By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Woman's Institute Library of Cookery - Volume 1: Essentials of Cookery; Cereals; Bread; Hot Breads
Author: Woman's Institute of Domestic Arts and Sciences
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Woman's Institute Library of Cookery - Volume 1: Essentials of Cookery; Cereals; Bread; Hot Breads" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.









The Woman's Institute Library of Cookery consists of five volumes that
cover the various phases of the subject of cookery as it is carried on
in the home. These books contain the same text as the Instruction Papers
of the Institute's Course in Cookery arranged so that related subjects
are grouped together. Examination questions pertaining to the subject
matter appear at the end of each section. These questions will prove
helpful in a mastery of the subjects to which they relate, as they are
the same as those on which students of the Institute are required to
report. At the back of each volume is a complete index, which will
assist materially in making quick reference to the subjects contained
in it.

This volume, which is the first of the set, deals with the essentials of
cookery, cereals, bread, and hot breads. In _Essentials of Cookery_,
Parts 1 and 2, are thoroughly treated the selection, buying, and care of
food, as well as other matters that will lead to familiarity with terms
used in cookery and to efficiency in the preparation of food. In
_Cereals_ are discussed the production, composition, selection, and care
and the cooking and serving of cereals of all kinds. In _Bread_ and _Hot
Breads_ are described all the ingredients required for bread, rolls, and
hot breads of every kind, the processes and recipes to be followed in
making and baking them, the procedure in serving them, and the way in
which to care for such foods.

Whenever advisable, utensils for the preparation of food, as well as
labor-saving devices, are described, so as to enable beginners in the
art of cookery to become acquainted with them quickly. In addition, this
volume contains breakfast, luncheon, and dinner menus that will enable
the housewife to put into practical, every-day use many of the
recipes given.

It is our hope that these volumes will help the housewife to acquire the
knowledge needed to prepare daily meals that will contain the proper
sustenance for each member of her family, teach her how to buy her food
judiciously and prepare and serve it economically and appetizingly, and
also instil in her such a liking for cookery that she will become
enthusiastic about mastering and dignifying this womanly art.


  The Problem of Food
  Selection of Food
  Food Substances
  Food Value
  Digestion and Absorption of Food
  Preparation of Food
  Methods of Cooking
  Heat for Cooking
  Utensils for Cooking
  Preparing Foods for Cooking
  Order of Work
  Table for Cooking Foods
  Care of Food
  Menus and Recipes
  Terms Used in Cookery

  Production, Composition, and Selection
  Cereals as a Food
  Preparation of Cereals for the Table
  Indian Corn, or Maize
  Rye, Buckwheat, and Millet
  Prepared, or Ready-to-Eat, Cereals
  Serving Cereals
  Italian Pastes
  Breakfast Menu

  Importance of Bread as Food
  Ingredients for Bread Making
  Utensils for Bread Making
  Bread-Making Processes
  Making the Dough
  Care of the Rising Dough
  Kneading the Dough
  Shaping the Dough Into Loaves
  Baking the Bread
  Scoring Bread
  Use of the Bread Mixer
  Serving Bread
  Bread Recipes
  Recipes for Rolls, Buns, and Biscuits
  Left-Over Bread

  Hot Breads in the Diet
  Principal Requirements for Hot Breads
  Leavening Agents
  Hot-Bread Utensils and Their Use
  Preparing the Hot-Bread Mixture
  Baking the Hot-Bread Mixture
  Serving Hot Breads
  Popover Recipes
  Griddle-Cake Recipes
  Waffle Recipes
  Muffin Recipes
  Corn-Cake Recipes
  Biscuit Recipes
  Miscellaneous Hot-Bread Recipes
  Utilising Left-Over Hot Breads
  Luncheon Menu


       *       *       *       *       *



1. Without doubt, the greatest problem confronting the human race is
that of food. In order to exist, every person must eat; but eating
simply to keep life in the body is not enough. Aside from this, the body
must be supplied with an ample amount of energy to carry on each day's
work, as well as with the material needed for its growth, repair, and
working power. To meet these requirements of the human body, there is
nothing to take the place of _food_, not merely any kind, however, but
the _right_ kind. Indeed, so important is the right kind of food in the
scheme of life that the child deprived of it neither grows nor increases
in weight, and the adult who is unable to secure enough of it for
adequate nourishment is deficient in nerve force and working power. If a
person is to get the best out of life, the food taken into the body must
possess real sustaining power and supply the tissues with the necessary
building material; and this truth points out that there are facts and
principles that must be known in order that the proper selection of food
may be made, that it may be so prepared as to increase its value, and
that economy in its selection, preparation, use, and care may be

2. Probably the most important of these principles is the _cooking of
food_. While this refers especially to the preparation of food by
subjecting edible materials to the action of heat, it involves much
more. The cooking of food is a science as well as an art, and it depends
for its success on known and established principles. In its full sense,
_cookery_ means not only the ability to follow a recipe, thereby
producing a successfully cooked dish, but also the ability to select
materials, a knowledge of the ways in which to prepare them, an
understanding of their value for the persons for whom they are prepared,
and ingenuity in serving foods attractively and in making the best use
of food that may be left over from the previous meals, so that there
will be practically no waste. Thus, while cookery in all its phases is a
broad subject, it is one that truly belongs to woman, not only because
of the pleasure she derives in preparing food for the members of her
family, but because she is particularly qualified to carry on the work.

3. The providing of food in the home is a matter that usually falls to
the lot of the housewife; in fact, on her depends the wise use of the
family income. This means, then, that whether a woman is earning her own
livelihood and has only herself to provide for, or whether she is
spending a part of some other person's income, as, for instance, her
father's or her husband's, she should understand how to proportion her
money so as to provide the essential needs, namely, food, clothing, and
shelter. In considering the question of providing food, the housewife
should set about to determine what three meals a day will cost, and in
this matter she should be guided by the thought that the meals must be
the best that can possibly be purchased for the amount of money allowed
for food from the family income and that their cost must not exceed the
allotment. To a great extent she can control the cost of her foods by
selecting them with care and then making good use of what her money has
bought. It is only by constant thought and careful planning, however,
that she will be able to keep within her means, and she will find that
her greatest assistance lies in studying foods and the ways in which to
prepare them.

4. A factor that should not be disregarded in the problem of food is
_waste_, and so that the housewife can cope with it properly she should
understand the distinction between waste and refuse. These terms are
thought by some to mean the same thing and are often confused; but there
is a decided difference between them. _Waste_, as applied to food, is
something that could be used but is not, whereas _refuse_ is something
that is rejected because it is unfit for use. For example, the fat of
meat, which is often eaten, is waste if it is thrown away, but potato
parings, which are not suitable as food, are refuse.

In connection with the problem of waste, it may be well to know that
leakage in the household is due to three causes. The first one is lack
of knowledge on the part of the housekeeper as to the difference between
waste and refuse and a consequent failure to market well. As an
illustration, many housewives will reject turkey at a certain price a
pound as being too expensive and, instead, will buy chicken at, say, 5
cents a pound less. In reality, chicken at 5 cents a pound less than the
price of turkey is more expensive, because turkey, whose proportion of
meat to bone is greater than that of chicken, furnishes more edible
material; therefore, in buying chicken, they pay more for refuse in
proportion to good material. The second cause for this leakage in the
household is excessive waste in the preparation of food for the table,
arising from the selection of the wrong cooking method or the lack of
skill in cooking; and the third cause is the serving of too large
quantities and a consequent waste of food left on individual plates and
unfit for any other use in the home.

5. Another matter that constantly confronts the housewife is what foods
she shall select for each day's meals. To be successful, all meals
should be planned with the idea of making them wholesome and appetizing,
giving them variety, and using the left-overs. Every woman should
understand that food is cooked for both hygienic and esthetic reasons;
that is, it must be made safe and wholesome for health's sake and must
satisfy the appetite, which to a considerable degree is mental and, of
course, is influenced by the appearance of the food. When the housewife
knows how to cook ordinary foods well, she has an excellent foundation
from which to obtain variety in the _diet_--by which in these lessons is
meant the daily food and drink of any individual, and not something
prescribed by a physician for a person who is ill--for then it is simply
a matter of putting a little careful thought into the work she is doing
in order to get ideas of new ways in which to prepare these same foods
and of utilizing foodstuffs she has on hand. However, ample time must
always be allowed for the preparation of meals, for no one can expect to
produce tasty meals by rushing into the kitchen just before meal time
and getting up the easiest thing in the quickest manner. Well-planned
meals carefully prepared will stimulate interest in the next day's bill
of fare and will prove extremely beneficial to all concerned.

6. In the practice of cookery it is also important that the meals be
planned and the cooking done for the sake of building the human body
and caring for it. As soon as any woman realizes that both the present
and the future welfare of the persons for whom she is providing foods
depend on so many things that are included in cookery, her interest in
this branch of domestic science will increase; and in making a study of
it she may rest assured that there is possibly no other calling that
affords a more constant source of enjoyment and a better opportunity for
acquiring knowledge, displaying skill, and helping others to be well
and happy.

The fact that people constantly desire something new and different in
the way of food offers the housewife a chance to develop her ingenuity
along this line. Then, too, each season brings with it special foods for
enjoyment and nourishment, and there is constant satisfaction in
providing the family with some surprise in the form of a dish to which
they are unaccustomed, or an old one prepared in a new or a better way.
But the pleasure need not be one-sided, for the adding of some new touch
to each meal will give as much delight to the one who prepares the food
as to those who partake of it. When cookery is thought of in this way,
it is really a creative art and has for its object something more than
the making of a single dish or the planning of a single meal.

7. From what has been pointed out, it will readily be seen that a
correct knowledge of cookery and all that it implies is of extreme
importance to those who must prepare food for others; indeed, it is for
just such persons--the housewife who must solve cookery problems from
day to day, as well as girls and women who must prepare themselves to
perform the duties with which they will be confronted when they take up
the management of a household and its affairs--that these lessons in
cookery are intended.

In the beginning of this course of study in cookery it is deemed
advisable to call attention to the order in which the subject matter is
presented. As will be seen before much progress is made, the lessons are
arranged progressively; that is, the instruction begins with the
essentials, or important fundamentals, of food--its selection,
preparation, and care--and, from these as a foundation, advances step by
step into the more complicated matters and minor details. The beginner
eager to take up the actual work of cookery may feel that too much
attention is given to preliminaries. However, these are extremely
essential, for they are the groundwork on which the actual cooking of
food depends; indeed, without a knowledge of them, very little
concerning cookery in its various phases could be readily comprehended.

8. Each beginner in cookery is therefore urged to master every lesson in
the order in which she receives it and to carry out diligently every
detail. No lesson should be disregarded as soon as it is understood, for
the instruction given in it bears a close relation to the entire subject
and should be continually put into practice as progress is made. This
thought applies with particular emphasis to the Sections relating to the
essentials of cookery. These should be used in connection with all other
Sections as books of reference and an aid in calling to mind points that
must eventually become a part of a woman's cookery knowledge. By
carrying on her studies systematically and following directions
carefully, the beginner will find the cooking of foods a simple matter
and will take delight in putting into practice the many things that
she learns.

       *       *       *       *       *



9. Each one of the phases of cookery has its importance, but if success
is to be achieved in this art, careful attention must be given to the
selection of what is to be cooked, so as to determine its value and
suitability. To insure the best selection, therefore, the housewife
should decide whether the food material she purchases will fit the needs
of the persons who are to eat it; whether the amount of labor involved
in the preparation will be too great in proportion to the results
obtained; whether the loss in preparation, that is, the proportion of
refuse to edible matter, will be sufficient to affect the cost
materially; what the approximate loss in cooking will be; whether the
food will serve to the best advantage after it is cooked; and, finally,
whether or not all who are to eat it will like it. The market price also
is a factor that cannot be disregarded, for, as has been explained, it
is important to keep within the limits of the amount that may be spent
and at the same time provide the right kind of nourishment for each
member of the family.

10. In order to select food material that will meet the requirements
just set forth, three important matters must be considered; namely, the
_substances_ of which it is composed; its measure of energy-producing
material, or what is called its _food_, or _fuel, value_; and its
_digestion_ and _absorption_. Until these are understood, the actual
cost of any article of food cannot be properly determined, although its
price at all times may be known.

However, before a study of any of these matters is entered into, it is
necessary to know just what is meant by food and what food does for the
body. As is well understood, the body requires material by which it may
be built and its tissues repaired when they are torn down by work and
exercise. In addition it requires a supply of heat to maintain it at
normal temperature and provide it with sufficient energy to do the work
required of it. The material that will accomplish these important things
is food, which may therefore be regarded as anything that, when taken
into the body, will build and repair its tissues or will furnish it with
the energy required to do its work.


11. Although, as has just been stated, food may be considered as
anything that the human engine can make over into tissue or use in
living and working, not all foods are equally desirable any more than
all materials are equally good in the construction of a steam engine and
in the production of its working power. Those food substances which are
the most wholesome and healthful are the ones to be chosen, but proper
choice cannot be made unless the buyer knows of what the particular food
consists and what it is expected to do. To aid in the selection of food,
therefore, it is extremely necessary to become familiar with the five
substances, constituents, or principles of which foods are made up;
namely, water, mineral matter, or ash, protein, fat, and carbohydrate. A
knowledge of these will help also in determining the cooking methods to
adopt, for this depends on the effect that heat has on the various
substances present in a food. Of course, so far as flavor is concerned,
it is possible for the experienced cook to prepare many dishes
successfully without knowing the effect of heat on the different food
constituents; but to cook intelligently, with that success which makes
for actual economy and digestibility, certain facts must be known
concerning the food principles and the effect of dry and moist heat
on foods.

12. Water.--Of the various constituents that are found in the human
body, water occurs in the largest quantity. As a food substance, it is
an extremely important feature of a person's diet. Its chief purpose is
to replenish the liquids of the body and to assist in the digestion of
food. Although nature provides considerable amounts of water in most
foods, large quantities must be taken in the diet as a beverage. In
fact, it is the need of the body for water that has led to the
development of numerous beverages. Besides being necessary in building
up the body and keeping it in a healthy condition, water has a special
function to perform in cooking, as is explained later. Although this
food substance is extremely essential to life, it is seldom considered
in the selection of food, because, as has just been mentioned, nearly
all foods contain water.

13. Mineral Matter.--Ranking next to water in the quantity contained in
the human body is mineral matter. This constituent, which is also called
_ash_ or _mineral salts_, forms the main part of the body's framework,
or skeleton. In the building and maintaining of the body, mineral salts
serve three purposes--to give rigidity and permanence to the skeleton,
to form an essential element of active tissue, and to provide the
required alkalinity or acidity for the digestive juices and other

The origin and distribution of these mineral substances are of interest.
Plants in their growth seize from the earth the salts of minerals and
combine them with other substances that make up their living tissue.
Then human beings, as well as other living creatures, get their supply
of these needed salts from the plants that they take as food, this being
the only form in which the salts can be thoroughly assimilated. These
salts are not affected by cooking unless some process is used that
removes such of them as are readily soluble in water. When this occurs,
the result is usually waste, as, for instance, where no use is made of
the water in which some vegetables are boiled. As is true of water,
mineral matter, even though it is found in large quantities in the body,
is usually disregarded when food is purchased. This is due to the fact
that this important nutritive material appears in some form in nearly
all foods and therefore does not necessitate the housewife's stopping to
question its presence.

14. Protein.--The food substance known as protein is a very important
factor in the growth and repair of the body; in fact, these processes
cannot be carried on unless protein is present in the diet. However,
while a certain quantity of protein is essential, the amount is not very
large and more than is required is likely to be harmful, or, since the
body can make no use of it, to be at least waste material. The principal
sources of protein are lean meat, eggs, milk, certain grains, nuts, and
the legumes, which include such foods as beans and peas. Because of the
ease with which they are digested, meat, fish, eggs, and milk are more
valuable sources of protein than bread, beans, and nuts. However, as the
foods that are most valuable for proteins cost more than others, a mixed
diet is necessary if only a limited amount of money with which to
purchase foods is available.

15. So much is involved in the cooking of foods containing protein that
the effect of heat on such foods should be thoroughly understood. The
cooking of any food, as is generally understood, tends to break up the
food and prepare it for digestion. However, foods have certain
characteristics, such as their structure and texture, that influence
their digestibility, and the method of cooking used or the degree to
which the cooking is carried so affects these characteristics as to
increase or decrease the digestibility of the food. In the case of foods
containing protein, unless the cooking is properly done, the application
of heat is liable to make the protein indigestible, for the heat first
coagulates this substance--that is, causes it to become thick--and
then, as the heat increases, shrinks and hardens it. This fact is
clearly demonstrated in the cooking of an egg, the white of which is the
type of protein called _albumin_. In a raw egg, the albumin is nearly
liquid, but as heat is applied, it gradually coagulates until it becomes
solid. If the egg is cooked too fast or too long, it toughens and
shrinks and becomes less palatable, less attractive, and less
digestible. However, if the egg is properly cooked after the heat has
coagulated the albumin, the white will remain tender and the yolk will
be fine and mealy in texture, thus rendering it digestible.

Similar results, although not so evident to the sight, are brought about
through the right or wrong way of cooking practically all other foods
that contain much protein. Milk, whose principal ingredient is a protein
known as _casein_, familiar as the curd of cheese, illustrates this fact
very plainly. When it is used to make cottage cheese, heating it too
long or to too high a degree will toughen the curd and actually spoil
the texture of the product, which will be grainy and hard, instead of
smooth and tender.

16. FATS.--The food substances just discussed--water, mineral matter,
and protein--yield the materials required for building and repairing the
tissues of the body, but, as has been explained, the body also requires
foods that produce energy, or working power. By far the greater part of
the total solids of food taken into the body serve this purpose, and of
these fats form a large percentage. Although fats make up such a large
proportion of the daily food supply, they enter into the body
composition to a less extent than do the food substances that have been
explained. The fats commonly used for food are of both animal and
vegetable origin, such as lard, suet, butter, cream, olive oil, nut oil,
and cottonseed oil. The ordinary cooking temperatures have comparatively
little effect on fat, except to melt it if it is solid. The higher
temperatures decompose at least some of it, and thus liberate substances
that may be irritating to the digestive tract.

17. CARBOHYDRATES.--Like fats, the food substances included in the term
carbohydrates supply the body with energy. However, fats and
carbohydrates differ in the forms in which they supply energy, the
former producing it in the most concentrated form and the latter in the
most economical form.

So that the term _carbohydrate_ may be clearly understood and firmly
fixed in the mind, it is deemed advisable to discuss briefly the
composition of the body and the food that enters it. Of course, in a
lesson on cookery, not so much attention need be given to this matter as
in a lesson on _dietetics_, which is a branch of hygiene that treats of
diet; nevertheless, it is important that every person who prepares food
for the table be familiar with the fact that the body, as well as food,
is made up of a certain number of chemical elements, of which nitrogen,
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen form a large part. Protein owes its
importance to the fact that of the various food substances it alone
contains the element nitrogen, which is absolutely essential to the
formation of any plant or animal tissue. The other three elements,
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, go to make up the carbohydrates; in fact,
it is from the names of these three elements that the term carbohydrate
is derived. The carbohydrates include the starches and sugars that are
used and eaten in so many forms, and these contain the three elements
mentioned, the hydrogen and oxygen contained in them being in the
proportion that produces water. Thus, as will readily be seen, by
separating the name into its parts--_carbo_ (carbon) and _hydrate_
(hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion of two parts of hydrogen and one
of oxygen, that is, in the form of water)--carbohydrate is simply carbon
united with water. While the facts just brought out have much to do with
food economy, they are of interest here chiefly because they help to
make clear the term carbohydrate, which, as will be admitted, is the
only correct name for the food substance it represents.

18. STARCH, one of the chief forms of carbohydrates, is found in only
the vegetable kingdom. It is present in large quantities in the grains
and in potatoes; in fact, nearly all vegetables contain large or small
amounts of it. It is stored in the plant in the form of granules that
lie within the plant cells.

Cooking applied to starch changes it into a form that is digestible.
Moist heat cooks the granules until they expand and burst and thus
thicken the mass. Dry heat changes starch first into a soluble form and
finally into what is called _dextrine_, this being the intermediate step
in the changing of starch into sugar.

19. SUGAR, another important form of carbohydrate, is mainly of
vegetable origin, except that which is found in milk and called
_lactose_. This, together with the fat found in milk, supplies the child
with energy before it is able to digest a variety of foods. The sap of
various plants contains such large quantities of sugar that it can be
crystalized out and secured in dry form. The liquid that remains is
valuable as food, for, by boiling it down, it forms molasses. Sugar is
also present in considerable amounts in all fruits, and much of it is in
a form that can be assimilated, or taken up by the body, quickly. A
sugar very similar to this natural fruit sugar is made from the starch
of corn and is called _glucose_. Much of the carbohydrate found in
vegetables, especially young, tender vegetables, is in the form of
sugar, which, as the vegetables grow older, changes to starch.

Sugar melts upon the application of heat or, if it is in a melted
condition, as sirup or molasses, it boils down and gives off water. When
all the water has boiled away, the sugar begins to caramelize or become
brown, and develops a characteristic flavor. If the cooking is continued
too long, a dark-brown color and a bitter taste are developed. Because
the sugar in fruits and vegetables is in solution, some of it is lost
when they are boiled, unless, of course, the water in which they are
cooked is utilized.

20. CELLULOSE is a form of carbohydrate closely related to starch. It
helps to form the structure of plants and vegetables. Very little
cellulose is digested, but it should not be ignored, because it gives
the necessary bulk to the food in which it occurs and because strict
attention must be paid to the cooking of it. As cellulose usually
surrounds nutritive material of vegetable origin, it must be softened
and loosened sufficiently by cooking to permit the nutritive material to
be dissolved by the digestive juices. Then, too, in old vegetables,
there is more starch and the cellulose is harder and tougher, just as an
old tree is much harder than a sapling. This, then, accounts for the
fact that rapid cooking is needed for some vegetables and slow cooking
for others, the method and the time of cooking depending on the presence
and the consistency of the cellulose that occurs in the food.

21. IMPORTANCE OF A VARIETY OF FOODS.--Every one of the five food
substances just considered must be included in a person's diet; yet,
with the exception of milk, no single food yields the right amounts of
material necessary for tissue building and repair and for heat and
energy. Even milk is in the right proportion, as far as its food
substances are concerned, only for babies and very young children. It
will thus be seen that to provide the body with the right foods, the
diet must be such as to include all the food substances. In food
selection, therefore, the characteristics of the various food substances
must be considered well. Fats yield the most heat, but are the most
slowly digested. Proteins and carbohydrates are more quickly digested
than fats, but, in equal amounts, have less than half as much food
value. Water and mineral salts do not yield heat, but are required to
build tissue and to keep the body in a healthy condition. In addition,
it is well to note that a well-balanced diet is one that contains all of
the five food substances in just the right proportion in which the
individual needs them to build up the body, repair it, and supply it
with energy. What this proportion should be, however, cannot be stated
offhand, because the quantity and kind of food substances necessarily
vary with the size, age, and activity of each person.


22. Nearly all foods are complex substances, and they differ from one
another in what is known as their _value_, which is measured by the work
the food does in the body either as a tissue builder or as a producer of
energy. However, in considering food value, the person who prepares food
must not lose sight of the fact that the individual appetite must be
appealed to by a sufficient variety of appetizing foods. There would be
neither economy nor advantage in serving food that does not please those
who are to eat it.

While all foods supply the body with energy, they differ very much in
the quantity they yield. If certain ones were chosen solely for that
purpose, it would be necessary for any ordinary person to consume a
larger quantity of them than could be eaten at any one time. For
instance, green vegetables furnish the body with a certain amount of
energy, but they cannot be eaten to the exclusion of other things,
because no person could eat in a day a sufficient amount of them to give
the body all the energy it would need for that day's work. On the other
hand, certain foods produce principally building material, and if they
were taken for the purpose of yielding only energy, they would be much
too expensive. Meats, for example, build up the body, but a person's
diet would cost too much if meat alone were depended on to provide the
body with all the energy it requires. Many foods, too, contain mineral
salts, which, as has been pointed out, are needed for building tissue
and keeping the body in a healthy condition.

23. To come to a correct appreciation of the value of different foods,
it is necessary to understand the unit employed to measure the amount of
work that foods do in the body. This unit is the CALORIE, or _calory_,
and it is used to measure foods just as the inch, the yard, the pound,
the pint, and the quart are the units used to measure materials and
liquids; however, instead of measuring the food itself, it determines
its food value, or fuel value. To illustrate what is meant, consider,
for instance, 1/2 ounce of sugar and 1/2 ounce of butter. As far as the
actual weight of these two foods is concerned, they are equal; but with
regard to the work they do in the body they differ considerably. Their
relative value in the body, however, can be determined if they are
measured by some unit that can be applied to both. It is definitely
known that both of them produce heat when they are oxidized, that is,
when they are combined with oxygen; thus, the logical way of measuring
them is to determine the quantity of heat that will be produced when
they are eaten and united with oxygen, a process that causes the
liberation of heat. The calorie is the unit by which this heat can be
measured, it being the quantity of heat required to raise the
temperature of 1 pint of water 4 degrees Fahrenheit, which is the name
of the thermometer commonly used in the home. When burned as fuel, a
square of butter weighing 1/2 ounce produces enough heat to raise 1 pint
of water 400 degrees Fahrenheit, and it will yield the same amount of
heat when it is eaten and goes through the slow process of oxidation in
the body. On the other hand, 1/2 ounce of sugar upon being oxidized will
produce only enough heat to raise the temperature of 1 pint of water
about 230 degrees Fahrenheit. Thus, as will be seen, 1/2 ounce of butter
has a value of approximately 100 calories, whereas 1/2 ounce of sugar
contains only about 57-1/2 calories.

Other foods yield heat in varying degrees, and their food value is
determined in exactly the same way as that of butter and sugar. To give
an idea of the composition of various food materials, as well as the
number of calories that 1 pound of these food materials will yield, food
charts published by the United States Department of Agriculture are here
presented. As an understanding of these charts will prove extremely
profitable in the selection of food, a careful study of them at this
time is urged. In addition, reference to them should be made from time
to time as the various kinds of foods are taken up, as the charts will
then be more easily comprehended and their contents of more value.


24. The third requirement in the selection of food, namely, its
digestion and absorption, depends considerably on the persons who are to
be fed. Food that is chosen for adults entirely would not be the same as
that intended for both young persons and adults; neither would food that
is to be fed to children or persons who are ill be the same as that
which is to be served to robust adults who do a normal amount of work.
No hard-and-fast rules can be laid down here for this phase of
food selection, but as these lessons in cookery are taken up in turn,
the necessary knowledge regarding digestibility will be acquired.

[Illustration: Composition of food materials]

[Illustration: Composition of food materials]

       *       *       *       *       *



25. The term cookery, as has been explained, means the preparation of
both hot and cold dishes for use as food, as well as the selection of
the materials or substances that are to be cooked. The importance of
cooking foods by subjecting them to the action of heat has been
recognized for ages; and while it is true that there are many foods that
appeal to the appetite in their raw state and still others that can be
eaten either raw or cooked, there are several reasons why it is
desirable to cook food, as will be seen from the following:

1. Cooking makes foods more palatable. This is true of such foods as
meat, cereals, and many vegetables, which would be very unappetizing if
they were eaten raw.

2. Cooking renders foods more digestible. For instance, the hard grains,
such as wheat, and the dried vegetables, such as beans, cannot be
readily digested unless they are softened by cooking. But while cooking
makes such foods more digestible, it renders others more difficult of
digestion, as in the case of eggs, the degree of digestibility depending
somewhat on the cooking method used and the skill of the cook. An egg in
an almost liquid form, or when only slightly cooked, as a soft-boiled
egg, is more easily digested than when it becomes hardened by cooking.
Then, too, a properly prepared hard-cooked egg is more digestible than
an improperly cooked one, although the degree of hardness may be
the same.

3. Cooking gives foods greater variety. The same food may be cooked by
various methods and be given very different tastes and appearances; on
the other hand, it may be combined with a large number of other foods,
so as to increase the variety of the dishes in which it is used. The
large number of recipes found in cook books show the attempts that have
been made to obtain variety in cooked dishes by the combining of
different foods.

4. Cooking sterilizes foods either partly or completely. Many foods
need partial or complete sterilization for safety. They must be
completely sterilized if the germs that produce fermentation or
putrefaction and thereby spoil food would be destroyed. This is done
when fruits and vegetables are canned for keeping. Foods that are
exposed to dust, flies, and improper handling should be thoroughly
cooked in order to destroy any pathogenic germs that might be present.
By such germs are meant disease-bearing germs. They differ from germs
that produce fermentation and putrefaction, or spoiling, and that must
in general be considered as a help, for these play an important part in
the raising of bread and the preparation of various foods, as is pointed
out later.

5. Cooking develops flavor in many foods. In the case of some
vegetables, the flavoring substance is given off in the air by certain
methods of cooking and a better flavor is thereby developed.

       *       *       *       *       *



26. Food is cooked by the application of heat, which may be either moist
or dry. While it is true that the art of cooking includes the
preparation of material that is served or eaten raw, cooking itself is
impossible without heat; indeed, the part of cooking that requires the
most skill and experience is that in which heat is involved. Explicit
directions for carrying on the various cooking processes depend on the
kind of stove, the cooking utensils, and even the atmospheric
conditions. In truth, the results of some processes depend so much on
the state of the atmosphere that they are not successful on a day on
which it is damp and heavy; also, as is well known, the stove acts
perfectly on some days, whereas on other days it seems to have a
stubborn will of its own. Besides the difficulties mentioned, the heat
itself sometimes presents obstacles in the cooking of foods, to regulate
it in such a way as to keep it uniform being often a hard matter. Thus,
a dish may be spoiled by subjecting it to heat that is too intense, by
cooking it too long, or by not cooking it rapidly enough. All these
points must be learned, and the best way to master them is to put into
constant practice the principles that are involved in cookery.

27. Without doubt, the first step in gaining a mastery of cookery is to
become familiar with the different methods and processes, the ways in
which they are applied, and the reasons for applying them. There are
numerous ways of cooking food, but the principal processes are boiling,
stewing, steaming, dry steaming, braizing, fricasseeing, roasting,
baking, broiling, pan broiling, frying, and sautéing. Which one of these
to use will depend on the food that is to be cooked and the result
desired. If the wrong method is employed, there will be a waste of food
material or the food will be rendered less desirable in flavor or
tenderness. For example, it would be both wasteful and undesirable to
roast a tough old fowl or to boil a tender young broiler.

The various methods of cookery just mentioned naturally divide
themselves into three groups; namely, those involving dry heat, those
requiring moist heat, and those in which hot fat is the cooking medium.


28. Cooking with dry heat includes broiling, pan broiling, roasting, and
baking; but, whichever of these processes is used, the principle is
practically the same. In these processes the food is cooked by being
exposed to the source of heat or by being placed in a closed oven and
subjected to heated air. When dry heat is applied, the food to be cooked
is heated to a much greater temperature than when moist heat is used.

29. BROILING.--The cooking process known as broiling consists in
exposing directly to the source of heat the food that is to be cooked;
that is, in cooking it over or before a clear bed of coals or a gas
flame. The aim in broiling is to retain the juices of food and develop
flavor. As it is a quick method, foods that are not tender, as, for
example, tough meats, should not be broiled, because broiling does not
help to render their fibers more tender. In applying this cooking
process, which is particularly suitable for tender portions of meat and
for young fowl, the food should be exposed to intense heat at first in
order to sear all surfaces quickly and thus retain the juices. At the
beginning of the cooking, the article that is being broiled should be
turned often; then, as soon as the outside is browned, the heat should
be reduced if possible, as with a gas stove, and the article allowed to
cook until done. If the broiling is done over coals, it is necessary to
continue the turning during the entire process. While broiling produces
an especially good flavor in the foods to which it is applied, provided
they are not tough, it is not the most economical way of cooking.

30. PAN BROILING.--Pan broiling is an adaptation of the broiling method.
It consists in cooking food in a sissing-hot pan on top of the stove
without the use of fat. In this process the surfaces of the steak, chop,
or whatever the food may be, are quickly seared, after which the article
is turned frequently and cooked more slowly until done. The object of
pan broiling is the same as that of broiling, and it is resorted to, as
a rule, when the fire is not in the right condition for broiling.

31. ROASTING.--Originally, the term _to roast_ meant to cook before a
fire, because, before the time of stoves, practically all food was
cooked in the fireplace. Food that was to be roasted was placed before
the fire in a device that reflected heat, this device being open on the
side toward the fire and closed on that toward the room. The roast was
suspended in this device, slowly turned, and thus cooked by radiant
heat--that is, heat given off in the form of direct rays--the principle
being the same as that of broiling, but the application different.
Nowadays, the term _roasting_ is almost universally applied to the
action of both hot air and radiant heat. However, much of what is called
roasting is in reality baking. Foods cooked in the oven of an ordinary
coal or gas range are really baked, although they are said to be
roasted, and a covered roasting pan is a misnomer. Food must be exposed
to the air in the process of cooking if it is to be roasted in the
true sense.

It may be well to note that successful roasting or broiling depends more
on the shape of the article to be roasted or broiled than on its weight.
For this reason, thick, compact cuts of meat are usually selected for
roasting and thin cuts for broiling. Good results also depend very much
on the pan selected for the roasting process. One of the great aims in
cooking should be to save or conserve all the food possible; that is, if
by one process less waste in cooking results, it should be chosen rather
than one that will result in loss at the end of the cooking process.

32. BAKING.--By baking is meant cooking in a heated oven at temperatures
ranging from 300 to 500 degrees Fahrenheit. As the term baking is
frequently used in a wrong sense, the actual conditions of the process
should be thoroughly understood. In both broiling and the original
method of roasting, the heat is applied directly; that is, the food is
exposed directly to the source of heat. Actual baking differs from these
processes in that it is done in a closed oven or by means of heated air.
Starchy foods, such as bread, cakes, and pastry, are nearly always
baked, and gradually other foods, such as meats, fish, and vegetables
are being subjected to this method of cooking. In fact, persons who are
skilled in cooking use the oven more and more for things that they
formerly thought had to be cooked in other ways. But the name that is
applied to the process depends somewhat on custom, for while meat that
is cooked in the oven is really baked, it is usually termed roasted
meat. It seems strange, but it is nevertheless true, that ham cooked in
the oven has always been termed baked, while turkey cooked in exactly
the same way is said to be roasted.


33. The methods of cooking with moist heat, that is, through the medium
of water, are boiling, simmering, steaming, dry steaming, and braizing.
In every one of these processes, the effect of moist heat on food is
entirely different from that of dry heat. However, the method to be
selected depends to a great extent on the amount of water that the food
contains. To some foods much water must be added in the cooking process;
to others, only a little or none at all. If food is not placed directly
in large or small quantities of water, it is cooked by contact with
steam or in a utensil that is heated by being placed in another
containing boiling water, as, for example, a double boiler.

As water is such an important factor in cooking with moist heat,
something concerning its nature and use should be understood. Therefore,
before considering the moist-heat cooking processes in detail, the
function of water in the body and in cooking and also the kinds of water
are discussed.

34. FUNCTION OF WATER IN THE BODY.--Water supplies no energy to the body,
but it plays a very important part in nutrition. In fact, its particular
function in the body is to act as a solvent and a carrier of nutritive
material and waste. In doing this work, it keeps the liquids of the body
properly diluted, increases the flow of the digestive juices, and helps
to carry off waste material. However, its ability to perform these
necessary functions in the right way depends on its quality and
its safety.

35. KINDS OF WATER.--Water is either hard or soft. As it falls from the
clouds, it is pure and soft until it comes in contact with gases and
solids, which are dissolved by it and change its character. It is
definitely known that the last of the water that falls in a shower is
much better than the first, as the first cleanses not only the air, but
the roofs and other things with which it comes in contact. In passing
through certain kinds of soil or over rocks, water dissolves some of the
minerals that are contained there and is thus changed from soft to hard
water. If sewage drains into a well or water supply, the water is liable
to contain bacteria, which will render it unfit and unsafe for drinking
until it is sterilized by boiling. Besides rain water and distilled
water, there is none that is entirely soft; all other waters hold
certain salts in solution to a greater or less degree.

The quality of hardness, which is present in nearly all water, is either
temporary or permanent. Water is temporarily hard when it contains
soluble lime, which is precipitated, that is, separated from it, upon
boiling. Every housewife who uses a teakettle is familiar with this
condition. The lime precipitated day after day clings to the sides of
the vessel in which the water is boiled, and in time they become very
thickly coated. Permanent hardness is caused by other compounds of lime
that are not precipitated by boiling the water. The only way in which to
soften such water is to add to it an alkali, such as borax, washing
soda, or bicarbonate of soda.

36. USES OF WATER IN COOKING.--It is the solvent, or dissolving, power
of water that makes this liquid valuable in cooking, but of the two
kinds, soft water is preferable to hard, because it possesses greater
solvent power. This is due to the fact that hard water has already
dissolved a certain amount of material and will therefore dissolve less
of the food substances and flavors when it is used for cooking purposes
than soft water, which has dissolved nothing. It is known, too, that the
flavor of such beverages as tea and coffee is often greatly impaired by
the use of hard water. Dried beans and peas, cereals, and tough cuts of
meat will not cook tender so readily in hard water as in soft, but the
addition of a small amount of soda during the cooking of these foods
will assist in softening them.

Water is used in cooking chiefly for extracting flavors, as in the
making of coffee, tea, and soups; as a medium for carrying flavors and
foods in such beverages as lemonade and cocoa; for softening both
vegetable and animal fiber; and for cooking starch and dissolving sugar,
salt, gelatine, etc. In accomplishing much of this work, water acts as a
medium for conveying heat.

37. BOILING.--As applied to cooking, boiling means cooking foods in
boiling water. Water boils when its temperature is raised by heat to
what is commonly termed its _boiling point_. This varies with the
atmospheric pressure, but at sea level, under ordinary conditions, it is
always 212 degrees Fahrenheit. When the atmospheric pressure on the
surface of the water is lessened, boiling takes place at a lower
temperature than that mentioned, and in extremely high altitudes the
boiling point is so lowered that to cook certain foods by means of
boiling water is difficult. As the water heats in the process of
boiling, tiny bubbles appear on the bottom of the vessel in which it is
contained and rise to the surface. Then, gradually, the bubbles increase
in size until large ones form, rise rapidly, and break, thus producing
constant agitation of the water.

38. Boiling has various effects on foods. It toughens the albumin in
eggs, toughens the fiber and dissolves the connective tissues in meat,
softens the cellulose in cereals, vegetables, and fruits, and dissolves
other substances in many foods. A good point to bear in mind in
preparing foods by boiling is that slowly boiling water has the same
temperature as rapidly boiling water and is therefore able to do exactly
the same work. Keeping the gas burning full heat or running the fire
hard to keep the water boiling rapidly is therefore unnecessary;
besides, it wastes fuel without doing the work any faster and sometimes
not so well. However, there are several factors that influence the
rapidity with which water may be brought to the boiling point; namely,
the kind of utensil used, the amount of surface exposed, and the
quantity of heat applied. A cover placed on a saucepan or a kettle in
which food is to be boiled retains the heat, and thus causes the
temperature to rise more quickly; besides, a cover so used prevents a
loss of water by condensing the steam as it rises against the cover. As
water boils, some of it constantly passes off in the form of steam, and
for this reason sirups or sauces become thicker the longer they are
cooked. The evaporation takes place all over the surface of the water;
consequently, the greater the surface exposed, the more quickly is the
quantity of water decreased during boiling. Another point to observe in
the boiling process is that foods boiled rapidly in water have a
tendency to lose their shape and are reduced to small pieces if allowed
to boil long enough.

Besides serving to cook foods, boiling also renders water safe, as it
destroys any germs that may be present. This explains why water must
sometimes be boiled to make it safe for drinking. Boiled water, as is
known, loses its good taste. However, as this change is brought about by
the loss of air during boiling, the flavor can be restored and air again
introduced if the water is shaken in a partly filled jar or bottle, or
beaten vigorously for a short time with an egg beater.

39. SIMMERING, OR STEWING.--The cooking process known as simmering, or
stewing, is a modification of boiling. By this method, food is cooked in
water at a temperature below the boiling point, or anywhere from 185 to
200 degrees Fahrenheit. Water at the simmering point always moves
gently--never rapidly as it does in boiling. Less heat and consequently
less fuel are required to cook foods in this way, unless, of course, the
time consumed in cooking the food at a low temperature is much greater
than that consumed in cooking it more rapidly.

Aside from permitting economy in the use of fuel, simmering, or stewing,
cooks deliciously certain foods that could not be selected for the more
rapid methods. For example, tough cuts of meat and old fowl can be made
tender and tasty by long cooking at a low temperature, for this method
tends to soften the fiber and to develop an excellent flavor. Tough
vegetables, too, can be cooked tender by the simmering process without
using so much fuel as would be used if they were boiled, for whatever
method is used they require long cooking. Beets, turnips, and other
winter vegetables should be stewed rather than boiled, as it is somewhat
difficult to cook them tender, especially in the late winter and early
spring. If dry beans and peas are brought to the simmering point and
then allowed to cook, they can be prepared for the table in practically
the same length of time and without so much fuel as if they boiled

40. STEAMING.--As its name implies, steaming is the cooking of food by
the application of steam. In this cooking process, the food is put into
a _steamer_, which is a cooking utensil that consists of a vessel with a
perforated bottom placed over one containing water. As the water boils,
steam rises and cooks the food in the upper, or perforated, vessel.
Steamers are sometimes arranged with a number of perforated vessels, one
on top of the other. Such a steamer permits of the cooking of several
foods at the same time without the need of additional fuel, because a
different food may be placed in each vessel.

Steaming is preferable to boiling in some cases, because by it there is
no loss of mineral salts nor food substances; besides, the flavor is not
so likely to be lost as when food is boiled. Vegetables prepared in this
way prove very palatable, and very often variety is added to the diet by
steaming bread, cake, and pudding mixtures and then, provided a crisp
outside is desired, placing them in a hot oven to dry out the
moist surface.

41. DRY STEAMING.--Cooking foods in a vessel that is suspended in
another one containing boiling water constitutes the cooking method
known as dry steaming. The double boiler is a cooking utensil devised
especially for carrying on this process. The food placed in the
suspended, or inner, vessel does not reach the boiling point, but is
cooked by the transfer of heat from the water in the outside, or lower,
vessel. A decided advantage of this method is that no watching is
required except to see that the water in the lower vessel does not boil
away completely, for as long as there is water between the food and the
fire, the food will neither boil nor burn.

Because of the nature of certain foods, cooking them by this process is
especially desirable. The flavor and consistency of cereals and foods
containing starch are greatly improved by long cooking in this way.
Likewise, custards and mixtures containing eggs can be conveniently
cooked in a double boiler, because they do not require a high
temperature; in fact, their texture is spoiled if they are cooked at the
boiling point. To heat milk directly over the flame without scorching it
is a difficult matter, and, on the other hand, boiled milk is hard to
digest. Because of these facts, food containing milk should not be
boiled, but should be cooked at a lower temperature in a double boiler.

42. BRAIZING.--Cooking meat in an oven in a closed pan with a small
quantity of water constitutes braizing. This cooking process might be
called a combination of stewing and baking, but when it is properly
carried out, the meat is placed on a rack so as to be raised above the
water, in which may be placed sliced vegetables. In this process the
meat actually cooks in the flavored steam that surrounds it in the hot
pan. The so-called double roasting pans are in fact braizing pans when
they are properly used. A pot roast is the result of a modification of
the braizing method.


43. Of the three mediums of conveying heat to food, namely, hot air, hot
water, and hot fat, that of hot fat renders food the least digestible.
Much of this difficulty, however, can be overcome if an effort is made
to secure as little absorption of the fat as possible. If the
ingredients of the food are properly mixed before applying the fat and
if the fat is at the right temperature, good results can be obtained by
the various methods of cooking with hot fat, which are frying, sautéing,
and fricasseeing.

44. FRYING.--By frying is meant the cooking of food in deep fat at a
temperature of 350 to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Any kind of fat that will
not impart flavor to the food may be used for frying, but the vegetable
oils, such as cottonseed oils, combinations of coconut and cottonseed
oils, and nut oils, are preferable to lards and other animal fats,
because they do not burn so easily. Foods cooked in deep fat will not
absorb the fat nor become greasy if they are properly prepared, quickly
fried, and well drained on paper that will absorb any extra fat.

45. SAUTÉING.--Browning food first on one side and then on the other in
a small quantity of fat is termed sautéing. In this cooking process, the
fat is placed in a shallow pan, and when it is sufficiently hot, the
food is put into it. Foods that are to be sautéd are usually sliced thin
or cut into small pieces, and they are turned frequently during the
process of cooking. All foods prepared in this way are difficult to
digest, because they become more or less hard and soaked with fat. Chops
and thin cuts of meat, which are intended to be pan-broiled, are really
sautéd if they are allowed to cook in the fat that fries out of them.

46. FRICASSEEING.--A combination of sautéing and stewing results in the
cooking process known as fricasseeing. This process is used in preparing
such foods as chicken, veal, or game, but it is more frequently employed
for cooking fowl, which, in cookery, is the term used to distinguish the
old of domestic fowls from chickens or pullets. In fricasseeing, the
meat to be cooked is cut into pieces and sautéd either before or after
stewing; then it is served with a white or a brown sauce. Ordinarily,
the meat should be browned first, unless it is very tough, in order to
retain the juices and improve the flavor. However, very old fowl or
tough meat should be stewed first and then browned.

       *       *       *       *       *



47. Inasmuch as heat is so important a factor in the cooking of foods,
it is absolutely necessary that the person who is to prepare them be
thoroughly familiar with the ways in which this heat is produced. The
production of heat for cooking involves the use of fuels and stoves in
which to burn them, as well as electricity, which serves the purpose of
a fuel, and apparatus for using electricity. In order, therefore, that
the best results may be obtained in cookery, these subjects are here
taken up in detail.

48. Probably the first fuel to be used in the production of heat for
cooking was wood, but later such fuels as peat, coal, charcoal, coke,
and kerosene came into use. Of these fuels, coal, gas, and kerosene are
used to the greatest extent in the United States. Wood, of course, is
used considerably for kindling fires, and it serves as fuel in
localities where it is abundant or less difficult to procure than other
fuels. However, it is fast becoming too scarce and too expensive to
burn. If it must be burned for cooking purposes, those who use it should
remember that dry, hard wood gives off heat at a more even rate than
soft wood, which is usually selected for kindling. Electricity is coming
into favor for supplying heat for cooking, but only when it can be sold
as cheaply as gas will its use in the home become general.

49. The selection of a stove to be used for cooking depends on the fuel
that is to be used, and the fuel, in turn, depends on the locality in
which a person lives. However, as the fuel that is the most convenient
and easily obtained is usually the cheapest, it is the one to be
selected, for the cost of the cooked dish may be greatly increased by
the use of fuel that is too expensive. In cooking, every fuel should be
made to do its maximum amount of work, because waste of fuel also adds
materially to the cost of cooking and, besides, it often causes great
inconvenience. For example, cooking on a red-hot stove with a fire that,
instead of being held in the oven and the lids, overheats the kitchen
and burns out the stove not only wastes fuel and material, but also
taxes the temper of the person who is doing the work. From what has just
been said, it will readily be seen that a knowledge of fuels and
apparatus for producing heat will assist materially in the economical
production of food, provided, of course, it is applied to the best


50. VARIETIES OF COAL.--Possibly the most common fuel used for cooking
is coal. This fuel comes in two varieties, namely, _anthracite_, or
_hard coal_, and _bituminous_, or _soft coal_. Their relative cost
depends on the locality, the kind of stove, and an intelligent use of
both stove and fuel. Hard coal costs much more in some places than soft
coal, but it burns more slowly and evenly and gives off very little
smoke. Soft coal heats more rapidly than hard coal, but it produces
considerable smoke and makes a fire that does not last so long. Unless a
stove is especially constructed for soft coal, it should not be used for
this purpose, because the burning of soft coal will wear it out in a
short time. The best plan is to use each variety of coal in a stove
especially constructed for it, but if a housewife finds that she must at
times do otherwise, she should realize that a different method of
management and care of the stove is demanded.

51. SIZES OF COAL.--As the effect of coal on the stove must be taken
into consideration in the buying of fuel, so the different sizes of hard
coal must be known before the right kind can be selected. The sizes
known as _stove_ and _egg coal_, which range from about 1-3/8 to 2-3/4
inches in diameter, are intended for a furnace and should not be used in
the kitchen stove for cooking purposes. Some persons who know how to
use the size of coal known as _pea_, which is about 1/2 to 3/4 inch in
diameter, like that kind, whereas others prefer the size called
_chestnut_, which is about 3/4 inch to 1-3/8 inches in diameter. In
reality, a mixture of these two, if properly used, makes the best and
most easily regulated kitchen coal fire.

52. QUALITY OF COAL.--In addition to knowing the names, prices, and uses
of the different kinds of coal, the housewife should be able to
distinguish poor coal from good coal. In fact, proper care should be
exercised in all purchasing, for the person who understands the quality
of the thing to be purchased will be more likely to get full value for
the money paid than the one who does not. About coal, it should be
understood that good hard coal has a glossy black color and a bright
surface, whereas poor coal contains slaty pieces. The quality of coal
can also be determined from the ash that remains after it is burned.
Large chunks or great quantities of ash indicate a poor quality of coal,
and fine, powdery ash a good quality. Of course, even if the coal is of
the right kind, poor results are often brought about by the bad
management of a fire, whether in a furnace or a stove. Large
manufacturing companies, whose business depends considerably on the
proper kind of fuel, buy coal by the heat units--that is, according to
the quantity of heat it will give off--and at some future time this plan
may have to be followed in the private home, unless some other fuel is
provided in the meantime.

Mixed with poor coal are certain unburnable materials that melt and
stick together as it burns and form what are known as _clinkers_.
Clinkers are very troublesome because they often adhere to the stove
grate or the lining of the firebox. They generally form during the
burning of an extremely hot fire, but the usual temperature of a kitchen
fire does not produce clinkers unless the coal is of a very poor
quality. Mixing oyster shells with coal of this kind often helps to
prevent their formation.

