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Title: The Schoolmaster
Author: Ascham, Roger, 1515-1568
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "The Schoolmaster" ***

[Transcriber's Note: I have omitted signature designations, have
transcribed Greek characters but not italicized them,
and have expanded the usual Renaissance contractions
for "m" and "n" as well as the abbreviation for Latin
terminal "que"; marginalia are separated from textual
line by // and a curly bracket or vertical line vertically exending
over more than one line is represented by a curly bracket
on each successive line. I have also closed : and ? with
the word preceding.]

[Updater's note: The previous version of this file used HTML
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    _Or plaine and perfite way of tea-
    chyng children, to vnderstand, write, and
    speake, the Latin tong, but specially purposed
    for the priuate brynging vp of youth in Ientle-
    men and Noble mens houses, and commodious
    also for all such, as haue forgot the Latin
    tonge, and would, by themselues, with-
    out a Scholemaster, in short tyme,
    and with small paines, recouer a
    sufficient habilitie, to vnder-
    stand, write, and
    speake Latin._

    By Roger Ascham.

    _An._ 1570.

    _AT LONDON._

    Printed by Iohn Daye, dwelling
    ouer Aldersgate.

    _Cum Gratia & Priuilegio Regiæ Maiestatis,
    per Decennium._

    [page intentionally blank]

     To the honorable Sir William

    Cecill Knight, principall Secretarie to

    the Quenes most excellent Maiestie.

    _SOndry and reasonable be the causes why learned men haue vsed
    to offer and dedicate such workes as they put abrode, to some
    such personage as they thinke fittest, either in respect of abilitie of
    defense, or skill for iugement, or priuate regard of kindenesse and
    dutie.   Euery one of those considerations, Syr, moue me of right to
    offer this my late husbands_ M. Aschams _worke vnto you.  For
    well remembryng how much all good learnyng oweth vnto you for
    defense therof, as the Vniuersitie of Cambrige, of which my said
    late husband was a member, haue in chosing you their worthy
    Chaunceller acknowledged, and how happily you haue spent your
    time in such studies & caried the vse therof to the right ende, to
    the good seruice of the Quenes Maiestie and your contrey to all our
    benefites, thyrdly how much my sayd husband was many wayes
    bound vnto you, and how gladly and comfortably he vsed in hys lyfe
    to recognise and report your goodnesse toward hym, leauyng with me
    then hys poore widow and a great sort of orphanes a good comfort in
    the hope of your good continuance, which I haue truly found to me
    and myne, and therfore do duely and dayly pray for you and
    yours: I could not finde any man for whose name this booke was
    more agreable for hope [of] protection, more mete for submission to
    iudgement, nor more due for respect of worthynesse of your part and
    thankefulnesse of my husbandes and myne.  Good I trust it shall do,
    as I am put in great hope by many very well learned that can well
    iudge therof.  Mete therefore I compt it that such good as my
    husband was able to doe and leaue to the common weale, it should_

    174                _Preface._

    _be receiued vnder your name, and that the world should owe thanke
    therof to you, to whom my husband the authour of it was for good
    receyued of you, most dutiefully bounden.   And so besechyng you, to
    take on you the defense of this booke, to auaunce the good that may
    come of it by your allowance and furtherance to publike vse and
    benefite, and to accept the thankefull recognition of me and my poore
    children, trustyng of the continuance of your good me-
    morie of_ M. Ascham _and his, and dayly commen-
    dyng the prosperous estate of you and yours to
    God whom you serue and whoes you
    are, I rest to trouble you._
    Your humble Margaret

    _A Præface to the

    WHen the great plage was at London, the yeare 1563.
    the Quenes Maiestie Queene _Elizabeth_, lay at her
    Castle of Windsore: Where, vpon the 10. day of December,
    it fortuned, that in Sir _William Cicells_ chamber, hir Highnesse
    Principall Secretarie, there dined togither these personages,
    M. Secretarie him selfe, Syr _William Peter_, Syr _J. Mason_,
    D. _Wotton_, Syr _Richard Sackuille_ Treasurer of the Exchecker,
    Syr _Walter Mildmaye_ Chauncellor of the Exchecker, M.
    _Haddon_ Master of Requestes, M. _John Astely_ Master of the
    Iewell house, M. _Bernard Hampton_, M. _Nicasius_, and _J_.
    Of which number, the most part were of hir Maiesties most
    honourable priuie Counsell, and the reast seruing hir in verie
    good place.  I was glad than, and do reioice yet to remember,
    that my chance was so happie, to be there that day, in the
    companie of so manie wise & good men togither, as hardly
    than could haue beene piked out againe, out of all England
         M. Secretarie hath this accustomed maner, though his head
    be neuer so full of most weightie affaires of the Realme, yet, at
    diner time he doth seeme to lay them alwaies aside: and findeth
    euer fitte occasion to taulke pleasantlie of other matters,
    but most gladlie of some matter of learning: wherein, he will
    curteslie heare the minde of the meanest at his Table.
         Not long after our sitting doune, I haue strange newes
    brought me, sayth M. Secretarie, this morning, that diuerse
    Scholers of Eaton, be runne awaie from the
    Schole, for feare of beating. Whereupon, M.   //M. _Secreta-_
    Secretarie tooke occasion, to wishe, that some     //_rie._

    176        _A Præface to the Reader._

    more discretion were in many Scholemasters, in vsing correction,
    than commonlie there is. Who many times, punishe rather,
    the weakenes of nature, than the fault of the Scholer. Whereby,
    many Scholers, that might else proue well, be driuen to hate
    learning, before they knowe, what learning meaneth: and so,
    are made willing to forsake their booke, and be glad to be put
    to any other kinde of liuing.
         M. _Peter_, as one somewhat seuere of nature, said plainlie,
    M. _Peter._ // that the Rodde onelie, was the sworde, that must
    keepe, the Schole in obedience, and the Scholer
    M. _Wotton._ // in good order. M. _Wotton_, á man milde of nature,
    with soft voice, and fewe wordes, inclined to M. Secretaries
    iudgement, and said, in mine opinion, the Schole-
    Ludus li- // house should be in deede, as it is called by name,
    terarum. // the house of playe and pleasure, and not of feare
    _Plato_ de // and bondage: and as I do remember, so saith
    Rep. 7. // _Socrates_ in one place of _Plato_. And therefore,
    if a Rodde carie the feare of à Sworde, it is no maruell, if those
    that be fearefull of nature, chose rather to forsake the Plaie,
    than to stand alwaies within the feare of a Sworde in a fonde
    mans handling. M. _Mason_, after his maner, was
    M. _Mason._ // verie merie with both parties, pleasantlie playing,
    both, with the shrewde touches of many courste boyes, and with
    the small discretion of many leude Scholemasters. M. _Haddon_
    was fullie of M. _Peters_ opinion, and said, that
    M. _Haddon._ // the best scholemaster of our time, was the
    greatest beater, and named the Person. Though, quoth I, it
    was his good fortune, to send from his Schole,
    The Author of // vnto the Vniuersitie, one of the best Scholers in
    this booke. // deede of all our time, yet wise men do thinke,
    that that came so to passe, rather, by the great towardnes of the
    Scholer, than by the great beating of the Master: and whether
    this be true or no, you your selfe are best witnes. I said
    somewhat farder in the matter, how, and whie, yong children,
    were soner allured by loue, than driuen by beating, to atteyne
    good learning: wherein I was the bolder to say my minde,
    bicause M. Secretarie curteslie prouoked me thereunto: or else,
    in such à companie, and namelie in his præsence, my wonte is,
    to be more willing, to vse mine eares, than to occupie my

    _A Præface to the Reader._        177

    Syr _Walter Mildmaye_, M. _Astley_, and the rest, said verie
    litle: onelie Syr _Rich. Sackuill_, said nothing at all. After dinner
    I went vp to read with the Queenes Maiestie. We red than
    togither in the Greke tongue, as I well remember. // Demost.
    that noble Oration of _Demosthenes_ against _æschines_, // peri pa-
    for his false dealing in his Ambassage to king // rapresb.
    _Philip_ of Macedonie. Syr _Rich. Sackuile_ came vp sone after: and
    finding me in hir Maiesties priuie chamber, he // Syr _R._
    tooke me by the hand, & carying me to à // _Sackuiles_
    windoe, said, M. _Ascham_, I would not for à good  // communi-
    deale of monie, haue bene, this daie, absent from // cation with
    diner. Where, though I said nothing, yet I gaue // the Author
    as good eare, and do consider as well the taulke,  // of this
    that passed, as any one did there. M. Secretarie said very // booke.
    wisely, and most truely, that many yong wittes be driuen to
    hate learninge, before they know what learninge is. I can be
    good witnes to this my selfe: For à fond Scholemaster, before
    I was fullie fourtene yeare olde, draue me so, with feare of
    beating, from all loue of learninge, as nowe, when I know, what
    difference it is, to haue learninge, and to haue litle, or none at
    all, I feele it my greatest greife, and finde it my greatest hurte,
    that euer came to me, that it was my so ill chance, to light
    vpon so lewde à Scholemaster. But seing it is but in vain, to
    lament thinges paste, and also wisdome to looke to thinges to
    cum, surely, God willinge, if God lend me life, I will make
    this my mishap, some occasion of good hap, to litle _Robert
    Sackuile_ my sonnes sonne. For whose bringinge vp, I would
    gladlie, if it so please you, vse speciallie your good aduice. I
    heare saie, you haue à sonne, moch of his age: we wil deale thus
    togither. Point you out à Scholemaster, who by your order,
    shall teache my sonne and yours, and for all the rest, I will
    prouide, yea though they three do cost me a couple of hundred
    poundes by yeare: and beside, you shall finde me as fast à
    Frend to you and yours, as perchance any you haue. Which
    promise, the worthie Ientleman surelie kept with me, vntill his
    dying daye.
         We had than farther taulke togither, of bringing vp of
    children: of the nature, of quicke, and hard wittes:  // The cheife
    of the right choice of à good witte: of Feare, and  // pointes of
    loue in teachinge children. We passed from // this booke.

    178        _A Præface to the Reader._

    children and came to yonge men, namely, Ientlemen: we
    taulked of their to moch libertie, to liue as they lust: of their
    letting louse to sone, to ouer moch experience of ill, contrarie to
    the good order of many good olde common welthes of the
    Persians and Grekes: of witte gathered, and good fortune
    gotten, by some, onely by experience, without learning. And
    lastlie, he required of me verie earnestlie, to shewe, what I
    thought of the common goinge of Englishe men into Italie.
    But, sayth he, bicause this place, and this tyme, will not suffer
    so long taulke, as these good matters require, therefore I pray
    you, at my request, and at your leysure, put in some order of
    writing, the cheife pointes of this our taulke, concerning the
    right order of teachinge, and honestie of liuing, for the good
    bringing vp of children & yong men. And surelie, beside
    contentinge me, you shall both please and profit verie many
    others. I made some excuse by lacke of habilitie, and weakenes
    of bodie: well, sayth he, I am not now to learne, what you can
    do.  Our deare frende, good M. _Goodricke_, whose iudgement I
    could well beleue, did once for all, satisfye me fullie therein.
    Againe, I heard you say, not long agoe, that you may thanke
    Syr _John Cheke_, for all the learninge you haue: And I know
    verie well my selfe, that you did teach the Quene. And
    therefore seing God did so blesse you, to make you the Scholer
    of the best Master, and also the Scholemaster of the best
    Scholer, that euer were in our tyme, surelie, you should please
    God, benefite your countrie, & honest your owne name, if you
    would take the paines, to impart to others, what you learned
    of soch à Master, and how ye taught such à scholer. And, in
    vttering the stuffe ye receiued of the one, in declaring the
    order ye tooke with the other, ye shall neuer lacke, neither
    matter, nor maner, what to write, nor how to write in this
    kinde of Argument.
         I beginning some farther excuse, sodeinlie was called to
    cum to the Queene. The night following, I slept litle, my
    head was so full of this our former taulke, and I so mindefull,
    somewhat to satisfie the honest request of so deare à frend,
    I thought to præpare some litle treatise for a New yeares gift
    that Christmas. But, as it chanceth to busie builders, so, in
    building thys my poore Scholehouse (the rather bicause the forme
    of it is somewhat new, and differing from others) the worke

    _A Præf ace to the Reader._         179

    rose dailie higher and wider, than I thought it would at the
         And though it appeare now, and be in verie deede, but a
    small cotage, poore for the stuffe, and rude for the workemanship,
    yet in going forward, I found the site so good, as I was lothe to
    giue it ouer, but the making so costlie, outreaching my habilitie,
    as many tymes I wished, that some one of those three, my deare
    frendes, with full pursses, Syr _Tho. Smithe_, M. // {_Smith._
    _Haddon_, or M. _Watson_, had had the doing of it. // M. {_Haddon._
    Yet, neuerthelesse, I my selfe, spending gladlie // {_Watson._
    that litle, that I gatte at home by good Syr _Iohn_ // Syr_ I._
    _Cheke_, and that that I borrowed abroad of my // _Cheke._
    frend _Sturmius_, beside somewhat that was left me // _I. Sturmius._
    in Reuersion by my olde Masters, _Plato, Aristotle_, // _Plato._
    and _Cicero_, I haue at last patched it vp, as I could, // _Aristotle._
    and as you see. If the matter be meane, and meanly handled, // _Cicero._
    I pray you beare, both with me, and it: for neuer worke went
    vp in worse wether, with mo lettes and stoppes, than this poore
    Scholehouse of mine. Westminster Hall can beare some
    witnesse, beside moch weakenes of bodie, but more trouble of
    minde, by some such sores, as greue me to toche them my
    selfe, and therefore I purpose not to open them to others.
    And, in middes of outward iniuries, and inward cares, to
    encrease them withall, good Syr _Rich. Sackuile_
    dieth, that worthie Ientleman: That earnest // Syr _R._
    fauorer and furtherer of Gods true Religion: // _Sackuill._
    That faithfull Seruitor to his Prince and Countrie: A louer of
    learning, & all learned men: Wise in all doinges: Curtesse to
    all persons: shewing spite to none: doing good to many: and as
    I well found, to me so fast à frend, as I neuer lost the like
    before. Whan he was gone, my hart was dead. There was
    not one, that woare à blacke gowne for him, who caried à
    heuier hart for him, than I. Whan he was gone, I cast this
    booke àwaie: I could not looke vpon it, but with weping eyes,
    in remembring him, who was the onelie setter on, to do it, and
    would haue bene, not onelie à glad commender of it, but also
    à sure and certaine comfort, to me and mine, for it. Almost
    two yeares togither, this booke lay scattered, and neglected,
    and had bene quite giuen ouer of me, if the goodnesse of one
    had not giuen me some life and spirite againe. God, the

    180        _A Præface to the Reader._

    mouer of goodnesse, prosper alwaies him & his, as he hath
    many times comforted me and mine, and, I trust to God, shall
    comfort more and more. Of whom, most iustlie I may saie,
    and verie oft, and alwaies gladlie, I am wont to say, that
    sweete verse of _Sophocles_, spoken by _Oedipus_ to worthie _Theseus_.

