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Title: Rheims and the Battles for its Possession - Illustrated Michelin Guides to the Battle-Fields (1914-1918)
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Internet Archive.)



    ILLUSTRATED MICHELIN GUIDES
    TO THE BATTLE-FIELDS (1914-1918)

    RHEIMS
    AND THE BATTLES FOR ITS POSSESSION.

    MICHELIN & Cie--CLERMONT=FERRAND.
    MICHELIN TYRE Co. Ltd., 81, Fulham Road, LONDON, S.W.
    MICHELIN TIRE Co., MILLTOWN, N.J., U.S.A.



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    IN MEMORY
    OF THE MICHELIN EMPLOYEES
    AND WORKMEN WHO DIED GLORIOUSLY
    FOR THEIR COUNTRY.

    RHEIMS
    AND THE BATTLES FOR ITS POSSESSION.

    Published by
    MICHELIN & CIE
    Clermont-Ferrand, France.

    Copyright by Michelin & Cie. 1919.

    _All rights of translation, adaptation, or reproduction
    (in part or whole) reserved in all countries._



_On July 6th, 1919, the President of the French Republic conferred the_
=Croix de la Légion d'Honneur= _on Rheims (fastening it personally on
the City Arms), with the following_ "=citation=":--

"_Martyred city, destroyed by an infuriated enemy, powerless to hold
it._

"_Sublime population who, like the Municipal Authorities--models of
devotion to duty and despising all danger--gave proof of magnificent
courage, by remaining more than three years under the constant menace of
the enemy's attacks, and by leaving their homes only when ordered to do
so._

"_Inspired by the example of the heroic French maid of venerated memory,
whose statue stands in the heart of the city, showed unshakeable faith
in the future of France (Croix de Guerre)._"

[Illustration: RHEIMS, AS SEEN FROM THE GERMAN LINES (_Photograph found
on a German prisoner_)]



=RHEIMS=

=POLITICAL HISTORY=


Rheims is one of the oldest towns in France, so old that legendary
accounts, in an endeavour to outdo one another, carry back its
foundation sometimes to 1440 B.C. after the Flood, sometimes to the
siege of Troy. Lying at the intersection of the natural routes between
Belgium and Burgundy, and between the Parisian basin and Lorraine,
_i.e._ between political districts that long remained different in
character, and regions having different commercial resources, it was at
one and the same time the "_oppidum_" and _market-town_. Its military
and commercial position destined it early to be a great city.

It probably takes its name from the tribe of the _Remi_, who occupied
almost the whole territory now forming the "_départements_" of the Marne
and the Ardennes, and who were clients of the _Suessiones_ (Soissons)
before the Roman conquest. It was already a prosperous town, under the
name of "_Durocortorum_," when Cæsar conquered Gaul. It freed itself
from the yoke of the Suessiones by accepting the Roman domination. When
the Belgians revolted in 57 B.C., the _Remi_ remained faithful to Cæsar
and received the title of "_friends of the Roman people_." Neither did
they take any part in the general revolt of Gaul in 52 B.C. Under the
Empire, Rheims was, with Trèves, one of the great centres of Latin
culture in "_Gallia Belgica_." On becoming a federated city, it retained
its institutions and senate. A favourite residence of the Roman
Governors, Rheims was embellished with sumptuous villas and magnificent
monuments, and soon became one of the most prosperous towns in Gaul. At
the beginning of the Germanic invasions Rheims drew in its borders and
became a military town. Under _Diocletian_ it was the capital of
_Belgica Secunda_.

According to tradition, Christianity was first preached in Rheims by St.
Sixtus and St. Sinirus, the first bishops of the city. However that may
be, Christianity was firmly established there as early as the 3rd
century. A bishop of Rheims was present at the Council of Arles in 314.
The conversion of several great Roman personages (amongst others, the
_Consul Jovinus_--see p. 118) favoured the progress of the Christian
religion.

In the 5th century, when Rome, otherwise occupied, was unable to hold
back the barbarians, invasions interfered with the development of the
city. The Frankish conquest marked the beginning of a new period of
prosperity. In 486, after the victory of Soissons, _Clovis_ entered into
negotiations with St. Remi, who, at the age of 22, had been elected
Bishop of Rheims in 459, and whose long episcopate of seventy-four years
is probably unique in history. On Christmas Day, A.D. 496,
St. Remi, who had arranged the marriage of Clovis with the Christian
princess Clotilde, baptized the Frankish king with his own hands in the
Cathedral. This important event took place undoubtedly at Rheims and not
at Tours, as a learned German, _Krusch_, has attempted to prove.

Under the Merovingians and Carolingians, the history of Rheims became
merged in that of the French monarchy. The possession of the city was
disputed as fiercely as that of the throne. The city was mixed up in
quarrels from which it suffered, without, however, losing its religious
prestige. Pépin-le-Bref and Pope Stephen III., Charlemagne and Pope Leo
III. had famous interviews there. When the Carolingians restored the
religious hierarchy Rheims became one of the twenty-two chief cities of
the Empire. From the time of Charlemagne, the Archbishop of Rheims ruled
over twelve bishoprics, comprising the cities of the ancient Roman
province of _Belgica Secunda_.

From the 9th to the 11th century the history of Rheims is that of its
church. The Counts of Vermandois, the Lords of Coucy and the archbishops
first disputed, then divided its temporal possession, the latter falling
eventually to the archbishops in the 11th century. After becoming
Counts, with the right to coin money, and, from 940, powerful temporal
princes, the archbishops played a great political part in the struggles
between the Carolingian princes. Under _Charles-le-Chauve_, Archbishop
Hincmar became the protector of the enfeebled monarchy. In 858 he
prevented _Louis-le-Germanique_ from deposing his nephew and becoming
King of France. In 987, Archbishop Adalbéron, at the Meeting of Senlis,
drove the legitimate heir, _Charles de Lorraine_, from the throne, and
favoured the election of Hughes Capet. Although, under the Capetians,
Paris became the political capital of France, Rheims became the
religious metropolis of the kingdom. From the time when _Louis-le-Pieux_
had himself consecrated emperor in the Cathedral, by Pope Stephen IV.,
it was understood that every new king must be consecrated by the
successor of St. Remi.


=The Consecration of the Kings of France=

In the 12th century, Popes and Kings formally acknowledged the right of
the Archbishop of Rheims to consecrate and crown the kings of France. As
a matter of fact, until the Revolution, all the kings, except Louis IV.
and Henri IV., were consecrated at Rheims.

The ceremony of consecration filled the Cathedral with a great crowd of
people. Apart from the peers, numerous prelates, dignitaries of the
Kingdom, the Court, the Chapter of the Cathedral and the populace
crowded in. Staging was erected for the public in the transept ends and
along the choir. Before the consecration took place, the archbishop, at
the head of a procession, went to receive the _Sacred Ampulla_ at the
threshold of the Cathedral, brought on horseback by the Abbot of St.
Remi. Returning to the altar, the prelate received the King's oath and
then consecrated him, anointing him with the holy oil on his head and
breast, between and on his shoulders, on the joints of his arms and in
the palms of his hands, each motion being accompanied with a special
prayer. Then the Peers handed the insignia of royalty to the archbishop,
who, surrounded by all the Peers, placed the crown of Charlemagne on the
head of the King, _while the people shouted_ "_Long live the King_."

The King was then led to a throne prepared for him at the entrance to
the Choir, and mass was celebrated with great pomp. The King and Queen
communicated in both kinds, and the royal party then went in procession
to the archbishop's palace, where the _Feast of Consecration_ was held.

In 1162, the Archbishopric of Rheims, until then a county, became a
Duchy and the highest peerage in France, which explains why it was given
to great personages, such as Henri-de-France and Guillaume-de-Champagne,
brother and brother-in-law of Louis VII.

In the 12th century the archbishops, freed from the feudal rivalries,
were confronted by a new power, the _bourgeoisie_ or middle classes,
born of the progress of industry and commerce, and whose importance was
demonstrated by the great Champagne Fairs held sometimes at Rheims and
sometimes at Troyes. The first _Company of Burgesses_, founded in 1138,
soon became a "_Commune_." In 1147, the suburb of St. Remi, which the
archbishop refused to allow to become attached to the "_Commune_" rose
in revolt and was only appeased by the intervention of St. Bernard and
Suger.

In 1160, Archbishop Henri-de-France, with the help of the Count of
Flanders, who was occupying Rheims with a thousand horsemen, suppressed
the "_Commune_" whose independence was alarming him. In 1182 a royal
charter, granting to the inhabitants the right to elect for a year
twelve "_échevins_" (aldermen), re-established the _Commune_ in fact,
if not in name, but the struggle between the _Commune_ and the
archbishop still went on. In 1211, Philippe-Auguste compelled the
aldermen to hand over the keys of the city gates to the archbishop.

[Illustration: THE CONSECRATION CEREMONY OF THE KINGS OF FRANCE IN THE
CATHEDRAL OF RHEIMS (_see p. 4_)]

In 1228, Archbishop Henri-de-Braine, not feeling himself safe in the
city, built the fortified castle of Mars-Gate (or old castle of the
archbishops) outside the walls, but looking towards the city (_photo, p.
6_). During the serious riots of 1235, the burgesses besieged the
archbishop's castle, for which act they were excommunicated by Pope
Gregory IX., and rebuked by St. Louis. In 1257, St. Louis intervened
once more, to put an end to the fighting between the free Companies of
the Burghers and the soldiers of the archbishop.

In the 14th century the two adversaries frequently came to blows, until
the king, in 1362, put an end to their quarrels by taking into his own
hands the care and military government of Rheims.

In spite of these local struggles the city developed in the course of
the Middle Ages. With Chartres it had a well-attended episcopal school,
long before Paris. Among the masters of this school were _Gerbert_, one
of the most learned men of the Middle Ages, who became Pope under the
name of Sylvester II., and _St. Bruno_, founder of the Carthusian Order.
Among the pupils were _Fulbert_ (afterwards Bishop of Chartres), the
historian _Richer_, _Guillaume de Champeaux_, and _Abélard_ (adversary
of St. Bernard).

During the Hundred Years' War (_see military section_) the Town Council
of Rheims, which the Treaty of Troyes in 1420 had placed under the
domination of the English, declared in favour of Charles VII., in spite
of the Duke of Burgundy, who was residing at Laon, and notwithstanding
the intrigues of the Bishop of Beauvais, Pierre Cauchon, who, profiting
by the absence of the archbishop, went so far as to have a _Corpus
Christi_ procession in the city, to call down the blessing of Heaven
upon the English. On July 17th, 1429, Joan-of-Arc handed over the keys
of the city to the king, and was present at the consecration, standing
near the altar with her standard which, "after having been through much
tribulation, was accounted worthy of a place of honour." Since the
return of Charles VII. to Rheims, the city had never ceased to be
French. After the departure of the king and Joan-of-Arc, a friend of
Pierre Cauchon plotted to deliver the town into the hands of the Duke of
Burgundy, to whom the English promised it, provided he could take it.
The plot was discovered and failed.

Under Louis XI. a serious revolt, known as the Micquemaque, broke out in
the town. Louis, well received at the time of his consecration, had
promised the people of Rheims (or so they believed) the abolition of the
tax known as the "_taille._" When, therefore, in the following year, the
collectors demanded payment, the people rose in revolt and drove them
out.

[Illustration: THE OLD CASTLE OF THE ARCHBISHOPS OF RHEIMS, RAZED TO THE
GROUND BY HENRI IV.
_The Archbishops of Rheims were formerly powerful temporal lords (see
page 4)._]

As usual, the king had recourse to treachery. Disguised as peasants, his
soldiers entered the city unperceived. Once inside, they arrested those
who were most deeply compromised, and carried out violent reprisals.
Houses were plundered, many of the inhabitants banished, and nine put to
death.

During the War of Religion, Rheims sided with the Catholics.

Under the influence of the _Guises_, five of whom were archbishops of
Rheims (notably Cardinal Charles de Lorraine, the protector of Rabelais
and Ronsard, and founder of the University of Rheims in 1547), the town
espoused the cause of the League and opened its gates to the Duc de
Mayenne in 1585. It submitted to Henri IV. only after the battle of
Ivry, when the Castle of Mars Gate (stronghold of the archbishops) was
razed to the ground. Henceforth the archbishops played no political
part, and Richelieu put an end to strife by turning the _Guises_ out of
the archi-episcopal see.

In the 17th and 18th centuries the town lived in peace, with
alternations of misery and suffering (caused by plague or famine) and
commercial and industrial prosperity. It was at Rheims that the first
French newspaper, the "Gazette de France," printed by Godard in 1694,
appeared.

During the Revolution, Rheims received the new ideas with enthusiasm. It
furnished a great number of volunteers to withstand the invasion, and on
August 14th, 1792, the Legislative Assembly proclaimed that the city
"_had deserved well of the country_."

Under the Restoration its industry developed. In August, 1830, the
people, who were favourably to the Revolution of July, overturned the
cross of the "_Calvaire de la Mission_," erected in 1821 by the
ultra-Catholic party, and in its place set up a funeral urn with the
inscription, "To the brave men who died for liberty on the 27th, 28th
and 29th days of July, 1830." The population accepted the monarchy of
July, but without enthusiasm.

The Second Empire witnessed a remarkable development of business
activity which, after the momentary stoppage caused by the War of 1870
and the Prussian occupation (_see military section_), made of Rheims, at
the end of the 19th century, one of the great commercial and industrial
cities of France. The population increased from about 30,000 (in 1792)
to 59,000 (in 1865) and to more than 115,000 in 1912.

When the War of 1914 broke out, the rich and ancient city was still as
_La Fontaine_ had described it:

    "_No town is dearer to me than Rheims,
    The Honour and Glory of our France._"

[Illustration: RHEIMS, FROM AN OLD ENGRAVING (1622)]



=MILITARY HISTORY=


If the military and commercial situation of Rheims destined it, from
early times, to be a great city, it also exposed it to the greed of
ambitious foreigners, and opened the road to invasion.

During the Hundred Years' War the city was fiercely disputed. On
December 4th, 1359, Edward III. of England besieged it. On January 11th,
1360, a sortie of the troops and burghers, under Remi Grammaire,
compelled him to raise the siege, in recognition of which feat of arms
Charles V. permitted the "_fleur-de-lys_" (emblem of the Royal House of
France) to be emblazoned on the City's coat of arms. Since then the
Shield of Rheims has been: In chief France ancient, in base argent Two,
laurel branches in Saltire vert. In 1420 the English were more
successful and entered Rheims, whose gates were opened to them by
Philippe-le-Bon, Duke of Burgundy. Nine years later (July 16th, 1429)
the Dauphin of France and Joan-of-Arc entered the town, then finally
delivered, by the Dieu-Lumière Gate (formerly the Gate of St. Nicaise).

During the invasion of 1814, Marshal Marmont's troops retook Rheims on
March 13th, after sharp street fighting, and Napoleon entered the city
the same night.

In 1870, after the investment of Metz, Rheims witnessed the departure of
the army formed by MacMahon at Châlons-sur-Marne, for the relief of
Marshal Bazaine. A few days later (September 4th) the Prussian troops
entered the city at 3 o'clock in the afternoon by three different gates.
On the 6th, the King of Prussia, accompanied by Bismarck and Von Moltke,
made an imposing entry, and resided for some time at the archi-episcopal
palace, in the apartments reserved for the Kings of France at the time
of their consecration. Rheims was held to ransom, and a number of
citizens shot for protesting against the German yoke, chief among whom
was the Abbé Miroy, Curé of Cuchery, whose tomb (the work of the
sculptor Saint Marceaux) is in the northern cemetery. Others were
carried away prisoners to Germany. The Prussian troops evacuated the
town on November 20th, 1872.


=The Invasion of 1914=

(_See map, p. 11._)

Forty-four years later to a day (September 4, 1914), German advance
troops again entered Rheims, as General Joffre's plans had not provided
for defending the city. However, the Army detachments placed under the
command of General Foch on August 29, and wedged in between the 4th and
5th Armies, stayed the German advance for a few days. On August 30 the
42nd Division from the East, detrained at Rheims and took up positions
at Sault-Saint-Rémy and Saint-Loup-en-Champagne on August 31, to the
left of the 9th and 11th Corps.

On September 1, General Foch resisted on the river Retourne but, in the
evening, withdrew to the river Suippe, in conformity with the general
orders. On the 2nd the town was still protected by the 10th Corps
(elements of which occupied the Fort of St. Thierry), by the 42nd
Division near Brimont and to the north of the Aviation ground, and by
the 9th and 11th Corps to the east. On the 3rd, the French retreat
towards the Marne became more rapid, and Rheims was abandoned. On
September 5, Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia entered the town and took
up his quarters at the Grand Hôtel. The Germans at once requisitioned 50
tons of meat, 20 tons of vegetables, 100 tons of bread, 50 tons of oats,
15,000 gallons of petrol, besides straw and hay, and insisted on the
immediate payment of a million francs as a guarantee that their
requirements would be met.

[Illustration: THE TEMPORARY GERMAN OCCUPATION OF SEPT. 1914
_German troops in front of the Cathedral. The scaffolding of the latter
was set on fire on Sept. 19._]

This sum was paid in the course of the afternoon, under threats by the
enemy. From the 6th onwards the German soldiers gave themselves up to
plundering. The tobacco warehouse at 21 Rue Payen was ransacked, and
more than 700,000 francs worth of cigars and tobacco stolen. On the
following days pillaging, especially of the food-shops, continued. On
the 9th, the Kommandantur requisitioned civilians to bury the dead in
the Rethel, Epernay and Montmirail districts. On the 11th, the Crown
Prince arrived and took up his quarters at the Grand Hôtel, where he was
joined by Prince Henry of Prussia, brother of the Kaiser. On the morning
of the 12th, the Germans, alarmed at the approach of the victorious
French troops from the Marne, arrested the Mayor (Dr. Langlet), Mgr.
Neveux, coadjutor of Rheims, and the Abbé Camus. They then drew up a
list of a hundred hostages and threatened to hang them at the first
attempt at disorder. They also threatened to burn the city, wholly or
partially, and to hang the inhabitants, if any of them molested the
German soldiers. All that day the Germans, instead of organising
defences, left the town in haste, after first pillaging it. In the
afternoon the Crown Prince left the Grand Hôtel with his suite. At 5
p.m., after setting fire to the forage stores, the Kommandantur left
Rheims by the Rethel road in drenching rain, followed by the hundred
hostages, who were only released at the level-crossing at
Witry-les-Reims. When the latter returned to Rheims, a patrol of French
mounted Chasseurs had already entered the town by the suburb of St.
Anne. The next morning, at about 6 o'clock, the French troops, with the
6th mounted Chasseurs at their head, entered Rheims by the Rue de Vesle.
At 1 p.m. General Franchet d'Espérey, commanding the French 5th Army,
entered the city.


=The Battles for Rheims, 1914-1918=

Although evacuated by the Germans, Rheims had yet to remain for nearly
four years under enemy fire. With equal obstinacy the adversaries
disputed the town, the French seeking to disengage it and the Germans to
recapture it.

On September 12, on the approach of the victorious French Army from the
Marne, the Germans entrenched themselves to the south-west of the town,
and established a line of resistance passing through Thillois, Ormes,
Bezannes and Villers-aux-Noeuds.

In spite of the very unfavourable weather, the 3rd Corps (Gen. Hache)
vigorously engaged the enemy at Thillois, and forced them to abandon the
position in the evening. The 1st Corps (Gen. Deligny), on the right, had
orders to push forward advance-guards into Rheims, but as a matter of
fact they reached the suburb of Vesle. The 10th Corps (Gen. Defforges)
attacked at Puisieulx and forced the enemy across the Vesle.

On the 13th, the left of the 3rd Corps arrived in front of Courcy and
Brimont, where the Germans were strongly entrenched. A desperate battle
took place, with the result that Courcy was taken before noon. Loivre
likewise fell into the hands of the French, but the passage of the Aisne
Canal was fiercely disputed. The attack on Brimont failed, in spite of
the great valour of the troops, who sustained heavy losses. Meanwhile,
the 1st Corps crossed Rheims, with orders to debouch at Bétheny. Just
outside the town they were met with violent artillery fire, which,
however, did not completely check their advance. La Neuvillette,
Pierquin Farm and Bétheny were occupied, and the 1st Corps linked up on
its left with the 3rd Corps, on the outskirts of Soulain Woods. The
advance continued during the night, and Modelin Farm was reached by
advance-guards. General Deligny took up his headquarters in the suburb
of Vesle. The 10th Corps crossed the Vesle, engaged the enemy at St.
Léonard and reached the railway.

On the 14th, the fighting greatly increased in violence. The 3rd Corps,
in spite of repeated efforts, was unable to advance; on the left it
failed to drive the enemy from the St. Marie Farm, while on the right it
was held up before Brimont. The 1st Corps was likewise checked; the 1st
Division (Gen. Gallet) attempted unsuccessfully to support General Hache
in his attack on Brimont. The 10th Corps, although strongly engaged
towards the Fort of La Pompelle, made but little progress. Farther away,
on the right, the battle extended along the front of the 9th Army.

On the 15th, at 5.30 a.m., the 5th Army resumed a general offensive.
Fierce fighting took place at St. Marie Farm, to the left of the 3rd
Corps, and also further north, near Hill 100. Despite heavy sacrifices,
however, the enemy held their positions; but, on the right, the 36th
Infantry Regiment captured the Château of Brimont at day-break. General
Deligny, less fortunate, was driven out of Soulains Woods, but stood
firm at the Champ-de-Courses and Bétheny. The 10th Corps continued to
advance slowly, and at certain points reached the high-road to Suippes.

On the 16th, the 3rd Corps attacked Brimont again, but failed. At the
château the situation became more and more critical, by reason of the
retreat of the 1st Corps on the previous day. This Corps had again to
face a powerful enemy counter-offensive, which, however, failed to drive
it from the Modelin Farm and the "Cavaliers de Courcy."

On the 17th, the Germans counter-attacked all along the line. In the
afternoon the 3rd Corps, which stood firm at Godat Farm and Loivre, was
elsewhere compelled to cross to the west bank of the canal and fall back
on Courcy.

After a heroic defence the isolated garrison of Brimont Castle, weakened
by heavy losses, surrendered during the night, after having spent all
its ammunition. The 1st Corps, the greater part of which had left for
the region of Berry-au-Bac, held its positions with its last available
units. The 10th Corps extended its front westwards to Bétheny, while one
of its regiments, the 2nd Infantry, occupied La Pompelle Fort.

On the 18th, the enemy increased their efforts against the front held by
the 3rd Corps and the reserve units further west. Loivre, which had so
far resisted, fell. The French withdrew to the west of the road to Laon.
The situation was considered critical at this point of the front. The
10th Corps, which had been withdrawn from the east of Rheims, in favour
of another sector, was stopped on the way and sent for a few days in
support of the 3rd Corps.

On the 19th, one of its brigades counter-attacked Courcy Mill. On the
other side, the Moroccan Division (Gen. Humbert), which had relieved the
10th Corps, continued to hold La Pompelle Fort.

Gradually the front became fixed. Desperate, indecisive fighting still
took place, but finally the front stabilised on the line extending from
the foot of the Berru and Nogent-l'Abbesse Hills, along the road from
Rheims to Suippes, on the east, and along the western bank of the Aisne
Canal on the north.

[Illustration: EXPLANATORY MAP OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS IN 1914
(_See pp. 9-11._)]


=The French Offensive of April, 1917=

The French offensive, planned by the then Commander-in-Chief, General
Nivelle, and launched in April, between Soissons and Auberive, aimed at
piercing the German front and disengaging Rheims.

North-west of Rheims was the 5th Army (Gen. Mazel), of which the 38th
Corps (Gen. de Mondesir) held the immediate approaches to the town,
followed by the 7th Corps (Gen. de Bazelaire), 32nd Corps (Gen. Passaga)
astride the Aisne, and, extending beyond Craonne, the 5th Corps (Gen. de
Boissoudy) and the 1st Corps (Gen. Muteau).

East of Rheims the 4th Army (Gen. Anthoine) was engaged only during the
second stage of the battle.

At 6 a.m. on the 16th, in drenching rain, the 5th Army attacked all
along the front, in conjunction on the left with the 6th Army (Gen.
Mangin), which undertook to storm the Chemin-des-Dames. The enemy was
expecting the attack, and had concentrated very large forces and
powerful artillery. Despite their bravery, the French were unable to
break through.

[Illustration: EXPLANATORY MAP OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS IN 1917]

In the Rheims sector, the 32nd Corps advanced three kilometers to the
north of the Aisne. The 7th Corps crossed the canal at Loivre and
captured Berméricourt in the morning, but was forced to give up part of
the conquered ground in the afternoon, in consequence of a powerful
German counter-attack. In front of Brimont a brigade of the 38th Corps
failed to pierce the enemy's positions.

On the 17th, while the army of General Mazel resisted a violent enemy
counter-attack, General Anthoine attacked from the east of Rheims to
Auberive with the 8th Corps (Gen. Hély d'Oissel), 17th Corps (Gen. J. B.
Dumas), 12th Corps (Gen. Nourrisson). At 4.45 a.m., despite violent
squalls of rain and snow, the French infantry rushed forward and carried
the first German lines along a front of eleven kilometers. The 34th
Division (Gen. de Lobit) carried the Mont Cornillet and Mont Blond
hills, which the enemy attempted in vain to recapture.

On April 18 and 19, and May 4 and 5, the fighting was spasmodic and
finally ceased. On the whole, the French offensive failed, and Rheims
continued to remain under enemy gun-fire.

On the morning of May 27, 1918, the Germans commenced a powerful
offensive between Vauxaillon (on the Chemin-des-Dames) and the Fort of
Brimont. At the beginning of the attack, the French line passed through
Bétheny and along the Aisne-Marne Canal. In the evening, after the loss
of the Chemin-des-Dames and the Aisne Canal, Rheims was no longer
protected on the north-west, except by the St. Thierry Heights, which
were soon turned. The Germans crossed the Vesle at several points,
principally at Bazoches and Fismes, and advanced as far as Muizon.

On May 29, the French line passed through La Neuvillette,
Châlons-sur-Vesle, Muizon and Rosnay. On the 30th, it extended from
Perquin Farm to Méry-Premecy, via Champigny. On the 31st, Tinqueux and
Vrigny fell.

Further to the south the Germans advanced along the valley of the Ardre
towards the Château-Thierry--Epernay--Châlons railway, threatening
Epernay (_see the Michelin Guide: "The Second Battle of the Marne"_).

However, Rheims still held out. On June 1, the Germans attacked
simultaneously, without success, to the south-east of the town (between
Pommery Park and La Pompelle Fort), and on the west and south-west
(between La Haubette and Ormes), while the French recaptured Vrigny. On
three separate occasions--in the evening of the 1st, and on June 9 and
18, the enemy's powerful and costly efforts to recapture this important
position broke down. On the 18th, they delivered a fresh general attack
from Vrigny to La Pompelle, gaining a footing in the Northern Cemetery
of Rheims and in the north-eastern outskirts of Sillery, but everywhere
else they were repulsed. On the 23rd and 29th, they rushed Bligny Hill,
held by the Italians, only to lose it again shortly afterwards. Once
again, Rheims had eluded the enemy's grasp.


=July 15 to August 9, 1918=

[Illustration: EXPLANATORY MAP OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS DESCRIBED
ABOVE]

At dawn, on July 15, the Germans began a new offensive from
Château-Thierry to La Main de Massiges. It was Ludendorf's much vaunted
"Friedensturm" (peace-battle), and was expected by him to prove
irresistible and decisive. Its purpose was to complete the encirclement
of Rheims, carry the hills surrounding the town, crush the French 4th
Army, and reach Châlons-sur-Marne (_see the Michelin Guide: "Champagne
and Argonne"_). However, this time, there was no surprise, and the
Allies held out victoriously.

To the west, between Dormans and Rheims, Franco-Italian forces held
their ground on the Châtillon-sur-Marne--Cuchery--Marfaux--Bouilly line.
To the east, from La Pompelle to the Argonne, the army of General
Gouraud, after voluntarily abandoning its first line previous to the
enemy's attack, checked and decimated the armies of Von Einem and Von
Mudra, on its second or battle-line. On July 16, 17 and 18, the enemy,
now exhausted and incapable of resuming their general attack, attempted
local attempts only, especially near Beaumont-sur-Vesle, to the north of
Prosnes, and in the region of Trigny and Pourcy, to the west, all of
which were repulsed. Once more Rheims escaped, and was destined from now
on, to be gradually freed from the enemy's grasp. The French
counter-offensive began on July 18, on the Aisne (_see the Michelin
Guide: "The Second Battle of the Marne"_), extending shortly afterwards
to the west of Rheims. On the 22nd, the army of General Berthelot
captured St. Euphraise and Bouilly, and on the 23rd reached a point
between Vrigny and the Ardre. A number of German counter-attacks on July
24, 25 and 30 and August 1 failed to check its advance. On August 2,
Gueux and Thillois were recaptured. On the 4th, the Vesle was reached to
the east of Fismes, and the latter occupied, while a small force crossed
to the north bank of the river. On the 7th, after fierce fighting, in
which the French and Americans advanced foot by foot, the Vesle was
crossed to the east of Bazoches and Braine. On the 9th, Fismette was
taken.


=September 26 to November 11, 1918=

[Illustration (Map)]

The disengaging of Rheims, which had begun slowly, was now rapidly
accomplished. Two French offensives completely effected it in a few
days--that of September 26 (_see the Michelin Guide: "Champagne and
Argonne"_), under General Gouraud, and that of September 30, first by
General Berthelot and then by General Guillaumat. The first of these
offensives, to the east, brought about the fall of the Moronvilliers
Heights, after outflanking them; the second, to the west, captured the
Saint-Thierry Heights, the French troops crossing the Aisne-Marne Canal
from Le Godat to La Neuvillette. This double manoeuvre forced the
Germans, whose communications were threatened, to beat a hasty retreat
on October 5 along a twenty-seven mile front. An important part of the
old German front of 1914, and one of the most fiercely disputed,
collapsed suddenly. The formidable forts of Brimont and
Nogent-l'Abbesse, which had held Rheims under their guns for four years,
fell. This time the deliverance of Rheims was complete and final.

[Illustration: THE DISENGAGING OF RHEIMS

The dotted lines show the Allied advance at the date indicated in the
middle of each zone conquered. The line of departure is that of July 18
(18/7). On the evening of Oct. 6 (6/10)--the upper thick dotted
line--the town was completely disengaged. The Allied advance has the
appearance of a fan spreading out west of Rheims until Oct. 5 (5/10),
when the Germans were forced to make a deep retreat.]