53. COKE.--Another fuel that is sometimes used for cooking is coke.
Formerly, coke was a by-product in the manufacture of illuminating gas,
but now it is manufactured from coal for use as a fuel. Because of the
nature of its composition, coke produces a very hot fire and is
therefore favorable for rapid cooking, such as broiling. However, it is
used more extensively in hotels and institutions than in kitchens where
cooking is done on a small scale.


54. VALUE OF GAS AS FUEL.--As a fuel for cooking purposes, gas, both
_artificial_ and _natural_, is very effective, and in localities where
the piping of gas into homes is possible it is used extensively. Of the
two kinds, artificial gas produces the least heat; also, it is the most
expensive, usually costing two or three times as much as natural gas.
Both are very cheap, however, considering their convenience as a kitchen
fuel. Heat from gas is obtained by merely turning it on and igniting it,
as with a lighted match. Its consumption can be stopped at once by
closing off the supply, or it can be regulated as desired and in this
way made to give the exact amount of heat required for the method of
cookery adopted. Neither smoke nor soot is produced in burning gas if
the burners of the gas stove are adjusted to admit the right amount of
air, and no ashes nor refuse remain to be disposed of after gas has been
burned. Because gas is so easily handled, good results can be obtained
by those who have had very little experience in using it, and with study
and practice results become uniform and gas proves to be an
economical fuel.

55. MEASUREMENT OF GAS.--Gas is measured by the cubic foot, and a
definite price is charged for each 1,000 cubic feet. To determine the
quantity used, it is passed through what is called a meter, which
measures as the gas burns. It is important that each housewife be able
to read the amount registered by the meter, so that she can compare her
gas bill with the meter reading and thus determine whether the charges
are correct. If only the usual amount of gas has been consumed and the
bill does not seem to be correct or is much larger than it has been
previously, the matter should be reported to the proper authorities, for
the meter may be out of order and in need of repair.

[Illustration: Fig. 1 Gas Meter Dials]

56. READING A GAS METER.--To register the quantity of gas that is
consumed, a gas meter, as is shown in Fig. 1, is provided with three
large dials, each of which has ten spaces over which the hand, or
indicator, passes to indicate the amount of gas consumed, and with one
small dial, around which the hand makes one revolution every time 2
cubic feet of gas is consumed. This small dial serves to tell whether
gas is leaking when the stoves and lights are not turned on. Above each
large dial is an arrow that points out the direction in which to read,
the two outside ones reading toward the right and the center one toward
the left; also, above each dial is lettered the quantity of gas that
each dial registers, that at the right registering 1,000 cubic feet,
that in the center 10,000 cubic feet, and that at the left 100,000 cubic
feet. To read the dials, begin at the left, or the 100,000 dial, and
read toward the right. In each instance, read the number over which the
hand has passed last. For instance, when, as in Fig. 1, the hand lies
between 5 and 6 on the left dial, 5 is read; on the center dial, when
the hand lies between 5 and 6, 5 is read also; and on the right dial,
when the hand lies between 2 and 3, the 2, which is really 200, is read.

57. To compute the quantity of gas used, the dials are read from left to
right and the three readings are added. Then, in order to determine the
quantity burned since the previous reading, the amount registered at
that time, which is always stated on the gas bill, must be subtracted
from the new reading.

To illustrate the manner in which the cost of gas consumed may be
determined, assume that gas costs 90 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, that
the previous reading of the gas meter, say on May 15, was 52,600 cubic
feet, and that on June 15 the meter registered as shown in Fig. 1. As
was just explained, the left dial of the meter reads 5, the center dial
5, and the right dial 200. Therefore, put these figures down so that
they follow one another, as 5-5-200. This means then that the reading on
June 15 is 55,200 cubic feet. With this amount ascertained, subtract
from it the previous reading, or 52,600 cubic feet, which will give
2,600 cubic feet, or the quantity of gas burned from May 15 to June 15.
Since gas costs 90 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, the cost of the amount
burned, or 2,600 cubic feet, may be estimated by dividing 2,600 cubic
feet by 1,000 and multiplying the result by 90; thus 2,600 ÷ 1,000 =
2.6, and 2.6 x .90 = 2.34

58. PREPAYMENT METERS.--In many places, gas concerns install what are
called prepayment meters; that is, meters in which the money is
deposited before the gas is burned. Such meters register the
consumption of the gas in the same way as the meters just mentioned, but
they contain a receptacle for money. A coin, generally a quarter, is
dropped into a slot leading to this receptacle, and the amount of gas
sold for this sum is then permitted to pass through as it is needed.
When this amount of gas has been burned, another coin must be inserted
in the meter before more gas will be liberated.


59. In communities where gas is not available, kerosene, which is
produced by the refinement of petroleum, is used extensively as a fuel
for cooking, especially in hot weather when the use of a coal or a wood
stove adds materially to the discomfort of the person who does the
cooking. Kerosene is burned in stoves especially designed for its use,
and while it is a cheap fuel it is not always the same in quality. It
contains water at all times, but sometimes the proportion of water is
greater than at others. The greater the amount of water, the less fuel
will be contained in each gallon of kerosene. The quality of kerosene
can be determined by checking up the length of time the stove will burn
on a specified quantity of each new purchase of it.

Another product of the refinement of petroleum is _gasoline_. However,
it is not used so extensively for fuel as kerosene, because it is more
dangerous and more expensive.


60. The use of electricity for supplying heat for cooking is very
popular in some homes, especially those which are properly wired,
because of its convenience and cleanliness and the fact that the heat it
produces can be applied direct. The first electrical cooking apparatus
was introduced at the time of the World's Fair in Chicago, in 1892, and
since that time rapid advancement has been made in the production of
suitable apparatus for cooking electrically. Electricity would
undoubtedly be in more general use today if it were possible to store it
in the same way as artificial gas, but as yet no such method has been
devised and its cost is therefore greater. Electricity is generated in
large power plants, and as it is consumed in the home for lighting and
cooking it passes through a meter, which indicates the quantity used in
much the same manner as a gas meter. It will be well, therefore, to
understand the way in which an electric meter is read, so that the bills
for electricity can be checked.

61. READING AN ELECTRIC METER.--An electric meter, which is similar in
appearance to a gas meter, consists of three or four dials, which are
placed side by side or in the shape of an arc. In the usual type, which
is shown in Fig. 2 and which consists of four dials placed side by side,
each one of the dials contains ten spaces and a hand, or indicator, that
passes over numbers ranging from to 9 to show the amount of
electricity used.

[Illustration: Fig 2.]

The numbers on the dials represent _kilowatt-hours_, a term meaning the
energy resulting from the activity of 1 kilowatt for 1 hour, or 1 watt,
which is the practical unit of electrical power, for 1,000 hours. Since
1,000 hours equal 1 kilowatt, 1,000 watt-hours equal 1 kilowatt-hour. It
will be observed from the accompanying illustration that the dial on the
extreme right has the figures reading in a clockwise direction, that is,
from right to left, the second one in a counter-clockwise direction, or
from left to right, the third one in a clockwise direction, and the
fourth one in a counter-clockwise direction; also that above each dial
is indicated in figures the number of kilowatt-hours that one complete
revolution of the hand of that dial registers.

To read the meter, begin at the right-hand dial and continue to the left
until all the dials are read and set the numbers down just as they are
read; that is, from right to left. In case the indicator does not point
directly to a number, but is somewhere between two numbers, read the
number that it is leaving. For example, in Fig. 2, the indicator in the
right-hand dial points to figure 4; therefore, this number should be put
down first. In the second dial, the hand lies between and 1, and as it
is leaving 0, this number should be read and placed to the left of the
first one read, which gives 04. The hand on the third dial points
exactly to 6; so 6 should be read for this dial and placed directly
before the numbers read for the first and second dials, thus, 604. On
the fourth and last dial, the indicator is between 4 and 5; therefore 4,
which is the number it is leaving should be read and used as the first
figure in the entire reading, which is 4,604.

After the reading of the electric meter has been ascertained, it is a
simple matter to determine the electricity consumed since the last
reading and the amount of the bill. For instance, assume that a meter
registers the number of kilowatt-hours shown in Fig. 2, or 4,604, and
that at the previous reading it registered 4,559. Merely subtract the
previous reading from the last one, which will give 45, or the number of
kilowatt-hours from which the bill for electricity is computed. If
electricity costs 3 cents a kilowatt-hour, which is the price charged in
some localities, the bill should come to 45 X .03 or $1.35.


62. Before stoves for cooking came into use in the home, food was cooked
in open fireplaces. Even when wood was the only fuel known, a stove for
burning it, called the Franklin stove, was invented by Benjamin
Franklin, but not until coal came into use as fuel were iron stoves
made. For a long time stoves were used mainly for heating purposes, as
many housewives preferred to cook at the open fireplace. However, this
method of cooking has practically disappeared and a stove of some kind
is in use for cooking in every home.

63. For each fuel in common use there are many specially constructed
stoves, each having some advantageous feature; yet all stoves
constructed for the same fuel are practically the same in principle. In
order that fuel will burn and produce heat, it must have air, because
fuel, whether it is wood, coal, or gas, is composed largely of _carbon_
and air largely of _oxygen_, and it is the rapid union of these two
chemical elements that produces heat. Therefore, in order that each
stove may work properly, some way in which to furnish air for the fire
in the firebox must be provided. For this reason, every stove for
cooking contains passageways for air and is connected with a chimney,
which contains a flue, or passage, that leads to the outer air. When the
air in a stove becomes heated, it rises, and as it ascends cold air
rushes through the passageways of the stove to take its place. It is the
flue, however, that permits of the necessary draft and carries off
unburned gases. At times it is necessary to regulate the amount of air
that enters, and in order that this may be done each stove is provided
with _dampers_. These devices are located in the air passages and they
are so designed as to close off the air or allow the desired amount to
enter. By means of these dampers it is possible also to force the heat
around the stove oven, against the top of the stove, or up the chimney
flue. A knowledge of the ways in which to manipulate these dampers is
absolutely necessary if correct results are to be obtained from a stove.
The flue, however, should receive due consideration. If a stove is to
give its best service, the flue, in addition to being well constructed,
should be free from obstructions and kept in good condition. Indeed, the
stove is often blamed for doing unsatisfactory work when the fault is
really with the flue.

64. Probably one of the most important things considered in the
construction of stoves is the economizing of fuel, for ever since the
days of the fireplace there has been more or less of a tendency to save
fuel for cooking, and as the various kinds grow scarcer, and
consequently more expensive, the economical use of fuel becomes a
necessity. While most stoves for cooking purposes are so constructed as
to save fuel, many of them do not, especially if the method of caring
for them is not understood. Any housewife, however, can economize in the
use of fuel if she will learn how the stove she has must be operated;
and this can be done by following closely the directions that come with
the stove when it is purchased. Such directions are the best to follow,
because they have been worked out by the manufacturer, who understands
the right way in which his product should be operated.


65. GENERAL CONSTRUCTION.--In Fig. 3 is illustrated the general
construction of the type of coal stove used for cooking. The principal
parts of such a stove, which is commonly referred to as a _cook stove_,
or range, are the firebox _a_; the grate _b_; the ash pit _c_, which
usually contains an ash-pan _d_; the oven _e_; the dampers _f_, _g_,
_h_, and _i_; the flue opening _j_ and flue _k_; openings in the top and
suitable lids, not shown, for kettles and pans; and the air space
extending from the firebox around three sides of the oven, as shown by
the arrows. To prevent the stove from wearing out rapidly, the firebox,
in which the fuel is burned, is lined with a material, such as fireclay,
that will withstand great heat. The fire in the firebox is supported by
the grate, which is in the form of metal teeth or bars, so as to permit
air to pass through the fuel from underneath. The grate is usually so
constructed that when the fire is raked it permits burnt coal or ashes
to fall into the ash-pan, by means of which they can be readily removed
from the stove. The oven, which lies directly back of the firebox and is
really an enclosed chamber in which food may be cooked, receives its
heat from the hot air that passes around it. The dampers are devices
that control the flow of air in and out of the stove. Those shown at _f_
and _g_ serve to admit fresh air into the stove or to keep it out, and
those shown at _h_ and _i_ serve to keep heated air in the stove or to
permit it to pass out through the flue.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

66. Building a Coal Fire.--To build a coal fire is a simple matter. So
that the draft will be right for rapid combustion, it is first necessary
to close the dampers _f_ and _h _and to open the bottom damper _g_ and
the chimney damper _i_. With these dampers arranged, place crushed paper
or shavings on the grate; then on top of the paper or shavings place
kindling, and on top of the kindling put a small quantity of coal. Be
careful to place the fuel on the grate loosely enough to permit currents
of air to pass through it, because it will not burn readily if it is
closely packed. Light the fire by inserting a flame from below. When
this is done, the flame will rise and ignite the kindling, and this, in
turn, will cause the coal to take fire. When the fire is burning well,
close the dampers _g_ and _i_ so that the fuel will not burn too rapidly
and the heat will surround the oven instead of passing up the chimney;
also, before too much of the first supply of coal is burned out, add a
new supply, but be sure that the coal is sufficiently ignited before the
new supply is added so as not to smother the fire. If only a thin layer
is added each time, this danger will be removed. Experience has proved
that the best results are secured if the fire is built only 4 inches
high. When hot coals come near the top of the stove, the lids are
likely to warp and crack from the heat and the cooking will not be done
any more effectively. Another thing to avoid in connection with a fire
is the accumulation of ashes. The ash-pan should be kept as nearly empty
as possible, for a full ash-pan will check the draft and cause the grate
in the firebox to burn out.

67. ADJUSTING THE DAMPERS.--To get the best results from a cook stove,
and at the same time overcome the wasting of fuel, the ways in which to
adjust the dampers should be fully known. If it is desired to heat the
oven for baking, close dampers _f_ and _i_ and open dampers _g_ and _h_.
With the dampers so arranged, the heated air above the fire is forced
around the oven and up the flue, as is clearly shown by the arrows in
Fig. 3. A study of this diagram will readily show that the lower
left-hand corner of the oven is its coolest part, since the heated air
does not reach this place directly, and that the top center is the
hottest part, because the hottest air passes directly over this portion
of the oven and the heated air in the oven rises to it.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

If it is desired to heat the surface of the stove, so that cooking may
be done on top of it, close dampers _f_, _h_, and _i_ and open damper
_g_. With the dampers so arranged, the heated air does not pass around
the oven, but is confined in the space above it and the firebox, as
shown in Fig. 4. While the damper _i_ in the flue is closed in order to
confine the heated air as much as possible to the space under the top of
the stove, it contains openings that allow just enough air to pass up
the flue to maintain the draft necessary for combustion. When the
dampers are arranged as mentioned, the hottest place on the surface of
the stove is between the firebox and the stovepipe, and the coolest
place is behind the damper _h_.

68. BANKING A COAL FIRE.--To economize in the use of fuel, as well as to
save the labor involved in building a new fire, it is advisable to keep
a fire burning low from one meal to another and from one day to the
next. As the nature of hard coal is such that it will hold fire for a
long time, this can be done by what is called _banking_ the fire. To
achieve this, after the fire has served to cook a meal, shake the ashes
out of the grate so that the glowing coals are left. Then put fresh coal
on this bed of coals, and, with the dampers arranged as for building a
new fire, allow the coal to burn well for a short time. Finally, cover
the fire with a layer of fine coal and adjust the dampers properly; that
is, close dampers _g_ and _h_ and open dampers _f_ and _i_. If the
banking is carefully done the fire should last 8 or 10 hours without
further attention. Care should be taken, however, to use sufficient coal
in banking the fire, so that when it is to be used again the coal will
not be completely burned, but enough burning coals will remain to ignite
a fresh supply. When the fire is to be used again, rake it slightly, put
a thin layer of coal over the top, and arrange the dampers as for
starting a fire. As soon as this layer of coal has begun to burn, add
more until the fire is in good condition.


69. GAS RANGES.--A gas stove for cooking, or _gas range_, as it is
frequently called, consists of an oven, a broiler, and several burners
over which are plates to hold pans, pots, and kettles in which food is
to be cooked. As is true of a coal range, a gas range also requires a
flue to carry off the products of unburned gas. Gas stoves, or ranges,
are of many makes, but in principle all of them are practically the
same; in fact, the chief difference lies in the location or arrangement
of the oven, broiler, and burners. In Fig. 5 is illustrated a simple
type of gas range. The oven _a_ of this stove is located above the top
of the stove, instead of below it, as in some stoves. An oven so located
is of advantage in that it saves stooping or bending over. The door of
this oven contains a glass, which makes it possible to observe the food
baking inside without opening the door and thereby losing heat. The
broiler _b_, which may also be used as a toaster, is located directly
beneath the oven, and to the right are the burners _c_ for cooking. The
gas for these parts is contained in the pipe _d_, which is connected to
a pipe joined to the gas main in the street. To get heat for cooking it
is simply necessary to turn on the stop-cocks and light the gas. The
four burners are controlled by the stop-cocks _e_, and the oven and the
broiler by the stop-cock _f_. The stove is also equipped with a
simmering burner for the slow methods of cooking on top of the stove,
gas to this burner being controlled by the stop-cock _g_. To catch
anything that may be spilled in cooking, there is a removable metal or
enamel sheet _h_. Such a sheet is a great advantage, as it aids
considerably in keeping the stove clean.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

70. Some gas stoves are provided with a _pilot_, which is a tiny flame
of gas that is controlled by a button on the gas pipe to which the
stop-cocks are attached. The pilot is kept lighted, and when it is
desired to light a burner, pressing the button causes the flame to shoot
near enough to each burner to ignite the gas. However, whether the
burners are lighted in this way or by applying a lighted match, they
should never be lighted until heat is required; likewise, in order to
save gas, they should be turned off as soon as the cooking is completed.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

To produce the best results, the flame given off by gas should be blue.
A flame that is yellow and a burner that makes a noise when lighted,
indicate that the gas flame has caught in the pipe, and to remedy this
the gas must be turned out and relighted. When the gas flame coming from
a new burner is yellow, it may be taken for granted that not enough air
is being admitted to make the proper mixture. To permit of the proper
mixture, each gas pipe extending from the stop-cock and terminating in
the burner is provided with what is called a _mixer_. This device, as
shown in Fig. 6, consists of several slots that may be opened or closed
by turning part _a_, thus making it a simple matter to admit the right
amount of air to produce the desired blue flame. If burners that have
been in use for some time give off a yellow flame, it is probable that
the trouble is caused by a deposit of soot or burned material. Such
burners should be removed, boiled in a solution of washing soda or lye
until the holes in the top are thoroughly cleaned, and then replaced and
adjusted. As long as the flame remains yellow, the gas is not giving off
as much heat as it should produce and is liable to smoke cooking
utensils black. Therefore, to get the best results the burners should be
thoroughly cleaned every now and then in the manner mentioned. Likewise,
the pan beneath the burners, which may be removed, should be cleaned
very frequently, and the entire stove should be wiped each time it is
used, for the better such a stove is taken care of, the better will it
continue to do its work.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

71. FIRELESS-COOKING GAS STOVES.--A style of gas stove that meets with
favor in many homes is the so-called fireless-cooking gas stove, one
style of which is shown in Fig. 7. Such a stove has the combined
advantages of a fireless cooker, which is explained later, and a gas
stove, for it permits of quick cooking with direct heat, as well as slow
cooking with heat that is retained in an insulated chamber, that is, one
that is sufficiently covered to prevent heat from escaping. In
construction, this type of stove is similar to any other gas stove,
except that its oven is insulated and it is provided with one or more
compartments for fireless cooking, as at _a_ and _b_. Each of these
compartments is so arranged that it may be moved up and down on an
upright rod, near the base of which, resting on a solid plate _c_, is a
gas burner _d_, over which the insulated hood of the compartment fits.
When it is desired to cook food in one of these compartments, the hood
is raised, as at _b_, and the gas burner is lighted. The food in the
cooker is allowed to cook over the lighted burner until sufficient heat
has been retained or the process has been carried sufficiently far to
permit the cooking to continue without fire. Then the insulated hood is
lowered until the compartment is in the position of the one shown at
_a_. It is not necessary to turn off the gas, as this is done
automatically when the hood is lowered.


[Illustration: Fig. 8]

72. As has been mentioned, kerosene is used considerably as a fuel in
localities where gas cannot be obtained. Kerosene stoves are not unlike
gas stoves, but, as a rule, instead of having built-in ovens, they are
provided with portable ovens, which are heated by placing them on top of
the stove, over the burners. Such stoves are of two types, those in
which cotton wicks are used, as in oil lamps, and those which are
wickless, the former being generally considered more convenient and
satisfactory than the latter. In Fig. 8 is shown a three-burner kerosene
stove of the first type mentioned. Oil for the burners, or lamps, _a_ is
stored in the container _b_, which may be of glass or metal, and it is
supplied to the reservoir of each burner by the pipe _c_. Each burner is
provided with a door _d_, which is opened when it is desired to light
the wick. The flame of each burner is controlled by the screw _e_, which
serves to raise or lower the wick, and the heat passes up to the opening
_f_ in the top of the stove through the cylindrical pipe above the
burner. The arrangement of a wickless kerosene stove is much the same as
the one just described, but it is so constructed that the oil, which is
also stored in a tank at the side, flows into what is called a burner
bowl and burns from this bowl up through a perforated chimney, the
quantity of oil used being regulated by a valve attached to each bowl.

73. The burners of kerosene stoves are lighted by applying a match, just
as the burners of a gas stove are lighted. In some stoves, especially
those of the wickless type, the burners are so constructed that the
flame can rise to only a certain height. This is a good feature, as it
prevents the flame from gradually creeping up and smoking, a common
occurrence in an oil stove. The kerosene-stove flame that gives the most
heat, consumes the least fuel, and produces the least soot and odor is
blue in color. A yellow flame, which is given off in some stoves,
produces more or less soot and consequently makes it harder to keep the
stove clean. Glass containers are better than metal containers, because
the water that is always present in small quantities in kerosene is apt
to rust the metal container and cause it to leak. To prevent the
accumulation of dirt, as well as the disagreeable odor usually present
when an oil stove is used, the burners should be removed frequently and
boiled in a solution of washing soda; also, if a wick is used, the
charred portion should be rubbed from it, but not cut, as cutting is
liable to make it give off an uneven flame.

[Illustration: FIG. 9]


74. ELECTRIC STOVES. Electric stoves for cooking have been perfected to
such an extent that they are a great convenience, and in places where
the cost of electricity does not greatly exceed that of gas they are
used considerably. In appearance, electric stoves are very similar to
gas stoves, as is shown in Fig. 9, which illustrates an electric stove
of the usual type. The oven _a_ is located at one side and contains a
broiler pan _b_. On top of this stove are openings for cooking, into
which fit lids _c_ that have the appearance of ordinary stove lids, but
are in reality electrical heating units, called hotplates. Heat for
cooking is supplied by a current of electricity that passes through the
hotplates, as well as through similar devices in the oven, the stove
being connected to the supply of electricity at the connection-box _d_,
which is here shown with the cover removed. The heat of the different
hotplates and the oven is controlled by several switches _e_ at the
front of the stove. Each of these switches provides three degrees of
heat--high, medium, and low--and just the amount of heat required for
cooking can be supplied by turning the switch to the right point. Below
the switches are several fuse plugs _f_ that contain the fuses, which
are devices used in electrical apparatus to avoid injury to it in case
the current of electricity becomes too great.

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

It is not absolutely necessary to have flue connections for an electric
stove, as such a stove does not require a draft and gives off no
products of combustion to be carried away. In fact, one of the favorable
points about an electric stove is that it produces no dirt and causes no
inconvenience. When the cooking is done, the electricity can be turned
off, after which the stove quickly cools. When electricity is used for
cooking, cooking utensils, methods, and recipes can be applied in the
same ways as when other means of producing heat are employed.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

75. SMALL ELECTRIC UTENSILS.--In addition to electric stoves, there are
a number of smaller electrical cooking utensils that can be attached to
an electric-light socket or a wall socket. Among these are percolators,
toasters, hotplates, or grills, chafing dishes, egg poachers, and
similar devices. An idea of such utensils for cooking may be formed by
referring to Fig. 10, which shows an electric toaster, and Fig. 11,
which shows a hotplate, or grill. The toaster is arranged so that bread
to be toasted may be placed on each side, as well as on top, of an
upright part that gives off heat when the current of electricity is
turned on. The grill is so constructed that a pan for cooking may be
placed under and on top of the part that gives off heat.

       *       *       *       *       *



(1) Give in its full sense the meaning of the term cookery.

(2) How may the housewife control the cost of her foods?

(3) (_a_) Explain the difference between waste and refuse. (_b_) To what is
leakage in the household due?

(4) What three important matters enter into the problem of purchasing

(5) (_a_) Name the five substances that are found in food, (_b_) Of what
value is a knowledge of these food substances?

(6) (_a_) What is the function of protein in the body? (_b_) Mention the
principal sources of protein, (_c_) Explain the effect of heat on foods
that contain protein.

(7) (_a_) With what do carbohydrates supply the body? (_b_) Mention the two
forms of carbohydrates and also some of the foods in which each may
be found.

(8) What is a calorie?

(9) Give five reasons for cooking food.

(10) Mention the twelve principal processes employed in the cooking of

(11) Describe one method of cooking with: (_a_) dry heat; (_b_) moist heat;
(_c_) hot fat.

(12) (_a_) At what temperature does water boil? (_b_) How is hard water
affected by boiling? (_c_) Explain the uses of water in cooking.

(13) (_a_) What generally controls the kind of stove to be used for
cooking? (_b_) Explain how it is possible to keep down the cost of cooking
in using fuel.

(14) Mention the best way in which to become familiar with the operation
of a stove.

(15) (_a_) Of what value is gas as a fuel? (_b_) What kind of gas flame is
best for cooking?

(16) Suppose that a gas meter registers 72,500 cubic feet on March 1,
and that on April 1 the hand of the left dial is between 7 and 8, that
of the middle dial is between 5 and 6, and that of the right dial is at
5. At 90 cents a 1,000 cubic feet, what is the cost of the gas consumed?

(17) (_a_) How is heat produced in a stove? (_b_) What is the purpose of
the dampers of a stove?

(18) (_a_) How should the dampers of a coal range be adjusted so as to
heat the oven for baking? (_b_) How should they be adjusted for cooking on
top of the stove?

(19) (_a_) What is the purpose of a mixer on a gas stove? (_b_) How may a
gas stove be kept in good condition?

(20) How may the burners of a kerosene stove be kept clean?

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *




1. While success in cooking, as has been pointed out, depends to a
considerable extent on the selection of materials and the proper cooking
methods, as well as on an understanding of the stove and fuel employed,
the importance of the utensils that are to be used must not be
overlooked. As is well known, each cooking utensil is fitted to its
particular use; in fact, the wrong kind of pan, dish, or other utensil
will not bring about the same result as the right one. This does not
mean, however, that the housewife must possess a large supply of every
kind of utensil, for, really, the expert cook is known by the small
number of utensils she uses. Of course, the proper handling of utensils,
as well as the right selection of them, will come with experience, but
before she starts to cook the beginner should endeavor to plan
definitely what must be provided. She should likewise remember that the
use of an unnecessary number of utensils not only will increase the
labor involved in preparing a dish, but will affect considerably the
amount of work required to clear them away and wash them after the
cooking is done.

2. The materials of which cooking utensils are made, as well as their
shape and size, have also a great bearing on the success with which
cooking may be done. As no one material is suitable for all utensils,
they are made of various materials, such as wood, tin, glass, enamel,
aluminum, sheet iron, and earthenware. In the purchase of a utensil,
therefore, it is well to have in mind the use to which the utensil will
be put, and then to select one that is made of durable material, that
can be easily cleaned, and that will not affect the food that is cooked
in it. Likewise, the shape of the utensil should receive consideration,
for much depends on it. To be satisfactory, a utensil should be without
seams or curved edges, because it is difficult to remove particles of
food that collect in such places. A vessel that is hard to wash should
be avoided, and one that will tip easily is not desirable, either.

The size of utensils must be determined by the number of persons for
whom food is to be cooked, for the amount of food to be prepared
indicates whether a large or a small utensil should be selected. On the
other hand, the length of time required for foods to cook depends to a
large extent on the size and shape of the utensil. When food is to be
cooked a long time, a deep vessel with a comparatively small surface
exposed for evaporation should be chosen; but for quick cooking, use
should be made of a shallow utensil that will allow a great deal of
surface to be exposed, as the evaporation will be accomplished
more rapidly.

In furnishing a kitchen, it is well to begin with a few essential
utensils of the best quality that can be obtained, and then, as needed,
to add other well-selected utensils to the equipment.


3. ALUMINUM.--Because of the properties of aluminum, this metal is used
extensively for cooking utensils. It is more costly than most of the
materials employed for this purpose, but while the first cost of
aluminum pans and kettles may seem large, the extra expense is justified
by the durability of the utensils. They last much longer than utensils
made of many other materials, for when aluminum is hammered and rolled
it becomes extremely hard. Some aluminum utensils are very thin, and
since they melt and dent very easily they are suitable for only light,
careful handling. Although heavier aluminum utensils are more expensive
than the lighter ones on account of the metal required and the
manufacturing process involved, they are harder and more durable. Cast
aluminum is used for large vessels, such as those required in
institutions where large quantities of food are cooked and where pots
and kettles are subjected to extremely hard wear, but this is the most
expensive kind, for in order to make the aluminum hard enough for
casting some harder metal must be mixed with it. One of the
disadvantages of aluminum is that it is not always easy to clean, but
this is overbalanced by the fact that foods do not burn so readily in
aluminum utensils as in other kinds, since the heat is evenly
distributed by this metal.

4. ENAMEL.--Good enamel cooking utensils are desirable for some purposes
and are only moderately expensive. Utensils made of enamel are not so
durable as those made of metal, because excessive heat or a sharp blow
will cause the enamel to chip. Enamel utensils come in various colors,
and all can be kept clean easily, but the gray enamel is considered to
be the best for wear.

5. IRON AND STEEL.--Utensils made of iron and steel are usually
inexpensive, but some, especially those of iron, are heavy. These metals
are used principally for such utensils as frying pans, or skillets,
griddles, waffle irons, and kettles for deep-fat frying. Sheet iron
makes excellent shallow pans for baking cookies and other cakes, very
satisfactory bread pans, and the best kind of pans for omelet and
other frying.

6. EARTHENWARE.--A certain number of fairly durable earthenware utensils
are necessary in a kitchen equipment. Mixing bowls are usually made of
earthenware, as are also casseroles, which are covered dishes used for
the baking of foods that require long cooking, and other baking
utensils. Meat, fowl, and some vegetables, such as dried beans, are
delicious when prepared in a casserole, as very little flavor or food is
lost in such a dish.

7. TIN.--The cheapest metal from which cooking utensils are made is tin,
but it is not generally used for utensils in which food is to be cooked,
because it melts at too low a temperature. Tin is used, however, for
such small articles as measures, cutters, apple corers, sieves,
strainers, and other things of this kind, and it is especially
desirable for them.

8. COPPER.--Before iron was known copper was the principal material for
cooking utensils. The chief point in favor of copper is its durability,
but utensils made of it are not practical for use in the ordinary
kitchen because they are expensive, heavy, and very difficult to
keep clean.

9. GLASS.--Utensils made of heavy glassware are much used for cooking.
Glass utensils are especially desirable for custards and other dishes
that the cook likes to watch while cooking or that are to be served in
the baking dish. Glass cooking utensils possess the advantage of
retaining the heat well.

10. WOOD.--Certain utensils made of wood are required in a cooking
outfit, a molding board of hardwood and a smaller wooden cutting board
being particularly necessary in every kitchen. Bowls in which to chop
foods, rolling pins, and mixing spoons are usually made of hardwood, and
when such wood is used for them they are entirely satisfactory.


11. A LABOR-SAVING DEVICE is any apparatus that will permit a certain
piece of work to be accomplished with less exertion than would be
necessary to do the same thing without it. A sink and a dustpan are
labor-saving devices just as truly as are a bread mixer and a vacuum
cleaner, but because a sink and a dustpan are necessities as well, they
are not usually thought of as true labor-saving devices. The newer
appliances for saving labor are often considered to be quite
unnecessary, and indeed some of them are. It is only when such apparatus
will, with less labor involved and less time consumed in the process,
secure results as good as or better than will another device, and when
the cleaning and care of it do not consume so much time and labor as is
saved by using it, that it may be considered a true labor-saving device.
Each housewife must decide for herself whether the expense of a
so-called labor-saving device is greater than the value of the time and
strength she would use without such a device.

[Illustration: Fig. 1 (_a_) (_b_)]

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

12. COMMON LABOR-SAVING DEVICES. Every housewife does not have occasion
to use all the devices that have been invented to save labor, but a
number of these are in such common use, produce such good results, and
save so much time and effort that they should be found in every kitchen.
Among them is the _rotary egg beater_ shown in Fig. 1 (_a_). This is so
made that one revolution of the wheel to which the crank is attached
does about five times as much work as can be done with a fork or with an
_egg whip_, which is shown in (_b_). Another inexpensive device that is
a real help is the _potato ricer_. This device, one style of which is
shown in Fig. 2, is really a press through which any fruit or vegetable
can be put to make a purée. It is used considerably for mashing
potatoes, as it makes them perfectly smooth and saves considerable time
and labor. Still another useful device is the _meat chopper_, or
_grinder_, which is shown in Fig. 3. Such a device clamped to the edge
of a table takes the place of a chopping bowl and knife, and in addition
to being more sanitary it permits the work to be done in a shorter time
and with less effort. Besides the devices mentioned, there are many
small labor-saving devices, such as the _apple corer_, the _berry
huller_, the _mayonnaise mixer_, etc., the merits of which every busy
housewife will do well to consider.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

13. BREAD AND CAKE MIXERS. Where baking is done for only a small number
of persons, bread and cake mixers are not indispensable, but they save
much labor where baking is done on a large scale. It is comparatively
easy, for instance, to knead dough for three or four loaves of bread,
but the process becomes rather difficult when enough dough for eight to
sixteen loaves must be handled. For large quantities of bread and cake,
mixers, when properly used, are labor-saving. In addition, such devices
are sanitary, and for this reason they are used in many homes where the
bakings are comparatively small.

14. The type of bread mixer in common use is shown in Fig. 4. It
consists of a covered tin pail _a_ that may be fastened to the edge of a
table by the clamp _b_. Inside of the pail is a kneading prong _c_, in
the shape of a gooseneck, that is revolved by turning the handle _d_.
The flour and other materials for the dough are put into the pail, and
they are mixed and kneaded mechanically by turning the handle.

15. A cake mixer, the usual type of which is shown in Fig. 5, is similar
in construction to a bread mixer. Instead of a pail, however, for the
dough ingredients, it has a deep pan _a_, and instead of one kneading
prong it has several prongs, which are attached to two arms _b_, as
shown. These arms are revolved by gear-wheels _c_ that fit in a large
gearwheel _d_ attached to a shaft _e_, which is turned by means of a
handle _f_. The large number of mixing prongs in a cake mixer are
necessary, because cake dough must be thoroughly stirred and beaten,
whereas in bread making the dough must be made to form a compact mass.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

16. DISH-WASHING MACHINES.--Although machines for washing dishes are to
be had, they are most helpful where large numbers of people are served
and, consequently, where great quantities of dishes are to be washed.
Such machines are usually large and therefore take up more space than
the ordinary kitchen can afford. Likewise the care and cleaning of them
require more labor than the washing of dishes for a small family
entails. Large quantities of hot water are needed to operate mechanical
dish washers, and even where they are installed, the glassware, silver,
and cooking utensils must, as a rule, be washed by hand.

17. FIRELESS COOKER.--A device that has proved to be really labor-saving
is the fireless cooker, one type of which is shown in Fig. 6. It
consists of an insulated box _a_ lined with metal and divided into
compartments _b_, with pans _c_ that fit into them. Hotplates, or
stones, as they are sometimes called, are frequently used if the article
to be cooked requires them. These stones, which are shown at _d_, are
supported in the compartments by metal racks _e_, and they are lifted in
and out by means of wire handles _f_.

[Illustration: Fig 6.]

To use a fireless cooker properly, the food must be cooked for a short
time on the stove; then it must be tightly covered and placed in one of
the insulated compartments. If hotplates are to be used they must be
heated in the same manner. The food loses its heat so gradually in the
fireless cooker that the cooking proceeds slowly but effectually. When
the previous heating has been sufficient, the food will be cooked and
still warm when the cooker is opened hours later. Some articles of food
occasionally need reheating during the process. By this method of
cooking there is no loss of flavor or food value, and the food usually
requires no further attention after being placed in the cooker. It also
permits of economy in both fuel and time.


18. As a guide in purchasing equipment for a kitchen, a list of utensils
is here presented. This list is divided into utensils that are necessary
and those that are convenient and only at times necessary. In any case,
however, the number of utensils and the size must be determined by the
quantity of food that is to be prepared.


Baking dish with cover
Bread box
Bread knife
Bread pans
Can opener
Cake knife
Chopping bowl and knife or food chopper
Coffee mill
Coffee pot
Cookie cutter
Corer, Apple
Cutting board
Double boiler
Egg beater
Flour sifter
Frying pan, large
Frying pan, small
Garbage can
Kettle covers
Kettles, two or more
Knife sharpener
Lemon squeezer
Long-handled fork
Measuring cup
Meat board
Meat knife
Mixing bowls
Mixing spoons
Molding board
Muffin pan
Paring knife
Pepper shaker
Pie pans
Potato masher
Rinsing, or draining, pan
Roasting pan
Rolling pin
Salt box
Wire strainer
Wooden spoon


Bread mixer
Cake coolers
Cake mixer
Cake turner
Coffee percolator
Containers for spices and dry groceries
Cookie sheets
Cream whip Egg whip
Fireless cooker
Frying kettle and basket
Funnel Glass jars for canning
Ice-cream freezer
Ice pick
Jelly molds
Nest of bowls
Pan for baking fish
Potato knife
Potato ricer
Quart measure
Set of skewers
Waffle iron
Wheel cart

       *       *       *       *       *



19. Before foods that require cooking are cooked or before foods that
are to be eaten raw are served, they must be properly prepared, for
their palatability and their value as food depend considerably on the
way in which they are made ready for cooking or for eating. Of course,
the way in which food should be prepared will depend on how it is to be
served, but in any event all foods, for the sake of cleanliness, must
first be washed with water or wiped with a clean, damp cloth.

20. The ways in which vegetables and fruits are made ready for cooking
vary. Sometimes such foods are cooked with the skins on, and sometimes
certain vegetables, such as new potatoes, young carrots and parsnips,
vegetable oysters, etc., are made ready in an economical way by scraping
off their skins with a knife. Vegetables are also peeled, and when this
is done a very sharp knife with a thin blade should be used and as
little of the food removed as possible. Still another way of removing
the skins of such foods as tomatoes, nuts, and some fruits is by
_blanching_. In this process, the skins are loosened so that they may be
removed easily, either by immersing the foods in boiling water or by
pouring boiling water over them and allowing them to stand in the water
for a few minutes, but not long enough to soften them. Blanching used in
this sense should not be confused with the same word when it means "to
take color out" and has reference to a process of bleaching. Only when
the word means "to remove the covering of" can it be applied to the
peeling of tomatoes, fruits, and nuts. Vegetables and fruits may be
cooked whole or they may be cut into chunks, or pieces, or into slices.

21. In order to get meats ready for cooking, it is necessary to wipe
them clean and usually to trim off all unnecessary bone, fat, and skin.
Meats may be cooked in large pieces or small pieces or they may be
ground, depending on the cooking process to be used. Before cooking
poultry and fish, they should be thoroughly cleaned and then trimmed and
cut to suit the cooking process chosen. If desired, the bones may be
removed from poultry or fish before cooking, and sometimes it is
advantageous to do so. Cream and raw eggs may be whipped or beaten light
before they are served or cooked, and after such foods as fruits,
vegetables, meats, and fish have been cooked, they may be sliced,
chopped, ground, mashed, or cut into dice, or small pieces.


22. PROCESSES INVOLVED IN MIXING.--In cookery, the mixing of ingredients
is done for several purposes--to produce a certain texture, to give a
smoothness or creaminess to a mixture, or to impart lightness. Various
processes are involved in the mixing of ingredients, and the results
that are accomplished depend entirely on the method that is selected.
The most important of these processes with brief explanations of what
they mean follow.

BEATING is a rapid motion that picks up material from the bottom and
mixes it with that nearer the surface. It is done with a spoon, a fork,
an egg whip, or, if the mixture is thin, with a rotary egg beater.
Sometimes beating is done for the purpose of incorporating air and thus
making the mixture light.

STIRRING is usually done with a spoon, and is accomplished by moving the
spoon in circles, around and around, through ingredients contained in a
pan or a bowl. This is the method that is generally applied to the
simple mixing of ingredients.

FOLDING is a careful process whereby beaten egg or whipped cream is
added to a mixture without destroying its lightness. It is accomplished
by placing the egg or cream on top of a mixture in a bowl or a pan, and
then passing a spoon down through both and bringing up a spoonful of the
mixture and placing it on top. This motion is repeated until the two are
well blended, but this result should be accomplished with as few strokes
as possible.

RUBBING is done by pressing materials against the side of a bowl with
the back of a spoon. This is the process that is applied when butter and
other fats are to be mixed with such dry ingredients as sugar and flour.

CREAMING consists in continuing the rubbing process until the texture
becomes soft and smooth and is of a creamy consistency.

CUTTING-IN is a method used to combine butter with flour when it is
desired to have the butter remain hard or in small pieces. It is done by
chopping the butter into the flour with a knife.

SIFTING is shaking or stirring material through a sifter having a fine
wire mesh. It is done to remove foreign or coarse material, to impart
lightness, or to mix dry ingredients together.

RICING is a process whereby certain cooked foods, such as fruits,
vegetables, meats, and fish, may be reduced to the form of a purée. This
result is accomplished by forcing the cooked material through a ricer.

23. APPLICATION OF MIXING PROCESSES.--In applying the various mixing
processes, it is well to bear in mind that good results depend
considerably on the order of mixing, as well as on the deftness and
thoroughness with which each process is performed. This fact is clearly
demonstrated in a cake in which the butter and sugar have not been
actually creamed, for such a cake will not have the same texture as one
in which the creaming has been done properly. It is also shown in angel
food or sunshine cake, for the success of such a cake depends largely on
the skill employed in folding in the whites of eggs or in beating the
yolks. On the other hand, the lightness of pastry and the tenderness of
cookies depend on how each is rolled out, and the kneading of bread is a
process that demonstrates that many things can be learned by actually
doing them.

As progress is made with these cookery lessons, therefore, the
application of the mixing processes should not be overlooked. Beginners
in cookery, owing possibly to the fact that at first they cannot handle
soft material skilfully, are liable to make the mistake of getting the
ingredients too stiff. Yet no beginner need feel the least bit
discouraged, for ability in this direction comes with experience;
indeed, just as skill in sewing, embroidering, and other processes comes
about by practice and persistent effort, so will come skill in cooking.


24. Uniform results in cookery depend on accurate measurement. Of
course, there are some cooks--and good ones, too--who claim that they do
not measure, but as a matter of fact they have, through long experience,
developed a judgment, or "sense," of measurement, which amounts to the
same thing as if they actually did measure. Still, even these cooks
cannot be absolutely sure of securing as satisfactory results time after
time as are likely to follow the employment of a more accurate method.
Therefore, to secure the best results, every kitchen should be supplied
with the proper measuring utensils, which are scales, a measuring cup,
and a set of measuring spoons, or a standard tablespoon and a
standard teaspoon.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

25. SCALES.--In Fig. 7 is shown the type of scales generally included in
the kitchen equipment. The material to be weighed is placed on the
platform at the top, and the weight of it is indicated on the dial by a
pointer, or hand. Sometimes these scales are provided with a scoop in
which loose materials may be placed in weighing. Such scales furnish a
correct means not only of measuring materials, but of verifying the
weights of foods from the market, the butcher shop, or the grocery. To
use them properly, the housewife should learn to balance them exactly,
and when she is weighing articles she should always allow for the weight
of the container or receptacle, even if it is only the paper that
holds the food.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

26. MEASURING CUPS.--Weighing the articles called for in a recipe is
often a less convenient method than measuring; therefore, in the
preparation of foods, measuring is more often resorted to than weighing.
As accuracy in measurement is productive of the best results, it is
necessary that all measures be as accurate and definite as possible. For
measuring the ingredients called for in recipes, use is generally made
of a measuring cup like that shown in Fig. 8. Such a cup is designed to
hold 2 gills, or 1/2 pint, and it is marked to indicate thirds and
quarters, so that it may be used for recipes of all kinds. If a liquid
is to be measured with such a cup, it should be filled to the brim, but
if dry material is to be measured with it, the material should be heaped
up in the cup with a spoon and then scraped level with a knife, in the
manner shown in Fig. 9. In case fractions or parts of a cup are to be
measured, the cup should be placed level and stationary and then filled
evenly to the mark indicated on the cup itself.

27. Many times it will be found more convenient to measure dry materials
with a spoon. This can be done with accuracy if it is remembered that 16
tablespoonfuls make 1 cup, or 1/2 pint; 12 tablespoonfuls, 3/4 cup; 8
tablespoonfuls, 1/2 cup; and 4 tablespoonfuls, 1/4 cup. If no measuring
cup like the one just described is at hand, one that will hold 16 level
tablespoonfuls of dry material may be selected from the kitchen supply
of dishes. Such a cup, however, cannot be used successfully in measuring
a half, thirds, or fourths; for such measurements it will be better to
use a spoon.

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

As a rule, it will be found very convenient to have two measuring cups
of standard size, one for measuring dry ingredients and the other for
measuring moist or wet ones. If it is impossible to have more than one,
the dry materials should be measured first in working out a recipe, and
the fats and liquids afterwards. Whatever plan of measuring is followed,
however, it should always be remembered that recipes are written for the
definite quantities indicated and mean _standard_, not approximate,
cupfuls, tablespoonfuls, and teaspoonfuls.

28. MEASURING SPOONS.--In addition to a measuring cup or two, a set of
measuring spoons will be found extremely convenient in a kitchen.
However, if it is impossible to obtain such a set, a teaspoon and a
tablespoon of standard size will answer for measuring purposes. Three
level teaspoonfuls are equal to 1 tablespoonful. When a spoon is used,
it is heaped with the dry material and then leveled with a knife, in the
manner shown in Fig. 10 (_a_). If 1/2 spoonful is desired, it is leveled
first, as indicated in (_a_), and then marked through the center with a
knife and half of its contents pushed off, as shown in (_b_). Fourths
and eighths are measured in the same way, as is indicated in Fig. 11
(_a_), but thirds are measured across the bowl of the spoon, as
in (_b_).

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

29. Precautions to Observe in Measuring.--In measuring some of the
materials used in the preparation of foods, certain points concerning
them should receive attention. For instance, all powdered materials,
such as flour, must first be sifted, as the amount increases upon
sifting, it being definitely known that a cupful of unsifted flour will
measure about 1-1/4 cupfuls after it is sifted. Lumps, such as those
which form in salt and sugar, should be thoroughly crushed before
measuring; if this is not done, accurate measurements cannot be secured,
because lumps of such ingredients are more compact than the loose
material. Butter and other fats should be tightly packed into the
measure, and if the fat is to be melted in order to carry out a recipe,
it should be melted before it is measured. Anything measured in a cup
should be poured into the cup; that is, the cup should not be filled by
dipping it into the material nor by drawing it through the material.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

30. TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.--As foods are sold by weight and by
measure, and as recipes always call for certain weights and measures, it
is absolutely necessary that every person engaged in the purchase and
preparation of foods should be familiar with the tables of weights and
measures in common use for such purposes in the United States and
practically all other English-speaking countries. In addition, it will
be well to have a knowledge of relative weights and measures, so as to
be in a position to use these tables to the best advantage.

31. The table used ordinarily for weighing foods is the table of
AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. Another table of weights, called the table of _Troy
weight_, is used by goldsmiths and jewelers for weighing precious
metals. It should not be confused with avoirdupois weight, however,
because its pound contains only 12 ounces, whereas the avoirdupois pound
contains 16 ounces. The table of avoirdupois weight, together with the
abbreviations of the terms used in it, is as follows:

437-1/2 grains (gr.)..... = 1 ounce............. oz.
16 ounces................ = 1 pound............. lb.
100 pounds............... = 1 hundredweight..... cwt.
20 hundredweight \
                 }....... = 1 ton............... T.
2,000 pounds     /

Although 2,000 pounds make 1 ton, it is well to note that 2,240 pounds
make 1 _long ton_ (L.T.). The long ton is used by coal dealers in some
localities, but the ton, sometimes called the _short ton_, is in more
general use and is the one meant unless long ton is specified.

32. The table of LIQUID MEASURE is used for measuring all liquids, and
is extremely useful to the housewife. This table, together with the
abbreviations of its terms, is as follows:

4 gills (gi.)........... = 1 pint................. pt.
2 pints................. = 1 quart................ qt.
4 quarts................ = 1 gallon............... gal.
31-1/2 gallons.......... = 1 barrel............... bbl.
2 barrels \
          }............ = 1 hogshead............. hhd.
63 gallons/

33. The table of DRY MEASURE is used for measuring dry foods, such as
potatoes, dried peas and beans, etc. The table of dry measure, with its
abbreviations, follows:

2 pints (pt.)........... = 1 quart................ qt.
8 quarts................ = 1 peck................. pk.
4 pecks................. = 1 bushel............... bu.