    Soph. in // echo [gar] acho dia se, kouk allon broton.
    Oed. Col. //

    Thys hope hath helped me to end this booke: which, if he
    allowe, I shall thinke my labours well imployed, and shall not
    moch æsteme the misliking of any others. And I trust, he
    shall thinke the better of it, bicause he shall finde the best part
    thereof, to cum out of his Schole, whom he, of all men loued
    and liked best.
         Yet some men, frendly enough of nature, but of small
    iudgement in learninge, do thinke, I take to moch paines, and
    _Plato_ in // spend to moch time, in settinge forth these
    initio // childrens affaires.   But those good men were
    Theagis. //  neuer brought vp in _Socrates_ Schole, who saith
    ou gar esti //  plainlie, that no man goeth àbout à more godlie
    peri otou //  purpose, than he that is mindfull of the good
    theioterou // bringing vp, both of hys owne, and other mens
    anthropos // children.
    an bouleu- //
    saito, e //       Therfore, I trust, good and wise men, will
    peri pai-  // thinke well of this my doing. And of other, that
    deias, kai // thinke otherwise, I will thinke my selfe, they are
    ton auton, // but men, to be pardoned for their follie, and
    kai ton // pitied for their ignoraunce.
    oikeion. //
         In writing this booke, I haue had earnest respecte to three
    speciall pointes, trothe of Religion, honestie in liuing, right order
    in learning. In which three waies, I praie God, my poore
    children may diligently waulke: for whose sake, as nature
    moued, and reason required, and necessitie also somewhat
    compelled, I was the willinger to take these paines.
         For, seing at my death, I am not like to leaue them any
    great store of liuing, therefore in my life time, I thought good
    to bequeath vnto them, in this litle booke, as in my Will and
    Testament, the right waie to good learning: which if they
    followe, with the feare of God, they shall verie well cum to
    sufficiencie of liuinge.
         I wishe also, with all my hart, that yong M. _Rob. Sackuille_,

    _A Præface to the Reader._        181

    may take that fructe of this labor, that his worthie Grauntfather
    purposed he should haue done: And if any other do take, either
    proffet, or pleasure hereby, they haue cause to thanke M.
    _Robert Sackuille_, for whom speciallie this my Scholemaster was
         And one thing I would haue the Reader consider in
    readinge this booke, that bicause, no Scholemaster hath charge
    of any childe, before he enter into hys Schole, therefore I
    leauing all former care, of their good bringing vp, to wise and
    good Parentes, as à matter not belonging to the Scholemaster,
    I do appoynt thys my Scholemaster, than, and there to begin,
    where his office and charge beginneth. Which charge lasteth
    not long, but vntill the Scholer be made hable to go to the
    Vniuersitie, to procede in Logike, Rhetoricke, and other kindes
    of learning.
         Yet if my Scholemaster, for loue he beareth to hys
    Scholer, shall teach hym somewhat for hys furtherance,
    and better iudgement in learning, that may serue
    him seuen yeare after in the Vniuersitie, he
    doth hys Scholer no more wrong, nor de-
    serueth no worse name therby, than he
    doth in London, who sellinge silke
    or cloth vnto his frend, doth
    giue hym better measure,
    than either hys pro-
    mise or bargaine

                             _Farewell in Christ._

    _The first booke for the youth._

    AFter the childe hath learned perfitlie the eight partes of
    speach, let him then learne the right ioyning togither of
    substantiues with adiectiues, the nowne with the verbe, the
    relatiue with the antecedent.  And in learninge farther hys
    Syntaxis, by mine aduice, he shall not vse the common order
    in common scholes, for making of latines: wherby, the childe
    _Cic._ de // commonlie learneth, first, an euill choice of wordes,
    Cla. or. // (and right choice of wordes, saith _Cæsar_, is the
    foundation of eloquence) than, a wrong placing
    of wordes: and lastlie, an ill framing of the sentence, with
    a peruerse iudgement, both of wordes and sentences.  These
    Making of // faultes, taking once roote in yougthe, be neuer, or
    Lattines // hardlie, pluckt away in age.  Moreouer, there is
    marreth // no one thing, that hath more, either dulled the
    Children. // wittes, or taken awaye the will of children from
    learning, then the care they haue, to satisfie their masters, in
    making of latines.
         For, the scholer, is commonlie beat for the making, when
    the master were more worthie to be beat for the mending, or
    rather, marring of the same: The master many times, being
    as ignorant as the childe, what to saie properlie and fitlie to the
         Two scholemasters haue set forth in print, either of them
    _Horman._ // a booke, of soch kinde of latines, _Horman_ and
    _Whitting-_ // _Whittington_.
    _ton._ //
         A childe shall learne of the better of them,
    that, which an other daie, if he be wise, and cum to iudgement,
    he must be faine to vnlearne againe.

    _The first booke for the youth._     183

         There is a waie, touched in the first booke of _Cicero
    De Oratore_, which, wiselie brought into scholes, // 1. _De Or._
    truely taught, and constantly vsed, would not
    onely take wholly away this butcherlie feare in making of
    latines, but would also, with ease and pleasure, and in short
    time, as I know by good experience, worke a true choice and
    placing of wordes, a right ordering of sentences, an easie
    vnderstandyng of the tonge, a readines to speake, a facultie to
    write, a true iudgement, both of his owne, and other mens
    doinges, what tonge so euer he doth vse.
         The waie is this.  After the three Concordances learned,
    as I touched before, let the master read vnto hym the Epistles
    of _Cicero_, gathered togither and chosen out by _Sturmius_, for
    the capacitie of children.
         First, let him teach the childe, cherefullie and plainlie, the
    cause, and matter of the letter: then, let him
    construe it into Englishe, so oft, as the childe may // The order
    easilie carie awaie the vnderstanding of it: // of teaching.
    Lastlie, parse it ouer perfitlie.  This done thus, let the childe,
    by and by, both construe and parse it ouer againe: so, that it
    may appeare, that the childe douteth in nothing, that his
    master taught him before.  After this, the childe must take
    a paper booke, and sitting in some place, where no man shall
    prompe him, by him self, let him translate into Englishe his
    former lesson.  Then shewing it to his master,
    let the master take from him his latin booke, and // Two pa-
    pausing an houre, at the least, than let the childe // per bokes.
    translate his owne Englishe into latin againe, in an other paper
    booke.  When the childe bringeth it, turned into latin, the
    master must compare it with _Tullies_ booke, and laie them both
    togither: and where the childe doth well, either in chosing, or
    true placing of _Tullies_ wordes, let the master // Children
    praise him, and saie here ye do well.  For I // learne by
    assure you, there is no such whetstone, to // prayse.
    sharpen a good witte and encourage a will to learninge, as is
         But if the childe misse, either in forgetting a worde, or in
    chaunging a good with a worse, or misordering the sentence,
    I would not haue the master, either froune, or chide with him,
    if the childe haue done his diligence, and vsed no trewandship

    184     _The first booke teachyng_

    therein.  For I know by good experience, that a childe shall
    Ientlenes // take more profit of two fautes, ientlie warned of,
    in teaching. // then of foure thinges, rightly hitt.  For than, the
    master shall haue good occasion to saie vnto him.
    _N. Tullie_ would haue vsed such a worde, not this: _Tullie_
    would haue placed this word here, not there: would haue vsed
    this case, this number, this person, this degree, this gender: he
    would haue vsed this moode, this tens, this simple, rather than
    this compound: this aduerbe here, not there: he would haue
    ended the sentence with this verbe, not with that nowne or
    participle, etc.
         In these fewe lines, I haue wrapped vp, the most tedious
    part of Grammer: and also the ground of almost all the Rewles,
    that are so busilie taught by the Master, and so hardlie learned
    by the Scholer, in all common Scholes: which after this sort,
    the master shall teach without all error, and the scholer shall
    learne without great paine: the master being led by so sure
    a guide, and the scholer being brought into so plaine and easie
    a waie.  And therefore, we do not contemne Rewles, but we
    gladlie teach Rewles: and teach them, more plainlie, sensiblie,
    and orderlie, than they be commonlie taught in common
    Scholes.  For whan the Master shall compare _Tullies_ booke
    with his Scholers translation, let the Master, at the first,
    lead and teach his Scholer, to ioyne the Rewles of his Grammer
    booke, with the examples of his present lesson, vntill the
    Scholer, by him selfe, be hable to fetch out of his Grammer,
    euerie Rewle, for euerie Example: So, as the Grammer booke
    be euer in the Scholers hand, and also vsed of him, as a
    Dictionarie, for euerie present vse.  This is a liuely and perfite
    waie of teaching of Rewles: where the common waie, vsed in
    common Scholes, to read the Grammer alone by it selfe, is
    tedious for the Master, hard for the Scholer, colde and vn-
    cumfortable for them bothe.
         Let your Scholer be neuer afraide, to aske you any dout,
    but vse discretlie the best allurements ye can, to encorage him
    to the same: lest, his ouermoch fearinge of you, driue him
    to seeke some misorderlie shifte: as, to seeke to be helped
    by some other booke, or to be prompted by some other
    Scholer, and so goe aboute to begile you moch, and him selfe

    _the brynging vp of youth._     185

         With this waie, of good vnderstanding the mater, plaine
    construinge, diligent parsinge, dailie translatinge, cherefull
    admonishinge, and heedefull amendinge of faultes: neuer
    leauinge behinde iuste praise for well doinge, I would haue the
    Scholer brought vp withall, till he had red, & translated ouer y^e
    first booke of Epistles chosen out by _Sturmius_, with a good
    peece of a Comedie of _Terence_ also.
         All this while, by mine aduise, the childe shall vse to speake
    no latine: For, as _Cicero_ saith in like mater, with like wordes,
    _loquendo, male loqui discunt_.  And, that excellent // Latin
    learned man, _G. Budæus_, in his Greeke Com- // speakyng.
    mentaries, sore complaineth, that whan he began // _G. Budæus._
    to learne the latin tonge, vse of speaking latin at the table, and
    elsewhere, vnaduisedlie, did bring him to soch an euill choice of
    wordes, to soch a crooked framing of sentences, that no one
    thing did hurt or hinder him more, all the daies of his life
    afterward, both for redinesse in speaking, and also good iudge-
    ment in writinge.
         In very deede, if children were brought vp, in soch a house,
    or soch a Schole, where the latin tonge were properlie and
    perfitlie spoken, as _Tib._ and _Ca. Gracci_ were brought vp, in
    their mother _Cornelias_ house, surelie, than the dailie vse of
    speaking, were the best and readiest waie, to learne the latin
    tong.  But, now, commonlie, in the best Scholes in England,
    for wordes, right choice is smallie regarded, true proprietie
    whollie neglected, confusion is brought in, barbariousnesse is
    bred vp so in yong wittes, as afterward they be, not onelie
    marde for speaking, but also corrupted in iudgement: as with
    moch adoe, or neuer at all, they be brought to right frame
         Yet all men couet to haue their children speake latin: and
    so do I verie earnestlie too.  We bothe, haue one purpose: we
    agree in desire, we wish one end: but we differ somewhat in
    order and waie, that leadeth rightlie to that end.  Other would
    haue them speake at all aduentures: and, so they be speakinge,
    to speake, the Master careth not, the Scholer knoweth not,
    what.  This is, to seeme, and not to bee: except it be, to be
    bolde without shame, rashe without skill, full of words without
    witte.  I wish to haue them speake so, as it may well appeare,
    that the braine doth gouerne the tonge, and that reason leadeth

    186     _The first booke teachyng_

    forth the taulke.  _Socrates_ doctrine is true in _Plato_, and well
    _Plato._ // marked, and truely vttered by _Horace_ in _Arte_
    _Horat._ // _Poetica_, that, where so euer knowledge doth accom-
    panie the witte, there best vtterance doth alwaies
    awaite vpon the tonge: For, good vnderstanding must first be bred
    Much wri- // in the childe, which, being nurished with skill, and
    tyng bree- // vse of writing (as I will teach more largelie
    deth ready // hereafter) is the onelie waie to bring him to
    speakyng. // iudgement and readinesse in speakinge: and that
    in farre shorter time (if he followe constantlie the trade of this
    litle lesson) than he shall do, by common teachinge of the
    common scholes in England.
         But, to go forward, as you perceiue, your scholer to goe
    better and better on awaie, first, with vnderstanding his lesson
    more quicklie, with parsing more readelie, with translating
    more spedelie and perfitlie then he was wonte, after, giue him
    longer lessons to translate: and withall, begin to teach him,
    The second // both in nownes, & verbes, what is _Proprium_, and
    degree and // what is _Translatum_, what _Synonymum_, what
    order in // _Diuersum_, which be _Contraria_, and which be
    teachyng. // most notable _Phrases_ in all his lecture.
                                     _{Rex Sepultus est
              Proprium.      {magnificè.

                                    {Cum illo principe,
              Translatum.   {Sepulta est & gloria
                                    {et Salus Reipublicæ.

              Synonyma.      {Ensis, Gladius.
                                      {Laudare, prædicare.

                                      {Diligere, Amare.
              Diuersa.          {Calere, Exardescere.
                                     {Inimicus, Hostis.

                                     {Acerbum & luctuosum
                                     {    bellum.
              Contraria.       {Dulcis & lœta
                                     {    Pax.

                                     {Dare verba.
              Phrases.         {abjicere obedientiam._

    _the brynging vp of youth._     187

         Your scholer then, must haue the third paper booke: in
    the which, after he hath done his double transla- // The thyrd
    tion, let him write, after this sort foure of these // paper boke.
    forenamed sixe, diligentlie marked out of eurie

             Quatuor.       {Diuersa.

    Or else, three, or two, if there be no moe: and if there be
    none of these at all in some lecture, yet not omitte the order,
    but write these.

                   _{Diuersa nulla.
                   {Contraria nulla. etc._

         This diligent translating, ioyned with this heedefull
    marking, in the foresaid Epistles, and afterwarde in some
    plaine Oration of _Tullie_, as, _pro lege Manil: pro Archia Poeta_,
    or in those three _ad C. Cæs_: shall worke soch a right choise of
    wordes, so streight a framing of sentences, soch a true iudge-
    ment, both to write skilfullie, and speake wittlelie, as wise men
    shall both praise, and maruell at.
         If your scholer do misse sometimes, in marking rightlie
    these foresaid sixe thinges, chide not hastelie: for that shall,
    both dull his witte, and discorage his diligence: // Ientleness
    but monish him gentelie: which shall make // in teaching.
    him, both willing to amende, and glad to go
    forward in loue and hope of learning.
         I haue now wished, twise or thrise, this gentle nature,
    to be in a Scholemaster: And, that I haue done so, neither by
    chance, nor without some reason, I will now // Loue.
    declare at large, why, in mine opinion, loue is // Feare.
    fitter than feare, ientlenes better than beating, to
    bring vp a childe rightlie in learninge.
         With the common vse of teaching and beating in common
    scholes of England, I will not greatlie contend: // Common
    which if I did, it were but a small grammaticall // Scholes.
    controuersie, neither belonging to heresie nor

    188     _The first booke teachyng_

    treason, nor greatly touching God nor the Prince: although in
    very deede, in the end, the good or ill bringing vp of children,
    doth as much serue to the good or ill seruice, of God, our
    Prince, and our whole countrie, as any one thing doth beside.
         I do gladlie agree with all good Scholemasters in these
    pointes: to haue children brought to good perfitnes in learning:
    to all honestie in maners: to haue all fautes rightlie amended:
    to haue euerie vice seuerelie corrected: but for the order and
    waie that leadeth rightlie to these pointes, we somewhat differ.
    Sharpe // For commonlie, many scholemasters, some, as
    Schole- // I haue seen, moe, as I haue heard tell, be of so
    masters. // crooked a nature, as, when they meete with a
    hard witted scholer, they rather breake him, than bowe him,
    rather marre him, then mend him.  For whan the scholemaster
    is angrie with some other matter, then will he sonest faul to
    beate his scholer: and though he him selfe should be punished
    for his folie, yet must he beate some scholer for his pleasure:
    though there be no cause for him to do so, nor yet fault in the
    scholer to deserue so.  These ye will say, be fond scholemasters,
    and fewe they be, that be found to be soch.  They be fond in
    deede, but surelie ouermany soch be found euerie where.  But
    Nature // this I will say, that euen the wisest of your great
    punished. // beaters, do as oft punishe nature, as they do
    correcte faultes.  Yea, many times, the better
    nature, is sorer punished: For, if one, by quicknes of witte,
    take his lesson readelie, an other, by hardnes of witte, taketh it
    not so speedelie: the first is alwaies commended, the other is
    commonlie punished: whan a wise scholemaster, should rather
    discretelie consider the right disposition of both their natures,
    and not so moch wey what either of them is able to do now,
    Quicke // as what either of them is likelie to do hereafter.
    wittes for // For this I know, not onelie by reading of bookes
    learnyng. // in my studie, but also by experience of life,
    abrode in the world, that those, which be commonlie the
    wisest, the best learned, and best men also, when they be olde,
    were neuer commonlie the quickest of witte, when they were
    yonge.  The causes why, amongst other, which be many, that
    moue me thus to thinke, be these fewe, which I will recken.
    Quicke wittes commonlie, be apte to take, vnapte to keepe:
    soone hote and desirous of this and that: as colde and sone