=The Destruction of Rheims=

Being unable to capture Rheims, the Germans reduced it to ruins by
bombardment. For four years (September 4, 1914, to October 5, 1918) they
rained explosive and incendiary shells on it, almost without
intermission.

On September 3, 1914, at about 11 a.m., a German aeroplane dropped bombs
on the town. A few of the inhabitants left, as the enemy approached, but
the majority remained. A lady-teacher, sixty years of age, Mlle.
Fouriaux (afterwards decorated with the Légion d'Honneur), who had
charge of Hospital No. 101 (formerly a high-school for girls),
transferred the wounded to Epernay and then returned on foot to Rheims.

On September 4, at 9.30 a.m., when the enemy advance-guards were already
in the town, and a German officer was making requisitions at the Town
Hall, the bombardment began again. From 9.30 to 10.15 a.m., 176 large
shells fell into the town, three of which tore open the great gallery of
modern paintings in the Museum. Forty-nine civilians were killed and 130
wounded, several of them mortally.

The Germans, hard pressed by the French, evacuated Rheims on September
12. Two days later, at 9 a.m., they bombarded the town. Their fire was
especially directed against the headquarters of General Franchet
d'Espérey, near the Town Hall. On the following days, firing was resumed
at the same hour. On the 17th, the first fires broke out. Many civilians
were killed or wounded. The vicinity of the Cathedral, which was
believed to be specially aimed at, was among the places that suffered
most. To protect the Cathedral, which the Germans had fitted up on the
12th for the reception of their wounded, some seventy to eighty German
wounded were accommodated on straw in the nave. The Red Cross flag was
displayed on each tower, and notice given to the enemy.

[Illustration: GERMAN SHELLS BURSTING IN A STREET OF RHEIMS]

[Illustration: THE MONT DE PIÉTÉ]

On the 18th, the bombardment began again at 8.15 a.m. In addition to the
Sub-Prefecture, which was almost entirely destroyed, as were also many
important factories, the Cathedral, in spite of the Red Cross flag, was
struck by 8-in. shells, which damaged the outside sculptures of the
lower windows of the main transept, smashing the 13th and 14th century
stained-glass. Splinters of stone killed a French gendarme and two
wounded Germans in the lower part of the south nave.

On the 19th, the bombardment was intensified. The Town Hall, Museum,
hospitals (including that of the Girls' High School), the south side of
the Cathedral and the Archbishop's Palace were all hit. Towards noon,
incendiary shells were rained on the centre of the town.

At about 4 p.m., a shell fired the wooden scaffolding round the
north-west tower which had been under repair since 1913. The fire spread
quickly to the roof, the molten lead from which set fire to the straw in
the nave.

[Illustration: THE SAINT FRÈRES FACTORY IN RUINS (OCT. 1916)
(_15 Rue de l'University_)]

[Illustration: CENTRAL WOOL CONTROL OFFICE IN SEPT., 1915]

In spite of a rescue party, who risked their lives in getting out the
wounded, a dozen of the German wounded perished in the flames. The
conflagration spread to the Archbishop's Palace, from which it was
impossible to remove the tapestries or the pre-historic Roman and Gothic
collections. The Protestant Church, the Offices of the Controller of
silk and woollen cloths, and the Colbert barracks along the eastern
boulevards were burnt. Everywhere new centres caught fire, and nearly
thirty-five acres of buildings were destroyed. On the 20th, the
bombardment continued with equal violence, then after a respite of two
days began again. Of the Place Royale and the Rue Colbert nothing
remained but a heap of ruins.

[Illustration: THE PROTESTANT CHURCH IN AUGUST, 1917
(_Boulevard Lundy_)]

[Illustration: KINDERGARTEN SCHOOL IN THE BOULEVARD LUNDY]

On November 1 the number of civilians killed by shell fire had increased
to 282.

From September 14, 1914, to the beginning of June, 1915, the town never
remained more than four days without being shelled. Up to the end of
November, 1914, the shells rarely went beyond the Cathedral and the
theatre, falling mostly in the suburbs of Cérès and Laon. On November
22, the suburb of Paris was struck, and from that time onwards there was
no security for the inhabitants in any quarter of the city.

As it would take too long to recount all the bombardments, only the most
terrible ones are here mentioned. On November 26, 1914, the German guns
fired all day, one shell alone killing twenty-three patients in the
Hospital for Incurables. On the night of February 21 and on February 22,
1915, more than 1,500 shells fell in the town, killing twenty civilians,
setting on fire a score of houses and piercing the vaulting of the
Cathedral.

[Illustration: RUE GAMBETTA
_The Cathedral is seen at the end of the street._]

On March 8, terrifying fires broke out again. On April 29 and July 20
more than 500 shells, many of them incendiary, were counted. In April,
1916, more than 1,200 projectiles struck the different quarters of the
town in one day. On August 13, whilst the town was being bombarded,
seven German aeroplanes dropped incendiary bombs, which burnt the Hôtel
Dieu Hospital. On October 25, the Germans fired more than 600 shells
into Rheims and more than 1,000 on the 27th.

[Illustration: THE BOMBARDMENT OF THE CATHEDRAL QUARTER
_Part of the striking-points of the shells which fell around the
Cathedral, as noted by the architect of the latter (M. Sainsaulieu). The
shells which struck the Cathedral were far too numerous to allow all of
them to be shown on the above plan._]

On April 1, 1917, more than 2,800 shells fell in the town, and on the
4th, 2,121. According to the Official Communiqué, on the night of the
5th and on Good Friday, the number of shells was 7,500. Easter-Day was
likewise terrible. On April 15, 19 and 24 the town received large
numbers of 8-in., 12-in. and 15-in. shells. On May 3 the Town Hall and
108 houses were burnt. On the 4th the fires spread to fifteen
neighbouring streets.

From April 8 to the 15th the enemy rained incendiary shells on the town
without respite, and completed their work of destruction, in the course
of the afternoon of the 21st, by burning the centre of the town. Hardly
anybody was left in the latter, except the firemen, who, despite their
prodigious activity and valour, were unable to cope with the flames.

Whole streets, often the finest, were burnt down, more than 700 houses
being destroyed.

When, on October 5, the Germans retreated, the havoc caused by this
continual bombardment was incalculable. Of the town's 14,000 houses,
only about sixty were immediately habitable when the people came back.

In addition to the material losses, there were, unfortunately, numerous
irreparable artistic and archæological losses.


=Life in Bombarded Rheims=

[Illustration: THE DESTRUCTIONS, PHOTOGRAPHED FROM AN AEROPLANE (_Cliché
Illustration_)
    ND.--The Cathedral.
    PR.--Place Royale.
     D.--Hôtel de la Douane.
    SG.--Société Générale Bank.
     P.--General Post Office.
     J.--Palais de Justice.
     T.--Theatre.
     M.--Museum.
    GH.--Grand Hôtel.
    LO.--Hôtel du Lion d'Or.
    PA.--Archi-episcopal Palace.
     A.--The Cardinal's House.
    EP.--Professional School for Young Ladies.
    SP.--Sub-Prefecture.
    PG.--Place Godinot.
     L.-Lycée.
     C.--Colbert Barracks.
]

Although there were short respites, it may be said that for four years
Rheims led the life of a besieged town, under the fire of the German
guns and howitzers. The enemy increased the calibre of their shells and
varied their modes of bombardment, sometimes firing for a few hours,
sometimes all day long at the rate of one shell every three minutes, or
again at night. Sometimes 3-in. shells would be used, at others "Jack
Johnsons" of 8-in., 12-in. and 15-in. calibre; sometimes all four at the
same time. Both explosive and incendiary shells were used, while
aeroplane bombs, darts and asphyxiating gas were resorted to
occasionally. Public holidays were the occasion of the fiercest
bombardments, in the hope of increasing the number of victims. For
instance, the shelling was particularly murderous on All Saints' Day of
1914, when the eastern and southern cemeteries (generally crowded on
this day) were especially aimed at. Easter Monday of 1916 and Good
Friday of 1917 were similarly favoured.

[Illustration: THE FIRST AND SECOND STORIES OF A HOUSE IN THE RUE
D'ANJOU, AFTER THE BURSTING OF AN 8-IN. SHELL]

After each check--at Verdun, in Champagne, on the Somme or wherever it
might be--the Germans revenged themselves on Rheims. In this way the
Cathedral was fired by incendiary shells after the defeat on the Marne
in 1914. The awful fires of February 22 and March 8, 1915, were the
German reply to their set-backs in Champagne and Argonne. The Hôtel Dieu
hospital was burnt down in August, 1916, the day after the
Franco-British attack on the Somme. The Town Hall was reduced to ashes
on May 3, 1917, after the French offensive on the Champagne hills. For
the same reason the bombardments reached their maximum of intensity in
April and May, 1918, _i.e._ after the enemy had lost all hope of
crushing the Allies and taking Paris.

At the beginning of the siege the population took refuge in the
south-western districts, which were not as yet bombarded, but on and
after November 22, 1914, when the German shells reached the suburb of
Paris, a large number of the inhabitants left the town.

[Illustration: THE EFFECT OF AN 8-IN. SHELL IN THE PREMISES OF "LA
MUTUALITÉ," IN THE RUE DES ELUS (SEPT. 8, 1915)]

In February, 1915, the exodus began again, but at the end of May in that
year there were still some 26,000 people in the town. In February, 1917,
after twenty-eight months of bombardment, there remained 17,100 people,
or 100,000 fewer than in 1914. At the beginning of April in that year,
the mayor and later the sub-prefect, requested all those who were not
prevented by their duties to leave the town.

This invitation not having the desired effect, the military authorities,
in view of the increased intensity of the bombardment and the imminence
of the French offensive, announced that they could not guarantee food
supplies for the town, and decided that the civil population must leave
not later than April 10. The evacuation was effected by carts and
motor-vehicles to Epernay, where trains awaited the people.

A part of the inhabitants returned to Rheims after the French offensive
of April-May, but for a few months only, as, in February, 1918, the
coming German offensive compelled the civil population again to leave
the town.

During the thirty-one months, during which a considerable portion of the
population persisted in staying in Rheims (September, 1914, to April,
1917), life and work went on in the bombarded city, the people adapting
themselves courageously to their precarious existence and to the danger.
They were supplied with helmets and gas masks, like the soldiers. Shell
and bomb-proof shelters were organised, and the cellars, with which the
city abounds, became the people's ordinary dwellings. The Town Council,
with the exception of a few members who left on the approach of the
enemy, remained at the Town Hall until it was destroyed, then installed
themselves in a cellar, under the constant chairmanship of the Mayor,
Dr. Langlet. The services rendered by the latter during these trying
times were such that the French Premier decorated him personally in
November, 1914, with the _Croix de la Légion d'Honneur_. The General
Post Office had to change its quarters several times; but until the
complete evacuation of the town the postmen went their rounds regularly.

The Courts of Justice were set up in the cellars of the
Palais-de-Justice.

[Illustration: REMOVING THE WORKS OF ART IN JANUARY, 1918]

The archbishop, Mgr. Luçon, was absent from Rheims in 1914, being
retained in Rome by the Council. As soon as the latter was ended, he
returned to Rheims and thereafter, like his coadjutor, Mgr. Neveux, and
the unmobilized clergy, he remained at his post until the evacuation of
April, 1917. The Cathedral architect, M. Sainsaulieu, who, like Mgr.
Luçon, has been made a Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur, remained
constantly at his post, repairing from day to day, as well as might be,
the damage caused to the Cathedral, and saving the art treasures spared
by the German shells.

[Illustration: SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH GAS-MASKS]

The firemen, reinforced in March, 1915, by thirty-two of their comrades
from Paris, devoted themselves, at the risk of their lives, to fighting
the flames caused by the bombardments. Unfortunately, their courage and
devotion were often unequal to their task. For instance, twenty-two
separate fires occurred on the night of February 22, 1915. Their task
was rendered still more difficult by the fact that the Germans often
fired on the burning buildings to drive off the men who were trying to
save them.

On July 6, 1917, the President of the French Republic fittingly
acknowledged the magnificent bravery of the firemen by personally
decorating their flag with the Croix de la Légion d'Honneur. At the same
time he conferred this dignity on the city (_see p. 2_).

After remaining closed for several weeks, the schools re-opened. Until
then, the children had been too much in the streets looking for
aluminium fuses of shells, out of which they made rings, or for scraps
of stained-glass from the broken windows of the Cathedral. The first
school, called the "Maunoury" school, was installed on December 7, 1914,
in a wine cellar of the firm Pommery, Boulevard Henri-Vasnier, near the
Rond-Point St. Nicaise. On January 22, 1915, the "Joffre" school was
opened in the cellars of Messrs. Mumm, 24 Rue du Champ-de-Mars. Then
came the "Albert I." school, in the cellars of Messrs. Krug, 5 Rue
Coquebert, and the "Dubail" school in those of Messrs. Champion, Place
St. Nicaise. In addition to the underground schools, open-air classes
were conducted. The underground schools, in which the teaching staff,
exclusively voluntary, lived permanently, together with the
school-children and their relatives, were situated in the most exposed
and frequently bombarded districts. The "Dubail" school was struck three
times: on March 6, 1915 (by an 8-in. shell), and on March 25 and October
25, 1916. Luckily there were no victims.

The schools were quite close to the enemy lines, the distance varying
from about two-thirds of a mile to a mile and a half.

In 1915 and 1916, the examinations for the "Elementary School
Certificate" took place in July, as usual. In 1915, the ceremony of the
Annual Prize Distribution, which had not taken place at Rheims for ten
years, was restored, the book-prizes for the pupils coming from every
corner of France.

[Illustration: CARDINAL LUÇON, ARCHBISHOP OF RHEIMS, COMING OUT OF THE
CATHEDRAL]

The victualling of the town, thanks to the co-operation between the
Municipal and Military Authorities, was effected with regularity. There
was never any shortage of bread. The butchers' and grocers' shops
remained open. The milk-women and hawkers donned their helmets and
continued to push their carts through the streets. The market-women
remained at their stalls. The nuns of St. Vincent-de-Paul, whose convent
had been largely destroyed, ensured the service of cheap meals,
organised by the Municipality for the poor. The undaunted inhabitants
had their daily paper ("_L'Eclaireur de l'Est_"), edited by M. Dramas, a
courageous journalist, whose printing-house was early wrecked by
shell-fire, but who continued almost single-handed to issue his paper.

[Illustration: MILK-WOMAN, WITH HELMET, GOING HER ROUND]

[Illustration: WINE-CELLAR OF MESSRS. POMMERY USED AS A DWELLING]

[Illustration: PANORAMIC VIEW, SEEN FROM ST. NICAISE HILL (_p. 102_)]



A VISIT TO RHEIMS

(_pp. 28 to 120_)


=THE CATHEDRAL= (_pp. 28 to 60_)


=FIRST ITINERARY= (_pp. 61 to 94_)

=The Archi-episcopal Palace, Museum, Church of St. Jacques, Promenades,
Town Hall, Place Royale, Musicians' House, Mars Gate, Faubourg Cérès,
Church of St. André, Palais-de-Justice, etc.=


=SECOND ITINERARY= (_pp. 95 to 120_)

=The Lycée, Abbey of St. Pierre-les-Dames, Rue Barbâtre, Church of St.
Maurice, Church of St. Remi, Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, etc.=

[Illustration: GERMAN PRISONERS CLEARING A STREET (OCT., 1918)]


=The Cathedral=

The Cathedral of Rheims, which Charles VIII. declared to be "pre-eminent
among all the churches of the kingdom," and which a local poet in the
reign of Louis XIII. extolled above the seven wonders of the world, is
one of the most beautiful Gothic churches extant.

Few edifices combine such grandeur, simplicity and grace; still fewer,
its characteristic unity and symmetry.

The work of at least four architects, the building operations extended
over two centuries, yet it has retained rare unity both of plan and
style. The whole is so harmonious as to give the impression of being the
effort of a single master-mind.


=Historical Account=

The Cathedral stands on the site of former churches, successively
erected between the 5th and 13th centuries. On the night of May 6, 1210,
a terrible fire destroyed the then existing edifice, together with a
portion of the city.

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL BEFORE THE WAR]

Exactly one year later, Archbishop Aubri de Humbert laid the first stone
of a new edifice, which was destined to become the Cathedral of to-day.

Begun in 1211, the building went on without pause for twenty years,
after which, there was a slackening, followed by a vigorous resumption
in 1299. Another pause occurred during the Hundred Years' War. The
Cathedral, less the tower spires provided for in the plans, was finished
in 1428. The spires were not yet built when the great fire of July 24th,
1481, entirely destroyed the roof of the Cathedral, further deferring
their construction, which was subsequently abandoned.

The funds for this colossal work were furnished partly by the clergy and
the people, partly by Papal Indulgences granted to donors, and by
collections in Christian lands, especially in the ecclesiastical
province of Rheims. The wonderful plans of the Cathedral were long
believed to be the work of _Robert de Coucy_, whereas the original ones
were in fact drawn by _Jean d'Orbais_, who began their execution between
1211 and 1231. His work was continued with wonderful fidelity by
_Jean-le-Loup_, from 1231-1247; by _Gaucher of Rheims_ in 1247-1255,
_Bernard of Soissons_ from 1255 to 1290, _Robert de Coucy_ until 1311,
and afterwards by _Maître Colard_, _Gilles le Maçon_, _Jean de Dijon_
and _Colard de Givry_ in the course of the 14th and 15th centuries.

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL AFTER THE FIRE OF SEPT. 19, 1914]

In the 17th and 18th centuries only repairs rendered necessary by the
wear of the stone were effected. In the 19th century, beginning in 1845,
important restorations, principally by Viollet-le-Duc, were carried out
with regularity.

The Cathedral's approximate measurements are 480 feet long (it is the
longest church in France), and 160 feet wide at the intersection of the
transept. The vaulting, less lofty than that at Beauvais (156 feet) and
Amiens (143 feet), is 123 feet in height. The towers are six in number
(as in the cathedral at Laon), of which the four situated at the
extremities of the transept have never had more than one storey. The
principal towers are about 266 feet in height, or about 60 feet higher
than those of Nôtre-Dame in Paris.

The plan of the Cathedral is in shape a Latin cross, with radiating
chapels. It is built entirely of stone from the neighbourhood of Rheims.
Forty pillars support the vaults, which are further sustained by fifty
buttresses. Three great doorways and eight secondary doors give access
to the interior, which is lighted by a hundred windows and rose-windows;
2,303 figures of all sizes decorate the exterior and interior.

[Illustration: THE CATHEDRAL PHOTOGRAPHED FROM AEROPLANE IN 1916]


=The Cathedral During the War=

In revenging themselves on Rheims for their disappointments and
failures, the Germans seem to have been particularly determined to
destroy the building which is at once one of the most precious artistic
treasures of France and one of the most ancient evidences of her
history. In 1814 the then Allies bombarded Rheims but respected the
Cathedral. It is true that there were Germans who found fault with this
respectful forbearance. One of them, _Johann Joseph Goëres_, author of a
voluminous work entitled "_Christian Mysticism_," dared to write in
April, 1814: "_Destroy, reduce to ashes, this Rheims basilica, where
Chlodoric was consecrated, and where was born that empire of the Franks,
those turncoat brothers of the noble Germans; burn the Cathedral._" In
the course of the recent war the Germans followed the vindictive advice
of Goëres, although, less frank than he, they did not dare, in face of
the indignation of Christendom and of the whole world, boast of their
vandalism.

[Illustration: THE PIERCED VAULTING AND TOWERS OF THE CATHEDRAL IN 1919]

By way of excuse they alleged sometimes errors in firing, sometimes that
the French had established a battery of artillery near the Cathedral and
an observation-post in one of the towers (a projector was installed on
the Cathedral, on September 13, 1914, _i.e._ the day that the French
re-entered Rheims, and it remained there only one night).

On November 9, 1914, General Rouquerol declared to the French
Government, who had demanded an enquiry, that the nearest battery to the
Cathedral was at that time more than 1,200 yards away; that on the day
(September 19) the Cathedral was set on fire by the German shells, the
nearest French batteries were still quite close to the spot occupied by
the above-mentioned battery, whose position the French Premier verified
personally. The General concluded that the German artillery could not
have made an error of 1,200 yards in firing, but that they had
deliberately aimed at the Cathedral.

The Cathedral, though terribly shattered, is still standing. The
description of the edifice (pp. 33 to 60) gives particulars of the
damage and destructions which occurred principally in September, 1914,
April, 1917, and July, 1918.

On September 19, 1914, incendiary shells set fire to various portions of
the building. The roof was burnt, but the vaulting escaped injury. The
tambours of the side doors and the statues on the latter were destroyed
by the flames. The 18th century stalls, consecration carpet of Charles
X. and archi-episcopal throne were likewise burnt. The great rose-window
of the western façade, together with several other stained-glass
windows, were destroyed, as were also the "Angel" steeple and its
caryatids above the chevet. The northern tower was seriously injured by
the burning of the scaffolding around it (_see photo, p. 9_). The
statues were eaten into by the flames and subsequently crumbled away,
some of them being irrecoverably lost.

In 1915 and 1916 the Cathedral was struck a hundred times, but it was
during the bombardments of April 15, 19 and 24, 1917, that it suffered
most. For seven consecutive hours, at the rate of twelve per hour, the
Germans fired 12-in., 14-in. and 15-in. shells on the edifice, causing
terrible havoc, especially to the south-western side.

During the terrible bombardments of April, 1918, the Cathedral did not
suffer--for once the Germans seemed to have decided to spare it; but,
unfortunately, the truce did not last. In the following months the
bombardment began again, and the ravages increased, especially in the
two towers and the vaulting. However, both vaulting and towers, in spite
of their injuries, have not been irreparably damaged in their vital
parts, and are capable of restoration.

That the damage is not more serious is due to the protective measures
taken by the Cathedral architect and by the Department of Historical
Monuments. As early as 1915, the doorways of the western façade were
protected with beams and sand-bags (_see photo, p. 25_), while the
Treasure was removed and placed in safety, together with the paintings
and tapestries.

In 1916 and following years masonry protections were placed around some
of the more valuable statues. The fallen fragments of carvings and
sculpture were carefully collected, with a view to future restoration.
In this way the débris of the head of the beautiful statue of the
"Visitation" Group, known as the "Smile of Rheims," on the left-hand
side of the central doorway of the western façade, were saved.

At the beginning of 1918, it was found possible to save the remains of
the stained-glass of the windows, and other glass-work still
intact--amongst which was some of the finest in the nave. The salvage
was difficult, for scaffolding would have furnished the Germans with an
excuse for further bombardments. Recourse was had to a small body of
Paris firemen and two glaziers who, in foggy weather, and before
daybreak, climbed up to the iron framework of the windows and
accomplished their work at great heights with remarkable courage and
skill.

[Illustration: REIMS]

      REIMS
      SCALE.

      -------------------------
      0        500        1,000 M.

      PORTE DE MARS                  A. D-3-4
      MUSICIANS' HOUSE               B. D-4
      BARRACKS                       C.
    **CATHEDRAL                      D. D-4-5
      ARCHI-EPISCOPAL PALACE         E. D-5
      CHURCH OF ST. MAURICE          F. E-5-6
      POLICE STATION                 G. D-2
      HOTEL DE VILLE                 H. D-4
      LAW COURTS                     J. D-4
     *HOTEL DIEU                     K. E-6
     *CHURCH OF ST. REMY             L. E-6
      MUSEUM                         M. D-5
      OCTROIS (Tolls)                O.
      SUB-PREFECTURE                 P. E-4-5
      THEATRE                        T. D-4-5

      POPULATION                     115,178  H
      ALTITUDE                            83  M

      PLACES.

     1.--Pl. Luton
     2.--Pl. de la République
     3.--Pl. du Boulingrin
     4.--Pl. Bétheny.
     5.--Square Colbert
     6.--Pl. St. André
     7.--Pl. des Marchés
     8.--Pl. Colin.
     9.--Pl. Royale
    10.--Esplanade Cérès
    11.--Place du Parvis
    12.--Pl. Belle Tour
    13.--Pl. de l'Hôpital Civil
    14.--Pl. St. Remy
    15.--Pl. St. Nicaise
    16.--Rond point St. Nicaise
    17.--Pl. Dieu Lumière

      HOTELS.

    Hotel Continental                 a C-4
    Hotel du Nord                     b C-4
    Temporary Annexe Grand Hotel      c D-5
    Post Office Telegraph Telephone   f E-4

    Roads and streets to be
    avoided by motor cars.

[Illustration: ENLARGED PLAN OF CENTRE OF TOWN]

[Illustration: CATHEDRAL OF RHEIMS]

    CATHEDRAL OF RHEIMS
    Plan of Cathedral
    and
    Archi-episcopal Palace

     1. Staircase of the Towers.
     2. Site of the Labyrinth (p. 53).
     3. Main Pulpit (p. 53).
     4. Site of "La Rouelle de Saint-Nicaise"
          (Flag-stone with memorial inscription) (p. 53).
     5. Pillar supporting the "Vintage Scene" (p. 52).
     6. Altar of the Rear Choir (p. 57).
     7. 14th century Tombstones (p. 53).
     8. Tomb of Cardinal de Lorraine.
     9. The Treasure (p. 58).
    10. Clock with Automatons (p. 55).
    11. Tombstone of Hughes Libergier (p. 55).
    12. Norman Door (p. 45).
    13. Great Organ (p. 55).
    14. Lady Chapel (p. 55).
    15. Chapel of the Holy Sacrament (p. 56).
    16. Rosary Chapel (p. 57).
    17. Roman Mosaic (p. 57).



=West Façade=

(_See full views on pp. 28 and 29_).

Better than any other, this part of the building reveals the desire for
unity and harmony which guided the various builders of the Cathedral.
The doorway, probably designed by Jean d'Orbais, was very likely not
begun till about 1250, by Gaucher, of Rheims. Bernard of Soissons built
the great rose-window and the façade as far as the Gallery of the Kings.
The architects of the 14th century built the lateral parts forming the
first storey of the towers, the Kings' Gallery and the gable. The upper
storey of the towers was only finished in the 15th century. Except for
slight modifications in detail, the original plan was respected. This
façade, with its full open-work towers and immense rose-window,
demonstrates that the architects knew how to obtain the maximum of
resistance with wonderfully light construction.

The =Western Doorway= (_photo below_) comprises three doors flanked by
two full arcades, and surmounted by gables adorned with statues.

Between the gables are pinnacles on small columns (the left-hand ones
have been destroyed). At the foot of the pinnacles are statues of seated
musicians, which recall those on the house in the Rue de Tambour (_see
p. 80_), but which have been partly destroyed.

The splaying of the doors is adorned with great statues backed up
against columns and separated by smaller columns, the capitals of which
are connected to a foliate frieze of elegant design. The bases are
ornamented with carved drapery. The tympana of the doors contain
window-lights, while five rows of statues, separated by lines of flowers
and foliage, fill up the archings, which suffered severely in the
bombardment of September 19, 1914. About a dozen subjects were destroyed
or spoilt. During the subsequent bombardments, shell splinters did
further damage.

[Illustration: DOORWAY OF THE WEST FRONT BEFORE THE WAR]

Generally the sculptural decoration on the ground-floor dates from the
middle of the 13th century.

In September, 1914, several of the great statues of the lateral
splayings were completely destroyed and the others more or less
seriously damaged. However, subsequent damage was slight, thanks to the
protective measures taken in 1915.


=Central Door=

The lavish decoration of the central door suffered mutilations during
the last three centuries. The inscription carved on the lintel dates
from 1802 and replaced carving descriptive of the life of the Virgin,
destroyed during the Revolution. The sculpture on the arches, especially
that of the three upper lines, was partly restored in the 17th and 18th
centuries.

The beautiful statues in the splayings of the door represent: _to the
right_ (_photo, p. 36_), the =Annunciation= and =Visitation= (the latter
group is striking by reason of its inspiration from the antique); _to
the left, the_ =Purification= (_photo, p. 36_).

The Virgin of the Annunciation group was damaged by shell splinters on
September 4, 1914.

[Illustration: CENTRAL DOOR OF THE WEST FRONT BEFORE THE WAR (_Cliché
LL._)]

[Illustration: _The Annunciation._ _The Visitation._
RIGHT-HAND SPLAYING OF CENTRAL DOOR]

In the gable, a pretty group representing the =Coronation of the Holy
Virgin= was injured by the fires of 1914.

Of the two fine statues on the top of the buttresses framing the Central
door, only the right-hand one (=Solomon=) exists to-day; the other,
representing the =Queen of Sheba=, was destroyed by a shell in
September, 1914, except the head, which was saved.

[Illustration: LEFT-HAND SPLAYING AND LINTEL OF THE CENTRAL DOOR
(_Cliché LL._)]


=The Right-Hand Door=

_See photograph on p. 25._

On the lintel, =Saint Paul=, blind, is being led to Ananias, who
restores his sight and baptizes him.

On the jambs are pretty little figures which have been variously
interpreted. The majority represent vices and virtues, _e.g. on the
inner portion_: =Courage=, in knightly raiment; =Cowardice= fleeing
before a hare; =Charity= holding out a purse; =Avarice= with a cash-box;
_on the outer portion_: =Pride= blasted and overthrown with his horse;
=Sloth=, represented as a man seated with his head resting on his
elbows, in a stall; =Wisdom= seated, holding a book and a lighted lamp.
On the same jambs other figures are supposed to symbolise the seasons:
=Autumn= sitting on a vine-trellis; =Winter= standing before a fire
place; =Spring= in the midst of flowers; =Summer= with bared chest.

[Illustration: RIGHT-HAND SPLAYING OF THE RIGHT-HAND DOOR
_The two central figures have been decapitated._]

The six statues in the splaying on the right (_photo above_) represent:
the aged =Simeon= holding Christ in his arms; =John the Baptist=,
=Isaiah=, =Moses= with the brazen serpent and the tables of the Law;
=Abraham= about to sacrifice Isaac; =Samuel= carrying a lamb (which has
been broken). They differ by their more archaic style from the other
sculptures of the lower façade, and closely resemble those of the
central door of the north transept of the Cathedral of Chartres. Like
the latter, they date without doubt from the beginning of the 13th
century. Possibly they belonged to an earlier doorway, or were prepared
in advance for a purpose not realised, being finally utilised in the
place where they now stand.

The =Last Judgment=, in the gable, was severely damaged by shell
splinters.


