain)
wôc fela geó-sceaft-gâsta, 1266; so, 1961; pl. þâm feówer bearn ... in
worold wôcun, 60.

*on-wacan: 1) _to awake_ (intrans.): pret. sg. þâ se wyrm on-wôc (_when the
drake awoke_), 2288.--2) _to be born_: pret. sg. him on-wôc heáh Healfdene,
56; pl. on-wôcon, 111.

wacian, w. v., _to watch_: imper. sg. waca wið wrâðum! 661.

wadan, st. v., (cf. wade, waddle) _to traverse; stride, go_: pret. sg. wôd
þurh þone wäl-rêc, 2662; wôd under wolcnum (_stalked beneath the clouds_),

ge-wadan, _to attain by moving, come to, reach_: pret. part. ôð þät ...
wunden-stefna ge-waden häfde, þät þâ lîðende land ge-sâwon (_till the ship
had gone so far that the sailors saw land_), 220.

on-wadan, w. acc., _to invade, befall_: pret. sg. hine fyren on-wôd(?),

þurh-wadan, _to penetrate, pierce_: pret. sg. þät swurd þurh-wôd wrät-lîcne
wyrm, 891; so, 1568.

wag, st. m., _wall_: dat. sg. on wage, 1663; dat. pl. äfter wagum (_along
the walls_), 996.

wala, w. m., _boss_: nom. pl. walan, 1032 (cf. Bouterwek in Haupt XI., 85

walda, w. m., _wielder, ruler_: in comp. an-, eal-walda.

wald-swaðu, st. f., _forest-path_: dat. pl. äfter wald-swaðum (_along the
wood-paths_), 1404.

wam, wom, st. m., _spot, blot, sin_: acc. sg. him be-beorgan ne con wom
(_cannot protect himself from evil_ or _from the evil strange orders_,
etc.; wom = wogum? = _crooked_?), 1748; instr. pl. wommum, 3074.

wan, won, adj., _wan, lurid, dark_: nom. sg, ýð-geblond ... won (_the dark
waves_), 1375; se wonna hrefn (_the black raven_), 3025; wonna lêg (_lurid
flame_), 3116; dat. sg. f. on wanre niht, 703; nom. pl. neut. scadu-helma
ge-sceapu ... wan, 652.

wang, st. m., _mead, field; place_: acc. sg. wang, 93, 225; wong, 1414,
2410, 3074; dat. sg. wange, 2004; wonge, 2243, 3040; acc. pl. wongas,
2463.--Comp.: freoðo-, grund-, medo-, sæ-wang.

wang-stede, st. m., (locus campestris), _spot, place_: dat. sg. wong-stede,

wan-hýd (for hygd), st. f., _heedlessness, recklessness_: dat. pl. for his
won-hýdum, 434.

wanian, w. v.: 1) intrans., _to decrease, wane_: inf. þâ þät sweord ongan
... wanian, 1608.--2) w. acc., _to cause to wane_ or _lessen_: pret. sg. he
tô lange leóde mîne wanode, 1338.

ge-wanian, _to decrease, diminish_: pret. part. is mîn flet-werod ...
ge-wanod, 477.

wan-sælig, adj., _unhappy, wretched_: nom. sg. won-sælig wer (Grendel),

wan-sceaft, st. f., _misery, want_: acc. sg. won-sceaft, 120.

warian, w. v. w. acc., _to occupy, guard, possess_: pres. sg. III. þær he
hæðen gold warað (_where he guards heathen gold_), 2278; pl. III. hie
(Grendel and his mother) dýgel land warigeað, 1359; pret. sg. (Grendel)
goldsele warode, 1254; (Cain) wêsten warode, 1266.

waroð, st. m., _shore_: dat. sg. tô waroðe, 234; acc. pl. wide waroðas,

waru, st. f., _inhabitants_, (collective) _population_: in comp. land-waru.

wâ, interj., _woe!_ wâ bið þäm þe... (_woe to him that..._), 183.

wâðu, st. f., _way, journey_: in comp. gamen-wâðu.

wânian, w. v., _to weep, whine, howl_, w. acc.: inf. gehýrdon ... sâr
wânigean helle häftan (_they heard the hell-fastened one lamenting his
pain_), 788; pret. sg. [wânode], 3152(?).

wât. See witan.

wäcean, w. v., _to watch_: pret. part wäccende, 709, 2842; acc. sg. m.
wäccendne wer, 1269. See wacian.

wäcnan, w. v., _to be awake, come forth_: inf., 85.

wäd, st. n., (the moving) _sea, ocean_: nom. wado weallende, 546; wadu
weallendu, 581; gen. pl. wada 508.

wäfre, adj., _wavering_ (like flame), _ghostlike, without distinct bodily
form_: nom. sg. wäl-gæst wäfre (of Grendel's mother), 1332;--_flickering,
expiring_: nom. sg. wäfre môd, 1151; him wäs geômor sefa, wäfre and
wäl-fûs, 2421.

be-wägnan, w. v., _to offer_: pret part, him wäs ... freónd-laðu wordum
be-wägned, 1194.

wäl, st. n., _battle, slaughter, the slain in battle_: acc. sg. wäl, 1213,
3028, blôdig wäl, 448; oððe on wäl crunge (_or in battle, among the slain,
fall_), 636; dat. sg. sume on wäle crungon (_some fell in the slaughter_),
1114; dat. sg. in Fr...es wäle (proper name in MS. destroyed), 1071; nom.
pl. walu, 1043.

wäl-bed, st. n., _slaughter-bed, deathbed_: dat. sg. on wäl-bedde, 965.

wäl-bend, st. f., _death-bond_: acc. sg. or pl. wäl-bende ...
hand-gewriðene, 1937.

wäl-bleát, adj., _deadly, mortal, cruel_: acc. sg. wunde wäl-bleáte, 2726.

wäl-deáð, st. m., _death in battle_: nom. sg., 696.

wäl-dreór, st. m., _battle-gore_: instr. sg. wäl-dreóre, 1632.

wäl-fâh, adj., _slaughter-stained, blood-stained_: acc. sg. wäl-fâgne
winter, 1129.

wäl-fähð, st. f., _deadly feud_: gen. pl. wäl-fæhða, 2029.

wäl-feall, st. m., _(fall of the slain), death, destruction_: dat. sg. tô
wäl-fealle, 1712.

wäl-fûs, adj., _ready for death, foreboding death_: nom. sg., 2421.

wäl-fyllo, st. f., _fill of slaughter_: dat. sg. mid þære wäl-fulle (i.e.
the thirty men nightly slaughtered at Heorot by Grendel), 125; wäl-fylla?

wäl-fýr, st. n.: 1) _deadly fire_: instr. sg. wäl-fýre (of the fire-spewing
dragon), 2583.--2) _corpse-consuming fire, funeral pyre_: gen. pl. wäl-fýra
mæst, 1120.

wäl-gæst, st. m., _deadly sprite_ (of Grendel and his mother): nom. sg.
wäl-gæst, 1332; acc. sg. þone wäl-gæst, 1996.

wäl-hlem, st. m., _death-stroke_: acc. sg. wäl-hlem þone, 1996.

wälm, st. m., _flood, whelming water_: nom. sg. þære burnan wälm, 2547;
gen. sg. þäs wälmes (_of the surf_), 2136.--Comp. cear-wälm.

wäl-nîð, st. m., _deadly hostility_: nom. sg., 3001; dat. sg. äfter
wäl-nîðe, 85; nom. pl. wäl-nîðas, 2066.

wäl-râp, st. m., _flood-fetter, i.e. ice_: acc. pl. wäl-râpas, 1611; (cf.
wäll, wel, wyll = _well, flood_: leax sceal on wäle mid sceóte scrîðan,
Gnom. Cott. 39).

wäl-ræs, st. m., _deadly onslaught_: nom. sg., 2948; dat. sg. wäl-ræse,
825, 2532.

wäl-rest, st. f., _death-bed_, acc. sg. wäl-reste, 2903.

wäl-rêc, st. m., _deadly reek_ or _smoke_: acc. sg. wôd þâ þurh þone
wäl-rêc, 2662.

wäl-reáf, st, n., _booty of the slain, battle-plunder_: acc. sg., 1206.

wäl-reów, adj., _bold in battle_: nom. sg., 630.

wäl-sceaft, st. m., _deadly shaft, spear_: acc. pl. wäl-sceaftas, 398.

wäl-seax, st. n., _deadly knife, war-knife_: instr. sg. wäll-seaxe, 2704.

wäl-stenge, st. m., _battle-spear_: dat. sg. on þam wäl-stenge, 1639.

wäl-stôw, st. f., _battle-field_: dat. sg. wäl-stôwe, 2052, 2985.

wästm, st. m., _growth, form, figure_: dat. sg. on weres wästmum (_in man's
form_), 1353.

wäter, st. n., _water_: nom. sg., 93, 1417, 1515, 1632; acc. sg. wäter,
1365, 1620; deóp wäter (_the deep_), 509, 1905; ofer wîd wäter (_over the
high sea]_, 2474; dat. sg. äfter wätere _(along the Grendel-sea_), 1426;
under wätere (_at the bottom of the sea_), 1657; instr. wätere, 2723;
wätre, 2855; gen. sg. ofer wäteres hrycg (_over the surface of the sea_),
471; on wäteres æht, 516; þurh wäteres wylm (_through the sea-wave_), 1694;
gen. = instr. wäteres weorpan (_to sprinkle with water_), 2792.

wäter-egesa, st. m., _water-terror_, i.e. _the fearful sea_: acc. sg., 1261

wäter-ýð, st. f., _water-wave, billow_: dat. pl. wäter-ýðum, 2243.

wæd, st. f., _(weeds), garment_: in comp. here-, hilde-wæd.

ge-wæde, st. n., _clothing_, especially _battle-equipments_: acc. pl.
gewædu, 292.--Comp. eorl-gewæde.

wæg, st. m., _wave_: acc. sg. wæg, 3133.

wæg-bora, w. m., _wave-bearer, swimmer_ (bearing or propelling the waves
before him): nom. sg. wundorlîc wæg-bora (of a sea-monster), 1441.

wæg-flota, w. m., _sea-sailer, ship_: acc. sg. wêg-flotan, 1908.

wæg-holm, st. m., _the wave-filled sea_: acc. sg. ofer wæg-holm, 217.

wæge, st. n., _cup, can_: acc. sg. fäted wæge, 2254, 2283.--Comp.: ealo-,

wæg-lîðend, pres. part., _sea-farer_: dat. pl. wæg-lîðendum (et lîðendum,
MS.), 3160.

wæg-sweord, st. n., _heavy sword_: acc. sg., 1490.

wæn, st. m., _wain, wagon_: acc. sg. on wæn, 3135.

wæpen, st. n., _weapon; sword_: nom. sg., 1661; acc. sg. wæpen, 686, 1574,
2520, 2688; instr. wæpne, 1665, 2966; gen. wæpnes, 1468; acc. pl. wæpen,
292; dat. pl. wæpnum, 250, 331, 2039, 2396. --Comp.: hilde-, sige-wæpen.

wæpned-man, st. m., _warrior, man_: dat. sg. wæpned-men, 1285.

wær, st. f., _covenant, treaty_: acc. sg. wære, 1101;--_protection, care_:
dat. sg. on freán (on þäs waldendes) wære (_into God's protection_), 27,
3110.--Comp.: frioðo-wær.

wæsma, w. m., _fierce strength, war-strength_: in comp. here-wæsma, 678.

we, pers. pron., _we_, 942, 959, 1327, 1653, 1819, 1820, etc.

web, st. n., _woven work, tapestry_:, nom. pl. web, 996.

webbe, w. f., _webster, female weaver_: in comp. freoðu-webbe.

weccan, weccean, w. v. w. acc., _to wake, rouse; recall_: inf. wîg-bealu
weccan (_to stir up strife_), 2047; nalles hearpan swêg (sceal) wîgend
weccean (_the sound of the harp shall not wake up the warriors_), 3025;
ongunnon þâ ... bæl-fýra mæst wîgend weccan (_the warriors then began to
start the mightiest of funeral pyres_), 3145; pret. sg. wehte hine wätre
(_roused him with water_, i.e. Wîglâf recalled Beówulf to consciousness),

tô-weccan, _to stir up, rouse_: pret, pl. hû þâ folc mid him (_with one
another_), fæhðe tô-wehton, 2949.

