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Title: Narrative of the Voyages Round the World, Performed by Captain James Cook - With an Account of His Life During the Previous and Intervening Periods
Author: Kippis, Andrew, 1725-1795
Language: English
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NARRATIVE
OF THE
VOYAGES ROUND THE WORLD,
PERFORMED BY
CAPTAIN JAMES COOK.

WITH AN
ACCOUNT OF HIS LIFE
DURING THE PREVIOUS AND INTERVENING PERIODS.

BY

A. KIPPIS, D.D., F.R.S., & S.A.



TO THE KING.


SIR,

I esteem myself highly honoured in being permitted to dedicate and
present my Narrative of the Life and Actions of Captain James Cook to
your Majesty. It was owing to your Majesty's royal patronage and
bounty, that this illustrious navigator was enabled to execute those
vast undertakings, and to make those extraordinary discoveries, which
have contributed so much to the reputation of the British empire, and
have reflected such peculiar glory on your Majesty's reign. Without
your Majesty's munificence and encouragement, the world would have
remained destitute of that immense light which has been thrown on
geography, navigation, and the most important sciences. To your
Majesty, therefore, a work like the present is with particular
propriety addressed.

It is impossible, on this occasion, to avoid extending my thoughts to
the other noble instances in which your Majesty's liberal protection
of science and literature has been displayed. Your Majesty began your
reign in a career so glorious to princes: and wonderful has been the
increase of knowledge and taste in this country. The improvements in
philosophical science, and particularly in astronomy; the exertions of
experimental and chemical inquiry, the advancement of natural history,
the progress and perfection of the polite arts, and the valuable
compositions that have been produced in every department of learning,
have corresponded with your Majesty's gracious wishes and
encouragement, and have rendered the name of Britain famous in every
quarter of the globe. If there be any persons who, in these respects,
would depreciate the present times, in comparison with those which
have preceded them, it may safely be asserted, that such persons have
not duly attended to the history of literature. The course of my
studies has enabled me to speak with some confidence on the subject;
and to say, that your majesty's reign is eminently distinguished by
one of the greatest glories that can belong to a monarch.

Knowledge and virtue constitute the chief happiness of a nation: and
it is devoutly to be wished that the virtue of this country were equal
to its knowledge. If it be not so, this does not arise from the want
of an illustrious example in the person of your Majesty, and that of
your royal Consort. The pattern which is set by the King and Queen of
Great Britain, of those qualities which are the truest ornaments and
felicities of life, affords a strong incitement to the imitation of
the same excellencies; and cannot fail of contributing to the more
extensive prevalence of that moral conduct on which the welfare of
society so greatly depends.

That your Majesty may possess every felicity in your royal Person and
Family, and enjoy a long and prosperous reign, over an enlightened, a
free, and a happy people, is the sincere and ardent prayer of,

SIR,
Your Majesty's most faithful,
and most obedient,
subject and servant,

ANDREW KIPPIS.
London, _June_ 31, 1788.



PREFACE.


Although I have often appeared before the public as a writer, I never
did it with so much diffidence and anxiety as on the present occasion.
This arises from the peculiar nature of the work in which I have now
engaged. A Narrative of the Life and Actions of Captain Cook must
principally consist of the voyages and discoveries he made, and the
difficulties and dangers to which he was exposed. The private
incidents concerning him, though collected with the utmost diligence,
can never compare, either in number or importance, with his public
transactions. His public transactions are the things that mark the
man, that display his mind and his character; and, therefore they are
the grand objects to which the attention of his biographer must be
directed. However, the right conduct of this business is a point of no
small difficulty and embarrassment. The question will frequently
arise, How far the detail should be extended? There is a danger, on
the one hand, of being carried to an undue length, and of enlarging,
more than is needful, on facts which may be thought already
sufficiently known; and, on the other hand, of giving such a jejune
account, and such a slight enumeration of important events, as shall
disappoint the wishes and expectations of the reader. Of the two
extremes, the last seems to be that which should most be avoided; for,
unless what Captain Cook performed, and what he encountered, be
related somewhat at large, his Life and Actions would be imperfectly
represented to the world. The proper medium appears to be, to bring
forward the things in which he was personally concerned, and to pass
slightly over other matters. Even here it is scarcely possible, nor
would it be desirable, to avoid the introduction of some of the most
striking circumstances which relate to the new countries and
inhabitants that were visited by our great navigator, since these
constitute a part of the knowledge and benefit derived from his
undertakings. Whether I have been so happy as to preserve the due
medium, I presume not to determine. I have been anxious to do it,
without always being able fully to satisfy my own mind that I have
succeeded; on which account I shall not be surprised if different
opinions should be formed on the subject. In that case, all that I can
offer in my own defence will be, that I have acted to the best of my
judgment. At any rate I flatter myself with the hope of having
presented to the public a work not wholly uninteresting or
unentertaining. Those who are best acquainted with Captain Cook's
expeditions, may be pleased with reviewing them in a more compendious
form, and with having his actions placed in a closer point of view, in
consequence of their being divested of the minute nautical, and other
details, which were essentially necessary in the voyages at large. As
to those persons, if there be any, who have hitherto obtained but an
imperfect knowledge of what was done and discovered by this
illustrious man, they will not be offended with the length of the
following narrative.

In various respects, new information will be found in the present
performance; and other things, which were less perfectly known before,
are set in a clearer and fuller light. This, I trust, will appear in
the first, third, fifth, and seventh chapters. It may be observed,
likewise, that the fresh matter now communicated is of the most
authentic kind, and derived from the most respectable sources. My
obligations of this nature are, indeed, very great, and call for my
warmest gratitude. The dates and facts relative to Captain Cook's
different promotions are taken from the books of the Admiralty, by the
directions of the noble lord who is at the head of that Board, and the
favour of Mr. Stephens. I embrace with pleasure this opportunity of
mentioning, that, in the course of my life, I have experienced, in
several instances, Lord Howe's condescending and favourable attention.
To Mr. Stephens I am indebted for other communications besides those
which concern the times of Captain Cook's preferments, and for his
general readiness in forwarding the design of the present work. The
Earl of Sandwich, the great patron of our navigator, and the principal
mover in his mighty undertakings, has honoured me with some important
information concerning him, especially with regard to the
circumstances which preceded his last voyage. To Sir Hugh Palliser's
zeal for the memory of his friend I stand particularly obliged. From a
large communication, with which he was so good as to favour me, I have
derived very material intelligence, as will appear in the course of
the narrative, and especially in the first chapter. In the same
chapter are some facts which I received from Admiral Graves, through
the hands of the Rev. Dr. Douglas, now Bishop of Carlisle (whose
admirable Introduction to the Voyage to the Pacific Ocean must be of
the most essential service to every writer of the Life of Captain
Cook). The Captain's amiable and worthy Widow, who is held in just
esteem by all his friends, has given me an account of several domestic
circumstances. I should be deficient in gratitude, were I here to omit
the name of Mr. Samwell: for though what is inserted from him in this
work has already been laid before the public, it should be remembered,
that through the interposition of our common friend, the Rev. Mr.
Gregory, it was originally written for my use, and freely consigned to
my disposal; and that it was at my particular instance and request
that it was separately printed. My obligations to other gentlemen will
be mentioned in their proper places.

But my acknowledgments are, above all, due to Sir Joseph Banks,
President of the Royal Society, for the interest he has taken in the
present publication. It was in consequence of his advice, that it was
given to the world in the form which it now bears; and his assistance
has been invariable through every part of the undertaking. To him the
inspection of the whole has been submitted and to him it is owing,
that the work is, in many respects, far more complete than it would
otherwise have been. The exertions of zeal and friendship, I have been
so happy as to experience from him in writing the account of Captain
Cook, have corresponded with that ardour which Sir Joseph Banks is
always ready to display in promoting whatever he judges to be
subservient to the cause of science and literature.



CONTENTS.


CHAP. I. Account of Captain Cook previous to his first Voyage round
the World

CHAP. II. Narrative of Captain Cook's first Voyage round the World in
the years 1768, 1769, 1770, and 1771

CHAP. III. Account of Captain Cook during the Period between his first
and second Voyage

CHAP. IV. Narrative of Captain Cook's second Voyage round the World in
the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775

CHAP. V. Account of Captain Cook during the Period between his second
and third Voyage

CHAP. VI. Narrative of Captain Cook's third Voyage in the years 1776,
1777, 1778, and 1779, to the Period of his Death

CHAP. VII. Character of Captain Cook.--Effects of his
Voyages.--Testimonies of Applause.--Commemorations of his
Services.--Regard paid to his Family.--Conclusion

APPENDIX



COOK'S VOYAGES.



CHAPTER I.

Account of Captain Cook, previous to his first Voyage round the World.


Captain James Cook had no claim to distinction on account of the
lustre of his birth, or the dignity of his ancestors. His father,
James Cook, who from his dialect is supposed to have been a
Northumbrian, was in the humble station of a servant in husbandry, and
married a woman of the same rank with himself, whose Christian name
was Grace. Both of them were noted in their neighbourhood for their
honesty, sobriety, and diligence. They first lived at a village called
Morton, and then removed to Marton, another village in the
North-riding of Yorkshire, situated in the high road from Gisborough,
in Cleveland, to Stockton upon Tees, in the county of Durham, at the
distance of six miles from each of these towns. At Morton, Captain
Cook was born, on the 27th of October, 1728;[1] and, agreeably to the
custom of the vicar of the parish, whose practice it was to baptize
infants soon after their birth, he was baptized on the 3rd of November
following. He was one of nine children, all of whom are now dead,
excepting a daughter, who married a fisherman at Redcar. The first
rudiments of young Cook's education were received by him at Marton,
where he was taught to read by dame Walker, the schoolmistress of the
village. When he was eight years of age, his father, in consequence of
the character he had obtained for industry, frugality, and skill in
husbandry, had a little promotion bestowed upon him, which was that of
being appointed head-servant, or hind,[2] to a farm belonging to the
late Thomas Skottow, Esq. called Airy Holme, near Great Ayton. To this
place, therefore, he removed with his family;[3] and his son James, at
Mr. Skottow's expense, was put to a day-school in Ayton, where he was
instructed in writing, and in a few of the first rules of arithmetic.

  [Footnote 1: The mud house in which Captain Cook drew his first
  breath is pulled down, and no vestiges of it are now remaining.]

  [Footnote 2: This is the name which, in that part of the country,
  is given to the head-servant, or bailiff, of a farm.]

  [Footnote 3: Mr. Cook, senior, spent the close of his life with
  his daughter, at Redcar, and is supposed to have been about
  eighty-five years of age when he died.]

Before he was thirteen years of age, he was bound an apprentice to Mr.
William Sanderson, a haberdasher, or shopkeeper, at Straiths, a
considerable fishing town, about ten miles north of Whitby. This
employment, however, was very unsuitable to young Cook's disposition.
The sea was the object of his inclination; and his passion for it
could not avoid being strengthened by the situation of the town in
which he was placed, and the manner of life of the persons with whom
he must frequently converse. Some disagreement having happened between
him and his master, he obtained his discharge, and soon after bound
himself for seven years to Messrs. John and Henry Walker, of Whitby,
Quakers by religious profession, and principal owners of the ship
Freelove, and of another vessel, both of which were constantly
employed in the coal trade. The greatest part of his apprenticeship
was spent on board the Freelove. After he was out of his time, he
continued to serve in the coal and other branches of trade (though
chiefly in the former) in the capacity of a common sailor; till, at
length, he was raised to be mate of one of Mr. John Walker's ships.
During this period it is not recollected that he exhibited anything
very peculiar, either in his abilities or his conduct; though there
can be no doubt but that he had gained a considerable degree of
knowledge in the practical part of navigation, and that his attentive
and sagacious mind was laying up a store of observations, which would
be useful to him in future life.

In the spring of the year 1755, when hostilities broke out between
England and France, and there was a hot press for seamen, Mr. Cook
happened to be in the river Thames with the ship to which he belonged.
At first he concealed himself, to avoid being pressed; but reflecting,
that it might be difficult, notwithstanding all his vigilance, to
elude discovery or escape pursuit, he determined, upon farther
consideration, to enter voluntarily into his majesty's service, and to
take his future fortune in the royal navy. Perhaps he had some presage
in his own mind, that by his activity and exertions he might rise
considerably above his present situation. Accordingly, he went to a
rendezvous at Wapping, and entered with an officer of the Eagle man of
war, a ship of sixty guns, at that time commanded by Captain Hamer. To
this ship Captain (afterward Sir Hugh) Palliser was appointed, in the
month of October, 1755; and when he took the command, found in her
James Cook, whom he soon distinguished to be an able, active, and
diligent seaman. All the officers spoke highly in his favour, and the
Captain was so well pleased with his behaviour, that he gave him every
encouragement which lay in his power.

In the course of some time, Captain Palliser received a letter from
Mr. Osbaldeston, then member of Parliament for Scarborough,
acquainting him that several neighbours of his had solicited him to
write in favour of one Cook, on board the captain's ship. They had
heard that Captain Palliser had taken notice of him, and they
requested, if he thought Cook deserving of it, that he would point out
in what manner Mr. Osbaldeston might best contribute his assistance
towards forwarding the young man's promotion. The captain, in his
reply, did justice to Cook's merit; but, as he had been only a short
time in the navy, informed Mr. Osbaldeston that he could not be
promoted as a commission officer. A master's warrant, Captain Palliser
added, might perhaps be procured for Mr. Cook, by which he would be
raised to a station that he was well qualified to discharge with
ability and credit.

Such a warrant he obtained on the 10th of May, 1759, for the Grampus
sloop; but the proper master having unexpectedly returned to her, the
appointment did not take place. Four days after he was made master of
the Garland; when, upon inquiry, it was found, that he could not join
her, as the ship had already sailed. On the next day, the 15th of May,
he was appointed to the Mercury. These quick and successive
appointments shew that his interest was strong, and that the intention
to serve him was real and effectual.

The destination of the Mercury was to North America, where she joined
the fleet under the command of Sir Charles Saunders, which, in
conjunction with the land forces under General Wolfe, was engaged in
the famous siege of Quebec. During that siege, a difficult and
dangerous service was necessary to be performed. This was to take the
soundings in the channel of the river St. Lawrence, between the island
of Orleans and the north shore, directly in the front of the French
fortified camp at Montmorency and Beauport, in order to enable the
admiral to place ships against the enemy's batteries, and to cover our
army on a general attack, which the heroic Wolfe intended to make on
the camp. Captain Palliser, in consequence of his acquaintance with
Mr. Cook's sagacity and resolution, recommended him to the service;
and he performed it in the most complete manner. In this business he
was employed during the night-time, for several nights together. At
length he was discovered by the enemy, who collected a great number of
Indians and canoes, in a wood near the waterside, which were launched
in the night, for the purpose of surrounding him, and cutting him off.
On this occasion, he had a very narrow escape. He was obliged to run
for it, and pushed on shore on the island of Orleans, near the guard
of the English hospital. Some of the Indians entered at the stern of
the boat, as Mr. Cook leaped out at the bow; and the boat, which was a
barge belonging to one of the ships of war, was carried away in
triumph. However, he furnished the admiral with as correct and
complete a draught of the channel and soundings as could have been
made after our countrymen were in possession of Quebec. Sir Hugh
Palliser had good reason to believe, that before this time Mr. Cook
had scarcely ever used a pencil, and that he knew nothing of drawing.
But such was his capacity, that he speedily made himself master of
every object to which he applied his attention.

Another important service was performed by Mr. Cook while the fleet
continued in the river of St. Lawrence. The navigation of that river
is exceedingly difficult and hazardous. It was particularly so to the
English, who were then in a great measure strangers to this part of
North America, and who had no chart, on the correctness of which they
could depend. It was therefore ordered by the admiral, that Mr. Cook
should be employed to survey those parts of the river, below Quebec,
which navigators had experienced to be attended with peculiar
difficulty and danger; and he executed the business with the same
diligence and skill of which he had already afforded so happy a
specimen. When he had finished the undertaking, his chart of the river
St. Lawrence was published, with soundings, and directions for sailing
in that river. Of the accuracy and utility of this chart, it is
sufficient to say, that it hath never since been found necessary to
publish any other. One, which has appeared in France, is only a copy
of our author's, on a reduced scale.

After the expedition at Quebec, Mr. Cook, by warrant from Lord
Colvill, was appointed, on the 22d of September, 1759, master of the
Northumberland man of war, the ship in which his lordship staid, in
the following winter, as commodore, with the command of a squadron at
Halifax. In this station, Mr. Cook's behaviour did not fail to gain
him the esteem and friendship of his commander. During the leisure,
which the season of winter afforded him, he employed his time in the
acquisition of such knowledge as eminently qualified him for future
service. It was at Halifax that he first read Euclid, and applied
himself to the study of astronomy and other branches of science. The
books of which he had the assistance were few in number: but his
industry enabled him to supply many defects, and to make a progress
far superior to what could be expected from the advantages he enjoyed.

While Mr. Cook was master of the Northumberland under Lord Colvill,
that ship came to Newfoundland in September, 1762, to assist in the
recapture of the island from the French, by the forces under the
command of Lieutenant-colonel Amherst. When the island was recovered,
the English fleet staid some days at Placentia, in order to put it in
a more complete state of defence. During this time Mr. Cook manifested
a diligence in surveying the harbour and heights of the place, which
arrested the notice of Captain (now Admiral) Graves, commander of the
Antelope, and governor of Newfoundland. The governor was hence induced
to ask Cook a variety of questions, from the answers to which he was
led to entertain a very favourable opinion of his abilities. This
opinion was increased, the more he saw of Mr. Cook's conduct; who,
wherever they went, continued to display the most unremitting
attention to every object that related to the knowledge of the coast,
and was calculated to facilitate the practice of navigation. The
esteem which Captain Graves had conceived for him was confirmed by the
testimonies to his character, that were given by all the officers
under whom he served.

In the latter end of 1762, Mr. Cook returned to England; and, on the
21st of December, in the same year married, at Barking in Essex, Miss
Elizabeth Batts, an amiable and deserving woman, who was justly
entitled to and enjoyed his tenderest regard and affection. But his
station in life, and the high duties to which he was called, did not
permit him to partake of matrimonial felicity, without many and very
long interruptions.

Early in the year 1763, after the peace with France and Spain was
concluded, it was determined that Captain Graves should go out again,
as governor of Newfoundland As the country was very valuable in a
commercial view, and had been an object of great contention between
the English and the French, the captain obtained an establishment for
the survey of its coasts; which, however, he procured with some
difficulty, because the matter was not sufficiently understood by
government at home. In considering the execution of the plan, Mr. Cook
appeared to Captain Graves to be a proper person for the purpose; and
proposals were made to him, to which, notwithstanding his recent
marriage, he readily and prudently acceded. Accordingly, he went out
with the Captain as surveyor; and was first employed to survey
Miquelon and St. Pierre, which had been ceded by the treaty to the
French, who, by order of administration, were to take possession of
them at a certain period, even though the English commander should not
happen to be arrived in the country. When Captain Graves had reached
that part of the world, he found there the governor who had been sent
from France (Mons. D'Anjac), with all the settlers and his own family,
on board a frigate and some transports. It was contrived, however, to
keep them in that disagreeable situation for a whole month, which was
the time taken by Mr. Cook to complete his survey. When the business
was finished, the French were put into possession of the two islands,
and left in the quiet enjoyment of them, with every profession of
civility.

At the end of the season, Mr. Cook returned to England, but did not
long continue at home. In the beginning of the year 1764, his old and
constant friend and patron, Sir Hugh Palliser, was appointed governor
and commodore of Newfoundland and Labradore; upon which occasion he
was glad to take Mr. Cook with him, in the same capacity that he had
sustained under Captain Graves. Indeed, no man could have been found
who was better qualified for finishing the design which had been begun
in the preceding year. The charts of the coasts, in that part of North
America were very erroneous; and it was highly necessary to the trade
and navigation of his majesty's subjects, that new ones should be
formed, which would be more correct and useful. Accordingly, under the
orders of Commodore Palliser, Mr. Cook was appointed on the 18th of
April, 1764, marine surveyor of Newfoundland and Labradore; and he had
a vessel, the Grenville schooner, to attend him for that purpose. How
well he executed his commission is known to every man acquainted with
navigation. The charts which he afterward published of the different
surveys he had made, reflected great credit on his abilities and
character, and the utility of them is universally acknowledged. It is
understood, that, so far as Newfoundland is concerned they were of
considerable service to the king's ministers, in settling the terms of
the last peace. Mr. Cook explored the inland parts of this island in a
much completer manner than had ever been done before. By penetrating
further into the middle of the country than any man had hitherto
attempted, he discovered several large lakes, which are indicated upon
the general chart. In these services Mr. Cook appears to have been
employed, with the intervals of occasionally returning to England for
the winter season, till the year 1767, which was the last time that he
went out upon his station of marine surveyor of Newfoundland. It must
not be omitted, that, while he occupied this post, he had an
opportunity of exhibiting to the Royal Society a proof of his progress
in the study of astronomy. A short paper was written by him, and
inserted in the fifty-seventh volume of the Philosophical
Transactions, entitled, 'An Observation of an Eclipse of the Sun at
the Island of Newfoundland, August 5, 1766, with the Longitude of the
place of Observation deduced from it.' The observation was made at one
of the Burgeo islands, near Cape Ray, in latitude 47° 36' 19", on the
south-west extremity of Newfoundland. Mr. Cook's paper having been
communicated by Dr. Bevis to Mr. Witchell, the latter gentleman
compared it with an observation at Oxford, by the Rev. Mr. Hornsby, on
the same eclipse, and thence computed the difference of longitude
respecting the places of observation, making due allowance for the
effect of parallax, and the prolate spheroidal figure of the earth. It
appears from the Transactions that our navigator had already obtained
the character of being an able mathematician.



CHAPTER II.

Narrative of Captain Cook's first voyage round the world.


There is scarcely any thing from which the natural curiosity of man
receives a higher gratification, than from the accounts of distant
countries and nations. Nor is it curiosity only that is gratified by
such accounts; for the sphere of human knowledge is hereby enlarged,
and various objects are brought into view, an acquaintance with which
greatly contributes to the improvement of life and the benefit of the
world. With regard to information of this kind, the moderns have
eminently the advantage over the ancients. The ancients could neither
pursue their enquiries with the same accuracy, nor carry them on to
the same extent. Travelling by land was much more inconvenient and
dangerous than it hath been in later times; and, as navigation was
principally confined to coasting, it must necessarily have been
circumscribed within very narrow limits.

The invention of the compass, seconded by the ardent and enterprising
spirit of several able men, was followed by wonderful discoveries.
Vasco di Gama doubled the Cape of Good Hope; and a new way being thus
found out to the East Indies, the countries to that part of the earth
became more accurately and extensively known. Another world was
discovered by Columbus; and, at length, Magalhaens accomplished the
arduous and hitherto unattempted task of sailing round the globe. At
different periods he was succeeded by other circumnavigators, of whom
it is no part of the present narrative to give an account.

The spirit of discovery, which was so vigorous during the latter end
of the fifteenth and through the whole of the sixteenth century,
began, soon after the commencement of the seventeenth century, to
decline. Great navigations were only occasionally undertaken, and more
from the immediate views of avarice or war, than from any noble and
generous principles. But of late years they have been revived, with
the enlarged and benevolent design of promoting the happiness of the
human species.

A beginning of this kind was made in the reign of George the Second,
during which two voyages were performed; the first under the command
of Captain Middleton, and the next under the direction of Captains
Smith and More, in order to discover a northwest passage through
Hudson's Bay. It was reserved, however, for the glory of the present
reign to carry the spirit of discovery to its height, and to conduct
it on the noblest principles; not for the purposes of covetuousness or
ambition; not to plunder or destroy the inhabitants of newly-explored
countries; but to improve their condition, to instruct them in the
arts of life, and to extend the boundaries of science.

No sooner was peace restored, in 1763, than these laudable designs
engaged his majesty's patronage; and two voyages round the world had
been undertaken before Mr. Cook set out on his first command. The
conductors of these voyages were the Captains Byron, Wallis, and
Carteret,[4] by whom several discoveries were made, which contributed,
in no small degree, to increase the knowledge of geography and
navigation. Nevertheless, as the purpose for which they were sent out
appears to have had a principal reference to a particular object in
the South Atlantic, the direct track they were obliged to hold, on
their way homeward by the East Indies, prevented them from doing so
much as might otherwise have been expected towards giving the world a
complete view of that immense expanse of ocean, which the South
Pacific comprehends.

  [Footnote 4: The Captains Wallis and Carteret went out together
  upon the same expedition; but the vessels they commanded having
  accidentally parted company, they proceeded and returned by a
  different route. Hence their voyages are distinctly related by Dr.
  Hawkesworth.]

Before Captain Wallis and Captain Carteret had returned to Great
Britain, another voyage was resolved upon, for which the improvement
of astronomical science afforded the immediate occasion. It having
been calculated by astronomers, that a transit of Venus over the Sun's
disk would happen in 1769, it was judged that the best place for
observing it would be in some part of the South Sea, either at the
Marquesas, or at one of those islands which Tasman had called
Amsterdam; Rotterdam, and Middleburg, and which are now better known
under the appellation of the Friendly Islands. This being a matter of
eminent consequence in astronomy, and which excited the attention of
foreign nations as well as of our own, the affair was taken up by the
Royal Society, with the zeal which has always been displayed by that
learned body for the advancement of every branch of philosophical
science. Accordingly, a long memorial was addressed to his majesty,
dated February the 15th, 1768, representing the great importance of
the object, together with the regard which had been paid to it by the
principal courts of Europe; and entreating, among other things that a
vessel might be ordered, at the expense of government, for the
conveyance of suitable persons, to make the observation of the transit
of Venus, at one of the places before mentioned. This memorial having
been laid before the king by the Earl of Shelburne (now the Marquess
of Lansdown), one of the principal secretaries of state; his majesty
graciously signified his pleasure to the lords commissioners of the
Admiralty, that they should provide a ship for carrying over such
observers as the Royal Society should judge proper to send to the
South Seas; and, on the 3rd of April, Mr. Stephens informed the
society that a bark had been taken up for tire purpose.

The gentlemen who had originally been fixed upon to take the direction
of the expedition, was Alexander Dalrymple, Esq. an eminent member of
the Royal Society, and who, besides possessing an accurate knowledge
of astronomy, had distinguished himself by his inquiries into the
geography of the Southern Oceans, and by the collection he had
published of several voyages to those parts of the world. Mr.
Dalrymple being sensible of the difficulty, or rather of the
impossibility, of carrying a ship through unknown seas, the crew of
which were not subject to the military discipline of his majesty's
navy, he made it the condition of his going, that he should have a
brevet commission, as captain of the vessel, in the same manner as
such a commission had been granted to Dr. Halley, in his voyage of
discovery. To this demand Sir Edward Hawke, who was then at the head
of the Admiralty, and who possessed more of the spirit of his
profession than either of education or science, absolutely refused to
accede. He said, at the board, that his conscience would not allow him
to trust any ship of his majesty's to a person who had not regularly
been bred a seaman. On being further pressed upon the subject, Sir
Edward declared, that he would suffer his right hand to be cut off
before he would sign any such commission. In this he was, in some
degree, justified by the mutinous behaviour of Halley's crew, who
refused to acknowledge the legal authority of their commander, and
involved him in a dispute which was attended with pernicious
consequences. Mr. Dalrymple, on the other hand, was equally steady in
requiring a compliance with the terms he had proposed. Such was the
state of things, when Mr. Stephens, secretary to the Admiralty, whose
discrimination of the numerous characters, with which by his station
he is conversant, reflects as much credit on his understanding, as his
upright and able conduct does on the office he has filled for so many
years, and under so many administrations, with honour to himself and
advantage to the public, observed to the board, that since Sir Edward
Hawke and Mr. Dalrymple were equally inflexible, no method remained
but that of finding out another person capable of the service. He
knew, he said, a Mr. Cook, who had been employed as marine surveyor of
Newfoundland, who had been regularly educated in the navy, in which he
was a master, and whom he judged to be fully qualified for the
direction of the present undertaking. Mr. Stephens, at the same time,
recommended it to the board, to take the opinion of Sir Hugh Palliser,
who had lately been governor of Newfoundland, and was intimately
acquainted with Cook's character. Sir Hugh rejoiced in the opportunity
of serving his friend. He strengthened Mr. Stephen's recommendation to
the utmost of his power; and added many things in Mr. Cook's favour,
arising from the particular knowledge which he had of his abilities
and merit. Accordingly, Mr. Cook was appointed to the command of the
expedition by the lords of the Admiralty; and, on this occasion, he
was promoted to the rank of a lieutenant in the royal navy, his
commission bearing date on the 25th of May, 1768.

When the appointment had taken place, the first object was to provide
a vessel adapted to the purposes of the voyage. This business was
committed to Sir Hugh Palliser; who took Lieutenant Cook to his
assistance, and they examined together a great number of the ships
which then lay in the river Thames. At length they fixed upon one, of
three hundred and seventy tons, to which was given the name of the
Endeavour.

While preparations were making for Lieutenant Cook's expedition,
Captain Wallis returned from his voyage round the world. The Earl of
Morton, president of the Royal Society, had recommended it to this
gentleman, on his going out, to fix upon a proper place for observing
the transit of Venus. He kept, accordingly, the object in view: and
having discovered, in the course of his enterprise, an island called
by him George's Island, but which has since been found to bear the
name of Otaheite, he judged that Port Royal harbour in this island
would afford an eligible situation for the purpose. Having,
immediately on his return to England, signified his opinion to the
Earl of Morton, the captain's idea was adopted by the society, and an
answer conformable to it was sent to the commissioners of the
Admiralty, who had applied for directions to what place the observers,
should be sent.

Mr. Charles Green, a gentleman who had long been assistant to Dr.
Bradley at the royal observatory at Greenwich, was united by
Lieutenant Cook in conducting the astronomical part of the voyage;
and, soon after their appointment, they received ample instructions,
from the council of the Royal Society, with regard to the method of
carrying on their inquiries. The lieutenant was also accompanied by
Joseph Banks, Esq. (now Sir Joseph Banks, Bart.) and Dr. Solander,
who, in the prime of life, and the first of them at great expense to
himself, quitted all the gratifications of polished society, and
engaged in a very tedious, fatiguing, and hazardous navigation, with
the laudable views of acquiring knowledge in general, of promoting
natural knowledge in particular, and of contributing something to the
improvement and the happiness of the rude inhabitants of the earth.

Though it was the principal, it was not the sole object of Lieutenant
Cook's voyage to observe the transit of Venus. A more accurate
examination of the Pacific Ocean was committed to him, although in
subserviency to his main design; and, when his chief business was
accomplished, he was directed to proceed in making farther discoveries
in the great Southern Seas.

The complement of Lieutenant Cook's ship consisted of eighty-four
persons besides the commander. Her victualling was for eighteen
months; and there was put on board of her ten carriage and ten swivel
guns, together with an ample store of ammunition and other
necessaries.

On the 25th of May, 1768, Lieutenant Cook was appointed, by the lords
of the Admiralty, to the command of the Endeavour, in consequence of
which he went on board on the 27th, and took charge of the ship. She
then lay in the bason in Deptford-yard, where she continued to lie
till she was completely fitted for sea. On the 30th of July she sailed
down the river, and on the 13th of August anchored in Plymouth Sound.
The wind becoming fair on the 26th of that month, our navigators got
under sail, and on the 13th of September anchored in Funchiale Road,
in the island of Madeira.

While Lieutenant Cook and his company were in this island, they were
treated with the utmost kindness and liberality by Mr. Cheap, the
English consul there, and one of the most considerable merchants in
the town of Funchiale. He insisted upon their taking possession of his
house, and furnished them with every possible accommodation during
their stay at Madeira. They received, likewise, great marks of
attention and civility from Dr. Thomas Heberden, the principal
physician of the island, and brother to the excellent and learned Dr.
William Heberden of London. Dr. Thomas Heberden afforded all the
assistance in his power to Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander in their
botanical inquiries.

It was not solely from the English that the lieutenant and his friends
experienced a kind reception. The fathers of the Franciscan convent
displayed a liberality of sentiment towards them, which might not have
been expected from Portuguese friars; and, in a visit which they paid
to a convent of nuns, the ladies expressed a particular pleasure at
seeing them. At this visit the good nuns gave an amusing proof of the
progress they had made to the cultivation of their understandings.
Having heard that there were great philosophers among the English
gentlemen, they asked them a variety of questions; one of which was,
when it would thunder; and another, whether a spring of fresh water,
which was much wanted, was any where to be found within the walls of
the convent. Eminent as our philosophers were, they were puzzled by
these questions.

Lieutenant Cook, having laid in a fresh stock of beef, water, and
wine, set sail from the island of Madeira, in the night of the 18th of
September, and proceeded on his voyage. By the 7th of November several
articles of the ship's provisions began to fall short; for which
reason, the lieutenant determined to put into Rio de Janeiro. This
place he preferred to any other port in Brazil or to Falkland's
Islands, because he could there be better supplied with what he
wanted, and had no doubt of meeting with a friendly reception.

During the run between Madeira and Rio de Janeiro, Lieutenant Cook and
the gentlemen in the Endeavour had an opportunity of determining a
philosophical question. On the evening of the 29th of October, they
observed that luminous appearance of the sea which has so often been
mentioned by navigators, and which has been ascribed to such a variety
of causes. Flashes of light appeared to be emitted, exactly resembling
those of lightning, though without being so considerable; and such was
the frequency of them, that sometimes eight or ten were visible almost
at the same moment. It was the opinion of Mr. Cook and the other
gentlemen, that these flashes proceeded from some luminous animal; and
their opinion was confirmed by experiment.

At Rio de Janeiro, in the port of which Lieutenant Cook came to an
anchor on the 13th of November, he did not meet with the polite
reception that, perhaps, he had too sanguinely expected. His stay was
spent in continual altercations, with the viceroy, who appeared not a
little jealous of the designs of the English: nor were all the
attempts of the lieutenant to set the matter right, capable of
producing any effect. The viceroy was by no means distinguished either
by his knowledge or his love of science; and the grand object of Mr.
Cook's expedition was quite beyond his comprehension. When he was told
that the English were bound to the southward, by the order of his
Britannic majesty, to observe a transit of the planet Venus over the
Sun, an astronomical phenomenon of great importance to navigation, he
could form no other conception of the matter, than that it was the
passing of the North star through the South Pole.

During the whole of the contest with the viceroy, Lieutenant Cook
behaved with equal spirit and discretion. A supply of water and other
necessaries could not be refused him, and those were gotten on board
by the 1st of December. On that day the lieutenant sent to the viceroy
for a pilot to carry the Endeavour to sea; but the wind preventing the
ship from getting out, she was obliged to continue some time longer in
the harbour. A Spanish packet having arrived at Rio de Janeiro on the
2d of December, with dispatches from Buenos Ayres for Spain, the
commander, Don Antonio de Monte Negro y Velasco, offered, with great
politeness, to convey the letters of the English to Europe. This
favour Lieutenant Cook accepted, and gave Don Antonio a packet for the
secretary of the Admiralty, containing copies of all the papers that
had passed between himself and the Viceroy. He left, also, duplicates
with the viceroy, that he might forward them, if he thought proper, to
Lisbon.

On the 5th of December, it being a dead calm, our navigators weighed
anchor, and towed down the Bay; but, to their great astonishment, two
shots were fired at them; when they had gotten abreast of Santa Cruz,
the principal fortification of the harbour. Lieutenant Cook
immediately cast anchor, and sent to the fort to demand, the reason of
this conduct; the answer to which was, that the commandant had
received no order from the viceroy to let the ship pass; and that,
without such an order, no vessel was ever suffered to go below the
fort. It now became necessary to send to the viceroy, to inquire why
the order had not been given; and his behaviour appeared the more
extraordinary, as notice had been transmitted to him of the departure
of the English, and he had thought proper to write a polite letter to
Mr. Cook, wishing him a good voyage. The lieutenant's messenger soon
returned, with the information that the order had been written several
days, and that its not having been sent had arisen from some
unaccountable negligence. It was not till the 7th of December that the
Endeavour got under sail.

In the account which Lieutenant Cook has given of Rio de Janeiro, and
the country round it, one circumstance is recorded, which cannot be
otherwise than very painful to humanity. It is the horrid expense of
life at which the gold mines are wrought. No less than forty thousand
Negroes are annually imported for this purpose, on the king of
Portugal's account; and the English were credibly informed, that, in
the year 1766, this number fell so short, that twenty thousand more
were drafted from the town of Rio.

From Rio de Janeiro, Lieutenant Cook pursued his voyage, and, on the
14th of January, 1769, entered the Strait of Le Maire, at which time
the tide drove the ship out with so much violence, and raised such a
sea off Cape St. Diego, that she frequently pitched, so that the
bowsprit was under water. On the next day, the lieutenant anchored,
first before a small cove, which was understood to be Port Maurice,
and afterward in the Bay of Good Success. While the Endeavour was in
this station, happened the memorable adventure of Mr. Banks, Dr.
Solander, Mr. Monkhouse the surgeon, and Mr. Green the astronomer,
together with their attendants and servants, and two seamen, in
ascending a mountain to search for plants. In this expedition they
were all of them exposed to the utmost extremity of danger and of
cold; Dr. Solander was seized with a torpor which had nearly proved
fatal to his life; and two black servants actually died. When the
gentlemen had, at length, on the second day of their adventure, gotten
back to the ship, they congratulated each other on their safety, with
a joy that can only be felt by those who have experienced equal
perils; and Mr. Cook was relieved from a very painful anxiety. It was
a dreadful testimony of the severity of the climate, that this event
took place when it was the midst of summer in that part of the world,
and at the close of a day, the beginning of which was as mild and
warm, as the month of May usually is in England.

In the passage through the Strait of Le Maire, Lieutenant Cook and his
ingenious associates had an opportunity of gaining a considerable
degree of acquaintance with the inhabitants of the adjoining country.
Here it was that they saw human nature to its lowest form. The natives
appeared to be the most destitute and forlorn, as well as the most
stupid, of the children of men. Their lives are spent in wandering
about the dreary wastes that surround them; and their dwellings are no
other than wretched hovels of sticks and grass, which not only admit
the wind, but the snow and the rain. They are almost naked, and so
devoid are they of every convenience which is furnished by the rudest
art, that they have not so much as an implement to dress their food.
Nevertheless, they seemed to have no wish for acquiring more than they
possessed; nor did any thing that was offered them by the English
appear acceptable but beads, as an ornamental superfluity of life. A
conclusion is hence drawn by Dr. Hawkesworth, that these people may be
upon a level with ourselves, in respect to the happiness they enjoy.
This, however, is a position which ought not hastily to be admitted.
It is, indeed, a beautiful circumstance, in the order of Divine
Providence, that the rudest inhabitants of the earth, and those who
are situated in the most unfavourable climates, should not be sensible
of their disadvantages. But still it must be allowed, that their
happiness is greatly inferior, both in kind and degree, to that
intellectual, social, and moral felicity, which is capable of being
attained in a highly cultivated state of society.

In voyages to the South Pacific Ocean, the determination of the best
passage from the Atlantic is a point of peculiar importance. It is
well known what prodigious difficulties were experienced in this
respect by former navigators. The doubling of Cape Horn, in
particular, was so much dreaded, that, to the general opinion, it was
far more eligible to pass through the Strait of Magalhaens. Lieutenant
Cook hath fully ascertained the erroneousness of this opinion. He was
but three-and-thirty days in coming round the land of Terra del Fuego,
from the east entrance of the Strait of Le Maire, till he had advanced
about twelve degrees to the westward, and three and a half to the
northward of the Strait of Magalhaens; and, during this time, the ship
scarcely received any damage. Whereas, if he had come into the Pacific
Ocean by that passage, he would not have been able to accomplish it in
less than three months; besides which, his people would have been
fatigued, and the anchors, cables, sails, and rigging of the vessel
much injured. By the course he pursued, none of these inconveniences
were suffered. In short, Lieutenant Cook, by his own example in
doubling Cape Horn, by his accurate ascertainment of the latitude and
longitude of the places he came to, and by his instructions to future
voyagers, performed the most essential services to this part of
navigation. It was on the 26th of January that the Endeavour took her
departure from Cape Horn; and it appeared; that, from that time to the
1st of March, during a run of six hundred and sixty leagues, there was
no current which affected the ship. Hence it was highly probable that
our navigators had been near no land of any considerable extent,
currents being always found when land is not remote.

In the prosecution of Lieutenant Cook's voyage from Cape Horn to
Otaheite, several islands were discovered, to which the names were
given of Lagoon Island, Thrump-cap, Bow Island, The Groups, Bird
Island, and Chain Island. It appeared that most of these islands were
inhabited; and the verdure, and groves of palm-trees, which were
visible upon some of them, gave them the aspect of a terrestrial
paradise to men who, excepting the dreary hills of Terra del Fuego,
had seen nothing for a long time but sky and water.

On the 11th of April, the Endeavour arrived in sight of Otaheite, and
on the 13th she came to an anchor in Port Royal Bay, which is called
MATAVIA by the natives. As the stay of the English in the island was
not likely to be very short, and much depended on the manner in which
traffic should be carried on with the inhabitants, Lieutenant Cook,
with great good sense and humanity, drew up a set of regulations for
the behaviour of his people, and gave it in command that they should
punctually be observed.[5]

  [Footnote 5: The rules were as follow: '1. To endeavour, by every
  fair means, to cultivate a friendship with the natives: and to
  treat them with all imaginable humanity. 2. A proper person or
  persons will be appointed to trade with the natives for all manner
  of provisions, fruit, and other productions of the earth; and no
  officer or seaman, or other person belonging to, the ship
  excepting such as are so appointed, shall trade, or offer to
  trade, for any sort of provision, fruit, or other productions of
  the earth, unless they have leave so to do. 3. Every person
  employed on shore, on any duty whatsoever, is strictly to attend
  to the same; and if by any neglect he loseth any of his arms, or
  working tools or suffers them to be stolen, the full value
  therefore will be charged against his pay, according to the custom
  of the navy in such cases, and he shall receive such further
  punishment as the nature of the offence may deserve. 4. The same
  penalty will be inflicted on every person who is found to
  embezzle, trade, or offer to trade, with any part of the ship's
  stores of what nature soever. 5. No sort of iron, or any thing
  that is made of iron, or any sort of cloth, or other useful or
  necessary articles, are to be given in exchange for any thing but
  provision. J. COOK.']

One of the first things that occupied the lieutenant's attention,
after his arrival at Otaheite, was to prepare for the execution of his
grand commission. For this purpose, as, in an excursion to the
westward, he had not found any more convenient harbour than that in
which the Endeavour lay, he determined to go on shore and fix upon
some spot, commanded by the guns of the ship, where he might throw up
a small fort for defence, and get every thing ready for making the
astronomical observations. Accordingly, he took a party of men, and
landed, being accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Mr. Green.
They soon fixed upon a place very proper for their design, and which
was at a considerable distance from any habitation of the natives.
While the gentlemen were marking out the ground which they intended to
occupy, and seeing a small tent erected, that belonged to Mr. Banks, a
great number of the people of the country gathered gradually around
them, but with no hostile appearance, as there was not among the
Indians a single weapon of any kind. Mr. Cook, however, intimated that
none of them were to come within the line he had drawn excepting one,
who appeared to be a chief, and Owhaw, a native who had attached
himself to the English, both in Captain Wallis's expedition and in the
present voyage. The lieutenant endeavoured to make these two persons
understand, that the ground, which had been marked out, was only
wanted to sleep upon for a certain number of nights, and that then it
would be quitted. Whether his meaning was comprehended or not, he
could not certainly determine; but the people behaved with a deference
and respect that could scarcely have been expected, and which were
highly pleasing. They sat down without the circle, peaceably and
uninterruptedly attending to the progress of the business, which was
upwards of two hours in completing.

This matter being finished, and Mr. Cook having appointed thirteen
marines and a petty officer to guard the tent, he and the gentlemen
with him set out upon a little excursion into the woods of the
country. They had not, however, gone far, before they were brought
back by a very disagreeable event. One of the Indians, who remained
about the tent after the lieutenant and his friends had left it,
watched an opportunity of taking the sentry at unawares, and snatched
away his musket. Upon this, the petty officer who commanded the party,
and who was a midshipman, ordered the marines to fire. With equal want
of consideration, and, perhaps with equal inhumanity, the men
immediately discharged their pieces among the thickest of the flying
crowd, who consisted of more than a hundred. It being observed, that
the thief did not fall, he was pursued, and shot dead. From subsequent
information it happily appeared, that none of the natives besides were
either killed or wounded.

Lieutenant Cook, who was highly displeased with the conduct of the
petty officer, used every method in his power to dispel the terrors
and apprehensions of the Indians, but not immediately with effect. The
next morning but few of the inhabitants were seen upon the beach, and
not one of them came off to the shill. What added particularly to the
regret of the English was, that even Owhaw, who had hitherto been so
constant in his attachment, and who the day before had been remarkably
active in endeavouring to renew the peace which had been broken, did
not now make his appearance. In the evening, however, when the
lieutenant went on shore with only a boat's crew and some of the
gentlemen, between thirty and forty of the natives gathered around
them, and trafficked with them, in a friendly manner, for cocoa nuts
and other fruit.

On the 17th, Mr. Cook and Mr. Green set up a tent onshore, and spent
the night there, in order to observe an eclipse of the first satellite
of Jupiter; but they met with a disappointment, in consequence of the
weather's becoming cloudy. The next day, the lieutenant, with as many
of his people as could possibly be spared from the ship, began to
erect the fort. While the English were employed in this business, many
of the Indians were so far from hindering, that they voluntarily
assisted them, and with great alacrity brought the pickets and facines
from the wood where they had been cut. Indeed, so scrupulous had Mr.
Cook been of invading their property, that every stake which was used
was purchased, and not a tree was cut down till their consent had
first been obtained.

On the 26th, the lieutenant mounted six swivel guns upon the fort; on
which occasion he saw, with concern, that the natives were alarmed and
terrified. Some fishermen, who lived upon the point, removed to a
greater distance; and Owhaw informed the English by signs, of his
expectation that in four days they would fire their great guns.

The lieutenant, on the succeeding day, gave a striking proof of his
regard to justice, and of his care to preserve the inhabitants from
injury and violence, by the punishment he inflicted on the butcher of
the Endeavour, who was accused of having threatened, or attempted the
life of a woman, that was the wife of Tubourai Tamaide, a chief,
remarkable for his attachment to our navigators. The butcher wanted to
purchase of her a stone hatchet for a nail. To this bargain she
absolutely refused to accede; upon which the fellow catched up the
hatchet, and threw down the nail; threatening, at the same time, that
if she made any resistance, he would cut her throat with a
reaping-hook which he had in his hand. The charge was so fully proved
in the presence of Mr. Banks, and the butcher had so little to say in
exculpation of himself, that not the least doubt remained of his
guilt. The affair being reported by Mr. Banks to Lieutenant Cook, he
took an opportunity, when the chief and his women, with others of the
natives, were on board the ship, to call up the offender, and, after
recapitulating the accusation and the proof of it, to give orders for
his immediate punishment. While the butcher was stripped, and tied up
to the rigging, the Indians preserved a fixed attention, and waited
for the event in silent suspense. But as soon as the first stroke was
inflicted, such was the humanity of these people, that they interfered
with great agitation, and earnestly entreated that the rest of the
punishment might be remitted. To this, however, the lieutenant, for
various reasons, could not grant his consent; and when they found that
their intercessions were ineffectual, they manifested their compassion
by tears.

On the 1st of May, the observatory was set up, and the astronomical
quadrant, together with some other instruments, was taken on shore.
When, on the next morning, Mr. Cook and Mr. Green landed for the
purpose of fixing the quadrant in a situation for use, to their
inexpressible surprise and concern it was not to be found. It had been
deposited in a tent reserved for the lieutenant's use, where no one
had slept; it had never been taken out of the packing case, and the
whole was of considerable weight: none of the other instruments were
missing; and a sentinel had been posted the whole night within five
yards of the tent. These circumstances induced a suspicion that the
robbery might have been committed by some of our own people, who
having seen a deal box, and not knowing the contents, might imagine
that it contained nails, or other articles for traffic with the
natives. The most diligent search, therefore, was made, and a large
reward was offered for the finding of the quadrant, but with no degree
of success. In this exigency, Mr. Banks was of eminent service. As
this gentleman had more influence over the Indians than any other
person on board the Endeavour, and as there could be little doubt of
the quadrant's having been conveyed away by some of the natives, he
determined to go in search of it into the woods; and it was recovered
in consequence of his judicious and spirited exertions. The pleasure
with which it was brought back was equal to the importance of the
event; for the grand object of the voyage could not otherwise have
been accomplished.

Another embarrassment, though not of so serious a nature, was
occasioned, on the very same day, by one of our officers having
inadvertently taken into custody Tootahah, a chief, who had connected
himself in the most friendly manner with the English. Lieutenant Cook,
who had given express orders that none of the Indians should be
confined, and who, therefore, was equally surprised and concerned at
this transaction; instantly set Tootahah at liberty. So strongly had
this Indian been possessed with the notion that it was intended to put
him to death, that he could not be persuaded to the contrary till he
was led out of the fort. His joy at his deliverance was so great, that
it displayed itself in a liberality which our people were very
unwilling to partake of, from a consciousness that on this occasion
they had no claim to the reception of favours. The impression,
however, of the confinement of the chief operated with such force upon
the minds of the natives, that few of them appeared; and the market
was so ill supplied that the English were in want of necessaries. At
length, by the prudent exertions of Lieutenant Cook, Mr. Banks, and
Dr. Solander, the friendship of Tootahah was completely recovered, and
the reconciliation worked upon the Indians like a charm; for it was no
sooner known that he had gone voluntarily on board the Endeavour, than
bread-fruit, cocoa nuts, and other provisions, were brought to the
fort in great plenty.

The lieutenant and the rest of the gentlemen had hitherto, with a
laudable discretion, bartered only beads for the articles of food now
mentioned. But the market becoming slack, they were obliged for the
first time, on the 8th of May, to bring out their nails; and such was
the effect of this new commodity, that one of the smallest size, which
was about four inches long, procured twenty cocoa nuts, and
bread-fruit in proportion.

It was not till the 10th of the month that our voyagers learned that
the Indian name of the island was OTAHEITE, by which name it hath
since been always distinguished.

On Sunday the 14th, an instance was exhibited of the inattention of
the natives to our modes of religion. The lieutenant had directed,
that divine service should be performed at the fort; and he was
desirous that some of the principal Indians should be present. Mr.
Banks secured the attendance of Tuobourai Tamaide and his wife Tomio,
hoping that it would give occasion to some inquiries on their part,
and to some instruction in return. During the whole service, they very
attentively observed Mr. Banks's behaviour, and stood, sat, or
kneeled, as they saw him do; and they appeared to be sensible, that it
was a serious and important employment in which the English were
engaged. But when the worship was ended, neither of them asked any
questions, nor would they attend to any explanations which were
attempted to be given of what had been performed.

As the day approached for executing the grand purpose of the voyage,
Lieutenant Cook determined, in consequence of some hints which he had
received from the Earl of Morton, to send out two parties, to observe
the transit of Venus from other situations. By this means he hoped,
that the success of the observation would be secured, if there should
happen to be any failure at Otaheite. Accordingly, on Thursday the 1st
of June, he dispatched Mr. Gore in the long boat to Eimeo, a
neighbouring island, together with Mr. Monkhouse and Mr. Sporing, a
gentleman belonging to Mr. Banks. They were furnished by Mr. Green
with proper instruments. Mr. Banks himself chose to go upon this
expedition, in which he was accompanied by Tubourai Tamaide and Tomio,
and by others of the natives. Early the next morning, the lieutenant
sent Mr. Hicks, in the pinnace, with Mr. Clerk and Mr. Pickersgill,
and Mr. Saunders, one of the midshipmen, ordering them to fix upon
some convenient spot to the eastward, at a distance from the principal
observatory, where they also might employ the instruments they were
provided with for observing the transit.

The anxiety for such weather as would be favourable to the success of
the experiment, was powerfully felt by all the parties concerned. They
could not sleep in peace the preceding night: but their apprehensions
were happily removed by the sun's rising, on the morning of the 3d of
June, without a cloud. The weather continued with equal clearness
through the whole of the day; so that the observation was successively
made in every quarter. At the fort where Lieutenant Cook, Mr. Green,
and Dr. Solander were stationed, the whole passage of the planet Venus
over the sun's disk was observed with great advantage. The magnifying
power of Dr. Solander's telescope was superior to that of those which
belonged to the lieutenant and to Mr. Green. They all saw an
atmosphere or dusky cloud round the body of the planet; which much
disturbed the times of the contact, and especially of the internal
ones; and, in their accounts of these times, they differed from each
other in a greater degree than might have been expected. According to
Mr. Green,

                               _Morning._
  The first external contact, or first appearance     h. min. sec.
   of Venus on the sun, was . . . . . . . . . . .     9   25   42
  The first internal contact, or total immersion,
   was . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . . . . .      9   44    4

                                 _Afternoon._
  The second internal contact, or beginning
   of the emersion, was . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3   14    8
  The second external contact, or total
   emersion, was . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      3   32   10
  The latitude of the observatory was found to be
   17° 29' 15"; and the longitude 149° 32' 30" west
   of Greenwich.

A more particular account of this great astronomical event, the
providing for the accurate observation of which reflects so much
honour on his majesty's munificent patronage of science, may be seen
in the sixty-first volume of the Philosophical Transactions.

The pleasure which Lieutenant Cook and his friends derived, from
having thus successfully accomplished the first grand object of the
voyage, was not a little abated by the conduct of some of the ship's
company, who, while the attention of the officers was engrossed by the
transit of Venus, broke into one of the store-rooms, and stole a
quantity of spike nails, amounting to no less than a hundred weight.
This was an evil of a public and serious nature; for these nails, if
injudiciously circulated among the Indians, would be productive of
irreparable injury to the English, by reducing the value of iron,
their staple commodity. One of the thieves, from whom only seven nails
were recovered, was detected; but though the punishment of two dozen
lashes was inflicted upon him, he would not impeach any of his
accomplices.

Upon account of the absence of the two parties who had been sent out
to observe the transit, the king's birthday was celebrated on the 5th,
instead of the 4th of June; and the festivity of the day must have
been greatly heightened by the happy success with which his majesty's
liberality had been crowned.

On the 12th, Lieutenant Cook was again reduced to the necessity of
exercising the severity of discipline. Complaint having been made to
him, by certain of the natives, that two of the seamen had taken from
them several bows and arrows, and some strings of platted hair, and
the charge being fully supported, he punished each of the criminals
with two dozen of lashes.

On the same day it was discovered, that Otaheite, like other countries
in a certain period of society, has its bards and its minstrels. Mr.
Banks, in his morning's walk, had met with a number of natives, who
appeared, upon inquiry, to be travelling musicians; and, having,
learned where they were to be at night, all the gentlemen of the
Endeavour repaired to the place. The band consisted of two flutes and
three drums; and the drummers accompanied the music with their voices.
To the surprise of the English gentlemen, they found that themselves
were generally the subject of the song, which was unpremeditated.
These minstrels were continually going about from place to place; and
they were rewarded, by the master of the house and the audience, with
such things as they wanted.

The repeated thefts which were committed by the inhabitants of
Otaheite brought our voyagers into frequent difficulties, and it
required all the wisdom of Lieutenant Cook to conduct himself in a
proper manner. His sentiments on the subject displayed the liberality
of his mind. He thought it of consequence to put an end, if possible
to thievish practices at once, by doing something that should engage
the natives in general to prevent them, from a regard to their common
interest. Strict orders had been given by him, that they should not
be fired upon, even when they were detected in attempting to steal any
of the English property. For this the lieutenant had many reasons. The
common sentinels were in no degree fit to be entrusted with a power of
life and death; neither did Mr. Cook think that the thefts committed
by the Otaheitans deserved so severe a punishment. They were not born
under the law of England; nor was it one of the conditions under which
they claimed the benefits of civil society, that their lives should be
forfeited, unless they abstained from theft. As the lieutenant was not
willing that the natives should be exposed to fire-arms loaded with
shot, neither did he approve of firing only with powder, which, if
repeatedly found to be harmless, would at length be despised. At a
time when a considerable robbery had been committed, an accident
furnished him with what he hoped would be a happy expedient for
preventing future attempts of the same kind. Above twenty of the
sailing canoes of the inhabitants came in with a supply of fish. Upon
these Lieutenant Cook immediately seized, and, having brought them
into the river behind the fort, gave notice, that unless the things
which had been stolen were returned, the canoes should be burnt. This
menace, without designing to put it into execution, he ventured to
publish, from a full conviction that, as restitution was thus made a
common cause, the stolen goods would all of them speedily be brought
back. In this, however, he was mistaken. An iron coal-rake, indeed,
was restored; upon which, great solicitation was made for the release
of the canoes; but he still insisted on his original condition. When
the next day came, he was much surprised to find that nothing further
had been returned; and, as the people were in the utmost distress for
the fish, which would in a short time be spoiled, he was reduced to
the disagreeable alternative, either of releasing the canoes contrary
to what he had solemnly and publicly declared, or of detaining them,
to the great damage of those who were innocent. As a temporary
expedient, he permitted the natives to take the fish, but still
detained the canoes. So far was this measure from being attended with
advantage, that it was productive of new confusion and injury; for as
it was not easy at once to distinguish to what particular persons the
several lots of fish belonged, the canoes were plundered by those who
had no right to any part of their cargo. At length, most pressing
instances being still made for the restoration of the canoes, and
Lieutenant Cook having reason to believe, either that the things for
which he detained them were not in the island, or that those who
suffered by their detention were absolutely incapable of prevailing
upon the thieves to relinquish their booty, he determined, though not
immediately, to comply with the solicitations of the natives. Our
commander was, however, not a little mortified at the ill success of
his project.

About the same time, another accident occurred, which, notwithstanding
all the caution of our principal voyagers, was very near embroiling
them with the Indians. The lieutenant having sent a boat on shore to
get ballast for the ship, the officer, not immediately finding stones
suitable to the purpose, began to pull down some part of an enclosure
in which the inhabitants had deposited the bones of their dead. This
action a number of the natives violently opposed; and a messenger came
down to the tents, to acquaint the gentlemen that no such thing would
be suffered. Mr. Banks directly repaired to the place, and soon put an
amicable end to the contest, by sending the boat's crew to the river,
where a sufficient quantity of stones might be gathered without a
possibility of giving offence. These Indians appeared to be much more
alarmed at any injury which they apprehended to be done to the dead
than to the living. This was the only measure in which they ventured
to oppose the English: and the only insult that was ever offered to
any individual belonging to the Endeavour was upon a similar occasion.
It should undoubtedly be the concern of all voyagers, to abstain from
wantonly offending the religious prejudices of the people among whom
they come.

To extend the knowledge of navigation and the sphere of discovery,
objects which we need not say that Lieutenant Cook kept always
steadily in view, he set out, in the pinnace, on the 26th of June,
accompanied by Mr. Banks, to make the circuit of the island; during
which the lieutenant and his companions were thrown into great alarm,
by the apprehended loss of the boat. By this expedition Mr. Cook
obtained an acquaintance with the several districts of Otaheite, the
chiefs who presided over them, and a variety of curious circumstances
respecting the manners and customs of the inhabitants. On the 1st of
July, he got back to the fort at Matavai, having found the circuit of
the island, including the two peninsulas of which it consisted, to be
about thirty leagues.

The circumnavigation of Otaheite was followed by an expedition of Mr.
Banks's to trace the river up the valley from which it issues, and
examine how far its banks were inhabited. During this excursion he
discerned many traces of subterraneous fire. The stones, like those of
Madeira, displayed evident tokens of having been burnt; and the very
clay upon the hills had the same appearance.

Another valuable employment of Mr. Banks was the planting of a great
quantity of the seeds of watermelons, oranges, lemons, limes, and
other plants and trees, which he had collected at Rio de Janeiro. For
these he prepared ground on each side of the fort, and selected as
many varieties of soil as could be found. He gave, also, liberally of
these seeds to the natives, and planted many of them in the woods.

Lieutenant Cook now began to prepare for his departure. On the 7th of
July, the carpenters were employed in taking down the gates and
palisadoes of the fortification; and it was continued to be dismantled
during the two following days. Our commander and the rest of the
gentlemen were in hopes that they should quit Otaheite without giving
or receiving any further offence; but in this respect they were
unfortunately disappointed. The lieutenant had prudently overlooked a
dispute of a smaller nature between a couple of foreign seamen and
some of the Indians, when he was immediately involved in a quarrel,
which lie greatly regretted, and which yet it was totally out of his
power to avoid. In the middle of the night, between the 8th and the
9th, Clement Webb and Samuel Gibson, two of the marines, went
privately from the fort. As they were not to be found in the morning,
Mr. Cook was apprehensive that they intended to stay behind; but,
being unwilling to endanger the harmony and goodwill which at present
subsisted between our people, and the natives, he determined to wait a
day for the chance of the men's return. As, to the great concern of
the lieutenant, the marines were not come back on the morning of the
tenth, inquiry was made after them of the Indians, who acknowledged
that each of them had taken a wife, and had resolved to become
inhabitants of the country. After some deliberation, two of the
natives undertook to conduct such persons to, the place of the
deserters' retreat, as Mr. Cook should think proper to send; and,
accordingly, he dispatched with the guides a petty officer and the
corporal of the marines. As it was of the utmost importance to recover
the men, and to do it speedily, it was intimated to several of the
chiefs who were in the fort with the women, among whom were Tubourai
Targaide, Tomio, and Oberea, that they would not be to leave it till
the fugitives were returned; and the lieutenant had the pleasure of
observing, that they received the intimation with very little
indications of alarm, and with assurances, that his people should be
secured and sent back as soon as possible. While this transaction took
place at the fort, our commander sent Mr. Hicks in the pinnace to
fetch Tootahah on board the ship. Mr. Cook had reason to expect, if
the Indian guides proved faithful, that the deserters, and those who
went in search of them, would return before the evening. Being
disappointed, his suspicions increased, and thinking it not safe, when
the night approached, to let the persons whom he had detained as
hostages continue at the fort, he ordered Tubourai Tamaide, Oberea,
and some others, to be taken on board the Endeavour; a circumstance
which excited so general an alarm, that several of them, and
especially the women, expressed their apprehensions with great emotion
and many tears. Webb, about nine o'clock, was brought back by some of
the natives, who declared that Gibson, and the petty officer and
corporal, would not be restored till Tootahah should be set at
liberty. Lieutenant Cook now found that the tables were turned upon
him: but, having proceeded too far to retreat, he immediately
dispatched Mr. Hicks in the long-boat, with a strong party of men, to
rescue the prisoners. Tootahah was, at the same time, informed, that
it behoved him to send some of his people with them, for the purpose
of affording them effectual assistance. With this injunction he
readily complied, and the prisoners were restored without the least
opposition. On the next day they were brought back to the ship, upon
which the chiefs were released from their confinement. Thus ended an
affair which had given the lieutenant a great deal of trouble and
concern. It appears, however, that the measure which he pursued was
the result of an absolute necessity; since it was only by the seizure
of the chiefs that he could have recovered his men. Love was the
seducer of the two marines. So strong was the attachment which they
had formed to a couple of girls, that it was their design to conceal
themselves till the ship had sailed, and to take up their residence in
the island.

Tupia was one of the natives who had so particularly devoted himself
to the English, that he had scarcely ever been absent from them during
the whole of their stay at Otaheite. He had been Oberea's first
minister, while she was in the height of her power; and he was also
chief priest of the country. To his knowledge of the religious
principles and ceremonies of the Indians, he added great experience in
navigation, and a particular acquaintance with the number and
situation of the neighbouring islands. This man had often expressed a
desire to go with our navigators, and when they were ready to depart,
he came on board, with a boy about thirteen years of age, and
entreated that he might be permitted to proceed with them on their
voyage. To have such a person in the Endeavour, was desirable on many
accounts; and therefore, Lieutenant Cook gladly acceded to his
proposal.

On the 13th of July, the English weighed anchor: and as soon as the
ship was under sail, the Indians on board took their leaves, and wept
with a decent and silent sorrow, in which there was something very
striking and tender. Tupia sustained himself in this scene with a
truly admirable firmness and resolution; for, though he wept, the
effort he made to conceal his tears concurred, with them, to do him
honour.

The stay of our voyagers at Otaheite was three months, the greater
part of which time was spent in the most cordial friendship with the
inhabitants, and a perpetual reciprocation of good offices. That any
differences should happen was greatly regretted on the part of
Lieutenant Cook and his friends, who were studious to avoid them as
much as possible. The principal causes of them resulted from the
peculiar situation and circumstances of the English and the Indians,
and especially from the disposition of the latter to theft. The
effects of this disposition could not always be submitted to or
prevented. It was happy, however, that there was only a single
instance in which the differences that arose were attended with any
fatal consequence; and by that accident the lieutenant was instructed
to take the most effectual measures for the future prevention of
similar events. He had nothing so much at heart, as that in no case
the intercourse of his people with the natives should be productive of
bloodshed.

The traffic with the inhabitants for provisions and refreshments,
which was chiefly under the management of Mr. Banks, was carried on
with as much order as in any well regulated market in Europe. Axes,
hatchets, spikes, large nails, looking-glasses, knives, and beads,
were found to be the best articles to deal in; and for some of these,
every thing which the inhabitants possessed might be procured. They
were, indeed, fond of fine linen cloth, whether white or printed; but
an axe worth half-a-crown would fetch more than a piece of cloth of
the value of twenty shillings.

It would deviate from the plan of this narrative, to enter into a
minute account of the nature, productions, inhabitants, customs, and
manners of the countries which were discovered or visited by Mr. Cook;
or to give a particular detail of every nautical, geographical, and
astronomical observation. It will be sufficient here to take notice,
that our commander did not depart from Otaheite without accumulating a
store of information and instruction for the enlargement of knowledge
and the benefit of navigation.

While the Endeavour proceeded on her voyage under an easy sail, Tupia
informed Lieutenant Cook, that, at four of the neighbouring islands,
which he distinguished by the names of Huaheine, Ulietea, Otaha, and
Bolabola, hogs, fowls and other refreshments, which had latterly been
sparingly supplied at Otaheite, might be procured in great plenty. The
lieutenant, however, was desirous of first examining an island that
lay to the northward, and was called Tethuroa. Accordingly, he came
near it; but having found it to be only a small low island and being
told, at the same time, that it had no settled inhabitants, he
determined to drop any further examination of it, and to go in search
of Huaheine and Ulietea, which were described to be well peopled, and
as large as Otaheite.

On the 15th of July, the weather being hazy, with light breezes and
calms succeeding each other, so that no land could be seen, and little
way was made, Tupia afforded an amusing proof, that, in the exercise
of his priestly character, he knew how to unite some degree of art
with his superstition. He often prayed for a wind to his god Tane, and
as often boasted of his success. This, indeed, he took a most
effectual method to secure; for he never began his address to his
divinity, till he perceived the breeze to be so near, that he knew it
must approach the ship before his supplication could well be brought
to a conclusion.

The Endeavour, on the 16th, being close in with the north-west part of
Huaheine, some canoes soon came off, in one of which was the king of
the island and his wife. At first the people seemed afraid; but, upon
seeing Tupia, their apprehensions were in part dispersed, and, at
length, in consequence of frequent and earnestly repeated assurances
of friendship, their majesties, and several others, ventured on board
the ship. Their astonishment at every thing which was shewn them was
very great; and yet their curiosity did not extend to any objects but
what were particularly pointed out to their notice. When they had
become more familiar, Mr. Cook was given to understand, that the king
was called Oree, and that he proposed as a mark of amity, their making
an exchange of their names. To this our commander readily consented;
and, during the remainder of their being together, the lieutenant was
Oree, and his majesty was Cookee. In the afternoon, the Endeavour
having come to an anchor, in a small but excellent harbour on the west
side of the island, the name of which was Owharre, Mr. Cook,
accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Mr. Monkhouse, Tupia, and the
natives who had been on board ever since the morning, immediately went
on shore. The English gentlemen repeated their excursions on the two
following days; in the course of which they found that the people of
Huaheine had a very near resemblance to those of Otaheite, in person,
dress language, and every other circumstance; and that the productions
of the country were exactly similar.

In trafficking with our people, the inhabitants of Huaheine displayed
a caution and hesitation which rendered the dealing with them slow and
tedious. On the 19th, therefore, the English were obliged to bring out
some hatchets, which it was at first hoped there would be no occasion
for, in an island that had never before been visited by any European.
These procured three very large hogs; and as it was proposed to sail
in the afternoon, Oree and several others came on board to take their
leave. To the king Mr. Cook gave a small pewter plate, on which was
stamped this inscription; 'His Britannic Majesty's ship Endeavour,
Lieutenant James Cook, commander, 16th July, 1769, Huaheine.' Among
other presents made to Oree, were some medals or counters, resembling
the coin of England, and struck in the year 1761; all of which, and
particularly the plate he promised carefully and inviolably to
preserve. This the lieutenant thought to be as lasting a testimony as
any he could well provide, that the English had first discovered the
island; and having dismissed his visitors, who were highly pleased
with the treatment they had met with, he sailed for Ulietea, in a good
harbour of which he anchored the next day.

Tupia had expressed his apprehension, that our navigators, if they
landed upon the island, would be exposed to the attacks of the men of
Bolabola, whom he represented as having lately conquered it, and of
whom he entertained a very formidable idea. This, however, did not
deter Mr. Cook, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander and the other gentlemen, from
going immediately on shore. Tupia, who was of the party, introduced
them by performing some ceremonies which he had practised before at
Huaheine. After this the lieutenant hoisted an English jack, and in
the name of his Britannic majesty, took possession of Ulietea, and the
three neighbouring islands, Huaheine, Otaha, and Bolabola all of which
were in sight.

On the 21st, the master was despatched in the longboat, to examine the
coast of the south part of the island; and one of the mates was sent
in the yawl, to sound the harbour where the Endeavour lay. At the same
time Lieutenant Cook went himself in the pinnace, to survey that part
of Ulietea which lies to the north. Mr. Banks likewise, and the
gentlemen again went on shore, and employed themselves in trading with
the natives, and in examining the productions and curiosities of the
country; but they saw nothing worthy of notice, excepting some human
jaw-bones, which, like scalps among the Indians of North America, were
trophies of war, and had probably been hung up, by the warriors of
Bolabola, as a memorial of their conquest.

The weather being hazy on the 22d and 23d, with strong gales, the
lieutenant did not venture to put to sea; but, on the 24th, though the
wind continued to be variable, he got under sail, and plied to the
northward within the reef, purposing to get out at a wider opening
than that by which he had entered the harbour. However, in doing this,
he was in imminent danger of striking on the rock. The master, who by
his order had kept continually sounding in the chains, suddenly called
out, 'two fathom.' Though our commander knew that the ship drew at
least fourteen feet, and consequently that the shoal could not
possibly be under her keel, he was, nevertheless, justly alarmed.
Happily, the master was either mistaken, or the Endeavour went along
the edge of a coral rock, many of which, in the neighbourhood of these
islands, are as steep as a wall.

After a tedious navigation of some days, during which several small
islands were seen, and the longboat landed at Otaha, Lieutenant Cook
returned to Ulietea, but to a different part of it from that which he
had visited before. In a harbour, belonging to the west side of the
island, he came to an anchor on the 1st of August. This measure was
necessary, in order to stop a leak which the ship had sprung in the
powder-room, and to take in more ballast, as she was found too light
to carry sail upon a wind. The place where the Endeavour was secured
was conveniently situated for the lieutenant's purpose of obtaining
ballast and water.

Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander and the gentlemen who went on shore this day,
spent their time much to their satisfaction. The reception they met
was respectful in the highest degree, and the behaviour of the Indians
to the English indicated a fear of them, mixed with a confidence that
they had no propensity to commit any kind of injury. In an intercourse
which the lieutenant and his friends carried on, for several days,
with the inhabitants of this part of the island, it appeared that the
terrors which Tupia had expressed of the Bolabola conquerors were
wholly groundless. Even Opoony, the formidable king of Bolabola,
treated our navigators with respect. Being at Ulietea on the 5th of
August, he sent Mr. Cook a present of three hogs, some fowls, and
several pieces of cloth, of uncommon length, together with a
considerable quantity of plaintains, cocoa-nuts, and other
refreshments. This present was accompanied with a message, that, on
the next day, he intended to pay our commander a visit. Accordingly,
on the 6th, the lieutenant and the rest of the gentlemen all staid at
home, in expectation of this important visitor; who did not, however,
make his appearance, but sent three very pretty girls as his
messengers, to demand something in return for his present. In the
afternoon, as the great king would not go to the English, the English
determined to go to the great king. From the account which had been
given of him, as lord of the Bolabola men, who were the conquerors of
Ulietea, and the terror of all the other islands, Lieutenant Cook and
his companions expected to see a young and vigorous chief, with an
intelligent countenance, and the marks of an enterprising spirit;
instead of which they found a feeble wretch, withered and decrepit,
half blind with age, and so sluggish and stupid, that he scarcely
appeared to be possessed even of a common degree of understanding.
Otaha being the principal place of Opoony's residence, he went with
our navigators to that island on the next day; and they were in hopes
of deriving some advantage from his influence, in obtaining such
provision as they wanted. In this respect, however, they were
disappointed; for, though they had presented him with an axe, as an
inducement to him to encourage his subjects in dealing with them they
were obliged to leave him without having procured a single article.

The time which the carpenters had taken up in stopping the leak of the
ship having detained our voyagers longer at Ulietea than they would
otherwise have staid, Lieutenant Cook determined to give up the design
of going on shore at Bolabola, especially as it appeared to be
difficult of access. The principal islands, about which the English
had now spent somewhat more than three weeks, were six in number;
Ulietea, Otaha, Bolabola, Huaheine, Tubai, and Maurua. As they lie
contigious to each other, the lieutenant gave them the general
appellation of the Society Islands; but did not think proper to
distinguish them separately by any other names than those by which
they were called by the natives.

On the 9th of August, the leak of the vessel having been stopped, and
the fresh stock that had been purchased being brought on board, our
commander took the opportunity of a breeze which sprang up at east,
and sailed out of the harbour. As he was sailing away, Tupia strongly
urged him to fire a shot towards Bolabola; and, though that island was
at seven leagues distance, the lieutenant obliged him by complying
with his request. Tupia's views probably were, to display a mark of
his resentment, and to shew the power of his new allies.

Our voyagers pursued their course, without meeting with any event
worthy of notice, till the 13th, when land was discovered, bearing
south-east, and which Tupia informed them to be an island called
Oheteroa. On the next day, Mr. Cook sent Mr. Gore, one of his
lieutenants, in the pinnace, with orders, that he should endeavour to
get onshore, and learn from the natives, whether there was anchorage
in a bay then in sight, and what land lay further to the southward.
Mr. Gore was accompanied in this expedition by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander
and Tupia, who used every method, but in vain, to conciliate the minds
of the inhabitants, and to engage them in a friendly intercourse. As,
upon making the circuit of the island, neither harbour nor anchorage
could be found upon it, and at the same time, the disposition of the
people was so hostile, that landing would be rendered impracticable
without bloodshed, Mr. Cook determined, with equal wisdom and
humanity, not to attempt it, having no motive that could justify the
risk of life.

From Tupia our navigators learned, that there were various islands
lying at different distances and in different directions from
Oheteroa, between the south and the north-west; and that to the
north-east there was an island called Manua, Bird Island. This he
represented as being at the distance of three days' sail; but he
seemed most desirous that Lieutenant Cook should proceed to the
westward, and described several islands in that situation, which he
said he had visited. It appeared from his description of them, that
these were probably Boscawen and Keppel's Islands, which were
discovered by Captain Wallis. The furthest island that Tupia knew of
to the southward, lay, he said, at the distance of about two days'
sail from Oheteroa, and was called Moutou. But he added, that his
father had informed him of there being islands still more to the
south. Upon the whole, our commander determined to stand southward in
search of a continent, and to lose no time in attempting to discover
any other islands, than such as he might happen to fall in with during
his course.

On the 15th of August, our voyagers sailed from Oheteroa; and, on the
25th of the same month was celebrated the anniversary of their
departure from England. The comet was seen on the 30th. It was a
little above the horizon, in the eastern part of the heavens, at one
in the morning; and at about half an hour after four it passed the
meridian, and its tail subtended an angle of forty-two degrees. Tupia,
who was among others that observed the comet, instantly cried out,
that as soon as it should be seen by the people of Bolabola, they
would attack the inhabitants of Ulietea, who would be obliged to
endeavour to preserve their lives by fleeing with the utmost
precipitation to the mountains.

On the 6th of October land was discovered, which appeared to be large.
When, on the next day, it was more distinctly visible, it assumed a
still larger appearance, and displayed four or five ranges of hills,
rising one over the other, above all which was a chain of mountains of
an enormous height. This land naturally became the subject of much
eager conversation; and the general opinion of the gentlemen on board
the Endeavour was, that they had found the _Terra australis
incognita_. In fact, it was a part of New Zealand, where the first
adventures the English met with were very unpleasant, on account of
the hostile disposition of the inhabitants.

Lieutenant Cook having anchored, on the 8th, in a bay, at the entrance
of a small river, went on shore in the evening, with the pinnace and
yawl, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, and attended with a
party of men. Being desirous of conversing with some natives, whom he
had observed on the opposite side of the river from that on which he
had landed, he ordered the yawl in, to carry himself and his
companions over, and left the pinnace at the entrance. When they came
near the place where the Indians were assembled, the latter all ran
away; and the gentlemen having left four boys to take care of the
yawl, walked up to several huts, which were about two or three hundred
yards from the water-side. They had not gone very far, when four men,
armed with long lances, rushed out of the woods, and, running up to
attack the boat, would certainly have cut her off, if they had not
been discovered by the people in the pinnace, who called to the boys
to drop down the stream. The boys instantly obeyed; but being closely
pursued by the natives, the cockswain of the pinnace, to whom the
charge of the boats was committed, fired a musket over their heads. At
this they stopped and looked around them; but their alarm speedily
subsiding, they brandished their lances in a threatening manner, and
in a few minutes renewed the pursuit. The firing of a second musket
over their heads did not draw from them any kind of notice. At last
one of them having lifted up his spear to dart it at the boat, another
piece was fired, by which he was shot dead. At the fall of their
associate, the three remaining Indians stood for awhile motionless,
and seemed petrified with astonishment. No sooner had they recovered
themselves, than they went back, dragging after them the dead body,
which, however, they were obliged to leave, that it might not retard
their flight. Lieutenant Cook and his friends, who had straggled to a
little distance from each other, were drawn together upon the report
of the first musket, and returned speedily to the boat, in which
having crossed the river, they soon beheld the Indian lying dead upon
the ground. After their return to the ship, they could hear the people
on shore talking with great earnestness, and in a very loud tone of
voice.

Notwithstanding this disaster, the lieutenant being desirous of
establishing an intercourse with the natives, ordered, on the
following day, three boats to be manned with seamen and marines, and
proceeded towards the shore, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander,
the other gentlemen, and Tupia. About fifty of the inhabitants seemed
to wait for their landing, having seated themselves upon the ground,
on the opposite side of the river. This being regarded as a sign of
fear, Mr. Cook, with only Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Tupia, advanced
towards them; but they had not gone many paces before all the Indians
started up, and every man produced either a long pike, or a small
weapon of green talk. Though Tupia called to them in the language of
Otaheite, they only answered by flourishing their weapons, and making
signs for the gentlemen to depart. On a musket being fired wide of
them, they desisted from their threats; and our commander, who had
prudently retreated till the marines could be landed, again advanced
towards them, with Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Tupia, to whom were
now added Mr. Green and Mr. Monkhouse. Tupia was a second time
directed to speak to them, and it was perceived with great pleasure
that he was perfectly understood, his and their language being the
same, excepting only in a diversity of dialect. He informed them that
our voyagers only wanted provision and water, in exchange for iron,
the properties of which he explained as far as he was able. Though the
natives seemed willing to trade, Tupia was sensible, during the course
of his conversation with them, that their intentions were unfriendly;
and of this he repeatedly warned the English gentlemen. At length,
twenty or thirty of the Indians were induced to cross the river, upon
which presents were made them of iron and beads. On these they
appeared to set little value and particularly on the iron, not having
the least conception of its use, so that nothing was obtained in
return excepting a few feathers. Their arms, indeed, they offered to
exchange for those of our voyagers, and this being refused, they made
various attempts to snatch them out of their hands. Tupia was now
instructed to acquaint the Indians, that our gentlemen would be
obliged to kill them, if they proceeded to any further violence;
notwithstanding which, one of them, while Mr. Green happened to turn
about, seized his hanger, and retired to a little distance, with a
shout of exultation. The others, at the same time, began to be
extremely insolent, and more of the natives were seen coming to join
them from the opposite side of the river. It being, therefore,
necessary to repress them, Mr. Banks fired, with small shot, at the
distance of about fifteen yards, upon the man who had taken the
hanger. Though he was struck, he did not return the hanger, but
continued to wave it round his head, while he slowly made his retreat.
Mr. Monkhouse then fired at him with ball, and he instantly dropped.
So far, however, were the Indians from being sufficiently terrified,
that the main body of them, who, upon the first discharge, had retired
to a rock in the middle of the river, began to return, and it was with
no small difficulty that Mr. Monkhouse secured the hanger. The whole
number of them continuing to advance, three of the English party
discharged their pieces at them, loaded only with small shot, upon
which they swam back for the shore, and it appeared, upon their
landing, that two or three of them were wounded. While they retired
slowly up the country, Lieutenant Cook and his companions re-embarked
in their boats.

As the lieutenant had unhappily experienced that nothing, at this
place, could be done with these people and found that the water in the
river was salt, he proceeded in the boats round the head of the bay in
search of fresh water. Beside this, he had formed a design of
surprising some of the natives, and taking them on board, that, by
kind treatment and presents he might obtain their friendship, and
render them the instruments of establishing for him an amicable
intercourse with their countrymen. While, upon account of a dangerous
surf which every where beat upon the shore, the boats were prevented
from landing, our commander saw two canoes coming in from the sea, one
under sail, and the other worked with paddles. This he thought to be a
favourable opportunity for executing his purpose. Accordingly, the
boats were disposed in such a manner as appeared most likely to be
successful in intercepting the canoes. Notwithstanding this, the
Indians in the canoe which was paddled exerted themselves with so much
vigour, at the first apprehension of danger, that they escaped to the
nearest land. The other canoe sailed on without discerning the
English, till she was in the midst of them; but no sooner had she
discovered them, than the people on board struck their sail, and plied
their paddles so briskly, as to outrun the boat by which they were
pursued. Being within hearing, Tupia called to them to come alongside,
with assurances that they should not in any degree be hurt or injured.
They trusted, however, more to their own paddles than to Tupia's
promises, and continued to flee from our navigators with all their
power. Mr. Cook, as the least exceptionable expedient of accomplishing
his design, ordered a musket to be fired over their heads. This, he
hoped, would either make them surrender or leap into the water, but it
produced a contrary effect. The Indians, who were seven in number,
immediately formed a resolution not to fly, but to fight. When,
therefore, the boat came up, they began to attack with their paddles,
and with stones and other offensive weapons; and they carried it on
with so much vigour and violence, that the English thought themselves
obliged to fire upon them in their own defence; the consequence of
which was, that four were unhappily killed. The other three, who were
boys, the eldest about nineteen, and the youngest about eleven,
instantly leaped into the water, and endeavoured to make their escape;
but being with some difficulty overpowered by our people, they were
brought into the boat.

It is impossible to reflect upon this part of Lieutenant Cook's
conduct with any degree of satisfaction. He, himself, upon a calm
review, did not approve of it; and he was sensible that it would be
censured by the feelings of every reader of humanity. It is probable
that his mind was so far irritated by the disagreeable preceding
events of this unfortunate day, and by the unexpected violence of the
Indians in the canoe, as to lose somewhat of that self-possession, by
which his character in general was eminently distinguished. Candour,
however, requires, that I should relate what he hath offered in
extenuation, not in defence, of the transaction; and this shall be
done in his own words. "These people certainly did not deserve death
for not choosing to confide in my promises, or not consenting to come
on board my boat, even if they had apprehended no danger. But the
nature of my service required me to obtain a knowledge of their
country, which I could no otherwise effect, than by forcing my way
into it in a hostile manner, or gaining admission through the
confidence and goodwill of the people. I had already tried the power
of presents without effect; and I was now prompted, by my desire to
avoid further hostilities, to get some of them on board, as the only
method left of convincing them, that we intended them no harm, and had
it in our power to contribute to their gratification and convenience.
Thus far my intentions certainly were not criminal; and though in the
contest, which I had not the least reason to expect, our victory might
have been complete without so great an expense of life; yet in such
situations, when the command to fire has been given, no man can
restrain its excess, or prescribe its effect."

Our voyagers were successful in conciliating the minds of the three
boys, to which Tupia particularly contributed. When their fears were
allayed, and their cheerfulness returned, they sang a song with a
degree of taste, that surprised the English gentlemen. The tune, like
those of our psalms, was solemn and slow, containing many notes and
semitones.

Some further attempts were made to establish an intercourse with the
natives, and Mr. Cook and his friends, on the 10th, went on shore for
that purpose; but being unsuccessful in their endeavours, they
resolved to re-embark lest their stay should embroil them in another
quarrel, and cost more of the Indians their lives. On the next day the
lieutenant weighed anchor, and stood away from this unfortunate and
inhospitable place. As it had not afforded a single article that was
wanted excepting wood, he gave it the name of Poverty Bay. By the
inhabitants it is called Taoneroa, or Long Sand. I shall not regularly
pursue the course of our commander round New Zealand. In this course
he spent nearly six months, and made large additions to the knowledge
of navigation and geography. By making almost the whole circuit of New
Zealand, he ascertained it to be two islands, with a strength of
evidence which no prejudice could gainsay or resist. He obtained
likewise a full acquaintance with the inhabitants of the different
parts of the country, with regard to whom it was clearly proved, that
they are eaters of human flesh. Omitting a number of minute
circumstances, I shall only select a few things which mark Mr. Cook's
personal conduct, and relate to his intercourse with the natives.

The good usage the three boys had met with, and the friendly and
generous manner in which they were dismissed to their own homes, had
some effect in softening the dispositions of the neighbouring Indians.
Several of them, who had come on board while the ship lay becalmed in
the afternoon, manifested every sign of friendship, and cordially
invited the English to go back to their old bay, or to a cove which
was not quite so far off. But Lieutenant Cook chose rather to
prosecute his discoveries, having reason to hope that he should find a
better harbour than any he had yet seen.

While the ship was, hauling round to the south end of a small island,
which the lieutenant had named Portland, from its very great
resemblance to Portland in the British Channel, she suddenly fell into
shoal water and broken ground. The soundings were never twice the
same, jumping at once from seven fathom to eleven. However, they were
always seven fathom or more; and in a short time the Endeavour got
clear of danger, and again sailed in deep water. While the ship was in
apparent distress, the inhabitants of the islands, who in vast numbers
sat on its white cliffs, and could not avoid perceiving some
appearance of confusion on board, and some irregularity in the working
of the vessel, were desirous of taking advantage of her critical
situation. Accordingly, five canoes full of men, and well armed, were
put off with the utmost expedition; and they came so near, and shewed
so hostile a disposition by shouting, brandishing their lances, and
using threatening gestures, that the lieutenant was in pain for his
small boat, which was still employed in sounding. By a musket which he
ordered to be fired over them, they were rather provoked than
intimidated. The firing of a four pounder loaded with grape shot,
though purposely discharged wide of them, produced a better effect.
Upon the report of the piece the Indians all rose up and shouted; but
instead of continuing the chase, they collected themselves together,
and, after a short consultation, went quietly away.

On the 14th of October, Lieutenant Cook having hoisted out his pinnace
and long boat to search for water, just as they were about to set off,
several boats full of the New Zealand people were seen coming from the
shore. After some time five of these boats, having on board between
eighty and ninety men, made towards the ship; and four more followed
at no great distance, as if to sustain the attack. When the first five
had gotten within about a hundred yards of the Endeavour, they began
to sing their war song, and brandishing their pikes, prepared for an
engagement. As the lieutenant was extremely desirous of avoiding the
unhappy necessity of using fire-arms against the natives, Tupia was
ordered to acquaint them that our voyagers had weapons which, like
thunder, would destroy them in a moment; that they would immediately
convince them of their power by directing their effect so that they
should not be hurt; but that if they persisted in any hostile attempt,
they would be exposed to the direct attack of these formidable
weapons. A four pounder, loaded with grape shot, was then fired wide
of them; and this expedient was fortunately attended with success. The
report, the flash, and above all the shot, which spread very far in
the water, terrified the Indians to such a degree, that they began to
paddle away with all their might. At the instance, however, of Tupia,
the people of one of the boats were induced to lay aside their arms,
and to come under the stern of the Endeavour; in consequence of which
they received a variety of presents.

On the next day a circumstance occurred, which shewed how ready one of
the inhabitants of New Zealand was to take an advantage of our
navigators. In a large armed canoe, which came boldly alongside of the
ship, was a man who had a black skin thrown over him, somewhat like
that of a bear. Mr. Cook being desirous of knowing to what animal it
originally belonged, offered the Indian for it a piece of red baize.
With this bargain he seemed to be greatly pleased, immediately pulling
off the skin, and holding it up in the boat. He would not, however,
part with it till he had the cloth in his possesssion; and as their
could be no transfer of property if equal caution should be exercised
on both sides, the lieutenant ordered the baize to be delivered into
his hands. Upon this, instead of sending up the skin, he began with
amazing coolness to pack up both that and the cloth, which he had
received as the purchase of it, in a basket: nor did he pay the least
regard to Mr. Cook's demand or remonstrances, but soon after put off
from the English vessel. Our commander was too generous to revenge
this insult by any act of severity.