=The Left-Hand Door=

This door, on account of the scaffolding which surrounded it, was
seriously damaged by the fires of September, 1914 (_see p. 17_).

On the lintel is =Saint Paul=, thrown from his horse at the gates of
Damascus. On the outside of the jambs, fourteen seated figures
meditating, are supposed by some to be embodiments of the arts and
sciences, but represent more probably prophets or teachers. Along the
splayings are eleven statues, which have not definitely been identified.

In the left-hand splaying is =Saint Nicaise= between two angels. The
right-hand angel, generally known as the "=Smile of Rheims=," was
decapitated on September 19, 1914. Fortunately, the fragments of the
head of this fine statue were saved.

The sculptures in the archings depict scenes from the Passion, while the
group which adorns the gable represents =The Crucifixion=.

These archings and gable were greatly damaged by the fires of September
19, 1914, and the bombardments.

[Illustration: LEFT-HAND DOOR OF THE WEST FRONT
_The headless angel on the left against the door was known as the "Smile
of Rheims."_]

[Illustration: LEFT-HAND SPLAYING OF THE LEFT-HAND DOOR, BEFORE THE WAR
_St. Nicaise (between two angels) and St. Clotilda. The angel on the
right, known as the "Smile of Rheims," was decapitated._ (_See photo, p.
38._) _Cliché LL._]

[Illustration: GABLE OF THE LEFT-HAND DOOR, WITH CRUCIFIXION
(_Cliché LL._)]

[Illustration: FIRST STOREY OF THE WEST FRONT]


=The First Storey=

In the centre is the great rose-window, best seen from the interior of
the nave. The stained-glass is broken. On either side, against the
arching which surmounts it, were two large statues. One of them, _David
as a youth in shepherd's garb_ (also known as the _Pilgrim_), was
destroyed by the bombardments. The other very fine statue is variously
said to be _Saul_, _Solomon_ and _St. James_.

The arching which begins above these statues was adorned with small
groups of figures representing scenes from the life of Solomon. Most of
them were destroyed at the same time as the Pilgrim statue.

Above the arching, a gigantic statue (twice restored) represents _David
challenging Goliath_. The bombardments of 1914 destroyed a similar
statue on the left representing _David slaying Goliath with a stone from
his sling_.

The first storey of the towers flanking the rose-window is broken by
lofty twin bays crowned with gables. The niches and pinnacles of the
buttresses are identical with those of the nave, but the style of their
decoration denotes a more recent period (early 14th century).

The northern tower was badly damaged by the bombardment of September 19,
1914, which fired the scaffolding around it (_see photo, p. 9_). Two of
the pinnacled niches surmounting the buttresses were decapitated, while
the flames completely disfigured the statues, including that of Christ.

A large calibre shell burst in the southern tower on April 19, 1917,
causing very serious damage.

[Illustration: SECOND STOREY AND UPPER STOREY OF THE TOWERS]


=The Second Storey=

The second storey comprises a series of niches, surmounted by sharply
pointed gables and adorned with gigantic statues, known as the _Kings'
Gallery_.

The central group, consisting of seven figures, commemorates the
_Baptism of Clovis_. Clovis, standing in the baptismal font; between
Saint Remi, receiving the Sacred Ampulla, and Clotilda.

The balcony in front of the _Baptism of Clovis_ was formerly called the
_Gloria Gallery_, as it was the custom for the choir-boys to sing the
_Gloria_ there on Palm Sunday.


=The Upper Portion of the Towers=

The upper storey of the towers, built on an octagonal plan, is flanked
with four open-work turrets, one of which contains stairs leading to the
platforms.

The northern tower, badly damaged by the fire of 1914, lost several of
the fine colonnettes of its corner turrets in 1918.

In the same year, the pierced staircase of the southern tower was almost
entirely destroyed.

At the time of the last restorations, the foundations of the spires
provided for in the original plans, but which have never been built,
were laid.

In the belfry of the northern tower are two magnificent deep-toned
bells. One of them is modern and was cast at Le Mans, and blessed in
1849 by Cardinal Gousset. The other, one of the finest bells known, and
presented to the church in 1570 by Cardinal Charles de Lorraine, is the
work of the Rheims metal-founder, Pierre Deschamps.

The scaffolding fire of 1914 reached the belfry, bringing down the
bells, which were broken in the fall.


=The Lateral Façades and Chevet=

The lateral façades of the Cathedral are of rare beauty. Nowhere have
abutments and flying buttresses been so harmoniously employed as here.
They are not merely supports, but form part of the decorative scheme of
the nave, and ensure the harmony of the whole. Buttresses, finished off
with pinnacles, serve as points of support for two superimposed
flying-buttresses. The octagonal pinnacles are flanked with four small
triangular pyramids and supported in front by two slender detached
columns. Between the latter, under canopies, angels with outstretched
wings carry the instruments of the Passion and various other emblems
(_see photo, p. 49_).

_Skirt the Cathedral on the left, passing in front of the North Façade
(see photo below), to reach the Northern Transept._

[Illustration: THE NORTHERN TRANSEPT IN 1919]


=The Northern Façade and Transept=

The transept is pierced with broad bays, whose completion, as in all the
windows of the Cathedral, consists of two twin arches surmounted by a
six-leaved rose. The niches in the buttresses are ornamented with
statues believed by some to represent Kings of France. At any rate, that
of the buttress on the western front of the north-west tower greatly
resembles the figure of St. Louis carved on the doorway of the church of
St. Vincent at Carcassonne.

The carvings of the lower windows were either destroyed or damaged on
September 19, 1914, at the same time as the stained-glass. The two
towers which flank the crossings were left unfinished.

Before the fire of 1481, there was a lantern over the intersection of
the transept.

[Illustration: CENTRAL DOOR OF THE NORTHERN TRANSEPT]


=The Central Door of the Northern Transept=

The sculptural decoration, while rich, is more sober than that of the
doorway of the western façade. It is commemorative of the glory of the
Archbishops of Rheims.

The statue of the Pontiff with a tiara, backing up to the
dividing-pillar, is supposed to be that of St. Sixtus, first Bishop of
Rheims. In the splaying, on the left, is St. Nicaise holding his head in
his hands, between St. Eutropia, an angel and a figure improbably said
to be Clovis.

The pediment was pierced by a shell and scarred with splinters. It is
divided into five tiers, and represent the life of St. Remi and St.
Nicaise.

Beginning at the bottom, the figures represent: _on the first tier_, the
beheading of St. Nicaise by the Vandals and the Baptism of Clovis by St.
Remi; _on the second_, St. Remi, as a child, restores sight to Montanus
and, as a man, exorcises the demons who had set fire to Rheims; _on the
third_, the story of Job; _on the fourth_, the restoring to life of a
young Toulouse girl, and the miracle of the cask filled with wine by St.
Remi; _on the fifth_, Christ between two angels.

[Illustration: LEFT-HAND DOOR OF THE NORTHERN TRANSEPT: THE LAST
JUDGMENT
_The dead rise from their graves._]


=The Left-Hand Door of the Northern Transept=

This door, which has long been walled up, is called _The Doorway of the
Last Judgment_, on account of the carving on the tympanum.

In the upper part, Christ is supported on one side by the Holy Virgin,
and on the other by John the Baptist. Below (_two rows_) the dead rise
from their graves (_photo above_). Lower down, on one side are _The
Virtues_, represented by seated women; on the other, _The Vices_,
mutilated in 1780 on account of their realism. On the lowest tier, _to
the left_, angels carry souls to Abraham's bosom: _on the right_, Satan
leads a chain of damned souls to Hell (_photo below_), amongst whom are
a king, a bishop, and a monk.

In the arching are three rows of angels carrying books or blowing
trumpets, and the wise and foolish virgins.

Backing up to the dividing pillar is an exceedingly fine 13th century
statue, which recalls the "_Beautiful God_" of Amiens Cathedral (_see
the Michelin Guide: Amiens Before and During the War_); Jesus blessing
with His right hand, holds the globe of the world in His left (_see
photo p. 45_).

This statue was decapitated by a shell which struck the doorway in 1918,
also taking off the head of the first statue on the left-hand portion of
the doorway.

[Illustration: LEFT-HAND DOOR OF THE NORTHERN TRANSEPT: THE LAST
JUDGMENT
_Satan drags a chain of damned Souls to Hell._]

On the plinth of the dividing pillar is a bas-relief, remarkable for its
delicate carving.

According to local tradition, this plinth was erected at the expense of
a dishonest master-draper, convicted of selling by false measure.

_On the left_, the merchant is seen in his shop. In front of the
counter, customers of both sexes look at the outspread stuffs, while
clerks write in books.

_On the right_, the merchant kneels before a statue of the Virgin in
penance.

Near-by, burgesses talk together and seem to judge the delinquent's
conduct severely.

The six statues against the walls represent the apostles: _on the
right_, St. John, St. James and St. Paul; _on the left_, St. Andrew, St.
Peter and St. Bartholomew.

The rose is carved in a voussoir; the uprights are decorated with
statues of Adam and Eve in long tunics, and the arch with twenty-two
groups of small figures depicting, _from left to right_, the story of
Adam and Eve, the various tasks to which they and their descendants were
condemned, and the story of Cain and Abel.

[Illustration: DIVIDING-PILLAR OF THE LEFT-HAND DOOR OF THE NORTHERN
TRANSEPT
_The statue of Christ was decapitated by a shell._
_On the plinth is the legend of the Master-draper_ (_see text
opposite_).]

Above the rose an open-work gallery contains seven statues of the
prophets. The statues are 13th century, but the gallery was restored in
1846.

The balustrading and triangular gable flanked with pinnacles, which
dominate the gallery, date from the beginning of the 16th century, but
have been repaired in recent times. On the gable is a colossal
=Annunciation=; the Archangel and Mary are under Flamboyant canopies.


=The Right-Hand Door of the Northern Transept (Norman Door)=

This little door formerly connected, by means of a vaulted passage, the
Cathedral with the Cloister (no longer existing) of the Chapter.

Its tympanum is a relic of the Cathedral built by Archbishop Samson. It
depicts, in beautiful Romanesque relief, a majestic Virgin. The
archivolt which frames it, doubtless belonged to a 12th century tomb. At
the top of the arch, angels carry away a soul, while on the uprights,
clerks officiate at a funeral service.


=The Chevet=

(_See photograph of Cathedral, taken from aeroplane, p. 30._)

The Chevet, begun by Jean D'Orbais and finished by Jean Le Loup, was
inaugurated by the Chapter about 1241. It is one of the finest 13th
century chevets in existence.

It is stayed by two rows of buttresses supporting double
flying-buttresses. Like those of the nave, the buttresses are surmounted
with pinnacles, beneath which niches shelter statues of flying angels.

[Illustration: THE CHEVET BEFORE THE WAR
_One of the finest 13th century Chevets._]

All around the apse, between the windows of the radial chapels and on
the main buttresses, are statues of angels, some of them of great
beauty.

The 13th century clerestory gallery, which surrounds the upper portion
of the apsidal chapels, was restored by Viollet-le-Duc. It was partially
destroyed by the bombardments. On April 19, 1917, three large calibre
shells, which burst on the chevet, destroyed forty to fifty feet of it.
At the same time, the buttress jutting on the centre of the destroyed
gallery lost its pinnacle, and behind, an arch of the flying-buttress.
The buttresses between the above-mentioned one and the corner of the
South Transept Tower lost either a colonnette or their pinnacle with
angel statue.

The slender spire which, before the War, rose above the chevet, was
known as the =Angel Spire=, on account of a bronze angel which
surmounted it, and which was removed in 1860 as unsafe. This spire, the
work of Colard le Moine, was built in 1485, after the fire of 1481. Its
pierced base with balustrading was supported by eight leaden caryatids,
some of which, in the popular costume of the Louis XI. period, became
deformed in consequence of the rotting of their oaken core.

The fire of September 19, 1914, caused by the German shells, entirely
destroyed the spire and its caryatids.

[Illustration: THE CHEVET IN 1919
_The roof with the "Angel Spire" was destroyed._]

The bombardments in the spring of the following year further damaged the
gallery, also causing fresh mutilations to the flying buttresses and the
pinnacles of the apse.

A plain stone gallery with blind arcading, which formerly ran round the
chevet on a level with the springing of the roof, was replaced by
Viollet-le-Duc, with pierced battlemented arcading. Part of the original
gallery which surrounded the entire building, level with the roof, still
exists on the northern side.

On October 12, 1914, a shell destroyed about twenty five feet of the
gallery round the chevet, which later was further damaged by another
shell.


=The Lateral Façade and South Transept=

This façade and transept (_which should be seen from the courtyard of
the Archbishop's Palace_) are identical, as a whole, with the northern
façade and transept (_see pp. 28 and 42_).

The gallery at the springing of the roof of the nave was entirely
rebuilt in 1878 by Architect Millet, in a style foreign to that of the
Cathedral.

Among the statues of the transept buttresses that at the corner of the
south-western tower, bestriding a lion, is thought by some to represent
=Pepin-the-Short=, and another near him, =Charlemagne=.

[Illustration: THE LATERAL FAÇADE AND SOUTHERN TRANSEPT IN 1919]

The façade of the transept has no doorway. Above the lower storey, the
architectural arrangement is the same as that of the northern transept.
At the base of the rose-window, on each side, are two very fine statues.

_On the left_, =The Christian Religion=, symbolised by a crowned woman
with chalice and standard. This statue was destroyed by a German shell
in 1918, after being damaged in April 1917.

_On the right_, =The Synagogue=, with eyes bandaged and a crown on one
side, was not seriously damaged.

In consequence of the fire of 1481, the gable of South Transept was
rebuilt at the beginning of the 16th century by three master-masons, one
of whom, Guichart Antoine, co-operated later with the building of =Nôtre
Dame de l'Epine=. (_See the Michelin Guide: The Revigny Pass._) It was
restored about 1888 in the original style. The subject sculptured on the
pediment represents the =Assumption of the Virgin=.

The =Sagittarius= which surmounted the gable was destroyed in 1914. It
was a modern faithful copy of the old lead-covered wooden Sagittarius,
which was carved, gilded and painted about 1503 by the Rheims sculptor,
Jean Bourcamus. According to tradition, this Sagittarius, which appeared
to be shooting its arrow at the bronze stag of the archi-episcopal
palace, symbolised the rivalry between the Archbishop and the Chapter of
the Cathedral.

[Illustration: GABLE OF THE SOUTHERN TRANSEPT IN 1914]

[Illustration: THE SOUTHERN LATERAL FAÇADE IN 1914]

[Illustration: REVERSE SIDE OF THE CENTRAL DOOR IN 1914
_See complete view on p. 52._]



=THE INTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL=

=The Inner Western Façade=

(_See description of the Exterior on pp. 34 to 41._)

This is a masterpiece. Its sculptural decoration is unique, and as rich
as that of the outer façade.

In the tympanum of the central door a sixteen-leaved rose-window, the
stained-glass of which was made shortly before the Revolution, is faced
with three small trefoil rose-windows.

At the top of the dividing pillar St. Nicaise, headless, is between two
angels and two armed men personifying the barbarians who killed him.

The entire door, as far as the triforium, is framed by seven rows of
superimposed niches separated by panels of sculptured foliage. The
basements are covered with figured drapery, as on the outside. In each
niche, under a trefoil arcade, is a statue. The subjects represented
are, _from bottom to top_: _on the right_: =The Life of John the
Baptist=; _on the left_: =The Fulfilment of the Prophecy= and =The
Childhood of Christ=.

[Illustration: STATUES ON REVERSE SIDE OF DOORS AFTER FIRE, SEPT., 1914]

The first row on the right is known as "=The Knight's Communion="; a
priest offers the Host to a knight wearing 13th century armour, and
turns his back on another knight clothed in a leathern Carolingian tunic
with iron scales, and armed with a small round buckler.

Above the door, a gallery with nine openings lights the triforium.

On the highest storey, the great rose-window occupies the whole breadth
of the nave. It is the masterpiece of Bernard de Soissons (_see p. 40_).

In the form of a gigantic flower with twelve petals, each of the latter
is sub-divided by quatrefoils and trefoil archings. Its harmonious
gracefulness and seeming lightness, in spite of the great thickness of
its border (about 7 ft.), and mullions (about 2 ft. 6 in.), are very
striking.

The stained-glass, which, with the stonework, formed a harmonious whole,
was restored in modern times. The subject represented was: =The Virgin
surrounded by angels, kings and patriarchs=.

The fire of 1914 destroyed the stained-glass.

The side-doors have only a quatrefoil rose-window (_see pp. 25 and 34_),
and their framework of niches consists only of four rows of two niches
each. However, two lines of niches, in which are statues in demi-relief,
form the contour of the arches which frame their top.

The subjects of the sculptures are allied, in the case of each door, to
those of the outer decoration, _i.e._ "=The Life of St. Stephen=."

The wooden doors and their tambours were destroyed by the fire of
September 19, 1914, which also disfigured or destroyed the statues
framing them (_see photos above_).

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE NAVE IN 1919]


=The Great Nave=

The fire of September 19, 1914, destroyed the framework of the Nave and
its 15th century lead roof. In the following years a number of shells
pierced the vaulting, without, however, damaging its vital parts. It
will be possible to restore it.

It seems to be clearly established that although the first four bays
were built later than the others, the nave as a whole, like that of the
Cathedral of Amiens, was completely finished before 1300 A.D. Vaulted
throughout on diagonal ribs, the nave, which is perfectly regular, has
three stories: the lowest, formed of great arches, rests on massive
pillars; the triforium, formed of two, four, five, or six arcades,
extends round the entire building; the high twin-bay windows are
surmounted with a six-leaved rose-window.

The pillars, which have been likened to a row of antique columns, are
composed of a great cylindrical shaft, reinforced by four smaller
engaged columns, standing on an octagonal base. The pillars which follow
the first bay of the nave and carry one of the corners of the towers, as
also the four pillars of the transept square, are more massive.

[Illustration: CAPITAL IN THE NAVE]

The capitals of the pillars and of the columns (_photo opposite_) are
most beautifully decorated. The dominating subject of their decoration
is natural foliage (vine, oak, thistle, ivy, ranunculus, fig-tree).
Occasionally, human or animal figures or monsters, and scenes from
nature, _i.e._ the dainty =Vintage scene= on the capital of the sixth
pillar on the right of the nave, are interspersed. The ornamentation of
the capitals of six pillars of the first bays is more elaborate and more
recent in style. These capitals are not, like those of the other
pillars, divided on the four flanking columns into two equal courses by
an astragal, neither do they include, like some of the others, crockets,
acanthus leaves and other conventional ornaments of an older and less
realistic style.

[Illustration: ROOF OF THE NAVE IN 1914
_In the foreground on the right: Corner of the Southern Transept._]

The 13th and 14th century stained-glass of the high windows represents,
on two superimposed lines, figures of kings of France and archbishops of
Rheims. Some of the glass was broken, but the finest was saved.

In the third and fourth bays there was formerly a square =Labyrinth=,
flanked at the corners by polygonal compartments. In the interior, a
line of white tiles bordered with black stones ran from one side, and
after complicated windings reached a central compartment. At the corners
of the compartments were figures of the four first architects of the
Cathedral: Jean d'Orbais, Jean le Loup, Gaucher of Rheims and Bernard of
Soissons. The central figure is probably that of Archbishop Aubri de
Humbert, who laid the first stone of the edifice. This Labyrinth, the
drawings of which revealed the names of the builders of the Cathedral,
was destroyed in 1778 by the Chapter, to prevent the children playing
there.

[Illustration: ROOF OF THE NAVE IN 1919
_In the foreground, on the right: Corner of the Southern Transept._]

Between the Labyrinth and the Choir are about twenty 14th century
tombstones.

The =great pulpit= set up against the fifth left-hand pillar was made,
in the time of Louis XV., by a Rheims artist (Blondel). It comes from
the old church of St. Pierre-le-Vieil.

In the sixth bay, just before the entrance to the choir, the spot where
St. Nicaise was beheaded, on the threshold of his church, was formerly
indicated by a small circular chapel known as _La Rouelle de St.
Nicaise_. The tiny building was replaced by a memorial inscription on
the flagstone, supposed to have been stained with the blood of the
martyr.


=The Aisles of the Naves=

The windows of the Aisles are similar to the lofty windows of the nave.
The walls were formerly hung with valuable tapestries, which were taken
down and evacuated by the _Historical Monuments Department_ at the
outbreak of the War. The two oldest, dating back to about 1440, and
known as the tapestries of the _fort roi Clovis_, were presented by
Cardinal Charles de Lorraine, and depict the history of Clovis. Those of
the Renaissance, given in 1530 by Archbishop Robert de Lenoncourt, who
caused himself to be portrayed kneeling in the picture of the Birth of
Christ, depict the _Life of the Virgin_. The most modern, presented in
1640 by Archbishop Henri de Lorraine and worked by the Fleming, Daniel
Pepersack, represent Jesus at the _Marriage at Cana in Galilee_ and
_Jesus among the Doctors_.

At the foot of the walls, three stone steps serve as seats.

[Illustration: TAPESTRIES IN THE SOUTHERN SIDE AISLE, BEFORE THE WAR]


=The Interior of the Northern Transept=

(_See plan, p. 33, and the Exterior, p. 42._)

The inner façade is partially hidden by the great organ, built about
1487 and transformed several times since then. Of the original organ the
loft only remains, the Gothic balustrading of which is pierced with
Flamboyant arcading.

[Illustration: THE NORTHERN TRANSEPT _(see p. 33)_]

The façade originally consisted of three lofty bays with lancet-shaped
windows surmounted by a gallery lighted by three rose-windows of six
lobes each and one of twelve lobes. The subsequent addition of a doorway
about the _middle_ of the 13th century caused the partial suppression of
the bays, of which the transformed summits alone remain.

Almost all the high windows of the transept contained 13th century
_grisaille_ glass, which was damaged or broken by the bombardments, as
was also the 13th century stained-glass of the great rose-window
(repaired in 1869), which represented _The Story of the Creation_ and
_The Fall of Adam_.

The reverse side of the Central Door is bare, except the dividing
pillar, the statue of which is hidden by the 18th century wooden
tambour.

The small western side-door, which formerly communicated with the
cloister of the Chapter, is entirely covered with 18th century woodwork.
The adjoining bay, closed in by a beautiful 13th century wrought-iron
railing, is the old chartulary or muniment room of the Chapter. Near the
railing, in the corner of the transept, is a clock with automatons,
which come out when the hours strike. Its woodwork is 14th and 15th
century and its works 17th and 18th century.

To the right of the door of the organ stair, a =tombstone= to =Hugues
Libergier= was set up against the wall. He was the architect who, in
1231, commenced the abbatial church of St. Nicaise. The tombstone has
been in the Cathedral since 1800. The altar in the Lady-Chapel,
surmounted with a statue by François Ladatte (1742), replaced a Gothic
altar-screen destroyed in 1739.

The picture _The Washing of the Disciples' Feet_ is by Jerome Muziano.

On the western walls of the transept is a fine tapestry, the pendant of
which is in the south transept. These two great tapestries, made at the
Gobelins, after cartoons by Raphael, represent the life of St. Paul.
They were removed in 1914, at the same time as those in the aisles.

[Illustration: THE VAULTING OF THE CHOIR FELL IN ON THE HIGH ALTAR
_The photo on p. 31 shows the collapse, seen from above._]


=The Choir=

(_See the Chevet, p. 46._)

The ambulatory with its radiating chapels is of incomparable beauty.
Excepting the larger central chapel, known as the _Chapel of the Holy
Sacrament_, which is nine-sided, each chapel has seven sides rising from
a circular floor.

In each chapel, three windows similar to those of the nave, light the
three hindmost walls. Blind windows imitate the true ones on the side
walls.

At the base of the windows a narrow gallery, passing through the
pillars, continues all along the side-aisles of the transept and nave--a
peculiarity in Champagne architecture.

The 13th century stained-glass of the high windows was destroyed by the
bombardment of September 19, 1914.

In April, 1917, part of the vaulting fell in on the High Altar (_photo
above_).

The costly marble High Altar was erected in 1747 by Canon Godinot, who
spent considerable sums in making alterations to the Cathedral, not all
of which were happy. Its six chandeliers date from the consecration of
Charles X.

The High Altar of the rear choir dates from 1764 and came from the
Church of St. Nicaise. On either side of this altar are two 14th century
tumulary stones. Behind is the tomb of Cardinal de Lorraine.

The small pulpit of the rear choir, the medallions of which depict the
life of St. Theresa, dates from 1678. It is a gift of the widow of M.
Pommery (_photo below_).

Twenty-two archbishops of Rheims were buried under the choir pavement.
Their tombstones were removed in 1747. The present flag-stones came from
the old church of St. Nicaise.

[Illustration: THE SMALL PULPIT IN THE REAR CHOIR]

The archbishop's throne, by Viollet-le-Duc, was destroyed by the fire of
1914, together with the 18th century stalls.

The railings (1826-1832) replaced, not very happily, an ancient stone
rood-loft destroyed in 1761.


=The Interior of the Southern Transept=

(_See plan, p. 33, and the Exterior, p. 47_)

A gap was made in the vaulting by the bombardment of April 19, 1917.

The arrangement of the inner façade is similar to that of the northern
transept, except that the three high bays with lancet windows, which are
partially hidden in the northern transept, are here entirely visible.

The stained-glass of the rose-window, destroyed by a hurricane in 1580,
was replaced in 1581 by the Rheims artist Nicolas Dérodé. It represents
the Eternal Father surrounded by the twelve apostles.

In the Rosary Chapel is a Renaissance altar-screen (1541), attributed to
the Rheims sculptor Pierre Jacques. The general scheme represents _The
dead body of Christ on the knees of the Virgin_, and above, _Christ
coming forth from the sepulchre_. It was a gift of Canon Paul
Grandraoul, who is shown on his knees before Mary Magdalene.

The Roman mosaic work in the centre of the chapel was discovered in the
courtyard of the archbishop's palace in 1849. Among the most remarkable
scenes are: _Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene_, attributed to Titian;
_Christ with the angels_, by Thaddeo Zuccaro; _The Nativity_, attributed
to Tintoret; _Manna in the Desert_, attributed to Nicolas Poussin.

[Illustration: ST. REMI'S CHALICE. (_Cliché LL._)]


=The Cathedral Treasure=

This is kept in a sacristy built by Viollet-le-Duc, which is reached
through a plain door in the southern façade of the transept.

The treasure, which is very rich in precious reliquaries, chalices, and
other pieces of goldsmith's work, was saved from the fire of September
19, 1914, by the Curé of the Cathedral and one of his abbés. After being
temporarily placed in the house of the Cardinal, it was evacuated in
1915, at the order of the Historical Monuments Department.

Among the best known of these art treasures are the Chalice of St. Remi
and St. Ursula's Skiff.

The =Chalice of St. Remi=, with its gold filagree work, six rows of
chasing, and precious stones set in a _collier_, is a remarkable work of
art. It was in this chalice that, by special privilege, the kings of
France communicated in wine at the conclusion of their consecration.
Tradition has it that the gold of which it is made was that of the
Soissons Vase, whereas in reality it is 12th century. Confiscated in
1793 and deposited in the _Bibliothèque Nationale_, it was restored to
the Cathedral by Napoleon III.

[Illustration: ST. URSULA'S SKIFF. (_Cliché LL._)]

=St. Ursula's Skiff= is a reliquary given by Henri III. It represents a
ship carved out of cornelian, floating on a sea of enamel. The ship,
whose mast bears the royal crown, is adorned with the escutcheons of
France and Poland, and contains eleven small figures. That of St. Ursula
is said to be the portrait of the Queen of France.

Amongst the other remarkable works of art in the Treasure are the
following: the _reliquaries_ of Archbishop Samson, St. Sixtus (12th
century), St. Peter and St. Paul (14th century), and the Holy Sepulchre
(16th century); a _monstrance_ of gilt copper (13th century); a
_liturgical comb_ of ivory, said to have belonged to St. Bernard (12th
century); a rock-crystal _cross_, which formerly belonged to Cardinal de
Lorraine; _orfrays_ embroidered with silver thread (13th century); the
_credence_ and _oil vessels_ of Abbot de la Salle; a _fragment_ of a
carved wood crozier (incorrectly said to be the crozier of St.
Gibrien), two other fragments of which are in the Town Museum (12th
century); the _vases_, _utensils_, and _sacred ornaments_ which were
used at the consecration of Charles X.; the _reliquary_ of the Sacred
Ampulla, designed by Lafitte for the consecration of Charles X. The
original Sacred Ampulla was broken in 1793. The present one, which has
only served for the consecration of Charles X., is a replica said to
have been made with the few drops of balsam of the Clovis Ampulla, which
pious hands saved from the broken fragments of the sacred vessel.

[Illustration: CASKET OF THE SACRED AMPULLA. (_Cliché LL._)]

[Illustration: FRAGMENTS SAVED FROM THE RUINS. (_Cliché LL._)]

[Illustration (Map)]



=FIRST ITINERARY FOR VISITING RHEIMS=

=Starting-point: Place du Parvis Nôtre-Dame=

     1. The Archbishop's Palace (p. 63).
     2. The Theatre (p. 68)
     3. The House of Levesque de Pouilly (p. 68).
     4. The Stores: Galeries Rémoises (p. 73).
     5. The Maison Fossier (p. 75).
     6. The House of J. B. de la Salle (p. 75).
     7. The House of the Enfant d'Or (p. 75).
     8. The Statue of Louis XV. (p. 79).
     9. The Musicians' House (p. 80).
    10. The House of De Muire (p. 83).
    11. The House of Le Vergeur (p. 85).
    12. A 16th Century House (p. 86).
    13. The General Post Office and Chamber of Commerce (p. 87).
    14. The Cloister of the Franciscan Friars (p. 90).
    15. The House of Thiret de Prain (p. 89).
    16. The House of de la Pourcelette (p. 92).

[Illustration: REMOVING THE STATUE OF JOAN-OF-ARC IN MAY, 1918]


=Place du Parvis=

The Place du Parvis (_photo below_) is in front of the main façade of
the Cathedral. The shells made enormous craters there.

In the centre of the square stands an =equestrian statue of
Joan-of-Arc=, by Paul Dubois, of which there is a replica in the Place
St. Augustin in Paris. It was removed in May, 1918, by the Historical
Monuments Department (_photo above_).

[Illustration: THE PLACE DU PARVIS
_On the right: The Law Courts. In the centre: The Theatre. On the left:
The Grand Hôtel. In centre of Square: Statue of Joan-of-Arc._]

Looking towards the Cathedral, the tourist will see on the right the
ruins of the _Hôtel du Lion d'Or_ and of the _Hôtel de la Maison Rouge_.