wed, st. n., (cf. wed-ding), _pledge_: dat. sg. hyldo tô wedde (_as a
pledge of his favor_), 2999.

weder, st. n., _weather_: acc. pl. wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137; gen. pl.
wedera cealdost, 546.

ge-wef, st. n., _woof, weaving_: acc. pl. wîg-spêda ge-wiofu (_the woof of
war-speed_: the battle-woof woven for weal or woe by the Walkyries; cf.
Njals-saga, 158), 698.

weg, st. m., _way_: acc. sg. on weg (_away, off_), 264, 764, 845, 1431,
2097; gyf þu on weg cymest (_if thou comest off safe_, i.e. from the battle
with Grendel's mother), 1383.--Comp.: feor-, fold-, forð-, wîd-weg.

wegan, st. v. w. acc., _to bear, wear, bring, possess_: subj. pres. nâh hwâ
sweord wege (_I have none that may bear the sword_), 2253; inf. nalles
(sceal) eorl wegan mâððum tô ge-myndum (_no earl shall wear a memorial
jewel_), 3016; pret. ind. he þâ frätwe wäg ... ofer ýða ful (_bore the
jewels over the goblet of the waves_), 1208; wäl-seaxe ... þät he on byrnan
wäg, 2705; heortan sorge wäg (_bore heart's sorrow_); so, 152, 1778, 1932,

ät-wegan = _auferre, to carry off_: syððan Hâma ät-wäg tô þære byrhtan
byrig Brosinga mene (_since H. bore from the bright city the
Brosing-collar_), 1199.

ge-wegan (O.N. wega), _to fight_: inf. þe he wið þam wyrme ge-wegan
sceolde, 2401.

wel, adv.: 1) _well_: wel bið þäm þe ... (_well for him that ...!_), 186;
se þe wel þenceð (_he that well thinketh, judgeth_), 289; so, 640, 1046,
1822, 1834, 1952, 2602; well, 2163, 2813.--2) _very, very much_: Geát
ungemetes wel ... restan lyste (_the Geat longed sorely to rest_),
1793.--3) _indeed, to be sure_, 2571, 2856.

wela, w. m., _wealth, goods, possessions_: in comp. ær-, burg-, hord-,

wel-hwylc, indef. pron., = quivis, _any you please, any_ (each, all): gen.
pl. wel-hwylcra wilna, 1345; w. partitive gen.: nom. sg. witena wel-hwylc,
266;--substantively: acc. neut. wel-hwylc, 875.

welig, adj., _wealthy, rich_: acc. sg. wîc-stede weligne Wægmundinga, 2608.

wel-þungen, pres. part., _well-thriven_ (in mind), _mature, high-minded_:
nom. sg. Hygd (wäs) swîðe geong, wîs, wel-þungen, 1928.

wenian, w. v., _to accustom, attract, honor_: subj. pret. þät ...
Folcwaldan sunu ... Hengestes heáp hringum wenede (_sh. honor_), 1092.

be-(bi-)wenian, _entertain, care for, attend_: pret. sg. mäg þäs þonne
of-þyncan þeóden Heaðo-beardna ... þonne he mid fæmnan on flet gæð,
dryht-bearn Dena duguða bi-wenede (_may well displease the prince of the
H.... when he with the woman goes into the hall, that a noble scion of the
Danes should entertain, bear wine to, the knights_, cf. 494 seqq.; or, _a
noble scion of the Danes should attend on her?_), 2036; pret. part. nom.
pl. wæron her tela willum be-wenede, 1822.

wendan, w. v., _to turn_: pres. sg. III. him eal worold wendeð on willan
(_all the world turns at his will_), 1740.

ge-wendan, w. acc.: l) _to turn, turn round_: pret. sg. wicg gewende
(_turned his horse_), 315.--2) _to turn_ (intrans.), _change_: inf. wâ bið
þäm þe sceal ... frôfre ne wênan, wihte ge-wendan (_woe to him that shall
have no hope, shall not change at all_), 186.

on-wendan, _to avert, set aside_: 1) w. acc.: inf. ne mihte snotor häleð
weán on-wendan, 191.--2) intrans.: sibb æfre ne mäg wiht on-wendan þam þe
wel þenceð (_in, to, him that is well thinking friendship can not be set
aside_), 2602.

wer, st. m., _man, hero_: nom. sg. (Grendel), 105; acc. sg. wer (Beówulf),
1269, 3174; gen. sg. on weres wästmum (_in man's form_), 1353; nom. pl.
weras, 216, 1223, 1234, 1441, 1651; dat. pl. werum, 1257; gen. pl. wera,
120, 994, 1732, 3001; (MS. weora), 2948.

wered, st. n., (as adj. = _sweet_), _a sort of beer_ (probably without hops
or such ingredients): acc. sg. scîr wered, 496.

were-feohte, f., _defensive fight, fight in self-defence_: dat. pl. for
were-fyhtum (fere fyhtum, MS.), 457.

werhðo, st. f., _curse, outlawry, condemnation_: acc. sg. þu in helle
scealt werhðo dreógan, 590.

werian, _to defend, protect_: w. vb., pres. sg. III. beaduscrûda ... þät
mîne breóst wereð, 453; inf. wit unc wið hron-fixas werian þôhton, 541;
pres. part. w. gen. pl. wergendra tô lyt (_too few defenders_), 2883; pret.
ind. wäl-reáf werede (_guarded the battle-spoil_), 1206; se hwîta helm
hafelan werede (_the shining helm protected his head_), 1449; pl. hafelan
weredon, 1328; pret. part. nom. pl. ge ... byrnum werede (_ye_ ...
_corselet-clad_), 238, 2530.

be-werian, _to protect, defend_: pret. pl. þät hie ... leóda land-geweorc
lâðum be-weredon scuccum and scinnum (_that they the people's land-work
from foes, from monsters and demons, might defend_), 939

werig, adj., _accursed, outlawed_: gen. sg. wergan gâstes (Grendel), 133;
(of the devil), 1748.

werod, weorod, st. n., _band of men, warrior-troop_: nom. sg. werod, 652;
weorod, 290, 2015, 3031; acc. sg. werod, 319; dat. instr. sg. weorode,
1012, 2347; werede, 1216; gen. sg. werodes, 259; gen. pl. wereda, 2187;
weoroda, 60.--Comp.: eorl-, flet-werod.

wer-þeód, st. f., _people, humanity_: dat. sg. ofer wer-þeóde, 900.

wesan, v., _to be_: pres. sg. I. ic eom, 335, 407; II. þu eart, 352, 506;
III. is, 256, 272, 316, 343, 375, 473, etc.; nu is þînes mägenes blæd âne
hwîle (_the prime [fame?] of thy powers lasteth now for a while_), 1762;
ys, 2911, 3000, 3085; pl. I. we synt, 260, 342; II. syndon, 237, 393; III.
syndon, 257, 361, 1231; synt, 364; sint, 388; subj. pres. sîe, 435, 683,
etc.; sý, 1832, etc.; sig, 1779, etc.; imper. sg. II. wes, 269 (cf.
wassail, wes hæl), 407, 1171, 1220, 1225, etc.; inf. wesan, 272, 1329,
1860, 2709, etc. The inf. wesan must sometimes be supplied: nealles Hetware
hrêmge þorfton (i.e. wesan) fêðe-wîges, 2364; so, 2498, 2660, 618, 1858;
pres. part. wesende, 46; dat. sg. wesendum, 1188; pret. sg. I., III. wäs,
11, 12, 18, 36, 49, 53, etc.; wäs on sunde (_was a-swimming_), 1619; so,
848, 850(?), 970, 981, 1293; progressive, wäs secgende (for sæde), 3029;
II. wære, 1479, etc.; pl. wæron, 233, 536, 544, etc.; wæran (w. reflex,
him), 2476; pret. subj. wære, 173, 203, 594, 946, etc.; progressive,
myndgiend wære (for myndgie), 1106.--Contracted neg. forms: , nis = ne +
is, 249, 1373, etc.; näs = ne + wäs, 134, 1300, 1922, 2193, etc. (cf.
uncontracted: ne wäs, 890, 1472); næron = ne + wæron, 2658; nære = ne +
wære, 861, 1168. See cniht-wesende.

wêg. See wæg.

wên, st. f., _expectation, hope_: nom. sg., 735, 1874, 2324; nu is leódum
wên orleg-hwîle (gen.) (_now the people have weening of a time of strife_),
2911; acc. sg. þäs ic wên häbbe (_as I hope, expect_), 383; so, þäs þe ic
[wên] hafo, 3001; wên ic talige, 1846; dat. pl. bega on wênum _(in
expectation of both_, i.e. the death and the return of Beówulf), 2896. See

wênan, w. v., _to ween, expect, hope_: 1) absolutely; pres. sg. I. þäs ic
wêne (_as I hope_), 272; swâ ic þe wêne tô _(as I hope thou wilt_: Beówulf
hopes Hrôðgâr will now suffer no more pain), 1397.--2) w. gen. or acc.
pres. sg. I. þonne wêne ic tô þe wyrsan ge-þinges, 525; ic þær heaðu-fýres
hâtes wêne, 2523; III. secce ne wêneð to Gâr Denum (_weeneth not of contest
with the Gar-Danes_), 601; inf. (beorhtre bôte) wênan (_to expect, count
on, a brilliant_ [? _a lighter penalty_] _atonement_), 157; pret. pl. þäs
ne wêndon ær witan Scyldinga þät ... _the wise men of the Scyldings weened
not of this before, that_...), 779; þät hig þäs äðelinges eft ne wêndon þät
he ... sêcean côme _(that they looked not for the atheling again that he_
... _would come to seek_ ...), 1598.--3) w. acc. inf.: pret. sg. wênde,
934.--4) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I. wêne ic þät..., 1185; wên' ic
þät..., 338, 442; pret. sg. wênde, 2330; pl. wêndon, 938, 1605.

wêpan, st. v., _to weep_: pret. sg. [weóp], 3152 (?).

werig, adj., _weary, exhausted_, w. gen.: nom. sg. siðes wêrig (_weary from
the journey, way-weary_), 579; dat. sg. siðes wêrgum, 1795;--w. instr.:
acc. pl. wundum wêrge _(wound-weary_), 2938.--Comp.: deáð-, fyl-,

ge-werigean, w. v., _to weary, exhaust_: pret. part. ge-wêrgad, 2853.

wêrig-môd, adj., _weary-minded (animo defessus)_: nom. sg., 845, 1544.

wêste, adj., _waste, uninhabited_: acc. sg. win-sele wêstne, 2457.

wêsten, st. n., _waste, wilderness_: acc. sg. wêsten, 1266.

wêsten, st. f., _waste, wilderness_: dat. sg. on þære wêstenne, 2299.

weal, st. m.: 1 _wall, rampart_: dat. instr. sg. wealle, 786, 892, 3163;
gen. sg. wealles, 2308.--2) _elevated sea-shore_: dat. sg. of wealle, 229;
acc. pl. windige weallas, 572, 1225.--3) _wall of a building_: acc, sg. wið
þäs recedes weal, 326; dat. sg. be wealle, 1574; hence, the inner and outer
rock-walls of the dragon's lair (cf. Heyne's essay: Halle Heorot, p. 59):
dat. sg., 2308, 2527, 2717, 2760, 3061, 3104; gen. sg. wealles,
2324.--Comp.: bord-, eorð-, sæ-, scyld-weal.

ge-wealc, st. n., _rolling_: acc. sg. ofer ýða ge-wealc, 464.

ge-weald, st. n., _power, might_: acc. sg. on feónda ge-weald _(into the
power of his foes_), 809, 904; so, 1685; geweald âgan, häbban, â-beódan (w.
gen. of object = _to present) = to have power over_, 79, 655, 765, 951,
1088, 1611, 1728. See on-weald.