During the course of a traffic which was carrying on for some fish,
little Tayeto, Tupia's boy, was placed among others over the ship's
side; to hand up what was purchased. While he was thus employed, one
of the New Zealanders, watching his opportunity, suddenly seized him
and dragged him into a canoe. Two of the natives then held him down in
the fore part of it, and the others, with great activity, paddled her
off with all possible celerity. An action so violent rendered it
indispensably necessary that the marines, who were in arms upon the
deck, should be ordered to fire. Though the shot was directed to that
part of the canoe which was furthest from the boy, and somewhat wide
of her, it being thought favourable rather to miss the rowers than to
run the hazard of hurting Tayeto, it happened that one man dropped.
This occasioned the Indians to quit their hold of the youth, who
instantly leaped into the water, and swam towards the ship. In the
meanwhile, the largest of the canoes pulled round and followed him;
and till some muskets and a great gun were fired at her, did not
desist from the pursuit. The ship being brought to, a boat was
lowered, and the poor boy was taken up unhurt. Some of the gentlemen,
who with their glasses traced the canoes to shore, agreed in asserting
that they saw three men carried up the beach, who appeared to be
either dead, or wholly disabled by their wounds.

While, on the 18th, the Endeavour lay abreast of a peninsula within
Portland Island, called Terakako, two of the natives, who were judged
to be chiefs, placed an extraordinary degree of confidence in Mr.
Cook. They were so well pleased with the kindness which had been shown
them in a visit to the ship, that they determined not to go on shore
till the next morning. This was a circumstance by no means agreeable
to the lieutenant, and he remonstrated against it; but as they
persisted in their resolution, he agreed to comply with it, provided
their servants were also taken on board, and their canoe hoisted into
the ship. The countenance of one of these two chiefs was the most open
and ingenuous that our commander had ever seen, so that he soon gave
up every suspicion of his entertaining any sinister design. When the
guests were put on shore the next morning, they expressed some
surprise at seeing themselves so far from their habitations.

On Monday the 23rd, while the ship was in Tagadoo Bay, Lieutenant Cook
went on shore to examine the watering-place, and found every thing
agreeable to his wishes. The boat landed in the cove, without the
least serf; the water was excellent, and conveniently situated: there
was plenty of wood close to the high water mark, and the disposition
of the people was as favourable in all respects as could be desired.
Early the next morning, our commander sent Lieutenant Gore to
superintend the cutting of wood and filling of water, with a
sufficient number of men for both purposes, and all the marines as a
guard. Soon after he went on shore himself, and continued there during
the whole day. Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, who had landed on the same
day, found in their walks several things worthy of notice. As they
were advancing in some of the valleys, the hills on each side of which
were very steep, they were suddenly struck with the sight of an
extraordinary natural curiosity. It was a rock perforated through its
whole substance, so as to form a rude but stupendous arch or cavern,
opening directly to the sea. This aperture was seventy-five feet long,
twenty-seven broad, and five and forty feet high, commanding a view of
the bay and the hills on the other side, which were seen through it;
and opening at once upon the view, produced an effect far superior to
any of the contrivances of art.

When on the 28th the gentlemen of the Endeavour went on shore upon an
island which lies to the left hand of the entrance of Tolaga Bay, they
saw there the largest canoe they had yet met with; her length being
sixty-eight feet and a half, her breadth five feet, and her height
three feet six inches. In the same island was a larger house than any
they had hitherto seen; but it was in an unfinished state, and full of
chips.

While the ship was in Hicks's Bay, the inhabitants of the adjoining
coast were found to be very hostile. This gave much uneasiness to our
navigators, and was indeed contrary to their expectation; for they had
hoped that the report of their power and clemency had spread to a
greater extent. At day-break, on the 1st of November, they counted no
less than five and forty canoes that were coming from the shore
towards the Endeavour; and these were followed by several more from
another place. Some of the Indians traded fairly; but others of them
took what was handed down to them without making any return, and added
derision to fraud. The insolence of one of them was very remarkable.
Some linen hanging over the ship's side to dry, this man without any
ceremony untied it, and put it up in his bundle. Being immediately
called to, and required to return it, instead of doing so, he let his
canoe drop astern, and laughed at the English. A musket which was
fired over his head, did not put a stop to his mirth. From a second
musket, which was loaded with small shot, he shrunk a little, when the
shot struck him upon his back; but he regarded it no more than one of
our men would have done the stroke of a rattan, and continued with
great composure to pack up the linen which he hard stolen. All the
canoes now dropped astern, and set up their song of defiance, which
lasted till they were at about four hundred yards' distance from the
ship. As they did not appear to have a design of attacking our
voyagers, Lieutenant Cook was unwilling to do them any hurt; and yet
he thought that their going off in a bravado might have a bad effect
when it should be reported on shore. To convince them therefore, that
they were still in his power, though far beyond the reach of any
missile weapon with which they were acquainted, he ordered a four
pounder to be fired in such a manner as to pass near them. As the shot
happened to strike the water, and to rise several times at a great
distance beyond the canoes, the Indians were so much terrified, that
without once looking behind them, they paddled away as fast as they
were able.

In standing westward from a small island called Mowtohora, the
Endeavour suddenly shoaled her water front seventeen to ten fathom. As
the lieutenant knew that she was not far off from some small islands
and rocks, which lead been seen before it was dark, and which he had
intended to have passed that evening, he thought it more prudent to
tack, and to spend the night under Mowtohora, where he was certain
that there was no danger. It was happy for himself, and for all our
voyagers, that he formed this resolution. In the morning they
discovered ahead of them several rocks, some of which were level with
the surface of the water, and some below it; and the striking against
which could not in the hour of darkness, have been avoided. In passing
between these rocks and the main, the ship had only from ten to seven
fathom water.

While Mr. Cook was near an island which he called the Mayor, the
inhabitants of the neighbouring coast displayed many instances of
hostility, and, in their traffic with our navigators, committed
various acts of fraud and robbery. As the lieutenant intended to
continue in the place five or six days, in order to make an
observation of the transit of Mercury, it was absolutely necessary for
the prevention of future mischief, to convince these people that the
English were not to be ill treated with impunity. Accordingly, some
small shot were fired at a thief of uncommon insolence, and a musket
ball was discharged through the bottom of his boat. Upon this it was
paddled to about a hundred yards' distance; and to the surprise of Mr.
Cook and his friends, the Indians in the other canoes took not the
least notice of their wounded companion, though he bled very much, but
returned to the ship, and continued to trade with the most perfect
indifference and unconcern. For a considerable time they dealt fairly.
At last, however, one of them thought fit to move off with two
different pieces of cloth which had been given for the same weapon.
When he had gotten to such a distance, that he thought himself secure
of his prizes, a musket was fired after him, which fortunately struck
the boat just at the water's edge, and made two holes in her side.
This excited such an alarm, that not only the people who were shot at,
but all the rest of the canoes, made off with the utmost expedition.
As the last proof of superiority, our commander ordered a round shot
to be fired over them, and not a boat stopped till they got to land.

After an early breakfast on the 9th of November, Lieutenant Cook went
on shore, with Mr. Green, and proper instruments, to observe the
transit of Mercury. Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander were of the party. The
weather had for some time been very thick, with much rain; but this
day proved so favourable, that not a cloud intervened during the whole
transit. The observation of the ingress was made by Mr. Green alone,
Mr. Cook being employed in taking the Sun's altitude to ascertain the
time.

While the gentlemen were thus engaged on shore, they were alarmed by
the firing of a great gun from the ship: and on their return received
the following account of the transaction from Mr. Gore, the second
lieutenant, who had been left commanding officer on board. During the
carrying on of a trade with some small canoes, two very large ones
came up full of men. In one of the canoes were forty-seven persons,
all of whom were armed with pikes, stones, and darts, and assumed the
appearance of a hostile intention. However, after a little time they
began to traffic, some of them offering their arms, and one of them a
square piece of cloth, which makes a part of their dress, called
_haabow_. Mr. Gore having agreed for it, sent down the price,
which was a piece of British cloth, and expected his purchase. But as
soon as the Indian had gotten Mr. Gore's cloth in his possession, he
refused to part with his own, and put off his canoe. Upon being
threatened for his fraud, he and his companions began to sing their
war song in defiance, and shook their paddles. Though their insolence
did not proceed to an attack, and only defied Mr. Gore to take any
remedy in his power, he was so provoked, that he levelled a musket,
loaded with ball, at the offender, while he was holding the cloth in
his hand, and shot him dead. When the Indian fell, all the canoes put
off to some distance, but continued to keep together in such a manner
that it was apprehended they might still meditate an attack. To secure
therefore a safe passage for the boat of the Endeavour, which was
wanted on shore, a round shot was fired with so much effect over
their heads, as to make them all flee with the utmost precipitation.
It was matter of regret to Lieutenant Cook that Mr. Gore had not, in
the case of the offending Indian, tried the experiment of a few small
shot, which had been successful in former instances of robbery.

On Friday, the 10th, our commander, accompanied by Mr. Banks and the
other gentlemen, went with two boats, to examine a large river that
empties itself into the head of Mercury Bay. As the situation they
were now in abounded with conveniences, the lieutenant has taken care
to point them out, for the benefit of future navigators. If any
occasion should ever render it necessary for a ship either to winter
here, or to stay for a considerable length of time, tents might be
built on a high point or peninsula in this place, upon ground
sufficiently spacious for the purpose; and they might easily be made
impregnable to the whole force of the country. Indeed the most skilful
engineer in Europe could not choose a situation better adapted to
enable a small number to defend themselves against a greater. Among
other accommodations which the Endeavour's company met with in Mercury
Bay, they derived an agreeable refreshment from some oyster beds,
which they had fortunately discovered. The oysters, which were as good
as ever came from Colchester, and about the same size, were so
plentiful, that not the boat only, but the ship itself, might have
been loaded in one tide.

On Wednesday, the 15th, Lieutenant Cook sailed out of Mercury Bay.
This name has been given to it, on account of the observation which
had there been made of the transit of that planet over the sun. The
river where oysters had been so plentifully found, he called Oyster
River. There is another river, at the head of the Bay, which is the
best and safest place for a ship that wants to stay any length of
time. From the number of mangroves about it, the lieutenant named it
Mangrove River. In several parts of Mercury Bay, our voyagers saw,
thrown upon the shore, great quantities of iron sand, which is brought
down by every little rivulet of freshwater that finds its way from the
country. This is a demonstration, that there is ore of that metal not
far inland; and yet none of the inhabitants of New Zealand, who had
yet been seen, knew the use of iron, or set upon it the least degree
of value. They had all of them preferred the most worthless and
useless trifle not only to a nail, but to any tool of that metal.
Before the Endeavour left the bay, the ship's name and that of the
commander were cut upon one of the trees near the watering place,
together with the date of the year and month when our navigators were
there. Besides this, Mr. Cook, after displaying the English colours
took formal possession of the place in the name of his Britannic
Majesty, King George the Third.

In the range from Mercury Bay, several canoes, on the 18th, put off
from different places, and advanced towards the Endeavour. When two of
them, in which there might be about sixty men, came within the reach
of the human voice, the Indians sung their war song, but seeing that
little notice was taken of them, they threw a few stones at the
English, and then rowed off towards the shore. In a short time,
however, they returned, as if with a fixed resolution to provoke our
voyagers to a battle, animating themselves by their song as they had
done before. Tupia, without any directions from the gentlemen of the
Endeavour, began to expostulate with the natives, and told them that
our people had weapons which could destroy them in a moment. Their
answer to this expostulation was, in their own language, 'Come on
shore, and we will kill you all.'--'Well,' replied Tupia, 'but why
should you molest us while we are at sea? As we do not wish to fight,
we shall not accept your challenge to come on shore; and here there is
no pretence for a quarrel, the sea being no more your property than
the ship.' This eloquence, which greatly surprised Lieutenant Cook and
his friends, as they had not suggested to Tupia any of the arguments
he made use of, produced no effect upon the minds of the Indians, who
soon renewed their attack. The oratory of a musket, which was fired
through one of their boats, quelled their courage, and sent them
instantly away.

While our commander was in the Bay of Islands, he had a favourable
opportunity of examining the interior part of the country and its
produce. At daybreak, therefore on the 30th of the month, he set out
in the pinnace and long-boat accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander,
and Tupia, and found the inlet, at which they entered, end in a river,
about nine miles above the ship. Up this river, to which was given the
name of the Thames, they proceeded till near noon, when they were
fourteen miles within its entrance. As the gentlemen then found the
face of the country to continue nearly the same, without any
alteration in the course of the stream, and had no hope of tracing it
to its source, they landed on the west side, to take a view of the
lofty trees which every where adorned its banks. The trees were of a
kind which they had seen before, both in Poverty Bay, and Hawke's Bay,
though only at a distance. They had not walked a hundred yards into
the woods, when they met with one of the trees, which, at the height
of six feet above the ground, was nineteen feet eight inches in the
girt. Lieutenant Cook, having a quadrant with him, measured its height
from the root to the first branch, and found it to be eighty-nine
feet. It was as straight as an arrow, and tapered but very little in
proportion to its height; so that, in the lieutenant's judgment, there
must have been three hundred and fifty-six feet of solid timber in it
exclusive of the branches. As the party advanced, they saw many other
trees, which were still larger. A young one they cut down, the wood of
which was heavy and solid, not fit for masts, but such as would make
the finest plank in the world. The carpenter of the ship, who was with
the party, said that the timber resembled that of the pitch-pine,
which is lightened by tapping. If it should appear, that some such
method would be successful in lightening these trees, they would then
furnish masts superior to those of any country in Europe. As the wood
was swampy, the gentlemen could not range far; but they found many
stout trees of other kinds, with which they were totally unacquainted,
and specimens of which they brought away.

On the 22d, another instance occurred in which the commanding officer
left on board did not know how to exercise his power with the good
sense and moderation of Mr. Cook. While some of the natives were in
the ship below with Mr. Banks, a young man, who was upon the deck,
stole a half minute glass, and was detected just as he was carrying it
off. Mr. Hicks, in his indignation against the offender, was pleased
to order that he should be punished, by giving him twelve lashes with
a cat o' nine tails. When the other Indians, who were on board, saw
him seized for the purpose, they attempted to rescue him; and being
resisted, they called for their arms, which were handed from the
canoes. At the same time, the people of one of the canoes attempted to
come up the side of the Endeavour. The tumult having called up Mr.
Banks and Tupia, the natives ran to the latter, and solicited his
interposition. All, however, which he could do, as Mr. hicks continued
inexorable, was to assure them, that nothing was intended against the
life of their companion, and that it was necessary that he should
suffer some punishment for his offence. With this explanation they
appeared to be satisfied; and when the punishment had been inflicted,
an old man among the spectators, who was supposed to be the criminal's
father, gave him a severe beating, and sent him down into his canoe.
Notwithstanding this, the Indians were far from being reconciled to
the treatment which their countryman had received. Their cheerful
confidence was gone; and though they promised, at their departure, to
return with some fish, the English saw them no more.

On the 29th of November, Lieutenant Cook, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and
others with them, were in a situation somewhat critical and alarming.
Having landed upon an island in the neighbourhood of Cape Bret, they
were in a few minutes surrounded by two or three hundred people.
Though the Indians were all armed, they came on in so confused and
straggling a manner, that it did not appear that any injury was
intended by them; and the English gentlemen were determined that
hostilities should not begin on their part. At first the natives
continued quiet; but their weapons were held ready to strike, and they
seemed to be rather irresolute than peaceable. While the lieutenant
and his friends remained in a state of suspense, another party of
Indians came up; and the boldness of the whole body being increased by
the augmentation of their numbers, they began the dance and song,
which are their preludes to a battle. An attempt, that was made by a
number of them, to seize the two boats which had brought our voyagers
to land, appeared to be the signal for a general attack. It now became
necessary for Mr. Cook to exert himself with vigour Accordingly, he
discharged his musket, which was loaded with small shot, at one of the
forwardest of the assailants, and Mr. Banks, and two of our men, fired
immediately afterwards. Though this made the natives fall back in some
confusion, nevertheless, one of the chiefs, who was at the distance of
about twenty yards, had the courage to rally them, and, calling loudly
to his companions, led them on to the charge. Dr. Solander instantly
discharged his piece at this champion, who, upon feeling the shot,
stopped short, and then ran away with the rest of his countrymen.
Still, however, they did not disperse, but got upon rising ground, and
seemed only to want some leader of resolution to renew their assault.
As they were now gotten beyond the reach of small shot, the English
fired with ball, none of which taking place, the Indians continued
together in a body. While our people were in this doubtful situation,
which lasted about a quarter of an hour, the ship, from which a much
greater number of natives were seen than could be discovered on shore,
brought her broad side to bear, and entirely dispersed them, by firing
a few shot over their heads. In this skirmish, only two of them were
hurt with the small shot, and not a single life was lost; a case which
would not have happened if Lieutenant Cook had not restrained his men,
who either from fear or the love of mischief, shewed as much
impatience to destroy the Indians, as a sportsman to kill his game.
Such was the difference between the disposition of the common seamen
and marines, and that of their humane and judicious commander.

On the same day Mr. Cook displayed a very exemplary act of discipline.
Some of the ship's people, who when the natives were to be punished
for a fraud, assumed the inexorable justice of a Lycurgus, thought fit
to break into one of their plantations, and to dig up a quantity of
potatoes. For this the lieutenant ordered each of them to receive
twelve lashes, after which two of them were discharged. But the third,
in a singular strain of morality, insisted upon it, that it was no
crime in an Englishman to plunder an Indian plantation. The method
taken by our commander to refute his casuistry, was to send him back
to his confinement, and not, permit him to be released, till he had
been punished with six lashes more.

The Endeavour, on the 5th of December, was in the most imminent hazard
of being wrecked. At four o'clock in the morning of that day our
voyagers weighed, with a light breeze; but it being variable with
frequent calms, they made little way. From that time till the
afternoon they kept turning out of the bay, and about ten at night
were suddenly becalmed, so that the ship could neither wear nor
exactly keep her station. The tide or current setting strong, she
drove toward land so fast; that before any measures could be taken for
her security, she was within a cable's length of the breakers. Though
our people had thirteen fathom water, the ground was so foul, that
they did not dare to drop their anchor. In this crisis the pinnace
being immediately hoisted out to take the ship in tow, and the men
sensible of their danger, exerted themselves to the utmost, a faint
breeze sprang up off the land, and our navigators perceived, with
unspeakable joy, that the vessel made headway. So near was she to the
shore, that Tupia, who was ignorant of the hair's breadth escape the
company had experienced, was at this very time conversing with the
Indians upon the beach, whose voices were distinctly heard,
notwithstanding the roar of the breakers. Mr. Cook and his friends now
thought that all danger was over; but about an hour afterwards, just
as the man in the chains had cried 'seventeen fathom,' the ship
struck. The shock threw them into the utmost consternation: and almost
instantly the man in the chains cried out 'five fathom.' By this time,
the rock on which the ship had struck being to the windward, she went
off without having received the least damage; and the water very soon
deepening to twenty fathoms, she again sailed in security.

The inhabitants in the Bay of Islands were found to be far more
numerous than in any other part of New Zealand which Lieutenant Cook
had hitherto visited. It did not appear that they were united under
one head; and, though their towns were fortified, they seemed to live
together in perfect amity.

The Endeavour on the 9th of December, lying becalmed in Doubtless Bay,
an opportunity was taken to inquire of the natives concerning their
country; and our navigators learned from them, by the help of Tupia,
that at the distance of three days' rowing in their canoes, at a place
called Moore-Whennua, the land would take a short turn to the
southward, and thence extend no more to the west. This place the
English gentlemen concluded to be the land discovered by Tasman, and
which had been named by him Cape Maria van Diemen. The lieutenant,
finding the inhabitants so intelligent, inquired further, if they knew
of any country besides their own. To this they answered, that they had
never visited any other; but that their ancestors had told them, that
there was a country of great extent, to the north-west by north, or
north-north west, called Ulimaroa, to which some people had sailed in
a very large canoe; and that only a part of them had returned, who
reported, that, after a passage of a month, they had seen a country
where the people eat hogs.

On the 30th of December, our navigators saw the land, which they
judged to be Cape Maria van Diemen, and which corresponded with the
account that had been given of it by the Indians. The next day, from
the appearance of Mount Camel, they had a demonstration that, where
they now were, the breadth of New Zealand could not be more than two
or three miles from sea to sea. During this part of the navigation,
two particulars occurred which are very remarkable. In latitude 35° S.
and in the midst of summer, Lieutenant Cook met with a gale of wind,
which, from its strength and continuance, was such as he had scarcely
ever been in before: and he was three weeks in getting ten leagues to
the westward, and five weeks in getting fifty leagues; for at this
time being the 1st of January, 1770, it was so long since he had
passed Cape Bret. While the gale lasted, our voyagers ware happily at
a considerable distance from the land; since, otherwise, it was highly
probable that they would never have returned to relate their
adventures.

The shore at Queen Charlotte's Sound, where the English had arrived on
the 14th of January, seemed to form several bays, into one of which
the lieutenant proposed to carry the ship, which was now become very
foul, in order to careen her, to repair some defects, and to obtain a
recruit of wood and water. At day-break, the next morning, he stood in
for an inlet, and at eight got within the entrance. At nine o'clock,
there being little wind, and what there was being variable, the
Endeavour was carried by the tide or current within two cables' length
of the north-west shore where she had fifty-four fathom water. By the
help, of the boats she was gotten clear; and about two, our people
anchored in a very safe and convenient cove. Soon after, Mr. Cook,
with most of the gentlemen, landed upon the coast, where they found a
fine stream of excellent water, and wood in the greatest plenty.
Indeed the land, in this part of the country, was one forest, of vast
extent. As the gentlemen had brought the seine with them, it was
hauled once or twice; and with such success, that different sorts of
fish were caught amounting nearly to three hundred weight. The equal
distribution of these among the ship's company, furnished them with a
very agreeable refreshment.

When Lieutenant Cook, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, Tupia, and some others,
landed on the 16th, they met with an Indian family, among whom they
found horrid and indisputable proofs of the custom of eating human
flesh. Not to resume so disagreeable a subject, it may here be
observed once for all, that evidences of the same custom appeared on
various occasions.

On the next day a delightful object engaged the attention of our
voyagers. The ship lying at the distance of somewhat less than a
quarter of a mile from the shore, they were awakened by the singing of
an incredible number of birds, who seemed to strain their throats in
emulation of each other. This wild melody was infinitely superior to
any they had ever heard of the same kind, and seemed to be like small
bells, most exquisitely tuned. It is probable, that the distance, and
the water between, might be of no small advantage to the sound. Upon
inquiry, the gentlemen were informed, that the birds here always began
to sing about two hours after midnight; and that, continuing their
music till sunrise, they were silent the rest of the day. In this last
respect they resembled the nightingales of our own country.

On the 18th, Lieutenant Cook went out in the pinnace to take a view of
the bay in which the ship was now at anchor; and found it to be of
great extent, consisting of numberless small harbours and coves, in
every direction. The lieutenant confined his excursion to the western
side, and the coast where he landed being an impenetrable forest,
nothing could be seen worthy of notice. As our commander and his
friends were returning, they saw a single man in a canoe fishing:
rowing up to him, to their great surprise, he took not the least
notice of them; and even when they were alongside of him, continued to
follow his occupation, without adverting to them any more than if they
had been invisible. This behaviour was not, however the result either
of sullenness or stupidity; for upon being requested to draw up his
net, that it might be examined, he readily complied. He shewed
likewise to our people his mode of fishing, which was simple and
ingenious.

When, on the 19th, the armourer's forge was set up, and all hands on
board were busy in careening, and in other necessary operations about
the vessel, some Indians, who had brought plenty of fish, exchanged
them for nails, of which they had now begun to perceive the use and
value. This may be considered as one instance in which they were
enlightened and benefited by their intercourse with our navigators.

While, on the 22d, Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander employed themselves in
botanizing near the beach, our commander, taking a seaman with him,
ascended one of the hills of the country. Upon reaching its summit, he
found the view of the inlet, the head of which he had a little before
in vain attempted to discover in the pinnace, intercepted by hills
still higher than that on which he stood, and which were rendered
inaccessible by impenetrable woods. He was, however, amply rewarded
for his labour; for he saw the sea on the eastern side of the country,
and a passage leading from it to that on the west, a little to the
eastward of the entrance of the inlet where the ship lay. The main
land, which was on the south-east side of this inlet, appeared to be a
narrow ridge of very high hills, and to form part of the south-west
side of the strait. On the opposite side, the land trended away east
as far as the eye could reach; and to the south-east there was
discerned an opening to the sea, which washes the eastern coast. The
lieutenant saw also, on the east side of the inlet, some islands which
he had before taken to be part of the main land. In returning to the
ship, he examined the harbours and coves that lie behind the islands
which he had seen from the hills. The next day was employed by him in
further surveys and discoveries.

During a visit to the Indians, on the 24th, Tupia being of the party,
they were observed to be continually talking of guns and shooting
people. For this subject of their conversation, the English gentlemen
could not at all account. But, after perplexing themselves with
various conjectures, they at length learned, that, on the 21st, one of
our officers, under the pretence of going out to fish, had rowed up to
a hippah, or village, on the coast. When he had done so, two or three
canoes coming off towards his boat, his fears suggested that an attack
was intended, in consequence of which three muskets were fired, one
with small shot, and two with ball, at the Indians, who retired with
the utmost precipitation. It is highly probable, that they had come
out with friendly intentions, for such intentions were expressed by
their behaviour, both before and afterwards. This action of the
officer exhibited a fresh instance, how little some of the people
under Lieutenant Cook had imbibed of the wise, discreet, and humane
spirit of their commander.

On the morning of the 26th, the lieutenant went again out in the boat,
with Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, and entered one of the bays, which
lie on the east side of the inlet, in order to obtain another sight of
the strait which passed between the eastern and western seas. Having
landed, for this purpose, at a convenient place, they climbed a hill
of very considerable height, from which they had a full view of the
strait, with the land on the opposite shore, which they judged to be
about four leagues distant. As it was hazy in the horizon, they could
not see far to the south-east; but Mr. Cook saw enough to determine
him to search the passage with the ship as soon as he should put to
sea. The gentlemen found, on the top of the hill, a parcel of loose
stones, with which they erected a pyramid, and left in it some musket
balls, small shot, beads, and such other things, which they happened
to have about them, as were likely to stand the test of time. These,
not being of Indian workmanship, would convince any European, who
should come to the place and pull it down, that natives of Europe had
been there before. After this, the lieutenant and his friends went to
a town of which the Indians had informed them, and which, like one
they had already seen, was built upon a small island or rock, so
difficult of access, that they gratified their curiosity at the risk
of their lives. Here, as had been the case in former visits to the
inhabitants of that part of the country near which the ship now lay,
they were received with open arms, carried through the whole of the
place, and shown all that it contained. The town consisted of between
eighty and a hundred houses, and had only one fighting stage. Mr.
Cook, Mr. Banks, and Dr. Solander, happened to have with them a few
nails and ribands, and some paper, with which the people were so
highly gratified, that when the gentlemen went away, they filled the
English boat with dried fish, of which it appeared that they had laid
up large quantities.

A report was spread, that one of the men, that had been so rashly
fired upon by the officer who had visited the hippah, under the
pretence of fishing, was dead of his wounds. But, on the 29th, the
lieutenant had the great consolation of discovering that this report
was groundless. On the same day he went again on shore, upon the
western point of the inlet, and, from a hill of considerable height,
had a view of the coast to the north-west. The furthest land he could
see, in that quarter, was an island at the distance of about ten
leagues, lying not far from the main. Between this island and the
place were he stood, he discovered, close under the shore, several
other islands, forming many bays, in which there appeared to be good
anchorage for shipping. After he had set off the different points for
his survey, he erected another pile of stones, in which he left a
piece of silver coin, with some musket balls and beads, and a fragment
of an old pendant flying at the top.

On the 30th of January, the ceremony was performed of giving name to
the inlet where our voyagers now lay, and of erecting a memorial of
the visit which they had made to this place. The carpenter having
prepared two posts for the purpose, our commander ordered them to be
inscribed with the ship's name, and the dates of the year and the
month. One of these he set up at the watering place, hoisting the
union-flag upon the top of it; and the other he carried over to the
island that lies nearest the sea, and which is called by the natives
Motuara. He went first, accompanied by Mr. Monkhouse and Tupia, to the
neighbouring village, or hippah, where he met with an old man, who had
maintained a friendly intercourse with the English. To this old man,
and several Indians besides, the lieutenant, by means of Tupia,
explained his design, which, he informed them, was to erect a mark
upon the island, in order to shew to any other ship, which should
happen to come thither, that our navigators had been there before. To
this the inhabitants readily consented, and promised that they would
never pull it down. He then gave something to every one present, and
to the old man a silver threepence, and some spike-nails, with the
king's broad arrow cut deep upon them. These were things which Mr.
Cook thought were the most likely to be long preserved. After this, he
conveyed the post to the highest part of the island; and, having fixed
it firmly in the ground, hoisted upon it the union flag, and honoured
the inlet with the name of Queen Charlotte's Sound. At the same time,
he took formal possession of this and the adjacent country, in the
name and for the use of his Majesty King George the Third. The
ceremony was concluded by the gentlemen's drinking a bottle of wine to
her majesty's health; and the bottle being given to the old man, who
had attended them up the hill, he was highly delighted with his
present.

A philosopher, perhaps might inquire on what ground Lieutenant Cook
could take formal possession of this part of New Zealand, in the name
and _for the use_ of the King of Great Britain, when the country
was already inhabited, and of course belonged to those by whom it was
occupied, and whose ancestors might have resided in it for many
preceding ages. To this the best answer seems to be, that the
lieutenant, in the ceremony performed by him, had no reference to the
original inhabitants, or any intention to deprive them of their
natural rights, but only to preclude the claims of future European
navigators, who, under the auspices and for the benefit of their
respective states or kingdoms, might form pretensions, to which they
were not entitled by prior discovery.

On the 31st, our voyagers having completed their wooding, and filled
their water casks, Mr. Cook sent out two parties, one to cut and make
brooms, and another to catch fish. In the evening there was a strong
gale from the north-west, with such a heavy rain, that the little wild
musicians on shore suspended their song, which till now had been
constantly heard during the night with a pleasure that it was
impossible to lose without regret. The gale, on the 1st of February,
increased to a storm, with heavy gusts from the high land, one of
which broke the hawser, that had been fastened to the shore, and
induced the necessity of letting go another anchor. Though, towards
midnight, the gale became more moderate, the rain continued with so
much violence, that the brook, which supplied the ship with water,
overflowed its banks; in consequence of which ten small casks, that
had been filled the day before, were carried away, and,
notwithstanding the most diligent search for them, could not be
recovered.

The Endeavour, on Monday the 5th, got under sail; but the wind soon
failing, our commander was obliged again to come to anchor, a little
above Motuara. As he was desirous of making still further inquiries,
whether any memory of Tasman had been preserved in New Zealand, he
directed Tupia to ask of the old man before mentioned, who had come on
board to take his leave of the English gentlemen, whether he had ever
heard that such a vessel as theirs had before visited the country. To
this he replied in the negative; but said, that his ancestors had told
him, that there once had arrived a small vessel from a distant land,
called Ulimaroa, in which were four men, who upon their reaching the
shore were all killed. On being asked where this country lay, he
pointed to the northward. Of Ulimaroa, Lieutenant Cook had heard
something before, from the people about the Bay of Islands, who said,
that it had been visited by their ancestors. Tupia had also some
confused traditionary notions concerning it; but no certain conclusion
could be drawn either from his account or that of the old Indian.

Soon after the ship came to anchor the second time, Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander, who had gone on shore to see if any gleanings of natural
knowledge remained, fell in, by accident, with the most agreeable
Indian family they had yet seen, and which afforded them a better
opportunity of remarking the personal subordination among the natives,
than had before offered. The whole behaviour of this family was
affable, obliging, and unsuspicious. It was matter of sincere regret
to the two gentlemen, that they had not sooner met with these people,
as a better acquaintance with the manners and disposition of the
inhabitants of the country might hence have been obtained in a day,
than had been acquired during the whole stay of the English upon the
coast.

When, on the 6th of February, Lieutenant Cook had gotten out of the
sound, he stood over to the eastward, in order to get the strait well
open before the tide of ebb approached. At seven in the evening, two
small islands, which lie off Cape Koamaroo, at the south-east head of
Queen Charlotte's Sound, bore east, at the distance of about four
miles. It was nearly calm, and the tide of ebb setting out, the
Endeavour, in a very short time, was carried by the rapidity of the
stream close upon one of the islands, which was a rock rising almost
perpendicularly out of the sea. The danger increased every moment, and
there was but one expedient to prevent the ship's being dashed to
pieces, the success of which a few moments would determine. She was
now within little more than a cable's length of the rock, and had
above seventy-five fathom water. But, upon dropping an anchor, and
veering above one hundred and fifty fathom of cable, she was happily
brought up. This, however would not have saved our navigators, if the
tide, which set south by east, had not, upon meeting with the island,
changed its direction to the south-east, and carried them beyond the
first point. In this situation they were not above two cables' length
from the rocks; and here they remained in the strength of the tide,
which set to the south-east, after the rate of at least five miles an
hour from a little after seven till midnight, when the tide abated,
and the vessel began to heave. By three in the morning, a light breeze
at north-west having sprung up, our voyagers sailed for the eastern
shore; though they made but little way, in consequence of the tide
being against them. The wind, however, having afterwards freshened,
and come to north and north-east, with this, and the tide of ebb, they
were in a short time hurried through the narrowest part of the strait,
and then stood away for the southernmost land they had in prospect.
There appeared, over this land, a mountain of stupendous height, which
was covered with snow. The narrowest part of the strait, through which
the Endeavour had been driven with such rapidity, lies between Cape
Tierawitte, on the coast of Eaheinomauwe, and Cape Koamaroo; the
distance between which our commander judged to be four or five
leagues. Notwithstanding the difficulties arising from this tide, now
its strength is known, the strait may be passed without danger.

Some of the officers started a notion, that Eaheinomauwe was not an
island, and that the land might stretch away to the south-east, from
between Cape Turnagain and Cape Palliser, there being a space of
between twelve and fifteen leagues which had not yet been seen. Though
Lieutenant Cook, from what he had observed the first time he
discovered the strait, and from many other concurrent circumstances,
had the strongest conviction that they were mistaken, he,
nevertheless, resolved to leave no possibility of doubt with respect
to an object of so much importance. For this purpose he gave such a
direction to the navigation of the ship, as would most effectually
tend to determine the matter. After a course of two days he called the
officers upon deck, and asked them, whether they were not now
satisfied that Eaheinomauwe was an island. To this question they
readily answered in the affirmative; and all doubts being removed, the
lieutenant proceeded to farther researches.

During Mr. Cook's long and minute examination of the coast of New
Zealand, he gave names to the bays, capes, promontories, islands, and
rivers, and other places which were seen or visited by him; excepting
in those cases where their original appellations were learned from the
natives. The names he fixed upon were either derived from certain
characteristic or adventitious circumstances, or were conferred in
honour of his friends and acquaintance, chiefly those of the naval
line. Such of the readers of the present work as desire to be
particularly informed concerning them, will naturally have recourse to
the indications of them in the several maps on which they are
described.

The ascertaining of New Zealand to be an island did not conclude
Lieutenant Cook's examination of the nature, situation, and extent of
the country. After this, he completed his circumnavigation, by ranging
from Cape Turnagain southward along the eastern coast of Poenammoo,
round Cape South, and back to the western entrance of the strait be
had passed, and which was very properly named Cook's Strait. This
range, which commenced on the 9th of February, I shall not minutely
and regularly pursue; but content myself, as in the former course,
with mentioning such circumstances as are more directly adapted to my
immediate design.

In the afternoon of the 14th, when Mr. Banks was out in the boat a
shooting, our voyagers saw, with their glasses, four double canoes put
off from the shore towards him, having on board fifty-seven men. The
lieutenant, being alarmed for the safety of his friend, immediately
ordered signals to be made for his return; but he was prevented from
seeing them by the situation of the gun with regard to the ship.
However, it was soon with pleasure observed, that his boat was in
motion; and he was taken on board before the Indians, who perhaps had
not discerned him, came up. Their attention seemed to be wholly fixed
upon the ship. They came within about a stone's cast of her, and then
stopped, gazing at the English with a look of vacant astonishment.
Tupia in vain exerted his eloquence to prevail upon them to make a
nearer approach. After surveying our navigators some time, they left
them, and made towards the shore. The gentlemen could not help
remarking, on this occasion, the different dispositions and behaviour
of the different inhabitants of the country, at the first sight of the
Endeavour. The people now seen kept aloof with a mixture of timidity
and wonder; others had immediately commenced hostilities; the man who
was found fishing alone in his canoe appeared to regard our voyagers
as totally unworthy of notice; and some had come on board almost
without invitation, and with an air of perfect confidence and good
will. From the conduct of the last visitors, Lieutenant Cook gave the
land from which they had put off, and which had the appearance of an
island, the name of Lookers-on.

When an island, which lies about five leagues from the coast of
Tovy-Poenammoo, and which was named Banks's Island, was first
discovered in the direction of south by west, some persons on board
were of opinion, that they saw land bearing south-south-east, and
south-east by east. Our commander, who was himself upon the deck at
the time, told them that in his judgment it was no more than a cloud,
which, as the sun rose, would dissipate and vanish. Being, however
determined to leave no subject for disputation which experiment could
remove, he ordered the ship to steer in the direction which the
supposed country was said to bear. Having gone in this direction eight
and twenty miles, without discovering any signs of land, the Endeavour
resumed her intended course to the southward, it being the particular
view of the lieutenant to ascertain whether Poenammoo was an island or
a continent.

In passing some rocks on the 9th of March, in the night, it appeared
in the morning that the ship had been in the most imminent danger. Her
escape was indeed critical in the highest degree. To these rocks,
therefore, which, from their situation, are so well adapted to catch
unwary strangers, Mr. Cook gave the name of the Traps. On the same day
he reached a point of land which he called the South Cape, and which
he supposed, as proved in fact to be the case, the southern extremity
of the country.

In sailing, on Wednesday the 14th, the Endeavour passed a small narrow
opening in the land, where there seemed to be a very safe and
convenient harbour, formed by an island which lay eastward in the
middle of the opening. On the land, behind the opening, are mountains,
the summits of which were covered with snow, that appeared to have
recently fallen. Indeed our voyagers for two days past, had found the
weather extremely cold. On each side the entrance of the opening, the
land rises almost perpendicularly from the sea to a stupendous height.
For this reason Lieutenant Cook did not choose to carry the ship into
the harbour. He was sensible that no wind could blow there but right
in or right out: and he did not think it by any means advisable to put
into a place whence he could not have gotten out, but with a wind,
which, experience had taught him did not blow more than one day in a
month. Sagacious as this determination of our commander was, it did
not give universal satisfaction. He acted in it contrary to the
opinion of some persons on board, who expressed in strong terms their
desire of coming to harbour; not sufficiently considering, that
present convenience ought not to be purchased at the expense of
incurring great future disadvantages.

By the 27th of March, Mr. Cook had circumnavigated the whole country
of Tovy-Poenammoo, and arrived within sight of the island formerly
mentioned, which lies at the distance of nine leagues from the
entrance of Queen Charlotte's Sound. Having at this time thirty tons
of empty water-casks on board, it was necessary to fill them before he
finally proceeded on his voyage. For this purpose he hauled round the
island, and entered a bay, situated between that and Queen Charlotte's
Sound, and to which the name was given of Admiralty Bay.

The business of wooding and watering having been completed on the
30th, and the ship being ready for the sea, the point now to be
determined was, what rout should be pursued in returning home, that
would be of most advantage to the public service. Upon this subject
the lieutenant thought proper to take the opinion of his officers. He
had himself a strong desire to return by Cape Horn, because that would
have enabled him to determine, whether there is or is not a southern
continent. But against this scheme it was a sufficient objection, that
our navigators must have kept in a high southern latitude, in the very
depth of winter, and in a vessel which was not thought to be in a
condition fit for the undertaking. The same reason was urged with
still greater force, against their proceeding directly for the Cape of
Good Hope, because no discovery of moment could be expected in that
rout. It was therefore resolved that they should return by the East
Indies; and that, with this view, they should steer westward, till
they should fall in with the east coast of New Holland, and then
follow the direction of that coast to the northward, till they should
arrive at its northern extremity. If that should be found
impracticable, it was further resolved, that they should endeavour to
fall in with the land, or islands, said to have been discovered by
Quiros.

In the six months which Lieutenant Cook had spent in the examination
of New Zealand, he made very large additions to the knowledge of
geography and navigation. That country was first discovered in the
year 1642, by Abel Jansen Tasman, a Dutch navigator. He traversed the
eastern coast from latitude 34° 43', and entered the strait now called
Cook's Strait; but being attacked by the natives soon after he came to
an anchor, in the place which he named Murderer's Bay, he never went
on shore. Nevertheless, he assumed a kind of claim of the country, by
calling it Staaten Land, or the Land of the States, in honour of the
States General. It is now usually distinguished in maps and charts by
the name of New Zealand. The whole of the country, excepting that part
of the coast which was seen by Tasman from on board his ship,
continued from his time, to the voyage of the Endeavour, altogether
unknown. By many persons it has been supposed to constitute a part of
a southern continent; but it was now ascertained by Mr. Cook to
consist of two large islands, divided from each other by a strait or
passage, which is about four or five leagues broad. These islands are
situated between the latitudes of 34° and 48° south, and between the
longitudes of 181° and 194° west; a matter which Mr. Green determined
with uncommon exactness, from innumerable observations of the sun and
moon, and one of the transits of Mercury. The northernmost of these
islands is called by the natives Eaheinomauwe, and the southernmost
Tovy, or Tavai Poenammoo. It is not, however, certain, whether the
whole southern island, or only part of it, is comprehended under the
latter name.

Tovy Poenammoo is principally a mountainous, and to all appearance a
barren country. The only inhabitants and signs of inhabitants that
were discovered upon all the islands, were the people whom our
voyagers saw in Queen Charlotte's Sound, some that came off to them
under the snowy mountains, and several fires which were discerned to
the west of Cape Saunders. Eaheinomauwe has a much better appearance.
Though it is not only hilly but mountainous, even the hills and
mountains are covered with wood, and every valley has a rivulet of
water. The soil in these valleys and in the plains, many of which are
not overgrown with wood, is in general light, but fertile. It was the
opinion of Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, as well as of the other
gentlemen on board, that all kinds of European grain, plants, and
fruit would flourish here in the utmost luxuriance. There is reason to
conclude, from the vegetables which our navigators found in
Eaheinomauwe, that the winters are milder than those in England; and
the summer was experienced not to be hotter, though it was more
equally warm. If this country, therefore, should be settled by people
from Europe, they might, with a little industry, very soon be supplied
in great abundance, not merely with the necessaries, but even with the
luxuries of life.

In Eaheinomauwe there are no quadrupeds but dogs and rats. At least,
no other were seen by our voyagers; and the rats are so scarce that
they wholly escaped the notice of many on board. Of birds the species
are not numerous; and of these no one kind, excepting perhaps the
gannet, is exactly the same with those of Europe. Insects are not in
greater plenty than birds. The sea makes abundant recompense for this
scarcity of animals upon the land. Every creek swarms with fish, which
are not only wholesome, but equally delicious with those in our part
of the world. The Endeavour seldom anchored in any station, or with a
light gale passed any place, that did not afford enough, with hook and
line, to serve the whole ship's company. If the seine were made use of
it seldom failed of producing a still more ample supply. The highest
luxury of this kind, with which the English were gratified was the
lobster, or sea cray-fish. Among the vegetable productions of the
country, the trees claim a principal place; there being forests of
vast extent full of the straightest, the cleanest, and the largest
timber Mr. Cook and his friends had ever seen. Mr. Banks and Dr.
Solander were gratified by the novelty, if not by the variety of the
plants. Out of about four hundred species, there were not many which
had hitherto been described by botanists. There is one plant that
serves the natives instead of hemp and flax, and which excels all that
are applied to the same purposes in other countries.

If the settling of New Zealand should ever be deemed an object
deserving the attention of Great Britain, our commander thought that
the best place for establishing a colony would either be on the banks
of the Thames, or in the territory adjoining to the Bay of Islands.
Each of these places possess the advantage of an excellent harbour. By
means of the river, settlements might be extended, and a communication
established with the inland parts of the country. Vessels might
likewise be built of the fine timber which is every where to be met
with, at very little trouble and expense.

But I am in danger of forgetting myself, and of running into a detail
which may be thought rather to exceed the intentions of the present
narrative. It is difficult to restrain the pen, when such a variety of
curious and entertaining matter lies before it; and I must entreat the
indulgence of my readers while I mention two or three further
particulars. One circumstance peculiarly worthy of notice, is the
perfect and uninterrupted health of the inhabitants of New Zealand. In
all the visits made to their towns, where old and young, men and
women, crowded about our voyagers, they never observed a single person
who appeared to have any bodily complaint; nor among the numbers that
were seen naked, was once perceived the slightest eruption upon the
skin, or the least mark which indicated that such an eruption had,
formerly existed. Another proof of the health of these people is the
facility with which the wounds they at any time receive are healed. In
the man who had been shot with a musket ball through the fleshy part
of his arm, the wound seemed to be so well digested, and in so fair a
way of being perfectly healed, that if Mr. Cook had not known that no
application had been made to it, he declared that he certainly should
have inquired, with a very interested curiosity, after the vulnerary
herbs and surgical art of the country. An additional evidence of human
nature's being untainted with disease in New Zealand, is the great
number of old men with whom it abounds. Many of them, by the loss of
their hair and teeth, appeared to be very ancient and yet none of them
were decrepid. Although they were not equal to the young in muscular
strength, they did not come in the least behind them with regard to
cheerfulness and vivacity. Water, as far as our navigators could
discover, is the universal and only liquor of the New Zealanders. It
is greatly to be wished, that their happiness in this respect may
never be destroyed by such a connexion with the European nations, as
shall introduce that fondness for spirituous liquors, which hath been
so fatal to the Indians of North America.

From the observations which Lieutenant Cook and his friends made on
the people of New Zealand, and from the similitude which was discerned
between them and the inhabitants of the South Sea Islands, a strong
proof arose, that both of them had one common origin; and this proof
was rendered indubitable by the conformity of their language. When
Tupia addressed himself to the natives of Eaheinomauwe and Poenammoo,
he was perfectly understood. Indeed it did not appear that the
language of Otaheite differed more from that of New Zealand, than the
language of the two islands into which it is divided, did from each
other.

Hitherto the navigation of Lieutenant Cook had been unfavourable to
the notion of a southern continent; having swept away at least
three-fourths of the positions upon which that notion had been
founded. The track of the Endeavour had demonstrated, that the land
seen by Tasman, Juan Fernandes, Hermite, the commander of a Dutch
squadron, Quiros, and Roggewein, was not, as they had supposed, part
of such a continent. It had also totally destroyed the theoretical
arguments in favour of a southern continent, which had been drawn from
the necessity of it to preserve an equilibrium between the two
hemispheres. As, however, Mr. Cook's discoveries, so far as he had
already proceeded, extended only to the northward of forty degrees,
south latitude, he could not therefore give an opinion concerning what
land might lie farther to the southward. This was a matter, therefore,
which he earnestly wished to be examined; and to him at length was
reserved the honour, as we shall hereafter see, of putting a final end
to the question.

On Saturday the 31st of March, our commander sailed from Cape Farewell
in New Zealand, and pursued his voyage to the westward. New Holland,
or as it is now called, New South Wales, came in sight on the 19th of
April; and on the 28th of that month the ship anchored in Botany Bay.
On the preceding day, in consequence of its falling calm when the
vessel was not more than a mile and a half from the shore and within
some breakers, our navigators had been in a very disagreeable
situation; but happily a light breeze had sprung from the land, and
carried them out of danger.

In the afternoon the boats were manned; and Lieutenant Cook and his
friends, having Tupia of their party, set out from the Endeavour. They
intended to land where they had seen some Indians, and began to hope,
that as these Indians had paid no regard to the ship when she came
into the bay, they would be as inattentive to the advances of the
English towards the shore. In this, however, the gentlemen were
disappointed: for as soon as they approached the rocks, two of the men
came down upon them to dispute their landing, and the rest ran away.
These champions, who were armed with lances about ten feet long,
called to our navigators in a very loud tone, and in a harsh dissonant
language, of which even Tupia did not understand a single word. At the
same time, they brandished their weapons, and seemed resolved to
defend their coast to the utmost, though they were but two to forty.
The lieutenant, who could not but admire their courage, and who was
unwilling that hostilities should commence with such inequality of
force on their side, ordered his boat to lie upon her oars. He and the
other gentlemen then parlied with them by signs; and to obtain their
good-will, he threw them nails, beads, and several trifles besides,
with which they appeared to be well pleased. After this our commander
endeavoured to make them understand that he wanted water, and
attempted to convince them by all the methods in his power, that he
had no injurious designs against them. Being willing to interpret the
waving of their hands as an invitation to proceed, the boat put in to
the shore; but no sooner was this perceived, than it was opposed by
the two Indians, one of whom seemed to be a youth about nineteen or
twenty years old, and the other a man of middle age. The only measure
now left for Mr. Cook was to fire a musket between them which being
done, the youngest of them brought a bundle of lances on the rock, but
recollecting himself in an instant he snatched them up again in great
haste. A stone was then thrown at the English, upon which the
lieutenant ordered a musket to be fired with small shot. This struck
the eldest upon the legs, and he immediately ran to one of the houses,
which was at about a hundred yards distance. Mr. Cook, who now hoped
that the contest was over, instantly landed with his party; but they
had scarcely quitted the boat when the Indian returned, having only
left the rocks to fetch a shield or target for his defence. As soon as
he came up, he and his comrade threw each of them a lance in the midst
of our people, but happily without hurting a single person. At the
firing of a third musket, one of the two men darted another lance, and
then both of them ran away. After this the gentlemen repaired to the
huts, and threw into the house where the children were, some beads,
ribbons, pieces of cloth, and other presents. These they hoped would
procure them the good will of the inhabitants. When, however, the
lieutenant and his companions returned the next day, they had the
mortification of finding that the beads and ribbons, which they had
left the night before, had not been removed from their places, and
that not an Indian was to be seen.

Several of the natives of the country came in sight on the 30th, but
they could not be engaged to begin an intercourse with our people.
They approached within a certain distance of them, and, after shouting
several times, went back into the woods. Having done this once more,
Mr. Cook followed them himself, alone and unarmed, a considerable way
along the shore, but without prevailing upon them to stop.

On the 1st of May, he resolved to make an excursion into the country.
Accordingly, our commander, Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and seven others,
all of them properly accoutred for the expedition, set out, and
repaired first to the huts near the watering-place, whither some of
the Indians continued every day to resort. Though the little presents
which had been left there before had not yet been taken away, our
gentlemen added others of still greater value, consisting of cloth,
beads, combs, and looking-glasses. After this they went up into the
country, the face of which is finely diversified by wood and lawn. The
soil they found to be either swamp or light sand.[6]

  [Footnote 6: In a part of the country that was afterwards
  examined, the soil was found to be much richer; being a deep black
  mould, which the lieutenant thought very fit for the production of
  grain of any kind.]

In cultivating the ground, there would be no obstruction from the
trees, which are tall, straight, and without underwood, and stand at a
sufficient distance from each other. Between the trees, the land is
abundantly covered with grass. Our voyagers saw many houses of the
inhabitants, but met with only one of the people, who ran away as soon
as he discovered the English. At every place where they went they left
presents, hoping that at length they might procure the confidence and
good will of the Indians. They perceived some traces of animals; and
the trees over their heads abounded with birds of various kinds, among
which were many of exquisite beauty. Loriquets and cockatoos, in
particular, were so numerous, that they flew in flocks of several
scores together.

While the lieutenant and his friends were upon this excursion, Mr.
Gore, who had been sent out in the morning to dredge for oysters,
having performed that service, dismissed his boat, and taking a
midshipman with him, set out to join the waterers by land. In his way,
he fell in with a body of two and twenty Indians, who followed him,
and were often at no greater distance than that of twenty yards. When
he perceived them so near, he stopped, and faced about, upon which
they likewise stopped; and when he went on again, they continued their
pursuit. But though they were all armed with lances, they did not
attack Mr. Gore; so that he and the midshipman got in safety to the
watering-place. When the natives came in sight of the main body of the
English, they halted at about the distance of a quarter of a mile, and
stood still. By this Mr. Monkhouse and two or three of the waterers
were encouraged to march up to them; but seeing the Indians keep their
ground, they were seized with a sudden fear which is not uncommon to
the rash and foolhardy, and made a hasty retreat. This step increased
the danger which it was intended to avoid. Four of the Indians
immediately ran forwards, and discharged their lances at the
fugitives, with such force that they went beyond them. Our people
recovering their spirits, stopped to collect the lances, upon which
the natives, in their turn, began to retire. At this time Mr. Cook
came up, with Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Tupia; and being desirous
of convincing the Indians that they were neither afraid of them, nor
designed to do them any injury, they advanced towards them,
endeavouring, by signs of expostulation and entreaty, to engage them
to an intercourse but without effect.

From the boldness which the natives discovered on the first landing of
our voyagers, and the terror that afterward seized them at the sight
of the English, it appears that they were sufficiently intimidated by
our fire-arms. There was not indeed, the least reason to believe that
any of them had been much hurt by the small shot which had been fired
at them when they attacked our people on their coming out of the boat.
Nevertheless, they had probably seen from their lurking places, the
effects which the muskets had upon birds. Tupia, who was become a good
marksman, frequently strayed abroad to shoot parrots; and while he was
thus employed, he once met with nine Indians, who, as soon as they
perceived that he saw them, ran from him, in great alarm and
confusion.

While on the 3rd of May, Mr. Banks was gathering plants near the
watering-place, Lieutenant Cook went with Dr. Solander and Mr.
Monkhouse, to the head of the bay, for the purpose of examining that
part of the country, and of making further attempts to form some
connexions with the natives. In this excursion they acquired
additional knowledge concerning the nature of the soil, and its
capacities for cultivation, but had no success in their endeavours to
engage the inhabitants in coming to a friendly intercourse. Several
parties, that were sent into the country, on the next day, with the
same view, were equally unsuccessful. In the afternoon our commander
himself, with a number of attendants, made an excursion to the north
shore, which he found to be without wood, and to resemble in some
degree, our moors in England. The surface of the ground was, however,
covered with a thin brush of plants, rising to about the height of the
knee. Near the coast, the hills are low, but there are others behind
them, which gradually ascend to a considerable distance, and are
intersected with marshes and morasses. Among the articles of fish
which, at different times were caught, were large stingrays. One of
them, when his entrails were taken out, weighed three hundred and
thirty-six pounds.

It was upon account of the great quantity of plants which Mr. Banks
and Dr. Solander collected in this place, that Lieutenant Cook was
induced to give it the name of Botany Bay. It is situated in the
latitude of 34° south, and in the longitude of 208° 37' west; and
affords a capacious, safe, and convenient shelter for shipping. The
Endeavour anchored near the south shore, about a mile within the
entrance, for the convenience of sailing with a southerly wind, and
because the lieutenant thought it the best situation for watering. But
afterward he found a very fine stream on the north shore, where was a
sandy cove, in which a ship might lie almost land-locked, and procure
wood and water to the greatest abundance. Though wood is every where
plentiful our commander saw only two species of it that could be
considered as timber. Not only the inhabitants who were first
discovered, but all who afterward came in sight, were entirely naked.
Of their mode of life, our voyagers could know but little, as not the
least connexion could be formed with them; but it did not appear that
they were numerous, or that they lived in societies. They seemed, like
other animals, to be scattered about along the coast, and in the
woods. Not a single article was touched by them of all that were left
at their huts, or at the places which they frequented; so little sense
had they of those small conveniences and ornaments, which are
generally very alluring to the uncivilized tribes of the globe. During
Mr. Cook's stay at this place, he caused the English colours to be
displayed every day on shore, and took care that the ship's name, and
the date of the year, should be inscribed upon one of the trees near
the watering-place.

At day-break, on Sunday the 6th of May, our navigators sailed from
Botany Bay; and as they proceeded on their voyage, the lieutenant gave
the names that are indicated upon the map to the bays, capes, points,
and remarkable hills which successively appeared in sight. On the
14th, as the Endeavour advanced to the northward, being then in
latitude 30° 22' south, and longitude 206° 39' west, the land
gradually increased in height, so that it may be called a hilly
country. Between this latitude and Botany Bay, it exhibits a pleasing
variety of ridges, hills, valleys and plains, all clothed with wood,
of the same appearance with that which has been mentioned before. The
land near the shore is in general low and sandy, excepting the points,
which are rocky, and over many of which are high hills, that, at their
first rising out of the water, have the semblance of islands. On the
next day, the vessel being about a league from the shore, our voyagers
discovered smoke in many places, and having recourse to their glasses,
they saw about twenty of the natives, who had each of them a large
bundle upon his back. The bundles our people conjectured to be palm
leaves for covering the houses of the Indians, and continued to
observe them above an hour, during which they walked upon the beach,
and up a path that led over a hill of gentle ascent. It was
remarkable, that not one of them was seen to stop and look towards the
Endeavour. They marched along without the least apparent emotion
either of curiosity or surprise, though it was impossible that they
should not have discerned the ship, by some casual glance, as they
went along the shore, and though she must have been the most
stupendous and unaccountable object they had ever beheld.

While on the 17th, our navigators were in a bay, to which Lieutenant
Cook had given the name of Moreton's Bay, and at a place were the land
was not at that time visible, some on board, having observed that the
sea looked paler than usual, were of opinion that the bottom of the
bay opened into a river. The lieutenant was sensible that there was no
real ground for this supposition. As the Endeavour had here
thirty-four fathom water, and a fine sandy bottom, these circumstances
alone were sufficient to produce the change which had been noticed in
the colour of the sea. Nor was it by any means necessary, to suppose a
river, in order to account for the land at the bottom of the bay not
being visible. If the land there was as low as it had been experienced
to be in a hundred other parts of the coast, it would be impossible to
see it from the station of the ship. Our commander would, however,
have brought the matter to the test of experiments, if the wind had
been favourable to such a purpose. Should any future navigator be
disposed to determine the question, whether there is or is not a river
in this place, Mr. Cook has taken care to leave the best directions
for finding its situation.

On the 22nd, as our voyagers were pursuing their course from Harvey's
Bay, they discovered with their glasses that the land was covered with
palm-nut trees, which they had not seen from the time of their leaving
the islands within the tropic. They saw also two men walking along the
shore, who paid them as little attention, as they had met with on
former occasions. At eight o'clock in the evening of this day, the
ship came to an anchor in five fathom, with a fine sandy bottom. Early
in the morning of the next day, the lieutenant, accompanied by Mr.
Banks, Dr. Solander, the other gentlemen, Tupia, and a party of men,
went on shore in order to examine the country. The wind blew fresh,
and the weather was so cold, that being at a considerable distance
from land, they took their cloaks as a necessary equipment for the
voyage. When they landed, they found a channel leading into a large
lagoon. Both the channel and the lagoon were examined by our commander
with his usual accuracy. There is in the place a small river of fresh
water, and room for a few ships to lie in great security. Near the
lagoon grows the true mangrove, such as exists in the West India
islands, and the first of the kind that had been yet met with by our
navigators. Among the shoals and sand banks of the coast, they saw
many large birds, and some in particular of the same kind which they
had seen in Botany Bay. These they judged to be pelicans, but they
were so shy as never to come within reach of a musket. On the shore
was found a species of the bustard, one of which was shot that was
equal in size to a turkey, weighing seventeen pounds and a half. All
the gentlemen agreed that this was the best bird they had eaten since
they left England; and in honour of it they called the inlet Bustard
Bay. Upon the mud banks, and under the mangroves, were innumerable
oysters of various kinds, and among others the hammer oyster, with a
large proportion of small pearl oysters. If in deeper water there
should be equal plenty of such oysters at their full growth, Mr. Cook
was of opinion that a pearl fishery might be established here to very
great advantage.

The people who were left on board the ship asserted, that, while the
gentlemen were in the woods, about twenty of the natives came down to
the beach, abreast of the Endeavour, and, after having looked at her
for some time, went away. Not a single Indian was seen by the
gentlemen themselves, though they found various proofs, in smoke,
fires, and the fragments of recent meals, that the country was
inhabited. The place seemed to be much trodden, and yet not a house,
or the remains of a house, could be discerned. Hence the lieutenant
and his friends were disposed to believe, that the people were
destitute of dwellings, as well as of clothes; and that like the other
commoner of nature, they spent their nights in the open air. Tupia
himself was struck with their apparently unhappy condition; and
shaking his head, with an air of superiority and compassion, said that
they were taata enos, 'poor wretches.'

On the 25th, our voyagers, at the distance of one mile from the land,
were abreast of a point, which Mr. Cook found to lie directly under
the tropic of Capricorn; and for this reason he called it Cape
Capricorn. In the night of the next day, when the ship had anchored at
a place which was distant four leagues from Cape Capricorn, the tide
rose and fell near seven feet; and the flood set to the westward, and
the ebb to the eastward. This circumstance was just the reverse of
what had been experienced when the Endeavour was at anchor to the
eastward of Bustard Bay.

While our people were under sail, on the 26th, and were surrounded
with islands, which lay at different distance from the main land, they
suddenly fell into three fathom of water. Upon this the lieutenant
anchored, and sent away the master to sound a channel, which lay
between the northernmost island and the main. Though the channel
appeared to have a considerable breadth, our commander suspected it to
be shallow, and such was in fact the case. The master reported, at his
return, that he had only two fathom and a half in many places; and
where the vessel lay at anchor, she had only sixteen feet, which was
not two feet more than she drew. Mr. Banks who, while the master was
sounding the channel, tried to fish from the cabin window with hook
and line, was successful in catching two sort of crabs, both of them
such as our navigators had not seen before. One of them was adorned
with a most beautiful blue, in every respect equal to the ultramarine.
With this blue all his claws and joints are deeply tinged; while the
under part of him was white, and so exquisitely polished, that to
colour and brightness it bore an exact resemblance to the white of old
china. The other crab was also marked, though somewhat more sparingly,
with the ultramarine on his joints and his toes; and on his back were
three brown spots of a singular appearance.

Early the next morning, Lieutenant Cook, having found the passage
between the Islands, sailed to the northward, and, on the evening of
the succeeding day, anchored at about two miles distance from the
main. At this time a great number of islands, lying a long way without
the ship, were in sight. On the 29th, the lieutenant sent away the
master with two boats to sound the entrance of an inlet, which lay to
the west, and into which he intended to go with the vessel, that he
might wait a few days for the moon's increase, and have an opportunity
of examining the country. As the tide was observed to ebb and flow
considerably, when the Endeavour had anchored within the inlet, our
commander judged it to be a river, that might run pretty far up into
land. Thinking that this might afford a commodious situation for
laying the ship ashore, and cleaning her bottom, he landed with the
master, in search of a proper place for the purpose. He was
accompanied in the excursion by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander; and they
found walking exceedingly troublesome, in consequence of the ground's
being covered with a kind of grass, the seeds of which were very sharp
and bearded. Whenever these seeds stuck into their clothes, which
happened at every step, they worked forward by means of the beard,
till they got at the flesh. Another disagreeable circumstance was,
that the gentlemen were incessantly tormented with the stings of a
cloud of musquitos. They soon met with several places where the ship
might conveniently be laid ashore; but were much disappointed in not
being able to find any fresh water. In proceeding up the country they
found gum trees, the gum upon which existed only to very small
quantities. Gum trees of a similar kind and as little productive, had
occurred in other parts of the coast of New South Wales. Upon the
branches of the trees were ants' nests, made of clay as big as a
bushel. The ants themselves, by which the nests were inhabited, were
small, and their bodies white. Upon another species of the gum trees,
was found a small black ant, which perforated all the twigs, and,
having worked out the pith, occupied the pipe in which it had been
contained. Notwithstanding this, the parts in which these insects, to
an amazing number, had formed a lodgment, bore leaves and flowers, and
appeared to be entirely in a flourishing state. Butterflies were found
in such multitudes, that the account of them seems almost to be
incredible. The air was so crowded with them, for the space of three
or four acres, that millions might be seen in every direction; and the
branches and twigs of the trees were at the same time covered with
others that were not upon the wing. A small fish a of singular kind
was likewise met with in this place. Its size was about that of a
minnow, and it had two very strong breast-fins. It was found in places
which were quite dry, and where it might be supposed that it had been
left by the tide; and yet it did not appear to have become languid
from that circumstance: for when it was approached, it leaped away as
nimbly as a frog. Indeed it did not seem to prefer water to land.

Though the curiosity of Mr. Cook and his friends was gratified by the
sight of these various objects, they were disappointed in the
attainment of their main purpose, the discovery of fresh water; and a
second excursion, which was made by them on the afternoon of the same
day, was equally unsuccessful. The failure of the lieutenant's hopes
determined him to make but a short stay in the place. Having, however,
observed from an eminence, that the inlet penetrated a considerable
way into the country, he formed a resolution of tracing it in the
morning. Accordingly, at sunrise, on Wednesday the 30th of May, he
went on shore, and took a view of the coast and the islands that lie
off it with their bearings. For this purpose he had with him an
azimuth compass; but he found, that the needle differed very
considerably in its position, even to thirty degrees; the variation
being in some places more, in others less. Once the needle varied from
itself no less than two points in the distance of fourteen feet. Mr.
Cook having taken up some of the loose stones which lay upon the
ground, applied them to the needle, but they produced no effect;
whence he concluded that in the hills there was iron ore, traces of
which he had remarked both here and in the neighbouring parts. After
he had made his observations upon the hill, he proceeded with Dr.
Solander up the inlet. He set out with the first of the flood, and had
advanced above eight leagues, long before it was high-water. The
breadth of the inlet, thus far, was from two to five miles, upon a
direction south-west by south; but here it opened every way, and
formed a large lake, which to the north-west communicated with the
sea. Our commander not only saw the sea in this direction, but found
the tide of flood coming strongly in from that point. He observed,
also, an arm of this lake extending to the eastward. Hence he thought
it not improbable, that it might communicate with the sea in the
bottom of the bay, which lies to the westward of the Cape, that on the
chart is designated by the name of Cape Townshend. On the south side
of the lake is a ridge of hills which the lieutenant was desirous of
climbing. As, however, it was high water, and the day was far spent;
and as the weather, in particular, was dark and rainy, he was afraid
of being bewildered among the shoals in the night, and therefore was
obliged to give up his inclination, and to make the best of his way to
the ship. Two people only were seen by him, who followed the boat
along the shore a good way at some distance; but he could not
prudently wait for them, as the tide ran strongly in his favour.
Several fires in one direction, and smoke in another, exhibited
farther proofs of the country's being in a certain degree inhabited.

While Mr. Cook, with Dr. Solander, was tracing the inlet, Mr. Banks
and a party with him engaged in a separate excursion, in which they
had not proceeded far within land, before their course was obstructed
by a swamp, covered with mangroves. This, however, they determined to
pass; and having done it with great difficulty, they came up to a
place where there had been four small fires, near to which lay some
shells and bones of fish, that had been roasted. Heaps of grass were
also found lying together, on which four or five people appeared to
have slept. Mr. Gore, in another place, observed the track of a large
animal. Some bustards were likewise seen, but not any other bird,
excepting a few beautiful loriquets, of the same kind with those which
had been noticed in Botany Bay. The country in general, in this part
of New South Wales, appeared sandy and barren, and destitute of the
accommodations which could fit it for being possessed by settled
inhabitants. From the ill success that attended the searching for
fresh water, Lieutenant Cook called the inlet in which the ship lay
Thirsty Sound. No refreshment of any other sort was here procured by
our voyagers.

Our commander, not having a single inducement to stay longer in this
place, weighed anchor in the morning of the 31st and put to sea. In
the prosecution of the voyage, when the Endeavour was close under Cape
Upstart, the variation of the needle, at sunset, on the 4th of June,
was 9° east, and at sunrise the next day, it was no more that 5° 35'.
Hence the lieutenant concluded, that it had been influenced by iron
ore, or by some other magnetical matter contained under the surface of
the earth. In the afternoon of the 7th our navigators saw upon one of
the islands what had the appearance of cocoa-nut trees; and as few
nuts would at this time have been very acceptable, Mr. Cook sent
Lieutenant Hicks ashore, to see if he could procure any refreshment.
He was accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander; and in the evening
the gentlemen returned, with an account that what had been taken for
cocoa-nut trees were a small kind of cabbage-palm, and that, excepting
about fourteen or fifteen plants, nothing could be obtained which was
worth bringing away. On the 8th, when the Endeavour was in the midst
of a cluster of small islands, our voyagers discerned with their
glasses, upon one of the nearest of these islands, about thirty of the
natives, men, women, and children, all standing together, and looking
with great attention at the ship. This was the first instance of
curiosity that had been observed among the people of the country. The
present Indian spectators were entirely naked. Their hair was short,
and their complexion the same with that of such of the inhabitants as
had been seen before.

In navigating the coast of New South Wales, where the sea in all parts
conceals shoals, which suddenly project from the shore, and rocks,
that rise abruptly like a pyramid from the bottom, our commander had
hitherto conducted his vessel in safety, for an extent of two and
twenty degrees of latitude, being more than one thousand three hundred
miles. But, on the 10th of June, as he was pursuing his course from a
bay to which he had given the name of Trinity Bay, the Endeavour fell
into a situation, as critical and dangerous, as any that is recorded in
the history of navigation; a history which abounds with perilous
adventures, and almost miraculous escapes. Our voyagers were now near
the latitude assigned to the islands that were discovered by Quiros,
and which, without sufficient reason, some geographers have thought
proper to join to this land. The ship had the advantage of a fine
breeze, and a clear moonlight night; and in standing off from six till
near nine o'clock, she had deepened her water from fourteen to
twenty-one fathom. But while our navigators were at supper, it
suddenly shoaled, and they fell into twelve, ten, and eight fathom,
within the compass of a few minutes. Mr. Cook immediately ordered
every man to his station, and all was ready to put about and come to
an anchor, when deep water being met with again at the next cast of
the lead, it was concluded that the vessel had gone over the tail of
the shoals which had been seen at sun-set, and that the danger was now
over. The idea of security was confirmed by the water's continuing to
deepen to twenty and twenty-one fathom, so that the gentlemen left the
deck in great tranquillity, and went to bed. However, a little before
eleven, the water shoaled at once from twenty to seventeen fathom, and
before the lead could be cast again, the ship struck, and remained
immoveable, excepting so far as she was influenced by the heaving of
the surge, that beat her against the crags of the rock upon which she
lay. A few moments brought every person upon deck, with countenances
suited to the horrors of the situation. As our people knew, from the
breeze which they had in the evening, that they could not be very near
the shore, there was too much reason to conclude, that they were on a
rock of coral, which, on account of the sharpness of its points, and
the roughness of its surface, is more fatal than any other. On
examining the depth of water round the ship, it was speedily
discovered that the misfortune of our voyagers was equal to their
apprehensions. The vessel had been lifted over a ledge of the rock,
and lay in a hollow within it, in some places of which hollow there
were from three to four fathom, and in others not so many feet of
water. To complete the scene of distress, it appeared from the light
of the moon, that the sheathing boards from the bottom of the ship
were floating away all around her, and at last her false keel; so that
every moment was making way for the whole company's being swallowed up
by the rushing in of the sea. There was now no chance but to lighten
her, and the opportunity had unhappily been lost of doing it to the
best advantage; for, as the Endeavour had gone ashore just at high
water, and by this time it had considerably fallen, she would, when
lightened, be but in the same situation as at first. The only
alleviation of this circumstance was, that as the tide ebbed, the
vessel settled to the rocks, and was not beaten against them with so
much violence. Our people had, indeed, some hope from the next tide,
though it was doubtful whether the ship would hold together so long,
especially as the rock kept grating part of her bottom with such force
as to be heard in the fore store-room. No effort, however, was
remitted from despair of success. That no time might be lost, the
water was immediately started in the hold, and pumped up; six guns,
being all that were upon the deck, a quantity of iron and stone
ballast, casks, hoop-staves, oil jars, decayed stores, and a variety,
of things besides, were thrown overboard with the utmost expedition.
Every one exerted himself not only without murmuring and discontent,
but even with an alacrity which almost approached to cheerfulness. So
sensible, at the same time, were the men of the awfulness of their
situation, that not an oath was heard among them, the detestable habit
of profane swearing being instantly subdued by the dread of incurring
guilt when a speedy death was in view.

When Lieutenant Cook and all the people about him were thus employed,
the opening of the morning of the 11th of June presented them with a
fuller prospect of their danger. The land was seen by them at about
eight leagues distance, without any island in the intermediate space
upon which, if the ship had gong to pieces, they might have been set
ashore by the boats, and carried thence by different turns to the
main. Gradually, however, the wind died away, and, early in the
forenoon, it became a dead calm; a circumstance this, peculiarly happy
in the order of Divine Providence; for if it had blown hard, the
vessel must inevitably have been destroyed. High water being expected
at eleven in the morning, and every thing being made ready to heave
her off if she should float; to the inexpressible surprise and concern
of our navigators, so much did the day tide fall short of that of the
night, that though they had lightened the ship nearly fifty ton, she
did not float by a foot and a half. Hence it became necessary to
lighten her still more, and every thing was thrown overboard that
could possibly be spared. Hitherto the Endeavour had not admitted much
water; but as the tide fell, it rushed in so fast, that she could
scarcely be kept free, though two pumps were incessantly worked. There
were now no hopes but from the tide at midnight; to prepare for taking
the advantage of which the most vigorous efforts were exerted. About
five o'clock in the afternoon the tide began to rise, but, at the same
time, the leak increased to a most alarming degree. Two more pumps,
therefore, were manned, one of which unhappily would not work. Three
pumps, however, were kept going, and at nine o'clock the ship righted.
Nevertheless, the leak had gained so considerably upon her, that it
was imagined that she must go to the bottom, as soon as she ceased to
be supported by the rock. It was, indeed, a dreadful circumstance to
our commander and his people, that they were obliged to anticipate the
floating of the vessel, not as an earnest of their deliverance, but as
an event which probably would precipitate their destruction. They knew
that their boats were not capable of carrying the whole of them on
shore, and that when the dreadful crisis should arrive, all command
and subordination being at an end, a contest for preference might be
expected, which would increase even the horrors of shipwreck, and turn
their rage against each other. Some of them were sensible that if they
should escape to the main land, they were likely to suffer more upon
the whole, than those who would be left on board to perish in the
waves. The latter would only be exposed to instant death; whereas the
former, when they got on shore, would have no lasting or effectual
defence against the natives, in a part of the country where even nets
and fire-arms could scarcely furnish them with food. But supposing
that they should find the means of subsistence; how horrible must be
their state, to be condemned to languish out the remainder of their
lives in a desolate wilderness without the possession or hope of
domestic comfort; and to be cut off from all commerce with mankind,
excepting that of the naked savages, who prowl the desert, and who
perhaps are some of the most rude and uncivilized inhabitants of the
earth.

The dreadful moment which was to determine the fate of our voyagers
now drew on; and every one saw, in the countenances of his companions,
the picture of his own sensations. Not, however, giving way to
despair, the lieutenant ordered the capstan and windlass to be manned
with as many hands as could be spared from the pumps, and the ship
having floated about twenty minutes after ten o'clock, the grand
effort was made, and she was heaved into deep water. It was no small
consolation to find, that she did not now admit of more water than she
had done when upon the rock. By the gaining, indeed, of the leak upon
the pumps, three feet and nine inches of water were in the hold;
notwithstanding which, the men did not relinquish their labour. Thus
they held the water as it were at bay: but having endured excessive
fatigue of body, and agitation of mind, for more than twenty-four
hours, and all this being attended with little hope of final success,
they began, at length, to flag. None of them could work at the pump
above five or six minutes together, after which, being totally
exhausted they threw themselves down upon the deck, though a stream of
water, between three or four inches deep, was running over it from the
pumps. When those who succeeded them had worked their time, and in
their turn were exhausted, they threw themselves down in the same
manner and the others started up again, to renew their labour. While
thus they were employed in relieving each other, an accident was very
nearly putting an immediate end to all their efforts. The planking
which lines the ship's bottom is called the ceiling, between which and
the outside planking there is a space of about eighteen inches. From
this ceiling only, the man who had hitherto attended the well had
taken the depth of the water, and had given the measure accordingly.
But, upon his being relieved, the person who came in his room reckoned
the depth to the outside planking which had the appearance of the
leak's having gained upon the pumps eighteen inches in a few minutes.
The mistake, however, was soon detected; and the accident, which in
its commencement was very formidable to them, became, in fact, highly
advantageous. Such was the joy which every man felt at finding his
situation better than his fears had suggested, that it operated with
wonderful energy, and seemed to possess him with a strong persuasion
that scarcely any real danger remained. New confidence and new hope
inspired fresh vigour; and the efforts of the men were exerted with so
much alacrity and spirit, that before eight o'clock in the morning the
pumps had gained considerably upon the leak. All the conversation now
turned upon carrying the ship into some harbour, as a thing not to be
doubted; and as hands could be spared from the pumps, they were
employed in getting up the anchors. It being found impossible to save
the little bower anchor, it was cut away at a whole cable, and the
cable of the stream anchor was lost among the rocks; but in the
situation of our people, these were trifles which scarcely attracted
their notice. The fore topmast and fore yard were next erected, and
there being a breeze from the sea, the Endeavour, at eleven o'clock,
got once more under sail, and stood for the land.

Notwithstanding these favourable circumstances, our voyagers were
still very far from being in a state of safety. It was not possible
long to continue the labour by which the pumps had been made to gain
upon the leak; and as the exact place of it could not be discovered,
there was no hope of stopping it within. At this crisis, Mr.
Monkhouse, one of the midshipmen, came to Lieutenant Cook, and
proposed an expedient he had once seen used on board a merchant ship,
which had sprung a leak that admitted more than four feet water in an
hour, and which by this means had been safely brought from Virginia to
London. To Mr. Monkhouse, therefore, the care of the expedient, which
is called forthering the ship, was, with proper assistance, committed;
and his method of proceeding was as follows. He took a lower studding
sail, and having mixed together a large quantity of oakum and wool, he
stitched it down as lightly as possible, in handfuls upon the sail,
and spread over it the dung of the sheep of the vessel, and ether
filth. The sail being thus prepared, it was hauled under the ship's
bottom by ropes, which kept it extended. When it came under the leak,
the suction that carried in the water, carried in with it the oakum
and wool from the surface of the sail. In other parts the water was
not sufficiently agitated to wash off the oakum and the wool. The
success of the expedient was answerable to the warmest expectations;
for hereby the leak was so far reduced, that, instead of gaining upon
three pumps, it was easily kept under with one. Here was such a new
source of confidence and comfort, that our people could scarcely have
expressed more joy, if they had been already in port. It had lately
been the utmost object of their hope, to run the ship ashore in some
harbour, either of an island or the main, and to build a vessel out of
her materials, to carry them to the East Indies. Nothing, however, was
now thought of but to range along the coast in search of a convenient
place to repair the damage the Endeavour had sustained, and then to
prosecute the voyage upon the same plan as if no impediment had
happened. In justice and gratitude to the ship's company, and the
gentlemen on board, Mr. Cook has recorded, that although in the midst
of their distress all of them seemed to have a just sense of their
danger, no man gave way to passionate exclamations, or frantic
gestures. 'Every one appeared to have the perfect possession of his
mind, and every one exerted himself to the utmost, with a quiet and
patient perseverance, equally distant from the tumultuous violence of
terror, and the gloomy inactivity of despair.' Though the lieutenant
hath said nothing of himself, it is well known that his own composure,
fortitude, and activity, were equal to the greatness of the occasion.

To complete the history of this wonderful preservation, it is
necessary to bring forward a circumstance, which could not be
discovered till the ship was laid down to be repaired. It was then
found, that one of her holes, which was large enough to have sunk our
navigators, if they had had eight pumps instead of four, and had been
able to keep them incessantly going, was in a great measure filled up
by a fragment of the rock, upon which the Endeavour had struck. To
this singular event, therefore, it was owing, that the water did not
pour in with a violence, which must speedily have involved the
Endeavour and all her company in inevitable destruction.

Hitherto none of the names, by which our commander had distinguished
the several parts of the country seen by him, were memorials of
distress. But the anxiety and danger, which he and his people had now
experienced, induced him to call the point in sight, which lay to the
northward, Cape Tribulation.

The next object, after this event, was to look out for a harbour,
where the defects of the ship might be repaired, and the vessel put
into proper order for future navigation. On the 14th, a small harbour
was happily discovered, which was excellently adapted to the purpose.
It was, indeed, remarkable, that, during the whole course of the
voyage, our people had seen no place which, in their present
circumstances, could have afforded them the same relief. They could
not, however, immediately get into it; and in the midst of all their
joy for their unexpected deliverance, they had not forgotten that
there was nothing but a lock of wool between them and destruction.

At this time, the scurvy, with many formidable symptoms, began to make
its appearance among our navigators. Tupia, in particular, was so
grievously affected with the disease, that all the remedies prescribed
by the surgeon could not retard its progress. Mr. Green, the
astronomer, was also upon the decline. These and other circumstances
embittered the delay which prevented our commander and his companions
from getting on shore. In the morning of the 17th, though the wind was
still fresh, the lieutenant ventured to weigh, and to put in for the
harbour, the entrance into which was by a very narrow channel. In
making the attempt, the ship was twice run aground. At the first time
she went off without any trouble, but the second time, she stuck fast.
Nevertheless, by proper exertions, in conjunction with the rising of
the tide, she floated about one o'clock in the afternoon, and was soon
warped into the harbour. The succeeding day was employed in erecting
two tents, in landing the provisions and stores, and in making every
preparation for repairing the damages which the Endeavour had
sustained. In the meanwhile, Mr. Cook, who had ascended one of the
highest hills that overlooked the harbour was by no means entertained
with a comfortable prospect; the low land near the river being wholly
overrun with mangroves, among which the salt water flows at every
tide, and the high land appearing to be altogether stony and barren.
Mr. Banks also took a walk up the country, and met with the frames of
several old Indian houses, and places where the natives, though not
recently, had dressed shell fish. The boat, which had this day been
dispatched to haul the seine, with a view of procuring some fish for
the refreshment of the sick, returned without success. Tupia was more
fortunate. Having employed himself in angling, and lived entirely upon
what he caught, he recovered in a surprising degree. Mr. Green, to the
regret of his friends, exhibited no symptoms of returning health.

On the 19th, Mr. Banks crossed the river, to take a farther view of
the country; which he found to consist principally of sand hills. Some
Indian houses were seen by him, that appeared to have been very lately
inhabited; and in his walk be met with large flocks of pigeons and
crows. The pigeons were exceedingly beautiful. Of these he shot
several; but the crows, which were exactly like those in England, were
so shy, that they never came within the reach of his gun.

It was not till the 22nd, that the tide so far left the Endeavour, as
to give our people an opportunity of examining her leak. In the place
where it was found, the rocks had made their way through four planks,
and even into the timbers. Three more planks were greatly damaged, and
there was something very extraordinary in the appearance of the
breaches. Not a splinter was to be seen, but all was as smooth as if
the whole had been cut away by an instrument. It was a peculiarly
happy circumstance, that the timbers were here very close, since
otherwise the ship could not possibly have been saved. Now also it was
that the fragment of rock was discovered, which, by sticking in the
leak of the vessel had been such a providential instrument of her
preservation.

On the same day, some of the people who had been sent to shoot pigeons
for the sick, and who had discovered many Indian houses, and a fine
stream of fresh water reported at their return, that they had seen an
animal as large as a greyhound, of a slender make, of a mouse colour,
and extremely swift. As the lieutenant was walking, on the morning of
the 24th, at a little distance from the ship, he had an opportunity of
seeing an animal of the same kind. From the description he gave of it,
and from an imperfect view which occurred to Mr. Banks, the latter
gentleman was of opinion that its species was hitherto unknown.

The position of the vessel, while she was refitting for sea, was very
near depriving the world of that botanical knowledge, which Mr. Banks
had procured at the expense of so much labour, and such various
perils. For the greater security of the curious collection of plants
which he had made during the whole voyage, he had removed them into
the bread room. This room is in the after part of the ship, the head
of which, for the purpose of repairing her, was laid much higher than
the stern. No one having thought of the danger to which this
circumstance might expose the plants, they were found to be under
water. However, by the exercise of unremitting care and attention, the
larger part of them were restored to a state of preservation.

On the 29th of June, at two o'clock in the morning Mr. Cook, in
conjunction with Mr. Green, observed an emersion of Jupiter's first
satellite. The time here was 2h 18' 53", which gave the longitude of
the place at 214° 42' 30" west: its latitude is 15° 26' south. The
next morning the lieutenant sent some of the young gentlemen to take a
plan of the harbour, whilst he himself ascended a hill, that he might
gain a full prospect of the sea: and it was a prospect which presented
him with a lively view of the difficulties of his situation. To his
great concern he saw innumerable sand-banks and shoals, lying in every
direction of the coast. Some of them extended as far as he could
discern with his glass, and many of them did but just rise above
water. To the northward there was an appearance of a passage, and this
was the only direction to which our commander could hope to get clear,
in the prosecution of his voyage; for, as the wind blew constantly
from the south-east, to return by the southward would have been
extremely difficult, if not absolutely impossible. On this, and the
preceding day, our people had been very successful in hauling the
seine. The supply of fish was so great, that the lieutenant was now
able to distribute two pounds and a half to each man. A quantity of
greens having likewise been gathered, he ordered them to be boiled
with peas. Hence an excellent mess was produced, which, in conjunction
with the fish, afforded an unspeakable refreshment to the whole of the
ship's company.

Early in the morning of the 2d of July, Lieutenant Cook sent the
master out of the harbour, in the pinnace, to sound about the shoals,
and to search for a channel to the northward. A second attempt, which
was made this day, to heave off the ship, was as unsuccessful as a
former one had been. The next day the master returned, and reported
that he had found a passage out to sea, between the shoals. On one of
these shoals, which consisted of coral rocks, many of which were dry
at low water, he had landed, and found there cockles, of so enormous a
size, that a single cockle was more than two men could eat. At the
same place he met with a great variety of other shell fish, and
brought back with him a plentiful supply for the use of his fellow
voyagers. At high water, this day, another effort was made to float
the ship, which happily succeeded; but it being found, that she had
sprung a plank between decks, it became necessary to lay her ashore a
second time. The lieutenant, being anxious to attain a perfect
knowledge of the state of the vessel, got one of the carpenters crew,
a man in whom he could confide, to dive on the fifth to her bottom,
that he might examine the place where the sheathing had been rubbed
off. His report, which was, that three streaks of the sheathing, about
eight feet long, were wanting, and that the main plank had been a
little rubbed, was perfectly agreeable to the account that had been
given before by the master and others, who had made the same
examination; and our commander had the consolation of finding, that,
in the opinion of the carpenter, this matter would be of little
consequence. The other damage, therefore, being repaired, the ship was
again floated at high water, and all hands were employed in taking the
stores on board, and in putting her into a condition for proceeding on
her voyage. To the harbour in which she was refitted for the sea, Mr.
Cook gave the name of the Endeavour River.

On the morning of the 6th, Mr. Banks accompanied by Lieutenant Gore,
and three men, set out in a small boat up the river, with a view of
spending a few days in examining the country. In this expedition
nothing escaped his notice, which related either to the natural
history or the inhabitants of the places he visited. Though he met
with undoubted proofs, that several of the natives were at no great
distance, none of them came within sight. Having found, upon the
whole, that the country did not promise much advantage from a farther
search, he and his party re-embarked in their boat, and returned, on
the 8th, to the ship. During their excursion, they had slept upon the
ground in perfect security, and without once reflecting upon the
danger they would have incurred, if, in that situation, they had been
discovered by the Indians.

Lieutenant cook had not been satisfied with the account which the
master had given of his having traced a passage between the shoals,
into the sea. He sent him out, therefore, a second time, upon the same
business; and, on his return, he made a different report. Having been
seven leagues out at sea, the master was now of opinion, that there
was no such passage as he had before imagined. His expedition,
however, though in this respect unsuccessful, was not wholly without
its advantage. On the very rock where he had seen the large cockles,
he met with a great number of turtle; and though he had no better an
instrument than a boat hook, three of them were caught, which together
weighed seven hundred and ninety-one pounds. An attempt, which, by
order of the lieutenant, was made the next morning to obtain some more
turtle, failed, through the misconduct of the same officer, who had
been so fortunate on the preceding day.