    _the brynging vp of youth._     189

    wery of the same againe: more quicke to enter spedelie, than
    hable to pearse farre: euen like ouer sharpe tooles, whose edges
    be verie soone turned.  Soch wittes delite them selues in easie
    and pleasant studies, and neuer passe farre forward in hie and
    hard sciences.  And therefore the quickest wittes commonlie
    may proue the best Poetes, but not the wisest Orators: readie
    of tonge to speake boldlie, not deepe of iudgement, // Quicke
    either for good counsell or wise writing.  Also, // wittes, for
    for maners and life, quicke wittes commonlie, be,  // maners &
    in desire, newfangle, in purpose, vnconstant, light // lyfe.
    to promise any thing, readie to forget euery thing: both benefite
    and inurie: and therby neither fast to frend, nor fearefull to foe:
    inquisitiue of euery trifle, not secret in greatest affaires: bolde,
    with any person: busie, in euery matter: sothing, soch as be
    present: nipping any that is absent: of nature also, alwaies,
    flattering their betters, enuying their equals, despising their
    inferiors: and, by quicknes of witte, verie quicke and readie, to
    like none so well as them selues.
         Moreouer commonlie, men, very quicke of witte, be also,
    verie light of conditions: and thereby, very readie of disposition,
    to be caried ouer quicklie, by any light cumpanie, to any riot
    and vnthriftines when they be yonge: and therfore seldome,
    either honest of life, or riche in liuing, when they be olde.
    For, quicke in witte, and light in maners, be either seldome
    troubled, or verie sone wery, in carying a verie heuie purse.
    Quicke wittes also be, in most part of all their doinges, ouer-
    quicke, hastie, rashe, headie, and brainsicke.  These two last
    wordes, Headie, and Brainsicke, be fitte and proper wordes,
    rising naturallie of the matter, and tearmed aptlie by the
    condition of ouer moch quickenes of witte.  In yougthe also
    they be, readie scoffers, priuie mockers, and euer ouer light and
    mery.  In aige, sone testie, very waspishe, and alwaies ouer
    miserable: and yet fewe of them cum to any great aige, by
    reason of their misordered life when they were yong: but
    a great deale fewer of them cum to shewe any great counten-
    ance, or beare any great authoritie abrode in the world, but
    either liue obscurelie, men know not how, or dye obscurelie,
    men marke not whan.  They be like trees, that shewe forth,
    faire blossoms & broad leaues in spring time, but bring out
    small and not long lasting fruite in haruest time: and that

    190     _The first booke teachyng_

    onelie soch, as fall, and rotte, before they be ripe, and so, neuer,
    or seldome, cum to any good at all.  For this ye shall finde
    most true by experience, that amongest a number of quicke
    wittes in youthe, fewe be found, in the end, either verie
    fortunate for them selues, or verie profitable to serue the common
    wealth, but decay and vanish, men know not which way:
    except a very fewe, to whom peraduenture blood and happie
    parentage, may perchance purchace a long standing vpon the
    stage.  The which felicitie, because it commeth by others
    procuring, not by their owne deseruinge, and stand by other
    mens feete, and not by their own, what owtward brag so euer
    is borne by them, is in deed, of it selfe, and in wise mens eyes,
    of no great estimation.
         Some wittes, moderate enough by nature, be many tymes
    Som sci- // marde by ouer moch studie and vse of some
    ences hurt // sciences, namelie, Musicke, Arithmetick, and
    mens wits, // Geometrie.  Thies sciences, as they sharpen mens
    and mar // wittes ouer moch, so they change mens maners
    mens ma- // ouer sore, if they be not moderatlie mingled, &
    ners. //
    wiselie applied to som good vse of life.  Marke all Mathe-
    Mathe- // maticall heades, which be onely and wholy bent
    maticall // to those sciences, how solitarie they be themselues,
    heades. // how vnfit to liue with others, & how vnapte to
    serue in the world.  This is not onelie knowen now by common
    experience, but vttered long before by wise mens Iudgement
    _Galen._ // and sentence.  _Galene_ saith, moch Musick marreth
    _Plato._ // mens maners: and _Plato_ hath a notable place of
    the same thing in his bookes _de Rep._ well marked
    also, and excellentlie translated by _Tullie_ himself.  Of this
    matter, I wrote once more at large, XX. yeare a go, in my booke
    of shoting: now I thought but to touch it, to proue, that ouer
    moch quicknes of witte, either giuen by nature, or sharpened by
    studie, doth not commonlie bring forth, eyther greatest learning,
    best maners, or happiest life in the end.
         Contrariewise, a witte in youth, that is not ouer dulle,
    Hard wits // heauie, knottie and lumpishe, but hard, rough, and
    in learning. // though somwhat staffishe, as _Tullie_ wisheth _otium,
    quietum, non languidum_: and _negotium cum labore,
    non cum periculo_, such a witte I say, if it be, at the first well
    handled by the mother, and rightlie smothed and wrought as it

    _the brynging vp of youth._     191

    should, not ouerwhartlie, and against the wood, by the schole-
    master, both for learning, and hole course of liuing, proueth
    alwaies the best.  In woode and stone, not the softest, but
    hardest, be alwaies aptest, for portrature, both fairest for pleasure,
    and most durable for proffit.  Hard wittes be hard to receiue,
    but sure to keepe: painefull without werinesse, hedefull without
    wauering, constant without newfanglenes: bearing heauie
    thinges, thoughe not lightlie, yet willinglie: entring hard
    thinges, though not easelie, yet depelie, and so cum to that
    perfitnes of learning in the ende, that quicke wittes, seeme in
    hope, but do not in deede, or else verie seldome, // Hard wits
    euer attaine vnto.  Also, for maners and life, hard // in maners
    wittes commonlie, ar hardlie caried, either to // and lyfe.
    desire euerie new thing, or else to meruell at euery strange
    thinge: and therfore they be carefull and diligent in their own
    matters, not curious and busey in other mens affaires: and so,
    they becum wise them selues, and also ar counted honest by
    others.  They be graue, stedfast, silent of tong, secret of hart.
    Not hastie in making, but constant in keping any promise.
    Not rashe in vttering, but ware in considering euery matter:
    and therby, not quicke in speaking, but deepe of iudgement,
    whether they write, or giue counsell in all waightie affaires.
    And theis be the men, that becum in the end, both most happie
    for themselues, and alwaise best estemed abrode in the world.
         I haue bene longer in describing, the nature, the good or ill
    successe, of the quicke and hard witte, than perchance som will
    thinke, this place and matter doth require.  But // The best
    my purpose was hereby, plainlie to vtter, what // wittes dri-
    iniurie is offered to all learninge, & to the common // uen from
    welthe also, first, by the fond father in chosing, // learnyng,
    but chieflie by the lewd scholemaster in beating // to other li-
    and driuing away the best natures from learning.  A childe // uyng.
    that is still, silent, constant, and somewhat hard of witte, is
    either neuer chosen by the father to be made a scholer, or else,
    when he commeth to the schole, he is smally regarded, little
    looked vnto, he lacketh teaching, he lacketh coraging, he lacketh
    all thinges, onelie he neuer lacketh beating, nor any word, that
    may moue him to hate learninge, nor any deed that may driue
    him from learning, to any other kinde of liuing.
         And when this sadde natured, and hard witted child, is bette

    192     _The first booke teachyng_

    from his booke, and becummeth after eyther student of
    Hard wits // the common lawe, or page in the Court, or
    proue best // seruingman, or bound prentice to a merchant,
    in euery // or to som handiecrafte, he proueth in the ende,
    kynde of // wiser, happier and many tymes honester too, than
    life. // many of theis quick wittes do, by their learninge.
         Learning is, both hindred and iniured to, by the ill choice
    of them, that send yong scholers to the vniuersities.  Of whom
    must nedes cum all our Diuines, Lawyers, and Physicions.
         Thies yong scholers be chosen commonlie, as yong apples be
    The ill // chosen by children, in a faire garden about _S._
    choice of // _Iames_ tyde: a childe will chose a sweeting, because it
    wittes for // is presentlie faire and pleasant, and refuse a Runnet,
    learnyng. // because it is than grene, hard, and sowre, whan the
    one, if it be eaten, doth breed, both wormes and ill humors:
    the other if it stand his tyme, be ordered and kepte as it should, is
    holsom of it self, and helpeth to the good digestion of other meates:
    Sweetinges, will receyue wormes, rotte, and dye on the tree, and
    neuer or seldom cum to the gathering for good and lasting store.
         For verie greafe of harte I will not applie the similitude:
    but hereby, is plainlie seen, how learning is robbed of hir best
    wittes, first by the great beating, and after by the ill chosing
    of scholers, to go to the vniuersities.  Whereof cummeth
    partelie, that lewde and spitefull prouerbe, sounding to the
    greate hurte of learning, and shame of learned men, that, the
    greatest Clerkes be not the wisest men.
         And though I, in all this discourse, seem plainlie to prefer,
    hard and roughe wittes, before quicke and light wittes, both for
    learnyng and maners, yet am I not ignorant that som quicknes
    of witte, is a singuler gifte of God, and so most rare emonges
    men, and namelie such a witte, as is quicke without lightnes,
    sharpe without brittlenes, desirous of good thinges without
    newfanglenes, diligent in painfull thinges without werisomnes,
    and constant in good will to do all thinges well, as I know was
    in Syr _Iohn Cheke_, and is in som, that yet liue, in whome all
    theis faire qualities of witte ar fullie mette togither.
         But it is notable and trewe, that _Socrates_ saith in _Plato_ to
    _Plato in_ // his frende _Crito_.  That, that number of men is
    _Critone_. // fewest, which far excede, either in good or ill, in
    wisdom of folie, but the meane betwixt both, be

    _the brynging vp of youth._     193

    the greatest number: which he proueth trewe in diuerse other
    thinges: as in greyhoundes, emonges which fewe // Verie
    are found, exceding greate, or exceding litle, // good, or
    exceding swift, or exceding slowe: And therfore/ verie ill
    I speaking of quick and hard wittes, I ment, the // men, be
    common number of quicke and hard wittes, // fewest in
    emonges the which, for the most parte, the hard // number.
    witte, proueth manie times, the better learned, wiser and
    honester man: and therfore, do I the more lament, that soch
    wittes commonlie be either kepte from learning, by fond fathers,
    or bet from learning by lewde scholemasters.
         And speaking thus moche of the wittes of children for
    learning, the opportunitie of the place, and good- // Horsemen
    nes of the matter might require to haue here // be wiser in
    declared the most speciall notes of a good witte for // knowledge
    learning in a childe, after the maner and custume // of a good
    of a good horsman, who is skilfull, to know, and // Colte, than
    hable to tell others, how by certein sure signes, a // scholema-
    man may choise a colte, that is like to proue an // sters be, in
    other day, excellent for the saddle.  And it is // knowledge
    pitie, that commonlie, more care is had, yea and // of a good
    that emonges verie wise men, to finde out rather a cunnynge // witte.
    man for their horse, than a cunnyng man for their // A good Ri-
    children.  They say nay in worde, but they do so // der better
    in deede.  For, to the one, they will gladlie giue // rewarded
    a stipend of 200. Crounes by yeare, and loth // than a good
    to offer to the other, 200. shillinges.  God, that // Schole-
    sitteth in heauen laugheth their choice to skorne, // master.
    and rewardeth their liberalitie as it should: for he suffereth
    them, to haue, tame, and well ordered horse, but // Horse well
    wilde and vnfortunate Children: and therfore in // broken,
    the ende they finde more pleasure in their horse, // children ill
    than comforte in their children. // taught.
         But concerning the trewe notes of the best wittes for
    learning in a childe, I will reporte, not myne own opinion, but
    the very iudgement of him, that was counted the best teacher
    and wisest man that learning maketh mention of, // _Plato_ in 7.
    and that is _Socrates_ in _Plato_, who expresseth // de Rep.
    orderlie thies seuen plaine notes to choise a good
    witte in a child for learninge.

    194     _The first booke teachyng_

                         {1  Euphues.
                         {2  Mnemon.
    Trewe           {3  Philomathes.
    notes of a     {4  Philoponos.
    good witte.   {5  Philekoos.
                         {6  Zetetikos.
                         {7  Philepainos.

         And bicause I write English, and to Englishemen, I will
    plainlie declare in Englishe both, what thies wordes of _Plato_
    meane, and how aptlie they be linked, and how orderlie they
    folow one an other.

    1.  Euphues.

         Is he, that is apte by goodnes of witte, and appliable by
    Witte. // readines of will, to learning, hauing all other
    Will. // qualities of the minde and partes of the bodie,
    that must an other day serue learning, not trobled,
    mangled, and halfed, but sounde, whole, full, & hable to do their
    The tong. // office: as, a tong, not stamering, or ouer hardlie
    drawing forth wordes, but plaine, and redie to
    The voice. // deliuer the meaning of the minde: a voice, not
    softe, weake, piping, wommanishe, but audible,
    Face. // stronge, and manlike: a countenance, not werishe
    Stature. // and crabbed, but faire and cumlie: a personage,
    not wretched and deformed, but taule and goodlie
    Learnyng // for surelie, a cumlie countenance, with a goodlie
    ioyned // stature, geueth credit to learning, and authoritie
    with a cum- // to the person: otherwise commonlie, either, open
    lie perso- // contempte, or priuie disfauour doth hurte, or
    nage. // hinder, both person and learning.  And, euen as
    a faire stone requireth to be sette in the finest gold, with the
    best workmanshyp, or else it leseth moch of the Grace and
    price, euen so, excellencye in learning, and namely Diuinitie,
    ioyned with a cumlie personage, is a meruelous Iewell in the
    world.  And how can a cumlie bodie be better employed,
    than to serue the fairest exercise of Goddes greatest gifte,
    and that is learning.  But commonlie, the fairest bodies,
    ar bestowed on the foulest purposes.  I would it were not so:
    and with examples herein I will not medle: yet I wishe, that

    _the brynging vp of youth._     195

    those shold, both mynde it, & medle with it, which haue most
    occasion to looke to it, as good and wise fathers shold do, and
    greatest authoritie to amend it, as good & wise magistrates
    ought to do: And yet I will not let, openlie to lament the
    vnfortunate case of learning herein.
         For, if a father haue foure sonnes, three faire and well
    formed both mynde and bodie, the fourth, // Deformed
    wretched, lame, and deformed, his choice shalbe, // creatures
    to put the worst to learning, as one good enoughe // commonlie
    to becum a scholer.  I haue spent the most parte // set to lear-
    of my life in the Vniuersitie, and therfore I can // nyng.
    beare good witnes that many fathers commonlie do thus: wherof,
    I haue hard many wise, learned, and as good men as euer I knew,
    make great, and oft complainte: a good horseman will choise
    no soch colte, neither for his own, nor yet for his masters sadle.
    And thus moch of the first note.