wealdan, st. v., _to wield, govern, rule over, prevail_: 1) absolutely or
with depend, clause: inf. gif he wealdan môt (_if he may prevail_), 442;
þær he ... wealdan môste swâ him Wyrd ne ge-scrâf (_if [where?] he was to
prevail, as Weird had not destined for him_), 2575; pres. part. waldend
(_God_), 1694; dat. wealdende, 2330; gen. waldendes, 2293, 2858, 3110.--2)
with instr. or dat.: inf. þâm wæpnum wealdan (_to wield, prevail with, the
weapons_), 2039; Geátum wealdan (_to rule the Geátas_), 2391; þeáh-hordum
wealdan (_to rule over, control, the treasure of rings_), 2828; wäl-stôwe
wealdan (_to hold the field of battle_), 2985; pret. sg. weóld, 465, 1058,
2380, 2596; þenden wordum weóld wine Scyldinga (_while the friend of the S.
ruled the G._), 30; pl. weóldon, 2052.--3) with gen.: pres. sg. I. þenden
ic wealde wîdan rîces, 1860; pres. part. wuldres wealdend(waldend), 17,
183, 1753; weard, 2514; the _'dragon_ is called ylda waldend, 1662; waldend
fira, 2742; sigora waldend, 2876 (designations of God); pret. sg. weóld,
703, 1771.

ge-wealdan, _to wield, have power over, arrange_: 1) w. acc.: pret. sg.
hâlig god ge-weóld wîg-sigor, 1555.--2) w. dat.: pret. cyning ge-weóld his
ge-witte (_the king possessed his senses_), 2704.--3) w. gen.: inf. he ne
mihte nô ... wæpna ge-wealdan, 1510.

ge-wealden, pret. part., _subject, subjected_: acc. pl. gedêð him swâ
gewealdene worolde dælas, 1733.

weallan, st. v.: 1) _to toss, be agitated_ (of the sea): pres. part. nom.
pl. wadu weallende (weallendu), 546, 581; nom. sg. brim weallende, 848;
pret. ind. weól, 515, 850, 1132; weóll, 2139.--2) figuratively (of
emotions), _to be agitated_: pres. pl. III. syððan Ingelde weallað
wäl-nîðas (_deadly hate thus agitates Ingeld_), 2066; pres. part.
weallende, 2465; pret. sg. hreðer inne weóll (_his heart was moved within
him_), 2114; hreðer æðme weóll (_his breast_ [the dragon's] _swelled from
breathing, snorting_), 2594; breóst innan weóll þeóstrum ge-þoncum, 2332;
so, weóll, 2600, 2715, 2883.

weall-clif, st. n., _sea-cliff_: acc. sg. ofer weall-clif, 3133.

weallian, w. v., _to wander, rove about_: pres. part. in comp.
heoro-weallende, 2782.

weard, st. m., _warden, guardian; owner_: nom. sg. weard Scyldinga (_the
Scyldings' warden of the march_), 229; weard, 286, 2240; se weard, sâwele
hyrde, 1742; the _king_ is called beáh-horda weard, 922; rîces weard, 1391;
folces weard, 2514; the _dragon_ is called weard, 3061; weard un-hióre,
2414; beorges weard, 2581; acc. sg, weard, 669; (dragon), 2842; beorges
weard (dragon), 2525, 3067.--Comp.: bât-, êðel-, gold-, heáfod-, hord-,
hýð-, land-, rên-, sele-, yrfe-weard.

weard, st. m., _possession_ (Dietrich in Haupt XI., 415): in comp.
eorð-weard, 2335.

weard, st. f., _watch, ward_: acc. sg. wearde healdan, 319; wearde heóld,
305.--Comp. æg-weard.

weard, adj., _-ward_: in comp. and-, innan-, ût-weard, 1288, etc.

weardian, w. v. w. acc.: 1) _to watch, guard, keep_: inf. he his folme
forlêt tô lîf-wraðe, lâst weardian (_Grendel left his hand behind as a
life-saver, to guard his track_ [Kemble]), 972; pret. sg. him sió swîðre
swaðe weardade hand on Hiorte (_his right hand kept guard for him in H._,
i.e. showed that he had been there), 2099; sg. for pl. hýrde ic þät þâm
frätwum feówer mearas lungre gelîce last weardode (_I heard that four
horses, quite alike, followed in the traces of the armor_), 2165.--2) _to
hold, possess, inhabit_: pret. sg. fîfel-cynnes eard ... weardode (_dwelt
in the abode of the sea-fiends_), 105; reced weardode un-rîm eorla (_an
immense number of earls held the hall_), 1238; pl. þær we gesunde säl
weardodon, 2076.

wearh, st. m., _the accursed one; wolf_: in comp. heoro-wearg, 1268.

wearn, st. f.: 1) _resistance, refusal_, 366.--2) _warning?, resistance?_
See un-wearnum, 742.

weaxan, st. v., _to wax, grow_: pres. sg. III. ôð þät him on innan
ofer-hygda dæl weaxeð (_till within him pride waxeth_), 1742; inf. weaxan,
3116; pret. sg. weôx, 8.

ge-weaxan, _to grow up_: pret. sg. oft þät seó geogoð ge-weôx, 66.

ge-weaxan to, _to grow to_ or _for something_: pret. sg. ne ge-weôx he him
to willan (_grew not for their benefit_), 1712.

weá, w. m., _woe, evil, misfortune_: nom. sg., 937; acc. sg. wean, 191,
423, 1207, 1992, 2293, 2938; gen. pl. weána, 148, 934, 1151, 1397.

weá-lâf, st. f., _wretched remnant_: acc. pl. þâ weá-lâfe (_the wretched
remnant_, i.e. Finn's almost annihilated band), 1085, 1099.

weá-spel, st. n., _woe-spell, evil tidings_: dat. sg. weá-spelle, 1316.

ge-weoldum. See ge-wild.

weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, labor, deed_: acc. sg., 74; (_war-deed_), 1657;
instr. sg. weorce, 1570; dat. pl. weorcum, 2097; wordum ne (and) worcum,
1101, 1834; gen. pl. worda and worca, 289.--2) _work, trouble, suffering_:
acc. sg. þäs gewinnes weorc (_misery on account of this strife_), 1722;
dat. pl. adv. weorcum (_with labor_), 1639.--Comp.: bædo-, ellen-, heaðo-,

ge-weorc, st. n.: 1) _work, deed, labor_: nom. acc. sg., 455, 1563, 1682,
2718, 2775; gen. sg. ge-weorces, 2712. Comp.: ær-, fyrn-, gûð-, hond-,
nîð-ge-weorc.--2) _fortification, rampart_: in comp. land-geweorc, 939.

weorce, adj., _painful, bitter_: nom. sg., 1419.

weorð, st. n., _precious object, valuable_: dat. sg. weorðe, 2497.

weorð, adj., _dear, precious_: nom. sg. weorð Denum äðeling (_the atheling
dear to the Danes_, Beówulf), 1815; compar. nom. sg. þät he syððan wäs ...
mâðme þý weorðra (_more honored from the jewel_), 1903; cf. wyrðe.

weorðan, st. v.: 1) _to become_: pres. sg. III. beholen weorðeð (_is
concealed_), 414; underne weorðeð (_becomes known_), 2914; so, pl. III.
weorðað, 2067; wurðað, 282; inf. weorðan, 3179; wurðan, 808; pret. sg. I.,
III. wearð, 6, 77, 149, 409, 555, 754, 768, 819, 824, etc.; pl. wurdon,
228; subj. pret. wurde, 2732.--2) inf. to frôfre weorðan (_to become a
help_), 1708; pret. sg. wearð he Heaðolâfe tô hand-bonan, 460; so, wearð,
906, 1262; ne wearð Heremôd swâ (i.e. to frôfre) eaforum Ecgwelan, 1710;
pl. wurdon, 2204; subj. pret. sg. II. wurde, 588.--3) pret. sg. þät he on
fylle wearð (_that he came to a fall_), 1545.--4) _to happen, befall_: inf.
unc sceal weorðan ... swâ unc Wyrd ge-teóð (_it shall befall us two as Fate
decrees_), 2527; þurh hwät his worulde gedâl weorðan sceolde, 3069; pret.
sg. þâ þær sôna wearð ed-hwyrft eorlum (_there was soon a renewal to the
earls_, i.e. of the former perils), 1281.

ge-weorðan: 1) _to become_: pret. sg. ge-wearð, 3062; pret. part. cearu wäs
geniwod ge-worden (_care was renewed_), 1305; swâ us ge-worden is,
3079.--2) _to finish; complete?_: inf. þät þu ... lête Sûð-Dene sylfe
ge-weorðan gûðe wið Grendel (_that thou wouldst let the S. D. put an end to
their war with Grendel_), 1997.--3) impersonally with acc., _to agree,
decide_: pret. sg. þâ þäs monige ge-wearð þät ... (_since many agreed that_
...), 1599; pret. part. hafað þäs ge-worden wine Scyldinga, rîces hyrde,
and þät ræd talað þät he ... (_therefore hath it so appeared(?) advisable
to the friend of the S., the guardian of the realm, and he counts it a gain
that_ ...), 2027.

weorð-ful, adj., _glorious, full of worth_: nom. sg. weorð-fullost, 3100.

weorðian, w. v., _to honor, adorn_: pret. sg. þær ic ... þîne leóde
weorðode weorcum (_there honored I thy people by my deeds_), 2097; subj.
pret. (þät he) ät feoh-gyftum ... Dene weorðode (_that he would honor the
Danes at, by, treasure-giving_), 1091.

ge-weorðian, ge-wurðian, _to deck, ornament_: pret. part. hire syððan wäs
äfter beáh-þege breóst ge-weorðod, 2177; wæpnum ge-weorðad, 250; since
ge-weorðad, 1451; so, ge-wurðad, 331, 1039, 1646; wide ge-weorðad (_known,
honored, afar_), 1960.

weorð-lîce, adv., _worthily, nobly_: superl. weorð-lîcost, 3163.

weorð-mynd, st. f. n., _dignity, honor, glory_: nom. sg., 65; acc. sg.
geseah þâ eald sweord ..., wîgena weorðmynd (_saw an ancient sword there,
the glory of warriors_), 1560; dat. instr. pl. weorð-myndum, 8; tô
worð-myndum, 1187; gen. pl. weorð-mynda dæl, 1753.

weorðung, st. f., _ornament_: in comp. breóst-, hâm-, heorft-, hring-,

weorod. See werod.

weorpan, st. v.: 1) _to throw, cast away_, w. acc.: pret. sg. wearp þâ
wunden-mæl wrättum gebunden yrre oretta, þät hit on eorðan läg (_the
wrathful warrior threw the ornamented sword, that it lay on the earth_),
1532.--2) _to throw around_ or _about_, w. instr.: pret. sg. beorges weard
. .. wearp wäl-fýre (_threw death-fire around_), 2583.--3) _to throw upon_:
inf. he hine eft ongan wäteres (instr. gen.) weorpan (_began to cast water
upon him again_), 2792.

for-weorpan, w. acc., _to cast away, squander_: subj. pret. þät he genunga
gûð-gewædu wrâðe for-wurpe (_that he squandered uselessly the
battle-weeds_, i.e. gave them to the unworthy), 2873.

ofer-weorpan, _to stumble_: pret. sg. ofer-wearp þâ ... wîgena strongest,

weotian, w. v., _to provide with, adjust_(?): pret. part. acc. pl.
wäl-bende weotode, 1937.

be-weotian, be-witian, w. v. w. acc., _to regard, observe, care for_: pres.
pl. III. be-witiað, 1136; pret. sg. þegn ... se þe ... ealle be-weotede
þegnes þearfe (_who would attend to all the needs of a thane_), 1797; draca
se þe ... hord be-weotode (_the drake that guarded a treasure_), 2213;--_to
carry out, undertake_: pres. pl. III. þâ ... oft be-witigað sorh-fulne sîð
on segl-râde, 1429.

wicg, st. n., _steed, riding-horse_: nom. sg., 1401; acc. sg. wicg, 315;
dat. instr. sg. wicge, 234; on wicge, 286; acc. pl. wicg, 2175; gen. pl.
wicga, 1046.

ge-widor, st. n., _storm, tempest_: acc. pl. lâð ge-widru (_loathly
weather_), 1376.