Hitherto the natives of this part of the country had eagerly avoided
holding any intercourse with our people: but at length their minds,
through the good management of Mr. Cook, became more favourably
disposed. Four of them having appeared, on the 10th, in a small canoe,
and seeming to be busily employed in striking fish, some of the ships
company were for going over to them in a boat. This, however, the
lieutenant would not permit, repeated experience having convinced him
that it was more likely to prevent than to procure an interview. He
determined to pursue a contrary method, and to try what could be done
by letting them alone, and not appearing to make them, in the least
degree, the objects of his notice. So successful was this plan, that
after some preparatory intercourse, they came alongside the ship,
without expressing any fear or distrust. The conference was carried
on, by signs, with the utmost cordiality till dinner time, when, being
invited by our people to go with them and partake of their provision,
they declined it, and went away in their canoe. One of these Indians
was somewhat above the middle age; the three others were young. Their
statue was of the common size, but their limbs were remarkably small.
The colour of their skin was a dark chocolate. Their hair was black,
but not woolly; and their features were far from being disagreeable.
They had lively eyes, and their teeth were even and white. The tones
of their voices were soft and musical, and there was a flexibility in
their organs of speech, which enabled them to repeat with great
facility many of the words pronounced by the English.

On the next morning, our voyagers had another visit from four of the
natives. Three of them were the same who had appeared the day before,
but the fourth was a stranger, to whom his companions gave the name of
Yaparico. He was distinguished by a very peculiar ornament. This was
the bone of a bird nearly as thick as a man's finger, and five or six
inches long, which he had thrust into a hole, made in the gristle that
divides the nostrils. An instance of the like kind, and only one, had
been seen in New Zealand. It was found, however, that among all these
people the same part of the nose was perforated; that they had holes
in their ears; and that they had bracelets, made of plaited hair, upon
the upper part of their arms. Thus the love of ornament takes place
among them though they are absolutely destitute of apparel.

Three Indians, on the 12th, ventured down to Tupia's tent, and were so
well pleased with their reception, that one of them went with his
canoe to fetch two others, who had never been seen by the English. On
his return, he introduced the strangers by name, a ceremony which was
never omitted upon such occasions. From a father acquaintance with the
natives, it was found, that the colour of their skins was not so dark
as had at first been apprehended, and that all of them were remarkably
clean-limbed, and extremely active and nimble. Their language appeared
to be more harsh than that of the islanders to the South Sea.

On the 14th, Mr. Gore had the good fortune to kill one of the animals
before mentioned, and which had been the subject of much speculation.
It is called by the natives Kanguroo; and when dressed proved most
excellent meat. Indeed, our navigators might now be said to fare
sumptuously every day; for they had turtle in great plenty, and it was
agreed that these were far superior to any which our people had ever
tasted in England. This the gentlemen justly imputed to their being
eaten fresh from the sea, before their natural fat had been wasted, or
their juices changed, by the situation and diet they are exposed to
when kept in tubs. Most of the turtle here caught were of the kind
called green turtle, and their weight was from two to three hundred
pounds.

In the morning of the 16th, while the men were engaged in their usual
employment of getting the ship ready for the sea, our commander
climbed one of the heights on the north side of the river, and
obtained from it an extensive view of the inland country, which he
found agreeably diversified by hills, valleys, and large plains, that
in many places were richly covered with wood. This evening, the
lieutenant and Mr. Green observed an emersion of the first satellite
of Jupiter, which gave 214° 53' 45" of longitude. The observation
taken on the 29th of June had given 214° 48' 30"; and the mean was
214° 48' 7-1/2", being the longitude of the place west of Greenwich.

On the 17th, Mr. Cook sent the master and one of the mates in the
pinnace, to search for a channel northward; after which, accompanied
by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, he went into the woods on the other
side of the water. In this excursion, the gentlemen had a farther
opportunity of improving that acquaintance with the Indians, who by
degrees became so familiar, that several of them the next day ventured
on board the ship. There the lieutenant left them, apparently much
entertained, that he might go with Mr. Banks to take a farther survey
of the country, and especially to indulge an anxious curiosity they
had of looking round about them upon the sea; of which they earnestly
wished, but scarcely dared to hope, that they might obtain a
favourable and encouraging prospect. When, after having walked along
the shore seven or eight miles to the northward, they ascended a very
high hill, the view which presented itself to them inspired nothing
but melancholy apprehensions. In every direction they saw rocks and
shoals without number; and there appeared to be no passage out to sea,
but through the winding channels between them, the navigation of which
could not be accomplished without the utmost degree of difficulty and
danger. The spirits of the two gentlemen were not raised by this
excursion.

On the 19th, our voyagers were visited by ten of the natives: and six
or seven more were seen at a distance, chiefly women, who were as
naked as the male inhabitants of the country. There being at that time
a number of turtles on the deck of the ship, the Indians who came on
board were determined to get one of them; and expressed great
disappointment and anger, when our people refused to comply with their
wishes. Several attempts were made by them to secure what they wanted
by force; but all their efforts proving unsuccessful, they suddenly
leaped into their canoe in a transport of rage, and paddled towards
the shore. The lieutenant, with Mr. Banks, and five or six of the
ship's crew, immediately went into the boat, and got ashore, where
many of the English were engaged in various employments. As soon as
the natives reached the land, they seized their arms, which had been
laid up in a tree, and having snatched a brand from under a
pitch-kettle that was boiling, made a circuit to the windward of the
few things our people had on shore, and with surprising quickness and
dexterity set on fire to the grass in that way. The grass, which was
as dry as stubble, and five or six feet high, burned with surprising
fury; and a tent of Mr. Banks's would have been destroyed if that
gentleman had not immediately got some of the men to save it, by
hauling it down upon the beach. Every part of the smith's forge that
would burn was consumed. This transaction was followed by another of
the same nature. In spite of threats and entreaties, the Indians went
to a different place, where several of the Endeavour's crew were
washing, and where the seine, the other nets, and a large quantity of
linen were laid out to dry, and again set fire to the grass. The
audacity of this fresh attack rendered it necessary that a musket,
loaded with small shot, should be discharged at one of them; who being
wounded at the distance of about forty yards they all betook
themselves to flight. In the last instance the fire was extinguished
before it had made any considerable progress; but where it had first
began, it spread far into the woods. The natives being still in sight,
Mr. Cook, to convince them that they had not yet gotten out of his
reach, fired a musket, charged with ball, abreast of them among the
mangroves, upon which they quickened their pace, and were soon out of
view. It was now expected that they would have given our navigators no
farther trouble; but in a little time their voices were heard in the
woods, and it was perceived that they came nearer and nearer. The
lieutenant, therefore, together with Mr. Banks, and three or four more
persons, set out to meet them; and the result of the interview, in
consequence of the prudent and lenient conduct of our commander and
his friends, was a complete reconciliation. Soon after the Indians
went away, the woods were seen to be on fire at the distance of about
two miles. This accident, if it had happened a little sooner, might
have produced dreadful effects; for the powder had been but a few days
on board, and it was not many hours that the store tents, with all the
valuable things contained in it had been removed. From the fury with
which the grass would burn in this hot climate, and the difficulty of
extinguishing the fire, our voyagers determined never to expose
themselves to the like danger, but to clear the ground around them, if
ever again they should be under the necessity of pitching their tents
in such a situation.

In the evening of this day, when every thing was gotten on board the
ship, and she was nearly ready for sailing, the master returned with
the disagreeable account that there was no passage for her to the
northward. The next morning, the lieutenant himself sounded and buoyed
the bar. At this time, all the hills for many miles round were on
fire, and the appearance they assumed at night was eminently striking
and splendid.

In an excursion which was made by Mr. Banks, on the 23rd, to gather
plants, he found the greatest part of the cloth that had been given to
the Indians lying in a heap together. This, as well as the trinkets
which had been bestowed upon them, they probably regarded as useless
lumber. Indeed, they seemed to set little value on any thing possessed
by our people, excepting their turtle, and that was a commodity which
could not be spared.

As Lieutenant Cook was prevented by blowing weather from attempting to
get out to sea, Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander seized another opportunity,
on the 24th, of pursuing their botanical researches. Having traversed
the woods the greater part of the day, without success, as they were
returning through a deep valley they discovered lying upon the ground
several marking nuts, anacardiam orientale. Animated with the hope of
meeting the tree that bore them, a tree which perhaps no European
botanist had ever seen, they sought for it with great diligence and
labour, but to no purpose. While Mr. Banks was again gleaning the
country, on the 26th, to enlarge his treasure of natural history, he
had the good fortune to take an animal of the oppossum tribe, together
with two young ones. It was a female, and though not exactly of the
same species, much resembled the remarkable animal which Mons. de
Buffon hath described by the name of phalanger.

On the morning of the 29th, the weather becoming calm, and a light
breeze having sprung up by land, Lieutenant Cook sent a boat to see
what water was upon the bar, and all things were made ready for
putting to sea. But, on the return of the boat, the officer reported,
that there were only thirteen feet of water on the bar. As the ship
drew thirteen feet six inches, and the sea-breeze set in again in the
evening, all hope of sailing on that day was given up. The weather
being more moderate on the 31st, the lieutenant had thoughts of trying
to warp the vessel out of the harbour; but upon going out himself to
the boat, he found, that the wind still blew so fresh, that it would
not be proper to make the attempt. A disagreeable piece of
intelligence occured on the succeeding day. The carpenter, who had
examined the pumps, reported, that they were all of them in a state of
decay. One of them was so rotten, that, when hoisted up, it dropped to
pieces, and the rest were not in a much better condition. The chief
confidence, therefore, of our navigators was now in the soundness of
the ship; and it was a happy circumstance, that she did not admit more
than one inch of water in an hour.

Early on the 3rd of August, another unsuccessful attempt was made to
warp the vessel out of the harbour but in the morning of the next day
the efforts of our voyagers were more prosperous, and the Endeavour
got once more under sail with a light air from the land, which soon
died away, and was followed by sea-breezes from south-east by south.
With these breezes the ship stood off to sea, east by north, having
the pinnace ahead, which was ordered to keep sounding without
intermission. A little before noon the lieutenant anchored in fifteen
fathom water, with a sandy bottom, the reason of which was, that he
did not think it safe to run in among the shoals, till, by taking a
view of them from the mast-head at low water, he might be able to form
some judgment which way it would be proper for him to steer. This was
a matter of nice and arduous determination. As yet Mr. Cook was in
doubt, whether he should beat back to the southward, round all the
shoals, or seek a passage to the eastward or the northward: nor was it
possible to say, whether each of these courses might not be attended
with equal difficulty and danger.

The impartiality and humanity of Lieutenant Cook's conduct in the
distribution of provisions ought not to pass unnoticed. Whatever
turtle or other fish were caught, they were always equally divided
among the whole ship's crew, the meanest person on board having the
same share with the lieutenant himself. He hath justly observed, that
this is a rule which every commander will find it his interest to
follow, in a voyage of a similiar nature.

Great difficulties occured in the navigation from the Endeavour river.
On the 5th of August, the lieutenant had not kept his course long,
before shoals were discovered in every quarter, which obliged him, as
night approached, to come to an anchor. In the morning of the 6th
there was so strong a gale, that our voyagers were prevented from
weighing. When it was low water, Mr. Cook, with several of his
officers, kept a look-out at the mast head, to see if any passage
could be discovered between the shoals. Nothing, however, was in view,
excepting breakers, which extended from the south round by the east as
far as to the north-west, and reached out to sea, beyond the sight of
any of the gentlemen. It did not appear that these breakers were
caused by one continued shoal, but by several, which lay detached from
each other. On that which was farthest to the eastward, the sea broke
very high, so that the lieutenant was induced to think, that it was
the outermost shoal. He was now convinced, that there was no passage
to sea, but through the labyrinth formed by these shoals; and, at the
same time, he was wholly at a loss what course to steer, when the
weather should permit the vessel to sail. The master's opinion was,
that our navigators should beat back the way they came; but as the
wind blew strongly, and almost without intermission, from that
quarter, this would have been an endless labour: and yet, if a passage
could not be found to the northward, there was no other alternative.
Amidst these anxious deliberations, the gale increased, and continued,
with little remission, till the morning of the 10th, when the weather
becoming more moderate, our commander weighed, and stood in for the
land. He had now come to a final determination of seeking a passage
along the shore to the northward.

In pursuance of this resolution, the Endeavour proceeded in her
course, and at noon came between the farthermost headland that lay in
sight, and three islands which were four or five leagues to the north
of it, out at sea. Here our navigators thought they saw a clear
opening before them, and began to hope that they were once more out of
danger. Of this hope, however, they were soon deprived; on which
account, the lieutenant gave to the headland the name of Cape
Flattery. After he had steered some time along the shore, for what was
believed to be the open channel, the petty officer at the mast-head
cried aloud, that he saw land ahead, which extended quite round to the
three islands, and that between the ship and them there was a large
reef. Mr. Cook, upon this, ran up the mast-head himself, and plainly
discerned the reef, which was so far to the windward, that it could
not be weathered. As to the land which the petty officer had supposed
to be the main, our commander was of opinion, that it was only a
cluster of small islands. The master, and some others, who went up the
mast-head after the lieutenant, were entirely of a different opinion.
All of them were positive that the land in sight did not consist of
islands, but that it was a part of the main: and they rendered their
report still more alarming, by adding, that they saw breakers around
them on every side. In a situation so critical and doubtful, Mr. Cook
thought proper to come to an anchor, under a high point which he
immediately ascended, that he might have a farther view of the sea and
the country. The prospect he had from this place, which he called
Point Look-out, clearly confirmed him in his former opinion; the
justness of which displayed one of the numerous instances, wherein it
was manifest, how much he exceeded the people about him in sagacity of
his judgment concerning matters of navigation.

The lieutenant, being anxious to discover more distinctly the
situation of the shoals, and the channel between them, determined to
visit the northernmost and largest of the three islands before
mentioned; which, from its height and its lying five leagues out to
sea, was peculiarly adapted to his purpose. Accordingly, in company
with Mr. Banks, whose fortitude and curiosity stimulated him to take a
share in every undertaking, he set out in the pinnace, on the morning
of the 11th, upon this expedition. He sent, at the same time, the
master in the yawl, to sound between the low islands and the mainland.
About one o'clock, the gentlemen reached the place of their
destination, and immediately, with a mixture of hope and fear,
proportioned to the importance of the business, and the uncertainty of
the event, ascended the highest hill they could find. When the
lieutenant took a survey of the prospect around him, he discovered, on
the outside of the islands, and at the distance of two or three
leagues from them, a reef of rocks, upon which the sea broke in a
dreadful surf, and which extended farther than his sight could reach.
Hence, however, he collected, that there was no shoals beyond them;
and, as he perceived several breaks or openings in the reef, and deep
water between that and the islands, he entertained hopes of getting
without the rocks. But though he saw reason to indulge, in some
degree, this expectation, the haziness of the weather prevented him
from obtaining that satisfactory intelligence which he ardently
desired. He determined, therefore, by staying all night upon the
island, to try whether the next day would not afford him a more
distinct and comprehensive prospect. Accordingly, the gentlemen took
up their lodging under the shelter of a bush, which grew upon the
beach. Not many hours were devoted by them to sleep; for, at three in
the morning, Mr. Cook mounted the hill a second time, but had the
mortification of finding the weather much more hazy than it had been
on the preceding day. He had early sent the pinnace, with one of the
mates, to sound between the island and the reefs, and to examine what
appeared to be a channel through them. The mate, in consequence of its
blowing hard, did not dare to venture into the channel, which he
reported to be very narrow. Nevertheless, our commander, who judged,
from the description of the place, that it had been seen to
disadvantage, was not discouraged by this account.

While the lieutenant was engaged in his survey, Mr. Banks, always
attentive to the great object of natural history, collected some
plants which he had never met with before. No animals were perceived
upon the place, excepting lizards, for which reason the gentlemen gave
it the name of Lizard Island. In their return to the ship, they landed
on a low sandy island that had trees upon it, and which abounded with
an incredible number of birds, principally sea-fowl. Here they found
the nest of an eagle, and the nest of some other bird, of what species
they could not distinguish; but it must certainly be one of the
largest kinds that exist. This was apparent from the enormous size of
the nest, which was built with sticks upon the ground, and was no less
than six and twenty feet in circumference, and two feet eight inches
in height. The spot which the gentlemen were now upon they called
Eagle Island.

When Lieutenant Cook got on board he entered into a very serious
deliberation concerning the course he should pursue. After considering
what he had seen himself and the master's report, he was of opinion,
that by keeping in with the main land, he should run the risk of being
locked in by the great reef, and of being compelled at last to return
back in search of another passage. By the delay that would hence be
occasioned, our navigators would almost certainly be prevented from
getting in time to the East Indies, which was a matter of the utmost
importance, and indeed of absolute necessity; for they had now not
much more than three months' provision on board, at short allowance.
The judgment the lieutenant had formed together with the facts and
appearances on which it was grounded, he stated to his officers, by
whom it was unanimously agreed, that the best thing they could do
would be to quit the coast entirely, till they could approach it again
with less danger.

In pursuance of this resolution, the Endeavour, early in the morning
of the 13th, got under sail, and successfully passed through one of
the channels or openings in the outer reef, which Mr. Cook had seen
from the island. When the ship had gotten without the breakers, there
was no ground within one hundred and fifty fathom, and our people
found a large sea rolling in upon them from the south-east. This was a
certain sign that neither land nor shoals were near them in that
direction.

So happy a change in the situation of our voyagers was sensibly felt
in every breast, and was visible in every countenance. They had been
little less than three months in a state that perpetually threatened
them with destruction. Frequently had they passed their nights at
anchor within hearing of the surge, that broke over the shoals and
rocks; and they knew, that, if by any accident the anchors should not
hold against an almost continual tempest, they must in a few minutes
inevitably perish. They had sailed three hundred and sixty leagues,
without once, even for a moment, having a man out of the chains
heaving the lead. This was a circumstance which perhaps never had
happened to any other vessel. But now our navigators found themselves
in an open sea with deep water; and the joy they experienced was
proportioned to their late danger, and their present security.
Nevertheless, the very waves, which proved by their swell that our
people had no rocks or shoals to fear, convinced them, at the same
time, that they could not put a confidence in the ship equal to what
they had done before she struck. So far were the leaks widened by the
blows she received from the waves, that she admitted no less than nine
inches of water in an hour. If the company had not been lately in so
much more imminent danger, this fact, considering the state of the
pumps, and the navigation which was still in view, would have been a
matter of very serious concern.

The passage or channel, through which the Endeavour passed into the
open sea beyond the reef, lies in latitude 14° 32' south. It may
always be known by the three high islands within it, to which, on
account of the use they may be of in guiding the way of future
voyagers, our commander gave the appellation of the islands of
Direction.

It was not a long time that our navigators enjoyed the satisfaction of
being free from the alarm of danger. As they were pursuing their
course in the night of the 15th, they sounded frequently, but had no
bottom with one hundred and forty fathom, nor any ground with the same
length of line. Nevertheless, at four in the morning of the 16th, they
plainly heard the roaring of the surf, and at break of day saw it
foaming to a vast height, at not more than the distance of mile. The
waves, which rolled in upon the reef, carried the vessel towards it
with great rapidity; and, at the same time, our people could reach no
ground with an anchor, and had not a breath of wind for the sail. In a
situation so dreadful, there was no resource but in the boats; and
most unhappily, the pinnace was under repair. By the help, however, of
the long-boat and the yawl, which were sent ahead to tow, the ship's
head was got round to the northward, a circumstance which might delay,
if it could not prevent destruction. This was not effected till six
o'clock, and our voyagers were not then a hundred yards from the rock,
upon which the same billow had washed the side of the vessel broke to
a tremendous height, the very next time it rose. There was only,
therefore, a dreary valley between the English and destruction; a
valley no wider than the base of one wave, while the sea under them
was unfathomable. The carpenter, in the meanwhile, having hastily
patched up the pinnace, she was hoisted out, and sent ahead to tow in
aid of the other boats. But all these efforts would have been
ineffectual, if a light air of wind had not sprung up, just at the
crisis of our people's fate. It was so light an air, that at any other
time it would not have been observed: but it was sufficient to turn
the scale in favour of our navigators; and in conjunction with the
assistance which was afforded by the boats, it gave the ship a
perceptible motion obliquely from the reef. The hopes of the company
now revived: but in less than ten minutes a dead calm succeeded, and
the vessel was again driven towards the breakers, which were not at
the distance of two hundred yards. However, before the ground was lost
which had already been gained, the same light breeze returned, and
lasted ten minutes more. During this time a small opening about a
quarter of a mile distant, was discovered in the reef; upon which Mr.
Cook immediately sent one of the mates to examine it, who reported
that its breadth was not more than the length of the ship, but that
within it there was smooth water. This discovery presented the
prospect of a possibility of escape, by pushing the vessel through the
opening. Accordingly, the attempt was made, but it failed of success;
for when our people, by the joint assistance of their boats and the
breeze, had reached the opening, they found that it had become high
water; and, to their great surprise, they met the tide of ebb running
out like a mill-stream. In direct contrariety to their expectations,
some advantage was gained by this event. Though it was impossible to
go through the opening, the stream, which prevented the Endeavour from
doing it, carried her out about a quarter of a mile; and the boats
were so much assisted in towing her by the tide of ebb, that at noon
she had gained the distance of nearly two miles. However, there was
yet too much reason to despair of deliverance. For even if the breeze,
which had now died away, had revived, our navigators were still
embayed in the reef: and the tide of ebb being spent, the tide of
flood, notwithstanding their utmost efforts, drove the ship back again
into her former perilous situation. Happily, about this time, another
opening was perceived, nearly a mile to the westward. Our commander
immediately sent Mr. Hicks, the first lieutenant, to examine it; and
in the meanwhile the Endeavour struggled hard with the flood,
sometimes gaining, and sometimes losing ground. During this severe
service, every man did his duty with as much calmness and regularity
as if no danger had been near. At length Mr. Hicks returned with the
intelligence, that the opening, though narrow and hazardous, was
capable of being passed. The bare possibility of passing it was
encouragement sufficient to make the attempt; and indeed all danger
was less to be dreaded by our people, than that of continuing in their
present situation. A light breeze having fortunately sprung up, this,
in conjunction with the aid of the boats, and the very tide of flood
that would otherwise have been their destruction, enabled them to
enter the opening, through which they were hurried with amazing
rapidity. Such was the force of the torrent by which they were carried
along, that they were kept from driving against either side of the
channel, which in breadth was not more than a quarter of a mile. While
they were shooting this gulf, their soundings were remarkably
irregular, varying from thirty to seven fathom, and the ground at
bottom was foul.

As soon as our navigators had gotten within the reef, they came to an
anchor; and their joy was exceedingly great, at having regained a
situation, which, three days before, they had quitted with the utmost
pleasure and transport. Rocks and shoals, which are always dangerous
to the mariner, even when they are previously known and marked, are
peculiarly dangerous in seas which have never been navigated before;
and in this part of the globe they are more perilous than in any
other. Here they consist of reefs of coral rock, which rise like a
wall almost perpendicularly out of the deep, and are always overflowed
at high water. Here, too, the enormous waves of the vast southern
ocean, meeting with so abrupt a resistance, break, with inconceivable
violence, in a surf which cannot be produced by any rocks or storms in
the northern hemisphere. A crazy ship, shortness of provision, and a
want of every necessary, greatly increased the danger to our present
voyagers of navigating in this ocean. Nevertheless, such is the ardour
of the human mind, and so flattering is the distinction of a first
discoverer, that Lieutenant Cook and his companions cheerfully
encountered every peril, and submitted to every inconvenience. They
chose rather to incur the charge of imprudence and temerity, than to
leave a country unexplored which they had discovered, or to afford the
least colour for its being said, that they were deficient in
perseverance and fortitude. It scarcely needs to be added, that it was
the high and magnanimous spirit of our commander, in particular, which
inspired his people with so much resolution and vigour.

The lieutenant, having now gotten within the reef, determined,
whatever might be the consequence, to keep the main land on board, in
his future route to the northward. His reason for this determination
was, that, if he had gone without the reef again, he might have been
carried by it so far from the coast, as to prevent his being able to
ascertain whether this country did, or did not, join to New Guinea; a
question which he had fixed upon resolving, from the first moment that
he had come within sight of land. To the opening through which the
Endeavour had passed, our commander, with a proper sense of gratitude
to the Supreme Being, gave the name of Providential Channel. In the
morning of the 17th, the boats had been sent out, to see what
refreshments could be procured; and returned in the afternoon with two
hundred and forty pounds of the meat of shell fish, chiefly of
cockles. Some of the cockles were as much as two men could move, and
contained twenty pounds of good meat. Mr. Banks, who had gone out in
his little boat, accompanied by Dr. Solander, brought back a variety
of curious shells, and many species of corals.

In the prosecution of the voyage, our people, on the 19th, were
encompassed on every side with rocks and shoals: but, as they had
lately been exposed to much greater danger, and these objects were now
become familiar, they began to regard them comparatively with little
concern. On the 21st, there being two points in view, between which
our navigators could see no land, they conceived hopes of having at
last found a passage into the Indian Sea. Mr. Cook, however, that he
might be able to determine the matter with greater certainty, resolved
to land upon an island, which lies at the south-east point of the
passage. Accordingly, he went into the boat, with a party of men,
accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander. As they were getting to
shore, some of the natives seemed inclined to oppose their landing,
but soon walked leisurely away. The gentlemen immediately climbed the
highest hill, from which no land could be seen between the south-west
and west-south-west; so that the lieutenant had not the least doubt of
finding a channel, through which he could pass to New Guinea. As he
was now about to quit the coast of New Holland, which he had traced
from latitude thirty-eight to this place, and which he was certain no
European had ever seen before, he once more hoisted English colours.
He had, indeed, already taken possession of several particular parts
of the country. But he now took possession of the whole eastern coast,
with all the bays, harbours, rivers, and islands situated upon it,
from latitude 38° to latitude 10°-1/2' south, in right of His Majesty
King George the Third, and by the name of New South Wales. The party
then fired three volleys of small arms, which were answered by the
same number from the ship. When the gentlemen had performed this
ceremony upon the island, which they called Possession Island, they
re-embarked in their boat, and, in consequence of a rapid ebb tide,
had a very difficult and tedious return to the vessel.

On the 23rd, the wind had come round the south-west; and though it was
but a gentle breeze, yet it was accompanied by a swell from the same
quarter, which, in conjunction with other circumstances, confirmed Mr.
Cook in his opinion, that he had arrived to the northern extremity of
New Holland, and that he had now an open sea to the westward. These
circumstances afforded him peculiar satisfaction, not only because the
dangers and fatigues of the voyage were drawing to a conclusion, but
because it could no longer be doubted whether New Holland and New
Guinea were two separate islands. The north-east entrance of the
strait lies in the latitude of 10° 39' south, and in the longitude of
218° 36' west; and the passage is formed by the main land, and by a
congeries of islands, the north-west, called by the lieutenant the
Prince of Wales's Islands, and which may probably extend as far as to
New Guinea. Their difference is very great, both in height and
circuit, and many seemed to be well covered with herbage and wood: nor
was there any doubt of their being inhabited. Our commander was
persuaded, that among these islands as good passages might be found,
as that through which the vessel came, and the access to which might
be less perilous. The determination of this matter he would not have
left to future navigators, if he had been less harassed by danger and
fatigue and had possessed a ship in better condition for the purpose.
To the channel through which he passed, he gave the name of Endeavour
Straits.

New Holland, or, as the eastern part of it was called by Lieutenant
Cook, New South Wales, is the largest country in the known world,
which does not bear the name of a continent. The length of coast along
which our people sailed, when reduced to a strait line, was no less
than twenty-seven degrees of latitude, amounting nearly to two
thousand miles. In fact the square surface of the island is much more
than equal to the whole of Europe. We may observe, with regard to the
natives, that their number bears no proportion to the extent of their
territory. So many as thirty of them had never been seen together but
once, and that was at Botany Bay. Even when they appeared determined
to engage the English, they could not muster above fourteen or fifteen
fighting men: and it was manifest, that their sheds and houses did not
lie so close together, as to be capable of accommodating a larger
party. Indeed our navigators saw only the sea-coast on the eastern
side; between which and the western shore there is an immense track of
land, that is wholly unexplored. But it is evident, from the totally
uncultivated state of the country which was seen by our people, that
this immense tract must either be altogether desolate, or at least
more thinly inhabited than the parts which were visited. Of traffic,
the natives had no idea, nor could any be communicated to them. The
things which were given them they received, but did not appear to
understand the signs of the English requiring a return. There was no
reason to believe that they eat animal food raw. As they have no
vessel in which water can be boiled, they either broil their meat upon
the coals, or bake in a hole by the help of hot stones, agreeably to
the custom of the inhabitants of the South Sea islands. Fire is
produced by them with great facility, and they spread it in a
surprising manner. For producing it, they take two pieces of soft
wood, one of which is a stick about eight or nine inches long, while
the other piece is flat. The stick they shape into an obtuse point at
one end, and pressing it upon the flat wood, turn it nimbly by holding
it between both their hands. In doing this, they often shift their
hands up, and then move them down, with a view of increasing the
pressure as much as possible. By this process they obtain fire in less
than two minutes, and from the smallest spark they carry it to any
height or extent with great speed and dexterity.

It was not possible, considering the limited intercourse which our
navigators had with the natives of New South Wales that much could be
learned with regard to their language. Nevertheless, as this is an
object of no small curiosity to the learned, and is indeed of peculiar
importance in searching into the origin of the various nations that
have been discovered, Mr. Cook and his friends took some pains to
collect such a specimen of it as might, in a certain degree, answer
the purpose. Our commander did not quit the country without making
such observations, relative to the currents and tides upon the coast,
as, while they increase the general knowledge of navigation, may be of
service to future voyagers. The irregularity of the tides is an object
worthy of notice.

From the coast of New South Wales, the lieutenant steered on the 23rd
of August, for the coast of New Guinea, and on the 25th, fell upon a
dangerous shoal. The ship was in six fathom, but scarcely two were
found, upon sounding round her, at the distance of half a cable's
length. This shoal was of such an extent, reaching from the east round
by the north and west to the south-west, that there was no method for
the vessel to get clear of it, but by her going back the way in which
she came. Here was another hair's breadth escape; for it was nearly
high water, and there ran a short cockling sea, which if the ship had
struck, must very soon have bulged her. So dangerous was her
situation, that, if her direction had been half a cable's length more,
either to the right or left, she must have struck before the signal
for the shoal could have been made.

It had been Lieutenant Cook's intention to steer north-west till he
had made the south coast of New Guinea, and it was his purpose to
touch upon it, if that could be found practicable. But in consequence
of the shoals he met with, he altered his course, in the hope of
finding a clearer channel, and deeper water. His hope was agreeably
verified; for by noon, on the 26th, the depth of water was gradually
increased to seventeen fathom. On the 28th, our voyagers found the sea
to be in many places covered with a brown scum, such as the sailors
usually called spawn. When the lieutenant first saw it he was alarmed,
fearing, that the ship was again among shoals; but the depth of water,
upon sounding, was discovered to be equal to what it was in other
places. The same appearance had been observed upon the coasts of
Brazil and New Holland, in which cases it was at no great distance
from the shore. Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander examined the scum, but
could not determine what it was, any farther then as they saw reason
to suppose that it belonged to the vegetable kingdom. The sailors,
upon meeting with more of it, gave up the notion of its being spawn,
and finding a new name for it, called it sea sawdust.

At day break, on the 3rd of September, our navigators came in sight of
New Guinea, and stood in for it, with a fresh gale, till nine o'clock,
when they brought to, being in three fathom water and within about
three or four miles of land. Upon this the pinnace was hoisted, and
the lieutenant set off from the ship with the boat's crew, accompanied
by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Mr. Banks's servants, being in all
twelve persons, well armed. As soon as they came ashore, they
discovered the prints of human feet, which could not long have been
impressed upon the sand. Concluding, therefore, that the natives were
at no great distance, and there being a thick wood which reached to
within a hundred yards of the water, the gentlemen thought it
necessary to proceed with caution, lest their retreat to the boat
should be cut off. When they had walked some way along the skirts of
the wood, they came to a grove of cocoa-nut trees, at the fruit of
which they looked very wishfully; but not thinking it safe to climb,
they were obliged to leave it without tasting a single nut. After they
had advanced about a quarter of a mile from the boat, three Indians
rushed out of the wood with a hideous shout, and, as they ran towards
the English, the foremost threw something out of his hand, which flew
on one side of him, and burned exactly like gunpowder though without
making any report. The two other natives having at the same instant
discharged their arrows, the lieutenant and his party were under the
necessity of firing, first with small shot, and a second time with
ball. Upon this, the three Indians ran away with great agility. As Mr.
Cook had no disposition forcibly to invade this country, either to
gratify the appetites or the curiosity of his people, and was
convinced that nothing was to be done upon friendly terms, he and his
companions returned with all expedition towards their boat. When they
were aboard, they rowed abreast of the natives, who had come down to
the shore in aid of their countrymen and whose number now amounted to
between sixty and a hundred. Their appearance was much the same as
that of the New Hollanders; they nearly resembled them in stature, and
in having their hair short and cropped. Like them, also, they were
absolutely naked but the colour of their skin did not seem quite so
dark, which, however, might be owing to their being less dirty. While
the English gentlemen were viewing them, they were shouting defiance,
and letting off their fires by four or five at a time. Our people
could not imagine what these fires were, or what purposes they were
intended to answer. Those who discharged them had in their hands a
short piece of stick, which they swung sideways from them, and
immediately there issued fire and smoke, exactly resembling those of a
musket, and of as short a duration. The men on board the ship, who
observed this surprising phenomenon, were so far deceived by it, as to
believe that the Indians had fire-arms. To the persons in the boat, it
had the appearance of the firing of volleys without a report.

The place where this transaction happened lies in the latitude of 6°
15' south, and is about sixty-five leagues to the north-east of Port
Saint Augustine, or Walche Caep, and is near what is called in the
charts C. de la Colta de St. Bonaventura. In every part of the coast,
the land is covered with a vast luxuriance of wood and herbage. The
cocoa-nut, the bread-fruit, and the plantain-tree, flourish here in
the highest perfection; besides which, the country abounds with most
of the trees, shrubs, and plants, that are common to the South Sea
islands, New Zealand, and New Holland.

Soon after Mr. Cook and his party had returned to the ship, our
voyagers made sail to the westward, the lieutenant having resolved to
spend no more time upon this coast; a resolution which was greatly to
the satisfaction of a very considerable majority of his people. Some
of the officers indeed were particularly urgent that a number of men
might be sent ashore, to cut down cocoa-nut trees for the sake of
their fruit. This, however, our commander absolutely refused, as
equally unjust and cruel. It was morally certain, from the preceding
behaviour of the natives, that if their property had been invaded,
they would have made a vigorous effort to defend it; in which case,
the lives of many of them must have been sacrificed; and perhaps, too,
several of the English would have fallen in the contest. The necessity
of a quarrel with the Indians would have been regretted by the
lieutenant, even if he had been impelled to it by a want of the
necessaries of life; but to engage in it for the transient
gratification that would arise from obtaining two or three hundred
green cocoa-nuts, appeared in his view highly criminal. The same
calamity, at least with regard to the natives, would probably have
occurred, if he had sought for any other place on the coast, to the
northward and westward, where the ship might have lain so near the
shore, as to cover his people with the guns when they had landed.
Besides, there was cause to believe, that before such a place could
have been found, our navigators would have been carried so far to the
westward, as to be obliged to go to Batavia, on the north side of
Java. This, in Mr. Cook's opinion, would not have been so safe a
passage, as that to the south of Java, through the strait of Sunda,
Another reason for his making the best of his way to Batavia, was the
leakiness of the vessel, which rendered it doubtful, whether it would
not be necessary to heave her down when she arrived at that port. Our
commander's resolution was farther confirmed by the consideration,
that no discovery could be expected in seas which had already been
navigated, and where the coasts had been sufficiently described both
by Spanish and Dutch geographers, and especially by the latter. The
only merit claimed by the lieutenant, in this part of his voyage, was
the having established it as a fact beyond all controversy, that New
Holland and New Guinea are two distinct countries.

Without staying, therefore, on the coast of New Guinea, the Endeavour,
on the same day, directed her course to the westward, in pursuing
which, Mr. Cook had an opportunity of rectifying the errors of former
navigators. Very early in the morning of the 6th of September, our
voyagers passed a small island, which lay to the north-north-west; and
at day-break they discovered another low island, extending from that
quarter to north-north-east. Upon the last island, which appeared to
be of considerable extent, the lieutenant would have landed to examine
its produce, if the wind had not blown so fresh, as to render his
design impracticable. Unless these two islands belong to the Arrou
islands, they have no place in the charts; and if they do belong to
the Arrou islands, they are laid down at too great a distance from New
Guinea. Some other land which was seen this day ought, by its distance
from New Guinea, to have been part of the Arrou islands; but if any
dependance can be placed on former charts, it lies a degree farther to
the south.

On the 7th, when the ship was in latitude 9° 30' south, and longitude
229° 34' west, our people ought to have been in sight of the Weasel
Isles, which, in the charts, are laid down at the distance of twenty
or twenty-five leagues from the coast of New Holland. But as our
commander saw nothing of them, he concluded that they must have been
placed erroneously. Nor will this be deemed surprising, when it is
considered, that not only these islands, but the coast which bounds
this sea, have been explored at different times, and by different
persons, who had not all the requisites for keeping accurate journals
which are now possessed; and whose various discoveries have been
delineated upon charts by others, perhaps at the distance of more than
a century after such discoveries had been made.

In pursuing their course, our navigators passed the islands of Timor,
Timor-lavet, Rotte, and Seman. While they were near the two latter
islands, they observed, about ten o'clock at night, on the 16th of the
month, a phenomenon in the heavens, which in many particulars
resembled the Aurora Borealis, though in others it was very different.
It consisted of a dull reddish light, which reached about twenty
degrees above the horizon; and though its extent, at times, varied
much, it never comprehended less than eight or ten points of the
compass. Through, and out of the general appearance, there passed rays
of light of a brighter colour, which vanished, and were renewed,
nearly in the same manner as those of the Aurora Borealis, but
entirely without the tremulous or vibratory motion which is seen in
that phenomenon. The body of this light bore south-south-east from the
ship, and continued, without any diminution of its brightness, till
twelve o'clock, and probably a longer time, as the gentlemen were
prevented from observing it farther, by their retiring to sleep.

By the 16th, Lieutenant Cook had gotten clear of all the islands which
had then been laid down in the maps as situated between Timor and
Java, and did not expect to meet with any other in that quarter. But
the next morning an island was seen bearing west-south-west, and at
first he believed that he had made a new discovery. As soon as our
voyagers had come close in with the north side of it, they had the
pleasing prospect of houses and cocoa-nut trees, and of what still
more agreeably surprised them, numerous flocks of sheep. Many of the
people on board were at this time in a bad state of health, and no
small number of them had been dissatisfied with the lieutenant for not
having touched at Timor. He readily embraced, therefore, the
opportunity of landing at a place which appeared so well calculated to
supply the necessities of the company, and to remove both the sickness
and the discontent which had spread among them. This place proved to
be the island of Savu, where a settlement had lately been made by the
Dutch.

The great design of our commander was to obtain provisions, which,
after some difficulty, and some jealousy on the part of Mr. Lange, the
Dutch resident, were procured. These provisions were nine buffaloes,
six sheep, three hogs, thirty dozen of fowls, many dozens of eggs,
some cocoa-nuts, a few limes, a little garlic, and several hundred
gallons of palm syrup. In obtaining these refreshments at a reasonable
price, the English were not a little assisted by an old Indian, who
appeared to be a person of considerable authority under the king of
the country. The lieutenant and his friends were one day very
hospitably entertained by the king himself, though the royal etiquette
did not permit his majesty to partake of the banquet.

So little in general, had the island of Savu been known, that Mr. Cook
had never seen a map or chart in which it is clearly or accurately
laid down. The middle of it lies in about the latitude of 10° 35'
south, and longitude 237° 30' west; and from the ship it presented a
prospect, than which nothing can be more beautiful. This prospect,
from the verdure and culture of the country, from the hills, richly
clothed, which rise in a gentle and regular ascent, and from the
stateliness and beauty of the trees, is delightful to a degree that
can scarcely be conceived by the most lively imagination. With regard
to the productions and natives of the island, the account which our
navigators were enabled to give of them, and which is copious and
entertaining, was, in a great measure, derived from the information of
Mr. Lange.

An extraordinary relation is given of the morals of the people of this
island, and which if true, must fill every virtuous mind with
pleasure. Their characters and conduct are represented as
irreproachable, even upon the principles of Christianity. Though no
man is permitted to have more than one wife, an illicit commerce
between the sexes is scarcely known among them. Instances of theft are
very rare; and so far are they from revenging a supposed injury by
murder, that when any difference arises between them they immediately,
and implicitly refer it to the determination of their king. They will
not so much as make it the subject of private debate, lest they should
hence be provoked to resentment and ill will. Their delicacy and
cleanliness are suited to the purity of their morals. From the
specimen which is given of the language of Savu, it appears to have
some affinity with that of the South Sea islands. Many of the words
are exactly the same, and the terms of numbers are derived from the
same origin.

On the 21st of September, our navigators got under sail, and having
pursued their voyage till the 1st of October, on that day they came
within sight of the island of Java. During their course from Savu,
Lieutenant Cook allowed twenty minutes a-day for the westerly current,
which he concluded must run strong at this time, especially on the
coast of Java; and accordingly, he found that this allowance was
exactly equivalent to the effect of the current upon the ship. Such
was the sagacity of our commander's judgment in whatever related to
navigation.

On the 2nd, two Dutch ships being seen to lie off Anger Point, the
lieutenant sent Mr. Hicks on board one of them to inquire news
concerning England, from which our people had so long been absent. Mr.
Hicks brought back the agreeable intelligence, that the Swallow,
commanded by Captain Cateret, had been at Batavia two years before. In
the morning of the 5th, a prow came alongside of the Endeavour, with a
Dutch officer, who sent down to Mr. Cook a printed paper in English,
duplicates of which he had in other languages. This paper was
regularly signed, in the name of the governor and council of the
Indies, by their secretary, and contained nine questions, very ill
expressed, two of which only the lieutenant thought proper to answer.
These were what regarded the nation and name of his vessel, and
whither she was bound. On the 9th, our voyagers stood in for Batavia
road, where they found the Harcourt Indiaman from England, two English
private traders, and a number of Dutch ships. Immediately a boat came
on board the Endeavour, and the officer who commanded having inquired
who our people were, and whence they came, instantly returned with
such answers as were given him. In the mean time Mr. Cook sent a
lieutenant ashore, to acquaint the governor of his arrival, and to
make an apology for not having saluted; a ceremony he had judged
better to omit; as he could only make use of three guns, excepting the
swivels, which he was of opinion would not be heard.

It being universally agreed, that the ship could not safely proceed to
Europe without an examination of her bottom, our commander determined
to apply for leave to heave her down at Batavia; and for this purpose
he drew up a request in writing, which, after he had waited first upon
the governor-general, and then upon the council, was readily complied
with, and he was told, that he should have every thing he wanted.

In the evening of the 10th, there was a dreadful storm of thunder,
lightning, and rain, during which the mainmast of one of the Dutch
East Indiamen was split, and carried away by the deck; and the
maintop-mast and topgallant-mast were shivered to pieces. The stroke
was probably directed by an iron spindle, which was at the maintop
gallantmast head. As this ship lay very near the Endeavour, she could
scarcely have avoided sharing the same fate, had it not been for the
conducting chain, which fortunately had been just gotten up, and which
conveyed the lightning over the side of the vessel. But though she
escaped the lightning, the explosion shook her like an earthquake; and
the chain at the same time appeared like a line of fire. Mr. Cook has
embraced this occasion of earnestly recommending similar chains to
every ship; and hath expressed his hope that all who read his
narrative will be warned against having an iron spindle at the
mast-head.

The English gentlemen had taken up their lodging and boarding at an
hotel, or kind of inn, kept by the order of government. Here they met
with those impositions, in point of expense and treatment, which are
too common to admit of much surprise. It was not long, however, that
they submitted to ill usage. By a farther acquaintance with the manner
of dealing with their host, and by spirited remonstrances, they
procured a better furnished table. Mr. Banks, in a few days, hired a
small house for himself and his party; and as soon as he was settled
in his new habitation, sent for Tupia, who bad hitherto continued on
board on account of sickness. When he quitted the ship, and after he
came into the boat, he was exceedingly lifeless and dejected; but no
sooner did he enter the town, than he appeared to be inspired with
another soul. A scene so entirely new and extraordinary filled him
with amazement. The houses, carriages, streets, people, and a
multiplicity of other objects, rushing upon him at once, produced an
effect similar to what is ascribed to enchantment. His boy, Tayeto,
expressed his wonder and delight in a still more rapturous manner. He
danced along the streets in a kind of extacy, examining every object
with a restless and eager curiosity, which was excited and gratified
every moment. Tupia's attention was particularly excited by the
various dresses of the passing multitude; and when he was informed,
that at Batavia every one wore the dress of his own country, he
expressed his desire of appearing in the garb of Otabeite.
Accordingly, South Sea cloth being sent for from the ship, he equipped
himself with great expedition and dexterity.

Lieutenant Cook imagined that at Batavia he should find it easy to
take up what money he might want for repairing and refitting, the
Endeavour; but in this he was mistaken. No private person could be
found who had ability and inclination to furnish the sum which was
necessary. In this exigency, the lieutenant had recourse by a written
request, to the governor, from whom he obtained an order for being
supplied out of the Dutch company's treasury.

When our voyagers had been only nine days at Batavia, they began to
feel the fatal effects of the climate and situation. Tupia, after his
first flow of spirits had subsided, grew every day worse and worse;
and Tayeto was seized with an inflamation upon his lungs. Mr. Banks
and Dr. Solander were attacked by fevers, and in a little time almost
every person both on board and on shore, was sick. The distress of our
people was indeed very great and the prospect before them discouraging
in the highest degree. Tupia, being desirous of breathing a freer air
than among the numerous houses that obstructed it ashore, had a tent
erected for him on Cooper's island, to which he was accompanied by Mr.
Banks, who attended this poor Indian with the greatest humanity, till
he was rendered incapable of doing it, by the violent increase of his
own disorder. On the 5th of November. Mr. Monkhouse, the surgeon of
the ship, a sensible, skilful man, whose loss was not a little
aggravated by the situation of the English, fell the first sacrifice
to this fatal country. Tayeto died on the 9th, and Tupia, who loved
him with the tenderness of a parent, sunk at once after the loss of
the boy, and survived him only a few days. The disorders of Mr. Banks
and Dr. Solander grew to such a height, that the physician declared
they had no chance of preserving their lives but by removing into the
country. Accordingly, a house was hired for them at the distance of
about two miles from the town; where, in consequence of enjoying a
purer air, and being better nursed by two Malayan women, whom they had
bought, they recovered by slow degrees. At length, Lieutenant Cook was
himself taken ill; and out of the whole ship's company, not more than
ten were able to do duty.

In the midst of these distresses, our commander was diligently and
vigorously attentive to the repair of his vessel. When her bottom came
to be examined, she was found to be in a worse condition than had been
apprehended. Her false keel and main keel were both of them greatly
injured; a large quantity of the sheathing was torn off; and among
several planks which were much damaged, two of them, and the half of a
third, were so worn for the length of six feet, that they were not
above the eighth part of an inch in thickness; and here the worms had
made way quite into the timbers. In this state the Endeavour had
sailed many hundred leagues, in a quarter of the globe where
navigation is dangerous in the highest degree. It was happy for our
voyagers, that they were ignorant of their perilous situation; for it
must have deeply affected them, to have known, that a considerable
part of the bottom of the vessel was thinner than the sole of a shoe,
and that all their lives depended upon so slight and fragile a barrier
between them and the unfathomable ocean.

The repair of the Endeavour was carried on very much to Mr. Cook's
satisfaction. In justice to the Dutch officers and workmen, he hath
declared, that in his opinion, there is not a marine yard in the
world, where a ship can be laid with more convenience, safety, and
dispatch, or repaired with greater diligence and skill. He was
particularly pleased with the manner of heaving down by two masts, and
gives it a decided preference to the method which had hitherto been
practised by the English. The lieutenant was not one of those on whom
the bigotry could be charged of adhering to old customs, in opposition
to the dictates of reason and experience.

By the 8th of December, the Endeavour was perfectly refitted. From
that time to the 24th, our people were employed in completing her
stock of water, provisions, and stores, in erecting some new pumps,
and in various other necessary operations. All this business would
have been effected much sooner, if it had not been retarded by the
general sickness of the men.

In the afternoon of the 24th, our commander took leave of the governor
of Batavia, and of several other gentlemen belonging to the place,
with whom he had formed connexions, and to whom he had been greatly
obliged for their civilities and assistance. In the meanwhile, an
accident intervened, which might have been attended with disagreable
effects. A seaman, who had run away from one of the Dutch ships in the
road, entered on board the Endeavour. Upon his being reclaimed, as a
subject of Holland, Mr. Cook, who was on shore, declared, that if the
man appeared to be a Dutchman, he should certainly be delivered up.
When however, the order was carried to Mr. Hicks, who commanded on
board, he refused to surrender the seaman, alleging, that he was a
subject of great Britain, born in Ireland. In this conduct, Mr. Hicks
acted in perfect conformity to the lieutenant's intention and
directions. The captain of the Dutch vessel, in the next place, by a
message from the governor-general, demanded the man as a subject of
Denmark. To this Mr. Cook replied, that there must be some mistake in
the general's message, since he would never demand of him a Danish
seaman, whose only crime was that of preferring the English to the
Dutch service. At the same time the lieutenant added, that to strew
the sincerity of his desire to avoid disputes, if the man was a Dane,
he should be delivered up as a courtesy; but that, if he appeared to
be an English subject, he should be kept at all events. Soon after, a
letter was brought from Mr. Hicks, containing indubitable proofs that
the seaman in question was a subject of his Britannic majesty. This
letter Mr. Cook sent to the governor, with an assurance to his
excellency, that he would not part with the man on any terms. A
conduct so firm and decisive produced the desired effect, no more
being heard of the affair.

In the evening of the 25th, our commander went on board, together with
Mr. Banks and the rest of the gentlemen who had resided constantly on
shore. The gentlemen, though considerably better, were far from being
perfectly recovered. As this time, the sick persons in the ship
amounted to forty, and the rest of the company were in a very feeble
condition. It was remarkable, that every individual had been ill
excepting the sailmaker, who was an old man between seventy and eighty
years of age, and who was drunk every day during the residence of our
people at Batavia. Three seamen and Mr. Green's servant died, besides
the surgeon, Tupia, and Tayeto. Tupia did not entirely fall a
sacrifice to the unwholesome, stagnant, and putrid air of the country.
As he had been accustomed from his birth, to subsist chiefly upon
vegetable food, and particularly on ripe fruit, he soon contracted the
disorders which are incident to a sea life, and would probably have
sunk under them before the voyage of the English could have been
completed, even if they had not been obliged to go to Batavia to refit
their vessel.

Our navigators did not stay at this place without gaining an extensive
acquaintance with the productions of the country, and the manners and
customs of the inhabitants. The information which was obtained on
these heads, will be found to constitute a very valuable addition to
what was heretofore known upon the subject.

On Thursday the 27th of December, the Endeavour stood out to sea; and
on the 5th of January, 1771, she came to an anchor, under the
south-east side of Prince's Island. The design of this was to obtain a
recruit of wood and water, and to procure some refreshments for the
sick, many of whom had become much worse than they were when they left
Batavia. As soon as the vessel was secured, the lieutenant, Mr. Banks,
and Dr. Solander went on shore, and were conducted by some Indians
they met with to a person who was represented to be the king of the
country. After exchanging a few compliments with his majesty, the
gentlemen proceeded to business, but could not immediately come to a
settlement with him in respect to the price of turtle. They were more
successful in their search of a watering-place, having found water
conveniently situated, and which they had reason to believe would
prove good. As they were going off, some of the natives sold them
three turtle, under a promise that the king should not be informed of
the transaction.

On the next day a traffic was established with the Indians, upon such
terms as were offered by the English; so that by night our people had
plenty of turtle. The three which had been purchased the evening
before were in the mean time dressed for the ship's company, who,
excepting on the preceding day, had not, for nearly the space of four
months, been once served with salt provisions. Mr. Banks, in the
evening, paid his respects to the king at his palace, which was
situated in the middle of a rice field. His majesty was busily
employed in dressing his own supper; but this did not prevent him from
receiving his visitant in a very gracious manner. During the following
days the commerce with the natives for provisions was continued; in
the course of which they brought down to the trading place, not only a
quantity of turtle, but fowls, fish, monkeys, small deer, and some
vegetables.

On the evening of the 11th, when Mr. Cook went on shore to see how
those of his people conducted their business, who were employed in
wooding and watering, he was informed that an axe had been stolen. As
it was a matter of consequence to prevent others from being encouraged
to commit thefts of the like kind, he resolved not to pass over the
offence, but to insist upon redress from the king. Accordingly, after
some altercation, his majesty promised that the axe should be restored
in the morning, and the promise was faithfully performed.

On the 15th, our commander weighed, and stood out for sea. Prince's
Island, where he lay about ten days, was formerly much frequented by
the India ships of many nations, and especially those of England, but
it had lately been forsaken, on account of the supposed badness of its
water. This supposition, however, arose from a want of duly examining
the brook by which the water is supplied. It is, indeed, brackish at
the lower part of the brook, but higher up it will be found excellent.
The lieutenant, therefore, was clearly of opinion, that Prince's
Island is a more eligible place for ships to touch at, than either at
North Island or New Bay; from neither of which places any considerable
quantity, of other refreshments can be procured.

As the Endeavour proceeded on her voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, the
seeds of disease, which had been received at Batavia, appeared with
the most threatening symptoms, and reduced our navigators to a very
melancholy situation. The ship was, in fact, nothing better than an
hospital, in which those who could go about were not sufficient for a
due attendance upon those who were sick. Lest the water which had been
taken in at Prince's island should have had any share in adding to the
disorder of the men, the lieutenant ordered it to be purified with
lime; and, as a farther remedy against infection, he directed all the
parts of the vessel between the decks to be washed with vinegar. The
malady had taken too deep root to be speedily eradicated. Mr. Banks
was reduced so low by it, that for some time there was no hope of his
life; and so fatal was the disease to many others, that almost every
night a dead body was committed to the sea. There were buried, in the
course of about six weeks, Mr. Sporing, a gentleman who was one of Mr.
Banks's assistants; Mr. Parkinson, his natural history painter, Mr.
Green, the astronomer; the boatswain, the carpenter, and his mate; Mr.
Monkhouse the midshipman, another midshipman, the old jolly sailmaker
and his assistant, the ship's cook, the corporal of the marines, two
of the carpenter's crew, and nine seamen. In all, the loss amounted to
three and twenty persons, besides the seven who died at Batavia. It is
probable that these calamitous events, which could not fail of making
a powerful impression on the mind of Lieutenant Cook, might give
occasion to his turning his thoughts more zealously to those methods
of preserving the health of seamen, which he afterwards pursued with
such remarkable success.

On Friday the 15th of March, the Endeavour arrived off the Cape of
Good Hope; and as soon as she was brought to an anchor, our commander
waited upon the governor, from whom he received assurances that he
should be furnished with every supply which the country could afford.
His first care was to provide a proper place for the sick, whose
number was not small; and a house was speedily found, where it was
agreed that they should be lodged and boarded at the rate of two
shillings a day for each person.

The run from Java Head to the Cape of Good Hope did not furnish many
subjects of remark, that could be of any great use to future voyagers.
Such observations, however, as occurred to him, the lieutenant has
been careful to record, not being willing to omit the least
circumstance that may contribute to the safety and facility of
navigation.

The lieutenant, having lain at the Cape to recover the sick, to
procure stores, and to refit his vessel, till the 14th of April, then
stood out of the bay, and proceeded on his voyage homeward. In the
morning of the 29th, he crossed his first meridian, having
circumnavigated the globe in the direction from east to west. The
consequence of which was, that he lost a day, an allowance for which
had been made at Batavia. On the 1st of May be arrived at St Helena,
where he staid till the 4th to refresh; during which time Mr. Banks
employed himself in making the complete circuit of the island, and in
visiting the places most worthy of observation.

The manner in which slaves are described as being treated in this
island, must be mentioned with indignation. According to our
commander's representation, while every kind of labour is performed by
them, they are not furnished either with horses or with any of the
various machines which art has invented to facilitate their task.
Carts might conveniently be used in some parts, and where the ground
is too steep for them, wheelbarrows might be employed to great
advantage; and yet there is not a wheelbarrow in the whole island.
Though every thing which is conveyed from place to place is done by
slaves alone, they have not the simple convenience of a porter's knot,
but carry their burden upon their heads. They appeared to be a
miserable race, worn out by the united operation of excessive labour
and ill usage; and Mr. Cook was sorry to observe, and to say, that
instances of wanton cruelty were much more frequent among his
countrymen at St. Helena, than among the Dutch, who are generally
reproached with want of humanity, both at Batavia and the Cape of Good
Hope. It is impossible for a feeling mind to avoid being concerned
that such an account should be given of the conduct of any who are
entitled to the name of Britons. The lieutenant's reproof, if just,
hath, it may be hoped, long before this reached the place, and
produced some good effect.[7] If slavery, that disgrace to religion,
to humanity, and, I will add, to sound policy, must still be
continued, every thing ought to be done which can tend to soften its
horrors.

  [Footnote 7: Near the conclusion of Captain Cook's second voyage,
  there is the following short note. 'In the account given of St.
  Helena, in the narrative of my former voyage, I find some
  mistakes. Its inhabitants are far from exercising a wanton cruelty
  over their slaves; and they have had wheel carriages and porters'
  knots for many years.' This note I insert with pleasure.
  Nevertheless, I cannot think that the lieutenant could have given
  so strong a representation of things, if, at the time in which it
  was written, it had been wholly without foundation.]

When our commander departed from St. Helena, on the 4th, it was in
company with the Portland man-of-war, and twelve Indiamen. With this
fleet he continued to sail till the 10th, when, perceiving that the
Endeavour proceeded much more heavily than any of the other vessels,
and that she was not likely to get home so soon as the rest, he made a
signal to speak with the Portland. Upon this captain Elliot himself
came on board, and Mr. Cook delivered to him the common log-books of
his ship, and the journals of some of the officers. The Endeavour,
however, kept in company with the fleet till the morning of the 23rd,
at which time there was not a single vessel in sight. On that day died
Mr. Hicks, and in the evening his body was committed to the sea, with
the usual ceremonies. Mr. Charles Clerke, a young man extremely well
qualified for the station, and whose name will hereafter frequently
occur, received an order from Mr. Cook to act as lieutenant in Mr.
Hicks's room.

The rigging and sails of the ship were now become so bad, that
something was continually giving way. Nevertheless, our commander
pursued his course in safety; and on the 10th of June, land, which
proved to be the Lizard, was discovered by Nicholas Young, the boy who
had first seen New Zealand. On the 11th, the lieutenant ran up the
channel. At six the next morning he passed Beachy Head; and in the
afternoon of the same day, he came to an anchor in the Downs, and went
on shore at Deal.

Thus ended Mr. Cook's first voyage round the world, in which he had
gone through so many dangers, explored so many countries, and
exhibited the strongest proofs of his possessing an eminently
sagacious and active mind; a mind that was equal to every perilous
enterprise, and to the boldest and most successful efforts of
navigation and discovery.



CHAPTER. III.

Account of Captain Cook during the period between his first and second
Voyage.


The manner in which Lieutenant Cook had performed his circumnavigation
of the globe justly entitled him to the protection of government and
the favour of his sovereign. Accordingly, he was promoted to be a
commander in his majesty's navy, by commission bearing date on the
29th of August, 1771. Mr. Cook, on this occasion, from a certain
consciousness of his own merit, wished to have been appointed a post
captain. But the Earl of Sandwich, who was now at the head of the
Admiralty board, though he had the greatest regard for our navigator,
could not concede to his request, because a compliance with it would
have been inconsistent with the order of the naval service. The
difference was in point of rank only, and not of advantage. A
commander has the same pay as a post captain, and his authority is the
same when he is in actual employment. The distinction is a necessary
step in the progress to the higher honours of the profession.

It cannot be doubted, but that the president and council of the Royal
Society were highly satisfied with the manner in which the transit of
Venus had been observed. The papers of Mr. Cook and Mr. Green relative
to this subject, were put into the hands of the astronomer royal, to
be by him digested, and that he might deduce from them the important
consequences to science which resulted from the observation. This was
done by him with an accuracy and ability becoming his high knowledge
and character. On the 21st of May, 1772, Captain Cook communicated to
the Royal Society, in a letter addressed to Dr. Maskelyne, an 'Account
of the flowing of the tides in the South Sea, as observed on board his
Majesty's Bark, the Endeavour.'

The reputation our navigator had acquired by his late voyage was
deservedly great; and the desire of the public, to be acquainted with
the new scenes and new objects which were now brought to light, was
ardently excited. It is not surprising, therefore, that different
attempts were made to satisfy the general curiosity. There soon
appeared a publication, entitled, 'A Journal of a voyage round the
World.' This was the production of some person who had been upon the
expedition; and though his account was dry and imperfect, it served,
in a certain degree, to relieve the eagerness of inquiry. The journal
of Sidney Parkinson, draftsman to Sir Joseph Banks, to whom it
belonged by ample purchase, was likewise printed, from a copy
surreptitiously obtained; but an injunction from the Court of Chancery
for some time prevented its appearance. This work, though dishonestly
given to the world, was recommended by plates. But it was Dr.
Hawkesworth's account of Lieutenant Cook's voyage which completely
gratified the public curiosity. This account, which was written by
authority, was drawn up from the journal of the lieutenant, and the
papers of Sir Joseph Banks; and, besides the merit of the composition,
derived an extraordinary advantage from the number and excellence of
its charts and engravings, which were furnished at the expense of
government. The large price given by the booksellers for this work,
and the avidity with which it was read, displayed, in the strongest
light, the anxiety of the nation to be fully informed in every thing
that belonged to the late navigation and discoveries.

Captain Cook, during his voyage, had sailed over the Pacific Ocean in
many of those latitudes, in which a southern continent had been
expected to lie. He had ascertained, that neither New Zealand nor New
Holland were parts of such a continent. But the general question
concerning its existence had not been determined by him, nor did he go
out for that purpose, though some of the reasons on which the notion
of it had been adopted were dispelled in the course of his navigation.
It is well known how fondly the idea of a _Terra Australis
incognita_ had for nearly two centuries been entertained. Many
plausible philosophical arguments have been urged in its support, and
many facts alleged in its favour. The writer of this narrative fully
remembers how much his imagination was captivated, in the more early
part of his life, with the hypothesis of a southern continent. He has
often dwelt upon it with rapture, and been highly delighted with the
authors who contended for its existence, and displayed the mighty
consequences which would result from its being discovered. Though his
knowledge was infinitely exceeded by that of some able men who paid a
particular attention to the subject, he did not come behind them in
the sanguineness of his hopes and expectation. Every thing, however,
which relates to science must be separated from fancy, and brought to
the test of experiment: and here was an experiment richly deserving to
be tried. The object, indeed, was of peculiar magnitude, and worthy to
be pursued by a great prince, and a great nation.

Happily, the period was arrived in Britain for the execution of the
most important scientific designs. A regard to matters of this kind,
though so honourable to crowned heads, had heretofore been too much
neglected even by some of the best of our princes. Our present
sovereign had already distinguished his reign by his patronage of
science and literature, but the beginnings which had hitherto been
made were only the pledges of future munificence. With respect to the
object now in view, the gracious dispositions of his majesty were
ardently seconded by the noble lord who had been placed at the head of
the board of admiralty. The Earl of Sandwich was possessed of a mind,
which was capable of comprehending and encouraging the most enlarged
views and schemes with regard to navigation and discovery.
Accordingly, it was by his particular recommendation that a resolution
was formed for the appointment of an expedition, finally to determine
the question concerning the existence of a southern continent. Quiros
seems to have been the first person, who had any idea that such a
continent existed, and he was the first that was sent out for the sole
purpose of ascertaining the fact. He did not succeed in the attempt;
and the attempts of various navigators down to the present century,
were equally unsuccessful.

When the design of accomplishing this great object was resolved upon,
it did not admit of any hesitation by whom it was to be carried into
execution. No person was esteemed equally qualified with Captain Cook,
for conducting an enterprise, the view of which was to give the utmost
possible extent to the geography of the globe, and the knowledge of
navigation. For the greater advantage of the undertaking, it was
determined that two ship should be employed; and much attention was
paid to the choice of them, and to their equipment for the service.
After mature deliberation by the navy board, during which particular
regard was had to the captain's wisdom and experience, it was agreed,
that no vessels were so proper for discoveries in distant unknown
parts, as those which were constructed like the Endeavour. This
opinion concurring with that of the Earl of Sandwich, the admiralty
came to a resolution that two ships should be provided of a similar
construction. Accordingly, two vessels, both of which had been built
at Whitby, by the same person who built the Endeavour, were purchased
of Captain William Hammond, of Hull. They were about fourteen or
sixteen months old at the time when they were bought, and in Captain
Cook's judgment, were as well adapted to the intended service as if
they had been expressly constructed for that purpose. The largest of
the two, which consisted of four hundred and sixty-two tons burden,
was named the Resolution. To the other, which was three hundred and
thirty-six tons burden, was given the name of the Adventure. On the
28th of November, 1771, Captain Cook was appointed to the command of
the former; and, about the same time, Mr. Tobias Furneaux was promoted
to the command of the latter. The complement of the Resolution,
including officers and men, was fixed at a hundred and twelve persons;
and that of the Adventure, at eighty one. In the equipment of these
ships, every circumstance was attended to that could contribute to the
comfort and success of the voyage. They were fitted in the most
complete manner, and supplied with every extraordinary article which
was suggested to be necessary or useful. Lord Sandwich, whose zeal was
indefatigable upon this occasion, visited the vessels from time to
time, to be assured that the whole equipment was agreeable to his
wishes, and to the satisfaction of those who were to engage in the
expedition. Nor were the navy and victualling boards wanting in
procuring for the ships the very best of stores and provisions, with
some alterations in the species of them, that were adapted to the
nature of the enterprise; besides which, there was an ample supply of
antiscorbutic articles, such as malt, sour krout, salted cabbage,
portable broth saloup, mustard, marmalade of carrots, and inspissated
juice of wort and beer.

No less attention was paid to the cause of science in general, the
admiralty engaged Mr. William Hodges, an excellent landscape painter,
to embark in the voyage, in order to make drawings and paintings of
such objects, as could not so well be comprehended from written
description. Mr. John Reinhold Forster and his son were fixed upon to
explore and collect the natural history of the countries which might
be visited, and an ample sum was granted by parliament for the
purpose. That nothing might be wanting to accomplish the scientific
views of the expedition, the board of longitude agreed with Mr.
William Wales and Mr. William Bayley, to make astronomical
observations. Mr. Wales was stationed in the Resolution, and Mr.
Bayley in the Adventure. By the same board they were furnished with
the best of instruments, and particularly with four time-pieces, three
constructed by Arnold, and one by Mr. Kendal, on Mr. Harrison's
principles.

Though Captain Cook had been appointed to the command of the
Resolution on the 28th of November 1771, such were the preparations
necessary for so long and important a voyage, and the impediments
which occasionally and unavoidably occurred, that the ship did not
sail from Deptford till the 9th of April following, nor did she leave
Long Reach till the 10th of May. In plying down the river, it was
found necessary to put into Sheerness, in order to make some
alterations in her upper works. These the officers of the yard were
directed immediately to take in hand; and Lord Sandwich and Sir Hugh
Palliser came down to see them executed in the most effectual manner.
The ship being again completed for sea by the 22d of June, Captain
Cook on that day sailed from Sheerness, and, on the 3d of July, joined
the Adventures in Plymouth Sound. Lord Sandwich, in his return from a
visit to the dock-yards, having met the Resolution on the preceding
evening, his lordship and Sir Hugh Palliser gave the last mark of
their great attention to the object of the voyage, by coming on board,
to assure themselves, that every thing was done which was agreeable to
our commander's wishes, and that his vessel was equipped entirely to
his satisfaction.

At Plymouth, Captain Cook received his instructions; with regard to
which, without entering into a minute detail of them, it is sufficient
to say, that he was sent out upon the most enlarged plan of discovery,
that is known in the history of navigation. He was instructed not only
to circumnavigate the whole globe, but to circumnavigate it in high
southern latitudes, making such traverses, from time to time, into
every corner of the Pacific Ocean not before examined, as might
finally and effectually resolve the much agitated question about the
existence of a southern continent, in any part of the southern
hemisphere, to which access could be had by the efforts of the boldest
and most skilful navigators.



CHAPTER IV.

Narrative of Captain Cook's second Voyage round the World.


On the 13th of July, Captain Cook sailed from Plymouth, and on the
29th of the same month anchored in Funchiale Road, in the island of
Madeira. Having obtained a supply of water, wine, and other
necessaries at that island, he left it on the 1st of August, and
sailed to the southward. As he proceeded in his voyage, he made three
puncheons of beer of the inspissated juice of malt; and the liquor
produced was very brisk and drinkable. The heat of the weather, and
the agitation of the ship, had hitherto withstood all the endeavours
of our people to prevent this juice from being in a high state of
fermentation. If it could be kept from fermenting, it would be a most
valuable article at sea.

The captain, having found that his stock of water would not last to
the Cape of Good Hope, without putting his men to a scanty allowance,
resolved to stop at St. Jago, one of the Cape de Verd islands, for a
supply. At Port Praya, in this island, he anchored on the 10th of
August, and by the 14th had completed his water, and procured some
other refreshments; upon which he set sail and prosecuted his course.
He embraced the occasion, which his touching at St. Jago afforded him,
of giving such a delineation and description of Port Praya, and of the
supplies there to be obtained, as might be of service to future
navigators.

On the 20th of the month, the rain poured down upon our voyagers, not
in drops but in streams; and the wind at the same time being variable
and rough, the people were obliged to attend so constantly upon the
decks, that few of them escaped being completely soaked. This
circumstance is mentioned, to show the method that was taken by
Captain Cook to preserve his men from the evil consequences of the wet
to which they had been exposed. He had every thing to fear from the
rain, which is a great promoter of sickness in hot climates. But to
guard against this effect, he pursued some hints that had been
suggested to him by Sir Hugh Palliser and Captain Campbell, and took
care that the ship should be aired and dried with fires made between
the decks, and that the damp places of the vessel should be smoked;
beside which the people were ordered to air their bedding and to wash
and dry their clothes, whenever there was an opportunity. The result
of these precautions was, that there was not one sick person on board
the Resolution.

Captain Cook, on the 8th of September, crossed the line in the
longitude of 8° west, and proceeded, without meeting anything
remarkable, till the 11th of October. When at 6h. 24m. 12s. by Mr.
Kendal's watch, the moon rose about four digits eclipsed; soon after
which the gentlemen prepared to observe the end of the eclipse. The
observers were, the captain himself, and Mr. Forster, Mr. Wales, Mr.
Pickersgill, Mr. Gilbert, and Mr. Harvey.

Our commander had been informed, before he left England, that he
sailed at an improper season of the year, and that he should meet with
much calm weather, near and under the line. But though such weather
may happen in some years, it is not always, or even generally to be
expected. So far was it from being the case with Captain Cook, that he
had a brisk south-west wind in those very latitudes where the calms
had been predicted: nor was he exposed to any of the tornadoes, which
are so much spoken of by other navigators. On the 29th of the month,
between eight and nine o'clock at night, when our voyagers were near
the Cape of Good Hope, the whole sea, within the compass of their
sight, became at once, as it were, illuminated. The captain had been
formerly convinced, by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, that such
appearances in the ocean were occasioned by insects. Mr. Forster,
however, seemed disposed to adopt a different opinion. To determine
the question, our commander ordered some buckets of water to be drawn
up from alongside the ship, which were found full of an innumerable
quantity of small globular insects, about the size of a common pin's
head, and quite transparent. Though no life was perceived in them,
there could be no doubt of their being living animals, when in their
own proper element: and Mr. Forster became now well satisfied that
they were the cause of the sea's illumination.

On the 30th, the Resolution and Adventure anchored in Table Bay; soon
after which Captain Cook went on shore, and, accompanied by Captain
Furneaux, and the two Mr. Forsters, waited on Baron Plettenberg, the
governor of the Cape of Good Hope, who received the gentlemen with
great politeness, and promised them every assistance the place could
afford. From him our commander learned, that two French ships from the
Mauritius, about eight months before, had discovered land in the
latitude of 48° south, along which they sailed forty miles, till they
came to a bay, into which they were upon the point of entering, when
they were driven off, and separated in a hard gale of wind. Previously
to this misfortune, they had lost some of their boats and people, that
had been sent to sound the bay. Captain Cook was also informed by
Baron Plettenberg, that in the month of March, two other ships from
the island of Mauritius, had touched at the Cape in their way to the
South Pacific Ocean; where they were going to make discoveries, under
the command of M. Marion.

From the healthy condition of the crews, both of the Resolution and
Adventure, it was imagined by the captain that his stay at the Cape
would be very short. But the necessity of waiting till the requisite
provisions could be prepared and collected, kept him more than three
weeks at this place; which time was improved by him in ordering both
the ships to be caulked and painted, and in taking care that, in every
respect, their condition should be as good as when they left England.

On the 22d of November, our commander sailed from the Cape of Good
Hope, and proceeded on his voyage, in search of a southern continent.
Having gotten clear of the land, he directed his course for Cape
Circumcision; and, judging that cold weather would soon approach, he
ordered slops to be served to such of the people as were in want of
them, and gave to each man the fear-nought jacket and trowsers allowed
by the admiralty. On the 29th, the wind, which was west-north-west,
increased to a storm, that continued, with some few intervals of
moderate weather, till the 6th of December. By this gale, which was
attended with hail and rain, and which blew at times with such
violence that the ships could carry no sails, our voyagers were driven
far to the eastward of their intended course, and no hopes were left
to the captain of reaching Cape Circumcision. A still greater
misfortune was the loss of the principal part of the live stock on
board, consisting of sheep, hogs, and geese. At the same time, the
sudden transition from warm mild weather, to weather which was
extremely cold and wet, was so severely felt by our people, that it
was necessary to make some addition to their allowance of spirits, by
giving each of them a dram on particular occasions.

Our navigators, on the 10th of December, began to meet with islands of
ice. One of these islands was so much concealed from them by the
haziness of the weather, accompanied with snow and sleet, that they
were steering directly towards it, and did not see it till it was at a
less distance than that of a mile. Captain Cook judged it to be about
fifty feet high, and half a mile in circuit. It was flat at the top,
and its sides rose in a perpendicular direction, against which the sea
broke to a great height. The weather continuing to be hazy, the
captain, on account of the ice islands, was obliged to proceed with
the utmost caution. Six of them were passed on the 12th, some of which
were nearly two miles in circuit, and sixty feet high; nevertheless,
such were the force and height of the waves, that the sea broke quite
over them. Hence was exhibited a view, that for a few moments was
pleasing to the eye; but the pleasure was soon swallowed up in the
horror which seized upon the mind, from the prospect of danger. For if
a ship should be so unfortunate as to get on the weather side of one
of these islands, she would be dashed to pieces in a moment.

The vessels, on the 14th, were stopped by an immense field of low ice,
to which no end could be seen, either to the east, west, or south. In
different parts of this field were islands or hills of ice, like those
which our voyagers had found floating in the sea, and twenty of which
had presented themselves to view the day before. Some of the people on
board imagined that they saw land over the ice, and Captain Cook
himself at first entertained the same sentiment. But upon more
narrowly examining these ice hills, and the various appearances they
made when seen through the haze, he was induced to change his opinion.
On the 18th, though in the morning our navigators had been quite
imbayed, they were, notwithstanding, at length enabled to get clear of
the field of ice. They were, however, at the same time, carried in
among the ice islands, which perpetually succeeded one another; which
were almost equally dangerous; and the avoiding of which was a matter
of the greatest difficulty. But perilous as it is to sail in a thick
fog, among these floating rocks, as our commander properly called
them; this is preferable to the being entangled with immense fields of
ice under the same circumstances. In this latter case the great danger
to be apprehended, is the getting fast in the ice; a situation which
would be alarming in the highest degree.

It had been a generally received opinion, that such ice as hath now
been described, is formed in bays and rivers. Agreeably to this
supposition, our voyagers were led to believe that land was not far
distant, and that it lay to the southward behind the ice. As,
therefore, they had sailed above thirty leagues along the edge of the
ice, without finding a passage to the south, Captain Cook determined
to run thirty or forty leagues to the east, and afterward to endeavour
to get to the southward. If, in this attempt, he met with no land or
other impediment, his design was to stretch behind the ice, and thus
to bring the matter to a decision. The weather, at this time, affected
the senses with a feeling of cold much greater than that which was
pointed out by the thermometer, so that the whole crew complained. In
order the better to enable them to sustain the severity of the cold,
the Captain directed the sleeves of their jackets to be lengthened
with baize; and had a cap made for each man of the same stuff,
strengthened with canvass. These precautions greatly contributed to
their comfort and advantage. It is worthy of observation, that
although the weather was as sharp, on the 25th of December, as might
have been expected, in the same month of the year, in any part of
England, this was the middle of summer with our navigators. Some of
the people now appearing to have symptoms of the scurvy, fresh wort
was given them every day, prepared under the direction of the
surgeons, from the malt which had been provided for the purpose.

By the 29th, it became sufficiently ascertained, from the course our
commander had pursued, that the field of ice, along which the ships
had sailed, did not join to any land as had been conjectured. At this
time, Captain Cook came to a resolution, provided he met with no
impediment, to run as far west as the meridian of Cape Circumcision.
While he was prosecuting this design, a gale arose, on the 31st, which
brought with it such a sea, as rendered it very dangerous for the
vessels to remain among the ice; and the danger was increased by
discovering an immense field to the north, which extended farther than
the eye could reach. As our voyagers were not above two or three miles
from this field, and were surrounded by loose ice, there was no time
to deliberate. They hauled to the South; and though they happily got
clear, it was not till the ships had received several hard knocks from
the loose pieces, which were of the largest kind. On Friday, the 1st
of January, 1773, the gale abated; and on the next day, in the
afternoon, our people had the felicity of enjoying the sight of the
moon, the face of which had not been seen by them but once since they
had departed from the Cape of Good Hope. Hence a judgment may be
formed of the sort of weather they had been exposed to, from the time
of their leaving that place. The present opportunity was eagerly
seized, for making several observations of the sun and moon.

Captain Cook was now nearly in the same longitude which is assigned to
Cape Circumcision, and about ninety-five leagues to the south of the
latitude in which it is said to lie. At the same time the weather was
so clear, that land might have been seen at the distance of fourteen
or fifteen leagues. He concluded it, therefore, to be very probable,
that what Bouvet took for land was nothing but mountains of ice,
surrounded by loose or field ice. Our present navigators had naturally
been led into a similar mistake. The conjecture, that such ice as had
lately been seen was joined to land, was a very plausible one, though
not founded on fact. Upon the whole, there was good reason to believe,
that no land was to be met with, under this meridian, between the
latitude of fifty-five and fifty-nine, where some had been supposed to
exist.

Amidst the obstructions Captain Cook was exposed to, from the ice
islands which perpetually succeeded each other, he derived one
advantage from them, and that was, a supply of fresh water. Though the
melting and stowing away of the ice takes up some time, and is,
indeed, rather tedious, this method of watering is otherwise the most
expeditious our commander had ever known. The water produced was
perfectly sweet and well tasted. Upon the ice islands, penguins,
albatrosses, and other birds were frequently seen. It had hitherto
been the received opinion, that such birds never go far from land, and
that the sight of them is a sure indication of its vicinity. That this
opinion is not well founded, at least where ice islands exist, was now
evinced by multiplied experience.

By Sunday the 17th of January, Captain Cook reached the latitude of
67° 15' south, when he could advance no farther. At this time the ice
was entirely closed to the south, in the whole extent from east to
west-south-west, without the least appearance of any opening. The
captain, therefore, thought it no longer prudent to persevere in
sailing southward; especially as the summer was already half spent,
and there was little reason to hope that it would be found practicable
get round the ice. Having taken this resolution, he determined to
proceed directly in search of the land which had lately been
discovered by the French; and as, in pursuing his purpose, the weather
was clear at intervals, he spread the ships abreast four miles from
each other, in order the better to investigate any thing that might
lie in their way. On the 1st of February our voyagers were in the
latitude of 48° 30' south, and in longitude 58° 7' east, nearly in the
meridian of the island of St. Mauritius. This was the situation in
which the land said to have been discovered by the French was to be
expected; but as no signs of it had appeared, our commander bore away
to the east. Captain Furneaux, on the same day, informed Captain Cook,
that he had just seen a large float of sea, or rock weed, and about it
several of the birds called divers. These were certain signs of the
vicinity of land, though whether it lay to the east or west could not
possibly be known. Our commander, therefore, formed the design of
proceeding in his present latitude four or five degrees of longitude
to the west of the meridian he was now in, and then to pursue his
researches eastward. The west and north-west winds, which had
continued for some days, prevented him from carrying this purpose into
execution. However, he was convinced from the perpetual high sea he
had lately met with, that there could be no great extent of land to
the west.

While Captain Cook, on the next day, was steering eastward, Captain
Furneaux told him that he thought the land was to the north-west of
them; as he had, at one time, observed the sea to be smooth, when the
wind blew in that direction. This observation was by no means
conformable to the remarks which had been made by our commander
himself. Nevertheless, such was his readiness to attend to every
suggestion, that he resolved to clear up the point, if the wind would
admit of his getting to the west in any reasonable time. The wind, by
veering to the north, did admit of his pursuing the search; and the
result of it was, his conviction that if any land was near, it could
only be an island of no considerable extent.

Captain Cook and his philosophical friends, while they were traversing
this part, of the southern ocean, paid particular attention to the
variation of the compass, which they found to be from 27° 50' to 30°
26' west. Probably the mean of the two extremes, viz. 29° 4', was the
nearest the truth, as it coincided with the variation observed on
board the Adventure. One unaccountable circumstance is worthy of
notice, though it did not now occur for the first time. It is, that
when the sun was on the starboard of the ship, the variation was the
least; and when on the larboard side, the greatest.

On the 8th, our commander, in consequence of no signals having been
answered by the Adventure, had reason to apprehend that a separation
had taken place. After waiting two days, during which guns were kept
discharging, and false fires were burned in the night, the fact was
confirmed; so that the Resolution was obliged to proceed alone in her
voyage. As she pursued her course, penguins and other birds, from time
to time, appeared in great numbers; the meeting with which gave our
navigators some hopes of finding land, and occasioned various
speculations with regard to its situation. Experience, however,
convinced them, that no stress was to be laid on such hopes. They were
so often deceived, that they could no longer look upon any of the
oceanic birds, which frequent high latitudes, as sure signs of the
vicinity of land.

In the morning of the 17th, between midnight and three o'clock, lights
were seen in the heavens, similar to those which are known in the
northern hemisphere, by the name of the Aurora Borealis. Captain Cook
had never heard that an Aurora Australis had been seen before. The
officer of the watch observed, that it sometimes broke out in spiral
rays, and in a circular form; at which time, its light was very
strong, and its appearance beautiful. It was not perceived to have any
particular direction. On the contrary, at various times, it was
conspicuous in different parts of the heavens, and diffused its light
throughout the whole atmosphere.

On the 20th, our navigators imagined that they saw land to the
south-west. Their conviction of its real existence was so strong, that
they had no doubt of the matter; and accordingly they endeavoured to
work up to it, in doing which the weather was favourable to their
purpose. However what had been taken for land proved only to be
clouds, that in the evening entirely disappeared, and left a clear
horizon, in which nothing could be discerned but ice islands. At night
the Aurora Australis was again seen, and the appearance it assumed was
very brilliant and luminous. It first discovered itself in the east,
and in a short time spread over the whole heavens.

In the night of the 23rd, when the ship was in latitude 61° 52' south,
and longitude 95° 2' east, the weather being exceedingly stormy,
thick, and hazy, with sleet and snow, our voyagers were on every side
surrounded with danger. In such a situation it was natural for them to
wish for daylight: but daylight, when it came, served only to increase
their apprehensions, by exhibiting those huge mountains of ice to
their view, which the darkness had prevented them from seeing. These
unfavourable circumstances, at so advanced a season of the year,
discouraged Captain Cook from putting into execution a resolution he
had formed, of once more crossing the antarctic circle. Accordingly,
early in the morning of the 24th, he stood to the north, with a very
hard gale, and a very high sea, which made great destruction among the
ice islands. But so far was this incident from being of any advantage
to our navigators, that it greatly increased the number of pieces they
had to avoid. The large pieces, which broke from the ice islands, were
found to be much more dangerous than the islands themselves. While the
latter rose so high out of the water, that they could generally be
seen, unless the weather was very thick and hazy, before our people
nearly approached them, the others could not be discerned, in the
night, till they were under the ship's bows. These dangers, however,
were now become so familiar to the captain and his company, that the
apprehensions they caused were never of long duration; and a
compensation was, in some degree, made for them, by the seasonable
supplies of fresh water, which the ice islands afforded, and by their
very romantic appearance. The foaming and dashing of the waves into
the curious holes and caverns which were formed in many of them
greatly heightened the scene; and the whole exhibited a view, that at
once filled the mind with admiration and horror, and could only be
described by the hand of an able painter.

In sailing from the 25th to the 28th, the wind was accompanied with a
large hollow sea, which rendered Captain Cook certain, that no land,
of any considerable extent, could lie within a hundred or a hundred
and fifty leagues from east to south-west. Though this was still the
summer season in that part of the world, and the weather was become
somewhat warmer than it had been before, yet such were the effects of
the cold, that a sow having farrowed nine pigs in the morning, all of
them, notwithstanding the utmost care to prevent it, were killed
before four o'clock in the afternoon. From the same cause, the captain
himself and several of his people had their fingers and toes
chilblained. For some days afterward, the cold considerably abated;
but still it could not be said that there was summer weather,
according to our commander's ideas of summer in the northern
hemisphere, as far as sixty degrees of latitude, which was nearly as
far as he had then been.

As he proceeded on his voyage, from the 28th of February to the 11th
of March, he had ample reason to conclude, from the swell of the sea
and other circumstances, that there could be no land to the south, but
what must lie at a great distance.

The weather having been clear on the 13th and 14th, Mr. Wales had an
opportunity of getting some observations of the sun and moon; the
results of which, reduced to noon, when the latitude was 58° 22'
south, gave 136° 22' east longitude. Mr. Kendal's and Mr. Arnold's
watches gave each of them 134° 42'; and this was the first and only
time in which they had pointed out the same longitude, since the ships
had departed from England. The greatest difference, however, between
them, since our voyagers had left the Cape, had not much exceeded two
degrees.

From the moderate, and what might almost be called pleasant weather,
which had occurred for two or three days, Captain Cook began to wish
that he had been a few degrees of latitude farther south; and he was
even tempted to incline his course that way. But he soon met with
weather which convinced him that he had proceeded full far enough; and
that the time was approaching when these seas could not be navigated
without enduring intense cold. As he advanced in his course, he became
perfectly assured, from repeated proofs, that he had left no land
behind him in the direction of west-south-west; and that no land lay
to the south on this side sixty degrees of latitude. He came,
therefore, to a resolution, on the 17th, to quit the high southern
latitudes, and to proceed to New Zealand, with a view of looking for
the Adventure, and of refreshing his people. He had, also, some
thoughts, and even a desire, of visiting the east coast of Van
Dieman's Land, in order to satisfy himself whether it joined the coast
of New South Wales. The wind however, not permitting him to execute
this part of his design, he shaped his course for New Zealand, in
sight of which he arrived on the 25th, and where he came to anchor on
the day following, in Dusky Bay. He had now been a hundred and
seventeen days at sea, during which time he had sailed three thousand
six hundred and sixty-leagues without having once come within sight of
land.

After so long a voyage, in a high southern latitude, it might
reasonably have been expected, that many of Captain Cook's people
would be ill of the scurvy. This, however, was not the case. So
salutary were the effects of the sweet wort, and several articles of
provision, and especially of the frequent airing and sweetening of the
ship, that there was only one man on board who could be said to be
much afflicted with the disease; and even in that man, it was chiefly
occasioned by a bad habit of body, and a complication of other
disorders.

As our commander did not like the place in which he had anchored, he
sent Lieutenant Pickersgill over to the south-east side of the bay, in
search of a better; and the lieutenant succeeded in finding a harbour
that was in every respect desirable. In the meanwhile, the
fishing-boat was very successful; returning with fish sufficient for
the whole crew's supper and in the morning of the next day, as many
were caught as served for dinner. Hence were derived certain hopes of
being plentifully supplied with this article. Nor did the shores and
woods appear more destitute of wild fowl; so that our people had the
prospect of enjoying, with ease, what, in their situation, might be
called the luxuries of life. These agreeable circumstances determined
Captain Cook to stay some time in the bay, in order to examine it
thoroughly; as no one had ever landed before on any of the southern
parts of New Zealand.

On the 27th, the ship entered Pickersgill Harbour; for so it was
called, from the name of the gentleman by whom it had first been
discovered. Here wood, for fuel and other purposes, was immediately at
hand; and a fine stream of fresh water was not above a hundred yards
from the stern of the vessel. Our voyagers, being thus advantageously
situated, began vigorously to prepare for their necessary occupations
by clearing places in the woods, in order to set up the astronomer's
observatory, and the forge for the iron work, and to erect tents for
the sailmakers and coopers. They applied themselves, also, to the
brewing of beer from the branches or leaves of a tree, which greatly
resembled the American black spruce. Captain Cook was persuaded, from
the knowledge which he had of this tree, and from the similarity it
bore to the spruce, that, with the addition of inspissated juice of
wort and molasses, it would make a very wholesome liquor, and supply
the want of vegetables, of which the country was destitute. It
appeared, by the event, that he was not mistaken in his judgment.