    2  Mnemon.

         Good of memorie, a speciall parte of the first note euphues,
    and a mere benefite of nature: yet it is so // Memorie.
    necessarie for learning, as _Plato_ maketh it a
    separate and perfite note of it selfe, and that so principall a note,
    as without it, all other giftes of nature do small seruice to
    learning.  _Afranius_, that olde Latine Poete maketh // _Aul. Gel._
    Memorie the mother of learning and wisedome,
    saying thus.
         _Vsus me genuit, Mater peperit memoria_, and though it be the
    mere gifte of nature, yet is memorie well preserued by vse, and
    moch encreased by order, as our scholer must // Three sure
    learne an other day in the Vniuersitie: but in // signs of a
    a childe, a good memorie is well known, by three // good me-
    properties: that is, if it be, quicke in receyuing, // morie.
    sure in keping, and redie in deliuering forthe againe.

    3  Philomathes.

         Giuen to loue learning: for though a child haue all the
    giftes of nature at wishe, and perfection of memorie at wil, yet
    if he haue not a speciall loue to learning, he shall neuer attaine
    to moch learning.  And therfore _Isocrates_, one of the noblest

    196     _The first booke teachyng_

    scholemasters, that is in memorie of learning, who taught
    Kinges and Princes, as _Halicarnassæus_ writeth, and out of
    whose schole, as _Tullie_ saith, came forth, mo noble Capitanes,
    mo wise Councelors, than did out of _Epeius_ horse at _Troie_.
    This _Isocrates_, I say, did cause to be written, at the entrie of his
    schole, in golden letters, this golden sentence, ean es philomathes,
    ese polymathes which excellentlie said in _Greeke_, is thus rudelie
    in Englishe, if thou louest learning, thou shalt attayne to moch

    4.  Philoponos.

         Is he, that hath a lust to labor, and a will to take paines.
    For, if a childe haue all the benefites of nature, with perfection
    of memorie, loue, like, & praise learning neuer so moch, yet
    if he be not of him selfe painfull, he shall neuer attayne vnto it.
    And yet where loue is present, labor is seldom absent, and
    namelie in studie of learning, and matters of the mynde: and
    therfore did _Isocrates_ rightlie iudge, that if his scholer were
    philomathes he cared for no more.  _Aristotle_, variing from
    _Isocrates_ in priuate affaires of life, but agreing with _Isocrates_ in
    common iudgement of learning, for loue and labor in learning,
    is of the same opinion, vttered in these wordes, in his Rhetorike
    2 Rhet. ad // _ad Theodecten_.  Libertie kindleth loue: Loue
    Theod. // refuseth no labor: and labor obteyneth what so
    euer it seeketh.  And yet neuerthelesse, Goodnes
    of nature may do little good: Perfection of memorie, may
    serue to small vse: All loue may be employed in vayne: Any
    labor may be sone graualed, if a man trust alwaies to his own
    singuler witte, and will not be glad somtyme to heare, take
    aduise, and learne of an other: And therfore doth _Socrates_
    very notablie adde the fifte note.

    5.  Philekoos.

         He, that is glad to heare and learne of an other.  For
    otherwise, he shall sticke with great troble, where he might
    go easelie forwarde: and also catche hardlie a verie litle by his
    owne toyle, whan he might gather quicklie a good deale, by an
    nothers mans teaching.  But now there be some, that haue
    great loue to learning, good lust to labor, be willing to learne of
    others, yet, either of a fonde shamefastnes, or else of a proud

    _the brynging vp of youth._     197

    folie, they dare not, or will not, go to learne of an nother: And
    therfore doth _Socrates_ wiselie adde the sixte note of a good witte
    in a childe for learning, and that is.

    6.  Zetetikos.

         He, that is naturallie bold to aske any question, desirous to
    searche out any doute, not ashamed to learne of the meanest,
    not affraide to go to the greatest, vntill he be perfitelie taught,
    and fullie satisfiede.  The seuenth and last poynte is.

    7.  Philepainos.

         He, that loueth to be praised for well doing, at his father,
    or masters hand.  A childe of this nature, will earnestlie loue
    learnyng, gladlie labor for learning, willinglie learne of other,
    boldlie aske any doute.  And thus, by _Socrates_ iudgement, a
    good father, and a wise scholemaster, shold chose a childe to
    make a scholer of, that hath by nature, the foresayd perfite
    qualities, and cumlie furniture, both of mynde and bodie: hath
    memorie, quicke to receyue, sure to keape, and readie to deliuer:
    hath loue to learning: hath lust to labor: hath desire to learne
    of others: hath boldnes to aske any question: hath mynde holie
    bent, to wynne praise by well doing.
         The two firste poyntes be speciall benefites of nature:
    which neuerthelesse, be well preserued, and moch encreased by
    good order.  But as for the fiue laste, loue, labor, gladnes to
    learne of others, boldnes to aske doutes, and will to wynne
    praise, be wonne and maintened by the onelie wisedome and
    discretion of the scholemaster.  Which fiue poyntes, whether a
    scholemaster shall worke soner in a childe, by fearefull beating,
    or curtese handling, you that be wise, iudge.
         Yet some men, wise in deede, but in this matter, more by
    seueritie of nature, than any wisdome at all, do laugh at vs, when
    we thus wishe and reason, that yong children should rather be
    allured to learning by ientilnes and loue, than compelled to
    learning, by beating and feare: They say, our reasons serue
    onelie to breede forth talke, and passe a waie tyme, but we
    neuer saw good scholemaster do so, nor neuer red of wise man
    that thought so.
         Yes forsothe: as wise as they be, either in other mens
    opinion, or in their owne conceite, I will bring the contrarie

    198     _The first booke teachyng_

    iudgement of him, who, they them selues shall confesse, was as
    wise as they are, or else they may be iustlie thought to haue
    small witte at all: and that is _Socrates_, whose iudgement in
    _Plato_ in 7. // _Plato_ is plainlie this in these wordes: which,
    de Rep. // bicause they be verie notable, I will recite them
    in his owne tong, ouden mathema meta douleias
    chre manthanein: oi men gar tou somatos ponoi bia ponoumenoi
    cheiron ouden to soma apergazontai; psyche de, biaion ouden
    emmonon mathema: in Englishe thus, No learning ought to be
    learned with bondage: For bodelie labors, wrought by compul-
    sion, hurt not the bodie: but any learning learned by compulsion,
    tarieth not long in the mynde: And why?  For what soeuer the
    mynde doth learne vnwillinglie with feare, the same it doth
    quicklie forget without care.  And lest proude wittes, that loue
    not to be contraryed, but haue lust to wrangle or trifle away
    troth, will say, that _Socrates_ meaneth not this of childrens
    teaching, but of som other higher learnyng, heare, what
    _Socrates_ in the same place doth more plainlie say: me toinyn
    bia, o ariste, tous paidas en tois mathemasin, alla
    paizontas trephe, that is to say, and therfore, my deare frend,
    bring not vp your children in learning by compulsion and feare,
    but by playing and pleasure.  And you, that do read _Plato_, as
    The right // ye shold, do well perceiue, that these be no
    readyng of // Questions asked by _Socrates_, as doutes, but they
    _Plato_. // be Sentences, first affirmed by _Socrates_, as mere
    trothes, and after, giuen forth by _Socrates_, as right Rules, most
    necessarie to be marked, and fitte to be folowed of all them,
    that would haue children taughte, as they should.  And in this
    counsell, iudgement, and authoritie of _Socrates_ I will repose
    my selfe, vntill I meete with a man of the contrarie mynde,
    whom I may iustlie take to be wiser, than I thinke _Socrates_
    Yong Ien- // was.  Fonde scholemasters, neither can vnder-
    tlemen, be // stand, nor will folow this good counsell of _Socrates_,
    wiselier // but wise ryders, in their office, can and will do
    taught to // both: which is the onelie cause, that commonly,
    ryde, by com- // the yong ientlemen of England, go so vnwillinglie
    mon ry- // to schole, and run so fast to the stable: For in
    ders, than // verie deede fond scholemasters, by feare, do
    to learne, // beate into them, the hatred of learning, and wise
    by common // riders, by ientle allurements, do breed vp in
    Schole- //
    masters. //

    _the brynging vp of youth._     199

    them, the loue of riding.  They finde feare, & bondage in
    scholes, They feele libertie and freedome in stables: which
    causeth them, vtterlie to abhore the one, and most gladlie to
    haunt the other.  And I do not write this, that in exhorting to
    the one, I would dissuade yong ientlemen from the other: yea
    I am sorie, with all my harte, that they be giuen no more to
    riding, then they be: For, of all outward qualities, // Ryding.
    to ride faire, is most cumelie for him selfe, most
    necessarie for his contrey, and the greater he is in blood, the
    greater is his praise, the more he doth excede all other therein.
    It was one of the three excellent praises, amongest the noble
    ientlemen the old _Percians_, Alwaise to say troth, to ride faire,
    and shote well: and so it was engrauen vpon _Darius_ tumbe, as
    _Strabo_ beareth witnesse. // Strabo. 15.

         _Darius the king, lieth buried here,
            Who in riding and shoting had neuer peare._

         But, to our purpose, yong men, by any meanes, leesing the
    loue of learning, whan by tyme they cum to their owne rule,
    they carie commonlie, from the schole with them, a perpetuall
    hatred of their master, and a continuall contempt of learning.
    If ten Ientlemen be asked, why they forget so sone in Court,
    that which they were learning so long in schole, eight of them,
    or let me be blamed, will laie the fault on their ill handling, by
    their scholemasters.
         _Cuspinian_ doth report, that, that noble Emperor _Maxi-
    milian_, would lament verie oft, his misfortune herein.
         Yet, some will say, that children of nature, loue pastime,
    and mislike learning: bicause, in their kinde, the // Pastime.
    one is easie and pleasant, the other hard and
    werisom: which is an opinion not so trewe, as // Learnyng.
    some men weene: For, the matter lieth not so much in the
    disposition of them that be yong, as in the order & maner of
    bringing vp, by them that be old, nor yet in the difference of
    learnyng and pastime.  For, beate a child, if he daunce not well,
    & cherish him, though he learne not well, ye shall haue him,
    vnwilling to go to daunce, & glad to go to his booke.  Knocke
    him alwaies, when he draweth his shaft ill, and fauor him
    againe, though he faut at his booke, ye shall haue hym verie
    loth to be in the field, and verie willing to be in the schole.

    200     _The first booke teachyng_

    Yea, I saie more, and not of my selfe, but by the iudgement of
    those, from whom few wisemen will gladlie dissent, that if euer
    the nature of man be giuen at any tyme, more than other, to
    receiue goodnes, it is in innocencie of yong yeares, before, that
    experience of euill, haue taken roote in hym.  For, the pure
    cleane witte of a sweete yong babe, is like the newest wax,
    most hable to receiue the best and fayrest printing: and like a
    new bright siluer dishe neuer occupied, to receiue and kepe
    cleane, anie good thyng that is put into it.
         And thus, will in children, wiselie wrought withall, maie
    Will.  }                   | // easelie be won to be verie well willing to
              }in Children.| // learne.  And witte in children, by nature,
    Witte.}                   | // namelie memorie, the onelie keie and keper of
    all learning, is readiest to receiue, and surest to kepe anie maner
    of thing, that is learned in yougth: This, lewde and learned, by
    common experience, know to be most trewe.  For we remember
    nothyng so well when we be olde, as those things which we
    learned when we were yong: And this is not straunge, but
    Yong yeares // common in all natures workes.  Euery man sees,
    aptest for // (as I sayd before) new wax is best for printyng:
    learnyng. // new claie, fittest for working: new shorne woll,
    aptest for sone and surest dying: new fresh flesh, for good and
    durable salting.  And this similitude is not rude, nor borowed
    of the larder house, but out of his scholehouse, of whom, the
    wisest of England, neede not be ashamed to learne.  Yong
    Graftes grow not onelie sonest, but also fairest, and bring alwayes
    forth the best and sweetest frute: yong whelpes learne easelie
    to carie: yong Popingeis learne quicklie to speake: And so, to
    be short, if in all other thinges, though they lacke reason, sens,
    and life, the similitude of youth is fittest to all goodnesse,
    surelie nature, in mankinde, is most beneficiall and effectuall in
    this behalfe.
         Therfore, if to the goodnes of nature, be ioyned the
    wisedome of the teacher, in leading yong wittes into a right and
    plaine waie of learnyng, surelie, children, kept vp in Gods feare,
    and gouerned by his grace, maie most easelie be brought well to
    serue God and contrey both by vertue and wisedome.
         But if will, and witte, by farder age, be once allured from
    innocencie, delited in vaine sightes, filed with foull taulke,
    crooked with wilfulnesse, hardned with stubburnesse, and let

    _the brynging vp of youth._     201

    louse to disobedience, surelie it is hard with ientlenesse, but
    vnpossible with seuere crueltie, to call them backe to good
    frame againe.  For, where the one, perchance maie bend it,
    the other shall surelie breake it: and so in stead of some hope,
    leaue an assured desperation, and shamelesse con- // _Xen._ 1. _Cy-_
    tempt of all goodnesse, the fardest pointe in all // _ri Pæd._
    mischief, as _Xenophon_ doth most trewlie and most
    wittelie marke.
         Therfore, to loue or to hate, to like or contemne, to plie
    this waie or that waie to good or to bad, ye shall haue as ye vse
    a child in his youth.
         And one example, whether loue or feare doth worke more
    in a child, for vertue and learning, I will gladlie report: which
    maie be hard with some pleasure, and folowed with more profit.
    Before I went into _Germanie_, I came to Brodegate in Leceter-
    shire, to take my leaue of that noble Ladie _Iane
    Grey_, to whom I was exceding moch beholdinge. // _Lady Iane_
    Hir parentes, the Duke and Duches, with all the // _Grey._
    houshould, Gentlemen and Gentlewomen, were huntinge in the
    Parke: I founde her, in her Chamber, readinge _Phædon Platonis_
    in Greeke, and that with as moch delite, as som ientleman wold
    read a merie tale in _Bocase_.  After salutation, and dewtie done,
    with som other taulke, I asked hir, whie she wold leese soch
    pastime in the Parke? smiling she answered me: I wisse, all
    their sporte in the Parke is but a shadoe to that pleasure, that I
    find in _Plato_: Alas good folke, they neuer felt, what trewe
    pleasure ment.  And howe came you Madame, quoth I, to this
    deepe knowledge of pleasure, and what did chieflie allure you
    vnto it: seinge, not many women, but verie fewe men haue
    atteined thereunto.  I will tell you, quoth she, and tell you
    a troth, which perchance ye will meruell at.  One of the
    greatest benefites, that euer God gaue me, is, that he sent me
    so sharpe and seuere Parentes, and so ientle a scholemaster.
    For when I am in presence either of father or mother, whether
    I speake, kepe silence, sit, stand, or go, eate, drinke, be merie,
    or sad, be sowyng, plaiyng, dauncing, or doing anie thing els,
    I must do it, as it were, in soch weight, mesure, and number,
    euen so perfitelie, as God made the world, or else I am so
    sharplie taunted, so cruellie threatened, yea presentlie some
    tymes, with pinches, nippes, and bobbes, and other waies, which