The latter was completely destroyed. Above the door was the inscription:
"In the year 1429, at the consecration of Charles VII., in this
hostelry--then called the 'Striped Ass'--the father and mother of Jeanne
d'Arcq were lodged at the expense of the Municipality." In reality only
the father of Joan-of-Arc lodged there.

It was at the Hôtel du Lion d'Or (_photo opposite_) and at the Grand
Hôtel (No. 4 in the Rue Libergier, which opens out in front of the
statue of Joan-of-Arc) that the Field-Marshal French stayed in August,
1914, and later General von Zuchow, commanding the Saxon troops which
entered Rheims on September 4, 1914.

[Illustration: INNER COURTYARD OF THE LION D'OR HÔTEL. (_Cliché A.S._)]

On the right of the Cathedral are the ruins of the Archbishop's Palace
(_see plan, p. 33_). A general view of them is seen in the photograph on
p. 48.


=The Archbishop's Palace=

Of the three buildings which surrounded every Cathedral in the Middle
Ages--the bishop's palace, the cloister of the canons, and the house set
apart for the sick and poor (Hôtel-Dieu)--only the archbishop's palace
existed at Rheims in 1914. It extended all along the south lateral
façade of the Cathedral, on the site of the ancient abode of St.
Nicaise, which had replaced a Roman palace. Of the ancient building
erected by the successors of St. Nicaise down to the 13th century, there
remained only the graceful two-storied chapel, doubtless contemporary
with the chevet of the Cathedral. The round entrance tower, known as
Eon's tower (from the name of the heretic who was imprisoned there in
the 12th century), and the great bronze stag placed in the middle of the
courtyard by Archbishop Samson in the 11th century, still existed in the
17th century, but about that time the one was demolished and the other
melted down. This stag, into which on feast-days wine was poured, which
flowed out again by the mouth, was a beautiful specimen of the art of
the old metal-founders of Rheims.

The archbishop's palace and most of its rich collections were burnt in
the fire of September 19, 1914. Of the palace proper there remains only
the great chimney-piece of the Salle du Tau, on which the Latin motto,
"Good faith preserved makes rich," is inscribed (_see p. 64_), the very
opposite of the German "scrap of paper" theory.

=The Archevêché=: The buildings which lined the courtyard were of
different periods. The wing abutting on the entrance-gate was 19th
century, while the correct but heavy and dull southern façade was
rebuilt in the 17th century by Archbishop Maurice Le Tellier, from the
plans of Robert de Cotte.

[Illustration: THE SALLE DU TAU, BEFORE THE WAR]


=The Salle du Tau (or Kings' Hall)=

(_See plan, p. 33._)

At the bottom of the courtyard there used to be a large late 15th and
early 16th century hall, access to which was gained by a horse-shoe
stair with late 17th century wrought-iron hand-rail.

A small porch-like structure at the top of the stair was an unfortunate
addition of 1825.

The hall was known as the =Salle du Tau=, in memory of the ancient
palace which was shaped like the Greek letter _Tau_, or the Kings' Hall,
on account of the portraits of the Kings consecrated at Rheims, received
in 1825.

Built by the Cardinal Archbishop Guillaume Briçonnet between 1497 and
1507, it comprised two stories.

[Illustration: THE SALLE DU TAU IN 1918
_Behind the ruined Hall are seen the Southern Transept and Chevet of the
Cathedral._]

The upper hall, in which the royal banquet was served at the
consecrations, became the Stock Exchange at the beginning of the 19th
century. It was disfigured by poor paintings and false Gothic
ornamentation at the time of the consecration of Charles X.

The walls were hung with four admirable tapestries by Pepersack and
several others given by Robert de Lenoncourt.

The vast chimney-piece with the Briçonnet and Church of Rheims Arms is
all that the fire of 1914 spared of the ancient decoration. It is
visible in the photographs on page 64, at the bottom of the hall.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE SALLE DU TAU (OR KINGS' HALL). (_See
plan, p. 33._)]

The lower hall, with its Gothic arching, was as large as the upper one.
The capitals of the prismatic pillars and the key-stones of the arches
were adorned with escutcheons, fleur-de-lys, flowers and crockets.


=The Archi-episcopal Chapel=

(_See plan, p. 33._)

This was without doubt the work of Jean d'Orbais, the first architect of
the Cathedral. It resembled the latter in many respects.

With its seven-sided apse, four-bay nave and lancet-shaped windows
without rubber-work, it was remarkably slender and graceful.

Its finest ornament was the 13th century bas-relief, _The Adoration of
the Magi_, in the tympanum of the entrance door.

The white marble inner portico of the door dated from the Restoration.
The other, formed of in-laid wood panels, was adorned with five 16th or
early 17th century painted figures.

The lower chapel, partly subterranean, was fitted up as a lapidary
museum in 1865 and 1896.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO THE ARCHI-EPISCOPAL CHAPEL. (_See plan, p.
33._)]

[Illustration: THE ROYAL APARTMENTS IN THE ARCHBISHOP'S PALACE]


=The Royal Apartments=

From the Kings' Hall, access was obtained to five royal saloons with
windows looking on the gardens and adorned with portraits of
archbishops.

It was in the archbishop's palace that the Kings stayed at the time of
their consecration or when passing through Rheims. Henry IV. lived there
during his two sojourns at Rheims. He washed the feet of the poor on
Holy Thursday in the great hall and listened to the sermon of Father
Cotton. Louis XIII. and Richelieu stayed there in 1641, Louis XIV. in
1680, Peter the Great in 1717, Louis XV. in 1722 and 1744, the Queen in
1765, Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette in 1774, and Charles X. in 1825.
From year VI. (Revolution Calendar) to 1824 it was occupied by the
tribunals. The archbishops formerly held many Councils and Synods there,
but lived there only rarely. In the Middle Ages they preferred living in
their fortified castle of Porte Mars (_see p._ 6). In the 17th and 18th
centuries they lived mostly outside Rheims.

_After visiting the ruins of the Archbishop's Palace return to the Place
du Parvis. Take the Rue Libergier, opposite the Cathedral, turning into
the first street on the right (Rue Chanzy). The Museum is soon reached
(see Itinerary, p. 61)._


=The Museum=, formerly =The Grand Séminaire=

This fine 18th century building was erected by Nicolas Bonhomme in
1743-1752. The carved entrance-door and terraced central pavilion,
bordered with a fine balustrade (damaged by shell splinters), are the
remains of the ancient Abbey of St. Denis, the church of which was
destroyed at the time of the Revolution. The right wing was rebuilt in
the 19th century, by order of Cardinal Thomas Gousset. The ground-floor
of the left wing is old, but the other floors are modern. These
buildings were comparatively little damaged by the bombardments.

[Illustration: THE ENTRANCE TO THE COURTYARD OF THE OLD GRAND SÉMINAIRE
(18th century)]

Successively occupied since 1790 by the District Council, a free
secondary school, and by the Russians in 1814-1815, the buildings were
handed over to the Grand Séminaire in 1822. Since the separation of the
Church and State in 1905, they have been fitted up as a Museum.

The Museum was struck at the beginning of the bombardment on September
4, 1914, several pictures in the Modern Gallery being destroyed. Later,
it was again hit by shells, but the greater part of the collections had
already been removed to a place of safety.

[Illustration: THE OLD GRAND SÉMINAIRE (MUSEUM)]

[Illustration: THE BED IN WHICH NAPOLEON SLEPT IN 1814
(_In ruined house at No. 18 Rue de Vesle._)]

_Continue along the Rue Chanzy, which skirts the_ =Theatre= (1873), of
which only the walls remain. _Take the Rue de Vesle (first street on the
left. See Itinerary, p. 61)._

Among the ruins of this street, in the yard of No. 18 on the left, is a
building of which only the ground-floor and front with large windows and
spacious dormers remain.

It was there that Napoleon I. slept after his return to Rheims. His room
had been preserved exactly as it was in 1814 (_see p. 8_).

[Illustration: THE PARIS GATE]

At No. 27 are vestiges of the old =Hôtel Levesque de Pouilly=. Inside
the court there was a 16th century house, the residence of a family
which furnished Rheims with some remarkable administrators, chief among
whom was _Levesque de Pouilly_, "lieutenant of the inhabitants." Among
the celebrated guests received by him were Voltaire and Madame du
Châtelet (1749). In a letter to him, Lord Bolingbroke wrote: "_I know
but three men who are worthy of governing the nation: You, Pope and
myself._"

[Illustration: THE VAULTING AND BELFRY OF THE CHURCH OF ST. JACQUES
(_Cliché LL._)]

_On the right, between Nos. 44 and 46, is the Rue St. Jacques._

_Follow the Rue de Vesle to the end, where the_ =Paris Gate= _stands,
about 1 km. from the entrance to the Rue St. Jacques._

This Gate replaced the Vesle Gate which formerly abutted on the river.
In consequence of the growth of the city it was built in the _faubourg_
about 1845. Its beautiful wrought-iron work (_photo opposite_), by the
local master-locksmiths Lecoq and Revel, was erected by the City in
1774, at the time of the consecration of Louis XVI.

_From the Paris Gate, return by the Rue de Vesle to the Rue St. Jacques,
on the right of which stands the_ Church of St. Jacques.

The =Church of St. Jacques=, whose fine tower contributed to the charm
of the general appearance of the city, was destroyed by the bombardments
of 1918. Begun in the 12th century, it was finished in the 16th. Before
the war, it was the only parish church in Rheims which had been
preserved intact.

[Illustration: THE INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH OF ST. JACQUES (_Cliché
LL._)]

[Illustration: THE PLACE DROUET D'ERLON, BEFORE THE WAR
_On the right: Belfry of the Church of St. Jacques._]

_The Rue St. Jacques leads to the long_ Place Drouet d'Erlon, which was
much damaged by the bombardments of 1918 (_photo opposite_).

Formerly known as _Place de la Couture_, this square, like the
old streets with picturesque names: _Rue des Telliers_,
_Rue du Clou-dans-le-Fer_, _Rue de la Belle Image_, _Rue de la
Grosse-Ecritoire_, _Rue du Cadran St. Pierre_, formed part of the
_Quartier des Loges_, built in the 12th century by Cardinal
Guillaume-aux-blanches-mains for the wood and iron workers. The
house-fronts above the first storey rested mostly on wooden pillars,
leaving recesses or covered galleries on the ground floor.

In the centre of the square stood a statue of Marshal Drouet d'Erlon,
afterwards removed to the crossing of the Boulevards Gerbert and Victor
Hugo, and replaced by a =monumental fountain=, the gift of M. Subé.

_Follow the Place Drouet d'Erlon to the Boulevard de la République,
which skirts_ =The Promenades=.

[Illustration: THE PLACE DROUET D'ERLON, AFTER THE WAR
_The Belfry of the Church of St. Jacques no longer exists._]

[Illustration: THE SUBÉ FOUNTAIN, IN THE PLACE DROUET D'ERLON
_Seen from the Rue Buirette (in ruins)._]

The Promenades, greatly damaged by the war, have sometimes been wrongly
attributed to Le Nôtre. Their designer was a Rheims gardener, Jean le
Roux. Commenced in 1731, they were finished and extended in 1787. They
were formerly reached by the Gates of Mars and Vesles, but preferably by
the Promenade Gate specially opened in the ramparts in 1740 and
inaugurated by Louis XV. in 1744, on his return from Flanders. The
Promenades were first called _Cours Le Pelletier_ (the name of the
_Intendant of Champagne_, who approved the plans), then _Cours Royal_,
after the passage of Louis XV. They were encroached upon by the railway
station, built in 1860.

In the centre of the Promenades, opposite the station, in the _Square
Colbert_, laid out by the landscape gardener Varé in 1860, is a statue
of Colbert.

_Take the Rue Thiers, which begins at the Square Colbert and leads to
the_ =Hôtel-de-Ville=.

[Illustration: THE "SQUARE COLBERT" IN THE MIDDLE OF THE "PROMENADES"
_The Entrance to the Station is just opposite this "Square."_]

[Illustration: THE TOWN HALL IN 1918]


=The Hôtel-de-Ville=

This building, which was destroyed by shell-fire on May 13, 1917, was
similar in many respects to the old Hôtel-de-Ville in Paris, burnt in
1871.

Commenced in 1627, from plans by the Rheims architect, Jean Bonhomme, it
was completed in stages, at long intervals. Only the central _pavilion_
and the left-hand portion were 17th century.

The building was a beautiful specimen of the architecture of the Louis
XIII. period. Seventy-eight columns, Doric on the ground-floor and
Corinthian on the first storey, framed the windows of the façade, whose
bases on the first floor carried trophies in bas-relief and a graceful
frieze. The niches in the central portico were empty, but the pediment
on twisted columns enclosed an equestrian statue of Louis XIII.

In the interior, in the great vestibule, a staircase with a remarkable
wrought-iron balustrade led to the City Library, which was destroyed by
the fire of 1917 (_photo, p. 73_).

On the right, the room where the Municipal Council meetings were held,
contained rich panelling alternated with paintings by Lamatte,
commemorating episodes in the history of Rheims. On the left, the
mayor's office contained magnificent Louis XVI. woodwork.

On the other side of the courtyard, in the centre of which is a statue
of "La Vigne," by St. Marceaux, was the great marriage-hall, containing
a Gallo-Roman mosaic, framed with rosettes and an interlaced border,
representing a gladiatorial fight.

A number of the pictures and works of art in the Hôtel-de-Ville were
saved by the firemen and soldiers. The mosaic in the marriage-hall was
protected by sand-bags and is intact.

_In the Place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville, between the Rue Thiers and the Banque
de France, are two small streets: the Rue Salin and the Rue de
Pouilly._

[Illustration: THE GRAND STAIRCASE OF THE TOWN HALL]

At No. 5 of the Rue Salin, the old 17th century _Hôtel Coquebert_, which
was destroyed by the shells, used to be the headquarters of the _Society
of Friends of Old Rheims_. Several of the illustrations in this Guide
are taken from the collections of this Society.

In the Rue de Pouilly, close to the Hôtel-de-Ville, are the =ruins= of
the _Galeries Rémoises_ stores. These shops were partly housed in a
Gothic building, of which only a few chimney-stacks remain (_see chimney
in photo below_).

_Opposite the Hôtel-de-Ville take the Rue Colbert to the Place des
Marchés._

[Illustration: THE RUE COLBERT, BETWEEN THE TOWN HALL AND THE
MARKET-PLACE]

[Illustration: RUINS IN THE MARKET-PLACE
_Seen from the Rue de Tambour. The "Maison de l'Enfant d'Or" is among
the ruined houses seen in the middle (see pp. 75 to 77). The "Hôtel de
la Salle" and "Maison Fossier" (p. 76), on the right-hand side of the
Square, are not visible in the above photograph._]


=The Place des Marchés=

Built on the site of the ancient _forum_, the Market Square, before the
war, still contained several remarkable 15th century wooden houses.
Unfortunately, they were destroyed by the terrible bombardment of May
8-15, 1918, together with the Square.

[Illustration: THE "HÔTEL DE LA SALLE"
_On the left: the Carriage Entrance with Caryatids: Adam and Eve._]

[Illustration: THE COURTYARD OF THE "HÔTEL DE LA SALLE"
_The graceful Turret has partially collapsed._]

_After turning to the right, on leaving the Rue Colbert, and quite close
to the Square, at No. 4 in the Rue de l'Arbalète_, is the house, dating
from the middle of the 16th century, where =J. B. de la Salle= was born.

Although this house suffered from the bombardments of 1918, its front is
practically intact. It is the finest Renaissance front in Rheims, after
that of =Le Vergeur's House= (_see p. 85_).

The carriage entrance is flanked with two life-size caryatids, popularly
called _Adam and Eve_, on account of their nudity. Along the first
storey runs a broad frieze ornamentated with trophies of arms and a
shield of unknown significance. Between two windows of this storey a
niche, resting on a console, is crowned with a canopy. The shops on the
ground-floor somewhat spoilt the general look of the building. The
interior of the house was less interesting than the front.

In the courtyard is a strikingly graceful three-storey turret (_photo
above_), one side of which has collapsed.

Among the wooden houses destroyed by the bombardments of 1918 in the
Place des Marchés, the following must be mentioned: the =Maison Fossier=
(_see p. 76_), which stood in the Square at the right-hand corner of the
Rue de l'Arbalète, and especially the =Maison de l'Enfant d'Or=
(sometimes wrongly called the House of Jacques Callou), which stood near
the Rue des Elus. The latter house took its name from an old sign
representing the gilt figure of a sleeping child. Hence, punningly, the
name _Golden_ or _Sleeping_ Child.

In spite of alterations, this house (_photo, p. 77_), with its
pent-house roof, two overhanging storeys, windows crowned with finials,
and sculptural decoration (_see carved console, p. 77_), was a
well-preserved specimen of 15th century architecture.

_From the Place des Marchés, follow the Rue Colbert to the_ =Place
Royale=.

[Illustration: BEFORE THE WAR
_See text, page 75._]

[Illustration: AFTER THE WAR
THE "MAISON FOSSIER," BEFORE AND AFTER THE WAR
_See Itinerary, p. 61 (No. 5 of Explanatory Notes)._]

[Illustration: SEE TEXT. _p. 75_
RUINS OF THE "MAISON DE L'ENFANT D'OR"
_Second house on the left, after the Rue des Elus. (See p. 77.)_]

[Illustration: THIS VERY CURIOUS 15TH CENTURY HOUSE STOOD IN THE
MARKET-PLACE
It was completely destroyed (_see p. 76._)
THE "MAISON DE L'ENFANT D'OR," BEFORE THE WAR]

[Illustration: BRACKET OF THE "MAISON DE L'ENFANT D'OR," REPRESENTING
SAMSON SLAYING THE LION]

[Illustration: THE PLACE ROYALE IN 1765
THE INAUGURATION OF THE STATUE OF "LOUIS LE BIENAIMÉ."
_August 20, 1765; engraving by Varin. The original statue (by Pigalle)
is in the middle of the Square._]


=The Place Royale=

The Place Royale, which had previously suffered severely on September
19-22, 1914, was completely destroyed by fire, with the exception of the
modern buildings of the Société Générale Bank, during the bombardment of
April 8-15, 1918.

[Illustration: THE PLACE ROYALE IN 1918
_The plinth of the statue was protected by masonry-work._]

Commenced in 1756, from plans by the architect Legendre, it formed an
oblong, of severe and imposing appearance, at the cross-ways of the four
main streets of the City. In order to carry out Legendre's plans,
forty-nine houses had to be acquired and pulled down. The Square
remained unfinished, only three of its sides being built. The Louis
XV.-XVI. transition style houses were of uniform construction, and were
remarkable for their arcades and eaveless roofs, around which latter ran
a balustrade. The central house (formerly the _Hôtel des Fermes_) had a
Doric front with a statue of Mercury surrounded by children arranging
bales or carrying grapes to the wine-press. A =statue of Louis XV.=, in
the middle of the Square, was protected from the bombardments by
masonry-work (_photos, p. 78 and below_).

The monarch is represented in a Roman mantle and laurel wreath. On
either side of the pedestal are two allegorical bronze figures. One, a
woman, holding a helm with one hand and leading a lion with the other,
symbolizes _gentleness of Government_; the other, a contented man
resting in the midst of abundance, represents _the happiness of
nations_. The wolf and the lamb sleeping side by side at their feet are
symbolical of the Golden Age.

[Illustration: STATUE OF LOUIS XV., PLACE ROYALE, WITH PARTIALLY BUILT
PROTECTING WALL OF MASONRY
_The two allegorical figures are supposed to be likenesses of the
Sculptor Pigalle and his wife._]

The monument, inaugurated in 1765, is the work of Pigalle, but the two
allegorical figures, which are supposed to be portraits of the sculptor
and his wife, alone are original.

The original statue of Louis XV. was removed at the time of the
Revolution (August 15, 1792), and sent to the foundry. It was first
replaced by a pyramid surmounted by a "Fame," in memory of the defenders
of the _Patrie_, then by a plaster Goddess of Liberty, and in 1803 by a
trophy of arms and flags. The present statue, erected under Louis XVIII.
(1818), is due to the sculptor Cartellier, and is an exact replica of
the original one.

It was on the steps of the monument that the Conventionist Ruhl smashed
the Sacred Ampulla under the Revolution.

_From the Place Royale, return to the Market Square, cross over to the
Rue de Tambour (parallel with the Rue Colbert)._

The Rue de Tambour owes its name either to the statue of a
tambourine-player on one of its houses, or to the presence of the
town-drummer who lived in it. It was first damaged, then burnt, in
April, 1918.

[Illustration: THE STATUES OF THE MUSICIANS' HOUSE
_The house was destroyed by bombardment, but the statues were saved._]

Previous to 1918, old houses in this street were still numerous. The
most celebrated was the now completely destroyed =Musicians' House=
(_photo above_), the true origin of which is unknown.

It has variously been supposed to have been the house of a rich burgess,
of the Tom Fiddlers' Brotherhood, and the Mint of the Archbishops of
Rheims. The first storey of the façade had been preserved intact since
the 13th century. In the Gothic niches which separated the mullioned and
transomed windows, five large seated figures on carved consoles (_photo
above_) represented _a tambourine and flute player_, _a piper_, _a
falconer_ with crossed legs, _a harpist_ and _an organ-grinder_ crowned
with a garland of flowers. The falcon on the wrist of the central figure
was removed by the organisers of the consecration of Charles X., as it
was feared that the royal banners might get caught on it.

Fortunately, these statues, which are remarkable for their natural
expression and vigour were removed to a place of safety before the house
was destroyed.

Thanks to a public subscription, the town was able to acquire them
shortly before the war, thus preventing them from being sold abroad.

The cellars of this house are curious, but there exists no proof that
they date back, as has been said, to the Roman period.

[Illustration: 14TH CENTURY DOORWAY, 22 RUE DE TAMBOUR]

The adjoining house (No. 22) is 14th century, and probably dates back to
about the end of the reign of Philippe-le-Bel. Its front has been
greatly spoilt, but still contains a fine door surmounted by an
elliptical arch (_photo above_).

At No. 13 of this street, two 13th century carved heads, one of a man
and the other of a woman wearing one of the mortar-shaped hats in
fashion until the end of the reign of St. Louis, have been built into
the façade.

_At the end of the Rue de Tambour, take the Rue de Mars, on the right of
the Hôtel-de-Ville, at the end of which, on the left, stands the
Triumphal Arch of the_ =Mars Gate=.

[Illustration: THE RUE DE MARS. THE TOWN HALL IS ON THE LEFT]

[Illustration: MARS GATE]


=The Mars Gate=

[Illustration: 18TH CENTURY ENGRAVING BY COLLIN OF THE VAULTING OF THE
ROMULUS AND REMUS ARCADE OF THE MARS GATE
_In the centre: Romulus and Remus suckled by the she-wolf._]

This monument was long believed to be a Roman =gate=--hence its
name--although the ornamentation of its four sides proves that it cannot
originally have been connected with the ramparts. It was only in the
Middle Ages that it was included in the fortified castle (_photo, p. 6_)
built by the archbishops a few steps to the rear. About 1334 its arcades
were walled up, while towards 1554 it was buried under a mass of rubbish
during the building of the fortifications. Partly disinterred in 1594,
when the archbishops' castle was pulled down, it was not completely
cleared until 1816-1817. Restored, then classed as an _historical
monument_ (thanks to Prosper Mérimée), it is one of the largest Roman
structures remaining in France. Forty-four feet high, one hundred and
eight wide, and sixteen thick, it was really a triumphal arch built on
the Cæsarean Way at the entrance to the town, probably in the 4th
century. It comprises three arches separated by fluted Corinthian
columns which support the entablature. On the two main façades between
the columns are carved medallions and niches which have lost their
statues. The vaulting of the arches is divided into sunken panels, the
carving of which is mostly in a good state of preservation. Under the
eastern arch _Romulus and Remus_ are seen suckled by the she-wolf. Under
the middle arch, the twelve months of the year, represented by persons
(five of whom have been destroyed), occupied in the labours of the four
seasons, surround Abundance and Fortune. Under the western arch Love is
seen descending from the sky above Leda and the Swan.

[Illustration: HÔTEL NOËL DE MUIRE
_Note the curious masonry-work of the first storey, composed of
polygonal stones in relief._]

_Behind the Mars Gate is the Place de la République, containing_ a
statue by Bartholdi, damaged by shell-fire. _In front of the Gate, take
the Rue Henri IV., leading behind the Hôtel-de-Ville, then turn to the
left into the Rue de Sedan._ The house at No. 3 was destroyed by shells,
except the =Louis XVI. front= with its gracefully carved garlands, which
escaped injury.

_Take the Rue du Grenier-à-Sel, on the right, to the_ =Hôtel Noël de
Muire=, _on the left, at the corner of the Rue Linguet._

This house consists of the remains of a sort of Henry II. manor with
turrets and dormer-windows. The walls, rounded at the corners like those
of the Templars, are of brick and dressed stone. The plinth separating
the two stories is decorated with carved wreathed foliage. Fret-work and
hexagonal points frame the windows, while a broad cornice on consoles
carries the roof. Formerly the residence of the lords of Muire, this
house was popularly known as the _Maison des Petits Pâtés_, on account
of the polygonal shape of the stones in relief. Theodore de Bèze, one of
the leaders of the Reformation in France, lived there with his friend,
Noël de Muire.

[Illustration: THE RUE DU MARC]

_Take the Rue du Marc, which continues the Rue du Grenier-à-Sel (photo
above)._

The =Rue du Marc= was the quarter where the old noble families and the
higher _bourgeoisie_ of Rheims lived. It suffered considerably from the
bombardments.

At No. 3 is a Henry IV. house, the windows of which are framed with
graceful ornamentation (_photo below_).

However, the most remarkable house in the street is undoubtedly the
=Hôtel Nicolas le Vergeur= (No. 1), which, unfortunately, was partly
destroyed by the shells (_see p. 85_).

[Illustration: HOUSE DATING BACK TO THE REIGN OF HENRI IV. (1589-1610)
AT NO. 3 RUE DU MARC]


=The Hôtel Nicolas Le Vergeur=

The interior building, which has a 17th century carriage entrance,
offers two fine examples of 15th and 16th century architecture. It is
the finest Renaissance structure in Rheims. The main front, incomparably
the most graceful, was but little damaged by the bombardments (_photo
below_).

On the ground-floor the great arched doorway is divided by a wooden post
into two delicately carved compartments. Pilasters decorated with heads,
flowers, birds, and horns of plenty frame the three stone-mullioned
windows. Above these runs a frieze of trophies and medallions, with
portraits of noble lords with upturned moustaches and pointed beards,
and of great ladies with _collerettes_ and high head-dresses, gracious
or haughty, standing well out in relief.

[Illustration: HÔTEL NICOLAS LE VERGEUR]

On the first storey, carved panels above the window form a sort of broad
frieze of bas-reliefs representing men-at-arms or knights of the time of
François I. and Henri II. fighting at tournaments with lance, sword, or
pike.

In one of the rooms overlooking the Rue Pluche were, a fine stone
_mantelpiece_ decorated with graceful delicate foliage; a timber-work
_ceiling_ with large and small beams, carrying panels decorated with
scrolls, and 15th century _tile-flooring_ of terra-cotta, varnished and
painted green and yellow.

At the back of the courtyard, a building, supposed by some to be an old
chapel, had been transformed into vast cellars and store-rooms. The
_oaken ceiling_ of the latter, about fifty feet long and twenty-one
broad, destroyed in 1918, was one of the most beautiful in the world.
The beams, whose extremities carried grotesque figures, were carved on
all their sides with foliage, dragons, birds, and fruits. The beams were
connected by joists resting on stems, which represented apes, dragons,
persons, and foliage. Between the joists the panels had the appearance
of scrolls.

_After visiting the Hôtel Le Vergeur, turn to the right into the Rue
Pluche, which leads to the Place des Marchés. Skirt the Square on the
left, then take the first street on the left_: =Rue Courmeaux=.

[Illustration: HÔTEL ROGIER DE MONCLIN, 18 RUE COURMEAUX]

_At No. 18 are the_ ruins of the =Hôtel Rogier de Monclin=, destroyed
after April, 1918. This house dated back to the Louis XV. period, but
had been disfigured by modern alterations. The façade overlooking the
courtyard, the entrance-hall, and the staircase with ornamental
balustrade, were interesting. At the time of the consecration of Louis
XVI., one of the saloons was furnished for the King's brother, the Comte
(or _Monsieur_) d'Artois, whence the name "_Rue de Monsieur_," formerly
borne by the Rue Courmeaux.

_At No. 30_ is a Renaissance door, almost intact (_photo below_). _At
No. 34, at the corner of the Rue Legendre_, is a late 16th century
house, whose interior arrangement and façade are intact, except for the
woodwork of the windows, which was modernised in the 18th century. It
was built on the site of the old wool-market, after Marshal de
Saint-Paul, at the time of the League, had compelled the inhabitants of
the Faubourg Cérès to destroy their houses.

[Illustration: RENAISSANCE DOOR,
_30, Rue Courmeaux_.]

[Illustration: CÉRÈS ESPLANADE]

_Return to the Rue Courmeaux and take the Rue Bonhomme on the left,
which leads to the Rue Cérès._

The =Rue Cérès= was totally destroyed by fire, from the Place Royale to
the Post Office, which had to be given up in the autumn of 1914.

_At No. 30_ is the =Chamber of Commerce=, one of the finest late 18th
century buildings in Rheims. The magnificent Louis XVI. rooms escaped
practically uninjured. The staircase leading to the first storey, with
its delicate balustrade, is very remarkable.

[Illustration: CHURCH OF ST. ANDRÉ,
_Rue du Faubourg Cérès._]

[Illustration: INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDRÉ]

_The Rue Cérès ends at the Esplanade Cérès_ (_photo, p. 87_), which was
made outside the old ramparts near the Cérès Gate. The name Cérès is
derived from a tower that long served as a prison (_carcer_, whence by
corruption _chair_, _cère_, and then by false mythological association,
_Cérès_). It was in this tower (no longer existing, but famous as early
as the 9th century) that, according to the _chansons de geste_, Ogier
the Dane, handed over by Charlemagne to the custody of the Bishop of
Rheims, was incarcerated.

_From the Esplanade continue, if desired, by the Rue du Faubourg Cérès_
(greatly damaged by the bombardments), to the =Church of St. André=, a
modern building erected by the architect Brunette.