Several of the natives were seen on the 28th, who took little notice
of the English, and were very shy of access; and the captain did not
choose to force an intercourse with them, as he had been instructed,
by former experience, that the best method of obtaining was to leave
time and place to themselves. While our commander continued in his
present situation, he took every opportunity of examining the bay. As
he was prosecuting his survey of it, on the 6th of April, his
attention was directed to the north side, where he discovered a fine
capacious cove, in the bottom of which is a fresh-water river. On the
west side are several beautiful cascades; and the shores are so steep
that water might directly be conveyed from them into the ship.
Fourteen ducks, besides, other birds, having been shot in this place,
he gave it the name of Duck Cove. When he was returning in the
evening, he met with three of the natives, one man and two women,
whose fears he soon dissipated, and whom he engaged in a conversation,
that was little understood on either side. The youngest of the women
had a volubility of tongue that could not be exceeded; and she
entertained Captain Cook, and the gentlemen who accompanied him with a
dance.

By degrees, our commander obtained the good will and confidence of the
Indians. His presents, however, were at first received with much
indifference, hatchets and spike-nails excepted. At a visit, on the
12th, from a family of the natives, the captain, perceiving they
approached the ship with great caution, met them in a boat, which he
quitted when he came near them, and went into their canoe. After all,
he could not prevail upon them to go on board the Resolution; but at
length they put on shore in a little creek, and seating themselves
abreast the English vessel, entered into familiar conversation with
several of the officers and seamen; in which they paid a much greater
regard to some, whom they probably mistook for females, than to
others. So well indeed, were they now reconciled to our voyagers, that
they took up their quarters nearly within the distance of a hundred
yards from the ship's watering place. Captain Cook, in his interview
with them, had caused the bagpipes and fife to play, and the drum to
beat. The two former they heard with apparent insensibility; but the
latter excited in them a certain degree of attention.

On the 18th, a chief, with whom some connexions had already been
formed, was induced, together with his daughter, to come on board the
Resolution. Previously to his doing it, he presented the captain with
a piece of cloth and a green talk hatchet. He gave also a piece of
cloth to Mr. Forster; and the girl gave another to Mr. Hodges. Though
this custom of making presents, before any are received, is common
with the natives of the South Sea isles, our commander had never till
now seen it practised in New Zealand. Another thing performed by the
chief before he went on board was the taking of a small green branch
in his hand, with which he struck the ship's side several times,
repeating a speech or prayer. This manner, as it were, of making peace
is likewise prevalent among all the nations of the South Seas. When
the chief was carried into the cabin, he viewed every part of it with
some degree of surprise; but it was not possible to fix his attention
to any one object for a single moment. The works of art appeared to
him in the same light as those of nature, and were equally distant
from his powers of comprehension. He and his daughter seemed to be the
most struck with the number of the decks, and other parts of the ship.

As Captain Cook proceeded in examining Dusky Bay, he occasionally met
with some few more of the natives, with regard to whom he used every
mode of conciliation. On the 20th the chief and his family, who had
been more intimate with our navigators than any of the rest of the
Indians, went away, and never returned again. This was the more
extraordinary, as in all his visits he had been gratified with
presents. From different persons, he had gotten nine or ten hatchets,
and three or four times that number of large spike nails, besides a
variety of other articles. So far as these things might be deemed
riches in New Zealand, he was undoubtedly become by far the most
wealthy man in the whole country.

One employment of our voyagers, while in Dusky Bay, consisted in seal
hunting, an animal which was found serviceable for three purposes. The
skins were made use of for rigging, the fat afforded oil for the
lamps, and the flesh was eaten. On the 24th, the captain, having five
geese remaining of those he had brought with him from the Cape of Good
Hope, went and left them at a place to which he gave the name of Goose
Cove. This place he fixed upon for two reasons; first, because there
were no inhabitants to disturb them; and, secondly, because here was
the greatest supply of proper food; so that he had no doubt of their
breeding, hoped that in time they might spread over the whole country,
to its eminent advantage. Some days afterward, when everything
belonging to the ship had been removed from the shore, he set fire to
the top-wood in order to dry a piece of ground, which he dug up, and
sowed with several sorts of garden seeds. The soil, indeed, was not
such as to promise much success to the planter; but it was the best
that could be discovered.

The 25th of April was the eighth fair day our people had successively
enjoyed; and there was reason to believe that such a circumstance was
very uncommon in the place where they now lay, and at that season of
the year. This favourable weather afforded them the opportunity of
more speedily completing their wood and water, and of putting the ship
into a condition for sea. On the evening of the 25th, it began to
rain; and the weather was afterwards extremely variable, being, at
times, in a high degree wet, cold, and stormy. Nothing, however,
prevented Captain Cook from prosecuting, with his usual sagacity and
diligence, his search into every part of Dusky Bay; and, as there are
few places in New Zealand where necessary refreshments may be so
plentifully obtained, as in this bay, he hath taken care to give such
a description of it, and of the adjacent country, as may be of service
to succeeding navigators. Although this country lies far remote from
what is now the trading part of the world, yet, as he justly observes,
we can by no means tell what use future ages may derive from the
discoveries made in the present.

The various anchoring places are delineated on our commander's chart,
and the most convenient of them he has particularly described. Not
only about Dusky Bay, but through all the southern part of the western
coast of Tavai-poenammo, the country is exceedingly mountainous. A
prospect more rude and craggy is rarely to be met with; for, inland,
there are only to be seen the summits of mountains of a tremendous
height, and consisting of rocks that are totally barren and naked,
excepting where they are covered with snow. But the land which borders
on the sea-coast is thickly clothed with wood almost down to the
water's edge; and this is the case with regard to all the adjoining
islands. The trees are of various kinds, and are fit for almost every
possible use. Excepting in the river Thames, Captain Cook had not
found finer timber in all New Zealand; the most considerable species
of which is the spruce tree; for that name he had given it, from the
similarity of its foliage to the American spruce, though the wood is
more ponderous, and bears a greater resemblance to the pitch pine.
Many of these trees are so large, that they would be able to furnish
mainmasts for fifty-gun ships. Amidst the variety of aromatic trees
and shrubs which this part of New Zealand produced, there was none
which bore fruit fit to be eaten. The country was not found so
destitute of quadrupeds as was formerly imagined.

As Dusky Bay presented many advantages to our navigators, so it was
attended with some disagreeable circumstances. There were great
numbers of small black sandflies, which were troublesome to a degree
that our commander had never experienced before. Another evil arose
from the continual quantity of rain that occurred in the bay. This
might, indeed, in part proceed from the season of the year: but it is
probable that the country must at all times be subject to much wet
weather, in consequence of the vast height and vicinity of the
mountains. It was remarkable that the rain, though our people were
perpetually exposed to it, was not productive of any evil
consequences. On the contrary, such of the men as were sick and
complaining when they entered the bay, recovered daily, and the whole
crew soon became strong and vigorous. So happy a circumstance could
only be attributed to the healthiness of the place, and the fresh
provisions it afforded; among which the beer was a very material
article.

The inhabitants of Dusky Bay are of the same race with the other
natives of New Zealand, speak the same language, and adhere nearly to
the same customs. Their mode of life appears to be a wandering one;
and though they are few in number, no traces were remarked of their
families being connected together In any close bonds of union or
friendship.

While the Resolution lay in the bay, Mr. Wales made a variety of
scientific observations relative to latitude and longitude, the
variation of the compass, and the diversity of the tides.

When Captain Cook left Dusky Bay, he directed his course for Queen
Charlotte's Sound, where he expected to find the Adventure. This was
on the 11th of May, and nothing remarkable occurred till the 17th,
when the wind at once flattened to a calm, the sky became suddenly
obscured by dark dense clouds, and there was every prognostication of
a tempest. Soon after, six waterspouts were seen, four of which rose
and spent themselves between the ship and the land; the fifth was at a
considerable distance, on the other side of the vessel; and the sixth,
the progressive motion of which was not in a straight, but in a
crooked line, passed within fifty yards of the stern of the
Resolution, without producing any evil effect. As the captain had been
informed that the firing of a gun would dissipate waterspouts, he was
sorry that he had not tried the experiment. But, though he was near
enough, and had a gun ready for the purpose, his mind was so deeply
engaged in viewing these extraordinary meteors, that he forgot to give
the necessary directions.

On the next day, the Resolution came within sight of Queen Charlotte's
Sound, where Captain Cook had the satisfaction of discovering the
Adventure; and both ships felt uncommon joy at thus meeting again
after an absence of fourteen weeks. As the events which happened to
Captain Furneaux, during the separation of the two vessels, do not
fall within the immediate design of the present narrative, it may be
sufficient to observe, that he had an opportunity of examining, with
somewhat more accuracy than had hitherto been done, Van Dieman's Land,
and his opinion was, that there are no straits between this land and
New Holland, but a very deep bay. He met, likewise, with farther
proofs, that the natives of New Zealand are eaters of human flesh.

The morning after Captain Cook's arrival in Queen Charlotte's Sound,
he went himself, at daybreak, to look for scurvy-grass, celery, and
other vegetables; and he had the good fortune to return with a
boatload, in a very short space of time. Having found, that a
sufficient quantity of these articles might be obtained for the crews
of both the ships, he gave orders that they should be boiled with
wheat and portable broth, every day for breakfast; and with pease and
broth for dinner. Experience had taught him, that the vegetables now
mentioned, when thus dressed, are extremely beneficial to seamen, in
removing the various scorbutic complaints to which they are subject.

Our commander had entertained a desire of visiting Van Dieman's Land,
in order to inform himself whether it made a part of New Holland. But
as this point had been, in a great measure, cleared up by Captain
Furneaux, he came to a resolution to continue his researches to the
east, between the latitudes of 41° and 46°; and he directed
accordingly, that the ships should be gotten ready for putting to sea
as soon as possible. On the 20th, he sent on shore the only ewe and
ram that remained of those which, with the intention of leaving them
in this country, he had brought from the Cape of Good Hope. Soon after
he visited several gardens, that by order of captain Furneaux had been
made and planted with various articles; all of which were in such a
flourishing state, that, if duly attended to, they promised to be of
great utility to the natives. The next day, Captain Cook himself set
some men to work to form a garden on Long Island, which he stocked
with different seeds, and particularly with the roots of turnips,
carrots, parsnips, and potatoes. These were the vegetables that would
be of the most real use to the Indians, and of these it was easy to
give them an idea, by comparing them with such roots as they
themselves knew. On the 22nd, Captain Cook received the unpleasant
intelligence, that the ewe and ram, which with so much care and
trouble he had brought to this place, were both of them found dead. It
was supposed that they had eaten some poisonous plant; and by this
accident all the captain's hopes of stocking New Zealand with a breed
of sheep were instantly blasted.

The intercourse which our great navigator had with the inhabitants of
the country, during this his second visit to Queen Charlotte's Sound,
was of a friendly nature. Two or three families took up their abode
near the ships, and employed themselves daily in fishing, and in
supplying the English with the fruits of their labour. No small
advantage hence accrued to our people, who were by no means such
expert fishers as the natives, nor were any of our methods of fishing
equal to theirs. Thus, in almost every state of society, particular
arts of life are carried to perfection; and there is something which
the most polished nations may learn from the most barbarous.

On the 2nd of June, when the Resolution and Adventure were almost
ready to put to sea, Captain Cook sent on shore, on the east side of
the sound, two goats, a male and female; and Captain Furneaux left,
near Cannibal Cove, a boar and two breeding sows. The gentlemen had
little doubt but that the country would, in time, be stocked with
these animals, provided they were not destroyed by the Indians before
they became wild. Afterwards there would be no danger; and as the
natives knew nothing of their being left behind, it was hoped that it
might be some time before they would be discovered.

It is remarkable that, during Captain Cook's second visit to Charlotte
Sound, he was not able to recollect the face of any one person whom he
had seen there three years before. Nor did it once appear, that even a
single Indian had the least knowledge of our commander, or of any of
our people who had been with him in his last voyage. Hence he thought
it highly probable, that the greatest part of the natives who
inhabited this sound to the beginning of the year 1770, had either
since been driven out of it, or had removed, of their own accord, to
some other situation. Not one-third of the inhabitants were there now,
that had been seen at that time. Their strong hold on the point of
Motuara was deserted, and in every part of the sound many forsaken
habitations were discovered. In the captain's opinion, there was not
any reason to believe, that the place had ever been very populous.
From comparing the two voyages together, it may be collected that the
Indians of Eahei-nomauwe are in somewhat of a more improved state of
society than those of Tavai-poenammo.

Part of the 4th of June was employed by Captain Cook in visiting a
chief and a whole tribe of the natives, consisting of between ninety
and a hundred persons, including men, women and children. After the
captain had distributed some presents among these people, and shewn to
the chief the gardens which had been made, he returned on board, and
spent the remainder of the day in the celebration of his royal
master's nativity. Captain Furneaux and all his officers were invited
upon the occasion; and the seamen were enabled, by a double allowance,
to partake of the general joy.

As some might think it an extraordinary step in our commander, to
proceed in discoveries so far south as forty-six degrees of latitude
in the very depth of winter, he has recorded his motives for this part
of his conduct. Winter, he acknowledges, is by no means favourable for
discoveries. Nevertheless, it appeared to him to be necessary that
something should be done in that season, in order to lessen the work
in which he was engaged; and lest he should not be able to finish the
discovery of the southern part of the south Pacific Ocean in the
ensuing summer. Besides, if he should discover any land in his route
to the east, he would be ready to begin to explore it, as soon as ever
the season should be favourable. Independently of all these
considerations, he had little to fear; having two good ships well
provided, and both the crews being healthy. Where then could he better
employ his time? If he did nothing more, he was at least in hopes of
being enabled to point out to posterity, that these seas may be
navigated, and that it is practicable to pursue discoveries even in
the depth of winter. Such was the ardour of our navigator for
prosecuting the ends of his voyage, in circumstances which would have
induced most men to act a more cautious part!

During Captain Cook's stay in the sound, he had observed, that the
second visit to this country had not mended the morals of the natives
of either sex. He had always looked upon the females of New Zealand as
more chaste than the generality of Indian women. Whatever favours a
few of them might have granted to the people in the Endeavour, such
intercourse usually took place in a private manner, and did not appear
to be encouraged by the men. But now the captain was told, that the
male Indians were the chief promoters of this shameful traffic, and
that, for a spikenail, or any other thing they valued, they would
oblige the women to prostitute themselves, whether it were agreeable
or contrary to their inclinations. At the same time no regard was paid
to the privacy which decency required. The account of this fact must
be read with concern by every wellwisher to the good order and
happiness of society, even without adverting to considerations of a
higher nature.

On the 7th of June, Captain Cook put to sea from Queen Charlotte's
Sound, with the Adventure in company. I shall omit the nautical part
of the route from New Zealand to Otaheite, which continued till the
15th of August; and shall only select such circumstances as are more
immediately suitable to the design of the present narrative. It was
found, on the 29th of July, that the crew of the Adventure were in a
sickly state. Her cook was dead, and about twenty of her best men were
rendered incapable of duty by the scurvy and flux. At this time, no
more than three men were on the sick list on board the Resolution; and
only one of these was attacked with the scurvy. Some others, however,
began to discover the symptoms of it; and, accordingly, recourse was
had to wort, marmalade of carrots, and the rob of lemons and oranges,
with the usual success.

Captain Cook could not account for the prevalence of the scurvy being
so much greater in the Adventure than in the Resolution, unless it was
owing to the crew of the former being more scorbutic when they arrived
in New Zealand than the crew of the latter, and to their eating few or
no vegetables while they lay in Queen Charlotte's Sound. This arose
partly from their want of knowing the right sorts, and partly from the
dislike which seamen have to the introduction of a new diet. Their
aversion to any unusual change of food is so great, that it can only
be overcome by the steady and persevering example and authority of a
commander. Many of Captain Cook's people, officers as well as common
sailors, disliked the boiling of celery, scurvy-grass, and other
greens with pease and wheat; and by some the provision, thus prepared,
was refused to be eaten. But, as this had no effect on the captain's
conduct, their prejudice gradually subsided: they began to like their
diet as much as the rest of their companions; and, at length, there
was hardly a man in the ship who did not attribute the freedom of the
crew from the scurvy, to the beer and vegetables which had been made
use of at New Zealand. Henceforward, whenever the seamen came to a
place where vegetables could be obtained, our commander seldom found
it necessary to order them to be gathered; and, if they were scarce,
happy was the person who could lay hold on them first.

On the 1st of August, when the ships were in the latitude of 25° 1',
and the longitude of 130° 6' west, they were nearly in the same
situation with that which is assigned by Captain Carteret for
Pitcairn's Island, discovered by him in 1767. For this island,
therefore, our voyagers diligently looked; but saw nothing. According
to the longitude in which he had placed it, Captain Cook must have
passed it fifteen leagues to the west. But as this was uncertain, he
did not think it prudent to lose any time in searching for it, as the
sickly state of the Adventure's people required as speedy an arrival
as possible at a place of refreshment. A sight of it, however, would
have been of use in verifying or correcting, not only the longitude of
Pitcairn's Island, but of the others discovered by Captain Carteret in
that neighbourhood. It is a diminution of the value of that
gentleman's voyage, that his longitude was not confirmed by
astronomical observations, and that hence it was liable to errors, the
correction of which was out of his power.

As Captain Cook had now gotten to the northward of Captain Carteret's
tracks, he no longer entertained any hopes of discovering a continent.
Islands were all that he could expect to find, until he returned again
to the south. In this and his former voyage, he had crossed the ocean
in the latitude of 40° and upwards, without meeting any thing which
could, in the least, induce him to believe that he should attain the
great object of his pursuit. Every circumstance concurred to convince
him, that, between the meridian of America and New Zealand, there is
no southern continent; and that there is no continent farther to the
south, unless in a very high latitude. This, however; was a point too
important to be left to opinions and conjectures. It was to be
determined by facts; and the ascertainment of it was appointed, by our
commander, for the employment of the ensuing summer.

It was the 6th of August before the ships had the advantage of the
trade wind. This they got at southeast, being at that time in the
latitude of 19° 36' south, and the longitude of 131° 32' west. As
Captain Cook had obtained the south east trade wind, he directed his
course to the west-north-west; not only with a view of keeping in with
the strength of the wind, but also to get to the north of the islands
discovered in his former voyage, that he might have a chance of
meeting with any other islands which might lie in the way. It was in
the track which had been pursued by M. de Bougainville that our
commander now proceeded. He was sorry that he could not spare time to
sail to the north of this track; but at present, on account of the
sickly state of the Adventure's crew, the arriving at a place where
refreshments could be procured was an object superior to that of
discovery. To four of the islands which were passed by Captain Cook,
he gave the names of Resolution Island, Doubtful Island, Furneaux
Island, and Adventure Island. They are supposed to be the same that
were seen by M. de Bougainville; and these with several others, which
constitute a cluster of low and half-drowned isles, that gentleman
distinguished by the appellation of the Dangerous Archipelago. The
smoothness of the sea sufficiently convinced our navigators, that they
were surrounded by them, and that it was highly necessary to proceed
with the utmost caution, especially in the night.

Early in the morning, on the 15th of August, the ships came within
sight of Osnaburg Island, or Maitea, which had been discovered by
Captain Wallis. Soon after, Captain Cook acquainted Captain Furneaux,
that it was his intention to put into Oaiti-piha Bay, near the
south-east end of Otaheite, for the purpose of procuring what
refreshments he could from that part of the island, before he went
down to Matavai. At six to the evening the island was seen bearing
west; and our people continued to advance towards it till midnight,
when they brought to, till four o'clock in the morning; after which,
they sailed in for the land with a fine breeze at east. At day-break,
they found themselves within the distance of half a league from the
reef; and, at the same time, the breeze began to fail them, and was at
last succeeded by a calm. It now became necessary for the boats to be
hoisted out, in order to tow off the ships; but all the efforts of our
voyagers, to keep them from being carried near the reef, were
insufficient for the purpose. As the calm continued, the situation of
the vessels became still more dangerous. Captain Cook, however,
entertained hopes of getting round the western point of the reef and
into the bay. But, about two o'clock in the afternoon, when he came
before an opening or break of the reef, through which he had flattered
himself that he might get with the ships, he found, on sending to
examine it, that there was not a sufficient depth of water.
Nevertheless, this opening caused such an indraught of the tide of
flood through it, as was very near proving fatal to the Resolution;
for as soon as the vessels got into the stream, they were carried
towards the reef with great impetuosity. The moment the captain
perceived this, he ordered one of the warping machines, which was held
in readiness, to be carried out with about four hundred fathoms of
rope; but it did not produce the least effect: and our navigators had
now in prospect the horrors of shipwreck. They were not more than two
cables' length from the breakers; and, though it was the only probable
method which was left of saving the ships, they could find no bottom
to anchor. An anchor, however, they did drop; but before it took hold,
and brought them up, the Resolution was in less than three fathom
water and struck at every fall of the sea, which broke close under her
stern in a dreadful surf, and threatened her crew every moment with
destruction. Happily the Adventure brought up without striking.
Presently, the Resolution's people carried out two kedge-anchors, with
hawsers to each; and these found ground a little without the bower. By
heaving upon them, and cutting away the bower anchor, the ship was
gotten afloat, where Captain Cook and his men lay for some time in the
greatest anxiety, expecting every minute that either the kedges would
come home, or the hawsers be cut in two by the rocks. At length, the
tide ceased to act in the same direction: upon which the captain
ordered all the boats to try to tow off the vessel. Having found this
to be practicable, the two kedges were hove up; and at that moment a
light air came off from the land, by which the boats were so much
assisted, that the Resolution soon got clear of all danger. Our
commander then ordered all the boats to assist the Adventure; but
before they reached her, she was under sail with the land breeze, and
in a little time joined her companion, leaving behind her three
anchors, her coasting cable, and two hawsers, which were never
recovered. Thus were our voyagers once more safe at sea, after
narrowly escaping being wrecked on the very island, at which, but a
few days before, they had most ardently wished to arrive. It was a
peculiarly happy circumstance, that the calm continued, after bringing
the ships into so dangerous a state; for if the sea breeze, as is
usually the ease, had set, in, the Resolution must inevitably have
been lost, and probably the Adventure likewise. During the time in
which the English were in this critical situation, a number of the
natives were either on board or near the vessel in their canoes.
Nevertheless, they seemed to be insensible of our people's danger,
shewing not the least surprise, joy, or fear, when the ships were
striking; and they went away a little before sunset, quite
unconcerned. Though most of them knew Captain Cook again, and many
inquired for Mr. Banks and others who had been with the captain
before, it was remarkable that not one of them asked for Tupia.

On the 17th the Resolution and Adventure anchored in Oaiti-piha Bay,
immediately upon which they were crowded with the inhabitants of the
country, who brought with them cocoa-nuts, plantains, bananas, apples,
yams, and other roots, which were exchanged for nails and beads. To
some, who called themselves chiefs, our commander made presents of
shirts, axes, and several articles besides, in return for which they
promised to bring him hogs and fowls; a promise which they did not
perform, and which, as might be judged from their conduct, they had
never had the least intention of performing. In the afternoon of the
same day, Captain Cook landed in company with Captain Furneaux, for
the purpose of viewing the watering-place, and of sounding the
disposition of the natives. The article of water, which was now much
wanted on board, he found might conveniently he obtained, and the
inhabitants behaved with great civility. Notwithstanding this
civility, nothing was brought to market, the next day, but fruit and
roots, though it was said that many hogs were seen about the houses in
the neighbourhood. The cry was, that they belonged to Waheatoua, the
earee de hi, or king; who had not yet appeared, nor indeed, any other
chief of note. Among the Indians that came on board the Resolution,
and no small number of whom did not scruple to call themselves earees,
there was one of this sort, who had been entertained in the cabin most
of the day, and to all of whose friends Captain Cook had made
presents, as well as liberally to himself. At length, however, he was
caught taking things which did not belong to him, and handing them out
of the quarter gallery. Various complaints of the like nature being,
at the same time, made against the natives who were on deck, our
commander turned them all out of the ship. His cabin guest was very
rapid in his retreat; and the captain was so exasperated at his
behaviour, that after the earee had gotten to some distance from the
Resolution, he fired two muskets over his head, by which he was so
terrified that he quitted his canoe and took to the water. Captain
Cook then sent a boat to take the canoe; but when the boat approached
the shore, the people on land began to pelt her with stones. The
captain, therefore, being in some pain for her safety, as she was
unarmed, went himself in another boat to protect her, and ordered a
great gun, loaded with ball, to be fired along the coast, which made
all the Indians retire from the shore, and he was suffered to bring
away two canoes without the least show of opposition. In a few hours
peace was restored, and the canoes were returned to the first person
who came for them.

It was not till the evening of this day, that any one inquired after
Tupia, and then the inquiry was made by only two or three of the
natives. When they learned the cause of his death, they were perfectly
satisfied; nor did it appear to our commander that they would have
felt a moment's uneasiness, if Tupia's decease had proceeded from any
other cause than sickness. They were as little concerned about
Aotourou, the man who had gone away with M. de Bougainville. But they
were continually asking for Mr. Banks, and for several others who had
accompanied Captain Cook in his former voyage.

Since that voyage, very considerable changes had happened in the
country. Toutaha, the regent of the great peninsula of Otaheite, had
been killed, in a battle which was fought between the two kingdoms
about five months before the Resolution's arrival; and Otto was now
the reigning prince. Tubourai Tamaide, and several more of the
principal friends to the English, had fallen in this battle, together
with a large number of the common people. A peace subsisted, at
present, between the two grand divisions of the island.

On the 20th, one of the natives carried off a musket belonging to the
guard onshore. Captain Cook, who was himself a witness of the
transaction, sent out some of his people after him; but this would
have been to very little purpose, if the thief had not been
intercepted by several of his own countrymen, who pursued him
voluntarily, knocked him down, and returned the musket to the English.
This act of justice prevented our commander from being placed in a
disagreeable situation. If the natives had not given their immediate
assistance, it would scarcely have been in his power to have recovered
the musket, by any gentle means whatever; and if he had been obliged
to have recourse to other methods, he was sure of loosing more than
ten times its value.

The fraud of one, who appeared as a chief, is, perhaps, not unworthy
of notice. This man, in a visit to Captain Cook, presented him with a
quantity of fruit; among which were a number of cocoa-nuts, that had
already been exhausted of their liquor by our people, and afterwards
thrown overboard. These the chief had picked up, and tied so artfully
in bundles, that at first the deception was not perceived. When he was
informed of it, without betraying the least emotion, and affecting a
total ignorance of the matter, he opened two or three of the nuts
himself, signified that he was satisfied of the fact, and then went on
shore and sent off a quantity of plantains and bananas. The ingenuity
and the impudence of fraud are not solely the production of polished
society.

Captain Cook, on the 23rd, had an interview with Waheatoua, the result
of which was that our navigators obtained this day as much pork as
furnished a meal to the crews of both the vessels. In the captain's
last voyage, Waheatoua, who was then little more than a boy, was
called Tearee; but having succeeded to his father's authority, he had
assumed his father's name.

The fruits that were procured at Oaiti-piha Bay contributed greatly to
the recovery of the sick people belonging to the Adventure. Many of
them, who had been so ill as to be incapable of moving without
assistance, were, in the compass of a few days, so far recovered that
they were able to walk about of themselves. When the Resolution
entered the bay, she had but one scorbutic man on board. A marine, who
had long been sick; and who died the second day after her arrival, of
a complication of disorders, had not the least mixture of the scurvy.

On the 24th, the ships put to sea, and arrived the next evening in
Matavia Bay. Before they could come to an anchor, the decks were
crowded with the natives, many of whom Captain Cook knew, and by most
of whom he was well remembered. Among a large multitude of people, who
were collected together upon the shore, was Otoo, the king of the
island. Our commander paid him a visit on the following day, at
Oparree, the place of his residence; and found him to be a fine,
personable, well-made man, six feet high, and about thirty years of
age. The qualities of his mind were not correspondent to his external
appearance: for when Captain Cook endeavoured to obtain from him the
promise of a visit on board, he acknowledged that he was afraid of the
guns, and, indeed, manifested in all his actions that he was a prince
of a timorous disposition.

Upon the captain's return from Oparree, he found the tents, and the
astronomer's observatories, set up, on the same spot from which the
transit of Venus had been observed in 1769. The sick, being twenty in
number from the Adventure, and one from the Resolution, all of whom
were ill of the scurvy, he ordered to be landed; and he appointed a
guard of marines on shore, under the command of Lieutenant Edgcumbe.

On the 27th, Otoo was prevailed upon, with some degree of reluctance,
to pay our commander a visit. He came attended with a numerous train,
and brought with him fruits, a hog, two large fish, and a quantity of
cloth: for which he and all his retinue were gratified with suitable
presents. When Captain Cook conveyed his guests to land, he was met by
a venerable lady, the mother of the late Toutaha, who seized him by
both hands, and burst into a flood of tears, saying, _Toutaha tiyo
no toutee matty Toutaha_; that is, 'Toutaha, your friend, or the
friend of Cook, is dead.' He was so much affected with her behaviour,
that it would have been impossible for him to have refrained from
mingling his tears with hers, had not Otoo, who was displeased with
the interview, taken him from her. It was with difficulty that the
captain could obtain permission to see her again, when he gave her an
axe and some other articles. Captain Furneaux, at this time presented
the king with two fine goats, which, if no accident befell them, might
be expected to multiply.

Several days had passed in a friendly intercourse with the natives,
and in the procuring provisions, when, in the evening of the 30th, the
gentlemen on board the Resolution were alarmed with the cry of murder,
and with a great noise on shore, near the bottom of the bay, and at a
distance from the English encampment. Upon this, Captain Cook, who
suspected that some of his own men were concerned in the affair,
immediately dispatched an armed boat, to know the cause of the
disturbance, and to bring off such of his people as should be found in
the place. He sent also, to the Adventure, and to the post on shore,
to learn who were missing: for none but those who were upon duty were
absent from the Resolution. The boats speedily returned with three
marines and a seaman. Some others, likewise, were taken, belonging to
the Adventure; and all of them being put under confinement, our
commander, the next morning, ordered them to be punished according to
their deserts. He did not find that any mischief had been done, and
the men would confess nothing. Some liberties which they had taken
with the women had probably given occasion to the disturbance. To
whatever cause it was owing, the natives were so much alarmed, that
they fled from their habitations in the dead of night, and the alarm
was spread many miles along the coast. In the morning, when Captain
Cook went to visit Otoo, by appointment, he found he had removed, or
rather fled, to a great distance from the usual place of his abode.
After arriving where he was, it was some hours before the captain
could be admitted to the sight of him; and then he complained of the
riot of the preceding evening.

The sick being nearly recovered, the water completed, and the
necessary repairs of the ships finished, Captain Cook determined to
put to sea without delay. Accordingly, on the 1st of September, he
ordered every thing to be removed from the shore, and the vessels to
be unmoored, in which employment his people were engaged the greater
part of the day. In the afternoon of the same day, Lieutenant
Pickersgill returned from Attahourou, to which place he had been sent
by the captain, for the purpose of procuring some hogs that had been
promised. In this expedition, the lieutenant had seen the celebrated
Oberea, who has been so much the object of poetical fancy. Her
situation was very humble compared with what it had formerly been. She
was not only altered much for the worse in her person, but appeared to
be poor, and of little or no consequence or authority in the island.
In the evening, a favourable wind having sprung up, our commander put
to sea; on which occasion he was obliged to dismiss his Otaheite
friends sooner than they wished to depart; but well satisfied with his
kind and liberal treatment.

From Matavai Bay, Captain Cook directed his course for the island of
Huaheine, where he intended to touch. This island he reached the next
day, and, early in the morning of the 3rd of September, made sail for
the harbour of Owharre, in which he soon came to an anchor. The
Adventure, not happening to turn into the harbour with equal facility,
got ashore on the north side of the channel; but, by the timely
assistance which Captain Cook had previously provided, in case such an
accident should occur, she was gotten off again, without receiving any
damage. As soon as both the ships were in safety, our commander;
together with Captain Furneaux, landed upon the island, and was
received by the natives with the utmost cordiality. A trade
immediately commenced; so that our navigators had a fair prospect of
being plentifully supplied with fresh pork and fowls, which, to people
in their situation, was a very desirable circumstance. On, the 4th,
Lieutenant Pickersgill sailed with the cutter, on a trading party,
toward the south end of the isle. Another trading party was also sent
on shore near the ships, which party Captain Cook attended himself, to
see that the business was properly conducted at the first setting out,
this being a point of no small importance. Every thing being settled
to his mind, he went, accompanied by Captain Furneaux, and Mr.
Forster, to pay a visit to his old friend Oree, the chief of the
island. This visit was preceded by many preparatory ceremonies. Among
other things the chief sent to our commander the inscription engraved
on a small piece of pewter, which he had left with him in July, 1761.
It was in the bag that Captain Cook had made for it, together with a
piece of counterfeit English coin, and a few beads, which had been put
in at the same time; whence it was evident what particular care had
been taken of the whole. After the previous ceremonies had been
discharged, the captain wanted to go to the king, but he was informed
that the king would come to him. Accordingly, Oree went up to our
commander, and fell on his neck, and embraced him; nor was it a
ceremonious embrace, for the tears which trickled down the venerable
old man's cheeks sufficiently bespoke the language of his heart. The
presents, which Captain Cook made to the chief on this occasion,
consisted of the most valuable articles he had; for he regarded him as
a father. Oree, in return, gave the captain a hog, and a quantity of
cloth, promising that all the wants of the English should be supplied;
and it was a promise to which he faithfully adhered. Indeed, he
carried his kindness to Captain Cook so far, as not to fail sending
him every day, for his table, a plentiful supply of the very best of
ready-dressed fruits and roots.

Hitherto, all things had gone on in the most agreeable manner; but on
Monday, the 6th, several circumstances occurred, which rendered it an
unpleasant and troublesome day. When our commander went to the
trading-place, he was informed that one of the inhabitants had behaved
with remarkable insolence. The man was completely equipped in the war
habit, had a club in each hand, and seemed bent upon mischief. Captain
Cook took, therefore, the clubs from him, broke them before his eyes,
and with some difficulty compelled him to retire. About the same time,
Mr. Sparrman, who had imprudently gone out alone to botanize, was
assaulted by two men, who stripped him of every thing which he had
about him, excepting his trowsers, and struck him again and again with
his own hanger, though happily without doing him any harm. When they
had accomplished their purpose, they made off; after which another of
the natives brought a piece of cloth to cover him, and conducted him
to the trading place, where the inhabitants, in a large number, were
assembled. The instant that Mr. Sparrman appeared in the condition now
described, they all fled with the utmost precipitation. Captain Cook,
having recalled a few of the Indians, and convinced them that he
should take no step to injure those who were innocent, went to Oree to
complain of the outrage. When the chief had heard the whole affair
related, he wept aloud, and many other of the inhabitants did the
same. After the first transports of his grief had subsided, he began
to expostulate with his people, telling them (for so his language was
understood by the English) how well Captain Cook had treated them both
in this and his former voyage, and how base it was in them to commit
such actions. He then took a minute account of the things of which Mr.
Sparrman had been robbed, and, after having promised to use his utmost
endeavours for the recovery of them, desired to go into the captain's
boat. At this, the natives, apprehensive doubtless for the safety of
their prince, expressed the utmost alarm, and used every argument to
dissuade him from so rash a measure. All their remonstrances, however,
were in vain. He hastened into the boat; and as soon as they saw that
their beloved chief was wholly in our commander's power, they set up a
great outcry. Indeed, their grief was inexpressible; they prayed,
entreated nay, attempted to pull him out of the boat; and every face
was bedewed with tears. Even Captain Cook himself was so moved by
their distress, that he united his entreaties with theirs, but all to
no purpose. Oree insisted upon the captain's coming into the boat,
which was no sooner done, than he ordered it to be put off. His sister
was the only person among the Indians who behaved with a becoming
magnanimity on this occasion; for, with a spirit equal to that of her
royal brother, she alone did not oppose his going. It was his design,
in coming into the boat of the English, to proceed with them in search
of the robbers. Accordingly, he went with Captain Cook, as far as it
was convenient, by water, when they landed, entered the country, and
travelled same miles inland; in doing which the chief led the way, and
inquired after the criminals of every person whom he saw. In this
search he would have gone to the very extremity of the island, if our
commander, who did not think the object worthy of so laborious a
pursuit, had not refused to proceed any farther. Besides, as he
intended to sail the next morning, and all manner of trade was stopped
in consequence of the alarm of the natives, it became the more
necessary for him to return, that he might restore things to their
former state. It was with great reluctance that Ores was prevailed
upon to discontinue the search, and to content himself with sending,
at Captain Cook's request, some of his people for the things which had
been carried off. When he and the captain had gotten back to the boat,
they found there the chief's sister, and several other persons, who
had travelled by land to the place. The English gentlemen immediately
stepped into their boat, in order to return on board, without so much
as asking Oree to accompany them; notwithstanding which, he insisted
upon doing it; nor could the opposition and entreaties of those who
were about him induce him to desist from his purpose. His sister
followed his example, uninfluenced, on this occasion, by the
supplications and tears of her daughter. Captain Cook amply rewarded
the chief and his sister for the confidence they had placed in him;
and, after dinner, conveyed them both on shore, where some hundreds of
people waited to receive them, many of whom embraced Oree with tears
of joy. All was now peace and gladness: the inhabitants crowded in
from every part, with such a plentiful supply of hogs, fowls, and
vegetable productions, that the English presently filled two boats;
and the chief himself presented the captain with a large hog, and a
quantity of fruit. Mr. Sparrman's hanger the only thing of value which
he had lost, was brought back, together with part of his coat; and our
navigators were told, that the remaining articles should be restored
the next day. Some things which had been stolen from a party of
officers, who had gone out a shooting, were returned in like manner.

The transactions of this day have been the more particularly related,
as they shew the high opinion which the chief had formed of our
commander, and the unreserved confidence that he placed in his
integrity and honour. Oree had entered into a solemn friendship with
Captain Cook, according to all the forms which were customary in the
country; and he seemed to think, that this friendship could not be
broken by the act of any other persons. It is justly observed by the
captain, that another chief may never be found, who, under similar
circumstances, will act in the same manner. Oree, indeed, had nothing
to fear: for it was not our commander's intention to hurt a hair of
his head, or to detain him a moment longer than was agreeable to his
own desire. But of this how could he and his people be assured? They
were not ignorant, that when he was once in Captain Cook's power, the
whole force of the island would not be sufficient to recover him, and
that they must have complied with any demands, however great, for his
ransom. The apprehensions, therefore, of the inhabitants, for their
chief's and their own safety, had a reasonable foundation.

Early on the 7th, while the ships were unmooring, the captain went to
pay his farewell visit to Oree, and took with him such presents as had
not only a fancied value, but a real utility. He left, also, with the
chief the inscription plate, that had been before in his possession,
and another small copper-plate, on which were engraved these words:
'Anchored here, his Britannic Majesty's ships, Resolution and
Adventure, September, 1773.' These plates, together with some medals,
were put up in a bag; of which Oree promised to take care, and to
produce them to the first ship or ships that should arrive at the
island. Having, in return, given a hog to Captain Cook, and loaded his
boat with fruit, they took leave of each other, when the good old
chief embraced our commander with tears in his eyes. Nothing was
mentioned, at this interview, concerning the remainder of Mr.
Sparrman's property. As it was early in the morning, the captain
judged that it had not been brought in, and he was not willing to
speak of it to Oree, lest he should give him pain about things which
there had not been time to recover. The robbers having soon afterward
been taken, Oree came on board again, to request that our commander
would go on shore, either to punish them, or to be present at their
punishment; but this not being convenient to him, he left them to the
correction of their own chief. It was from the island of Huaheine that
Captain Furneaux received into his ship a young man named Omai, a
native of Ulietea, of whom so much hath since been known and written.
This choice Captain Cook at first disapproved; as thinking that the
youth was not a proper sample of the inhabitants of the Society
Islands; being inferior to many of them in birth and acquired rank,
and not having any peculiar advantage in point of shape, figure, or
complexion. The captain afterward found reason to be better satisfied
with Omai's having accompanied our navigators, to England.

During the short stay of the vessels at Huaheine, our people were very
successful in obtaining supplies of provisions. No less than three
hundred hogs, besides fowls and fruit, were procured; and had the
ships continued longer at the place, the quantity might have been
greatly increased. Such was the fertility of this small island, that
none of these articles of refreshment were seemingly diminished, but
appeared to be as plentiful as ever.

From Huaheine our navigators sailed for Ulietea; where, trade was
carried on in the usual manner, and a most friendly intercourse
renewed between Captain Cook and Oree, the chief of the island. Here
Tupia was inquired after with particular eagerness, and the inquirers
were perfectly satisfied with the account which was given of the
occasion of that Indian's decease.

On the morning of the 15th, the English were surprised at finding that
none of the inhabitants of Ulietea came off to the ships, as had
hitherto been customary. As two men belonging to the Adventure had
stayed on shore all night, contrary to orders, Captain Cook's first
conjectures were, that the natives had stripped them, and were afraid
of the revenge which would be taken of the insult. This, however, was
not the case. The men had been treated with great civility, and could
assign no cause for the precipitate flight of the Indians. All that
the captain could learn was, that several were killed and others
wounded, by the guns of the English This information alarmed him for
the safety of some of our people, who had been sent out in two boats
to the island of Otaha. He determined, therefore, it possible, to see
the chief himself. When he came up to him, Oree threw his arms around
our commander's neck, and burst into tears; in which he was
accompanied by all the women, and some of the men; so that the
lamentations became general. Astonishment alone kept Captain Cook from
joining in their grief. At last, the whole which he could collect from
his inquiries was, that the natives had been alarmed on account of the
absence of the English boats, and imagined that the captain, upon the
supposition of the desertion of his men, would use violent means for
the recovery of his loss. When the matter was explained, it was
acknowledged that not a single inhabitant, or a single Englishman, had
been hurt. This groundless consternation displayed in a strong light
the timorous disposition of the people of the Society islands.

Our navigators were as successful in procuring provisions at Ulietea
as they had been at Huaheine. Captain Cook judged that the number of
hogs obtained amounted to four hundred or upwards: many of them,
indeed, were only roasters, while others exceeded a hundred pounds in
weight; but the general run was from forty to sixty. A larger quantity
was offered than the ships could contain; so that our countrymen were
enabled to proceed on their voyage with no small degree of comfort and
advantage.

Our commander, by his second visit to the Society islands, gained a
farther knowledge of their general state, and of the customs of the
inhabitants. It appeared, that a Spanish ship had been lately at
Otaheite, and the natives complained, that a disease had been
communicated to them by the people of this vessel which according to
their account affected the head, the throat, and the stomach, and at
length ended in death. With regard to a certain disorder, the effects
of which have so fatally been felt in the latter ages of the world,
Captain Cook's inquiries could not absolutely determine whether it was
known to the islanders before they were visited by the Europeans. If
it was of recent origin, the introduction of it was, without a
dissentient voice, ascribed to the voyage of M. de Bougainville.

One thing which our commander was solicitous to ascertain, was,
whether human sacrifices constituted a part of the religious customs
of these people, The man of whom he had made his inquiries, and
several other natives took some pains to explain the matter; but, from
our people's ignorance of the language of the country, their
explication could not be understood. Captain Cook afterwards learned
from Omai that the inhabitants of the Society islands offer human
sacrifices to the Supreme Being. What relates to funeral ceremonies
excepted, all the knowledge he could obtain concerning their religion
was very imperfect and defective.

The captain had an opportunity, in this voyage of rectifying the great
injustice which had been done to the women of Otaheite and the
neighbouring isles. They had been represented as ready, without
exception to grant the last favour to any man who would come up to
their price: but our commander found that this was by no means the
case. The favours both of the married women and of the unmarried, of
the better sort, were as difficult to be obtained in the Society
islands as in any other country whatever. Even with respect to the
unmarried females of the lower class, the charge was not
indiscriminately true. There were many of these who would not admit of
indecent familiarities. The setting this subject in a proper light
must be considered as one of the agreeable effects of Captain Cook's
second voyage. Every enlightened mind will rejoice at what conduces to
the honour of human nature in general, and of the female sex in
particular. Chastity is so eminently the glory of that sex, and,
indeed, is so essentially connected with the good order of society,
that it must be a satisfaction to reflect, that there is no country,
however ignorant or barbarous, in which this virtue is not regarded as
an object of moral obligation.

This voyage enabled our commander to gain some farther knowledge
concerning the geography of the Society isles; and he found it highly
probable, that Otaheite is of greater extent than he had computed it
in his former estimation. The astronomers did not neglect to set up
their observatories, and to make observations suited to their purpose.

On the 17th of September, Captain Cook sailed from Ulietea, directing
his course to the west, with an inclination to the south. Land was
discovered on the 23rd of the month, to which he gave the name of
Harvey's Island. On the 1st of October, he reached the island of
Middleburg. While he was looking about for a landing place, two
canoes, each of them conducted by two or three men, came boldly
alongside the ship, and some of the people entered it without
hesitation. This mark of confidence inspired our commander with so
good an opinion of the inhabitants, that he determined, if possible,
to pay them a visit, which he did the next day. Scarcely had the
vessels gotten to an anchor, before they were surrounded by a great
number of canoes, full of the natives, who brought with them cloth,
and various curiosities, which they exchanged for nails, and such
other articles as were adapted to their fancy. Among those who came on
board, was a chief, named Tioony, whose friendship Captain Cook
immediately gained by proper presents, consisting principally of a
hatchet and some spike-nails. A party of our navigators, with the
captain at the head of them having embarked in two boats, proceeded to
the shore, where they found an immense crowd of people, who welcomed
them to the island with loud acclamations. There was not so much as a
stick, or any other weapon, in the hands of a single native, so
pacific were their dispositions and intentions. They seemed to be more
desirous of giving than receiving; and many of them, who could not
approach near to the boats, threw into them, over the heads of others,
whole bales of cloth, and then retired, without either asking or
waiting for anything in return. The whole day was spent by our
navigators in the most agreeable manner. When they returned on board
in the evening, every one expressed how much he was delighted with the
country, and the very obliging behaviour of the inhabitants, who
seemed to vie with each other in their endeavours to give pleasure to
our people. All this conduct appeared to be the result of the most
pure good nature, perhaps without being accompanied with much
sentiment or feeling; for when Captain Cook signified to the chief his
intention of quitting the island, he did not seem to be in the least
moved. Among other articles presented by the captain to Tioony, he
left him an assortment of garden seeds, which, if properly used, might
be of great future benefit to the country.

From Middleburg, the ships sailed down to Amsterdam, the natives of
which island were equally ready with those of the former place to
maintain a friendly intercourse with the English. Like the people of
Middleburg, they brought nothing with them but cloth, matting, and
such other articles as could be of little service; and for these our
seamen were so simple as to barter away their clothes. To put a stop,
therefore to so injurious a traffic, and to obtain the necessary
refreshments, the captain gave orders, that no sort of curiosities
should be purchased by any person whatever. This injunction produced
the desired effect. When the inhabitants saw that the English would
deal with them for nothing but eatables, they brought off bananas and
cocoa-nuts in abundance, together with some fowls and pigs; all of
which they exchanged for small nails and pieces of cloth. Even a few
old rags were sufficient for the purchase of a pig or a fowl.

The method of carrying on trade being settled, and proper officers
having been appointed to prevent disputes, our commander's next object
was to obtain as complete a knowledge as possible of the island of
Amsterdam. In this he was much facilitated by a friendship which he
had formed with Attago, one of the chiefs of the country. Captain Cook
was struck with admiration, when he surveyed the beauty and
cultivation of the island. He thought himself transported into the
most fertile plains of Europe. There was not an inch of waste ground.
The roads occupied no larger a space than was absolutely necessary,
and the fences did not take up above four inches each. Even such a
small portion of ground was not wholly lost; for many of the fences
themselves contained useful trees or plants. The scene was every where
the same; and nature, assisted by a little art, no where assumes a
more splendid appearance than in this island.

Friendly as were the natives of Amsterdam, they were not entirely free
from the thievish disposition which had so often been remarked in the
islanders of the Southern Ocean. The instances, however, of this kind,
which occurred, were not of such a nature as to produce any
extraordinary degree of trouble, or to involve our people in a quarrel
with the inhabitants.

Captain Cook's introduction to the king of the island afforded a scene
somewhat remarkable. His majesty was seated with so much sullen and
stupid gravity, that the captain took him for an idiot, whom the
Indians, from some superstitious reasons, were ready to worship. When
our commander saluted and spoke to him, he neither answered, nor took
the least notice of him; nor did he alter a single feature of his
countenance. Even the presents which were made to him could not induce
him to resign a bit of his gravity, or to speak one word, or to turn
his head either to the right hand or to the left. As he was in the
prime of life, it was possible that a false sense of dignity might
engage him to assume so solemn a stupidity of appearance. In the
history of mankind, instances might probably be found which would
confirm this supposition.

It is observable, that the two islands of Middleburg and Amsterdam are
guarded from the sea by a reef of coral rocks, which extend out from
the shore about one hundred fathoms. On this reef the force of the sea
is spent before it reaches the land. The same, indeed, is, to a great
measure, the situation of all the tropical isles which our commander
had seen in that part of the globe; and hence arises an evidence of
the wisdom and goodness of Providence; as by such a provision, nature
has effectually secured them from the encroachments of the sea, though
many of them are mere points, when compared with the vast ocean by
which they are surrounded.

In Amsterdam, Mr. Forster not only found the same plants that are at
Otaheite and the neighbouring islands, but several others, which are
not to be met with in those places. Captain Cook took care, by a
proper assortment of garden-seeds and pulse, to increase the vegetable
stock of the inhabitants.

Hogs and fowls were the only domestic animals that were seen in these
islands. The former are of the same sort with those which have been
met with in other parts of the Southern Ocean; but the latter are far
superior, being as large as any in Europe, and equal, if not
preferable, with respect to the goodness of their flesh.

Both men and women are of a common size with Europeans. Their colour
is that of a lightish copper, and with a greater uniformity than
occurs among the natives of Otaheite and the Society Isles. Some of
the English gentlemen were of opinion, that the inhabitants of
Middleburg and Amsterdam were a much handsomer race; while others with
whom Captain Cook concurred, maintained a contrary sentiment. However
this may be, their shape is good, their features regular, and they are
active, brisk, and lively. The women, in particular, are the merriest
creatures our commander had ever met with: and, provided any person
seemed pleased with them, they would keep chattering by his side
without the least invitation, or considering whether they were
understood. They appeared in general to be modest, though there were
several amongst them of a different character. As there were yet on
board some complaints of a certain disorder, the captain took all
possible care to prevent its communication. Our navigators were
frequently entertained by the women with songs, and this in a manner
which was by no means disagreeable. They had a method of keeping time
by snapping their fingers. Their music was harmonious as well as their
voices, and there was a considerable degree of compass in their notes.

A singular custom was found to prevail in these islands. The greater
part of the people were observed to have lost one or both of their
little fingers; and this was not peculiar to rank, age, or sex; nor
was the amputation restricted to any specific period of life. Our
navigators endeavoured in vain to discover the reason of so
extraordinary a practice.

A very extensive knowledge of the language of Middleburg and Amsterdam
could not be obtained during the short stay which was made there by
the English. However, the more they inquired into it, the more they
found that it was, in general, the same with that which is spoken at
Otaheite and the Society isles. The difference is not greater than
what frequently occurs betwixt the most northern and western parts of
England.

On the 7th of October, Captain Cook proceeded on his voyage. His
intention was to sail directly to Queen Charlotte's Sound, in New
Zealand, for the purpose of taking in wood and water, after which he
was to pursue his discoveries to the south and the east. The day after
he quitted Amsterdam, he passed the island of Pilstart; an island
which had been discovered by Tasman.

On the 21st, he made the land of New Zealand, at the distance of eight
or ten leagues from Table Cape. As our commander was very desirous of
leaving in the country such an assortment of animals and vegetables as
might greatly contribute to the future benefit of the inhabitants, one
of the first things which he did was to give to a chief, who had come
off in a canoe, two boars, two sows, four hens, and two cocks,
together with a quantity of seeds, The seeds were of the most useful
kind; such as wheat, french and kidney beans, pease, cabbage, turnips,
onions, carrots, parsnips, and yams. The man to whom these several
articles were presented, though he was much more enraptured with a
spike-nail half the length of his arm, promised, however, to take care
of them, and in particular, not to kill any of the animals. If he
adhered to his promise, they would be sufficient, in a due course of
time, to stock the whole island.

It was the 3rd of November before Captain Cook brought the Resolution
into Ship Cove, in Queen Charlotte's Sound. He had been beating about
the island from the 21st of October, during which time his vessel was
exposed to a variety of tempestuous weather. In one instance he had
been driven off the land by a furious storm, which lasted two days,
and which would have been dangerous in the highest degree, had it not
fortunately happened that it was fair overhead, and that there was no
reason to be apprehensive of a lee-shore. In the course of the bad
weather which succeeded this storm, the Adventure was separated from
the Resolution, and was never seen or heard of through the whole
remainder of the voyage.

The first object of our commander's attention, after his arrival in
Queen Charlotte's Sound, was to provide for the repair of his ship,
which had suffered in various respects, and especially in her sails
and rigging. Another matter which called for his notice was the state
of the bread belonging to the vessel, and he had the mortification of
finding, that a large quantity of it was damaged. To repair this loss
in the best manner he was able, he ordered all the casks to be opened,
the bread to be picked, and such parcels of it to be baked, in the
copper oven, as could by that means be recovered. Notwithstanding this
care, four thousand two hundred and ninety-two pounds were found
totally unfit for use; and about three thousand pounds more could only
be eaten by people in the situation of our navigators.

Captain Cook was early in his inquiries concerning the animals which
had been left at New Zealand, in the former part of his voyage. He saw
the youngest of the two sows that Captain Furneaux had put on shore in
Cannibal Cove. She was in good condition, and very tame. The boar and
other sow, if our commander was rightly informed, were taken away and
separated, but not killed. He was told that the two goats, which he
had landed up the Sound, had been destroyed by a rascally native of
the name of Goubiah; so that the captain had the grief of discovering
that all his benevolent endeavours to stock the country with useful
animals were likely to be frustrated by the very people whom he was
anxious to serve. The gardens had met with a better fate. Every thing
in them, excepting potatoes, the inhabitants had left entirely to
nature, who had so well performed her part, that most of the articles
were in a flourishing condition.

Notwithstanding the inattention and folly of the New Zealanders,
Captain Cook still continued his zeal for their benefit. To the
inhabitants who resided at the Cove, he gave a boar, a young sow, two
cocks, and two hens, which had been brought from the Society islands.
At the bottom of the West Bay, he ordered to be landed without the
knowledge of the Indians, four hogs, being three sows and one boar,
together with cocks and two hens. They were carried a little way into
the woods, and as much food was left them as would serve them for ten
or twelve days; which was done to prevent their coming down to the
shore in search of sustenance, and by that means being discovered by
the natives. The captain was desirous of replacing the two goats which
Goubiah was understood to have killed, by leaving behind him the only
two that yet remained in his possession. But he had the misfortune,
soon after his arrival at Queen Charlotte's Sound to lose the ram; and
this in a manner for which it was not easy to assign the cause.
Whether it was owing to any thing he had eaten, or to his being stung
with nettles, which were very plentiful in the place, he was seized
with fits that bordered upon madness. In one of these fits, he was
supposed to have run into the sea, and to have been drowned: and thus
every method, which our commander had taken to stock the country with
sheep and goats, proved ineffectual. He hoped to be more successful
with respect to the boars and sows and the cocks and hens, which he
left in the island.

While the boatswain, one day, and a party of men, were employed in
cutting broom, some of them stole several things from a private hut of
the natives, in which was deposited most of the treasures they had
received from the English as well as property of their own. Complaint
being made by the Indians to Captain Cook, and a particular man of the
boatswain's party having been pointed out to the captain, as the
person who had committed the theft, he ordered him to be punished in
their presence. With this they went away seemingly satisfied, although
they did not recover any of the articles which they had lost. It was
always a maxim with our commander, to punish the least crimes which
any of his people were guilty of with regard to uncivilized nations.
Their robbing us with impunity he by no means considered as a reason
for our treating them in the same manner. Addicted as the New
Zealanders were, in a certain degree, to stealing, a disposition which
must have been very much increased by the novelty and allurement of
the objects presented to their view; they had, nevertheless, when
injured themselves, such a sense of justice as to apply to Captain
Cook for redress. The best method, in his opinion, of preserving a
good understanding with the inhabitants of countries in this state of
society, is, first, to convince them of the superiority we have over
them in consequence of our fire arms, and then to be always upon our
guard. Such a conduct, united with strict honesty and gentle
treatment, will convince them, that it is their interest not to
disturb us, and prevent them from forming any general plan of attack.

In this second visit of our navigators to New Zealand, they met with
indubitable evidence that the natives were eaters of human flesh. The
proofs of this fact had a most powerful influence on the mind of
Oedidee, a youth of Bolabola, whom Captain Cook had brought in the
Resolution from Ulietea. He was so affected, that he became perfectly
motionless, and exhibited such a picture of horror, that it would have
been impossible for art to describe that passion with half the force
with which it appeared in his countenance. When he was roused from
this state by some of the English, he burst into tears; continued to
weep and scold by turns; told the New Zealanders that they were vile
men; and assured them, that he would not be any longer their friend.
He would not so much as permit them to come near him; and he refused
to accept or even to touch, the knife by which some human flesh had
been cut off. Such was Oedidee's indignation against the abominable
custom; and our commander has justly remarked, that it was an
indignation worthy to be imitated by every rational being. The conduct
of this young man, upon the present occasion, strongly points out the
difference which had taken place, in the progress of civilization,
between the inhabitants of the Society islands and those of New
Zealand. It was our commander's firm opinion, that the only human
flesh which was eaten by these people was that of their enemies, who
had been slain in battle.

During the stay of our voyagers in Queen Charlotte's Sound, they were
plentifully supplied with fish, procured from the natives at a very
easy rate; and, besides the vegetables afforded by their own gardens,
they every where found plenty of scurvy-grass and celery. These
Captain Cook ordered to be dressed every day for all his hands. By the
attention which he paid to his men in the article of provisions, they
had for three months lived principally on a fresh diet, and, at this
time, there was not a sick or corbutic person on board.

The morning before the captain sailed, he wrote a memorandum,
containing such information as he thought necessary for Captain
Furneaux, in case he should put into the sound. This memorandum was
buried in a bottle under the root of a tree in the garden; and in such
a manner, that it could not avoid being discovered, if either Captain
Furneaux, or any other European, should chance to arrive at the cove.

Our commander did not leave New Zealand without making such remarks on
the coast between Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser as may be of
service to future navigators. It being now the unanimous opinion that
the Adventure was no where upon the island, Captain Cook gave up all
expectations of seeing her any more during the voyage. This
circumstance, however, did not discourage him from fully exploring the
southern parts of the Pacific ocean, in the doing of which he intended
to employ the whole of the ensuing season. When he quitted the coast,
he had the satisfaction to find that not a man of the crew was
dejected, or thought that the dangers, they had yet to go through,
were to the least augmented by their being alone. Such was the
confidence they placed in their commander, that they were as ready to
proceed cheerfully to the south, or wherever he might lead them, as if
the Adventure, or even a larger number of ships had been in company.

On the 26th of November, Captain Cook sailed from New Zealand in
search of a continent, and steered to the south, inclining to the
east. Some days after this, our navigators reckoned themselves to be
antipodes to their friends in London, and consequently were at as
great a distance from them as possible. The first ice island was seen
on the 12th of December, farther south than the first ice which had
been met with after leaving the Cape of Good Hope in the preceding
year. In the progress of the voyage, ice islands continually occurred,
and the navigation became more and more difficult and dangerous. When
our people were in the latitude of 67° 5' south, they all at once got
within such a cluster of these islands, together with a large quantity
of loose pieces, that to keep clear of them was a matter of the utmost
difficulty. On the 22nd of the month, the Resolution was in the
highest latitude she had yet reached; and circumstances now became so
unfavourable, that our commander thought of returning more to the
north. Here there was no probability of finding any land, or a
possibility of getting farther south. To have proceeded, therefore, to
the east in this latitude, must have been improper, not only on
account of the ice, but because a vast space of sea to the north must
have been left unexplored, in which there might lie a large tract of
country. It was only by visiting those parts, that it could be
determined whether such a supposition was well founded. As our
navigators advanced to the north-east on the 24th, the ice islands
increased so fast upon them, that, at noon, they could see nearly a
hundred around them, besides an immense number of small pieces. In
this situation they spent Christmas-day, much in the same manner as
they had done in the former year. Happily our people had continual
day-light, and clear weather for had it been as foggy as it was on
some preceding days, nothing less than a miracle could have saved them
from being dashed to pieces.

While the Resolution was in the high latitudes many of her company
were attacked with a slight fever, occasioned by colds. The disorder,
however, yielded to the simplest remedies, and was generally removed
in a few days. On the 5th of January, 1774, the ship not being then in
much more than fifty degrees of latitude, there were only one or two
persons on the sick list.

After Captain Cook, agreeably to his late resolution, had traversed a
large extent of ocean, without discovering land, he again directed his
course to the southward. By the 30th of the month, through
obstructions and difficulties, which, from their similar nature to
those already mentioned, it would be tedious to repeat, he reached to
the seventy-first degree of latitude. Thus far had he gone: but to
have proceeded farther would have been the height of folly and
madness. It would have been exposing himself, his men, and his ship to
the utmost danger, and perhaps to destruction, without the least
prospect of advantage. The captain was of opinion, as indeed were most
of the gentlemen on board, that the ice now in sight extended quite to
the pole, or might join to some land, to which it might be fixed from
the earliest time. If, however, there be such land, it can afford no
better retreat for birds, or any other animals, than the ice itself,
with which it must be wholly covered. Though our commander had not
only the ambition of going farther than any one had done before, but
of proceeding as far as it was possible for man to go, he was the less
dissatisfied with the interruption he now met with, as it shortened
the dangers and hardships inseparable from the navigation of the
southern polar regions. In fact he was impelled by inevitable
necessity to tack, and stand back to the north.

The determination which Captain Cook now formed was to spend the
ensuing winter within the tropic, if he met with no employment before
he came there. He was well satisfied, that no continent was to be
found in this ocean, but what must lie so far to the south, as to be
wholly inaccessible on account of ice. If there existed a continent in
the southern Atlantic Ocean, he was sensible that he could not explore
it, without having the whole summer before them. Upon a supposition,
on the other hand, that there is no land there he might undoubtedly
have reached the Cape of Good Hope by April. In that case, he would
have put an end to the finding of a continent; which was indeed the
first object of the voyage. But this could not satisfy the extensive
and magnanimous mind of our commander. He had a good ship, expressly
sent out on discoveries, a healthy crew, and was not in want either of
stores or of provisions. In such circumstances, to have quitted this
Southern Pacific Ocean, would, he thought, have been betraying not
only a want of perseverance, but of judgment, in supposing it to have
been so well explored, that nothing farther could be done. Although he
had proved that there was no continent but what must lie far to the
south, there remained, nevertheless, room for very large islands in
places wholly unexamined. Many, likewise, of those which had formerly
been discovered had been but imperfectly explored, and their
situations were as imperfectly known. He was also pursuaded, that his
continuing some time longer in this sea would be productive of
improvements in navigation and geography, as well as in other
sciences.

In consequence of these views, it was Captain Cook's intention first
to go in search of the land said to have been discovered by Juan
Fernandez, in the last century. If he should fail in finding this
land, he proposed to direct his course in quest of Easter Island or
Davis's Land, the situation of which was known with so little
certainty, that none of the attempts lately made for its discovery had
been successful. He next intended to get within the tropic, and then
to proceed to the west, touching at, and settling the situations of
such islands, as he might meet with till he arrived at Otaheite, where
it was necessary for him to stop, to look for the Adventure. It was
also in his contemplation to run as far west as the Tierra Austral del
Espiritu Santo, which was discovered by Quiros, and to which M. de
Bougainville has given the name of the Great Cyclades. From this land,
it was the captain's plan to steer to the south, and so back to the
east, between the latitudes of fifty and sixty. In the execution of
this plan, it was his purpose, if possible, to attain the length of
Cape Horn in the ensuing November, when he should have the best part
of the summer before him, to explore the southern part of the Atlantic
Ocean. Great as was this design, our commander thought it capable of
being carried into execution; and when he communicated it to his
officers, he had the satisfaction of finding that it received their
zealous and cheerful concurrence. They displayed the utmost readiness
for executing, in the most effectual manner, every measure he thought
proper to adopt. With such good examples to direct them, the seamen
were always obedient and alert; and on the present occasion, so far
were they from wishing the voyage to be concluded, that they rejoiced
at the prospect of its being prolonged another year, and of soon
enjoying the benefits of a milder climate.

In pursuing his course to the north, Captain Cook became well assured,
that the discovery of Juan Fernandez, if any such was ever made, could
be nothing more than a small island. At this time, the captain was
attacked by a bilious colic, the violence of which confined him to his
bed. The management of the ship, upon this occasion, was left to Mr.
Cooper, the first officer, who conducted her entirely to his
commander's satisfaction. It was several days before the most
dangerous symptoms of Captain Cook's disorder were removed; during
which time, Mr. Patten the surgeon, in attending upon him, manifested
not only the skilfulness of a physician, but the tenderness of a
nurse. When the captain began to recover, a favourite dog, belonging
to Mr. Forster, fell a sacrifice to his tender stomach. There was no
other fresh meat whatever on board, and he could eat not only of the
broth which was made of it, but of the flesh itself, when there was
nothing else that he was capable of tasting. Thus did he derive
nourishment and strength from food, which to most people in Europe,
would have been in the highest degree disgusting, and productive of
sickness. The necessity of the case overcame every feeling of dislike.

On the 11th of March, our navigators came within sight of Easter
Island, or Davis's Land; their transactions at which place were of too
little moment to deserve a particular recital. The inhabitants are, in
general, a slender race. In colour, features, and language, they bear
such an affinity to the people of the more western isles, that there
can be no doubt of their having been descended from one common
original. It is indeed extraordinary, that the same nation should have
spread themselves to so wide an extent, as to take in almost a fourth
part of the circumference of the globe. With regard to the disposition
of the natives of Easter Island, it is friendly and hospitable; but
they are as much addicted to stealing, as any of their neighbours. The
island itself hath so little to recommend it, that no nation need to
contend for the honour of its discovery. So sparing has nature been of
her favours to this spot, that there is in it no safe anchorage, no
wood for fuel, no fresh water worth taking on board. The most
remarkable objects in the country are some surprising gigantic
statues, which were first seen by Roggewein.

It was with pleasure that our commander quitted a place, which could
afford such slender accommodations to voyagers, and directed his
course for the Marquesas Islands. He had not been long at sea, before
he was again attacked by his bilious disorder. The attack, however,
was not so violent as the former one had been. He had reason to
believe, that the return of his disease was owing to his having
exposed and fatigued himself too much at Easter Island.

On the 6th and 7th of April, our navigators came within sight of four
islands, which they knew to be the Marquesas. To one of them, which
was a new discovery, Captain Cook gave the name of Hood's Island,
after that of the young gentleman by whom it was first seen. As soon
as the ship was brought to an anchor in Madre de Dios, or Resolution
Bay, in the Island of St. Christina, a traffic commenced, in the
course of which the natives would frequently keep our goods, without
making any return. At last the captain was obliged to fire a
musket-ball over one man, who had several times treated the English in
this manner. This produced only a temporary effect. Too many of the
Indians having come on board, our commander, who was going into a boat
to find a convenient place for mooring the ship, said to the officers,
"You must look well after these people or they will certainly carry
off something or other." Scarcely had he gotten into the boat, when he
was informed, that they had stolen an iron stanchion from the opposite
gangway, and were carrying it off. Upon this he ordered his men to
fire over the canoe, till he could get round in the boat, but not to
kill any one. Such, however, was the noise made by the natives, that
the order was not heard; and the unhappy thief was killed at the first
shot. All the Indians having retired with precipitation, in
consequence of this unfortunate accident, Captain Cook followed them
into the bay, prevailed upon some of them to come alongside his boat,
and, by suitable presents, so far conciliated their minds, that their
fears seemed to be in a great measure allayed. The death of their
countryman did not cure them of their thievish disposition; but, at
length, it was somewhat restrained by their conviction, that no
distance secured them from the reach of our muskets. Several smaller
instances of their talent at stealing, the captain thought proper to
overlook.

The provisions obtained at St. Christina were yams, plantains,
breadfruit, a few cocoa-nuts, fowls, and small pigs. For a time, the
trade was carried on upon reasonable terms: but the market was at last
ruined by the indiscretion of some young gentlemen, who gave away in
exchange various articles which the inhabitants had not seen before,
and which captivated their fancy above nails, or more useful iron
tools. One of the gentleman had given for a pig a very large quantity
of red feathers, which he had gotten at Amsterdam. The effect of this
was particularly fatal. It was not possible to support the trade, in
the manner in which it was now begun, even for a single day. When,
therefore, our commander found that he was not likely to be supplied,
on any conditions, with sufficient refreshments, and that the island
was neither very convenient for taking in wood and water, nor for
affording the necessary repairs of the ship, he determined to proceed
immediately to some other place, where the wants of his people could
be effectually relieved. After having been nineteen weeks at sea, and
having lived all that time upon salt diet, a change in their food
could not avoid being peculiarly desirable: and yet, on their arrival
at St. Christina, it could scarcely be asserted that a single man was
sick; and there were but a few who had the least complaint of any
kind. 'This,' says Captain Cook, 'was undoubtedly owing to the many
antiscorbutic articles we had on board, and to the great attention of
the surgeon, who was remarkably careful to apply them in time.' It may
justly be added, that this was likewise owing to the singular care of
the captain himself, and to the exertions of his authority, in
enforcing the excellent regulations which his wisdom and humanity had
adopted.

The chief reason for our commander's touching at the Marquesas
Islands, was to fix their situation; that being the only circumstance
in which the nautical account of them, given in Mr. Dalrymple's
collection, is deficient. It was farther desirable to settle this
point, as it would lead to a more accurate knowledge of Mendana's
other discoveries. Accordingly, Captain Cook has marked the situation
of the Marquesas with his usual correctness. He has also taken care to
describe the particular cove in Resolution Bay, in the island of St.
Christina, which is most convenient for obtaining wood and water.

It is remarkable, with respect to the inhabitants of the Marquesas
Islands, that collectively taken, they are, without exception the
finest race of people in this sea. Perhaps they surpass all other
nations in symmetry of form, and regularity of features. It is plain,
however, from the affinity of their language to that of Otaheite and
the Society Isles, that they are of the same origin. Of this affinity
the English were fully sensible, though they could not converse with
them; but Oedidee was capable of doing it tolerably well.

From the Marquesas, Captain Cook steered for Otaheite, with a view of
falling in with some of the islands discovered by former navigators,
and especially by the Dutch, the situation of which had not been
accurately determined. In the course of the voyage, he passed a number
of low islots, connected together by reefs of coral rocks. One of the
islands, on which Lieutenant Cooper went on shore, with two boats well
armed, was called by the natives Tiookea. It had been discovered and
visited by Captain Byron. The inhabitants of Tiookea are of a much
darker colour than those of the higher islands, and appeared to be
more fierce in their dispositions. This may be owing to their manner
of gaining their subsistence, which is chiefly from the sea, and to
their being much exposed to the sun and the weather. Our voyagers
observed, that they were stout well-made men, and that they had marked
on their bodies the figure of a fish, which was a good emblem of their
profession.

Besides passing by St. George's Islands, which had been so named by
Captain Byron, our commander made the discovery of four others. These
he called Palliser's Isles, in honour of his particular friend, Sir
Hugh Palliser. The inhabitants seemed to be the same sort of people as
those of Tiookea, and, like them, were armed with long pikes. Captain
Cook could not determine with any degree of certainty, whether the
group of isles he had lately seen, were, or were not, any of those
that had been discovered by the Dutch navigators. This was owing to
the neglect of recording, with sufficient accuracy, the situation of
their discoveries. Our commander, hath, in general, observed with
regard to this part of the ocean, that, from the latitude of twenty
down to fourteen or twelve, and from the meridian of a hundred and
thirty-eight to a hundred and forty-eight or a hundred and fifty west,
it is so strewed with low isles, that a navigator cannot proceed with
too much caution.

On the 22nd of April, Captain Cook reached the Island of Otaheite, and
anchored in Matavia Bay. As his chief reason for putting in at this
place was to give Mr. Wales an opportunity of ascertaining the error
Of the watch by the known longitude, and to determine anew her rate of
going, the first object was to land the instruments, and to erect
tents for the reception of a guard, and such other people, as it was
necessary to have on shore. Sick there were none; for the refreshments
which had been obtained at the Marquesas had removed every complaint
of that kind.

From the quantity of provisions, which, contrary to expectation, our
commander now found at Otaheite, he determined to make a longer stay
in the island than he had at first intended. Accordingly, he took
measures for the repairs of the ship, which the high southern
latitudes had rendered indispensably necessary.

During Captain Cook's stay at Otaheite, he maintained a most friendly
connexion with the inhabitants; and a continual interchange of visits
was preserved between him and Otoo, Towha, and other chiefs of the
country. His traffic with them was greatly facilitated by his having
fortunately brought with him some red parrot feathers from the island
of Amsterdam. These were jewels of high value in the eyes of the
Otaheitans. The captain's stock in trade was by this time greatly
exhausted; so that, if it had not been for the feathers, he would have
found it difficult to have supplied the ship with the necessary
refreshments.

Among other entertainments which our commander and the rest of the
English gentlemen met with at Otaheite, one was a grand naval review.
The vessels of war consisted of a hundred and sixty large double
canoes, well equipped, manned, and armed. They were decorated with
flags and streamers; and the chiefs, together with all those who were
on the fighting stages, were dressed in their war habits. The whole
fleet made a noble appearance; such as our voyagers had never seen
before in this sea, or could ever have expected. Besides the vessels
of war, there were a hundred and seventy sail of smaller double
canoes, which seemed to be designed for transports and victuallers.
Upon each of them was a little house; and they were rigged with mast
and sail, which was not the case with the war canoes. Captain Cook
guessed, that there were no less than seven thousand seven hundred and
sixty men in the whole fleet. He was not able to obtain full
information concerning the design of this armament.

Notwithstanding the agreeable intercourse that was, in general,
maintained between our commander and the people of Otaheite,
circumstances occasionally happened, which called for peculiar
exertions of his prudence and resolution. One of the natives, who had
attempted to steal a water-cask from the watering-place, was caught in
the fact, sent on board, and put in irons. In this situation, he was
seen by King Otoo, and other chiefs. Captain Cook having made known to
them the crime of their countryman, Otoo entreated that he might be
set at liberty. This the captain however refused, alleging, that since
he punished his own people, when they committed the least offence
against Otoo's, it was but just that this man should also be punished.
As Captain Cook knew that Otoo would not punish him, he resolved to do
it himself. Accordingly, he directed the criminal to be carried on
shore to the tents, and having himself followed, with the chiefs and
other Otaheitans, he ordered the guard out, under arms, and commanded
the man to be tied up to a post. Otoo again solicited the culprit's
release, and in this he was seconded by his sister, but in vain. The
captain expostulated with him on the conduct of the man, and of the
Indians in general; telling him, that neither he nor any of the ship's
company, took the smallest matter of property from them without first
paying for it; enumerating the articles which the English had given in
exchange for such and such things; and urging, that it was wrong in
them to steal from those who were their friends. He added, that the
punishing of the guilty person would be the means of saving the lives
of several of Otoo's people, by deterring them from committing crimes
of the like nature, and thus preventing them from the danger of being
shot to death, which would certainly happen, at one time or other, if
they persisted in their robberies. With these arguments the king
appeared to be satisfied, and only desired that the man might not be
killed. Captain Cook then directed, that the crowd, which was very
great, should be kept at a proper distance, and, in the presence of
them all, ordered the fellow two dozen of lashes with a
cat-o'-nine-tails. This punishment the man sustained with great
firmness, after which he was set at liberty. When the natives were
going away, Towha called them back, and, with much gracefulness of
action, addressed them in a speech of nearly half an hour in length,
the design of which was to condemn their present conduct, and to
recommend a different one for the future. To make a farther impression
upon the minds of the inhabitants, our commander ordered his marines
to go through their exercises, and to load and fire in volleys with
ball. As they were very quick in their manoeuvres, it is more easy to
conceive than to describe the amazement which possessed the Indians
during the whole time, and especially those of them who had not seen
any thing of the kind before.

The judicious will discern, with regard to this narrative, that it
throws peculiar light on Captain Cook's character. Nor is it an
uncurious circumstance in the history of human society, that a
stranger should thus exercise jurisdiction over the natives of a
country, in the presence of the prince of that country, without his
authority, and even contrary to his solicitations.

Another disagreeable altercation with the inhabitants of Otaheite
arose from the negligence of one of the English sentinels on shore.
Having either slept or quitted his post, an Indian seized the
opportunity of carrying off his musket. When any extraordinary theft
was committed, it immediately excited such an alarm among the natives
in general, from their fear of Captain Cook's resentment, that they
fled from their habitations, and a stop was put to the traffic for
provisions. On the present occasion, the captain had no small degree
of trouble; but, by his prudent conduct, the musket was recovered,
peace restored, and commerce again opened. In the differences which
happened with the several people he met with in his voyages, it was a
rule with him, never to touch the least article of their property, any
farther than to detain their canoes for a while, when it became
absolutely necessary. He always chose the most mild and equitable
methods of bringing them to reason; and in this he not only succeeded,
but frequently put things upon a better footing than if no contention
had taken place.

During this visit to Otaheite, fruit and other refreshments were
obtained in great plenty. The relief arising from them was the more
agreeable and salutary, as the bread of the ship was in a bad
condition. Though the biscuit had been aired and picked at New
Zealand, it was now in such a state of decay, that it was necessary
for it to undergo another airing and cleaning, in which much of it was
found wholly rotten, and unfit to be eaten. This decay was judged to
be owing to the ice our navigators had frequently taken in, when to
the southward, which made the hold of the vessel cold and damp, and to
the great heat that succeeded when they came to the north. Whatever
was the cause, the loss was so considerable, that the men were put to
a scanty allowance in this article, with the additional mortification,
of the bread's being bad as could be used.

Two goats, that had been given by Captain Furneaux to Otoo, in the
former part of the voyage, seemed to promise fair for answering the
purposes for which they were left upon the island. The ewe, soon
after, had two female kids, which were now so far grown as to be
almost ready to propagate. At the same time, the old ewe was again
with kid. The people were very fond of them, and they were in
excellent condition. From these circumstances, Captain cook
entertained a hope, that, in a course of years they would multiply so
much, as to be extended over all the isles of the Southern Ocean. The
like success did not attend the sheep which had been left in the
country. These speedily died, one excepted, which was said to be yet
alive. Our navigators also furnished the natives with cats, having
given away no less than twenty at Otaheite, besides some which had
been made presents of at Ulietea and Huaheine.

With regard to the number of the inhabitants of Otaheite, our
commander collected, from comparing several facts together, that,
including women and children, there could not be less, in the whole
island, than two hundred and four thousand. This number, at first
sight, exceeded his belief. But when he came to reflect on the vast
swarms of people that appeared whereever he went, he was convinced,
that the estimate was agreeable to truth.

Such was the friendly treatment which our voyagers met with at
Otaheite, that one of the gunner's mates was induced to form a plan
for remaining in the country. As he knew that he could not execute his
scheme with success, while the Resolution continued in Matavai Bay, he
took the opportunity, when she was ready to quit it, and the sails
were set for the purpose, to slip overboard. Being a good swimmer, he
had no doubt of getting safe to a canoe, which was at some distance
ready to receive him; for his design was concerted with the natives,
and had even been encouraged by Otoo. However, he was discovered
before he had gotten clear of the ship, and a boat being presently
hoisted out, he was taken up, and brought back to the vessel. When our
commander reflected on this man's situation, he did not think him very
culpable, or his desire of staying in the island so extraordinary, as
might at first view be imagined. He was a native of Ireland, and had
sailed in the Dutch service. Captain Cook, on his return from his
former voyage, had picked him up at Batavia, and had kept him in his
employment ever since. It did not appear, that he had either friends
or connexions, which could bind him to any particular part of the
world. All nations being alike to him, where could he be more happy
than at Otaheite? Here, in one of the finest climates of the globe, he
could enjoy not only the necessaries, but the luxuries of life, in
ease and plenty. The captain seems to think, that if the man had
applied to him in time, he might have given his consent to his
remaining in the country.

On the 15th of May, Captain Cook anchored in O'Wharre Harbour, in the
island of Huaheine. He was immediately visited by his friend Oree, and
the same agreeable intercourse subsisted between the captain and this
good old chief, which had formerly taken place. Red feathers were not
here in such estimation as they had been at Otaheite; the natives of
Huaheine having the good sense to give a preference to the more useful
articles of nails and axes. During the stay of our voyagers in the
island, some alarms were occasioned by the thievish disposition of
several of the inhabitants; but matters subsided without any material
consequences. A solemn march, which our commander made through part of
the country, at the head of forty-eight men, tended to impress the
Indians with a sense of his power and authority. In fact, their
attempts at stealing had been too much invited by the indiscretion of
some of the English, who unguardedly separated themselves in the
woods, for the purpose of killing birds; and who managed their muskets
so unskillfully, as to render them less formidable in the eyes of the
natives.

I cannot persuade myself to omit a dramatic entertainment, at which
several of the gentlemen belonging to the Resolution attended one
evening. The piece represented a girl as running away with our
navigators from Otaheite; and the story was partly founded in truth;
for a young woman had taken a passage in the ship, down to Ulietea.
She happened to be present at the representation of her own
adventures; which had such an effect upon her, that it was with great
difficulty that she could be prevailed upon by the English gentlemen
to see the play out, or to refrain from tears while it was acting. The
piece concluded with the reception which she was supposed to meet with
from her friends at her return; and it was a reception that was by no
means favourable. As these people, when they see occasion, can add
little extempore pieces to their entertainments, it is reasonable to
imagine, that the representation now described was intended as a
satire against the girl, and to discourage others from following her
steps. Such is the sense which they entertain of the propriety of
female decorum.

During Captain Cook's stay at Huaheine, breadfruit, cocoa-nuts, and
other vegetable productions, were procured in abundance, but not a
sufficiency of hogs to supply the daily expense of the ship. This was
partly owing to a want of proper articles for traffic. The captain was
obliged, therefore, to set the smiths at work to make different sorts
of nails, iron tools, and instruments, in order to enable him to
obtain refreshments at the islands he was yet to visit, and to support
his credit and influence among the natives.

When our commander was ready to sail from Huaheine, Oree was the last
man that went out of the vessel. At parting, Captain Cook told him,
that they should meet each other no more; at which he wept and said,
'Let your sons come, we will treat them well.'

At Ulietea, to which the captain next directed his course, the events
that occurred were nearly similar to those which have already been
related. He had always been received by the people of this island in
the most hospitable manner, and they were justly entitled to every
thing which it was in his power to grant. They expressed the deepest
concern at his departure, and were continually importuning him to
return. Oree the chief, and his wife and daughter, but especially the
two latter, scarcely ever ceased weeping. Their grief was so
excessive, that it might, perhaps, be doubted whether it was entirely
sincere and unaffected; but our commander was of opinion that it was
real. At length, when he was ready to sail, they took a most
affectionate leave. Oree's last request to Captain Cook was, that he
would return; and when he could not obtain a promise to that effect,
he asked the name of his burying-place. To this strange question the
captain answered, without hesitation, that it was Stepney; that being
the parish in which he lived when in London. Mr. Forster, to whom the
same question was proposed, replied with greater wisdom and
recollection, that no man, who used the sea, could say where he should
be buried.

As our commander could not promise, or even then suppose, that more
English ships would be sent to the southern isles, Oedidee, who for so
many months had been the faithful companion of our navigators, chose
to remain in his native country. But he left them with a regret fully
demonstrative of his esteem and affection, nor could any thing have
torn him from them, but the fear of never returning. When Oree pressed
so ardently Captain Cook's return, he sometimes gave such answers, as
left room for hope. At these answers Oedidee would eagerly catch, take
him on one side, and ask him over again. The captain declares, that he
had not words to describe the anguish which appeared in this young
man's breast, when he went away. He looked up at the ship, burst into
tears, and then sunk down into the canoe. Oedidee was a youth of good
parts, and of a docile, gentle, and humane disposition; but as he was
almost wholly ignorant of the religion, government, manners, customs,
and traditions of his countrymen, and the neighbouring islands, no
material knowledge could have been collected from him, had our
commander brought him away. He would, however, in every respect, have
been a better specimen of the nation than Omai.

When Captain Cook first came to these islands, he had some thoughts of
visiting Tupia's famous Bolabola. But having obtained a plentiful
supply of refreshments, and the route he had in view allowing him no
time to spare, he laid this design aside, and directed his course to
the west. Thus did he take his leave, as he then thought, for ever, of
these happy isles, on which benevolent nature has spread her luxuriant
sweets with a lavish hand; and in which the natives, copying the
bounty of Providence, are equally liberal; being ready to contribute
plentifully and cheerfully to the wants of navigators.[8]

  [Footnote 8: From Mr. Wales's observations it appeared, that
  during five mouths, in which the watch had passed through the
  extremes of heat and cold, it went better in the cold than in the
  hot climates.]

On the 6th of June, the day after our voyagers left Ulietea, they saw
land, which they found to be a low reef island, about four leagues in
compass, and of a circular form. This was Howe Island, which had been
discovered by Captain Wallis. Nothing remarkable occurred from tills
day to the 16th, when land was again seen. It was another reef island;
and being a new discovery, Captain Cook gave it the name of Palmerston
Island, in honour to Lord Palmerston. On the 20th, fresh land
appeared, which was perceived to be inhabited. This induced our
commander to go on shore with a party of gentlemen; but the natives
were found to be fierce and untractable. All endeavours to bring them
to a parley were to no purpose; for they came on with the ferocity of
wild boars, and instantly threw their darts. Two or three muskets
discharged in the air, did not prevent one of them from advancing
still farther, and throwing another dart, or rather a spear, which
passed close over Captain Cook's shoulder. The courage of this man had
nearly cost him his life. When he threw his spear, he was not five
paces from the captain, who had resolved to shoot him for his own
preservation. It happened, however, that his musket missed fire; a
circumstance on which he afterward reflected with pleasure. When he
joined his party, and tried his musket in the air, it went off
perfectly well. This island, from the disposition and behaviour of the
natives, with whom no intercourse could be established, and from whom
no benefit could be received, was called by our commander Savage
Island. It is about eleven leagues in circuit; is of a round form and
good height: and has deep waters close to its shores. Among its other
disadvantages, it is not furnished with a harbour.

In pursuing his course to the west-south-west, Captain Cook passed by
a number of small islands, and, on the 26th, anchored on the north
side of Anamocka, or Rotterdam. A traffic immediately commenced with
the natives, who brought what provisions they had, being chiefly yams
and shaddocks, which they exchanged for nails, beads, and other small
articles. Here, as in many former cases, the captain was put to some
trouble, on account of the thievish disposition of the inhabitants. As
they had gotten possession of an adze and two muskets, he found it
necessary to exert himself with peculiar vigour, in order to oblige
them to make a restitution. For this purpose, he commanded all the
marines to be armed, and sent on shore; and the result of this measure
was, that the things which had been stolen were restored. In the
contest, Captain Cook was under the necessity of firing some small
shot at a native, who had distinguished himself by his resistance. His
countrymen afterward reported that he was dead; but he was only
wounded, and that not in a dangerous manner. Though his sufferings
were the effects of his own misbehaviour the captain endeavoured to
soften them by making him a present, and directing his wounds to be
dressed by the surgeon of the ship.

The first time that our commander landed at Anamocka, an old lady
presented him with a girl, and gave him to understand that she was at
his service. Miss, who had previously been instructed, wanted a
spikenail or a shirt, neither of which he had to give her; and he
flattered himself, that by making the two women sensible of his
poverty, he should easily get clear of their importunities. In this,
however, he was mistaken. The favours of the young lady were offered
upon credit; and on his declining the proposal, the old woman began to
argue with him, and then to abuse him. As far as he could collect from
her countenance and her actions, the design of her speech was both to
ridicule and reproach him, for refusing to entertain so fine a young
woman. Indeed the girl was by no means destitute of beauty; but
Captain Cook found it more easy to withstand her allurements than the
abuses of the ancient matron, and therefore hastened into his boat.

While the captain was on shore at Anamocka, he got the names of twenty
islands, which lie between the north-west and north-east. Some of them
were in sight; and two of them, which are most to the west, are
remarkable on account of their great height. These are Amattafoa and
Oghao. From a continual column of smoke which was seen daily ascending
from the middle of Amattafoa, it was judged that there was a volcano
in that island.

Anamocka was first discovered by Tasman, and by him was named
Rotterdam. It is of a triangular form, and each side extends about
three and a half or four miles. From the north-west to the south of
the island, round by the east and north, it is encompassed by a number
of small isles, sand-banks, and breakers. An end could not be seen to
their extent to the north, and they may possibly reach as far to the
south as Amsterdam or Tongataboo. Together with Middleburg, or Eaoowe,
and Pilsart, these form a group, containing about three degrees of
latitude, and two of longitude. To this group Captain Cook had given
the name of the Friendly Isles, or Archipelago, from the firm alliance
and friendship which seemed to subsist among their inhabitants, and
from their courteous behaviour to strangers. The same group may
perhaps be extended much farther, even down to Boscawen and Keppel's
Isles, which were discovered by Captain Wallis, and lie nearly in the
same meridian.