wið prep. w. dat. and acc., with fundamental meanings of division and
opposition: 1) w. dat., _against, with_ (in hostile sense), _from_: þâ wið
gode wunnon, 113; âna (wan) wið eallum, 145; ymb feorh sacan, lâð wið
lâðum, 440; so, 426, 439, 550, 2372, 2521, 2522, 2561, 2840, 3005; þät him
holt-wudu ... helpan ne meahte, lind wið lîge, 2342; hwät ... sêlest wære
wið fær-gryrum tô ge-fremmanne, 174; þät him gâst-bona geóce gefremede wið
þeód-þreáum, 178; wið rihte wan (_strove against right_), 144; häfde ...
sele Hrôðgâres ge-nered wið nîðe (_had saved H.'s hall from strife_), 828;
(him dyrne langað ...) beorn wið blôde (_the hero longeth secretly contrary
to his blood_, i.e. H. feels a secret longing for the non-related Beówulf),
1881; sundur ge-dælan lîf wið lîce (_to sunder soul from body_), 2424;
streámas wundon sund wið sande (_the currents rolled the sea against the
sand_), 213; lîg-ýðum forborn bord wið ronde (rond, MS.) (_with waves of
flame burnt the shield against, as far as, the rim_), 2674; holm storme
weól, won wið winde (_the sea surged, wrestled with the wind_), 1133; so,
hiora in ânum weóll sefa wið sorgum (_in one of them surged the soul with
sorrow_ [_against_?, Heyne]), 2601; þät hire wið healse heard grâpode
(_that the sharp sword bit against her neck_), 1567.--2) w. acc.: a)
_against, towards_: wan wið Hrôðgâr (_fought against H._), 152; wið feónda
gehwone, 294; wið wrâð werod, 319; so, 540, 1998, 2535; hine hâlig god ûs
on-sende wið Grendles gryre, 384; þät ic wið þone gûð-flogan gylp
ofer-sitte (_that I refrain from boastful speech against the
battle-flier_), 2529; ne wolde wið manna ge-hwone ... feorh-bealo feorran
(_would not cease his life-plotting against any of the men_; or, _withdraw
life-bale from_, etc.? or, _peace would not have with any man..., mortal
bale withdraw_?, Kemble), 155; ic þâ leóde wât ge wið feónd ge wið freónd
fäste geworhte (_towards foe and friend_), 1865; heóld heáh-lufan wið
häleða brego (_cherished high love towards the prince of heroes_), 1955;
wið ord and wið ecge ingang forstôd (_prevented entrance to spear-point and
sword-edge_), 1550. b) _against, on, upon, in_: setton sîde scyldas ... wið
þäs recedes weal (_against the wall of the hall_), 326; wið eorðan fäðm
(eardodon) (_in the bosom of the earth_), 3050; wið earm ge-sät (_sat on,
against, his arm_), 750; so, stîð-môd ge-stôd wið steápne rond, 2567; [wið
duru healle eode] (_went to the door of the hall_), 389; wið Hrefna-wudu
(_over against, near, H._), 2926; wið his sylfes sunu setl ge-tæhte
(_showed me to a seat with, near, beside, his own son_), 2014. c) _towards,
with_ (of contracting parties): þät hie healfre ge-weald wið Eotena bearn
âgan môston (_that they power over half the hall with the Eotens' sons were
to possess_), 1089; þenden he wið wulf wäl reáfode (_whilst with the wolf
he was robbing the slain_), 3028.--3) Alternately with dat. and acc.,
_against_: nu wið Grendel sceal, wið þam aglæcan, âna gehegan þing wið
þyrse, 424-426;--_with, beside_: ge-sät þâ wið sylfne..., mæg wið mæge,

wiðer-gyld, st. n., _compensation_: nom. sg., 2052, [proper name?].

wiðer-rähtes, adv., _opposite, in front of_, 3040.

wiðre, st. n., _resistance_: gen. sg. wiðres ne trûwode, 2954.

wig-weorðung, st. f., _idol-worship, idolatry, sacrifice to idols_: acc.
pl. -weorðunga, 176.

wiht, st. f.: 1) _wight, creature, demon_: nom. sg. wiht unhælo (_the demon
of destruction_, Grendel), 120; acc. sg. syllîcran wiht (the dragon),
3039.--2) _thing, something, aught_: nom. sg. w. negative, ne hine wiht
dweleð (_nor does aught check him_), 1736; him wiht ne speów (_it helped
him naught_), 2855; acc. sg. ne him þäs wyrmes wîg for wiht dyde (_nor did
he count the worm's warring for aught_), 2349; ne meahte ic ... wiht
gewyrcan _(I could not do aught_ ...), 1661;--w. partitive gen.: nô ...
wiht swylcra searo-niða, 581;--the acc. sg. = adv. like Germ. _nicht_: ne
hie hûru wine-drihten wiht ne lôgon (_did not blame their friendly lord
aught_), 863; so, ne wiht = _naught, in no wise_, 1084, 2602, 2858; nô
wiht, 541; instr. sg. wihte (_in aught, in any way_), 1992; ne ... wihte
(_by no means_), 186, 2278, 2688; wihte ne, 1515, 1996, 2465, 2924.--Comp.:
â-wiht (âht = _aught_), äl-wiht, ô-wiht.

wil-cuma, w. m., _one welcome_ (qui gratus advenit): nom. pl. wil-cuman
Denigea leódum (_welcome to the people of the Danes_), 388; so, him (the
lord of the Danes) wil-cuman, 394; wil-cuman Wedera leódum (_welcome to the
Geátas_), 1895.

ge-wild, st. f., _free-will_? dat. pl. nealles mid ge-weoldum (_sponte,
voluntarily_, Bugge), 2223.

wil-deór (for wild-deór), st. n., _wild beast_: acc. pl. wil-deór, 1431.

wil-gesîð, st. m., _chosen_ or _willing companion_: nom. pl. -ge-sîðas, 23.

wil-geofa, w. m., _ready giver_ (= voti largitor: princely designation),
_joy-giver_?: nom. sg. wil-geofa Wedra leóda, 2901.

willa, w. m.: 1) _will, wish, desire, sake_: nom. sg. 627, 825; acc. sg.
willan, 636, 1740, 2308, 2410; instr. sg. ânes willan (_for the sake of
one_), 3078; so, 2590; dat. sg. tô willan, 1187, 1712; instr. pl. willum
(_according to wish_), 1822; sylfes willum, 2224, 2640; gen. pl. wilna,
1345.--2) _desirable thing, valuable_: gen. pl. wilna, 661, 951.

willan, aux. v., _will_: in pres. also _shall_ (when the future action is
depend. on one's free will): pres. sg. I. wille ic â-secgan (_I will set
forth, tell out_), 344; so, 351, 427; ic tô sæ wille (_I will to sea_),
318; wylle, 948, 2149, 2513; sg. II. þu wylt, 1853; sg. III. he wile, 346,
446, 1050, 1182, 1833; wyle, 2865; wille, 442, 1004, 1185, 1395; ær he in
wille (_ere he will in_, i.e. go or flee into the fearful sea), 1372;
wylle, 2767; pl. I. we ... wyllað, 1819; pret. sg. I., III. wolde, 68, 154,
200, 646, 665, 739, 756, 797, 881, etc.; nô ic fram him wolde (i.e.
fleótan), 543; so, swâ he hira mâ wolde (i.e. â-cwellan), 1056; pret. pl.
woldon, 482, 2637, 3173; subj. pret., 2730.--Forms contracted w. negative:
pres. sg. I. nelle (= ne + wille, _I will not_, nolo), 680, 2525(?); pret.
sg. III. nolde (= ne + wolde), 792, 804, 813, 1524; w. omitted inf. þâ
metod nolde, 707, 968; pret. subj. nolde, 2519.

wilnian, w. v., _to long for, beseech_: inf. wel bið þäm þe môt ... tô
fäder fäðmum freoðo wilnian (_well for him that may beseech protection in
the Father's arms_), 188.

wil-sîð, st. m., _chosen journey_: acc. sg. wil-sîð, 216.

ge-win, st. n.: 1) _strife, struggle, enmity, conflict_: acc. sg., 878; þâ
hie ge-win drugon (_endured strife_), 799; under ýða ge-win (_under the
tumult of the waves_), 1470; gen. sg. þäs ge-winnes weorc (_misery for this
strife_), 1722.--2) _suffering, oppression_: nom. sg., 133, 191; acc. sg.
eald ge-win, 1782.--Comp.: fyrn-, ýð-ge-win.

wîn-ärn, st. n., _hall of hospitality, hall, wine-hall_: gen. sg.
wîn-ärnes, 655.

wind, st. m., _wind, storm_: nom. sg., 547, 1375, 1908; dat. instr. sg.
winde, 217; wið winde, 1133.

windan, st. v.: 1) intrans., _to wind, whirl_: pret. sg. wand tô wolcnum
wäl-fýra mæst, 1120.--2) w. acc., _to twist, wind, curl_: pret. pl.
streámas wundon sund wið sande, 212; pret. part. wunden gold (_twisted,
spirally-twined, gold_), 1194, 3135; instr. pl. wundnum (wundum, MS.)
golde, 1383.

ät-windan, _to wrest one's self from, escape_: pret. sg. se þäm feónde
ät-wand, 143.

be-windan, _to wind with_ or _round, clasp, surround, envelop_ (involvere):
pret. sg. þe hit (the sword) mundum be-wand, 1462; pret. part. wîrum
be-wunden (_wound with wires_) 1032; feorh ... flæsce be-wunden
(_flesh-enclosed_), 2425; gâr ... mundum be-wunden (_a spear grasped with
the hands_), 3023; iû-manna gold galdre be-wunden (_spell-encircled gold_),
3053; (âstâh ...) lêg wôpe be-wunden (_uprose the flame mingled with a
lament_), 3147.

ge-windan, _to writhe, get loose, escape_: inf. wîdre ge-windan (_to flee
further_), 764; pret. sg. on fleám ge-wand, 1002.

on-windan, _to unwind, loosen_: pres. sg. (þonne fäder) on-windeð
wäl-râpas, 1611.

win-däg, st. m., _day of struggle_ or _suffering_: dat. pl. on þyssum
win-dagum (_in these days of sorrow_, i.e. of earthly existence), 1063.

wind-bland (blond), st. n., _wind-roar_: nom. sg., 3147.

wind-gereste, f., _resting-place of the winds_: acc. sg., 2457.

windig, adj., _windy_: acc. pl. windige (weallas, nässas), 572, 1359;
windige weallas (wind geard weallas, MS.), 1225.

wine, st. m., _friend, protector_, especially the _beloved ruler_: nom. sg.
wine Scyldinga, leóf land-fruma (Scyld), 30; wine Scyldinga (Hrôðgâr), 148,
1184. As vocative: mîn wine, 2048; wine mîn, Beówulf (Hunferð), 457, 530,
1705; acc. sg. holdne wine (Hrôðgâr), 376; wine Deniga, Scyldinga, 350,
2027; dat. sg. wine Scyldinga, 170; gen. sg. wines (Beówulf), 3097; acc.
pl. wine, 21; dat. pl. Denum eallum, winum Scyldinga, 1419; gen. pl.
winigea leásum, 1665; winia bealdor, 2568.--Comp.: freá-, freó-, gold-,
gûð-, mæg-wine.

wine-dryhten, st. m., (dominus amicus), _friendly lord, lord and friend_:
acc. sg. wine-drihten, 863, 1605; wine-dryhten, 2723, 3177; dat. sg.
wine-drihtne, 360.

wine-geômor, adj., _friend-mourning_: nom. sg., 2240.

wine-leás, adj., _friendless_: dat. sg. wine-leásum, 2614.

wine-mæg, st. m., _dear kinsman_: nom. pl. wine-mâgas, 65.

ge-winna, w. m., _striver, struggler, foe_: comp. eald-, ealdor-gewinna.

winnan, st. v., _to struggle, fight_: pret. sg. III. wan âna wið eallum,
144; Grendel wan ... wið Hrôðgâr, 151; holm ... won wið winde (_the sea
fought with the wind_: cf. wan wind endi water, Heliand, 2244), 1133; II.
eart þu se Beówulf, se þe wið Brecan wunne, 506; pl. wið gode wunnon, 113;
þær þâ graman wunnon (_where the foes fought_), 778.

wîn-reced, st. n., _wine-hall, guest-hall, house for entertaining guests_:
acc. sg., 715, 994.

wîn-sele, st. m., the same, _wine-hall_: nom. sg., 772; dat. sg. wîn-sele,
696 (cf. Heliand Glossary, 369 [364]).