It was struck several times by shells and will have to be rebuilt. As
early as the first bombardment of September 4th, 1914, shell splinters
damaged the doorway, transept, stained glass (part of which was 16th
century and came from the old church), small organ, and the painting of
the _Baptism of Clovis_. Subsequently, the vaulting and parts of the
walls collapsed.

The Church possesses a precious =reliquary= of copper (15th century) and
a =statue of St. André= (patron of the church) of painted and gilded
stone, attributed without authority, to Pierre Jacques.

[Illustration: RELIQUARY OF ST. ANDRÉ]

[Illustration: HÔTEL THIRET DE PRAIN IN 1916
_19 Rue Eugène Desteuque._]

_Return to the Esplanade Cérès, turn to the left at the beginning of the
Boulevard de la Paix, then to the right into the_ =Rue Eugène
Desteuque=.

_At No. 19 of this street_ are the ruins of the =Hôtel Thiret de Prain=.


=The Hôtel Thiret de Prain=

This was a mansion in the days of Henry IV. and Louis XIII. Richelieu
stayed there in 1641.

[Illustration: HÔTEL THIRET DE PRAIN IN 1918
_These two photographs illustrate the systematic destructions practised
by the Germans._]

An imposing building, bordered with streets on its four sides, it had
retained its original appearance. The carriage-entrance in the Rue
Eugène Desteuque alone had been rebuilt in 1697. The principal entrance
was surmounted with a gallery, the walls, ceiling and beams of which
were covered with delicate decorative paintings.

On the first floor one of the corner rooms, looking east, contained a
large Henry IV. mantelpiece, above which were the arms of the nobles of
Prain. Only the metallic portion remains.

[Illustration: INTERIOR FAÇADE OF THE CLOISTER OF THE FRANCISCAN FRIARS
_In the courtyard of No. 9, Rue des Trois-Raisinets._]

The dove-cot of the Hôtel, a massive square tower with pent-house roof,
overlooking the Rue d'Avenay, was destroyed by the bombardments.

_On the left of the Rue Eugène-Desteuque, opposite the Hôtel
Thiret-de-Prain, is the_ Rue des Trois-Raisinets. At No. 9 are the ruins
of a Franciscan Cloister (_photo above_).

This street (_photo below_), like the Cloister, suffered severely from
the bombardments.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE MARGOTIN FACTORY
_14, Rue des Trois-Raisinets._]

_Return to the Rue Eugène-Desteuque and follow the same as far as the_
Rue de la Grue (_on the right_). This street was badly damaged by
shell-fire and is impracticable for motor-cars.

It was named after the sign carved on a stone (_photo, p. 91_) of the
house at No. 5 (entirely destroyed by the shells). At the end stood the
house where J. B. Colbert was born (at the corner of the Rues Cérès and
de Nanteuil, _photo below_).

[Illustration: THE SIGN WHICH GAVE ITS NAME TO THE RUE DE LA GRUE
_It was at No. 5, but has been destroyed._]

_Return to the Rue Eugène-Desteuque, follow it as far as the_ Rue de
l'Université. _Turn into the latter on the left._

This street was destroyed as early as September, 1914. At No. 25 are the
ruins of a Professional School for Girls, formerly the St. Martha
Hospital. The latter, also known as the "Hôpital des Magneuses," was
founded in the 17th century by Mesdames de Magneux, and rebuilt in the
18th century in the Louis XVI. style.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE HOUSE WHERE COLBERT WAS BORN
_At the corner of the Rues Cérès and de Nanteuil._]

At No. 40, opposite the Sub-Prefecture, now in ruins, is the =Maison de
Jean Maillefer=, named after the rich merchant who built it in 1652. It
was scarcely finished, when it was chosen--and this was a source of
pride to its owner--as an abode for Anne of Austria, at the time of the
consecration of Louis XIV. The inside of the courtyard alone has
retained practically its ancient appearance. The front looking on the
street had recently been put back and altered. Some of the sculpture
which adorned it came from another house.

_A short distance farther on, on the left, is the_ Place Godinot, named
after a canon of the 18th century, who caused numerous alterations to be
made in the decoration of the choir and sanctuary of the Cathedral.

_Take the Rue St. Just on the right, and follow its continuation_ (_the
Rue des Anglais_) as far as the Rue d'Anjou, _which take on the right_.

The =Hôtel de la Pourcelette= (No. 7) evokes memories of _Mabillon_, who
lived there when a young student at the University of Rheims.

_At the end of the Rue d'Anjou, turn to the left into the Rue du
Cardinal de Lorraine, and follow the same to the short_ Rue des
Tournelles _on the left_.

In the house at No. 3 of this street were incorporated the turret and
two principal windows of an old Gothic 16th century structure, situated
at No. 18 of the Rue des Anglais, and in ruins since 1898. The
drawing-room likewise contains a large stone chimney-piece, which
formerly stood in the great hall of the old house.

[Illustration: LOUIS XIII. DOOR
_At No. 20 Rue du Carrouge._]

_At the end of the Rue des Tournelles, turn to the right into the Rue
des Fusiliers, which leads to the Place du Parvis. Cross the latter to
the Rue Tronson Ducoudray. Follow this street, which runs between the_
Palais de Justice _and_ _the_ Theatre, _turn to the left, in front of
the latter, into the Rue de Vesle, and take the first street on the
right_, the Rue de Talleyrand.

_Follow this street_, the greater part of which was destroyed by fire
during the bombardments of April, 1918. It suffered further damage in
the months that followed, and a number of interesting old houses were
destroyed.

_Turn into the first street on the right (Rue du Cadran St. Pierre), and
follow the same as far as the Rue de la Clef. Take the latter on the
right._

Before doing so, however, take a look at the =fine Louis XIII. entrance=
(_photo, p. 92_) of the house at No. 20 of the Rue du Carrouge opposite.

_At No. 4 of the Rue de la Clef are the_ ruins of the former =Hôtel de
Bezannes=, partly built by Pierre de Bezannes, Lieutenant of Rheims in
1458 This house contains some fine 16th and 18th century woodwork.

_The Rue des Deux Anges, which continues the Rue de la Clef, leads to
the_ Place du Palais, destroyed during the bombardments of April, 1918.
_In this square stands the_ =Palais de Justice=. The _Palais_ replaced
the old Hôtel-Dieu, but has been almost entirely rebuilt. It is a
building of little note, the principal entrance in particular being
stiff to excess.

[Illustration: RUE CARNOT
_The Place Royale is seen in the background._]

Its only interest is provided by two relics of the past: the vast
cellars or subterranean vaults with pointed arches supported by columns
with Gothic capitals; and the façade of the Audience-Chamber, formerly
the principal ward of the old Hôtel Dieu, the exterior of which has
retained its venerable appearance and the interior, vestiges of its
lofty timber-work and wainscoted vaulting.

The ground-floor of the _Palais_ alone escaped damage from fire and the
shells, thanks to a terrace of reinforced concrete.

_On the left of the Palais take the Rue Carnot_, destroyed by the
bombardments of April, 1918.

The Rue Carnot communicates with the courtyard of the Chapter-House,
also burnt, by a great gate and passage which pass right through a
house.

This entrance was built about 1530, in the transition style between the
Gothic and Renaissance. Its elliptical arch bears a scutcheon with the
arms of the Chapter. Consoles, decorated with grotesque figures, support
the beams. The points of the turrets have disappeared, a supporting
shaft has been mutilated, and the carved wooden leaves of the door have
been removed to the Lycée, yet the gate is still imposing.

It is the last remaining vestige of the Chapter buildings which, with
their gates closing at the same time as those of the city, at the sound
of the bell, formed a "city within a city." In point of fact, the
Chapter was once lord of that part of the city which lies around the
Cathedral, and which it administered. The canons, jealous of their
prerogatives, were often in conflict with the archbishops.

[Illustration: DOOR OF THE CHAPTER-HOUSE COURTYARD
_The Northern Transept of the Cathedral is seen in the background._]

A few capitals and shafts of the ancient cloister of the Chapter,
adjoining the Cathedral, were recently discovered and placed under one
of the penthouses built between the buttresses of Nôtre-Dame.

_Go through the gate, cross the Place du Chapitre, follow the Rue du
Préau towards the Cathedral, then turn to the right into the Rue Robert
de Coucy, which leads back to the Place du Parvis Nôtre-Dame._


=SECOND ITINERARY FOR VISITING RHEIMS=

[Illustration (Map)]

_Starting from the Place du Parvis-Nôtre-Dame, take the Rue Libergier,
opposite the Cathedral. Turn to the left into the_ Rue Chanzy, which was
destroyed by the bombardments of April-August, 1918.

[Illustration: RUE CHANZY]

[Illustration: DOOR AND BALCONY OF THE HÔTEL DE COURTAGNON, (_18th
Century_), _at No. 71 Rue Chanzy_]

The ruins of the 18th century =Hôtel Lagoille de Courtagnon= may be seen
at No. 71 of this street. It was destroyed by the bombardments of April,
1918, with the exception of a part of the front. The finely carved door
and remarkable ironwork of the balcony are visible in the above
photograph.

[Illustration: ORNAMENTAL RAIN-WATER PIPE-HEAD OF LEAD UNDER THE ROOF OF
THE HOSPICE NOËL CAQUÉ (_see p. 97_)]

[Illustration: GALLO-ROMAN BAS-RELIEF _at No. 65, Rue de l'Université.
This bas-relief and the one opposite, on the wall of the Lycée, are the
last remaining vestiges of a Gallo-Roman gate_.]

The =Hospice Noël Caqué= (formerly Hospice St. Marcoul), _on the right_,
was seriously damaged by the bombardments of April, 1918. It dated from
the middle of the 17th century, and was well preserved, with the
exception of the chapel, rebuilt in 1873.

_Take the Rue de Contrai, on the left, which leads to the_ Rue de
l'Université. Inserted in the façade of the house at No. 65 (_on the
right_), and in the wall of the Lycée (_on the left_), are two stone
=bas-reliefs= ornamented with trophies of arms and Roman insignia, the
sole remaining vestiges of the _Porte Basée_ (_from Basilea_) which
formerly stood there on the Cæsarean way, at the southern extremity of
the Gallo-Roman town. (_See photo above of the right-hand bas-relief._)

[Illustration: THE FAÇADE OF THE LYCÉE DESTROYED BY THE BOMBARDMENTS]

_Follow the Rue de l'Université and skirt the_ =Lycée de Garçons=, of
which only the chapel and one of the buildings are left. The rest was
burnt or destroyed by shell-fire.

[Illustration: DOOR OF THE PETIT LYCÉE, _5, Rue Vauthier-le-Noir_. _On
either side of the arcade are heads of "Jean qui rit" and "Jean qui
pleure."_]

The Lycée replaced the old _Collège des Bons Enfants_, founded in the
Middle Ages, and rebuilt in the 16th century by the Cardinal de
Lorraine, founder of the University of Rheims.

Of the old _Collège_, only the central part remained, in the second
court built by Archbishop Charles Maurice Le Tellier in 1686 and the
following years.

The gate of the _Cour des Etudes_ dates from 1688.

The ancient door of the Collège--the tympana of whose arcading contain
two laughing and crying heads--was transferred to the entrance of the
_Petit Lycée_, at No. 5 of the street on the right of the Lycée (Rue
Vauthier-le-Noir) (_photo above_).

_Shortly after the Lycée, turn to the right into the Place Godinot, then
take the Rue St. Pierre-les-Dames on the right._ At No. 8 are the ruins
of the =Abbey of St. Pierre-les-Dames=.

Of this celebrated Abbey, where several royal persons stayed: _Mary
Stuart_ twice, in her childhood and after she was widowed; _Henry IV._,
on a visit to his cousin, the Abbess Renée II.; _Anne of Austria_, of
whom the _Congrégation_ library contains a portrait; there remains
hardly anything but two 16th century _pavillons_ belonging to the period
when Renée de Lorraine, sister of the Queen of Scotland and aunt of Mary
Stuart, was abbess of the convent. Built of stone and brick with marble
incrustations, and adorned with beautiful carvings, these _pavillons_
were pure Renaissance in style. The head of an angel with unfolded wings
and the head of a grinning demon surmounted the two windows of one of
the ground-floors. On the first floor of the same _pavillon_ the window,
framed with delicate ornaments, opened above a cornice, the principal
sculptural subject of which was a nude woman, helmeted, suckling two
children.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE ABBEY OF ST. PIERRE-LES-DAMES, _8, Rue St.
Pierre-les-Dames_.]

_The Rue St. Pierre-les-Dames leads to the Rue des Murs, into which turn
to the right, then to the left into the Rue du Barbâtre. Follow the
latter to the end._ This street suffered greatly from the early
bombardments, and was almost entirely destroyed in the summer of 1918.

_At Nos. 137 and 139, at the corner of the Rue Montlaurent_, are the
ruins of the =Hôtel Féret de Montlaurent=.


=Hôtel Féret de Montlaurent.=

[Illustration: GALLERY FACING THE COURTYARD OF THE HÔTEL FÉRET DE
MONTLAURENT
_The statues in the niches represent the sun and planets._]

This large building, occupied by the _Cercle Catholique_, was commenced
about 1540 by Hubert Féret, a _Lieutenant_ of the people, and the most
celebrated member of a family which played an important part at Rheims
in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. The outside façade has been
greatly altered. At No. 137 it was entirely rebuilt under Louis XVI. At
No. 139 the ground-floor openings have been modified.

As in many of the mansions of the 16th century, most of the decoration
is on the inner façades. Inside the courtyard, on the ground-floor of
the wing abutting on the Rue Montlaurent, there is a six-arched gallery
which was damaged but not destroyed (_photo,_ p. 99). Between the
arch-centres and at the ends of the gallery are seven niches, three feet
high, enclosing stone statues of the sun and the six planets known in
the 16th century.

Taken in their order they are: =Saturn=, with a scythe in his hand and
serpent round his arm, devouring a child, and the zodiacal signs
Aquarius and Capricornus at his feet; =Jupiter=, holding a lighted
torch, with Sagittarius at his feet; =Mars=, armed from head to foot,
surmounting Cancer and Aries; the =Sun=, personified by Phoebus with
flowing mantle, a lion at his side; =Venus=, clothed only in her hair,
surmounting Taurus and Baloena; =Mercury=, with wings on his head and
heels, the caduceus in his hand, Virgo and Gemini at his feet; the
=Moon=, represented by Diana bearing a crescent; below her Scorpio.

The escutcheons on the wall at the back of this façade bear the initials
of Régnault Féret, who completed the mansion. In the second court there
are still vestiges of the chapel of this family.

_At No. 142 of the same street_, the entrance to the =Cour Maupinot=
(one of the numerous _cours_ which have survived in Rheims) is framed in
pilasters, the carved entablature of which supports a triangular
pediment (_photo below_).

_The Rue Barbâtre is continued by the Rue des Salines, which leads to
the Place St. Nicaise._

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO MAUPINOT COURT. THE DOORWAY IS RENAISSANCE,
_142, Rue du Barbâtre. See Itinerary, p. 95_]

The Place St. Nicaise was destroyed by the bombardments of April-August,
1918. It took its name from the celebrated Bishop of Rheims, who, with
his sister St. Eutropia, was put to death by the Vandals in 407.

The Church of St. Nicaise, rebuilt in the 13th century by Libergier and
Robert de Coucy, was destroyed at the time of the Revolution. Amongst
other curiosities it contained a loose pillar, which Peter the Great had
pointed out to him at the time of his journey through Rheims.

At the corner of the Place St. Nicaise, between the Boulevard
Victor-Hugo and the Rue St. Nicaise, is the entrance to the =Champion
Cellars=, in which the _Dubail_ school was installed during the war
(_see p. 24_).

_Take the Rue St. Nicaise to the Boulevard Henry Vasnier (photo below),
turn into the latter, on the right, and follow same as far as the_
=Rond-Point St. Nicaise=.

All this part of the town, which was quite close to the German lines,
was constantly under the fire of their guns. It was violently bombarded
during the German offensives of May, June and July, 1918.

_Near the Rond-Point de St. Nicaise are the_ =Pommery Cellars=, which
gave shelter to many citizens and school-classes during the war (_see p.
24_).


=The Pommery Cellars=

These cellars are among the finest in Rheims, and form, with their
eleven miles of streets, squares and boulevards lighted by electricity,
rail-tracks, waggons, lifts, electric pumps and siphons, quite an
underground city. A visit to them will give the tourist an idea of the
importance and complexity of the Champagne wine industry in Rheims.

[Illustration: THE "HENRY VASNIER," SEEN FROM THE "ROND-POINT ST.
NICAISE"]

[Illustration: TRENCHES AND SHELTERS IN THE SQUARE ST. NICAISE
_See Itinerary, p. 95, and panorama seen from the top of St. Nicaise
Hill, p. 27._]

_The Boulevard Diancourt, which skirts the Square St. Nicaise, begins at
the_ Rond-Point St. Nicaise.

This square was much cut up by the bombardments, and by the trenches and
defensive works made there during the war (_photo above_).

The square contains two eminences, from the top of which there is a fine
panoramic view of Rheims.

The photograph on page 27 was taken from the eminence nearest the
Rond-Point St. Nicaise.

The other eminence is crowned by a limestone tower--all that remains of
the ancient city ramparts.

_Follow the Boulevard Diancourt to the Place Dieu-Lumière._

The name _Dieu-Lumière_, borne by the old gate through which Joan-of-Arc
and the Dauphin entered Rheims, was not derived, as supposed at the
Renaissance, from the Sun-God Apollo, but from the old Gate
_Dieu-li-Mire_ (God the Physician), so called in the Middle Ages on
account of the proximity of a Cistercian hospital.

_Cross the square and take the Rue Dieu-Lumière on the right to the_
Place St.-Timothée. The wood-panelled houses, whose _loges_ faced the
Place St.-Timothée, were destroyed by the bombardments of
April-September, 1918, except the one at the corner of the Rue St.
Julien. This house, though severely damaged, has retained its butcher's
stall with 17th century wooden balustrading.

_Take the Rue St. Julien on the left to the Place St.-Remi, in which
stands the_ =Church of St. Remi=.


=The Church of St. Remi=

The Church of St. Remi is the oldest church in Rheims, and one of the
oldest in all France. Although it is not certain that it replaced a
Roman basilica, said to have stood on the site of the present transept,
there is no doubt that Gallo-Roman building materials, taken from
neighbouring edifices, were used in its construction or restoration.

To-day, the church covers a ground-space of about an acre and a quarter.
In shape a Latin cross, it measures inside about 450 feet in length, 98
feet in breadth and 124 feet in height under the vaulting. Only the
southern façade shows to advantage, but in spite of its varied styles,
which mark the different stages of its growth, the church realises to
the full the purpose of its founders. Its architecture and decoration,
especially in the interior, make it, as was intended, a grand and
dignified depository for sacred remains.

The Church of St. Remi stands on the site of a former cemetery, in the
middle of which was the Chapel of St. Christopher, where St. Remi was
buried. The chapel soon became popular and grew rapidly, especially
between the 6th and 9th centuries, when it became a great fortified
church. The present church, which replaced it, is not only one of the
finest Romanesque churches in the north of France, but also forms a
curious epitome of the history of architecture for several centuries.
Begun in 1039 under Abbot Thierry, it was still far from finished when
consecrated in 1049 by Pope Leo IX. Building was continued in 1170 by
Abbot Pierre de Celle, the future Bishop of Chartres, whose restorations
were the first application of the Gothic style to a great building in
Rheims; in the 13th and 14th centuries, under Abbot Jean Canart, and in
the 15th century, under Abbot Robert de Lenoncourt. Partially
transformed at the end of the 16th century, it has been restored and
partly rebuilt at intervals since 1839.


=The Church of St. Remi during the War=

The Church of St. Remi escaped severe damage until the middle of 1918.
The bombardment of September 4, 1914, injured one of the tapestries
depicting the life of St. Remi, and destroyed a fine painting: _The
Entry of Clovis into Rheims_. The bombardment of November 16, 1914,
wrecked the apsidal chapel of the Virgin, bringing down the vaulting,
destroying the key-stone and pointed arches, crushing the altar beneath
a heap of ruins, smashing the magnificent windows of the apsidal
gallery, and destroying the priceless 12th century stained-glass
depicting _Christ crucified between the Virgin and St. John_. The Church
narrowly escaped destruction when the Hôtel-Dieu Hospital was burnt down
in 1916. From April, 1918, it was marked down by the German batteries.
The roof was entirely burnt, and the dummy vaulting of the nave
collapsed. Of the fine 15th century timber-work nothing remains, but
parts of the lofty 13th century vaulting over the choir and transept
withstood the bombardment. The treasure, tapestries, sacristy doors,
storied tile-flooring of the chapel of St. Eloi, the old stained-glass
of the lofty windows, and the apsidal windows round the gallery of the
first storey, were saved by the Historical Monuments Department.

The tomb of St. Remi is intact. The relics of the saint which, at the
request of the Archbishop of Rheims had not been disturbed, were removed
by the vicar of the parish at the time of the final evacuation of the
town. The reliquary was taken away by officers at a later date, while
the church was burning.


=The Apse of St. Remi Church=

The Apse was rebuilt under Pierre de Celle in 1170, in early Gothic.
Five three-sided radiating chapels arranged in three stages, one behind
the other, have flowing and elegant lines, broken by the enormous
projections of the buttresses which were added at a later period.

This apse is one of the earliest religious edifices in France, in which
flying buttresses were employed.

The latter, very simple in design, rest on outside fluted columns
detached from the wall of the apse. This is one of the last examples of
fluting, as applied to columns, the process disappearing generally with
the introduction of pointed architecture, only to reappear at the
Renaissance.

The persistence of this fluting is doubtless explained by the influence
of the many specimens of Roman architecture which Rheims had preserved.


=The Doorway of the Southern Transept=

Although the transept dates from the 11th century, its southern façade
was built in 1480 by Robert de Lenoncourt.

The doorway, which bears the Lenoncourt arms, comprises only one door,
divided by a pillar with statues of St. Remi and the Virgin.

The deep vaulting of the door is ornamented with vine-foliage. At the
base, in the supporting walls, are statues of St. Sixtus and St.
Sinicius (the first missionaries to Rheims) bare-footed, clothed in long
embroidered mantles and holding books. In the vaulting above the
head-covering of the missionaries are eight groups of statuettes
representing episodes in the Life and Passion of Jesus.

Tourists who follow the Itinerary on page 95, come out by the Rue St.
Julien, in front of the doorway of the south transept. The latter is
between the ruined apse (_on the right_) and the south lateral façade
(_on the left_).

[Illustration: SOUTHERN TRANSEPT OF ST. REMI CHURCH]

[Illustration: DOORWAY OF THE SOUTHERN TRANSEPT (_see photo, p. 104_)]

The 15th century leaves of the door are composed of wood panels in blind
arcading, ornamented with flowering clover.

On the buttresses which frame the doorway are five statues of saints,
including St. Remi, St. Benedict, and St. Christopher carrying a
kneeling Jesus on his shoulder.

The tympanum of the gable above the great flamboyant window is arranged
on a Gothic pediment. Its decoration represents the _Assumption of the
Virgin and her crowning in Heaven_.

On the top of the pediment, and crowning the whole, is St. Michael
trampling Satan underfoot.

The whole of the doorway is a beautiful example of Flamboyant Gothic.
Its rich carvings and delicate ornamentation are in striking contrast
with the severity of the rest of the building.

At the intersection of the transept, there was formerly a wooden spire,
built in 1394, which was pulled down as unsafe in 1825, by order of
those who had charge of the arrangements connected with the consecration
of Charles X.

On the right-hand side of the transept, and also in the north transept,
are small semi-circular chapels.


=South Lateral Façade=

This front has the bare, massive appearance of the 11th century
buildings. The remarkable Roman arches, massive buttresses and blind
doorway, framed by two primitive capitals with a wreath-shaped astragal,
are apparently vestiges of constructions of an earlier date than those
of Abbot Thierry.

The semi-cylindrical abutments are among the oldest of mediæval
buttresses. They are crowned with cones or capitals, the greater part of
which are devoid of decoration.


=The West Front of St. Remi Church=

[Illustration (St. Remi Church)]

Between its two towers, this gabled façade, the recesses and blind
arcading of which form almost its sole decoration, is in strong contrast
with the principal façade of the Cathedral. At once elegant and severe,
like most of the monastic buildings of the 12th century, it lacks unity.
All that part situated above the five windows of the first storey,
including the rose-window, has been rebuilt in modern times. The very
simple rose-window, between two lines of superimposed arcading, is
protected, in the Champagne style, by a relieving-arch. The northern
tower (_on the left_) was almost entirely rebuilt in the 19th century,
on the lines of the old one. The simpler southern tower (_on the
right_), with its arched windows and loopholes, is Roman of the 11th or
12th century. The pointed part of the façade is late 12th century, and
dates from the time of the restorations by Pierre de Celle.

Three doors open on the nave. The central one is flanked by two columns
with statues of St. Peter and St. Remi. The marble and granite columns
came, no doubt, from some neighbouring Gallo-Roman building. These
statues, with arms pressed close to their sides in the ancient stiff
manner, are probably from the original basilicas.


=The Inner Side of the Western Doorway=

Here, the architecture is peculiar. Pierced columns form a gallery
connecting the upper courses. The galleries of the first storey are
supported by two great columnar shafts, each formed of two portions
joined by a stone ring and surmounted by bell-shaped marble capitals.
The columns and capitals are Gallo-Roman.


=The Nave=

[Illustration: THE NAVE (_seen from the Choir_) (_Cliché LL._)]

Alterations were made at different times to the nave which, in the 11th
century, had a timber-work roof. Pierre de Celle lengthened it by two
bays, the pointed arches of which contrast with the circular ones of the
lower bays, and also increased its height. _Note the ogives above the
round arches._ The visible timber-work was replaced with vaulting on
diagonal ribs sustained by clusters of small Gothic columns backing up
against the Roman piers, the latter being still visible. These heavy
piers (composed of fourteen small columns) which surround the central
nave, and whose capitals (_photo, p. 108_), with Barbaric wreathed
astragals and foliage, recall the Carolingian period, contrast
strikingly with the lightness of the apse. They are undoubtedly 11th
century. All the stone vaulting of the nave, as far as the transept,
was replaced after 1839 with wood and plaster, which collapsed under the
bombardments of 1918, when the roof was burnt.

[Illustration: ROMAN CAPITAL IN THE NAVE]

[Illustration: THE NAVE AND CHOIR IN 1914 (_Cliché LL._)]

The pulpit, with its Benedictine monogram, is late 17th century. It is
ornamented with three bas-reliefs: _St. Remi receiving the Sacred
Ampulla_, _St. Benedict imploring the Holy Spirit_, and _St. Benedict
giving the Injunction to his monks_. As far as the pulpit, on both sides
of the nave, the granite columns resting on the piers date from the
Gallo-Roman period.

[Illustration: TRIFORIUM OF ST. REMI CHURCH (_seen from entrance_)]

The side-aisles of the nave are surmounted with a triforium (_photo
above_) with semi-circular vaulting at right-angles to the nave. The
south aisle is almost entirely in ruins (_photo, p. 107_).

[Illustration: THE NAVE AND CHOIR IN 1919]


=The Tapestries=

The priceless tapestries which, before the war, decorated the tribunals
of the side-aisles, were saved.

[Illustration: THE TENTH TAPESTRY OF ST. REMI, DAMAGED BY
SHELL-SPLINTERS ON SEPT. 4, 1914
(_See description, pp. 110, 111._)]

Those given by Robert de Lenoncourt and restored by _Les Gobelins_, are
rich in composition and decorative effect. In an architectural frame of
the Renaissance period, they represent the following legendary scenes
from the life of St. Remi, the costumes belonging to the period of
François I.:--

1. The blind hermit Montanus visits the new-born Remi, who, touching him
with his fingers wet with milk, restores his sight.

2. The hermit St. Remi, called by the people to the bishopric, receives
the mitre.

3. Four miracles are performed by the saint: he extinguishes a fire
lighted by demons in the city; he restores life to a girl; he is served
at table by angels; when wine ran short at the table of his cousin
Celsa, he blessed an empty cask, which was immediately filled.

4. The Battle of Tolbiac; Clovis instructed and baptized by Remi; the
miraculous dove and an angel bring from heaven the Sacred Ampulla and
the fleur-de-lys scutcheon.

5. Remi gives Clovis a cask of wine, telling him that he will always be
victorious so long as the cask remains full; a miller who refused to
give his mill to the Church, sees his wheel turn the wrong way and his
mill fall down; St. Génebaud, Bishop of Soissons, punished by Remi for
his sins, is afterwards delivered from his fetters by the saint.

6. The miracle of Hydrissen: Remi raises a man from the dead, who
confirms his wish to leave a portion of his wealth to the Church, to the
confusion of his son-in-law who contested the will.

7. Remi contemplating a heap of corn which he had collected to provide
against famine, and which some drunkards had burnt. At a Council, Remi
paralyses the tongue of a heretic priest, and then restores speech to
him after repentance.

8. Remi, singing Matins in the chapel of the Virgin, is assisted by St.
Peter and St. Paul and blessed by Mary. Remi, blind, dictates his will
in the presence of St. Génebaud and St. Médard. Remi recovers his sight,
celebrates mass and gives the Communion to his clergy. Remi dies and
four angels carry away his soul.

9. Remi's funeral; the procession goes towards the church of St.
Timothy, where it is proposed to bury the saint, but in front of St.
Christopher's, on the site of the present basilica, the saint, by making
it impossible to lift his coffin, manifests his desire to be interred in
this chapel. The saint's winding-sheet, carried in procession, dispels
the plague that had been ravaging the city.

10. Angels transfer the relics of the saint to his mausoleum. A soldier
who had tried to break in the door of the church, cannot withdraw his
foot. Remi punishes the Bishop of Mayence, guilty of theft. Remi reveals
himself with the Virgin and St. John. The Archbishop of Rheims, Robert
de Lenoncourt, kneeling, presents the ten pieces of tapestry to the
saint.

The latter tapestry was riddled with splinters (_photo, p. 110_) during
the bombardment of September 4, 1914.


=The Treasure=

This was kept in the sacristy, the 15th century carved wood doors of
which have Flamboyant style frames.

Formerly the richest of all the church treasures of France, it was
impoverished in the course of the centuries, through wars and
revolutions.

The =enamels= by Landin of Limoges (1633), dedicated to the lives of St.
Timothy and St. Remi, a 12th century abbot's =crozier=, =reliquaries=
and =sacerdotal ornaments= are noteworthy.