Whilst our commander was at Anamocka, he was particularly assiduous to
prevent the introduction of a certain disorder. As some of his people
brought with them the remains of this disease from the Society Isles,
he prohibited them from having any female intercourse, and he had
reason to believe that his endeavours were successful.

The productions of Rotterdam, and the persons, manners, and customs of
its inhabitants, are similar to those of Amsterdam. It is not, however
equally plentiful in its fruits, nor is every part of it in so high a
state of cultivation. Neither hath it arisen to the same degree of
wealth, with regard to cloth, matting, ornaments, and other articles
which constitute the chief riches of the islanders of the Southern
Ocean.

Pursuing their course to the west, our navigators discovered land on
the 1st of July; and, upon a nearer approach, found it to be a small
island, to which, on account of the number of turtle that were seen
upon the coast, Captain Cook gave the name of Turtle Isle. On the
16th, high land was seen bearing south-west, which no one doubted to
be the Australis del Espirito Santo of Quiros, and which is called by
M. de Bougainville the Great Cyclades. After exploring the coast for
some days, the captain came to an anchor, in a harbour in the island
of Mallicollo. One of his first objects was to commence a friendly
intercourse with the natives; but, while he was thus employed, an
accident occurred, which threw all into confusion, though in the end
it was rather advantageous than hurtful to the English. A fellow in a
canoe, having been refused admittance into one of our boats, bent his
bow to shoot a poisoned arrow at the boatkeeper. Some of his
countrymen having prevented his doing it that instant, time was given
to acquaint our commander with the transaction, who immediately ran
upon deck. At this minute, the Indian had directed his bow to the
boatkeeper; but upon being called to by Captain Cook, he pointed it at
him. Happily, the captain had a musket in his hand loaded with small
shot, and gave him the contents. By this however, he was only
staggered for a moment; for he still held his bow in the attitude of
shooting. A second discharge of the same nature made him drop it, and
obliged him, together with the other natives who were in the canoe, to
paddle off with all possible celerity. At this time, some of the
inhabitants began to shoot arrows from another quarter. A musket
discharged in the air had no effect upon them, but no sooner was a
four-pound ball shot over their heads than they fled in the utmost
confusion.

A few hours after these transactions, the English put off in two
boats, and landed in the face of four or five hundred people, who were
assembled on the shore and who, though they were all armed with bows
and arrows, clubs, and spears, made not the least opposition. On the
contrary, when they saw Captain Cook advance with nothing but a green
branch in his hand, one of them, who appeared to be a chief, giving
his bow and arrows to another, met the captain in the water, bearing
also a green branch. These being mutually exchanged in token of
friendship, the chief led our commander to the crowd, to whom he
immediately distributed presents. The marines, in the mean time, were
drawn up on the beach. Captain Cook then acquainted the Indians, by
signs, that he wanted wood; and in the same manner permission was
granted him to cut down the trees.

Much traffic could not be carried on with these people, because they
set no value on nails, or iron tools, or, indeed, on any articles
which our navigators could furnish. In such exchanges as they did
make, and which were principally of arrows for pieces of cloth, they
distinguished themselves by their honesty. When the ship had begun to
sail from the island, and they might easily, in consequence of their
canoes dropping astern, have avoided delivering the things they had
been paid for, they used their utmost efforts to get up with her, that
they might discharge their obligations. One man, in particular,
followed the Resolution, a considerable time, and did not reach her
till the object which brought him was forgotten. As soon as he came
alongside the vessel, he held up the thing which had been purchased;
and, though several of the crew offered to buy it, he insisted upon
delivering it to the person to whom it had been sold. That person, not
knowing him again, would have given something in return; but this he
refused, and shewed him what he had before received. There was only a
single instance in which the natives took, or even attempted to take,
any thing from our voyagers, by any means whatever; and in that case
restitution was immediately made, without trouble and without
altercation.

The inhabitants of Mallicollo, in general, are the most ugly and ill
proportioned people that Captain Cook had ever seen, and are in every
respect different from all the nations which had been met with in the
Southern Ocean. They are a very dark-coloured, and rather a diminutive
race, with long heads, flat faces, and countenances, which have some
resemblance to that of the monkey. Their hair, which is mostly
black or brown, is short and curly; but not altogether so soft and
woolly as that of a negro. The difference of this people from any whom
our commander had yet visited, appeared not only in their persons but
their language. Of about eighty words, which were collected by Mr.
Forster, scarcely one was found to bear any affinity to the language
spoken in any country or island hitherto described. It was observed by
Captain Cook, that the natives could pronounce most of the English
words with great ease. They had not so much as a name for a dog, and
knew nothing of that animal; for which reason the captain left them a
dog and a bitch; and as they were very fond of them, it was highly
probable that the breed would be fostered and increased.

To the harbour, in which our commander anchored, while he lay at
Mallicollo, he gave the name of Port Sandwich. It has many advantages,
with regard to depth of water, shelter from winds, and lying so near
the shore as to be a cover to those of a ship's company who may be
carrying on any necessary operations at land.

Soon after our navigators had gotten to sea, which was on the 23rd of
July, they discovered three or four small islands, that before had
appeared to be connected. At this time the Resolution was not far from
the Isle of Ambrym, the Isle of Paoom, and the Isle of Apee. On the
next morning, several more islands were discovered, lying off the
south-east point of Apee, and constituting a group, which Captain Cook
called Shepherd's isles, in honour of his learned and valuable friend,
Dr. Shepherd, Plumian professor of Astronomy at Cambridge. The ship
was this day in some danger. It suddenly fell calm, and our voyagers
were left to the mercy of the current, close by the isles, where no
sounding could be found with a line of a hundred and eighty fathoms.
The lands or islands, which lay around the vessel in every direction,
were so numerous, that they could not be counted. At this crisis a
breeze sprung up, which happily relieved the captain and his company
from the anxiety the calm had occasioned.

Amidst the number of islands, that were continually seen by our
navigators, there was only one on which no inhabitants were discerned.
This consisted chiefly of a remarkable peaked rock, which was only
accessible to birds, and which obtained the name of the Monument.

In the farther course of the ship to the southward, our navigators
drew near to certain lands, which they found to consist of one large
island, the southern and western extremities of which extended beyond
their sight. Three or four smaller ones lay off its north side. To the
two principal of these Captain Cook gave the name of Montagu and
Hinchinbrook; and the large island he named Sandwich, in honour of his
noble patron, the Earl of Sandwich. This island, which was spotted
with woods and lawns, agreeably diversified over the whole surface,
and which had a gentle slope from the hills down to the sea-coast
exhibited a most beautiful and delightful prospect. The examination of
it was not, however, so much an object with our commander as to
proceed to the south, in order to find the southern extremity of the
Archipelago.

Pursuing his discoveries, Captain Cook came in sight of an island,
which was afterwards known to be called by the natives Erromango.
After coasting it for three days, he brought his vessel to anchor in a
bay there, on the 3rd of August. The next day, he went with two boats
to examine the coast, and to look for a proper landing-place, that he
might obtain a supply of wood and water. At this time, the inhabitants
began to assemble on the shore, and by signs to invite our people to
land. Their behaviour was apparently so friendly, that the captain was
charmed with it; and the only thing which could give him the least
suspicion was, that most of them were armed with clubs, spears, darts,
and bows and arrows. He did not, therefore, remit his vigilance; but
kept his eye continually upon the chief, watching his looks, as well
as his actions. It soon was evident that the intentions of the Indians
were totally hostile. They made a violent attempt to sieze upon one of
the boats; and though, on our commander's pointing a musket at them,
they in some measure desisted, yet they returned in an instant,
seemingly determined to carry their design into execution. At the head
of the party was the chief; while others, who could not come at the
boat, stood behind with darts, stones, and bows and arrows in hand,
ready to support their countrymen. As signs and threats had no effect,
the safety of Captain Cook and his people became the only object of
consideration; and yet he was unwilling to fire on the multitude. He
resolved, therefore, to make the chief alone the victim of his own
treachery, and accordingly aimed his musket at him; but at this
critical moment it missed fire. This circumstance encouraged the
natives to despise our weapons, and to shew the superiority of their
own, by throwing stones and darts and by shooting arrows. Hence it
became absolutely necessary for the captain to give orders to his men
to fire upon the assailants. The first discharge threw them into
confusion; but a second was scarcely sufficient to drive them off the
beach. In consequence of this skirmish, four of the Indians lay, to
all appearance, dead on the shore. However, two of them were afterward
perceived to crawl into the bushes; and it was happy for these people
that not half of the muskets of the English would go off, since
otherwise many more must have fallen. The inhabitants were, at length,
so terrified as to make no farther appearance; and two oars which had
been lost in the conflict, were left standing up against the bushes.

It was observed of these islanders, that they seemed of a different
race from those of Mallicollo, and that they spoke a different
language. They are of a middle size, with a good shape and tolerable
features. Their colour is very dark; and their aspect is not mended by
a custom they have of painting their faces, some with black, and
others with red pigment. As to their hair, it is curly and crisp, and
somewhat woolly. The few women who were seen, and who appeared to be
ugly, wore a kind of petticoat, made either of palm leaves, or a plant
similar in its nature; but the men, like those of Mallicollo, were
almost entirely naked. On account of the treacherous behaviour of the
inhabitants of Erromango, Captain Cook called a promontory, or
peninsula, near which the skirmish happened, _Traitor's Head_.

From this place the captain sailed for an island which had been
discovered before, at a distance, and at which, on account of his
wanting a large quantity of wood and water, he was resolved to make
some stay. At first the natives were disposed to be very hostile but
our commander, with equal wisdom and humanity contrived to terrify
them, without danger to their lives. This was principally effected by
firing a few great guns, at which they were so much alarmed, as
afterwards to be brought to tolerable order. Among these islanders,
many were inclined to be on friendly terms with our navigators, and
especially the old people; whilst most of the younger were daring and
insolent, and obliged the English to keep to their arms. It was
natural enough, that age should be prudent and cautious, and youth
bold and impetuous; and yet this distinction, with regard to the
behaviour of the various nations which had been visited by Captain
Cook, had not occurred before.

The island, where the captain now stayed, was found upon inquiry to be
called, by the inhabitants, Tanna; and three others in its
neighbourhood, and which could be seen from it, were distinguished by
the names of Immer, Erronan or Footoona and Annatom.

From such information of the natives, as our commander could see no
reason to doubt, it appeared, that circumcision was practised among
them, and that they were eaters of human flesh. Concerning the latter
subject, he should never have thought of asking them a single
question, if they had not introduced it themselves, by inquiring
whether the English had the same custom. It hath been argued, that
necessity alone could be the origin of this horrid practice. But as
the people of Tanna are possessed of fine pork and fowls, together
with an abundance of roots and fruits, the plea of necessity cannot be
urged in their behalf. In fact, no instance was seen of their eating
human flesh; and, therefore, there might, perhaps, be some reason to
hesitate, in pronouncing them to be cannibals.

By degrees the inhabitants grew so courteous and civil, as to permit
the English gentlemen to ramble about in the skirts of the woods, and
to shoot in them, without affording them the least molestation, or
shewing any dislike. One day, some boys of the island having gotten
behind thickets, and thrown two or three stones at our people, who
were cutting wood, they were fired at by the petty officers on duty.
Captain Cook, who was then on shore, was alarmed at the report of the
muskets; and, when he was informed of the cause, was much displeased
that so wanton a use should be made of our fire-arms. Proper measures
were taken by him to prevent such conduct for the future.

In the island of Tanna was a volcano, which sometimes made a dreadful
noise, and, at each explosion, which happened every three or four
minutes, threw up fire and smoke in prodigious columns. At one time,
great stones were seen high in the air. At the foot of the hill were
several hot springs; and on the side of it Mr. Forster found some
places whence smoke of a sulphureous smell issued, through cracks or
fissures of the earth. A thermometer that was placed in a little hole
made in one of them, and which in the open air stood only at eighty,
rose to a hundred and seventy. In another instance, the mercury rose
to a hundred and ninety-one. Our commander, being desirous of getting
a nearer and good view of the volcano, set out with a party for that
purpose. But the gentlemen met with so many obstructions from the
inhabitants, who were jealous of their penetrating far into the
country, that they thought proper to return.

It is observable, with respect to the volcano of Tanna, that it is not
on the ridge of the hill to which it belongs, but on its side. Nor is
that hill the highest in the country, for there are others near it of
more than double its height. It was in moist and wet weather that the
volcano was most violent.

When our commander was ready to sail from Tanna, an event happened,
which gave him much concern. Just as our people were getting some logs
into the boat, four or five of the natives stepped forward to see what
they were doing. In consequence of the Indians not being allowed to
come within certain limits, the sentinel ordered them back, upon which
they readily complied. At this time, Captain Cook, who had his eyes
fixed upon them, observed the sentry present his piece to the men. The
captain was going to reprove him for his action, when, to his
inexpressible astonishment, the sentry fired. An attack, so causeless
and extraordinary, naturally threw the natives into great confusion.
Most of them fled, and it was with difficulty that our commander could
prevail upon a few of them to remain. As they ran off, he perceived
one of them to fall, who was immediately lifted up by two others, who
took him into the water, washed his wound, and then led him off. The
wounded person not being carried far, Captain Cook sent for the
surgeon of the ship, and accompanied him to the man, whom they found
expiring. The rascal that had fired pretended that an Indian had laid
an arrow across his bow, and was going to shoot at him: so that he
apprehended himself to be in danger. This, however, was no more than
what the islanders had always done, to shew that they were armed as
well as our voyagers. What rendered, the present incident the more
unfortunate was, that it was not the man who bent the bow, but one who
stood near him, that was shot by the sentry.

The harbour where the captain anchored, during his stay at Tanna, was
called by him Port Resolution, after the name of the ship, she being
the first vessel by which it was ever entered. It is no more than a
little creek, three quarters of a mile in length, and about half that
space in breadth. No place can exceed it in its convenience for taking
in wood and water, which are both close to the shore. The inhabitant
of the island, with whom our commander had the most frequent and
friendly connexions, was named Paowang.

Very little trade could be carried on with the people of Tanna. They
had not the least knowledge of iron; and consequently nails, tools,
and other articles made of that metal, and which are so greedily
sought for in the more eastern isles, were here of no consideration.
Cloth could be of no service to persons who go naked.

Among the productions of the island, there is reason to believe that
the nutmeg-tree might be mentioned. This is collected from the
circumstance of Mr. Forster's having shot a pigeon, in the craw of
which a wild nut-meg was discovered. However, though he took some
pains to find the tree, his endeavours were not attended with success.

It was at first thought by our navigators, that the inhabitants of
Tanna were a race between the natives of the Friendly Islands and
those of Mallicollo; but by a short acquaintance with them they were
convinced, that they had little or no affinity to either, excepting in
their hair. Some few men, women, and children, were seen, whose hair
resembled that of the English. With regard, however, to these persons,
it was obvious, that they were of another nation; and it was
understood that they came from Erronan. Two languages were found to be
spoken in Tanna. One of them, which appeared to have been introduced
from Erronan, is nearly, if not exactly, the same with that of the
Friendly islands. The other, which is the proper language of the
country, and which is judged to be peculiar to Tanna, Erromango, and
Annatom, is different from any that had hitherto been met with by our
voyagers.

The people of Tanna, are of the middle size, and for the most part
slender. There are few tall or stout men among them. In general, they
have good feature and agreeable countenances. Like all the tropical
race, they are active and nimble; and seem to excel in the use of
arms, but not to be fond of labour. With respect to the management of
their weapons, Mr. Wales hath made an observation so honourable to
Homer, that were I to omit it, I should not be forgiven by my
classical readers. 'I must confess,' says Mr. Wales. 'I have often
been led to think the feats which Homer represents his heroes as
performing with their spears, a little too much of the marvellous to
be admitted into an heroic poem; I mean when confined within the
strait stays of Aristotle. Nay, even so great an advocate for him as
Mr. Pope, acknowledges them to be surprising. But since I have seen
what these people can do with their wooden spears, and them badly
pointed, and not of a hard nature, I have not the least exception to
any one passage in that great poet on this account. But if I see fewer
exceptions, I can find infinitely more beauties in him; as he has. I
think, scarcely an action, circumstance, or description of any kind
whatever, relating to a spear, which I have not seen and recognized
among these people; as their whirling motion, and whistling noise, as
they fly; their quivering motion, as they stick in the ground when
they fall; their meditating their aim, when they are going to throw;
and their shaking them in their hand, as they go along.'

On the 20th of August, Captain Cook sailed from Tanna, and employed
all the remainder of the month in a farther examination of the islands
around him. He had now finished his survey of the whole Archipelago,
and had gained a knowledge of it, infinitely superior to what had ever
been attained before. The northern islands of this Archipelago were
first discovered in 1606, by that eminent navigator Quiros, who
considered them as part of the Southern continent, which, at that
time, and till very lately, was supposed to exist. M. de Bougainville
was the next person by whom they were visited, in 1768. This
gentleman, however, besides landing in the Isle of Lepers, only made
the discovery, that the country was not connected, but composed of
islands, which he called the Great Cyclades. Captain Cook, besides
ascertaining the situation and extent of these islands, added to them
several new ones, which had hitherto been unknown, and explored the
whole. He thought, therefore, that he had obtained a right to name
them; and accordingly he bestowed upon them the appellation of the
_New Hebrides_. His title to this honour will not be disputed in
any part of Europe, and certainly not by so enlightened and liberal a
people as the French nation.

The season of the year now rendered it necessary for our commander to
return to the south, while he had yet some time to explore any land he
might meet with between the New Hebrides and New Zealand; at which
last place he intended to touch, that he might refresh his people, and
renew his stock of wood and water for another southern course. With
this view, he sailed on the 1st of September, and on the 4th land was
discovered; in a harbour belonging to which the Resolution came to an
anchor the next day. The design of Captain Cook was not only to visit
the country, but to have an opportunity of observing an eclipse of the
sun, which was soon to happen. An intercourse immediately commenced
with the inhabitants, who, during the whole of the captain's stay,
behaved in a very civil and friendly manner. In return, he was
solicitous to render them every service in his power. To Teabooma the
chief, he sent among other articles, a dog and a bitch, both young,
but nearly full grown. It was some time before Teabooma could believe
that the two animals were intended for him; but when he was convinced
of it, he was lost in an excess of joy. Another, and still more
valuable present, was that of a young boar and sow; which, on account
of the absence of the chief when they were brought to land, were
received with great hesitation and ceremony.

The last time that our commander went on shore at this place, he
ordered an inscription to be cut on a large tree, setting forth the
name of the ship, the date of the year, and other circumstances, which
testified that the English were the first discoverers of the country.
This he had before done, wherever such a ceremony seemed necessary.
How the island was called by the natives, our voyagers could never
learn: and therefore, Captain Cook gave it the name of New Caledonia.
The inhabitants are strong, robust, active, and well made. With regard
to the origin of the nation, the captain judged them to be a race
between the people of Tanna and the Friendly Isles; or between those
of Tanna and the New Zealanders; or all three. Their language is in
some respects a mixture of them all. In their disposition they are
courteous and obliging; and they are not in the least addicted to
pilfering, which is more than can be asserted concerning any other
nation in this sea.

The women of New Caledonia, and those likewise of Tanna, were found to
be much chaster than the females of the more eastern islands. Our
commander never heard that the least favour was obtained from them by
any one of his company. Sometimes, indeed, the women would exercise a
little coquetry, but they went no farther.

The botanists of the ship did not here complain for want of
employment. They were diligent in their researches, and their labours
were amply rewarded. Every day brought some new accession to botanical
knowledge, or that of other branches of natural history.

Every thing being ready to put to sea, Captain Cook weighed anchor on
the 13th of September, with the purpose of examining the coast of New
Caledonia. In pursuing this object, by which he was enabled to add
greatly to nautical and geographical knowledge, the Resolution was
more than once in danger of being lost, and particularly, in the night
of the 28th of the month, she had a narrow escape. Our navigators, on
this occasion, were much alarmed; and daylight shewed that their fears
had not been ill founded. Indeed, breakers had been continually under
their lee, and at a small distance from them; so that they were in the
most imminent danger. 'We owed our safety,' says the captain, 'to the
interposition of Providence, a good look-out, and the very brisk
manner in which the ship was managed.'

Our commander now began to be tired of a coast which he could no
longer explore but at the risk of losing the vessel, and ruining the
whole voyage. He determined, however, not to leave it, till he knew of
what kind some groves of trees were, which, by their uncommon
appearance, had occasioned much speculation, and had been mistaken, by
several of the gentlemen, for bisaltes. Captain Cook was the more
solicitous to ascertain the point, as these trees appeared to be of a
sort, which might be useful to shipping, and had not been seen any
where, but in the southern parts of New Caledonia. They proved to be a
species of spruce pine, very proper for spars, which were then wanted.
The discovery was valuable, as, excepting New Zealand, there was not
an island known, in the South Pacific Ocean, where the ship could
supply herself with a mast or yard, to whatever distress she might be
reduced. It was the opinion of the carpenter of the Resolution, who
was a mastmaker as well as a shipwright, that very good masts might be
made from the trees in question. The wood of them, which is white,
close-grained, tough, and light, is well adapted to that purpose. One
of the small islands where the trees were found, was called by the
captain the Isle of Pines. To another, on account of its affording
sufficient employment to the botanists, during the little time they
stayed upon it, he gave the name of Botany Isle.

Captain Cook now took into serious consideration what was farther to
be done. He had pretty well determined the extent of the south-west
coast of New Caledonia, and would gladly have proceeded to a more
accurate survey of the whole, had he not been deterred, not only by
the dangers he must encounter, but by the time required for the
undertaking, and which he could not possibly spare. Indeed, when he
considered the vast ocean he had to explore to the south; the state
and condition of the ship; the near approach of summer; and that any
material accident might detain him in this sea even for another year,
he did not think it advisable to make New Caledonia any longer the
object of his attention. But though he was thus obliged, by necessity,
for the first time, to leave a coast which he had discovered, before
it was fully surveyed, he did not quit it till he had ascertained the
extent of the country, and proved, that, excepting New Zealand, it was
perhaps the largest island in the Southern Pacific Ocean.

As the Resolution pursued her course from New Caledonia, land was
discovered, which on a nearer approach, was found to be an island, of
good height, and five leagues in circuit. Captain Cook named it
Norfolk Isle, in honour of the noble family of Howard. It was
uninhabited; and the first persons that ever set foot on it were
unquestionably our English navigators. Various trees and plants were
observed that are common at New Zealand; and, in particular, the flax
plant, which is rather more luxuriant here than in any part of that
country. The chief produce of the island is a kind of spruce pine,
exceedingly straight and tall, which grows in great abundance. Such is
the size of many of the trees, that, breast high, they are as thick as
two men can fathom. Among the vegetables of the place, the
palm-cabbage afforded both a wholesome and palatable refreshment; and,
indeed, proved the most agreeable repast that our people had for a
considerable time enjoyed. In addition to this gratification, they had
the pleasure of procuring some excellent fish.

From Norfolk Isle, our commander steered for New Zealand, it being his
intention to touch at Queen Charlotte's Sound, that he might refresh
his crew, and put the ship in a condition to encounter the southern
latitudes. On the 18th of October, he anchored before Ship Cove in
that sound; and the first thing he did, after landing, was to look for
the bottle he had left on the shore, in which was a memorandum. It was
taken away; and it soon appeared, from indubitable circumstances, that
the Adventure had been in the cove after it was quitted by the
Resolution.

Upon visiting the gardens which had been formed at Motuara, they were
found almost in a state of nature, having been wholly neglected by the
inhabitants. Many, however, of the articles were in a flourishing
condition and shewed how well they liked the soil in which they were
planted. It was several days before any of the natives made their
appearance; but when they did so, and recognised Captain Cook and his
friends, joy succeeded to fear. They hurried in numbers out of the
woods, and embraced the English over and over again, leaping and
skipping about like madmen. Amidst all this extravagance of joy, they
were careful to preserve the honour of their females; for they would
not permit some women, who were seen at a distance, to cone near our
people. The captain's whole intercourse with the New Zealanders,
during this his third visit to Queen Charlotte's Sound, was peaceable
and friendly; and one of them, a man apparently of consequence, whose
name was Pedro, presented him with a staff of honour, such as the
chiefs generally carry. In return, our commander dressed Pedro, who
had a fine person, and a good presence, in a suit of old clothes, of
which he was not a little proud.

Captain Cook still continued his solicitude to stock the island with
useful animals; and accordingly, in addition to what he had formerly
done, he ordered two pigs a boar and sow, to be put on shore. There
was reason to believe, that some of the cocks and hens which had
formerly been left here still existed. None of them, indeed, were
seen; but a hen's egg was found, which had not been long laid.

Mr. Wales had now an opportunity of completing his observations with
regard to Queen Charlotte's Sound, so as to ascertain its latitude and
longitude with the utmost accuracy. In the captain's former voyage
there had been an error in this respect. Such were Mr. Wales's
abilities and assiduity, that the same correctness was maintained by
him, in determining the situation of all the other places which were
visited by our navigators.

On the 10th of November, Captain Cook took his departure from New
Zealand, in farther pursuit of his great object, the determination of
the question concerning the existence of a southern continent. Having
sailed till the 27th, in different degrees of latitude, extending from
43 to 55° 48' south, he gave up all hopes of finding any more land in
this ocean. He came, therefore, to the resolution of steering directly
for the west entrance of the Straits of Magalhaens, with a view of
coasting the south side of Terra del Fuego, round Cape Horn, to the
Strait Le Maire. As the world had hitherto obtained but a very
imperfect knowledge of this shore, the captain thought that the full
survey of it would be more advantageous, both to navigation and
geography, than any thing he could expect to find in a higher
latitude.

In the prosecution of his voyage, our commander, on the 17th of
December, reached the west coast of Terra del Fuego; and having
continued to range it till the 20th, he came to an anchor in a place
to which he afterwards gave the name of Christmas Sound. Through the
whole course of his various navigations, he had never seen so desolate
a coast. It seems to be entirely composed of rocky mountains, without
the least appearance of vegetation. These mountains terminate to
horrible precipices, the craggy summits of which spire up to a vast
height; so that scarcely any thing in nature can appear with a more
barren and savage aspect, than the whole of the country.

The run which Captain Cook had made directly across the ocean in a
high southern latitude, was believed by him to be the first of the
kind that had ever been carried into execution. He was, therefore,
somewhat particular in remarking every circumstance which seemed to be
in the least material. However, he could not but observe, that he had
never made a passage any where, of such length, or even of a much
shorter extent, in which so few things occurred, that were of an
interesting nature. Excepting the variation of the compass, he knew of
nothing else that was worthy of notice. The captain had now done with
the Southern Pacific Ocean; and he had explored it in such a manner,
that it would be impossible for any one to think that more could be
performed in a single voyage, towards obtaining that end, than had
actually been accomplished.

Barren and dreary as the land is about Christmas Sound, it was not
wholly destitute of some accomodations, which could not fail of being
agreeable to our navigators. Near every harbour they found fresh water
and wood for fuel. The country abounds like-wise with wild fowl, and
particularly with geese; which afforded a refreshment to the whole
crew, that was the more acceptable on account of the approaching
festival. Had not Providence thus happily provided for them, their
Christmas cheer must have been salt beef and pork. Some Madeira wine,
the only article of provision that was mended by keeping, was still
left. This in conjunction with the geese, which were cooked in every
variety of method, enabled our people to celebrate Christmas as
cheerfully as perhaps was done by their friends in England.

The inhabitants of Terra del Fuego, Captain Cook found to be of the
same nation that he had formerly seen in Success Bay; and the same
whom M. de Bougainville has distinguished by the name of Pecharas.
They are a little ugly, half-starved, beardless race, and go almost
naked. It is their own fault that they are no better clothed, nature
having furnished them with ample materials for that purpose. By lining
their seal-skin cloaks with the skins and feathers of aquatic birds;
by making the cloaks themselves larger; and by applying the same
materials to different parts of clothing, they might render their
dress much more warm and comfortable. But while they are doomed to
exist in one of the most inhospitable climates in the globe, they have
not sagacity enough to avail themselves of those means of adding to
the conveniences of life, which Providence has put into their power.
In short, the captain, after having been a witness to so many
varieties of the human race, hath pronounced, that, of all the nations
he had seen, the Pecharas are _the most wretched_.

Notwithstanding the barrenness of the country, it abounds with a
variety of unknown plants, and gave sufficient employment to the
botanists of the Resolution. 'Almost every plant,' says Mr. Forster,
'which we gathered on the rocks, was new to us, and some species were
remarkable for the beauty of their flowers, or their smell.

On the 28th of December, our commander sailed from Christmas Sound,
and proceeded on his voyage, round Cape Horn, through Strait le Maire,
to Staten Land. This famous Cape was passed by him on the next day,
when he entered the Southern Atlantic Ocean. In some charts Cape Horn
is laid down as belonging to a small island; but this was neither
confirmed, nor could it be contradicted by our navigators; for several
breakers appeared in the coast, both to the east and west of it, and
the hazy weather rendered every object very indistinct. Though the
summits of some of the hills were rocky, the sides and valleys seemed
covered with a green turf, and wooded in tufts.

In ranging Staten Island, a good port was found, situated three
leagues to the westward of St. John, and in a northern direction. Upon
account of the day on which the discovery of this port was made (being
the 1st of January), Captain Cook gave it the name of New Year's
Harbour. The knowledge of it may be of service to future navigators.
Indeed, it would be more convenient for ships bound to the west, or
round Cape Horn, if its situation would permit them to put to sea with
an easterly and northerly wind. But this inconvenience is not of great
consequence, since these winds are seldom known to be of long
duration. The captain, however, has declared that if he were on a
voyage round Cape Horn to the west, and not in want of wood or water,
or any thing which might make it necessary to put into port, he would
not approach the land at all. By keeping out at sea the currents would
be avoided, which, he was satisfied, would lose their force at ten or
twelve leagues from land, and be totally without influence at a
greater distance.

The extent of Terra del Fuego, and consequently that of the Straits of
Magalhaens, our commander ascertained to be less than has been laid
down by the generality of navigators. Nor was the coast, upon the
whole, found to be so dangerous as has often been represented. The
weather, at the same time, was remarkably temperate.

In one of the little isles near Staten Land, and which had been called
by Captain Cook, New Year's Isles, there was observed a harmony
between the different animals of the place, which is too curious to be
omitted. It seemed as if they had entered into a league not to disturb
each other's tranquillity. The greater part of the sea-coast is
occupied by the sea-lions; the sea-bears take up their abode in the
isle; the shags are posted in the highest cliffs; the penguins fix
their quarters where there is the most easy communication to and from
the sea; and the rest of the birds choose more retired places. All
these animals were occasionally seen to mix together, like domestic
cattle and poultry in a farm-yard, without one attempting to molest
the other. Nay, the captain had often observed the eagles and vultures
sitting on the hills among the shags, while none of the latter,
whether old or young, appeared to be in the least disturbed at their
presence. It may be asked, then, how do these birds of prey live? This
question our commander hath answered, by supposing that they feed on
the carcasses of seals and birds which die by various causes. It is
probable, from the immense quantity of animals with which this isle
abounds, that such carcasses exist in great numbers.

From Staten island, Captain Cook sailed, on the 4th of January, with a
view, in the first place, of discovering that extensive coast, laid
down by Mr. Dalrymple in his chart, in which is the gulf of St.
Sebastian: In order to have all other parts before him, the captain
designed to make the western point of that gulf. As he had some doubt
of the existence of such a coast, this appeared to him the best route
for determining the matter, and for exploring the southern part of
this ocean. When he came to the situations assigned to the different
points of the gulf of St. Sebastian, neither land nor any unequivocal
signs of land were discovered. On the contrary, it was evident, that
there could not be any extensive tract of country in the direction
which had been supposed.

Proceeding in his voyage, land was seen on the 14th, which was at
first mistaken for an island of ice. It was in a manner wholly covered
with snow. From the person by whom it was first discovered, it
obtained the name of Wallis's Island. It is a high rock, of no great
extent, near to which are some rocky islets. Another island, of a
larger compass, on account of the vast number of birds which were upon
it, was called Bird Isle. A more extensive range of country had been
seen for some time which Captain Cook reached on the 17th, and where
he landed, on the same day, in three different places. The head of the
bay, in which he came to shore, was terminated by particular ice
cliffs, of considerable height. Pieces were continually breaking off,
and floating out to sea; and while our navigators were in the bay, a
great fall happened, which made a noise like a cannon. No less savage
and horrible were the inner parts of the country. The wild rocks
raised their summits till they were lost in the clouds, and the
valleys lay covered with everlasting snow. There was not a tree to be
seen, or a shrub found, that was even big enough to make a tooth-pick.
The only vegetation, that was met with, was a coarse strong-bladed
grass, growing in tufts, wild burnet, and a plant like moss, which
sprang from the rocks.

When our commander landed in the bay, he displayed the English
colours; and, under a discharge of small arms, took possession of the
country in his majesty's name. It was not, however, a discovery which
was ever likely to be productive of any considerable benefit. In his
return to the ship, Captain Cook brought with him a quantity of seals
and penguins, which were an acceptable present to the crew; not from
the want of provisions, which were plentiful in every kind, but from a
change of diet. Any sort of fresh meat was preferred by most on board
to salt. The captain himself was now, for the first time, tired of the
salted meats of the ship; and though the flesh of the penguins could
scarcely vie with bullock's liver, its freshness was sufficient to
render it comparatively agreeable to the palate. To the bay in which
he had been, he gave, the name of Possession Bay.

The land in which this bay lies, was at first judged by our navigators
to be part of a great continent. But, upon coasting round the whole
country, it was proved to a demonstration that it was only an island
of seventy leagues in circuit. In honour of his majesty, Captain Cook
called it the Isle of Georgia. It could scarcely have been thought,
that an island of no greater extent than this, situated between the
latitude of fifty-four and fifty-five, should, in a manner, be wholly
covered, many fathoms deep, with frozen snow, in the height of summer.
The sides and summits of the lofty mountains were cased with snow and
ice; and an incredible quantity lay in the valleys. So immense was the
quantity that our commander did not think that it could be the produce
of the island. Some land, therefore, which he had seen at a distance,
induced him to believe, that it might belong to an extensive tract,
and gave him hopes of discovering a continent. In this respect,
however, he was disappointed; but the disappointment did not sit heavy
upon him; since, to judge of the bulk by the apprehended sample, it
would not have been worth the discovery. It was remarkable, that our
voyagers did not see a river, or a stream of fresh water, on the whole
coast of the Isle of Georgia. Captain Cook judged it to be highly
probable, that there are no perennial springs in the country; and that
the interior parts, in consequence of their being much elevated, never
enjoy heat enough to melt the snow in sufficient quantities to produce
a river or stream of water. In sailing round the island, our
navigators were almost continually involved in a thick mist; so that,
for any thing they knew to the contrary, they might be surrounded with
dangerous rocks.

The captain on the 25th of the month, steered from the Isle of
Georgia, and, on the 27th, computed that he was in latitude sixty,
south. Farther than this he did not intend to go, unless some certain
signs of soon meeting with land should be discovered. There was now a
long hollow swell from the west, which was a strong indication that no
land was to be met with in that direction; and hence arose an
additional proof of what has already been remarked, that the extensive
coast laid down in Mr. Dalrymple's chart of the ocean between Africa
and America and the Gulf of St. Sebastian, doth not exist. Not to
mention the various islands which were seen in the prosecution of the
voyage, and the names that were given to them, I shall only advert to
a few of the more material circumstances. On an elevated coast, which
appeared in sight upon the 31st; our commander bestowed the
appellation of the Southern Thule. The reason of his giving it this
name was, that it is the most southern land that had ever yet been
discovered. It is everywhere covered with snow; and displays a surface
of vast height. On this day our voyagers were in no small danger from
a great westerly swell, which set right upon the shore, and threatened
to carry them on the most horrible coast in the world. Happily, the
discovery of a point to the north, beyond which no land could be seen,
relieved them from their apprehensions. To the more distinguished
tracts of country, which were discovered from the 31st of January to
the 6th of February, Captain Cook gave the names of Cape Bristol, Cape
Montagu, Saunder's Isle, Candlemas Isles, and Sandwich's Land. The
last is either a group of islands, or else a point of the continent.
For that there is a tract of land near the pole, which is the source
of most of the ice that is spread over this vast Southern Ocean, was
the captain's firm opinion. He also thought it probable, that this
land must extend farthest to the north, where it is opposite to the
Southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Ice had always been found by him
farther to the north in these oceans, than any where else, and this he
judged could not be the case, if there were not land of considerable
extent to the south. However, the greatest part of this southern
continent, if it actually exists, must lie within the polar circle,
where the sea is so encumbered with ice, that the land is rendered
inaccessible. So great is the risk which is run, in examining a coast
in these unknown and icy seas, that our commander, with a modest and
well grounded boldness, could assert, that no man would ever venture
farther than he had done; and that the lands which may lie to the
south will never be explored. Thick fogs, snow storms, intense cold,
and every thing besides, that can render navigation dangerous, must be
encountered; all which difficulties are greatly heightened by the
inexpressibly horrid aspect of the country. It is a country doomed by
nature never once to feet the warmth of the sun's rays, but to lie
buried in everlasting snow and ice. Whatever ports there may be on the
coast, they are almost entirely covered with frozen snow of a vast
thickness. If however, any one of them should be so far open as to
invite a ship into it, she would run the risk of being fixed there for
ever, or of coming out in an ice island. To this it may be added, that
the islands and floats on the coast, the great falls from the ice
cliffs in the port, or a heavy snow storm, attended with a sharp
frost, might be equally fatal.

Nothing could exceed the inclination of Captain Cook, if it had been
practicable, to penetrate farther to the south: but difficulties like
these were not to be surmounted. If he had risked all that had been
done during the voyage, for the sake of discovering and exploring a
coast, which, when discovered and explored, would have answered no end
whatever, or have been of the least use either to navigation or
geography, or indeed to any other science, he would justly have been
charged with inexcusable temerity. He determined, therefore, to alter
his course to the east, and to sail in quest of Bouvet's Land, the
existence of which was yet to be settled. Accordingly, this was the
principal object of his pursuit, from the 6th to the 22nd of the
month. By that day he had run down thirteen degrees of longitude, in
the very latitude assigned for Bouvet's Land. No such land, however,
was discovered; nor did any proofs occur of the existence of Cape
Circumcision. Our commander was at this time no more than two degrees
of longitude from the route he had taken to the south, when he left
the Cape of Good Hope. It would, therefore, have been to no purpose to
proceed any farther to the east in this parallel. But being desirous
of determining the question concerning some land that was supposed to
have been seen more to the south, he directed his course for the
situation in which the discovery of it might be expected. Two days
were spent by him in this pursuit, to no effectual purpose. After
having run over the place where the land was imagined to lie, without
meeting with the least signs of any, it became certain that the ice
islands had deceived our navigators, as well as Mr. Bouvet.

Captain Cook had row made the circuit of the southern ocean in a high
latitude, and traversed it in such a manner as to leave not the least
room for the possibility of there being a continent, unless near the
pole, and out of the reach of navigation. By twice visiting the
tropical sea, he had not only settled the situation of some old
discoveries, but made many new ones; and, indeed, even in that part,
had left little more to be accomplished. The intention of the voyage
had, in every respect, been fully answered, and the southern
hemisphere sufficiently explored. A final end was hereby put to the
searching after a southern continent, which, for nearly two centuries
past had occasionally engrossed the attention of some of the maritime
powers, and had been urged with great ardour by philosophers and
geographers in different ages.

The great purpose of his navigation round the globe being thus
completed, the captain began to direct his views towards England. He
had, indeed, some thoughts of protracting his course a little longer,
for the sake of revisiting the place where the French discovery is
said to be situated. But, upon mature deliberation, he determined to
lay aside his intention. He considered, that if this discovery had
really been made, the end would be as fully answered, as if it had
been done by himself. It could only be an island; and, if a judgment
might be formed from the degree of cold which our voyagers had
experienced in that latitude, it could not be a fertile one. Besides,
our commander would hereby have been kept two months longer at sea,
and that in a tempestuous latitude, with which the ship was not in a
condition to struggle. Her sails and rigging were so much worn, that
something was giving way every hour; and there was nothing left,
either to repair or to replace them. The provisions of the vessel were
in such a state of decay, that they afforded little nourishment, and
the company had been long without refreshments. Indeed, the crew were
yet healthy, and would cheerfully have gone wherever the captain had
judged it proper to lead them; but he was fearful, lest the scurvy
should lay hold of them, at a time, when none of the remedies were
left by which it could be removed. He thought, likewise, that it would
have been cruel in him to have continued the fatigues and hardships
they were perpetually exposed to, longer than was absolutely
necessary. Throughout the whole voyage, they had merited by their
behaviour every indulgence which it was in his power to bestow.
Animated by the conduct of the officers, they had shewn that no
difficulties or dangers which came in their way were incapable of
being surmounted; nor had their activity, courage, and cheerfulness
been in the least abated by the separation from them of their consort
the Adventure.

From all these considerations, which were evidently the dictates of
wisdom and humanity, Captain Cook was induced to spend no longer time
in searching for the French discoveries, but to steer for the Cape of
Good Hope. He determined, however, to direct his course in such a
manner, as to look for the Isles of Denia and Marseveen, which are
laid down in Dr. Halley's variation chart. After sailing in the proper
latitudes from the 25th of February to the 13th of March, no such
islands were discovered. Nothing, indeed, had been seen that could
encourage our voyagers to persevere in a search after them; and much
time could not now be spared, either for the purpose of finding them,
or of proving their non-existence. Every one on board was for good
reasons impatient to get into port. The captain, therefore, could no
longer avoid yielding to the general wishes, and resolving to proceed
to the Cape without further delay.

Soon after our commander had come to this determination, he demanded
of the officers and petty officers, in pursuance of his instructions,
the log books and journals they had kept; which were delivered to him
accordingly, and sealed up for the inspection of the Admiralty. He
enjoined them also, and the whole crew, not to divulge where they had
been, till they were permitted to do so by their lordships; an
injunction, a compliance with which might probably be rendered
somewhat difficult, from the natural tendency there is in men, to
relate the extraordinary enterprises and adventures wherein they have
been concerned.

As the Resolution approached towards the Cape of Good Hope, she fell
in first with a Dutch East Indiaman from Bengal, commanded by Captain
Bosch; and next with an English Indiaman, being the True Briton, from
China, of which Captain Broadly was the commander. Mr. Bosch very
obligingly offered to our navigators sugar, arrack, and whatever he
had to spare; and Captain Broadly, with the most ready generosity,
sent them fresh provisions, tea, and various articles which could not
fail of being peculiarly acceptable to people in their situation. Even
a parcel of old news-papers furnished no slight gratification to
persons who had so long been deprived of obtaining any intelligence
concerning their country and the state of Europe. From these vessels
Captain Cook received some information with regard to what had
happened to the Adventure after her separation from the Resolution.

On Wednesday, the 22nd of March,[9] he anchored in Table Bay; where he
found several Dutch ships, some French, and the Ceres, an English East
Indiaman, bound directly for England, under the command of Captain
Newte. By this gentleman he sent a copy of the preceding part of his
journal, some charts, and other drawings, to the Admiralty.

  [Footnote 9: With our navigators who had sailed round the world,
  it was Wednesday, the 22nd of March; but at the Cape of Good Hope
  it was Tuesday the 21st.]

During the circumnavigation of the globe, from the period of our
commander's leaving the Cape of Good Hope to his return to it again,
he had sailed no less than twenty thousand leagues. This was an extent
of voyage nearly equal to three times the equatorial circumference of
the earth, and which had never been accomplished before, by any ship,
in the same compass of duration. In such a case, it could not be a
matter of surprise, that the rigging and sails of the Resolution
should be essentially damaged, and even worn out, and yet, in all this
great run, which had been made in every latitude between nine and
seventy-one, she did not spring either lowmast, topmast, lower or
topsail yard; nor did she so much as break a lower or topmast shroud.
These happy circumstances were owing to the good properties of the
vessel, and the singular care and abilities of her officers.

On the remainder of the voyage it is not necessary to enlarge. Though
it was conducted with the same attention to navigation and geography,
and with the same sagacity in marking whatever was worthy of
observation, nevertheless, as it was not employed in traversing
unknown seas, or in discovering countries that had not been heard of
before, it may be sufficient briefly to mention the places at which
Captain Cook touched before his arrival in England. The repairs of the
ship having been completed, and the necessary stores gotten on board,
together with a fresh supply of provisions and water, he left the Cape
of Good Hope on the 27th of April, and reached the Island of St.
Helena on the 15th of May. Here he staid till the 21st, when he sailed
for the Island of Ascension, where he anchored on the 28th. From this
place he directed his course, on the 31st, for the Island of Fernando
de Noronha, at which he arrived on the 9th of June.

In the progress of the voyage, our commander made an experiment upon
the still for procuring fresh water; and the result of the trial was,
that the invention is useful upon the whole, but that to trust
entirely to it would by no means be advisable. Indeed, provided there
is not a scarcity of fuel, and the coppers are good, as much water may
be obtained as will support life; but no efforts will be able to
procure a quantity sufficient for the preservation of health,
especially in hot climates. Captain Cook was convinced by experience,
that nothing contributes more to the health of seamen, than having
plenty of water.

On the 14th of July, the captain came to anchor in the Bay of Fayal,
one of the Azores islands. His sole design in stopping here was to
give Mr. Wales an opportunity of finding the rate of the watch, that
hereby he might be enabled to fix the longitude of these island with
the greater degree of certainty. No sooner, therefore, had our
commander anchored, than he sent an officer to wait on the English
consul, and to acquaint the governor with the arrival of our
navigators, requesting his permission for Mr. Wales to make
observations on shore, for the purpose now mentioned. Mr. Dent, who
then acted as consul, not only obtained this permission, but
accommodated Mr. Wales with a convenient place in his garden, to set
up his instruments.

This object being accomplished, Captain Cook proceeded on the 19th,
with all expedition for England. On the 30th of the same month, he
anchored at Spithead, and landed at Portsmouth; having been absent
from Great Britain three years and eighteen days, in which time, and
under all changes of climate, he had lost but four men, and only one
of them by sickness.



CHAPTER V.

Account of Captain Cook during the Period between his Second Voyage
and his Voyage to the Pacific Ocean.


The able manner in which Captain Cook had conducted the preceding
voyage, the discoveries he had made, and his complete determination of
the grand point he had been sent to ascertain, justly and powerfully
recommended him to the protection and encouragement of all those who
had patronized the undertaking. No alterations had occurred, during
his absence, in the presidency of the admiralty department. The noble
lord, whose extensive views had taken such a lead in the plans of
navigation and discovery, still continued at the head of that board;
and it could not be otherwise than a high satisfaction to him, that so
extraordinary a degree of success had attended his designs for the
enlargement of science. His lordship lust no time in representing
Captain Cook's merits to the king; nor did his majesty stand in need
of solicitations to shew favour to a man, who had so eminently
fulfilled his royal and munificent intentions. Accordingly our
navigator, on the 9th of August, was raised to the rank of a post
captain. Three days afterwards, he received a more distinguished and
substantial mark of the approbation of government: for he was then
appointed a captain in Greenwich Hospital; a situation which was
intended to afford him a pleasing and honourable reward for his
illustrious labours and services.

It will easily be supposed, that the lovers of science would, in
general, be peculiarly attentive to the effects resulting from Captain
Cook's discoveries. The additions he had made to the knowledge of
geography, navigation, and astronomy, and the new views he had opened
of the diversified state of human life and manners, could not avoid
commanding their esteem, and exciting their admiration. With many
persons of philosophic literature he was in the habits of intimacy and
friendship; he was particularly acquainted with Sir John Pringle, at
that time president of the Royal Society. It was natural, therefore,
that his scientific friends should wish him to become a member of this
learned body; the consequence of which was, that, in the latter end of
the year 1775, he was proposed as a candidate for election. On the
29th of February, 1776, he was unanimously chosen; and he was admitted
on the 7th of March. That same evening, a paper was read, which he had
addressed to Sir John Pringle, containing an account of the method he
had taken to preserve the health of the crew of his majesty's ship the
Resolution, during her voyage round the world. Another paper, at the
request of the president, was communicated by him on the 18th of
April. relative to the tides in the South Seas. The tides particularly
considered were those in the Endeavour River, on the east coast of New
Holland.

A still greater honour was in reserve for Captain Cook, than the
election of him to be a common member of the Royal Society. It was
resolved by Sir John Pringle and the council of the society, to bestow
upon him the estimable prize of the gold medal, for the best
experimental paper, of the year; and no determination could be founded
to greater wisdom and justice. If Captain Cook had made no important
discoveries, if he had not determined the question concerning a
southern continent, his name would have been entitled to immortality,
on account of his humane attention to, and his unparalleled success in
preserving the lives and health of his seamen.

He had good reason, upon this head, to assume the pleasurable, but
modest language, with which he has concluded his narrative of his
second navigation round the globe: 'Whatever,' says he, 'may be the
public judgment about other matters, it is with real satisfaction, and
without claiming any merit but that of attention to my duty, that I
can, conclude this account with an observation, which facts enable us
to make, that our having discovered the possibility of preserving
health among a numerous ship's company, for such a length of time, in
such varieties of climate, and amidst such continued hardships and
fatigues, will make this voyage remarkable, in the opinion of every
benevolent person, when the disputes about the southern continent
shall have ceased to engage the attention, and to divide the judgment
of philosophers.'

It was the custom, of Sir John Pringle, at the delivery of Sir Godfrey
Copley's annual medal, to give an elaborate discourse, containing the
history of that part of science for the improvement of which the medal
was conferred. Upon the present occasion, the president had a subject
to enlarge upon, which was perfectly congenial to his disposition and
studies. His own life had been much employed in pointing out the means
which tended not only to cure, but to prevent, the diseases of
mankind; and, therefore, it was with peculiar pleasure and affection
that he celebrated the conduct of his friend, who, by precautions
equally wise and simple, had rendered the circumnavigation of the
globe, so far as health is concerned, quite a harmless undertaking.
Towards the beginning of his discourse, Sir John justly asks, 'What
inquiry can be so useful as that which hath for its object the saving
the lives of men? and when shall we find one more successful than that
before us? Here,' adds the president, 'are no vain boastings of the
empiric, nor ingenious and delusive theories of the dogmatist; but a
concise and artless, and an incontested relation of the means by
which, under divine favour, Captain Cook, with a company of a hundred
and eighteen men, performed a voyage of three years and eighteen days,
throughout all the climates, from fifty-two degrees north to
seventy-one degrees south, with the loss of only one man by sickness.
I would now inquire.' proceeds Sir John Pringle, 'of the most
conversant to the study of bills of mortality, whether, in the most
healthful climate, and in the best condition of life, they have ever
found so small a number of deaths within that space of time? How great
and agreeable then must our surprise be, after perusing the histories
of long navigations in former days, when so many perished by marine
diseases, to find the air of the sea acquitted of all malignity; and,
in fine, that a voyage round the world may be undertaken with less
danger, perhaps, to health, than a common tour in Europe!'

In the progress of his discourse; the president recounted the dreadful
calamities and destruction the scurvy had heretofore brought upon
mariners in voyages of great length; after which he pointed out at
large, and illustrated with his own observations, the methods pursued
by Captain Cook for preserving the health of his men. In conclusion,
Sir John remarked, that the Royal Society never more cordially or more
meritoriously bestowed the gold medal, that faithful symbol of their
esteem and affection. 'For if,' says he, 'Rome decreed the civic crown
to him who saved the life of a single citizen, what wreaths are due to
that man, who, having himself saved many, perpetuates in your
transactions the means by which Britain may now, on the most distant
voyages, preserve numbers of her intrepid sons, her _mariners_;
who, braving every danger, have so liberally contributed to the fame,
to the opulence, and to the maritime empire of their country!'[10]

  [Footnote 10: Sir John Pringle's Six Discourses, p. 145-147,
  199.--It cannot but be acceptable to insert here Captain Cook's
  enumeration of the several causes to which, under the care of
  Providence, the uncommon good state of health, experienced by his
  people, was owing. I shall not trespass upon the reader's time in
  mentioning them all, but confine myself to such as were found the
  most useful.

  'We were furnished with a quantity of malt, of which was made
  _sweet wort_. To such of the men as shewed the least symptoms
  of the scurvy, and also to such as were thought to be threatened
  with that disorder, this was given, from one to two or three pints
  a day each man; or in such proportion as the surgeon found
  necessary, which sometimes amounted to three quarts. This is,
  without doubt, one of the best antiscorbutic sea medicines yet
  discovered; and if used in time, will, with proper attention to
  other things, I am persuaded, prevent the scurvy from making any
  great progress for a considerable while. But I am not altogether
  of opinion that it will cure it at sea.

  '_Sour krout_, of which we had a large quantity; is not only
  a wholesome vegetable food, but in my judgment, highly
  antiscorbutic; and it spoils not by keeping. A pound of this was
  served to each man, when at sea, twice a week, or oftener, as was
  thought necessary.

  '_Portable broth_ was another great article of which we had a
  large supply. An ounce of this to each man, or such other
  proportion as circumstances pointed out, was boiled in their
  pease, three days in the week; and when we were in places where
  vegetables were to be got, it was boiled with them, and wheat or
  oatmeal, ever morning for breakfast; and also with pease and
  vegetables for dinner. It enabled us to make several nourishing
  and wholesome messes, and was the means of making the people eat a
  greater quantity of vegetables than they would otherwise have
  done.

  '_Rob of lemon and orange_ is an antiscorbutic we were not
  without. The surgeon made use of it in many cases with great
  success.

  'Amongst the articles of victualling, we were supplied with
  _sugar_ in the room of _oil_, and with _wheat_ for
  a part of our _oatmeal_; and were certainly gainers by the
  exchange. Sugar, I apprehend, is a very good antiscorbutic;
  whereas oil (such as the navy is usually supplied with), I am of
  opinion, has the contrary effect.

  'But the introduction of the most salutary articles, either as
  provisions or medicines, will generally prove unsuccessful, unless
  supported by certain regulations. On this principle, many years'
  experience, together with some hints I had from Sir Hugh Palliser,
  Captains Campbell, Wallis, and other intelligent officers, enabled
  me to lay a plan whereby all was to be governed.

  'The crew were at three watches, except upon some extraordinary
  occasions. By this means they were not so much exposed to the
  weather, as if they had been at watch and watch; and had generally
  dry clothes to shift themselves, when they happened to get wet.
  Care was also taken to expose them as little to wet weather as
  possible.

  'Proper methods were used to keep their persons, hammocks,
  bedding, clothes, &c. constantly clean and dry. Equal care was
  taken to keep the ship clean and dry betwixt decks. Once or twice
  a week she was aired with fires; and when this could not be done,
  she was smoked with gunpowder, mixed with vinegar and water. I had
  also, frequently, a fire made in an iron pot at the bottom of the
  well, which was of great use in purifying the air in the lower
  parts of the ship. To this, and to cleanliness, as well in the
  ship as amongst the people, too great attention cannot be paid;
  the least neglect occasions a putrid and disagreeable smell below,
  which nothing but fires will remove.

  'Proper attention was paid to the ships coppers, so that they were
  kept constantly clean.

  'The fat, which boiled out of the salt beef and pork, I never
  suffered to be given to the people; being of opinion that it
  promotes the scurvy.

  'I was careful to take in water wherever it was to be got, even
  though we did not want it. Because I look upon fresh water from
  the shore to be more wholesome than that which has been kept some
  time on board a ship. Of this essential article we were never at
  an allowance, but had always plenty for every necessary purpose.
  Navigators in general cannot, indeed, expect, nor would they wish
  to meet with such advantages in this respect, as fell to my lot.
  The nature of our voyage carried us into very high latitudes. But
  the hardships and dangers, inseparable from that situation, were
  in some degree compensated by the singular felicity we enjoyed, of
  extracting inexhaustible supplies of fresh water from an ocean
  strewed with ice.

  'We came to few places, where either the art of man, or the bounty
  of nature, had not provided some sort of refreshment or other,
  either in the animal or vegetable way. It was my first care to
  procure whatever of any kind could be met with, by every means in
  my power; and to oblige our people to make use thereof, both by my
  example and authority; but the benefits arising from refreshments
  of any kind soon became so obvious, that I had little occasion to
  recommend the one to exert the other.'

  In a letter which Captain Cook wrote to Sir John Pringle, just
  before he embarked on his last voyage, dated Plymouth Sound, July
  7, 1776, he expressed himself as follows: 'I entirely agree with
  you, that the dearness of the rob of lemons and of oranges will
  hinder them from being furnished in large quantities. But I do not
  think this so necessary; for, though they may assist other things,
  I have no great opinion of them alone. Nor have I a higher opinion
  of vinegar. My people had it very sparingly during the late
  voyage, and, towards the latter part none at all; and yet we
  experienced no ill effect from the want of it. The custom of
  washing the inside of the ship with vinegar, I seldom observed;
  thinking that fire and smoke answered the purpose much better.']

One circumstance alone was wanting to complete the pleasure and
celebrity arising from the assignment of Sir Godfrey Copley's medal.
Captain Cook was not himself present, to hear the discourse of the
president, and to receive the honour conferred upon him. Some months
before the anniversary of St. Andrew's day, he had sailed on his last
expedition. The medal, therefore, was delivered into the hands of Mrs.
Cook, whose satisfaction at being intrusted with so valuable a pledge
of her husband's reputation cannot be questioned. Neither can it be
doubted, but that the captain, before his departure from England, was
fully apprized of the mark of distinction which was intended for him
by the Royal Society.

Captain Cook, after the conclusion of his second voyage, was called
upon to appear in the world in the character of an author. In the
account that was published, by authority, of his former
circumnavigation of the globe, as well as of those which had been
performed by the Captains Byron, Cateret, and Wallis, it was thought
requisite to procure the assistance of a professed literary man, whose
business it should be to draw up a narrative from the several journals
of these commanders. Accordingly, Dr. Hawkesworth, as is universally
known, was employed for the purpose. In the present case, it was not
esteemed necessary to have recourse to such an expedient. Captain Cook
was justly regarded as sufficiently qualified to relate his own story.
His journal only required to be divided into chapters, and perhaps to
be amended by a few verbal corrections. It is not speaking
extravagantly to say, that in point of composition, his history of his
voyage reflects upon him no small degree of credit. His style is
natural, clear, and manly; being well adapted to the subject and to
his own character: and it is possible that a pen of more studied
elegance would not have given any additional advantage to the
narration. It was not till some time after Captain Cook's leaving
England that the work was published; but, in the meanwhile, the
superintendence of it was undertaken by his learned and valuable
friend, Dr. Douglas, whose late promotion to the mitre hath afforded
pleasure to every literary man, of every denomination. When the Voyage
appeared it came recommended by the accuracy and excellence of its
charts, and by a great variety of engravings, from the curious and
beautiful drawings of Mr. Hodges. This work was followed by the
publication of the original astronomical observations, which had been
made by Mr. Wales in the Resolution, and by Mr. Bayley in the
Adventure. It was at the expense of the commissioners of longitude
that these observations were made, and it was by their order that they
were printed. The book of Mr. Wales and Mr. Bayley displays, in the
strongest light, the scientific use and value of Captain Cook's
voyage.

Some of the circumstances which have now been mentioned have
designedly been brought forward more early in point of time than
should otherwise have been done, in order to prevent any interruption
in the course of the subsequent narrative.

Though Captain Cook was expected to, sit down in repose, after his
toils and labours, the design of farther discoveries was not laid
aside. The illusion, indeed of a _Terra Australis incognita_, to
any purposes of commerce, colonization, and utility, had been
dispelled: but there was another grand question which remained to be
determined; and that was the practicability of a northern passage to
the Pacific Ocean.

It had long been a favourite object with navigators, and particularly
with the English, to discover a shorter, a more commodious, and a more
profitable course of sailing to Japan and China, and, indeed, to the
East Indies in general, than by making the tedious circuit of the Cape
of Good Hope. To find a western passage round North America had been
attempted by several bold adventurers, from Frobisher's first voyage,
in 1576, to those of James and of Fox, in 1631. By these expeditions a
large addition was made to the knowledge of the northern extent of
America, and Hudson's and Baffin's Bays were discovered. But the
wished-for passage, on that side, into the Pacific Ocean, was still
unattained. Nor were the various attempts of our countrymen, and of
the Dutch, to find such a passage, by sailing round the north of Asia,
in an eastern direction, attended with better success. Wood's failure
in 1676, appears to have concluded the long list of unfortunate
expeditions in that century. The discovery, if not absolutely
despaired of, had been unsuccessful in such a number of instances,
that it ceased for many years, to be an object of pursuit.

The question was again revived in the present century. Mr. Dobbs, a
warm advocate for the probability of a north-west passage through
Hudson's Bay, once more recalled the attention of this country to that
undertaking. In consequence of the spirit by him excited, Captain
Middleton was sent out by government, in 1741, and Captains Smith and
More, in 1746. But though an act of Parliament had been passed, which
secured a reward of twenty thousand pounds to the discovery of a
passage, the accomplishment of this favourite object continued at as
great a distance as ever.

To ascertain a matter of such importance and magnitude in navigation,
was reserved to be another glory of his present majesty's reign. The
idea was peculiarly suited to the enlightened mind of the noble lord
at the head of the admiralty, and he adopted it with ardour.
Preparatory to the execution of the design, Lord Mulgrave sailed with
two ships, to determine how far navigation was practicable towards the
north pole. In this expedition, his lordship met with the same
insuperable difficulties which had been experienced by former
voyagers. Nevertheless, the expectation of opening a communication
between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, by a northerly course, was
not abandoned; and it was resolved that a voyage should be undertaken
for that purpose.

For the conduct of an enterprise, the operations of which were
intended to be so new, so extensive, and so various, it was evident
that great ability, skill, and experience were indispensably
necessary. That Captain Cook was of all men the best qualified for
carrying it into execution was a matter that could not be called in
question. But, however ardently it might be wished that he would take
upon him the command of the service, no one (not even his friend and
patron Lord Sandwich himself) presumed to solicit him upon the
subject. The benefits he had already conferred on science and
navigation, and the labours and dangers he had gone through were so
many and great, that it was not deemed reasonable to ask him to engage
in fresh perils. At the same time, nothing could be more natural, than
to consult him upon every thing relative to the business; and his
advice was particularly requested with regard to the properest person
for conducting the voyage. To determine this point, the captain, Sir
Hugh Palliser, and Mr. Stephens, were invited to Lord Sandwich's to
dinner. Here, besides taking into consideration what officer should be
recommended to his majesty for accomplishing the purposes in view,
many things were said concerning the nature of the design. Its
grandeur and dignity, the consequences of it to navigation and
science, and the completion it would give to the whole system of
discoveries, were enlarged upon in the course of the conversation.
Captain Cook was so fired with the contemplation and representation of
the object, that he started up, and declared, that he himself would
undertake the direction of the enterprise. It is easy to suppose, with
what pleasure the noble lord, and the other gentlemen, received a
proposal, which was so agreeable to their secret wishes, and which
they thought of the highest importance towards attaining the ends of
the voyage. No time was lost by the Earl of Sandwich, in laying the
matter before the king; and Captain Cook was appointed to the command
of the expedition, on the 10th of February, 1776. At the same time, it
was agreed that on his return to England, he should be restored to his
situation at Greenwich; and, if no vacancy occurred during the
interval, the officer who succeeded him was to resign in his favour.

The command and the direction of the enterprise being thus happily
settled, it became an object of great importance to determine what
might be the best course that could be given to the voyage. All former
navigators round the globe had returned to Europe by the Cape of Good
Hope. But to Captain Cook the arduous task was now assigned, of
attempting it by reaching the high northern latitudes between Asia and
America; and the adoption of this resolution was, I believe, the
result of his own reflections upon the subject. The usual plan,
therefore, of discovery was reversed; so that instead of a passage
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, one from the latter into the former
was to be tried. Whatever openings or inlets there might be on the
east side of America, that lie in a direction which could afford any
hopes of a passage, it was wisely foreseen, that the ultimate success
of the expedition would depend upon there being an open sea between
the west side of that continent and the extremities of Asia.
Accordingly Captain Cook was ordered to proceed into the Pacific
Ocean, through the chain of the new islands which had been visited by
him in the southern tropic. After having crossed the equator into the
northern parts of that ocean, he was then to hold such a course as
might probably fix many interesting points in geography, and produce
intermediate discoveries, in his progress northward to the principal
scene of his operations. With regard to his grand object, it was
determined, for the wisest reasons, and after the most mature
deliberation and inquiry, that upon his arrival on the coast of New
Albion, he should proceed northward as far as the latitude of 65°, and
not lose any time in exploring rivers or inlets, or upon any other
account, until he had gotten into that latitude.

To give every possible encouragement to the prosecution of the great
design in view, the motives of interest were added to the obligations
of duty. In the act of parliament which passed in 1745, the reward of
twenty thousand pounds had been only held out to the ships
_belonging to any of his majesty's subjects_, while his majesty's
own ships were excluded. Another, and more capital defect in this act
was, that it confined the reward to such ships alone as should
discover a passage though Hudson's Bay. By a new law, which passed in
1776, both these deficiencies were effectually remedied. It was now
enacted,--'That if any ship, belonging to any of his majesty's
subjects, or _to his majesty_, shall find out, and sail through
any passage by sea, between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; in _any
direction_, or parallel of the northern hemisphere, to the
northward of the 52° of northern latitude, the owners of such ships,
if belonging to any of his majesty's subject, or _the commander,
officers, and seamen of such ship belonging to his majesty_, shall
receive, as a reward for such discovery, the sum of twenty thousand
pounds.'

That every thing might be done which could facilitate the success of
the grand expedition, Lieutenant Pickersgill was sent out, in 1776,
with directions to explore the coast of Baffin's Bay; and in the next
year, Lieutenant Young was commissioned not only to examine the
western parts of that bay, but to endeavour to find a passage on that
side, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Nothing was performed by
either of these gentlemen that promoted the purposes of Captain Cook's
voyage.

Two vessels were fixed upon by government for the intended service;
the Resolution and the Discovery. The command of the former was given
to Captain Cook, and of the other to Captain Clerke. To the Resolution
was assigned the same complement of officers and men which she had
during her preceding voyage; and the only difference in the
establishment of the Discovery from that of the Adventure, was in the
single instance of her having no marine officer on board.

From the time of the two ships being put into commission, the greatest
degree of attention and zeal, was exerted by the Earl of Sandwich and
the rest of the board of admiralty, to have them equipped in the most
complete manner. Both the vessels were supplied with as much of every
necessary article as could conveniently be stowed, and with the best
of each kind that could be procured. Whatever, likewise, the
experience of the former voyages had shewn to be of any utility in
preserving the health of seamen, was provided in large abundance. That
some permanent benefit might be conveyed to the inhabitants of
Otaheite, and of the other islands of the Pacific Ocean, whom our
navigators might happen to visit, it was graciously commanded by his
majesty, that an assortment of useful animals should be carried out to
those countries. Accordingly, a bull, two cows with their calves, and
several sheep, with hay and corn for their subsistence, were taken on
board; and it was intended to add other serviceable animals to these,
when Captain Cook should arrive at the Cape of Good Hope. With the
same benevolent purposes, the captain was furnished with a sufficient
quantity, of such of our European garden seeds, as could not fail of
being a valuable present to the newly discovered islands, by adding
fresh supplies of food to their own vegetable productions. By order of
the board of admiralty, many articles besides were delivered to our
commander, which were calculated, in various ways, to improve the
condition of the natives of the other hemisphere. Still farther to
promote a friendly intercourse with them, and to carry on a traffic
that might be profitable on both sides, an ample assortment was
provided of iron tools and trinkets. An attention no less humane was
extended to the wants of our own people. Some additional clothing,
adapted to a cold climate, was ordered for the crews of the two ships;
and nothing was denied to our navigators that could be supposed to be
in the least conducive to their health, or even to their convenience.

It was not to these things only, that the extraordinary care of Lord
Sandwich, and of the other gentlemen at the head of the naval
department, was confined. They were equally solicitous to afford every
assistance that was calculated to render the expedition of public
utility. Several astronomical and nautical instruments were entrusted,
by the board of longitude, to Captain Cook, and Mr. King his second
lieutenant; who had undertaken to make the necessary observations,
during the voyage, for the improvement of astronomy and navigation. It
was originally intended that a professed observator should be sent out
in the Resolution; but the scientific abilities of the captain and his
lieutenant rendered the appointment of such a person absolutely
unnecessary. The case was somewhat different with regard to the
Discovery. Mr. William Bayley, who had already given satisfactory
proofs of his skill and diligence as an observator, while he was
employed in Captain Furneaux's ship, during the late voyage was
engaged a second time in that capacity, and appointed to sail on board
Captain Clerke's vessel. The department of natural history was
assigned to Mr. Anderson, the surgeon of the Resolution, who was as
willing, as he was well qualified, to describe every thing in that
branch of science which should occur worthy of notice. From the
remarks of this gentleman, Captain Cook had derived considerable
assistance in his last navigation; especially with regard to the very
copious vocabulary of the language of Otaheite, and the comparative
specimen of the languages of the other islands which had then been
visited. There were several young men among our commander's sea
officers, who, under his direction, could be usefully employed in
constructing charts, in taking views of the coasts and headlands near
which our voyagers might pass, and in drawing plans of the bays and
harbours in which they should anchor. Without a constant attention to
this object the captain was sensible, that his discoveries could not
be rendered profitable to future navigators. That he might go out with
every help, which could serve to make the result of the voyage
entertaining to the generality of readers, as well as instructive to
the sailor and the scholar. Mr. Webber was fixed upon, and engaged to
embark in the Resolution, for the express purpose of supplying the
unavoidable imperfections of written accounts, by enabling our people
to preserve and to bring home, such drawings of the most memorable
scenes of their transactions, as could only be executed by a professed
and skilful artist.

As the last mark of the extraordinary attention which the Earl of
Sandwich, Sir Hugh Palliser, and others of the board of admiralty had
uniformly shewn to the preparations for the expedition, they went down
to Long Reach, and paid a visit to the ships, on the 8th of June, to
examine whether everything was completed conformably to their
intentions and orders, and to the satisfaction of all who were to
embark in the voyage. His lordship and the rest of the admiralty
board, together with several noblemen and gentlemen of their
acquaintance, honoured Captain Cook, on that day, with their company
at dinner. Both upon their coming on board, and their going ashore,
they were saluted with seventeen guns, and with three cheers.

As the ships were to touch at Otaheite and the Society Islands, it had
been determined not to omit the only opportunity which might ever
offer of carrying Omai back to his native country. Accordingly, he
left London, on the 24th of June, in company with Captain Cook; and it
was with a mixture of regret and satisfaction that he took his
departure. When England, and those who during the stay, had honoured
him with their protection or friendship, were spoken of, his spirits
were sensibly affected, and it was with difficulty that he could
refrain from tears. But his eyes began to sparkle with joy, as soon as
ever the conversation was turned to his own islands. The good
treatment he received in England had made a deep impression upon his
mind; and he entertained the highest ideas of the country and of the
people. Nevertheless, the pleasing prospect he had before him of
returning home, loaded with what, he well knew, would there be
esteemed invaluable treasures, and the flattering hope, which the
possession of these afforded him, of attaining a distinguished
superiority among his countrymen, were considerations which operated,
by degrees, to suppress every uneasy sensation. By the time he had
gotten on board the ship, he appeared to be quite happy.

His majesty had furnished Omai with an ample provision of every
article which our English navigators, during their former intercourse
with Otaheite and the Society Islands, had observed to be in any
estimation there, either as useful or ornamental. Many presents,
likewise, of the same nature, had been made him by Lord Sandwich, Sir
Joseph Banks, and several other gentlemen and ladies of his
acquaintance. In short, both during his residence in England, and at
his departure from it, no method had been neglected, which could be
calculated to render him the instrument of conveying to the
inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific Ocean, the most exalted
ideas of the greatness and generosity of the British nation.



CHAPTER VI.

Narrative of Captain Cook's Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, to the Period
of his Death.


Every preparation for the voyage being completed, Captain Cook
received an order to proceed to Plymouth, and to take the Discovery
under his command. Having, accordingly, given the proper directions to
Captain Clerke, he sailed from the Nore to the Downs, on the 25th of
June. On the 30th of the same month, he anchored in Plymouth Sound,
where the Discovery was already arrived. It was the 8th day of July
before our commander received his instructions for the voyage; and at
the same time, he was ordered to proceed with the Resolution, to the
Cape of Good Hope. Captain Clerke, who was detained in London, by some
unavoidable circumstances, was to follow as soon as he should join his
ship.

In the evening of the 12th, Captain Cook stood out of Plymouth Sound,
and pursued his course down the Channel. It was very early that he
began his judicious operations for preserving the health of his crew:
for, on the 17th, the ship was smoked between the decks with
gunpowder, and the spare sails were well aired. On the 30th, the moon
being totally eclipsed, the captain observed it with a night
telescope. He had not, on this occasion, an opportunity of making many
observations. The reason was, that the moon was hidden behind the
clouds the greater part of the time; and this was particularly the
case, when the beginning and the end of total darkness, and the end of
the eclipse, happened.

It being found, that there was not hay and corn sufficient for the
subsistence of the stock of animals on board, till the arrival of our
people at the Cape of Good Hope, Captain Cook determined to touch at
Teneriffe. This island he thought better adapted to the purposes of
procuring these articles, and other refreshments, than Madeira. On the
1st of August, he anchored in the road of Santa Cruz, and immediately
dispatched an officer to the governor, who, with the utmost
politeness, granted everything which our commander requested.

Were a judgment to be formed from the appearance of the country in the
neighbourhood of Santa Cruz, it might be concluded that Teneriffe is
so barren a spot, as to be insufficient for the maintenance even of
its own inhabitants. It was proved, however, by the ample supplies
which our navigators received, that the islanders had enough to spare
for visitors. The necessary articles of refreshment were procured at
such moderate prices, as to confirm Captain Cook in his opinion, that
Teneriffe is a more eligible place than Madeira, for ships to touch
at, which are bound on long voyages. Indeed, the wine of the latter
island is far superior to that of the former; but then it can only be
purchased by a sum of money proportionably larger.

During the short stay which the captain made at Teneriffe, he
continued with great assiduity his astronomical observations; and Mr.
Anderson has not a little contributed to the farther knowledge of the
country, by his remarks on its general state, its natural appearances,
its productions, and its inhabitants. He learned, from a sensible and
well informed gentleman, who resided in the island, that a shrub is
common there, which agrees exactly with the description given by
Tournefort and Linnaeus, of the _tea shrub_, as growing in China
and Japan. It is reckoned a weed, and every year is rooted out in
large quantities from the vineyards. The Spaniards, however, sometimes
use it as tea, and ascribe to it all the qualities of that which is
imported from China. They give it also the name of tea, and say that
it was found in the country when the islands were first discovered.
Another botanical curiosity is called the _impregnated lemon_;
which is a perfect and distinct lemon enclosed within another, and
differing from the outer one only in being a little more globular.

The air and climate of Teneriffe are, in general, remarkably
healthful, and particularly adapted to give relief in pulmonary
complaints. This the gentleman before mentioned endeavoured to account
for, from its being always in a person's power to procure a different
temperature of the air, by residing at different heights in the
island. He expressed, therefore, his surprise that the physicians of
England should never have thought of sending their consumptive
patients to Teneriffe, instead of Nice or Lisbon.

Although it is not understood that there is any great similarity
between the manners of the English and those of the Spaniards, it was
observable, that the difference between them was very little perceived
by Omai. He only said, that the Spaniards did not appear to be so
friendly as the English; and that, in their persons, they approached
to some resemblance of his own countrymen.

On the 4th, Captain Cook sailed from Teneriffe, and proceeded on his
voyage. Such was his attention, both to the discipline and the health
of his company, that twice in the space of five days, he exercised
them at great guns and small arms, and cleared and smoked the ship
below decks. On the evening of the 10th, when the Resolution was at a
small distance from the island of Bonavista, she ran so close upon a
number of sunken rocks, that she did but just weather the breakers.
The situation of our voyagers, for a few minutes, was very alarming.
In this situation the captain, with the intrepid coolness which
distinguished his character, did not choose to sound, as that, without
any possibility of lessening, might have heightened the danger.

While our commander was near the Cape de Verde Islands, he had an
opportunity of correcting an assertion of Mr. Nicholson with regard to
the manner of sailing by those islands, which, if implicitly trusted
to, might prove of dangerous consequence. On the 13th, our navigators
arrived before Port Praya, in the Island of St. Jago; but as the
Discovery was not there, and little water had been expended in the
passage from Teneriffe, Captain Cook did not think proper to go in;
but stood to the southward.

In the course of the voyage, between the latitudes of 12° and 7°
north, the weather was generally dark and gloomy. The rains were
frequent, and accompanied with that close and sultry weather, which
too often brings on sickness in this passage. At such a time, the
worst consequences are to be apprehended: and commanders of ships
cannot be too much upon their guard. It is necessary for them to
purify the air between decks with fire and smoke, and to oblige their
people to dry their clothes at every opportunity. The constant
observance of these precautions on board the Resolution was attended
with such success, that the captain had now fewer sick men than on
either of his former voyages. This was the more remarkable, as, in
consequence of the seams of the vessel having opened so wide, as to
admit the rain when it fell, there was scarcely a man who could lie
dry in his bed; and the officers in the gun-room were all driven out
of their cabins by the water that came through the sides. When settled
weather returned, the caulkers were employed in repairing these
defects, by caulking the decks and inside weather-works of the ship;
for the humanity of our commander would not trust the workmen over the
sides, while the Resolution was at sea.

On the 1st of September, our navigators crossed the equator. While, on
the 8th, Captain Cook was near the eastern coast of Brazil, he was at
considerable pains to settle its longitude, which, till some better
astronomical observations are made on shore in that country, he
concluded to be thirty-five degrees and a half, or thirty-six degrees
west, at most.

As our people proceeded on their voyage, they frequently saw, in the
night, those luminous marine animals, which have formerly been
mentioned and described. Some of them appeared to be considerably
larger than any which the captain had met with before; and sometimes
they were so numerous, that hundreds of them were visible at the same
moment.

On the 18th of October, the Resolution came to an anchor in Table Bay,
at the Cape of Good Hope; and the usual compliments having been paid
to Baron Plettenberg the governor, Captain Cook immediately applied
himself to his customary operations. Nothing remarkable occurred till
the evening of the 31st, when a tempest arose from the south-east,
which lasted three days, and which was so violent that the Resolution
was the only ship in the bay that rode out the gale without dragging
her anchors. The effects of the storm were sensibly felt by our people
on shore; for their tents and observatory were torn to pieces, and
their astronomical quadrant narrowly escaped irreparable damage. On
the 3rd of November, the tempest ceased, and the next day the English
were enabled to resume their different employments.

It was not till the 10th of the month, that Captain Cook had the
satisfaction of seeing the Discovery arrive in the bay, and effect her
junction with the Resolution. She had sailed from England on the 1st
of August, and would have reached the Cape of Good Hope a week sooner,
if she had not been driven from the coast by the late storm. Every
assistance was immediately given to put her into a proper condition
for proceeding on the voyage.

While the necessary preparations for the future navigation was
completing, a disaster happened with regard to the cattle which had
been carried out in the Resolution. They had been conveyed on shore
for the purpose of grazing. The bull, and two cows, with their calves,
had been sent to graze along with some other cattle: but Captain Cook
was advised to keep the sheep, which were sixteen in number, close to
the tents, where they were penned up every evening. During the night
preceding the 14th, some dogs having gotten in among them, forced them
out of the pen, killed four, and dispersed the rest. Six of them were
recovered the next day; but the two rams and two of the finest ewes in
the whole flock, were amongst those which were missing. Baron
Plettenberg being at this time in the country, our commander applied
to Mr. Hemmy, the lieutenant-governor, and to the fiscal, for redress;
and both these gentlemen promised to use their endeavours for the
recovery of the lost sheep. It is the boast of the Dutch, that the
police at the Cape is so carefully executed, that it is scarcely
possible for a slave, with all his cunning and knowledge of the
country, to effectuate his escape. Nevertheless, Captain Cook's sheep
evaded all the vigilance of the fiscal's officers and people. At
length, after much trouble and expense, by employing some of the
meanest and lowest scoundrels in the place, he recovered all but the
two ewes, of which he never could hear the least tidings. The
character given of the fellows to whom the captain was obliged to have
recourse, by the person who recommended their being applied to, was,
that for a ducatoon they would cut their master's throat, burn the
house over his head, and bury him and the whole family in the ashes.

During the stay of our voyagers at the Cape, some of the officers,
accompanied by Mr. Anderson, made a short excursion into the
neighbouring country. This gentleman, as usual, was very diligent in
recording every thing which appeared to him worthy of observation. His
remarks, however, in the present case, will be deemed of little
consequence, compared with the full, accurate, and curious account of
the Cape of Good Hope, with which Dr. Sparrman hath lately favoured
the literary world.

With respect to Captain Cook, besides the unavoidable care which lay
upon him, in providing his ships with whatever was requisite for the
commodious and successful prosecution of the voyage, his attention was
eminently directed to scientific objects. He was anxious to ascertain
the currents, the variations of the compass, and the latitude and
longitude of the places to which he came. The observations which he
collected, and recorded in his journal, while he was at the Cape of
Good Hope, will be esteemed of the greatest importance by judicious
navigators.

After the disaster which had happened to the sheep, it may well be
supposed that our commander did not long trust on shore those which
remained. Accordingly, he gave orders to have them, and the other
cattle, conveyed on board as fast as possible. He made an addition,
also, to the original stock, by the purchase of two young bulls, two
heifers, two young stallions, two mares, two rams, several ewes and
goats, and some rabbits and poultry. All these animals were intended
for New Zealand. Otaheite, and the neighbouring islands; and, indeed,
for any other places in the course of the voyage, where the leaving of
any of them might be of service to posterity.

In the supplies which were provided at the Cape, Captain Cook paid a
particular regard to the nature and extent of his undertaking. As it
was impossible to tell when or where he might meet with a place, which
could so amply contribute to his necessities, he thought proper to lay
in such a store of provisions for both ships, as would be sufficient
to last them for two years and upwards.

Our commander having given a copy of his instructions to Captain
Clerke, and an order directing him how to proceed in case of a
separation, weighed from Table Bay on the 30th of November, though it
was not till the 3rd of December that he got clear of the land. On the
6th the ships passed through several spots of water, nearly of a red
colour. When some of this was taken up, it was found to contain a
large quantity of small animals, of a reddish hue, and which the
microscope discovered to resemble a cray-fish. As our navigators
pursued their course to the south-east, a very strong gale, which they
had from the westward, was followed by a mountainous sea, in
consequence of which the Resolution rolled and tumbled so much, that
the cattle on board were preserved with the utmost difficulty. Soon
after, several of the goats, especially the males, together with some
sheep, died, notwithstanding, all the care to prevent it, that was
exercised by our people. This misfortune was chiefly owing to the
coldness of the weather, which now began to be felt in the most
sensible manner.

On the 12th, land was seen, which, upon a nearer approach, was found
to consist of two islands. That which lies most to the south, and is
the largest, was judged by Captain Cook to be about fifteen leagues in
circuit. The northerly one is about nine leagues in circuit; and the
two islands are at the distance of five leagues from each other. As
the ships passed through the channel between them, our voyagers could
not discover with the assistance of their best glasses, either tree or
shrub on either of them. They seemed to have a rocky and bold shore,
and their surface is for the most part composed of barren mountains,
the summits and sides of which were covered with snow. These two
islands, together with four others which lie from nine to twelve
degrees of longitude more to the east, and nearly in the same
latitude, had been discovered by Captains Marion du Fresne and Crozet,
French navigators, in January, 1772, on their passage, in two ships
from the Cape of Good Hope to the Philippine Islands. As no names had
been assigned to them in a chart of the Southern Ocean, which Captain
Crozet communicated to Captain Cook in 1775, our commander
distinguished the two larger ones by calling them Prince Edward's
Islands, after his majesty's fourth son. To the other four, with a
view of commemorating the discoverers, he gave the name of Marion's
and Crozet's Islands.

Though it was now the middle of summer in this hemisphere, the weather
was not less severe than what is generally met with in England in the
very depth of winter. Instead however, of being discouraged by this
circumstance, the captain shaped his course in such a manner, as to
pass to the southward of Marion's and Crozet's Islands, that he might
get into the latitude of land which had been discovered by M. de
Kerguelen, another French navigator. It was part of our commander's
instructions to examine whether a good harbour might not here be
found.

As our voyagers, on the 24th, were steering to the eastward, a fog
clearing up a little, which had involved them for some time, and which
had rendered their navigation both tedious and dangerous, land was
seen, bearing south-south-east. Upon a nearer approach, it was found
to be an island of considerable height, and about three leagues in
circuit. Another island, of the same magnitude, was soon after
discovered, and in a short space a third, besides some smaller ones.
At times, as the fog broke away, there was the appearance of land over
the small islands, and Captain Cook entertained thoughts of steering
for it, by running in between them. But, on drawing nearer, he found
that, so long as the weather continued foggy this would be a perilous
attempt. For if there should be no passage, or if our people should
meet with any sudden danger, there was such a prodigious sea, breaking
on all the shores in a frightful surf, that it would have been
impossible for the vessels to be gotten off. At the same time, the
captain saw another island; and as he did not know how many more might
succeed, he judged it prudent, in order to avoid getting entangled
among unknown lands in a thick fog, to wait for clearer weather.

The island last mentioned is a high round rock, which was named
Bligh's Cap. Our commander had received some very slight information
concerning it at Teneriffe, and his sagacity in tracing it was such,
as immediately led him to determine, that it was the same that M. de
Kerguelen had called the Isle of Rendezvous. His reason for giving it
that name is not very apparent; for nothing can rendezvous upon it but
fowls of the air, it being certainly inaccessible to every other
animal. The weather beginning to clear up, Captain Cook steered in for
the land, of which a faint view had been obtained in the morning. This
was Kerguelen's land. No sooner had our navigators gotten off Cape
François, then they observed the coast to the southward, to be much
indented by projecting points and bays; from which circumstance they
were sure of finding a good harbour. Accordingly, such a harbour was
speedily discovered, in which the ships came to an anchor on the 25th,
being Christmas-day. Upon landing, our commander found the shore
almost entirely covered with penguins and other birds, and with seals.
The latter, which were not numerous, having been unaccustomed to
visitors, were so insensible of fear, that as many as were wanted for
the purpose of making use of their fat or blubber, were killed without
difficulty. Fresh water was so plentiful, that every gully afforded a
large stream; but not a single tree or shrub, or the least sign of it,
could be met with, and but very little herbage of any sort. Before
Captain Cook returned to his ship, he ascended the first ridge of
rocks, that rise in a kind of amphitheatre, above one another, in
hopes of obtaining a view of the country; in which, however, he was
disappointed: for, previously to his reaching the top, there came on
so thick a fog, that he could scarcely find his way down again. In the
evening, the seine was hauled at the head of the harbour, but only
half a dozen small fish were caught. As no better success attended a
trial which was made the next day with hook and line, the only
resource for fresh provision was in birds, the store of which was
inexhaustible.

The people having wrought hard for two days, and nearly completed
their water the captain allowed them the 27th, as a day of rest, to
celebrate Christmas. Many of them, in consequence of this indulgence,
went on shore, and made excursions, in different directions, into the
country which they found barren and desolate in the highest degree.
One of them in his ramble, discovered, and brought to our commander,
in the evening, a quart bottle, fastened with some wire to a
projecting rock on the north side of the harbour. This bottle
contained a piece of parchment, on which was written the following
inscription:

  _Ludovico XV. Galliarum
  rege et d. de Boynes
  regi a Secretis ad Res
  maritimas annis 1772 et
  1773._

It was clear, from this inscription, that our English navigators were
not the first who had been in the place. As a memorial of our people's
having touched at the same harbour, Captain Cook wrote, as follows, on
the other side of the parchment:

  _Naves Resolution
  et Discovery
  de Rege Magnae Britanniae,
  Decembris, 1776._

He then put it again into the bottle, together with a silver twopenny
piece of 1772. Having covered the mouth of the bottle with a leaden
cap, he placed it, the next morning in a pile of stones, erected for
the purpose, upon a little eminence on the north shore of the harbour,
and near to the place where it was first found. In this position it
cannot escape the notice of any European, whom accident or design may
bring into the port. Here the captain displayed the British flag, and
named the place Christmas Harbour, from our voyagers having arrived in
it on that festival.

After our commander had finished the business of the inscription, he
went in his boat round the harbour, to examine what the shore
afforded. His more particular object was to look for drift-wood; but
he did not find a single piece throughout the whole extent of the
place. On the same day, accompanied by Mr. King, his second
lieutenant, he went upon Cape François, with the hope, that, from this
elevation, he might obtain a view of the sea-coast, and of the
adjoining islands. But when he had gotten up, he found, that every
distant object below him was obscured in a thick fog. The land on the
same plain, or of a greater height, was sufficiently visible, and
appeared naked and desolate in the highest degree; some hills to the
southward excepted, which were covered with snow.