winter, st. m. n.: 1) _winter_: nom. sg., 1133, 1137; acc. sg. winter,
1129; gen. sg. wintres, 516.--2) _year_ (counted by winters): acc. pl.
fîftig wintru (neut.), 2210; instr. pl. wintrum, 1725, 2115, 2278; gen. pl.
wintra, 147, 264, 1928, 2279, 2734, 3051.

wintre, adj., _so many winters_ (old): in comp. syfan-wintre.

ge-wislîce, adv., _certainly, undoubtedly_: superl. gewislîcost, 1351.

wist, st. f., fundamental meaning = _existentia_, hence: 1) _good
condition, happiness, abundance_: dat. sg. wunað he on wiste, 1736.--2)
_food, subsistence, booty_: dat. sg. þâ wäs äfter wiste wôp up â-hafen (_a
cry was then uplifted after the meal_, i.e. Grendel's meal of thirty men),

wist-fyllo, st. f., _fulness_ or _fill of food, rich meal_: gen. sg.
wist-fylle, 735.

wit, st. n., (wit), _understanding_: nom. sg., 590.--Comp.: fyr-, in-wit.

ge-wit, st. n.: 1) _consciousness_. dat. sg. ge-weóld his ge-witte,
2704.--2) _heart, breast_: dat. sg. fýr unswîðor weóll (_the fire surged
less strongly from the dragon's breast_), 2883.

wit, pers. pron. dual of we, _we two_, 535, 537, 539, 540, 544, 1187, etc.
See unc, uncer.

wita, weota, w. m., _counsellor, royal adviser_; pl., _the king's council
of nobles_: nom. pl. witan, 779: gen. pl. witena, 157, 266, 937 weotena,
1099.--Comp.: fyrn-, rûn-wita.

witan, pret.-pres. v., _to wot, know_. 1) w. depend, clause: pres. sg. I.,
III. wât, 1332, 2657; ic on Higelâce wât þät he ... (_I know as to H., that
he_ ...), 1831; so, god wât on mec þät ...(_God knows of me, that_ ...),
2651; sg. II. þu wâst, 272; weak pret. sg. I., III. wiste, 822; wisse,
2340, 2726; pl. wiston, 799, 1605; subj. pres. I. gif ic wiste, 2520.--2)
w. acc. and inf.: pres. sg. I. ic wât, 1864.--3) w. object, predicative
part, or adj.: pret. sg. III. tô þäs he win-reced ... gearwost wisse,
fättum fâhne, 716; so, 1310; wiste þäm ahlæcan hilde ge-binged, 647.--4) w.
acc., _to know_: inf. witan, 252, 288; pret. sg. wisse, 169; wiste his
fingra ge-weald on grames grâpum, 765; pl. II. wisson, 246; wiston, 181.

nât = ne + wât, _I know not_: 1) elliptically with hwylc, indef. pronoun =
_some or other_: sceaða ic nât hwylc.--2) w. gen. and depend. clause: nât
he þâra gôda, þät he me on-geán sleá, 682.

ge-witan, _to know, perceive_: inf. þäs þe hie gewis-lîcost ge-witan
meahton, 1351.

be-witian. See be-weotian.

witig, adj., _wise, sagacious_: nom. sg. witig god, 686, 1057; witig
drihten (God), 1555; wittig drihten, 1842.

ge-wittig, adj., _conscious_: nom. sg. 3095.

ge-witnian, w. v., _to chastise, punish_: wommum gewitnad (_punished with
plagues_), 3074.

wîc, st. n., _dwelling, house_: acc. sg. wîc, 822, 2590;--often in pl.
because houses of nobles were complex: dat. wîcum, 1305, 1613, 3084; gen.
wîca, 125, 1126.

ge-wîcan, st. v., _to soften, give way, yield_ (here chiefly of swords):
pret. sg. ge-wâc, 2578, 2630.

wîc-stede, st. m., _dwelling-place_: nom. sg. 2463; acc. sg. wîc-stede,

wîd, adj., _wide, extended_: 1) space: acc. sg. neut. ofer wîd wäter, 2474;
gen. sg. wîdan rîces, 1860; acc. pl. wîde sîðas, waroðas, 878, 1966.--2)
temporal: acc. sg. wîdan feorh (acc. of time), 2015; dat. sg. tô wîdan
feore, 934.

wîde, adv., _widely, afar_, 18, 74, 79, 266, 1404, 1589, 1960, etc.; wîde
cûð (_widely, universally, known_), 2136, 2924; so, underne wîde, 2914;
wîde geond eorðan (_over the whole earth, widely_), 3100;--modifier of
superl.: wreccena wîde mærost (_the most famous of wanderers, exiles_),
899.--Compar. wîdre, 764.

wîd-cûð, adj., _widely known, very celebrated_: nom. sg. neut., 1257; acc.
sg. m. wîd-cûðne man (Beówulf), 1490; wîd-cûðne weán, 1992; wîd-cûðes
(Hrôðgâr), 1043.

wîde-ferhð, st. m. n., (_long life_), _great length of time_: acc. sg. as
acc. of time: wîde-ferhð (_down to distant times, always_), 703, 938; ealne
wîde-ferhð, 1223.

wîd-floga, w. m., _wide-flier_ (of the dragon): nom. sg., 2831; acc. sg.
wîd-flogan, 2347.

wîd-scofen, pret. part., _wide-spread_? _causing fear far and wide_? 937.

wîd-weg, st. m., _wide way, long journey_: acc. pl. wîd-wegas, 841, 1705.

wîf, st. n., _woman, lady, wife_: nom. sg. freó-lîc wîf (Queen Wealhþeów),
616; wîf un-hýre (Grendel's mother), 2121; acc. sg. drihtlîce wîf (Finn's
wife), 1159; instr. sg. mid þý wîfe (Hrôðgâr's daughter, Freáwaru), 2029;
dat. sg. þam wîfe (Wealhþeów), 640; gen. sg. wîfes (as opposed to _man_),
1285; gen. pl. wera and wîfa, 994.--Comp.: aglæc-, mere-wîf.

wîf-lufe, w. f., _wife-love, love for a wife, woman's love_: nom. pl.
wîf-lufan, 2066.

wîg, st. m.: 1) _war, battle_: nom. sg., 23, 1081, 2317, 2873; acc. sg.,
686, 1084, 1248; dat. sg. wîge, 1338, 2630; as instr., 1085; (wigge, MS.),
1657, 1771; gen. sg. wîges, 65, 887, 1269.--2) _valor, warlike prowess_:
nom. sg. wäs his môd-sefa manegum ge-cýðed, wîg and wîsdôm, 350; wîg, 1043;
wîg ... eafoð and ellen, 2349; gen. sg. wîges, 2324.--Comp. fêðe-wîg.

wîga, w. m., _warrior, fighter_: nom. sg., 630; dat. pl. wîgum, 2396; gen.
pl. wîgena, 1544, 1560, 3116.--Comp.: äsc-, byrn-, gâr-, gûð-, lind-,
rand-, scyld-wîga.

wîgan, st. v., _to fight_: pres. sg. III. wîgeð, 600; inf., 2510.

wîgend, pres. part., _fighter, warrior_: nom. sg., 3100; nom. pl. wîgend,
1126, 1815, 3145; acc. pl. wîgend, 3025; gen. pl. wîgendra, 429, 900, 1973,
2338.--Comp. gârwîgend.

wîg-bealu, st. n., _war-bale, evil contest_: acc. sg., 2047.

wîg-bil, st. n., _war-bill, battle-sword_: nom. sg., 1608.

wîg-bord, st. n., _war-board_ or _shield_: acc. sg., 2340.

wîg-cräft, st. m., _war-power_: acc. sg., 2954.

wîg-cräftig, adj., _vigorous in fight, strong in war_: acc. sg.
wîg-cräftigne (of the sword Hrunting), 1812.

wîg-freca, w. m., _war-wolf, war-hero_: acc. sg. wîg-frecan, 2497; nom. pl.
wîg-frecan, 1213.

wîg-fruma, w. m., _war-chief_ or _king_: nom. sg., 665; acc. sg.
wîg-fruman, 2262.

wîg-geatwe, st. f. pl., _war-ornaments, war-gear_: dat. pl. on wîg-geatwum
(-getawum, MS.), 368.

wîg-ge-weorðad, pret. part., _war-honored, distinguished in war_, 1784? See

wîg-gryre, st. m., _war-horror_ or _terror_: nom. sg., 1285.

wîg-hete, st. m., _war-hate, hostility_: nom. sg., 2121.

wîg-heafola, w. m., _war head-piece, helmet_: acc. sg. wîg-heafolan,

wîg-heáp, st. m., _war-band_: nom sg., 447.

wîg-hryre, st. m., _war-ruin, slaughter, carnage_: acc. sg., 1620.

wîg-sigor, st. m., _war-victory_: acc. sg., 1555.

wîg-sped, st. f.?, _war-speed, success in war_: gen. pl. wîg-spêda, 698.

wîn, st. n., _wine_: acc. sg., 1163, 1234; instr. wîne, 1468.

wîr, st. n., _wire, spiral ornament of wire_: instr. pl. wîrum, 1032; gen.
pl. wîra, 2414.

wîs, adj., _wise, experienced, discreet_: nom. sg. m. wîs (_in his mind,
conscious_), 3095; f. wîs, 1928; in w. form, se wîsa, 1401, 1699, 2330;
acc. sg. þone wîsan, 1319; gen. pl. wîsra, 1414; w. gen. nom. sg. wîs
wordcwida (_wise of speech_), 1846.

wîsa, w. m., _guide, leader_: nom. sg. werodes wîsa, 259.--Comp.: brim-,
here-, hilde-wîsa.

wîscte. See wýscan.

wîs-dôm, st. m., _wisdom, experience_: nom. sg., 350; instr. sg. wîs-dôme,

wîse, w. f., _fashion, wise, custom_: acc. sg. (instr.) ealde wîsan (_after
ancient custom_), 1866.

wîs-fäst, adj., _wise, sagacious_ (sapientiâ firmus): nom. sg. f., 627.

wîs-hycgende, pres. part. _wise-thinking, wise_, 2717.

wîsian, w. v., _to guide_ or _lead to, direct, point out_: 1) w. acc.: inf.
heán wong wîsian, 2410; pret. sg. secg wîsade land-gemyrcu, 208.--2) w.
dat.: pres. sg. I. ic eów wîsige (_I shall guide you_), 292, 3104; pret.
sg. se þæm heaðo-rincum hider wîsade, 370; sôna him sele-þegn ... forð
wîsade _(the hall-thane led him thither forthwith_, i.e. to his couch),
1796; stîg wîsode gumum ät-gädere, 320; so, 1664.--3) w. prep.?: pret. sg.
þâ secg wîsode under Heorotes hrôf (_when the warrior showed them the way
under Heorot's roof_, [but under H.'s hrôf depends rather on snyredon
ätsomne]), 402.

wîtan, st. v., properly _to look at; to look at with censure, to blame,
reproach, accuse_, w. dat. of pers. and acc. of thing: inf. for-þam me
wîtan ne þearf waldend fira morðor-bealo mâga, 2742.

ät-wîtan, _to blame, censure_ (cf. 'twit), w. acc. of thing: pret. pl.
ät-witon weána dæl, 1151.

ge-wîtan, properly _spectare aliquo; to go_ (most general verb of motion):
1) with inf. after verbs of motion: pret. sg. þanon eft ge-wât ... tô hâm
faran, 123; so, 2570; pl. þanon eft gewiton ... mearum rîdan, 854.
Sometimes with reflex, dat.: pres. sg. him þâ Scyld ge-wât ... fêran on
freán wære, 26; gewât him ... rîdan, 234; so, 1964; pl. ge-witon, 301.--2)
associated with general infinitives of motion and aim: imper. pl. ge-wîtað
forð beran wæpen and gewædu, 291; pret. sg. ge-wât þâ neósian heán hûses,
115; he þâ fâg ge-wât ... man-dreám fleón, 1264; nyðer eft gewât dennes
niósian, 3045; so, 1275, 2402, 2820. So, with reflex, dat.: him eft gewât
... hâmes niósan, 2388; so, 2950; pl. ge-witon, 1126.--3) without inf. and
with prep, or adv.: pres. sg. III. þær firgen-streám under nässa genipu
niðer ge-wîteð, 1361; ge-wîteð on sealman, 2461; inf. on flôdes æht feor
ge-wîtan, 42; pret. sg. ge-wât, 217; him ge-wât, 1237, 1904; of lîfe,
ealdre ge-wât (_died_), 2472, 2625; fyrst forð ge-wât (_time went on_),
210; him ge-wât ût of healle, 663; ge-wât him hâm, 1602; pret. part. dat.
sg. me forð-ge-witenum (_me defuncto, I dead_), 1480.