The treasure was removed, together with the doors of the sacristy, by
the Historical Monuments Department.


=The North Transept=

Three small white marble Gallo-Roman or Carolingian capitals crown the
colonnettes of the triforium.

Formerly, the church contained several tombs. Let into the wall of the
north transept is a Latin epitaph, praising the virtues of a woman named
Guiberge, who seems to have combined in her person the perfections of
six women, _i.e._ the beauty of Rachel, the fidelity of Rebecca, the
modesty of Susanna, the piety of Tabitha, the warm affections of Ruth,
and the high morals of Anna.

[Illustration: THE RUINED TRANSEPT
_In the foreground: Renaissance Balustrade round the Choir (see p. 115),
at the intersection of the Northern Transept. At the back: Inner side of
the South Transept Door._]


=The South Transept=

The first chapel on the right of the apse, against the transept, is the
chapel of St. Eloi.

In 1846, forty-eight storied flag-stones, taken from the flooring of the
sanctuary of the church of St. Nicaise and collected by the architect
Brunette, were placed there.

These 14th century lozenge-shaped stones are engraved in black, the
hollowed-out portions being filled with lead. Each stone has a pretty
border with a square medallion, in the middle of which two or three
figures represent a scene from the Old Testament, from Noah to Daniel in
the lions' den.

This chapel also contained two very expressive mediæval statues of
painted wood and a 14th century Christ, all of which came from the old
church of St. Balsamic.

The second chapel on the eastern side of the south transept contained an
Entombment dating from 1531. In this group, which belonged to the old
church of the Commandery of the Temple of Rheims, Joseph of Arimathea
and Nicodemus hold the winding-sheet. Salome, and Mary the mother of St.
James, stand near the tomb, while the Virgin, overcome with grief, is
supported by St. John.

[Illustration: THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY ENTOMBMENT, FORMERLY IN ONE OF THE
CHAPELS OF THE SOUTHERN TRANSEPT (_Cliché LL._)]

Facing this Burial Scene was the Altar-screen of the Three Baptisms, the
work of Nicolas Jacques and the gift of Jean Lespagnol in 1610. This
screen, which formed the background of the baptismal fonts, represented
in three bas-reliefs: The baptism of Clovis (_on the right_), the
baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist (_in the centre_), and the baptism
of Constantine (_on the left_).

The railing round the baptismal fonts belongs to the second half of the
18th century, and was taken from the church of St. Pierre-le-Vieil.


=The Choir of St. Remi Church=

[Illustration: SCULPTURED CONSOLES OF COLONNETTES IN THE CHOIR]

The Choir was rebuilt by Pierre de Celle. The plan is very like that of
the choir of the Cathedral, of which it is the prototype.

As in the Cathedral, it intrudes upon the nave, of which it occupies the
three last bays. In the latter, the columns placed against the six piers
were removed. The groups of small columns which support the ribs of the
vaulting rest upon a corbel-table carried by three consoles (_photo
above_), which in turn rest on colonnettes with crocketed capitals. The
central consoles are ornamented with figures of angels and symbolic
animals, while under the lateral consoles are statuettes of prophets
holding scrolls, on which their names are inscribed in painted letters.

Five circular radiating chapels open out on the vast ambulatory. The
plan of the latter, like that of Nôtre-Dame-de-Châlons, evokes all that
is most original in the Gothic architecture of Champagne. The bays with
their alternations of square-ogival and triangular vaulting do not
correspond with the breadth of the radiating chapels, which are
connected to one another by three arcades resting on light columns. In
the lower nave, from the curiously large number of points of support, it
would seem that the builders had doubts as to the strength of the
pointed style and, by way of precaution, greatly increased the number of
points of support inside the church and of the exterior buttresses. The
tribunes rising above the arcades are surmounted with a triforium
lighted by high windows, which still retain their beautiful early 18th
century stained-glass. The somewhat stiff figures stand out on a
uniformly blue ground. In the upper part, apostles, evangelists, and the
sixteen greater prophets are grouped around a stately Virgin. In the
lower part, the principal archbishops of Rheims on thrones are seated
round St. Remi who occupies the place of honour below the Virgin. In the
two last windows are effigies of Archbishops Samson (_deceased in 1161_)
and Henry of France, during whose episcopate Pierre de Celle caused the
apse to be built.

[Illustration: FRAGMENT OF PASCHAL CHANDELIER DESTROYED BY THE
BOMBARDMENTS OF 1914]

The choir is surrounded by a Renaissance railing which is out of harmony
with the general scheme. It was erected between 1656 and 1669, at the
joint expense of the widow of the famous barrister Omer Talon, the Town
Council, the Duke of Longueville, and the Grand Prior of St. Remi. The
sculptor François Jacques seems to have co-operated therewith.

The great _crown of light_ hanging at the entrance to the choir was an
imitation of the original crown, destroyed in 1793, and which was
garnished with ninety-six candles, symbolizing the ninety-six years of
St. Remi's life (_see p. 108_).

The 18th century high-altar of red marble which, like the cross and the
six chandeliers, came from the church of the Minims, was crushed beneath
the falling vaulting.

At the time of the Revolution (1792) the chandelier (masterpiece of the
old Rheims metal-founders), which adorned the centre of the Sanctuary,
was broken and melted down, with the exception of a portion of one of
the feet. This fragment (_photo above_), preserved in the Archæological
Museum, was destroyed by the bombardment of 1914.


=The Tomb and Reliquary of St. Remi=

[Illustration: TOMB AND RELIQUARY OF ST. REMI]

The present tomb, erected in 1847, is only a memorial of the sumptuous
mausoleum, profusely decorated with gold medals, diamonds and sapphires,
which was destroyed at the time of the Revolution.

It is a Renaissance chapel, ornamented with the statues of the original
tomb, which form by far the most interesting part of the monument. The
twelve Peers are represented in their coronation robes: the Archbishop,
Duke of Rheims, carries the Cross; the Archbishop, Duke of Laon, the
sceptre; the Bishop, Count of Beauvais, the royal mantle; the Bishop,
Count of Châlons, the ring; the Bishop, Count of Noyon, the girdle; the
Duke of Burgundy, the crown; the Duke of Aquitaine, the standard; the
Duke of Normandy, a second standard; the Count of Flanders, the sword;
the Count of Toulouse, the spurs; the Count of Champagne, the military
standard of the King.

The Reliquary of St. Remi, which is in the mausoleum, dates from 1896.
It was bought by national subscription and presented to the church on
the occasion of the centenary of the baptism of Clovis. In the niches of
the lower part of the reliquary are statuettes of the twelve apostles.
Higher up, in the recesses of the long sides, enamels illustrating
episodes in the life of St. Remi are imbedded. On the two ends, two
enamels represent the Battle of Tolbiac and the Baptism of Clovis.

_Leave the Church of St. Remi by the western doorway, which faces the
Place de l'Hôpital civil, cross the square, then turn to the right into
the Rue Simon. The entrance to the_ Hôtel-Dieu Hospital _is on the
right_.


=The Hôtel-Dieu=

This hospital is installed in the buildings of the ancient Abbey of the
Benedictine monks of St. Remi who, for centuries, were the guardians of
the relics of the famous Bishop of Rheims.

During the invasion, at the time of the Revolution, the Abbey was
transformed into a military hospital, but it was only in 1827 that it
became officially the _Hôtel-Dieu,_ in place of the old Municipal
Hospital (_see "Palais de Justice" p. 93_). The furnishings of the
latter were then transferred to the Abbey buildings, disaffected since
the Restoration.

Of the ancient abbey, where _Charles-le-Simple_ and the _Duc Robert_
were proclaimed king, and where several archbishops were elected, only a
few vestiges remain. Damaged by the fires of 1098, 1481, and 1751, it
was completely destroyed by the great conflagration of January 15, 1774.
The present abbey, rebuilt by Duroche, the King's architect, was
scarcely finished when the Revolution broke out.

Incendiary bombs dropped by German aeroplanes in August, 1916, destroyed
most of the buildings.

The monumental façade which faces the Court of Honour is Louis XVI. in
style.

The second court, that behind the main buildings, is bordered by a
cloister built by the Rheims architect, Nicolas Bonhomme, in the first
part of the 18th century, in place of the 13th and 14th century cloister
destroyed in 1707. The buttresses of the side which abuts on the church
of St. Remi, and those of the opposite side, are 12th century.

The marble fountain with bronze furnishings, in the centre of the court,
was formerly in the Place St. Nicaise. It was erected in 1750 from
designs by _Coustou_.

[Illustration: THE CLOISTER AND FOUNTAIN OF THE HÔTEL-DIEU]

[Illustration: THE GRAND STAIRCASE OF THE HÔTEL-DIEU
_Through the windows is seen the North Front of St. Remi._]

_At the back of the court, on the left_, is an exceedingly fine Louis
XVI. staircase with wrought-iron handrail (_photo above_).

The =Lapidary Museum=, which was formerly in the crypt of the
archi-episcopal chapel (_see p. 65_), was installed under one of the
galleries of the cloister in 1896. Of the tombstones, storied
floor-tiles, and various carvings which it contains, the most remarkable
is the =Tomb of Jovinus=.

Consul in 367, Jovinus commanded the armies in Gaul, under the Emperor
Julian, and successfully resisted three attempts at invasion by the
Alemanni. As a Christian, he founded a basilica at Rheims.

The white marble tomb with carvings is apparently Græco-Roman of the 3rd
century, and dates back before the time of Jovinus, who died in 370. It
is possible that Jovinus had the first occupant of the tomb ejected, or
that he bought an old sarcophagus and had his own portrait affixed to
it.

The chapel installed in the old library of the abbey contained some fine
Louis XVI. wood carvings (_see photo below of the ruins of the chapel_).

[Illustration: CHAPEL OF THE HÔTEL-DIEU IN 1919]

[Illustration: THE OLD CHAPTER-HOUSE OF THE ABBEY]

The =chapter-house= of the abbey, which served as a refectory, was
rebuilt about the end of the 12th century. With its pointed arches, it
belonged to the early period of Gothic architecture. The most remarkable
portion was the vestibule facing the cloister. The decoration of the
lateral arcades of the vestibule included Roman capitals, nearly all of
which are intact (_photo below_), and which are of great value from the
standpoint of the history of art and costumes. In the refectory were the
_Godard_ tables made out of a single branch of a gigantic oak-tree from
the forest of St. Basle. They were given to the old _Hôtel-Dieu_ by
Canon Godard, whose name is incrusted in lead in the wood, as a rebus:
_Go_, followed by the figure of a dart (French: _dard_).

Near the chapter-house, a round-arched chamber was all that remained of
the early portion of the abbey.

[Illustration: ROMAN CAPITALS IN THE VESTIBULE OF THE CHAPTER-HOUSE]

[Illustration: THE GRAND STAIRCASE OF THE HÔPITAL GÉNÉRAL]

_After visiting the Hôtel-Dieu, follow the Rue Simon, which skirts the
Ecole de Médecine, then turn to the right into the Rue St. Remi. At the
end of same, take the Rue Gambetta on the left, and follow it as far as
the_ =Hôpital Général= _on the right._


=The Hôpital Général=

This is the old Order-House of the Jesuits, built at the beginning of
the 17th century. The =refectory= is ornamented with rich woodwork and
paintings, by the Rheims artist Hélart. Of greater interest is the
_library_, situated under the gables, and which is reached by a fine
staircase. The room is adorned with a profusion of wood-carvings and
mouldings. Exceedingly fine consoles carry the ceiling, whose carved
panels are profusely ornamented with crowns, polygons, florets and heads
of angels. The oaken pilasters which separate the bookshelves are
decorated with a variety of leaves and flowers. In spite of this wealth
of ornament, the general effect is harmonious. The recesses in the
woodwork, opposite the dummy dormer-windows, were for reading.

Ancient vines cover the walls of the chapel, near the entrance to the
_hôpital_.

_At the side of the Hôpital Général stands the_ =Church of St. Maurice=.

This church was entirely rebuilt by the Jesuits after the destruction of
the ancient edifice, which was one of the oldest in Rheims. Here may be
seen the _Eagle Reading-Desk_, a fine piece of 17th century
wood-carving; two _Louis XIV. portable iron desks_ and the _paschal
chandelier_ of carved wood; the _17th century confessionals_ of the
lateral chapels, and in the sacristy remarkable _Louis XIII.,
hand-embroidered guipures_ of open-work designs, after the style of the
models by the Rheims artist, Georges Baussonnet.

_Return to the Place du Parvis, in front of the Cathedral, via the Rue
Gambetta and its continuation, the Rue Chanzy._



A VISIT TO THE BATTLEFIELDS AROUND RHEIMS


[Illustration (Map)]

A thorough visit can be made in two days.

The Itinerary for each day is divided into two parts, to allow tourists
to return to Rheims for lunch.

    =First Day=  { Morning    pp. 122-133.
                 { Afternoon  pp. 134-159.

    =Second Day= { Morning    pp. 160-165.
                 { Afternoon  pp. 166-174.



FIRST DAY

MORNING

=THE MOUNTAIN OF RHEIMS=

(_See the complete Itineraries on p. 121, and the summary of the war
operations on p. 131._)

[Illustration (Map)]

This part of the Itinerary will take the tourist to the most important
points of the last German offensive of 1918, which aimed at the capture
of Rheims.

_Starting from the Place du Parvis Nôtre-Dame, take the Rue Libergier,
opposite the Cathedral, turn to the right into the Rue Chanzy, follow
same as far as the Rue de Vesle, take the latter on the left, and follow
it to the end._

_After the_ =Porte de Paris= _(see p. 68) the Rue de Vesle becomes the
Avenue de Paris. Take same, but after passing under the railway bridge,
turn to the left into the Avenue d'Epernay (R. N. 51, see plan, p.
121)._

_Take the second street on the right (Rue de Bezannes), which passes in
front of the_ =Western Cemetery=, devastated by the bombardments.

The road crosses numerous lines of trenches and boyaux, which defended
the immediate approaches to Rheims.

_Before reaching Bezannes village, leave on the right, two roads which
skirt a large estate enclosed with railings, go straight on to the
ruined railway-station of Bezannes, then turn to the right._


=Bezannes=

(_See Itinerary, p. 122._)

_Cross the first group of half-ruined houses, then, on reaching a second
group, which forms the main part of the village, turn to the left into
the first street encountered, where the_ partially destroyed church
_stands_.

The round-vaulted apse, tower, nave and aisles all belong to the
Romanesque period. The Gothic doorway is 13th, and the spire of the
belfry 15th century.

The square tower greatly resembles the old belfry on the doorway of St.
Remi Church in Rheims, and, like the latter, dates apparently from the
middle of the 11th century.

The Gothic doorway of the west front is set up against a Romanesque
wall. The gable has been rebuilt in modern times. Vestiges of an ancient
portal are to be found on each side of the doorway. The key-stones of
the arch above the tympanum, like those of the upper arching, are
numbered in Roman figures, a peculiarity rarely to be found.

Facing the doorway of the church, on the left of the great entrance-door
to a court, is a niche containing a 16th century stone =statue=
representing a bishop wearing a chasuble.

In the court of the same house, over the door of the main structure, on
the right, in an arched Renaissance niche, hollowed out and ornamented
with marble incrustations, is the =statue= of a canon with folded hands
kneeling at the foot of a crucifixion.

A shell-splinter took off the head of the bishop's statue, but the other
group is intact.

Those interested in things pre-historic, may visit the =Pistat
Collection= at Bezannes, which contains a great number of interesting
specimens belonging to the stone and neolithic ages, and to the Gallic
and Roman periods of the region.

Of the old castles of Bezannes, nothing of interest remains.

On September 11, 1914, during the Battle of the Marne, the German Staff
took up their quarters in the house of M. Poullot. On the 12th, the
battle attained the vicinity of the village.

_Skirt the church, and at the cross-roads at the end of the village,
keep straight on, past the cemetery on the right._

[Illustration: CHURCH OF BEZANNES IN 1914]

_The road climbs a small hill lined with trenches, then descends to the
village of_ =Les Mesneux=.

_At the entrance to this village (which is of no particular interest)
turn to the right, and at the fork about fifty yards farther on, to the
left, leaving the unmetalled road on the right._

_About half-a-mile from Les Mesneux and shortly before reaching the
crossing with the road to Rheims (G. C. 6)_, there is a small wood at
the place called =Le Champ Clairon=. It was from here that German
batteries under Colonel von Roeder fired on Rheims on September 4, 1914,
in spite of the protestations of the Mayor of Les Mesneux, who assured
the German commander that the French troops had completely evacuated the
town.

_At the crossing with G. C. 6, keep straight on to Ormes_, whose church,
at the entrance to the village, was almost entirely destroyed.


=Ormes=

(_See Itinerary, p. 122._)

This village, in addition to numerous subterranean passages and
chambers, possesses the interesting 12th century =Church St. Remi=
(_photo below_).

Its circular apse with cornice resting on corbels is barrel-vaulted.
Colonnettes in the great bays of the steeple (in ruins) carry carved
12th century capitals.

The pointed vaulting of the southern transept is 12th century, and the
ogival groining rests on Norman capitals. The doorway of the western
façade dates from the second half of the 12th century, and although its
porch was destroyed in 1853 it is still remarkable.

[Illustration: THE CHURCH OF ORMES]

[Illustration: THE INSIDE OF ORMES CHURCH]

It comprises three tierce-pointed arcades surmounted by a line of
billet-moulding. The lateral arcades are blind, while the higher central
arcading around the door is surmounted with three receding _tori_
resting on crocketed foliate capitals. The lateral arcades have similar
capitals but only one _torus_.

Inside the church are interesting =16th century statues=: _St. Barbara_
in stone and _St. Catharine_, painted and decorated, face the altar;
_St. Remi_ in stone, remarkable for its costume and decoration, stands
above the altar of the northern chapel; a wooden _Virgin_ surmounts the
inner doorway.

[Illustration: ALTAR-SCREEN OF THE CHOIR]

[Illustration: THE ROAD FROM RHEIMS TO JOUY, NEAR THE LATTER VILLAGE
_Note the camouflaging._]

_Return by the same road to the crossing with the road to Rheims (G. C.
6), where, opposite the_ =Café du Joyeux Laboureur=, _turn to the
right._

The road rises towards the Mountain of Rheims. Of the _camouflaging_
seen in above photograph, only traces remain.

_Shortly after, the tourist passes between the villages of_ =Jouy= _and_
=Pargny=, _whose houses border the road._ Jouy (_on the left_) and
Pargny (_on the right_) were bombarded by the Germans in June, 1915.

The =Church of Jouy=, visible from the road to Rheims, was almost
entirely destroyed.

_To visit the church of Pargny, turn to the right opposite the grocery
stores, No. 262, then take the second street on the left_ (near a fine
mansion partly in ruins).

_About 100 yards farther on is_ the church, the belfry of which was
destroyed. _Return to the crossing with the main road to Rheims, where
turn to the right._

The road continues to climb the northern slopes of the Mountain of
Rheims. On a hill to the left, the =Chapel of St. Lié= dominates the
surrounding plain. There is a very fine view of Rheims from here.

_The top of the rise is reached soon afterwards. Descend the southern
slopes, passing between the sidings of an_ important material and
ammunition depot situated on the reverse side of the mountain out of
sight of the enemy's observation-posts. _On reaching the crossing
half-way down the hill, leave on the left the two roads leading
respectively to_ =Ville Dommange= _and_ =Courmas=.

_A short distance further on, after passing the road to Onrézy (on the
left), take the following narrow road on the left_, which passes between
clumps of trees that were cut to pieces by shell-fire.

_A little further on, on the right, is a_ cemetery containing the graves
of some two hundred French, British and Italian soldiers.

_Turn to the right after the cemetery._ The road crosses a fine avenue
bordered with shell-torn poplar trees, leading to the =Castle of
Commetreuil= _on the left_. _The village of_ =Bouilly= is reached soon
afterwards.


[Illustration: THE END OF BOUILLY VILLAGE
(_going towards St. Euphraise_).]


=Bouilly--St. Euphraise--Clairizet=

(_See pp. 131-132, and Itinerary, p. 122._)

Bouilly was burnt by the Germans on September 12, 1914, under the
pretext that the inhabitants had caused the death of two _Uhlans_ killed
the day before by French _Chasseurs_.

_Turn to the right opposite the Church of Bouilly._ There is a small
cemetery on the right, just outside the village, containing several
German graves.

_On reaching G.C. 6, leading to Rheims, turn to the right. Take the
first road on the left_, which passes through a small devastated wood,
where batteries of guns were posted. _Cross a small stream, and
immediately afterwards the railway, then turn to the left into the
village of_ =St. Euphraise=.

_Turn to the right in the village, opposite the church._ The road rises
steeply to the hamlet of =Clairizet=, which was almost entirely
destroyed. _Pass by a_ "Calvary," composed of four large trees
surrounding a cross, _then turn to the left into a small narrow street_.

[Illustration: RUINED CHURCH OF ST. EUPHRAISE]

[Illustration: COULOMMES VILLAGE SEEN FROM THE CHURCH]


=Coulommes-la-Montagne--Vrigny=

(_See Itinerary, p. 122._)

_The road rises, then descends to_ =Coulommes-la-Montagne=. _Turn to the
right at the entrance to the village._ The church, in ruins, is on the
left.

_At the cross-roads just outside the village take G.C. 26 on the left.
At first, the road dips rather abruptly, then rises to_ =Vrigny=.

The Church of Vrigny, entirely in ruins, is on the right at the entrance
to the village. _Pass the Town Hall, leaving a public washing-place on
the left, then turn to the right._

_On leaving the village, take G.C. 26 on the left to the village of_
=Gueux=.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH AT VRIGNY]

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH OF GUEUX IN 1918]


=Gueux=

(_See pp. 131-132 and Itinerary, p. 122._)

Gueux is a small old-world village, with ancient houses, castle and
church.

At the entrance to the village, a large square with trees, cut to pieces
and devastated by the bombardment.

_From the square, go to the_ =Church= _on the right_, now a heap of
ruins. Seen through the trees from the square it forms a pitiful sight.

In the chapel, on the left of the main entrance, there was a fine piece
of Renaissance carving.

[Illustration: GUEUX CHURCH IN 1917
_Cardinal Luçon coming out of the Church (see above.)_]

It was to Gueux that the Archbishop of Rheims, Mgr. Luçon, betook
himself after the bombardments of April, 1917. The village cemetery
contains many soldiers' graves. The Cardinal-Archbishop of Rheims
presided at a pathetic ceremony held during the War in honour of the
dead.

[Illustration: THE ANCIENT CASTLE OF GUEUX]

_To visit the_ =Castle=, _cross the square and take a small street on
the left, which leads to the road to Rosnay (G.C. 27)_.

_Turn to the left, and fifty yards further on take on foot the narrow
street on the left, which leads to the old castle._

This ancient castle, where the Kings of France, on their way to Rheims
to be consecrated, used to dine, suffered severely from the
bombardments. Outwardly it has, however, retained its general appearance
(_photo above_).

_Return to the car, and go straight on to the fork in the roads to
Rosnay and Prémecy. Facing the fork is the entrance_ to the park and
=modern Castle of Gueux=, belonging to the Roederer family, which was
completely destroyed (_photo below_).

_Turn the car round at the above-mentioned fork and continue straight
along G.C. 27._

_Beyond the village of Gueux_ the road crosses numerous lines of
trenches. Many shelters and ammunition depots can still be seen along
the road. _The National Road from Rheims to Soissons (N. 31) is reached
soon afterwards. Near the cross-ways are the_ ruins of an inn.

_At this crossing, leave the National Road on the left and take the
narrow road on the right which leads to_ =Thillois=.

[Illustration: THE MODERN CASTLE OF GUEUX]

[Illustration: CROSSING OF THE THILLOIS AND RHEIMS ROADS]


=Thillois=

(_See Itinerary, p. 122._)

The =Church of Thillois= (late 12th century), now a heap of ruins, stood
at the entrance to the village.

In 1914 it was still intact in all its vital parts. Its vaulting was
pointed, with groining resting on columns, whose capitals were either
Romanesque or Gothic. The nave had a timber roof.

The high-altar screen was a fine piece of sculptured stone-work of late
16th or early 17th century. In a niche above the altar, the Virgin,
sitting on an X-shaped seat, was holding Jesus, clothed in a tunic and
standing on her knee.

_Leaving the church behind on the right, turn to the left, to reach the
National Road. On the right is a_ small 18th century castle, behind a
clump of fine stately trees, known as the _Bosquet de Thillois_. It was
destroyed by shells.

_Return to the National Road, turn to the right at the cross-roads,
leaving on the left the road to Champigny, then return direct to Rheims,
entering the city by the Avenue and Porte de Paris._


=The Mountain of Rheims Battles=

(_See p. 14 and p. 122._)

The fighting known as the _Battles of the Mountain of Rheims_ took place
in 1918 over the whole of the area described above, _i.e._ from Bouilly
to Thillois, _via_ St. Euphraise, Coulommes, Vrigny and Gueux (_see the
Michelin Illustrated Guide: The Second Battle of the Marne_).

The Mountain of Rheims prolongs the region of Tardenois to the east. It
is an important military position between the Vesle and the Marne, as it
dominates the plain of Champagne. The higher part of it is finely
wooded, while on the lower slopes and eastern and southern edges are the
famous Champagne vineyards (_see Verzenay, pp. 171-172_).

[Illustration (Map)]

During the year 1918 the Germans made tremendous efforts to carry this
position, the loss of which would have meant the fall of Rheims, leaving
Epernay and Châlons-sur-Marne unprotected.

Although held to the east of Mountain, they obtained important successes
on the west, where they reached the Marne, while in May they occupied
the Woods of Courton and Le Roi. In July they crossed the Marne and
advanced as far as Montvoisin, on the road to Epernay. Very fierce
fighting took place, especially to the north-west of the Mountain at
=Bouilly=, =Bligny=, =St. Euphraise= and =Vrigny=. These positions, and
Hill 240 to the west of Vrigny, were several times lost and recaptured
by the Allied troops under General Berthelot, French, Italian and
British, who fought there side by side.

Vrigny was taken by the Germans on May 30, but retaken by the Allies on
June 1 at the point of the bayonet. The same evening, four German
regiments, after progressing slightly in the direction of Hill 240, were
first checked, then driven back after bitter hand-to-hand fighting.

On June 9, the Germans were repulsed around Vrigny, after having
sustained severe losses. On the 23rd, they rushed Bligny Hill, held by
Italian troops, reaching the summit, but were shortly afterwards driven
back. On the 29th, they sustained a like check at the same place.

In July they advanced their lines slightly towards Marfaux, Pourcy and
Cuchery, but were unable to hold the captured ground. On the 18th, the
Italians advanced in the region of Bouilly. On the 19th, Franco-British
troops progressed towards St. Euphraise. On the 21st, the Allies carried
Bouilly and St. Euphraise. On the 24th and 25th, in spite of desperate
repeated efforts, the Germans were unable to hold Hill 240 which they
had temporarily captured. On August 1 further enemy efforts to carry
the Bligny uplands failed.

The region of Gueux--Thillois--Champigny was terribly ravaged by the
war.

On September 11th, 1914, the French 5th Division, under General Mangin,
drove the enemy from these positions, which remained in the French lines
until May 30, 1918. Occupied by the Germans on May 31, after fierce
fighting, they were completely devastated by artillery fire. Retaken by
the French, then lost again in July, Thillois was finally recaptured on
August 2, at the same time as Gueux.

On August 4, after having reached the Vesle at several points east of
Fismes, French troops engaged a vigorous battle between Muizon and
Champigny, and some of them succeeded in crossing the river the same
day.


=Champagne Wine=

Wine-growing has always been a favourite industry in this part of
France. The vineyards extend over the Rheims hills and along the valley
of the Marne. In the hilly country around Rheims there are two distinct
growths of wine: the _Montagne_ proper, with its famous _Verzy_,
_Verzenay_, _Mailly_, _Ludes_, _Rilly_ and _Villers_ "crus," and the
_Petite Montagne_ with its secondary "crus" of the _Tardenois Valley_,
_Hermonville Hills_, _St. Thierry_, _Nogent l'Abbesse_ and
_Cernay-les-Reims_. The _Montagne_ produces more especially black grapes
for white wines.

Champagne wines were famous as far back as the 16th and 17th centuries.
Henri IV. had a marked preference for the wines of _Ay_. The magnitude
of the cellars still to be seen in the 16th and 17th century houses
testifies to the importance of a trade, whose main outlets were Paris,
Flanders, Belgium and Germany.

The Champagne wines of that period were red, and rivals of the famous
Burgundy wines.

The vogue of Champagne wines as understood to-day dates back to the end
of the 17th century. It was Dom Pérignon, cellarer of the Abbey of
Hautevillers, near Epernay, who, if not actually the inventor of
sparkling wines, first undertook to perfect them by blending the "crus"
and preparing them with greater care.

In the last years of the reign of Louis XIV., and still more so under
the Regency, the use of Champagne at Court gained ground, especially at
the tables of the _Duc de Vendôme_ and the _Marquis de Sillery_.

At that time Champagne was merely a "creamy" wine, _i.e._
semi-sparkling. The low breaking strain of the glass of those days would
not have allowed of the higher pressure (six atmospheres) of the
present-day wine. The discovery of the chemist François, who in 1836 at
Châlons invented a special "densimeter," made it possible to calculate
the amount of carbonic acid gas contained in the must, and to proportion
the expansive force of the wine to the strength of the bottles, thus
reducing losses by breakage, which for long had been very serious.

From the 19th century onwards, the production of Champagne wine has
grown unceasingly. The number of bottles of sparkling Champagne placed
on the market for sale in France and abroad rose from 19,145,481 (of
which 16,705,719 went abroad) between April, 1875, and April, 1876, to
33,171,395 (of which 23,056,847 went abroad) between April, 1906 and
April, 1907. During the first ten months of 1915, the exports of
Champagne and sparkling wines were 630,140 wine-quarts, as against
1,092,660 wine quarts in 1914.



FIRST DAY

AFTERNOON

=ST. THIERRY HEIGHTS--LE GODAT--THE GLASS-WORKS OF LOIVRE--BRIMONT--THE
"CAVALIERS DE COURCY"=

(_See complete Itineraries, p. 121, and summary of the military
operations, pp. 147 and 154._)

[Illustration (Map)]


_Starting from the Place du Parvis-Nôtre-Dame, follow the morning's
Itinerary (p. 122) as far as the railway bridge, then continue straight
along the Avenue de Paris (N. 31). Before leaving Rheims the tourist
can, if desired, visit_ =Haubette Park=. _In this case, turn to the
left, opposite No. 10, Avenue de Paris, into the Rue Flin des Oliviers.
The entrance to_ Haubette Park (an annex of the Calmette Dispensary)
_stands at the beginning of this street, on the right_.