On the 29th, Captain Cook departed from Christmas Harbour, and
proceeded to range along the coast, with a view of discovering its
position and extent. In pursuing his course he met with several
promontories and bays, together with a peninsula, all of which he has
described and named, chiefly in honour of his various friends. Such
was the danger of the navigation, that the ships had more than once a
very narrow escape. On the same day, another harbour was discovered,
in which the vessels came to an anchor for one night. Here the
captain, Mr. Gore, and Mr. Bayley went on shore to examine the
country, which they found, if possible, more barren and desolate than
the land that lies about Christmas Harbour: and yet, if the least
fertility were any where to be expected, it ought to have existed in
this place, which is completely sheltered from the bleak and
predominating southerly and westerly winds. Our commander observed,
with regret, that there was neither food nor covering for cattle of
any sort; and that, if he left any, they must inevitably perish.
Finding no encouragement to continue his researches, he weighed anchor
and put to sea on the 30th, having given to the harbour the name of
Port Palliser. On the same day, he came to a point, which proved to be
the very eastern extremity of Kerguelen's Land. In a large bay, near
this point, there was a prodigious quantity of sea-weed, some of which
is of a most extraordinary length. It seemed to be the same kind of
vegetable production that Sir Joseph Banks had formerly distinguished
by the appellation of _fucus giganteus_. Although the stem is not
much thicker than a man's hand, Captain Cook thought himself well
warranted to say, that part of it grows to the length of sixty fathoms
and upward.

The result of the examination of Kerguelen's Land was, that the
quantity of latitude which it occupies doth not much exceed one degree
and a quarter. Its extent, from east to west, still remains undecided.
At its first discovery, it was probably supposed to belong to a
southern continent; but, in fact, it is an island, and that of no
great extent. If our commander had not been unwilling to deprive M.
Kerguelen of the honour of its bearing his name, he would have been
disposed, from its sterility, to call it the Island of Desolation.

It should here be mentioned, that M. de Kerguelen made two visits to
the coast of this country; one in 1772 and another in 1773. With the
first of these voyages Captain Cook had only a very slight
acquaintance; and to the second he was totally a stranger; so that he
scarcely had any opportunity of comparing his own discoveries with
those of the French navigator. M. de Kerguelen was peculiarly
unfortunate, in having done but little to complete what he had begun;
for though he discovered a new land, he could not, in two expeditions
to it, once bring his ships to an anchor upon any part of its coasts.
Captain Cook had either fewer difficulties to struggle with, or was
more successful in surmounting them.

During the short time in which our voyagers lay in Christmas Harbour,
Mr. Anderson lost no opportunity of searching the country in every
direction. Perhaps no place, hitherto discovered, under the same
parellel of latitude, affords so scanty a field for a natural
historian. All that could be known in the space of time allotted him,
and probably all that will ever be worthy to be known, was collected
by this gentleman. A verdure, which had been seen at a little distance
from the shore, gave our people the flattering expectation of meeting
with a variety of herbage: but in this they were greatly deceived. On
landing, it was perceived, that the lively colour which had imposed
upon them, was occasioned only by one small plant, not unlike some
sorts of _saxifrage_. It grows in large spreading tufts a
considerable way up the hills. The whole catalogue of plants does not
exceed sixteen or eighteen, including several kinds of moss, and a
beautiful species of lichen, which rises higher up from the rocks than
the rest of the vegetable productions. There is not the appearance of
a shrub in the whole country. Nature has been somewhat more bountiful
in furnishing it with animals; though, strictly speaking, they are not
inhabitants of the place, being all of the marine kind. In general,
the land is only used by them for breeding, and as a resting place. Of
these animals the most considerable are seals; being of that sort
which is called the ursine seal. The birds, which have already been
mentioned as very numerous, chiefly consist of penguins, ducks,
petrels, albatrosses, shags, gulls, and sea swallows. Penguins, which
are far superior in number to the rest are of three kinds, one of
which had never been seen by any of our voyagers before. The rocks, or
foundations of the hills are principally composed of that dark blue
and very hard stone, which seems to be one of the most universal
productions of nature. Nothing was discovered that had the least
appearance of ore or metal.

From this desolate coast Captain Cook took his departure on the 31st,
intending, agreeably to his instructions, to touch next at New
Zealand; that he might obtain a recruit of water, take in wood, and
make hay for the cattle. Their number was now considerably diminished;
for two young bulls, one of the heifers, two rams, and several of the
goats, had died while our navigators where employed in exploring
Kerguelen's Land. For some time they had fresh gales, and tolerably
clear weather. But on the 3rd of January, 1777, the wind veered to the
north, where it continued eight days, and was attended with so thick a
fog, that the ships ran above three hundred leagues in the dark.
Occasionally the weather would clear up, and give our people a sight
of the sun; but this happened very seldom, and was always of short
continuance. However, amidst all the darkness produced by the fog, the
vessels, though they seldom saw each other, were so fortunate, in
consequence of frequently firing guns as signals, that they did not
lose company. On the 12th, the northerly winds ended in a calm. This
was succeeded, in a little time, by a wind from the southward, which
brought on a rain that continued for twenty-four hours. At the end of
the rain, the wind freshened, and veering to the west and north-west,
was followed by fair and clear weather.

Nothing very remarkable occurred to our voyagers till the 24th, when
they discovered the coast of Van Dieman's Land; and, on the 26th, the
ships came to an anchor in Adventure Bay. Captain Cook, as soon as he
had anchored, ordered the boats to be hoisted out; in one of which he
went himself, to look for the most commodious place for obtaining the
necessary supplies. Wood and water were found in abundance, and in
places sufficiently convenient; but grass, which was most wanted, was
scarce, and, at the same time, very coarse. Necessity, however,
obliged our people to take up with such as could be procured.

On the 28th, the English who were employed in cutting wood, were
agreeably surprised with a visit from some of the natives. They
consisted of eight men and a boy, who approached our voyagers not only
without fear, but with the most perfect confidence and freedom. There
was only a single person among them who had any thing which bore the
least appearance of a weapon, and that was no more than a stick about
two feet long, and pointed at one end. These people were quite naked,
and wore no kind of ornaments; unless some large punctures, or ridges,
raised in different parts of their bodies, either in straight or
curved lines, may be considered in that light. Most of them had their
hair and beards smeared with a red ointment: and the faces of some of
them were painted with the same composition. Every present which
Captain Cook made them they received without the least appearance of
satisfaction. Of bread and elephant fish, which were offered them,
they refused to taste, but shewed that they were fond of birds, as an
article of food. Two pigs, which the captain had brought on shore,
having come within their reach, they seized them by the ears, as a dog
would have done, and would have carried them off immediately,
apparently with no other intention than to kill them. Our commander
being desirous of knowing the use of the stick which one of the
Indians had in his hands, he signified, by signs, his wishes to that
purpose. His intimations so far succeeded, that one of them set up a
piece of wood as a mark, and threw at it at the distance of about
twenty yards. There was but little reason to commend his dexterity;
for, after repeated trials, he was still very wide from his object.
Omai, to convince the natives how much our weapons were superior to
theirs, then fired his musket at the mark by which they were so
greatly terrified, that, notwithstanding all the endeavours of the
English to quiet their minds, they ran instantly into the woods.

After the retreat of the Indians, Captain Cook, judging that their
fears would prevent their remaining near enough to observe what
passed, ordered the two pigs, being a boar and sow, to be carried
about a mile within the head of the bay, and saw them left there, by
the side of a fresh water brook. It was, at first, his benevolent
intention to make an additional present to Van Dieman's Land, of a
young bull and cow, together with some sheep and goats. But, upon
reflection, he laid aside this design; being persuaded that the
natives would destroy them, from, their incapacity of entering into
his views with regard to the improvement of their country. As pigs are
animals which soon become wild, and are fond of the thickest cover of
the woods, there was the greater probability of their being preserved.
For the accommodation of the other cattle, an open place must have
been chosen; in which situation they could not possibly have been
concealed many days.

On the 29th, about twenty of the inhabitants, men and boys, joined
Captain Cook and such of his people as had landed with him, without
manifesting the least sign of fear or distrust. It was remarkable,
that one of the Indians was conspicuously deformed; nor was he more
distinguished by the hump upon his back, than by the drollery of his
gestures, and the humour of his speeches, which had the appearance of
being intended for the entertainment of our voyagers. Unfortunately,
the language in which he spake to them was wholly unintelligible. To
each of the present group the captain gave a string of beads and a
medal, which they seemed to receive with some satisfaction. On iron,
and iron tools, they appeared to set no value. There was reason to
believe, that they were even ignorant of fish-hooks; and yet it is
difficult to suppose, that a people who inhabit a sea-coast, and who
were not observed to derive any part of their sustenance from the
productions of the ground, should be unacquainted with some mode of
catching fish. However, they were never seen to be thus employed; nor
was any canoe or vessel discovered by which they could go upon the
water. Though they had rejected the kind of fish which had been
offered them, it was evident that shell fish made a part of their
food.

After Captain Cook had left the shore, several women and children made
their appearance, and were introduced to Lieutenant King by some of
the men that attended them. These females (a kanguroo skin excepted,
which was tied over their shoulders, and seemed to be intended to
support their infants) were as naked and as black as the men, and had
their bodies marked with scars in the same manner. Many of the
children had fine features, and were thought to be pretty; but a less
favourable report was made of the women, and especially of those who
were advanced in years. Some of the gentlemen, however, belonging to
the Discovery, as our commander was informed, paid their addresses and
made liberal offers of presents, which were rejected with great
disdain. It is certain that this gallantry was not very agreeable to
the men: for an elderly man, as soon as he observed it, ordered the
women to retire. The order was obeyed; but, on the part of some of the
females, with the appearance of a little reluctance.

On the present occasion, Captain Cook made some proper and pertinent
reflections, which I shall deliver in his own words. 'This conduct,'
says he, 'of Europeans among savages, to their women, is highly
blamable; as it creates a jealousy in their men, that may be attended
with consequences fatal to the success of the common enterprise, and
to the whole body of adventures, without advancing the private purpose
of the individual, or enabling him to gain the object of his wishes. I
believe it has generally been found, amongst uncivilized people, that
where the women are easy of access, the men are the first to offer
them to strangers; and that, where this is not the case, neither the
allurements of presents, nor the opportunity of privacy will be likely
to have the desired effect. This observation, I am sure, will hold
good throughout all the parts of the South Sea where I have been. Why
then should men act so absurd a part, as to risk their own safety, and
that of all their companions, in pursuit of a gratification, which
they have no probability of obtaining?'

While our navigators were at Van Dieman's Land, they were successful
in obtaining a plentiful crop of grass for their cattle, and such as
was far more excellent than what they had met with at their first
going on shore. The quantity collected was judged by the captain to be
sufficient to last till his arrival in New-Zealand.

Van Dieman's Land had been visited twice before. That name had been
given it by Tasman, who discovered it in 1642; from which time it had
escaped all notice of European navigators, till Captain Furneaux
touched at it, in 1773. It is well known that it is the southern point
of New Holland, which is by far the largest island in the world;
indeed, so large an island, as almost to deserve the appellation of a
continent.

While Captain Cook was at this country, he neglected nothing which
could promote the knowledge of science and navigation. Here, as every
where else, he settled the latitude and longitude of places; marked
the variations of the compass, and recorded the nature of the tides.
He corrected, likewise, an error of Captain Furneaux, with respect to
the situation of Maria's Islands; on which subject he hath candidly
remarked, that his own idea is not the result of a more faithful, but
merely of a second, examination.

Mr. Anderson, during the few days in which the ships remained in
Adventure Bay, exerted his usual diligence in collecting as full an
account as could be obtained, in so short a period of time, of the
natural productions and the inhabitants of the country. Little can be
said concerning either the personal activity or genius of the natives.
The first, they do not seem to possess in any remarkable degree; and,
to all appearance, they have less of the last, than even the
half-animated inhabitants of Terra del Fuego. Their not expressing
that surprise which might have been expected, from their seeing men so
much unlike themselves, and things to which they had hitherto been
utter strangers; their indifference for the presents of our people,
and their general inattention, were sufficient testimonies that they
were not endued with any acuteness of understanding. What the ancient
poets tell us of Fauns and Satyrs living in hollow trees is realized
at Van Dieman's Land. Some wretched constructions of sticks, covered
with bark, and which did not deserve the name of huts, were indeed
found near the shore; but these seemed only to have been erected for
temporary purposes. The most comfortable habitations of the natives
were afforded by the largest trees. These had their trunks hollowed
out by fire, to the height of six or seven feet; and there was room
enough in them for three or four persons to sit round a hearth, made
of clay. At the same time, these places of shelter are durable; for
the people take care to leave one side of the tree sound, which is
sufficient to keep it in luxuriant growth. The inhabitants of Van
Dieman's Land are undoubtedly from the same stock with those of the
northern parts of New Holland. Their language, indeed, appeared to be
different; but how far the difference extended, our voyagers could not
have an opportunity of determining. With regard to the New Hollanders
in general, there is reason to suppose that they originally came from
the same place with all the Indians of the South Sea.

On the 30th of January, 1777, Captain Cook sailed from Adventure Bay,
and on the 12th of February came to an anchor at his old station of
Queen Charlotte's Sound, in New Zealand. Being unwilling to lose any
time, he commenced his operations that very afternoon. By his order,
several of the empty water casks were immediately landed, and a place
was begun to be cleared for setting up the two observatories, and the
erection of tents, to accommodate a guard, and the rest of the
company, whose business might require them to remain on shore. Our
navigators had not long been at anchor, before a number of canoes,
filled with natives, came alongside of the ships. However, very few of
them would venture on board; which appeared the more extraordinary, as
the captain was well known to them all, and they could not be
insensible how liberally he had behaved to them on former occasions.
There was one man in particular, whom he had treated with remarkable
kindness, during the whole of his last stay in this place; and yet,
neither professions of friendship, nor presents, could prevail upon
him to enter the Resolution.

There was a real cause for this shyness on the part of the New
Zealanders. A dreadful event had happened to some of Captain
Furneaux's crew, while he lay in Queen Charlotte's Sound, after he had
finally separated from Captain Cook, in the former voyage. Ten men,
who had been sent out in the large cutter to gather wild greens, for
the ship's company, were killed in a skirmish with the natives. What
was the cause of the quarrel could not be ascertained, as not one of
the company survived to relate the story. Lieutenant Burney, who was
ordered to go in search of them, found only some fragments of their
bodies, from which it appeared that they had been converted into the
food of the inhabitants. It was the remembrance of this event, and the
fear of its being revenged, which now rendered the New Zealanders so
fearful of entering the English vessels. From the conversation of
Omai, who was on board the Adventure when the melancholy affair
happened, they knew that it could not be unknown to Captain Cook. The
captain, therefore, judged it necessary to use every endeavour to
assure them of the continuance of his friendship, and that he should
not disturb them on account of the catastrophe. It was most probably
in consequence of this assurance, that they soon laid aside all manner
of restraint and distrust.

In the meanwhile, the operations for refitting the ships, and for
obtaining provisions were carried on with great vigour, for the
protection of the party on shore, our commander appointed a guard of
ten marines, and ordered arms for all the workmen; with whom Mr. King,
and two or three petty officers, constantly remained. A boat was never
sent to a considerable distance without being armed, or without being
under the direction of such officers as might be depended upon, and
who were well acquainted with the natives. In Captain Cook's former
visits to this country, he had never made use of such precautions; nor
was he now convinced of their absolute necessity. But, after the
tragical fate of the crew of the Adventure's boat in this sound, and
of Captain Marion du Fresne, and some of his people, in the Bay of
Islands (in 1772), it was impossible to free our navigators from all
apprehensions of experiencing a similar calamity.

Whatever suspicions the inhabitants might at first entertain, that
their acts of barbarity would be revenged, they very speedily became
so perfectly easy upon the subject, as to take up their residence
close to our voyagers; and the advantage of their coming to live with
the English was not inconsiderable. Every day, when the weather would
permit, some of them went out to catch fish, and our people generally
obtained, by exchanges, a good share of the produce of their labours,
in addition to the supply which was afforded by our own nets and
lines. Nor was there a deficiency of vegetable refreshments; to which
was united sprucebeer for drink; so that if the seeds of the scurvy
had been contracted by any of the crew, they would speedily have been
removed by such a regimen. The fact, however, was, that there was only
two invalids upon the sick lists in both ships.

Curiosities, fish, and women, were the articles of commerce supplied
by the New Zealanders. The two first always came to a good market; but
the latter did not happen, at this time, to be an acceptable
commodity. Our seamen had conceived a dislike to these people, and
were either unwilling or afraid to associate with them; the good
effect of which was, that our commander knew no instance of a man's
quitting his station, to go to the habitations of the Indians. A
connexion with women it was out of Captain Cook's power to prevent;
but he never encouraged it, and always was fearful of its
consequences. Many, indeed, are of opinion, that such an intercourse
is a great security among savages. But if this should ever be the case
with those who remain and settle among them, it is generally otherwise
with respect to travellers and transient visitors. In such a situation
as was that of our navigators, a connexion with the women of the
natives, betrays more men than it saves. 'What else,' says the
captain, 'can reasonably be expected, since all their views are
selfish without the least mixture of regard or attachment? My own
experience, at least, which hath been pretty extensive, hath not
pointed out to me one instance to the contrary.'

Amongst the persons who occasionally visited the English, was a chief
of the name of Kahoora, who, as Captain Cook was informed, had headed
the party that cutoff Captain Furneaux's people, and had himself
killed Mr. Rowe, the officer who commanded. This man our commander was
strongly solicited to put to death, even by some of the natives; and
Omai was perfectly eager and violent upon the subject. To these
solicitations the captain paid not the least degree of attention. He
even admired Kahoora's courage, and was not a little pleased with the
confidence with which he had put himself into his power. Kahoora had
placed his whole safety in the declarations that Captain Cook had
uniformly made to the New Zealanders; which were that he had always
been a friend to them all, and would continue to be so, unless they
gave him cause to act otherwise; that as to their inhuman treatment of
our people, he should think no more of it, the transaction having
happened long ago, and when he was not present; but that, if ever they
made a second attempt of the same kind, they might rest assured of
feeling the weight of his resentment.

While our commander on the 16th, was making an excursion for the
purposes of collecting food for his cattle, he embraced the
opportunity to inquire, as accurately as possible, into the
circumstances which had attended the melancholy fate of our
countrymen. Omai was his interpreter on this occasion. The result of
the inquiry was, that the quarrel first took its rise from some
thefts, in the commission of which the natives were detected; that
there was no premeditated plan of bloodshed; and that if these thefts
had not, unfortunately, been too hastily resented, no mischief would
have happened. Kahoora's greatest enemies, and even the very men that
had most earnestly solicited his destruction, confessed, at the same
time, that he had no intention of quarrelling with Captain Furneaux's
people, and much less of killing any of them, till the fray had
actually commenced.

Captain Cook continued in this his last visit to New Zealand, the
solicitude he had formerly shewn to be of some essential future
service to the country. To one chief he gave two goats, a male and
female, with a kid; and to another two pigs, a boar and a sow.
Although he had obtained a promise from both these chiefs, that they
would not kill the animals which had been presented to them, he could
not venture to place any great reliance upon their assurances. It was
his full intention, on his present arrival in Queen Charlotte's Sound,
to have left not only goats and hogs, but sheep, together with a young
bull and two heifers. The accomplishment, however, of this resolution
depended either upon his finding a chief, who was powerful enough to
protect and keep the cattle, or upon his meeting with a place where
there might be a probability of their being concealed from those who
would ignorantly attempt to destroy them. Neither of these
circumstances happened to be conformable to his wishes. At different
times he had left to New Zealand ten or a dozen hogs, besides those
which had been put on shore by Captain Furneaux. It will, therefore,
be a little extraordinary, if this race of animals should not increase
and be preserved, either in a wild or a domestic state, or in both.
Our commander was informed, that Tiratou, a popular chief among the
natives, had a number of cocks and hens, and one sow, in his separate
possession. With regard to the gardens which had formerly been planted
though they had almost entirely been neglected, and some of them
destroyed, they were not wholly unproductive. They were found to
contain cabbages, onions, leeks, purslain, radishes, mustard, and a
few potatoes. The potatoes, which had first been brought from the Cape
of Good Hope, were greatly meliorated by change of soil; and, with
proper cultivation, would be superior to those produced in most other
countries.

A great addition of knowledge was obtained, during this voyage, with
respect to the productions of New Zealand, and the manners and the
customs of its inhabitants. The zeal of Captain Cook upon the subject
was admirably seconded by the sedulous diligence of Mr. Anderson, who
omitted no opportunity of collecting every kind and degree of
information. I shall only so far trespass on the patience of my
readers, as to mention a few circumstances tending to delineate the
character of the natives. They seemed to be a people perfectly
satisfied with the little they already possess; nor are they
remarkably curious either in their observations or their inquiries.
New objects are so far from striking them with such a degree of
surprise as might naturally be expected, that they scarcely fix their
attention even for a moment. In the arts with which they are
acquainted, they shew as much ingenuity, both in invention and
execution, as any uncivilized nations under similar circumstances.
Without the least use of those tools which are formed of metal, they
make every thing that is necessary to procure their subsistence,
clothing, and military weapons; and all this is done by them with a
neatness, a strength, and a convenience, that are well adapted to the
accomplishment of the several purposes they have in view. No people
can have a quicker sense of an injury done to them than the New
Zealanders, or be more ready to resent it; and yet they want one
characteristic of true bravery; for they will take an opportunity of
being insolent, when they think that there is no danger of their being
punished. From the number of their weapons, and their dexterity in
using them, it appears, that war is their principal profession.
Indeed, their public contentions are so frequent, or rather so
perpetual, that they must live under continual apprehensions of being
destroyed by each other. From their horrid custom of eating the flesh
of their enemies, not only without reluctance, but with peculiar
satisfaction, it would be natural to suppose that they must be
destitute of every humane feeling, even with regard to their own
party. This, however, is not the case; for they lament the loss of
their friends with a violence of expression which argues the most
tender remembrance of them. At a very early age the children are
initiated into all the practices, whether good or bad, of their
fathers; so that a boy or girl, when only nine or ten years old, can
perform the motions, and imitate the frightful gestures, by which the
more aged are accustomed to inspire their enemies with terror. They
can keep likewise the strictest time in their song; and it is with
some degree of melody that they sing the traditions of their
forefathers, their actions in war, and other subjects. The military
achievements of their ancestors, the New Zealanders celebrate with the
highest pleasure, and spend much of their time in diversions of this
sort, and in playing upon a musical instrument, which partakes of the
nature of a flute. With respect to their language, it is far from
being harsh or disagreeable, though the pronunciation of it is
frequently guttural; nor, if we may judge from the melody of some
kinds of their songs, is it destitute of those qualities, which fit it
to be associated with music. Of its identity with the languages of the
other islands throughout the South Sea, fresh proofs were exhibited
during the present voyage.

At the request of Omai, Captain Cook consented to take with him two
youths from New Zealand. That they might not quit their native country
under any deluding ideas of visiting it again, the captain took care
to inform their parents, in the strongest terms, that they would never
return. This declaration seemed, however, to make no kind of
impression. The father of the youngest had resigned him with an
indifference, which he would scarcely have shewn at parting with his
dog, and even stripped the boy of the little clothing he possessed,
delivering him quite naked into the hands of our voyagers. This was
not the case with the mother of the other youth. She took her leave of
him with all the marks of tender affection that might be expected
between a parent and a child on such an occasion; but she soon resumed
her cheerfulness, and went away wholly unconcerned.

On the 25th of the month, Captain Cook stood out of Queen Charlotte's
Sound, and by the 27th got clear of New Zealand. No sooner had the
ships lost sight of the land, than the two young adventurers from that
country, one of whom was nearly eighteen years of age, and the other
about ten, began deeply to repent of the step they had taken. It was
the experience of the sea-sickness, which gave this turn to their
reflections; and all the soothing encouragement the English could
think of, was but of a little avail. They wept, both in public and in
private, and made their lamentation in a kind of song, that seemed to
be expressive of the praises of their country and people, from which
they were to be separated for ever. In this disposition they continued
for many days: but as their sea-sickness wore off, and the tumult of
their minds subsided, the fits of lamentation became less and less
frequent, and at length entirely ceased. By degrees, their native
country and their friends were forgotten, and they appeared to be as
firmly attached to our navigators, as if they had been born in
England.

In the prosecution of the voyage, Captain Cook met with unfavourable
winds; and it was not till the 29th of March that land was discovered.
It was found to be an inhabited island, the name of which, as was
learned from two of the natives, who came off in a canoe, is Mangeea.
Our commander examined the coast with his boats, and had a short
intercourse with some of the inhabitants. Not being able to find a
proper harbour for bringing the ships to an anchorage, he was obliged,
to leave the country unvisited, though it seemed capable of supplying
all the wants of our voyagers. The island of Mangeea is full five
leagues in circuit, and of a moderate and pretty equal height. It has,
upon the whole, a pleasing aspect, and might be made a beautiful spot
by cultivation. The inhabitants, who appeared to be both numerous and
well fed, seemed to resemble those of Otaheite and the Marquesas in
the beauty of their persons; and the resemblance, as far as could be
judged in so short a compass of time, takes place, with respect to
their general disposition and character.

From the coast of Mangeea our commander sailed in the afternoon of the
30th, and on the next day land was again seen, within four leagues of
which the ships arrived on the 1st of April. Our people could then
pronounce it to be an island, nearly of the same appearance and extent
with that which had so lately been left. Some of the natives speedily
put off in their canoes, and three of them were pursuaded to come on
board the Resolution; on which occasion, their whole behaviour marked
that they were quite at their ease, and felt no kind of apprehension
that they should be detained, or ill used. In a visit from several
others of the inhabitants, they manifested a dread of approaching near
the cows and horses: nor could they form the least conception of their
nature. But the sheep and goats did not, in their opinion, surpass the
limits of their ideas; for they gave our navigators to understand that
they knew them to be birds. As there is not the most distant
resemblance between a sheep or goat, and any winged animal, this may
be thought to be almost an incredible example of human ignorance. But
it should be remembered, that, excepting hogs, dogs, and birds, these
people were strangers to the existence of any other land animals.

In a farther intercourse with the natives, who had brought a hog,
together with some plantains and cocoanuts, they demanded a dog from
our voyagers, and refused every thing besides which was offered in
exchange. One of the gentlemen on board happened to have a dog and a
bitch which were great nuisances in the ship; and these he might now
have disposed of in a manner that would have been of real future
utility to the island. But he had no such views in making them the
companions of his voyage. Omai, however, with a goodnature that
reflects honour upon him, parted with a favourite dog which he had
brought from England; and with this acquisition the people departed
highly satisfied.

On the 3rd of April, Captain Cook dispatched Mr. Gore, with three
boats, to endeavour to get upon the island. Mr. Gore himself, Omai,
Mr. Anderson, and Mr. Burney were the only persons that landed. The
transactions of the day, of which Mr. Anderson, drew up an ingenious
and entertaining account, added to the stock of knowledge gained by
our navigators, but did not accomplish Captain Cook's principal
object. Nothing was procured by the gentlemen, from the island, that
supplied the wants of the ships. In this expedition, Omai displayed
that turn of exaggeration, with which travellers have so frequently
been charged. Being asked by the natives concerning the English, their
ships, their country, and the arms they made use of, his answers were
not a little marvellous. He told these people, that our country had
ships as large as their islands; on board which were instruments of
war (describing our guns) of such dimensions, that several persons
might sit within them. At the same time, he assured the inhabitants,
that one of these guns was sufficient to crush their whole island at a
single shot. Though he was obliged to acknowledge that the guns on
board the vessels upon their coast were but small, he contrived by an
explosion of gunpowder, to inspire them with a formidable idea of
their nature and effect. It is probable, that this representation of,
things contributed to the preservation of the gentlemen, in their
enterprise on shore; for a strong disposition to retain them had been
shewn by the natives.

It seemed destined that this day should give Omai more occasions than
one of bearing a principal part in its transactions. The island,
though never visited by Europeans before, happened to have other
strangers residing in it; and it was entirely owing to Omai's having
attended on the expedition, that a circumstance so curious came to the
knowledge of the English. Scarcely had he been landed upon the beach,
when he found, among the crowd which had assembled there, three of his
own countrymen, natives of the Society Islands. That, at the distance
of about two hundred leagues from those islands, an immense unknown
ocean intervening, with the wretched boats their inhabitants are known
to make use of, and fit only for a passage where sight of land is
scarcely ever lost, such a meeting, at such a place, so accidentally
visited, should occur, may well be regarded as one of those unexpected
situations with which the writers of feigned adventures love to
surprise their readers. When events of this kind really happen in
common life, they deserve to be recorded for their singularity. It may
easily be supposed with what mutual surprise and satisfaction this
interview of Omai with his countrymen was attended. Twelve years
before, about twenty persons in number, of both sexes, had embarked on
board a canoe at Otaheite, to cross over to the neighbouring island of
Ulietea. A violent storm having arisen, which drove them out of their
course, and their provisions being very scanty, they suffered
incredible hardships, and the greatest part of them perished by famine
and fatigue. Four men only survived when the boat overset, and then
the destruction of this small remnant appeared to be inevitable.
However, they kept hanging by the side of the vessel, which they
continued to do for some days, when they were providentially brought
within sight of the people of this island, who immediately sent out
canoes and brought them on shore. The three men who now survived,
expressed a strong sense of the kind treatment they had received; and
so well satisfied were they with their present situation, that they
refused an offer which was made them of being conveyed to their native
country. A very important instruction may be derived from the
preceding narrative. It will serve to explain, better than a thousand
conjectures of speculative reasoners, how the detached parts of the
earth, and, in particular, how the islands of the South Sea, though
lying remote from any inhabited continent, or from each other, may
have originally been peopled. Similar adventures have occurred in the
history of navigation and shipwrecks.

The island on which Mr. Gore, Mr. Anderson, Mr. Burney, and Omai, had
landed is called Wateeoo by the natives, and is a beautiful spot,
having a surface composed of hills and plains, which are covered with
a verdure rendered extremely pleasant by the diversity of its hues.
Its inhabitants are very numerous; and many of the young men were
perfect models in shape; besides which, they had complexions as
delicate as those of the women, and appeared to be equally amiable in
their dispositions. In their manners, their general habits of life,
and their religious ceremonies and opinions, these islanders have a
near resemblance to the people of Otaheite and its neighbouring isles;
and their language was well understood, both by Omai and the two New
Zealanders.

The next place visited by Captain Cook was a small island, called
Wennooa-ette, or Otakootaia, to which Mr. Gore was sent, at the head
of a party who procured about a hundred cocoa-nuts for each ship, and
some grass, together with a quantity of the leaves and branches of
young trees, for the cattle. Though, at this time, no inhabitants were
found in Wennooa-ette, yet, as there remained indubitable marks of its
being, at least, occasionally frequented, Mr. Gore left a hatchet, and
several nails, to the full value of what had been taken away.

On the 5th, our commander directed his course for Harvey's Island,
which was only at the distance of fifteen leagues, and where he hoped
to procure some refreshments. This island had been discovered by him,
in 1773, during his last voyage, when no traces were discerned of its
having any inhabitants. It was now experienced to be well peopled, and
by a race of men who appeared to differ much, both in person and
disposition, from the natives of Wateeoo. Their behaviour was
disorderly and clamorous; their colour was of a deeper cast; and
several of them had a fierce and rugged aspect. It was remarkable,
that not one of them had adopted the practice, so generally prevalent
among the people of the southern Ocean, of puncturing or
_tatooing_ their bodies. But notwithstanding this singularity,
the most unequivocal proofs were exhibited of their having the same
common origin; and their language, in particular, approached still
nearer to the dialect of Otaheite, than that of Wateeoo, or Mangea. No
anchorage for the ships being found in Harvey's island, Captain Cook
quitted it without delay.

The captain being thus disappointed at all the islands he had met
with, since his leaving New Zealand, and his progress having
unavoidably been retarded by unfavourable winds, and other unforeseen
circumstances, it became impossible to think of doing any thing this
year in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, from which he
was still at so great a distance, though the season for his operations
there was already begun. In this situation, it was absolutely
necessary, in the first place, to pursue such measures as were most
likely to preserve the cattle that were on board. A still more capital
object was to save the stores and provisions of the ships, that he
might the better be enabled to prosecute his discoveries to the north,
which could not now be commenced till a year later than was originally
intended. If he had been so fortunate as to have procured a supply of
water, and of grass, at any of the islands he had lately visited, it
was his purpose to have stood back to the south, till he had met with
a westerly wind. But the certain consequence of doing this, without
such a supply, would have been the loss of all the cattle; while at
the same time, not a single advantage would have been gained, with
regard to the grand ends of the voyage. He determined, therefore, to
beat away for the Friendly Islands, where he was sure of being
abundantly provided.

In pursuing his course, agreeably to this resolution, our commander,
on the 14th, reached Palmerston Island, where, and at a neighbouring
islet, both of which were uninhabited, some little relief was
obtained. The boats soon procured a load of scurvy-grass and young
cocoa-nut trees, which was a feast for the cattle; and the same feast,
with the addition of palm cabbage, and the tender branches of the
_wharra_ tree, was continued for several days. On the 16th, Omai,
being on shore with the captain, caught with a scoop-net, in a very
short time, as much fish as served the whole party for dinner, besides
sending a quantity to both the ships. Birds, too, and particularly
men-of-war and tropic birds, were plentifully obtained; so that our
navigators had sumptuous entertainment. Omai acted as cook upon the
occasion. The fish and the birds he dressed with heated stones, after
the manner of his country; and performed the operation with a
dexterity and good humour which were greatly to his credit. From the
islet before mentioned, twelve hundred cocoa-nuts were procured, which
being equally divided among the crew, were of great use to them, both
on account of the juice and the kernel. There is no water in the
islets which are comprehended under the name of Palmerston Island. If
that article could be obtained, and good anchorage could be
accomplished within the reef, Captain Cook would prefer this island to
any of the uninhabited ones, for the mere purpose of refreshment. The
quantity of fish that might be caught would be sufficient; and a
ship's company could roam about unmolested by the petulance of the
inhabitants.

Different opinions have been entertained concerning the formation of
the low islands in the great ocean. From the observations which our
commander now made, he was convinced, that such islands are formed
from shoals, or coral banks, and, consequently, that they are always
increasing.

After leaving Palmerston's Island, Captain Cook steered to the west,
with a view of making the best of his way to Annamooka. During his
course, the showers were so copious, that our navigators saved a
considerable quantity of water. Finding that a greater supply could be
obtained by the rain in one hour, than could be gotten by distillation
in a month, the captain laid aside the still as a thing which was
attended with more trouble than profit. At this time, the united heat
and moisture of the weather, in addition to the impossibility of
keeping the ships dry, threatened to be noxious to the health of our
people. It was however, remarkable, that neither the constant use of
salt food, nor the vicissitudes of climate, were productive of any
evil effects. Though the only material refreshment our voyagers had
received, since their leaving the Cape of Good Hope, was that which
they had procured at New Zealand, there was not, as yet, a single sick
person on board. This happy situation of things was undoubtedly owing
to the unremitting attention of our commander, in seeing that no
circumstance was neglected, which could contribute to the preservation
of the health of his company.

On the 28th of April, Captain Cook touched at the Island of Komango;
and, on the 1st of May, he arrived at Annamooka. The station he took
was the very same which he had occupied when he visited the country
three years before; and it was probably almost in the same place where
Tasman, the first discoverer of this and some of the neighbouring
islands, anchored in 1643. A friendly intercourse was immediately
opened with the natives, and every thing was settled to the captain's
satisfaction. He received the greatest civilities from Toobou, the
chief of Annamooka; and Taipa, a chief from the Island of Komango,
attached himself to the English in so extraordinary a manner, that, in
order to be near them in the night, as well as in the day, he had a
house brought on men's shoulders, a full quarter of a mile, and placed
close to the shed, which was occupied by our party on shore. On the
6th our commander was visited by a great chief from Tongataboo, whose
name was Feenou, and who was falsely represented, by Taipa, to be the
king of all the Friendly Isles. The only interruption to the harmony
which subsisted between our people and the natives of Annamooka arose
from the thievish disposition of many of the inhabitants. They
afforded frequent opportunities of remarking, how expert they were in
the business of stealing. Even some of the chiefs did not think the
profession unbecoming their dignity. One of them was detected in
carrying a bolt out of the ship, concealed under his clothes; for
which Captain Cook sentenced him to have a dozen lashes, and kept him
confined till he had paid a hog for his liberty. After this act of
justice, our navigators were no longer troubled with thieves of rank:
but their servants, or slaves, were still employed in the dirty work;
and upon them a flogging seemed to make no greater impression that it
would have done upon the mainmast. When any of them happened to be
caught in the act, so far were their masters from interceding in their
favour, that they often advised our gentlemen to kill them. This,
however, being a punishment too severe to be inflicted, they generally
escaped without being punished at all; for of the shame, as well as of
the pain of corporal chastisement, they appeared to be equally
insensible. At length, Captain Clerke invented a mode of treatment,
which was thought to be productive of some good effect. He put the
thieves into the hands of the barber, and completely shaved their
heads. In consequence of this operation, they became objects of
ridicule to their own countrymen; and our people, by keeping them at a
distance, were enabled to deprive them of future opportunities for a
repetition of their rogueries.

The island of Annamooka being exhausted of its articles of food,
Captain Cook proposed, on the 11th, to proceed directly for
Tongataboo. From this resolution, however, he was diverted, at the
instance of Feenou, who warmly recommended in preference to it, an
island, or rather a group of islands, called Hapaee, lying to the
north-east. There, he assured our voyagers, they could be plentifully
supplied with every refreshment, in the easiest manner; and he
enforced his advice by engaging to attend them thither in person.
Accordingly, Hapaee was made choice of for the next station; and the
examination of it became an object with the captain, as it had never
been visited by any European ships.

On the 17th, our commander arrived at Hapaee, where he met with a most
friendly reception from the inhabitants, and from Earoupa, the chief
of the island. During the whole stay of our navigators, the time was
spent in a reciprocation of presents, civilities, and solemnities. On
the part of the natives were displayed single combats with clubs,
wrestling and boxing-matches, female combatants, dances performed by
men, and night entertainments of singing and dancing. The English, on
the other hand, gave pleasure to the Indians by exercising the
marines, and excited their astonishment by the exhibition of
fireworks. After curiosity had, on both sides, been sufficiently
gratified, Captain Cook applied himself to the examination of Hapaee,
Lefooga, and other neighbouring islands. As the ships were returning,
on the 31st, from these islands to Annamooka, the Resolution was very
near running full upon a low sandy isle, called Pootoo Pootooa,
surrounded with breakers. It fortunately happened, that the men had
just been ordered upon deck to put the vessel about, and were most of
them at their stations; so that the necessary movements were executed
not only with judgment, but also with alertness. This alone saved the
ship and her company from destruction. 'Such hazardous situations,'
says the captain, 'are the unavoidable companions of the man who goes
upon a voyage of discovery.'

During our commander's expedition to Hapaee, he was introduced to
Poulaho, the real king of the Friendly Isles; in whose presence it
instantly appeared how groundless had been Feenou's pretensions to
that character. Feenou, however, was a chief of great note and
influence. By Poulaho Captain Cook was invited to pass over to
Tongataboo, which request he complied with after he had touched, for
two or three days, at Annamooka. In the passage, the Resolution was
insensibly drawn upon a large flat, on which lay innumerable coral
rocks of different depths below the surface of the water.
Notwithstanding all the care and attention of our people to keep her
clear of them, they could not prevent her from striking on one of
these rocks. The same event happened to the Discovery; but fortunately
neither of the ships stuck fast or received any damage.

On the 10th of June, Captain Cook arrived at Tongataboo, where the
king was waiting for him upon the beach, and immediately conducted him
to a small, but neat house, which, he was told, was at his service,
during his stay in the island. The house was situated a little within
the skirts of the woods, and had a fine large area before it; so that
a more agreeable spot could not have been provided. Our commander's
arrival at Tongataboo was followed by a succession of entertainments
similar to those which had occurred at Hapaee, though somewhat
diversified in circumstances, and exhibited with additional splendour.
The pleasure, however, of the visit was occasionally interrupted by
the thieveries of many of the inhabitants. Nothing could prevent their
plundering our voyagers, in every quarter; and they did it in the most
daring and insolent manner. There was scarcely any thing which they
did not attempt to steal; and yet, as the crowd was always great, the
captain would not permit the sentinels to fire, lest the innocent
should suffer with the guilty.

Captain Cook, on the 19th, made a distribution of the animals which he
had selected as presents for the principal men of the island. To
Poulaho, the king, he gave a young English bull and cow, together with
three goats; to Mareewagee, a chief of consequence, a Cape ram and two
ewes; and to Feenou a horse and a mare. He likewise left in the island
a young boar and three young sows of the English breed; and two
rabbits, a buck and a doe. Omai, at the same time, was instructed to
represent the importance of these animals, and to explain, as far as
he was capable of doing it, the manner in which they should be
preserved and treated. Even the generosity of the captain was not
without its inconveniences. It soon appeared that some were
dissatisfied with the allotment of the animals; for, next morning, two
kids and two Turkey-cocks were missing. As our commander could not
suppose, that this was an accidental loss, he determined to have them
again. The first step he took was to seize on three canoes that
happened to be alongside the ships; after which he went on shore, and
having found the king, his brother, Feenou, and some other chiefs, he
immediately put a guard over them, and gave them to understand, that
they must remain under restraint, till not only the kid and the
turkeys, but the rest of the things which, at different times, had
been stolen from our voyagers, should be restored. This bold step of
Captain Cook was attended with a very good effect. Some of the
articles which had been lost were instantly brought back, and such
good assurances were given with regard to the remainder, that, in the
afternoon, the chiefs were released. It was a happy circumstance, with
respect to this transaction, that it did not abate the future
confidence of Poulaho and his friends in the captain's kind and
generous treatment.

On the 5th of July was an eclipse of the sun, which, however, in
consequence of unfavourable weather, was very imperfectly observed.
Happily, the disappointment was of little consequence, as the
longitude was more than sufficiently determined by lunar observations.

Captain Cook sailed from Tongataboo on the 10th, and, two days after,
came to anchor at the island of Middleburg, or Eooa, as it is called
by the inhabitants. Here he was immediately visited by Taoofa, the
chief, with whom he had formerly been acquainted. The intercourse now
renewed was friendly in the highest degree, both with Taoofa and the
rest of the natives; and our commander endeavoured to meliorate their
condition by planting a pineapple and sowing the seeds of melons, and
other vegetables, in the chief's plantation. To this he was encouraged
by a proof that his past endeavours had not been wholly unsuccessful.
He had, one day, served up to him at his dinner, a dish of turnips,
being the produce of the seeds which he had left at Eooa in his last
voyage.

The stay which Captain Cook made at the Friendly Islands was between
two and three months; during which time, some accidental difference
excepted, there subsisted the utmost cordiality between the English
and the natives. These differences were never attended with any fatal
consequences; which happy circumstance was principally owing to the
unremitting attention of the captain, who directed all his measures
with a view to the prevention of such quarrels, as would be injurious
either to the inhabitants or to his own people. So long as our
navigators staid at the islands, they expended very little of their
sea provisions, subsisting, in general, upon the produce of the
country, and carrying away with them a quantity of refreshments,
sufficient to last till their arrival at another station, where they
could depend upon a fresh supply. It was a singular pleasure to our
commander, that he possessed an opportunity of adding to the happiness
of these good Indians, by the useful animals which he left among them.
Upon the whole, the advantages of having landed at the Friendly
Islands were very great; and Captain Cook reflected upon it with
peculiar satisfaction, that these advantages were obtained without
retarding, for a single moment, the prosecution of the great object of
his voyage; the season for proceeding to the north having been
previously lost.

Besides the immediate benefits which both the natives and the English
derived from their mutual intercourse on the present occasion, such a
large addition was now made to the geographical knowledge of this part
of the Pacific Ocean, as may render no small service to future
navigators. Under the denomination of the Friendly Islands must be
included not only the group of Hapaee, but all those islands that have
been discovered nearly under the same meridian, to the north, as well
as some others, which, though they have never hitherto been seen by
any European voyagers, are under the dominion of Tongataboo. From the
information which our commander received, it appears, that this
archipelago is very extensive. Above one hundred and fifty islands
were reckoned up by the natives, who made use of bits of leaves to
ascertain their number; and Mr. Anderson, with his usual diligence,
procured all their names. Fifteen of them are said to be high or
hilly, and thirty-five of them large. Concerning the size of the
thirty-two which were unexplored, it can only be mentioned, that they
must be larger than Annamooka, which was ranked amongst the smaller
isles. Several, indeed, of those which belong to this latter
denomination, are mere spots, without inhabitants. Captain Cook had
not the least doubt but that Prince William's Islands, discovered and
so named by Tasman, were comprehended in the list furnished by the
natives. He had also good authority for believing that Keppel's and
Boscawen's Islands, two of Captain Wallis's discoveries to 1765, were
included in the same list; and that they were under the sovereign of
Tongataboo, which is the grand seat of government. It must be left to
future navigators to extend the geography of this part of the South
Pacific Ocean, by ascertaining the exact situation and size of nearly
a hundred islands, in the neighbourhood, which our commander had no
opportunity of exploring.

During the present visit to the Friendly Islands, large additions were
made to the knowledge which was obtained, in the last voyage, of the
natural history and productions of the country, and the manners and
customs of its inhabitants. Though it does not fall within the plan of
this narrative to enter into a detail of the particulars recorded, I
cannot help taking notice of the explanation which Captain Cook has
given of the thievish disposition of the natives. It is an explanation
which reflects honour upon his sagacity, humanity, and candour and
therefore I shall relate it in his own words: 'The only defect,' says
he, 'sullying their character, that we know of, is a propensity to
thieving; to which we found those of all ages, and both sexes,
addicted, and to an uncommon degree. It should, however, be
considered, that this exceptionable part of their conduct seemed to
exist merely with respect to us; for, in their general intercourse
with one another, I had reason to be of opinion, that thefts do not
happen more frequently (perhaps less so) than in other countries, the
dishonest practices of whose worthless individuals are not supposed to
authorize any indiscriminate censure on the whole body of the people.
Great allowances should be made for the foibles of these poor natives
of the Pacific Ocean, whose minds were overpowered with the glare of
objects, equally new to them as they were captivating. Stealing, among
the civilized nations of the world, may well be considered as denoting
a character deeply stained with moral turpitude: with avarice,
unrestrained by the known rules of right; and with profligacy,
producing extreme indigence, and neglecting the means of relieving it.
But at the Friendly and other islands which we visited, the thefts, so
frequently committed by the natives, of what we had brought along with
us, may be fairly traced to less culpable motives. They seemed to
arise solely from an intense curiosity or desire to possess something
which they had not been accustomed to before, and belonging to a sort
of people so different from themselves. And, perhaps, if it were
possible, that a set of beings, seemingly, as superior in our
judgment, as we are in theirs, should appear amongst us, it might be
doubted, whether our natural regard to justice would be able to
restrain many from falling into the same error. That I have assigned
the true motive for their propensity to this practice, appears from
their stealing every thing indiscriminately at first sight, before
they could have the least conception of converting their prize to any
one useful purpose. But, I believe, with us, no person would forfeit
his reputation, or expose himself to punishment, without knowing,
beforehand, how to employ the stolen goods. Upon the whole, the
pilfering disposition of these islanders, though certainly
disagreeable and troublesome to strangers, was the means of affording
us some information as to the quickness of their intellects.'

With respect to the religion of these Indians, Mr. Anderson maintains,
that they have very proper sentiments concerning the immateriality and
immortality of the soul; and thinks himself sufficiently authorized to
assert, that they do not worship any thing which is the work of their
own hands, or any visible part of the creation. The language of the
Friendly Islands has the greatest imaginable conformity with that of
New Zealand, of Wateeoo, and Mangeea. Several hundreds of the words of
it were collected by Mr. Anderson; and amongst these, are terms that
express numbers reaching to a hundred thousand. Beyond this limit they
never went, and probably were not able to go farther; for it was
observed, that when they had gotten thus far, they commonly used a
word which expresses an indefinite number.

On the 17th of July, our commander took his final leave of the
Friendly Islands, and resumed his voyage. An eclipse was observed in
the night between the 20th and the 21st; and on the 8th of August land
was discovered. Some of the inhabitants, who came off in canoes,
seemed earnestly to invite our people to go on shore; but Captain Cook
did not think proper to run the risk of losing the advantage of a fair
wind, for the sake of examining an island which appeared to be of
little consequence. Its name, as was learned from the natives, who
spake the Otaheite language, is Toobonai.

Pursuing his course, the captain reached Otaheite on the 12th, and
steered for Oheitepeha Bay, with an intention to anchor there, in
order to draw what refreshments he could from the south-east part of
the island, before he went down to Matavai. Omai's first reception
amongst his countrymen was not entirely of a flattering nature. Though
several persons came on board who knew him, and one of them was his
brother-in-law, there was nothing remarkably tender or striking in
their meeting. An interview which Omai had, on the 13th, with his
sister, was agreeable to the feelings of nature; for their meeting was
marked with expressions of tender affection, more easy to be conceived
than described. In a visit, likewise, which he received from an aunt,
the old lady threw herself at his feet, and plentifully bedewed them
with tears of joy.

Captain Cook was informed by the natives, that, since he was last at
the island, in 1774, two ships had been twice in Oheitepeha Bay, and
had left animals in the country. These, on farther inquiry, were found
to be hogs, dogs, goats, one bull, and a ram. That the vessels which
had visited Otaheite were Spanish, was plain from an inscription that
was cut upon a wooden cross, standing at some distance from the front
of a house which had been occupied by the strangers. On the transverse
part of the cross was inscribed,

    _Christus vincit._

And on the perpendicular part,

    _Carolus III. imperat. 1774._

Our commander took this occasion to preserve the memory of the prior
visits of the English, by inscribing, on the other side of the post,

    _Georgius tertius Rex.
    Annis 1767,
    1769, 1773, 1774, & 1777._

Whatever might be the intentions of the Spaniards in their visit to
the island, it ought to be remembered to their honour, that they
behaved so well to the inhabitants, as always to be spoken of in the
strongest expressions of esteem and veneration.

Captain Cook had at this time an important affair to settle. As he
knew that he could now be furnished with a plentiful supply of
cocoa-nuts, the liquor of which is an excellent and wholesome
beverage, he was desirous of prevailing upon his people to consent to
their being abridged, during their stay at Otaheite and the
neighbouring islands, of their stated allowance of spirits to mix with
water. But as this stoppage of a favourite article, without assigning
some reason for it, might occasion a general murmur, he thought it
most prudent to assemble the ship's company, and to make known to them
the design of the voyage, and the extent of the future operations. To
animate them in undertaking with cheerfulness and perseverance what
lay before them he took notice of the rewards offered by parliament,
to such of his majesty's subjects as should first discover a
communication between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, in any
direction whatever, in the northern hemisphere; and also to such as
should first penetrate beyond the eighty-ninth degree of northern
latitude. The captain made no doubt, he told them, that he should find
them willing to co-operate with him in attempting as far as might be
possible, to become entitled to one or both these rewards; but that,
to give the best chance of success, it would be necessary to observe
the utmost economy in the expenditure of the stores and provisions,
particularly the latter, as there was no probability of getting a
supply any where, after leaving these islands. He strengthened his
argument by reminding them, that, in consequence of the opportunity's
having been lost of getting to the north this summer, the voyage must
last at least a year longer than had originally been supposed. He
entreated them to consider the various obstructions and difficulties
they might still meet with, and the aggravated hardships they would
endure, if it should be found necessary to put them to short
allowance, of any species of provisions, in a cold climate. For these
very substantial reasons, he submitted to them, whether it would not
be better to be prudent in time, and, rather than to incur the hazard
of having no spirits left, when such a cordial would most be wanted,
to consent to give up their grog now, when so excellent a liquor as
that of cocoa-nuts could be substituted in its place. In conclusion,
our commander left the determination of the matter entirely to their
own choice.

This speech which certainly partook much of the nature of true
eloquence, if a discourse admirably calculated for persuasion be
entitled to that character, produced its full effect on the generous
minds of English seamen. Captain Cook had the satisfaction of finding
that his proposal did not remain a single moment under consideration;
being unanimously and immediately approved of, without the least
objection. By our commander's order, Captain Clerke made the same
proposal to his people, to which they, likewise, agreed. Accordingly,
grog was no longer served, excepting on Saturday nights; when the
companies of both ships had a full allowance of it, that they might
drink the healths of their friends in England.

On the 24th, Captain Cook quitted the south-east part of Otaheite, and
resumed his old station in Matavia Bay. Immediately upon his arrival,
he was visited by Otoo, the king of the whole island, and their former
friendship was renewed; a friendship which was continued without
interruption, and cemented by a perpetual succession of civilities,
good offices, and entertainments. One of our commander's first objects
was to dispose of all the European animals which were in the ships.
Accordingly, he conveyed to Oparre, Otoo's place of residence, a
peacock and hen; a turkey cock and hen, one gander and three geese, a
drake and four ducks. The geese and ducks began to breed before our
navigators left their present station. There were already, at Otoo's,
several goats, and the Spanish bull; which was one of the finest
animals of the kind that was ever seen. To the bull Captain Cook sent
the three cows he had on board, together with a bull of his own; to
all which were added the horse and mare, and the sheep that had still
remained in the vessels.

The captain found himself lightened of a very heavy burden, in having
disposed of these passengers. It is not easy to conceive the trouble
and vexation, which had attended the conveyance of this living cargo,
through such various hazards, and to so immense a distance. But the
satisfaction which our commander felt, in having been so fortunate as
to fulfil his majesty's humane designs, in sending such valuable
animals, to supply the wants of the two worthy nations, afforded him
an ample recompense for the many anxious hours he had passed, before
this subordinate object of his voyage could be carried into execution.

At this time a war was on the point of breaking out, between the
inhabitants of Eimeo and those of Otaheite; and by the latter Captain
Cook was requested to take a part in their favour. With this request,
however, though enforced by frequent and urgent solicitations, the
captain, according to his usual wisdom, refused to comply. He alleged,
that, as he was not thoroughly acquainted with the dispute, and the
people of Eimeo had never offended him, he could not think himself at
liberty to engage in hostilities against them. With these reasons Otoo
and most of the chiefs appeared to be satisfied; but one of them,
Towha, was so highly displeased, that our commander never afterward
recovered his friendship.

Upon the present occasion, Captain Cook had full and undeniable proof,
that the offering of human sacrifices forms a part of the religious
institutions of Otaheite. Indeed, he was a witness to a solemnity of
this kind; the process of which he has particularly described, and has
related it with the just sentiments of indignation and abhorrence. The
unhappy victim, who was now offered to the object of worship, seemed
to be a middle-aged man, and was said to be one of the lowest class of
the people. But the captain could not learn, after all his inquiries,
whether the wretch had been fixed upon on account of his having
committed any crime which was supposed to be deserving of death. It is
certain, that a choice is generally, made either of such guilty
persons for the sacrifices, or of common low fellows, who stroll about
from place to place, without any visible methods of obtaining an
honest subsistence. Those who are devoted to suffer, are never
apprised of their fate, till the blow is given, that puts an end to
their being. Whenever, upon any particular emergency, one of the great
chiefs considers a human sacrifice to be necessary, he pitches upon
the victim, and then orders him to be suddenly fallen upon and killed,
either with clubs or stones. Although it should be supposed, that no
more than one person is ever devoted to destruction on any single
occasion, at Otaheite, it will still be found that these occurrences
are so frequent, as to cause a shocking waste of the human race; for
our commander counted no less than forty-nine skulls of former
victims, lying before the Morai, where he had seen another added to
the number. It was apparent, from the freshness of these skulls, that
no great length of time had elapsed since the wretches to whom they
belonged had been offered upon the altar of blood.

There is reason to fear, that this custom is as extensive as it is
horrid. It is highly probable that it prevails throughout the widely
diffused islands of the Pacific Ocean; and Captain Cook had particular
evidence of its subsisting at the Friendly Islands. To what an extent
the practice of human sacrifices was carried in the ancient world, is
not unknown to the learned. Scarcely any nation was free from it in a
certain state of society; and, as religious reformation is one of the
last efforts of the human mind, the practice may be continued, even
when the manners are otherwise far removed from savage life. It may
have been a long time before civilization has made such a progress as
to deprive superstition of its cruelty, and to divert it from
barbarous rites to ceremonies which, though foolish enough, are
comparatively mild, gentle and innocent.

On the 5th of September, an accident happened, which, though slight in
itself, was of some consequence from the situation of things. A young
ram of the Cape breed, which had been lambed and brought up with great
care on board the ship, as killed by a dog. Desirous as Captain Cook
was of propagating so useful a race among the Society Islands, the
loss of a ram was a serious misfortune. It was the only one he had of
that breed; and of the English breed a single ram was all that
remained.

Captain Cook and Captain Clerke, on the 14th, mounted on horseback,
and took a ride round the plain of Matavai, to the great surprise of a
large number of the natives, who attended upon the occasion, and gazed
upon the gentlemen with as much astonishment as if they had been
Centaurs. What the two captains had begun was afterward repeated every
day, by one and another of our people; notwithstanding which, the
curiosity of the Otaheitans still continued unabated. They were
exceedingly delighted with these animals, after they had seen the use
which was made of them. Not all the novelties put together, which
European visitors had carried amongst the inhabitants, inspired them
with so high an idea of the greatness of distant nations.

Though Captain Cook would not take a part in the quarrels between the
islands, he was ready to protect his particular friends, when in
danger of being injured. Towha, who commanded the expedition against
Eimeo, had been obliged to submit to a disgraceful accommodation.
Being full of resentment, on account of his not having been properly
supported, he was said to have threatened, that, as soon as the
captain should leave the island, he would join his forces to those of
Tiaraboo, and attack Otoo, at Matavai or Oparre. This induced our
commander to declare, in the most public manner, that he was
determined to espouse the interest of his friend, against any such
combination; and that, whoever presumed to assault him, should feel
the weight of his heavy displeasure, when he returned again to
Otaheite. Captain Cook's declaration had probably the desired effect;
for, if Towha had formed hostile intentions, no more was heard of the
matter.

The manner in which our commander was freed from a rheumatic
complaint, that consisted of a pain extending from the hip to the
foot, deserves to be recorded. Otoo's mother, his three sisters, and
eight other women went on board, for the express purpose of
undertaking the cure of his disorder. He accepted of their friendly
offer, had a bed spread for them on the cabin floor, and submitted
himself to their directions. Being desired to lay himself down amongst
them, then, as many of them as could get round him began to squeeze
him with both hands, from head to foot, but more particularly in the
part where the pain was lodged till they made his bones crack, and his
flesh became a perfect mummy. After undergoing this discipline about a
quarter of an hour, he was glad to be released from the women. The
operation, however gave him immediate relief; so that he was
encouraged to submit to another rubbing down before he went to bed;
the consequence of which was, that he was tolerably easy all the
succeeding night. His female physicians repeated their prescription
the next morning, and again in the evening; after which his pains were
entirely removed, and the cure was perfected. This operation, which is
called _romee_, is universally practised among these islanders;
being sometimes, performed by the men, but more generally by the
women.

Captain Cook, who now had come to the resolution of departing soon
from Otaheite, accompanied, on the 27th, Otoo to Oparre, and examined
the cattle and poultry, which he had consigned to his friend's care at
that place. Everything was in a promising way, and properly attended.
The captain procured from Otoo four goats; two of which he designed to
leave at Ulietea, where none had as yet been introduced; and the other
two he proposed to reserve for the use of any islands he might chance
to meet with in his passage to the north. On the next day, Oleo came
on board, and informed our commander that he had gotten a canoe, which
he desired him to carry home, as a present to the Earee rahie no
Pretane. This, he said, was the only thing he could send which was
worthy of his majesty's, acceptance. Captain Cook was not a little
pleased with Otoo, for this mark of his gratitude; and the more, as
the thought was entirely his own. Not one of our people had given him
the least hint concerning it; and it shewed, that he was fully
sensible to whom he stood indebted for the most valueable presents
that he had received. As the canoe was too large to be taken on board,
the captain could only thank him for his good intentions; but it would
have given him a much greater satisfaction, if his present could have
been accepted.

During this visit of our voyagers to Otaheite, such a cordial
friendship and confidence subsisted between them and the natives, as
never once to be interrupted by any untoward accident. Our commander
had made the chiefs fully sensible, that it was their interest to
treat with him on fair and equitable terms, and to keep their people
from plundering or stealing. So great was Otoo's attachment to the
English, that he seemed pleased with the idea of their having a
permanent settlement at Matavai; not considering, that from that time
he would be deprived of his kingdom, and the inhabitants of their
liberties. Captain Cook had too much gratitude and regard for these
islanders, to wish that such an event should ever take place. Though
our occasional visits may, in some respects, have been of advantage to
the natives, he was afraid that a durable establishment among them,
conducted as most European establishments amongst Indian nations have
unfortunately been, would give them just cause to lament that they had
been discovered by our navigators. It is not, indeed, likely that a
measure of this kind should at any time seriously be adopted, because
it cannot serve either the purposes of public ambition, or private
avarice; and, without such inducements, the captain has ventured to
pronounce that it will never be undertaken.

From Otaheite our voyagers sailed, on the 30th, to Eimeo, where they
came to an anchor on the same day. At this island the transactions
which happened were, for the most part, very unpleasant. A goat, which
was stolen, was recovered without any extraordinary difficulty, and
one of the thieves was, at the same time, surrendered; being the first
instance of the kind that our commander had met with in his connexions
with the Society Islands. The stealing of another goat was attended
with an uncommon degree of perplexity and trouble. As the recovery of
it was a matter of no small importance, Captain Cook was determined to
effect this at any rate; and accordingly he made an expedition across
the island, in the course of which he set fire to six or eight houses,
and burned a number of war canoes. At last, in consequence of a
peremptory message to Maheine, the chief of Eimeo, that not a single
canoe should be left in the country, or an end be put to the contest,
unless the animal in his possession should be restored, the goat was
brought back. This quarrel was as much regretted on the part of the
captain, as it could be on that of the natives. It grieved him to
reflect, that, after refusing the pressing solicitations of his
friends at Otaheite to favour their invasion of this island, he should
find himself so speedily reduced to the necessity of engaging, in
hostilities against its inhabitants; and in such hostilities as,
perhaps, had been more injurious to them than Towha's expedition.

On the 11th of October, the ships departed from Eimeo, and the next
day arrived at Owharre harbour, on the west side of Huaheine. The
grand business of our commander at this island was the settlement of
Omai. In order to obtain the consent of the chiefs of the island, the
affair was conducted with great solemnity. Omai dressed himself very
properly on the occasion; brought with him a suitable assortment of
presents; went through a variety of religious ceremonies; and made a
speech, the topics of which had been dictated to him by our commander.
The result of the negotiation was, that a spot of ground was assigned
him, the extent of which, along the shore of the harbour was about two
hundred yards; and its depth to the foot of the hill somewhat more. A
proportionable part of the hill was included in the grant. This
business having been adjusted in a satisfactory manner, the carpenters
of both ships were employed in building a small house for Omai, in
which he might secure his European commodities. At the same time, some
of the English made a garden for his use, in which they planted
shaddocks, vines, pineapples, melons, and the seeds of several other
vegetable articles. All of these Captain Cook bad the satisfaction of
seeing in a flourishing state before he left the island.

At Huaheine, Omai found a brother, a sister, and a brother-in-law, by
whom he was received with great regard and tenderness. But though
these people were faithful and affectionate in their attachment to
him, the captain discovered, with concern, that they were of too
little consequence in the island to be capable of rendering him any
positive service. They had not either authority or influence to
protect his person or property; and, in such a situation, there was
reason to apprehend, that he might be in danger of being stripped of
all his possessions, as soon as he should cease to be supported by the
power of the English. To prevent this evil, if possible, our commander
advised him to conciliate the favour and engage the patronage and
protection of two or three of the principal chiefs, by a proper
distribution of some of his moveables; with which advice he prudently
complied. Captain Cook, however, did not entirely trust to the
operations of gratitude, but had recourse to the more forcible motive
of intimidation. With this view, he took every opportunity of
signifying to the inhabitants, that it was his intention to return to
the island again, after being absent the usual time; and that, if he
did not find Omai in the same state of security in which he left him,
all those whom he should then discover to have been his enemies should
feel the weight of his resentment. As the natives had now formed an
opinion that their country would be visited by the ships of England at
stated periods, there was ground to hope, that this threatening
declaration would produce no inconsiderable effect.

When Omai's house was nearly finished, and many of his moveables were
carried ashore, a box of toys excited the admiration of the multitude
in a much higher degree than articles of a more useful nature. With
regard to his pots, kettles, dishes, plates, drinking mugs, glasses,
and the whole train of domestic accommodations, which in our
estimation are so necessary and important, scarcely any one of his
countrymen would condescend to look upon them. Omai himself, being
sensible that these pieces of English furniture would be of no great
consequence in his present situation, wisely sold a number of them,
among the people of the ships, for hatchets, and other iron tools,
which had a more intrinsic value in this part of the world, and would
give him a more distinguished superiority over those with whom he was
to pass the remainder of his days.

Omai's family, when he settled at Huaheine, consisted of eight or ten
persons, if that can be called a family to which a single female did
not as yet belong, nor was likely to belong, unless its master should
become less volatile. There was nothing in his present temper which
seemed likely to dispose him to look out for a wife; and, perhaps, it
is to be apprehended, that his residence in England had not
contributed to improve his taste for the sober felicity of a domestic
union with some woman of his own country.

The European weapons of Omai consisted of a musket, bayonet, and
carteuch box; a fowling-piece, two pair of pistols, and two or three
swords or cutlasses. With the possession of these warlike implements,
he was highly delighted; and it was only to gratify his eager desire
for them that Captain Cook was induced to make him such presents. The
captain would otherwise have thought it happier for him to be without
fire-arms, or any European weapons, lest an imprudent use of them (and
prudence was not his most distinguished talent) should rather increase
his dangers than establish his superiority. Though it was no small
satisfaction to our commander to reflect, that he had brought Omai
safe back to the very spot from which he had been taken, this
satisfaction was, nevertheless, somewhat diminished by the
consideration, that his situation might now be less desirable than it
was before his connexion with the English. It was to be feared, that
the advantages which he had derived from his visit to England would
place him in a more hazardous state, with respect to his personal
safety.

Whatever faults belonged to Omai's character, they were overbalanced
by his good nature and his gratitude. He had a tolerable share of
understanding, but it was not accompanied with application and
perseverance; so that his knowledge of things was very general, and in
most instances imperfect: nor was he a man of much observation. He
would not, therefore, be able to introduce many of the arts and
customs of England among his countrymen, or greatly to improve those
to which they have long been habituated. Captain Cook, however, was
confident, that he would endeavour to bring to perfection the fruits
and vegetables which had been planted in his garden. This of itself
would be no small acquisition to the natives. But the greatest benefit
which these islands are likely to receive from Omai's travels, will be
in the animals that are left upon them; and which, had it not been for
his coming to England, they might probably never have obtained. When
these multiply, of which Captain Cook thought there was little reason
to doubt, Otaheite and the Society Islands will equal, if not exceed,
any country in the known world, for plenty of provisions.

Before our commander sailed from Huaheine, he had the following
inscription cut on the outside of Omai's house:

  _Georgius Tertius, Rex, 2 Novembris, 1777.
         { Resolution, Jac. Cook, Pr.
   Naves {
         { Discovery, Car. Clerk, Pr._

On the same day, Omai took his final leave of our navigators, in doing
which, he bade farewell to all the officers in a very affectionate
manner. He sustained himself with a manly resolution, till he came to
Captain Cook, when his utmost efforts to conceal his tears failed; and
he continued to weep all the time that the boat was conveying him to
shore. Not again to resume the subject I shall here mention, that when
the captain was at Ulietea, a fortnight after this event, Omai sent
two men with the satisfactory intelligence, that he remained
undisturbed by the people of Huaheine, and that every thing succeeded
well with him, excepting in the loss of his goat, which had died in
kidding. This intelligence was accompanied with a request, that
another goat might be given him, together with two axes. Our
commander, esteeming himself happy in having an additional opportunity
of serving him, dispatched the messengers back with the axes and a
couple of kids, male and female, which were spared for him out of the
Discovery.

The fate of the two youths, who had been brought from New Zealand,
must not be forgotten. As they were extremely desirous of continuing
with our people, Captain Cook would have carried them to England with
him, if there had appeared the most distant probability of their ever
being restored to their own country. Tiarooa, the eldest of them, was
a very well disposed young man, with strong natural sense, and a
capacity of receiving any instruction. He seemed to be fully convinced
of the inferiority of New Zealand to these islands, and resigned
himself, though not without some degree of reluctance, to end his
days, in ease and plenty, in Huaheine. The other had formed so strong
an attachment to our navigators, that it was necessary to take him out
of the ship, and carry him ashore by force. This necessity was the
more painful as he was a witty, smart boy: and, on that account, a
great favourite on board. Both these youths became a part of Omai's
family.

Whilst our voyagers were at Huaheine, the atrocious conduct of one
particular thief occasioned so much trouble, that the captain punished
him more severely than he had ever done any culprit before. Besides
having his head and beard shaved, he ordered both his ears to be cut
off, and then dismissed him. It can scarcely be reflected upon without
regret, that our commander should have been compelled to such an act
of severity.

On the 3rd of November, the ships came to an anchor in the harbour of
Ohamaneno, in the island of Ulietea. The observatories being set up on
the 6th, and the necessary instruments having been carried on shore,
the two following days were employed in making astronomical
observations. In the night between the 12th and 13th, John Harrison, a
marine, who was sentinel at the observatory, deserted, taking with him
his arms and accoutrements. Captain Cook exerted himself on this
occasion, with his usual vigour. He went himself in pursuit of the
deserter, who, after some evasion on the part of the inhabitants, was
surrendered. He was found sitting between two women, with the musket
lying before him; and all the defence he was able to make was, that he
had been enticed away by the natives. As this account was probably the
truth, and as it appeared besides, that he had remained upon his post
till within ten minutes of the time when he was to have been relieved,
the punishment which the captain inflicted upon him was not very
severe.

Some days after, a still more troublesome affair happened, of the same
nature. On the morning of the 24th, the captain was informed that a
midshipman and a seaman, both belonging to the Discovery, were
missing; and it soon appeared, that they had gone away in a canoe in
the preceding evening, and had now reached the other end of the
island. As the midshipman was known to have expressed a desire of
remaining at these islands, it was evident, that he and his companion
had gone off with that intention. Though Captain Clerke immediately
set out in quest of them with two armed boats, and a party of marines,
his expedition proved fruitless, the natives having amused him the
whole day with false intelligence. The next morning an account was
brought that the deserters were at Otaha. As they were not the only
persons in the ships who wished to spend their days at these favourite
islands, it became necessary for the purpose of preventing any farther
desertion, to recover them at all events. Captain Cook, therefore, in
order to convince the inhabitants that he was in earnest, resolved to
go after the fugitives himself; to which measure he was determined,
from having observed, in repeated instances, that the natives had
seldom offered to deceive him with false information.

Agreeably to this resolution, the captain set out, the next morning,
with two armed boats, being accompanied by Oree, the chief of Ulietea,
and proceeded immediately to Otaha. But when he had gotten to the
place where the deserters were expected to be found, he was acquainted
that they were gone over to Bolabola. Thither our commander did not
think proper to follow them having determined to pursue another
measure, which he judged would more effectually answer his purpose.
This measure was to put the chief's son, daughter, and son-in-law,
into confinement, and to detain them till the fugitives should be
restored. As to Oree, he was informed, that he was at liberty to leave
the ship whenever he pleased, and to take such methods as he esteemed
best calculated to get our two men back; that, if he succeeded, his
friends should be released; if not, that Captain Cook was resolved to
carry them away with him. The captain added, that the chief's own
conduct, as well as that of many of his people, in assisting the
runaways to escape, and in enticing others to follow them, would
justify any step that could be taken to put a stop to such
proceedings. In consequence of this explanation of our commander's
views and intentions, Oree zealously exerted himself to recover the
deserters, for which purpose he dispatched a canoe to Bolabola, with a
message to Opoony, the sovereign of that island, acquainting him with
what had happened, and requesting him to seize the two fugitives and
send them back. The messenger, who was no less a person than the
father of Pootoe, Oree's son-in-law, came, before he set out, to
Captain Cook, to receive his commands; which were, not to return
without the runaways, and to inform Opoony, that, if they had left
Bolabola, he must dispatch canoes in pursuit of them, till they should
finally be restored. These vigorous measures were, at length,
successful. On the 28th the deserters were brought back; and, as soon
as they were on board, the three prisoners were released. Our
commander would not have acted so resolutely on the present occasion,
had he not been peculiarly solicitous to save the son of a brother
officer from being lost to his country.

While this affair was in suspense, some of the natives, from their
anxiety on account of the confinement of the chief's relations, had
formed a design of a very serious nature; which was no less than to
seize upon the persons of Captain Clerke and Captain Cook. With regard
to Captain Clerke, they made no secret of speaking of their scheme,
the day after it was discovered. But their first and grand plan of
operations was to lay hold of Captain Cook. It was his custom to
bathe, every evening, in fresh water; in doing which he frequently
went alone, and always without arms. As the inhabitants expected him
to go, as usual, on the evening of the 26th, they had determined at
that time to make him a prisoner. But he had thought it prudent, after
confining Oree's family, to avoid putting himself in their power; and
had cautioned Captain Clerke, and the officers, not to venture
themselves far from the ships. In the course of the afternoon, the
chief asked Captain Cook, three several times, if he would not go to
the bathing-place; and when he found, at last, that the captain could
not be prevailed upon, he went off, with all his people. He was
apprehensive, without doubt, that the design was discovered; though no
suspicion of it was then entertained by our commander, who imagined,
that the natives were seized with some sudden fright, from which, as
usual, they would quickly recover. On one occasion, Captain Clerke and
Mr. Gore were in particular danger. A party of the inhabitants, armed
with clubs, advanced against them; and their safety was principally
owing to Captain Clerke's walking with a pistol in his hand, which he
once fired. The discovery of the conspiracy, especially so far as
respected Captain Clerke and Mr. Gore, was made by a girl, whom one of
the officers had brought from Huaheine. On this account, those who
were charged with the execution of the design were so greatly offended
with her, that they threatened to take away her life, as soon as our
navigators should leave the island: but proper methods were pursued
for her security. It was a happy circumstance that the affair was
brought to light; since such a scheme could not have been carried into
effect, without being, in its consequences, productive of much
distress and calamity to the natives.

Whilst Captain Cook was at Ulietea, he was visited by his old friend
Oree, who, in the former voyages, was chief, or rather regent, of
Huaheine. Notwithstanding his now being, in some degree, reduced to
the rank of a private person he still preserved his consequence; never
appeared without a numerous body of attendants; and was always
provided with such presents, as indicated his wealth, and were highly
acceptable.

The last of the Society Islands to which our commander sailed was
Bolabola, where he arrived on the 8th of December. His chief view in
passing over to this island was to procure from its monarch, Opoony,
an anchor which Monsieur de Bougainville had lost at Otaheite, and
which had been conveyed to Bolabola. It was not from a want of anchors
that Captain Cook was desirous of making the purchase, but to convert
the iron of which it consisted into a fresh assortment of trading
articles, these being now very much exhausted. The captain succeeded
in his negotiation, and amply rewarded Opoony for giving up the
anchor.

Whilst our commander was at Bolabola, he received an account of those
military expeditions of the people of this country, which he had heard
much of in each of his three voyages, and which had ended in the
complete conquest of Ulietea and Otaha. The Bolabola men, in
consequence of these enterprises, where in the highest reputation for
their valour; and, indeed, were deemed so invincible, as to be the
objects of terror to all the neighbouring islands. It was an addition
to their fame, that their country was of such small extent, being not
more than eight leagues in compass, and not half so large as Ulietea.

Captain Cook continued to the last his zeal for furnishing the natives
of the South Sea with useful animals. At Bolabola, where there was
already a ram, which had originally been left by the Spaniards at
Otaheite, he carried ashore an ewe, that had been brought from the
Cape of Good Hope; and he rejoiced in the prospect of laying a
foundation, by this present, for a breed of sheep in the island. He
left also at Ulietea, under the care of Oree, an English boar and sow,
and two goats. It may, therefore, be regarded as certain, that not
only Otaheite, but all the neighbouring islands, will, in a few years,
have their race of hogs considerably improved; and it is probable,
that they will be stocked with all the valuable animals, which have
been transported thither by their European visitors. When this shall
be accomplished, no part of the world will equal these islands, in the
variety and abundance of the refreshments which they will be able to
afford to navigators; nor did the captain know any place that excelled
them, even in their present state.

It is an observation of great importance, that the future felicity of
the inhabitants of Otaheite, and the Society Islands, will not a
little depend on their continuing to be visited from Europe. Our
commander could not avoid expressing it as his real opinion, that it
would have been far better for these poor people, never to have known
our superiority in the accommodations and arts which render life
comfortable, than after once knowing it, to be again left and
abandoned to their original incapacity of improvement. If the
intercourse between them and us should wholly be discontinued, they
cannot be restored to that happy mediocrity, in which they lived
before they were first discovered. It seemed to Captain Cook, that it
was become, in a manner, incumbent upon the Europeans to visit these
islands once in three or four years, in order to supply the natives
with those conveniences which we have introduced among them, and for
which we have given them a predilection. Perhaps they may heavily feel
the want of such occasional supplies, when it may be too late to go
back to their old and less perfect contrivances; contrivances which
they now despise, and which they have discontinued since the
introduction of ours. It is, indeed, to be apprehended, that by the
time that the iron tools, of which they had become possessed, are worn
out, they will have almost lost the knowledge of their own. In this
last voyage of our commander, a stone hatchet was as rare a thing
among the inhabitants as an iron one was eight years before; and a
chisel of bone or stone was not to be seen. Spike nails had succeeded
in their place; and of spike nails the natives were weak enough to
imagine that they had gotten an inexhaustible store. Of all our
commodities, axes, and hatchets remained the most unrivalled; and they
must ever be held in the highest estimation through the whole of the
islands. Iron tools are so strikingly useful, and are now become so
necessary to the comfortable existence of the inhabitants, that,
should they cease to receive supplies of them, their situation, in
consequence of their neither possessing the materials, nor being
trained up to the art of fabricating them, would be rendered
completely miserable. It is impossible to reflect upon this
representation of things without strong feelings of sympathy and
concern. Sincerely is it to be wished, that such may be the order of
events, and such the intercourse carried on with the southern
islanders, that, instead of finally suffering by their acquaintance
with us, they may rise to a higher state of civilization, and
permanently enjoy blessings far superior to what they had heretofore
known.

Amidst the various subordinate employments which engaged the attention
of Captain Cook and his associates, the great objects of their duty
were never forgotten. No opportunity was lost of making astronomical
and nautical observations; the consequence of which was, that the
latitude and longitude of the places where the ships anchored, the
variations of the compass, the dips of the needle, and the state of
the tides, were ascertained with an accuracy that forms a valuable
addition to philosophical science, and will be of eminent service to
future navigators.

Our commander was now going to take his final departure from Otaheite
and the Society Islands. Frequently as they had been visited, it might
have been imagined, that their religious, political, and domestic
regulations, manners and customs, must, by this time, be thoroughly
understood. A great accession of knowledge was undoubtedly gained in
the present voyage; and yet it was confessed, both by Captain Cook and
Mr. Anderson, that their accounts of things were still imperfect in
various respects; and that they continued strangers to many of the
most important institutions which prevail among the natives. There was
one part of the character of several of these people, on which the
well regulated mind of the captain would not permit him to enlarge.
'Too much,' says he, 'seems to have been already known, and published
in our former relations, about some of the modes of life, that made
Otaheite, so agreeable an abode to many on board our ships; and if I
could now add any finishing strokes to a picture, the outlines of
which have been already drawn with sufficient accuracy, I should still
have hesitated to make this journal the place for exhibiting a view of
licentious manners, which could only serve to disgust those for whose
information I write.

From Mr. Anderson's account of the Otaheitans, it appears, that their
religious system is extensive, and, in various instances, singular.
They do not seem to pay respect to one God as possessing pre-eminence,
but believe in a plurality of divinities, all of whom are supposed to
be very powerful. In different parts of the island, and in the
neighbouring islands, the inhabitants choose those deities for the
objects of their worship, who, they think, are most likely to protect
them, and to supply all their wants. If, however, they are
disappointed in their expectations, they deem it no impiety to change
their divinity, by having recourse to another, whom they hope to find
more propitious and successful. In general, their notions concerning
Deity are extravagantly absurd. With regard to the soul, they believe
it, according to Mr. Anderson, to be both immaterial and immortal; but
he acknowledges, that they are far from entertaining those sublime
expectations of future happiness which the Christian revelation
affords, and which even reason alone, duly exercised might teach us to
expect.

Although seventeen months had elapsed since Captain Cook's departure
from England, during which time he had not, upon the whole, been
unprofitably employed, he was sensible that, with respect to the
principal object of his instructions, it was now only the commencement
of his voyage and that, therefore, his attention was to be called anew
to every circumstance which might contribute towards the safety of his
people, and the ultimate success of the expedition. Accordingly, he
had examined into the state of the provisions, whilst he was at the
Society Islands, and, as soon as he had left them, and had gotten
beyond the extent of his former discoveries, he ordered a survey to be
taken of all the boatswain's and carpenters stores which were in the
ships, that he might be fully informed of their quantity and
condition; and, by that means, know how to use them to the greatest
advantage.

It was on the 8th of December, the very day on which he had touched
there, that our commander sailed from Bolabola. In the night between
the 22nd and 23rd, he crossed the line, in the longitude of 203° 15'
east; and on the 24th land was discovered, which was found to be one
of those low uninhabited islands, that are so frequent in this ocean.
Here our voyagers were successful in catching a large quantity of
turtle, which supplied them with an agreeable refreshment; and here,
on the 28th, an eclipse of the sun was observed by Mr. Bayley, Mr.
King, and Captain Cook. On account of the season of the year, the
captain called the land where he now was, and which he judged to be
about fifteen or twenty leagues in circumference, Christmas Island. By
his order, several cocoa-nuts and yams were planted, and some melon
seeds sown in proper places; and a bottle was left, containing this
inscription:

    _Georgius Tertius, Rex. 31 Decembris, 1777.
           { Resolution, Jac. Cook, Pr.
    Naves  {
           { Discovery. Car. Clerke, Pr._

On the 2nd of January, 1778, the ships resumed their course to the
northward, and though several evidences occurred of the vicinity of
land, none was discovered till the 18th, when an island made its
appearance, bearing north-east by east. Soon after, more land was
seen, lying towards the north, and entirely detached from the former.
The succeeding day was distinguished by the discovery of a third
island in the direction of west-north-west, and as far distant as the
eye could reach. In steering towards the second island, our voyagers
had some doubt whether the land before them was inhabited; but this
matter was speedily cleared up, by the putting off of some canoes from
the shore, containing from three to six men each. Upon their approach,
the English were agreeably surprised to find, that they spoke the
language of Otaheite, and of the other countries which had lately been
visited. These people were at first fearful of going on board; but
when, on the 20th, some of them took courage, and ventured to do it,
they expressed an astonishment, on entering the ship, which Captain
Cook had never experienced in the natives of any place during the
whole course of his several voyages. Their eyes continually flew from
object to object; and, by the wildness of their looks and gestures,
they fully manifested their entire ignorance with relation to every
thing they saw, and strongly marked to our navigators, that, till this
time, they had never been visited by Europeans, or been acquainted
with any of our commodities, excepting iron. Even with respect to
iron, it was evident that they had only heard of it, or at most, had
known it in some small quantity, brought to them at a distant period;
for all they understood concerning it was, that it was a substance
much better adapted to the purpose of cutting, or boring of holes,
than any thing their own country produced. Their ceremonies on
entering the ship, their gestures and motions, and their manner of
singing, were similar to those which our voyagers had been accustomed
to see in the places lately visited. There was, likewise, a farther
circumstance in which these people perfectly resembled the other
islanders: and that was, in their endeavouring to steal whatever came
within their reach; or rather to take it openly, as what would either
not be resented or not hindered. The English soon convinced them of
their mistake, by keeping such a watchful eye over them that they
afterwards were obliged to be less active in appropriating to
themselves every object that struck upon their fancy and excited the
desire of possession.

One order given by Captain Cook at this island was that none of the
boats' crews should be permitted to go on shore; the reason of which
was, that he might do every thing in his power to prevent the
importation of a fatal disease, which unhappily had already been
communicated in other places. With the same view, he directed that all
female visitors should be excluded from the ships. Another necessary
precaution, taken by the captain, was a strict injunction, that no
person known to be capable of propagating disorder should be sent upon
duty out of the vessels. Thus zealous was the humanity of our
commander, to prevent an irreparable injury from being done to the
natives. There are men who glory in their shame, and who do not care
how much evil they communicate. Of this there was an instance at
Tongataboo, in the gunner of the Discovery, who had been stationed on
shore to manage the trade for that ship; and who, though he was well
acquainted with his own situation, continued to have connexions with
different women. His companions expostulated with him without effect,
till Captain Clerke, hearing of the dangerous irregularity of his
conduct ordered him on board. If I knew the rascal's name, I would
hang it up, as far as lies in my power, to everlasting infamy.

Mr. Williamson being sent with the boats to search for water, and
attempting to land, the inhabitants came down in such numbers, and
were so violent in their endeavours to seize upon the oars, muskets,
and, in short, every thing they could lay hold of, that he was obliged
to fire, by which one man was killed. This unhappy circumstance was
not known to Captain Cook till after he had left the island; so that
all his measures were directed as if nothing of the kind had happened.

When the ships were brought to an anchor, our commander went on shore;
and, at the very instant of his doing it, the collected body of the
natives all fell flat upon their faces, and continued in that humble
posture, till, by expressive signs, he prevailed upon them to rise.
Other ceremonies followed; and the next day a trade was set on foot
for hogs and potatoes, which the people of the island gave in exchange
for nails and pieces of iron, formed into something like chisels. So
far was any obstruction from being met with in watering, that, on the
contrary, the inhabitants assisted our men in rolling the casks to and
from the pool; and readily performed whatever was required.

Affairs thus going on to the captain's satisfaction, he made an
excursion into the country, accompanied by Mr. Anderson and Mr.
Webber, the former of whom was as well qualified to describe with the
pen, as the latter was to represent with his pencil, whatever might
occur worthy of observation. In this excursion, the gentlemen, among
other objects that called for their attention, found a _Morai_.
On the return of our commander, he had the pleasure of finding that a
brisk trade for pigs, fowls, and roots was carrying on with the
greatest good order, and without any attempt to cheat, or steal, on
the part of the natives. The rapacious disposition they at first
displayed was entirely corrected by their conviction that it could not
be exercised with impunity. Among the articles which they brought to
barter, the most remarkable was a particular sort of cloak and cap,
that might be reckoned elegant, even in countries where dress is
eminently the object of attention. The cloak was richly adorned with
red and yellow feathers, which in themselves were highly beautiful,
and the newness and freshness of which added not a little to their
beauty.

On the 22nd, a circumstance occurred, which gave the English room to
suspect that the people of the island are eaters of human flesh. Not,
however, to rest the belief of the existence of so horrid a practice
on the foundation of suspicion only, Captain Cook was anxious to
inquire into the truth of the fact, the result of which was its being
fully confirmed. An old man, in particular, who was asked upon the
subject, answered in the affirmative, and seemed to laugh at the
simplicity of such a question. His answer was equally affirmative on a
repetition of the inquiry; and he added, that the flesh of men was
excellent food, or, as he expressed it, "savoury eating". It is
understood that enemies slain in battle are the sole objects of this
abominable custom.

The island, at which our voyagers had now touched, was called Atooi by
the natives. Near it was another island, named Oneeheow, where our
commander came to an anchor on the 29th of the month. The inhabitants
were found to resemble those of Atooi in their dispositions, manners,
and customs; and proofs, too convincing, appeared that the horrid
banquet of human flesh is here as much relished, amidst plenty, as it
is in New Zealand. From a desire of benefiting these people by
furnishing them with additional articles of food, the captain left
them a ram goat and two ewes, a boar and sow pig of the English breed,
and the seeds of melons, pumpkins and onions. These benevolent
presents would have been made to Atooi, the larger island, had not our
navigators been unexpectedly driven from it by stress of weather.
Though the soil of Oneeheow seemed in general poor it was observable,
that the ground was covered with shrubs and plants, some of which
perfumed the air with a more delicious fragrancy than what Captain
Cook had met with at any other of the countries that had been visited
by him in this part of the world.

It is a curious circumstance, with regard to the islands in the
Pacific Ocean which the late European voyages have added to the
geography of the globe, that they have generally been found to lie in
groups, or clusters. The single intermediate islands, which have as
yet been discovered, are few in proportion to the others; though there
are probably many more of them that are still unknown, and may serve
as steps, by which the several clusters are to some degree connected
together. Of the archipelago now first visited, there were five only
with which our commander became at this time acquainted. The names of
these, as given by the natives, were Woahoo, Atooi, Oneeheow,
Oreehoua, and Tahoora. To the whole group Captain Cook gave the
appellation of Sandwich Islands, in honour of his great friend and
patron, the Earl of Sandwich.