ôð-wîtan, _to blame, censure, reproach_: inf. ne þorfte him þâ leán
ôð-wîtan mon on middan-gearde, 2997.

wlanc, wlonc, adj., _proud, exulting_: nom. sg. wlanc, 341; w. instr. æse
wlanc (_proud of, exulting in, her prey, meal_), 1333; wlonc, 331; w. gen.
mâðm-æhta wlonc (_proud of the treasures_), 2834; gen. sg. wlonces,
2954.--Comp. gold-wlanc.

wlâtian, w. v., _to look_ or _gaze out, forth_: pret. sg. se þe ær ... feor
wlâtode, 1917.

wlenco, st. f., _pride, heroism_: dat. sg. wlenco, 338, 1207; wlence, 508.

wlite, st. m. _form, noble form, look, beauty_: nom. sg., 250.

wlite-beorht, adj., _beauteous, brilliant in aspect_: acc. sg.
wlite-beorhtne wang, 93.

wlite-seón, st. n. f., _sight, spectacle_: acc. sg., 1651.

wlitig, adj., _beautiful, glorious, fair in form_: acc. sg. wlitig
(sweord), 1663.

wlîtan, st. v., _to see, look, gaze_: pret. sg. he äfter recede wlât
(_looked along the hall_), 1573; pret. pl. on holm wliton (_looked on the
sea_), 1593; wlitan on Wîglâf, 2853.

geond-wlîtan, w. acc., _to examine, look through, scan_: inf. wräte
giond-wlîtan, 2772.

woh-bogen, pret. part., (_bent crooked), crooked, twisted_: nom. sg. wyrm
woh-bogen, 2828.

wolcen, st. n. m., _cloud_ (cf. welkin): dat. pl. under wolcnum (_under the
clouds, on earth_), 8, 652, 715, 1771; tô wolcnum, 1120, 1375.

wollen-teár, adj., _tear-flowing, with flowing tears_: nom. pl.
wollen-teáre, 3033.

wom. See wam.

won. See wan.

worc. See weorc.

word, st. n.: 1) _word, speech_: nom. sg., 2818; acc. sg. þät word, 655,
2047; word, 315, 341, 390, 871, 2552; instr. sg. worde, 2157; gen. sg.
wordes, 2792; nom. pl. þâ word, 640; word, 613; acc. pl. word (of an
alliterative song), 871; instr. pl, wordum, 176, 366, 627, 875, 1101, 1173,
1194, 1319, 1812, etc.; ge-saga him wordum (_tell them in words,
expressly_), 388. The instr. wordum accompanies biddan, þancian, be-wägnan,
secgan, hêrgan, to emphasize the verb, 176, 627, 1194, 2796, 3177; gen. pl.
worda, 289, 398, 2247, 2263(?), 3031.--2) _command, order_: gen. sg. his
wordes geweald habban (_to rule, reign_), 79; so, instr. pl. wordum weóld,
30.--Comp.: beót-, gylp-, meðel-, þryð-word.

word-cwide, st. m., (_word-utterance_), _speech_: acc. pl. word-cwydas,
1842; dat. pl. word-cwydum, 2754; gen. pl. word-cwida, 1846.

word-gid, st. m, _speech, saying_: acc. sg. word-gyd, 3174.

word-hord, st. n., _word-hoard, treasury of speech, mouth_: acc. sg.
word-hord on-leác (_unlocked his word-hoard_, opened his mouth, spoke),

word-riht, st. n., _right speech, suitable word_: gen. pl. Wîglâf maðelode
word-rihta fela, 2632.

worð-mynd. See weorð-mynd.

worðig (for weorðig), st. m., _palace, estate, court_: acc. sg. on worðig
(_into the palace_), 1973.

worn, st. n., _multitude, number_: acc. sg. worn eall (_very many_), 3095;
wintra worn (_many years_), 264; þonne he wintrum frôd worn ge-munde (_when
he old in years thought of their number_), 2115. Used with fela to
strengthen the meaning: nom. acc. sg. worn fela, 1784; hwät þu worn fela
... spræce (_how very much thou hast spoken!_), 530; so, eal-fela
eald-gesegena worn, 871; gen. pl. worna fela, 2004, 2543.

woruld, worold, st. f., _humanity, world, earth_: nom. sg. eal worold,
1739; acc. sg. in worold (wacan) (_to be born, come into the world_), 60;
worold oflætan, of-gifan (_die_), 1184, 1682; gen. sg. worolde, 951, 1081,
1388, 1733; worulde, 2344; his worulde ge-dâl (_his separation from the
world, death_), 3069; worolde brûcan (_to enjoy life, live_), 1063; worlde,

worold-âr, st. f., _worldly honor_ or _dignity_: acc. sg. worold-âre, 17.

woruld-candel, st. f., _world-candle, sun_: nom. sg., 1966.

worold-cyning, st. m., _world king, mighty king_: nom. sg., 3182; gen. pl.
worold-cyninga, 1685.

woruld-ende, st. m., _world's end_: acc. sg., 3084.

worold-ræden, st. f., _usual course, fate of the world, customary fate_:
dat. sg. worold-rædenne, 1143?

wôp, st. m., (_whoop_), _cry of grief, lament_: nom. sg., 128; acc. sg.
wôp, 786; instr. sg. wôpe, 3147.

wracu, st. f., _persecution, vengeance, revenge_: nom. sg. wracu (MS,
uncertain), 2614; acc. sg. wräce, 2337.--Comp.: gyrn-, nýd-wracu.

wraðu, st. f., _protection, safety_: in comp. lîf-wraðu.

wrâð, adj., _wroth, furious, hostile_: acc. sg. neut. wrâð, 319; dat. sg.
wrâðum, 661, 709; gen. pl. wrâðra, 1620.

wrâðe, adv., _contemptibly, disgracefully_, 2873.

wrâð-lîce, adv., _wrathfully, hostilely_ (in battle), 3063.

wrâsn, st. f., _circlet of gold for the head, diadem, crown_: in comp.

wräc-lâst, st. m., _exile-step, exile, banishment_: acc. sg. wräc-lâstas
träd (_trod exile-steps, wandered in exile_), 1353.

wräc-mäcg, st. m., _exile, outcast_: nom. pl. wräc-mäcgas, 2380.

wräc-sîð, st. m., _exile-journey, banishment, exile, persecution_: acc.
sg., 2293; dat. sg. -sîðum, 338.

wrät, st. f., _ornament, jewel_: acc. pl. wräte (wræce, MS.), 2772, 3061;
instr. pl. wrättum, 1532; gen. pl. wrätta, 2414.

wrät-lîc, adj.: 1) _artistic, ornamental; valuable_: acc. sg. wrät-lîcne
wundur-mâððum, 2174; wrät-lîc wæg-sweord, 1490; wîg-bord wrät-lîc,
2340.--2) _wondrous, strange_: acc. sg. wrät-lîcne wyrm [from its rings or
spots?], 892; wlite-seón wrät-lîc, 1651.

wræc, st. f., _persecution_; hence, _wretchedness, misery_: nom. sg., 170;
acc. sg. wræc, 3079.

wrecan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to press, force_: pret. part. þær wäs Ongenþeó
... on bîd wrecen, 2963.--2) _to drive out, expel_: pret. sg. ferh ellen
wräc, 2707.--3) _to wreak_ or _utter_: gid, spel wrecan (_to utter words or
songs_); subj. pres. sg. III. he gyd wrece, 2447; inf. wrecan spel ge-râde,
874; word-gyd wrecan, 3174; pret. sg. gyd äfter wräc, 2155; pres. part. þær
wäs ... gid wrecen, 1066.--4) _to avenge, punish_: subj. pres. þät he his
freónd wrece, 1386; inf. wolde hire mæg wrecan, 1340; so, 1279, 1547; pres.
part. wrecend (_an avenger_), 1257; pret. sg. wräc Wedera nîð, 423; so,
1334, 1670.

â-wrecan, _to tell, recount_: pret. sg. ic þis gid be þe â-wräc (_I have
told this tale for thee_), 1725; so, 2109.

for-wrecan, w. acc., _to drive away, expel; carry away_: inf. þý läs him
ýða þrym wudu wyn-suman for-wrecan meahte (_lest the force of the waves
might carry away the winsome ship_), 1920; pret. sg. he hine feor for-wräc
... man-cynne fram, 109.

ge-wrecan, w. acc., _to avenge, wreak vengeance upon, punish_: pret. sg.
ge-wräc, 107, 2006; he ge-wräc (i.e. hit, _this_) cealdum cear-sîðum, 2396;
he hine sylfne ge-wräc (_avenged himself_), 2876; pl. ge-wræcan, 2480;
pret. part. ge-wrecen, 3063.

wrecca, w. m., (_wretch_), _exile, adventurer, wandering soldier, hero_:
nom. sg. wrecca (Hengest), 1138; gen. pl. wreccena wîde mærost (Sigemund),

wreoðen-hilt, adj., _wreathen-hilted, with twisted hilt_: nom. sg., 1699.

wridian, w. v., _to flourish, spring up_: pret. sg. III. wridað, 1742.

wriða, w. m., _band_: in comp. beág-wriða (_bracelet_), 2019.

wrixl, st. n., _exchange, change_: instr. sg. wyrsan wrixle (_in a worse
way, with a worse exchange_), 2970.

ge-wrixle, st. n., _exchange, arrangement, bargain_: nom. sg. ne wäs þät
ge-wrixle til (_it was not a good arrangement, trade_), 1305.

wrixlan, w. v., _to exchange_: inf. wordum wrixlan (_to exchange words,
converse_), 366; 875 (_tell_).

wrîðan, st. v. w. acc.: 1) _to bind, fasten, wreathe together_: inf. ic
hine (him, MS.) ... on wäl-bedde wrîðan þôhte, 965.--2) _to bind up_ (a
wounded person, a wound): pret. pl. þâ wæron monige þe his mæg wriðon,
2983. See hand-gewriðen.

wrîtan, st. v., _to incise, engrave_: pret. part. on þäm (hilte) wäs ôr
writen fyrn-gewinnes (_on which was engraved the origin of an ancient
struggle_), 1689.

for-wrîtan, _to cut to pieces_ or _in two_: pret. sg. for-wrât Wedra helm
wyrm on middan, 2706.

wrôht, st. m. f., _blame, accusation, crime_; here _strife, contest,
hostility_: nom. sg., 2288, 2474, 2914.

wudu, st. m., _wood_: 1) _material, timber_: nom. pl. wudu, 1365; hence,
_the wooden spear_: acc. pl. wudu, 398.--2) _forest, wood_: acc. sg. wudu,
1417.--3) _wooden ship_: nom. sg. 298; acc. sg. wudu, 216, 1920.--Comp.:
bæl-, bord-, gamen-, heal-, holt-, mägen-, sæ-, sund-, þrec-wudu.

wudu-rêc, st. m., _wood-reek_ or _smoke_: nom. sg., 3145.

wuldor, st. n., _glory_: nom. sg. kyninga wuldor (_God_), 666; gen. sg.
wuldres wealdend, 17, 183, 1753; wuldres hyrde, 932, (designations of God).

wuldor-cyning, st. m., _king of glory, God_. dat. sg. wuldur-cyninge, 2796

wuldor-torht, adj., _glory-bright, brilliant, clear_: acc. pl.
wuldor-torhtan weder, 1137.

wulf, st. m., _wolf_: acc. sg., 3028.

wulf-hlið, st. n., _wolf-slope, wolf's retreat, slope whereunder wolves
house_: acc. pl. wulf-hleoðu, 1359.

wund, st. f., _wound_: nom. sg., 2712, 2977; acc. sg. wunde, 2532, 2907;
acc. sg. wunde, 2726; instr. pl. wundum, 1114, 2831, 2938.--Comp.

wund, adj., _wounded, sore_: nom. sg., 2747; dat. sg. wundum, 2754; nom.
pl. wunde, 565, 1076.

wunden-feax, adj., _curly-haired_ (of a horse's mane): nom. sg., 1401.