Napoleon I. bivouacked in this park while his troops attacked Rheims in
1814. A monument and a small museum commemorate the event. At the end of
1914 Haubette Park was a favourite recreation ground and refuge for the
inhabitants of the city during the bombardments.

_Return to the junction of N. 31 (which leads to Fismes) with G. C. 6
(the road to Ville-en-Tardenois). Take N. 31 on the right. About 1 km.
from the fork take the first road on the right._

_On reaching_ =Tinqueux= _turn to the left at the entrance to the
village, and follow the main road_.


=Tinqueux--Mont St. Pierre=

The church of Tinqueux (St. Peter's) was entirely destroyed. It
contained, on the left side of the nave, a remarkable 16th century
painting on wood, representing the _Adoration of the Shepherds_, with a
frame of the same period.

_Near the church, between the Vesle and the main street of the village_,
stood an old baronial mansion, in front of which was a building with
turreted façade known as the =Maison de la Salle=. Inside the buildings
which, in later years, served as a farm, there was a curious old wooden
staircase with railed balustrade. The whole was destroyed by the shells.

In September, 1914, at the beginning of the bombardment of Rheims, many
of the people took refuge at Tinqueux.

[Illustration: THE MAIN STREET OF TINQUEUX VILLAGE]

_At the end of the main street of the village, opposite a kind of
observation-post with ladder in a tree, turn to the right. The road
passes at the foot of_ =Mont St. Pierre=, whose village and church
entirely disappeared in the 17th century. It was to replace the church
of Mont St. Pierre that the church of St. Pierre de Tinqueux was built
at the end of the 17th century.

_The road turns abruptly and nears the Vesle. Turn to the right and
cross the river to reach_ =St. Brice=.


=St. Brice--Champigny--Merfy=

(_Itinerary, p. 134._)

_Turn to the right at the entrance to the village and take the first
street on the right, which leads to the church._

[Illustration: THE RUINED CHURCH OF CHAMPIGNY]

The Church of St. Brice was almost entirely destroyed. In style, it is
Romanesque, with Renaissance doorway and aisles. The door of the west
front contains interesting carvings--unhappily much mutilated.

_Return by the same way to the cross-roads in front of the bridge over
the Vesle, turn to the right, then, about 150 yards further on, to the
left. Continue straight ahead, cross the railway (l.c.) and follow the
railway on the left._

_About half a mile further on an avenue on the right leads to the_
=Château de la Malle=. Both the castle and grounds were badly damaged by
the bombardment.

Standing in the park with magnificent avenues of beech-trees, the castle
is one of the most ancient manors in the vicinity of Rheims. It was
rebuilt in one storey at the beginning of the 14th century on the old
foundations. The decoration of the interior (Louis XVI.) is interesting.
The drawing-room has retained its old wainscoting and paintings. A
carved shield bearing the arms of the Cauchon family, a member of
which, the Bishop of Beauvais, sided with the English and the Duke of
Burgundy against the Dauphin of France and Joan of Arc during the
Hundred Years' War, is still to be seen over a door of one of the
out-buildings.

_Return by the same road to the Vesle. Cross the river and follow it (as
per Itinerary, p. 134), to the village of Champigny._

_Cross straight through the village by the main street, at the end of
which stands the church in a narrow by-street near the entrance to a
park (photo, p. 136)._

The little church of St. Theodule is 12th century, except the wooden
belfry, which was modern. The belfry and roof were destroyed.

[Illustration: MERFY CASTLE, CONVERTED BY THE GERMANS INTO A BLOCKHOUSE
_General Foch had his Headquarters there in 1914._]

_On leaving the village, go straight ahead. The road (G.C. 75) follows
the railway on the left. Cross the railway (l.c.). The road passes along
the marshy valley of the Vesle, then rises towards the_ St. Thierry
Heights.

_At the cross-roads of_ the hamlet of Mâco, _keep straight on along G.C.
26_. The road runs between two fairly high embankments containing
numerous shelters. Slightly before entering the village of =Merfy= is a
cemetery containing graves of French, British and German soldiers.

_At the entrance to the same village, on the right, stands_ a castle,
severely damaged, which, early in September, 1914, served as
headquarters to General Foch (_photo above_).

_A little farther_ is the church, almost entirely destroyed.

_At the church, turn to the right and follow the main street_, which is
lined with houses in ruins.

_On leaving Merfy, cross the railway (l.c.). The village of_ =St.
Thierry= _is reached shortly afterwards._

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO ST. THIERRY VILLAGE
_The sign and camouflaging are German._]

[Illustration: ST. THIERRY CHÂTEAU IN 1914]

[Illustration: ST. THIERRY CHÂTEAU IN 1919]

[Illustration: ST. THIERRY CHURCH
_See other photos, p. 140._]


=St. Thierry=

(_See Itinerary, p. 134, summary of the Military Operations, p. 147._)

This village was frequently bombarded by the Germans from 1914 to 1918.
_It is crossed by a narrow, winding street containing several sharp
turnings. Shortly before the end of the village, the street widens
abruptly. About a hundred yards further on is the church, while on the
right a monumental door gives access_ to the =Château of St. Thierry=
(_photos, p. 138_).

This castle was built in 1777 by Mgr. de Talleyrand-Périgord, Archbishop
of Rheims. It replaced the ancient abbey founded in the 6th century by
St. Thierry, a disciple of St. Remi. Remains of the 12th century
chapter-house ogives, colonnettes and capitals, as well as an old
chimney-piece, have been rebuilt into the kitchens. The spacious Louis
XVI. drawing-room and the dining-room were likewise remarkable.

The church (_see photos above and on p. 140_) possessed certain
remarkable features, _e.g._ the porch, nave and organ-loft. The 12th
century porch had a 17th century pent-house roof.

Inside the church were Gothic stalls, and a 16th century bas-relief
depicting _The Martyrdom of St. Quentin_.

The church is now in ruins.

_Opposite the castle gate turn to the left into G.C. 26._

In the embankments along the road are numerous shelters, posts of
commandment, ammunition depots, etc.

[Illustration: ST. THIERRY CHURCH
(_see p. 139_)]

[Illustration: RUINED PORTAL OF ST. THIERRY CHURCH]

[Illustration: RUINS OF CHOIR, ST. THIERRY CHURCH]

[Illustration: RUINS OF THIL CHURCH]


=Thil--Villers-Franqueux=

(_See Itinerary, p. 134._)

_On reaching Thil, turn to the left at the entrance to the village. Go
straight through._

The church, entirely in ruins, _stands at the end of the village, on a
small eminence to the right_.

_Half-way through the village, on the left, is a road which leads to the
St. Thierry Fort, via the village of Pouillon._

The road from Thil to Cormicy was the starting-point of the
communicating trenches which led to the first lines along the National
Road No. =44= and along the canal from the Aisne to the Marne, during
the long stabilisation period of the Berry-au-Bac--Rheims front. All
along the road can still be seen, practically intact, the military works
which were in the immediate rear of the front lines, viz., posts of
commandment, depots, shelters, etc. At the present time, close to the
destroyed villages, these shelters are being used by the people as
habitations.

_Beyond Thil, the road passes between two embankments._
=Villers-Franqueux= _is soon reached_. The ruined village and church
_are somewhat to the right_.

[Illustration: RUINS OF VILLERS-FRANQUEUX]

[Illustration: RUINED CHURCH OF HERMONVILLE]


=Hermonville=

_Follow the rails, straight ahead, to_ Hermonville.

_Turn to the left, at the entrance to the village, into the large
square, on the opposite side of which stands the_ =Town Hall=, partially
destroyed. The =Church= _is on the right_.

This remarkable church is 12th century. The pointed vaulting of the nave
was raised in 1870, but this had been provided for in the original
plans. At the intersection of the transept the pointed vaulting is
lower. The capitals with their finely carved palm-leaves appear to be
rather more recent than those of the nave, and extend frieze-like round
the pillars. The bays of the transept-arms and of the two square eastern
chapels are round-arched and surmounted with a quatrefoil--an
arrangement frequently met with in the vicinity of Rheims.

The outer porch, like that of Cauroy-les-Hermonville and St. Thierry, is
a 12th century addition. The depressed arch of the entrance is 17th
century.

The square tower at the corner of the nave and south transept has cubic
capitals in the twin bays of the second storey.

The ancient =cemetery=, which used to surround the church, is bordered
by old houses. Entrance was gained by a little gate facing the porch, in
which are incrusted fragments of a 15th century altar-screen
representing a horseman and a group of persons.

The village was frequently bombarded by the Germans after the Battle of
the Marne. In 1916 several inhabitants were killed by shells.

_Leave the church on the right, and follow the Rue Sébastopol, at the
end of which is an abrupt turning to the left. The road skirts a large
house and garden surrounded by a wall. At the end of the latter, turn to
the right into the Rue de Sommerville. On leaving the village, turn to
the left, then go straight on to_ =Cauroy-les-Hermonville=.

[Illustration: CAUROY CHURCH IN 1914]


=Cauroy-les-Hermonville=

_Turn to the right at the entrance to the village, then into the first
street on the left, where stands the_ half-destroyed =Church of
Nôtre-Dame=.

This Church (_historical monument_) has an original 12th century porch,
which was mutilated by the bombardments.

Romanesque in style, it stands out from the remainder of the building
and extends over the whole breadth of the west front. Its tile-covered
roof rests on a timber-work frame, whose beams appear to be 16th
century. Two round-arched openings in the ends of the porch serve as
entrances. The front is pierced with a number of round arcades. The
central door giving access to the church is of a later date (16th or
17th century). The capitals of the arcadings are 12th century. Their
curious decoration represents figures of men, animals, birds, scrolls,
etc.

The ruined tower and nave were likewise 12th century. The side-chapels,
transept-crossing and choir were rebuilt in the 16th century.

[Illustration: CAUROY CHURCH IN 1918]

[Illustration: STREET IN CAUROY VILLAGE
(_Seen from the Porch of the Church. To go from Cauroy to Cormicy, take
this street opposite the Church._)]

In the interior of the church, the wooden altar-screen over the
high-altar dated from 1616. The painting which decorated its central
panel, and the side woodwork of the choir were removed in 1888. The
altar-screen (1547) of the southern side-chapel was composed of an
assemblage of stone statues representing _The Virgin carrying Jesus, St.
Roch, a pilgrim_, and _St. Stephen, a deacon, with the donor kneeling at
his feet_.

Under several of the houses in the village are subterranean passages,
the most noteworthy being that under the old presbytery on the left of
the church, to which access is gained by a stair of fifty-one steps.

_Leave the village of Cauroy by the street (photo, p. 145) which opens
up opposite the church._

_The road passes through clumps of_ devastated trees. _On the left side
of the road is_ a cemetery, containing numerous well-organised shelters.
_The village of_ =Cormicy= _is next reached._


=Cormicy=

(_See Itinerary, p. 134._)

_Turn to the right at the entrance to the village. On either side are_
tree-lined boulevards, which were made on the ancient ramparts. The
trees have been cut to pieces by the shells.

Cormicy was formerly a small fortified town with turret, gates, ramparts
and moats, all of which have disappeared except one gate. The site was
planted with trees, which surround practically the whole town. The town
was destroyed in the time of Charles VI., during the Hundred Years' War.

The present village suffered severely during the German bombardments,
most of the houses being damaged. In June, 1916, only eighty-three
inhabitants remained in their homes.

[Illustration: CORMICY CHURCH IN 1914]

The ancient =Church= was likewise badly damaged (_photos above and
below_). While the tower, west front, and the two first bays of the nave
are late 15th or early 16th century, the greater part of the nave is
11th or 12th century. The chevet and the transept-crossing are early
13th century, while the transept ends probably date from the middle of
12th century.

[Illustration: CORMICY CHURCH IN 1918]

The portal comprises twin doors surmounted with a broad flamboyant
recess. The doors have been partially mutilated. Above the window runs
a balcony, the Gothic balustrade of which, known as the _Gloria
Gallery_, was modern. This balustrade was destroyed by the bombardments,
which also brought down the steeple.

[Illustration: G.C. 32 ROAD ON LEAVING CORMICY
(_See Itinerary, p. 134._)]

The west front has two Gothic doors with 16th century iron-work, at the
extremity of the aisles. The tympana of these doors, formerly lighted,
have been bricked up. The lintels have three consoles ornamented with
fantastic animals and banderoles. The three statues which carried the
consoles have long since disappeared.

In the south transept, on the left, behind the altar, is an interesting
small door surmounted with a square lintel of the 11th or 12th century.
Two figures of winged monsters with heads of a man and a woman and fish
tails, stand out in high relief, framed and separated by a belt, on
which are carved _florets_ mingled with fantastic figures.

The three remarkable 18th century marble altars of the choir and
transept chapels come from the Church of the Nuns of Longueau, the abbey
of which, in the Rue du Jard at Rheims, was sold in 1790. The high-altar
occupies nearly the whole of the chancel. Over the tomb, six columns of
grey Dinant marble, crowned with Corinthian capitals, support an oval
marble cornice with richly carved and gilt consoles of wood. The very
large, white and gilt tabernacle is a fine example of 17th or 18th
century woodwork. Its door, decorated with symbolic attributes, is
surrounded by statuettes depicting, _in the lower part_, St. John the
Evangelist and a holy woman wearing crowns; _above each of these
figures_, an angel; _at the top_, The Resurrection of Christ.

The sixteen carved oak stalls of the choir, as well as the wrought-iron
reading-desk on a marble pedestal, also came from the former Abbey of
Longueau.

Near the choir, on a pillar of the nave, is an inscription to the effect
that the chronicler _Flodoard_, who died in 966, was _Curé_ of Cormicy.

The modern =Town Hall=, built by the Rheims architect, Gosset the elder,
which faced the church, was entirely destroyed.

[Illustration (Map)]

All the places visited since leaving Merfy, _i.e._ St. Thierry, Thil,
Villers-Franqueux, Hermonville and Cormicy, border the St. Thierry
Heights. The latter are commanded by the fort of the same name and the
Chenay Redoubt, with altitudes of about 670 and 620 feet respectively.
They were recaptured from the Germans after the Battle of the Marne on
September 11, 1914, by the French 3rd Corps.

After the loss of the Chemin-des-Dames and the Aisne Canal on May 27,
1918, this position, which with its guns commands the road and railway
from Rheims to Soissons and the road from Rheims to Laon, remained the
sole protection of Rheims to the north-west.

It was defended by the French 45th Infantry Division (General Naulin),
composed of Algerian Sharp-shooters, Zouaves and African Light Infantry,
who held their ground on May 27-28, after which they were reinforced by
battalions of Singalese and Marines drawn from the sector east of
Rheims.

The struggle was a fierce one, and hand-to-hand fighting frequent.
Finally the constant inflow of German reserves forced back the French
who, on May 29, had to abandon the position, to which the enemy
afterwards clung for four months. On October 1 the Germans, beaten on
the previous evening by the French 5th Army on the high ground between
the Aisne and Rheims, was forced to retreat. The French regained
possession of Merfy and St. Thierry, and advanced as far as the
outskirts of the Fort of St. Thierry, which, with Thil and
Villers-Franqueux, Hermonville, Courcy and Cormicy, fell into their
hands in the course of the next few days (_see map above_).

[Illustration: DESTROYED BRIDGE OVER THE CANAL, NEAR LE GODAT]


=From Cormicy to Godat Farm=

(_See Itinerary, p. 134._)

_Pass straight through Cormicy, leaving the church on the left. Take
G.C. 32 to the Rheims-Laon road (N. 44), where turn to the right. Rather
less than a mile further on, near the_ Maison Blanche, _is a road
leading to_ =Godat Farm=. _Cars can only go as far as the canal_, the
destroyed bridge (_photo above_) not having yet been rebuilt. The
lock-keeper's house _seen in the photograph below_ was completely
destroyed.

[Illustration: THE LOCK-KEEPER'S HOUSE AT LE GODAT
(_Now destroyed._)]

_Cross the canal on foot to reach Godat Farm, situated about 300 yards
further on._

=Le Godat=, formerly a small fief with a castle and chapel (destroyed
during the Revolution in 1793), was merely a farm and a plain country
house when the war broke out. By reason of its position, north of the
Aisne Canal, this bridgehead was, throughout the war, one of the most
fiercely disputed points in the sector north-west of Rheims, even during
the period of trench-warfare. At the time of the French offensive of
April, 1917, the 44th Infantry Regiment advanced beyond Le Godat, where
the French held their ground until the powerful German push of May 27,
1918.

[Illustration: RUINS OF LE GODAT FARM]

The farm is now a mere heap of ruins. Shelters still exist in the
basements.

_Return to the National Road, and turn to the left._

_The road crosses_ numerous boyaux which provided access to the
front-line trenches down the hill on the right.

_Follow the National Road to_ =Chauffour Farm= (in ruins), _where take
the road on the left to_ =Loivre=.

[Illustration: EMPLACEMENT OF GERMAN HEAVY GUN AT LOIVRE]

_On nearing the canal_, the ruins of the village of Loivre (entirely
destroyed) _become visible_.

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH AT LOIVRE]


=From Loivre to Brimont=

=Loivre.=--_Visit the village on foot. The canal can only be crossed
near the lock south-east of the village._ The destroyed bridge has been
replaced by a temporary footway across the bed of the canal, which
necessitates climbing down and up the banks by steep paths.

_After crossing the canal the tourist passes by the_ ruins of the Loivre
Glass-Works, founded in 1864 by the descendants of the noble house of
Bigault de Grandrupt, glass manufacturers of Argonne.

[Illustration: GENERAL VIEW OF THE RUINS AT LOIVRE IN 1919]

Loivre and its glass-works were occupied in September, 1914, by the
Germans, who deported the inhabitants to the Ardennes. The village and
works were re-captured during the offensive of April 16, 1917, by the
French 23rd and 133rd Infantry Regiments, surnamed _Les Braves_ and _Les
Lions_ respectively. Whilst other battalions outflanked the village and
crossed the canal, the third battalion of _Lions_ attacked it in front.
The position, powerfully organised, was stoutly defended. The attacking
troops were obliged to come to a halt in front of the cemetery (a
veritable bastion with concrete casemates), and before the ruins of the
mill, both of which bristled with machine-guns. Withdrawing slightly to
allow of a barrage of 75's, they rushed forward again under the
protection of the latter. The site of the mill and the cemetery were
captured, together with numerous prisoners (122 were taken in one
machine-gun shelter). The ruined village was next carried in a bayonet
charge, to the sound of the bugles. The captures were considerable, one
battalion of 500 men alone taking 825 prisoners.

[Illustration: SEPULCHRE IN THE CEMETERY AT LOIVRE, USED BY THE GERMANS
AS A PHOTOGRAPHIC DARK-ROOM]

In March and May, 1918, two violent attacks were made on Loivre by the
Germans, but without success. They took it on May 27, only to be driven
out on October 4.

_Before the war, a road_, which has since completely disappeared, _led
direct from Loivre to Brimont. To reach the latter it is now necessary
to go farther north, via Berméricourt and Orainville, returning
southwards by the Neufchâtel to Rheims road (see Itinerary, p. 134)._

=Berméricourt.=--This hamlet, of Gallo-Frankish origin, was formerly
more populous. The bombardments have literally wiped it out.

_From Berméricourt the tourist reaches_ =Orainville= _by G.C. 30, which
becomes I.C. 2 after crossing the boundary line between the
"departments" of the Marne and the Ardennes. At the entrance to the
ruined village, near the church, turn to the right into I.C. 12, which,
1 kilometre further on, joins the road from Neufchâtel to Rheims (G.C.
9), where turn to the right._

_Follow this road for four and a half kilometres to the ruins of_
=Landau Farm=, _turn to the right, then, about 200 yards further on,
take the road on the left to the_ village of Brimont, entirely
destroyed.

[Illustration: ALL THAT REMAINS OF BERMÉRICOURT VILLAGE]


=Brimont Fort and Château=

(_See Itinerary, p. 134, and summary of the Military Operations, p.
154._)

Situated to the west of the road from Rheims to Neufchâtel (formerly a
Roman causeway which crossed the hill at _Cran de Brimont_) Brimont was
already important in Roman times. It was fortified in the Middle Ages,
and traces of its ancient fortifications are still to be found on the
hill. The discovery of a Roman tomb in 1790 caused considerable
excitement in archæological circles, as it was believed to be the
burial-place of the Frankish Chief _Pharamond_ who, according to one
chronicler, had been buried on a hillock near Rheims.

In 1339, during the siege of Rheims by the English, the Duke of
Lancaster had his camp at Brimont.

[Illustration: RUINS OF BRIMONT VILLAGE
_In the foreground, on the left: Road to Brimont Fort. On the right:
Beginning of the road to the Château (entirely destroyed)._]

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH OF BRIMONT]

On several occasions, since September, 1914, the Germans deported the
inhabitants of Brimont and Coucy to the Ardennes. The village is now
destroyed and its church a heap of ruins.

The church was built at the beginning of the 15th century.

The four last bays of the nave, which was partly Romanesque, were
altered in the middle of the 16th century.

The sacristy occupied the lower storey of the square, pointed-arch
tower.

Several ancient statues were placed at the entrance to the Choir: _St
Remi_, with a woman in late 15th century dress kneeling at his feet; a
_Virgin_ offering grapes to the Infant Jesus in her arms (late 15th
century) and a large _Christ Crucified_, dated from the middle of the
16th century. A beautiful 18th century _lectern_ of carved wood,
representing an eagle standing on a massive three-sided pedestal of red
and white marble, stood in front of the Choir.

[Illustration: BRIMONT FORT]

_To visit the_ =Fort of Brimont=, _skirt the church on the side of the
portal staircase, then take the road seen on the photograph on p. 152.
The Fort is about 400 yards further on._


=The Defences North of Rheims and the Fighting in that Sector=

The =Fort of Brimont=, completed by the =Battery of the Cran de Brimont=
about a mile to the east, and on the west by the =Loivre Battery=,
mentioned on page 151, sweeps the whole country north of Rheims as far
as the banks of the Aisne, Suippe, Retourne and the Aisne-Marne canal,
the Rheims-Neufchâtel, Rheims-Vouziers, Rheims-Rethel and Rheims-Laon
roads, and the Rheims-Laon and Rheims-Charleville railways. About five
miles east of Brimont and four miles east of Rheims is the position of
=Berru= (_see p. 165_), extending along a front of about six miles,
_via_ the hills of Berru and Nogent l'Abbesse. Intended by those who
planned it to guard the valley of the Suippe, the Rheims-Rethe and
Rheims-Vouziers roads, as well as the Rheims-Charleville and
Rheims-Châlons-sur-Marne railways, it comprises the =Fort of Witry=
(about 150 feet in altitude), the batteries of =La Vigie de Berru= (870
feet), and the =fort and batteries of Nogent-l'Abbesse= (670 feet).

[Illustration: _The roads shown on the above map are those followed by
the Third Itinerary (see p. 160)._]

Brimont and Berru are further covered and linked up by the =Fort of
Fresne= (360 feet), situated four miles north-east of Rheims.

These defensive works, conceived and executed after the war of 1870,
had, in consequence of the evolution of strategical and tactical
doctrines, been abandoned or disarmed before the war of 1914. After
evacuating Rheims on September 12, 1914, the Germans grasped the
importance of these works, to which they clung tenaciously, after
hurriedly organising them. It was against these naturally strong
positions, further strengthened by trenches, that the French 5th Army,
in pursuit of the enemy, found themselves brought to a standstill on the
evening of September 12. From September 13 to 18, the French tried in
vain to capture them. The 5th Division, under General Mangin, did
succeed in capturing the =Château de Brimont=, in the plain, but were
unable to hold it.

Later, the Germans converted these hills into one of the most formidable
positions organised by them in France. Brimont, Berru, Fresne and Nogent
l'Abbesse, whose guns slowly destroyed Rheims, were, so to speak, her
jailers for four years.

In April, 1917, during the French offensive of the Aisne, one division,
known as the "Division of aces" (because its four regiments have the
fourragère decoration), penetrated into Berméricourt and advanced to the
outskirts of Brimont, but was unable to hold its ground against the
furious counter-attacks of the Germans. It was only in October, 1918,
that the French 5th Army, in conjunction with the victorious attacks of
the 4th Army in Champagne, after forcing the Germans back to the Aisne
and the canal, and after crossing the Aisne canal on October 4 in front
of Loivre and near Berméricourt, forced the enemy, whose communications
were now threatened, to abandon one of the most valuable portions of his
1914 positions. On October 5, the French re-entered Brimont and Nogent
l'Abbesse, progressed beyond Bourgogne, Cernay-les-Rheims, Beine, Caurel
and Pomacle, and, in spite of desperate enemy resistance, drove back the
Germans to the Suippe.

_After visiting the fort return to the village of Brimont._

From here the =Château de Brimont= may be visited, but this will have to
be done on foot as the road has been destroyed, traces only of it being
left in places (_the lower photograph on p. 152 shows the beginning of
the road in the village_).

The =Château de l'Ermitage=, also known as the Château de Brimont, _is
situated about 500 yards south of the village, at the entrance to a_
large park, completely devastated. It was the scene of desperate
fighting (_see p. 152_).

_Return to Brimont, cross the village (skirting the church) and continue
straight on to the_ =Cran de Brimont Redoubt= _on the road to Rheims._
Numerous German trenches, etc., are to be seen here.

_Turn to the right into G.C. 9, which dips down to the_ Plain of Rheims.
The region hereabouts bristle with barbed-wire entanglements and is
crossed with numerous trenches. It was ranged to an incredible degree by
the bombardments.

_At the bottom of the hill which starts at the Cran de Brimont, cross
Soulains Wood, of which only_ a few torn tree-stumps remain.

_Several hundred yards after leaving the wood, take on foot the broken
road to the_ "=Cavaliers de Courcy=," situated _on the right, about 500
yards further on._

[Illustration: THE AISNE CANAL AT THE "CAVALIERS DE COURCY"]


=The "Cavaliers de Courcy"=

To the north of La Neuvillette, the Aisne-Marne Canal is flanked on both
sides by enormous artificial embankments planted with fir-trees and
known as the "=Cavaliers de Courcy=." After their retreat in September,
1914, the Germans entrenched themselves there and clung to the east bank
until April, 1917.

On April 16, 1917, the French 410th Regiment of the Line attacked the
enemy's formidable positions there. This Brittany regiment set out from
positions to which they had given names taken from the history of their
country (_Quimper Bastion_, _Auray_, _Redon Bastion_, etc.). On the
first day they carried three successive lines of defences, and advanced
about a mile. On the 17th and 18th they left their zone of action, to
ensure the _liaison_ on their right, and to help a brigade in
difficulties on their left. For eight days they held their positions
against powerful enemy counter-attacks, after having progressed to a
depth of two miles and captured more than 400 prisoners, 11
bomb-throwers, and an immense amount of stores.

These positions, like the neighbouring villages, were re-taken by the
Germans in May and June, 1918, and finally by the Allies in October,
1918.

_Return to the road and follow it towards Rheims. Leave on the left_ the
devastated =Aviation-ground of Champagne=--now in a state of complete
upheaval, due to the terrific shelling it received--_then cross the_
=Plain of Bétheny= (_photo, p. 157_).

The Plain of Bétheny was the scene of two important historical events:
in 1901 the Tsar Nicolas II. reviewed a part of the French Army there;
in August, 1909, the Great Aviation Week was inaugurated there, in the
presence of an immense crowd of spectators.

[Illustration: GERMAN FIRST-LINE POSITIONS BÉTHENY PLAIN (_see
sketch-map below_)
_Photographed at 7,000 ft. from aeroplane, August 6, 1916, at 10 a.m._]

[Illustration: THE GERMAN FIRST-LINE DEFENCES IN THE PLAIN OF BÉTHENY
_The tourist passes through this region on returning to Rheims, shortly
before coming to the bridge under the railway. The sketch map explains
the photograph above._]

_Pass under the Rheims-Laon railway by a very sharp double turning._
=Pierquin Farm=, entirely destroyed, _stood on the right a short
distance further on_. The only remaining trace is the torn shapeless
carcass of a large iron shed.

The railway embankment south of Pierquin Farm was fiercely disputed from
September 18, 1914, onwards. Several enemy attacks against it broke down
before the French 75's. During the offensive of May, 1918, the whole of
this region was the scene of desperate fighting. La Neuvillette was
taken on May 30, and Pierquin Farm on the 31st. On August 4, the French,
after crossing the Aisne Canal, advanced to La Neuvillette, where the
enemy made a desperate stand. At the beginning of October they advanced
to the north of La Neuvillette, which the enemy was eventually compelled
to abandon. The last inhabitants had left the locality on July 12, 1916.

_The tourist enters Rheims by the Rue de Neufchâtel and the Avenue de
Laon._


=La Neuvillette=

_On reaching the Avenue de Laon, the tourist, instead of entering
Rheims, may turn to the right and go northwards as far as the_ village
and cemetery of La Neuvillette.

The cemetery of La Neuvillette _is on the right of the road, between the
last houses of Rheims and the village_. It was completely cut up by a
network of first-line trenches (_photos, p. 159_).

The village of La Neuvillette, now in ruins, was the scene of desperate
fighting during the German offensive of May, 1918.

Nothing remains of the 12th century church of John-the-Baptist.

The glass-works north-west of the village, by the side of the canal, are
now a heap of ruins (_photo, p. 159_).

_Return to Rheims by the same road._

[Illustration: THE ROAD TO RHEIMS AT NEUVILLETTE]

[Illustration: THE GLASS-WORKS AT NEUVILLETTE]

[Illustration: DRESSING-STATION AT NEUVILLETTE]

[Illustration: THE CEMETERY AT NEUVILLETTE]



SECOND DAY

MORNING

=FRESNES FORT--WITRY-LES-REIMS--BERRU--NOGENT L'ABBESSE--BEINE=

(_See complete Itineraries, p. 121, and map on p. 154._)


[Illustration (Map)]

_This Itinerary will lead the tourist through the region of the_ Forts
to the north-east of Rheims, which formed the rear of the German lines
during the stabilisation period of 1914-1918.