34. Tables of RELATIVE WEIGHTS AND MEASURES are of value to the
housewife in that they will assist her greatly in coming to an
understanding of the relation that some of the different weights and
measures bear to one another. For example, as dry foods are sold by the
pound in some localities, it will be well for her to know the
approximate equivalent in pounds of a definite quantity of another
measure, say a quart or a bushel of a certain food. Likewise, she ought
to know that when a recipe calls for a cupful it means 1/2 pint, as has
been explained. Every one is familiar with the old saying, "A pint's a
pound the world around," which, like many old sayings, is not strictly
true, for while 1 pint is equal to 1 pound of some things, it is not of
others. The following tables give approximately the relative weights and
measures of most of the common foods:


Beans, dried.................. 2 CUPFULS
Butter........................ 2
Coffee, whole................. 4
Corn meal..................... 3
Flour......................... 4
Milk.......................... 2
Molasses...................... 1-1/2
Meat, chopped, finely packed.. 2
Nuts, shelled................. 3
Oats, rolled.................. 4
Olive oil..................... 2-1/2
Peas, split................... 2
Raisins....................... 3
Rice.......................... 2
Sugar, brown.................. 2-2/3
Sugar, granulated............. 2
Sugar, powdered............... 2-3/4


Butter........................ 1/2 OUNCE
Corn starch................... 3/8
Flour......................... 1/4
Milk.......................... 1/2
Sugar......................... 1/2


Butter........................ 8 OUNCES
Corn meal..................... 5
Corn starch................... 6
Flour......................... 4
Milk.......................... 8
Molasses..................... 10
Nuts, shelled................. 4
Raisins....................... 5
Sugar......................... 8

In measuring, you will find the following relative proportions of
great assistance:

3 tsp. = 1 Tb.
16 Tb. = 1 c.

35. ABBREVIATIONS OF MEASURES.--In order to simplify directions and
recipes in books relating to cookery, it is customary to use the
abbreviations of some weights and measures. Those which occur most
frequently in cook books are the following:

tsp. for teaspoonful
pt. for pint
Tb. for tablespoonful
qt. for quart
c. for cupful
oz. for ounce
lb. for pound


36. For successful results in cookery, the work to be done should be
planned beforehand and then carried on with systematic care. By
following such a plan, a waste of time and material will be prevented
and good results will be secured, for there will be little chance for
mistakes to occur. The order of work here outlined will serve to make
clear the way in which cooking processes can be carried out

First, read the quantity and kind of ingredients listed in the recipe,
and study carefully the method by which they are to be prepared and
combined. In so doing, determine whether the dish is too expensive and
whether the amounts called for will make a dish sufficient in size for
the number of persons to be served. If they are too large, carefully
divide them to make the right quantity; if they are too small, multiply
them to make them enough.

The heat itself, which plays such an important part in cooking, should
receive attention at the proper time. If the fuel to be used is coal or
wood and baking is to be done, build the fire long enough before it is
needed, so that it will be burning evenly and steadily.

Then, while the recipe is being prepared, provided it is to be baked,
regulate the heat of the oven. If gas or kerosene is to be used, light
it after the recipe is read, and regulate it during the measuring and
mixing of the ingredients.

Before proceeding to prepare a dish, clear enough working space for the
utensils that are to be used, as well as for carrying on the various
operations without feeling crowded. Then, on the cleared space, place
the necessary measuring utensils, such as a measuring cup, a knife, a
teaspoon, and a tablespoon. Select a bowl or a pan for mixing, a spoon
for stirring, and, when needed, an egg whip or beater for eggs and
separate bowls in which to beat them. Choose the utensil in which the
mixture is to be cooked, and, if necessary, grease it. During the
process of preparing the dish, measure accurately all the ingredients to
be used, and check them up with the recipe, so as to be sure that none
are missing and that each one is in its proper amount.

If all these steps are accurately taken, the mixing, which is the next
step, can be accomplished quickly and without error. With all the
ingredients properly combined, the mixture is ready for the last step,
the cooking or the baking. This must be done with the utmost care, or an
otherwise properly prepared dish may be spoiled.


37. So that the beginner in cookery may form a definite idea of the
length of time required to cook certain foods, there is presented here
what is commonly known as a _cookery time table_. It should be
remembered that the time required to cook food is influenced by many
factors. For instance, the age of vegetables and fruits very largely
determines how long they should be cooked; tough meats and fowl require
longer cooking than tender ones; and the heat of the oven has much to do
with the length of time required for cooking, especially the process of
baking or roasting Therefore, while this time table will prove of great
help to beginners, it can serve only as a guide. To determine whether or
not foods have been cooked long enough, it is advisable to apply the
proper tests, which are given later in discussing the various foods
rather than to depend solely on the time table. In this table, the
length of time for cooking is given in minutes (abbreviated min.) and
hours (abbreviated hr.)



Bacon....................... 3 to 5 min.
Chicken.................... 20 to 25 min.
Fish....................... 15 to 20 min.
Fish, slices............... 10 to 15 min.
Fish, very small............ 5 to 10 min.
Lamb chops.................. 6 to 8 min.
Quail or squabs............. 8 to 10 min.
Steak, thick............... 10 to 15 min.
Steak, thin................. 5 to 7 min.
Veal chops.................. 6 to 10 min.

Beef, corned................ 3 to 4 hr.
Chicken, 3 lb............... 1 to 1-1/4 hr.
Fish, bluefish, cod, or
  bass, 4 to 5 lb.......... 20 to 30 min.
Fish, slices, 2 to 3 lb.... 20 to 25 min.
Fish, small................ 10 to 15 min.
Fowl, 4 to 5 lb............. 2 to 3 hr.
Ham, 12 to 14 lb............ 4 to 5 hr.
Mutton, leg of.............. 2 to 3 hr.
Tongue...................... 3 to 4 hr.

Beef, rib or loin, 5 lb.,
rare....................... 1 hr. 5 min.
Beef, rib or loin, 5 lb.,
well done.................. 1 hr. 20 min.
Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb.,
rare....................... 1 hr. 30 min.
Beef, rib or loin, 10 lb.,
well done.................. 2 hr.
Beef, rump, 10 lb., rare... 1 hr. 30 min.
Beef, rump, 10 lb., well done.. 2 hr.
Chicken, 4 or 5 lb........ 1-1/2 to 2 hr.
Duck, 5 to 6 lb........... 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr.
Fish, 3 to 5 lb........... 45 to 60 min.
Fish, small............... 20 to 30 min.
Goose, 10 lb.............. 2 to 2-1/2 hr.
Lamb, leg of.............. 1-1/4 to 1-3/4 hr.
Mutton, saddle............ 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr.
Pork, rib, 5 lb........... 2 to 2-1/2 hr.
Turkey, 10 lb............. 2-1/2 to 3 hr.


Asparagus.............. 20 to 30 min.
Beans, lima or shell.... 40 to 60 min.
Beans, string.......... 30 to 45 min.
Beets, old............... 4 to 6 hr.
Beets, young........... 45 to 60 min.
Brussels sprouts....... 15 to 25 min.
Cabbage................ 35 to 60 min.
Carrots............... 3/4 to 2 hr.
Cauliflower............. 20 to 30 min.
Green corn............... 8 to 12 min.
Macaroni................ 30 to 40 min.
Onions.................. 45 to 60 min.
Peas.................... 25 to 60 min.
Potatoes................ 30 to 45 min.
Rice.................... 20 to 30 min.
Spinach................. 20 to 30 min.
Turnips................ 1/2 to 1-1/2 hr.
Vegetable oysters...... 3/4 to 1-1/2 hr.

Beans.....................  6 to 8 hr.
Biscuits, baking powder ... 15 to 25 min.
Biscuits, yeast........... 10 to 25 min.
Bread, ginger............. 20 to 30 min.
Bread, loaf............... 40 to 60 min.
Cake, corn................ 20 to 30 min.
Cake, fruit............ 1-1/4 to 2 hr.
Cake, layer............... 15 to 20 min.
Cake, loaf................ 40 to 60 min.
Cake, pound............ 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 hr.
Cake, sponge.............. 45 to 60 min.
Cookies.................... 6 to 10 min.
Custard................... 20 to 45 min.
Muffins, baking powder.... 15 to 25 min.
Pastry.................... 30 to 45 min.
Potatoes.................. 45 to 60 min.
Pudding, Indian............ 2 to 3 hr.
Pudding, rice (poor man's). 2 to 3 hr.

       *       *       *       *       *



38. Although, as has been explained, the selection and preparation of
foods require much consideration from the housewife who desires to get
good results in cookery, there is still one thing to which she must give
attention if she would keep down the cost of living, and that is the
care of food. Unless food is properly taken care of before it is cooked,
as well as after it is cooked--that is, the left-overs--considerable
loss is liable to result through its spoiling or decaying. Both uncooked
and cooked food may be kept wholesome in several ways, but before these
are discussed it may be well to look into the causes of spoiling. With
these causes understood, the methods of caring for foods will be better
appreciated, and the results in buying, storing, and handling foods will
be more satisfactory.

39. To come to a knowledge of why foods spoil, it will be well to note
that nature abounds in _micro-organisms_, or living things so minute as
to be invisible to the naked eye. These micro-organisms are known to
science as _microbes_ and _germs_, and they are comprised of _bacteria,
yeasts_, and _molds_, a knowledge of which is of the utmost importance
to the physician and the farmer, as well as the housewife. Just in what
ways these are beneficial to the farmer and the physician is beyond the
scope of the subject of cookery, but in the household their influence is
felt in three ways: They are the cause of the decay and spoiling of
foods; they are of value in the preparation of certain foods; and they
are the cause of contagious diseases. It will thus be seen that while
some microbes are undesirable, others exert a beneficial action.

40. It is only within comparatively recent years that the action of
micro-organisms has been understood. It is now definitely known that
these minute living things seize every possible chance to attack
articles of food and produce the changes known as fermentation,
putrefaction, souring, and decay. Micro-organisms that cause
fermentation are necessary in bread making and vinegar making, but they
are destructive to other foods, as, for example, those which are canned
or preserved. Organisms that cause putrefaction are needed in the making
of sauer kraut, salt rising bread, and cheese. Molds also help to make
cheese, but neither these nor putrefactive organisms are desirable for
foods other than those mentioned. It should be remembered, however, that
even those foods which require micro-organisms in their making are
constantly in danger of the attacks of these small living things, for
unless something is done to retard their growth they will cause food to
sour or decay and thus become unfit for consumption.

Some foods, of course, withstand the attacks of micro-organisms for
longer periods of time than others. For example, most fruits that are
protected by an unbroken skin will, under the right conditions, keep for
long periods of time, but berries, on account of having less protective
covering, spoil much more quickly. Likewise, vegetables without skins
decay faster than those with skins, because they have no protective
covering and contain more water, in which, as is definitely known, most
micro-organisms thrive.

41. If food is to be kept from decaying, the housewife must endeavor to
prevent the growth of micro-organisms, and she can best accomplish this
if she is familiar with the ways in which they work. It is for this
reason that, whether she possesses a scientific knowledge of bacteria or
not, an understanding of some practical facts concerning why food spoils
and how to keep it from decaying is imperative. In this part of cookery,
as in every other phase, it is the reason why things should be done that
makes all that relates to the cooking of food so interesting. In all
parts of the work there are scientific facts underlying the processes,
and the more the housewife learns about these, the more she can exercise
the art of cookery, which, like all other arts, depends on scientific

       *       *       *       *       *



42. As has been pointed out, it is not the mere presence of
micro-organisms that causes the spoiling of food, but their constant
growth. Therefore, to keep milk from souring, meat from spoiling, bread
from molding, canned fruit from fermenting, and so on, it is necessary
to know what will prevent the growth of these minute organisms.
Different foods require different treatment. Some foods must be kept
very cold, some must be heated or cooked, others must be dried, and to
others must be added preservatives. An unwarrantable prejudice has been
raised in the minds of many persons against the use of preservatives,
but this is due to the fact that the term is not properly understood. In
this use, it means anything that helps to preserve or keep safe the food
to which it is added. Sugar, salt, spices, and vinegar are all
preservatives, and are added to food as much for the purpose of
preserving it as for seasoning it.


43. Among the common methods of caring for foods that are to be used at
a future time are canning and drying. CANNING, which is discussed fully
in another Section, consists in preserving sterile foods in sealed cans
or jars. The aim in canning is to prevent the growth of micro-organisms,
and to do this the process known as _sterilizing_--that is, the
destroying of bacteria and other micro-organisms by means of heat--is
resorted to. Canning theories are different now from what they were in
former times. For example, housewives formerly made heavy, rich
preserves of available fruits because it was thought that sugar must be
used in large quantities in order to keep or prevent them from spoiling.
While it is true that the sugar assisted, science has since proved that
sterilizing is what must be done, so that now only the sugar desired for
sweetening need be used.

44. The other method of keeping food, namely, DRYING, depends for its
success on the fact that such micro-organisms as bacteria cannot grow
unless they have a considerable quantity of moisture or water. Molds
grow on cheese, bread, damp cloth or paper, or articles that contain
only a small amount of moisture, but bacteria need from 20 to 30 per
cent. of water in food in order to grow and multiply. This explains why
in high altitudes and dry climates foods keep for a long time without
artificial means of preservation. It also explains why the old-fashioned
housekeeper dried fruits and why the preservation of certain meats is
accomplished by the combined methods of smoking and drying, the creosote
of the smoke given off from the wood used in this process acting as a
preservative. All the grains, which are very dry, keep for long periods
of time, even centuries, if they are protected from the moisture of the
air. Peas, beans, and lentils, as well as dried biscuits and crackers,
are all examples of how well food will keep when little or no moisture
is present.


45. Although, as has just been pointed out, moisture is required for the
growth of some micro-organisms, both moisture and warmth are necessary
for the growth of most of the organisms that cause molding,
putrefaction, and fermentation. It is definitely known, also, that in
winter or in cold climates food can be kept for long periods of time
without any apparent change; in fact, the lower the temperature the less
likely are foods to spoil, although freezing renders many of them unfit
for use. These facts are what led up to the scientific truth that
keeping foods dry and at a low temperature is an effective and
convenient method of preventing them from spoiling and to the invention
of the refrigerator and other devices and methods for the cold
storage of foods.

46. THE REFRIGERATOR.--For home use, the refrigerator offers the most
convenient means of keeping foods in good condition. As is well known,
it is a device that, by means of air cooled by the melting of ice or in
some other manner, keeps food at a temperature near the freezing point.
All refrigerators are constructed in a similar manner, having two or
more layers of wood between which is placed an insulating material, such
as cork, asbestos, or mineral wool. The food compartments are lined with
tile, zinc, or other rust-proof material, and the ice compartment is
usually lined with rust-proof metal, so as to be water-tight and
unbreakable. Any refrigerator may be made to serve the purpose of
preserving food effectively if it is well constructed, the ice chamber
kept as full of ice as possible, and the housewife knows how to arrange
the foods in the food chambers to the best advantage.

The construction and use of refrigerators are based on the well-known
scientific fact that air expands and rises when it becomes warm. This
can be proved by testing the air near the ceiling of a room, for no
matter how warm it is near the floor it will always be warmer above. The
same thing occurs in a refrigerator. As air comes in contact with the
ice, it is cooled and falls, and the warm air is forced up. Thus the air
is kept in constant motion, or circulation.

[Illustration: Fig 12.]

47. Many refrigerators are built with the ice compartment on one side,
as in the refrigerator illustrated in Fig. 12. In such refrigerators,
there is usually a small food compartment directly under the ice
chamber, and this is the coldest place in the refrigerator. Here should
be stored the foods that need special care or that absorb odors and
flavors readily, such as milk, butter, cream, meat, etc., because at
this place the air, which circulates in the manner indicated by the
arrow, is the purest. The foods that give off odors strong enough to
taint others should be kept on the upper shelves of the refrigerator,
through which the current of air passes last before being freed from
odors by passing over the ice.

48. In Fig. 13 is shown a type of refrigerator in which the ice chamber,
or compartment, extends across the entire top. This type is so built as
to produce on each side a current of air that passes down from the ice
at the center and back up to the ice near the outside walls, as shown by
the arrows. A different arrangement is required for the food in this
kind of refrigerator, those which give off odors and flavors being
placed in the bottom compartment, or farthest from the ice, and those
which take up odors and flavors, on the top shelf, or nearest the ice. A
careful study of both Figs. 12 and 13 is advised, for they show the best
arrangement of food in each type of refrigerator.

[Illustration: Fig. 13]

49. CARE OF FOOD IN REFRIGERATOR.--The proper placing of foods in a
refrigerator is extremely important, but certain precautions should be
taken with regard to the food itself. Cooked foods should never be
placed in the refrigerator without first allowing them to cool, for the
steam given off when a dish of hot food comes in contact with the cold
air makes the refrigerator damp and causes an undue waste of ice by
warming the air. All dishes containing food should be wiped dry and
carefully covered before they are placed in the refrigerator, so as to
keep unnecessary moisture out of it. As butter and milk are likely to
become contaminated with odors given off by other foods, they should be
properly protected if there is not a separate compartment in which to
keep them. The milk bottles should always be closed and the butter
carefully wrapped or put in a covered receptacle. Onions, cabbage, and
other foods with strong odors, when placed in the refrigerator, should
be kept in tightly closed jars or dishes, so that the odors will not
escape. Before fresh fruits and perishable vegetables--that is,
vegetables that decay easily--are put into the refrigerator, they should
be carefully looked over and all decayed portions removed from them. No
food should be placed in the ice chamber, because this will cause the
ice to melt unnecessarily.

50. CARE OF THE REFRIGERATOR.--It is essential that all parts of the
refrigerator be kept scrupulously clean and as dry as possible. To
accomplish this, nothing should be allowed to spoil in it, and anything
spilled in the refrigerator should be cleaned out immediately. The foods
that are left over should be carefully inspected every day, and anything
not likely to be used within a day or so should be disposed of. At least
once a week the food should be removed from all compartments, the racks
taken out, the drain pipe disconnected, and each part thoroughly washed,
rinsed with boiling water, and dried. The inside of the refrigerator
should likewise be washed, rinsed, and wiped dry, after which the drain
pipe should be connected, the shelves put back in place, and the
food replaced.

The ice chamber of the refrigerator should also be cleaned frequently,
the best time to do this being when the ice has melted enough to be
lifted out conveniently. To prevent the ice from melting rapidly when it
is out of the refrigerator, it may be wrapped in paper or a piece of old
blanket, but this covering must be removed when the ice is replaced in
the chamber, in order to allow the ice to melt in the refrigerator.
Otherwise, it would be impossible to chill the refrigerator properly,
the temperature remaining the same as that outside, for it is as the ice
gradually melts that the air in the refrigerator becomes cool. Of
course, every effort should be made to keep the ice from wasting.
Therefore, while the refrigerator should be kept in a convenient place,
it should not be exposed to too great heat; also, the doors should be
kept tightly closed, and, as has already been explained, hot foods
should not be put in until they are sufficiently cooled. Attention must
be given to the care of the refrigerator, for only when it is clean and
dry can the growth of bacteria that attack foods be prevented.


51. While a refrigerator simplifies the preserving of cooked foods and
those subject to quick decay, there are many communities in which it is
not possible to procure ice conveniently, thus making it necessary to
adopt some other means of keeping food. Then, too, there are generally
quantities of foods, such as winter vegetables, apples, etc., that
cannot be stored in a refrigerator, but must be taken care of properly.
In such cases, the method of storing depends to a certain extent on
conditions. On many farms there are spring houses in which foods may be
stored in order to keep them cool during very warm weather; but in the
majority of homes, the cellar, on account of its being cool, is utilized
for the storage of large quantities of food and even for keeping the
more perishable foods when ice cannot be obtained.

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

52. STORING FOODS IN CELLARS.--In order that a cellar may furnish a safe
place for keeping food, it must be well built and properly cared for. If
it is dug in wet ground and is not well drained, it will become musty
and damp, and fruits and vegetables stored in it will be attacked by
mold. A small part of the cellar should be without a floor, as many
winter vegetables seem to keep better when placed on dry ground, but the
remainder should have a flooring of either well-matched boards or cement
that can be kept clean and dry. Ventilation must also be supplied;
otherwise, odors will be retained that will taint the food kept in the
cellar. To allow the passage of air and light from the outside and thus
secure proper ventilation, the cellar should be provided with windows.
These will also assist very much in the cleaning and airing of the
cellar, processes that should never be overlooked if good results are
desired. In addition to the cleaning of the cellar, constant attention
should be given to the foods kept there. Foods that have spoiled or are
beginning to spoil should be disposed of quickly, for decayed food that
is not removed from the cellar will affect the conditions for keeping
other foods and may be injurious to the health of the family.

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

53. All foods likely to be contaminated by dust and flies in the cellar
must be carefully covered. A screened frame fastened to the wall with
brackets, like the one shown in Fig. 14, is excellent for this purpose,
because it prevents the attack of vermin and permits of ventilation. If
canned goods are to be stored, a cellar cupboard like that shown in Fig.
15 is a very good place in which to keep them. Separate bins should, if
possible, be provided for fruits, potatoes, and other winter vegetables,
and, as shown in Fig. 16, such bins should be so built as to allow air
to pass through them.

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

54. WINDOW BOXES.--The woman who lives in an apartment where there is no
cellar and who does not wish to keep ice in the refrigerator through
the winter will find a window box a very good device in which to keep
food. Such a box is also a convenience for the woman who has a cellar,
but wishes to save steps. A box of this kind is built to fit a kitchen
or a pantry window, and is placed outside of the window, so that the
opening comes toward the room. Such an arrangement, which is illustrated
in Fig. 17, will make the contents of the box easily accessible when the
window is raised. A box for this purpose may be made of wood or
galvanized iron, and it is usually supported by suitable brackets. Its
capacity may be increased by building a shelf in it half way to the top,
and provided it is made of wood, it can be more easily cleaned if it is
lined with table oilcloth.

[Illustration: Fig. 17]


55. It may seem unnecessary to give much attention to the storing of
foods that do not spoil easily, but there are good reasons why such
foods require careful storage. They should be properly cared for to
prevent the loss of flavor by exposure to the air, to prevent the
absorption of moisture, which produces a favorable opportunity for the
growth of molds, and to prevent the attacks of insects and vermin. The
best way in which to care for such foods is to store them in tightly
closed vessels. Earthenware and glass jars, lard pails, coffee and
cocoa cans, all carefully cleaned and having lids to fit, prove to be
very satisfactory receptacles for such purposes.

56. Unless coffee, tea, cocoa, spices, and prepared cereals are bought
in cans or moisture-proof containers, they should be emptied from the
original packages and placed in jars that can be tightly closed, so that
they will not deteriorate by being exposed to the air or moisture. For
convenience and economy, these jars or cans should be labeled. Sugar and
salt absorb moisture and form lumps when exposed to the air, and they,
too, should be properly kept. A tin receptacle is the best kind for
sugar, but for salt an earthenware or glass vessel should be used. It is
not advisable to put these foods or any others into cupboards in paper
bags, because foods kept in this way make disorderly looking shelves and
are easily accessible to vermin, which are always attracted to food
whenever it is not well protected.

Canned goods bought in tin cans do not need very careful storage. It is
sufficient to keep them in a place dry enough to prevent the cans from
rusting. Foods canned in glass, however, should be kept where they are
not exposed to the light, as they will become more or less discolored
unless they are stored in dark places.

Flour, meals, and cereals stored in quantities develop mold unless they
are kept very dry. For the storing of these foods, therefore, wooden
bins or metal-lined boxes kept in a dry place are the most satisfactory.


57. Practically all vegetables and fruits with skins may be regarded as
semiperishable foods, and while they do not spoil so easily as some
foods, they require a certain amount of care. Potatoes are easily kept
from spoiling if they are placed in a cool, dry, dark place, such as a
cellar, a bin like that shown in Fig. 16 furnishing a very good means
for such storage. It is, of course, economical to buy potatoes in large
quantities, but if they must be kept under conditions that will permit
them to sprout, shrivel, rot, or freeze, it is better to buy only a
small quantity at a time. Sweet potatoes may be bought in considerable
quantity and kept for some time if they are wrapped separately in pieces
of paper and packed so that they do not touch one another.

Carrots, turnips, beets, and parsnips can be kept through the winter in
very much the same manner as potatoes. They deteriorate less, however,
if they are covered with earth or sand. Sometimes, especially in country
districts, such winter vegetables are buried in the ground out of doors,
being placed at a depth that renders them safe from the attacks of
frost. Cabbage will keep very well if placed in barrels or boxes, but
for long keeping, the roots should not be removed. Pumpkin and squash
thoroughly matured do not spoil readily if they are stored in a
dry place.

Apples and pears may be stored in boxes or barrels, but very fine
varieties of these fruits should be wrapped separately in paper. All
fruit should be looked over occasionally, and those which show signs of
spoiling should be removed.


58. As practically every woman knows, a MENU, or _bill of fare_,
consists of a certain number of dishes given in the order in which they
are to be served; likewise, she knows that the dishes called for in a
menu must be prepared according to a RECIPE, or _receipt_, which is the
list of ingredients of a mixture giving the exact proportions to be
used, together with proper directions for compounding. In all good
recipes the items are tabulated in the order in which they are needed,
so as to save time and produce good results. Items tabulated in this
manner also serve to minimize the danger of omitting some of the
ingredients of a recipe, for they can be easily checked up when they are
given in the proper order.

59. In preparing recipes, the beginner in cookery usually has difficulty
in judging the size of a recipe. The experienced housewife will not
follow a recipe exactly when she thinks it will produce more food than
she needs to meet the requirements of her family; instead, she will
reduce the quantities to suit her wants. Likewise, if a recipe will not
provide enough, she will increase the quantities accordingly. Just how
to judge whether or not a recipe will make what is wanted comes only
with experience, but the beginner may be guided by the fact that it is
never wise to prepare more than enough of one kind of dish, unless, of
course, it can be used to good advantage as a left-over. On the other
hand, if a recipe is for food that can be kept and used for another meal
later, it often pays to make up more, so as to save time, fuel, and
labor. In any event, it is always advisable to follow explicitly the
directions that are given, for if the recipe is of the right kind they
will be given so that success will result from carrying them out
in detail.

60. In order that the beginner in cookery may form a definite idea of
the manner in which the dishes of a menu, or bill of fare, may be
prepared so that they will be ready to serve in their proper order at
meal time, there is here given a simple dinner menu, together with the
recipes for preparing the dishes called for and the order in which they
should be prepared. While these recipes are not intended to teach
methods of cookery, which are taken up later, the student is advised to
prepare the menu for her own satisfaction and so that she will be able
to report on the success she has had with each dish.


Pan-Broiled Chops
Mashed Potatoes
Creamed Peas
Cabbage Salad
Orange Fluff with Sauce

       *       *       *       *       *



Buy the necessary number of pork, veal, or lamb chops, and proceed to
cook them according to the directions previously given for pan broiling.
Season with salt and pepper just before removing the chops from the pan.


Peel the desired number of potatoes, put to cook in a sufficient amount
of boiling salted water to cover well, and cook until the potatoes are
tender enough to be easily pierced with a fork. Remove from the fire and
drain off the water. Mash the potatoes with a wooden or a wire potato
masher, being careful to reduce all the particles to a pulpy mass in
order to prevent lumps, or put them through a ricer. When sufficiently
mashed, season with additional salt, a dash of pepper, and a small piece
of butter, and add hot milk until they are thinned to a mushy
consistency, but not too soft to stand up well when dropped from a
spoon. Then beat the potatoes vigorously with a large spoon until they
are light and fluffy.


Boil until they are soft, two cupfuls of fresh peas in 1 quart of water
to which have been added 1 tablespoonful of salt and 2 of sugar, and
then drain; or, use 1 can of peas, heat them to the boiling point in
their liquid, and then drain. A part of the water in which the fresh
peas were cooked or the liquid on the canned peas may be used with an
equal amount of milk to make a sauce for the peas, or all milk may
be used.


1 c. of milk, or 1/2 c. liquid from peas and  1/2 c. milk
1 Tb. butter
1/2 tsp. salt
1 Tb. flour

Melt the butter in a saucepan or a double boiler, work in the flour and
salt until a smooth paste is formed, and add the liquid that has been
heated. Stir until thick and smooth. Add to the peas, reheat, and serve.


1/2 medium-sized head of cabbage
1/2 tsp. salt
1 small red or green sweet pepper
Dash of pepper
1 small onion
Salad dressing

Shred the cabbage finely by cutting across the leaves with a sharp knife
or a cabbage shredder. Chop the pepper and onion into very small pieces
and add to the cabbage. Mix well and add the salt and pepper.


3/4 c. vinegar
1/2 tsp. mustard, if desired
1/4 c. water
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
3 Tb. sugar
1 Tb. flour

Heat the water and the vinegar; melt the butter in a saucepan, add to it
the flour, mustard, salt, and sugar, stir until well blended, and then
pour in the hot liquid. Cook for a few minutes, stirring constantly to
prevent the formation of lumps. Pour over the cabbage while hot; allow
it to cool and then serve on plates garnished with lettuce.


1/2 c. sugar
1/4 c. orange juice
5 Tb. corn starch
1 Tb. lemon juice
Pinch of salt
2 egg whites
1 pt. boiling water

Mix the corn starch and sugar and salt, stir into the boiling water, and
cook directly over the fire until the mixture thickens. Continue to
cook, stirring constantly for 10 minutes, or place in a double boiler
and cook 1/2 hour. Beat the egg whites until they are stiff.

When the corn starch is cooked, remove from the fire and mix thoroughly
with the fruit juices. Pour over the beaten egg whites and stir slightly
until the eggs and corn starch are mixed. Pour into sherbet glasses or
molds wet with cold water and set aside until ready to serve.


1 Tb. corn starch
3/4 c. boiling water
2 Tb. butter
3/4 c. sugar
2 egg yolks
1/4 c. orange juice
1 Tb. lemon juice

Moisten the corn starch with a little cold water and stir in 1/2 cupful
of the boiling water. Cook for 10 or 15 minutes. Cream the butter, add
the sugar and egg yolks, beat the mixture with a fork, and add the
remaining 1/4 cupful of boiling water. Stir this into the corn starch
and cook until the eggs thicken slightly. Remove from the fire and add
the orange and lemon juices. Serve cold over the orange fluff.

61. In the preparation of a meal, it is impossible to follow the order
of service given in a menu, because of the different lengths of time
required to prepare the different dishes. The order in which the menu
here given should be prepared will therefore serve to show the way in
which other meals may be planned or other menus carried out. Each recipe
for this menu is planned to serve six persons, but it can be easily
changed in case a different number are to be served. For instance, if
there are only four in the family, two-thirds of each ingredient should
be used; and if only three, just one-half of each. If eight are to be
served, one-third will have to be added to each of the amounts. As has
been pointed out, just a little thought will show how other numbers may
be provided for.

62. In preparing the foods called for in this menu, the dessert, which
is the last thing given, should be prepared first, because time must be
allowed for it to cool before serving. In fact, it may be prepared a
half day before it is to be served. So as to allow sufficient time to
mash the potatoes after they have boiled, they should be made ready to
put on the stove about 3/4 hour before the meal is to be served. After
the potatoes have been put on to boil, the peas, provided fresh ones are
to be used, should be put on to cook, and then the sauce for them should
be made. If canned peas are to be used, the sauce should be made after
the potatoes have been put on the stove and the peas should be heated
and combined with the sauce just before broiling the chops. The cabbage
salad may then be prepared, and put in a cool place until it is to be
served. The chops should be broiled last, because it is necessary that
they be served immediately upon being taken from the fire.


63. It is important that every person who is engaged in the preparation
of food be thoroughly familiar with the various terms that are used in
cookery. Many of these are not understood by the average person, because
they are foreign terms or words that are seldom employed in other
occupations. However, as they occur frequently in recipes, cook books,
menus, etc., familiarity with them will enable one to follow recipes and
to make up menus in a more intelligent manner.

In view of these facts, a table of terms that are made use of in cookery
is here given, together with definitions of the words and, wherever it
has been deemed necessary, with as accurate pronunciations as can be
obtained. The terms are given in bold-faced type, and for easy reference
are arranged alphabetically. It is recommended that constant use be made
of this table, for much of the success achieved in cookery depends on a
clear understanding of the words and expressions that are peculiar to
this science.

À la; au; aux (ah lah; o; o).--With; dressed in a certain style; as,
smelts à la tartare, which means smelts with tartare sauce.

Au gratin (o gra-tang).--Literally, dressed with brown crumbs. In actual
practice, also flavored with grated cheese.

Au naturel (o nat-ü-rayl).--A term applied to uncooked vegetables, to
indicate that they are served in their natural state without sauce or
dressing applied. Potatoes au naturel are served cooked; but unpeeled.

Béchamel (bay-sham-ayl).--A sauce made with white stock and cream or
milk-named from a celebrated cook.

Biscuit Glacé (bis-kü-ee glah-say).--Ice cream served in glacéd shells,
sometimes in paper cases.

Bisque.--A thick soup usually made from shellfish or game; also, an ice
cream to which finely chopped macaroons have been added.

Bouchées (boosh-ay).--Small patties; literally, a mouthful.

Boudin (boo-dang).--A delicate side dish prepared with forcemeat.

Bouquet of Herbs.--A bouquet consisting of a sprig of parsley, thyme,
and sweet marjoram, a bay leaf, and perhaps a stalk of celery, tied
firmly together and used as flavoring in a soup or stew. Arranged in
this way, the herbs are more easily removed when cooked.

Café au Lait (ka-fay o lay).--Coffee with milk.

Café Noir (ka-fay nooar).--Black coffee.

Canapés (kan-ap-ay).--Small slices of bread toasted or sautéd in butter
and spread with a savory paste of meats, fish, or vegetables. They are
served either hot or cold as an appetizer or as a first course for lunch
or dinner.

Canard (kan-ar).--Duck.

Capers.--Small pickled buds of a European shrub, used in sauces and in

Capon.--A male fowl castrated for the purpose of improving the quality
of the flesh.

Caramel.--A sirup of browned sugar.

Casserole.--A covered earthenware dish in which foods are cooked.

Champignons (shang-pe-nyong).--The French name for mushrooms.

Chartreuse (shar-truhz).--A preparation of game, meat, fish, etc.,
molded in jelly and surrounded by vegetables. The name was given to the
dish by the monks of the monastery of Chartreuse.

Chiffonade (shif-fong-ad).--Salad herbs finely shredded and then sautéd
or used in salads.

Chillies.--Small red peppers used in seasoning.

Chives.--An herb allied to the onion family.

Chutney.--An East Indian sweet pickle.

Citron.--The rind of a fruit of the lemon species preserved in sugar.

Collops.--Meat cut in small pieces.

Compote.--Fruit stewed in sirup.

Coquilles (ko-ke-yuh).--Scallop shells in which fish or oysters are
sometimes served.

Créole, à la (kray-ol, ah lah).--With tomatoes.

Croustade (kroos-tad).--A thick piece of bread that has been hollowed
out and then toasted or fried crisp. The depression is filled with food.

Croutons (kroo-tong).--Bread diced and fried or toasted to serve with
or in soup.

Curry.--An East Indian preparation made of hot seeds, spices, and dried

Demi-Tasse (duh-mee tass).--Literally, a half cup. As commonly used, it
refers to a small cup in which after-dinner coffee is served.

Deviled.--Highly seasoned.

Dill.--A plant used for flavoring pickles.

En coquille (ang ko-ke-yuh).--Served in shells.

Entrées (ang-tray).--Small made dishes served with lunch or dinner. They
are sometimes served as a course between the main courses of a meal.

Escarole (ays-kar-ol).--A broad-leaved kind of endive.

Farce or Forcemeat.--A mixture of meat, bread, etc., used as stuffing.

Fillets (fe-lay).--Long, thin pieces of meat or fish generally rolled
and tied.

Fillet Mignons (fe-lay me-nyong).--Small slices from fillet of beef,
served with steak.

Fondant.--Sugar boiled with water and stirred to a heavy paste. It is
used for the icing of cake or the making of French candies.

Fondue.--A dish made usually with melted or grated cheese. There are
several varieties of this preparation.

Frappé (frap-pay).--Semifrozen.

Fromage (fro-magh).--Cheese.

Glacé (glah-say).-Covered with icing; literally, a shining surface.

Glaze.--The juices of meat cooked down to a concentration and used as a
foundation for soups and gravies.

Goulash (gool-ash).--A Hungarian beef stew, highly seasoned.

Gumbo.--A dish of food made of young capsules of okra, seasoned with
salt and pepper, stewed and then served with melted butter.

Haricot (har-e-ko).--A small bean; a bit; also, a stew in which the meat
and vegetables are finely divided.

Homard (ho-mar).--Lobster.

Hors d'oeuvres (or-d'uhvr').--Relishes.

Italiene, à la (e-tal-yang, ah lah).--In Italian style.

Jardinière (zhar-de-nyayr).--A mixed preparation of vegetables stewed in
their own sauce; also, a garnish of various vegetables.

Julienne (zhü-lyayn).--A clear soup with shredded vegetables.

Junket.--Milk jellied by means of rennet.

Kippered.--Dried or smoked.

Larding.--The insertion of strips of fat pork into lean meat. The fat is
inserted before cooking.

Lardon.--A piece of salt pork or bacon used in larding.

Legumes.--The vegetables belonging to the bean family; namely, beans,
peas, and lentils.

Lentils.--A variety of the class of vegetables called legumes.

Macédoine (mah-say-dooan).--A mixture of green vegetables.

Marinade (mar-e-nad).--A pickle used for seasoning meat or fish before

Marinate.--To pickle in vinegar or French dressing, as meat or fish is

Marrons (ma-rong).--Chestnuts.

Menu.--A bill of fare.

Meringue (muh-rang).--A kind of icing made of white of egg and sugar
well beaten.

Mousse (moos).--Ice cream made with whipped cream and beaten egg and
frozen without turning.

Nougat (noo-gah).--A mixture of almonds and sugar.

Paprika.--Hungarian sweet pepper ground fine and used as a seasoning. It
is less stinging than red or Cayenne pepper.

Pâté (pa-tay).--A little pie; a pastry or patty.

Pimiento.--Sweet red peppers used as a vegetable, a salad, or a relish.

Pistachio (pis-ta-shioh).--A pale greenish nut resembling an almond.

Potage (pot-azh).--Soup.

Purée (pü-ray).-A thick soup containing cooked vegetables that have
been rubbed through a sieve.

Ragoût (ra-goo).--A stew made of meat or meat and vegetables and served
with a sauce.

Ramekin.--A preparation of cheese and puff paste or toast, which is
baked or browned. This word is sometimes used to designate the dish in
which such a mixture is cooked.

Réchauffé (ray-sho-fay).--A warmed-over dish.

Rissoles.--Small shapes of puff paste filled with some mixture and fried
or baked. It also refers to balls of minced meat, egged, crumbed, and
fried until crisp.

Roux (roo).--Thickening made with butter and flour.

Salmi (sal-mee).--A stew or hash of game.

Salpicon (sal-pee-kong).--Minced poultry, ham, or other meats mixed with
a thick sauce.

Sauce Piquante (sos-pe-kangt).--An acid sauce.

Shallot.--A variety of onion.

Sorbet (sor-bay).--A sherbet, frozen punch, or water ice; the same as

Soufflé (soo-flay).--Literally, puffed up. As generally understood, it
is a spongy mixture made light with eggs and baked, the foundation of
which may be meat, fish, cheese, vegetables, or fruit.

Soy.--A Japanese sauce prepared from the seed of the soy bean. It has an
agreeable flavor and a clear brown color and is used to color soups
and sauces.

Stock.--The foundation for soup made by cooking meat, bones, and

Sultanas.--White or yellow seedless grapes, grown in Corinth.

Tarragon (tar-ra-gonk).--An herb used in seasoning certain dressing and
sauces; it is also employed in flavoring tarragon vinegar.

Tartare Sauce (tar-tar sos).--A mayonnaise dressing to which have been
added chopped pickle, capers, and parsley in order to make a tart
sauce for fish.

Timbale.--A pie raised in a mold; also, a shell filled with forcemeat or

Truffles.--A species of fungi growing in clusters some inches below the
soil, and having an agreeable perfume, which is easily scented by pigs,
who are fond of them, and by dogs trained to find them. They are found
abundantly in France, but are not subject to cultivation. They are used
chiefly for seasoning and garnishing.

Vanilla.--The bean of the tropical orchid or the extract obtained from
this fruit. Used in flavoring desserts, etc.

Vinaigrette Sauce (ve-nay-grayt sos).--A sauce made with oil and
vinegar, to which are added finely minced chives, peppers, or other
highly flavored green vegetables and spices.

Vol au Vent (vol o vang).--A crust of light puff paste. Also, a large
pâté or form of pastry filled with a savory preparation of oysters,
fish, or meat and a cream sauce.

Zwieback (tsouee-bak).--Bread toasted twice.

       *       *       *       *       *



(1) What points must be kept in mind in the selection of cooking

(2) Mention three materials used for cooking utensils and explain their

(3) (_a_) What is a labor-saving device? (_b_) Describe one of the
labor-saving devices mentioned in the text and tell why it saves labor.

(4) What kind of utensil should be used for: (_a_) the rapid boiling of
spaghetti; (_b_) the slow cooking of cereals?

(5) Tell how the following are prepared for cooking: (_a_) vegetables;
(_b_) meats; (_c_) fish.

(6) Describe: (_a_) sifting; (_b_) stirring; (_c_) beating; (_d_)
creaming; (_e_) folding.

(7) Why is it necessary to measure foods accurately in cooking?

(8) Describe the measuring of: (_a_) cupful of flour; (_b_) one-half
teaspoonful of butter; (_c_) 1 teaspoonful of baking powder.

(9) (_a_) Why should a systematic plan be outlined before beginning to
carry out a recipe? (_b_) Give briefly the order of work that should
be followed.

(10) What factors influence the length of time required to cook foods?

(11) Tell why foods spoil.

(12) (_a_) Mention the usual methods by which food is kept from spoiling.
(_b_) What is meant by the term preservative?

(13) (_a_) What is the aim in canning foods? (_b_) On what principle does
success in drying foods depend?

(14) Explain the construction of a refrigerator and the principle on
which it is based.

(15) Describe the placing of the following articles in the refrigerator
and tell which should be covered and why: (_a_) milk; (_b_) butter; (_c_)
cooked fish; (_d_) cooked tomatoes; (_e_) melons; (f) cheese.

(16) Explain how a refrigerator should be cared for.

(17) Name the ways in which foods may be kept from spoiling without

(18) How should a cellar in which foods is to be stored be built and
cared for?

(19) (_a_) Why is it necessary to store non-perishable foods? (_b_) Tell
the best ways in which to preserve such foods.

(20) (_a_) What is a menu? (_b_) Explain the meaning of the term recipe. (_c_) In what order should the recipes of a menu be prepared?

       *       *       *       *       *


After trying out the menu in the manner explained in the text, send with
your answers to the Examination Questions a report of your success. In
making out your report, simply write the name of the food and describe
its condition by means of the terms specified in the following list.
Thus, if the chops were tender and well done, write, "Pan-broiled chops,
tender, well done"; if the potatoes were sufficiently cooked and creamy,
write "Mashed potatoes, sufficiently cooked, creamy"; and so on.

Pan-Broiled Chops: tough? tender? underdone? overdone?

Mashed Potatoes: sufficiently cooked? creamy? lumpy? too soft?

Creamed Peas: tender? tough? properly seasoned? improperly seasoned?

Sauce for Peas: smooth? lumpy? thin? of correct thickness? too thick?

Cabbage Salad: properly seasoned? improperly seasoned? crisp?

Orange Fluff: stiff enough? too soft? flavor agreeable? flavor

Sauce for Orange Fluff: smooth? lumpy?

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *



1. ORIGIN OF CEREALS.--_Cereals,_ which is the term applied to the
edible seeds of certain grains, originated with the civilization of man.
When man lived in a savage state, he wandered about from place to place
and depended for his food on hunting and fishing; but as he ceased his
roaming and began to settle in regions that he found attractive, it was
not long before he became aware of the possibilities of the ground about
him and realized the advantage of tilling the soil as a means of
procuring food. Indeed, the cultivation of the soil for the production
of food may be considered as one of the first steps in his civilization.
Among the foods he cultivated were grains, and from the earliest times
to the present day they have been the main crop and have formed the
chief food of people wherever it is possible to produce them.

The grains belong to the family of grasses, and through cultivation
their seeds, which store the nourishment for the growth of new plants,
have been made to store a sufficient amount of nourishment to permit man
to collect and use it as food. The name cereals was derived from the
goddess Ceres, whom the Romans believed to be the protector of their
crops and harvests. Numerous grains are produced, but only eight of
these cereals are used extensively as food, namely, wheat, corn, oats,
rice, barley, rye, buckwheat, and millet.

2. ABUNDANCE OF PRODUCTION.--With the exception of the desert lands and
the Arctic regions, cereals of some kind are grown over the entire
world. Some varieties thrive in the hot countries, others flourish in
the temperate regions, and still others mature and ripen in the short
warm season of the colder northern climates. In fact, there is
practically no kind of soil that will not produce a crop of some variety
of grain. Since grains are so easily grown and are so plentiful, cereals
and foods made from them furnish a large part of the world's food
supply. Indeed, about one-fourth of all the food eaten by the
inhabitants of the world, when it is considered as a whole, is made up
of cereals.

3. ECONOMIC VALUE OF CEREALS.--The abundance of the world's grain supply
makes the cost so moderate that many of the poorer classes of people in
various countries, especially those in the Far East, live almost
entirely on cereals. Still there is another factor that controls the low
cost of cereals and grains and keeps them within the means of all
classes of people, and that is their excellent keeping quality. They
require very little care and will keep for an indefinite period of time.
Because of their unperishable nature, they may be stored in large
quantities and distributed to consumers as they are needed and at a
price that is fairly uniform.

Since the cost of cereals is moderate, they should form a large
proportion of the diet of the entire family, especially if the family's
income will allow only a limited sum to be spent for food. Some cereals,
of course, are much cheaper than others, and in purchasing this kind of
food the housewife should be governed accordingly. Those which require
an elaborate manufacturing process in their preparation for the market
are the most expensive, but they have an advantage in that they require
practically no preparation before serving. For the varieties that must
be cooked, the cost of preparing the dish, especially if the price of
fuel is high, must be taken into consideration, for unless some thought
is given to the economical use of the fuel, as well as to the method of
cooking employed, the cost of the prepared dish may be greatly
increased. However, in the preparation of cereals, very little skill or
energy is required and a general knowledge of the best methods for one
of them can, as a rule, be applied to all.

4. CEREAL PRODUCTS.--Besides the cereals already mentioned, a number of
products of cereals are extensively used in cookery, chief among them
being flour, corn starch, and other starches. Although every housewife
should possess knowledge of the uses of each of these, instruction in
them is not given until later. This Section includes particularly the
study of grains--whole, cracked, flaked, and those made into grits or
meal--and the use and the serving of them, as well as ready-to-eat
cereals, which are commonly referred to as _breakfast foods._ The only
additional foods to which attention is given at this time are macaroni,
spaghetti, and foods of a similar nature, for as these are made from
wheat they are truly cereal products. In their preparation for the
table, the rules that govern the other cereal foods apply also in a
large measure to them.


5. The composition of all cereals is similar, yet each one has its
distinguishing feature. While all the five food substances--water,
mineral matter, protein, fat, and carbohydrate--are to be found in
cereals, they occur in different quantities in the various kinds. Some
contain large quantities of protein and others practically none, and
while certain ones have considerable fat others possess comparatively
small quantities. A characteristic of all cereals, however, is that they
contain a large amount of carbohydrate and a small amount of water. It
is well to remember, though, that while the food substances of cereals
are found in sufficient quantities to sustain life, they will not permit
a person to live for long periods of time exclusively on this form of
food. Likewise, it will be well to observe that the foods made from a
certain grain will be quite similar in composition to the grain itself;
that is, any change in the composition of the foods must be brought
about by the addition of other substances.

6. All grains are similar in general structure, too. The largest
proportion of carbohydrate lies in the center, this substance growing
less toward the outside of the grain. The protein lies near the outside,
and grows less toward the center. Fat is found in small amounts
scattered through the entire grain, but most of it is found in the
_germ,_ which is a tiny portion of the grain from which the new plant
sprouts. The mineral matter of cereals is found chiefly just inside the
bran, or outer covering, so that when this covering is removed, as in
the process of preparation for food, a certain amount of mineral matter
is generally lost.

7. PROTEIN IN CEREALS.--The cereals are essentially a carbohydrate food,
but some also yield a large proportion of protein. In this respect they
differ from the animal foods that produce the principal supply of
protein for the diet, for these, with the exception of milk, do not
yield carbohydrates. The grain that contains the most protein is wheat,
and in the form in which protein occurs in this cereal it is called
_gluten,_ a substance that is responsible for the hardness of wheat. The
gluten, when the wheat is mixed with water or some other liquid, becomes
gummy and elastic, a fact that accounts for the rubbery consistency of
bread dough. Cereals that contain no gluten do not make bread
successfully. Next to wheat, rye contains protein in the greatest
amount, and rice contains the least. Although protein is the most
expensive of the food substances, the kind of protein found in cereals
is one of the cheaper varieties.

8. FAT IN CEREALS.--The fat of cereals helps to contribute to their
heat-and energy-producing qualities, and, besides, it is one of the
cheaper sources of this food substance. Of the eight grains, or cereals,
used as food, oats and corn contain the most fat, or heat-producing
material. The oil of corn, because of its lack of flavor, is frequently
used in the manufacture of salad oil, cooking oil, and pastry fat. The
fat that occurs in cereals becomes rancid if they are not carefully
stored. In the making of white flour, the germ of the wheat is removed,
and since most of the fat is taken out with the germ, white flour keeps
much better than graham flour, from which the germ is not abstracted in
the milling process.

9. CARBOHYDRATE IN CEREALS.--The food substance found in the greatest
proportion in cereals is carbohydrate in the form of starch. Cereals
contain many times more starch than any of the other food substances,
rice, which is fully three-fourths starch, containing the most, and
oats, which are less than one-half starch, the least. Starch is
distributed throughout the grain in tiny granules visible only under the
microscope, each being surrounded by a covering of material that is
almost indigestible. In the various grains, these tiny granules differ
from one another in appearance, but not to any great extent in general
structure, nutritive value, or digestibility, provided they are cooked
thoroughly. The large amount of carbohydrate, or starch, in cereals
explains why they are not hard to digest, for, as is well known, starch
is more easily digested than either protein or fat. This and the fact
that some grains contain also a large amount of fat account for the high
energy-producing quality of cereals. While it is safe to say that
cereals are chiefly valuable for their starch, the tissue-building
material in some grains, although in small proportion, is in sufficient
quantity to place them with the protein foods.