wunden-heals, adj., _with twisted_ or _curved neck_ or _prow_: nom. sg.
wudu wunden-hals (_the ship_), 298.

wunden-heorde?, _curly-haired_?: nom. sg. f., 3153.

wunden-mæl, adj., _damascened, etched, with wavy ornaments_(?): nom. sg.
neut., 1532 (of a sword).

wunden-stefna, w. m. _curved prow, ship_: nom. sg., 220.

wundor, st. n.: 1) _wonder, wonderwork_: nom. sg., 772, 1725; wundur, 3063;
acc. sg. wundor, 841; wunder, 932; wundur, 2760, 3033, 3104; dat. sg.
wundre, 932; instr. pl. wundrum (_wondrously_), 1453, 2688; gen. pl.
wundra, 1608.--2) _portent, monster_: gen. pl. wundra, 1510.--Comp.: hand-,
nîð-, searo-wundor.

wundor-bebod, st. n., _wondrous command, strange order_: instr. pl.
-bebodum, 1748.

wundor-deáð, st. m., _wonder-death, strange death_: instr. sg. wundor
deáðe, 3038.

wundor-fät, st. n., _wonder-vat, strange vessel_: dat. pl. of wundor-fatum
(_from wondrous vessels_), 1163.

wundor-lîc, adj., _wonder like, remarkable_: nom. sg., 1441.

wundor-mâððum, st. m., _wonder-jewel, wonderful treasure_: acc. sg., 2174.

wundor-smið, st. m., _wonder-smith, skilled smith, worker of marvellous
things_: gen. pl. wundor-smiða geweorc (the ancient giant's sword), 1682.

wundor-seón, st. f., _wondrous sight_: gen. pl. wunder-sióna, 996.

wunian, w. v.: 1) _to stand, exist, remain_: pres. sg. III. þenden þær
wunað on heáh-stede hûsa sêlest (_as long as the best of houses stands
there on the high place_), 284; wunað he on wiste (_lives in plenty_),
1736; inf. on sele wunian (_to remain in the hall_), 3129; pret. sg. wunode
mid Finne (_remained with F._), 1129.--2) w. acc. or dat., _to dwell in, to
inhabit, to possess_: pres. sg. III. wunað wäl-reste (_holds his
death-bed_), 2903; inf. wäter-egesan wunian scolde..., streámas, 1261;
wîcum wunian, 3084; w. prep.: pres. sg. Higelâc þær ät hâm wunað, 1924.

ge-wunian, w. acc.: 1) _to inhabit_: inf. ge-[wunian], 2276.--2) _to remain
with, stand by_: subj. pres. þät hine on ylde eft ge-wunigen wil-ge-sîðas,

wurðan. See weorðan.

wuton, v. from wîtan, used as interj., _let us go! up!_ w. inf.: wutun
gangan tô (_let us go to him!_), 2649; uton hraðe fêran! 1391; uton nu
êfstan, 3102.

wylf, st. f., _she-wolf_: in comp. brim-wylf.

wylm, st. m., _surge, surf, billow_: num. sg. flôdes wylm, 1765; dat.
wintres wylme (_with winter's flood_), 516; acc. sg. þurh wäteres wylm,
1694; acc. pl. heortan wylmas, 2508.--Comp.: breóst-, brim-, byrne-, cear-,
fýr-, heaðo-, holm-, sæ-, sorh-wylm. See wälm.

wyn, st. f., _pleasantness, pleasure, joy, enjoyment_: acc. sg. mæste ...
worolde wynne (_the highest earthly joy_), 1081; eorðan wynne (_earth-joy,
the delightful earth_), 1731; heofenes wynne (_heaven's joy_, the rising
sun), 1802; hearpan wynne (_harp-joy, the pleasant harp_), 2108; þät he ...
ge-drogen häfde eorðan wynne (_that he had had his earthly joy_), 2728;
dat. sg. weorod wäs on wynne, 2015; instr. pl. mägenes wynnum (_in joy of
strength_), 1717; so, 1888.--Comp.: êðel-, hord-, lîf-, lyft-, symbel-wyn.

wyn-leás, adj., _joyless_: acc. sg. wyn-leásne wudu, 1417; wyn-leás wîc,

wyn-sum, adj., _winsome, pleasant_: acc. sg. wudu wyn-suman (_the ship_),
1920; nom. pl. word wæron wyn-sume, 613.

wyrcan, v. irreg.: 1) _to do, effect_, w. acc.: inf. (wundor) wyrcan,
931.--2) _to make, create_, w. acc.: pret. sg. þät se äl-mihtiga eorðan
worh[te], 92; swâ hine _(the helmet_) worhte wæpna smið, 1453.--3) _to
gain, win, acquire_, w. gen.: subj. pres. wyrce, se þe môte, dômes ær
deáðe, 1388.

be-wyrcan, _to gird, surround_: pret. pl. bronda betost wealle be-worhton,

ge-wyrcan: 1) intrans., _to act, behave_: inf. swâ sceal geong guma gôde
gewyrcean ... on fäder wine þät ... (_a young man shall so act with
benefits towards his father's friends that_ ...), 20.--2) w. acc., _to do,
make, effect, perform_: inf. ne meahte ic ät hilde mid Hruntinge wiht
ge-wyrcan, 1661; sweorde ne meahte on þam aglæcan ... wunde ge-wyrcean,
2907; pret. sg. ge-worhte, 636, 1579, 2713; pret. part. acc. ic þâ leóde
wât ... fäste ge-worhte. 1865.--3) _to make, construct_: inf. (medo-ärn)
ge-wyrcean, 69; (wîg-bord) ge-wyrcean, 2338; (hlæw) ge-wyrcean, 2803; pret.
pl. II. ge-worhton, 3097; III. ge-worhton, 3158; pret. part. ge-worht,
1697.--4) _to win, acquire_: pres. sg. ic me mid Hruntinge dôm ge-wyrce,

Wyrd, st. f., _Weird_ (one of the Norns, guide of human destiny; mostly
weakened down = _fate, providence_): nom. sg., 455, 477, 572, 735, 1206,
2421, 2527, 2575, 2815; acc. sg. wyrd, 1057, 1234; gen. pl. wyrda, 3031.
(Cf. Weird Sisters of Macbeth.)

wyrdan, w. v., _to ruin, kill, destroy_: pret. sg. he tô lange leóde mine
wanode and wyrde, 1338.

â-wyrdan, w. v., _to destroy, kill_: pret. part.: äðeling monig wundum
â-wyrded, 1114.

wyrðe, adj., _noble; worthy, honored, valued_: acc. sg. m. wyrðne (ge-dôn)
(_to esteem worthy_), 2186; nom. pl. wyrðe, 368; compar. nom. sg. rîces
wyrðra (_worthier of rule_), 862.--Comp. fyrd-wyrðe. See weorð.

wyrgen, st, f., _throttler_ [cf. sphinx], _she-wolf_; in comp.

ge-wyrht, st. n., _work; desert_; in comp. eald-gewyrht, 2658.

wyrm, st. m., _worm, dragon, drake_: nom. sg., 898, 2288, 2344, 2568, 2630,
2670, 2746, 2828; acc. sg. wyrm, 887, 892, 2706, 3040, 3133; dat. sg.
wyrme, 2308, 2520; gen. wyrmes, 2317, 2349, 2760, 2772, 2903; acc. pl.
wyrmas, 1431.

wyrm-cyn, st. m., _worm-kin, race of reptiles, dragons_: gen. sg.
wyrm-cynnes fela, 1426.

wyrm-fâh, adj., _dragon-ornamented, snake-adorned_ (ornamented with figures
of dragons, snakes, etc.: cf. Dietrich in Germania X., 278): nom. sg.
sweord ... wreoðen-hilt and wyrm-fâh, 1699.

wyrm-hord, st. n., _dragon-hoard_: gen. pl. wyrm-horda, 2223.

for-wyrnan, w. v., _to refuse, reject_: subj. pres. II. þät þu me nô
for-wyrne, þät... (_that thou refuse me not that_...), 429; pret. sg. he ne
for-wyrnde worold-rædenne, 1143.

ge-wyrpan, w. v. reflex., _to refresh one's self, recover_: pret. sg. he
hyne ge-wyrpte, 2977.

wyrpe, st. m., _change_: acc. sg. äfter weá-spelle wyrpe ge-fremman (_after
the woe-spell to bring about a change of things_), 1316.

wyrsa, compar. adj., _worse_: acc. sg. neut. þät wyrse, 1740; instr. sg.
wyrsan wrixle, 2970; gen. sg. wyrsan geþinges, 525; nom. acc. pl. wyrsan
wîg-frecan, 1213, 2497.

wyrt, st. f., [_-wort_], _root_: instr. pl. wudu wyrtum fäst, 1365.

wýscan, w. v., _to wish, desire_: pret. sg. wîscte (rihde, MS.) þäs yldan
(_wished to delay that_ or _for this reason_, 2440, 1605(?). See Note.


yfel, st n., _evil_: gen. pl. yfla, 2095.

yldan, w. v., _to delay, put off_: inf. ne þät se aglæca yldan þôhte, 740;
weard wine-geômor wîscte þäs yldan, þät he lytel fäc long-gestreóna brûcan
môste, 2240.

ylde, st. m. pl., _men_: dat. pl. yldum, 77, 706, 2118; gen. pl. ylda, 150,
606, 1662. See elde.

yldest. See eald.

yldo, st. f., _age (senectus), old age_: nom. sg., 1737, 1887; atol yldo,
1767; dat. sg. on ylde, 22.--2) _age (ætas), time, era_: gen. sg. yldo
bearn, 70. See eldo.

yldra. See eald.

ylf, st. f., _elf (incubus, alp_): nom. pl. ylfe, 112.

ymb, prep. w. acc.: 1) local, _around, about, at, upon_: ymb hine (_around,
with, him_), 399. With prep, postponed: hine ymb, 690; ymb brontne ford
(_around the seas, on the high sea_), 568; ymb þâ gif-healle (_around the
gift-hall, throne-hall_), 839; ymb þäs helmes hrôf (_around the helm's
roof, crown_), 1031.--2) temporal, _about, after_: ymb ân-tîd ôðres dôgores
(_about the same time the next day_), 219; ymb âne niht (_after a night_),
135.--3) causal, _about, on account of, for, owing to_: (frînan) ymb þînne
sîð (_on account of, concerning?, thy journey_), 353; hwät þu ... ymb
Brecan spræce (_hast spoken about B._), 531; so, 1596, 3174; nâ ymb his lîf
cearað (_careth not for his life_), 1537; so, 450; ymb feorh sacan, 439;
sundor-nytte beheóld ymb aldor Dena, 669; ymb sund (_about the swimming,
the prize for swimming_), 507.

ymbe, I. prep. w. acc. = ymb: 1) local, 2884, 3171; hlæw oft ymbe hwearf
(prep, postponed), 2297. 2) causal, 2071, 2619.--II. adv., _around_: him
... ymbe, 2598.

ymb-sittend, pres. part., _neighbor_ gen. pl. ymb-sittendra, 9.

ymbe-sittend, the same: nom. pl. ymbe-sittend, 1828; gen. pl.
ymbe-sittendra, 2735.

yppe, w. f., _high seat, dais, throne_: dat. sg. eode ... tô yppan, 1816.

yrfe, st. n., _bequest, legacy_: nom. sg., 3052.

yrfe-lâf, st. f., _sword left as a bequest_: acc. sg. yrfe-lâfe, 1054;
instr. sg. yrfe-lâfe, 1904.

yrfe-weard, st. m., _heir, son_: nom. sg., 2732; gen. sg. yrfe-weardes,
2454. (-as, MS.)

yrmðo, st. f., _misery, shame, wretchedness_: acc. sg. yrmðe, 1260, 2006.

yrre, st. n., _anger, ire, excitement_: acc. sg. godes yrre, 712; dat. sg,
on yrre, 2093.

yrre, adj., _angry, irate, furious_: nom. sg. yrre oretta (Beówulf), 1533;
þegn yrre (the same), 1576; gäst yrre (Grendel), 2074; nom. pl. yrre, 770.
See eorre.

yrringa, adv., _angrily, fiercely_, 1566, 2965.

yrre-môd, adj., _wrathful-minded, wild_: nom. sg., 727.

ys, _he is_. See wesan.