It was this line of forts that, in the German hands, held the French in
check after the first Battle of the Marne. Practically the whole of
these works were but little damaged by the relatively light
bombardments, and have retained traces of the German organisation.

_Leave Rheims by the Avenue de Laon_ (_which begins at_ Les Pomenades,
_opposite Mars Gate_), _and the Rue de Neufchâtel (second street on the
right), Sortie No. IX. of the Michelin Tourist Guide (see coloured plan,
pp. 32-33)._

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH AT BOURGOGNE]

_Follow in the contrary direction the route described in the preceding
Itinerary (p. 134 to p. 159) as far as the crossing in the
Berméricourt-Bourgogne road, where stood_ Landau Farm, now entirely in
ruins. _At this crossing take G.C. 30 on the right._ German camouflaging
is still visible on the right-hand side of the road.


=Bourgogne--Fresnes=

_The village of_ Bourgogne, entirely in ruins, _is soon reached_.

The village is of very ancient origin. Formerly it was protected by a
belt of moats, now partly filled in, and by earthen ramparts, almost
everywhere levelled. The lines of these moats, planted with rows of
elm-trees, are clearly distinguishable. There is a very extensive view
from this original site.

A portion of the village was burnt by the Germans who, in 1916,
destroyed the belfry of the church with dynamite.

This church (dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul), with its fine
Romanesque tower, was remarkable.

The greater part of it dated from the 12th and 13th centuries. It is now
in ruins (_photo above_).

_Cross straight through the village._ Numerous German signs _are still
to be seen. At the cross-roads just outside the village, follow the
railway, then cross it near the destroyed railway station of Fresnes.
The village of_ Fresnes _is reached shortly afterwards._

_Turn to the right at the first crossing met with._ The church _stands
about 100 yards away, on the left._

Norman in style, the Church of Fresnes comprises a central nave with
aisles and a tower without transept. It dates back to the 12th century,
but was several times extensively altered and restored both in the 18th
century and in recent times.

A small porch of limestone added to the northern aisle, is reached by a
round Norman bay of stone. In the corner of the porch, to the left on
entering, is incrusted a fragment of a small funerary monument of the
16th century.

[Illustration: RUINED CHURCH OF WITRY-LES-REIMS]

This church was almost entirely destroyed.

_After turning to the right at the crossing mentioned above, keep
straight on._

About 2 kilometres from Fresnes the road from that village to
Witry-les-Reims crosses an old Roman causeway, at the side of which,
slightly to the south of Hill 118, the Fort of Fresnes was built in
1878. This fort was blown up by the Germans during their retreat in
1918. Its ruins are impressive. In the moats of the fort are German
trenches and shelters extending right up to the walls of the fort.

_The village of Witry-les-Reims is next reached._ It suffered severely
from the numerous bombardments, which its situation near the first lines
rendered inevitable.


=Witry-les-Reims=

_After crossing the railway (l.c.) at the entrance to the village, keep
straight on._ The ruined church _is on the left, near the entrance to
the village_.

Except for one tower, which dates from the 12th century, the church is
modern. The spire was destroyed by the Germans. The belfry, used by the
enemy as an observation-post, was struck by French shells.

Like many of the villages around Rheims, Witry-les-Reims is of
Gallo-Roman origin. More than two hundred Gallic sepulchres and cinerary
urns have been brought to light. The objects thus discovered, including
a large number of vases, now form the _Bourin_ pre-historic collection.

_After visiting the church keep straight on. At the Mairie_, of which
only the front remains standing, _turn to the right into the Rue
Boucton-Fayréaux. Follow this street to the Place Gambetta (about 200
yards distant), where turn to the left._ The entrance to "Pommern
Tunnel," which connected up the German rear and front lines (_photo, p.
163_), is in this square.

The German inscriptions in the tunnel have been taken down, and the
entrance blocked up, on account of the roof and walls giving way.

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO "POMMERN TUNNEL" AT WITRY-LES-REIMS]

_Leaving the Place Gambetta, take the Rheims-Rethel road (N. 51) on the
left, then the first street on the right to the_ =Fort of Witry=.

_Just outside the village the road crosses_ the old Roman causeway from
Rheims to Trèves, _and a little further on passes to the left of the_
=Fort of Witry=.

The =Fort of Witry= suffered but little from the bombardments.

_The road climbs the northern slopes of the_ Berru Hill, across numerous
German trenches. _At the bottom of a short run-down, opposite the
village of Berru, is a crossing of four ways. The road leading to the
fort is the one straight ahead._

_On the right, among the_ numerous defences, is a German cemetery
containing a monument to the dead, ornamented with somewhat rudimentary
carving and bearing an epitaph dedicated to the memory of the German
soldiers who fell in the battles around Rheims.

_The road continues up the slopes of Berru Hill, to the right of the way
leading to the_ auxiliary battery of the fort of =Vigie de Berru=. _The
top of the hill is soon reached_, on which the fort, known as the "Vigie
de Berru," stands. This fort was little bombarded, and is practically
intact.

=Berru Hill=, on account of its height, its sulphurous and ferruginous
waters, flint quarries, and fertile soil, was inhabited in pre-historic
times. At the summit, a _campignien_ workshop, and farther down, above
the springs which supply the village with water, a neolithic station
have been discovered. Thousands of knives, arrow-heads, scrapers, saws,
and other primitive tools have been unearthed. In the Gallo-Roman times
the village must have been fairly important, judging by the vestiges of
the ancient buildings discovered at the foot of the hill. It was near
Berru that the _Gaulish helmet_, now in the National Museum of St.
Germain, was found. Towards the end of the 16th century (about 1575),
during the Leaguers' struggles around Rheims, the village was fortified,
to protect it from pillaging by the soldiers. The moats and glacis which
surrounded it are still visible to the south, where, covered with trees,
they adjoin the gardens. Subterranean places of refuge, the entrance to
which is no longer known, formerly existed underneath the village.

_From the fort, the road, winds down the opposite slopes of the hill. At
the bottom of the latter, leave on the right the road to the_ =Fort of
Nogent l'Abbesse,= _seen on the high ground to the right._

[Illustration: ENTRANCE TO BEINE VILLAGE BY THE ROAD TO NOGENT
L'ABBESSE]


=Nogent l'Abbesse--Beine--Berru=

(_See Itinerary, p. 160, and summary of the Military Operations, p
154._)

_The village of_ =Nogent l'Abbesse= _is next reached, at the entrance to
which the road divides into three branches. Take the middle one (G.C.
64), which leads to the_ ruined village of =Beine=. _During the run-down
to the village, there is a_ fine view of the Champagne Hills in front
(Mont Cornillet and Mont Haut).

The village of =Beine= was one of the oldest demesnes belonging to the
Abbey of St. Remi-de-Reims. It was made into a _commune_ at the end of
the 12th century.

The church of St. Laurent, situated in the centre of the village, was an
excellent specimen of the transition style of the 12th century (_photo
below_).

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE CHURCH AT BEINE]

_A road leading to Sillery leaves Beine in a south-westerly direction,
but owing to its bad condition it is impossible to use it for returning
to Rheims._ The trenches and shell holes have barely been filled in,
and the temporary bridges over the wider trenches would probably break
down under a fairly heavy car. On the other hand, the huge craters made
by the Germans in the course of their retreat, have only been summarily
repaired and are not practicable for motor-cars. _Tourists should
therefore return to Nogent l'Abbesse by the road they came by._

[Illustration: BERRU CHURCH]

_Enter the village by the main street, which follow as far as_ the
church, whose belfry has been destroyed.

_After the church, take the first street on the right, then the second
road on the left (G.C. 64), which leads to_ =Berru=. _In front of the
village, turn to the left and cross straight through._ The 12th century
Church of St. Martin, which suffered only slightly from the
bombardments, _is in the middle of the village, on the left (photo
above)_.

_On leaving Berru, the tourist comes again to the crossing mentioned on
p. 163. Turn to the right and return to Witry-les-Reims by the road
previously followed._

_At Witry-les-Reims, take N. 51 on the left, passing by the_ ruined
works of Linguet (_photo below_).

_Rheims is reached by the Faubourg Cérès. Keep straight on to the Place
Royale, via the Rue du Faubourg Cérès and the Rue Cérès._

[Illustration: RUINS OF THE LINGUET WORKS]



SECOND DAY

AFTERNOON

=LA POMPELLE FORT-SILLERY=

(_See complete Itinerary, p. 121._)


[Illustration (Map)]

_This Itinerary will take the tourist through two regions of entirely
different characters._

_The first part is devoted to visiting the battlefield south-east of
Rheims_, which was the scene of much desperate fighting throughout the
war, but especially in 1918. This region formed the pivot of the French
right wing, and remained firm despite the repeated powerful attacks of
the enemy.

_The second part of the Itinerary leaves the battlefield proper, and
conducts the tourist across_ the most reputed vine-growing centres of
Champagne (Verzenay, Mailly-Champagne and Ludes), through lovely,
picturesque country, which, although it has somewhat suffered from the
bombardments, has nevertheless retained its pre-war aspect.

_Leave Rheims by the Avenue de Châlons, continued by N. 44 (see the plan
of Rheims between pp. 32 and 33, F. 6 and H. 7)._

The Avenue de Châlons was well within the first-line defences.

Two communicating trenches run along the footpaths on either side of the
Avenue.

_Skirt_ Pommery Park, _on the left_, completely ravaged by the
bombardment and the network of trenches which cross it.

_As soon as the last houses of the town have been left behind, the
tourist finds himself_ in the midst of the battlefield.

The sector, known as "=La Butte-de-Tir=," situated on the left, below
Cernay and beyond the railway, was the scene of furious fighting
throughout the German occupation of 1914 to 1918 (_photo below_).

[Illustration: THE "BUTTE-DE-TIR" SECTOR
_Listening-post in front of Cernay village._]

[Illustration: COMMUNICATING TRENCH AT JOUISSANCE FARM (1915)]

_The road crosses the Châlons Railway (l.c.), and goes thence direct to
the_ =Fort of La Pompelle=, passing through an inextricable network of
trenches and barbed wire entanglements. The country hereabouts was
completely ravaged by the terrific bombardments, and recalls the
devastated regions around Verdun, near Vaux and Douaumont (_see the
Michelin Illustrated Guide: Verdun, and the Battles for its
Possession_).

=La Jouissance Farm= is next passed. Nothing remains either of it or of
the road, _which started from this point towards Cernay, on the left_.

[Illustration: LA POMPELLE FORT (1918)]

[Illustration: THE MOATS OF LA POMPELLE FORT (1918)]

The =Fort of La Pompelle=, _which is next reached_, is now a mere heap
of ruins. The road which led to the fort no longer exists. _To visit the
ruins of the fort, tourists will have to follow on foot the narrow-gauge
railway which starts from the road (photo above)_.

Tradition has it that St. Timothy came from Asia to convert Rheims,
suffered martyrdom, together with St. Apollinaris and several
companions, on the hill known as _La Pompelle_, so-called perhaps from
the procession (_pompa_ or _pompella_) which, in the Middle Ages, used
to visit the place of martyrdom of the saints.

This hill, which rises close to the crossing of the
Rheims-St.-Hilaire-le-Grand and Rheims-Châlons Roads, was fortified
after 1870, to flank the position of Berru on the south.

The road from Rheims to Saint-Hilaire-le-Grand (_G.C. 7_), which used to
start from the "Alger Inn," at the cross-roads mentioned above, no
longer exists. Like the inn, it was obliterated by the shelling. A huge
crater now occupies the site of the Alger Inn (_photo below_).

[Illustration: CRATER, WHERE USED TO STAND THE "ALGER INN"]

[Illustration: THE IMMEDIATE VICINITY OF WHAT WAS THE "ALGER INN"
(1918)]

_Continue along N. 44. About 1 kilometre from the fort, at a bend in the
road_, the shattered remnants of trees of an avenue are visible on the
left. Under the first fir-tree of this avenue, about 20 yards from the
national road, is an armoured machine-gun shelter, almost intact.

_Cross the railway (l.c.) near the entirely destroyed station of
Petit-Sillery. After passing a ruined château on the left, cross the
bridge over the Vesle. At the fork beyond the bridge, leave N. 44 and
take G.C. 8 on the right to_ =Sillery=.

This village, renowned for its dry wine, is pleasantly situated on the
banks of the Vesle. Throughout the war, it was quite close to the
trenches and was frequently bombarded. In May, 1916, only some fifty of
its inhabitants remained in the village, which subsequently suffered
very severely, especially in 1918.

_Take a turn in the village, then follow N. 44 towards Châlons (see
Itinerary, p. 166)._

[Illustration: THE "PLACE DE LA MAIRIE" AT SILLERY (1918)]

The region of =Sillery-Pompelle= was the scene of much fierce fighting
throughout the war. After the capture of =La Pompelle= and the "=Alger
Inn=" by the French 10th Corps on the night of September 17-18, 1914,
the Germans increased the number of their attacks, with a view to
regaining these important positions.

One of these attacks (that of December 30, 1914) was preceded by the
explosion of a mine at the "Alger Inn," which made a hole 130 feet in
diameter by 55 feet deep (_see photo, p. 169_). After a hand-to-hand
fight, the French drove back the enemy and remained masters of the
crater.

In 1918, during their offensives against Rheims, the Germans attacked
several times in this region. On June 1, between =Pommery Park= (in the
south-eastern outskirts of Rheims) and the north-east of Sillery, they
attacked with eight or nine battalions and fifteen tanks. The garrison
of Fort Pompelle, momentarily encircled, held out until a furious
counter-attack by the French Colonial Infantry relieved it and drove
back the assailants. The German tanks were either captured or destroyed.
On the 18th, after an hour's intense bombardment, the Germans made a
fresh attack and secured a footing in the Northern Cemetery of Rheims
and in the north-eastern outskirts of Sillery, but French
counter-attacks drove them out almost immediately. From July 15 to 17
their attacks on Sillery were likewise repulsed.

_Continue along N. 44 to the_ destroyed Espérance Farm _(about 2
kilometres distant), then turn to the right_. Numerous military works
were made by the French in the embankments of the Aisne-Marne canal
along the left side of the road.

_The road rises towards the "Mountain of Rheims."_ A white tower,
dominating the whole plain, _is seen on the left (photo below)_.

=Verzenay= _is next reached by the Rue de Sillery._

[Illustration: VERZENAY, SEEN FROM THE VERZENAY--MAILLY--CHAMPAGNE
ROAD]

[Illustration: THE OLD MILL AT VERZENAY]

It was at =Verzenay= that, on the evening of September 3, 1914, the
German aeroplane, which had dropped bombs on Rheims the same morning,
was brought down. It has suffered relatively little from the
bombardments.

_To visit the church_, which contains the tomb of Saint-Basle (_chapel
on the right_), _take the Rue Gambetta, then the Rue Thiers_.

_After visiting the church, return to the Rue Thiers, at the end of
which is the Rue de Mailly (G.C. 26)._

_Take the latter, which, on leaving Verzenay, rises fairly stiffly._

_At the top of the hill, on the right, begins the road leading to_
=Verzenay Mill=, which crowns Hill 227 (_see Itinerary, p. 166, and
photo above_).

This mill, whence there is a fine panorama of the plain as far as the
hills of Berru and Moronvilliers, was a military observation-post of the
first order during the siege warfare.

_It belongs to the champagne-wine firm of Heidsieck Monopole, which
allows tourists to visit it, as also their vineyards in the surrounding
country._

_The road dips down to_ Mailly-Champagne, _at the entrance to which
village turn to the right into the Rue Gambetta, then to the left into
the Rue de Ludes (G.C. 26)_. The road, cut out of the hillside, is very
picturesque as far as Ludes. In the forest, on the left of the road, are
numerous "_cendrières_," or quarries, from which volcanic sulphurous
cinders, used for improving the vines, are extracted. Heaps of these
valuable cinders (grey, white and black) are frequently encountered at
the side of the road.

=Ludes= _is next reached by the Avenue de la Gare_.

The region just passed through, including the villages of Verzenay,
Mailly-Champagne and Ludes, as well as Verzy (_to the east_), and
Rilly-la-Montagne and Villers-Allerand (_to the west_), are the
wine-growing centres of the "Mountain of Rheims" properly so-called, the
black grapes from which produce the best brands of Champagne. The
villages are picturesquely situated at the edge of the forests which
crown the hills, while the vineyards which cover the slopes of the
latter descend to the chalky plain. These vineyards, divided into tiny
plots, the ground of which before the ravages of the phylloxera cost as
much as 93,000 francs per hectare (about 2-1/2 acres), constitute the
principal wealth of the country. Here and there they have suffered from
the war, but this has not prevented the vine-dressers from cultivating
them (often with the help of the soldiers) or from gathering the grapes,
under the continual menace of the German guns.

[Illustration: PUISIEULX. THE CHURCH AND ROAD TO SILLERY]

At =Ludes=, in the _Avenue de la Gare, turn to the right into the Rue de
Cormontreuil, and again to the right, into the Rue de Puisieulx (G.C.
33)_.

_At the crossing, 1 kilometre beyond Ludes, go straight on. After
passing on the right an avenue bordered with trees leading to the_
=Château of Romont, Puisieulx= _is reached_.

_At the first crossing, on entering the village, keep straight on, then
turn to the right as far as the_ ruined church, with its curious
loop-holed chevet. _Leave the church on the right and, at the end of the
village, turn to the left._ There are a few graves _on the right of the
road_. _After skirting a large estate, the trees of which were destroyed
by shell-fire, the tourist reaches_ =Sillery=.

[Illustration: RUINED CHURCH OF TAISSY]

_Turn to the left into G.C. 8, at the entrance to the village. On the
right are vestiges_ of a small wood, known as "Zouaves Wood," which was
the scene of many sanguinary fights after its capture by the French in
1914.

_The tourist next reaches_ =Taissy=, whose ruined church _is on the
right, by the side of the Vesle (photo, p. 173)_.

This interesting church is largely Romanesque in style (tower, chevet
and nave). The tabernacle, with altar-piece of carved wood, is Louis
XIII. A fine wrought-iron railing encloses the sanctuary (_photo
below_). The small, sonorous bell of the belfry is, strange to say, 13th
or 14th century.

_Pass straight through Taissy, then follow the tram-lines._
=Cormontreuil= _is entered by the Rue Victor-Hugo._

_From Cormontreuil, the tourist may return to Rheims either by turning
to the right in the village, beyond the tram station (in this case he
will enter Rheims by the Rue de Cormontreuil which leads to the Place
Dieu-Lumière) or by continuing straight ahead. In the latter case he
will cross the Faubourg Fléchambault by the Rue Ledru-Rollin. At the end
of the latter, turn to the right into the Rue Fléchambault which, after
crossing the Vesle and the canal, leads to the Church of St. Remi._

[Illustration: THE CHOIR OF TAISSY CHURCH]



CONTENTS


[Illustration: THE RUE DE LA GRUE, SEEN FROM THE RUE CÉRÈS]

                                                            PAGES
      Political History of Rheims                             3-7
      Military History of Rheims                          8 and 9
      The Battles for Rheims, 1914-1918                      9-15
      The Destruction of Rheims by the bombardments         16-21
      Life in the bombarded City                            21-26


        I.--A VISIT TO THE CITY                            27-120

    THE CATHEDRAL (description of)                          28-60
      History of the Cathedral                              28-30
      The Cathedral during the War                      31 and 32
      Coloured Plan of Rheims                   between 32 and 33
      Plan of the Cathedral and Archi-episcopal Palace         33
      Exterior of the Cathedral                             34-49
      Interior of the Cathedral                             50-60

    FIRST ITINERARY--THE CITY                               61-94
      The Place du Parvis                                      62
      The Archi-episcopal Palace                            63-66
      The Place Drouet d'Erlon and The Promenades       70 and 71
      The Hôtel-de-Ville                                       72
      The Place des Marchés                                    74
      The Place Royale                                         78
      The Musicians' House                                     80
      The Mars Gate                                            82
      The Rue de Cérès                                         87

    SECOND ITINERARY--THE CITY (_continued_)               95-120
      The Rue Chanzy                                        95-97
      The Lycée                                         97 and 98
      The Abbey of Saint Pierre-les-Dames                      98
      The Pommery Wine-Cellars                                101
      The Church of St. Remi                              103-116
      The Hôtel-Dieu (Hospital)                               117


        II.--A VISIT TO THE BATTLEFIELD.

    FIRST ITINERARY (Morning)                             122-133
      Ormes                                                   124
      St. Euphraise                                           127
      Coulommes-la-Montagne                                   128
      Gueux                                                   129
      Thillois                                                131

    SECOND ITINERARY (Afternoon)                          134-159
      Tinqueux                                                135
      Merfy                                                   137
      St. Thierry                                             138
      Villers-Franqueux                                       141
      Cormicy                                                 144
      Le Godat                                                148
      Loivre                                                  150
      Brimont                                                 152
      The "Cavaliers de Courcy"                               156
      La Neuvillette                                          158

    THIRD ITINERARY (Morning)                             160-165
      Bourgogne--Fresnes                                      161
      Witry-les-Reims                                         162
      Nogent l'Abbesse--Beine--Berru                          164

    FOURTH ITINERARY (Afternoon)                          166-174
      The Butte-de-Tir                                        167
      The Fort de la Pompelle                                 168
      Alger Inn                                               169
      Verzenay                                                172

[Illustration: HERMONVILLE PORCH]


PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, LONDON

XII--2,116-8-19-25



BEAUTIFUL FRANCE

       *       *       *       *       *

NORMANDY.


Land of rich pastures and fashionable watering-places, Normandy may
truly be said to have been "favoured by the gods." Her fertile soil,
famous breeds of horses and cattle, picturesque sites, and renowned
sea-bathing coast have made Normandy one of France's most flourishing
provinces. Numerous splendid monuments evoke in the tourist's mind
reminiscences of a glorious past.

No region has been more lavishly adorned by Nature. Its mountain
landscapes have caused it to be surnamed "La Petite Suisse." Among the
more interesting places may be mentioned =Bagnoles-de-l'Orne=, with its
famous mineral-water springs; =Rouen=, with its celebrated cathedral,
churches of St. Ouen and St. Maclou, Palais-de-Justice, and port (which
the war has transformed into one of the most important in Europe);
=Caen=--"Norman Athens"--with its Romanesque churches, Renaissance
mansions, and ancient houses; the great cathedrals of =Sées=, =Evreux=,
=Bayeux=, and =Coutances=; the feudal ruins of =Arques=,
=Château-Gaillard= and =Falaise=; the Abbeys of =Jumièges= and =St.
Wandrille=; the mediaeval narrow winding streets of =Lisieux=.

Numerous sea-side resorts: =Dieppe=, =St. Valéry=, =Fécamp=, =Entretat=,
=Le Hâvre=, and =St. Adresse=, =Honfleur=, =Trouville=, =Deauville=,
=Villers=, =Houlgate=, =Cabourg=, =Cherbourg= and =Grandville= are too
widely known to call for special mention.

Lastly =St. Michael's Mount= (surnamed the "Marvel of the West"), with
its extraordinary pyramid of superimposed Gothic monastery and Churches,
built on a rock in the middle of a deep bay.

       *       *       *       *       *

_All enquiries with regard to travelling should be addressed to the
"Touring Club de France," 65, Avenue de la Grande Armée 65, Paris._



MICHELIN TOURING OFFICES

       *       *       *       *       *

    =MICHELIN TYRE Co., Ltd., LONDON=
    Touring Office :: 81, Fulham Road, S. W.

    =MICHELIN & Cie, CLERMONT-FERRAND=
    Touring Office :: 99, Bd. Péreire, PARIS

[Illustration (Ad)]

_Why ask the Way, when...._

[Illustration (Ad)]

_... Michelin will tell you free of charge?_

       *       *       *       *       *

Drop a line, ring us up, or call at one of our Touring Offices and you
will receive a carefully worked out description of the route to follow.


    |----------------------------------------------------------------|
    |               Hotels and Motor-Agents                          |
    |                       at RHEIMS                                |
    |                                                                |
    |   Information extracted from the MICHELIN GUIDE (1919)*        |
    |================================================================|
    |               Key to Arbitrary Signs                           |
    |                                                                |
    |   [...] Comfortable hotels with modern                         |
    |           or modernised installation.                          |
    |  [=CC=] Central Heating.                                       |
    |   [=L=] Electric Light.                                        |
    |   [=B=] Bath-room.                                             |
    |  [=W=C] Modern W.C.'s.                                         |
    |   [=T=] 104 Telephone number.                                  |
    |    Gar. [=2=] {Accommodation for auto-                         |
    |    Shed [=3=] {mobiles, and the number                         |
    | Shelter [=4=] {which can be put up.                            |
    |    adj. Adjoining the hotel.                                   |
    | =Compressed Air= {Depôt for "bouteille                         |
    |                  {d'air Michelin" for                          |
    |                  {inflation of tyres.                          |
    |   [...] Repair shop.                                           |
    | _Agt for_ Manufacturer's agent.                                |
    |   [=3=] Garage and number of cars it will hold.                |
    |     =U= Inspection pit.                                        |
    |   [=E=] Petrol (gasoline) can be obtained here.                |
    | [=E""=] Accumulators can be recharged here.                    |
    | [=A-A=] Agt. for the "British Automobile Association."         |
    |                                                                |
    |----------------------  =HOTELS=  ----------------------------  |
    |                                                                |
    | Grand Hotel (Temporary Annex), _50, rue Clovis_, [=L=][=WC=].  |
    | Hôtel du Nord, _73 and 75, Place d'Erlon_,                     |
    |     [=L=][=WC=] adj. Shed [=3=] [=T=] =6-14=.                  |
    | Hôtel Continental,_93, Place d'Erlon_,                         |
    |     [=L=][=WC=] Gar.[=2=] [=U=] Shelter [=4=][=T=] =147=.      |
    |                                                                |
    |------------------  =REPAIR MECHANICS=  ----------------------  |
    |                                                                |
    | -- STOCK MICHELIN (Compressed Air),                            |
    |        =Vve. A. Mathieu=, _26, rue Buirette_.                  |
    |        _Agt for_: de Dion, Renault,                            |
    |        [=60=] [=U=] [=E=] [=E"=] [=T=] =5-06=.                 |
    | -- STOCK MICHELIN (Compressed Air),                            |
    |        =E. Devraine=, _Pl. Colin and 220, rue de               |
    |        Vesle_, [=50=] [=U=] [=E=] [=E"=] [=A-A=] [=T=] =6-16=. |
    | -- STOCK MICHELIN, =Auto-Electro-Mécanique Lemaire=, _10, rue  |
    |        Hincmer, near the Cathedral_,                           |
    |        [=20=] [=U=] [=E=] [=E"=] [=T=] =2-77=.                 |
    | -- Garage Central, L. Jeannon, _57, rue des Capucins_,         |
    |        [=40=] [=U=] [=E=] [=E"=].                              |
    | -- Jacques d'Anglemont de Tassigny, _181, rue de Vesle_,       |
    |        [=10]= [=U=] [=E=].                                     |
    | -- Auto-Palace (de Balliencourt), _35, rue de Bétheny_,        |
    |        [=10=] [=U=] [=E=] [=E"=].                              |
    | -- Gaston Etienne, _11, rue Chanzy_, [=10=] [=U=] [=E=].       |
    | -- M. Triquenot & Cie, _9, rue des Moissons_, [=3=] [=E=].     |
    | -- E. Caënen, _8, rue Heidsieck_, [=3=] [=E=].                 |
    | -- Brouard & Colmart, _20, rue de Savoye_, [=4=] [=E=].        |
    | -- Dieudonné, Cycles, _53, rue de Mars_.                       |
    | -- Doyen Fréres, Cycles, _52, rue de Céres_.                   |
    | -- Guérard, Cycles, _81, rue de Neuchâtel_.                    |
    | -- Boissel, Cycles, _122, bis rue de Gambetta_.                |
    | -- Siron, Cycles, _80, Avenue de Laon_.                        |
    |                                                                |
    |  --------------  =CAR MANUFACTURERS=  -----------------------  |
    |                                                                |
    | -- Panhard-Levassor Works, _83, rue Ernest-Renan_.             |
    | -- Société des Automobiles Brasier Works, _2, rue de Sillery_. |
    |                                                                |
    |----------------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                                |
    |* _The above information dates from June 1st, 1919, and may no  |
    |longer be exact when it meets the reader's eye. Tourists are    |
    |therefore recommended to consult the latest edition of the      |
    |"Michelin Guide to France" (English or French), before setting  |
    |out on the tour described in this volume._                      |
    |                                                                |
    |----------------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                                |
    |    THE MICHELIN TOURING OFFICE                                 |
    |    at 81, Fulham Road, Chelsea, LONDON,                        |
    |    S.W. 3, will be pleased to furnish                          |
    |    motorists with advice and information                       |
    |    free of charge.                                             |
    |                                                                |
    |    _Special itineraries free, on request._                     |
    |                                                                |
    |----------------------------------------------------------------|

[Illustration: (two ads)]


       *       *       *       *       *


    Transcriber's notes

Errors of punctuation and diacritics have been repaired.

Notations: =bold face text=, _italic text_.

Hyphens removed: "day[-]break" (page 32), "master[-]piece" (page 50),
"net[-]work" (page 167), "wood[-]work" (pages 72, 144, 146).

Hyphens added: "key-stones" (page 132), "pre[-]historic" (page 18),
"timber[-]work" (page 85).

The following words appear once each with and without hyphens and have
not been changed: "day[-]break", "hand[-]rail", "iron[-]work",
"stone[-]work".

Page 9: "Witry-les-Rheims" changed to "Witry-les-Reims".

Page 13: "seperate" changed to "separate" (On three separate occasions).

Page 23: "helmet" changed to "helmets" (They were supplied with helmets).

Page 55: "railling" changed to "railing" (wrought-iron railing).

Page 79 (caption): "of" added (supposed to be likenesses of).

Page 136: "roads" changed to "road" (The road turns abruptly).

Page 147: "Villers-Farnqueux" changed to "Villers-Franqueux".

Page 156: "Germas" changed to "Germans" (re-taken by the Germans).

Page 157 (caption of photo): "BÉTHANY" changed to "BÉTHENY".

Page 161: "earthern" changed to "earthen" (earthen ramparts).

Page 164 (title), page 176 (TOC): "l'Abesse" changed to "l'Abbesse".

Page 167: "per-war" changed to "pre-war" (retained its pre-war aspect).

Page 172: "Heidsick" changed to "Heidsieck" (champagne-wine firm of
Heidsieck).

Note: All the above errors except for those on pages 9, 161, 172 were
corrected in the 1920 edition of the book.





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