Concerning the island of Atooi, which is the largest of the five, and
which was the principal scene of the captain's operations, he
collected, in conjunction with Mr. Anderson, a considerable degree of
information. The land, as to its general appearance, does not in the
least resemble any of the islands that our voyagers had hitherto
visited within the tropic, on the south side of the equator; excepting
so far as regards its hills near the centre, which slope gently
towards the sea. Hogs, dogs, and fowls, were the only tame or domestic
animals that were to be found; and these were of the same kind with
those which exist in the countries of the South Pacific Ocean. Among
the inhabitants (who are of a middle stature, and firmly made), there
is a more remarkable equality in the size, colour, and figure of both
sexes, than our commander had observed in most other places. They
appeared to be blessed with a frank and cheerful disposition; and, in
Captain Cook's opinion, they are equally free from the fickle levity
which distinguishes the natives of Otaheite, and the sedate cast
discernable amongst many of those at Tongataboo. It is a very pleasing
circumstance in their character, that they pay a particular attention
to their women, and readily lend assistance to their wives in the
tender offices of maternal duty. On all occasions, they seemed to be
deeply impressed with a consciousness of their own inferiority; being
alike strangers to the preposterous pride of the more polished
Japanese, and of the ruder Greenlander. Contrary to the general
practice of the countries that had hitherto been discovered in the
Pacific Ocean, the people of the Sandwich Islands have not their ears
perforated; nor have they the least idea of wearing ornaments in them,
though, in other respects, they are sufficiently fond of adorning
their persons. In every thing manufactured by them, there is an
uncommon degree of neatness and ingenuity; and the elegant form and
polish of some of their fishing-hooks could not be exceeded by any
European artist, even if he should add all his knowledge in design to
the number and convenience of his tools. From what was seen of their
agriculture, sufficient proofs were afforded, that they are not
novices in that art; and that the quantity and goodness of their
vegetable productions may as much be attributed to skilful culture, as
to natural fertility of soil. Amidst all the resemblances between the
natives of Atooi, and those of Otaheite, the coincidence of their
languages was the most striking; being almost word for word the same.
Had the Sandwich Islands been discovered by the Spaniards at an early
period, they would undoubtedly have taken advantage of so excellent a
situation, and have made use of them as refreshing places, for their
ships, which sail annually from Acapulca for Manilla. Happy, too,
would it have been for Lord Anson, if he had known that there existed
a group of islands, half way between America and Tinian, where all his
wants could effectually have been supplied, and the different
hardships to which he was exposed have been avoided.

On the second of February, our navigators pursued their course to the
northward, in doing which the incidents they met with were almost
entirely of a nautical kind. The long looked-for coast of New Albion
was seen on the 7th of March, the ships being then in the latitude of
44° 33' north, and in the longitude of 235° 20' east. As the vessels
ranged along the west side of America, Captain Cook gave names to
several capes and headlands which appeared in sight. At length, on the
29th, the captain came to an anchor at an inlet, where the appearance
of the country differed much from what had been seen before; being
full of mountains, the summits of which were covered with snow; while
the valleys between them, and the grounds on the sea-coast, high as
well as low, were covered, to a considerable breadth, was high,
straight trees, which formed a beautiful prospect, as of one vast
forest. It was immediately found, that the coast was inhabited; and
there soon came off to the Resolution three canoes, containing
eighteen of the natives; who could not, however, be prevailed upon to
venture themselves on board. Notwithstanding this, they displayed a
peaceable disposition; shewed great readiness to part with any thing
they had, in exchange for what was offered them; and expressed a
stronger desire for iron than for any other of our commercial
articles, appearing to be perfectly acquainted with the use of that
metal. From these favourable circumstances, our voyagers had reason to
hope, that they should find this a comfortable station to supply all
their wants, and to make them forget the hardships and delays which
they had experienced during a constant succession of adverse winds,
and boisterous weather, almost ever since their arrival upon the coast
of America.

The ships having happily found an excellent inlet, the coasts of which
appeared to be inhabited by a race of people who were disposed to
maintain a friendly intercourse with strangers, Captain Cook's first
object was to search for a commodious harbour; and he had little
trouble in discovering what he wanted. A trade having immediately
commenced, the articles which the inhabitants offered for sale were
the skins of various animals, such as bears, wolves, foxes, deer,
racoons, polecats, martins; and, in particular, of the sea-otters. To
these were added, besides the skins in their native shape, garments
made of them; another sort of clothing, formed from the bark of a
tree; and various different pieces of workmanship. But of all the
articles brought to market, the most extraordinary were human skulls,
and hands not yet quite stripped of their flesh; some of which had
evident marks of their having been upon the fire. The things, which
the natives took in exchange for their commodities, were knives,
chisels, pieces of iron and tin, nails, looking-glasses, buttons, or
any kind of metal. Glass beads did not strike their imaginations; and
cloth of every sort they rejected. Though commerce, in general, was
carried on with mutual honesty, there were some among these people who
were as much inclined to thievery as the islanders in the Southern
Ocean. They were, at the same time, far more dangerous thieves; for,
possessing sharp iron instruments, they could cut a hook from a
tackle, or any other piece of iron from a rope, the moment that the
backs of the English were turned. The dexterity with which they
conducted their operations of this nature, frequently eluded the most
cautious vigilance. Some slighter instances of deception, in the way
of traffic, Captain Cook thought it better to bear with, than to make
them the foundation of a quarrel; and to this he was the rather
determined, as the English articles were now reduced to objects of a
trifling nature. In the progress of the commerce, the natives would
deal for nothing but metal; and, at length, brass was so eagerly
sought for, in preference to iron, that, before our navigators quitted
the place, scarcely a bit of it was left in the ships, excepting what
belonged to the necessary instruments. Whole suits of clothes were
stripped of every button: bureaus were deprived of their furniture;
copper kettles, tin canisters, candlesticks, and whatever of the like
kind could be found, all went to wreck; so that these Americans became
possessors of a greater medley and variety of things from our people,
than any other nation that had been visited in the course of the
voyage.

Of all the uncivilized tribes which our commander had met with in his
several navigations, he never found any who had such strict notions of
their having a right to the exclusive property of everything which
their country produces, as the inhabitants of the sound where he was
now stationed. At first, they wanted to be paid for the wood and water
that were carried on board; and had the captain been upon the spot,
when these demands were made, he would certainly have complied with
them; but the workmen, in his absence, maintained a different opinion,
and refused to submit to any such claims. When some grass, which
appeared to be of no use to the natives, was wanted to be cut, as food
for the few goats and sheep which still remained on board, they
insisted that it should be purchased, and were very unreasonable in
their terms; notwithstanding which Captain Cook consented to gratify
them, as far as he was able. It was always a sacred rule with him,
never to take any of the property of the people whom he visited,
without making them an ample compensation.

The grand operation of our navigators, to their present station, was
to put the ships into a complete repair for the prosecution of the
expedition. While this business was carrying on, our commander took
the opportunity of examining every part of the sound; in the course of
which he gained a farther knowledge of the inhabitants, who in
general, received him with great civility. In one instance he met with
a surly chief, who could not be softened with presents, though he
condesended to accept of them. The females of the place over which he
presided shewed a more agreeable disposition; for some of the young
women expeditiously dressed themselves in their best apparel, and,
assembling in a body, welcomed the English to their village, by
joining in a song, which was far from being harsh or dissagreeable. On
another occasion, the captain was entertained with singing. Being
visited by a number of strangers, on the 22nd of April, as they
advanced towards the ships, they all stood up in their canoes, and
began to sing. Some of their songs, in which the whole body joined,
were in a slow, and others in a quicker time; and their notes were
accompanied with the most regular motions of their hands; or with
beating in concert, with their paddles, on the sides of their canoes;
to which were added other very expressive gestures. At the end of each
song, they continued silent for a few moments, and then began again,
sometimes pronouncing the word _Hooee!_ forcibly as a chorus.

Among the natives of the country, there was one chief who attached
himself to our commander in a particular manner. Captain Cook having,
at parting, bestowed upon him a small present, received, in return, a
beaver skin, of much greater value. This called upon the captain to
make some addition to his present, with which the chief was so much
pleased, that he insisted on our commander's acceptance of the
beaver-skin cloak which he then wore; and of which he was particularly
fond. Admiring this instance of generosity, and desirous that he
should not suffer by his friendship, the captain gave him a new
broad-sword, with a brass hilt; the possession of which rendered him
completely happy.

On Captain Cook's first arrival in this inlet, he had honoured it with
the name of King George's Sound; but he afterward found that it is
called Nootka by the natives. During his stay in the place, he
displayed his usual sagacity and diligence, in conjunction with Mr.
Anderson, in collecting every thing that could be learned concerning
the neighbouring country and its inhabitants; and the account is
interesting, as it exhibits a picture of productions, people, and
manners very different from what had occurred in the Southern Ocean. I
can only, as on former occasions, slightly advert to a few of the more
leading circumstances. The climate, so far as our navigators had
experience of it, was found to be in an eminent degree milder than
that on the east coast of America, in the same parallel of latitude:
and it was remarkable, that the thermometer, even in the night, never
fell lower than 42°; while in the day it frequently rose to 60°. With
regard to trees, those of which the woods are chiefly composed, are
the Canadian pine, the white cypress and the wild pine, with two or
three different sorts of pine that are less common. In the other
vegetable productions there appeared but little variety: but it is to
be considered, that, at so early a season, several might not yet have
sprung up; and that many more might be concealed from our voyagers, in
consequence of the narrow sphere of their researches. Of the land
animals, the most common were bears, deer, foxes, and wolves. The sea
animals, which were seen off the coast, were whales, porpoises, and
seals. Birds, in general, are not only rare as to the different
species, but very scarce as to numbers; and the few which are to be
met with are so shy, that, in all probability, they are continually
harassed by the natives; either to eat them as food, or to get
possession of their feathers, which are used as ornaments. Fish are
more plentiful in quantity than birds, but were not found in any great
variety; and yet, from several circumstances, there was reason to
believe, that the variety is considerably increased at certain
seasons. The only animals that were observed of the reptile kind were
snakes and water-lizards; but the insect tribe seemed to be more
numerous.

With respect to the inhabitants of the country, their persons are
generally under the common stature; but not slender in proportion,
being usually pretty full or plump, though without being muscular.
From their bringing to sale human skulls and bones, it may justly be
inferred, that they treat their enemies with a degree of brutal
cruelty; notwithstanding which, it does not follow, that they are to
be reproached with any charge of peculiar inhumanity: for the
circumstance now mentioned only marks a general agreement of character
with that of almost every tribe of uncivilized men, in every age, and
in every part of the globe. Our navigators had no reason to complain
of the disposition of the natives, who appeared to be a docile
courteous, good-natured people; rather phlegmatic in the usual cast of
their tempers, but quick in resenting what they apprehend to be an
injury, and easily permitting their anger to subside. Their other
passions, and especially their curiosity, seemed to lie in some
measure dormant; one cause of which may be found in the indolence
that, for the most part, is prevalent amongst them. The chief
employments of the men are those of fishing, and of killing land or
sea animals, for the sustenance of their families; while the women are
occupied in manufacturing their flaxen or woollen garments, or in
other domestic offices. It must be mentioned to their honour, that
they were always properly clothed, and behaved with the utmost
decorum; justly deserving all commendation, for a bashfulness and
modesty becoming their sex: and this was the more meritorious in them,
as the male inhabitants discovered no sense of shame. In their
manufactures and mechanic arts, these people have arrived to a greater
degree of extent and ingenuity, both with regard to the design and the
execution, than could have been expected from their natural
disposition, and the little progress to which they have arrived in
general civilization. Their dexterity, in particular, with respect to
works of wood, must principally be ascribe to the assistance they
receive from iron tools, which are in universal use amongst them, and
in the application of which they are very dexterous. Whence they have
derived their knowledge of iron was a matter of speculation with
Captain Cook. The most probable opinion is, that this and other metals
may have been introduced by way of Hudson's Bay and Canada, and thus
successively have been conveyed across the continent, from tribe to
tribe. Nor is it unreasonable to suppose, that those metals may
sometimes be brought, in the same manner, from the north-western parts
of Mexico.[11] The language of Nootka is by no means harsh or
disagreeable; for it abounds, upon the whole, rather with what may be
called labial and dental, than with guttural sounds. A large
vocabulary of it was collected by Mr. Anderson.

  [Footnote 11: Two silver spoons of a construction similar to what
  may sometimes be seen in Flemish pictures of still life, were
  procured here by Mr. Gore, who bought them from a native, who wore
  them, tied together with a leather thong, as an ornament round his
  neck. Mr. Gore gave the spoons to Sir Joseph Banks.]

Whilst Captain Cook was at Nootka Sound, great attention was paid by
him, as usual, to astronomical and nautical subjects. The observations
which he had an opportunity of making were, indeed, so numerous, as to
form a very considerable addition to geographical and philosophical
science.

On the 26th, the repairs of the ships having been completed, every
thing was ready for the captain's departure. When, in the afternoon of
that day, the vessels were upon the point of sailing, the mercury in
the barometer fell unusually low; and there was every other presage of
an approaching storm, which might reasonably be expected to come from
the southward. This circumstance induced our commander in some degree
to hesitate, and especially as night was at hand, whether he should
venture to sail, or wait till the next morning. But his anxious
impatience to proceed upon the voyage, and the fear of losing the
present opportunity of getting out of the sound, made a greater
impression upon his mind, than any apprehension of immediate danger.
He determined, therefore, to put to sea at all events; and accordingly
carried his design into execution that evening. He was not deceived in
his expectations of a storm. Scarcely were the vessels out of the
sound before the wind increased to a strong gale, with squalls and
rain, accompanied by so dark a sky, that the length of the ships could
not be seen. Happily the wind took a direction that blew our
navigators from the coast; and though, on the 27th, the tempest rose
to a perfect hurricane, and the Resolution sprang a leak, no material
damage ensued.

In the prosecution of the voyage to the north, and back again to the
Sandwich Islands, the facts that occurred were chiefly of a nautical
kind. Minutely to record these is not the purpose of the present work,
and indeed would extend it to an unreasonable length.

From this long and important navigation, I can only select some few
incidents, that may be accommodated to the taste and expectations of
the generality of readers.

One thing it is not improper here to observe; which is, that the
captain, in his passage along the coast of America, kept at a distance
from that coast, whenever the wind blew strongly upon it, and sailed
on till he could approach it again with safety. Hence several great
gaps were left unexplored, and particularly between the latitudes of
50° and 55°. The exact situation, for instance, of the supposed
Straits of Anian was not ascertained. Every one who is acquainted with
the character of our commander will be sensible, that if he had lived
to return again to the north in 1779. he would have endeavoured to
explore the parts which had been left unexamined.

The first place at which Captain Cook landed, after his departure from
Nootka Sound, was at an island, of eleven or twelve leagues in length,
the south-west point of which lies in the latitude of 59° 49' north,
and the longitude of 216° 58' east. Here, on the 11th of May, at the
foot of a tree, on a little eminence not far from the shore, he left a
bottle, with a paper in it, on which were inscribed the names of the
ships, and the date of the discovery. Together with the bottle, he
enclosed two silver twopenny pieces of his majesty's coin, which had
been struck in 1772. These, with many others, had been given him by
the Reverend Dr. Kaye, the present Dean of Lincoln; and our commander,
as a mark of his esteem and regard for that learned and respectable
gentleman, named the island, after him, Kaye's island.

At an inlet, where the ships came to an anchor, on the 12th, and to
which Captain Cook gave the appellation of Prince William's Sound, he
had an opportunity not only of stopping the leak which the Resolution
had sprung in the late storm, and of prosecuting his nautical and
geographical discoveries, but of making considerable additions to his
knowledge of the inhabitants of the American coast. From every
observation which was made concerning the persons of the natives of
this part of the coast, it appeared, that they had a striking
resemblance to those of the Esquimaux and Greenlanders. Their canoes,
their weapons, and their instruments for fishing and hunting, are
likewise exactly the same, in point of materials and construction,
that are used in Greenland. The animals in the neighbourhood of Prince
William's Sound are, in general, similar to those which are found at
Nootka. One of the most beautiful skins here offered for sale, was,
however, that of a small animal, which seemed to be peculiar to the
place. Mr. Anderson was inclined to think that it is the animal which
is described by Mr. Pennant, under the name of the _casan_
marmot. Among the birds seen in this country, were the white-headed
eagle; the shag; and the _alcedo_, or great king-fisher, the
colours of which were very fine and bright. The humming-bird, also,
came frequently and flew about the ship, while at anchor; but it can
scarcely be supposed, that it can be able to subsist here during the
severity of winter. Waterfowl, upon the whole, are in considerable
plenty; and there is a species of diver, about the size of a
partridge, which seems peculiar to the place. Torsk and halibut were
almost the only kinds of fish that were obtained by our voyagers.
Vegetables, of any sort, were few in number; and the trees were
chiefly the Canadian and spruce pine, some of which were of a
considerable height and thickness. The beads and iron, that were found
among the people of the coast, must undoubtedly have been derived from
some civilized nation; and yet there was ample reason to believe that
our English navigators were the first Europeans with whom the natives
had ever held a direct communication. From what quarter, then, had
they gotten our manufactures? Most probably, through the intervention
of the more inland tribes, from Hudson's Bay, or the settlements on
the Canadian lakes. This, indeed, must certainly have been the case,
if iron was known, amongst the inhabitants of this part of the
American coast, prior to the discovery of it by the Russians, and
before there was any traffic with them carried on from Kamtschatka.
From what was seen of Prince William's Sound, Captain Cook judged that
it occupied, at least, a degree and a half of latitude, and two of
longitude, exclusively of the arms or branches, the extent of which is
not known.

Some days after leaving this sound our navigators came to an inlet,
from which great things were expected. Hopes were strongly
entertained, that it would be found to communicate either with the sea
to the north, or with Baffin's or Hudson's Bay to the east; and
accordingly it became the object of very accurate and serious
examination. The captain was soon persuaded that the expectations
formed from it were groundless; notwithstanding which, he persisted in
the search of a passage, more, indeed, to satisfy other people, than
to confirm his own opinion. In consequence of a complete investigation
of the inlet, indubitable marks occurred of its being a river. This
river, without seeing the least appearance of its source, was traced
by our voyagers, as high as the latitude of 61° 34', and the longitude
of 210°, being seventy leagues from its entrance. During the course of
the navigation, on the first of June, Lieutenant King was ordered on
shore, to display the royal flag, and to take possession of the
country in his majesty's name. The lieutenant, at the same time,
buried in the ground a bottle, containing some pieces of English coin,
of the year 1772, and a paper, on which the names of the ships were
inscribed, and the date of the present discovery. The great river now
discovered, promises to vie with the most considerable ones already
known; and, by itself and its branches, lies open to a very extensive
inland communication. If, therefore, the knowledge of it should be of
future service, the time which was spent in exploring it ought the
less to be regretted. But to Captain Cook, who had a much greater
object in view, the delay that was hence occasioned was a real loss,
because the season was advancing apace. It was, however, a
satisfaction to him to reflect, that if he had not examined this very
considerable inlet, it would have been assumed, by speculative
fabricators of geography, as a fact, that there was a passage through
it to the North Sea, or to Baffin's or Hudson's Bay. Perhaps, too, it
would have been marked, on future maps of the world, with greater
precision, and more, certain signs of reality, than the invisible,
because imaginary, Straits of de Fuca and de Fonte. In describing the
inlet, our commander had left a blank which was not filled up with any
particular name; and, therefore, the Earl of Sandwich directed, with
the greatest propriety, that it should be called Cook's River.

All the natives who were met with, during the examination of this
river, appeared, from every mark of resemblance, to be of the same
nation with the inhabitants of Prince Willam's Sound; but from the
people of Nootka, or King George's Sound, they essentially differed,
both in their persons and their language. The only things which were
seen among them, that were not of their own manufacture, were a few
glass beads, the iron points of their spears, and knives of the same
metal. Whencesoever these articles might be derived, it was evident,
that they had never had any immediate intercourse with the Russians;
since, if that had been the case, our voyagers would scarcely have
found them clothed in such valuable skins as those of the sea-otter. A
very beneficial fur-trade might undoubtedly be carried on with the
inhabitants of this vast coast. But without a practicable northern
passage, the situation is too remote to render it probable, that Great
Britain should hence ever derive any material advantage; though it is
impossible to say with certainty, how far the spirit of commerce, for
which the English nation is so eminently distinguished, may extend.
The most valuable, or rather the only valuable skins, which Captain
Cook saw on the west side of America, were those of the sea-otter; for
as to the skins of all the other animals of the country, and
especially of the foxes and martins, they seemed to be of an inferior
quality.

It was on the 6th of June that our navigators got clear of Cook's
River. Proceeding in the course of their discoveries, when they were
sailing, on the 19th, amidst the group of islands, which were called,
by Beering, Schumagin's Islands, Captain Clerke fired three guns, and
brought to, expressing by the proper signals, that he wished to speak
with Captain Cook. At this our commander was not a little alarmed; and
as no apparent danger had been remarked in the passage through the
channel where the vessels now were, it was apprehended, that some
accident, such as springing a leak, must have happened. On Captain
Clerke's coming on board the Resolution, he related that several of
the natives had followed his ship; that one of them had made many
signs, taking off his cap, and bowing after the manner of Europeans;
and that, at length, he had fastened to a rope, which was handed down
to him, a small thin wooden case or box. Having delivered his parcel
safe, and spoken something, accompanied with more signs, the canoes
dropped astern, and left the Discovery. On opening the box, a piece of
paper was found, folded up carefully, upon which something was
written, that was reasonably supposed to be in the Russian language.
To the paper was prefixed the date 1778, and in the body of the note
there was a reference to the year 1776. Although no person on board
was learned enough to decipher the alphabet of the writer, his
numerals sufficiently marked, that others had preceded our voyagers in
visiting this dreary part of the globe; and the prospect of soon
meeting with men, who were united to them in ties somewhat closer than
those of our common nature, and who were not strangers to the arts and
commerce of civilized life, could not but afford a sensible
satisfaction to people who, for such a length of time, had been
conversant with the savages of the Pacific Ocean, and of the North
American continent. Captain Clerke was, at first, of opinion that some
Russians had been shipwrecked; but no such idea occurred to Captain
Cook. He rather thought, that the paper contained a note of
information, left by some Russian traders, to be delivered to the next
of their countrymen who should arrive; and that the natives, seeing
the English pass, and supposing them to be Russians, had resolved to
bring off the note. Accordingly, our commander pursued his voyage,
without inquiring farther into the matter.

On the 21st, amongst some hills, on the main land, that towered above
the clouds to a most amazing height, one was discovered to have a
volcano, which continually threw up vast columns of black smoke. It
doth not stand far from the coast; and it lies in the latitude of 54°
48', and the longitude of 195° 45'. The mountain was rendered
remarkable by its figure, which is a complete cone, and the volcano is
at the very summit. While, in the afternoon of the same day, during a
calm of three hours the English were fishing with great success for
halibuts, a small canoe, conducted by one man, came to them from an
island in the neighbourhood. On approaching the ship, he took off his
cap, and bowed, as the native had done, who had visited the Discovery
a day or two before. From the acquired politeness of these people, as
well as from the note already mentioned, it was evident that the
Russians must have a communication and traffic with them; and of this
a fresh proof occurred in the present visitor; for he wore a pair of
green cloth breeches, and a jacket of black cloth, or stuff, under the
gut-shirt or frock of his own country.

In the prosecution of the voyage, on the 26th, there was so thick a
fog, that our navigators could not see a hundred yards before them;
notwithstanding which, as the weather was moderate, the captain did
not intermit his course. At length, however, being alarmed at the
sound of breakers on one side of the ship, he immediately brought her
to, and came to anchor; and the Discovery, by his order, did the same.
A few hours after, the fog having in some degree cleared away, it
appeared, that both the vessels had escaped a very imminent danger.
Providence, in the dark, had conducted them between rocks which our
commander would not have ventured to pass through in a clear day, and
had conveyed them to an anchoring place, as good as he could possibly
have fixed upon, had the choice been entirely at his option.

On the 27th, our voyagers reached an island, that is known by the name
of Oonalashka; the inhabitants of which behaved with a degree of
politeness uncommon to savage tribes. A young man, who had overset his
canoe, being obliged by this accident to come on board the ship, went
down into Captain Cook's cabin, upon the first invitation, without
expressing the least reluctance or uneasiness. His own clothes being
wet, the captain gave him others, in which he dressed himself with as
much ease as any Englishman could have done. From the behaviour of
this youth, and that of some of the rest of the natives, it was
evident, that these people were no strangers to Europeans, and to
several of their customs. There was something, however, in the English
ships, that greatly excited their attention; for such as could not
come off in canoes, assembled on the neighbouring hills to look at
them. In one instance it was apparent, that the inhabitants were so
far from having made any progress in politeness, that they were still
immersed in the most savage manners. For as our commander was walking
along the shore, on the 29th, he met with a group of them, of both
sexes, who were seated on the grass, at a repast, consisting of raw
fish, which they seemed to eat with as much relish, as persons in
civilized life would experience from a turbot, served up in the
richest sauce. Soon after the vessels had come to an anchor at
Oonalashka, a native of the island brought on board such another note
as had been given to Captain Clerke. He presented it to Captain Cook;
but, as it was written in the Russian language, and could be of no use
to the English, though it might be of consequence to others, the
captain returned it to the bearer, and dismissed him with a few
presents; for which he expressed his thanks by making several low bows
as he retired.

On the 2nd of July, our voyagers put to sea from Oonalashka; and,
pursuing their course of navigation and discovery, came, on the 16th,
within sight of a promontory, near which our commander ordered
Lieutenant Williamson to land, that he might see what direction the
coast took beyond it, and what the country produced. Accordingly, Mr.
Williamson went on shore, and reported, on his return, that, having
landed on the point, and climbed the highest hill, he found that the
farthest part of the coast in sight bore nearly north. At the same
time, he took possession of the country in his majesty's name, and
left a bottle, in which was enclosed a piece of paper, containing an
inscription of the names of the ships, together with the date of the
discovery. To the promontory he gave the name of Cape Newenham. The
land, as far as Mr. Williamson could see, produces neither tree nor
shrub; but the lower grounds were not destitute of grass, and of some
other plants, very few of which were in flower.

When our navigators, on the 3rd of August, had advanced to the
latitude of 62° 34', a great loss was sustained by them in the death
of Mr. Anderson, the surgeon of the Resolution, who had been lingering
under a consumption for more than twelve months. He was a young man of
a cultivated understanding and agreeable manners, and was well skilled
in his own profession; besides which, he had acquired a considerable
degree of knowledge in other branches of science. How useful an
assistant he was to Captain Cook, hath often appeared in the present
narrative. Had his life been spared, the public would undoubtedly have
received from him such communications, on various parts of the natural
history of the several places that had been visited, as would justly
have entitled him to very high commendation. The proofs of his
abilities that now remain, will hand down the name of Anderson, in
conjunction with that of Cook, to posterity. Soon after he had
breathed his last, land having been seen at a distance, which was
supposed to be an island, our commander honoured it with the
appellation of Anderson's Island. The next day he removed Mr. Law, the
surgeon of the Discovery, into the Resolution, and appointed Mr.
Samwell, the surgeon's first mate of the Resolution, to be surgeon of
the Discovery.

On the 9th, Captain Cook came to an anchor under a point of land, to
which he gave the name of Cape Prince of Wales, and which is
remarkable by being the most western extremity of America hitherto
explored. This extremity is distant from the eastern Cape of Siberia
only thirteen leagues: and thus our commander had the glory of
ascertaining the vicinity of the two continents, which had only been
conjectured from the reports of the neighbouring Asiatic inhabitants,
and the imperfect observations of the Russian navigators.

Resuming his course on the 10th, Captain Cook anchored in a bay, the
land of which was at first supposed to be part of the island of
Alaschka, which is laid down in Mr. Staehlin's map. But, from the
figure of the coast, from the situation of the opposite shore of
America, and from the longitude, the captain soon began to think, that
it was more probably the country of the Tschutski, on the eastern
extremity of Asia, which had been explored by Beering in 1728. In the
result it appeared, that this was in fact the case. Our commander
became fully satisfied in the farther progress of his voyage, that Mr.
Staehlin's map must be erroneous; and he had the honour of restoring
the American continent to that space which the geographer now
mentioned had occupied with his imaginary island of Alaschka.

From the Bay of St. Lawrence, belonging to the country of the
Tschutski, our navigators steered, on the 11th, to the east, in order
to get nearer to the coast of America. After that, proceeding to the
north, they reached, on the 17th, the latitude of 70° 33'. On this
day, a brightness was perceived in the northern horizon, like that
which is reflected from ice, and is commonly called the _blink_.
This was at first but little noticed, from a supposition that there
was no probability of meeting with ice so soon: and yet the sharpness
of the air, and the gloominess of the weather, had, for two or three
days past, seemed to indicate a sudden change. In about an hour's
time, the sight of a large field of ice left Captain Cook no longer in
doubt with regard to the cause of the brightness of the horizon. The
ships, in the same afternoon, being then in the latitude of 70° 41',
were close to the edge of the ice, and not able to stand on any
farther. On the 18th, when the vessels were in the latitude of 70°
44', the ice on the side of them was as compact as a wall, and was
judged to be at least ten or twelve feet in height. Farther to the
north, it appeared to be much higher. Its surface was extremely
rugged, and in different places there were seen upon it pools of
water. A prodigious number of sea-horses lay upon the ice; and some of
them, on the nineteenth, were procured for food, there being at this
time a want of fresh provisions. When the animals were brought to the
vessels, it was no small disappointment to many of the seamen, who had
feasted their eyes for several days with the prospect of eating them,
to find that they were not sea-cows, as they had supposed, but
sea-horses. The disappointment would not have been occasioned, or the
difference known, had there not happened to be one or two sailors on
board who had been in Greenland, and who declared what these animals
were, and that it never was customary to eat of them. Such, however,
was the anxiety for a change of diet, as to overcome this prejudice.
Our voyagers lived upon the sea-horses as long as they lasted; and
there were few who did not prefer them to the salt meat.

Captain Cook continued, to the 29th, to traverse the Icy Sea beyond
Beering's Strait, in various directions, and through numberless
obstructions and difficulties. Every day the ice increased, so as to
preclude all hopes of attaining, at least during the present year the
grand object of the voyage. Indeed, the season was now so far
advanced, and the time in which the frost was expected to set in was
so near at hand, that it would have been totally inconsistent with
prudence, to have made any farther attempts, till the next summer, at
finding a passage into the Atlantic. The attention, therefore, of our
commander was now directed to other important and necessary concerns.
It was of great consequence to meet with a place where our navigators
might be supplied with wood and water. But the point which principally
occupied the captain's thoughts was, how he should spend the winter,
so as to make some improvements in geography and navigation, and, at
the same time, to be in a condition to return to the north, in farther
search of a passage, in the ensuing summer.

Before Captain Cook proceeded far to the south, he employed a
considerable time in examining the sea and coasts in the neighbourhood
of Beering's Strait, both on the side of Asia and America. In this
examination, he ascertained the accuracy of Beering, so far as he
went; demonstrated the errors with which Staehlin's map of the New
Northern Archipelago abounds; and made large additions to the
geographical knowledge of this part of the world. 'It reflects,' as
Mr. Coxe justly observes, 'the highest honour even on the British
name, that our great navigator extended his discoveries much farther
in one expedition, and at so great a distance from the point of his
departure, than the Russians accomplished in a long series of years,
and in parts belonging or contiguous to their own empire.'

On the 2nd of October, our voyagers came within sight of the island of
Oonalashka, and anchored the next day in Samganoodha harbour. Here the
first concern was to put the ships under the necessary repair; and,
while the carpenters were employed in this business, one third of the
people had permission, by turns, to go and collect the berries with
which the island abounds, and, which, though now beginning to be in a
state of decay, did not a little contribute, in conjunction with
spruce-beer, effectually to eradicate every seed of the scurvy, that
might exist in either of the vessels. Such a supply of fish was
likewise procured, as not only served for present consumption, but
afforded a quantity to be carried out to sea; so that hence a
considerable saving was made of the provisions of the ships, which was
at this time an object of no small importance.

Captain Cook, on the 8th, received by the hands of an Oonalashka man,
named Derramoushk, a very singular present, which was that of a rye
loaf, or rather a pie in the form of a loaf, for it enclosed some
salmon, highly seasoned with pepper. This man had the like present for
Captain Clerke, and a note for each of the two captains, written in a
character which none on board could understand. It was natural to
suppose, that the presents came from some Russians in the
neighbourhood; and therefore a few bottles of rum, wine, and porter,
were sent to these unknown friends in return; it being rightly judged,
that such articles would be more acceptable than any thing besides
which it was in the power of our navigators to bestow. Corporal
Lediard of the marines,[12] an intelligent man, was, at the same time,
directed to accompany Derramoushk, for the purpose of gaining farther
information; and with orders, if he met with any Russians, that he
should endeavour to make them understand that our voyagers were
Englishmen, and the friends and allies of their nation. On the 10th
the corporal returned with three. Russian seamen, or furriers, who,
with several others, resided at Egoochshac, where they had a
dwellinghouse, some storehouses,[12] and a sloop of about thirty tons
burden. One of these men was either master or mate of this vessel;
another of them wrote a very good hand, and was acquainted with
figures: and all of them were sensible and well behaved persons, who
were ready to give Captain Cook every possible degree of information.
The great difficulty, in the reception and communication of
intelligence, arose from the want of an interpreter. On the 14th, a
Russian landed at Oonalashka, whose name was Erasim Gregorioff Sin
Ismyloff, and who was the principal person among his countrymen in
this and the neighbouring islands. Besides the intelligence which our
commander derived from his conversations with Ismyloff, and which were
carried on by signs, assisted by figures and other characters, he
obtained from him the sight of two charts, and was permitted to copy
them. Both of them were manuscripts, and bore every mark of
authenticity. The first included the Penshinskian Sea; the coast of
Tartary, down to the latitude of 41°; the Curil Islands and the
peninsula of Kamtschatka. But it was the second chart that was the
most interesting to Captain Cook; for it comprehended all the
discoveries made by the Russians to the eastward of Kamtschatka,
towards America; which, however, exclusively of the voyages of Beering
and Tscherikoff, amounted to little or nothing. Indeed, all the people
with whom the captain conversed at Oonalashka, agreed in assuring him,
over and over again, that they knew of no other islands, besides those
which were laid down upon this chart; and that no Russian had ever
seen any part of the continent of America to the northward, excepting
that which lies opposite to the country of the Tschutskis.

  [Footnote 12: This Corporal Lediard is an extraordinary man,
  something of whose history cannot fail of being entertaining to my
  readers. In the winter of 1768, he set out on the singular
  undertaking of walking across the continent of America; for the
  accomplishment of which purpose, he determined to travel by the
  way of Siberia, and to procure a passage from that country to the
  opposite American coast. Being an American by birth, and having;
  no means of raising the money necessary for his expenses, a
  subscription was raised for him by Sir Joseph Banks, and some
  other gentlemen, accounting, in the whole to a little more than
  fifty pounds. Vith this sum he proceeded to Hamburgh, frum which
  place he went to Copenhagen, and thence to Petersburgh, where he
  arrived in the beginning of March, 1787. In his journey from
  Copenhagen to Petersburgh, finding that the gulf of Bothnia was
  not frozen over, he was obliged to walk round the whole of it, by
  Tornæo. At Petersburgh he staid till the 21st of May, when he
  obtained leave to accompany a convoy of military stores, which at
  that time was proceeding to Mr. Bilious, who had been his shipmate
  in Captain Cook's voyage, and who was then employed by the Empress
  of Russia, for the purpose of making discoveries in Siberia, and
  on the north-west coast of America. With this convoy Mr. Lediard
  set out, and in August reached the city of Irkutsk in Siberia.
  After that, he proceeded to the town of Yakutsk, where he met with
  Captain Billings. From this place he went back to Irkutsh, to
  spend a part of the winter; proposing, in the spring, to return to
  Yakutsk, in order to proceed in the summer to Okotsk.

  Hitherto, Mr. Lediard had gone on prosperously, and flattered
  himself with the hopes of succeeding in his undertaking. But, in
  January last (1788), in consequence of an express from the
  empress, he was arrested, and, to half an hour's time, carried
  away, under the guard of two soldiers and an officer, in a post
  sledge, for Moscow, without his clothes, money, and papers. From
  Moscow he was conveyed to the city of Moialoff in White Russia,
  and thence to the town of Tolochin in Poland. There he was
  informed, that her majesty's orders were, that he was never to
  enter her dominions again without her express permission. During
  all this time, he suffered the greatest hardships, from sickness,
  fatigue, and want of rest; so that he was almost reduced to a
  skeleton. From Tolochin he made his way to Konigsberg; having had,
  as he says, a miserable journey, in a miserable country, in a
  miserable season, in miserable health, and a miserable purse; and
  disappointed of his darling enterprise. Mr. Lediard informs Sir
  Joseph Banks, to whom he sent, from time to time, a full account
  of his transactions, that, though he had been retarded in his
  pursuits by malice, he had not travelled totally in vain; his
  observations to Asia being, perhaps, as complete as a longer visit
  would have rendered them. From his last letter it appears, that he
  proposed to return, as speedily as possible, from Konigsberg to
  England.]

When, on the 21st, Mr. Ismyloff took his final leave of the English
navigators, our commander intrusted to his care a letter to the lords
commissioners of the admiralty, in which was enclosed a chart of all
the northern coasts the captain had visited. It was expected, that
there would be an opportunity of sending this letter, in the ensuing
spring, to Kamtschatka or Okotsk, and that it would reach Petersburgh
during the following winter. Mr. Ismyloff, who faithfully and
successfully discharged the trust our commander had reposed in him,
seemed to possess abilities, that might entitle him to a higher
station in life than that which he occupied. He had a considerable
knowledge of astronomy, and was acquainted with the most useful
branches of the mathematics. Captain Cook made him a present of an
Hadley's octant; and, though it was probably the first he had ever
seen, he understood, in a very short time, the various uses to which
that instrument can be applied.

While the ships lay at Oonalashka, our voyagers did not neglect to
make a diligent inquiry into the productions of the island, and the
general manners of the inhabitants. On these, as being in a great
measure similar to objects which have already been noticed, it is not
necessary to enlarge. There is one circumstance, however, so
honourable to the natives, that it must not be omitted. They are, to
all appearance, the most peaceable and inoffensive people our
commander had ever met with; and, with respect to honesty, they might
serve as a pattern to countries that are in the highest state of
civilization. A doubt is suggested, whether this disposition may not
have been the consequence of their present subjection to the Russians.
From the affinity which was found to subsist between the dialects of
the Greenlanders and Esquimaux, and those of the inhabitants of
Norton's Sound and Oonalashka, there is strong reason to believe, that
all these nations are of the same extraction; and, if that be the
case, the existence of a northern communication of some kind, by sea,
between the west of America and the east side, through Baffin's Bay,
can scarcely be doubted; which communication, nevertheless, may
effectually be shut up against ships, by ice and other impediments.

While the vessels lay in Samganoodha harbour, Captain Cook exerted his
usual diligence in making nautical and astronomical observations. All
things, on the 26th, having been gotten ready for his departure, he
put to sea on that day, and sailed for the Sandwich Islands; it being
his intention to spend a few months there, and then to direct his
course to Kamtschatka, so as to endeavour to reach that country by the
middle of May, in the ensuing summer.

On the 26th of November, when the ships had proceeded southward till
they came to the latitude of 20° 55', land was discovered, which
proved to be an island of the name of Mowee, that had not hitherto
been visited. It is one of the group of the Sandwich Islands. As it
was of the last importance to procure a supply of provisions at these
islands, and experience had taught our commander, that he could have
had no chance of succeeding in his object, if it were left to every
man's discretion to traffic for what he pleased, and in what manner he
pleased; the captain published an order, prohibiting all persons from
trading, excepting such as should be appointed by himself and Captain
Clerke. Even these persons were enjoined to trade only for provisions
and refreshments. While our navigators lay off Mowee, which was for
some days, a friendly intercourse was maintained with the inhabitants.

Another island was discovered on the 30th, which is called by the
natives Owhyhee. As it appeared to be of greater extent and importance
than any of the islands which had yet been visited in this part of the
world, Captain Cook spent nearly seven weeks in sailing round, and
examining its coast. Whilst he was thus employed, the inhabitants came
off, from time to time, in their canoes, and readily engaged in
traffic with our voyagers. In the conduct of this business, the
behaviour of the islanders was more entirely free from suspicion and
reserve than our commander had ever yet experienced. Noteven the
people of Otaheite itself, with whom he had been so intimately and
repeatedly connected, had displayed such a full confidence in the
integrity and good treatment of the English.

Among the articles procured from the natives, was a quantity of
sugarcane. Upon a trial, Captain Cook found that a strong decoction of
it produced a very palatable beer; on which account, he ordered some
more to be brewed, for general use. When, however, the barrel was
broached, not one of the crew would taste of the liquor. As the
captain had no motive in preparing this beverage, but that of sparing
the rum and other spirits for a colder climate, he did not exert
either authority or persuasion to prevail upon the men to change their
resolution; for he knew, that there was no danger of the scurvy, so
long as a plentiful supply could be obtained of different vegetables.
Nevertheless, that he might not be disappointed in his views, he gave
orders that no grog should be served in the ships; and he himself,
together with the officers, continued to make use of the sugarcane
beer, which was much improved by the addition of a few hops, that
chanced to be still on board. There could be no reasonable doubt of
its being a very wholesome liquor; and yet the inconsiderate crew
alleged that it would be injurious to their health. No people are more
averse to every kind of innovation than seamen, and their prejudices
are extremely difficult to be conquered. It was, however, by acting
contrary to these prejudices, and by various deviations from
established practice, that Captain Cook had been enabled to preserve
his men from that dreadful distemper, the scurvy, which, perhaps, has
destroyed more of our sailors, in their peaceful voyages, than have
fallen by the enemy in military expeditions.

As the captain was pursuing his examination of the coast of Owhyhee,
it having fallen calm at one o'clock in the morning of the 19th of
December, the Resolution was left to the mercy of a north-easterly
swell, which impelled her fast towards the land; so that, long before
daybreak, lights were seen from the land, which was not more than a
league distant. The night, at the same time, was dark, with thunder,
lightning and rain. As soon as it was light, a dreadful surf, within
half a league of the vessel, appeared breaking from the shore; and it
was evident, that our navigators had been in the most perilous
situation: nor was the danger yet over; for to consequence of the
veering of the wind, they were but just able to keep their distance
from the coast. What rendered their situation more alarming was, that
a rope of the main topsail having given way, this occasioned the sail
to be rent in two. In the same manner, the two topgallant sails gave
way, though they were not half worn out. However, a favourable
opportunity was seized of getting others to the yards; and the
Resolution again proceeded in safety.

On the 16th of January, 1779, canoes arrived in such numbers from all
parts, that there were not fewer than a thousand about the two ships,
most of them crowded with people, and well laden with hogs, and other
productions of the islands. It was a satisfactory proof of their
friendly intentions, that there was not a single person amongst them
who had with him a weapon of any kind; trade and curiosity alone
appearing to be the motives which actuated their conduct. Among such
multitudes, however, as, at times, were on board, it will not be
deemed surprising, that some should betray a thievish disposition. One
of them took out of the Resolution a boat's rudder; and made off with
it so speedily, that it could not be recovered. Captain Cook judged
this to be a favourable opportunity of shewing to these people the use
of fire-arms; and accordingly he ordered two or three muskets, and as
many four-pounders, to be fired over the canoe, which carried off the
rudder. It not being intended that any of the shot should take effect,
the surrounding multitude of the natives seemed to be more surprised
than terrified.

Mr. Bligh, having been sent to examine a neighbouring bay, reported,
on his return, that it had good anchorage and fresh water, and that it
was in an accessible situation. Into this bay, therefore the captain
resolved to carry the ships, in order to refit, and to obtain every
refreshment which the place could afford. As night approached, the
greater part of the Indians retired on shore; but numbers of them
requested permission to sleep on board; in which request, curiosity
(at least with regard to several of them) was not their sole motive;
for it was found, the next morning, that various things were missing;
on which account our commander determined not to entertain so many
persons on board another night.

On the 17th, the ships came to an anchor in the bay which had been
examined by Mr. Bligh, and which is called Karakakooa by the
inhabitants. At this time, the vessels continued to be much crowded
with natives and were surrounded with a multitude of canoes. Captain
Cook, in the whole course of his voyages, had never seen so numerous a
body of people assembled in one place. For besides those who had come
off to the English in their canoes, all the shore of the bay was
covered with spectators, and many hundreds were swimming round the
ships like shoals of fish. Our navigators could not avoid being
greatly impressed with the singularity of this scene; and perhaps
there were few on board that now lamented the want of success which
had attended the endeavours of getting homeward, the last summer, by a
northern passage. 'To this disappointment,' says the captain, 'we owed
our having it in our power to revisit the Sandwich Islands, and to
enrich our voyage with a discovery, which, though the last, seemed, in
many respects, to be the most important that had hitherto been made by
Europeans, throughout the extent of the Pacific Ocean.'

Such is the sentence that concludes our commander's journal: and the
satisfaction with which this sentence appears to have been written,
cannot fail of striking the mind of every reader. Little did Captain
Cook then imagine, that a discovery which promised to add no small
honour to his name, and to be productive of very agreeable
consequences, should be so fatal in the result. Little did he think,
that the island of Owhyhee was destined to be the last scene of his
exploits, and the cause of his destruction.

The reception which the captain met with from the natives, on his
proceeding to anchor in Karakakooa Bay, was flattering in the highest
degree. They came off from the shore in astonishing numbers, and
expressed their joy by singing and shouting, and by exhibiting a
variety of wild and extravagant gestures. Pareea, a young man of great
authority, and Kaneena, another chief, had already attached themselves
to our commander, and were very useful in keeping their countrymen
from being troublesome.

During the long cruise of our navigators off the island of Owhyhee,
the inhabitants had almost universally behaved with great fairness and
honesty in their dealings, and had not shewn the slightest propensity
to theft: and this was a fact the more extraordinary, as those with
whom our people had hitherto maintained any intercourse, were of the
lowest rank, being either servants or fishermen. But, after the
arrival of the Resolution and Discovery in Karakakooa Bay, the case
was greatly altered. The immense crowd of islanders that blocked up
every part of the ships, not only afforded frequent opportunities of
pilfering without risk of detection; but held out, even if they should
be detected, a prospect of escaping with impunity, from the
superiority of their numbers to that of the English. Another
circumstance, to which the alteration in the conduct of the natives
might be ascribed, arose from the presence and encouragement of their
chiefs, into whose possession the booty might be traced, and whom
there was reason to suspect of being the instigators of the
depredations that were committed.

Soon after the Resolution had gotten into her station, Pareea and
Kaneena brought on board a third chief, named Koah, who was
represented as being a priest, and as having, in his early youth, been
a distinguished warrior. In the evening, Captain Cook attended by Mr.
Bayley and Mr. King, accompanied Koah on shore. Upon this occasion,
the captain was received with very peculiar and extraordinary
ceremonies; with ceremonies that indicated the highest respect on the
part of the natives, and which, indeed, seemed to fall little short of
adoration.

One of the principal objects that engaged our commander's attention at
Owhyhee, was the salting of hogs for sea-store; in which his success
was far more complete than had been attained in any former attempt of
the same kind. It doth not appear, that experiments relative to this
subject had been made by the navigators of any nation before Captain
Cook. His first trials were in 1774, during his second voyage round
the world; when his success, though very imperfect, was nevertheless,
sufficient to encourage his farther efforts, in a matter of so much
importance. As the present voyage was likely to be protracted a year
beyond the time for which the ships were victualled, he was under a
necessity of providing, by some such method, for the subsistence of
the crews, or of relinquishing the prosecution of his discoveries.
Accordingly, he lost no opportunity of renewing his attempts; and the
event answered his most sanguine expectations. Captain King brought
home with him some of the pork, which was pickled at Owhyhee in
January, 1779; and, upon its being tasted by several persons in
England about Christmas, 1780, it was found to be perfectly sound and
wholesome. It seemed to be destined, that in every instance Captain
Cook should excel all who had gone before him, in promoting the
purposes of navigation.

On the 26th, the captain had his first interview with Terreeoboo, the
king of the island. The meeting was conducted with a variety of
ceremonies, among which, the custom of making an exchange of names,
which, amongst all the islanders of the Pacific Ocean is the strongest
pledge of friendship, was observed. When the formalities of the
interview were over, our commander carried Terreeoboo, and as many
chiefs as the pinnace could hold, on board the Resolution. They were
received, on this occasion, with every mark of respect that could be
shown them; and, in return for a beautiful and splendid feathered
cloak which the king had bestowed on Captain Cook, the captain put a
linen shirt on his majesty, and girt his own hanger round him.

In the progress of the intercourse which was maintained between our
voyagers and the natives, the quiet and inoffensive behaviour of the
latter took away every apprehension of danger; so that the English
trusted themselves among them at all times, and in all situations. The
instances of kindness and civility which our people experienced from
them were so numerous, that they could not easily be recounted. A
society of priests, in particular, displayed a generosity and
munificence, of which no equal example had hitherto been given: for
they furnished a constant supply of hogs and vegetables to our
navigators, without ever demanding a return, or even hinting at it in
the most distant manner. All this was said to be done at the expense
of a great man among them, who was at the head of their body, whose
name was Kaoo, and who on other occasions manifested his attachment to
the English. There was not always so much reason to be satisfied with
the conduct of the warrior chiefs, or earees, as with that of the
priests. Indeed, the satisfaction that was derived from the usual
gentleness and hospitality of the inhabitants, was frequently
interrupted by the propensity of many of them to stealing; and this
circumstance was the more distressing, as it sometimes obliged our
commander and the other officers to have recourse to acts of severity,
which they would willingly have avoided, if the necessity of the case
had not absolutely called for them.

Though the kind and liberal behaviour of the natives continued without
remission, Terreeoboo, and his chiefs, began at length to be very
inquisitive about the time in which our voyagers were to take their
departure. Nor will this be deemed surprising, when it is considered,
that, during sixteen days in which the English had been in the bay of
Karakakooa, they had made an enormous consumption of hogs and
vegetables. It did not appear, however, that Terreeoboo had any other
in view in his inquiries, than a desire of making sufficient
preparation for dismissing our navigators with presents, suitable to
the respect and kindness towards them which he had always displayed.
For, on his being informed, that they were to leave the island in a
day or two, it was observed, that a kind of proclamation was
immediately made through the villages, inquiring the people to bring
in their hogs and vegetables, for the king to present to the
orono,[13] on his quitting the country. Accordingly, on the 3rd of
February, being the day preceding the time which had been fixed for
the sailing of the ships, Terreeoboo invited Captain Cook and Mr. King
to attend him to the place where Kaoo resided. On their arrival, they
found the ground covered with parcels of cloth, at a small distance
from which lay an immense quantity of vegetables; and near them was a
large herd of hogs. At the close of the visit, the greater part of the
cloth, and the whole of the hogs and vegetables, were given by
Terreeoboo to the captain and Mr. King; who were astonished at the
value and magnificence of the present; for it far exceeded every thing
of the kind which they had seen either at the Friendly or Society
Islands. Mr. King had in so high a degree conciliated the affections,
and gained the esteem, of the inhabitants of Owhyhee, that, with
offers of the most flattering nature, he was strongly solicited to
remain in the country. Terreeoboo and Kaoo waited upon Captain Cook,
whose son they supposed Mr. King to be, with a formal request, that he
might be left behind. To avoid giving a positive refusal to an offer
which was so kindly intended, the captain told them that he could not
part with Mr. King at that time, but that, on his return to the island
in the next year, he would endeavour to settle the matter to their
satisfaction.

  [Footnote 13: Orono was a title of high honour, which had been
  bestowed on Captain Cook]

Early on the 4th, the ships sailed out of Karakakooa Bay, being
followed by a large number of canoes. It was our commander's design,
before he visited the other islands, to finish the survey of Owhyhee,
in hopes of meeting with a road better sheltered than the bay he had
just left. In case of not succeeding in this respect, he purposed to
take a view of the south-east part of Mowee, where he was informed
that he should find an excellent harbour.

The circumstances which brought Captain Cook back to Karakakooa Bay,
and the unhappy consequences that followed, I shall give from Mr.
Samwell's narrative of his death. This narrative was, in the most
obliging manner, communicated to me in manuscript, by Mr. Samwell,
with entire liberty to make such use of it as I should judge proper.
Upon a perusal of it, its importance struck me in so strong a light,
that I wished to have it separately laid before the world.
Accordingly, with Mr. Samwell's concurrence, I procured its
publication, that, if any objections should be made to it, I might be
able to notice them in my own work. As the narrative hath continued
for more than two years unimpeached and uncontradicted, I esteem
myself fully authorized to insert it in this place, as containing the
most complete and authentic account of the melancholy catastrophe,
which, at Owhyhee, befell our illustrious navigator and commander.

'On the 6th, we were overtaken by a gale of wind; and the next night,
the Resolution had the misfortune of springing the head of her
foremast, in such a dangerous manner, that Captain Cook was obliged to
return to Keragegooah,[14] in order to have it repaired; for we could
find no other convenient harbour on the island. The same gale had
occasioned much distress among some canoes, that had paid us a visit
from the shore. One of them, with two men and a child on board, was
picked up by the Resolution, and rescued from destruction; the men,
having toiled hard all night, in attempting to reach the land, were so
much exhausted, that they could hardly mount the ship's side. When
they got upon the quarter-deck, they burst into tears, and seemed much
affected with the dangerous situation from which they had escaped; but
the little child appeared lively and cheerful. One of the Resolution's
boats was also so fortunate as to save a man and two women, whose
canoe had been upset by the violence of the waves. They were brought
on board, and, with the others, partook of the kindness and humanity
of Captain Cook.

  [Footnote 14: It is proper to take notice, that Mr. Samwell spells
  the names of several persons and places differently from what is
  dune in the history of the voyage.
  For instance, Karakakooa
    he calls Ke, rag, e, goo, all,
    Terreeoboo               Kariopoo,
    Kowrowa                  Kavaroah,
    Kaneecab areea           Kaneekapo, herei,
    Maiha maiha              Ka, mea, mea.]

'On the morning of Wednesday, the 10th, we were within a few miles of
the harbour; and were soon joined by several canoes, in which appeared
many of our old acquaintances, who seemed to have come to welcome us
back. Among them was Coo, aha, a priest: he had brought a small pig,
and some cocoa-nuts in his hand, which, after having chanted a few
sentences, he presented to Captain Clerke. He then left us, and
hastened on board the Resolution, to perform the same friendly
ceremonies before Captain Cook. Having but light winds all that day,
we could not gain the harbour. In the afternoon, a chief of the first
rank, and nearly related to Kariopoo, paid us a visit on board the
Discovery. His name was Ka, mea, mea: he was dressed in a very rich
feathered cloak, which he seemed to have brought for sale, but would
part with it for nothing except iron daggers. These the chiefs, some
time before our departure, had preferred to every other article; for,
having received a plentiful supply of hatchets and other tools, they
began to collect a store of warlike instruments. Kameamea procured
nine daggers for his cloak; and, being pleased with his reception, he
and his attendants slept on board that night.

'In the morning of the 11th of February, the ships anchored again in
Keragegooah Bay, and preparation was immediately made for landing the
Resolution's foremast. We were visited but by few of the Indians,
because there were but few in the bay. On our departure, those
belonging to other parts had repaired to their several habitations,
and were again to collect from various quarters, before we could
expect to be surrounded by such multitudes as we had once seen in that
harbour. In the afternoon, I walked about a mile into the country, to
visit an Indian friend, who had, a few days before, come near twenty
miles, in a small canoe, to see me, while the ship lay becalmed. As
the canoe had not left us long before a gale of wind came on. I was
alarmed for the consequence: however, I had the pleasure to find, that
my friend had escaped unhurt, though not without some difficulties. I
take notice of this short excursion, merely because it afforded me an
opportunity of observing, that there appeared no change in the
disposition or behaviour of the inhabitants. I saw nothing that could
induce me to think, that they were displeased with our return, or
jealous of the intention of our second visit. On the contrary, that
abundant good nature, which had always characterized them, seemed
still to glow in every bosom, and to animate every countenance.

'The next day, February the 12th, the ships were put under a taboo, by
the chiefs: a solemnity, it seems, that was requisite to be observed,
before Kariopoo, the king, paid his first visit to Captain Cook, after
his return. He waited upon him the same day, on board the Resolution,
attended by a large train, some of which bore the presents designed
for Captain Cook; who received him in his usual friendly manner, and
gave him several articles in return. This amicable ceremony being
settled, the taboo was disolved; matters went on in the usual train;
and the next day, February the 13th we were visited by the natives in
great numbers: the Resolution's mast was landed, and the astronomical
observatories erected on their former situation. I landed, with
another gentleman, at the town of Kavaroah, where we found a great
number of canoes, just arrived from different parts of the island, and
the Indians busy in constructing temporary huts on the beach, for
their residence during the stay of the ships. On our return on board
the Discovery, we learned, that an Indian had been detected in
stealing the armourer's tongs from the forge, for which he received a
pretty severe flogging, and was sent out of the ship. Notwithstanding
the example made of this man, in the afternoon another had the
audacity to snatch the tongs and a chisel from the same place, with
which he jumped overboard and swam for the shore. The master and a
midshipman were instantly dispatched after him, in the small cutter.
The Indian, seeing himself pursued, made for a canoe; his countrymen
took him on board, and paddled as swift as they could towards the
shore; we fired several muskets at them, but to no effect, for they
soon got out of the reach of our shot. Pareah, one of the chiefs, who
was at that time on board the Discovery, understanding what had
happened, immediately went ashore, promising to bring back the stolen
goods. Our boat was so far distanced, in chasing the canoe which had
taken the thief on board, that he had time to make his escape into the
country. Captain Cook, who was then ashore, endeavoured to intercept
his landing; but it seems, that he was led out of the way by some of
the natives, who had officiously intruded themselves as guides. As the
master was approaching near the landing place, he was met by some of
the Indians in a canoe: they had brought back the tongs and chisel,
together with another article, that we had not missed, which happened
to be the lid of the water cask. Having recovered these things, he was
returning on board, when he was met by the Resolution's pinnace, with
five men in her, who, without any orders, had come from the
observatories to his assistance. Being thus unexpectedly reinforced he
thought himself strong enough to insist upon having the thief, or the
canoe which took him in, delivered up as reprisals. With that view he
turned back; and having found the canoe on the beach, he was preparing
to launch it into the water, when Pareah made his appearance, and
insisted upon his not taking it away, as it was his property. The
officer not regarding him, the chief seized upon him, pinioned his
arms behind, and held him by the hair of his head; on which one of the
sailors struck him with an oar; Pareah instantly quitted the officer,
snatched the oar out of the man's hand, and snapped it in two across
his knee. At length the multitude began to attack our people with
stones. They made some resistance, but were soon overpowered, and
obliged to swim for safety to the small cutter, which lay farther out
than the pinnace. The officers, not being expert swimmers, retreated
to a small rock in the water, where they were closely pursued by the
Indians. One man darted a broken oar at the master; but his foot
slipping at the time, he missed him, which fortunately saved that
officer's life. At last, Pareah interfered, and put an end to their
violence. The gentlemen, knowing that his presence was their only
defence against the fury of the natives, entreated him to stay with
them, till they could get off in the boats; but that he refused, and
left them. The master went to seek assistance from the party at the
observatories; but the midshipman chose to remain in the pinnace. He
was very rudely treated by the mob, who plundered the boat of every
thing that was loose on board, and then began to knock her to pieces,
for the sake of the iron work; but Pareah fortunately returned in time
to prevent her destruction. He had met the other gentleman on his way
to the observatories, and suspecting his errand, had forced him to
return. He dispersed the crowd again, and desired the gentlemen to
return on board; they represented, that all the oars had been taken
out of the boat on which he brought some of them back, and the
gentlemen were glad to get off without farther molestation. They had
not proceeded far, before they were overtaken by Pareah, in a canoe:
he delivered the midshipman's cap, which had been taken from him in
the scuffle, joined noses with them, in token of reconciliation, and
was anxious to know, if Captain Cook would kill him for what had
happened. They assured him of the contrary, and made signs of
friendship to him in return. He then left them, and paddled over to
the town of Kavaroah, and that was the last time we ever saw him.
Captain Cook returned on board soon after, much displeased with the
whole of this disagreeable business; and the same night sent a
lieutenant on board the Discovery to learn the particulars of it, as
it had originated in that ship.

'It was remarkable, that in the midst of the hurry and confusion
attending this affair, Kanynah (a chief who had always been on terms
particularly friendly with us) came from the spot where it happened,
with a hog to sell on board the Discovery: it was of an extraordinary
large size, and he demanded for it a pahowa, or dagger of an unusual
length. He pointed to us, that it must be as long as his arm. Captain
Clerke not having one of that length, told him he would get, one made
for him by the morning; with which being satisfied, he left the hog,
and went ashore without making any stay with us. It will not be
altogether foreign to the subject, to mention a circumstance, that
happened to-day on board the Resolution. An Indian chief asked Captain
Cook, at his table, if he was a Tata Toa; which means a fighting man,
or a soldier. Being answered in the affirmative, he desired to see his
wounds. Captain Cook held out his right hand, which had a scar upon
it, dividing the thumb from the finger, the whole length of the
metacarpal bones. The Indian, being thus convinced of his being a Toa,
put the same question to another gentleman present, but he happened to
have none of those distinguishing marks; the chief then said, that he
himself was a Toa, and shewed the scars of some wounds he had received
in battle. Those who were on duty at the observatories, were
disturbed, during the night, with shrill and melancholy sounds,
issuing from the adjacent villages, which they took to be the
lamentations of the women. Perhaps the quarrel between us might have
filled their minds with apprehension for the safety of their husbands;
but, be that as it may, their mournful cries struck the sentinels with
unusual awe and terror.

'To widen the breach between us, some of the Indians, in the night,
took away the Discovery's large cutter, which lay swamped at the buoy
of one of her anchors: they had carried her off so quietly that we did
not miss her till the morning, Sunday, February the 14th. Captain
Clerke lost no time in waiting upon Captain Cook to acquaint him with
the accident: he returned on board, with orders for the launch and
small cutter, to go, under the command of the second lieutenant, and
lie off the east point of the bay, in order to intercept all canoes
that might attempt to get out; and, if he found it necessary, to fire
upon them. At the same time, the third lieutenant of the Resolution,
with the launch and small cutter, was sent on the same service, to the
opposite point of the bay; and the master was dispatched in the large
cutter, in pursuit of a double canoe, already under sail, making the
best of her way out of the harbour. He soon came up with her, and by
firing a few muskets, drove her on shore, and the Indians left her:
this happened to be the canoe of Omea, a man who bore the title of
Orono. He was on board himself, and it would have been fortunate, if
our people had secured him, for his person was held as sacred as that
of the king. During this time, Captain Cook was preparing to go ashore
himself, at the town of Kavaroah, in order to secure the person of
Kariopoo, before he should have time to withdraw himself to another
part of the island, out of our reach. This appeared the most effectual
step that could be taken, on the present occasion, for the recovery of
the boat. It was the measure he had invariably pursued, in similar
cases, at other islands in these seas, and it had always been attended
with the desired success: in fact, it would be difficult to point out
any other mode of proceeding on these emergencies, likely to attain
the object in view; we had reason to suppose, that the king and his
attendants had fled when the alarm was first given: in that case, it
was Captain Cook's intention to secure the large canoes which were
hauled upon the beach. He left the ship about seven o'clock, attended
by the lieutenant of marines, a serjeant, corporal, and seven private
men: the pinnace's crew were also armed, and under the command of Mr.
Roberts. As they rowed towards the shore, Captain Cook ordered the
launch to leave her station at the west point of the bay, in order to
assist his own boat. This is a circumstance worthy of notice; for it
clearly shews, that he was not unapprehensive of meeting with
resistance from the natives, or unmindful of the necessary preparation
for the safety of himself and his people. I will venture to say, that,
from the appearance of things just at that time, there was not one,
beside himself, who judged that such precaution was absolutely
requisite: so little did his conduct, on the occasion, bear the marks
of rashness, or a precipitate self-confidence! He landed, with the
marines, at the upper end of the town of Kavaroah: the Indians
immediately flocked round, as usual, and shewed him the customary
marks of respect, by prostrating themselves before him.--There were no
signs of hostilities, or much alarm among them. Captain Cook, however,
did not seem willing to trust to appearances; but was particularly
attentive to the disposition of the marines, and to have them kept
clear of the crowd. He first inquired for the king's sons, two youths
who were much attached to him, and generally his companions on board.
Messengers being sent for them, they soon came to him, and informing
him, that their father was asleep, at a house not far from them, he
accompanied them thither, and took the marines along with them. As he
passed along, the natives every where prostrated themselves before
him, and seemed to have lost no part of that respect they had always
shown to his person. He was joined by several chiefs, among whom was
Kanynah, and his brother Koohowrooah. They kept the crowd in order,
according to their usual custom; and, being ignorant of his intention
in coming on shore, frequently asked him, if he wanted any hogs, or
other provisions: he told them that he did not, and that his business
was to see the king. When he arrived at the house, he ordered some of
the Indians to go in, and inform Kariopoo, that he waited without to
speak with him. They came out two or three times, and instead of
returning any answer from the king, presented some pieces of red cloth
to him, which made Captain Cook suspect that he was not in the house;
he therefore desired the lieutenant of marines to go in. The
lieutenant found the old man just awaked from sleep and seemingly
alarmed at the message; but he came out without hesitation. Captain
Cook took him by the hand, and in a friendly manner asked him to go on
board, to which he very readily consented. Thus far matters appeared
in a favourable train, and the natives did not seem much alarmed or
apprehensive of hostility on our side; at which Captain Cook expressed
himself a little surprised, saying, that as the inhabitants of that
town appeared innocent of stealing the cutter, he should not molest
them, but that he must get the king on board. Kariopoo sat down before
his door, and was surrounded by a great crowd: Kanynah and his brother
were both very active in keeping order among them. In a little time,
however, the Indians were observed arming themselves with long spears,
clubs, and daggers, and putting on thick mats, which they use as
armour. This hostile appearance increased, and became more alarming,
on the arrival of two men in a canoe from the opposite side of the
bay, with the news of a chief, called Kareemoo, having been killed by
one of the Discovery's boats. In their passage across, they had also
delivered this account to each of the ships. Upon that information,
the women, who were sitting upon the beach at their breakfasts, and
conversing familiarly with our people in the boats, retired, and a
confused murmur spread through the crowd. An old priest came to
Captain Cook, with a cocoa-nut in his hand, which he held out to him
as a present, at the same time singing very loud. He was often desired
to be silent, but in vain: he continued importunate and troublesome,
and there was no such thing as getting rid of him or his noise: it
seemed as if he meant to divert their attention from his countrymen,
who were growing more tumultuous, and arming themselves in every
quarter. Captain Cook, being at the same time surrounded by a great
crowd, thought his situation rather hazardous: he therefore ordered
the lieutenant of marines to march his small party to the waterside,
where the boats lay within a few yards of the shore: the Indians
readily made a lane for them to pass, and did not offer to interrupt
them. The distance they had to go might be about fifty or sixty yards;
Captain Cook followed, having hold of Kariopoo's hand, who accompanied
him very willingly: he was attended by his wife, two sons, and several
chiefs. The troublesome old priest followed, making the same savage
noise. Keowa, the youngest son, went directly into the pinnace,
expecting his father to follow: but just as he arrived at the
waterside, his wife threw her arms about his neck, and, with the
assistance of two chiefs, forced him to sit down by the side of a
double canoe. Captain Cook expostulated with them, but to no purpose:
they would not suffer the king to proceed, telling him, that he would
be put to death if he went on board the ship. Kariopoo, whose conduct
seemed entirely resigned to the will of others, hung down his head,
and appeared much distressed.

'While the king was in this situation, a chief, well known to us, of
the name of Coho, was observed lurking near, with an iron dagger,
partly concealed under his cloak, seemingly with the intention of
stabbing Captain Cook, or the lieutenant of marines. The latter
proposed to fire at him, but Captain Cook would not permit it. Coho
closing upon them, obliged the officer to strike him with his piece,
which made him retire. Another Indian laid hold of the sergeant's
musket, and endeavoured to wrench it from him, but was prevented by
the lieutenant's making a blow at him. Captain Cook, seeing the tumult
increase, and the Indians growing more daring and resolute, observed,
that if he were to take the king off by force, he could not do it
without sacrificing the lives of many of his people. He then paused a
little, and was on the point of giving his orders to re-embark, when a
man threw a stone at him; which he returned with a discharge of small
shot (with which one barrel of his double piece was loaded). The man,
having a thick mat before him, received little or no hurt: he
brandished his spear, and threatened to dart it at Captain Cook, who
being still unwilling to take away his life, instead of firing with
ball, knocked him down with his musket. He expostulated strongly with
the most forward of the crowd, upon their turbulent behaviour. He had
given up all thoughts of getting the king on board, as it appeared
impracticable; and his care was then only to act on the defensive, and
to secure a safe embarkation for his small party, which was closely
pressed by a body of several thousand people. Keowa, the king's son,
who was in the pinnace, being alarmed on hearing the first firing,
was, at his own entreaty, put on shore again; for even at that time
Mr. Roberts, who commanded her, did not apprehend that Captain Cook's
person was in any danger: otherwise he would have detained the prince,
which, no doubt, would have been a great check on the Indians. One man
was observed, behind a double canoe, in the action of darting his
spear at Captain Cook, who was forced to fire at him in his own
defence, but happened to kill another close to him, equally forward in
the tumult: the serjeant observing that he had missed the man he aimed
at, received orders to fire at him, which he did, and killed him. By
this time, the impetuosity of the Indians was somewhat repressed; they
fell back in a body, and seemed staggered; but being pushed on by
those behind, they returned to the charge, and poured a volley of
stones among the marines, who, without waiting for orders, returned it
with a general discharge of musketry, which was instantly followed by
a fire from the boats. At this Captain Cook was heard to express his
astonishment: he waved his hand to the boats, called to them to cease
firing, and to come nearer in to receive the marines. Mr. Roberts
immediately brought the pinnace as close to the shore as he could,
without grounding, notwithstanding the showers of stones that fell
among the people: but ---- the lieutenant, who commanded in the
launch, instead of pulling in to the assistance of Captain Cook,
withdrew his boat farther off, at the moment that every thing seems to
have depended upon the timely exertions of those in the boats. By his
own account, he mistook the signal, but be that as it may, this
circumstance appears to me, to have decided the fatal turn of the
affair, and to have removed every chance which remained with Captain
Cook, of escaping with his life. The business of saving the marines
out of the water, in consequence of that, fell altogether upon the
pinnace; which thereby became so much crowded, that the crew were, in
a great measure, prevented from using their fire-arms, or giving what
assistance they otherwise might have done, to Captain Cook; so that he
seems, at the most critical point of time, to have wanted the
assistance of both boats, owing to the removal of the launch. For,
notwithstanding that they kept up a fire on the crowd, from the
situation to which they removed in that boat, the fatal confusion
which ensued on her being withdrawn, to say the least of it, must have
prevented the full effect that the prompt co-operation of the two
boats, according to Captain Cook's orders, must have had, towards the
preservation of himself and his people.[15] At that time, it was to
the boats alone that Captain Cook had to look for his safety; for,
when the marines had fired, the Indians rushed among them, and forced
them into the water, where four of them were killed: their lieutenant
was wounded, but fortunately escaped, and was taken up by the pinnace.
Captain Cook was then the only one remaining on the rock: as observed
making for the pinnace, holding his left hand against the back of his
head, to guard it from the stones, and carrying his musket under the
other arm. An Indian was seen following him, but with caution and
timidity; for he stopped once or twice, as if undetermined to proceed.
At last he advanced upon him unawares, and with a large club, or
common stake, gave him a blow on the back of the head, and then
precipitately retreated. The stroke seemed to have stunned Captain
Cook: he staggered a few paces, then fell on his hand and one knee,
and dropped his musket. As he was rising, and before he could recover
his feet, another Indian stabbed him in the back of the neck with an
iron dagger. He then fell into a bit of water about knee deep, where
others crowded upon him, and endeavoured to keep him under: but
struggling very strongly with them, he got his head up, and casting
his look towards the pinnace, seemed to solicit assistance. Though the
boat was not above five or six yards distant from him, yet from the
crowded and confused state of the crew, it seems, it was not in their
power to save him. The Indians got him under again, but in deeper
water: he was, however, able to get his head up once more, and being
almost spent in the struggle, he naturally turned to the rock, and was
endeavouring to support himself by it, when a savage gave him a blow
with a club, and he was seen alive no more. They hauled him up
lifeless on the rocks, where they seemed to take a savage pleasure in
using every barbarity to his dead body, snatching the daggers out of
each other's hands, to have the horrid satisfaction of piercing the
fallen victim of their barbarous rage.

  [Footnote 15: I have been informed on the best authority, that in
  the opinion of Captain Philips, who commanded the marines, and
  whose judgment must be of the greatest weight, it is extremely
  doubtful whether any thing could successfully have been done to
  preserve the life of Captain Cook, even if no mistake had been
  committed on the part of the launch.]

'I need make no reflection on the great loss we suffered on this
occasion, or attempt to describe what we felt. It is enough, to say,
that no man was ever more beloved or admired: and it is truly painful
to reflect that he seems to have fallen a sacrifice merely for want of
being properly supported; a fate, singularly to be lamented, as having
fallen to his lot, who had ever been conspicuous for his care of those
under his command, and who seemed, to the last, to pay as much
attention to their preservation, as to that of his own life.

'If any thing could have added to the shame and indignation
universally felt on this occasion, it was to find, that his remains
had been deserted, and left exposed on the beach, although they might
have been brought off. It appears, from the information of four or
five midshipmen, who arrived on the spot at the conclusion of the
fatal business, that the beach was then almost entirely deserted by
the Indians, who at length had given way to the fire of the boats, and
dispersed through the town: so that there seemed no great obstacle to
prevent the recovery of Captain Cook's body; but the lieutenant
returned on board without making the attempt. It is unnecessary to
dwell longer on this painful subject, and to relate the complaints and
censures that fell on the conduct of the lieutenant. It will be
sufficient to observe that they were so loud as to oblige Captain
Clerke publicly to notice them, and to take the depositions of his
accusers down in writing. The captains bad state of health and
approaching dissolution, it is supposed, induced him to destroy these
papers a short time before his death.

'It is a painful task to be obliged to notice circumstances which seem
to reflect upon the character of any man. A strict regard to truth,
however, compelled me to the insertion of these facts, which I have
offered merely as facts, without presuming to connect with them any
comment of my own: esteeming it the part of a faithful historian, "to
extenuate nothing, nor set down aught in malice."

'The fatal accident happened at eight o'clock in the morning, about an
hour after Captain Cook landed. It did not seem that the king, or his
sons, were witnesses to it: but it is supposed, that they withdrew in
the midst of the tumult. The principal actors were the other chiefs,
many of them the king's relations and attendants; the man who stabbed
him with the dagger was called Nooah. I happened to be the only one
who recollected his person, from having on a former occasion mentioned
his name in the journal I kept. I was induced to take particular
notice of him, more from his personal appearance than any other
consideration, though he was of high rank, and a near relation of the
king: he was stout and tall, with a fierce look and demeanour, and one
who united in his figure the two qualities of strength and agility, in
a greater degree than ever I remembered to have seen before in any
other man. His age might be about thirty, and by the white scurf on
his skin, and his sore eyes, he appeared to be a hard drinker of kava.
He was a constant companion of the king, with whom I first saw him,
when he paid a visit to Captain Clerke. The chief who first struck
Captain Cook with the club, was called Karimano, craha, but I did not
know him by his name. These circumstances I learned of honest
Kaireekea, the priest; who added, that they were both held in great
esteem on account of that action: neither of them came near us
afterward. When the boats left the shore, the Indians carried away the
dead body of Captain Cook and those of the marines, to the rising
ground, at the back of the town, where we could plainly see them with
our glasses from the ships.

'This most melancholy accident appears to have been altogether
unexpected and unforeseen, as well on the part of the natives as
ourselves. I never saw sufficient reason to induce me to believe, that
there was any thing of design, or a preconcerted plan on their side,
or that they purposely sought to quarrel with us: thieving, which gave
rise to the whole, they were equally guilty of in our first and second
visits. It was the cause of every misunderstanding that happened
between us: their petty thefts were generally overlooked, but
sometimes slightly punished: the boat, which they at last ventured to
take away, was an object of no small magnitude to people in our
situation, who could not possibly replace her, and therefore not
slightly to be given up. We had no other chance of recovering her, but
by getting the person of the king into our possession: on our
attempting to do that, the natives became alarmed for his safety, and
naturally opposed those whom they deemed his enemies. In the sudden
conflict that ensued, we had the unspeakable misfortune of losing our
excellent commander, in the manner already related. It is in this
light the affair has always appeared to me, as entirely accidental,
and not in the least, owing to any previous offence received, or
jealousy of our second visit entertained by the natives.

'Pareah seems to have been the principal instrument in bringing about
this fatal disaster. We learned afterward, that it was he who had
employed some people to steal the boat: the king did not seem to be
privy to it, or even apprized of what had happened, till Captain Cook
landed.

'It was generally remarked, that, at first, the Indians shewed great
resolution in facing our fire-arms; but it was entirely owing to
ignorance of their effect. They thought that their thick mats would
defend them from a ball as well as from a stone; but being soon
convinced of their error, yet still at a loss to account how such
execution was done among them, they had recourse to a stratagem,
which, though it answered no other purpose, served to shew their
ingenuity and quickness of invention. Observing the flashes of the
muskets, they naturally concluded, that water would counteract their
effect, and therefore, very sagaciously dipped their mats, or armour,
in the sea, just as they came on to face our people: but finding this
last resource to fail them, they soon dispersed, and left the beach
entirely clear. It was an object they never neglected, even at the
greatest hazard, to carry off their slain; a custom, probably owing to
the barbarity with which they treat the dead body of an enemy, and the
trophies they make of his bones.'

In consequence of this barbarity of disposition, the whole remains of
Captain Cook could not be recovered. For, though every exertion was
made for that purpose; though negotiations and threatenings were
alternately employed, little more than the principal part of his bones
(and that with great difficulty) could be procured. By the possession
of them, our navigators were enabled to perform the last offices to
their eminent and unfortunate commander. The bones, having been put
into a coffin, and the service being read over them, were committed to
the deep, on the 21st, with the usual military honours. What were the
feelings of the companies of both the ships, on this occasion, must be
left to the world to conceive; for those who were present, know, that
it is not in the power of any pen to express them.

A promotion of officers followed the decease of Captain Cook. Captain
Clerke having succeeded of course to the command of the expedition,
removed on board the Resolution. By him Mr. Gore was appointed captain
of the Discovery, and the rest of the lieutenants obtained an addition
of rank, in their proper order. Mr. Harvey, a midshipman, who had been
in the last as well as the present voyage, was promoted to the vacant
lieutenancy.

Not long after Captain Cook's death, an event occurred in Europe,
which had a particular relation to the voyage of our navigator, and
which was so honourable to himself, and to the great nation from whom
it proceeded, that it is no small pleasure to me to be able to lay the
transaction somewhat at large before my readers. What I refer to is,
the letter which was issued, on the 19th of March, 1779, by Mr.
Sartine secretary of the marine department at Paris, and sent to all
the commanders of French ships. The rescript was as follows: 'Captain
Cook, who sailed from Plymouth in July, 1776, on board the Resolution,
in company with the Discovery, Captain Clerke, in order to make some
discoveries on the coasts, islands, and seas of Japan and California,
being on the point of returning to Europe; and such discoveries being
of general utility to all nations, it is the king's pleasure, that
Captain Cook shall be treated as a commander of a neutral and allied
power, and, that all captains of armed vessels, &c. who may meet that
famous navigator, shall make him acquainted with the king's orders on
this behalf, but, at the same time, let him know, that on his part he
must refrain from hostilities.' By the Marquis of Condorcet we are
informed, that this measure originated in the liberal and enlightened
mind of that excellent citizen and statesman, M. Turgot. 'When war,'
says the marquis, 'was declared between France and England, M. Turgot
saw how honourable it would be to the French nation, that the vessel
of Captain Cook should be treated with respect at sea. He composed a
memorial, in which he proved, that honour, reason, and even interest,
dictated this act of respect for humanity; and it was in consequence
of this memorial, the author of which was unknown during his life,
that an order was given not to treat as an enemy the common benefactor
of every European nation.'

Whilst great praise is due to M. Turgot, for having suggested the
adoption of a measure which hath contributed so much to the reputation
of the French government, it must not be forgotten, that the first
thought of such a plan of conduct was probably owing to Dr. Benjamin
Franklin. Thus much, at least, is certain, that this eminent
philosopher, when ambassador at Paris from the United States of
America, preceded the court of France in issuing a similar
requisition; a copy Of which cannot fail of being acceptable to the
reader.

'To all Captains and Commanders of armed Ships acting by Commission
from the Congress of the United States of America, now in war with
Great Britain.

'Gentlemen,

'A ship having been fitted out from England before the commencement of
this war, to make discoveries of new countries in unknown seas, under
the conduct of that most celebrated navigator and discoverer, Captain
Cook; an undertaking truly laudable in itself, as the increase of
geographical knowledge facilitates the communication between distant
nations, in the exchange of useful products and manufactures, and the
extension of arts, whereby the common enjoyments of human life are
multiplied and augmented, and science of other kinds increased, to the
benefit of mankind in general--This is therefore most earnestly to
recommend to every one of you, that in case the said ship, which is
now expected to be soon in the European seas on her return, should
happen to fall into your hands, you would not consider her as an
enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the effects contained in
her, nor obstruct her immediate return to England, by detaining her,
or sending her into any other part of Europe, or to America; but that
you would treat the said Captain Cook and his people with all civility
and kindness, affording them, as common friends to mankind, all the
assistance in your power, which they may happen to stand in need of.
In so doing you will not only gratify the generosity of your own
dispositions, but there is no doubt of your obtaining the approbation
of the Congress, and your other American owners.

'I have the honour to be, Gentlemen,

'Your most obedient, humble servant,

B. FRANKLIN,

'Minister Plenipotentiary from the Congress of the United States, at
the Court of France.

At Passy, near Paris, the 10th day of March, 1779.'

It is observable that, as Dr. Franklin acted on his own authority, he
could only _earnestly recommend_ to the commanders of American
armed vessels not to consider Captain Cook as an enemy; and it is
somewhat remarkable, that he mentions no more than one ship; Captain
Clerke not being noticed in the requisition. In the confidence which
the doctor expressed, with respect to the approbation of Congress, he
happened to be mistaken. As the members of that assembly, at least
with regard to the greater part of them, were, not possessed of minds
equally enlightened with that of their ambassador, he was not
supported by his masters in this noble act of humanity, of love to
science, and of liberal policy. The orders he had given were instantly
reversed; and it was directed by Congress, that especial care should
be taken to seize Captain Cook, if an opportunity of doing it
occurred. All this preceeded from a false notion, that it would be
injurious to the United States for the English to obtain a knowledge
of the opposite coast of America.

The conduct of the court of Spain was regulated by similar principles
of jealousy. It was apprehended by that court, that there was reason
to be cautious of granting, too easily, an indulgence to Captain Cook;
since it was not certain what mischiefs might ensue to the Spaniards
from a northern passage to their American dominions. M. de Belluga, a
Spanish gentleman and officer, of a liberal and philosophical turn of
mind, and who was a member of the Royal Society of London, endeavoured
to prevail upon the Count of Florida Blanca, and M. d'Almodaver, to
grant an order of protection to the Resolution and Discovery; and he
flattered himself, that the ministers of the King of Spain would be
prevailed upon to prefer the cause of science to the partial views of
interest: but the Spanish government was not capable of rising to so
enlarged and magnanimous a plan of policy. To the French nation alone,
therefore, was reserved the honour of setting an example of wisdom and
humanity, which, I trust, will not hereafter be so uncommon to the
history of mankind.

The progress of the voyage, after the decease of Captain Cook, doth
not fall within the design of the present narrative.[16]

  [Footnote 16: The particulars of the voyage, after the death of
  Captain Cook, of which it did not fall under Dr. Kippis's plan to
  give a narrative, will be found in the Appendix.]



CHAPTER VII.

Character of Captain Cook.--Effects of his Voyages.--Testimonies of
Applause.--Commemorations of his Services--Regard paid to his
Family.--Conclusion.


From the relation that has been given of Captain Cook's course of
life, and of the important events in which he was engaged, my readers
cannot be strangers to his general character. This, therefore, might
be left to be collected from his actions, which are the best
exhibitions of the great qualities of his mind. But, perhaps, were I
not to endeavour to afford a summary view of him in these respects, I
might be thought to fail in that duty which I owe to the public on the
present occasion.

It cannot, I think, be denied, that genius belonged to Captain Cook in
an eminent degree. By genius, I do not here understand imagination
merely, or that power of culling the flowers of fancy which poetry,
delights in; but an inventive mind; a mind full of resources; and,
which, by its own native vigour, can suggest noble objects of pursuit
and the most effectual methods of attaining them. This faculty was
possessed by our navigator in its full energy, as is evident from the
uncommon sagacity and penetration which he discovered in a vast
variety of critical and difficult situations.

To genius Captain Cook added application, without which nothing very
valuable or permanent can be accomplished, even by the brightest
capacity. For an unremitting attention to whatever related to his
profession, he was distinguished in early life. In every affair that
was undertaken by him, his assiduity was without interruption, and
without abatement. Whereever he came, he suffered nothing, which was
fit for a seaman to know or to practise, to pass unnoticed, or to
escape his diligence.

The genius and application of Captain Cook were followed by a large
extent of knowledge; a knowledge which, besides a consummate
acquaintance with navigation, comprehended a number of other sciences.
In this respect the ardour of his mind rose above the disadvantages of
a very confined education. His progress in the different branches of
the mathematics, and particularly in astronomy, became so eminent,
that, at length, he was able to take the lead in making the necessary
observations of this kind, in the course of his voyages. He attained
likewise to such a degree of proficiency in general learning, and the
art of composition, as to be able to express himself with a manly
clearness and propriety, and to become respectable as the narrator, as
well as the performer, of great actions.

Another thing, strikingly conspicuous in Captain Cook, was the
perseverance with which he pursued the noble objects to which his life
was devoted. This, indeed, was a most distinguished feature in his
character: in this he scarcely ever had an equal, and never a
superior. Nothing could divert him from the points he aimed at; and he
persisted in the prosecution of them, through difficulties and
obstructions, which would have deterred minds of very considerable
strength and firmness.

What enabled him to persevere in all his mighty undertakings was the
invincible fortitude of his spirits. Of this, instances without number
occur in the accounts of his expeditions; two of which I shall take
the liberty of retailing to the attention of my readers. The first is,
the undaunted magnanimity with which he prosecuted his discoveries
along the whole southeast coast of New Holland. Surrounded as he was
with the greatest possible dangers, arising from the perpetual
succession of rocks, shoals, and breakers, and having a ship that was
almost shaken to pieces by repeated perils, his vigorous mind had a
regard to nothing but what he thought was required of him by his duty
to the public. It will not be easy to find, in the history of
navigation, a parallel example of courageous exertion. The other
circumstance I would refer to, is the boldness with which, in his
second voyage after he left the Cape of Good Hope, he pushed forward
into unknown seas, and penetrated through innumerable mountains and
islands of ice, in the search of a southern continent. It was like
launching into chaos: all was obscurity, all was darkness before him;
and no event can be compared with it, excepting the sailing of
Magelhaens, from the straits which bear his name into the Pacific
Ocean.

The fortitude of Captain Cook, being founded upon reason, and not upon
instinct, was not an impetuous valour, but accompanied with complete
self-possession. He was master of himself on every trying occasion,
and seemed to be the more calm and collected, the greater was the
exigence of the case. In the most perilous situations, when our
commander had given the proper directions concerning what was to be
done while he went to rest, he could sleep, during the hours he had
allotted to himself, with perfect composure and soundness. Nothing
could be a surer indication of an elevated mind; of a mind that was
entirely satisfied with itself, and the measures it had taken.

To all these great qualities Captain Cook added the most amiable
virtues. That it was impossible for any one to excel him in humanity,
is apparent from his treatment of his men through all his voyages, and
from his behaviour to the natives of the countries which were
discovered by him. The health, the convenience, and, as far as it
could be admitted, the enjoyment of the seamen, were the constant
objects of his attention; and he was anxiously solicitous to
ameliorate the condition of the inhabitants of the several islands and
places which he visited. With regard to their thieveries, he candidly
apologized for, and overlooked many offences which others would have
sharply punished; and when he was laid under an indispensable
necessity of proceeding to any  acts of severity, he never exerted
them without feeling much reluctance and concern.

In the private relations of life, Captain Cook was entitled to high
commendation. He was excellent as a husband and a father, and sincere
and steady in his friendships: and to this it may be added, that he
possessed that general sobriety and virtue of character, which will
always be found to constitute the best security and ornament of every
other moral qualification.

With the greatest benevolence and humanity of disposition, Captain
Cook was occasionally subject to a hastiness of temper. This, which
has been exaggerated by the few (and they are indeed few) who are
unfavourable to his memory, is acknowledged by his friends. It is
mentioned both by Captain King and Mr. Samwell, in their delineations
of his character. Mr. Hayley, in one of his poems, calls him the
_mild Cook_; but, perhaps, that is not the happiest epithet which
could have been applied to him. Mere mildness can scarcely be
considered as the most prominent and distinctive feature in the mind
of a man, whose powers of understanding and of action were so strong
and elevated, who had such immense difficulties to struggle with, and
who must frequently have been called to the firmest exertions of
authority and command.

Lastly, Captain Cook was distinguished by a property which is almost
universally the concomitant of truly great men, and that is, a
simplicity of manners. In conversation he was unaffected and
unassuming; rather backward in pushing discourse; but obliging and
communicative in his answers to those who addressed him for the
purposes of information. It was not possible that, in a mind
constituted like his, such a paltry quality as vanity could find an
existence.