ýð (O.H.G. unda), st. f., _wave; sea_: nom. pl. ýða, 548; acc. pl. ýðe, 46,
1133, 1910; dat. pl. ýðum, 210, 421, 534, 1438, 1908; ýðum weallan (_to
surge with waves_), 515, 2694; gen. pl. ýða, 464, 849, 1209, 1470,
1919.--Comp: flôd-, lîg-, wäter-ýð.

ýðan, w. v., _to ravage, devastate, destroy_: pret. sg. ýðde eotena cyn,
421 (cf. îðende = _depopulating_, Bosworth, from Ælfric's Glossary; pret.
ýðde, Wanderer, 85).

ýðe. See eáðe.

ýðe-lîce, adv., _easily_: ýðe-lîce he eft â-stôd (_he easily arose
afterwards_), 1557.

ýð-gebland, st. n., _mingling_ or _surging waters, water-tumult_: nom. sg.
-geblond, 1374, 1594; nom. pl. -gebland, 1621.

ýð-gewin, st. n., _strife with the sea, wave-struggle, rushing of water_:
dat. sg. ýð-gewinne, 2413; gen. sg. -gewinnes, 1435.

ýð-lâd, st. f., _water-journey, sea-voyage_: nom. pl. ýð-lâde, 228.

ýð-lâf, st. f., _water-leaving, what is left by the water (undarum
reliquiae), shore_: dat. sg. be ýð-lâfe, 566.

ýð-lida, w. m., _wave-traverser, ship_: acc. sg. ýð-lidan, 198.

ýð-naca, w. m., _sea-boat_: acc. sg. [ýð-]nacan, 1904.

ýð-gesêne. See êð-gesýne.

ýwan, w. v. w. acc., _to show_: pret. sg. an-sýn ýwde (_showed itself,
appeared_), 2835. See eáwan, eówan.

ge-ýwan, w. acc. of thing, dat. of pers., _to lay before, offer_: inf.,


âbrecan, st. v., _to shatter_: part. his byrne âbrocen wære (_his byrnie
was shattered_).

ânyman, st. v., _to take, take away_.

bân-helm, st. m., _bone-helmet; skull_, [_shield_, Bosw.].

buruh-þelu, st. f., _castle-floor_.

cêlod, part, (adj.?), _keeled_, i.e. boat-shaped or hollow.

dagian, w. v., _to dawn_: ne þis ne dagiað eástan (_this is not dawning
from the east_).

deór-môd, adj., _brave in mood_: deór-môd häleð.

driht-gesîð, st m., _companion, associate_.

eástan, adv., _from the east_.

eorð-bûend, st. m., _earth-dweller, man_.

fêr, st. m. _fear, terror_.

fýren, adj., _flaming, afire_: nom. f. swylce eal Finns-buruh fýrenu wære
(_as if all Finnsburh were afire_).

gehlyn, st. n., _noise, tumult_.

gellan, st. v., _to sing_ (i.e. ring or resound): pres. sg. gylleð
græg-hama (_the gray garment_ [byrnie] _rings_); (_the gray wolf

genesan, st. v., _to survive, recover from_: pret. pl. þâ wîgend hyra wunda
genæson (_the warriors were recovering from their wounds_).

gold-hladen, adj., _laden with gold_ (wearing heavy gold ornaments).

græg-hama, w. m., _gray garment, mail-coat_; (_wolf_?--Brooke).

gûð-wudu, st. m., _war-wood, spear_.

häg-steald, st. m., _one who lives in his lord's house, a house-carl._

heaðo-geong, adj., _young in war._

here-sceorp, st. n., _war-dress, coat of mail_.

hleoðrian, w. v., _to speak, exclaim_: pret. sg. hleoðrode ... cyning (_the
prince exclaimed_).

hræw, st. n., _corpse_.

hrôr, adj., _strong_: here-sceorpum hrôr (_strong_ [though it was] _as
armor_, Bosw.).

lac (lað?)? for flacor, _fluttering?_

oncweðan, st. v., _to answer_: pres. sg. scyld scefte oncwyð (_the shield
answers the spear_).

onwacnian, w. v., _to awake, arouse one's self_: imper. pl. onwacnigeað...,
wîgend mine (_awake, my warriors!_).

sceft (sceaft), st. m., _spear, shaft_.

sealo-brûn, adj., _dusky-brown_.

sige-beorn, st. m., _victorious hero, valiant warrior_.

swäðer (swâ hwäðer), pron., _which of two, which_.

swân, st. m., _swain, youth; warrior_.

sweart, adj., _swart, black_.

swêt, adj., _sweet_: acc. m. swêtne medo ... forgyldan (_requite the sweet
mead_, i.e. repay, by prowess in battle, the bounty of their chief).

swurd-leóma, w. m., _sword-flame, flashing of swords_.

þyrl, adj., _pierced, cloven_.

undearninga, adv., _without concealment, openly_.

wandrian, w. v., _to fly about, hover_: pret. sg. hräfn wandrode (_the
raven hovered_).

waðol, st. m., _the full moon_ [Grein]; [adj., _wandering_, Bosw.].

wäl-sliht (-sleaht), st. m., _combat, deadly struggle_: gen. pl. wäl-slihta
gehlyn (_the din of combats_)

weâ-dæd, st. f., _deed of woe_: nom. pl. ârisað weâ-dæda.

witian (weotian), w. v., _to appoint, determine_: part. þe is ... witod.

wurðlîce (weorðlîce), adv., _worthily, gallantly_: compar. wurð-lîcor.

wäg, weg, st. m., _way_.


ARGUMENT, recals = recalls
ll. 131, 737 þryð-swyð = þrýð-swýð
l. 256 ôfest = ôfost
l. 303 sciónon = scionon
l. 706 buton = bûton
l. 1115 ât = ät
l. 1133 wîð = wið
ll. 1304, 1560, 1616 missing caesuras supplied
l. 1436 here-sträl = here-stræl
l. 1642 feôwer- = feówer
l. 1747 sträle = stræle
l. 1828 þywað = þýwað
l. 1926 betlic = betlîc
l. 2224 gesceód = gesceôd
ll. 2288, 3036 wâs = wäs
l. 2453 to = tô
l. 2503 Huga = Hûga
l. 2586 niðe = nîðe
l. 2587 sið = sîð
l. 2684 irenna = îrenna
l. 2915 Hugas = Hûgas
l. 2956 heáðo-liðendum = heaðo-lîðendum
l. 3000 Þât = Þät; feônd- = feónd-
l. 3056 sóð = sôð
l. 3137 Hrônes = Hrones
list of names, under:
 Dene, Scedenîgge = Scedenigge
 Eádgils, Ohthere = Ôhthere
 Freáwaru, Freawaru = Freáwaru
 Hrôðgâr, Hrôð-gâre = Hrôðgâre
 Hygelac, Hæreð = Häreð
l. 31, of l. 31 = of l. 30
l. 1441, wôð- = wæg-
l. 1916, leôfra = leófra
GLOSSARY, under headword
 äðele, Beowulf's = Beówulf's
 ân, gehwilces = gehwylces
 æg-hwâ, ægh-wäs = æghwäs
 ät-beran, beadolâce = beadulâce
 beadu-lâc, beado- = beadu- (twice)
 beág, beages = beáges
 beorh, heáford- = heáfod
 beódan, leodum = leódum
 beón, cwênlic = cwênlîc
 biddan, bliðne = blîðne
 bitter, sträle = stræle
 ge-bîdan, therefor = therefore
 on-bîdan, earfôðlîce = earfoðlîce
 brecan, lêtdse = lêt se
 burne, of of = of
 bûtan, swîce = swice
 cempa, Huga = Hûga
 ge-ceósan, usic = ûsic
 on-cirran, wealdendas = wealdendes
 corðer, þä = þâ
 cunnan, þeáwe = þeáw
 cûð, wîð- = wîd-
 dôgor, gehwam = gehwâm
 dôn, ymbsittend = ymbesittend; hettend = hetend; þywað = þýwað
 drîfan, feoran = feorran
 dryhten, freáh- = freá-
 dryht-scipe, drihtscipe = drihtscype
 ge-dýgan, wräcsið = wräcsîð
 eal, oncyððe = oncýððe
 ealdor, heresträl = herestræl
 eácen-cräftig, iúmanna = iúmonna
 eofor-spreót, hocyhtum = hôcyhtum
 eorlîc, eorlic [ellen] = eorlîc
 fâh, wâldreóre = wäldreóre
 ôð-ferian, panon = þonan
 fela, maððum- = mâððum
 fêran, wäre = wære
 feónd, feonda = feónda
 fleón, fenhôpu = fenhopu
 floga, wîð- = wîd-
 folc-toga, Hrôðgar = Hrôðgâr
 for, wonhydum = wonhýdum; handgeweorc = hondgeweorc
 fôt-gemearc, long = lang
 ge-frignan, þeodcyninga = þeódcyninga
 ge-fyrðran, fratwum = frätwum
 ge-fýsan, to sêcanne = tô sêceanne
 gân, swa = swâ; [or] giong = gióng; flore = flôre; sîttan = sittan
 ge-gan, Wîglaf = Wîglâf
 gâr-wîga, Wîglaf = Wîglâf
 gäst, fêde- = fêðe-
 gegn-cwide, þinra = þînra
 ge-gyrwan, yðlidan = ýðlidan
 geóc, gást = gâst
 geômore-lîc, [bið] geômorlic = geômorlîc
 for-gildan, therefor = therefore
 gold-wlanc, guðrinc = gûðrinc
 grêtan, walgæst = wälgæst
 grim, searo-grimm = searo-grim
 habban, gecorene = gecorone
 wið-habban, winsele = wînsele
 hatan, sæliðend = sælîðend
 hatian, guð-sceaða = gûð-sceaða
 hâr, heâre = heáre
 here-stræl, -sträl = stræl
 heard, -sträl = -stræl; regen- = regn-
 heorte, starc- = stearc
 heoro-dreór, heoro-dreore (citation) = heoro-dreóre
 hlið, hliðu = hliðo (twice)
 hôp, hôp = hop (twice)
 hreow, þât = þät
 hrôf, geseáh = geseah
 hwîl, seo = seó
 hýran, æghwilc = æghwylc
 inne, abeád = âbeád
 îren, drihtlîc = dryhtlîc
 lâð, gewiðru = gewidru; scynnum = scinnum
 be-leán, beleân = beleán
 mêtan, Aescheres = Äscheres
 mearcian, môrhôpu = môrhopu
 ge-mearian, hwam = hwâm
 morðor-bed, stred = strêd
 môd, stið- = stîð-
 nænig, horð-mâðum = hord-mâððum
 on, heáðe = heoðe; willen = willan
 ræd, fæst- = fäst
 reccan, hu = hû
 rîdan, gealgan = galgan
 sang, -leasne = leásne
 sceapan, Hugas = Hûgas (twice)
 scânan, sciónon = scionon
 scînan, scînon = scinon
 secg, synnigne = sinnigne
 ge-sêcan, -cyððe = cýððe
 ge-sîgan, ätsäcce = ät säcce
 ge-sleán, ge-slôgan = ge-slôgon
 standan, sträl = stræl
 stapan, furðor = furður
 ge-steppan, Ohtheres = Ôhteres
 stincan, þä = þâ
 styrian, ge-wiðru = ge-widru
 sweord, maððum- = mâððum
 ge-swîcan, þeodne = þeódne
 teón (w. v.), naläs = nalas; teodan = teódan
 tô, hälum = hælum; sitte = site; Eofore = Jofore
 ge-trûwan, -wäre = wære
 ge-twæfan, ôððe = oððe
 þær, snotera = snottra
 þe, gimfästan = ginfästan
 of-þincan, gehwam = gehwâm
 ge-þolian, þât = þät
 þu, sælran = selran
 þûsend, seófon = seofan
 un-heóre, -speru = -sporu
 ûs, æg-hwilc = æg-hwylc
 wacan, wôcon = wôcun
 werian, beaduscrûd = beaduscrûda
 be-werian, scynnum = scinnum
 wên, orlêg = orleg; ôr-wena = or-wêna
 weorðian, leôde = leóde
 willa, wyllum = willum
 wilnian, fäðer = fäder
 nât, hwilc = hwylc (twice)
 ge-wîtan, wäre = wære

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