10. MINERAL MATTER IN CEREALS.--Cereals contain seven or eight of the
minerals required in the diet. Such a variety of minerals is sure to be
valuable to the human body, as it is about one-half of the whole number
required by the body for its maintenance. Since, as has already been
explained, much of the mineral matter lies directly under the coarse
outside covering, some of it is lost when this covering is removed. For
this reason, the grains that remain whole and the cereal products that
contain the entire grain are much more valuable from the standpoint of
minerals than those in which the bran covering is not retained. If a
sufficient percentage of minerals is secured in the diet from
vegetables, fruits, and milk, it is perhaps unnecessary to include whole
cereals; but if the diet is at all limited, it is advisable to select
those cereals which retain the original composition of the grain.

11. WATER IN CEREALS.--Cereals contain very little water in their
composition. This absence of water is a distinct advantage, for it makes
their nutritive value proportionately high and improves their keeping
quality. Just as the strength of a beverage is lowered by the addition
of water, so the nutritive value of foods decreases when they contain a
large amount of water. On the other hand, the keeping quality of cereals
could scarcely be improved, since the germs that cause foods to spoil
grow only in the presence of water. This low proportion of water also
permits them to be stored compactly, whereas if water occurred in large
amounts it would add materially to their bulk.

12. CELLULOSE IN CEREALS.--In addition to the five food substances that
are found in all cereals, there is always present another material known
as cellulose, which, as is pointed out elsewhere, is an indigestible
material that occurs on the outside of all grains, as the bran covering,
and covers the starch granules throughout the inside of the grain. In
fact, it forms a sort of skeleton upon which the grains are built. As
long as the cellulose remains unbroken, it prevents the grain from being
digested to any extent. However, it forms a valuable protective covering
for the grain and it has a certain value, as bulk, in the diet, a fact
that is ignored by some persons and overrated by others. It is well to
include at least some cellulose in cereal foods when they are taken in
the diet, because its presence tends to make food less concentrated.

13. TABLE SHOWING COMPOSITION OF CEREALS.--Not all grains, or cereals,
contain the same amount of food substances and cellulose; that is, while
one may be high in protein it may be lacking in some other food
substance. The relation that the various grains bear to one another with
regard to the food substances and cellulose is clearly set forth in
Table I. In this table, under the various food substances and cellulose,
the grains, with the exception of millet, are mentioned in the order of
their value, ranging from the highest down to the lowest in each of the
food substances and cellulose. Thus, as will be seen, wheat is highest
in protein and rice is lowest, oats are highest in fat and rye is
lowest, and so on. Also, as will be observed, while wheat is highest in
protein, it is, as compared with the other cereals, sixth in fat, fourth
in carbohydrate, fourth in cellulose, and fifth in mineral matter. In
this way may be compared all the other cereals to see in just what way
they are of value as a food.



Protein   Fat       Carbohydrate   Cellulose  Mineral Matter
                                              or Ash

Wheat     Oats      Rice           Oats       Oats

Rye       Corn      Rye            Buckwheat  Barley

Oats      Barley    Corn           Barley     Buckwheat

Barley    Buckwheat Wheat          Wheat      Rye

Corn      Rice      Barley         Rye        Wheat

Buckwheat Wheat     Buckwheat      Corn       Corn

Rice      Rye       Oats           Rice       Rice

       *       *       *       *       *



14. Cereals and cereal products play a very important part in the food
problem, for the prosperity of a country depends on its grain crops and
the people of all classes are dependent on them for food. This is
evident when it is known that they form a greater proportion of the food
consumed than any other single food material. In their widespread
consumption, they have many and varied uses. In truth, a meal is seldom
served without some cereal food, for if no other is used, bread of some
description is almost always included. Besides bread, a cooked or a dry
cereal is usually served for breakfast, and for some persons this
constitutes the main breakfast dish, providing a nourishing and easily
digested food when served with milk or cream. This food is especially
desirable for children, and for this reason is always among the first
solid foods fed to them.

15. While to most persons the word cereal suggests the idea of a
breakfast food, because cereals are used most often for that purpose,
they find their place in other meals than breakfast. Although they are
used less often on the dinner table than elsewhere, they frequently have
an important place there, for a number of them are commonly used as
dinner dishes and others might be used more frequently, and to
advantage, too. In this connection, they are used in soups, and in
certain forms, usually the whole or slightly crushed grain, they take
the place of a vegetable. Some of them, particularly rice, are often
used with meat or cheese in making an entree or in combination with
eggs, milk, fruit, or various flavorings as a dessert to be served with
a heavy or a light meal. Cold cooked cereal is often sliced and sautéd
and then served with meat or some other heavy protein dish. Cereals are
also used for lunch or supper, perhaps more often than for dinner, and
because of their easy digestion they are to be recommended for the
evening meal for all members of the family, but especially for children.
When used in this way, they may be served with cream, as for breakfast,
or prepared in any other suitable way. Whenever cereals are served,
whether alone or in combination with other foods, the result is an
economical dish and usually an easily digested one, unless, of course,
the food with which they are combined is expensive or indigestible. But,
to whatever use cereals are put, unless they are thoroughly cooked they
are not easily digested and they lose much of their value. In fact, the
ready-to-eat cereals, which have been thoroughly cooked, are preferable
to those which are poorly cooked in the home.


16. Preparation of Grains for the Market.--So that the housewife may go
about the selection of cereals in an intelligent manner, it may be well
for her to know how they are prepared for market. After the grains are
harvested, the first step in their preparation consists in thrashing,
which removes the husks from the outside. In some countries, thrashing
is done entirely by hand, but usually it is accomplished by machinery of
a simple or a more elaborate kind. Occasionally no further treatment is
applied, the whole grains being used as food, but generally they receive
further preparation. Sometimes they are crushed coarsely with or without
the bran covering, and in this form they are known as _grits._ At other
times they are ground finer and called _meal,_ and still finer and
called _flour,_ being used mostly in these two forms for the making of
various kinds of breads. Then, again, grains are rolled and crushed, as,
for example, _cracked wheat_ and _rolled oats._

Various elaborate means have been devised by which cereals are prepared
in unusual ways for the purpose of varying the diet. Sometimes they are
used alone, but often certain other materials are used in their
preparation for the market. For example, the popular flake cereals, such
as corn flakes, are cooked with salt and sometimes with sugar and then
rolled thin. Some of the cereals are thoroughly cooked, while others are
malted and toasted, but the treatment to which they are subjected is
generally given to them to improve their flavor and to aid in the work
of digestion.

17. FACTORS THAT GOVERN CEREAL SELECTION.--Besides knowing about the
ways in which cereals are prepared for market, the housewife should be
familiar with the factors that govern their selection for use as food.
In the first place, cereals should be chosen to suit the needs and
tastes of the members of the family, and then attention should be given
to the forms in which they can be purchased. Some cereals are sold in
sealed packages, while others can be bought in bulk. Each, however, has
its advantages. Those sold loose are often lower in price than those
sold in package form, but there is a question as to whether, with the
chances for incorrect weight, the bulk foods are really much cheaper.
Cleanliness is, of course, of greater importance with cereals that do
not require cooking than with those which are subjected to high
temperatures in order to prepare them for the table. Therefore, from the
standpoint of cleanliness, there is no advantage in purchasing rice and
similar raw cereals in packages.

18. The next thing to consider in the purchase of cereals is their cost.
They vary considerably in price, but it has been determined that in
food value there is little difference, pound for pound, between the
cheap and the expensive cereals, the variation in price being due to
their abundance or scarcity and the method used in preparing them for
market. The entirely uncooked ones are the cheapest, the partly cooked
ones are medium in price, and the thoroughly cooked ones are the most
expensive. This difference, however, is practically made up by the
expense of the fuel required to prepare them for the table, the cheapest
cereal requiring the most fuel and the most expensive, the least.

Besides varying in price, the different kinds of cereals offer the
housewife an opportunity to select the one that is most convenient for
her. Those which are ready to serve are the best for the meal to which
the least possible amount of time can be given for preparation. The
other kinds require cooking, of course, but this need not be a
hindrance, for they can be prepared on one day and reheated for
breakfast the following day, or they can be cooked overnight by the
fireless-cooker method. In the case of such cereals, long cooking is
usually necessary for good flavor and easy digestion; consequently, the
cooking method that will accomplish the desired result with the least
expenditure of fuel is the most economical one and the one to select.

19. TABLE OF GRAIN PRODUCTS.--As a further aid in coming to an
understanding of cereals, or grains, and their value, there are given in
Table II the various uses to which grains are put and the forms in which
they occur as food. In this table, as will be observed, the form of the
grain product is mentioned first and then the grain from which it is
made. A careful study of this table will be profitable to the housewife.

20. CARE OF CEREALS.--As carriers of disease, cereals are a less
dangerous food than any other. This characteristic of cereals is due to
the fact that the cooking all of them require in some part of their
preparation destroys any disease germs that might be present. They are
not likely to be adulterated with harmful material, either; and, in
addition, the sealed packages in which many of the cereals are put up
keep them clean and free from contamination. However, care must be given
to both the uncooked and the factory-prepared varieties of this food.
The packages containing ready-to-eat cereals should not be allowed to
remain open for any length of time if it is desired to keep them fresh
and crisp, for they absorb moisture from the air very quickly. If they
do become moist, however, drying in the oven will in most cases restore
their freshness. If it is necessary to open a single package of prepared
cereal and all of the contents cannot be utilized at once, as, for
instance, when only one or two persons are to be served with that
particular cereal, the best plan is to empty the remainder into cans or
jars that are provided with covers. Uncooked cereals, which are used
less quickly than the prepared kinds, are often attacked by mice and
other vermin, but such an occurrence can be prevented if the cereal is
poured into jars or cans that can be kept tightly closed. Considerable
care must be given to flour and cereal products purchased in large
quantities, for if they are allowed to collect enough moisture, they
will become moldy and lose their flavor, and thus be unfit for use. To
preserve them well, they should be kept in metal-lined bins or in bins
made of carefully matched boards and in a cool, but not damp, place.



                           / Pearl barley
                           | Hulled wheat
        / Whole Grains     {Hominy: Corn
        |                  | Corn
        |                  \ Rice
        |                  / Farina: Wheat or corn
        |                  | Cream of Wheat: Wheat
        | Crushed Grains   {Cracked Wheat: Wheat
        |                  | Hominy Grits: Corn
        |                  | Wheat Grits: Wheat
        |                  \ Samp: Corn
Cereals {
        |                  / Corn
        | Meal             {Barley
        |                  | Rice
        |                  \ Oats
        |                  / Flaked: Rye, wheat, rice, corn
        \ Prepared Cereals {Shredded Grain: Wheat
                           | Malted Grain: Rye, barley, wheat, and corn
                           \ Puffed Grain: Corn, rice, wheat

        / Corn
Starch  {Rice
        \ Wheat

        / Macaroni
Wheat   {Vermicelli
        \ Spaghetti

Glucose} Usually corn
Sirup   /

              / Wheat
Cereal Coffee {Rye
              \ Barley

        / Wheat
        | Rye
Flour   {Corn
        | Buckwheat
        \ Rice

Liquors       \
Malted Drinks} All grains
Beer          |
Whisky        /

Alcohol: All grains

Feed for animals: All grains

       *       *       *       *       *



21. PURPOSE OF COOKING.--As the so-called ready-to-eat cereals require
practically no further preparation, attention is here given to only
those cereals which need additional treatment to prepare them properly
for the table. Raw grains cannot be taken into the body, for they are
neither appetizing nor digestible. The treatment to which they must be
subjected is cooking, for the structure of grains is such that cooking
is the only means by which the coverings of the starch granules can be
softened and broken to make them digestible. But this is not the only
effect produced by cooking; besides making raw cereals digestible,
cooking renders them palatable, destroys any bacteria or parasites that
might be present, and, by means of its various methods, provides a
variety of dishes that would otherwise be very much limited.

22. CHANGES THAT CEREALS UNDERGO IN COOKING.--In the process of cooking,
cereals undergo a marked change, which can readily be determined by
performing a simple experiment. Place an equal amount of flour or corn
starch--both cereal products--in two different glasses; mix that in one
glass with cold water and that in the other with boiling water. The
mixture in which cold water is used will settle in a short time, but if
the substance that goes to the bottom is collected and dried it will be
found to be exactly the same as it was originally. The mixture in which
boiling water is used, however, will not only become a sticky mass, but
will remain such; that is, it will never again resume its original form.
This experiment proves, then, that grains that come in contact with
water at a high temperature, as in cooking, absorb the water and burst
their cellulose covering. This bursting frees the granulose, or the
contents of the tiny granules, which are deposited in a network of
cellulose, and as soon as this occurs it mixes with water and forms what
is called soluble starch. Starch in this state is ready for digestion,
but in the original, uncooked state only a very small part of it, if
any, is digestible.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

23. PREPARATION FOR COOKING CEREALS.--Before the cooking of cereals is
attempted, it is advisable for the sake of convenience to get out all
utensils as well as all ingredients that are to be used and arrange them
so that they will be within easy reach. The way in which this should be
done is illustrated in Fig. 1. The utensils and ingredients shown, which
are suitable for most methods of cooking cereals and particularly for
cooking them by the steaming process, consist of a double boiler _a_; a
measuring cup _b_, a knife _c_, and spoons _d_ and _e_, for measuring; a
large spoon _f_, for stirring; a salt container; and a package of
cereal. The housewife will be able to tell quickly from a recipe just
what ingredients and utensils she will need, and by following the plan
here suggested and illustrated she will find that her work can be done
systematically and with the least expenditure of time.

24. FIRST STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF COOKING.--While cereals may be cooked
in a variety of ways, the first steps in all the processes are
practically the same. In the first place, the required amount of water
should be brought to the boiling point, for if the water is boiling the
cereal will thicken more rapidly and there will be less danger of lumps
forming. Then salt should be added to the water in the proportion of 1
teaspoonful to each cupful of cereal. Next, the cereal should be stirred
into the boiling salted water slowly enough to prevent it from forming
lumps, and then, being constantly stirred, it should be allowed to cook
until it thickens. The process up to this point is called _setting_ a
cereal, or grain. After the cereal is _set_, it may be boiled, steamed,
or cooked in the fireless cooker, but the method of cookery selected
should be chosen with a view to economy, convenience, and thoroughness.
The terms _setting_ and _set_ should be thoroughly fixed in the mind, so
that directions and recipes in which they are used will be readily

25. COOKING CEREALS BY BOILING.--Very often the cereal, after it is set,
is allowed to cook slowly until it is ready to serve; that is, the
method of _boiling_ is practiced. This method, however, is not to be
recommended, because it is not economical. Cereals cooked in this way
require constant watching and stirring, and even then it is difficult to
keep them from sticking to the cooking utensil and scorching or becoming
pasty on account of the constant motion. Sometimes, to overcome this
condition, a large quantity of water is added, as in the boiling of
rice; still, as some of this water must be poured off after the cooking
is completed, a certain amount of starch and soluble material is lost.

satisfactory way in which to cook cereals, so far as thoroughness is
concerned, is in a double boiler, one style of which is shown at _a_,
Fig. 1. This method of cookery is known as _steaming_, or _dry
steaming_, and by it the food itself, after it is set, never comes
within 6 or 8 degrees of the boiling point. In this method, the cereal
is first set in the small, or upper, pan of the double boiler. This pan,
which is covered, is placed into the large, or lower, pan, which should
contain boiling water, and the cereal is allowed to cook until it is
ready to serve. The water in the large pan should be replenished from
time to time, for if it is completely evaporated by boiling, the pan
will be spoiled and the cereal in the upper pan will burn.

This method of cooking has several advantages that should not be
disregarded. Cereals to which it is applied may be partly cooked on one
day and the cooking completed the next morning before breakfast, or they
may be completely cooked on one day and merely heated before they are
served. Then, when cooked at a temperature slightly below the boiling
point, the grains remain whole, but become thoroughly softened, because
they gradually absorb the water that surrounds them. In addition, the
long cooking that is necessary to prepare them at a low temperature
develops a delicious flavor, which cannot be obtained by rapid cooking
at the boiling point.

equipped with a fireless cooker, it is advisable to use this utensil for
cereals, for cooking them by this method secures the greatest economy of
fuel and effort. As in the preceding methods, the cereal is first set in
the pan that fits into the cooker compartment. While the cereal is at
the boiling point, this pan is covered tightly and placed in the
fireless cooker, where it is allowed to remain until the cereal is ready
to be served. The heat that the cereal holds when it is placed in the
cooker is retained, and this is what cooks it. Therefore, while this
method of cooking requires considerable time, it needs neither
additional heat nor labor after the cereal is placed in the cooker. In
reality, it is an advantageous way in which to cook cereals, since, if
they can be set and placed in the cooker in the evening, they will be
ready to serve at breakfast time on the following day.

28. COOKING CEREALS BY DRY HEAT.--An old method of cooking cereals or
starchy foods is called _browning_, or _toasting_, and it involves
cooking them by dry heat. A thin layer of grain is spread in a shallow
pan and this is placed in a slow oven. After the grains have browned
slightly, they are stirred, and then they are permitted to brown until
an even color is obtained. By this method the flavor of the cereals is
developed and their digestibility increased. Since grains keep much
better after they have been subjected to the process of toasting, this
means is used extensively for preserving grains and cereal foods.

29. POINTS TO OBSERVE IN COOKING CEREALS.--In cooking cereals by any
method, except browning, or toasting, it is always necessary to use
liquid of some kind. The quantity to use, however, varies with the kind
of cereal that is to be cooked, whole cereals and those coarsely ground
requiring more liquid than those which are crushed or finely ground. If
the liquid is to be absorbed completely when the grain is cooked, it
should be in the correct proportion to the grain. To be right, cooked
cereals should be of the consistency of mush, but not thin enough to
pour. Much attention should be given to this matter, for mistakes are
difficult to remedy. Cereals that are too thick after they are cooked
cannot be readily thinned without becoming lumpy, and those which are
too thin cannot be brought to the proper consistency unless the excess
of liquid is evaporated by boiling.

_Gruels_ are, of course, much thinner than the usual form of cereal.
They are made by cooking cereals rapidly in a large quantity of water,
and this causes the starch grains to disintegrate, or break into pieces,
and mix with the water. The whole mixture is then poured through a
sieve, which removes the coarse particles and produces a smooth mass
that is thin enough to pour.

The length of time to cook cereals also varies with their kind and form,
the coarse ones requiring more time than the fine ones. Because of this
fact, it is difficult to say just how much time is required to cook the
numerous varieties thoroughly. However, little difficulty will be
experienced if it is remembered that cereals should always be allowed to
cook until they can be readily crushed between the fingers, but not
until they are mushy in consistency.

       *       *       *       *       *



30. The word _corn_ has been applied to various grains and is now used
in a variety of ways in different countries. In ancient times, barley
was called corn, and at the present time, in some countries, the entire
year's food crop is referred to by this name. The English apply the name
corn to wheat, and the Scotch, to oats. In the United States, corn is
the name applied to the seed of the maize plant, which is a highly
developed grass plant that forms the largest single crop of the country.
The seeds of this plant grow on a woody cob, and are eaten as a
vegetable when they are soft and milky, but as a grain, or cereal, when
they are mature. Corn is native to America and was not known in Europe
until Columbus took it back with him. However, it did not meet with much
favor there, for it was not grown to any great extent until within the
last 50 years. Those who took it to Europe gave it the name _Indian
corn_, because they had found the Indians of America raising it.

31. Of the corn grown in the United States, there are three general
kinds: field corn, sweet corn, and pop corn. _Field corn_, as a rule, is
grown in large quantities and allowed to mature; then it is fed to
animals or ground and cooked for the use of man. This corn consists of
three varieties, which are distinguished by the color of the grain, one
being white, one yellow, and one red. All of them are made into a
variety of preparations, but the white and the yellow are used as food
for both man and animals, whereas red field corn is used exclusively for
animal food. White corn has a mild flavor, but yellow corn is sometimes
preferred to it, because foods made from the yellow variety have a more
decided flavor. The two principal varieties of field corn, when prepared
as cereal food for man, are _hominy_ and _corn meal_. _Sweet corn_ is
not grown in such large quantities as field corn. It is generally used
for food before it is mature and is considered as a vegetable. _Pop
corn_, when sufficiently dry, swells and bursts upon being heated. It is
used more as a confection than as a staple article of food. Therefore,
at this time, consideration need be given to only the principal
varieties of field-corn products, which, as has just been stated, are
hominy and corn meal.


32. HOMINY is whole corn from which the outside covering has been
removed, and for this reason it is high in food value. Corn in this form
may be procured as a commercial product, but it may be prepared in the
home at less expense. As a commercial product, it is sold dry by the
pound or cooked as a canned food. Dry hominy requires long cooking to
make it palatable, and this, of course, increases its cost; but even
with this additional cost it is cheaper than canned hominy.

Sometimes corn from which the covering has been removed is ground or
crushed to form what is called _samp_, or _grits_, and when it is ground
still more finely CORN MEAL is produced. Corn meal is made from both
white and yellow corn, and is ground more finely in some localities than
in others. It is sold loose by the pound, but it can also be bought in
bags or packages of various sizes from 1 pound up. Corn meal should be
included in the diet of every economical family, for it yields a large
quantity of food at a moderately low cost. If it is prepared well, it is
very palatable, and when eaten with milk or cream it is a food that is
particularly desirable for children, especially for the evening meal,
because of its food value and the fact that it is easily digested.

33. So that the importance of these corn products may be understood and
the products then used to the best advantage in the diet, recipes are
here given for preparing hominy in the home, for dishes in which hominy
forms the principal part, and for dishes in which corn meal is used. To
get the best results from these recipes and thereby become thoroughly
familiar with the cooking processes involved, it is recommended that
each one be worked out in detail. This thought applies as well to all
recipes given throughout the various Sections. Of course, to prepare
each recipe is not compulsory; nevertheless, to learn to cook right
means actually to do the work called for by the recipes, not merely
once, but from time to time as the food can be utilized to give variety
to the daily menus in the home.

34. HOMINY.--Although, as has been mentioned, prepared hominy may be
purchased, some housewives prefer to prepare it themselves. Hominy
serves as a foundation from which many satisfactory dishes can be made,
as it is high in food value and reasonable in cost. This cereal can be
used in so many ways that it is advisable to prepare enough at one time
to meet the demands of several meals. The following recipe for making
hominy should provide 3 quarts of this cereal; however, as is true of
other recipes--a point that should be remembered throughout the various
lessons--the quantities given may be increased or decreased to meet with
the requirements of the household.

(Sufficient for 3 Quarts)

2 qt. water
1 Tb. lye
1 qt. shelled corn
3 tsp. salt

Put the water into a large kettle or saucepan, and into the water put
the lye. Allow the water to come to the boiling point, and then add the
corn and let it boil until the skins will slip off the grains when they
are pressed between the thumb and the finger. Take from the stove, stir
sufficiently to loosen the skins, and then remove them by washing the
grains of corn in a coarse colander. Cover the grains with cold water
and return to the fire. When the water boils, pour it off. Repeat this
process at least three times, so as to make sure that there is no trace
of the lye, and then allow the grains to cook in more water until they
burst. Season them with the salt, and while the hominy thus prepared is
still hot put it into a jar or a crock and cover it tight until it is to
be used. The water in which the hominy is cooked should remain on it.

35. BUTTERED HOMINY.--Perhaps the simplest method of preparing cooked
hominy is to butter it. In this form it may be served with cream as a
breakfast or a luncheon dish, or it may be used in the place of a

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 pt. cooked hominy
3 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt

Allow a few spoonfuls of water to remain on the cooked hominy. Add the
butter and the salt, and then heat all thoroughly, stirring the hominy
gently so as to incorporate, or mix in, the butter and the salt. Serve
while hot.

36. CREAMED HOMINY.--The addition of a cream sauce to cooked hominy not
only adds to the palatableness of this cereal, but increases its food
value. When hominy is served with a sauce, it may be used as a dinner
vegetable or as the main dish in a light meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1 tsp. salt
1 Tb. flour
1 pt. cooked hominy

Heat the milk, and to it add the butter and the salt. Then thicken it
with the flour. To this sauce add the hominy and allow all to cook
slowly for 10 or 15 minutes. Serve the creamed hominy hot.

37. HOMINY GRITS.--The cereal sold under the name of _hominy grits_ is
prepared commercially by crushing dried hominy grains. It has
practically the same food value as hominy, and in appearance resembles
cream of wheat. The following recipe shows the simplest way in which to
prepare this food, it being usually served as a breakfast cereal in
this form:

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 tsp. salt
4 c. water
1 c. hominy grits

Add the salt to the water and bring it to the boiling point. Stir the
hominy grits into the water and continue to boil for 10 minutes. Then
place in a double boiler and cook for 3 to 4 hours. Serve hot with cream
or milk and sugar.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

38. LEFT-OVER HOMINY.--No waste need result from hominy that is not used
at the meal for which it is prepared, for it may be utilized in many
ways. For example, it may be served cold with fruit and cream, made into
croquettes with chopped meat or cheese and either sautéd or baked, or
used in soups to increase materially their food value. A dish prepared
by combining cooked or left-over hominy with other ingredients to form
hominy and cheese soufflé, which is illustrated in Fig. 2, will prove to
be very appetizing.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. cooked hominy
1/2 c. hot milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. paprika
1 c. grated cheese
2 eggs

Work the hominy smooth by mashing it with a fork, and then add the hot
milk, salt, paprika, and grated cheese. Separate the eggs, beat the
yolks thoroughly, and stir them well into the mixture. Next, fold in the
whites, which should be stiffly beaten, pour the mass into a buttered
baking dish, and bake until it is firm in the center. Serve hot.

39. CORN-MEAL MUSH.--Since corn meal is comparatively inexpensive and
high in food value, the housewife can make frequent use of it to
advantage. In the form of mush, corn meal is easily digested; besides,
such mush is a very good breakfast cereal when served hot with milk or
cream. Although the recipe here given makes a sufficient amount for six
persons, a good plan is to increase the quantities mentioned so that
there will be enough mush left to mold and use in other ways.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 tsp. salt
3-1/2 c. water
1 c. corn meal

Add the salt to the water and bring the salted water to the boiling
point. When it is boiling rapidly, sift the corn meal slowly through the
fingers into it, and at the same time stir it rapidly so as to prevent
the formation of lumps. Any mush that contains lumps has not been
properly made and should not be served in this condition, as it is
unpalatable. Keep stirring constantly until the corn meal thickens; then
place it in a double boiler and allow it to cook from 2 to 4 hours, when
it should be ready to serve. This method of cooking mush is the most
convenient, because not much stirring is required after the corn meal is

A heavy aluminum kettle or an iron pot is a good utensil in which to
cook mush, as it does not burn easily in either, although almost
constant stirring is required. When the mush becomes very thick, the
heated air, in forcing its way through the mush in the process of
boiling, makes the mush pop and very often splash on the hands and burn
them. To avoid such an accident, therefore, it is advisable to wrap the
hand used for stirring in a towel or a cloth.

40. SAUTÉD CORN-MEAL-MUSH.--Mush cooked in the manner just explained may
be poured into pans, such as bread pans, where it will harden and form a
mold that can be sliced as thick or as thin as desired and then sautéd.
Corn-meal mush prepared in this way pleases the taste of many persons,
and while some persons find it harder to digest than just plain mush, it
serves to give variety to meals. For sautéing mush, a heavy iron or
steel frying pan or griddle should be used, because utensils made of
thin material will allow the mush to burn before it browns properly. Put
enough fat, such as lard, cooking oil, or drippings, into the cooking
utensil so that when heated it will be about 1/4 inch deep all over the
surface. When the utensil is very hot, put in the slices of mush and
allow them to brown on one side. Then turn the slices over carefully, so
as not to break them, and brown them on the other side. As will be
observed, corn-meal mush does not brown quickly in sautéing. This
characteristic is due to the large amount of moisture it contains. Serve
the mush hot, and to add to its flavor serve with it sirup or honey.

41. CORN-MEAL CROQUETTES.--Croquettes of any kind add variety to a
meal, and because they are attractive they appeal to the appetite. To
make croquettes of corn meal, mold mush as for sautéing. Then cut this
into slices 1 inch thick, and cut each slice into strips 1 inch wide.
Roll these in slightly beaten egg and then in crumbs, and sauté them in
hot fat until they are crisp and brown. Serve these croquettes hot with
either butter or sirup or both.

42. LEFT-OVER CORN-MEAL MUSH.--Sautéd corn-meal mush and corn-meal
croquettes can, of course, be made from mush that is left over after it
has been cooked to serve as a cereal; however, if there is only a small
quantity left, it may be utilized in still another way, namely, as a
garnish for the platter on which meat is served. To prepare corn-meal
mush in this way, spread it about 1/3 inch thick in a pan and allow it
to cool. Then turn it out of the pan in a sheet on a board that has been
floured; that is, covered thinly with flour. Cut this sheet of corn meal
into small circles with the aid of a round cutter or into diamond shapes
with a knife, and then brown both sides of each of these in butter.

       *       *       *       *       *



43. WHEAT, owing to the fact that it is grown in all parts of the world
and forms the basis for a large amount of the food of most people, is a
very important grain. It was probably a native grass of Asia Minor and
Egypt, for in these countries it first received cultivation. From the
land of its origin, the use of wheat spread over all the world, but it
was not introduced into America until after the discovery of this
country by Columbus. Now, however, the United States raises more wheat
than any other one country, and nearly one-fourth of all that is raised
in the world.

Wheat is universally used for bread, because it contains a large amount
of the kind of protein that lends a rubbery consistency to dough and
thus makes possible the incorporation of the gas or air required to make
bread light. The use of wheat, however, is by no means restricted to
bread, for, as is well known, many cereal foods are prepared from
this grain.

44. In its simplest food form, wheat is prepared by merely removing the
coarse bran from the outside of the wheat grain and leaving the grain
whole. This is called _hulled_, or _whole_, _wheat_, and requires
soaking or long, slow cooking in order that all its starch granules may
be reached and softened sufficiently to make it palatable. The other
preparations are made by crushing or grinding the grains from which some
of the bran and germ has been removed. Besides flour, which, as has been
implied, is not considered as a cereal in the sense used in this
Section, these preparations include _wheat grits_, such foods as _cream
of wheat_ and _farina_, and many _ready-to-eat cereals_. In the
preparation of wheat grits, much of the bran is allowed to remain, but
neither cream of wheat nor farina contains cellulose in any appreciable
quantity. As the addition of bran, however, serves to give these foods
bulk, a much more ideal breakfast cereal will result if, before cooking,
equal portions of the cereal and the bran are mixed. In preparing
ready-to-eat wheat cereals for the market, the manufacturers subject the
grains to such elaborate methods of cooking, rolling, and toasting that
these foods require but very little additional attention before serving.
The only wheat products that demand further attention at this time,
therefore, are those which must be cooked before they can be served
and eaten.


45. HULLED WHEAT.--Inasmuch as hulled, or whole, wheat requires very
little preparation for the market, it is a comparatively cheap food. It
is used almost exclusively as a breakfast cereal, but serves as a good
substitute for hominy or rice. Although, as has been mentioned, it
requires long cooking, its preparation for the table is so simple that
the cooking need not necessarily increase its cost materially. One of
the advantages of this food is that it never becomes so soft that it
does not require thorough mastication.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1 c. hulled wheat
3 c. water
1 tsp. salt

Look the wheat over carefully and remove any foreign matter. Then add
the water and soak 8 to 10 hours, or overnight. Add the salt, cook
directly over the flame for 1/2 hour, and then finish cooking in a
double boiler for 3 to 4 hours. Serve with cream or milk and sugar.

46. WHEAT GRITS.--The cereal known as wheat grits is made commercially
by crushing the wheat grains and allowing a considerable proportion of
the wheat bran to remain. Grits may be used as a breakfast cereal, when
they should be served hot with cream or milk and sugar; they also make
an excellent luncheon dish if they are served with either butter or
gravy. The fact that this cereal contains bran makes it an excellent one
to use in cases where a food with bulk is desired. The accompanying
recipe is for a plain cereal; however, an excellent variation may be had
by adding 1/2 cupful of well-cleaned raisins 1/2 hour before serving.

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1/2 tsp. salt
3 c. boiling water
3/4 c. wheat grits

Add the salt to the boiling water, sift the wheat grits through the
fingers into the rapidly boiling water, and stir rapidly to prevent the
formation of lumps. Cook for a few minutes until the grits thicken, and
then place in a double boiler and cook 2 to 4 hours.

47. CREAM OF WHEAT.--In the manufacture of cream of wheat, not only is
all the bran removed, as has been stated, but the wheat is made fine and
granular. This wheat preparation, therefore, does not require so much
cooking to make it palatable as do some of the other cereals; still,
cooking it a comparatively long time tends to improve its flavor. When
made according to the following recipe it is a very good breakfast dish:

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 tsp. salt
4-1/2 c. boiling water
3/4 c. cream of wheat

Add the salt to the boiling water, and when it bubbles sift in the cream
of wheat through the fingers, stirring rapidly to prevent the formation
of lumps. Cook over the flame for a few minutes until it thickens; then
place it in a double boiler and cook for 1 to 2 hours. Serve hot with
cream or milk and sugar.

48. CREAM OF WHEAT WITH DATES.--Dates added to cream of wheat supply to
a great extent the cellulose and mineral salts that are taken out when
the bran is removed in the manufacture of this cereal. They likewise
give to it a flavor that is very satisfactory, especially when added in
the manner here explained.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3/4 c. cream of wheat
1 tsp. salt
4-1/2 c. boiling water
3/4 c. dates

Cook the cream of wheat in the manner directed in Art. 47. Wash the
dates in hot water, cut them lengthwise with a sharp knife, and remove
the seeds. Cut each date into four pieces and add them to the cream of
wheat 10 minutes before serving, stirring them into the cereal just
enough to distribute them evenly. Serve hot with cream or milk
and sugar.

49. FARINA.--The wheat preparation called farina is very much the same
as cream of wheat, being manufactured in practically the same manner. It
is a good breakfast cereal when properly cooked, but it does not contain
sufficient cellulose to put it in the class of bulky foods. However, as
has been pointed out, this bulk may be supplied by mixing with it,
before cooking, an equal amount of bran. In such a case, of course, more
water will be needed and the cooking process will have to be prolonged.
Plain farina should be prepared according to the recipe here given, but,
as in preparing cream of wheat, dates may be added to impart flavor
if desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 tsp. salt
4 c. boiling water
3/4 c. farina

Add the salt to the boiling water, and as the water bubbles rapidly sift
the farina into it slowly through the fingers, stirring rapidly to
prevent the formation of lumps. Then place it in a double boiler and
allow it cook for 2 to 4 hours. Serve hot with cream or milk and sugar.

50. GRAHAM MUSH WITH DATES.--Graham flour is a wheat product that is
high in food value, because in its manufacture no part of the wheat
grain is removed. While the use of this flour as a breakfast cereal is
not generally known, it can be made into a very appetizing and
nutritious dish, especially if such fruit as dates is mixed with it.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/4 c. graham flour
3 c. water
1 tsp. salt
1 c. dates

Moisten the graham flour carefully with 1 cupful of the cold water. When
perfectly smooth, add it to the remainder of the water, to which the
salt has been added, and boil rapidly, allowing the mixture to cook
until it thickens. Then place it in a double boiler and cook 1 to 2
hours. Wash the dates, remove the stones, and cut each into four pieces.
Add these to the mush 10 minutes before serving. Serve hot with cream or
milk and sugar.

51. LEFT-OVER WHEAT CEREALS.--Numerous ways have been devised for
utilizing wheat cereals that are left over, so that no waste need result
from what is not eaten at the meal for which a cereal is cooked. For
instance, left-over hulled wheat can be used in soup in the same way as
barley and rice, and plain cream of wheat and farina can be molded,
sliced, and sautéd like corn-meal mush and served with sirup. The molded
cereal can also be cut into 2-inch cubes and served with any fruit juice
that is thickened slightly with corn starch. Besides utilizing left-over
wheat cereals in the ways mentioned, it is possible to make them into
custards and soufflés, as is shown in the two accompanying recipes, in
which cream of wheat may be used in the same manner as farina.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. cold farina
2 c. milk
2 eggs
1/2 c. sugar
1/4 tsp. nutmeg

Stir the farina and milk together until they are perfectly smooth; then
add the eggs, beaten slightly, the sugar, and the nutmeg. Bake in a
moderately hot oven until firm and serve hot or cold with any
sauce desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. cold farina
1-1/2 c. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. paprika
1 c. grated cheese
2 eggs

Stir the farina smooth with the milk, add the salt, paprika, grated
cheese, and egg yolks, which should first be beaten. Then beat the egg
whites stiff and fold them into the mixture. Pour all into a buttered
baking dish, place this in a large pan filled with enough hot water to
reach almost to the top of the baking dish, and bake in a moderately hot
oven until the mixture in the dish is firm in the center. Serve at once
upon taking from the oven.



52. RICE, next to wheat, is used more extensively as a food than any
other cereal. It is a plant much like wheat in appearance, but it grows
only in warm climates and requires very moist soil. In fact, the best
land for rice is that which may be flooded with about 6 inches of water.
This cereal is of two kinds, namely, Carolina rice and Japanese rice.
_Carolina rice_, which is raised chiefly in the southeastern part of the
United States, has a long, narrow grain, whereas _Japanese rice_, which
originated in Japan and is raised extensively in that country and China
and India, has a short, flat, oval grain. Efforts made to raise the
Japanese variety in the United States show a peculiarity of this cereal,
for when it is planted in the same locality as Carolina rice, it soon
loses its identity and takes on the shape of the other. Although vast
crops of rice are raised in the United States, a large quantity of it
must be imported, because these crops are not sufficient to supply the
demands of this country.

53. Before rice grains are prepared for use as food, they have two
coverings. One is a coarse husk that is thrashed off and leaves the
grain in the form of unpolished rice and the other, a thin, brown
coating resembling bran. This thin coating, which is very difficult to
remove, is called, after its removal, _rice polishings_. At one time, so
much was said about the harmful effect of polished rice that a demand
for unpolished rice was begun. This feeling of harm, however, was
unnecessary, for while polished rice lacks mineral matter to a great
extent, it is hot harmful to a person and need cause no uneasiness,
unless the other articles of the diet do not supply a sufficient amount
of this food substance. After the inner coating has been removed, some
of the rice is treated with paraffin or glucose and talc to give it a
glazed appearance. This is called _polish_, and is sometimes confounded
with the term rice polishings. However, no confusion regarding these
terms will result if it is remembered that rice polishings are the thin
inner coating that is removed and polish is what is added to the rice.
In composition, rice differs from the other cereals in that it is
practically all starch and contains almost no fat nor protein.

54. To be perfect, rice should be unbroken and uniform in size, and in
order that it may be put on the market in this form the broken grains
are sifted out. These broken grains are sold at a lower price than the
whole grains, but the only difference between them is their appearance,
the broken grains being quite as nutritious as the whole grains. In
either form, rice is a comparatively cheap food, because it is
plentiful, easily transported, and keeps perfectly for an indefinite
period of time with very little care in storage. Before rice is used, it
should be carefully examined and freed from the husks that are apt to
remain in it; then it should be washed in hot water. The water in which
rice is washed will have a milky appearance, which is due to the coating
that is put on in polishing rice.


55. Rice may be cooked by three methods, each of which requires a
different proportion of water. These methods are _boiling_, which
requires twelve times as much water as rice; the _Japanese method_,
which requires five times as much; and _steaming_, which requires two
and one-half times as much. Whichever of these methods is employed,
however, it should be remembered that the rice grains, when properly
cooked, must be whole and distinct. To give them this form and prevent
the rice from having a pasty appearance, this cereal should not be
stirred too much in cooking nor should it be cooked too long.

56. BOILED RICE.--Boiling is about the simplest way in which to prepare
rice for the table. Properly boiled rice not only forms a valuable dish
itself, but is an excellent foundation for other dishes that may be
served at any meal. The water in which rice is boiled should not be
wasted, as it contains much nutritive material. This water may be
utilized in the preparation of soups or sauces, or it may even be used
to supply the liquid required in the making of yeast bread. The
following recipe sets forth clearly how rice should be boiled:

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. rice
3 tsp. salt
3 qt. boiling water

Wash the rice carefully and add it to the boiling salted water. Boil
rapidly until the water begins to appear milky because of the starch
coming out of the rice into the water or until a grain can be easily
crushed between the fingers. Drain the cooked rice through a colander,
and then pour cold water over the rice in the colander, so as to wash
out the loose starch and leave each grain distinct. Reheat the rice by
shaking it over the fire, and serve hot with butter, gravy, or cream or
milk and sugar.

57. JAPANESE METHOD OF COOKING RICE.--Rice prepared by the Japanese
method may be used in the same ways as boiled rice. However, unless some
use is to be made of the liquid from boiled rice, the Japanese method
has the advantage of being a more economical way of cooking this cereal.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. rice
1-1/2 tsp. salt
5 c. boiling water

Wash the rice, add it to the boiling salted water, and boil slowly for
15 minutes. Then cover the utensil in which the rice is cooking and
place it in the oven for 15 minutes more, in order to evaporate the
water more completely and make the grains soft without being mushy.
Serve in the same way as boiled rice.

58. STEAMED RICE.--To steam rice requires more time than either of the
preceding cooking methods, but it causes no loss of food material. Then,
too, unless the rice is stirred too much while it is steaming, it will
have a better appearance than rice cooked by the other methods. As in
the case of boiled rice, steamed rice may be used as the foundation for
a variety of dishes and may be served in any meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. rice
1-1/2 tsp. salt
2-1/2 c. water

Wash the rice carefully and add it to the boiling salted water. Cook it
for 5 minutes and then place it in a double boiler and allow it to cook
until it is soft. Keep the cooking utensil covered and do not stir the
rice. About 1 hour will be required to cook rice in this way. Serve in
the same way as boiled rice.

59. CREAMED RICE.--To increase the nutritive value of rice, it is
sometimes cooked with milk and cream to form what is known as creamed
rice. These dairy products added to rice supply protein and fat, food
substances in which this cereal is lacking, and also add to its

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. milk
1 c. rice
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 c. cream

Heat the milk in the small pan of a double boiler and add to it the rice
and salt. Place this pan into the larger one and cook for about 1 hour,
or until the rice is soft. Then pour the cream over the rice and cook a
few minutes longer. Serve hot.

60. ORIENTAL RICE.--As rice is a bland food, practically lacking in
flavor, any flavoring material that may be added in its preparation or
serving aids in making it more appetizing. Oriental rice, which is
prepared according to the following recipe, therefore makes a very tasty
dish and one that may be used in place of a vegetable for lunch
or dinner.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. rice
2-1/2 c. stock, or meat broth
2 Tb. butter
1 slice onion
1/2 c. canned tomatoes

Steam the rice in the stock until it is soft by the method given for
steaming rice. Then brown the butter and onion in a frying pan, add the
tomatoes, and heat thoroughly. Pour this mixture into the rice, mix
well, and serve.

61. BROWNED RICE.--Another way in which to add variety in serving rice
is to brown it. Sufficient browned rice for six persons may be prepared
by putting 1 cupful of clean rice in an iron frying pan that contains no
fat, placing the pan directly over the flame, and stirring the rice
until the grains become an even, light brown. Rice that has been treated
in this way has additional flavor added to it and can be used in the
same way as boiled or steamed rice.

62. SAVORY RICE.--Rice browned in the manner just explained is used in
the preparation of savory rice, a dish that serves as a very good
substitute for a vegetable. Savory rice may be prepared according to the
following recipe:

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. browned rice
2-1/2 c. water
1 tsp. salt
1/2 c. chopped celery
2 Tb. butter
1 small onion, chopped
1/2 c. canned tomatoes
1/4 c. chopped pimiento

Steam the browned rice in the salted water as in steaming rice, and
cook the celery, which should be chopped fine, with the rice for the
last half hour of the steaming. Brown the butter and add to it the onion
finely chopped, the tomatoes, and the pimiento. A few minutes before
serving time, add this to the rice, mix well, and serve hot.

63. LEFT-OVER RICE.--There are a variety of ways in which left-over rice
may be used. For instance, rice that has been cooked and is not used may
be utilized in soups, combined with pancake, muffin, or omelet mixtures,
or made into puddings by mixing it with a custard and then baking. It
may be served with fruit, made into patties, or combined with tomatoes,
cheese, or meat to form an appetizing dish.

[Illustration: Fig. 3] 64. As has been shown, rice is one of the cereals
that contain very little cellulose. Fruit added to it in the preparation
of any dish makes up for this lack of cellulose and at the same time
produces a delicious combination. Rice combined with pineapple to form a
dish like that shown in Fig. 3 not only is very attractive but meets
with the favor of many; besides, it provides a good way in which to
utilize left-over rice.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. steamed or creamed rice
1/4 c. sugar
6 rings pineapple
3/4 c. whipped cream

Stir the sugar into the rice and if necessary moisten with a little
cream. Shape the rice into six balls of equal size, making them so that
they will be about the same in diameter as the rings of the pineapple,
and place one in the center of each pineapple ring. Whip the cream with
an egg whip or beater until it stands up well, and garnish each dish
with the whipped cream before serving.

65. Another satisfactory dish may be made by combining eggs with
left-over rice to form RICE PATTIES. Owing to the protein supplied by
the eggs, such a combination as this may be made to take the place of a
light meat dish for luncheon or supper, and, to impart additional
flavor, it may be served with any sauce desired.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. stale crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. celery salt
2 eggs
2 c. steamed rice

Add 1/2 cupful of the crumbs, the salt, the celery salt, and the eggs,
slightly beaten, to the cold steamed rice. If more moisture seems to be
necessary, add a very little milk. Shape the rice with the other
ingredients into round patties, and then roll these in the remainder of
the crumbs and sauté them in hot butter. Serve the patties hot and with
sauce, if desired.

66. Besides left-over rice, small quantities of one or more kinds of
left-over meat and stock or gravy can be used to make a very appetizing
dish known as SPANISH RICE, which may be used as the main, or heavy,
dish in a luncheon.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 small onion
2 Tb. butter
1-1/2 c. steamed or boiled rice
1 c. chopped meat
1/2 c. meat stock or gravy
1/2 c. canned tomatoes
2 Tb. grated cheese
1/4 c. stale crumbs

Chop the onion and brown it in butter. Mix well the browned onion, rice,
chopped meat, stock or gravy, and tomatoes, and pour all into a buttered
baking dish. Then sprinkle the cheese and crumbs on top of the mixture
and bake for 1 hour in a slow oven. Serve hot.

       *       *       *       *       *



67. As an article of food, OATS are used very extensively. In Scotland,
this cereal formed the principal article of diet for many years, and as
the hardiness of the Scotch people is usually attributed to their diet
the value of oats as a food cannot be overestimated. This grain, or
cereal, grows very much like wheat and yields an abundant crop in fairly
good soil; but it is unlike wheat in composition, for it contains very
little protein and considerable fat. In fact, it contains more fat than
any other cereal. Because of its lack of protein, it will not make
raised bread, and when it must serve the purpose of bread it is made
into flat cakes and baked. Although it is used to some extent in this
way, its greatest use for food, particularly in the United States, is in
the form of _oatmeal_ and _rolled oats_. In the preparation of oatmeal
for the market, the oat grains are crushed or cut into very small
pieces, while in the preparation of rolled oats they are crushed flat
between large rollers.


68. The same methods of cooking can be applied to both oatmeal and
rolled oats. Therefore, while the recipes here given are for rolled
oats, it will be well to note that they can be used for oatmeal by
merely substituting this cereal wherever rolled oats are mentioned.

69. ROLLED OATS.--Because of the high food value of rolled oats, this
cereal is excellent for cold weather, especially when it is served with
hot cream or milk and sugar. It can be prepared very easily, as the
accompanying recipe shows.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. rolled oats
3 c. boiling water
1 tsp. salt

Stir the oats into the boiling water to which the salt has been added.
Boil 2 minutes, stirring them occasionally to keep them from sticking.
Then cook them in a double boiler for 2 to 4 hours. During this time,
stir the oats as little as possible, so as to prevent them from becoming
mushy. Serve hot.

70. ROLLED OATS WITH APPLES.--The combination of rolled oats and apples
is rather unusual, still it makes a dish that lends variety to a
breakfast or a luncheon. Such a dish is easily digested, because the
apples supply to it a considerable quantity of cellulose and
mineral salts.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2/3 c. rolled oats
2 c. boiling water
1/2 tsp. salt
6 medium-sized apples
1 c. water
1/2 c. sugar

Stir the rolled oats into the boiling salted water and cook them until
they set; then place them in a double boiler and cook for 2 to 4 hours.
Pare and core the apples, and then cook them whole in a sirup made of 1
cupful of water and 1/2 cupful of sugar until they are soft, but not
soft enough to fall apart. To serve the food, place it in six cereal
dishes. Put a large spoonful of the cooked oats in each dish, arrange an
apple on top of the oats, and then fill the hole left by the core with
rolled oats. Over each portion, pour some of the sirup left from cooking
the apples, and serve hot with cream.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

71. ROLLED-OATS JELLY WITH PRUNES.--If an appetizing dish for warm
weather is desired, rolled oats may be cooked to form a jelly and then
have stewed prunes added to it. Such a dish is illustrated in Fig. 4.
When served with cream, this combination of rolled oats and prunes is
high in food value and consequently may be made the important dish in
the meal for which it is used.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. rolled oats
3 c. water
1 tsp. salt
12 stewed prunes

Cook the rolled oats according to the directions already given, and then
force them through a fine sieve. Remove the seeds from the prunes that
have been stewed by cooking them very slowly until they are soft in a
sufficient quantity of water to cover them well, drain off all the
juice, and place two prunes in the bottom of each of six cups, or molds,
that have been moistened with cold water. Fill each with the rolled-oats
jelly and set them aside to chill. When ready to serve, turn the food
out of each mold into a cereal dish and serve with cream and sugar.