In this imperfect delineation of Captain Cook's character, I have
spoken of him in a manner which is fully justified by the whole course
of his life and actions, and which is perfectly agreeable to the
sentiments of those who were the most nearly connected with him in the
habits of intimacy and friendship. The pictures which some of them
have drawn of him, though they have already been presented to the
public, cannot here with propriety be omitted. Captain King has
expressed himself concerning him in the following terms: 'The
constitution of his body was robust, inured to labour, and capable of
undergoing the severest hardships. His stomach bore, without
difficulty, the coarsest and most ungrateful food:--Great was the
indifference with which he submitted to every kind of self-denial. The
qualities of his mind were of the same hardy vigorous kind with those
of his body. His understanding was strong and perspicacious. His
judgment, in whatever related to the services he was engaged in, quick
and sure. His designs were bold and manly; and both in the conception,
and in the mode of execution, bore evident marks of a great original
genius. His courage was cool and determined, and accompanied with an
admirable presence of mind in the moment of danger. His temper might
perhaps have been justly blamed, as subject to hastiness and passion,
had not these been disarmed by a disposition the most benevolent and
humane.

'Such were the outlines of Captain Cook's character; but its most
distinguishing feature was that unremitting perseverance in the
pursuit of his object, which was not only superior to the opposition
of dangers, and the pressure of hardships, but even exempt from the
want of ordinary relaxation. During the long and tedious voyages in
which he was engaged, his eagerness and activity were never in the
least abated. No incidental temptation could detain him for a moment:
even those intervals of recreation, which sometimes unavoidably
occurred, and were looked for by us with a longing, that persons who
have experienced the fatigues of service will readily excuse, were
submitted to by him with a certain impatience, whenever they could not
be employed in making a farther provision for the more effectual
prosecution of his designs.'

'The character of Captain Cook,' says Mr. Samwell, 'will be best
exemplified by the services he has performed, which are universally
known, and have ranked his name above that of any navigator of ancient
or of modern times. Nature had endowed him with a mind vigorous and
comprehensive, which in his riper years he had cultivated with care
and industry. His general knowledge was extensive and various: in that
of his own profession he was unequalled. With a clear judgment, strong
masculine sense, and the most determined resolution; with a genius
peculiarly turned for enterprise, he pursued his object with unshaken
perseverance:--vigilant and active in an eminent degree:--cool and
intrepid among dangers; patient and firm under difficulties and
distress; fertile in expedients; great and original in all his
designs; active and resolved in carrying them into execution. These
qualities rendered him the animating spirit of the expedition: in
every situation he stood unrivalled and alone; on him all eyes were
turned; he was our leading star, which, at its setting, left us
involved in darkness and despair.

'His constitution was strong, his mode of living temperate.--He was a
modest man, and rather bashful; of an agreeable lively conversation,
sensible and intelligent. In his temper he was somewhat hasty, but of
a disposition the most friendly, benevolent, and humane. His person
was about six feet high, and, though a good looking man, he was plain
both in address and appearance. His head was small; his hair, which
was a dark brown, he wore tied behind. His face was full of
expression; his nose exceedingly well shaped; his eyes, which were
small and of a brown cast, were quick and piercing; his eyebrows
prominent, which gave his countenance altogether an air of austerity.

'He was beloved by his people, who looked up to him as to a father,
and obeyed his commands with alacrity. The confidence we placed in him
was unremitting; our admiration of his great talents, unbounded; our
esteem for his good qualities, affectionate and sincere.----

'He was remarkably distinguished for the activity of his mind: it was
that which enabled him to pay an unwearied attention to every object
of the service. The strict economy he observed in the expenditure of
the ship's stores, and the unremitting care he employed for the
preservation of the health of his people, were the causes that enabled
him to prosecute discoveries in remote parts of the globe, for such a
length of time, as had been deemed impracticable by former navigators.
The method he discovered for preserving the health of seamen in long
voyages will transmit his name to posterity as the friend and
benefactor of mankind: the success which attended it afforded this
truly great man more satisfaction than the distinguished fame that
attended his discoveries.

'England has been unanimous in her tribute of applause to his virtues,
and all Europe has borne testimony to his merit. There is hardly a
corner of the earth, however remote and savage, that will not long
remember his benevolence and humanity. The grateful Indian, in time to
come, pointing to the herds grazing his fertile plains, will relate to
his children how the first stock of them was introduced into the
country; and the name of Cook will be remembered among those benign
spirits, whom they worship as the source of every good, and the
fountain of every blessing.'

At the conclusion of the Introduction to the Voyage to the Pacific
Ocean is an eulogium on Captain Cook, drawn up by one of his own
profession, of whom it is said, that he is not more distinguished by
the elevation of rank, than by the dignity of private virtues. Though
this excellent eulogium must be known to many, and perhaps to most of
my readers, they will not be displeased at having the greater part of
it brought to their recollection.

'Captain James Cook possessed,' says the writer, 'in an eminent
degree, all the qualifications requisite for his profession and great
undertakings; together with the amiable and worthy qualities of the
best men.

'Cool and deliberate in judging: sagacious in determining: active in
executing: steady and persevering in enterprising, from vigilance and
unremitting caution: unsubdued by labour, difficulties, and
disappointments: fertile in expedients: never wanting presence of
mind; always possessing himself, and the full use of a sound
understanding.

'Mild, just, but exact in discipline: he was a father to his people,
who were attached to him from affection, and obedient from confidence.

'His knowledge, his experience, his sagacity, rendered him so entirely
master of his subject, that the greatest obstacles were surmounted,
and the most dangerous navigations became easy, and almost safe, under
his direction.

'By his benevolent and unabating attention to the welfare of his
ship's company, he discovered and introduced a system for the
preservation of the health of seamen in long voyages, which has proved
wonderfully efficacious.

'The death of this eminent and valuable man was a loss to mankind in
general; and particularly to be deplored by every nation that respects
useful accomplishments, that honours science, and loves the benevolent
and amiable affections of the heart. It is still more to be deplored
by this country, which may justly boast of having produced a man
hitherto unequalled for nautical talents; and that sorrow is farther
aggravated by the reflection, that his country was deprived of this
ornament by the enmity of a people, from whom, indeed, it might have
been dreaded, but from whom it was not deserved. For, actuated always
by the most attentive care and tender compassion for the savages in
general, this excellent man was ever assiduously endeavouring, by kind
treatment, to dissipate their fears, and court their friendship;
overlooking their thefts and treacheries, and frequently interposing,
at the hazard of his life, to protect them from the sudden resentment
of his own injured people.----

'Traveller! contemplate, admire, revere, and emulate this great master
in his profession; whose skill and labours have enlarged natural
philosophy; have extended nautical science; and have disclosed the
long concealed and admirable arrangements of the Almighty to the
formation of this globe, and, at the same time, the arrogance of
mortals, in presuming to account, by their speculations, for the laws
by which he was pleased to create it. It is now discovered, beyond all
doubt, that the same great Being who created the universe by his
_fiat_, by the same ordained our earth to keep a just poise,
without a corresponding southern continent, and it does so. _He
stretches out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth
upon nothing,_ Job XXVI. 7.

'If the arduous but exact researches of this extraordinary man have
not discovered a new world, they have discovered seas unnavigated and
unknown before. They have made us acquainted with islands, people, and
productions of which we had, no conception. And if he has not been so
fortunate as Americus, to give his name to a continent, his
pretensions to such a distinction remain unrivalled; and he will be
revered while there remains a page of his own modest account of his
voyages, and as long as mariners and geographers shall be instructed,
by his new map of the southern hemisphere, to trace the various
courses and discoveries he has made.

'If public services merit public acknowledgments, if the man, who
adorned and raised the fame of his country, is deserving of honours,
then Captain Cook deserves to have a monument raised to his memory by
a generous and grateful nation.

  "Virtutis uberrimum alimentum est honos."
   Val. Maximus, lib. ii. cap. 6.'

The last character I shall here insert of Captain Cook comes from a
learned writer, who, in consequence of some disagreements which are
understood to have subsisted between him and our great navigator,
cannot be suspected of intending to celebrate him in the language of
flattery. Dr. Reinhold Forster, having given a short account of the
captain's death, adds as follows: 'Thus fell this truly glorious and
justly admired navigator. If we consider his extreme abilities both
natural and acquired, the firmness and constancy of his mind, his
truly paternal care for the crew intrusted to him, the amiable manner
with which he knew how to gain the friendship of all the savage and
uncultivated nations, and even his conduct towards his friends and
acquaintance, we must acknowledge him to have been one of the greatest
men of his age, and that reason justifies the tear which friendship
pays to his memory.' After such an encomium on Captain Cook, less
regard may justly be paid to the deductions from it, which are added
by Dr. Forster. What he hath said concerning the captain's temper
seems to have received a tincture of exaggeration, from prejudice and
personal animosity; and the Doctor's insinuation, that our navigator
obstructed Lieutenant Pickersgill's promotion, is, I have good reason
to believe, wholly groundless. There is another error which must not
pass unnoticed. Dr. Forster puts in his caveat against giving the name
of Cook's Straits to the Straits between Asia and America, discovered
by Beering. But if the Doctor had read the Voyage to the Pacific
Ocean, published by authority, he would have seen, that there was no
design of robbing Beering of the honour to which he was entitled.

From a survey of Captain Cook's character, it is natural to extend our
reflections to the effects of the several expeditions in which he was
engaged. These, indeed, must have largely appeared in the general
history of his Life; and they have finely been displayed by Dr.
Douglas, in his admirable Introduction to the Voyage to the Pacific
Ocean. Under the conduct of so able a guide, I shall subjoin a short
view of the subject.

It must, however, be observed, that, with regard to the three
principal consequences of our great navigator's transactions, I have
nothing further to offer. These are, his having dispelled the illusion
of a _Terra Australis Incognita_; his demonstration of the
impracticability of a northern passage from the Pacific to the
Atlantic Ocean; and his having established a sure method of preserving
the health of seamen in the longest voyages, and through every variety
of latitude and climate. Concerning each of these capital objects, I
have already so fully spoken, that it is not in my power to add to the
impression of their importance, and of Captain Cook's merits in
relation to them, which, I trust, is firmly fixed on the mind of every
reader.

It is justly remarked, by Dr. Douglas, that one great advantage
accruing to the world from our late surveys of the globe, is, that
they have confuted fanciful theories, too likely to give birth to
impracticable undertakings. The ingenious reveries of speculative
philosophers, which have so long amused the learned, and raised the
most sanguine expectations, are now obliged to submit, perhaps with
reluctance, to the sober dictates of truth and experience. Nor will it
be only by discouraging future unprofitable searches, that the late
voyages will be of service to mankind, but also by lessening the
dangers and distresses formerly experienced in those seas which are
within the actual line of commerce and navigation. From the British
discoveries many commercial improvements may be expected to arise in
our own times: but, in future ages, such improvements may be extended
to a degree, of which, at present, we have no conception. In the long
chain of causes and effects, no one can tell how widely and
beneficially the mutual intercourse of the various inhabitants of the
earth may hereafter be carried on, in consequence of the means of
facilitating it, which have been explored and pointed out by Captain
Cook.

The interests of science, as well as of commerce, stand highly
indebted to this illustrious navigator. That a knowledge of the globe
on which we live is a very desirable object, no one can call in
question. This is an object which, while it is ardently pursued by the
most enlightened philosophers, is sought for with avidity, even by
those whose studies do not carry them beyond the lowest rudiments of
learning. It need not be said what gratification Captain Cook hath
provided for the world in this respect. Before the voyages of the
present reign took place, nearly half the surface of the earth was
hidden in obscurity and confusion. From the discoveries of our
navigator, geography has assumed a new face, and become, in a great
measure, a new science; having attained to such a completion, as to
leave only some less important parts of the globe to be explored by
future voyagers.[17]

  [Footnote 17: Lieutenant Roberts's admirable chart will set this
  matter in the strongest light.]

Happily for the advancement of knowledge, acquisitions cannot be
obtained in any one branch, without leading to acquisitions in other
branches, of equal, and perhaps of superior consequence. New oceans
cannot be traversed, or new countries visited, without presenting
fresh objects of speculation and inquiry, and carrying the practice,
as well as the theory, of philosophy to a higher degree of perfection.
_Nautical astronomy_, in particular, was in its infancy, when the
late voyages were first undertaken; but, during the prosecution of
them, and especially in Captain Cook's last expedition, even many of
the petty officers could observe the distance of the moon from the
sun, or a star, the most delicate of all observations, with sufficient
accuracy. As for the officers of superior rank, they would have felt
themselves ashamed to have it thought that they did not know how to
observe for, and compute the time at sea; though such a thing had, a
little before, scarcely been heard of among seamen. Nay, first-rate
philosophers had doubted the possibility of doing it with the
exactness that could be wished. It must, however, be remembered, that
a large share of praise is due to the Board of Longitude, for the
proficiency of the gentlemen of the navy in taking observations at
sea. In consequence of the attention of that board to this important
object, liberal rewards have been given to mathematicians for
perfecting the lunar tables, and facilitating calculations; and
artists have been amply encouraged in the construction of instruments
and watches, much more accurately and completely adapted to the
purposes of navigation than formerly existed.

It is needless to mention what a quantity of additional information
has been gained with respect to the rise and times of the flowing of
the tides; the direction and force of currents at sea; and the cause
and nature of the polarity of the needle, and the theory of its
variations. Natural knowledge has been increased by experiments on the
effects of gravity in different and very distant places; and from
Captain Cook's having penetrated so far into the Southern Ocean, it is
now ascertained, that the phenomenon, usually called the _Aurora
Borealis_, is not peculiar to high northern latitudes, but belongs
equally to all cold climates, whether they be north or south.

Amidst the different branches of science that have been promoted by
the late expeditions, there is none, perhaps, that stands so highly
indebted to them as the science of botany. At least twelve hundred new
plants have been added to the known system; and large accessions of
intelligence have accrued with regard to every other part of natural
history. This point has already been evinced by the writings of Dr.
Sparrman, of the two Forsters, father and son, and of Mr. Pennant; and
this point will illustriously be manifested, when the great work of
Sir Joseph Banks shall be accomplished, and given to the world.

It is not to the enlargement of natural knowledge only, that the
effects arising from Captain Cook's voyages are to be confined.
Another important object of study has been opened by them; and that
is, the study of human nature, in situations various, interesting, and
uncommon. The islands visited in the centre of the south Pacific
Ocean, and the principal scenes of the operations of our discoverers,
were untrodden ground. As the inhabitants, so far as could be
observed, had continued, from their original settlement unmixed with
any different tribe; as they had been left entirely to their own
powers for every art of life, and to their own remote traditions for
every political or religious custom or institution; as they were
uninformed by science, and unimproved by education, they could not but
afford many subjects of speculation to an inquisitive and
philosophical mind. Hence may be collected a variety of important
facts with respect to the state of man; with respect to his
attainments and deficiences, his virtue and vices, his employments and
diversions, his feelings, manners, and customs, in a certain period of
society. Even the curiosities which have been brought from the
discovered islands, and which enrich the British Museum, and the late
Sir Ashton Lever's repository, may be considered as a valuable
acquisition to this country; as supplying no small fund of information
and entertainment.

Few inquiries are more interesting than those which relate to the
migrations of the various families or tribes that have peopled the
earth. It was known in general, that the Asiatic nation, called
Malayans, possessed, in former times, much the greatest trade in the
Indies; and that they frequented, with their merchant ships, not only
all the coasts of Asia, but ventured over even to the coasts of
Africa, and particularly to the great island of Madagascar. But that,
from Madagascar to the Marquesas and Easter Island, that is, nearly
from the east side of Africa, till we approach towards the west side
of America, a space including above half the circumference of the
globe, the same nation of the oriental world should have made their
settlements, and founded colonies throughout almost every intermediate
stage of this immense tract, in islands at amazing distances from the
mother continent, and the natives of which were ignorant of each
other's existence--is an historical fact, that, before Captain Cook's
voyages, could be but very imperfectly known. He it is who hath
discovered a vast number of new spots of land lurking in the bosom of
the South Pacific Ocean, all the inhabitants of which display striking
evidences of their having derived their descent from one common
Asiatic original. Nor is this apparent solely from a similarity of
customs and institutions, but is established by a proof which conveys
irresistible conviction to the mind, and that is, the affinity of
language. The collections that have been made of the words which are
used in the widely diffused islands and countries that have lately
been visited cannot fail, in the hands of such men as a Bryant and a
Marsden, to throw much light on the origin of nations, and the
peopling of the globe.--From Mr. Marsden, in particular, who has
devoted his attention, time, and study to this curious subject, the
literary world may hereafter expect to be highly instructed and
entertained.

There is another family of the earth, concerning which new information
has been derived from the voyages of our British navigators. That the
Esquimaux, who had hitherto only been found seated on the coasts of
Labradore and Hudson's Bay, agreed with the Greenlanders in every
circumstance of customs, manners, and language, which could
demonstrate an original identity of nation, had already been
ascertained. But that the same tribe now actually inhabit the islands
and coasts on the west side of North America, opposite Kamtschatka,
was a discovery, the completion of which was reserved for Captain
Cook. From his account it appears that these people have extended
their migrations to Norton Sound, Oonalashka, and Prince William's
Sound; that is, to nearly the distance of fifteen hundred leagues from
their stations in Greenland, and the coast of Labradore. Nor does this
curious fact rest merely on the evidence arising from similitude of
manners: for it stands confirmed by a table of words, exhibiting such
an affinity of language as will remove every doubt from the mind of
the most scrupulous inquirer.

Other questions there are, of a very important nature, the solution of
which will now be rendered more easy than hath heretofore been
apprehended. From the full confirmation of the vicinity of the two
continents of Asia and America, it can no longer be represented as
ridiculous to believe, that the former furnished inhabitants to the
latter. By the facts recently discovered, a credibility is added to
the Mosaic account of the peopling of the earth. That account will, I
doubt not, stand the test of the most learned and rigorous
investigation. Indeed, I have long been convinced, after the closest
meditation of which I am capable, that sound philosophy and genuine
revelation never militate against each other. The rational friends of
religion are so far from dreading the spirit of inquiry, that they
wish for nothing more than a candid, calm, and impartial examination
of the subject according to all the lights which the improved reason
and the enlarged science of man can afford.

One great effect of the voyages made under the conduct of Captain Cook
is their having excited a zeal for similar undertakings. Other princes
and other nations are engaged in expeditions of navigation and
discovery. By order of the French government, Mess. de la Perouse and
de Langle sailed from Brest, in August, 1785, in the frigates Boussole
and Astroloobe, on an enterprise, the express purpose of which was the
improvement of geography, astronomy, natural history, and philosophy,
and to collect accounts of customs and manners. For the more effectual
prosecution of the design, several gentlemen were appointed to go out
upon the voyage, who were known to excel in different departments of
science and literature. Mr. Dagelet went as astronomer; M. de la
Martinière, P. Recevour, and M. de la Fresne, as naturalists; and the
Chevalier de Lamanon and M. Monges, junior, as natural philosophers.
The officers of the Boussole were men of the best information, and the
firmest resolution: and the crew contained a number of artificers in
various kinds of mechanic employments. Marine watches, and other
instruments, were provided; and M. Dagelet was particularly directed
to make observations with M. Condamine's invariable pendulum, to
determine the differences in gravity, and to ascertain the true
proportion of the equatorial to the polar diameter of the earth. From
some accounts which have already been received of these voyages, it
appears, that they have explored the coast of California; have
adjusted the situation of more than fifty places, almost wholly
unknown; and have visited Owhyhee, and the rest of the Sandwich
Islands. When the expedition shall be completed, the whole result of
it will doubtless be laid before the public.[18]

  [Footnote 18: An account of this voyage during the years 1785,
  1786, 1787, and 1788, has been published in France, from papers
  transmitted at different times by La Perouse; but nothing since
  the year 1788 has been received relative to the progress of the
  voyage, or the fate of the voyagers, who are all supposed to have
  perished by shipwreck.]

Although Captain Cook has made such vast discoveries in the Northern
Ocean, on and between the east of Asia and the west coast of America,
Mr. Coxe has well shewn that there is still room for a farther
investigation of that part of the world. Accordingly, the object has
been taken up by the Empress of Russia, who has committed the conduct
of the enterprise to Captain Billings, an Englishman in her majesty's
service. As Captain Billings was with Captain Cook in his last voyage,
he may reasonably be supposed to be properly qualified for the
business he has undertaken. The design, with the execution of which he
is entrusted, appears to be very extensive and important; and, if it
should be crowned with success, cannot fail of making considerable
additions to the knowledge of geography and navigation.

There is one event at home, which has evidently resulted from Captain
Cook's discoveries, and which, therefore, must not be omitted. What I
refer to is the settlement at Botany Bay. With the general policy of
this measure the present narrative has not any concern. The plan, I
doubt not, has been adopted with the best intentions, after the
maturest deliberation, and perhaps with consummate wisdom. One evident
advantage arising from it is, that it will effectually prevent a
number of unhappy wretches from returning to their former scenes of
temptations and guilt, and may open to them the means of industrious
subsistence and moral reformation. If it be wisely and prudently begun
and conducted, who can tell what beneficial consequences may spring
from it, in future ages? Immortal Rome is said to have risen from the
refuse of mankind.

While we are considering the advantages the _discoverers_ have
derived from the late navigations, a question naturally occurs, which
is, What benefits have hence accrued to the _discovered_? It
would be a source of the highest pleasure to be able to answer the
question to complete satisfaction. But it must be acknowledged, that
the subject is not wholly free from doubts and difficulties; and these
doubts and difficulties might be enlarged upon, and exaggerated, by an
imagination which is rather disposed to contemplate and represent the
dark than the luminous aspect of human affairs. In one respect, Mr.
Samwell has endeavoured to shew, that the natives of the lately
explored parts of the world, and especially so far as relates to the
Sandwich Islands, were not injured by our people; and it was the
constant solicitude and care of Captain Cook, that evil might not be
communicated in any one place to which he came. If he was universally
successful, the good which, in various cases, he was instrumental in
producing, will be reflected upon with the more peculiar satisfaction.

There is an essential difference between the voyages that have lately
been undertaken, and many which have been carried on in former times.
None of my readers can be ignorant of the horrid cruelties that were
exercised by the conquerors of Mexico and Peru; cruelties which can
never be remembered, without blushing for religion and human nature.
But to undertake expeditions with a design of civilizing the world,
and meliorating its condition, is a noble object. The recesses of the
globe were investigated by Captain Cook, not to enlarge private
dominion, but to promote general knowledge; the new tribes of the
earth were visited as friends; and an acquaintance with their
existence was sought for, in order to bring them within the pale of
the offices of humanity, and to relieve the wants of their imperfect
state of society. Such were the benevolent views which our navigator
was commissioned by his majesty to carry into execution; and there is
reason to hope that they will not be wholly unsuccessful. From the
long continued intercourse with the natives of the Friendly, Society,
and Sandwich Islands, some rays of light must have darted on their
infant minds. The uncommon objects which have been presented to their
observation, and excited their surprise, will naturally tend to
enlarge their stock of ideas, and to furnish new materials for the
exercise of their reasonable faculties. It is no small addition to
their comforts of life, and their immediate enjoyments, that will be
derived from the introduction of our useful animals and vegetables;
and if the only benefit they should ever receive from the visits of
the English should be the having obtained fresh means of subsistence,
that must be considered as a great acquisition.

But may not our hopes be extended to still nobler objects? The
connexion which has been opened with these remote inhabitants of the
world is the first step toward their improvement; and consequences may
flow from it, which are far beyond our present conceptions. Perhaps,
our late voyages may be the means appointed by Providence, of
spreading, in due time, the blessings of civilization among the
numerous tribes of the South Pacific Ocean, and preparing them for
holding an honourable rank among the nations of the earth. There
cannot be a more laudable attempt, than that of endeavouring to rescue
millions of our fellow-creatures from that state of humiliation in
which they now exist. Nothing can more essentially contribute to the
attainment of this great end, than a wise and rational introduction of
the Christian religion; an introduction of it in its genuine
simplicity; as holding out the worship of one God, inculcating the
purest morality, and promising eternal life as the reward of
obedience. These are views of things which are adapted to general
comprehension, and calculated to produce the noblest effects.

Considering the eminent abilities displayed by Captain Cook, and the
mighty actions performed by him, it is not surprising that his memory
should be held in the highest estimation, both at home and abroad.
Perhaps, indeed, greater honour is paid to his name abroad than at
home. Foreigners, I am informed, look up to him with an admiration
which is not equalled in this country. A remarkable proof of it
occurs, in the eulogy of our navigator, by Michael Angelo Gianetti,
which was read at the royal Florentine academy, on the 9th of June,
1785, and published at Florence, in the same year. Not having seen it,
I am deprived of the power of doing justice to its merit. If I am not
mistaken in my recollection, one of the French literary academies has
proposed a prize for the best eulogium on Captain Cook; and there can
be no doubt but that several candidates will appear upon the occasion,
and exert the whole force of their eloquence on so interesting a
subject.

To the applauses of our navigator, which have already been inserted, I
cannot avoid adding some poetical testimonies concerning him. The
first I shall produce is from a foreign poet, M. l'Abbé Lisle. This
gentleman has concluded his 'Les Jardins' with an encomium on Captain
Cook, of which the following lines are a translation:

  "Give, give me flowers: with garlands of renown
  Those glorious exiles' brows my hands shall crown,
  Who nobly sought on distant coasts to find,
  Or thither bore those arts that bless mankind:
  Thee chief, brave Cook, o'er whom, to nature dear,
  With Britain, Gallia drops the pitying tear.
  To foreign climes and rude, where nought before
  Announced our vessels but their cannons' roar,
  Far other gifts thy better mind decreed,
  The sheep, the heifer, and the stately steed;
  The plough, and all thy country's arts; the crimes
  Atoning thus of earlier savage times.
  With peace each land thy bark was wont to hail,
  And tears and blessings fill'd thy parting sail.
  Receive a stranger's praise; nor, Britain, thou
  Forbid these wreaths to grace thy Hero's brow,
  Nor scorn the tribute of a foreign song,
  For Virtue's sons to every land belong:
  And shall the Gallic Muse disdain to pay
  The meed of worth, when Louis leads the way?
  But what avail'd, that twice thou daredst to try
  The frost-bound sea, and twice the burning sky,
  That by winds, waves, and every realm revered,
  Safe, only safe, thy sacred vessel steer'd;
  That war for thee forgot its dire commands
  The world's great friend, ah! bleeds by savage hands."

There have not been wanting elegant writers of our own country, who
have embraced with pleasure the opportunities that have offered of
paying a tribute of praise to Captain Cook. The ingenious and amiable
Miss Hannah More has lately seized an occasion of celebrating the
humane intentions of the captain's discoveries.

  "Had those advent'rous spirits, who explore
  Through ocean's trackless wastes, the far-sought shore
  Whether of wealth insatiate, or of power,
  Conquerors who waste, or ruffians who devour:
  Had these possess'd, O Cook! thy gentle mind,
  Thy love of arts, thy love of humankind;
  Had these pursu'd thy mild and lib'ral plan,
  _Discoverers_ had not been a curse to man!
  Then, bless'd Philanthropy! thy social hands
  Had link'd dissever'd worlds in brothers' bands;
  Careless, if colour, or if clime divide;
  Then lov'd and loving, man had liv'd, and died."

Soon after the account arrived in England of Captain Cook's decease,
two poems were published in celebration of his memory; one of which
was an Ode, by a Mr. Fitzgerald, of Gray's Inn. But the first, both in
order of time and of merit, was an Elegy, by Miss Seward, whose
poetical talents have been displayed in many beautiful instances to
the public. This lady, in the beginning of her poem, has admirably
represented the principal of humanity by which the captain was
actuated in his undertakings.

  "Ye, who ere while for Cook's illustrious brow
  Pluck'd the green laurel and the oaken bough,
  Hung the gay garlands on the trophied oars,
  And pour'd his fame along a thousand shores.
  Strike the slow death-bell!--weave the sacred verse,
  And strew the cypress o'er his honour'd hearse;
  In sad procession wander round the shrine,
  And weep him mortal, whom ye sung divine!

  "Say first, what Pow'r inspir'd his dauntless breast
  With scorn of danger, and inglorious rest,
  To quit imperial London's gorgeous plains,
  Where, rob'd in thousand tints, bright Pleasure reigns!
  What Pow'r inspir'd his dauntless breast to brave
  The scorch'd Equator, and th' Antarctic wave?
  Climes, where fierce suns in cloudless ardours shine,
  And pour the dazzling deluge round the Line;
  The realms of frost, where icy mountains rise,
  'Mid the pale summer of the polar skies?--
  _It was Humanity!_--on coasts unknown,
  The shiv'ring natives of the frozen zone,
  And the swart Indian, as he faintly strays
  'Where Cancer reddens in the solar blaze,'
  She bade him seek;--on each inclement shore
  Plant the rich seeds of her exhaustless store;
  Unite the savage hearts, and hostile hands,
  In the firm compact of her gentle bands;
  Strew her soft comforts o'er the barren plain,
  Sing her sweet lays, and consecrate her fane.

  "_It was Humanity!_--O Nymph divine!
  I see thy light step print the burning Line!
  There thy bright eye the dubious pilot guides,
  The faint oar struggling with the scalding tides--
  On as thou lead'st the bold, the glorious prow,
  Mild, and more mild, the sloping sunbeams glow;
  Now weak and pale the lessen'd lustres play,
  As round th' horizon rolls the timid day;
  Barb'd with the sleeted snow, the driving hail,
  Rush the fierce arrows of the polar gale;
  And through the dim, unvaried, ling'ring hours,
  Wide o'er the waves incumbent horror lours."

Captain Cook's endeavours to serve the inhabitants of New Zealand, by
the vegetables and animals he left among them, are thus described:

  "To these the hero leads his living store,
  And pours new wonders on th' uncultur'd shore;
  The silky fleece, fair fruit, and golden grain;
  And future herds and harvests bless the plain,
  O'er the green soil his kids exulting play,
  And sounds his clarion loud the bird of day;
  The downy goose her ruffled bosom laves,
  Trims her white wing, and wantons in the waves;
  Stern moves the bull along th' affrighted shores,
  And countless nations tremble as he roars."

I shall only add the pathetic and animated conclusion of this fine
poem:

  "But ah!--aloft on Albion's rocky steep,
  That frowns incumbent o'er the boiling deep,
  Solicitous, and sad, a softer form
  Eyes the lone flood, and deprecates the storm.--
  Ill fated matron!--for, alas! in vain
  Thy eager glances wander o'er the main!
  Tis the vex'd billows, that insurgent rave,
  Their white foam silvers yonder distant wave,
  Tis not his sails! thy husband comes no more!
  His bones now whiten an accursed shore!--
  Retire,--for hark! the seagull shrieking soars,
  The lurid atmosphere portentous lours;
  Night's sullen spirit groans in every gale,
  And o'er the waters draws the darkling veil,
  Sighs in thy hair, and chills thy throbbing breast--
  Go wretched mourner!--weep thy griefs to rest!
    "Yet, though through life is lost each fond delight,
  Though set thy earthly sun in dreary night,
  Oh! raise thy thoughts to yonder starry plain,
  And own thy sorrow selfish, weak, and vain:
  Since, while Britannia, to his virtues just,
  Twines the bright wreath, and rears th' immortal bust;
  While on each wind of heaven his fame shall rise,
  In endless incense to the smiling skies;
  _The attendant Power_, that bade his sails expand,
  And waft her blessings to each barren land,
  Now raptur'd bears him to th' immortal plains,
  Where Mercy hails him with congenial strains;
  Where soars, on Joy's white plume, his spirit free,
  And angels choir him, while he waits for _Thee_."

Captain Cook's discoveries, among other effects, have opened new
scenes for a poetical fancy to range in, and presented new images to
the selection of genius and taste. The morals, in particular, of the
inhabitants of the South Sea Islands, afford a fine subject for the
exercise of a plaintive Muse. Such a Muse hath seized upon the
subject; and, at the same time, has added another wreath to the memory
of our navigator. I refer to a lady, who hath already, in many
passages of her 'Peru,' in her 'Ode on the Peace.' and, above all, in
her 'Irregular Fragment,' amply proved to the world, that she
possesses not only the talent of elegant and harmonious versification,
but the spirit of true poetry. The poem, which I have now the pleasure
of giving for the first time to the public, and which was written at
my request, will be found in the Appendix. It is some what remarkable,
that female poets have hitherto been the chief celebrators of Captain
Cook in this country. Perhaps a subject which would furnish materials
for as rich a production as Camoen's Lusiad, and which would adorn the
pen of a Hayley or a Cowper, may hereafter call forth the genius of
some poet of the stronger sex.

The Royal Society of London could not lose such a member of their body
as Captain Cook, without being anxious to honour his name and memory
by a particular mark of respect. Accordingly, it was resolved to do
this by a medal; and a voluntary subscription was opened for the
purpose. To such of the fellows of the society as subscribed twenty
guineas, a gold medal was appropriated: silver medals were assigned to
those who contributed a smaller sum; and to each of the other members
one in bronze was given. The subscribers of twenty guineas were, Sir
Joseph Banks, president; the Prince of Anspach, the Duke of Montague,
Lord Mulgrave and Mr. Cavendish, Mr. Peachy, Mr. Perrin, Mr. Poli, and
Mr. Shuttleworth. Many designs, as might be expected, were proposed on
the occasion. The medal which was actually struck contains, on one
side, the head of Captain Cook in profile, and round it, JAC. COOK
OCEANI INVESTIGATOR ACERRIMUS; and on the exergue, REG. SOC. LOND.
SOCIO SUO. On the reverse is a representation of Britannia holding a
globe. Round her is inscribed NIL INTENTATUM NOSTRI LIQUERE: and on
the exergue, AUSPICIIS GEORGII III.

Of the gold medals which were struck on this occasion, one was
presented to His Majesty, another to the Queen, and a third to the
Prince of Wales. Two were sent abroad: the first to the French king on
account of the protection he had granted to the ships under the
command of Captain Cook; and a second to the Empress of Russia, in
whose dominions the same ships had been received and treated with
every degree of friendship and kindness. Both these presents were
highly acceptable to the great personages to whom they were
transmitted. The French king expressed his satisfaction in a very
handsome letter to the Royal Society, signed by himself, and
undersigned by the Marquis de Vergennes; and the Empress of Russia
commissioned Count Osterman to signify to Mr. Fitzherbert the sense
she entertained of the value of the present, and that she had caused
it to be forthwith deposited in the Museum of the Imperial Academy of
Sciences. As a farther testimony of the pleasure she derived from it,
the Empress presented to the Royal Society a large and beautiful gold
medal, containing on one side the effigies of herself, and on the
reverse a representation of the statue of Peter the Great.

After the general assignment of the medals (which took place in the
spring of the year 1784), there being a surplus of money still
remaining, the president and council resolved, that an additional
number should be struck off in gold, to be disposed of as presents to
Mrs. Cook, the Earl of Sandwich, Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Dr. Cooke,
provost of King's College, Cambridge, and Mr. Planta. About the same
time it was agreed, that Mr. Aubert should be allowed to have a gold
medal of Captain Cook, on his paying for the gold, and the expense of
striking it: in consideration of his intention to present it to the
King of Poland.

During the two visits of the Resolution and Discovery at Kamtschatka,
it was from Colonel Behm, the commandant of that province, that the
ships, and the officers and men belonging to them, had received every
kind of assistance which it was in his power to bestow. His liberal
and hospitable behaviour to the English navigators is related at large
in Captain King's Voyage. Such was the sense entertained of it by the
Lords of the Admiralty, that they determined to make a present to the
colonel, of a magnificent piece of plate, with an inscription
expressive of his humane and generous disposition and conduct. The
elegant pen of Dr. Cooke was employed in drawing up the inscription,
which, after it had been subjected to the opinion and correction of
some gentlemen of the first eminence in classical taste, was as
follows:

'VIRO EGREGIO MANGO DE BEHM; qui Imperatricis Augustissimae Catherinæ
auspiciis, summaque animi benignitate, saeva, quibus praeerat,
Kamtschatkae littora, navibus nautisque Britannicis, hospita praebuit;
eosque, in terminis, si qui essent Imperio Russico frustra,
explorandis, mala multa perpessos, iterata, vice excepit, refecit,
recreavit, et commeatu omni cumulate auctos dimisit; REI NAVALIS
BRITANNICAE SEPTEMVIRI in aliquam benevolentiae tam insignis memoriam,
amicissimo, gratissimoque animo, suo, patriaeque nomine, D. D. D. M.
DCC. LXXXI.'

Sir Hugh Palliser, who through life manifested an invariable regard
and friendship for Captain Cook, has displayed a signal instance,
since the Captain's decease, of the affection and esteem in which he
holds his memory. At his estate in Buckinghamshire Sir Hugh hath
constructed a small building, on which he has erected a pillar,
containing the fine character of our great navigator that is given at
the end of the Introduction to the last Voyage, and the principal part
of which has been inserted in the present work. This character was
drawn up by a most respectable gentleman, who has long been at the
head of the naval profession, the honourable Admiral Forbes, admiral
of the fleet, and general of marines; to whom Captain Cook was only
known by his eminent merit and his extraordinary actions.

Amidst the numerous testimonies of regard that have been paid to
Captain Cook's merits and memory, the important object of providing
for his family hath not been forgotten. Soon after the intelligence
arrived of his unfortunate decease, this matter was taken up by the
lords of the Admiralty, with a zeal and an effect, which the following
authentic document will fully display:

'At the Court at St. James's, the 2nd of February, 1780;

'(L. S.) 'Present,

'The KING's Most Excellent Majesty in Council.

'Whereas there was this day read, at the Board, a memorial from the
Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, dated the
27th of last month, in the words following: viz.

'Having received an authentic account of the death of that great
  Navigator, Captain James Cook, who has had the honour of being
  employed by Your Majesty, in three different voyages, for the
  discovery of unknown countries in the most distant parts of the globe;
  we think it our duty humbly to represent to Your Majesty, that this
  meritorious officer, after having received from Your Majesty's
  gracious benevolence, as a reward for his public services in two
  successful circumnavigations, a comfortable and honourable retreat,
  where he might have lived many years to benefit his family, he
  voluntarily relinquished that ease and emolument to undertake another
  of these voyages of discovery, in which the life of a commander, who
  does his duty, must always be particularly exposed, and in which, in
  the execution of that duty, he fell, leaving his family, whom his
  public spirit had led him to abandon, as a legacy to his country. We
  do therefore humbly propose, that Your Majesty will be graciously
  pleased to order a pension of two hundred pounds a year to be settled
  on the widow, and twenty-five pounds a year upon each of the three
  sons of the said Captain James Cook, and that the same be placed on
  the ordinary estimate of the navy.

'His Majesty, taking the said memorial into his Royal consideration,
was pleased, with the advice of His Privy Council, to order, as it is
hereby ordered, that a pension of two hundred pounds a year be settled
on the widow, and twenty-five pounds a year upon each of the three
sons of the said Captain James Cook, and that the same be placed on
the ordinary estimate of His Majesty's navy; and the Lords
Commissioners of the Admiralty are to give the necessary directions
herein accordingly.

W. FAWKENER.'

The preceding memorial to the king was signed by the Earl of Sandwich.
Mr. Buller, the Earl of Lisburne, Mr. Penton, Lord Mulgrave, and Mr.
Mann; and the several officers of the Board of Admiralty seconded the
ardour of their superiors, by the speed and generosity with which his
majesty's royal grant to Captain Cook's widow and children passed
through the usual forms.

Another occasion was afterwards seized of conferring a substantial
benefit on the captain's family. The charts and plates belonging to
the Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, were provided at the expense of
government; the consequence of which was, that a large profit accrued
from the sale of the publication. Of this profit, half was consigned,
in trust, to Sir Hugh Palliser and Mr. Stephens, to be applied to the
use of Mrs. Cook, during her natural life, and afterwards to be
divided between her children.

Honour as well as emolument, hath graciously been conferred by his
majesty upon the descendants of Captain Cook. On the 3rd of September,
1785, a coat of arms was granted to the family, of which a description
will be given below.[19]

  [Footnote 19: Azure, between the two polar stars Or, a sphere on
  the plane of the meridian, north pole elevated, circles of
  latitude for every ten degrees, and of longitude for every
  fifteen, shewing the Pacific Ocean between sixty and two hundred
  and forty west, bounded on one side by America, on the other by
  Asia and New Holland, in memory of the discoveries made by him in
  that ocean, so very far beyond all former navigators. His track
  thereon is marked with red lines. And for crest, on a wreath of
  the colours, is an arm imbowed, vested in the uniform of a captain
  of the royal navy. In the hand is the union jack, on a staff
  Proper. The arm is encircled by a wreath of palm and laurel.]

Our navigator had six children; James, Nathaniel, Elizabeth, Joseph,
George, and Hugh. Of these, Joseph and George died soon after their
birth, and Elizabeth in the fifth year of her age. James, the eldest
son, who was born at St. Paul's, Shadwell, on the 13th of October,
1763. is now a lieutenant in his majesty's navy. In a letter, written
by Admiral Sir Richard Hughes, in 1785, from Grenada, to Mrs. Cook, he
is spoken of in terms of high approbation. Nathaniel, who was born on
the 14th of December, 1764, at Mile-End Old Town, was brought up
likewise in the naval service, and was unfortunately lost on board his
majesty's ship Thunderer, Commodore Walsingham, in the hurricane which
happened at Jamaica, on the 3rd of October, 1730. He is said to have
been a most promising youth. Hugh, the youngest, was born on the 22nd
of May, 1776; and was so called after the name of his father's great
friend, Sir Hugh Palliser.

It hath often been mentioned, in terms of no small regret, that a
monument hath not yet been erected to the memory of Captain Cook, in
Westminster Abbey.

The wish and the hope of such a monument are hinted at in the close of
Dr. Douglas's Introduction to the government edition of the last
voyage; and the same sentiment is expressed by the author of the
Eulogium, at the end of that Introduction. Sir Hugh Palliser has also
spoken to the like purpose, in a communication I received from him. It
would certainly redound to the honour of the nation, to order a
magnificent memorial of the abilities and services of our illustrious
navigator; on which account, a tribute of that kind may be regarded as
a desirable thing. But a monument in Westminster Abbey would be of
little consequence to the reputation of Captain Cook. His fame stands
upon a wider base, and will survive the comparatively perishing
materials of brass, or stone, or marble. The name of Cook will be held
in honour, and recited with applause, so long as the records of human
events shall continue in the earth; nor is it possible to say, what
may be the influence and rewards, which, in other worlds, shall be
found to attend upon eminent examples of wisdom and of virtue.



APPENDIX.


After the death of Captain Cook, and the events immediately succeeding
it, Captain Clerke, upon whom the command of the expedition had
devolved, proceeded from Owhyhee, and coasted several of the other
islands of the group. The ships anchored at Atooi to procure water; in
doing this our voyagers experienced some interruption from the
natives, and a slight conflict took place, in which one of the
islanders was wounded by a musket-shot. They were here told, that, at
their preceding visit, they had left a disorder amongst the women, of
which several persons of both sexes had died; and as there was not the
slightest appearance of the disorder amongst the natives, at the first
arrival of the vessels, there is too much reason to believe that some
of the crew were the authors of that irreparable mischief. Atooi was
in a state of internal warfare; the quarrel had arisen about the goats
Captain Cook had left at Oneeheow the year before, the property of
which was contested by two different chiefs. The goats, which had
increased to the number of six, and would probably in a few years have
stocked all these islands, were destroyed in the contest.

Our voyagers left the Sandwich Islands finally on the 15th of March:
and stood to the south-west, in hopes of falling in with the island of
Modoopapappa, which they were told by the natives lay in that
direction, about five hours' sail from Taohora; but though the two
vessels stretched asunder several miles, they did not discover it. It
is possible it might have been passed in the night, as the islanders
described it to be small, sandy, and almost even with the surface of
the sea.

The harbour of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, in Awatska Bay, was
appointed for the next rendezvous of the two vessels, in case of
separation. In the course of their navigation towards Kamtschatka,
they traversed that part of the Northern Pacific, in which some
islands and lands were laid down in the charts, such as the island of
Reia de Plata in De l'Isle's chart, and the land said to have been
seen by John de Gama, in a voyage from China to New Spain, first
delineated in a chart published by Texeira, a Portuguese geographer,
in 1649; but though at sundry times they had various indications of
land, they discovered none, and those islands and lands must therefore
either be of trifling extent, or wholly imaginary.

A leak, under the larboard bow of the Resolution, which had kept the
people almost constantly at the pumps, ever since their leaving the
Sandwich Islands, occasioned a great alarm on the 13th of April. The
water, which had lodged in the coal-hole, not finding a sufficient
vent into the well, had forced up the platforms over it, and in a
moment deluged the whole space between decks. The coals would very
soon choke up a pump, and the number of bulky materials that were
washed out of the gunner's store room, and which, by the ship's
motion, were tossed violently from side to side, rendered it
impracticable to bale the water out.  No other method was therefore
left, than to cut a hole through the bulk-head, that separated the
coal-hole from the fore-hold.  As soon as the passage was made, the
greatest part of the water was emptied into the well: but the leak was
now so much increased, that it was necessary to keep one half of the
people constantly pumping and baling, till the noon of the 15th.

On the 23rd, at six in the morning, on the fog clearing away, the land
of Kamtschatka appeared, in mountains covered with snow. The weather
was most severe: the ship appeared to be a complete mass of ice, and
the shrouds were so incrusted with it, as to measure in circumference
more than double their usual size.  The crews suffered very severely
from the cold, particularly from having lately left the tropical
climates; and, but for the foresight and care of their officers, would
indeed have been in a deplorable state. It was natural to expect, that
their experience, during their voyage to the north the year before,
would have made them sensible of the necessity of paying some
attention to their clothing; as it was generally known in both ships,
that they were to make another voyage towards the pole; but, with the
thoughtlessness of infants, upon their return to a warm climate, their
fur jackets and the rest of their cold-country clothes, were kicked
about the decks, as things of no value. They were of course picked up
by the officers, and being put into casks, were, in due season,
restored to their owners.

On the 25th, when off the entrance of Awatska Bay, the Resolution lost
sight of the Discovery, and on the 28th entered the Bay. The officers
of the Resolution examined every corner of it, with their glasses, in
search of the town of St. Peter and St. Paul, which they had conceived
to be a place of some strength and consideration. At length they
discovered, on a narrow point of land a few miserable loghouses, and
some conical huts raised on poles, amounting in all to about thirty,
which, from the situation, they were under the necessity of concluding
to be Petropaulowska. 'However,' says Captain King, 'in justice to the
generous and hospitable treatment we found here, I shall beg leave to
anticipate the reader's curiosity, by assuring him that our
disappointment proved to be more of a laughable than a serious nature;
for, in this wretched extremity of the earth, situated beyond every
thing that we conceived to be most barbarous and inhospitable, and, as
it were, out of the very reach of civilization, barricadoed with ice,
and covered with summer snow, in a poor miserable port, far inferior
to the meanest of our fishing-towns, we met with feelings of humanity,
joined to a greatness of mind, an elevation of sentiment, which would
have done honour to any nation or climate.'

In the morning of the 29th, Captain, then Lieutenant King was sent on
shore; and after experiencing much difficulty from the broken ice that
extended nearly half a mile, across which he was obliged to make the
best of his way on foot, was received by the commander of the garrison
at the head of his men consisting of about thirty soldiers. They had
not seen the ship the preceding day, nor indeed that morning, till the
boats were pretty near the ice. Much panic ensued; the garrison was
put under arms, and two field piece placed at the entrance of the
commander's house. All, however, soon wore a friendly aspect, and
nothing could exceed the kindness and hospitality of the officer, a
serjeant, who commanded in the ostrog, and at whose house they were
entertained. He furnished Lieutenant King, who bad fallen in between
the disjointed ice, with a complete suit of clothes of his own; the
dinner that was served up consisted of four courses; but the
conversation, from the want of an interpreter, no other language being
understood there but Russian and Kamtschatdale, was confined to a few
bows and other signs of mutual respect. The serjeant sent of an
express to Bolcheretsk, where the governor of the province usually
resided, and whence he had to look for orders what to do, as to the
procurement of the supplies of provisions, and naval stores, which our
people wanted.

On their return, a sledge drawn by five dogs, with a driver, was
provided for each of the party. The sailors were highly delighted with
this mode of conveyance, and, what diverted them most was, that the
two boat-hooks which they had brought, had also a sledge to
themselves.

On the 1st of May, the Discovery entered the bay. On the day after,
early in the morning, an answer was received from Bolcheretsk. The
dispatches had been sent off on the 29th, about noon, by a sledge
drawn by dogs, so that they were only a little more than three days
and a half in performing a journey of two hundred and seventy miles;
Bolcheretsk being about one hundred and thirty-five rules from St.
Peter and St. Paul.

As the whole stock of live cattle which the country about the bay
could afford, amounted only to two heifers, Captain Clerke found it
necessary to send to Bolcheretsk, and Captain Gore and Lieutenant King
were fixed on for the excursion. They proceeded by boats up the
Awatska river, then across part of the country in sledges, and then
down the Bolchoireka in canoes.

Major Behm, the governor of Kamtschatka, received them, not only with
the utmost politeness, but with the most engaging cordiality; and all
the principal people of the town vied with each other who should shew
the most civility to strangers from the other extremity of the globe.
A list of the naval stores, the number of cattle, and the quantity of
flour wanted by the navigators, was given to Major Behm, who insisted
upon supplying all their wants; and when they desired to be made
acquainted with the price of the articles, with which they were to be
supplied, and proposed, that Captain Clerke should give bills to the
amount on the Victualling-office in London, the major positively
refused, and whenever it was afterward urged, stopped them short by
saying, he was certain he could not oblige his mistress, the empress,
more than in giving every assistance in his power to her good friends
and allies, the English; and that it would be a particular
satisfaction to her, to hear, that, in so remote a part of the world,
her dominions had afforded any relief to ships engaged in such
services; that he could not therefore act so contrary to the character
of his empress, as to accept of any bills; but that, to accommodate
the matter, he would take a bare attestatation of the particulars with
which we might be furnished, and that this he would transmit to his
court, as a certificate of having performed his duty.

The town of Bolcheretsk consists of several rows of low buildings,
barracks for the Russian soldiers and Cossacks, a good looking church,
and a court-room, with a great number of balagans (summer habitations)
belonging to the Kamtschatdales, at the end of the town. The
inhabitants amount to between five and six hundred.

It would exceed the bounds to which this sketch must necessarily be
confined, to enumerate one half of the instances of civility and
attention which Major Behm, his lady, the officers of the garrison,
and the inhabitants of the town bestowed upon the English travellers.
One generous present cannot, however, be passed over in silence, both
because it consisted of the greatest part of their small store of the
article, and because it called forth from the British seamen a
corresponding generosity. Being informed of the privations the sailors
had suffered from the want of tobacco, Major Behm sent four bags of
it, weighing upwards of one hundred pounds each, which he begged might
be presented, in the name of himself and the garrison under his
command, to our sailors. When the seamen were told of it, the crews of
both ships desired, entirely of their own accord, that their grog
might be stopped, and their allowance of spirits, presented, on their
part, to the garrison of Bolcheretsk, as they had reason to conclude,
that brandy was scarce in the country and would be very acceptable,
since the soldiers on shore had offered four roubles a bottle for it.
When it is considered how much the sailors would feel from the
stoppage of their allowance of grog, and that this offer would deprive
them of it during the inclement season they had to expect on their
ensuing expedition to the north, the sacrifice must be looked upon as
generous and extraordinary; and, that they might not suffer by it,
Captain Clerke substituted, in the room of the very small quantity the
major could be prevailed on to accept, the same quantity of rum.

When the party returned to Petropaulowska, Major Behm accompanied
them, and visited the ships. He had resigned the command of
Kamtschatka, and was in a short time to return to St. Petersburgh; our
navigators therefore committed to his care dispatches for England,
with the journals and charts of the voyage so far.

They got about twenty head of cattle, about nine thousand weight of
rye flour, and a variety of other provisions and refreshments here,
especially fish, with which they were absolutely overpowered from
every quarter; and, having completed their water, they weighed anchor
on the 13th of June, and on the 16th cleared the bay. The volcano,
situated to the north of the harbour, was in a state of eruption at
the time.

On the 5th of July, our navigators passed through Beering's Straits,
having run along the Asiatic coast; they then stretched over to that
of America, with a view of exploring it between the latitudes of 68°
and 69°. But in this attempt they were disappointed, being stopped, on
the 7th, by a large and compact field of ice connected with the land.
On the 9th, they had sailed nearly forty leagues to the westward,
along the edge of the ice, without seeing any opening, and had
therefore no prospect of advancing farther north.--Until the 27th,
however, they continued to seek a passage, first on the American, and
then on the Asiatic side; but were never able to penetrate farther
north than 70° 33', which was five leagues short of the point to which
they had advanced the season before.

At one time, in attempting to penetrate to the northwestward, the
Discovery was in a very dangerous situation. She became so entangled
by several large pieces of ice, that her way was stopped, and
immediately dropping bodily to leeward, she fell broadside foremost on
the edge of a considerable body of ice, and having at the same time an
open sea to windward the surf caused her to strike violently upon it.
This mass at length either so far moved or broke, as to set them at
liberty to make another trial to escape; but, before the ship gathered
way enough to be under command, she again fell to leeward on
another fragment; and the swell making it unsafe to lie to windward,
and finding no chance of getting clear, they pushed into a small
opening, furled their sails, and made fast with ice-hooks. A change of
wind, however, taking place in the afternoon, the ice began to
separate, and, setting all their sails, they forced a passage through
it. The vessel had rubbed off a great deal of the sheathing from her
bows, and became very leaky from the strokes she received when she
fell on the edge of the ice.

In these high latitudes, our navigators killed several sea-horses, and
also two white bears; the flesh of the latter afforded a few excellent
meals of fresh meat. It had indeed a strong fishy taste, but was in
every respect superior to that of the sea-horse, which nevertheless,
the sailors were again persuaded, without much difficulty, to prefer
to their salted provisions.

Finding a farther advance to the northward, as well as a nearer
approach to either continent, obstructed by a sea blocked up with ice,
Captain Clerke at length determined to lose no more time in the
pursuit of what seemed utterly unattainable, and to sail for Awatska
Bay, to repair their damages, and before the winter should set in, to
explore the coast of Japan on their way towards Europe. To the great
joy, therefore, of every individual on board both ships, they turned
their faces towards home; and the delight and satisfaction they
experienced on the occasion, notwithstanding the tedious voyage they
had to make, and the immense distance they had to run, were as freely
entertained, and perhaps as fully enjoyed, as if they had been already
in sight of the land's End.

On the 31st, they repassed Beering's Straits. With respect to the
practicability of a north-east or north-west passage into the Pacific
Ocean, through those straits, from the result of their attempts it
appears, that the north of the straits is clearer of ice in August
than in July, and perhaps in a part of September it may be still more
free. But, after the equinox, the days shorten so fast, that no
farther thaw can be expected, and so great an effect cannot rationally
be allowed to the warm weather in the first half of September as to
imagine it capable of dispersing the ice from the most northern parts
of the American coast. But admitting this to be possible, it would be
madness to attempt to run from the Icy Cape to the known parts of
Baffin's Bay (a distance of four hundred and twenty leagues) in so
short a time as that passage can be supposed to remain open. Upon the
Asiatic side, there appears still less probability of success; for,
though Deshneff, a Russian navigator, about a century and a half ago,
passed round the north-east point of Asia, no voyager has yet been
able to double Cape Taimura beyond the mouth of the Lena, which
stretches to the 78° of latitude.

Captain Clerke's health now rapidly declined, and, on the 17th of
August he was no longer able to get out of his bed. On the 21st, they
made the coast of Kamtschatka; and on the following day, at nine in
the morning. Captain Clerke died.[19] His disease was a consumption,
which had evidently commenced before he left England, and of which he
had lingered during the whole voyage.

[Footnote 19: Captain Clerke departed this life in the thirty-eighth
year of his age. He was brought up to the navy from his earliest
youth, and had been in several actions during the war which began in
1756. In the action between the Bellona and the Courageux, being
stationed in the mizen-top, he was carried over-board with the mast;
but was taken up without having received any hurt. He was a midshipman
in the Dolphin, commanded by Captain Byron, in her voyage round the
world: after which he served on the American station. In 1768, he made
his second voyage round the world, in the Endeavour, as master's mate:
and, in consequence of the death of Mr. Hicks, which happened on the
23rd of May, 1771, he returned home a lieutenant. His third
circumnavigation of the globe was in the Resolution, of which he was
appointed the second lieutenant; and he continued in that situation
till his return in 1775; soon after which he was promoted to the rank
of master and commander. In what capacity he sailed with Captain Cook
in this last expedition, need not be added. The consumption, of which
Captain Clerke died, had evidently commenced before he left England,
and he lingered under it during the whole voyage. Though his very
gradual decay had long made him a melancholy object to his friends,
nevertheless, they derived some consolation from the equanimity with
which he bore his disorder, from the constant flow of good spirits
maintained by him to his latest hour, and from his submitting to his
fate with cheerful resignation. 'It was, however, impossible,' says
Mr. King, 'not to feel a more than common degree of compassion for a
person, whose life had been a continued scene of those difficulties
and hardships, to which a seaman's occupation is subject, and under
which he at last sunk.'

_King's Voyage_, p. 280, 281.]

On the 24th, the vessels anchored in the harbour of St Peter, and St.
Paul, where the gentlemen on board were received by their Russian
friends, with the same cordiality as before. Captain Gore, upon whom
the command of the expedition now devolved, removed himself to the
Resolution, and appointed Mr. King to the command of the Discovery. He
sent off an express to the commander at Bolcheretsk, in which he
requested to have sixteen head of black cattle. The eruption of the
volcano, which had taken place at the time of the late departure of
the vessels from Awatska, had done no damage, notwithstanding stones
had fallen at the ostrog of the size of a goose's egg.

Attempts were now made to repair, as far as was practicable, the
damage the Discovery had sustained in the ice, and in removing the
sheathing, eight feet of a plank in the wale were found to be so very
rotten as to make it necessary to shift it. The carpenters were sent
on shore in search of a tree large enough for the purpose: luckily
they found a birch, which was the only one of sufficient size in the
whole neighbourhood of the bay. The crews were employed in various
necessary occupations: amongst which, four men were set apart to haul
the seine for salmon, which were caught in great abundance, and of
excellent quality. After supplying the immediate wants of both ships,
they salted down near a hogshead a day. The seahorse blubber, with
which they had stored themselves, during their expedition to the
north, was boiled down for oil, now become a necessary article, their
candles having been long since all used.

The body of Captain Clerke was interred on Sunday the 29th, with all
the solemnity and honours they could bestow, under a tree, in the
valley on the north side of the harbour; a spot, which the priest of
Paratounea said, would be, as near as he could guess, in the centre of
the new church intended to be erected.

On the 3rd of September, arrived an ensign from Bolcheretsk, with a
letter from Captain Shmalelf, the present commander, who promised the
cattle required and that he would himself pay them a visit immediately
on the arrival of a sloop, which was daily expected from Okotzk.

On the morning of the 10th, a Russian galliot, from Okotzk, was towed
into the harbour. She had been thirty-five days on her passage, and
had been seen from the lighthouse a fortnight before, beating up
towards the mouth of the bay. There were fifty soldiers in her, with
their wives and children, and several other passengers; a
sub-lieutenant, who came in her, now took the command of the garrison,
and from some cause or other, which the English could not learn, their
old friend, the serjeant, the late commander of the place, fell into
disgrace, and was no longer suffered to sit down in the company of his
own officers.

From the galliot, our navigators got a small quantity of pitch, tar,
cordage, and twine, and a hundred and forty skins of flour, containing
13,782 lbs. English.

The Hospodin Ivaskin from Verchnei had been desired by Mayor Behm to
attend the English officers on their return to the harbour, in order
to be their interpreter. He now came. He was an exile; and was of a
considerable family in Russia; his father was a general, and he
himself, after having received his education partly in France and
partly in Germany, had been page to the Empress Elizabeth, and ensign
in her guards. At the age of sixteen, he was _knowted_, had his
nose slit, and was banished, first to Siberia, end afterward to
Kamtschatka, where he had lived thirty-one years. He bore in his whole
figure the strongest marks of old age, though he had scarcely reached
his fifty-fourth year. No one there knew the cause of his banishment,
but they took it for granted, that it must have been for something
very atrocious, as two or three of the commanders of Kamtschatka, had
in vain endeavoured to get him recalled since the present empress's
reign. For the first twenty years he had not tasted bread, nor been
allowed subsistence of any kind, but had lived during that period
among the Kamtschatdales, on what his own activity and toil in the
chase could procure him. Afterward, he had a small pension granted
him. This Major Behm by his intercession had caused to be increased to
one hundred roubles a year, which is the common pay of an ensign in
all parts of the empress's dominions, except in this province, where
the pay of all the officers is double.

This gentleman joined Captains Gore and King on a bear-hunting party
on the 17th, for two days; in which, first from the party being too
large, and the unavoidable noise that was the consequence of it, and
next, from the unfavourable weather after they separated, they were
wholly unsuccessful.

On the 22nd, the anniversary of his majesty's coronation, and when
they were sitting down to as handsome a feast as their situation would
admit of, in honour of the day, the arrival of Captain Shmalelf from
Bolcheretsk was announced. He partook of their festivities, and set
off on his return on the 25th. Before his departure, he reinstated the
serjeant in the command of the place, and took with him the
sub-lieutenant who had superseded him. Captain King accompanied
Captain Shmalelf to the entrance of Awatska river, and on Sunday, the
26th, attended him to church at Paratounea. The church is of wood, and
by far the best building in the country round about the bay. It is
ornamented by many paintings, particularly with two pictures of St.
Peter and St. Paul, presented by Beering, and which, in the real
richness of their drapery, would carry off the prize from the first of
European performances; for all the principal parts of it are made of
thick plates of solid silver, fastened to the canvass, and fashioned
into the various foldings of the robes.

The next day another hunting party was set on foot, under the
direction of the clerk of the parish, who was a celebrated
bear-hunter. The produce was a female bear, beyond the common size,
which they shot in the water, and found dead the next morning in the
place to which she had been watched. The mode of hunting these animals
by the natives is as follows: When they come to the ground frequented
by the bears, their first step is to look for their tracks: these are
found in the greatest numbers leading from the woods down to the
lakes, and among the long sedgy grass and brakes by the edge of the
water. The place of ambuscade being determined on, the hunters next
fix in the ground the crutches upon which their firelocks are made to
rest, pointing them in the direction they mean to shoot. This done,
they kneel, or lie down, and, with their bear-spears by their side,
wait for the game. These precautions, which are chiefly taken in order
to make sure of their mark, are, on several accounts, highly
expedient. For, in the first place, ammunition is so dear in
Kamtschatka, that the price of a bear will not purchase more of it
than is sufficient to load a musket four or five times; and, what is
more material, if the bear be not rendered incapable of pursuit by the
first shot, the consequences are often fatal. He immediately makes
towards the place whence the noise and smoke issue, and attacks his
adversaries with great fury. It is impossible for them to reload, as
the animal is seldom at more than twelve or fifteen yards' distance
when he is fired at: so that, if he does not fall, they immediately
put themselves in a posture to receive him upon their spears, and
their safety greatly depends on their giving him a mortal stab as he
first comes upon them. If he parries the thrust (which bears, by the
extraordinary strength and agility of their paws, are often enabled to
do) and thereby breaks in upon his adversaries, the conflict becomes
very unequal, and it is well if the life of one of the party alone
suffice to pay the forfeit.

On the 1st of October, the cattle arrived from Verchnei, and the 3rd,
being the nameday of the empress, Captain Gore invited the priest of
Paratounea, Ivaskin, and the serjeant, to dinner, and an entertainment
was also provided for the inferior officers of the garrison, for the
_toions_ of Paratounea and Petropaulowska, and for the better
sort of the Kamtschatdale inhabitants. The rest of the natives of
every description were invited to partake with the ships' companies,
who had a pound of good fat beef served up to each man, and what
remained of their spirits was made into grog, and divided amongst
them.

On the 5th, our navigators received from Bolcheretsk a fresh present
of tea, sugar, and tobacco. They were ready for sea, but the weather
prevented them from leaving the bay till the 9th. Just before they
weighed anchor, the drummer of the marines belonging to the Discovery
deserted, having been last seen with a Kamtschatdale woman, to whom
his messmates knew he had been much attached, and who had often been
observed persuading him to stay behind. This man had been long useless
to them, from a swelling in his knee, which rendered him lame, but
this made them the more unwilling to leave him behind, to become a
burden both to the Russians and himself. Some of the sailors were
therefore sent to a well-known haunt of his in the neighbourhood,
where they found him and his woman. On the return of the party with
the deserter, the vessels weighed, and came out of the bay.

Awatska Bay has within its mouth a noble basin of twenty-five miles in
circuit, with the capacious harbours of Tareinska to the west,
Rakoweena to the east, and the small one of St. Peter and St. Paul to
the north. The last mentioned is a most convenient little harbour. It
will hold with ease half-a-dozen ships moored head and stern, and is
fit for giving them any kind of repairs. The south side is formed by a
low sandy neck, exceedingly narrow, on which the ostrog is built. The
deepest water within is seven fathoms, and in every part over a muddy
bottom. There is a watering-place at the head of the harbour.

The commerce of this country, as far as regards the exports, is
entirely confined to furs and carried on by a company of merchants
instituted by the empress. Besides these, there are many inferior
traders (particularly Cossacks) scattered through the country.
Formerly this commerce was altogether carried on by barter, but lately
every article is bought and sold for ready money only. Our sailors
brought a great number of furs with them from the coast of America,
and were both astonished and delighted with the quantity of silver the
merchants paid down for them; but on finding neither ginshops to
resort to, nor tobacco, nor any thing else that they cared for, to be
had for money, the roubles soon became troublesome companions, and
often to be seen kicked about the decks.

The articles of importation are principally European, several likewise
come from Siberia, Bucharea, the Calmucks, and China. They consist of
course woollen and linen cloths, yarn stockings, bonnets and gloves,
thin Persian silks, cottons and nankeens, handkerchiefs, brass and
copper pans, iron stoves, files, guns, powder and shot, hardware,
looking-glasses, flour, sugar, tanned hides, &c. Though the merchants
have a large profit upon these important goods, they have still a
larger upon the furs of Kiachta, upon the frontiers of China, which is
the great market for them. The best sea-otter skins sell generally in
Kamtschatka for about thirty roubles each. The Chinese merchant at
Kiachta purchases them at more than double that price, and sells them
again at Pekin at a great advance, whence a farther profitable trade
is made with some of them to Japan. If, therefore, a skin is worth
thirty roubles in Kamtchatka, to be transported first to Okotzk,
thence by land to Kiachta, a distance of 1364 miles; thence to Pekin,
760 miles more; and after that to be conveyed to Japan, what a
prodigiously advantageous trade might be carried on direct to Japan,
which is about a fortnight or three weeks' sail from Kamtschatka!

It was now resolved, in consequence of the latitude given by the
instructions of the Board of Admiralty, to run along the Kuriles, and
to survey the eastern coasts of the Japanese islands, previous to
returning homewards; and Captain Gore gave orders for Macao to be the
place of rendezvous in case of separation.

They coasted along the peninsula of Kamtschatka with variable weather,
and on the 12th, at six in the afternoon, they saw, from the mast
head, Cape Lopatka, the southernmost extremity of the peninsula. This
point of land, which is a low flat cape, formed a marked object in the
geography of the eastern coast of Asia, and by an accurate observation
and several good angles, they determined its precise situation to be
in latitude 51° 0', and longitude 156° 45'. At the same time they saw
too the first of the Kurile islands, called Shoomsha, and on the next
day they saw the second, Paramousir; the latter is the largest of the
Kuriles subject to Russia; but the gale increasing from the west, they
were never able to approach it nearer than to observe its general
aspect, which was very high land, almost entirely covered with snow;
and to ascertain its situation; which was found to be 10' west
longitude from Lopatka, and its latitude 50° 46' at the north, and 49°
58' at the south end.

On the 14th and 15th, the wind blowing steadily from the westward,
they were obliged to stand to the southward, and were consequently
hindered from seeing any more of the Kurile islands. In the situation
they then found themselves, they were almost surrounded by the
supposed discoveries of former navigators. To the southward and
south-west were placed, in the French charts, a group of five islands,
called the three Sisters, Zellany, and Zunasher. They were about ten
leagues, according to the same maps, to the westward of the land of De
Gama; and as the Company's Land, Staten Island, and the famous land of
Jesso, were also supposed to lie nearly in the same direction, this
course was deemed to deserve the preference, and they hauled round to
the westward, the wind having shifted to the north. A succession of
gales, however, and now and then a storm, that reduced them to their
courses, drove them too much to the southward, prevented them from
falling in even with the southernmost of the Kurile islands, and
obliged them at last to give up all further thoughts of discovery to
the north of Japan.

On the 22nd, the gale having abated, they let out the reefs of the
topsails and made more sail. At noon they were in latitude 40° 58',
and longitude 148° 17', and two small land birds being taken on board,
plainly indicated they could not be any great distance from the land;
they therefore hauled up to the west-north-west, in which direction
the southernmost islands seen by Spanberg, and said to be inhabited by
hairy men, lay at the distance of about fifty leagues. They saw
several other signs of land; but, on the 24th, the wind shifted to the
north, and blew a fresh gale, so that they finally gave up all further
search for islands to the north of Japan, and shaped their course
west-south-west, for the north part of that island.

On the 26th, at daybreak, they descried high land to the westward,
which proved to be Japan. The country consisted of a double range of
mountains; it abounded with wood, and had a pleasing variety of hills
and dales. They saw the smoke of several towns, and many houses near
the shore, in pleasant and cultivated situations. They stood off and
on, according as the weather permitted them, till the 28th in the
afternoon, when they lost sight of the land, and from its breaking off
so suddenly, they conjectured that what they had before seen was a
cluster of islands, lying off the main land of Japan. The next day
they saw land again, eleven leagues to the southward. The coast
appeared straight and unbroken; towards the sea it was low, but rose
gradually into hills of a moderate height, whose tops were tolerably
even, and covered with wood.

At nine o'clock, the wind shifting to the southward, they tacked and
stood off to the east, and soon after they saw a vessel close in with
the land, standing along shore to the northward, and another in the
offing, coming down before the wind. Objects of any kind, belonging to
a country so famous and yet so little known, excited a general
curiosity, and every soul on board was upon deck in an instant, to
gaze at them. The vessel to windward passed ahead of them at the
distance of about half a mile. It would have been easy to have spoken
with her; but perceiving, by her manoeuvres, that she was much
frightened, Captain Gore was not willing to augment her terrors, and
thinking that they should have many better opportunities of
communicating with the Japanese, suffered her to go off without
interruption. There appeared to be about six men on board, and,
according to the best conjectures that could be formed, the vessel was
about forty tons burden. She had but one mast, on which was hoisted a
square sail, extended by a yard aloft, the braces of which worked
forward. Halfway down the sail came three pieces of black cloth, at
equal distances from each other. The vessel was higher at each end
than in the midship, and from her appearance and form she did not
appear to be able to sail otherwise than large.

Soon after the wind increased so much, that our navigators were
reduced to their courses; and the sea ran as high as any one on board
ever remembered to have seen it. If the Japenese vessels are, as
Kaempfer describes them, open in the stern, it would not have been
possible for those they saw to have survived the fury of the storm;
but as the appearance of the weather, all the preceding part of the
day, foretold its coming, and one of the sloops had, notwithstanding,
stood far out to sea, it was concluded they were perfectly capable of
bearing a gale of wind.

Our navigators were blown off the land by this gale, but on the 30th
they saw it again, at the distance of about fifteen leagues, appearing
in detached parts, but it could not be determined whether they were
small islands, or parts of Japan.

On the 1st of November, they saw a number of Japanese vessels close in
with the land, several seemingly engaged in fishing, and others
standing along shore. They discovered to the westward a remarkably
high mountain, with a round top, rising far inland. As this was the
most remarkable hill on the coast, they wished to have settled its
situation exactly; but only having had a single view, they were
obliged to be contented with such accuracy as their circumstances
would allow.

Its latitude was reckoned to be 35° 20', and its longitude 140° 26'.

As the Dutch charts made the coast of Japan extend about ten leagues
to the south-west of White Paint (supposed to be the southernmost land
then in sight) our navigators stood off to the eastward, to weather
the point. At midnight they again tacked, expecting to fall in with
the land to the southward, but were surprised to find, in the morning,
that during eight hours, in which they supposed they had made a course
of nine leagues to the south-west, they had in reality been carried
eight leagues in a direction diametrically opposite. Whence they
calculated that the current had set to the north-east by north, at the
rate of at least five miles an hour.

On the 3rd of November, they were again blown off the land by a heavy
gale, and found themselves upwards of fifty leagues off, which
circumstances, together with the extraordinary effect of the currents
they had experienced, the late season of the year, the unsettled state
of the weather, and the little likelihood of any change for the
better, made Captain Gore resolve to leave Japan altogether, and
proceed in the voyage for China.

On the 4th and 5th, our navigators, continuing their course to the
south-east, passed great quantities of pumice-stone. These stones
appeared to have been thrown into the sea by eruptions of various
dates, as many of them were covered with barnacles, and others quite
bare.

On the 13th, they had a most violent gale from the northward. In the
morning of the 13th, the wind, shifting to the north-west, brought
with it fair weather; but, though they were, at that time, nearly in
the situation given to the island of San Juan, they saw no appearance
of land. They continued to pass much pumice-stone; indeed the
prodigious quantities of that substance which floated in the sea,
between Japan and the Bashee Islands, seemed to indicate that some
great volcanic convulsion must have happened in that part of the
Pacific Ocean.

On the 14th, they discovered two islands, and on the next day a third;
but Captain Gore, finding that a boat could not land without some
danger, from the great surf that broke on the shore, kept on his
course to the westward. The middle island is about five miles long;
the south point is a high barren hill, presenting an evident volcanic
crater. The earth, rock, or sand, for it was not easy to distinguish
of which its surface was composed, exhibited various colours, and a
considerable part was conjectured to be sulphur, and some of the
officers on board the Resolution thought they saw steams rising from
the top of the hill. From these circumstances, Captain Gore gave it
the name of _Sulphur Island_. A long narrow neck of land connects
the hill with the south end of the island, which spreads out into a
circumference of three or four leagues, and is of moderate height. The
north and south islands appeared to be single mountains of a
considerable height. Sulphur Island is in the latitude 24° 48',
longitude 141° 12'. The north island in latitude 25° 14', longitude
141° 10', and the south island in latitude 24° 22', and longitude 141°
20'.

Hence our navigators proceeded for the Bashee Islands, hoping to
procure at them such a supply of refreshment as would help to shorten
their stay at Macao; but Captain Gore, being guided by the opinions of
Commodore and Captain Wallis, as to the situation of these islands,
which differ materially from Dampier's, they were foiled in their
endeavours to find them, although, in the day time, the ships spread
two or three leagues from each other, and in the night, when under an
easy sail.

On the 27th, being in longitude 118° 30', and having got to the
westward of the Bashees, according to Mr. Byron's account, our
navigators hauled their wind to the north west, hoping to weather the
Prata shoals but at four in the morning of the 28th, the breakers were
close under their lee; at daylight they saw the island of Prata, and
finding they could not weather the shoal, ran to leeward of it. As
they passed the south side, they saw two remarkable patches on the
edge of the breakers, that looked like wrecks. On the south-west side
of the reef, and near the south end of the island, they thought they
saw openings in the reefs which promised safe anchorage.

In the forenoon of the 29th, they passed several Chinese fishing
boats; and the sea was covered with wrecks of boats that had been
lost, as they conjectured, in the late boisterous weather. They were
in latitude 22° 1', having run 110 miles since the preceding noon.

On the 30th, they ran along the Lema Islands, and got a Chinese pilot
on board. In obedience to the instruction given to Captain Cook by the
Admiralty, the captains now required of the officers and men of both
ships to give up their journals, and what other papers they had to
their possession relative to the voyage, which was cheerfully complied
with; and at nine o'clock in the evening of the following day, they
anchored three leagues from Macao.

Here, upon sending on shore to negotiate for supplies of provisions,
&c. they first received intelligence of the occurrences in Europe,
during the protracted period of their absence. On the 4th of December,
they stood into the Typa, and moored with the stream-anchor and cable
to the westward.

Captain King was sent up to Canton to expedite the supplies that were
wanted, and experienced every possible assistance from the
supercargoes and gentlemen of the Company's factory there. The
purchase of the provisions and store wanted was completed on the 26th,
and the whole stock was sent down on the following day by a vessel
which Captain Gore had engaged for the purpose. Twenty sea-otter skins
were sold at Canton, by Captain King, for eight hundred dollars. At
the ships a brisk trade was carried on in the same article, by both
officers and seamen. The sea-otter skins every day rose in value, and
a few prime skins, which were clean and well preserved, were sold for
one hundred and twenty dollars each. The whole amount of the value, in
specie and goods, that was got for the furs in both ships, did not
fall short of two thousand pounds sterling, and it was generally
supposed, that at least two-thirds of the quantity originally obtained
from the Americans were spoiled or worn out, or had been given away or
sold at Kamtschatka. In consequence hereof, the rage with which the
seamen were possessed to return to Cook' River, and by another cargo
of skins to make their fortunes, was, at one time, not far short of
mutiny. The numerous voyages that have since been undertaken for the
prosecution of the trade here suggested, have rendered it familiar to
the merchants both of Britain and of America; and, though it has not
latterly been productive of advantages equal to those which were
realized by the first adventurers, is still a branch of commerce that
is successfully pursued.

The barter which had been carrying on with the Chinese for their
sea-otter skins, produced a very whimsical change in the dress of the
crews. On their arrival in the Typa, nothing could exceed the ragged
appearance both of the younger officers and seamen; almost the whole
of their original stock of European clothes having been long worn out,
or patched up with skins, or the various manufactures they had met
with in the course of their discoveries. These were now again mixed
and eked out with the gaudiest silks and cottons of China.

On the 11th of January, two seamen belonging to the Resolution ran off
with a six oared cutter, and were never after heard of. It was
supposed that they had been seduced by the prevailing notion of making
a fortune by returning to the fur islands.

On account of the war between England and America, with France and
Spain as her allies, of which they received intelligence at Canton,
they put themselves in the best posture of defence, the Resolution
mounting sixteen guns, and the Discovery ten. They had reason,
however, to believe, from the generosity of their enemies, that these
precautions were superfluous: being informed that instructions had
been found on board all the French ships of war captured in Europe,
directing their commanders, in case of falling in with the ships that
sailed under the command of Captain Cook, to suffer them to proceed
without molestation; and the same orders were also said to have been
given by the American Congress to the vessels employed in their
service. In return for these liberal concessions, Captain Gore
resolved to refrain from availing himself of any opportunities of
capture, and to preserve throughout the remainder of the voyage, the
strictest neutrality.

On the 12th of January, 1780, our navigators got under sail from
Macao; on the 19th, they saw Pulo Sapata, and on the 20th, descried
Pulo Condore, and anchored in the harbour at the south-west end of the
island. The town is situated at the east end, and here they procured
eight buffaloes, with other refreshments. From the untractableness and
prodigious strength of the buffaloes, it was both a tedious and
difficult operation to get them on board. The method of conducting
them was by passing ropes through their nostrils and round their
horns; but, having been once enraged at the sight of our men, they
became so furious that they sometimes broke the trees to which they
were often under the necessity of being tied; sometimes they tore
asunder the cartilage of the nostril through which the ropes ran, and
got loose. On these occasions, all the exertions of the men to recover
them would have been ineffectual, without the assistance of some young
boys, whom these animals would permit to approach them, and by whose
little management their rage was soon appeased. A circumstance
respecting these animals, which was thought no less singular than
their gentleness toward, and, as it should seem, affection for, little
children, was, that they had not been twenty-four hours on board,
before they became the tamest of all creatures. Captain King kept two
of them, a male and a female, for a considerable time, which became
great favourites with the sailors; and thinking that a breed of
animals of such strength and size, some of them weighing when dressed,
seven hundred pounds, would be a valuable acquisition, intended to
have brought them with him to England, but his intention was
frustrated by an incurable hurt which one of them received at sea.

Our navigators remained here till the 28th of January, when they
unmoored and proceeded on their homeward voyage, passing through the
Straits of Banea, and of Sunda, without any occurrence worthy of
particular remark. They saw two or three Dutch ships in the Straits of
Sunda. They watered at Prince's Island at the entrance of the Straits,
and got a supply of fowls and turtle there.

From the time of their entering the Straits of Banea, they began to
experience the powerful effects of the pestilential climate, and
malignant putrid fevers, with obstinate coughs and dysenteries,
prevailed amongst the crews, happily, however, without one fatal
termination.

On the 18th of February they left the Straits of Sunda; in the night
between the 25th and 26th, they experienced a most violent storm,
during which almost every sail they had bent was split to rags, and
the next day they were obliged to bend their last suit of sails, and
to knot and splice the rigging, their cordage being all expended.

On the 7th of April they saw the land of Africa, and on the 9th, they
fell in with an English East India packet, that had left Table Bay
three days before. On the evening of the 12th, they dropped anchor in
False Bay, and the next morning stood into Simon's Bay.

Having completed their victualling, and furnished themselves with the
necessary supply of naval stores, our navigators sailed out of the bay
on the 9th of May. On the 12th of June, they passed the equator for
the fourth time during the voyage. On the 12th of August they made the
western coast of Ireland, and, after a fruitless attempt to put into
Port Galway, they were obliged, by strong southerly winds, to steer to
the northward; and, on the 26th of August, both ships came to an
anchor in Stromness, in the Orkneys, whence Captain King was
dispatched by Captain Gore, to acquaint the board of Admiralty with
their arrival. On the first of October, the ships arrived safe at the
Nore, after an absence of four years, two months, and twenty-two days.



THE MORAI.

AN ODE.

BY MISS HELEN MARIA WILLIAMS.


  Fair Otaheite, fondly bless'd
  By him, who long was doom'd to brave
  The fury of the polar wave,
  That fiercely mounts the frozen rock
  Where the harsh sea bird rears her nest,
  And learns the raging surge to mock--
  There, Night, that loves eternal storm.
  Deep and lengthen'd darkness throws,
  And untried Danger's doubtful form
  Its half seen horror shews!
  While Nature, with a look so wild,
  Leans on the cliffs in chaos piled;
  That here, the awed, astonish'd mind
  Forgets, in that o'erwhelming hour,
  When her rude hands the storms unbind,
  In all the madness of her power;
  That she who spreads the savage gloom,
  That _she_ can dress in melting grace,
  In sportive Summer's lavish bloom,
  The awful terrors of her face;
  And wear the sweet perennial smile
  That charms in Otaheite's isle.

  Yet, amid her fragrant bowers.
  Where Spring, whose dewy fingers strew
  O'er other lands some fleeting flowers,
  Lives, in blossoms ever new;
  Whence arose that shriek of pain?
  Whence the tear that flows in vain?--
  Death! thy unrelenting hand
  Tears some transient human band--
  Eternity! rich plant that blows
  Beneath a brighter, happier sky.
  Time is a fading branch, that grows
  On thy pure stem, and blooms to die.

  What art thou, Death?--terrific shade.
  In unpierced gloom array'd!
  Oft will daring Fancy stray
  Far in the central wastes, where Night
  Divides no cheering hour with Day,
  And unnamed horrors meet her sight;
  There thy form she dimly sees,
  And round the shape unfinish'd throws
  All her frantic vision shews
  When numbing fears her spirit freeze--
  But can mortal voice declare
  If Fancy paints thee as thou art?
  Thy aspect may a terror wear
  Her pencil never shall impart;
  The eye that once on thee shall gaze,
  No more its stiffen'd orb can raise;
  The lips that could thy power reveal,
  Shall lasting silence instant seal--
  In vain the icy hand we fold,
  In vain the breast with tears we steep,
  The heart, that shared each pang, is cold,
  The vacant eye no more can weep.

  Yet from the shore where Ganges rolls
  His wave beneath the torrid ray,
  To Earth's chill verge, where o'er the poles
  Fall the last beams of lingering day.
  For ever sacred are the dead?
  Sweet Fancy comes in Sorrow's aid,
  And bids the mourner lightly tread
  Where the insensate clay is laid:
  Bids partial gloom the sod invest
  By the mouldering relics press'd;
  Then lavish strews, with sad delight,
  What'er her consecrating power
  Reveres of herb, or fruit, or flower,
  And fondly weaves the various rite.

  See! o'er Otaheite's plain
  Moves the long, funereal train;
  Slow the pallid corse they bear,
  Oft they breathe the solemn prayer:
  Where the ocean bathes the land,
  Thrice, and thrice, with pious hand,
  The priest, when high the billow springs,
  From the wave unsullied, flings
  Waters pure, that, sprinkled near,
  Sanctify the hallow'd bier:
  But never may one drop profane
  The relics with forbidden stain!
  Now around the funeral shrine,
  Led in mystic mazes, twine
  Garlands, where the plantain weaves
  With the palm's luxuriant leaves;
  And o'er each sacred knot is spread
  The plant devoted to the dead.

  Five pale moons with trembling light
  Shall gaze upon the lengthen'd rite;
  Shall see distracted Beauty tear
  The tresses of her flowing hair:
  Those shining locks, no longer dear,
  She wildly scatters o'er the bier;
  And careless gives the frequent wound
  That bathes in precious blood the ground.

  When along the western sky,
  Day's reflected colours die,
  And Twilight rules the doubtful hour
  Ere slow-paced Night resumes her power;
  Mark the cloud that lingers still
  Darkly on the hanging hill!
  There the disembodied mind
  Hears, upon the hollow wind,
  In unequal cadence thrown,
  Sorrow's oft repeated moan:--
  Still some human passions sway
  The spirit late immersed in clay;
  Still the faithful sigh is dear,
  Still beloved the fruitless tear!

  Five waning moons, with wandering light,
  Have pass'd the shadowy bound of night,
  And mingled their departing ray
  With the soft fires of early day:
  Let the last sad rite be paid
  Grateful to the conscious shade:
  Let the priest, with pious care.
  Now the wasted relics bear
  Where the Morai's awful gloom
  Shrouds the venerable tomb;
  Let the plantain lift its head,
  Cherish'd emblem of the dead;
  Slow and solemn, o'er the grave,
  Let the twisted plumage wave,
  Symbol hallow'd, and divine,
  Of the god who guards the shrine.
  Hark!--that shriek of strange despair
  Never shall disturb the air.
  Never, never shall it rise
  But for Nature's broken ties!--
  Bright crescent! that with lucid smiles
  Gild'st the Morai's lofty pile,
  Whose broad lines of shadow throw
  A gloomy horror far below;
  Witness, O recording Moon!
  All the rites are duly done;
  Be the faithful tribute o'er,
  The hovering spirit asks no more!
  Mortals, cease the pile to tread,
  Leave, to silence, leave the dead.

  But where may she who loves to stray
  Mid shadows of funereal gloom,
  And courts the sadness of the tomb,
  Where may she seek the proud Morai,
  Whose dear memorial points the place
  Where fell the friend of human race?

  Ye lonely isles! on ocean's bound
  Ye bloom'd through time's long flight unknown,
  Till Cook the untract'd billow pass'd,
  Till he along the surges cast
  Philanthropy's connecting zone,
  And spread her lovliest blessings round.
  Not like that murderous band he came,
  Who stain'd with blood the new found West
  Nor as, with unrelenting breast,
  From Britain's free enlighten'd land,
  Her sons now seek Angola's strand,
  Each tie most sacred to unbind,
  To load with chains a brother's frame,
  And plunge a dagger in the mind;
  Mock the sharp anguish bleeding there
  Of Nature in her last despair!

  Great Cook! Ambition's lofty flame,
  So oft directed to destroy,
  Led _thee_ to circle with thy name,
  The smile of Love, and Hope, and Joy!
  Those fires, that lend the dangerous blaze
  The devious comet trails afar,
  Might form the pure benignant rays
  That gild the morning's gentle star--
  Sure, where the Hero's ashes rest,
  The nations late emerg'd from night
  Still base--with love's unwearied care
  That spot in lavish flowers is dress'd,
  And fancy's dear inventive rite
  Still paid with fond observance there!

  Ah no!--around his fatal grave,
  No lavish flowers were ever strew'd
  No votive gifts were ever laid--
  His blood a savage shore bedew'd!
  His mangled limbs, one hasty prayer,
  One pious tear by friendship, paid,
  Were cast upon the raging wave;
  Deep in the wild abyss he lies.
  Far from the cherish'd scene of home;
  Far, far from Her whose faithful sighs
  A husband's trackless course pursue;
  Whose tender fancy loves to roam
  With _him_ o'er lands and oceans new;
  And gilds with Hope's deluding form
  The gloomy pathway of the storm.

  Yet, Cook! immortal wreaths are thine!
  While Albion's grateful toil shall raise
  The marble tomb, the trophied bust,
  For ages faithful to its trust;
  While, eager to record thy praise,
  She bids the Muse of History twine
  The chaplet of undying fame,
  And tell each polish'd land thy worth:
  The ruder natives of the earth
  Shall oft repeat thy honour'd name;
  While infants catch the frequent sound,
  And learn to lisp the oral tale;
  Whose fond remembrance shall prevail
  Till Time has reach'd his destin'd bound.

THE END.





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