    202     _The first booke teachyng_

    I will not name, for the honor I beare them, so without
    measure misordered, that I thinke my selfe in hell, till tyme
    cum, that I must go to _M. Elmer_, who teacheth me so ientlie,
    so pleasantlie, with soch faire allurementes to learning, that I
    thinke all the tyme nothing, whiles I am with him.  And
    when I am called from him, I fall on weeping, because, what
    soeuer I do els, but learning, is ful of grief, trouble, feare, and
    whole misliking vnto me: And thus my booke, hath bene so
    moch my pleasure, & bringeth dayly to me more pleasure &
    more, that in respect of it, all other pleasures, in very deede, be
    but trifles and troubles vnto me.  I remember this talke gladly,
    both bicause it is so worthy of memorie, & bicause also, it was
    the last talke that euer I had, and the last tyme, that euer I
    saw that noble and worthie Ladie.
         I could be ouer long, both in shewinge iust causes, and in
    recitinge trewe examples, why learning shold be taught, rather
    by loue than feare.  He that wold see a perfite discourse of it,
    _Sturmius_ // let him read that learned treatese, which my frende
    de Inst. // _Ioan. Sturmius_ wrote _de institutione Principis_, to
    Princ. // the Duke of _Cleues_.
         The godlie counsels of _Salomon_ and _Iesus_ the sonne of
    Qui par- // _Sirach_, for sharpe kepinge in, and bridleinge of
    cit virgæ, // youth, are ment rather, for fatherlie correction,
    odit filium. // then masterlie beating, rather for maners, than for
    learninge: for other places, than for scholes.  For God forbid,
    but all euill touches, wantonnes, lyinge, pickinge, slouthe, will,
    stubburnnesse, and disobedience, shold be with sharpe chastise-
    ment, daily cut away.
         This discipline was well knowen, and diligentlie vsed,
    among the _Græcians_, and old _Romanes_, as doth appeare in
    _Aristophanes, Isocrates_, and _Plato_, and also in the Comedies of
    _Plautus_: where we see that children were vnder the rule of
    three persones: _Præceptore, Pædagogo, Parente_: the scholemaster
    1. Schole- // taught him learnyng with all ientlenes: the
         master. // Gouernour corrected his maners, with moch
    2. Gouer- // sharpenesse: The father, held the sterne of his
         nour. // whole obedience: And so, he that vsed to teache,
    3. Father. // did not commonlie vse to beate, but remitted that
    ouer to an other mans charge.  But what shall we saie, whan
    now in our dayes, the scholemaster is vsed, both for _Præceptor_

    _the brynging vp of youth._     203

    in learnyng, and _Pædagogus_ in maners.  Surelie, I wold he
    shold not confound their offices, but discretelie vse the dewtie
    of both so, that neither ill touches shold be left vnpunished, nor
    ientlesse in teaching anie wise omitted.  And he shall well do
    both, if wiselie he do appointe diuersitie of tyme, & separate
    place, for either purpose: vsing alwaise soch discrete modera-
    tion as the scholehouse should be counted a
    sanctuarie against feare: and verie well learning, a // The schole
    common perdon for ill doing, if the fault, of it // house.
    selfe be not ouer heinous.
         And thus the children, kept vp in Gods feare, and preserued
    by his grace, finding paine in ill doing, and pleasure in well
    studiyng, shold easelie be brought to honestie of life, and
    perfitenes of learning, the onelie marke, that good and wise
    fathers do wishe and labour, that their children, shold most
    buselie, and carefullie shot at.
         There is an other discommoditie, besides crueltie in schole-
    masters in beating away the loue of learning from // Youth of
    children, which hindreth learning and vertue, and // England
    good bringing vp of youth, and namelie yong // brought vp
    ientlemen, verie moch in England.  This fault // with to
    is cleane contrary to the first.  I wished before, // much li-
    to haue loue of learning bred vp in children: // bertie.
    I wishe as moch now, to haue yong men brought vp in good
    order of liuing, and in some more seuere discipline, then
    commonlie they be.  We haue lacke in England of soch good
    order, as the old noble _Persians_ so carefullie vsed: // _Xen._ 7.
    whose children, to the age of xxi. yeare, were // _Cyri Ped._
    brought vp in learnyng, and exercises of labor,
    and that in soch place, where they should, neither see that was
    vncumlie, nor heare that was vnhonest.  Yea, a yong ientleman
    was neuer free, to go where he would, and do what he liste him
    self, but vnder the kepe, and by the counsell, of some graue
    gouernour, vntill he was, either maryed, or cald to beare some
    office in the common wealth.
         And see the great obedience, that was vsed in old tyme to
    fathers and gouernours.  No sonne, were he neuer so old of
    yeares, neuer so great of birth, though he were a kynges sonne,
    might not mary, but by his father and mothers also consent.
    _Cyrus_ the great, after he had conquered _Babylon_, and subdewed

    204  _The first booke teachyng_

    Riche king _Crœsus_ with whole _Asia minor_, cummyng tryumph-
    antlie home, his vncle _Cyaxeris_ offered him his daughter to
    wife.  _Cyrus_ thanked his vncle, and praised the maide, but for
    mariage he answered him with thies wise and sweete wordes, as
    _Xen._ 8. _Cy-_ // they be vttered by _Xenophon_, o kuazare, to
    _ri. Pæd._ // te genos epaino, kai ten paida, kai dora
    boulomai de, ephe, syn te tou patros gnome
    kai [te] tes metros tauta soi synainesai, &c., that is to say:
    Vncle _Cyaxeris_, I commend the stocke, I like the maide, and
    I allow well the dowrie, but (sayth he) by the counsell and
    consent of my father and mother, I will determine farther of
    thies matters.
         Strong _Samson_ also in Scripture saw a maide that liked him,
    but he spake not to hir, but went home to his father, and his
    mother, and desired both father and mother to make the
    mariage for him.  Doth this modestie, doth this obedience,
    that was in great kyng _Cyrus_, and stoute _Samson_, remaine in
    our yongmen at this daie? no surelie: For we liue not
    longer after them by tyme, than we liue farre different from
    them by good order.  Our tyme is so farre from that old
    discipline and obedience, as now, not onelie yong ientlemen, but
    euen verie girles dare without all feare, though not without
    open shame, where they list, and how they list, marie them
    selues in spite of father, mother, God, good order, and all.
    The cause of this euill is, that youth is least looked vnto, when
    they stand [in] most neede of good kepe and regard.  It auail-
    eth not, to see them well taught in yong yeares, and after whan
    they cum to lust and youthfull dayes, to giue them licence to
    liue as they lust them selues.  For, if ye suffer the eye of a
    yong Ientleman, once to be entangled with vaine sightes, and
    the eare to be corrupted with fond or filthie taulke, the mynde
    shall quicklie fall seick, and sone vomet and cast vp, all the
    holesome doctrine, that he receiued in childhoode, though he
    were neuer so well brought vp before.  And being ons inglutted
    with vanitie, he will streight way loth all learning, and all good
    counsell to the same.  And the parents for all their great cost
    Great mens // and charge, reape onelie in the end, the frute
    sonnes // of grief and care.
    worst //       This euill, is not common to poore men, as God
    brought // will haue it, but proper to riche and great mens
    vp. //

    _the brynging vp of youth._     205

    children, as they deserue it.  In deede from seuen, to seuentene,
    yong ientlemen commonlie be carefullie enough brought vp: But
    from seuentene to seuen and twentie (the most dangerous tyme of
    all a mans life, and most slipperie to stay well in) they haue
    commonlie the reigne of all licens in their owne // Wise men
    hand, and speciallie soch as do liue in the Court. // fond fa-
    And that which is most to be merueled at, // thers.
    commonlie, the wisest and also best men, be found the fondest
    fathers in this behalfe.  And if som good father would seick
    some remedie herein, yet the mother (if the house hold of our
    Lady) had rather, yea, & will to, haue her sonne cunnyng &
    bold, in making him to lyue trimlie when he is yong, than by
    learning and trauell, to be able to serue his Prince and his
    contrie, both wiselie in peace, and stoutelie in warre, whan he
    is old.
         The fault is in your selues, ye noble mens sonnes, and
    therefore ye deserue the greater blame, that // Meane
    commonlie, the meaner mens children, cum to // mens sonnes
    be, the wisest councellours, and greatest doers, // come to
    in the weightie affaires of this Realme.  And // great au-
    why? for God will haue it so, of his prouidence: // thoritie.
    bicause ye will haue it no otherwise, by your negligence.
         And God is a good God, & wisest in all his doinges, that
    will place vertue, & displace vice, in those // Nobilitie
    kingdomes, where he doth gouerne.  For he // without
    knoweth, that Nobilitie, without vertue and // wisedome.
    wisedome, is bloud in deede, but bloud trewelie, without bones
    & sinewes: & so of it selfe, without the other, verie weeke to
    beare the burden of weightie affaires.
         The greatest shippe in deede commonlie carieth the greatest
    burden, but yet alwayes with the greatest ieoperdie, not onelie
    for the persons and goodes committed vnto it, // Nobilitie
    but euen for the shyppe it selfe, except it be // with wise-
    gouerned, with the greater wisdome. // dome.
         But Nobilitie, gouerned by learning and wisedome, is
    in deede, most like a faire shippe, //      |                         { Wisedom.
    hauyng tide and winde at will, vnder //  |                        {
    the reule of a skilfull master: whan //    |  Nobilite with-{
    contrarie wise, a shippe, caried, yea //   |                         { Out wise-
    with the hiest tide & greatest winde, //  |                          { dome.

    206     _The first booke teachyng_

    lacking a skilfull master, most commonlie, doth either, sinck it
    selfe vpon sandes, or breake it selfe vpon rockes.  And euen so,
    Vaine plea- // how manie haue bene, either drowned in vaine
    sure, and // pleasure, or ouerwhelmed by stout wilfulnesse,
    stoute wil- // the histories of England be able to affourde ouer
    fulnes, two // many examples vnto vs.  Therfore, ye great and
    greatest // noble mens children, if ye will haue rightfullie
    enemies to // that praise, and enioie surelie that place, which
    Nobilitie. // your fathers haue, and elders had, and left vnto
    you, ye must kepe it, as they gat it, and that is, by the onelie
    waie, of vertue, wisedome, and worthinesse.
         For wisedom, and vertue, there be manie faire examples in
    this Court, for yong Ientlemen to folow.  But they be, like
    faire markes in the feild, out of a mans reach, to far of, to shote
    at well.  The best and worthiest men, in deede, be somtimes
    seen, but seldom taulked withall: A yong Ientleman, may
    somtime knele to their person, smallie vse their companie, for
    their better instruction.
         But yong Ientlemen ar faïne commonlie to do in the Court,
    as yong Archers do in the feild: that is take soch markes, as be
    Ill compa- // nie them, although they be neuer so foule to
    nie marreth // shote at.  I meene, they be driuen to kepe
    youth. // companie with the worste: and what force ill
    companie hath, to corrupt good wittes, the wisest men know
         And not ill companie onelie, but the ill opinion also of the
    The Court // most part, doth moch harme, and namelie of
    iudgeth // those, which shold be wise in the trewe de-
    worst of the // cyphring, of the good disposition of nature, of
    best natures // cumlinesse in Courtlie maners, and all right
    in youth. // doinges of men.
         But error and phantasie, do commonlie occupie, the place
    of troth and iudgement.  For, if a yong ientleman, be demeure
    and still of nature, they say, he is simple and lacketh witte: if
    he be bashefull, and will soone blushe, they call him a babishe
    _Xen. in_ 1. // and ill brought vp thyng, when _Xenophon_ doth
    _Cyr. Pæd._ // preciselie note in _Cyrus_, that his bashfulnes in
    youth, was y^e verie trewe signe of his vertue &
    The Grace // stoutnes after: If he be innocent and ignorant of
    in Courte. // ill, they say, he is rude, and hath no grace, so

    _the brynging vp of youth._     207

    vngraciouslie do som gracelesse men, misuse the faire and
    godlie word GRACE.
         But if ye would know, what grace they meene, go, and
    looke, and learn emonges them, and ye shall see that it is:
    First, to blush at nothing.  And blushyng in youth, sayth
    _Aristotle_ is nothyng els, but feare to do ill: which feare beyng
    once lustely fraid away from youth, then foloweth, // Grace of
    to dare do any mischief, to contemne stoutly any // Courte.
    goodnesse, to be busie in euery matter, to be
    skilfull in euery thyng, to acknowledge no ignorance at all.
    To do thus in Court, is counted of some, the chief and greatest
    grace of all: and termed by the name of a // _Cic._ 3. _de_
    vertue, called Corage & boldnesse, whan _Crassus_ // _Or._
    in _Cicero_ teacheth the cleane contrarie, and that
    most wittelie, saying thus: _Audere, cum bonis_ // Boldnes
    _etiam rebus coniunctum, per seipsum est magnopere_ // yea in a
    _fugiendum_.  Which is to say, to be bold, yea // good mat-
    in a good matter, is for it self, greatlie to be // ter, not to
    exchewed. // be praised.
         Moreouer, where the swing goeth, there to follow, fawne,
    flatter, laugh and lie lustelie at other mens liking. // More
    To face, stand formest, shoue backe: and to the // Grace of
    meaner man, or vnknowne in the Court, to // Courte.
    seeme somwhat solume, coye, big, and dangerous of looke,
    taulk, and answere: To thinke well of him selfe, to be lustie
    in contemning of others, to haue some trim grace in a priuie
    mock.  And in greater presens, to beare a braue looke: to be
    warlike, though he neuer looked enimie in the face in warre:
    yet som warlike signe must be vsed, either a slouinglie busking,
    or an ouerstaring frounced hed, as though out of euerie heeres
    toppe, should suddenlie start out a good big othe, when nede
    requireth, yet praised be God, England hath at // Men of
    this time, manie worthie Capitaines and good // warre, best
    souldiours, which be in deede, so honest of // of conditi-
    behauiour, so cumlie of conditions, so milde of // ons.
    maners, as they may be examples of good order, to a good sort
    of others, which neuer came in warre.  But to retorne, where
    I left: In place also, to be able to raise taulke, and make
    discourse of euerie rishe: to haue a verie good // Palmistrie.
    will, to heare him selfe speake: To be seene

    208     _The first booke teachyng_

    in Palmestrie, wherby to conueie to chast eares, som fond or
    filthie taulke:
         And if som Smithfeild Ruffian take vp, som strange
    going: som new mowing with the mouth: som wrinchyng
    with the shoulder, som braue prouerbe: som fresh new othe,
    that is not stale, but will rin round in the mouth: som new
    disguised garment, or desperate hat, fond in facion, or gaurish
    in colour, what soeuer it cost, how small soeuer his liuing be,
    by what shift soeuer it be gotten, gotten must it be, and vsed
    with the first, or els the grace of it, is stale and gone: som
    part of this gracelesse grace, was discribed by me, in a little
    rude verse long ago.