72. LEFT-OVER ROLLED OATS.--Every housewife should refrain from throwing
away any left-over rolled oats, because all of this cereal remaining
from a previous meal can be used to good advantage. For example, it can
be made especially tasty if, before it is cold, it is added to fruit,
poured into molds and allowed to stand in them until it is cold, and
then served with sugar and cream. Fruits of any kind, such as cooked
peaches, prunes, and apricots or fresh bananas, may be used for this
purpose by cutting them into small pieces. Another way of utilizing this
cereal when it is warm is to pour it into a pan or a dish, press it down
until it is about 1 inch thick, and then, after it is cold, cut it into
pieces of any desirable size or shape, brown these pieces in butter, and
then serve them with sirup. If the left-over cereal is cold, a good plan
would be to serve it with baked apple; that is, for each person to be
served, place a spoonful of the cereal in a dish with a baked apple,
sprinkle a little cinnamon or nutmeg over it, and then serve it with
cream. Still another very good way in which to utilize left-over rolled
oats is to make it into croquettes according to the following recipe:

(Sufficient to Serve Four)

1/2 c. grated cheese
3/4 c. crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. paprika
1 c. cooked rolled oats
1 egg

Work the cheese with 1/2 cupful of the crumbs, the salt, and the paprika
into the cold rolled oats; then add the egg, which should be slightly
beaten. If more moisture seems to be necessary, add a little milk. Form
the ingredients into small croquettes, and then roll them in the
remaining 1/4 cupful of crumbs and sauté then in butter. Garnish with
parsley and serve.

       *       *       *       *       *



73. BARLEY is a grain, or cereal, that grows very much like wheat.
However, it is hardier than wheat or any other cereals and may be grown
through a greater range of climates. Barley has been cultivated from the
most ancient times; in fact, its cultivation can be traced as far back
as man's occupations have been recorded. The grain of this cereal has
also played an important part in the advancement of man, for, according
to history, some of the present weights and measures originated from it.
Thus, the Troy weight grain is said to have been first fixed by finding
the average weight of a barley grain, and the inch of linear measure, by
placing three grains of barley end to end.

74. Although several varieties of barley have been cultivated as food
from the earliest times, the grain is now used principally in the
manufacture of malt. In this form, it is used for the malting of foods
and in the making of alcoholic liquors. To produce malt, the barley
grains are moistened and allowed to sprout, and during this process of
sprouting the starch of the barley is changed to sugar. The grains are
then dried, and the sprouts, which are called _malt sprouts_, are broken
off and sold as cattle food. The grain that remains, which is really
_malt_, is then crushed and combined with other grains for use as malted
cereal food. When barley is used to make malt, or fermented, liquors, it
is soaked in water, which absorbs the sugar in it; then yeast is added,
and this produces alcohol by causing the fermentation of the sugar.

75. In the United States, _pearl barley_ is the name applied to the most
common form of barley used as food. In this form, the layer of bran is
removed from the outside of the barley grain, but no change is made in
the grain itself. Pearl barley is used for soups and as a breakfast
cereal, but for whatever purpose it is employed it requires very long
cooking to make it palatable. Very often the water in which a small
amount of pearl barley has been cooked for a long time is used to dilute
the milk given to a child who has indigestion or who is not able to take
whole milk.


76. PEARL BARLEY.--As a breakfast cereal, possibly the only satisfactory
way in which to prepare pearl barley is to cook it in a double boiler,
although after it is cooked in this way it may, of course, be used to
prepare other breakfast dishes. Barley is not liked by everybody;
nevertheless, it is an excellent food and its nature is such that even
after long cooking it remains so firm as to require thorough
mastication, which is the first great step in the digestion of
starchy foods.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. pearl barley
1 tsp. salt
4-1/2 c. boiling water

Look the barley over carefully and remove any foreign particles it may
contain. Add it to the boiling salted water, and cook it directly over
the flame for 10 minutes. Then place it in a double boiler and cook for
3 to 4 hours. For the barley to be cooked properly, the water should be
completely absorbed. Serve hot with cream or milk and sugar.

77. PEARL BARLEY WITH FRUIT.--Cooked barley does not contain very much
flavor. Therefore, if a more tasty dish is desired, it is usually
necessary to add something, such as fruit, that will improve the flavor.
Various fruits may be used with barley, as is shown in the
accompanying recipe.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. pearl barley
1 tsp. salt
5 c. boiling water
1 c. dates, figs, or prunes

Examine the barley to see that it contains no foreign matter, and then
put it to cook in the boiling water to which the salt has been added.
After cooking directly over the flame for 10 minutes, place it in a
double boiler and cook it for 3 to 4 hours. If dates are to be used,
wash them in warm water, remove the seeds, and cut each into four
pieces. In the case of figs, soak them in hot water for 1/2 hour and
then cut them into small pieces. If prunes are desired, stew them as
explained in Art. 71, and when the seeds are removed cut them into small
pieces. Add the fruit to the barley 10 or 15 minutes before removing it
from the stove. Serve hot with cream or milk and sugar.

78. LEFT-OVER BARLEY.--Cooked barley that is left over from a meal
should not be wasted. That which has been cooked without fruit may be
added to meat stock or used with vegetables for soup. Also, cooked
barley that has had time to set and become stiff may be sautéd in butter
until it is slightly brown. When served with meat gravy, barley prepared
in this manner makes a very appetizing and satisfying luncheon dish.


79. RYE is a grain that grows very much like wheat, but it can be
cultivated in poorer soil and colder climates than this cereal. It is
not used alone to any great extent for anything except the making of
bread, but it is particularly well adapted for this purpose, since it
contains a large amount of gluten, the food substance necessary for
successful bread making, and, like wheat, will make yeast bread when
used alone. Bread made of rye flour has a dark color and a peculiar
flavor, and while these characteristics make it unpopular with some
persons it is used extensively by certain classes, especially persons
from foreign countries. Besides its use for bread, rye is frequently
combined with other cereals in the manufacture of ready-to-eat
cereal foods.

80. BUCKWHEAT is used less extensively than any of the other cereals
already mentioned, but it has an advantage over them in that it thrives
in soil that is too poor for any other crop. The buckwheat plant grows
to a height of about 2 feet and blossoms with a white flower. Its seeds,
which are three-cornered in shape, bear a close resemblance to
beechnuts, and because of this peculiar similarity, this cereal was
originally called _beech wheat_. Practically the only use to which
buckwheat is put is to grind it into very fine flour for griddle cakes,
recipes for which are given in another Section.

81. MILLET as a cereal food finds practically no use in the United
States; in fact, in this country it is grown almost exclusively for
cattle food, the stalk of the plant being large and juicy and containing
a considerable amount of food. The seed of this plant furnishes the
smallest grain known for use as food, and because of its size it is very
hard to gather. Millet, however, is used extensively by some of the
people of Southern Asia and India, who depend on it very largely, since,
in some localities, it forms their only cereal food. In these countries,
it is ground into flour and used for making bread.


82. All the cereals that have been discussed up to this point require
cooking; but there are many varieties of cereal food on the market that
are ready to eat and therefore need no further preparation. Chief among
these are the cereal foods known as _flakes_. These are first made by
cooking the grain, then rolling it between rollers, and finally toasting
it. The grains that are treated in this way for the preparation of flake
foods are wheat, corn, rye, and rice. It is well to remember this fact,
because the trade name does not always indicate the kind of grain that
has been used to make the food. In another form in which cereals,
principally wheat, appear on the market, they are cooked, shredded,
pressed into biscuits, and then toasted. Again, cereals are made into
loaves with the use of yeast, like bread, and after being thoroughly
baked, are ground into small pieces. Wheat generally forms the basis of
these preparations, and to it are added such other grains as rye
and barley.

83. The toasting of cereals improves their flavor very materially and at
the same time increases their digestibility. In fact, cereals that have
been subjected to this process are said to be predigested, because the
starch granules that have been browned in the toasting are changed into
_dextrine_, and this is one of the stages through which they must pass
in their process of digestion in the body. However, the housewife should
not allow herself to be influenced unduly by what is said about all
prepared cereals, because the manufacturer, who has depended largely on
advertising for the sale of his product, sometimes becomes slightly
overzealous and makes statements that will bear questioning. For
instance, some of these foods are claimed to be muscle builders, but
every one should remember that, with the exception of rye and wheat,
which build up the tissues to a certain extent, the cereals strengthen
the muscles in only a slight degree. Others of these foods are said to
be nerve and brain foods, but it should be borne in mind that no food
acts directly on the nerves or the brain. In reality, only those foods
which keep the body mentally and physically in good condition have an
effect on the nerves and the brain, and this at best is an
indirect effect.


84. Although, as is shown by the recipes that have been given, cereals
may have a place in practically all meals that the housewife is called
on to prepare, they are used more frequently for breakfast than for any
other meal. When a cereal forms a part of this meal, it should, as a
rule, be served immediately after the fruit, provided the breakfast is
served in courses. Many persons, of course, like fresh fruit served with
cooked or dry cereal, and, in such an event, the fruit and cereal
courses should be combined. A banana sliced over flakes or a few
spoonfuls of berries or sliced peaches placed on top afford a pleasing
change from the usual method of serving cereals. Another way in which to
lend variety to the cereal and at the same time add nourishment to the
diet is to serve a poached egg on top of the shredded-wheat biscuit or
in a nest of corn flakes, especially if they have been previously
heated. In fact, any of the dry cereals become more appetizing if they
are heated thoroughly in a slow oven and then allowed to cool, as this
process freshens them by driving off the moisture that they absorb and
that makes them tough.

To add to both dry and cooked cereals protein and fat, or the food
elements in which they are not so high, milk or cream is usually served
with them. Of these dairy products, which may be served hot or cold,
milk adds more protein than cream, and cream more fat than milk. Some
persons, however, who do not care for milk and cream or cannot take
them, substitute a little butter for them or find fruit juice a very
good accompaniment, especially to a dry cereal. Sugar is generally
served with both kinds of cereals, as the majority of persons prefer
them slightly sweet; but there is no logical reason for its use except
to add flavor.

       *       *       *       *       *



85. In addition to the cereals that have already been discussed,
macaroni and foods of a similar nature are entitled to a place in this
Section, because they are made from wheat flour and are therefore truly
cereal products. These foods, which are commonly referred to as ITALIAN
PASTES, originated in Italy. In that country they were made from a
flour called _semolina_, which is derived from a native wheat that is
very hard and contains more protein than is required for the making of
ordinary dough mixtures. Later, when the manufacture of these foods was
taken up in the United States, the flour for them had to be imported
from Italy; but it has since been discovered that flour made from the
variety of wheat called _durum_, which is grown in the spring-wheat
territory of this country, can be used for producing these pastes. In
fact, this kind of flour has proved to be so successful that it now
takes the place of what was formerly imported.

86. To produce the Italian pastes, the wheat, from which the bran has
been removed, is ground into flour. This flour is made into a stiff
dough, which is rolled into sheets and forced over rods, usually of
metal, or made into a mass and forced over rods, and allowed to dry in
the air. When sufficiently dry, the rods are removed, leaving slender
tubes, or sticks, that have holes through the center. Because of the
manufacturing processes involved in the production of these foods for
market, they are higher in price than some cereals, but their value lies
in the fact that they are practically imperishable and are easily
prepared and digested.

87. Italian pastes are of several varieties, chief among which are
_macaroni_, _spaghetti_, and _vermicelli_. Macaroni is the largest in
circumference; spaghetti, a trifle smaller; and vermicelli, very small
and without a hole through the center. These pastes and variations of
them are made from the same dough; therefore, the tests for determining
the quality of one applies to all of them. These tests pertain to their
color, the way in which they break, and the manner in which they cook.
To be right, they should be of an even, creamy color; if they look gray
or are white or streaked with white, they are of inferior quality. When
they are broken into pieces, they should break off perfectly straight;
if they split up lengthwise, they contain weak places due to streaks.
All the varieties should, upon boiling, hold their shape and double in
size; in case they break into pieces and flatten, they are of
poor quality.

88. Since the Italian pastes are made from wheat, their food substances
are similar to those of wheat. As in other wheat products, protein is
found in them in the form of gluten, but, owing to the variety of wheat
used for them, it occurs in greater proportion in these foods than in
most wheat products. In fact, the Italian pastes are so high in protein,
or tissue-building material, that they very readily take the place of
meat. Unlike meat, however, they contain carbohydrates in the form of
wheat starch. They do not contain much fat or mineral salts, though,
being lower in these food substances than many of the other foods made
from wheat.


89. In nearly all recipes for macaroni, spaghetti, and vermicelli, as
well as the numerous varieties of these foods, the first steps in their
preparation for the table are practically the same, for all of these
foods must be cooked to a certain point and in a certain way before they
can be used in the numerous ways possible to prepare them. Therefore, in
order that success may be met in the preparation of the dishes that are
made from these foods, these underlying principles should be thoroughly

In the first place, it should be borne in mind that while the time
required to cook the Italian pastes depends on their composition and
dryness, the average length of time is about 30 minutes. Another
important thing to remember is that they should always be put to cook in
boiling water that contains 2 teaspoonfuls of salt to each cupful of
macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli, and that they should be kept boiling
until the cooking is done, for if the pieces are not in constant motion
they will settle and burn. Tests may be applied to determine whether
these foods have been cooked sufficiently. Thus, if a fork passes
through them easily or they crush readily on being pressed between the
fingers and the thumb, they are done, but as long as they feel hard and
elastic they have not cooked enough.

In the majority of recipes here given, macaroni is specified, but
spaghetti, vermicelli, or any of the fancy Italian pastes may be
substituted for the macaroni if one of them is preferred. It should also
be remembered that any of these, when cut into small pieces, may be used
in soups or served with sauce or gravy.

90. MACARONI WITH CREAM SAUCE.--Possibly the simplest way in which to
prepare macaroni is with cream sauce, as is explained in the
accompanying recipe. Such a sauce not only increases the food value of
any Italian paste, but improves its flavor. Macaroni prepared in this
way may be used as the principal dish of a light meal, as it serves to
take the place of meat.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. macaroni
3 qt. boiling water
3 tsp. salt
1/4 c. crumbs


2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 1/2 c. milk

Break the macaroni into inch lengths, add it to the salted boiling
water, and cook it until it is tender. To prepare the sauce, melt the
butter in a saucepan, add the flour, salt, and pepper, stir until
smooth, and gradually add the milk, which must be hot, stirring rapidly
so that no lumps form. Cook the cream sauce until it thickens and then
add it to the macaroni. Pour all into a baking dish, sprinkle the bread
or cracker crumbs over the top, dot with butter, and bake until the
crumbs are brown. Serve hot.

91. MACARONI WITH EGGS.--Since macaroni is high in protein, it takes the
place of meat in whatever form it is served, but when it is prepared
with eggs it becomes an unusually good meat substitute. Therefore, when
eggs are added as in the following recipe, no meat should be served in
the same meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. macaroni
2 qt. boiling water
2 tsp. salt
1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
4 hard-boiled eggs
1/4 c. crumbs

Break the macaroni into inch lengths, add it to the boiling salted
water, and cook it until tender. Make a cream, or white, sauce of the
milk, butter, flour, salt, and pepper as explained in the recipe given
in Art. 90. When the macaroni is tender, drain it and arrange a layer on
the bottom of a baking dish, with a layer of sliced, hard-boiled eggs on
top. Fill the dish with alternate layers of macaroni and eggs, pour the
sauce over all, and sprinkle the crumbs over the top. Then place the
dish in the oven and bake the food until the crumbs are brown.
Serve hot.

92. Macaroni With Tomato and Bacon.--Macaroni alone is somewhat
tasteless, so that, as has been pointed out, something is usually added
to give this food a more appetizing flavor. In the recipe here given,
tomatoes and bacon are used for this purpose. Besides improving the
flavor, the bacon supplies the macaroni with fat, a food substance in
which it is low.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. macaroni
2 qt. boiling water
2 tsp. salt
2 c. canned tomatoes
8 thin slices bacon

Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it in the boiling salted
water until it is tender. Place a layer of the cooked macaroni on the
bottom of a baking dish; over this layer put 1 cupful of the tomatoes,
and on top of them spread four slices of bacon. Then add another layer
of the macaroni, the other cupful of tomatoes, and a third layer of
macaroni. On top of this layer, place the remaining four slices of
bacon, and then bake the food for one half hour in a slow oven.
Serve hot.

93. Macaroni With Cheese.--Cheese is combined with macaroni probably
more often than any other food. It supplies considerable flavor to the
macaroni and at the same time provides fat and additional protein. The
cooking operation is practically the same as that just given for
macaroni with tomatoes and bacon.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. macaroni
3 qt. boiling water
3 tsp. salt
1-1/2 Tb. butter
1-1/2 Tb. flour
1 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1/8 tsp. paprika
1-1/2 c. milk
1 c. grated or finely cut cheese
1/4 c. crumbs

Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it until it is tender in
the 3 quarts of boiling water to which 3 teaspoonfuls of salt has been
added. Melt the butter in a saucepan, add the flour, the 1 teaspoonful
of salt, the pepper, and the paprika, stir until smooth, and then
gradually add the milk, which should be hot. Allow to cook until it
thickens. Arrange the cooked macaroni in layers, pouring the sauce and
sprinkling salt and cheese over each layer. Then cover the top layer
with the crumbs and bake the food in a moderate oven for one half hour.
Serve hot.

[Illustration: FIG. 5]

94. Macaroni With Cheese and Tomato.--Although the food combinations
given are very satisfactory, a dish that is extremely appetizing to many
persons may be made by combining both cheese and tomato with macaroni.
Such a nutritious combination, which is illustrated in Fig. 5, can be
used as the principal dish of a heavy meal.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. macaroni
1 c. grated cheese
2 qt. boiling water
2 Tb. butter
2 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
1 1/2 c. canned tomatoes
1 tsp. salt

Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it until it is tender in
the boiling water to which 2 teaspoonfuls of salt has been added. Put a
layer of the cooked macaroni on the bottom of a baking dish, pour
one-half of the tomatoes and one-third of the cheese over it, dot with
butter, and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Then add another layer of
macaroni, the remainder of the tomatoes, one-third more of the cheese,
butter, salt, and pepper. Finally, arrange another layer of macaroni,
put the remaining cheese and some butter on top of it, and bake the food
for 1/2 hour in a moderate oven. Serve hot.

95. Macaroni Italian Style.--If small quantities of fried or boiled ham
remain after a meal, they can be used with macaroni to make a very tasty
dish known as macaroni Italian style. As ham is a highly seasoned meat,
it improves the flavor of the macaroni and at the same time adds
nutrition to the dish.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. macaroni
2 qt. boiling water
2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
1-1/2 c. scalded milk
2/3 c. grated cheese
1 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. paprika
1/2 c. finely chopped, cold boiled ham
1/4 c. crumbs

Break the macaroni into inch lengths and cook it in the boiling water to
which has been added 2 teaspoonfuls of salt. Drain, and then reheat it
in a white sauce made of the butter, flour, and milk. Add the cheese and
season with salt and paprika. Arrange in layers in a baking dish,
placing the cold ham between each two layers of macaroni and having the
top layer of macaroni, sprinkle the crumbs on top of the upper layer,
and bake the food until the crumbs are brown. Garnish with parsley
and serve.

96. MACARONI AND KIDNEY BEANS.--The combination of canned kidney beans
and macaroni is a rather unusual one, but it makes a very appetizing
dish, especially when canned tomatoes are added, as in the recipe
here given.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 c. macaroni
2 qt. water
2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
2 Tb. flour
3/4 c. hot milk
1/2 c. canned tomatoes
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 c. canned kidney beans

Cook the macaroni in the salted water until it is tender and then drain
it. Prepare the sauce by melting the butter in a saucepan, rubbing the
flour into it until a smooth paste is formed, and then adding slowly the
hot milk. Cook this sauce for 5 minutes. Force the tomato through a
sieve, turn it into the hot sauce, and season all with salt and pepper.
Pour the sauce over the macaroni and the kidney beans, and then heat all
together. When the food is thoroughly heated, turn it into a dish
and serve.

97. SPAGHETTI WITH CHEESE AND TOMATO SAUCE.--The accompanying recipe for
spaghetti with cheese and tomato sauce will serve to illustrate that
this form of Italian paste may be prepared in the same manner as
macaroni; that is, to show how simple it is to substitute one kind of
Italian paste for another. Any of these pastes, as has been mentioned,
is especially appetizing when prepared with cheese and tomato.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. spaghetti
2 Tb. butter
2 qt. boiling water
2 Tb. flour
2 tsp. salt
1/2 c. grated cheese
1 can tomatoes
1 tsp. salt
1 small onion, chopped
1/4 tsp. pepper
1/2 c. water

Boil the spaghetti in the 2 quarts of boiling water to which has been
added 2 teaspoonfuls of salt, and after it is tender drain off the
water. Then proceed to make the sauce. Boil the tomatoes and the chopped
onion in the 1/2 cupful of water for 10 minutes. Strain this mixture and
to it add the butter and the flour, which should first be mixed with a
little cold water. Cook this until it thickens and then add the cheese,
1 teaspoonful of salt, and the pepper. Pour the entire mixture over the
cooked spaghetti, reheat, and serve.

98. Left-Over Italian Pastes.--No cooked Italian paste of any kind
should ever be wasted. Any left-over macaroni, spaghetti, or vermicelli
can be reheated and served as it was originally or it can be used in
soups. If a sufficient amount is left after a meal, a good plan is to
utilize it in croquettes. To make such croquettes, chop the left-over
food fine and hold it together with a thick white sauce or with raw
eggs. Then form it into croquettes of the desired shape, roll these in
bread or cracker crumbs, and brown them in butter.


99. A well-planned breakfast menu is here given, with the intention that
it be prepared and used. This menu, as will be observed, calls for at
least one of the dishes that have been described, as well as some that
have not. Directions for the latter, however, are given, so that no
difficulty will be experienced in preparing the menu. After the recipes
have been followed out carefully, it will be necessary to report on the
success that is had with each dish and to send this report in with the
answers to the Examination Questions at the end of this Section. The
recipes are intended to serve six persons, but they may be changed if
the family consists of fewer or more persons by merely regulating the
amounts to suit the required number, as is explained elsewhere.


Berries and Cream or Oranges
Cream of Wheat or Rolled Oats and Cream
Scrambled Eggs
Buttered Toast
Cocoa or Coffee


5 eggs
1/2 c. milk
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. butter
1/8 tsp. pepper

Beat the eggs slightly and add the salt, pepper, and milk. Heat a pan,
put in the butter, and, when it is melted, turn in the mixture. Cook
this mixture until it thickens as much as desired, being careful to stir
it and to scrape it from the bottom of the pan, so that it will not
burn. Remove from the pan and serve hot.


Bread for toasting should as a rule be 48 hours or more old. Cut the
desired number of slices, making each about 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick. Place
the slices on a toaster over a bed of clear coals or on a broiler under
a slow gas flame. Turn the bread frequently until it assumes an even
light brown on both sides. Remove from the heat, spread each slice with
butter, and serve while hot and crisp.


2 c. scalded milk
3 Tb. cocoa
3 Tb. sugar
1/4 tsp. salt
2-1/2 c. boiling water

Scald the milk in a double boiler. Mix the cocoa, sugar, and salt. Stir
the boiling water into this mixture gradually, and let it boil for
several minutes over the fire. Then turn the mixture into the hot milk
in the double boiler, and beat all with an egg beater for several
minutes. A drop of vanilla added to the cocoa just before serving adds
to its flavor.


Scald a clean coffee pot, and into it put 12 level tablespoonfuls of
ground coffee. Add several crushed egg shells or the white of one egg,
pour in 1 cupful of cold water, and shake until the whole is well mixed.
Add 5 cupfuls of freshly boiling water and put over the fire to boil.
After the coffee has boiled for 5 minutes, pour 1/4 cupful of cold water
down the spout. Allow it to stand for a few minutes where it will keep
hot and then serve.

       *       *       *       *       *



(1) (_a_) Mention the eight cereals that are used for food. (_b_) How
may the universal consumption of cereals be accounted for?

(2) (_a_) Explain why cereals and cereal products are economical foods.
(_b_) What factors should be considered in the selection of cereals?

(3) (_a_) Why are cereals not easily contaminated? (_b_) What care in
storage should be given to both prepared and unprepared cereals?

(4) (_a_) Explain briefly the composition of cereals. (_b_) Describe the
structure of cereal grains.

(5) What food substance is found in the greatest proportion in cereals?

(6) What characteristics of cereals make them valuable in the diet?

(7) What material, besides the food substances, is always present in
cereals, and what are its purposes?

(8) What is the purpose of cooking cereals?

(9) (_a_) What occurs when starch is cooked in a liquid? (_b_) Describe
the process of setting a cereal.

(10) (_a_) Mention the various methods of cooking cereals, (_b_) What
are the advantages of the double-boiler method?

(11) (_a_) What influences the proportion of water required and the
length of time necessary to cook cereals? (_b_) Is it an advantage to
cook cereals for a long time? Tell why.

(12) Mention the cereals that you would use in winter and tell why you
would use them.

(13) (_a_) Of what advantage is it to add dates to cream of wheat? (_b_)
Mention some of the ways in which left-over wheat cereals may
be utilized.

(14) (_a_) Explain the three methods of cooking rice, giving the
proportion of water to rice in each one. (_b_) How should rice grains
look when they are properly cooked?

(15) Mention several ways in which to utilize left-over rolled oats.

(16) (_a_) What advantages have ready-to-eat cereals over unprepared
ones? (_b_) Tell why cereals that have been toasted are said to be

(17) (_a_) What is the advantage of serving milk or cream with cereals?
(_b_) How may variety be secured in the serving of cereals?

(18) (_a_) How are Italian pastes made? (_b_) Mention and describe the
three principal varieties of Italian paste, (_c_) What tests can be
applied to judge the quality of these foods?

(19) (_a_) Explain the first steps in cooking macaroni, (_b_) How much
does macaroni increase upon being boiled?

(20) (_a_) Why may macaroni be substituted for meat in the diet? (_b_)
What foods used in the preparation of macaroni make it a better meat

       *       *       *       *       *


After trying out the breakfast menu given in the text, send with your
answers to the Examination Questions a report of your success. In making
out your report, simply write the name of the food and describe its
condition by means of the terms specified in the following list?

Cream of Wheat: thin? thick? lumpy? smooth? salty? well flavored?

Rolled Oats: thin? thick? lumpy? smooth? salty? well flavored?

Scrambled Eggs: dry? moist? watery? salty? well flavored?

Buttered Toast: thin? thick? crisp? soggy? browned? not sufficiently
toasted? unevenly browned?

Cocoa: smooth? strong? weak? thick? scum formed on top?

Coffee: strong? weak? muddy? clear?

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *



1. BREAD is sometimes defined as any form of baked flour, but as the
word is commonly understood it means only those forms of baked flour
which contain some leavening substance that produces fermentation. The
making of bread has come down through the ages from the simplest methods
practiced by the most primitive peoples to the more elaborate processes
of the present day. In truth, to study the history of bread making would
amount to studying the accounts of the progress that has been made by
the human race. Still, in order that the production of bread from
suitable ingredients may be fully understood, it will be well to note
the advancement that has been made.

2. In the earliest times, what was used as bread was made in much the
same way as it is today by many uncivilized and semicivilized people.
The grain was ground between stones, usually by hand, and then mixed
with water to form a dough; then this dough was formed into flat,
compact cakes and baked in hot ashes, the result being a food very
difficult to digest. Later on, some one discovered that by allowing the
dough to stand until fermentation took place and then mixing it with new
dough, the whole mass would rise, and also that by subjecting this mass
to the action of heat, that is, baking it, the mass would be held in
place and become a loaf of raised bread that was lighter and, of course,
more digestible. It was this discovery that led up to the modern
bread-making processes, in which substances known as _leavening agents_,
or _ferments_, are used to make bread light, or porous. Chief among the
substances is yeast, a microscopic plant that produces fermentation
under favorable conditions.

Indeed, so important is this ferment that, in the United States,
whenever the term _bread_ is used alone it means _yeast_, or _leavened_,
_bread_, whereas, when other leavening agents are used, the bread is
referred to as _hot bread_, or _quick bread_, as is fully explained in
another Section. It will be well to note this fact, for in all cases
throughout these cookery lessons yeast, or leavened, bread is always
meant when the term bread is used alone.

3. References in the history of the ancient Hebrews show that bread made
light by means of fermentation was known thousands of years ago, but it
was not until after the accidental discovery of the action of yeast that
the making of wholesome and digestible bread became possible. Through
this important advance in the making of bread came a demand for better
grains and more improved methods of making flour. Indeed, so much
attention has been given to these matters that at present the three
important processes relating to bread-making--the raising of wheat, the
milling of flour, and the manufacture of yeast--are carefully and
scientifically performed. These industries, together with the commercial
manufacture of bread, occupy an important place in the business of
practically all civilized nations.

4. Among people who are not highly civilized, bread forms the chief
article of food and often almost the entire diet, even at the present
time; but as man progresses in civilization he seems to require a
greater variety of food, and he accordingly devises means of getting it.
Since bread is only one of the many foods he finds at his disposal, it
does not assume a place of so much importance in present-day meals as it
formerly did. However, it still makes up a sufficient proportion of the
food of every family to warrant such careful and extensive study, as
well as such mastery of the processes involved, that the housewife may
present to her family only the best quality of this food.

Although it does not have such extensive use as it had in the past,
bread of some description, whether in the form of loaves, biscuits, or
rolls, forms a part of each meal in every household. This fact proves
that, with the exception of milk, it is more frequently eaten than any
other food. A food so constantly used contributes very largely to the
family's health if it is properly made. However, there is possibly
nothing in the whole range of domestic life that so disturbs the welfare
of the entire family as an inferior quality of this food, which,
besides proving detrimental to the digestion, adds materially to the
household expense.

5. Of course, in many bakeries, bread of an excellent quality is made in
a perfectly hygienic manner, and to be able to procure such bread is a
wonderful help to the busy housewife or to the woman who finds it
inconvenient to make her own bread. Still, practically every person
enjoys "home-made" bread so much more than what is made commercially
that the housewife will do well to make a careful study of this branch
of cookery. If it is properly understood, it will not be found
difficult; but the woman who takes it up must manifest her interest to
master a few essential principles and to follow them explicitly. After
she has obtained the knowledge that she must possess, experience and
practice will give her the skill necessary to prevent poor results and a
consequent waste of material.

       *       *       *       *       *



6. Possibly the first essential to a correct knowledge of bread making
is familiarity with the ingredients required. These are few in number,
being merely flour, liquid, which may be either milk or water, sugar,
salt, and yeast; but the nature of these, particularly the flour and the
yeast, is such as to demand careful consideration. It will be admitted
that the more the housewife knows about bread-making materials and
processes the greater will be her success in this work. Likewise, it is
extremely important that this food be made just as wholesome as
possible, for next to milk and eggs, bread ranks as a perfect food,
containing all the elements necessary for the growth of the body. This
does not mean, though, that any of these foods used as the sole article
of diet would be ideal, but that each one of them is of such composition
that it alone would sustain life for a long period of time.


7. Grains Used for Flour.--As has been pointed out elsewhere, numerous
grains are raised by man, but only two of them, namely, wheat and rye,
are used alone for the making of yeast, or leavened, bread. The other
grains, such as corn, rice, and oats, produce a flat, unleavened cake,
so they are seldom used for bread making unless they are mixed with
white flour. Wheat and rye have been used for bread making for a very
long time, and their universal use today is due to the fact that they
contain considerable protein in the form of _gluten_. This is the
substance that produces elasticity in the dough mixture, a condition
that is absolutely essential in the making of raised bread. In fact, the
toughness and elasticity of bread dough are what make it possible for
the dough to catch and hold air and gas and thus produce a light,
porous loaf.

8. Of these two grains, rye is used less extensively in the United
States for the making of bread than wheat, although in some countries,
particularly the inland countries of Continental Europe, considerable
use is made of it. Its limited use here is undoubtedly due to the fact
that when rye is used alone it makes a moist, sticky bread, which is
considered undesirable by most persons. The reason for this is that,
although rye contains a sufficient quantity of gluten, this substance is
not of the proper quality to make the elastic dough that produces a
light, spongy loaf. Therefore, when rye is used, wheat flour is
generally mixed with it. The result is a bread having a good texture,
but the dark color and the typical flavor that rye produces.

9. Wheat, the other grain used for bread making, is an annual grass of
unknown origin. It is used more extensively for food than any other
grain. In fact, it has been estimated that the average quantity consumed
by each person is about 6 bushels a year, and of this amount by far the
greater part is used in the making of bread. Since so much of this grain
is used as food, considerable time and effort have been spent in
developing those qualities which are most desirable for the purpose to
which wheat is put and in perfecting the processes whereby wheat flour
of a good quality may be obtained.

This grain is particularly well adapted for bread making because of the
nature of the proteins it contains and the relative proportions of
these. These proteins, which occur in the wheat grain in the form of
gluten, are known as _gliadin_ and _glutenin_. The gliadin imparts
elasticity and tenacity, or toughness, to the gluten, and the glutenin
gives it strength. It is not, however, so much the quantity of gluten in
the wheat grain that actually determines the quality of flour as the
fact that the two varieties must be present in the proper proportions
in order for the gluten to have the properties desired for bread making.

Wheat consists of numerous varieties, but only two of these are grown
and used in the United States, namely, _spring_, or _hard, wheat_ and
_winter_, or _soft, wheat_.

10. SPRING, OR HARD WHEAT is so named because it is sown in the spring
of the year and is very tough or firm. Before this variety was known,
the wheat used for bread making was not ideal, and the efforts that were
made to produce a grain that would be suitable for this purpose resulted
in this variety. To obtain its particular composition, spring wheat must
be grown under suitable climatic and soil conditions. In North America,
it grows in the north central part of the United States and along the
southern border of Canada. This variety, which is harvested in the late
summer, is characterized by a large proportion of gluten and a
correspondingly small amount of starch. It is the presence of the gluten
that accounts for the hardness of the spring-wheat grain and the tough,
elastic quality of the dough made from the spring-wheat flour. Bread
dough, to be right, must have this quality, so that the flour made from
spring wheat is used almost exclusively for bread; whereas, for cake and
pastry, which should have a tender, unelastic texture, flour made from
soft wheat is more satisfactory.

11. WINTER, OR SOFT WHEAT derives its name from the fact that it is
planted in the autumn and is soft in texture. It is of less importance
in the making of bread than spring, or hard, wheat, but it is the kind
that has been grown for centuries and from which the varieties of spring
wheat have been cultivated. It is a softer grain than spring wheat,
because it contains less gluten and more starch. The flour made from it
does not produce so elastic a dough mixture as does that made from the
other variety of wheat; consequently, the finished product, such as
bread, rolls, etc., is likely to be more tender and more friable, or
crumbly. It is for this reason that winter, or soft, wheat is not used
extensively for bread, but is employed for pastry flour or mixed with
spring wheat to make what is called a _blend flour_, which may be used
for all purposes.

12. STRUCTURE OF WHEAT GRAIN.--In its natural state, wheat contains all
the food substances required for the nourishment of the human body in
nearly the proper proportions, and in addition it has in its
composition sufficient cellulose to give it considerable bulk. It has
been estimated that the average composition of this grain is as follows:

                                            PER CENT.
Protein...................................... 11.9
Fat..........................................  2.1
Carbohydrates................................ 71.9
Mineral salts................................. 1.8
Water........................................ 10.5
Cellulose..................................... 1.8
Total....................................... 100.0

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

So that the composition of wheat and the making of wheat flour may be
more clearly understood, it will be well to observe the structure of a
grain, or kernel, of wheat, which is shown greatly enlarged in Fig. 1.
At _a_ is shown the germ of the young plant, which remains undeveloped
until the grain is planted. This part contains practically all the fat
found in the grain, some starch, and a small quantity of protein. At _b_
is shown the inside of the kernel, or the _endosperm_, as it is called,
which is composed of starch granules interlaced with protein and mineral
salts. Surrounding these, as at _c_, is a layer of coarse cells that
contain mineral matter and protein, and between these cells and the
outer husk, as at _d, e, f_, and _g_, are layers of bran, which are
composed of cellulose and contain mineral salts and small quantities of
starch and protein. Enveloping the entire kernel is a husk, or bran
covering, _h_. This forms a protection to the rest of the grain, but it
cannot be used as food, because it is composed almost entirely of
cellulose, which is practically indigestible. The center of the grain,
or the heart, is the softest part and consists of cells filled with
starch. From this soft center the contents of the grain gradually grow
harder toward the outside, the harder part and that containing the most
gluten occurring next to the bran covering.

13. MILLING OF WHEAT FLOUR.--Great advances have been made in the
production of flour from wheat, and these are very good evidence of
man's progress in the way of invention. The earliest method consisted
in crushing the grain by hand between two stones, and from this crude
device came the mortar and pestle. A little later millstones in the form
of thick, heavy disks were brought into use for grinding grain. Two of
these stones were placed so that their surfaces came together, the lower
one being stationary and the upper one made to revolve. Early grinding
apparatus of this kind was turned by human power, but this kind of power
was first displaced by domestic animals and later by wind and water. Out
of this arrangement, which is still used to some extent in small mills,
has grown the present-day complicated machinery of the roller process,
by which any part of the grain may be included or rejected.

14. In the roller process, the grain is crushed between metal rolls
instead of being ground between stones. It is first screened in order to
separate all foreign matter from it, and then stored in bins. When it is
taken from these receptacles, it is put through another cleaning
process, called _scouring_, or it is thoroughly washed and dried in
order to loosen the dirt that clings to it and to free it entirely from
dust, lint, etc. As soon as it is completely cleansed, it is softened by
heat and moisture and then passed through a set of corrugated rollers,
which are adjustable as are the rubber rollers of a clothes wringer and
which flatten and break the grains. After this first crushing, some of
the bran is sifted out, while the main portion of the grain is put
through another set of rollers and crushed more finely. During the
milling, these processes of crushing the grain and removing the bran are
repeated from six to nine times, each pair of rollers being set somewhat
closer than the pair before, until the grain is pulverized. After the
grain has been thus reduced to a powder, it is passed through bolting
cloth, which acts as a very fine sieve and separates from it any foreign
material that may remain. The result is a very fine, white flour.

15. GRAHAM FLOUR.--Sometimes the entire grain, including the bran, germ,
etc., is ground fine enough merely for baking purposes and is used as
flour in this form. Such flour is called graham flour. It contains all
the nutriment, mineral matter, and cellulose of the original grain, and
is therefore considered valuable as food. However, the objection to this
kind of flour is that its keeping quality is not so good as that of the
kinds from which the germ has been removed, because the fat contained in
the germ is liable to become rancid.

16. WHOLE-WHEAT FLOUR.--The best grades of fine white flour make bread
of excellent quality, but such bread is not so nutritious as that made
from whole-wheat flour. In the making of this kind of flour, some of the
choicest varieties of wheat are first moistened in order to soften the
woody fiber of the bran and are then sifted until the outer husk of the
grain is removed. After this treatment, the grains are dried and then
pulverized into various grades of so-called whole-wheat flour. The name
whole-wheat flour is misleading, because it implies that all of the
grain is used; whereas, since several of the outer layers of bran and
the germ are removed in its production, whole-wheat flour is merely
flour in which practically all the gluten and the starch are retained.
Because this variety is not sifted as are the white flours, it is not so
fine as they are; but it is not so coarse as graham flour, nor is bread
made from it so dark in color. Both graham and whole-wheat flours
produce a more wholesome bread than any of the varieties of white flour,
because they contain more of the nutritive elements and mineral salts,
which are necessary in the diet. The bran that is retained in them is
not used by the body as food, but it adds bulk to the diet and assists
in carrying on the normal functions of the digestive tract.

17. SELECTION OF FLOUR.--If a large quantity of flour must be bought at
one time, as, for instance, enough to last through an entire season, it
is advisable to test it carefully before the purchase is made, so as to
avoid the danger of getting a poor grade. As a rule, however, housewives
are obliged to purchase only a small quantity at a time. In such cases,
it will not be necessary to test the flour before purchasing it,
provided a standard make is selected. Very often, too, a housewife in a
small family finds it inconvenient to keep on hand a supply of both
bread flour and pastry flour. In such an event, a blend flour, which, as
has been mentioned, is a mixture of flour made from spring and winter
wheat that will do for all purposes, is the kind to purchase. While such
flour is not ideal for either bread or pastry, it serves the purpose of
both very well.

18. QUALITY OF FLOUR.--Flour is put on the market in various grades, and
is named according to its quality. The highest grade, or best quality,
is called _high-grade patent_; the next grade, _bakers'_; and the next,
_second-grade patent_. The lowest grade, or poorest quality, is called
_red dog_. This grade is seldom sold for food purposes, but it is used
considerably for the making of paste.

The quality of flour used in bread making is of very great importance,
because flour of poor quality will not, of course, make good bread.
Every housewife should therefore be familiar with the characteristics of
good flour and should buy accordingly.

19. Several tests can be applied to flour to determine its kind and its
quality. The first test is its color. Bread flour, or flour made from
spring wheat, is usually of a creamy-white color, while pastry flour, or
that made from winter wheat, is more nearly pure white in color. A dark,
chalky-white, or gray color indicates that the flour is poor in quality.
The second test is the feel of the flour. A pinch of good bread flour,
when rubbed lightly between the thumb and the index finger, will be
found to be rather coarse and the particles will feel sharp and gritty.
When good pastry flour is treated in the same way, it will feel smooth
and powdery. The third test is its adhering power. When squeezed tightly
in the hand, good bread flour holds together in a mass and retains
slightly the impression of the fingers; poor bread flour treated in the
same way either does not retain its shape or, provided it contains too
much moisture, is liable to make a damp, hard lump. The odor of flour
might also be considered a test. Flour must not have a musty odor nor
any other odor foreign to the normal, rather nutty flavor that is
characteristic of flour.

The bleaching and adulteration of flour are governed by the United
States laws. Bleaching is permitted only when it does not reduce the
quality or strength nor conceal any damage or inferiority. Such flour
must be plainly labeled to show that it has been bleached.

20. CARE OF FLOUR.--There is considerable economy in buying flour in
large quantities, but unless an adequate storing place can be secured,
it is advisable to buy only small amounts at a time. Flour absorbs odors
very readily, so that when it is not bought in barrels it should if
possible be purchased in moisture-proof bags. Then, after it is
purchased, it should be kept where it will remain dry and will not be
accessible to odors, for unless the storage conditions are favorable, it
will soon acquire an offensive odor and become unfit for use. Flour
sometimes becomes infested with weevils, or beetles, whose presence can
be detected by little webs. To prevent the entrance of insects and
vermin of all kinds, flour should be kept in tightly closed bins after
it is taken from the barrels or sacks in which it is purchased. If newly
purchased flour is found to be contaminated with such insects, it should
be returned to the dealer.


21. NATURE AND ACTION OF YEAST.--How yeast came to be discovered is not
definitely known, but its discovery is believed to have been purely
accidental. Some mixture of flour and liquid was probably allowed to
remain exposed to the air until it fermented and then when baked was
found to be light and porous. Whatever the origin of this discovery was,
it is certain that yeast was used hundreds of years ago and that its
action was not at that time understood. Even at the present time
everything concerning the action of yeast is not known; still continued
study and observation have brought to light enough information to show
that yeast is the agency that, under favorable conditions, produces
light, spongy bread out of a flour mixture.

22. It has been determined that yeast is a microscopic plant existing
everywhere in the air and in dust; consequently, it is found on all
things that are exposed to air or dust. In order that it may grow, this
plant requires the three things necessary for the growth of any plant,
namely, food, moisture, and warmth. Carbohydrate in the form of sugar
proves to be an ideal food for yeast, and 70 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit is
the temperature at which the most rapid growth occurs. When these
conditions exist and a sufficient amount of moisture is provided, yeast
grows very rapidly and produces fermentation.

The changes that take place when yeast causes fermentation can be
detected very readily by observing the fermenting of fruit juice. As
every housewife knows, the first indication of a ferment in fruit juice
is the appearance of tiny bubbles, which collect on the sides and the
bottom of the vessel containing the fruit and then gradually rise to the
top. These bubbles are a form of gas called _carbon-dioxide_, or
_carbonic-acid, gas_. If, after they appear, the juice is tasted, it
will be found to be slightly alcoholic and to have a somewhat sour or
acid taste. The gas, the acid, and the alcohol thus produced are the
three results of the action of the ferment.

23. When yeast is used in the making of bread out of wheat flour, the
changes just mentioned take place. To understand the action of this
plant, it will be necessary to remember that wheat contains a large
proportion of starch. This substance, however, cannot be acted on by the
yeast plant; it must first be changed into sugar. The yeast that is
added to the flour changes some of the starch into sugar and transforms
the sugar into alcohol and carbonic-acid gas. This gas, which is lighter
than the dough, rises, and in its efforts to escape expands the elastic,
glutinous dough into a mass of bubbles with thin walls until the dough
is two or three times its original bulk. The yeast plants, though, must
be well distributed throughout the dough; otherwise, there are likely to
be no bubbles in some places and large bubbles with thick walls in
others. The gas thus formed is prevented from escaping by the toughness
or the elasticity of the gluten, and the spaces that it leaves are what
produce a light, porous loaf. When the expansion has gone on long
enough, the formation of gas is checked and the ferment is killed by
baking the dough in a hot oven. During the baking, the alcohol is driven
off by heat, some of the starch is browned and forms the crust, and so
little acid is produced in the short time in which the yeast is active
that it is not noticeable.

24. Commercial Yeast.--When yeast plants are deprived of water and food,
they cease to multiply. However, under these conditions, they may be
kept alive so that when water and food are again provided they will
increase in number and carry on their work. Advantage has been taken of
these characteristics of yeast, for although at one time the making of
yeast was entirely a household process, it has now, like butter, cheese,
canned fruit, etc., become a commercial product. The first yeast put on
the market was collected from the surface of the contents of brewers'
vats, where it floated in large quantities; but as this was an impure,
unreliable product composed of various kinds of bacteria, it is no
longer used for the purpose of making bread. At present, yeast is
carefully grown as a pure yeast culture, or product. It is marketed in
such a way that when proper food, such as soft dough, or sponge, and a
favorable temperature are provided, the plants will multiply and act on
the carbohydrate that they find in the food. In fact, the purpose of the
well-known process of "setting" a sponge is to obtain a large number of
yeast plants from a few.

Commercial yeast is placed on the market in two forms--_moist_ and
_dry_. Each of these yeasts has its advantages, so that the one to
select depends on the method preferred for the making of bread as well
as the time that may be devoted to the preparation of this food.

25. Moist yeast, which is usually called _compressed yeast_, consists
of the pure yeast culture, or growth, mixed with starch to make a sort
of dough and then compressed into small cakes, the form in which it is
sold. The moist condition of this kind of commercial yeast keeps the
plants in an active state and permits of very rapid growth in a dough
mixture. Consequently, it proves very useful for the rapid methods of
making bread. It is soft, yet brittle, is of a grayish-white color, and
has no odor except that of yeast.

Since the plants of compressed yeast require very little moisture to
make them grow, an unfavorable, or low, temperature is needed to keep
the yeast from spoiling; in fact, it is not guaranteed to remain good
longer than a few days, and then only if it is kept at a temperature low
enough to prevent the plants from growing. This fact makes it
inadvisable to purchase compressed yeast at great distances from the
source of supply, although it may be obtained by parcel post from
manufacturers or dealers.

26. Dry yeast, the other form of commercial yeast, is made in much the
same way as moist yeast, but, instead of being mixed with a small amount
of starch, the yeast culture is combined with a large quantity of starch
or meal and then dried. The process of drying kills off some of the
plants and renders the remainder inactive; because of this, the yeast
requires no special care and will keep for an indefinite period of time,
facts that account for its extensive use by housewives who are not
within easy reach of the markets. However, because of the inactivity of
the yeast plants, much longer time is required to produce fermentation
in a bread mixture containing dry yeast than in one in which moist yeast
is used. Consequently, the long processes of bread making are brought
about by the use of dry yeast. If moist yeast is used for these
processes, a smaller quantity is required.

27. Liquid Yeast.--Some housewives are so situated that they find it
difficult to obtain commercial yeast in either of its forms; but this
disadvantage need not deprive them of the means of making good home-made
bread, for they can prepare a very satisfactory liquid yeast themselves.
To make such yeast, flour, water, and a small quantity of sugar are
stirred together, and the mixture is then allowed to remain at ordinary
room temperature, or 70 degrees Fahrenheit, until it is filled with
bubbles. If hops are available, a few of them may be added. When such
yeast is added to a sponge mixture, it will lighten the whole amount.
Before the sponge is made stiff with flour, however, a little of it
should be taken out, put in a covered dish, and set away in a cool, dark
place for the next baking. If properly looked after in the manner
explained, this yeast may be kept for about 2 weeks.

More certain results and a better flavor are insured in the use of
liquid yeast if it is started with commercial yeast, so that whenever
this can be obtained it should be used. Then, as just explained, some of
the liquid containing the yeast or some of the sponge made with it may
be retained for the next baking.

28. Quality of Yeast.--Of equal importance with the quality of flour is
the quality of yeast used in the baking of bread. Yeast is, of course,
accountable for the lightness or sponginess of bread, but, in addition,
it improves the flavor of the bread if it is of good quality or detracts
from the flavor if it is of poor quality. Since the condition of yeast
cannot be determined until its effect on the finished product is noted,
the housewife should take no chances, but should employ only yeast,
whether she uses commercial or liquid, that she knows to be good and
reliable. Compressed yeast may be easily judged as to quality. It should
be grayish white in color, without streaks or spots, and it should have
no sour nor disagreeable odor. If home-made yeast is used and the
results obtained are not satisfactory, it may be taken for granted that
a fresh supply should be prepared.


29. As has already been explained, yeast, in order to grow, requires
something on which to feed, and the food that produces the most rapid
growth is that which contains carbohydrate. Certain of the
carbohydrates, however, prove to be better food and produce more rapid
growth than others, and these, which are known as yeast aids, are
usually added as ingredients in the making of bread. The ones that are
most commonly used are sugar and potato water. Sugar is almost always
added, but it should be limited in quantity, because a dough mixture
that is made heavy with sugar will rise very slowly. Potato water has
been found to be a very satisfactory aid, because the starch of the
potato is utilized readily by the yeast. If this aid is to be used, the
water in which potatoes are boiled may be saved and, when the
ingredients required for the making of bread are mixed, it may be added
as a part or all of the liquid required. If it is desired to increase
the amount of starch in the potato water, a boiled potato or two may be
mashed and added to it.


30. Milk is sometimes used as a part or as all of the liquid in bread.
While it adds nutritive value and is thought by many persons to improve
the texture, it is not absolutely essential to successful bread making.
Whenever milk is used, it should first be scalded thoroughly. A point
that should not be overlooked in connection with the use of milk is that
the crust of milk bread browns more readily and has a more uniform color
than that of bread in which water is used as liquid.

31. Like milk, fat adds nutritive value to bread, but it is not an
essential ingredient. If it is included, care should be taken not to use
too much, for an excessive amount will retard the growth of the yeast.
Almost any kind of fat, such as butter, lard or other clear tasteless
fats, or any mixture of these, may be used for this purpose, provided it
does not impart an unpleasant flavor to the bread.


32. No definite rule can be given for the exact proportion of liquid and
flour to be used in bread making, because some kinds of flour absorb
much more liquid than others. It has been determined, however, that 3
cupfuls of flour is generally needed for each small loaf of bread. With
this known, the quantity of flour can be determined by the amount of
bread that is to be made. The quantity of liquid required depends on the
quantity and kind of flour selected, but usually there should be about
one-third as much liquid as flour.

The particular method that is selected for the making of bread, as is
explained later, determines the amount of yeast to be used. If it is
desired not to have the bread rise quickly, a small quantity, about one
eighth cake of compressed yeast or 2 tablespoonfuls of liquid yeast, is
sufficient for each loaf; but if rapid rising is wanted, two, three, or
four times as much yeast must be used to produce a sufficient amount of
carbon dioxide in less time. It should be remembered that the more yeast
used, the more quickly will the necessary gas be created, and that, as
has already been shown, it is the formation of gas that makes bread
light and porous. In addition to flour, liquid, and yeast, 1 teaspoonful
of salt, 1 tablespoonful of sugar, and 1 tablespoonful of fat are the
ingredients generally used for each loaf of bread.


[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

33. Necessary Equipment.--Not many utensils are required for bread
making, but the ones that are needed must be of the right kind if the
best results are to be obtained. The necessary equipment is illustrated
in Fig. 2. It includes a mixing bowl and cover _a_; a flour sieve _b_;
measuring cups _c_ of standard size, one for moist and one for dry
ingredients, measuring spoons _d_, and a case knife or a spatula _e_ for
measuring; a long-handled spoon _f_ for mixing; and baking, or bread,
pans _g_. Unless the table is such that it can be used as a molding
board, it will be necessary to provide in addition to the equipment
mentioned, a molding board of suitable size.

The mixing bowl may be an earthen one or a metal one like that shown in
the illustration. The size of the pans used and the material of which
the pans are made should also receive attention. The loaves will be
found to bake more quickly and thoroughly if they are not made too large
and each one is baked in a separate pan. Pans that are 8 inches long, 3
1/2 inches wide, and 3 inches deep are of a convenient size. They may be
made of tin, sheet iron, aluminum, or heat-resisting glass, the only
requirements being that all the pans used at one baking be of the same
material, because, as heat penetrates some materials more quickly than
others, the baking will then be more uniform.

34. Convenient Equipment.--While the utensils shown in Fig. 2 are all
that are actually required in the making of bread, a bread mixer, one
style of which is described in _Essentials of Cookery_, Part 2, will be
found extremely convenient by the housewife who must bake large
quantities of bread at one time and who has not a great deal of time to
devote to the work. This labor-saving device can be used and, of course,
often is used by the housewife who makes only a small quantity of bread,
as, for instance, two to four loaves; but it is not actually needed by
her, as she can handle such an amount easily and quickly.

A _cooler_, which consists of a framework covered with wire netting and
supported by short legs, is also a convenient utensil, as it serves as a
good place on which to put baked bread to cool. If one of these devices
is not available, however, a substitute can be easily made by stretching
a wire netting over a wooden frame.

       *       *       *       *       *



35. The nature and the quality of the ingredients required to make
bread, as well as the utensils that are needed for this purpose, being
understood, it is next in order to take up the actual work of making
bread. Several processes are included in this work; namely, making the
dough, caring for the rising dough, kneading the dough, shaping the
dough into loaves, baking the loaves, and caring for the bread after it
is baked. When the finished product is obtained, the loaves are ready to
be scored and served. A knowledge of how to carry out these processes is
of the utmost importance, for much of the success achieved in bread
making depends on the proper handling of the ingredients. Of course,
skill in manipulation is acquired only by constant practice, so that the
more opportunity the housewife has to apply her knowledge of the
processes, the more proficient will she become in this phase of cookery.
Each one of the processes mentioned is here discussed in the order in
which it comes in the actual work of bread making, and while the proper
consideration should be given to every one of them, it will be well,
before entering into them, to observe the qualities that characterize
good wheat bread.

36. Good wheat bread may be described in various ways, but, as has been
learned by experience and as is pointed out by United States government
authorities, probably the best way in which to think of it, so far as
its structure is concerned, is as a mass of tiny bubbles made of flour
and water, having very thin walls and fixed in shape by means of heat.
The size of the cells and the nature of the bubble walls are points that
should not be overlooked.

Each loaf should be light in weight, considering its size, should be
regular in form, and should have an unbroken, golden-brown crust. The
top crust should be smooth and should have a luster, which is usually
spoken of as the "bloom" of the crust. Taken as a whole, the loaf should
have a certain sponginess, which is known as its elasticity, and which
is evidenced by the way in which the loaf acts when it is pressed
slightly out of shape. As soon as the pressure is removed, the loaf
should resume its original shape. This test should produce the same
results when it is applied to small pieces of the crust and to the cut
surface of the loaf.

The internal appearance must also receive consideration. To be right,
wheat bread should be creamy white in color and should have a definite
"sheen," which can best be seen by looking across a slice, rather than
directly down into it. As already explained, the holes in it should be
small and evenly distributed and their walls should be very thin. These
points can be readily determined by holding a very thin slice up to
the light.

The flavor of bread is also a very important factor, but it is somewhat
difficult to describe just the exact flavor that bread should have in
order to be considered good. Probably the best way in which to explain
this is to say that its flavor should be that which is brought about by
treating the wheat with salt. While such a flavor may not be known to
all, it is familiar to those who have tasted the wheat kernel.

       *       *       *       *       *



37. The first step in bread making, and without doubt the most important
one, is the making of the dough. It consists in moistening the flour by
means of a liquid of some kind in order to soften the gluten and the
starch, to dissolve the sugar, and to cement all the particles together,
and then combining these ingredients. Before the ingredients are
combined, however, particularly the flour, the liquid, and the yeast,
they must generally be warmed in order to shorten the length of time
necessary for the yeast to start growing. Much care should be exercised
in heating these materials, for good results will not be obtained unless
they are brought to the proper temperature. The flour should feel warm
and the liquid, whether it be water or milk, should, when it is added,
be of such a temperature that it also will feel warm to the fingers. If
water is used, it ought to be just as pure as possible, but if milk is
preferred it should be used only after it has been scalded. The yeast
should be dissolved in a small quantity of lukewarm water. Hot water
used for this purpose is liable to kill the yeast and prevent the bread
from rising, whereas cold water will retard the growth of the yeast.


38. As soon as the bread ingredients have received the proper treatment,
they are ready to be combined. Combining may be done by two different
methods, one of which is known as the _short process_ and the other as
the _long process_. As their names indicate, these methods are
characterized by the length of time required for the bread to rise. Each
method has its advantages, and the one to select depends on the amount
of time and energy the housewife can afford to give to this part of her
work. Persons who use the long process believe that bread made by it
tastes better and keeps longer than that made by the short process;
whereas, those who favor the short process find that it saves time and
labor and are convinced that the quality of the bread is not impaired.
The more rapid methods of making breads are possible only when yeast in
the active state is used and when more of it than would be necessary in
the long process, in which time must be allowed for its growth, is
employed. However, regardless of the method followed, all bread mixtures
must be begun in the same manner. The liquids, seasonings, and fat are
combined, and to these is added the flour, which should be sifted in, as
shown in Fig. 3.

39. Long Process.--By the long process, there are two ways of combining
the ingredients in order to make bread. One is known as the _sponge
method_ and the other as the _straight-dough method_.

[Illustration: Fig. 3] 40. The long-process sponge method is employed
when sufficient time can be allowed to permit the natural growth of the
yeast. To make bread according to this process, start it in the evening
by warming the liquid and dissolving the yeast and then adding these
ingredients to the sugar, salt, and fat, which should first be placed in
the mixing bowl. Stir this mixture well, and then add one-half of the
quantity of flour that is to be used, stirring this also. Place this
mixture, or sponge, as such a mixture is called, where it will remain
warm, or at a temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit, through
the night. In the morning, stir the remaining flour into the sponge and
knead for a few minutes the dough thus formed. When this is
accomplished, put the dough in a warm place and allow it to rise until
it doubles in bulk. When the dough is in this condition, it is ready to
be kneaded again, after which it may be shaped into loaves, placed in
the pans, allowed to double in bulk again, and finally baked.

41. The long-process straight-dough method is a shortened form of the
method just explained. It does away with the necessity of one kneading
and one rising and consequently saves considerable time and labor. To
make bread by this method, combine the ingredients in the evening as for
the sponge method, but instead of adding only half of the flour, put all
of it into the mixture, make a stiff dough at once, and knead. Then
allow this to rise during the night, so that in the morning it can be
kneaded again and put directly into the bread pans. After it rises in
the pans until it doubles in bulk, it is ready to be baked.

The only disadvantage of the straight-dough method is that a stiff dough
rises more slowly than a sponge, but since the entire night is given to
the rising no difficulty will be experienced in carrying out this
process. A point to remember, however, is that dough made according to
this method must be kept warmer than that made by the sponge method.

42. Quick Process.--In the quick process of combining bread ingredients,
there are also two methods of procedure--the _sponge method_ and the
_straight-dough method_. The chief differences between the methods of
this process and those of the long process are in the quantity of yeast
used and the length of time required for the bread to rise. More yeast
must be used and much less time is required for the completion of the
entire process. This shorter period of time is doubtless due to the fact
that throughout the process, whether the straight-dough or the sponge
method is followed, the mixture must be kept at a uniform temperature of
about 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

43. The quick-process sponge method requires only about 5 hours for its
completion, and the bread may be started at any time of the day that
will allow this amount of time for carrying on the work. For this
method, warm the ingredients and then combine the sugar, salt, fat,
liquid, and dissolved yeast. Into this mixture, stir enough of the flour
to make a sponge and put it where it will keep uniformly warm until it
has about doubled in quantity and is full of bubbles. Then add the
remainder of the flour, knead the mixture, and return the dough thus
formed to a warm place. When the dough has doubled in bulk, remove it
from the bowl to the kneading board, knead it slightly, and then shape
it into loaves. Place these into the pans, and after allowing them to
rise sufficiently, bake them.

44. The quick-process straight-dough method differs from the
quick-process sponge method in that the entire amount of flour is added
when the ingredients are first mixed, with the result that a stiff dough
instead of a sponge is formed. As has already been learned, this stiff
dough rises more slowly than a sponge, but it requires one rising less.
It must be kept at a uniform temperature as much of the time as
possible, so that the rising will not be retarded. When it has doubled
in bulk, remove it from the bowl and knead it. Then shape it into
loaves, place these in the pans, allow them to rise sufficiently, and
proceed with the baking.


45. Purpose of Rising.--Rising is an important part of the process of
bread making, no matter which method is employed. In a sponge, its
purpose is to blend the ingredients after they have been mixed, as well
as to permit the growth of the yeast; in a dough, after the gas has been
evenly distributed by means of kneading, the purpose of rising is to
permit the incorporation of a sufficient quantity of carbon dioxide to
make the bread light when it is baked. As has just been explained, three
risings are necessary in the sponge method of both the long and the
short process, whereas only two are required in the straight-dough
methods. The last rising, or the one that takes place after the dough is
shaped into loaves, is the one that affects the texture of the bread
most, so that it should receive considerable attention. If the dough is
not allowed to rise sufficiently at this time, the bread will be too
fine in texture and will likely be heavy; and if it is permitted to rise
too much, it will be coarse in texture. Allowance, however, should be
made for the fact that the rising will continue after the bread has been
placed in the oven.

46. Temperature for Rising.--As has been mentioned, the best results are
obtained if the bread dough is kept at a uniform temperature throughout
its rising. The temperature at which it rises most rapidly is about 86
degrees Fahrenheit; but, unless it can be watched closely, a better plan
is to keep it, especially if the long process of bread making is
followed, at a temperature that runs no higher than 80 degrees. Various
methods of maintaining a uniform temperature have been devised, but the
ones usually resorted to consist in placing the bowl containing the
sponge or the dough in a bread raiser, a fireless cooker, or a vessel of
hot water.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

47. Bread raisers can be purchased, but if desired a simple
bread-raising device may be constructed from a good-sized wooden box. To
make such a device, line the box with tin or similar metal and fit it
with a door or a cover that may be closed tight. Make a hole in one side
of the box into which to insert a thermometer, and, at about the center
of the box, place a shelf on which to set the bowl or pan containing the
sponge or dough. For heating the interior, use may be made of a single
gas burner, an oil lamp, or any other small heating device. This should
be placed in the bottom of the box, under the shelf, and over it should
be placed a pan of water to keep the air in the box moist, moist air
being essential to good results. Where large quantities of bread must be
baked regularly, such a device will prove very satisfactory. The
temperature inside should be kept somewhere in the neighborhood of 95 to
105 degrees Fahrenheit if the bread is to rise rapidly; but it may be
kept from 80 to 95 degrees if slower rising is desired.

48. Placing the bowl containing the dough mixture in a larger vessel of
hot water is a simple and satisfactory way of obtaining a uniform
temperature, being especially desirable for a sponge in the quick-process
sponge method. The water in the large vessel should be at a temperature
of about 110 to 115 degrees Fahrenheit. After the bowl of sponge or
dough is placed in the water, the large vessel should be covered very
carefully, so that the heat from the water will be retained. To maintain
the temperature in the vessel and thus keep it right for the bread
mixture, the hot water has to be replenished occasionally. If this is
done, the sponge or dough will be maintained at a temperature of about
90 degrees and will therefore rise rapidly.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

49. To insure the best results with the rising of bread mixtures, it is
advisable, for the beginner at least, to use a thermometer for
determining the temperature of air or water, as this instrument will
save considerable time until experience in judging such matters has been
gained. A Fahrenheit thermometer like that shown in Fig. 4 is the ideal
kind for use in bread making. As an aid in this process, there are
indicated in this illustration the temperature at which dough should be
kept for rising and the temperature at which water should be kept
outside the bowl to maintain a temperature of 75 to 90 degrees in the
dough when the plan mentioned in Art. 48 for keeping dough at a uniform
temperature is followed. In addition, the oven temperatures for baking
bread and rolls, which are explained later, are also shown. The
temperature of water can, however, be determined fairly accurately with
the hands. If it feels very warm but does not burn the hand, it may be
considered at about a temperature of 110 to 115 degrees.

In order to prevent the formation of a hard surface on the dough, the
bowl in which it rises should be kept tightly covered. A further means
of preventing this condition consists in oiling the surface of the
dough; that is, brushing it lightly with melted fat. In case a crust
does form, it should be well moistened with water or milk and allowed to
soften completely before the next kneading is begun.

[Illustration: Fig. 6]

50. Time Required for Rising.--No definite rule can be given for the
length of time required for dough to rise, for this depends entirely on
the activity of the yeast. If the yeast is active, the dough will rise
quickly; but if it is not of good quality or if it has been killed or
retarded in its growth by improper handling, the dough will rise slowly.
Usually, dough should be allowed to rise until it has doubled in bulk. A
good way in which to determine when this takes place is to put a small
piece of the dough in a glass, such as a measuring glass, a tumbler, or
a jelly glass, and mark on this glass where the dough should come when
it has increased to twice its size. This glass set beside the vessel
containing the dough will show when it has risen sufficiently. This plan
is illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6. Fig. 5 shows a glass half filled with
dough and a bowl of bread dough ready to be placed where they will keep
warm for the first rising; and Fig. 6 shows the same dough after it has
doubled in bulk, as is evident from the fact that the glass is
entirely full.


[Illustration: Fig. 7]

51. Purpose of Kneading.--As has been pointed out, it is necessary to
knead dough one or more times in the making of bread, the number of
kneadings depending on the method that is employed. The purpose of
kneading is to work the dough so as to distribute evenly the gas that is
produced by the yeast, to increase the elasticity of the gluten, and to
blend the ingredients. It is a very important part of the work of bread
making, for to a great extent it is responsible for the texture of the
finished product. At first, kneading may be found to be somewhat
difficult, but the beginner need not become discouraged if she is not
proficient at once, because the skill that is necessary to knead the
bread successfully comes with practice. So that the best results may be
attained, however, it is advisable that the purpose for which the
kneading is done be kept constantly before the mind during the process.

[Illustration: Fig. 8]

[Illustration: Fig. 9]

52. Kneading Motions.--Several motions are involved in the kneading of
bread, and these are illustrated in Figs. 7 to 10. In order to carry out
the kneading process, first cover lightly with flour the surface on
which the kneading is to be done; this may be a suitable table top or a
molding board placed on a table. Then remove the dough from the mixing
bowl with the aid of a case knife or a spatula, in the manner shown in
Fig. 6, and place it on the floured surface. Sift a little flour over
the dough, so that it appears as in Fig. 7, and flatten it slightly by
patting it gently. Next, with the fingers placed as shown in Fig. 8,
take hold of the edge of the mass at the side farthest from you and fold
the dough over the edge nearest you, as Fig. 9 illustrates. Then
work the dough with a downward pressure and, as indicated in Fig. 10,
push it out with the palms of the hands. With the motion completed, turn
the entire mass around and knead it in the same way in another
direction. Continue the kneading by repeating these motions until the
dough has a smooth appearance, is elastic, does not stick to either the
hands or the board, and rises quickly when it is pressed down.

[Illustration: Fig. 10]

To prevent the dough from sticking to the hands and the board, flour
should be added gradually during the process of kneading, but care
should be taken not to use too much flour for this purpose. The
lightness and sponginess of the finished loaf depend largely on the
quantity of flour used at this time, so that if the dough is made too
stiff with flour, the bread will be hard and close after it is baked. As
soon as the dough can be kneaded without its sticking to either the
hands or the board, no more flour need be added; but, in case too much
flour is used, the dough may be softened by means of milk or water. Such
dough, however, is not so satisfactory as that which does not have to
be softened.


53. After the dough is properly kneaded in the manner just explained, it
is placed in the mixing bowl and allowed to rise again. When it has
risen sufficiently for the last time, depending on the process employed,
it should be kneaded again, if it must be reduced in size, and then
shaped into loaves and put in the pans. Here, again, much care should be
exercised, for the way in which bread is prepared for the pans has much
to do with the shape of the loaf after it is baked.

[Illustration: Fig. 11]

54. In order to shape the dough into loaves, first loosen it from the
sides of the mixing bowl, using a knife or a spatula for this purpose,
and then turn it out on a flat surface on which flour has been
sprinkled, as in preparing for kneading. Knead the dough a little, and
then cut it into pieces that will be the correct size for the pans in
which the loaves are to be baked, as shown at the right in Fig. 11. Dust
each piece with a small quantity of flour and knead it until the large
bubbles of gas it contains are worked out and it is smooth and round. In
working it, stretch the under side, which is to be the top of the loaf,
and form it into a roll that is as long and half as high as the pan and
as thick at each end as in the center. A good idea of the size and shape
can be formed from the loaf held in the hands in Fig. 11.

[Illustration: Fig. 12]

55. As each loaf is formed, place it in the pan in the manner shown in
Fig. 12 and allow it to rise until the dough comes to the top of the
pan, or has doubled in bulk. So that the loaf will be symmetrical after
it has risen--that is, as high at each end as in the middle--the shaped
dough must fit well into the corners and ends of the pan. At _a_, Fig.
13, is shown how dough placed in the pan for rising should appear, and
at _b_ is illustrated how the dough should look after it has risen
sufficiently to permit it to be placed in the oven for baking. To
produce the result illustrated at _b_, the dough must be kept in a warm
temperature, and to exclude the air and prevent the formation of a hard
crust on the dough, it must be covered well with both a cloth and a
metal cover. Another way in which to prevent the formation of a hard
crust consists in greasing the surface of the dough when it is placed in
the pan, as at _a_, for rising. [Illustration: Fig. 13]


56. PURPOSE OF BAKING.--The various processes in the making of bread
that have been considered up to this point may be successfully carried
out, but unless the baking, which is the last step, is properly done,
the bread is likely to be unpalatable and indigestible. Much attention
should therefore be given to this part of the work. So that the best
results may be obtained, it should be borne in mind that bread is baked
for the purpose of killing the ferment, rupturing the starch grains of
the flour so that they become digestible, fixing the air cells, and
forming a nicely flavored crust. During the process of baking, certain
changes take place in the loaf. The gluten that the dough contains is
hardened by the heat and remains in the shape of bubbles, which give the
bread a porous appearance; also, the starch contained in the dough is
cooked within the loaf, but the outside is first cooked and
then toasted.

57. OVEN TEMPERATURE FOR BAKING.--In baking bread, it is necessary first
to provide the oven with heat of the right temperature and of sufficient
strength to last throughout the baking. As is indicated in Fig. 4, the
usual oven temperature for successful bread baking is from 380 to 425
degrees Fahrenheit, but in both the first and the last part of the
baking the heat should be less than during the middle of it. An oven
thermometer or an oven gauge is a very good means of determining the
temperature of the oven. But if neither of these is available the heat
may be tested by placing in the oven a white cracker, a piece of white
paper, or a layer of flour spread on a shallow tin pan. If any one of
these becomes a light brown in 5 minutes, the oven is right to commence
baking. Every precaution should be taken to have the oven just right at
first, for if the bread is placed in an oven that is too hot the yeast
plant will be killed immediately and the rising consequently checked. Of
course, the bread will rise to some extent even if the yeast plant is
killed at once, for the carbon dioxide that the dough contains will
expand as it becomes heated and will force the loaf up; but bread baked
in this way is generally very unsatisfactory, because a hard crust forms
on the top and it must either burst or retard the rising of the loaf. If
the heat is not sufficient, the dough will continue to rise until the
air cells run together and cause large holes to form in the loaf. In an
oven that is just moderately hot, or has a temperature of about 400
degrees, the yeast plant will not be killed so quickly, the dough will
continue to rise for some time, and the crust of the bread should begin
to brown in about 15 minutes.

[Illustration: Fig. 14]

[Illustration: Fig. 15]

58. Fig. 14 illustrates a loaf of bread that has risen too much. The
inside texture is coarse and the shape of the loaf is not good. Fig. 15
shows the result of uneven temperature. The high side is caused by
exposure to more intense heat than the opposite side, and the crack is
the result of a too rapid formation of the crust. Sometimes it is
advisable to keep the crust from becoming hard too rapidly. In order to
do this, and at the same time produce a more even color, the top of the
loaf may be moistened by brushing it with milk before it is put into
the oven.

Fig. 16 shows a well-formed loaf of bread that has had the right amount
of rising, and Fig. 17 shows the inside texture of bread for which the
mixing, rising, and baking have been correctly done.

59. TIME FOR BAKING AND CARE OF BREAD IN OVEN.--The time required for
baking bread and the care it should receive in the oven are also
important matters to know. How long the bread should bake depends on the
size of the loaf. Under proper oven temperature, a small loaf, or one
made with 1 cupful of liquid, ought to bake in from 50 minutes to 1
hour, while a large loaf requires from 1-1/2 to 2 hours. As has been
explained, the loaf should begin to brown, or have its crust formed, in
about 15 minutes after it is placed in the oven, and the baking should
proceed rather slowly.

[Illustration: Fig. 16]

To get the best results in baking, the pans should be placed so that the
air in the oven will circulate freely around them. If they are so placed
that the loaves touch each other or the sides of the oven, the loaves
will rise unevenly and consequently will be unsightly in shape, like
those shown in Figs. 14 and 15. If the loaves rise higher on one side
than on the other, even when the pans are properly placed, it is evident
that the heat is greater in that place than in the other parts of the
oven and the loaves should therefore be changed to another position.
Proper care given to bread while baking will produce loaves that are an
even brown on the bottom, sides, and top and that shrink from the sides
of the pan.

[Illustration: Fig. 17]

60. CARE OF BREAD AFTER BAKING.--As soon as the bread has baked
sufficiently, take it from the oven, remove the loaves from the pans,
and place them to cool where the air may circulate freely around them. A
bread rack, or cake cooler, like the one on which the loaf rests in
Figs. 14, 15, and 16, is very satisfactory for this purpose, but if such
a device is not available, the loaves may be placed across the edges of
the empty pans so that nearly the entire surface is exposed. Whichever
plan is adopted, it should be remembered that the bread must be
carefully protected from dust and flies. Bread should never be permitted
to remain in the pans after it has been baked nor to cool on a flat
surface; neither should the loaves be wrapped while they are warm,
because the moisture will collect on the surface and the bread will not
keep so well.

After the loaves have become sufficiently cool, place them in the
receptacle in which they are to be kept. This should have been
previously washed and dried and then allowed to stand in the sunshine,
so as to be free from mold or any substance that will taint or otherwise
injure the bread. After the loaves have been put into it, keep it well
covered and allow no stale crumbs nor pieces of bread to collect. To
keep such a receptacle in good condition, it should be scalded and dried
every 2 or 3 days.


61. OBJECT OF SCORING BREAD.--By the _scoring_ of bread is meant simply
the judging of its qualities. Persons who understand what good bread is
agree very closely on the qualities that should characterize it, and
they make these qualities a standard by which any kind of bread may be
scored, or judged. Those who are not proficient in the making of bread,
as well as those who have had very little experience, will do well to
have their bread judged by experts or to learn how to score it
themselves. By following this plan, they will be able to find out the
good and bad points of their bread and then, by ascertaining the causes
of any poor qualities, will be in a position to make improvements. So
that the beginner may learn how to judge the qualities of her bread, she
should study carefully the accompanying score card and its explanation.


External Appearance:                 PER CENT.
  Shape................................. 5
  Size.................................. 2
    Shade............................... 2
    Uniformity of Color................. 2
    Character........................... 2
    Depth............................ 2--8
Lightness.............................. 20
Internal Appearance:
  Even distribution of gas............. 10
  Moisture.............................. 5
  Elasticity............................ 5
  Color................................ 15
Flavor................................. 30
    Total............................. 100

62. EXPLANATION OF SCORE CARD.--A study of the score card will reveal
that a certain number of points are given to a loaf of bread for
appearance, both external and internal, for lightness, and for flavor.
To determine these qualities best, allow the loaf to cool thoroughly
after baking. Then consider the various points, and decide how nearly
perfect the loaf is in respect to each one of them. Add the numbers that
are determined upon, and the result obtained will show how the
bread scores.

63. The _shape_ of the loaf, in order to be perfect and to score 5,
should be uniform and symmetrical. Any such shape as that shown in Fig.
15 would fall below perfect.

The _size_ of the loaf, for which a score of 2 is given, is determined
from the standpoint of thorough baking. The exact size that a loaf must
be is a rather difficult thing to state, because the sizes vary
considerably, but a loaf of an ungainly size should be guarded against,
for it would not score well. Bread made in pans of the size already
mentioned would score high with regard to size.

The _crust_, whose combined characteristics score 8, should be a golden
brown in color in order to receive the score of 2 for its _shade_. A
pale loaf or one baked too brown would not receive full credit. If the
required color extends uniformly over the entire loaf, the bottom and
the sides, as well as the top, 2 more is added to the score of the crust
for _uniformity of color_. After these points are scored, a slice of
bread should be cut from the loaf in order that the remaining points may
be scored. As fresh bread does not cut easily, and as a well-cut slice
must be had for this purpose, special care must be taken to obtain the
slice. Therefore, sharpen a large knife and heat the blade slightly by
holding it near a flame; then cut a slice at least 1/2 inch thick from
the loaf before the blade has had time to cool. With such a slice cut,
the _character_ of the crust, by which is meant its toughness or its
tenderness, may be determined. A score of 2 is given if it is of
sufficient tenderness or is devoid of toughness. The _depth_ of the
crust, which depends on the amount of baking the loaf has had, receives
a score of 2 if it is perfect. A deep crust, which is the preferred
kind, is produced by long, slow baking; bread that is baked only a short
time has a thin crust, which is not so desirable and would not score
so high.

64. The _lightness_ of the bread can easily be scored when the bread is
cut. It is judged by the size of the holes, and if it is perfect it
receives a score of 20. If the bread is not light enough, the holes will
be small and the bread will feel solid and unelastic; if it is too
light, the holes will be large and coarse.

65. The internal appearance, which is scored next, includes several
characteristics. For the _even distribution of gas_, which is determined
by the uniformity of the holes, 10 points are given. If the kneading has
been done right and the bread has risen properly, the gas will be
distributed evenly through the loaf, with the result that the holes,
which make the bread porous, will be practically the same throughout the
entire loaf. Such a texture is better than that of a loaf that has some
large and some small holes. The _moisture_ in the bread, which receives
5 if it is of the right amount, is tested by pinching a crumb between
the fingers. If the crumb feels harsh and dry, the bread is not moist
enough, and if it feels doughy, the bread is too moist. The
_elasticity_, for which 5 is given, is determined by pressing the finger
gently into a cut place in the loaf. The bread may be considered to be
elastic if it springs back after the finger is removed and does not
break nor crumble. As compared with cake, bread is always more elastic,
a characteristic that is due to the quantity of gluten it contains.
Still it should be remembered that the elasticity must not amount to
toughness, for if it does the quality of the bread is impaired. To score
15 for _color_, the inside of the loaf should be of an even, creamy
white. A dull white or gray color would indicate that flour of a poor
quality had been used, and dark or white streaks in the bread would
denote uneven mixing and insufficient kneading.

66. The last thing to be scored, namely, the _flavor_, merits 30 points.
To determine this characteristic, chew a small piece of bread well. If
it is not sour nor musty, has a sweet, nutty flavor, and shows that the
correct amount of salt and sugar were added in the mixing, it may
receive a perfect score.


67. The advantage of a bread mixer in bread making is that it
practically does away with hand mixing and kneading; however, all the
other steps described are the same, depending on the process used. As
has been mentioned, the housewife who bakes such a small quantity as
three or four loaves of bread can get along very well without a bread
mixer; at least, for so few loaves a bread mixer does not seem so
necessary as when six or more loaves are to be made at one time, when it
is a decided convenience. However, bread mixers can be had in various
sizes to meet the requirements of the housewife.

68. In using a bread mixer like that described in _Essentials of
Cookery_, Part 2, the ingredients are placed in the mixer and thoroughly
mixed together by turning the handle, and after the sponge or the dough
has risen, the kneading is performed by again turning the handle. The
amount of turning to be done is, of course, regulated by the ingredients
and the method that is followed.

In addition to the bread mixer mentioned, there is another convenient
type that is constructed in two parts, the top part having a sifter in
its bottom, through which the flour or other dry ingredients are sifted.
The sifting is done with a crank, which also operates a shaft to which
is attached a number of knives extending in different directions. These
knives accomplish the mixing and the kneading. The bread is allowed to
rise in the lower part of the bread mixer, the top part being removed
after the mixing and sifting have been accomplished.

Any of the bread-making methods described may be used with the bread
mixer without change in the process, and no kneading need be done by
hand except a sufficient amount to shape the loaves after the last
rising and before they are placed in the pans.


69. Bread is one of the foods that every one takes so much as a matter
of course that little thought is given to its serving. Of course, it
does not offer so much opportunity for variety in serving as do some
foods; yet, like all other foods, it appeals more to the appetites of
those who are to eat it if it is served in an attractive manner. A few
ideas as to the ways in which it may be served will therefore not
be amiss.

As fresh bread is not easily digested, it should not usually be served
until it is at least 24 hours old. Before it is placed on the table, it
should be cut in slices, the thickness of which will depend on the
preference of the persons who are to eat it. If the loaf is large in
size, the pieces should be cut in two, lengthwise of the slice, but in
the case of a small loaf the slices need not be cut.

Various receptacles for placing bread and rolls on the table, such as a
bread boat, a bread plate, and a bread basket, are also used to add
variety in serving. Whichever of these is selected, it may be improved
in appearance by the addition of a white linen doily. For rolls, a
hot-roll cover is both convenient and attractive. Sometimes, especially
when a large number of persons are to be served, a roll is placed
between the folds of each person's napkin before they are seated at
the table.

Occasionally bread becomes stale before it is needed on the table. Such
bread, however, should not be discarded, especially if the loaves are
uncut. Uncut loaves of this kind may be freshened by dipping them
quickly into boiling water and then placing them in a very hot oven
until their surface becomes dry. If desired, slices of bread that have
become stale may be steamed in order to freshen them; but unless great
care is taken in steaming them the bread is liable to become too moist
and soggy.

       *       *       *       *       *



70. In order that the beginner may bring into use the bread-making
principles and directions that have been set forth, and at the same time
become familiar with the quantities of ingredients that must be used,
there are here given a number of recipes for the making of bread. These
recipes include not only white bread-that is, bread made from white
flour--but whole-wheat, graham, rye, and corn bread, as well as bread in
which fruit and nuts are incorporated. Before these recipes are taken
up, though, it will not be amiss to look further into the various
ingredients used in the making of bread.

71. The fat used in bread making may vary in both quantity and kind. For
instance, if less than 2 tablespoonfuls is called for in a recipe, this
amount may be decreased; but it is not well to increase the amount to
any extent. Likewise, the fat may be of any kind that will not impart a
disagreeable flavour to the finished product. It may be left-over
chicken fat, clarified beef fat, lard, butter, cooking oil, or any
mixture of clear, fresh fats that may be in supply.

The sweetening for bread is, as a rule, granulated sugar, although
sirup, molasses, brown sugar, or white sugar of any kind may be
employed. Sweetening is used merely to give a slightly sweet flavour to
the bread, and the kind that is used is of slight importance.

The liquid, as has been stated, may be water or milk or any proportion
of both. The milk that is used may be either whole or skim. In addition
to these two liquids, the whey from cottage cheese or the water in which
rice, macaroni, or potatoes have been cooked should not be overlooked.
Potato water in which a small quantity of potato may be mashed serves as
a yeast aid, as has been pointed out. Therefore, whenever, in a bread
recipe, liquid is called for and the kind to be used is not stated
specifically, use may be made of any of the liquids that have been

The quantity of flour required for a bread recipe will depend entirely
on the kind of flour that is to be used, bread flour having a much
greater absorbing power for liquid than has pastry or blend flour. When,
in the process of mixing the bread, the sponge is stiffened by adding
the remaining flour to it, the last cupful or two should be added
cautiously, in order not to make the mixture too stiff. In some
instances, more flour than the recipe calls for may be required to make
the dough of the right consistency. The amount can be determined only by
a knowledge of what this consistency should be, and this will be easily
acquired with practice in bread making.

72. The beginner will find it a good plan to begin making bread entirely
of white flour, for the reason that it is easier to determine the
consistency of the dough mixture at various stages, as well as during
the kneading, if there is no coarse material, such as bran, corn meal,
nuts, fruits, etc., in the dough. Later, when a definite knowledge along
this line has been acquired, one after the other of the bread recipes
should be tried. They are no more difficult to carry out than the
recipes for white bread; indeed, the woman who has had experience in
bread making will find that she will be equally successful with all
of them.

73. WHITE BREAD.--Bread made from white flour, which is commonly
referred to as _white bread_, is used to a much greater extent than any
other kind, for it is the variety that most persons prefer and of which
they do not tire quickly. However, white bread should not be used to the
exclusion of other breads, because they are of considerable importance
economically. This kind of bread may be made by both the quick and the
long processes, for the ingredients are the same, with the exception of
the quantity of yeast used. The amounts given in the following recipes
are sufficient to make two large loaves or three small ones, but, of
course, if more bread is desired, the quantity of each ingredient may be
increased proportionately.

(Sufficient for Two Large or Three Small Loaves)

2 Tb. fat
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 cake compressed yeast, or 1 cake dried yeast
1 Tb. salt
1 qt. lukewarm liquid
3 qt. flour
1 c. flour additional for kneading

Put into the mixing bowl the fat, the sugar, the salt, and the yeast
that has been dissolved in a little of the lukewarm liquid. Add the
remainder of the liquid and stir in half of the flour. Place this sponge
where it will rise overnight and will not become chilled. In the
morning, add the remainder of the flour, stirring it well into the risen
sponge, and knead the dough thus formed. Allow it to rise until it has
doubled in bulk and then knead it again. After it is properly kneaded,
shape it into loaves, place them in greased pans, let them rise until
they have doubled in bulk, and then bake them.

Combining the ingredients in the manner just mentioned is following the
sponge method of the long process. By adding all instead of half of the
flour at night, the straight-dough method of this process may
be followed.

(Sufficient for Two Large or Three Small Loaves)

2 Tb. fat
2 Tb. sugar
1 Tb. salt
2 cakes compressed yeast
1 qt. lukewarm liquid
3 qt. flour
1 c. flour additional for kneading

Put the fat, the sugar, and the salt into the mixing bowl, and then to
them add the yeast dissolved in a few tablespoonfuls of the lukewarm
liquid. Add the remaining liquid and stir in half or all of the flour,
according to whether the process is to be completed by the sponge or the
straight-dough method. One yeast cake may be used instead of two.
However, if the smaller quantity of yeast is used, the process will
require more time, but the results will be equally as good. After the
dough has been allowed to rise the required number of times and has been
kneaded properly for the method selected, place it in greased pans, let
it rise sufficiently, and proceed with the baking.

74. Whole-Wheat Bread.--Bread made out of whole-wheat flour has a
distinctive flavour that is very agreeable to most persons. This kind of
bread is not used so extensively as that made of white flour, but since
it contains more mineral salts and bulk, it should have a place in the
diet of every family. When made according to the following recipe,
whole-wheat bread will be found to be a very desirable substitute for
bread made of the finer flours.

(Sufficient for Two Small Loaves)

3 Tb. fat
1/4 c. brown sugar
1 Tb. salt
1 cake compressed yeast
3 c. lukewarm liquid
8 c. whole-wheat flour
1 c. white flour for kneading

Place the fat, the sugar, and the salt in the mixing bowl and add the
yeast cake dissolved in a little of the liquid. Add the remainder of the
liquid, and then stir in half or all of the flour, according to whether
the sponge or the straight-dough method is preferred. Then proceed
according to the directions previously given for making bread by the
quick process.

The long process may also be followed in making whole-wheat bread, and
if it is, only one-half the quantity of yeast should be used.

75. Graham Bread.--To lend variety to the family diet, frequent use
should be made of graham bread, which contains even more bulk and
mineral salts than whole-wheat bread. In bread of this kind, both graham
and white flour are used. Since graham flour is very heavy, it prevents
the bread from rising quickly, so the bread is started with white flour.
The accompanying recipe contains quantities for the short process,
although it may be adapted to the long process by merely using one-half
the amount of yeast.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

2 Tb. fat
1/4 c. brown sugar
2 tsp. salt
1 cake compressed yeast
2 c. lukewarm liquid
2 c. white flour
3 c. graham flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Put the fat, the sugar, and the salt in the mixing bowl, and to them add
the yeast that has been dissolved in a little of the liquid. Pour over
these ingredients the remainder of the liquid and stir in the white
flour. When the mixture is to be made stiff, add the graham flour. Then
knead the dough, let it rise, knead again, place it in greased pans, let
rise, and bake.

A point to be remembered in the making of graham bread is that sifting
removes the bran from graham flour, and if lightness is desired, the
flour may be sifted and the bran then replaced.

76. Graham Bread With Nuts.--To increase the food value of graham bread,
nuts are sometimes added. This kind of bread also provides an agreeable
variety to the diet. The following recipe is intended to be carried out
by the short process, so that if the long process is desired the
quantity of yeast must be reduced.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

1 cake compressed yeast
2 c. lukewarm liquid
1/4 c. molasses
2 Tb. fat
1 Tb. salt
2 c. white flour
4 c. graham flour
1-1/2 c. chopped nuts
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in a little of the lukewarm liquid and mix it with
the molasses, fat, and salt. Add the remaining liquid and the white
flour. Let this sponge rise until it is light. Then stir in the graham
flour, adding the nuts while kneading. Let the dough rise until it
doubles in bulk. Shape into loaves, place it in the greased pans, and
let it rise until it doubles in size. Bake for an hour or more,
according to the size of the loaves.

77. Whole-Wheat Fruit Bread.--A very delicious whole-wheat bread is
produced by combining fruit, which, besides improving the flavour, adds
to the food value of the bread. Thin slices of this kind of bread spread
with butter make excellent summer sandwiches. If the short process is
employed, the amounts specified in the following recipe should be used,
but for the long process the quantity of yeast should be decreased.

(Sufficient for Three Small Loaves)

1 yeast cake
2 c. lukewarm liquid
2 Tb. fat
1/4 c. brown sugar stoned, chopped dates
2 tsp. salt
6 c. whole-wheat flour
1-1/2 c. seeded raisins or stoned, chopped dates
1 c. white flour for kneading

Dissolve the yeast cake in a little of the lukewarm liquid and add it to
the fat, sugar, and salt that have been put into the mixing bowl. Pour
in the remainder of the liquid and add half or all of the flour,
depending on the bread-making method that is followed. Stir in the
fruit before all the flour is added and just before the dough is shaped
into loaves. After it has risen sufficiently in the greased pans,
proceed with the baking.

78. BRAN BREAD.--Bread in which bran is used is proportionately a trifle
lower in food value than that in which whole wheat or white flour is
used. However, it has the advantage of an additional amount of bulk in
the form of bran, and because of this it is a wholesome food.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

2 c. milk
6 Tb. molasses
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 yeast cake
1/4 c. lukewarm water
2 c. white flour
4 c. graham flour
1 c. sterilized bran
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Scald the milk and to it add the molasses and salt. When this is
lukewarm, add to it the yeast cake dissolved in the lukewarm water, as
well as the white flour and 1 cupful of the graham flour. Cover this
mixture and let it rise. When it has risen sufficiently, add the bran
and the rest of the graham flour and knead. Cover this dough, and let it
rise until it doubles in bulk. Then shape it into loaves, place it in
the greased pans, let it rise again until it doubles in bulk, and bake
in a hot oven.

79. RYE BREAD.--Rye bread has a typical flavour that many persons enjoy.
When rye flour is used alone, it makes a moist, sticky bread; therefore,
in order to produce bread of a good texture, wheat flour must be used
with the rye flour. The recipe here given is for the short process of
bread making, but by reducing the quantity of yeast it may be used for
the long process.

(Sufficient for Three Loaves)

2 Tb. fat
1 Tb. salt
2 Tb. sugar
1 cake compressed yeast
3 c. lukewarm liquid
6 c. rye flour
4 c. white flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Into the mixing bowl, put the fat, the salt, the sugar, and the yeast
that has been dissolved in a small quantity of the lukewarm liquid. Then
stir in the flour, one-half or all of it, according to whether the
sponge or the straight-dough method is followed. When the dough is
formed, allow it to rise until it doubles in bulk; then knead it and
shape it into loaves for the greased pans. When these have risen until
they are double in size and therefore ready for the oven, glaze the
surface of each by brushing it with the white of egg and water and put
them in the oven to bake. If desired, caraway seed may be added to the
dough when it is formed into loaves or simply sprinkled on the top of
each loaf. To many persons the caraway seed imparts a flavour to the
bread that is very satisfactory.

80. Corn Bread.--Corn meal is sometimes combined with wheat flour to
make corn bread. Such a combination decreases the cost of bread at times
when corn meal is cheap. Bread of this kind is high in food value,
because corn meal contains a large proportion of fat, which is more or
less lacking in white flour. The following recipe is given for the short
process, but it may be used for the long process by merely decreasing
the quantity of yeast.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

1 yeast cake
2 c. lukewarm liquid
2 tsp. salt
1 Tb. sugar
2 Tb. fat
4-1/2 c. white flour
2 c. corn meal
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Put the yeast to soak in 1/4 cupful of warm water and let it dissolve.
Heat the liquid and cool it to lukewarm, and then add to it the salt,
the sugar, the dissolved yeast, and the melted fat. Make a sponge with
some of the flour and let it rise until it doubles in bulk. Then make a
dough with the corn meal and the remaining flour. Knead the dough, let
it rise again, and form it into loaves. Let these rise in the greased
pans until they double in bulk; then bake about 45 minutes.

81. Rice Bread.--Very often variety is given to bread by the addition of
rice, which imparts an unusual flavour to bread and effects a saving of
wheat flour. Oatmeal and other cereals may be used in the same way as
rice, and bread containing any of these moist cereals will remain moist
longer than bread in which they are not used.

(Sufficient for Three Loaves)

1/2 c. uncooked rice
1-1/2 c. water
1 Tb. salt
1 Tb. sugar
1 Tb. fat
1/2 yeast cake
1 c. lukewarm liquid
6 c. white flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Steam the rice in a double boiler in 1 and a half cupfuls of water
until it is soft and dry. Add the salt, sugar, and fat, and allow all to
become lukewarm. Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm liquid, and add it
to the rice. Put all in the mixing bowl, stir in 2 cupfuls of flour, and
allow the mixture to become very light. Add the remainder of the flour
and knead lightly. Let the dough rise until it has doubled in bulk and
knead to reduce the quantity. Place in greased pans. When the loaves
have risen sufficiently, bake for about 50 minutes.

82. SALT-RISING BREAD.--Recipes for bread would be incomplete if mention
were not made of salt-rising bread. Such bread differs from ordinary
bread in that the gas that causes the rising is due to the action of
bacteria. Salt-rising bread is not universally popular, yet many persons
are fond of it. Its taste is very agreeable, and, as a rule, its texture
is excellent; however, it always has an unpleasant odour. The method
given in the accompanying recipe for salt-rising bread differs in no way
from the usual method of making it. It is very necessary that the first
mixture of corn meal, salt, sugar, and milk be kept at a uniformly warm
temperature in order to induce bacteria to grow. Any failure to make
such bread successfully will probably be due to the violation of this
precaution rather than to any other cause.

(Sufficient for Two Loaves)

1 c. fresh milk
1/4 c. corn meal
1 tsp. salt
2 tsp. sugar
2 c. lukewarm water
7 c. white flour
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Scald the milk and pour it over the corn meal, salt, and sugar. Allow
this mixture to stand in a warm place for several hours or overnight,
when it should be light. To this batter add the warm water and enough
flour to make a drop batter. Allow this to stand in a warm place until
it is light; and then add the remainder of the flour so as to make a
dough, and knead. Allow this to rise, shape it into loaves, put it in
pans, let it rise again, and bake.


83. While the preceding recipes call for bread in the form of loaves, it
should be understood that bread may be made up in other forms, such as
rolls, buns, and biscuits. These forms of bread may be made from any of
the bread recipes by adding to the mixture shortening, sugar, eggs,
fruit, nuts, spices, flavoring, or anything else desirable. Since these
things in any quantity retard the rising of the sponge or dough, they
should be added after it has risen at least once. Rolls, buns, and
biscuits may be made in various shapes, as is shown in Fig. 18. To shape
them, the dough may be rolled thin and then cut with cutters, or the
pieces used for them may be pinched or cut from the dough and shaped
with the hands. After they are shaped, they should be allowed to rise
until they double in bulk. To give them a glazed appearance, the surface
of each may be brushed before baking with milk, with white of egg and
water, or with sugar and water. Butter is also desirable for this
purpose, as it produces a crust that is more tender and less likely to
be tough. Rolls, buns, or biscuits may be baked in an oven that has a
higher temperature than that required for bread in the form of loaves,
as is indicated in Fig. 4, and only 15 to 20 minutes is needed for
baking them. If such forms of bread are desired with a crust covering
the entire surface, they must be placed far enough apart so that the
edges will not touch when they are baking.

[Illustration: Fig. 18]

So that experience may be had in the preparation of rolls, buns, and
biscuits there are given here several recipes that can be worked out to
advantage, especially after proficiency in bread making has
been attained.

84. Parker House Rolls.--Of the various kinds of rolls, perhaps none
meets with greater favor than the so-called Parker House rolls, one of
which is shown at _a_, Fig. 19. Such rolls may be used in almost any
kind of meal, and since they are brushed with butter before they are
baked, they may be served without butter, if desired, in a meal that
includes gravy or fat meat.

(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Rolls)

1 cake compressed yeast
1 pt. lukewarm milk
4 Tb. fat
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. salt
3 pt. white flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in some of the lukewarm milk. Pour the remainder of
the warm milk over the fat, sugar, salt, and dissolved yeast, all of
which should first be put in a mixing bowl. Stir into these ingredients
half of the flour, and beat until smooth. Cover this sponge and let it
rise until it is light. Add the remainder of the flour, and knead until
the dough is smooth and does not stick to the board. Place the dough in
a greased bowl, and let it rise again until it doubles in bulk. Roll the
dough on a molding board until it is about 1/4 inch thick. Then cut the
rolled dough with a round cutter; brush each piece with soft butter;
mark it through the center, as at _b_, Fig. 19, with the dull edge of a
kitchen knife; and fold it over, as at _c_. Place the pieces of dough
thus prepared in shallow pans, about 1 inch apart, and let them rise
until they are light, when each roll will appear like that shown at _d_.
Then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes. [Illustration:
Fig. 19]

85. Dinner Rolls.--As their name implies, dinner rolls are an especially
desirable kind of roll to serve with a dinner. They should be made
small enough to be dainty, and as an even, brown crust all over the
rolls is desirable they should be placed far enough apart in the pans to
prevent them from touching one another, as shown in Fig. 20 (_a_). If
they are placed as in (_b_), that is, close together, only part of the
crust will be brown. When made according to the accompanying recipe,
dinner rolls are very palatable.

(Sufficient for 1-1/2 Dozen Rolls)

1 cake compressed yeast
1 c. lukewarm milk
2 Tb. sugar
2 Tb. fat
1 tsp. salt
3 c. white flour
1 egg white
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

[Illustration: Fig. 20]

Dissolve the yeast in some of the lukewarm milk. Put the sugar, fat,
salt, and dissolved yeast in the mixing bowl, and pour the remainder of
the milk over these ingredients. Stir half of the flour into this
mixture and allow the sponge to rise. When it is light, add the egg
white, which should first be beaten, and the remainder of the flour, and
then knead the dough. Let the dough rise until it doubles in bulk. Roll
out the dough until it is 1/2 inch thick, and then cut out the rolls
with a small round cutter. Place these in a shallow pan and let them
rise until they are light. Then glaze each one with the white of egg to
which is added a little water and bake them in a hot oven for about
15 minutes.