         _{To laughe, to lie, to flatter, to face:
         {Foure waies in Court to win men grace.
         {If thou be thrall to none of thiese,
         {Away good Peek goos, hens Iohn Cheese:
         {Marke well my word, and marke their dede,
         {And thinke this verse part of thy Crede._

         Would to God, this taulke were not trewe, and that som
    mens doinges were not thus: I write not to hurte any, but to
       {Councell.   | // proffit som: to accuse none, but to monish
    Ill{                  | // soch, who, allured by ill counsell, and folowing
        {                  | // ill example, contrarie to their good bringyng vp,
        {Company. | // and against their owne good nature, yeld ouer-
    moch to thies folies and faultes: I know many seruing men,
    Seruinge // of good order, and well staide: And againe, I
    men. // heare saie, there be som seruing men do but ill
    _Terentius._ // seruice to their yong masters.  Yea, rede _Terence_
    _Plautus._ // and _Plaut._ aduisedlie ouer, and ye shall finde in
    those two wise writers, almost in euery commedie, no vn-
    Serui cor- // thriftie yong man, that is not brought there vnto,
    ruptelæ // by the sotle inticement of som lewd seruant.
    iuuenum. // And euen now in our dayes _Getæ_ and _Daui_,
    _Gnatos_ and manie bold bawdie _Phormios_ to, be preasing in,
    Multi Ge- // to pratle on euerie stage, to medle in euerie
    tæ pauci // matter, whan honest _Parmenos_ shall not be hard,
    Parmeno- // but beare small swing with their masters.  Their
    nes. // companie, their taulke, their ouer great experience

    _the brynging vp of youth._     209

    in mischief, doth easelie corrupt the best natures, and best
    brought vp wittes.
         But I meruell the lesse, that thies misorders be emonges
    som in the Court, for commonlie in the contrie // Misorders
    also euerie where, innocencie is gone: Bashful- // in the coun-
    nesse is banished: moch presumption in yougthe: // trey.
    small authoritie in aige: Reuerence is neglected: dewties be
    confounded: and to be shorte, disobedience doth ouerflowe the
    bankes of good order, almoste in euerie place, almoste in euerie
    degree of man.
         Meane men haue eies to see, and cause to lament, and
    occasion to complaine of thies miseries: but other haue
    authoritie to remedie them, and will do so to, whan God shall
    think time fitte.  For, all thies misorders, be Goddes iuste
    plages, by his sufferance, brought iustelie vpon vs, for our
    sinnes, which be infinite in nomber, and horrible in deede, but
    namelie, for the greate abhominable sin of vn- // Contempt
    kindnesse: but what vnkindnesse? euen such // of Gods
    vnkindnesse as was in the Iewes, in contemninge // trewe Re-
    Goddes voice, in shrinking from his woorde, in // ligion.
    wishing backe againe for _ægypt_, in committing aduoultrie and
    hordom, not with the women, but with the doctrine of Babylon,
    did bring all the plages, destructions, and Captiuities, that fell
    so ofte and horriblie, vpon Israell.
         We haue cause also in England to beware of vnkindnesse,
    who haue had, in so fewe yeares, the Candel of Goddes
    worde, so oft lightned, so oft put out, and yet // _Doctrina_
    will venture by our vnthankfulnesse in doctrine // _Mores._
    and sinfull life, to leese againe, lighte, Candle,
    Candlesticke and all.
         God kepe vs in his feare, God grafte in vs the trewe
    knowledge of his woorde, with a forward will to folowe it, and
    so to bring forth the sweete fruites of it, & then shall he
    preserue vs by his Grace, from all maner of terrible dayes.
         The remedie of this, doth not stand onelie, // _Publicæ_
    in making good common lawes for the hole // _Leges._
    Realme, but also, (and perchance cheiflie) // _Domestica_
    in obseruing priuate discipline euerie man care- // _disciplina._
    fullie in his own house: and namelie, if speciall // _Cognitio_
    regard be had to yougth: and that, not so moch, // _boni._

    210     _The first booke teachyng_

    in teaching them what is good, as in keping them from that,
    that is ill.
         Therefore, if wise fathers, be not as well waare in weeding
    _Ignoratio_ // from their Children ill thinges, and ill companie,
    _mali._ // as they were before, in graftinge in them
    learninge, and prouiding for them good schole-
    masters, what frute, they shall reape of all their coste & care,
    common experience doth tell.
         Here is the place, in yougthe is the time whan som
    Some // ignorance is as necessarie, as moch knowledge,
    ignorance, // and not in matters of our dewtie towardes God,
    as good as // as som wilful wittes willinglie against their owne
    knowledge. // knowledge, perniciouslie againste their owne
    conscience, haue of late openlie taught.  In deede _S. Chryso-_
    _Chrisost. de_ // _stome_, that noble and eloquent Doctor, in a
    _Fato._ // sermon _contra fatum_, and the curious serchinge of
    natiuities, doth wiselie saie, that ignorance therein,
    is better than knowledge: But to wring this sentence, to
    wreste thereby out of mens handes, the knowledge of Goddes
    doctrine, is without all reason, against common sence, contrarie
    to the iudgement also of them, which be the discretest men, and
    _Iulia. Apo-_ // best learned, on their own side.  I know, _Iulianus_
    _stat._ // _Apostata_ did so, but I neuer hard or red, that any
    auncyent father of the primitiue chirch, either
    thought or wrote so.
         But this ignorance in yougthe, which I spake on, or rather
    Innocency // this simplicitie, or most trewlie, this innocencie,
    in youth. // is that, which the noble _Persians_, as wise _Xenophon_
    doth testifie, were so carefull, to breede vp their
    yougth in.  But Christian fathers commonlie do not so.  And
    I will tell you a tale, as moch to be misliked, as the _Persians_
    example is to be folowed.
         This last somer, I was in a Ientlemans house: where
    A childe ill // a yong childe, somewhat past fower yeare olde,
    brought // cold in no wise frame his tongue, to saie, a litle
    vp. // shorte grace: and yet he could roundlie rap out,
    so manie vgle othes, and those of the newest facion, as som
    good man of fourescore yeare olde hath neuer hard named
    Ill Pa- // before: and that which was most detestable of
    rentes. // all, his father and mother wold laughe at it.  I

    _the brynging vp of youth._     211

    moche doubte, what comforte, an other daie, this childe shall
    bring vnto them.  This Childe vsing moche the companie of
    seruinge men, and geuing good eare to their taulke, did easelie
    learne, which he shall hardlie forget, all daies of his life here-
    after: So likewise, in the Courte, if a yong Ientleman will
    ventur him self into the companie of Ruffians, it is ouer greate
    a ieopardie, lest, their facions, maners, thoughtes, taulke, and
    deedes, will verie sone, be euer like.  The confounding of
    companies, breedeth confusion of good maners // Ill compa-
    both in the Courte, and euerie where else. // nie.
         And it maie be a great wonder, but a greater shame, to vs
    Christian men, to vnderstand, what a heithen writer, _Isocrates_,
    doth leaue in memorie of writing, concerning the // _Isocrates._
    care, that the noble Citie of _Athens_ had, to bring
    vp their yougthe, in honest companie, and vertuous discipline,
    whose taulke in Greke, is, to this effect, in Englishe.
         "The Citie, was not more carefull, to see their Children
    "well taughte, than to see their yong men well // In Orat.
    "gouerned: which they brought to passe, not so // Ariopag.
    "much by common lawe, as by priuate discipline.
    "For, they had more regard, that their yougthe, by good order
    "shold not offend, than how, by lawe, they might be punished:
    "And if offense were committed, there was, neither waie to
    "hide it, neither hope of pardon for it.  Good natures, were
    "not so moche openlie praised as they were secretlie marked,
    "and watchfullie regarded, lest they should lease the goodnes
    "they had.  Therefore in scholes of singing and dauncing, and
    "other honest exercises, gouernours were appointed, more
    "diligent to ouersee their good maners, than their masters were,
    "to teach them anie learning.  It was som shame to a yong
    "man, to be seene in the open market: and if for businesse, he
    "passed throughe it, he did it, with a meruelous modestie, and
    "bashefull facion.  To eate, or drinke in a Tauerne, was not
    "onelie a shame, but also punishable, in a yong man.  To
    "contrarie, or to stand in termes with an old man, was more
    "heinous, than in som place, to rebuke and scolde with his
    "owne father: with manie other mo good orders, and faire
    disciplines, which I referre to their reading, that haue lust
    to looke vpon the description of such a worthie common

    212     _The first booke teachyng_

         And to know, what worthie frute, did spring of soch
    Good sede, // worthie seade, I will tell yow the most meruell
    worthie // of all, and yet soch a trothe, as no man shall
    frute. // denie it, except such as be ignorant in knowledge
    of the best stories.
         _Athens_, by this discipline and good ordering of yougthe, did
    _Athenes._ // breede vp, within the circute of that one Citie,
    within the compas of one hondred yeare, within
    the memorie of one mans life, so manie notable Capitaines in
    warre, for worthinesse, wisdome and learning, as be scarse
    Roma. // matchable no not in the state of Rome, in the
    compas of those seauen hondred yeares, whan it
    florished moste.
         And bicause, I will not onelie saie it, but also proue it, the
    The noble // names of them be these.  _Miltiades, Themistocles_,
    Capitaines // _Xantippus, Pericles, Cymon, Alcybiades, Thrasybulus_,
    of Athens. // _Conon, Iphicrates, Xenophon, Timotheus, Theopompus_,
    _Demetrius_, and diuers other mo: of which euerie one, maie
    iustelie be spoken that worthie praise, which was geuen to
    _Scipio Africanus_, who, _Cicero_ douteth, whether he were, more
    noble Capitaine in warre, or more eloquent and wise councelor
    _æmil._ // in peace.  And if ye beleue not me, read dili-
    _Probus._ // gentlie, _æmilius Probus_ in Latin, and _Plutarche_
    _Plutarchus._ // in Greke, which two, had no cause either to
    flatter or lie vpon anie of those which I haue
         And beside nobilitie in warre, for excellent and matchles
    The lear- // masters in all maner of learninge, in that one
    ned of A- // Citie, in memorie of one aige, were mo learned
    thenes. // men, and that in a maner altogether, than all
    tyme doth remember, than all place doth affourde, than all other
    tonges do conteine.  And I do not meene of those Authors,
    which, by iniurie of tyme, by negligence of men, by crueltie of
    fier and sworde, be lost, but euen of those, which by Goddes
    grace, are left yet vnto us: of which I thank God, euen my
    poore studie lacketh not one.  As, in Philosophie, _Plato, Aris-
    totle, Xenophon, Euclide_ and _Theophrast_: In eloquens and Ciuill
    lawe, _Demosthenes, æschines, Lycurgus, Dinarchus, Demades,
    Isocrates, Isæus, Lysias, Antisthenes, Andocides_: In histories, _He-
    rodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon_: and which we lacke, to our

    _the brynging vp of youth._     213

    great losse, _Theopompus_ and _Eph[orus]_: In Poetrie _æschylus,
    Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes_, and somwhat of _Menander,
    Demosthenes_ sister sonne.
         Now, let Italian, and Latin it self, Spanishe, French,
    Douch, and Englishe bring forth their lerning, // Learnyng,
    and recite their Authors, _Cicero_ onelie excepted, // chiefly con-
    and one or two moe in Latin, they be all patched // teined in
    cloutes and ragges, in comparison of faire wouen // the Greke,
    broade clothes.  And trewelie, if there be any // and in no o-
    good in them, it is either lerned, borowed, or // ther tong.
    stolne, from some one of those worthie wittes of _Athens_.
         The remembrance of soch a common welthe, vsing soch
    discipline and order for yougthe, and thereby bringing forth to
    their praise, and leauing to vs for our example, such Capitaines
    for warre, soch Councelors for peace, and matcheles masters,
    for all kinde of learninge, is pleasant for me to recite, and not
    irksum, I trust, for other to heare, except it be soch, as make
    neither counte of vertue nor learninge.
         And whether, there be anie soch or no, I can not well tell:
    yet I hear saie, some yong Ientlemen of oures, // Contem-
    count it their shame to be counted learned: and // ners of
    perchance, they count it their shame, to be // learnyng.
    counted honest also, for I heare saie, they medle as litle with the
    one, as with the other.  A meruelous case, that Ientlemen
    shold so be ashamed of good learning, and neuer a whit ashamed
    of ill maners: soch do saie for them, that the
    Ientlemen of France do so: which is a lie, as // Ientlemen
    God will haue it.  _Langæus_, and _Bellæus_ that be // of France.
    dead, & the noble _Vidam_ of Chartres, that is aliue, and infinite
    mo in France, which I heare tell of, proue this to be most false.
    And though som, in France, which will nedes be Ientlemen,
    whether men will or no, and haue more ientleshipe in their hat,
    than in their hed, be at deedlie feude, with both learning and
    honestie, yet I beleue, if that noble Prince, king _Francis_ the
    first were aliue, they shold haue, neither place in // Franciscus
    his Courte, nor pension in his warres, if he had // I. Nobilis.
    knowledge of them.  This opinion is not French, // Francorum
    but plaine Turckishe: from whens, some Frenche // Rex.
    fetche moe faultes, than this: which, I praie God, kepe out of

    214     _The first booke teachyng_

    England, and send also those of oures better mindes, which
    bend them selues againste vertue and learninge, to the con-
    tempte of God, dishonor of their contrie to the hurt of manie
    others, and at length, to the greatest harme, and vtter destruction
    of themselues.
         Som other, hauing better nature, but lesse witte, (for ill
    commonlie, haue ouer moch witte) do not vtterlie dispraise
    Experience // learning, but they saie, that without learning,
    without // common experience, knowledge of all facions, and
    learnyng. // haunting all companies, shall worke in yougthe,
    both wisdome, and habilitie, to execute anie weightie affaire.
    Surelie long experience doth proffet moch, but moste, and
    almost onelie to him (if we meene honest affaires) that is dili-
    gentlie before instructed with preceptes of well doinge.  For
    good precepts of learning, be the eyes of the minde, to looke
    wiselie before a man, which waie to go right, and which not.
         Learning teacheth more in one yeare than experience in
    Learnyng. // twentie: And learning teacheth safelie. when
    experience maketh mo miserable then wise.  He
    Experience. // hasardeth sore, that waxeth wise by experience.
    An vnhappie Master he is, that is made cunning by manie
    shippewrakes: A miserable merchant, that is neither riche or
    wise, but after som bankroutes.  It is costlie wisdom, that is
    bought by experience.  We know by experience it selfe, that it
    is a meruelous paine, to finde oute but a short waie, by long
    wandering.  And surelie, he that wold proue wise by
    experience, he maie be wittie in deede, but euen like a swift
    runner, that runneth fast out of his waie, and vpon the night,
    he knoweth not whither.  And verilie they be fewest of
    number, that be happie or wise by vnlearned experience.  And
    looke well vpon the former life of those fewe, whether your
    example be old or yonge, who without learning haue gathered,
    by long experience, a litle wisdom, and som happines: and
    whan you do consider, what mischiefe they haue committed,
    what dangers they haue escaped (and yet xx. for one, do
    perishe in the aduenture) than thinke well with your selfe,
    whether ye wold, that your owne son, should cum to wisdom
    and happines, by the waie of soch experience or no.
         It is a notable tale, that old Syr _Roger Chamloe_, somtime

    _the brynging vp of youth._     215

    cheife Iustice, wold tell of him selfe.  When he was Auncient
    in Inne of Courte, Certaine yong Ientlemen // Syr _Roger_
    were brought before him, to be corrected for _Chamloe._
    certaine misorders: And one of the lustiest saide:
    Syr, we be yong ientlemen, and wisemen before vs, haue
    proued all facions, and yet those haue done full well: this they
    said, because it was well knowen, that Syr _Roger_ had bene a
    good feloe in his yougth.  But he aunswered them verie wiselie.
    In deede saith he, in yougthe, I was, as you ar now: and I
    had twelue feloes like vnto my self, but not one of them came
    to a good ende.  And therfore, folow not my example in yougth,
    but folow my councell in aige, if euer ye thinke to cum to this
    place, or to thies yeares, that I am cum vnto, lesse ye meete
    either with pouertie or Tiburn in the way.
         Thus, experience of all facions in yougthe, beinge, in profe,
    alwaise daungerous, in isshue, seldom lucklie, is // Experience.
    a waie, in deede, to ouermoch knowledge, yet
    vsed commonlie of soch men, which be either caried by som
    curious affection of mynde, or driuen by som hard necessitie of
    life, to hasard the triall of ouer manie perilous aduentures.
         _Erasmus_ the honor of learning of all oure time, saide
    wiselie that experience is the common schole- // _Erasmus._
    house of foles, and ill men: Men, of witte and // Experience,
    honestie, be otherwise instructed.  For there be, // the schole-
    that kepe them out of fier, and yet was neuer // house of
    burned: That beware of water, and yet was neuer // Foles, and
    nie drowninge: That hate harlottes, and was // ill men.
    neuer at the stewes: That abhorre falshode, and neuer brake
    promis themselues.
         But will ye see, a fit Similitude of this aduentured experience.
    A Father, that doth let louse his son, to all experiences, is most
    like a fond Hunter, that letteth slippe a whelpe to the hole
    herde.  Twentie to one, he shall fall vpon a rascall, and let
    go the faire game.  Men that hunt so, be either ignorant
    persones, preuie stealers, or night walkers.
         Learning therefore, ye wise fathers, and good bringing vp,
    and not blinde & dangerous experience, is the next and readiest
    waie, that must leede your Children, first, to wisdom, and than
    to worthinesse, if euer ye purpose they shall cum there.
         And to saie all in shorte, though I lacke Authoritie to giue