86. LUNCHEON ROLLS.--If rolls smaller than dinner rolls are desired,
luncheon rolls will undoubtedly be just what is wanted. Since these are
very small, they become thoroughly baked and are therefore likely to be
even more digestible than bread or biscuit dough baked in a loaf. For
rolls of this kind, the following recipe will prove satisfactory:

(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Rolls)

1 cake compressed yeast
1-1/4 c. lukewarm milk
2 Tb. sugar
2 Tb. fat
1 tsp. salt
4 c. white flour
1 egg white
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Combine the ingredients in the manner directed for making dinner rolls.
Shape the dough into biscuits the size of a small walnut, place them in
a shallow pan, spacing them a short distance apart, and let them rise
until they are light. Next, brush the tops of them with melted butter,
and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

87. WHOLE-WHEAT ROLLS.--Rolls made of whole-wheat flour are not so
common as those made of white flour, and for this reason they appeal to
the appetite more than ordinary rolls. Whole-wheat rolls have the same
advantage as bread made of whole-wheat flour, and if they are well baked
they have a crust that adds to their palatableness.

(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Rolls)

1 pt. lukewarm milk
1 cake compressed yeast
1 tsp. salt
3 Tb. sugar
4 Tb. fat
2 c. white flour
4 c. whole-wheat flour
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Set a sponge with the lukewarm milk, in which are put the yeast cake,
salt, sugar, fat, and white flour. Allow this to become very light, and
then add the whole-wheat flour. Knead this dough and allow it to double
in bulk. Then shape it into rolls, allow them to rise, and bake for 15
to 20 minutes.

88. GRAHAM NUT BUNS.--Buns made of graham flour and containing nuts are
not only especially delightful in flavour, but highly nutritious.
Because they are high in food value, they may be served with a light
meal, such as lunch or supper, to add nutrition to it. The recipe here
given will result in excellent buns if it is followed closely.

(Sufficient for 3 Dozen Buns)

1 cake compressed yeast
2 c. lukewarm milk
4 Tb. brown sugar
2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. fat
2-1/2 c. white flour
1 egg
1 c. chopped nuts
3-1/2 c. graham flour
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in a little of the lukewarm milk. Place the sugar,
salt, fat, and dissolved yeast in the mixing bowl and add the remainder
of the warm milk. Stir in the white flour and let the sponge thus formed
rise. Then add the egg, which should first be beaten, the nuts, and the
graham flour. Knead the dough and shape it into buns. Let these rise and
then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

89. NUT OR FRUIT BUNS.--Nuts or fruit added to buns made of white flour
provide more mineral salts and bulk, substances in which white flour is
lacking. Buns containing either of these ingredients, therefore, are
especially valuable in the diet. Besides increasing the food value of
the buns, nuts and fruit improve the flavour and make a very palatable
form of bun. Buns of this kind are made as follows:

(Sufficient for 2 Dozen Buns)

4 Tb. sugar
1 Tb. fat
1 tsp. salt
1 cake compressed yeast
1 c. lukewarm milk
3 c. white flour
3/4 c. chopped nuts or raisins
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Add the sugar, fat, and salt to the yeast dissolved in a little of the
milk. Then stir in the remainder of the milk and half of the flour.
Allow this sponge to rise until it is very light, and then add the
remainder of the flour and the nuts or the raisins. Knead at once and
form into buns. Let these rise until they are light. Then moisten them
with milk and sprinkle sugar over them before placing them in the oven.
Bake for about 15 minutes.

90. SWEET BUNS.--Persons who prefer a sweet bun will find buns like
those shown in Fig. 21 and made according to the following recipe very
much to their taste. The sweetening, eggs, and lemon extract used in
this recipe give to the white buns a delightful flavour and help to lend
variety to the usual kind of bun.

(Sufficient for 1-1/3 Dozen Buns)

1 cake compressed yeast
1 c. lukewarm scalded milk
1/4 c. sugar
2 Tb. fat 1 tsp.
1 tsp. salt
3-1/2 c. white flour
2 eggs
1 tsp. lemon extract
1 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in a small amount of the lukewarm milk and add it to
the sugar, fat, salt, and remaining milk in the mixing bowl. Stir into
this mixture half of the flour, beat well, and let the sponge rise until
it is light. Add the eggs, which should first be beaten, the lemon
extract, and the remaining flour. Knead until the dough is smooth. Let
the dough rise again and then shape it into rolls. Allow these to rise,
and then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.

[Illustration: Fig. 21]

91. COFFEE CAKE.--When an especially good kind of biscuit that can be
served for breakfast and eaten with coffee is desired, coffee cake made
according to the following recipe should be used. Cinnamon sprinkled
over the top of such cake imparts a very pleasing flavour, but if more
of this flavour is preferred 1 teaspoonful of cinnamon may be mixed with
the dough.

(Sufficient for One Cake)

1 cake compressed yeast
1/2 c. lukewarm milk
1 Tb. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
2 c. white flour
1 egg
2 Tb. fat
1/4 c. brown sugar
1/2 c. white flour additional for kneading

Dissolve the yeast in the lukewarm milk and add the sugar and the salt.
Stir in 1 cupful of flour and let the mixture rise. When the sponge is
light, add the beaten egg, the fat and the brown sugar creamed, and the
remaining flour. Knead until the dough is smooth and allow it to rise
until it is double in bulk. Then roll the dough until it is 1/2 inch
thick, place it in a shallow pan, and let it rise until it is light.
Brush the top with 1 tablespoonful of melted butter and sprinkle it with
3 teaspoonfuls of cinnamon and 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar. Bake 10 to 15
minutes in a moderately hot oven.

[Illustration: Fig. 22]

[Illustration: Fig. 23]

92. CINNAMON ROLLS.--To make cinnamon rolls, which are preferred by some
persons to coffee cake, use may be made of the preceding coffee-cake
recipe. However, instead of rolling the dough 1/2 inch thick, roll it
1/4 inch thick and brush it with melted butter. Then sprinkle it with 1
tablespoonful of cinnamon, 1/2 cupful of light-brown sugar, and 1/2
cupful of chopped raisins. Next, roll this as a jelly roll and cut the
roll into 1/2-inch slices, as shown in Fig. 22. Place these slices
close together in a shallow pan and let them rise until they are light,
as in Fig. 23. Then bake them in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.


93. As every one knows, TOAST is sliced bread browned by means of heat.
To make toast is not a difficult process, but a certain amount of care
must be exercised if good results are desired. The slices used for toast
may be cut thick or thin, depending on whether the persons for whom the
toast is made prefer a soft or a dry toast and whether the digestibility
of the toast is to be taken into consideration. If thick slices are used
and they are toasted the usual length of time necessary to make the
surfaces brown, the centre of the slices will remain soft. Toast made of
thin slices and toasted over a slow fire becomes dry and crisp during
the process of browning and is more digestible than that which is moist.
Such toast will not lose its crispness unless the pieces are piled in a
heap while they are hot and are allowed to soften from the moisture that
collects. While toast is usually served in the form of slices, just as
they are cut from the loaf, the pieces may be cut into shapes of various
kinds; in fact, toast becomes more attractive if it is cut in unusual
shapes. The crust of toast may be trimmed off or left on, as desired.

94. If the best results are desired in the making of toast, considerable
attention must be given to the heat that is to produce the toast.
Whatever kind is employed, it should be steady and without flame. Before
a coal or a coke fire is used for this purpose, it should be allowed to
burn down until the flame is gone and the coals are hot enough to
reflect the heat for toasting. If a gas toaster is used, the gas should
be turned sufficiently low for the bread to brown slowly. Very good
results are obtained from the use of an electric toaster, also. This
device has become a rather common household article where electricity is
used in the home, and by means of it the toast can be made on the table
and served while it is fresh and hot. In whatever way toast is made, it
will lose much of its attractiveness unless it is served while it is
fresh and before it loses its heat. If toast becomes burned, either from
a flame that is too hot or from inattention on the part of the person
who is preparing it, it may be made fit for use by scraping it lightly
with a knife or by rubbing it across a grater, so as to remove the
burned portion.

95. MILK TOAST.--Milk and toast make a combination that is liked by
many persons, and when these two foods are combined the result is known
as milk toast. To make milk toast, simply pour over the toast rich milk
that has been heated and seasoned with salt, a little sugar, and a
little butter. Thin white sauce may also be used for this purpose
if desired.

96. FRENCH TOAST.--Possibly no dish in which toast is used is better
known than the so-called French toast. Both milk and egg are used in
making this dish, and these of course add to the food value of the
bread. French toast made according to the following recipe will prove
very satisfactory.

(Sufficient to Serve Eight)

1 egg
1 c. milk
2 tsp. sugar
8 slices of bread
1/2 tsp. salt

Beat the egg and add it to the milk, salt, and sugar. Dip each slice of
bread into this liquid, turn it quickly, and then remove it. Place the
bread thus dipped in a hot frying pan and sauté it until the under side
is brown; then turn it and brown the other side. Serve hot with sirup
or jelly.


97. Bread that has become stale need not be wasted, for there are many
uses to which it may be put. As such bread has lost much of its
moisture, it is desirable for toast, for it browns more quickly and
makes crisper toast than fresh bread. Thick slices of it may also be cut
into cubes or long, narrow strips and then toasted on all sides, to be
served with soup instead of crackers. Still another use that can be made
of stale bread is to toast it and then cut it into triangular pieces to
be served with creamed dishes or used as a garnish for meats, eggs, and
various entrées. Left-over toast may also be cut in this way and used
for these purposes.

98. The ends of loaves, crusts trimmed from bread used for sandwiches,
or stale bread or rolls that cannot be used for the purposes that have
been mentioned can also be utilised, so none of them need be thrown
away. If such pieces are saved and allowed to dry thoroughly in the
warming oven or in an oven that is not very hot, they may be broken into
crumbs by putting them through a food chopper or rolling them with a
rolling pin. After the crumbs are obtained, they should be put through a
coarse sieve in order to separate the coarse ones from the fine ones.
Such crumbs, both coarse and fine, may be kept for some time if they are
put into jars or cans.

It is a very good plan to keep a supply of bread crumbs on hand, for
there are numerous dishes that require the use of bread in this form.
For instance, bread crumbs are used for all kinds of scalloped dishes;
for making puddings, such as bread pudding, brown Betty, etc.; for
stuffing fish, fowl, and such vegetables as tomatoes and peppers; for
covering the top of baked dishes, such as various egg and cheese dishes;
for breading steaks and chops; and for covering croquettes or oysters
that are to be fried. They may also be added to muffins, griddle cakes,
and even yeast-bread dough. With so many uses to which bread crumbs can
be put, no housewife need be at a loss to know how to utilise any scraps
of bread that are not, for some reason, suitable for the table.

       *       *       *       *       *



(1) Mention the ingredients required for bread making.

(2) From what kind of wheat is bread flour usually made?

(3) (_a_) What is gluten? (_b_) Why is it necessary for the making of

(4) (_a_) What is meant by a blend flour? (_b_) When is its use indicated?

(5) How may the kind and quality of flour be judged in purchasing it?

(6) (_a_) What is yeast? (_b_) What things are necessary for its growth?
(_c_) What temperature is best for its growth?

(7) (_a_) What is produced by the growth of yeast? (_b_) What part does
this play in bread making?

(8) What determines the quantity of yeast to use in bread making?

(9) (_a_) What will hasten the bread-making process? (_b_) What will retard

(10) Give the general proportions of the main ingredients used for
making a loaf of bread.

(11) What are the advantages of: (_a_) the long process of bread making?
(_b_) the quick process?

(12) What is: (_a_) a sponge? (_b_) a dough?

(13) (_a_) Why must bread dough be kneaded? (_b_) How is it possible to
tell when dough has been kneaded sufficiently?

(14) At what temperature should bread be kneaded?

(15) How should bread be cared for after it is removed from the oven?

(16) What points are considered in the scoring of bread?

(17) What part of bread making may be done in a bread mixer?

(18) What are the differences in time and oven temperatures in baking
rolls and bread?

(19) Mention briefly the procedure in making rolls, buns, and biscuits.

(20) Score a loaf of bread you have made and submit the points as you
have scored it.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *



1. Closely related to yeast breads, or those in which yeast is used as
the leavening agent, are breads known as HOT BREADS, or QUICK BREADS. As
these names indicate, such breads are prepared in a very short time and
are intended to be served while they are fresh and hot. Hot breads, to
call such breads by the name in common use, are made by baking a batter
or a dough mixture formed by mixing flour, liquid, salt, and a leavening
agent. The nature of the mixture, however, is governed by the proportion
of flour and liquid, the two ingredients that form the basis of all
bread mixtures; and by incorporating with them such ingredients as eggs,
sugar, shortening, flavouring, fruits, nuts, etc. there may be produced
an almost endless variety of appetising hot breads, which include
popovers, griddle cakes, waffles, muffins, soft gingerbread, corn cake
or corn bread, Boston brown bread, nut loaf, and baking-powder and
beaten biscuit. Because of the variety these hot breads afford, they
help considerably to relieve the monotony of meals. In fact, the
housewife has come to depend so much on breads of this kind that their
use has become almost universal. As is well known, however, certain
kinds are typical of certain localities; for instance, beaten biscuit
and hoe cake are characteristic of the Southern States of the United
States, while Boston brown bread is used most extensively in the New
England States and throughout the East. The popular opinion of most
persons is that hot breads are injurious. It is perhaps true that they
may be injurious to individuals afflicted with some digestive
disturbance, but, at any rate, the harmful effect may be reduced to a
minimum by the correct preparation and baking of these foods.


2. Hot breads are quickly and easily made, but in this part of cookery,
as in every other phase of it, certain principles must be understood and
applied if the most satisfactory results are desired. These principles
pertain chiefly to the ingredients used, the way in which they are
measured and handled, the proportions in which they are combined, the
necessary utensils, and the proper baking of the mixtures that
are formed.

In the first place, the quality of the ingredients should be carefully
considered, because on this depends the quality of the finished product.
No one who prepares foods can expect good food to result from the use of
inferior materials. Next, the proportion of the ingredients demands
attention, for much importance is attached to this point. For instance,
in making a certain kind of hot bread, the quantity of flour to be used
is regulated by the quantity of bread that is desired, and the quantity
of flour governs, in turn, the quantities of liquid, leavening, and
other ingredients that are to be put into the mixture. When the
proportions of ingredients required for a hot bread are known, it is
necessary that the ingredients be measured very accurately. Leavening
material, for example, will serve to make clear the need for accuracy in
measuring. A definite quantity of leavening will do only a definite
amount of work. Therefore, if too little or too much is used,
unsatisfactory results may be expected; and, as with this ingredient, so
it is with all the materials used for hot breads.

The handling of the ingredients and the mixture has also much influence
on the success with which hot breads are produced. A heavy touch and
excessive handling, both of which are usually characteristic of the
beginner, are more likely to result in a tough product than is the
light, careful handling of the expert. However, as skill in this matter
comes with practice, no discouragement need result if successful results
are not forthcoming at the very start in this work. A good rule to
follow in this particular, and one that has few exceptions, is to handle
and stir the ingredients only enough to blend them properly.

In addition to the matters just mentioned, the utensils in which to
combine the hot-bread materials and bake the batters or doughs are of
importance. While none of these is complicated, each must be of the
right kind if the best results are expected. The final point to which
attention must be given is the baking of this food. Proper baking
requires on the part of the housewife familiarity with the oven that is
to be used, accuracy in judging temperature, and a knowledge of the
principles underlying the process of baking.

       *       *       *       *       *



3. As has been pointed out, the ingredients that are actually required
in the making of hot breads are flour, liquid, salt, and leavening, and
to give variety to breads of this kind, numerous other materials,
including sugar, shortening, eggs, fruit, nuts, etc., are often added.
With the exception of leavening agents, none of these ingredients
requires special attention at present; however, the instruction that is
given in _Bread_ regarding flour should be kept in mind, as should also
the fact that all the materials for hot breads should be of the best
quality that can be obtained.

As is known by this time, leavening agents are the materials used to
leaven, or make light, any kind of flour mixture. These agents are of
three classes, namely, _organic, physical_, and _chemical_. The organic
agent is the oldest recognized leavening material, it being the one that
is used in the making of yeast breads; but as a complete discussion of
this class of leavening agents is given in _Bread_ and as it is not
employed in the making of hot breads, no consideration need be given to
it here. Physical leavening is accomplished by the incorporation of air
into a mixture or by the expansion of the water into steam, and chemical
leavening agents are the most modern and accurate of all the agents that
have been devised for the quick rising of flour mixtures.


4. PHYSICAL LEAVENING consists in aerating, or incorporating gas or air
into, a mixture that is to be baked, and it is based on the principle
that air or gas expands, or increases in volume, when heated. It is
definitely known that when air is incorporated into dough and then
heated, the air increases 1/273 of its own volume for each degree that
the temperature is increased. For instance, if the temperature of an
aerated mixture is 65 degrees Fahrenheit when it is put into the oven,
the air or gas will have doubled in volume by the time it has reached
338 degrees Fahrenheit. Thus, the success of aerated bread depends to
some extent on the temperature of the mixture when it goes into the
oven. The colder it is at that time, the greater is the number of
degrees it will have to rise before it is sufficiently baked, and the
more opportunity will the gas have to expand.

5. The air or gas required for physical leavening is incorporated into a
mixture by beating or folding the batter or dough itself, or by folding
beaten egg whites into it. If the mixture is thin enough, the beating
may be done with a spoon or an egg beater; but if it is thick enough to
be handled on a board, air may be incorporated into it by rolling and
folding it repeatedly. If eggs are to be used for aerating the batter or
dough, the entire egg may be beaten and then added, but as more air can
be incorporated into the egg whites, the yolks and whites are usually
beaten separately. To make the white of eggs most satisfactory for this
purpose, it should be beaten stiff enough to stand up well, but not
until it becomes dry and begins to break up. In adding the beaten egg
white, it should be folded carefully and lightly into the mixture after
all the other ingredients have been combined. Beaten egg white may be
used to lighten any mixture that is soft enough to permit it to be
folded in.

6. To insure the best results from mixtures that are to be made light by
means of physical leavening agents, certain precautions must be taken.
Such mixtures should be baked as soon as possible after the mixing is
done, so that the gas or air will not pass out before the dough is
baked. Likewise, they should be handled as lightly and quickly as
possible, for a heavy touch and too much handling are often the cause of
imperfect results. For baking aerated mixtures, heavy irons are better
than tin muffin pans; also, the pans that are used should be heated
before the mixture is put into them, so that the batter or dough will
begin to expand immediately. Gem irons should be filled level with an
aerated mixture.


7. CHEMICAL LEAVENING is brought about by the action of gas produced by
an acid and an alkali. All chemical leavening agents are Similar in
their action, and they are composed of an acid and an alkali. When an
acid and an alkali are brought together in the presence of moisture and
heat, the result is the rapid production of carbon dioxide, a gas that
expands on being heated, just as all other gases do. In expanding, the
gas pushes up the batters or doughs, and these, when baked, set, or
harden, into porous shapes. In addition to forming the gas, the acid and
the alkali produce a salt that remains in the bread, and it is this salt
that is responsible for the harmful effect usually attributed to
chemical leavening agents.

8. The first chemical leavening agents were devised by housewives
themselves. They consisted of a combination of saleratus, an alkali made
from wood ashes, and sour milk or molasses. The results obtained were
more or less satisfactory, but never entirely accurate or certain. Later
on, chemists by employing the same idea combined an alkali with an acid
in powder form and produced an accurate and satisfactory leavening agent
in the form of baking powder. The discovery of baking powder, however,
has not displaced the use of other combinations that form chemical
leavening agents, for soda is still combined with sour milk, molasses,
and cream of tartar in the making of various hot breads. Therefore, so
that a proper understanding of the various chemical leavening agents may
be obtained, a discussion of each is here given.

9. SODA AND SOUR MILK.--When soda is used with sour milk for leavening
purposes, the lactic acid in the milk is so acted upon by the soda as to
produce gas. However, these two ingredients--soda and sour milk--do not
make an absolutely accurate leavening agent, because the quantity of
acid in the sour milk varies according to the fermentation that has
taken place. For example, sour milk 48 hours old contains more acid than
sour milk that is kept under the same conditions but is only 24
hours old.

The proportion of these ingredients that is usually effective in batters
and doughs for hot breads is _1 level teaspoonful of soda to 1 pint of
sour milk._ So as to derive the best results in using these chemical
leavening agents, it will be well to observe that if they are mixed
together in a cup the milk will bubble and may, provided the quantity is
sufficient, run over. These bubbles are caused by the gas that is formed
when the acid and soda meet, and when they break gas escapes, with the
result that some of it is lost. Formerly, it was the custom to mix these
leavening substances in this way, and then to add them to the other
ingredients. Now, however, in order that all gas produced may be kept in
the dough mixture, the soda is sifted in with the dry ingredients and
the sour milk is added with the liquid ingredients.

10. A point well worth remembering is that sour milk and soda may be
substituted for sweet milk and baking powder in a recipe that calls for
these ingredients by using _1 teaspoonful of soda to each pint of sour
milk_. This information should prove valuable to the housewife,
especially if she has accumulated a supply of sour milk that should not
be wasted. Occasionally it will be found that baking powder and soda are
required in the same recipe, but this occurs only when an insufficient
amount of soda to produce the desired result is specified.

11. SODA AND MOLASSES.--Although molasses, which is a product of sugar
cane, is sweet, it contains an acid that is formed by the fermentation
that continually occurs in it, an evidence of which is the tiny bubbles
that may be seen in molasses, especially when it is kept in a warm
place. Because of the presence of this acid, molasses may be used with
soda to form a chemical leavening agent, and when they are combined in
hot breads or cake, the chemical action of the two produces carbon
dioxide. However, accurate results cannot always be obtained when these
ingredients are used, for the degree of acidity in molasses is as
uncertain as it is in sour milk. Molasses that is old or has been kept
in a warm place will contain more acid than molasses that has been
manufactured only a short time or that has been kept cool to retard

The proportion of soda to molasses that can usually be relied on for hot
breads and cakes is _1 teaspoonful of soda to 1 cupful of molasses_, or
just twice the quantity of soda that is generally used with sour milk.
To produce the best results, the molasses should be mixed with the
liquid ingredients and the soda sifted in with the dry ones. As molasses
burns very quickly in a hot oven, all breads or cakes containing it as
an ingredient should be baked in an oven of moderate temperature.

12. SODA AND CREAM OF TARTAR.--Some housewives are inclined to use soda
and cream of tartar for leavening purposes; but there is really no
advantage in doing this when baking powder can be obtained, for some
baking powders are a combination of these two ingredients and produce
the same result. In fact, the housewife cannot measure soda and cream of
tartar so accurately as the chemist can combine them in the manufacture
of baking powder. Nevertheless, if their use is preferred, they should
be measured in the proportion of _twice as much cream of tartar as
soda._ As in the case of soda alone, these leavening agents should be
sifted with the dry ingredients. A small quantity of cream of tartar is
used without soda in such mixtures as angel-food cake, in which egg
white alone is used to make the mixture light. The addition of the cream
of tartar has the effect of so solidifying the egg white that it holds
up until the heat of the oven hardens it permanently.

13. BAKING POWDER.--Without doubt, baking powder is the most
satisfactory of the chemical leavening agents. It comes in three
varieties, but they are all similar in composition, for each contains an
alkali in the form of soda and an acid of some kind, as well as a filler
of starch, which serves to prevent the acid and the alkali from acting
upon each other. When moisture is added to baking powder, chemical
action sets in, but it is not very rapid, as is apparent when a cake or
a muffin mixture is allowed to stand before baking. The bubbles of gas
that form in such a mixture can easily be observed if the mixture is
stirred after it has stood for a short time. When both moisture and heat
are applied to baking powder, however, the chemical action that takes
place is more rapid, and this accounts for its usefulness in baking hot
breads and cake.

14. The price of the different kinds of baking powder, which usually
varies from 10 cents to 50 cents a pound, is generally an indication of
the ingredients that they contain. Powders that sell for 40 to 50 cents
a pound usually contain cream of tartar for the acid, the high price of
this substance accounting for the price of the powder. Powders that may
be purchased for 30 to 40 cents a pound generally contain acid phosphate
of lime, and as this substance is cheaper than cream of tartar, a
baking-powder mixture containing it may well be sold for less. The
cheapest grade of powders, or those which sell for 10 to 25 cents a
pound, have for their acid a salt of aluminum called alum. Still other
powders that are sometimes made up to sell for 20 to 30 cents a pound
contain a mixture of phosphate and alum.

15. As baking powders vary in price, so do they vary in their keeping
qualities, their effectiveness, and their tendency toward being
injurious. Most phosphate and alum powders do not keep so well as the
cream-of-tartar powders, and the longer they are kept, the less
effective do they become. The powders that contain phosphate yield more
gas for each teaspoonful used than do the other varieties. Much
controversy has taken place with regard to the different kinds of baking
powder and their effects on the digestive tract, but authorities have
not yet agreed on this matter. However, if foods made with the aid of
baking powders are not used excessively, no concern need be felt as to
their injurious effect. The housewife in her choice of baking powder
should be guided by the price she can afford to pay and the results she
is able to get after she has become well informed as to the effect of
the different varieties. She may easily become familiar with the
composition of baking powder, for a statement of what substances each
kind contains is generally found on the label of every variety. This
information is invaluable to the housewife, as it will assist her
considerably in making a selection.

16. The proportion of baking powder to be used in a batter or a dough is
regulated by the quantity of flour employed and not, as is the case with
soda and molasses or sour milk, by the quantity of liquid, the usual
proportion being _2 level teaspoonfuls to 1 cupful of flour_. Sometimes
this proportion is decreased, 6 or 7 teaspoonfuls being used instead of
8 to each quart of flour in the making of large quantities of some kinds
of baked foods. In adding baking powder to a mixture, as in adding other
dry leavening agents, it should be sifted with flour and the other dry

17. Although baking powder may be purchased at various prices, a good
grade can be made in the home without much effort and usually for less
than that which can be bought ready made. For these reasons, many
housewives prefer to make their own. The following recipe tells how to
make a cream-of-tartar powder that is very satisfactory:


1/2 lb. cream of tartar
1/4 lb. bicarbonate of soda
1/4 lb. corn starch

Weigh all the ingredients accurately. If the cream of tartar and the
bicarbonate of soda are to be purchased from a druggist, it will be
better for him to weigh them than for the housewife, as he uses scales
that weigh accurately. After all the ingredients are weighed, mix them
together thoroughly by sifting them a number of times or by shaking them
well in a can or a jar on which the lid has been tightly closed. The
baking powder thus made should be kept in a can or a jar that may be
rendered air-tight by means of a lid, or cover.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: Fig. 1]

18. The utensils required for the making of hot breads consist of two
kinds: those in which the ingredients are prepared and combined to form
the mixture and those in which the mixture is to be baked. As soon as it
is known just what ones are needed to carry out the recipe for the hot
bread that is to be made, they, together with the necessary ingredients,
such as milk, fat, flour, baking powder, salt, eggs, etc., should be
collected and arranged in the manner shown in Fig. 1, so that they will
be convenient. Usually, much of the success of hot breads depends on the
quickness and dexterity with which the ingredients are put together, and
if the person making them has to interrupt her work every now and then
to get out a utensil, she will find that her results will not be so
satisfactory and that she will use up more energy than the work really
demands. The pans in which the mixture is to be baked need particular
attention, for they should be greased and ready to fill before the
mixing is begun. If they are to be heated, they should be greased and
put into the oven a few minutes before the mixture is ready to be put
into them, so that they may be taken from the oven and filled at once.


19. Fig. 1 serves very well to illustrate the utensils required for
preparing hot-bread mixtures. These consist of a bowl _a_ of the proper
size for mixing; a smaller bowl _b_ for beating eggs, provided eggs are
to be used; two standard half-pint measuring cups _c_, one for dry
ingredients and the other for wet ingredients; a tablespoon _d_, a case
knife _e_, and a teaspoon _f_ for measuring and mixing; an egg beater
_g_ and a flour sifter. Of course, if an egg whip is preferred, it may
take the place of the egg beater, but for some hot-bread mixtures use
will be found for both of these utensils.


[Illustration: Fig. 2]

20. The kind of utensil required for the baking of hot-bread mixtures
depends entirely on the nature of the mixture and the recipe that is to
be prepared. For popovers, popover cups similar to those shown in Fig. 2
or gem irons are necessary. Muffins require muffin pans like those
illustrated at _h_, Fig. 1; Boston brown breads need cans that have
tight-fitting lids; soft ginger bread, nut loaf, and corn cake are baked
in loaf pans; baking-powder or beaten biscuits are placed in shallow
pans or on oiled sheets; griddle cakes must be baked on griddles; and
waffles require waffle irons. None of these utensils are likely to
present any difficulty in their use except griddles and waffle irons, so
in order that these may be thoroughly understood and good results
thereby obtained, explanations of them are here given.

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

21. GRIDDLES.--A style of griddle in common use is illustrated in Fig.
3, and while it is circular and has a projecting handle, griddles of
different shapes and fitted with different handles are to be had. Such
utensils are made of numerous materials, but the most satisfactory ones
are constructed of steel, iron, soapstone, and aluminum. Steel and iron
griddles must be greased before cakes are baked on them so as to prevent
the cakes from sticking; for this reason they are less convenient than
soapstone and aluminum griddles, which do not require any grease.

The size of griddle to use is governed by the number of persons that are
to be served. One that is unusually large, however, should be avoided if
a gas stove is used for cooking, as it is difficult to heat a large
griddle evenly on such a stove, and even a small one must be shifted
frequently so that some spots will not be hotter than others. In this
respect, a griddle made of aluminum has the advantage over the other
kinds, for this material conducts the heat evenly over its
entire surface.

[Illustration: Fig. 4]

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

Before a new steel or iron griddle is used, it must be tempered so as to
prevent the food that is to be baked on it from sticking. If it is not
tempered, much time will be consumed before its surface will be in the
right condition to permit baking to proceed without difficulty, and
this, of course, will result in wasting considerable food material.
Tempering may be done by covering the griddle with a quantity of fat,
placing it over a flame or in a very hot oven, and then allowing it to
heat thoroughly to such a temperature that the fat will burn onto the
surface. This same precaution should be observed with new waffle irons
and frying pans made of steel or iron if the best results from such
utensils are desired.

22. WAFFLE IRONS.--A waffle iron, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5, consists of
two corrugated griddles fastened together with a hinge in such a way
that the surfaces nearly touch when the handles are brought together as
in Fig. 4 (_a_). These griddles are so suspended in a frame that they may
be turned completely over in order to allow each side to be exposed to
the heat. The waffle iron illustrated in Fig. 4, shown closed in view
(_a_) and open in (_b_), is intended for a coal range. In order to use it,
a stove lid is removed from one of the openings and the waffle iron is set
in the opening, which allows the griddle part to be turned. The waffle
iron shown in Fig. 5 is intended for a gas range. As will be noticed,
the griddle part rests on a base that is deep enough to permit it to be
turned. In using a waffle iron of either kind, it should be heated while
the waffle mixture is being prepared; then it should be thoroughly
greased on both sides. No excess fat, however, should be used, as it
will run out when the griddle is turned over.

       *       *       *       *       *



23. BATTERS AND DOUGHS.--The mixtures from which hot breads are produced
are of different consistencies, and familiarity with them is necessary
if good results in the making of such breads are desired. This
difference in the consistencies is due to the proportion of flour and
liquid used, a small proportion of flour producing a _batter_ and a
large proportion, a _dough_. It will be well to note, however, that some
kinds of flour thicken a mixture much more readily than do others.
Experience in the handling of flour teaches how to vary the other
ingredients of a recipe in order to make them correspond to the
difference in flour, but the person who lacks a knowledge of cookery, or
has had very little experience in the handling of foods, must know the
general proportions that are correct under most circumstances. The names
of the mixtures that the ingredients produce are _thin batter_, _thick
batter_, _soft dough_, and _stiff dough_.

24. A THIN BATTER is one in which the general proportion of liquid and
flour is _1 measure of flour_ to _1 measure of liquid_. Such a batter,
when poured, immediately seeks its own level and has the consistency of
thin cream. The most common examples of thin batters are popovers and
griddle cakes.

A THICK BATTER, which is known as a _drop_, or _muffin_, _batter_, is
one that is made of _2 measures of flour_ and _1 measure of liquid_. A
batter of this kind may be poured, but it will not immediately seek its
own level. Muffins, gems, puddings, and cakes are made of thick batters.

A SOFT DOUGH is one whose proportions are _3 measures of flour_ and _1
measure of liquid_. A dough of this kind will stand up alone--that is,
without support at the sides--and has more of the properties of a solid
than of a liquid. Baking-powder biscuits, tea rolls, and certain kinds
of cake are made of this form of dough.

A STIFF DOUGH is made of _4 measures of flour_ and _1 measure of
liquid_. Such a dough will not cling to the mixing bowl, can be handled
with the hands, and will not stick when rolled out on a board. Pie
crust, hard cookies, and beaten biscuit are made of such dough.

proportions just mentioned remain the same in the majority of cases,
they vary somewhat when ingredients other than liquid and flour are
added. Shortening and eggs in particular change the quantity of liquid
required, less liquid being necessary when these ingredients are used.
To get the best results from a new recipe, it is always advisable upon
reading the recipe to notice the proportions that are given and then to
try to judge whether they bear a close enough resemblance to the general
proportions to make a successful dish. For instance, if a griddle-cake
recipe calls for 3 cupfuls of flour and 1 cupful of liquid, the cook who
understands what the general proportions for such a batter ought to be
would know immediately that the recipe calls for too much flour.
Likewise, she would know that a recipe for baking-powder biscuits that
calls for 2 cupfuls of flour and 1 cupful of liquid would make a dough
that would be too soft to handle. Besides enabling a woman to judge a
recipe, a knowledge of the correct proportions for things of this kind
makes it possible for her to combine the ingredients for a certain
recipe without resorting to a cook book, or, in other words, to
originate a recipe. Because of the importance of such an understanding,
attention should always be given to details that will assist in
obtaining a thorough knowledge of this matter.


ingredients that are to be used in the batters and doughs of hot breads
is begun, all that are needed for the recipe selected should be
collected and properly measured. Always sift the flour that is to be
used for this purpose. This is a rule that never varies with regard to
flour to be used for any dough mixture or as a thickening agent. Then,
to prevent the flour from packing too solidly, measure it by dipping it
into the cup with a spoon. To obtain the proper amount, heap the cup and
then level it with the edge of a knife. Measure with a spoon whatever
dry leavening agent is called for, and be sure that it does not contain
any lumps. If salt, sugar, and spices are to be used, measure them
carefully. Mix the leavening agent, the salt, the sugar, and the other
dry ingredients with the flour by sifting them together once or twice.
Measure the butter or other fat by packing it in the spoon and then
leveling it with a knife. Be particular in measuring the liquid, using
neither more nor less than is called for. Regarding this ingredient, it
should always be remembered that when a cupful is required, a half-pint
cup full to the brim is meant and that any fraction of a cupful should
be measured with the same exactness.

27. COMBINING THE INGREDIENTS.--The manner in which a batter or a dough
is mixed is very important, for much of the success of the finished
product depends on the order in which the various steps are
accomplished. Two general methods of combining the ingredients for such
mixtures have been devised and either of them may be followed, because
they produce equally good results.

In one of these methods, the fat is worked into the dry ingredients and
the liquid then added. As eggs are usually considered a liquid
ingredient, they are beaten and added to the rest of the liquid before
it is mixed with the dry ingredients. However, if eggs are to be used
for leavening, only the yolks are added with the liquid ingredients, the
whites being beaten separately and folded in last.

The other method is used only when the mixtures are to contain a small
quantity of fat. In this method, all the liquid ingredients, including
the eggs, are first mixed together. Then the dry ingredients are
combined and sifted into the liquid. The fat is melted last and beaten
into the dough mixture. If the mixture to be handled is a stiff one, the
fat should be put in cold, for adding melted fat makes the dough soft
and sticky and therefore difficult to handle.


28. REGULATING THE OVEN.--When the ingredients have been properly
combined, the mixture is ready to be baked. With the exception of
waffles and griddle cakes, the baking of which is explained in
connection with the recipes, all hot breads are baked in the oven;
therefore, while the mixture is being prepared, the oven should be
properly regulated in order that the temperature will be just right when
it is time to start the baking. Particular thought should be given to
this matter, for if no attention is paid to the oven until the mixture
is ready to be baked, it will be necessary to allow the mixture to stand
until the heat of the oven can be regulated or to put it into the oven
and run the risk of spoiling the food. To prevent either of these
conditions and to insure success, the fuel, no matter what kind is used,
should be lighted before mixing is begun, so that the oven may be
heating while the mixture is being prepared, unless, as is sometimes the
case, there are steps in the preparation of the mixture that consume
considerable time. For instance, looking over raisins and cleaning them
or cracking nuts and picking the meats out of the shells should be done
before the rest of the ingredients are prepared or the oven is

29. CORRECT OVEN TEMPERATURES.--Quick breads that are to be baked in the
form of loaves require an oven temperature of from 350 to 400 degrees
Fahrenheit. Muffins, biscuits, and the smaller varieties of these breads
need a higher temperature, 425 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit being best. As
they are not so large, the heat has less dough through which to
penetrate, and consequently the baking can be accomplished more quickly.

and testing its temperature present very little difficulty to the
housewife of experience, but they are not always easy problems for the
woman who is learning to cook. However, if the untrained and
inexperienced cook will observe her oven closely and determine the
results of certain temperatures, she will soon find herself becoming
more successful in this matter. To assist the housewife in this matter,
as well as to help in the saving of much loss in fuel and in underdone
or overdone food, many stoves are equipped with an oven thermometer, an
indicator, or a thermostat. The thermometer is more likely to be
reliable than the indicator, as it has a column of mercury like that of
any other thermometer and is graduated; also, a certain kind may be
secured that can be used with any sort of oven. The indicator is in the
form of a dial with a hand attached to a metal spring. This spring
contracts and expands with the changes in the temperature of the oven
and thus causes the hand to point out the temperature. The thermostat is
a device that automatically regulates the heat of the oven. On a stove
equipped with a thermostat, it is simply necessary to set the device at
the temperature desired. When this temperature is reached, the device
keeps it stationary.

31. If neither an indicator nor a thermometer is available, the heat of
the oven may be determined in other ways. Some housewives test the oven
with the hand, and while such a test is more or less dependent on
experience, those who use it find it very satisfactory. If the hand can
be held in the oven while 15 is counted slowly, the temperature is that
of a moderate oven and will be right for the baking of loaves. An oven
that is of the proper temperature for muffins or rolls will permit the
hand to be held in it while only 10 is counted slowly. Those who do not
test with the hand find that placing a piece of white paper in the oven
is an accurate way of determining its temperature. Such paper will turn
a delicate brown in 5 minutes in a moderate oven, and a deeper brown in
4 minutes in a hot oven.

_Essentials of Cookery_, Part 1, the top of the oven is hotter than the
bottom. This truth and the fact that in an oven, as in any other space,
air expands and rises on becoming heated, are points that have much to
do with the baking of quick breads, for these are mixtures that rise
after being placed in the oven. So that they may rise properly, they
should be placed on the bottom first; then, as they become heated, they
will have a tendency to rise as the air does. If the food is placed near
the top first, the heated air will be likely to press it down and retard
its rising. As soon as the rising is completed and the food has baked
sufficiently on the bottom, it should be moved up so that it will brown
on the top.

33. TESTING THE BAKED MIXTURE.--Recipes for baked dishes usually state
the length of time required to bake them, but such directions cannot
always be depended on, because the temperature of the oven varies at
different times. The best way in which to judge whether the food has
baked the necessary length of time is to apply to it one of the reliable
tests that have been devised for this purpose.

Probably the most satisfactory test is to insert a toothpick as deep as
possible into the center of the loaf. The center, rather than some other
part of the loaf, is the place where the testing should be done, because
the heat penetrates a mixture from the outside and the center is
therefore the last part to bake. If the toothpick comes out without
particles of dough adhering, the mixture is sufficiently baked in that
place and consequently throughout the loaf. In case the dough sticks to
the toothpick, the baking is not completed and will have to be
continued. Since this is a test that is frequently used, a supply of
toothpicks, preferably round ones, should be kept in a handy place near
the stove.

Another fairly accurate means of testing baked mixtures that do not form
a very hard crust consists in making a dent in the center with the
finger. If the dent remains, the baking must be continued, but if it
springs back into place, the baking is completed.


34. Hot breads, in contrast with yeast breads, are intended to be eaten
hot, and, to be most satisfactory, should be served as soon as possible
after they are baked. They usually take the place of bread in the meal
for which they are served, but there are various ways of using them
whereby variety is given to them and to the meal. A favorite combination
with many persons is hot biscuits or muffins served with honey. If honey
is not available, jam, preserves, or sirup may be substituted to
advantage. A mixture made like baking-powder biscuits and baked or
steamed is especially good when served with chicken or meat stew poured
over it. The same mixture sweetened and made a trifle richer may be
served with fruit and cream for short cake. For afternoon tea, tiny
muffins and biscuits about the size of a 50-cent piece are very
attractive. Then, too, if they are split and buttered, they may be
served with salad for a light luncheon.

Hot breads baked in the form of a loaf require some attention as far as
preparing them for the table is concerned. Gingerbread and corn cake are
better if they are broken rather than cut while hot. In case they are
preferred cut, a sharp knife should be employed, and, to obtain slices
that have a good appearance, the knife should be heated and the cutting
done before it cools. Usually, gingerbread is served plain, but the
addition of icing improves it considerably and provides a simple cake
that can be used for dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *



35. POPOVERS.--A delightful change from the puffs, muffins, and biscuits
that are usually served for breakfast or luncheon is afforded by means
of popovers, one of which is illustrated in Fig. 6. Popovers are not
difficult to make. For them is required a thin batter in equal
proportions of liquid and flour. In giving the method for mixing
popovers, some of the older cook books recommend beating for 5 minutes
just before they are baked, because the lightness was formerly supposed
to be due to the air that is incorporated by this beating. It is
possible, however, to make very light popovers with only enough beating
to mix the ingredients thoroughly, and it is now known that the rising
is due to the expansion of water into steam in the mixture. This
knowledge is useful in that it saves time and energy.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1 c. flour
1/4 tsp. salt
1 c. milk
1 egg

Mix the flour, salt, and milk in a bowl, and then drop in the unbeaten
egg. Beat all with a rotary egg beater until the mixture is perfectly
smooth and free from lumps. Grease and warm gem irons or popover cups.
Then fill them about two-thirds full of the popover batter. Bake in a
moderate oven for about 45 minutes or until the popovers can be lifted
from the cups and do not shrink when removed from the oven.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

36. POPOVERS WITH FRUIT.--Popovers made according to the preceding
recipe are particularly good if fruit is added to them. To add the
fruit, cut a slit in the side of the popovers as soon as they are
removed from the oven and insert a few spoonfuls of apple sauce,
marmalade, preserves, jelly, or canned fruit. These may be served either
warm or cold as a breakfast dish, or they may be sprinkled with powdered
sugar and served with cream for a dessert or a luncheon dish.

37. NUT PUFFS.--An example of a thin batter not in equal proportions of
liquid and flour is afforded by nut puffs. In hot breads of this kind,
aeration is used as the leavening agent. In order to assist with the
incorporation of air, the egg yolk is well beaten before it is added;
but the greater part of the lightness that is produced is due to the egg
white, which is beaten and folded in last. The addition of nuts to a
batter of this kind considerably increases its food value.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. flour
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. salt
1 c. milk
1 egg
1 Tb. fat
1/4 c. chopped nuts

Sift the flour, sugar, and salt together, and add the milk and beaten
egg yolk. Melt the fat and add it and the chopped nuts. Beat the egg
white stiff and fold it into the mixture carefully. Fill hot,
well-greased gem irons level full of the batter, and bake in a hot oven
about 20 minutes.

[Illustration: Fig. 7]

38. WHOLE-WHEAT PUFFS.--Puffs in which use is made of whole-wheat flour
instead of white flour are also an example of a thin batter that is made
light by aeration. If desired, graham flour may be substituted for the
whole-wheat flour, but if it is a coarser bread will be the result. This
coarseness, however, does not refer to the texture of the bread, but is
due to the quantity of bran in graham flour. Whole-wheat puffs, as shown
in Fig. 7, are attractive, and besides they possess the valuable food
substances contained in whole-wheat flour, eggs, and milk.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. whole-wheat flour
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. salt
1 c. milk
1 egg
1 Tb. fat

Sift the flour, sugar, and salt together and add the milk and the egg
yolk, which should be well beaten. Melt the fat and stir it into the
batter. Beat the egg white stiff, and fold it in carefully. Heat
well-greased gem irons, fill them level full with the mixture, and bake
in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.


39. PROCEDURE IN BAKING GRIDDLE CAKES.--During the preparation of the
batter for griddle cakes, have the griddle heating, so that it will be
sufficiently hot when the cakes are ready to be baked. Each time, before
the baking is begun, grease the griddle, provided it is the kind that
requires greasing, by rubbing over it a rind of salt pork or a small
cloth pad that has been dipped into a dish of grease. In greasing the
griddle, see that there is no excess of grease, as this burns and
produces smoke.

When the griddle has become hot enough for the batter to sizzle when it
is put on, the baking may be started. Pour the batter on the griddle
from the tip of a large spoon, so that the cakes will form as nearly
round as possible. When the top surface is full of bubbles, turn the
cakes with a spatula or a pancake turner, and allow them to brown on the
other side. By the time the cakes are sufficiently browned on both
sides, they should be cooked through and ready to serve. If they brown
before they have had time to cook through, the griddle is too hot and
should be cooled by moving it to a cooler part of the stove or by
reducing the heat. A very important point to remember in the baking of
griddle cakes is that they should not be turned twice, as this has a
tendency to make them heavy.

40. GRIDDLE CAKES.--As is generally known, griddle cakes are thin
batters that are made light with a chemical leavening agent. Eggs are
often used in such batters, but it is possible to make very excellent
griddle cakes without the use of any eggs. It should also be remembered
that the use of too much egg is more certain to make the cakes tough and
less palatable than if none is used. The kind of flour used for griddle
cakes has much to do with the consistency of the batter used for them.
If, when the first cakes are placed upon the griddle, the batter seems
to be either too thick or too thin, liquid or flour may be added to
dilute or thicken the batter until it is of the right consistency. For
instance, if bread flour is used, more liquid may be needed, and if
pastry flour is used, more flour may be required.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
1/4 c. sugar
1 egg
2-1/4 c. milk
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, salt, and sugar. Beat the
egg, add to it the milk, and pour this liquid slowly into the dry
ingredients. Beat the mixture thoroughly and then add the melted
fat. Bake the cakes on a hot griddle as soon as possible after the
batter is mixed.

41. SOUR-MILK GRIDDLE CAKES.--Very delicious griddle cakes may be made
by using sour milk and soda for the liquid and leavening instead of
sweet milk and baking powder. Besides being particularly appetising,
such cakes serve to use up left-over milk that may have soured. There is
very little difference between the ingredients for this recipe and one
calling for sweet milk, except that sour milk, which is a trifle
thicker in consistency than sweet milk, requires less flour to thicken
the mixture.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. soda
2 c. sour milk (not thick)
1 egg

Mix and sift the flour, salt, sugar, and soda. Add to these the sour
milk and the egg well beaten. If the milk is thick, the quantity
should be increased accordingly. Beat the mixture thoroughly and
bake at once on a hot griddle.

42. CORN GRIDDLE CAKES.--The addition of corn meal to a griddle-cake
mixture adds variety and food value and produces an agreeable flavor.
Where corn meal is cheap, it is an economical ingredient to use in
griddle cakes and other hot breads.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 c. corn meal
1-1/2 c. boiling water
2 c. milk
2 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
1-1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 c. sugar
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Add the corn meal to the boiling water, boil 5 minutes, and turn into a
bowl. Then add the milk. Next, mix and sift the flour, baking powder,
salt, and sugar, and stir them into the first mixture. Beat the egg and
add to the whole. Finally, stir in the melted fat. Bake on a
hot griddle.

43. RICE GRIDDLE CAKES.--If a change in the ordinary griddle cakes that
are used for breakfast is desired, rice griddle cakes should be tried.
Besides lending variety, the addition of rice to a griddle-cake mixture
helps to use up any left-over rice that may have been cooked for another
purpose. Steamed or boiled rice used for this purpose should be broken
up with a fork before it is mixed in the batter, so that the grains of
rice will not stick together in chunks.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/2 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
1/4 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 c. cold cooked rice
1 egg
1-1/2 c. milk
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Work the rice
into the dry ingredients. Add the egg, well beaten, the milk, and the
melted fat. Bake on a hot griddle.

44. BUCKWHEAT CAKES.--Buckwheat flour is used for griddle cakes more
than for any other purpose. When used in this way it has a very typical
flavor that most people find very agreeable. Many prepared buckwheat
flours, to which have been added the quantity of leavening agent
necessary to raise the mixture, are on the market for the convenience of
those who do not desire to prepare the mixture at home. As a rule, these
contain a combination of buckwheat and wheat flour. To make cakes from
these flours, add the required amount of liquid, either milk or water,
and a little sugar, if necessary, and then proceed to bake them on a
griddle. While there is no objection to the use of such flours if they
are found agreeable, it is more expensive to use them than to make up
the buckwheat mixture at home. A recipe for buckwheat cakes that proves
very satisfactory is the following:

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. scalded milk
1/2 c. fine bread crumbs
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 yeast cake
3/4 c. lukewarm water
1-1/2 c. buckwheat flour
1/2 c. white flour
1 Tb. molasses
1/4 tsp. soda

Pour the scalded milk over the bread crumbs and add the salt. Dissolve
the yeast cake in 1/2 cupful of the lukewarm water and add this to the
bread crumbs and milk. Stir in the buckwheat and the white flour, and
let the mixture rise overnight. In the morning, stir it well and add the
molasses, the soda, and 1/4 cupful of lukewarm water. Bake on a
hot griddle.

If cakes are to be baked the next day, retain 1/2 cupful of the batter,
to which may be added flour, milk, salt, and molasses. By doing this
each day, a starter may be had for a long period of time. If a strong
buckwheat flavor is desired, use all buckwheat flour, but if only a
slight buckwheat flavor is desired, make the proportion of wheat flour
greater and that of the buckwheat smaller.


45. PROCEDURE IN BAKING WAFFLES.--The procedure in making waffles is
very similar to that in making griddle cakes. While the waffle mixture
is being prepared, heat the waffle iron. Then grease it thoroughly on
both sides with a rind of salt pork or a cloth pad dipped in fat, being
careful that there is no excess fat, as it will run out when the iron is
turned over. With the iron properly greased and sufficiently hot, place
several spoonfuls of the batter in the center and close the iron. By so
doing, the batter will be pressed out to cover the entire surface. In
pouring the batter, do not cover the entire surface of the iron with
batter nor place any near the outside edge, for it is liable to run out
when the iron is closed. In case this happens, be sure to put in less
batter the next time. Allow the waffle to brown on the side near the
fire and then turn the iron, so as to brown the other side. When the
waffle is sufficiently brown, remove it; then grease the iron and repeat
the process.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

46. WAFFLES.--The form of hot bread known as waffles, which are
illustrated in Fig. 8, offers the housewife an excellent opportunity to
add variety to meals. Practically no one dislikes waffles, and they are
especially appetising when sprinkled with powdered sugar or served with
sirup. They are often served with chicken or other gravy.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. salt
2 eggs
1-2/3 c. milk
2 Tb. melted fat

Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt together. Beat the yolks and
whites of the eggs separately. Add the beaten yolks and the milk to the
dry ingredients and then stir in the melted fat. Beat the egg whites
stiff and fold them into the batter. Bake according to the directions
given in Art. 45.

47. RICE WAFFLES.--Rice waffles offer an excellent means of utilizing
left-over rice. Such waffles are prepared in about the same way as the
waffles just mentioned. In working the cooked rice into the dry
ingredients, use should be made of a light motion that will not crush
the grains, but will separate them from one another. Left-over cereals
other than rice may also be used in this way.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-3/4 c. flour
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. salt
2/3 c. cooked rice
1-1/2 c. milk
1 egg
1 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt, and then work
the rice into the dry ingredients. Add the milk and the well-beaten yolk
of egg. Stir in the melted fat. Beat the egg white stiff, and fold it
into the batter. Bake as previously directed.


[Illustration: Fig. 9]

48. Muffins are examples of thick batters with variations. This form of
hot bread, an illustration of which is shown in Fig. 9, may be baked in
a pan like that shown at _h_, Fig. 1, or in individual tins. Just as
other forms of hot breads assist the housewife in making changes or
additions to meals, so do muffins, as they are usually relished by
nearly every one.

49. PLAIN MUFFINS.--Perhaps the simplest form of muffin is the plain, or
one-egg, muffin, which is illustrated in Fig. 9 and made according to
the accompanying recipe. To a plain-muffin recipe, however, may be added
any kind of fruit, nuts, or other ingredients to give variety of
flavour. Likewise, it may be made richer and sweeter and then steamed or
baked to be served with a sauce for dessert. If it is made still richer
and sweeter, the result is a simple cake mixture. Any given muffin
recipe in which sweet milk is used may be made with sour milk by using
soda instead of baking powder.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour
2 Tb. sugar
1 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
1 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder, and to these add
the milk and beaten egg. Then stir in the melted fat. Fill well-greased
muffin pans about two-thirds full of the mixture and bake in a hot oven
for about 20 minutes.

50. BLUEBERRY MUFFINS.--Muffins containing blueberries can be made
successfully only in blueberry season, but other fruit, as, for example,
dates, may be used in place of the blueberries. Cranberries are often
used in muffins, but to many persons they are not agreeable because of
the excessive amount of acid they contain.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

3 Tb. fat
1/3 c. sugar
1 egg
1 c. milk
2-1/4 c. flour
1/2 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
1 c. fresh blueberries

Cream the fat, and add the sugar gradually. Then stir in the beaten egg
and milk. Reserve 1/4 cupful of flour, and mix the remainder with the
salt and the baking powder. Stir the dry ingredients into the first
mixture. Next, mix the 1/4 cupful of flour with the berries and fold
them into the batter. Fill well-greased muffin pans about two-thirds
full of the batter, and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes.

51. DATE MUFFINS.--The recipe given for blueberry muffins may be used
for date muffins by substituting dates for blueberries. To prepare the
dates, wash them in warm water, rinse them in cold water, and then dry
them between towels. Cut them lengthwise along the seed with a sharp
knife, remove the seed, and then cut each date into three or
four pieces.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

52. CORN-MEAL MUFFINS.--To many persons, corn-meal muffins, an
illustration of which is shown in Fig. 10, are more agreeable than plain
white-flour muffins. Corn meal gives to muffins an attractive flavour
and appearance and increases their food value slightly; but perhaps its
chief value lies in the variety that results from its use.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1/2 c. corn meal
1 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
3/4 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt. Add
to these the milk and the well-beaten egg, and stir in the melted fat.
Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full, and bake in a hot oven
for about 20 minutes.

53. GRAHAM MUFFINS.--A pleasing variety in the way of muffins is
produced by using part graham flour, but whole-wheat flour may be
substituted for the graham flour in case it is preferred. Sour milk is
used in the recipe here given, but if there is no sour milk in supply,
sweet milk and baking powder may be used instead, with merely the
correct proportion of soda for the molasses. If the taste of molasses is
undesirable, liquid, which may be either sweet or sour milk, may be
substituted for it. It is an excellent plan to be able to substitute one
thing for another in recipes of this kind, and this may be done if the
materials are used in correct proportion.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/4 c. graham flour
1 c. white flour
3/4 tsp. soda
1 tsp. salt
1 c. sour milk
1/3 c. molasses
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the graham and the white flour, the soda, and the salt. Put
the bran that sifts out back into the mixture. Add the milk, molasses,
and well-beaten egg to the dry ingredients, and then stir in the melted
fat. Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full and bake in a
moderate oven for about 20 minutes.

54. RICE MUFFINS.--Rice may be combined with white flour in the making
of muffins if variety is desired. As rice used for this purpose is added
hot, it may be cooked either purposely for the muffins or for something
else and only part used for the muffins. Cereals other than rice may be
used in exactly the same quantity and in the same way in making muffins.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2-1/4 c. flour
5 tsp. baking powder
2 Tb. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
1-1/4 c. milk
1 egg
3/4 c. hot, cooked rice
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the flour, baking powder, sugar, and salt, and to these add
half of the milk and the egg, well beaten. Mix the remaining half of the
milk with the rice and add it to the mixture. Stir in the melted fat
last. Fill well-greased muffin pans two-thirds full, and bake in a hot
oven for about 20 minutes.

55. BRAN MUFFINS.--The particular value of bran muffins lies in the
laxative quality that they introduce into the diet. In addition, they
will be found to be very tasty and superior to many other kinds of
muffins. Bran for such purposes as this may be bought in packages, in
the same way as many cereals.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

1-1/2 c. white flour
1/2 tsp. soda
1/2 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
2 c. bran
1-1/4 c. milk
1/2 c. molasses
1 egg

Mix and sift the flour, soda, baking powder, and salt. Then add the
bran, the milk, the molasses, and the well-beaten egg. Fill well-greased
muffin pans about two-thirds full, and bake in a moderate oven for about
25 minutes.


56. CORN CAKE.--Corn cakes were among the first breads made of cereal
foods in America, being at first often made of only corn meal, water,
and salt. These cakes of corn meal were prepared and carried on long
journeys made by people when there were no means of rapid
transportation. The cakes did not spoil, were not bulky, and contained a
great deal of nutriment, so they made a convenient kind of food for such
purposes and were called _journey cakes._ From this term came the name
_Johnny cake,_ which is often applied to cake of this kind. The
combining of flour, eggs, shortening, and sugar makes a cake that does
not resemble the original very much, but in many localities such cake is
still called Johnny cake. The proportion of corn meal to flour that is
used determines to a large extent the consistency of the cake; the
greater the quantity of corn meal, the more the cake will crumble and
break into pieces. The addition of white flour makes the particles of
corn meal adhere, so that most persons consider that white flour
improves the consistency.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

3/4 c. yellow corn meal
1-1/4 c. flour
1/4 c. sugar
3/4 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
1 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, sugar, salt, and baking powder. Add
the milk and well-beaten egg, and then stir in the melted fat. Pour into
a well-greased loaf pan and bake in a hot oven for about 30 minutes.

57. SOUTHERN CORN CAKE.--In the preceding recipe for corn cake, more
flour than corn meal is used, but many persons prefer cake of this kind
made with more corn meal than flour. Southern corn cake, which contains
more corn meal and less white flour, proves very satisfactory to such
persons. Therefore, which of these recipes should be used depends on the
taste of those who are to eat the cake.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

1 c. corn meal
1/2 c. flour
3 tsp. baking powder
3/4 tsp. salt
1/4 c. sugar
3/4 c. milk
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift together the corn meal, flour, baking powder, salt, and
sugar. Add to them the milk and well-beaten egg, and stir in the melted
fat. Pour into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for
about 30 minutes.

58. Molasses Corn Cake.--Molasses corn cake, just as its name indicates,
is corn cake containing molasses. To those who find the taste of
molasses agreeable, this recipe will appeal. Others not so fond of
molasses will, without doubt, prefer the plain corn cake. Besides adding
flavour, the molasses in this recipe adds food value to the product.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

1 c. corn meal
3/4 c. flour
3-1/2 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
3/4 c. milk
1/4 c. molasses
1 egg
2 Tb. melted fat

Mix and sift the corn meal, flour, baking powder, and salt. Add the
milk, molasses, and well-beaten egg and stir in the melted fat. Pour
into a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about
30 minutes.


[Illustration: FIG. 11]

59. Baking-Powder Biscuits.--The ability of the housewife as a cook is
very often judged by the biscuits she makes; but they are really very
simple to make, and if recipes are followed carefully and measurements
are made accurately, only a little experience is required to produce
excellent ones. The principal requirement in making baking-powder
biscuits, which are illustrated in Fig. 11, is that all the ingredients
be kept as cold as possible during the mixing. Tiny, thin biscuits may
be split, buttered, and served with tea, while larger ones may be served
with breakfast or luncheon. In order to utilise left-over biscuits of
this kind, they may be split and toasted or dipped quickly into boiling
water and heated in a quick oven until the surface is dry.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour
1 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
2 Tb. fat
3/4 c. milk

Mix and sift the flour, salt, and baking powder. Chop the fat into the
dry ingredients until it is in pieces about the size of small peas. Pour
the milk into the dry ingredients, and mix them just enough to take up
the liquid. Make the mixture as moist as possible, and still have it in
good condition to handle. Then sprinkle flour on a molding board, and
lift the dough from the mixing bowl to the board.

[Illustration: FIG. 12]


[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

Sprinkle flour thinly over the top and pat out the dough until it is
about 1 inch thick. Cut the dough with a biscuit cutter, and place the
biscuits thus cut out on baking sheets or in shallow pans. If a crusty
surface is desired, place the biscuits in the pan so that they are about
an inch apart; but if thick, soft biscuits are preferred, place them so
that the edges touch. Bake 18 to 20 minutes in a hot oven.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

60. EMERGENCY BISCUITS.--As shown in Fig. 12, emergency biscuits
resemble very closely baking-powder biscuits, and so they should,
because the recipe given for baking-powder biscuits may be used for
emergency biscuits by merely adding more milk--just enough to make the
dough a trifle too moist to handle with the hands. When the dough is of
this consistency, drop it by spoonfuls in shallow pans, as in Fig. 13,
or on baking sheets. Then bake the biscuits in a hot oven for 18 to
20 minutes.

61. PINWHEEL BISCUITS.--To create variety, a baking-powder biscuit
mixture may be made into pinwheel biscuits, a kind of hot bread that is
always pleasing to children. Such biscuits, which are illustrated in
Fig. 14, differ from cinnamon rolls only in the leavening agent used,
cinnamon rolls being made with yeast and pinwheel biscuits with
baking powder.

(Sufficient to Serve Six)

2 c. flour
1 tsp. salt
4 tsp. baking powder
2 Tb. fat f
3/4 c. milk
2 Tb. butter
1/3 c. sugar
1 Tb. cinnamon
3/4 c. chopped raisins

To make the dough, combine the ingredients in the same way as for
baking-powder biscuits. Roll it on a well-floured board until it is
about 1/4 inch thick and twice as long as it is wide. Spread the surface
with the 2 tablespoonfuls of butter. Mix the sugar and cinnamon and
sprinkle them evenly over the buttered surface, and on top of this
sprinkle the chopped raisins. Start with one of the long edges and roll
the dough carefully toward the opposite long edge, as shown in Fig. 15.
Then cut the roll into slices 1 inch thick. Place these slices in a
shallow pan with the cut edges down and the sides touching. Bake in a
hot oven for about 20 minutes.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.]

62. BEATEN BISCUITS.--In Fig. 16 is illustrated a form of hot bread
known as beaten biscuits. Such biscuits are used very extensively in the
South; in fact, they are usually considered typical of the South.
Formerly, all the lightness of beaten biscuits was produced by beating,
but as the mixture is made today it may be run through a food chopper a
few times before it is beaten. If this is done, the labor of beating is
lessened considerably, beating for 15 to 20 minutes being sufficient.
When the beating is finished, the texture of the dough should be fine
and close and the surface should be smooth and flat.

(Sufficient to Serve Twelve)

1 qt. pastry flour
1 tsp. salt
1/3 c. fat
1 c. milk or water

Sift the flour and salt and chop in the fat. Moisten with the milk or
water and form into a mass. Toss this on a floured board, and beat it
with a rolling pin for 30 minutes, folding the dough over every few
seconds. Roll the dough 1/3 inch in thickness, form the biscuits by
cutting them out with a small round cutter, and prick each one several
times with a fork. Place the biscuits on baking sheets or in shallow
pans, and bake them in a moderate oven for 20 to 30 minutes.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.]


[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

63. SOFT GINGERBREAD.--As a hot bread for breakfast, soft gingerbread
like that illustrated in Fig. 17 is very satisfactory, and with or
without icing it may be served as cake with fruit for luncheon. Sweet
milk and baking powder are generally used in gingerbread, but sour milk
may be substituted for sweet milk and soda in the proper proportion may
be used in place of baking powder. If not too much spice is used in a
bread of this kind, it is better for children than rich cake, and, as a
rule, they are very fond of it.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

2 c. flour
2 tsp. baking powder
1/2 tsp. soda
1/4 c. sugar
1/2 tsp. salt
2 tsp. ginger
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 egg
1/2 c. milk
1/2 c. molasses
1/4 c. butter or other fat

Mix the flour, baking powder, soda, sugar, salt, and spices. Beat the
egg, add the milk and molasses to it, and stir these into the first
mixture. Melt the fat and stir it into the batter. Pour the batter into
a well-greased loaf pan, and bake in a moderate oven for about 35
minutes. If preferred, the mixture may be poured into individual muffin
pans and baked in a moderate oven for about 25 minutes.

64. BOSTON BROWN BREAD.--A hot bread that finds favor with most persons
is Boston brown bread, which is illustrated in Fig. 18.


[Illustration: FIG. 17.]

Such bread, instead of being baked in the oven, is steamed for 3-1/2
hours. It may be made plain, according to the accompanying recipe, or,
to give it variety, raisins or currants may be added to it. Boston brown
bread may be steamed in an ordinary coffee can, such as is shown in Fig.
18, in a large baking-powder can, or in a can that is made especially
for this purpose. A regular steaming can for Boston brown bread is, of
course, very convenient, but the other cans mentioned are very
satisfactory. A point to remember in the making of brown bread is that
the time for steaming should never be decreased. Oversteaming will do no
harm, but understeaming is liable to leave an unbaked place through the
centre of the loaf.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

1 c. white flour
1 c. graham flour
1 c. corn meal
3/4 tsp. soda
2 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
3/4 c. molasses
1-3/4 c. sweet milk

Mix and sift the flour, corn meal, soda, baking powder, and salt. Add
the molasses and milk and mix all thoroughly. Grease a can and a cover
that fits the can tightly. Fill the can two-thirds full of the mixture
and cover it. Place it in a steamer and steam for 3-1/2 hours. Dry in a
moderate oven for a few minutes before serving.

65. NUT LOAF.--The use of nuts in a hot bread increases the food value
and imparts a very delicious flavour. It is therefore very attractive to
most persons, but it is not a cheap food on account of the usual high
price of nuts. Thin slices of nut bread spread with butter make very
fine sandwiches, which are especially delicious when served with tea.

(Sufficient for One Medium-Sized Loaf)

2 c. flour
1/2 c. sugar
4 tsp. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
4 Tb. fat
1 egg
1 c. milk
1/2 c. English walnuts

Mix and sift the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt, and then work in
the fat. Add the egg, well beaten, and the milk, and then stir in the
nut meats, which should be chopped. Turn into a well-greased loaf pan,
and bake in a moderate oven for about 45 minutes.


66. As a general rule, not much consideration need be given to the
utilising of left-over hot breads, for these are not often baked in
large quantities and consequently are usually eaten at the meal for
which they are intended. Still, if any should be left over, they should
never be wasted, for there are various ways in which they may be used.
The small varieties, such as muffins, biscuits, etc, may be freshened so
that they will be almost as good as when first baked by putting them
into a hot oven for a few minutes. If they are quite stale, they should
be dipped quickly into hot water before being placed in the oven. The
moisture on the surface is driven into the interior of the bread by the
intense heat, with the result that the biscuits become moist and appear
as fresh as they did formerly. If it is not desired to freshen them in
this way, biscuits, muffins, and even pieces of corn bread that have
become slightly stale may be made delicious by splitting them and then
toasting them.


67. As in the preceding Sections, there is here submitted a menu that
should be worked out and reported on at the same time that the answers
to the Examination Questions are sent in. This menu is planned to serve
six persons, but, as in the case of the other menus, it may be increased
or decreased to meet requirements. The recipe for macaroni with cheese
and tomatoes may be found in _Cereals,_ and that for baking-powder
biscuit, as well as that for popovers with apple sauce, in this Section.
Recipes for the remainder of the items follow the menu.


Macaroni With Cheese and Tomatoes
Baking-Powder Biscuit
Watercress-and-Celery Salad
Popovers Filled With Apple Sauce



Arrange on each salad plate a bed of watercress, or, if it is impossible
to obtain this, shred lettuce by cutting it in narrow strips across the
leaf and use it instead of the watercress. Dice one or two stems of
celery, depending on the size, and place the diced pieces on top of the
watercress or the lettuce. Pour over each serving about 2 teaspoonfuls
of French dressing made as follows:

1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1/4 tsp. paprika
6 Tb. oil
2 Tb. vinegar

Mix the salt, pepper, and paprika, and beat the oil into them until it
forms an emulsion. Add the vinegar gradually, a few drops at a time, and
continue the beating. Pour the dressing over the salad.


Measure 1 teaspoonful of tea for each cupful that is to be served. Scald
the teapot, put the tea into it, and add the required number of cups of
freshly boiling water. Allow it to steep until the desired strength is
obtained. Serve at once, or pour from the leaves, serving cream and
sugar with it if desired.

       *       *       *       *       *



(1) (_a_) In what way do hot breads differ from yeast breads? (_b_) What
are the principal ingredients of hot-bread batters and doughs?

(2) (_a_) What is a leavening agent? (_b_) What is the effect of
leavening agents on batters and doughs?

(3) (_a_) How is physical leavening accomplished? (_b_) On what does the
success of breads raised by physical leavening depend?

(4) (_a_) How is chemical leavening brought about? (_b_) What two things
must be supplied to produce the best action of a chemical leavening
agent for making a flour mixture light?

(5) Why are soda and sour milk and soda and molasses not accurate
leavening agents?

(6) In making a batter or a dough, how much soda should be used with:
(_a_) each cupful of sour milk? (_b_) each cupful of molasses?

(7) How should soda and sour milk or soda and molasses be combined with
the other ingredients of a hot-bread mixture?

(8) (_a_) In hot-bread batters and doughs, how much baking powder should
be used to 1 cupful of flour? (_b_) How should baking powder be combined
with the other ingredients?

(9) Mention, in the order they should be carried out, the steps for
making and baking a dough mixture.

(10) Tell what general proportion of liquid and flour is usually used
for: (_a_) a thin batter; (_b_) a thick batter; (_c_) a soft dough;
(_d_) a stiff dough.

(11) Give examples of hot breads made from: (_a_) thin batters; (_b_)
thick batters; (_c_) soft doughs; (_d_) stiff doughs.

(12) What will cause a change in the general proportions of liquid and
flour for a batter or a dough?

(13) Explain briefly the two general methods of combining ingredients
for hot-bread mixtures.

(14) What is the approximate temperature for: (_a_) a moderate oven?
(_b_) a hot oven?

(15) Mention a simple test for: (_a_) a moderate oven; (_b_) a hot

(16) How may hot breads be tested in order to determine whether or not
they are properly baked?

(17) Why are baking-powder biscuits and popovers mixed differently?

(18) (_a_) Why does a loaf of nut bread require longer baking than
muffins? (_b_) Which should be baked in a moderate oven?

(19) Why should gingerbread be baked in a moderate oven?

(20) Make a recipe for muffins, using 2 cupfuls of flour and sour milk
and soda for liquid and leavening.


After trying out the luncheon menu given in the text, send with your
answers to the Examination Questions a report of your success. In making
out your report, simply write the name of the food and describe its
condition by means of the terms specified here.

Macaroni With Cheese and Tomatoes: cooked sufficiently? properly
flavoured? too much salt? not enough salt? too much liquid? too
little liquid?

Baking-Powder Biscuit: tender? tough? light? heavy? good texture? poor
texture? sufficiently baked? underdone? overdone? sufficient salt?

Watercress-and-Celery Salad: appearance attractive? dressing well mixed?
properly seasoned?

Popovers Filled With Apple Sauce: tender? tough? underdone (this is
observed by shrinking or falling after removing the popovers from the
popover cups)? overdone?

Tea: strong? weak? clear? hot? bitter?

       *       *       *       *       *



Abbreviations of measures,
Absorption and digestion of food,
  of food,
Abundance of production of cereals,
Acquiring skill in bread making,
Action of yeast,
Adjusting cook-stove dampers,
Agents, Classes of leavening,
Aids, Yeast,
A la, au, and aux, Meaning of terms,
  la creole, Meaning of,
  Effect of cooking on,
Aluminum cooking utensils,
Anthracite, or hard, coal,
Apple, Composition of,
Artificial gas,
Ash, or mineral salts,
  pan, Coal-stove,
  pit, Coal-stove,
Au gratin, Meaning of,
  naturel, Meaning of,
Avoirdupois weight,


Bacon, Composition of,
Baked hot breads, Testing,
Bakers' flour,
Baking bread,
  Distinction between roasting and,
  griddle cakes, Procedure in,
  Meaning of,
  Oven temperature for bread,
  -powder biscuits,
Baking powder, Recipe for,
  Purpose of bread,
  the hot-bread mixture,
  the hot-bread mixture, Utensils for,
  Time for bread,
  waffles, Procedure in,
Balanced diet, Elements of a,
Banana, Composition of,
Banking a coal fire,
  Recipes for,
  Use and origin of,
  with fruit, Pearl,
Batter, Thick,
Batters and doughs,
Bean, Composition of dry navy,
  Composition of fresh shelled,
  Composition of green string,
Beaten biscuits,
Beating of food ingredients,
Béchamel, Meaning of,
Beech wheat,
Beef, Composition of dried,
  steak, Composition of,
  suet, Composition of,
Biscuit glace,
Biscuits, Baking-powder,
  rolls, and buns, Recipes for,
Bisque, Meaning of,
Bituminous, or soft, coal,
Blanching foods,
Blend flour,
Blueberry muffins,
Body, Function of water in the,
Boiled coffee,
Boiler, Cooking cereals in double,
  Cooking cereals by,
  on foods, Effect of,
  to sterilize water,
Boston brown bread,
Bouchées, Meaning of,
Boudin, Meaning of,
Bouquet of herbs,
Boxes, Window,
Bran bread,
  after baking, Care of,
  and cake mixer,
  as food, Importance of,
  Baking hot,
  Boston brown,
  Composition of corn,
  Composition of rye,
  Composition of toasted,
  Composition of whole-wheat,
  Convenient equipment for making,
  Distinction between hot and leavened,
  dough, Care of the rising,
  dough, Kneading,
  dough, Motions used in kneading,
  dough, Purpose of kneading,
  ingredients, Quick-process, sponge method of combining,
  Long-process, sponge method of making,
  making, Acquiring skill in,
  making, Combining the ingredients in,
  making, Convenient equipment for,
  making, Ingredients for,
  making, Long process of,
  making, Long-process, sponge method of,
  making, Long-process, straight-dough method of,
  -making materials, Proportion of,
  making, Necessary equipment for,
  -making processes,
  making, Quick process of,
  making, Quick-process, sponge method of,
  making, Quick-process, straight-dough method of,
  -making requirements,
  making, Utensils for,
  Milk and fat in,
  mixer, Use of,
  mixture, Preparation of hot-,
  Object of scoring,
  Oven temperature for baking,
  Purpose of baking,
  Utilizing left-over hot,
  Whole-wheat fruit,
  with nuts, Graham,
Breads, Correct oven temperature for hot,
  Distinction between yeast and hot,
  General proportions used in hot,
  in the diet, Hot,
  Mixtures used for hot,
  Principal requirements for hot,
  Purpose of utensils for making hot,
  Recipes for hot,
  Requirements and processes for making hot,
  Serving hot,
  Varieties of mixtures in hot,
Breakfast food, Composition of cooked oat,
  foods, Meaning of,
Brown bread, Boston,
Browned rice,
Browning, or toasting, of cereals,
  Composition of,
  Description of,
  rye, and millet,
Building a coal fire,
Buns, Fruit or nut,
  Graham nut,
  Nut or fruit,
  rolls, and biscuits,
Buns, Sweet,
Butter, Composition of,
  Composition of peanut,
Buttered hominy,
Buttermilk, Composition of,


Cabbage salad,
  -salad dressing,
Café au lait, Meaning of,
  noir, Meaning of,
Cake, Coffee,
  Molasses corn,
  Southern corn,
Cakes, Buckwheat,
  Corn griddle,
  Procedure in baking griddle,
  Rice griddle,
Calorie, or calory, Definition of,
Canapés, Meaning of,
Canard, Meaning of,
Candy, Composition of stick,
Canned fruit, Composition of,
Canning of foods,
Capers, Meaning of,
Capon, Meaning of,
Caramel, Meaning of,
  Composition of,
  Elements in,
  in cereals,
Carbonic-acid, or carbon-dioxide, gas,
Card, Explanation of score,
Care of bread after baking,
  of bread in oven,
  of cereals,
  of flour,
  of food,
  of food in refrigerator,
  of food, Methods of,
  of the refrigerator,
  of the rising bread dough,
Carolina rice,
  Effect of cooking on,
Casserole, Definition of,
  Use of,
Celery, Composition of,
Cellars, Storing food in,
Cellulose, Cooking foods containing,
  Definition of,
  in cereals,
  in the diet, Place of,
Cereal flakes,
  selection, Factors that govern,
  Setting a,
  Abundance of production of,
  as a food,
  Browning, or toasting, of,
  by boiling, Cooking,
  by dry heat, Cooking,
  Carbohydrates in,
  Care of,
  Cellulose in,
  Composition of,
  Economic value of,
  Fat in,
  for the table, Preparation of,
  Left-over wheat,
  Methods of cooking,
  Mineral matter in,
  Origin of,
  Points to observe in cooking,
  Preparation for cooking,
  Prepared, or ready-to-eat,
  Production of,
  Protein in,
  Purpose of cooking,
  Selection of,
  Table showing composition of,
  undergo in cooking, Changes,
  Uses of,
  Water in,
Champignons, Meaning of,
Chartreuse, Meaning of,
Cheese, Composition of cottage,
  Composition of cream,
Chemical composition of food,
Chestnut coal,
  Composition of,
Chiffonade, Meaning of,
Chillies, Meaning of,
Chives, Meaning of,
Chop, Composition of lamb,
  Composition of pork,
Chopper, Meat,
Chops, Pan-broiled,
Chutney, Meaning of,
Cinnamon rolls,
Coal and coke,
  Anthracite, or hard,
  Bituminous, or soft,
  fire, Building a,
  fire, Building a,
  Quality of,
Coal range,
  Sizes of,
  -stove dampers,
  -stove firebox,
  stove for cooking, General construction of,
  -stove grate,
  stoves and their operation,
  Varieties of,
Coconut, Composition of,
Cod, Composition of fresh,
  Composition of salt,
  and coal,
Collops, Meaning of,
Commercial yeast,
Common labor-saving devices,
Composition and varieties of oats,
  of apple,
  of bacon,
  of banana,
  of beef steak,
  of beef suet,
  of buckwheat,
  of butter,
  of buttermilk,
  of canned fruit,
  of carbohydrates,
  of celery,
  of cereals,
  of cereals, Table showing,
  of chestnut,
  of coconut,
  of cooked macaroni,
  of cooked oat breakfast food,
  of corn,
  of corn bread,
  of cottage cheese,
  of cream,
  of cream cheese,
  of dried beef,
  of dried fig,
  of dry navy bean,
  of egg white and yolk,
  of food, Chemical,
  of food materials,
  of fresh cod,
  of fresh shelled bean,
  of fruit jelly,
  of grape juice,
  of grapes,
  of green corn,
  of green string bean,
  of honey,
  of Italian pastes,
  of lamb chop,
  of lard,
  of mackerel,
  of maple sugar,
  of molasses,
  of oats,
  of olive oil,
  of onion,
  of oyster,
  of parsnip,
  of peanut,
  of peanut butter,
  of pork chop,
  of potato,
  of raisins,
  of rice,
  of rye,
  of rye bread,
  of salt cod,
  of skim milk,
  of smoked ham,
  of smoked herring,
  of stick candy,
  of strawberry,
  of sugar,
  of toasted bread,
  of walnut,
  of wheat,
  of white and yolk of egg,
  of whole egg,
  of whole milk,
  of whole wheat bread,
Compote, Meaning of,
Compressed yeast,
Constituents, Food principles, or,
Conveying heat to food, Methods of,
Cooker, Cooking cereals in fireless,
Cookery, Meaning of,
  Terms used in,
  time table,
Cooking cereals by boiling,
  cereals in double boiler,
  cereals in fireless cooker,
  cereals, Methods of,
  cereals, Points to observe in,
  cereals, Preparation for,
  cereals, Purpose of,
  cereals with dry heat,
  food, Reasons for,
  foods, Importance of,
  foods, Table for,
  Getting foods ready for,
  Heat for,
  Methods of,
  Methods of using moist heat for,
  of food,
  rice, Japanese method of,
  rice, Methods of,
  Uses of water in,
Cooking utensils, Aluminum,
  utensils, Copper,
  utensils, Earthenware,
  utensils, Enamel,
  utensils, Glass,
  utensils, Iron and steel,
  utensils, Tin,
  utensils, Wooden,
  with dry heat,
  with hot fat,
Copper cooking utensils,
Coquilles, Meaning of,
Corer, Apple,
Corn bread,
  bread, Composition of,
  cake, Molasses,
  -cake recipes,
  cake, Southern,
  Composition of,
  Composition of green,
  griddle cakes,
  Maize, or Indian,
  -meal croquettes,
  -meal muffins,
  -meal mush,
  -meal mush, Left-over,
  meal, Recipes for,
Cottage cheese, Composition of,
Cracked wheat,
Cream cheese, Composition of,
  Composition of,
  of tartar and soda,
  of wheat,
  of wheat with dates,
Creamed hominy,
Creaming of food ingredients,
Croquettes, Corn-meal,
Croutons, Meaning of,
Cups, Measuring,
Custard, Farina,
Cutting-in of food ingredients,


Dampers, Adjusting cook-stove,
Date muffins,
Dates, Cream of wheat with,
  Graham mush with,
Demi-tasse, Meaning of,
Deviled, Meaning of,
Dextrine, Formation of,
Diet, Hot breads in the,
  Meaning of,
Dietetics, Definition of,
Digestion and absorption of food,
  of food,
Dill, Meaning of,
Dinner rolls,
Dish-washing machines,
Double boiler, Cooking cereals in,
  boiler, Use of,
Dough, Kneading bread,
  Making bread,
  Motions used in kneading bread,
Doughs and batters,
Dressing, Cabbage-salad,
Dried beef, Composition of,
  fig, Composition of,
Dry heat, Cooking cereals by,
  heat, Cooking with,
Drying of foods,


Earthenware cooking utensils,
Economic value of cereals,
Effect of boiling on foods,
Egg beater, Rotary,
  Composition of white and yolk of,
  Composition of whole,
Eggs, Scrambled,
Electric meter, Reading an,
  stoves and utensils,
Electricity as a fuel,
Emergency biscuits,
En coquille, Meaning of,
Enamel cooking utensils,
Endosperm, Meaning of,
Equipment for bread making, Convenient,
Escarole, Meaning of,


Factors that govern cereal selection,
Farce, or forcemeat, Meaning of,
Fat and milk in bread,
  Cooking with hot,
Fat in cereals,
Ferments, or leavening agents,
Field corn,
Fig, Composition of dried,
Fillet mignons, Meaning of,
Fillets, Meaning of,
Firebox, Coal-stove,
Fireless cooker,
  cooker, Cooking cereals in,
 -cooking gas stoves,
  Care of,
  Grains used for,
  High-grade patent,
  Kinds of,
  made from spring or hard wheat, Discussion of,
  Milling of wheat,
  Quality of,
  Red dog,
  Second-grade patent,
  Selection of,
Flue, Coal-stove,
  opening of a coal stove,
Fluff, Orange,
  Sauce for orange,
Folding of food ingredients,
Fondant, Meaning of,
Fondue, Meaning of,
Food, Absorption of,
  Care of,
  Cereals as a,
  Chemical composition of,
  Cooking of,
  Definition of,
  Digestion and absorption of,
  Digestion of,
  in cellars, Storing,
  ingredients, Beating of,
  ingredients, Creaming of,
  ingredients, Cutting-in of,
  ingredients, Folding of,
  ingredients, Mixing of,
  ingredients, Processes involved in mixing of,
  ingredients, Ricing of,
  ingredients, Rubbing of,
  ingredients, Sifting of,
  ingredients, Stirring of,
  Matters involved in right selection of,
  Methods of caring for,
  or fuel, value,
Food, Preparation of,
  principles or constituents,
  Problem of,
  Reasons for cooking,
  Selection of,
Foods, Blanching,
  Canning of,
  Drying of,
  for cooking, Preparation of,
  Importance of cooking,
  Importance of variety of,
  Meaning of breakfast,
  Storing of non-perishable,
  Storing of semiperishable,
  with ice, Keeping,
  without ice, Keeping,
Forcemeat, or farce, Meaning of,
Frappé, Meaning of,
French toast,
Fromage, Meaning of,
Fruit bread, Whole-wheat,
  Composition of canned,
  jelly, Composition of,
  or nut buns,
Fuel, Use of coal as a,
  Use of coke as a,
  Use of electricity as a,
  Use of gas as a,
  Use of kerosene as a,
  value, Food, or,
  Value of gas as,
Furnishing a kitchen, Utensils for,


  as fuel, Use of,
  as fuel, Value of,
  Carbonic-acid, or carbon-dioxide,
  Measurement of,
  meter, Reading a,
  ranges, Description of,
  stove, Mixer of a,
  stove, Pilot of a,
  stoves and their operation,
  stoves, Fireless-cooking,
General proportions, Applying knowledge of,
Germ, Definition of,
Gingerbread, Soft,
Glacé, Biscuit,
  Meaning of,
Glass cooking utensils,
Glaze, Meaning of,
Goulash, Meaning of,
Graham bread,
  bread with nuts,
  mush with dates,
  nut buns,
Grain for market, Preparation of,
  products, Table of,
  Structure of wheat,
Grains used for flour,
Grape juice, Composition of,
Grapes, Composition of,
Grate, Coal-stove,
Green corn, Composition of,
Griddle-cake recipes,
  cakes, Corn,
  cakes, Procedure in baking,
  cakes, Rice,
  cakes, Sour-milk,
Gumbo, Meaning of,


Ham, Composition of smoked,
Hard water, How to soften,
Haricot, Meaning of,
Heat, Cooking cereals with dry,
  Cooking with dry,
  for cooking,
  for cooking, Discussion of,
  Methods of cooking with moist,
Herring, Composition of smoked,
High-grade patent flour,
Homard, Meaning of,
  and cheese soufflé,
  Recipes for,
Honey, Composition of,
Hors-d'oeuvres, Meaning of,
Hot bread,
  bread, Distinction between leavened and,
  -bread mixture. Baking the,
  -bread mixture, Testing of baked,
  -bread mixture, Preparation of,
Hot-bread mixture, Utensils for baking the,
  -bread mixture, Utensils for preparing the,
  -bread recipes, Miscellaneous,
  -bread utensils and their use,
  bread, Utilizing left-over,
  breads, Baking of,
  breads, Combining ingredients for,
  breads, Correct oven temperature for,
  breads, Distinction between yeast and,
  breads in the diet,
  breads, Mixtures used for,
  breads, Principal requirements for,
  breads, Purpose of utensils for making,
  breads, Recipes for,
  breads, Regulating the oven for,
  breads, Requirements and processes for making,
  breads, Serving,
  breads, Varieties of mixtures and general,
  proportions used in,
  fat, Cooking with,
Hulled, or whole, wheat,
Huller, Berry,


Ice, Keeping foods with,
Indian corn, or maize,
Ingredients, Beating of food,
  Combining hot-bread,
  Creaming of food,
  Cutting-in of food,
  Folding of food,
  for bread making,
  Mixing of food,
  Preparation of hot-bread,
  Processes involved in mixing food,
  Quick-process, sponge method of combining bread,
  required for bread making,
  Ricing of food,
  Rubbing of food,
  Sifting of food,
  Stirring of food,
Iron and steel cooking utensils,
Irons, Waffle,
Italian pastes,
  pastes, Composition of,
  pastes, Left-over,
  pastes, Preparation of,
  pastes, Recipes for,
  pastes, Varieties of,
Italiene, Meaning of a la,
Japanese method of cooking rice,
Jardiniére, Meaning of,
Jelly, Composition of fruit,
Juice, Composition of grape,
Julienne, Meaning of,
Junket, Meaning of,


Keeping foods with ice,
  foods without ice,
Kerosene as a fuel, Use of,
  stoves and their operation,
Kilowatt-hours in meter reading,
Kippered, Meaning of,
Kitchen, Utensils for furnishing a,
Kneading bread dough,
  bread dough, Motions used in,
  bread dough, Purpose of,


Labour-saving devices,
  Occurrence of,
Lamb chop, Composition of,
Lard, Composition of,
Larding, Meaning of,
Lardon, Meaning of,
Leavened bread,
Leavening agents,
  agents, Classes of,
  agents, or ferments,
Left-over barley,
  -over bread,
  -over corn-meal mush,
  -over hominy,
  -over hot bread, Utilizing,
  -over Italian pastes,
  -over rice,
  -over rolled oats,
  -over wheat cereals,
Legumes, Meaning of,
Lentils, Meaning of,
Liquid measure,
Loaf, Nut,
Loaves, Shaping the bread dough into,
Long process of bread making,
  process of making white bread,
  -process, sponge method of bread making,
  -process, straight-dough method of bread making,
Luncheon menu,


  and kidney beans,
  Composition of cooked,
  Italian style,
  with cheese,
  with cheese and tomato,
  with cream sauce,
  with eggs,
  with tomato and bacon,
Macédoine, Meaning of,
Machines, Dish-washing,
Mackerel, Composition of,
Malt sprouts,
Maple sugar, Composition of,
Marinade, Meaning of,
Marinate, Meaning of,
Market, Preparation of grains for the,
Marrons, Meaning of,
Materials, Proportion of bread-making used for cooking utensils,
Matter, Mineral,
Mayonnaise mixer, The,
  Recipes for corn,
Meaning of breakfast foods,
Measure, Dry,
Measurement of gas,
Measures, Abbreviations of,
  Precautions to observe,
Meat chopper,
Menu, Breakfast,
  Meaning of,
Menus and recipes,
Meringue, Meaning of,
Meter, Gas,
  Reading a gas,
  Reading an electric,
Meters, Prepayment,
Milk and fat in bread,
  Composition of skim,
  Composition of whole,
  Soda and sour,
  buckwheat, and rye,
  Description of,
Milling of wheat flour,
Mineral matter,
  matter in cereals,
  salts, Purpose of,
Miscellaneous hot-bread recipes,
Mixer, Gas-stove,
  Use of the bread,
Mixers, Bread,
Mixing of food ingredients,
  of food ingredients, Processes involved in,
  processes, Application of,
Mixture, Testing baked hot-bread,
Mixtures used for hot breads,
Moist heat, Cooking with,
Molasses and soda,
  Composition of,
  corn cake,
Motions used in kneading bread dough,
Mousse, Meaning of,
Muffin recipes,
Muffins, Blueberry,
Mush, Corn-meal,
  Left-over corn-meal,
  Sautéd corn-meal,
  with dates, Graham,


Natural gas,
Navy bean, Composition of dry,
Non-perishable foods, Storing of,
Nougat, Meaning of,
Nut buns, Graham,
  or fruit buns,


Oat breakfast food, Composition of cooked,
  Composition of,
  Composition and varieties of,
  Recipes for,
  with apples, Rolled,
Olive oil, Composition of,
Onion, Composition of,
Orange fluff,
  fluff, Sauce for,
Order of work,
Oriental rice,
Oven, Coal-stove,
  for hot breads, Regulating the,
  Proper placing of hot-bread mixture in,
  temperature, Determining and regulating,
  temperature for baking bread,
  temperature for hot breads,
Oyster, Composition of,


Pan-broiled chops,
Parker House rolls,
Parsnip, Composition of,
Pastes, Italian,
  Recipes for Italian,
Paté, Meaning of,
Patent flour, High-grade,
  flour, Second-grade,
Patties, Rice,
Pea coal,
Peanut butter, Composition of,
  Composition of,
Pearl barley,
  barley, Description of,
  barley with fruit,
Peas, Creamed,
  Sauce for,
Physical leavening,
Pilot, Gas-stove,
Pimiento, Meaning of,
Pineapple, Rice with,
Pinwheel biscuits,
Piquante, Meaning of sauce,
Pistachio, Meaning of,
Plain muffins,
Point, Boiling,
Polishings, Rice,
Pop corn,
Popover recipes,
  with fruit,
Pork chop, Composition of,
Potage, Meaning of,
Potato, Composition of,
Potatoes, Baked,
Powder, Baking,
  Recipe for baking,
Precautions to observe in measuring,
Preparation for cooking cereals,
  for cooking foods,
  of cereals for the table,
Preparation of food,
  of grains for the market,
  of hot-bread ingredients,
  of hot-bread mixture,
  of Italian pastes,
Prepared, or ready-to-eat, cereals,
Preparing the hot-bread mixture, Utensils for,
Prepayment meters,
Principle of stoves,
Principles, or constituents, Food,
Problem of food,
Processes and requirements for making hot breads,
  Application of mixing,
  involved in mixing food ingredients,
Production of cereals,
Products, Cereal,
  Table of grain,
Proportion of bread-making materials,
Proportions, Applying knowledge of general,
  in cereals,
Puffs, Nut,
Purée, Meaning of,
  of baking bread,
  of bread rising,
  of cooking cereals,
  of kneading bread dough,
  of utensils for making hot breads,


  of coal,
  of flour,
  of yeast,
  bread, Hot or,
  process of combining bread ingredients,
  process of making white bread,
  process of making whole-wheat bread,
  -process, sponge method of combining,
  bread ingredients,
  -process, straight-dough method of combining,
  bread ingredients,


Ragoût, Meaning of,
Raisins, Composition of,
Ramekin, Meaning of,
Range, Coal,
Ranges, Description of gas,
  a gas meter,
  an electric meter,
  -to-eat cereals,
  -to-eat, or prepared, cereals,
Reasons for cooking food,
Réchauffé, Meaning of,
Recipe, Definition of,
Red-dog flour,
  Care of food in,
  Care of the,
  Distinction between waste and,
  Meaning of,
Relative weights and measures, Tables of,
  and processes for making hot breads,
  of bread making,
  Composition of,
  griddle cakes,
  Japanese method of cooking,
  Methods of cooking,
  Recipes for,
  Varieties and structure of,
  with pineapple,
Ricer, Potato,
Ricing of food ingredients,
   bread dough, Care of the,
   Temperature for bread,
  Time required for bread,
Rissoles, Meaning of,
  Distinction between baking and,
  Meaning of,
  -oats croquettes,
  -oats jelly with prunes,
  oats, Left-over,
  oats with apples,
  buns and biscuits, Recipes for,
  Parker House,
Rotary egg beater,
Roux, Meaning of,
Rubbing of food ingredients,
  bread, Composition of,
  buckwheat, and millet,
  Composition of,
  Description of,


Salad, Cabbage,
Salmi, Meaning of,
Salpicon, Meaning of,
Salt cod, Composition of,
  -rising bread,
Salts, Mineral,
  Purpose of mineral,
Sauce, Cream,
  for orange fluff,
  for peas,
  piquante, Meaning of,
  Meaning of tartare,
  Meaning of vinaigrette,
Sautéd corn-meal mush,
Savoury rice,
Score card, Explanation of,
Scoring bread,
  bread, Object of,
Scouring of flour,
Scrambled eggs,
Second-grade patent flour,
Selection and care of cereals,
  of flour,
  of food,
Semiperishable foods, Storing of,
Serving bread,
  hot breads,
Setting a cereal or grain,
Shallot, Meaning of,
Shaping bread dough into loaves,
Shelled bean, Composition of fresh,
Sifting of food ingredients,
Simmering, or stewing,
Sizes of coal,
Skim milk, Composition of,
Small electric utensils,
Smoked ham, Composition of,
  herring, Composition of,
Soda and cream of tartar,
Soda and molasses,
  and sour milk,
Soft dough,
Softening hard water,
Soluble starch,
Sorbet, Meaning of,
Soufflé, Meaning of,
Sour milk, Soda and,
  -milk griddle cakes,
Southern corn cake,
Soy, Meaning of,
  with cheese and tomato sauce,
Spanish rice,
Sponge method of making bread, Long-process,
  method of making bread, Quick-process,
Spoons, Measuring,
Spring, or hard, wheat,
  or hard, wheat, Flour made from,
Sprouts, Malt,
Steak, Composition of beef,
Steamed rice,
Steel-and-iron cooking utensils,
Sterilize water, Boiling to,
Stewing or simmering,
Stick candy, Composition of,
Stiff dough,
Stirring of food ingredients,
Stock, Meaning of,
Storing food in cellars,
  of non-perishable foods,
  of semiperishable foods,
Stove ash pan, Coal-,
  ash pit, Coal-,
  dampers, Coal-,
  flue opening, Coal-,
  oven, Coal-,
Stoves and utensils, Electric,
  Fireless-cooking gas,
  Operation of kerosene,
  Principle of,
Straight-dough method of bread making,
  -dough method of bread making, Long-process,
  -dough method of bread making, Quick-process,
Strawberry, Composition of,
String bean, Composition of green,
Structure and varieties of rice,
  of wheat grain,
Substances, Food,
Suet, Composition of beef,
  Composition of,
  Composition of maple,
Sultanas, Meaning of,
Sweet buns,


Table, Cookery time,
  of grain products,
  showing composition of cereals,
Tables of relative weights and measures,
  of weights and measures,
Tarragon, Meaning of,
Tartare sauce, Meaning of,
Temperature, Determining and regulating oven,
  for bread rising,
  for hot breads, Correct oven,
Terms used in cookery,
Testing baked hot-bread mixture,
Thick batter,
Thin batter,
Timbale, Meaning of,
Time for baking and care of bread in oven,
  required for bread rising,
  table, Cookery,
Tin cooking utensils,
Toasted Bread, Composition of,
Troy weight,
Truffles, Meaning of,


Utensils, Aluminum cooking,
  and their use, Hot-bread,
  Copper cooking,
  Earthenware cooking,
  Enamel cooking,
  for baking the hot-bread mixture,
  for bread making,
  for cooking,
  for furnishing a kitchen,
  for preparing hot-bread mixture,
  Glass cooking,
  Importance of,
  Iron and steel cooking,
  Materials used for,
  Small electric,
  Tin cooking,
  Wooden cooking,


Value, Food,
  Food, or fuel,
  of cereals, Economic,
  of gas as fuel,
Vanilla, Meaning of,
Varieties and composition of oats,
  and structure of rice,
  of coal,
  of Italian pastes,
  of mixtures used in hot breads,
Variety of foods, Importance of a,
Vinaigrette sauce, Meaning of,
Vol au vent, Meaning of,


Waffle irons,
  procedure in baking,
Walnut, Composition of,
Waste and refuse, Distinction between,
  Definition of,
Water as a food substance,
  Boiling to sterilize,
  How to soften hard,
  in cereals,
  in the body, Function of,
Watercress-and-celery salad,
Weight, Avoirdupois,
Weights and measures, Tables of,
  and measures, Tables of relative,
  and wheat products, Recipes for,
  bread, Composition of whole,
  cereals, Left-over,
  Composition of,
  Cream of,
  flour, Milling of,
  grain, Structure of,
  Hulled, or whole,
  Origin and use of,
  products, Recipes for,
  Spring, or hard,
  Winter, or soft,
White bread,
  bread, Long process of making,
  bread, Quick process of making,
  of egg, Composition of,
Whole egg, Composition of,
  milk, Composition of,
  -wheat bread,
Whole-wheat bread, Composition of,
  -wheat bread, Quick process of making,
  -wheat flour,
  -wheat fruit bread,
  -wheat puffs,
  -wheat rolls,
Window boxes,
Winter, or soft, wheat,
Wooden cooking utensils,
Work, Order of,


  Action of,
Yeast aids,
  and hot breads, Distinction between,
  or leavened, bread,
  Quality of,
Yolk of egg, Composition of,



*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Woman's Institute Library of Cookery - Volume 1: Essentials of Cookery; Cereals; Bread; Hot Breads" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.