    216     _The first booke teachyng_

    counsell, yet I lacke not good will to wisshe, that the yougthe
    How expe- // in England, speciallie Ientlemen, and namelie no-
    rience may // bilitie, shold be by good bringing vp, so grounded
    proffet. // in iudgement of learninge, so founded in loue of
    honestie, as, whan they shold be called forthe to the execution
    of great affaires, in seruice of their Prince and contrie, they
    might be hable, to vse and to order, all experiences, were they
    good were they bad, and that, according to the square, rule, and
    line, of wisdom learning and vertue.
         And, I do not meene, by all this my taulke, that yong
    Diligent // Ientlemen, should alwaies be poring on a booke,
    learninge // and by vsing good studies, shold lease honest
    ought to be // pleasure, and haunt no good pastime, I meene
    ioyned with // nothing lesse: For it is well knowne, that I both
    pleasant // like and loue, and haue alwaies, and do yet still
    pastimes, // vse, all exercises and pastimes, that be fitte for my
    namelie in a // nature and habilitie.  And beside naturall dispo-
    ientleman. // sition, in iudgement also, I was neuer, either Stoick in doctrine,
    or Anabaptist in Religion, to mislike a merie, pleasant, and
    plaifull nature, if no outrage be committed, against lawe,
    mesure, and good order.
         Therefore, I wold wishe, that, beside some good time, fitlie
    appointed, and constantlie kepte, to encrease by readinge, the
    knowledge of the tonges and learning, yong ientlemen shold
    Learnyng // vse, and delite in all Courtelie exercises, and
    ioyned with // Ientlemanlike pastimes.  And good cause whie:
    pastimes. // For the self same noble Citie of Athenes, iustlie
    commended of me before, did wiselie and vpon great considera-
    tion, appoint, the Muses, _Apollo_, and _Pallas_, to be patrones of
    _Musæ._ // learninge to their yougthe.  For the Muses,
    besides learning, were also Ladies of dauncinge,
    _Apollo._ // mirthe and ministrelsie: _Apollo_, was god of shooting,
    and Author of cunning playing vpon Instrumentes:
    _Pallas._ // _Pallas_ also was Laidie mistres in warres.  Wher-
    bie was nothing else ment, but that learninge shold be alwaise
    mingled, with honest mirthe, and cumlie exercises: and that
    warre also shold be gouerned by learning, and moderated by
    wisdom, as did well appeare in those Capitaines of _Athenes_
    named by me before, and also in _Scipio_ & _Cæsar_, the two
    Diamondes of Rome.

    _the brynging vp of youth._     217

         And _Pallas_, was no more feared, in weering _ægida_, than she
    was praised, for chosing _Oliva_: whereby shineth // Learning
    the glory of learning, which thus, was Gouernour // rewleth
    & Mistres, in the noble Citie of _Athenes_, both of // both warre
    warre and peace. // and peace.
         Therefore, to ride cumlie: to run faire at the tilte or ring:
    to plaie at all weapones: to shote faire in bow, or surelie in gon:
    to vaut lustely: to runne: to leape: to wrestle: // The pas-
    to swimme: To daunce cumlie: to sing, and playe // times that
    of instrumentes cunnyngly: to Hawke: to hunte: // be fitte for
    to playe at tennes, & all pastimes generally, which // Courtlie
    be ioyned with labor, vsed in open place, and on // Ientlemen.
    the day light, conteining either some fitte exercise for warre, or
    some pleasant pastime for peace, be not onelie cumlie and decent,
    but also verie necessarie, for a Courtlie Ientleman to vse.
         But, of all kinde of pastimes, fitte for a Ientleman, I will,
    godwilling, in fitter place, more at large, declare fullie, in my
    booke of the Cockpitte: which I do write, to // The Cok-
    satisfie som, I trust, with som reason, that be // pitte.
    more curious, in marking other mens doinges, than
    carefull in mendying their owne faultes.  And som also will
    nedes busie them selues in merueling, and adding thereunto
    vnfrendlie taulke, why I, a man of good yeares, and of no ill
    place, I thanke God and my Prince, do make choise to spend
    soch tyme in writyng of trifles, as the schole of shoting, the
    Cockpitte, and this booke of the first Principles of Grammer,
    rather, than to take some weightie matter in hand, either of
    Religion, or Ciuill discipline.
         Wise men I know, will well allow of my choise herein: and
    as for such, who haue not witte of them selues, but must learne
    of others, to iudge right of mens doynges, let them // A booke of
    read that wise Poet _Horace_ in his _Arte Poetica_, // a lofty title,
    who willeth wisemen to beware, of hie and loftie // beareth the
    Titles.  For, great shippes, require costlie tack- // brag of o-
    ling, and also afterward dangerous gouernment: // uergreat a
    Small boates, be neither verie chargeable in // promise.
    makyng, nor verie oft in great ieoperdie: and yet they cary
    many tymes, as good and costlie ware, as greater vessels do.
    A meane Argument, may easelie beare, the light burden of
    a small faute, and haue alwaise at hand, a ready excuse for

    218     _The first booke teachyng_

    ill handling: And, some praise it is, if it so chaunce, to be
    The right // better in deede, than a man dare venture to
    choise, to // seeme.  A hye title, doth charge a man, with
    chose a fitte // the heauie burden, of to great a promise: and
    Argument // therefore sayth _Horace_ verie wittelie, that, that
    to write // Poete was a verie foole, that began hys booke,
    vpon. // with a goodlie verse in deede, but ouer proude
    _Hor. in_ // a promise.
    _Arte Poet._ //

              _Fortunam Priami cantabo & nobile bellum,_

    And after, as wiselie.

              _Quantò rectiùs hic, qui nil molitur ineptè. etc._

    Meening _Homer_, who, within the compasse of a smal
    _Homers_ // Argument, of one harlot, and of one good wife,
    wisdom in // did vtter so moch learning in all kinde of sciences,
    choice of // as, by the iudgement of _Quintilian_, he deserueth
    his Argu- // so hie a praise, that no man yet deserued to sit
    ment. // in the second degree beneth him.  And thus moch
    out of my way, concerning my purpose in spending penne, and
    paper, & tyme, vpon trifles, & namelie to aunswere some, that
    haue neither witte nor learning, to do any thyng them selues,
    neither will nor honestie, to say well of other.
         To ioyne learnyng with cumlie exercises, _Conto Baldesær_
    The Cor- // _Castiglione_ in his booke, _Cortegiano_, doth trimlie
    tegian, an // teache: which booke, aduisedlie read, and dili-
    excellent // gentlie folowed, but one yeare at home in
    booke for a // England, would do a yong ientleman more good,
    ientleman. // I wisse, then three yeares trauell abrode spent in
    _Italie_.  And I meruell this booke, is no more read in the Court,
    than it is, seying it is so well translated into English by a worthie
    Syr _Tho._ // Ientleman Syr _Th. Hobbie_, who was many wayes
    _Hobbye._ // well furnished with learnyng, and very expert in
    knowledge of diuers tonges.
         And beside good preceptes in bookes, in all kinde of tonges,
    this Court also neuer lacked many faire examples, for yong
    Examples // ientlemen to folow: And surelie, one example,
    better than // is more valiable, both to good and ill, than xx.
    preceptes. // preceptes written in bookes: and so _Plato_, not in
    one or two, but diuerse places, doth plainlie teach.

    _the brynging vp of youth._     219

         If kyng _Edward_ had liued a litle longer, his onely example
    had breed soch a rase of worthie learned ientlemen, // _King Ed._ 6.
    as this Realme neuer yet did affourde.
         And, in the second degree, two noble Primeroses of
    Nobilitie, the yong Duke of Suffolke, and Lord // The yong
    _H. Matreuers_, were soch two examples to the // Duke of
    Court for learnyng, as our tyme may rather wishe, // Suffolke.
    than looke for agayne. // _L. H. Mar-_
    // _treuers._
         At Cambrige also, in S. Iohns Colledge, in
    my tyme, I do know, that, not so much the good statutes, as two
    Ientlemen, of worthie memorie Syr _Iohn Cheke_, // _Syr John_
    and Doctour _Readman_, by their onely example // _Cheke._
    of excellency in learnyng, of godlynes in liuyng, of
    diligencie in studying, of councell in exhorting, of good order in
    all thyng, did breed vp, so many learned men, in // _D. Read-_
    that one College of S. Iohns, at one time, as I // _man._
    beleue, the whole Vniuersitie of _Louaine_, in many
    yeares, was neuer able to affourd.
         Present examples of this present tyme, I list not to
    touch: yet there is one example, for all the Ien- // _Queene_
    tlemen of this Court to folow, that may well // _Elisabeth._
    satisfie them, or nothing will serue them, nor no
    example moue them, to goodnes and learning.
         It is your shame, (I speake to you all, you yong Ientlemen
    of England) that one mayd should go beyond you all, in excel-
    lencie of learnyng, and knowledge of diuers tonges.  Pointe
    forth six of the best giuen Ientlemen of this Court, and all they
    together, shew not so much good will, spend not so much tyme,
    bestow not so many houres, dayly orderly, & constantly, for the
    increase of learning & knowledge, as doth the Queenes Maiestie
    her selfe.  Yea I beleue, that beside her perfit readines, in
    _Latin, Italian, French_, & _Spanish_, she readeth here now at
    Windsore more Greeke euery day, than some Prebendarie of
    this Chirch doth read _Latin_ in a whole weeke.  And that
    which is most praise worthie of all, within the walles of her
    priuie chamber, she hath obteyned that excellencie of learnyng,
    to vnderstand, speake, & write, both wittely with head, and
    faire with hand, as scarse one or two rare wittes in both the
    Vniuersities haue in many yeares reached vnto.  Amongest
    all the benefites y^t God hath blessed me with all, next the

    220     _The first booke teachyng_

    knowledge of Christes true Religion, I counte this the greatest,
    that it pleased God to call me, to be one poore minister in
    settyng forward these excellent giftes of learnyng in this most
    excellent Prince.  Whose onely example, if the rest of our
    Ill Exam- // nobilitie would folow, than might England be,
    ples haue // for learnyng and wisedome in nobilitie, a spectacle
    more force, // to all the world beside.  But see the mishap of
    then good // men: The best examples haue neuer such forse
    examples. // to moue to any goodnes, as the bad, vaine, light
    and fond, haue to all ilnes.
         And one example, though out of the compas of learning,
    yet not out of the order of good maners, was notable in this
    Courte, not fullie xxiiij. yeares a go, when all the actes of
    Parlament, many good Proclamations, diuerse strait commanude-
    mentes, sore punishment openlie, speciall regarde priuatelie, cold
    not do so moch to take away one misorder, as the example of
    one big one of this Courte did, still to kepe vp the same: The
    memorie whereof, doth yet remaine, in a common prouerbe of
    Birching lane.
         Take hede therfore, ye great ones in y^e Court, yea though
    Great men // ye be y^e greatest of all, take hede, what ye do,
    in Court, // take hede how ye liue.  For as you great ones
    by their // vse to do, so all meane men loue to do.  You be
    example, // in deed, makers or marrers, of all mens maners
    make or // within the Realme.  For though God hath placed
    marre, all // yow, to be cheife in making of lawes, to beare
    other mens // greatest authoritie, to commaund all others: yet
    maners. // God doth order, that all your lawes, all your authoritie, all your
    commaundementes, do not halfe so moch with meane men, as
    Example // doth your example and maner of liuinge.  And
    in Religion. // for example euen in the greatest matter, if yow
    your selues do serue God gladlie and orderlie for
    conscience sake, not coldlie, and somtyme for maner sake, you
    carie all the Courte with yow, and the whole Realme beside,
    earnestlie and orderlie to do the same.  If yow do otherwise,
    yow be the onelie authors, of all misorders in Religion, not
    onelie to the Courte, but to all England beside.  Infinite shall
    be made cold in Religion by your example, that neuer were
    hurt by reading of bookes.
         And in meaner matters, if three or foure great ones in

    _the brynging vp of youth._     221

    Courte, will nedes outrage in apparell, in huge hose, in mon-
    strous hattes, in gaurishe colers, let the Prince Pro- // Example
    clame, make Lawes, order, punishe, commaunde // in apparell.
    euerie gate in London dailie to be watched, let all
    good men beside do euerie where what they can, surelie the
    misorder of apparell in mean men abrode, shall neuer be
    amended, except the greatest in Courte will order and mend
    them selues first.  I know, som greate and good ones in Courte,
    were authors, that honest Citizens of London, shoulde watche
    at euerie gate, to take misordered persones in apparell.  I know,
    that honest Londoners did so: And I sawe, which I saw than,
    & reporte now with some greife, that som Courtlie men were
    offended with these good men of London.  And that, which
    greued me most of all, I sawe the verie same tyme, for all theis
    good orders, commaunded from the Courte and executed in
    London, I sawe I say, cum out of London, euen // Masters,
    vnto the presence of the Prince, a great rable of // Vshers, &
    meane and light persons, in apparell, for matter, // Scholers
    against lawe, for making, against order, for facion, // of fense.
    namelie hose, so without all order, as he thought himselfe most
    braue, that durst do most in breaking order and was most
    monsterous in misorder.  And for all the great commaunde-
    mentes, that came out of the Courte, yet this bold misorder,
    was winked at, and borne withall, in the Courte.  I thought,
    it was not well, that som great ones of the Court, durst declare
    themselues offended, with good men of London, for doinge their
    dewtie, & the good ones of the Courte, would not shew them-
    selues offended, with ill men of London, for breaking good
    order.  I fownde thereby a sayinge of _Socrates_ to be most trewe
    that ill men be more hastie, than good men be forwarde, to
    prosecute their purposes, euen as Christ himselfe saith, of the
    Children of light and darknes.
         Beside apparell, in all other thinges to, not so moch, good
    lawes and strait commaundementes as the example and maner
    of liuing of great men, doth carie all meane men euerie where,
    to like, and loue, & do, as they do.  For if but two or three
    noble men in the Court, wold but beginne to // Example
    shoote, all yong Ientlemen, the whole Court, all // in shoo-
    London, the whole Realme, wold straight waie // tyng.
    exercise shooting.

    222     _The first booke teachyng_

         What praise shold they wynne to themselues, what com-
    moditie shold they bring to their contrey, that would thus
    deserue to be pointed at: Beholde, there goeth, the author of
    good order, the guide of good men.  I cold say more, and yet
    not ouermuch.  But perchance, som will say, I haue stepte to
    farre, out of my schole, into the common welthe, from teaching
    Written not // a yong scholer, to monishe greate and noble men:
    for great // yet I trust good and wise men will thinke and
    men, but for // iudge of me, that my minde was, not so moch,
    great mens // to be busie and bold with them, that be great
    children. // now, as to giue trewe aduise to them, that may
    be great hereafter.  Who, if they do, as I wishe them to do,
    how great so euer they be now, by blood and other mens
    meanes, they shall becum a greate deale greater hereafter, by
    learninge, vertue, and their owne desertes: which is trewe praise,
    right worthines, and verie Nobilitie in deede.  Yet, if som will
    needes presse me, that I am to bold with great men, & stray to
    Ad Philip. // farre from my matter, I will aunswere them with
    _S. Paul, siue perc ontentionem, siue quocunqe modo,
    modò Christus prædicetur, &c._ euen so, whether in place, or out
    of place, with my matter, or beside my matter, if I can hereby
    either prouoke the good, or staye the ill, I shall thinke my
    writing herein well imployed.
         But, to cum downe, from greate men, and hier matters, to
    my litle children, and poore scholehouse againe, I will, God
    willing, go forwarde orderlie, as I purposed, to instructe
    Children and yong men, both for learninge and maners.
         Hitherto, I haue shewed, what harme, ouermoch feare
    bringeth to children: and what hurte, ill companie, and ouer-
    moch libertie breedeth in yougthe: meening thereby, that from
    seauen yeare olde, to seauentene, loue is the best allurement to
    learninge: from seauentene to seauen and twentie, that wise
    men shold carefullie see the steppes of yougthe surelie staide by
    good order, in that most slipperie tyme: and speciallie in the
    Courte, a place most dangerous for yougthe to liue in, without
    great grace, good regarde, and diligent looking to.
         Syr _Richard Sackuile_, that worthy Ientlemen of worthy
    Trauelyng // memorie, as I sayd in the begynnynge, in the
    into Ita- // Queenes priuie Chamber at Windesore, after he
    lie. // had talked with me, for the right choice of a good

    _the brynging vp of youth._     223

    witte in a child for learnyng, and of the trewe difference betwixt
    quicke and hard wittes, of alluring yong children by ientlenes
    to loue learnyng, and of the speciall care that was to be had, to
    keepe yong men from licencious liuyng, he was most earnest
    with me, to haue me say my mynde also, what I thought,
    concernyng the fansie that many yong Ientlemen of England
    haue to trauell abroad, and namely to lead a long lyfe in Italie.
    His request, both for his authoritie, and good will toward me,
    was a sufficient commaundement vnto me, to satisfie his
    pleasure, with vtteryng plainlie my opinion in that matter.
    Syr quoth I, I take goyng thither, and liuing there, for a yonge
    ientleman, that doth not goe vnder the kepe and garde of such
    a man, as both, by wisedome can, and authoritie dare rewle him,
    to be meruelous dangerous.  And whie I said so than, I will
    declare at large now: which I said than priuatelie, and write
    now openlie, not bicause I do contemne, either the knowledge
    of strange and diuerse tonges, and namelie the // The Ita-
    Italian tonge, which next the Greeke and Latin // lian tong.
    tonge, I like and loue aboue all other: or else
    bicause I do despise, the learning that is gotten, or the experi-
    ence that is gathered in strange contries: or for any priuate
    malice that beare to Italie: which contrie, and // Italia.
    in it, namelie Rome, I haue alwayes speciallie
    honored: bicause, tyme was, whan Italie and // Roma.
    Rome, haue bene, to the greate good of vs that now liue, the
    best breeders and bringers vp, of the worthiest men, not onelie
    for wise speakinge, but also for well doing, in all Ciuill affaires,
    that euer was in the worlde.  But now, that tyme is gone, and
    though the place remayne, yet the olde and present maners, do
    differ as farre, as blacke and white, as vertue and vice.  Vertue
    once made that contrie Mistres ouer all the worlde.  Vice now
    maketh that contrie slaue to them, that before, were glad to
    serue it.  All men seeth it: They themselues confesse it,
    namelie soch, as be best and wisest amongest them.  For sinne,
    by lust and vanitie, hath and doth breed vp euery where,
    common contempt of Gods word, priuate contention in many
    families, open factions in euery Citie: and so, makyng them
    selues bonde, to vanitie and vice at home, they are content to
    beare the yoke of seruyng straungers abroad.  _Italie_ now, is not
    that _Italie_, that it was wont to be: and therfore now, not so

    224     _The first booke teachyng_

    fitte a place, as some do counte it, for yong men to fetch either
    wisedome or honestie from thence.  For surelie, they will make
    other but bad Scholers, that be so ill Masters to them selues.
    Yet, if a ientleman will nedes trauell into _Italie_, he shall do
    well, to looke on the life, of the wisest traueler, that euer
    traueled thether, set out by the wisest writer, that euer spake
    with tong, Gods doctrine onelie excepted: and that is _Vlysses_ in
    _Vlysses._ // _Homere_.  _Vlysses_, and his trauell, I wishe our
    _Homere._ // trauelers to looke vpon, not so much to feare
    them, with the great daungers, that he many
    tymes suffered, as to instruct them, with his excellent wisedome,
    which he alwayes and euerywhere vsed.  Yea euen those, that
    be learned and wittie trauelers, when they be disposed to prayse
    traueling, as a great commendacion, and the best Scripture they
    haue for it, they gladlie recite the third verse of _Homere_, in his
    first booke of _Odyssea_, conteinyng a great prayse of _Vlysses_, for
    odys. a. // the witte he gathered, & wisdome he vsed in
    his traueling.
         Which verse, bicause, in mine opinion, it was not made at
    the first, more naturallie in _Greke_ by _Homere_, nor after turned
    more aptlie into _Latin_ by _Horace_, than it was a good while
    ago, in Cambrige, translated into English, both plainlie for the
    sense, and roundlie for the verse, by one of the best Scholers,
    that euer S. Iohns Colledge bred, _M. Watson_, myne old frend,
    somtime Bishop of Lincolne, therfore, for their sake, that haue
    lust to see, how our English tong, in auoidyng barbarous
    ryming, may as well receiue, right quantitie of sillables, and
    trewe order of versifiyng (of which matter more at large here-
    after) as either _Greke_ or _Latin_, if a cunning man haue it in
    handling, I will set forth that one verse in all three tonges, for
    an Example to good wittes, that shall delite in like learned
    pollon d anthropon iden astea kai noon egno.
    _Qui mores hominum multorum vidit & vrbes._
    M. Watson.
    _All trauellers do gladly report great prayse of Vlysses,
    For that he knew many mens maners, and saw many Cities._

    _the brynging vp of youth._     225

         And yet is not _Vlysses_ commended, so much, nor so oft, in
    _Homere_, bicause he was polytropos, that is, // |                        {polytropos.
    skilfull in many mens manners and facions, as //         | _Vlyss._ {
    bicause he was polymetis, that is, wise in all //            |                         { polymetis.
    purposes, & ware in all places: which wisedome and warenes
    will not serue neither a traueler, except _Pallas_ be // _Pallas_ from
    alwayes at his elbow, that is Gods speciall grace // heauen.
    from heauen, to kepe him in Gods feare, in all
    his doynges, in all his ieorneye.  For, he shall not alwayes
    in his absence out of England, light vpon a
    ientle _Alcynous_, and walke in his faire gardens                // | _Alcynous._ od. 2.
    full of all harmelesse pleasures: but he shall                                  // |
    sometymes, fall, either into the handes of some                            // |
    cruell _Cyclops_, or into the lappe of some wanton             // | _Cyclops._ od. 1.
    and dalying Dame _Calypso_: and so suffer the                    // | _Calypso._ od. e.
    danger of many a deadlie Denne, not so full of                             // |
    perils, to distroy the body, as, full of vayne                                   // |
    pleasures, to poyson the mynde.  Some _Siren_                   //  | _Sirenes._  }
    shall sing him a song, sweete in tune, but                                     //  |                             }
    sownding in the ende, to his vtter destruction.                             //  | _Scylla._     } od.
    If _Scylla_ drowne him not, _Carybdis_ may fortune //  | _Caribdis._ }
    swalow hym.  Some _Circes_ shall make him, of               //  | _Circes._ od. k.
    a plaine English man, a right _Italian_.  And at
    length to hell, or to some hellish place, is he likelie to go: from
    whence is hard returning, although one _Vlysses_, and that by
    _Pallas_ ayde, and good counsell of _Tiresias_ once // od. l.
    escaped that horrible Den of deadly darkenes.
         Therfore, if wise men will nedes send their sonnes into
    _Italie_, let them do it wiselie, vnder the kepe and garde of him,
    who, by his wisedome and honestie, by his example and
    authoritie, may be hable to kepe them safe and sound, in the
    feare of God, in Christes trewe Religion, in good order and
    honestie of liuyng: except they will haue them run headling,
    into ouermany ieoperdies, as _Vlysses_ had done many tymes, if
    _Pallas_ had not alwayes gouerned him: if he had not vsed, to
    stop his eares with waxe: to bind him selfe to // od. m.
    the mast of his shyp: to feede dayly, vpon that // od. k.
    swete herbe _Moly_ with the blake roote and // Moly Her-
    white floore, giuen vnto hym by Mercurie, to // ba.
    auoide all the inchantmentes of _Circes_.  Wherby, the Diuine

    226     _The first booke teachyng_

    Poete _Homer_ ment couertlie (as wise and Godly men do iudge)
    Psal. 33. // that loue of honestie, and hatred of ill, which
    _Dauid_ more plainly doth call the feare of God:
    the onely remedie agaynst all inchantementes of sinne.
         I know diuerse noble personages, and many worthie Ientle-
    men of England, whom all the _Siren_ songes of _Italie_, could
    neuer vntwyne from the maste of Gods word: nor no inchant-
    ment of vanitie, ouerturne them, from the feare of God, and
    loue of honestie.
         But I know as many, or mo, and some, sometyme my
    deare frendes, for whose sake I hate going into that countrey the
    more, who, partyng out of England feruent in the loue of
    Christes doctrine, and well furnished with the feare of God,
    returned out of _Italie_ worse transformed, than euer was any in
    _Circes_ Court.  I know diuerse, that went out of England, men
    of innocent life, men of excellent learnyng, who returned out
    of _Italie_, not onely with worse maners, but also with lesse
    learnyng: neither so willing to liue orderly, nor yet so hable to
    speake learnedlie, as they were at home, before they went
    abroad.  And why?  _Plato_ y^t wise writer, and worthy
    traueler him selfe, telleth the cause why.  He went into _Sicilia_,
    a countrey, no nigher _Italy_ by site of place, than _Italie_ that is
    now, is like _Sicilia_ that was then, in all corrupt maners and
    licenciousnes of life.  _Plato_ found in _Sicilia_, euery Citie full of
    vanitie, full of factions, euen as _Italie_ is now.  And as _Homere_,
    like a learned Poete, doth feyne, that _Circes_, by pleasant in-
    chantmentes, did turne men into beastes, some into Swine, som
    into Asses, some into Foxes, some into Wolues etc. euen so
    Plat. ad // _Plato_, like a wise Philosopher, doth plainelie
    Dionys. // declare, that pleasure, by licentious vanitie, that
    Epist. 3. // sweete and perilous poyson of all youth, doth
    ingender in all those, that yeld vp themselues to her, foure
    notorious properties.
                             {1. lethen
    The fruits //                {2. dysmathian
    of vayne //                 {3. achrosynen
    pleasure. //                {4. ybrin.
         The first, forgetfulnes of all good thinges learned before:
    Causes // the second, dulnes to receyue either learnyng or
    why men // honestie euer after: the third, a mynde embracing

    _the brynging vp of youth._     227

    lightlie the worse opinion, and baren of discretion // returne out
    to make trewe difference betwixt good and ill, // of Italie,
    betwixt troth, and vanitie, the fourth, a proude // lesse lear-
    disdainfulnes of other good men, in all honest // ned and
    matters.  _Homere_ and _Plato_, haue both one // worse ma-
    meanyng, looke both to one end.  For, if a man // nered.
    inglutte himself with vanitie, or walter in filthi- // _Homer_ and
    nes like a Swyne, all learnyng, all goodnes, is // _Plato_ ioy-
    sone forgotten: Than, quicklie shall he becum // ned and ex-
    a dull Asse, to vnderstand either learnyng or //pounded.
    honestie: and yet shall he be as sutle as a Foxe, // A Swyne.
    in breedyng of mischief, in bringyng in misorder, // An Asse.
    with a busie head, a discoursing tong, and a factious harte, in // A Foxe.
    euery priuate affaire, in all matters of state, with this pretie
    propertie, alwayes glad to commend the worse // aphrosyne,
    partie, and euer ready to defend the falser // Quid, et
    opinion.  And why?  For, where will is giuen // vnde.
    from goodnes to vanitie, the mynde is sone caryed from right
    iudgement, to any fond opinion, in Religion, in Philosophie, or
    any other kynde of learning.  The fourth fruite of vaine
    pleasure, by _Homer_ and _Platos_ iudgement, is pride // hybris.
    in them selues, contempt of others, the very
    badge of all those that serue in _Circes_ Court.  The trewe
    meenyng of both _Homer_ and _Plato_, is plainlie declared in one
    short sentence of the holy Prophet of God // Hieremias
    _Hieremie_, crying out of the vaine & vicious life // 4. Cap.
    of the _Israelites_.  This people (sayth he) be
    fooles and dulhedes to all goodnes, but sotle, cunning and
    bolde, in any mischiefe. &c.
         The true medicine against the inchantmentes of _Circes_,
    the vanitie of licencious pleasure, the inticementes of all sinne,
    is, in _Homere_, the herbe _Moly_, with the blacke roote, and white
    flooer, sower at the first, but sweete in the end: which,
    _Hesiodus_ termeth the study of vertue, hard and // Hesiodus
    irksome in the beginnyng, but in the end, easie // de virtute.
    and pleasant.  And that, which is most to be
    marueled at, the diuine Poete _Homere_ sayth plainlie that this
    medicine against sinne and vanitie, is not found // Homerus,
    out by man, but giuen and taught by God.  And // diuinus
    for some one sake, that will haue delite to read // Poeta.

    228     _The first booke teachyng_

    that sweete and Godlie Verse, I will recite the very wordes of
    _Homere_ and also turne them into rude English metre.

                        chalepon de t oryssein
         andrasi ge thnetoisi, theoi de te panta dynantai.

    In English thus.

       _No mortall man, with sweat of browe, or toile of minde,
       But onely God, who can do all, that herbe doth finde._

         _Plato_ also, that diuine Philosopher, hath many Godly
    medicines agaynst the poyson of vayne pleasure, in many
    places, but specially in his Epistles to _Dionisius_ the tyrant of
    Plat. ad // _Sicilie_: yet agaynst those, that will nedes becum
    Dio. // beastes, with seruyng of _Circes_, the Prophet
    _Psal._ 32 // _Dauid_, crieth most loude, _Nolite fieri sicut equus et
    mulus_: and by and by giueth the right medi-
    cine, the trewe herbe _Moly, In camo & freno maxillas
    eorum constringe_, that is to say, let Gods grace be the bitte,
    let Gods feare be the bridle, to stay them from runnyng head-
    long into vice, and to turne them into the right way agayne.
    _Psal._ 33. // _Dauid_ in the second Psalme after, giueth the
    same medicine, but in these plainer wordes,
    _Diuerte à malo, & fac bonum_.  But I am affraide, that ouer
    many of our trauelers into _Italie_, do not exchewe the way to
    _Circes_ Court: but go, and ryde, and runne, and flie thether,
    they make great hast to cum to her: they make great sute to
    serue her: yea, I could point out some with my finger, that
    neuer had gone out of England, but onelie to serue _Circes_, in
    _Italie_.  Vanitie and vice, and any licence to ill liuyng in
    England was counted stale and rude vnto them.  And so, beyng
    Mules and Horses before they went, returned verie Swyne and
    Asses home agayne: yet euerie where verie Foxes with suttle
    A trewe // and busie heades; and where they may, verie
    Picture of // wolues, with cruell malicious hartes.  A mer-
    a knight of // uelous monster, which, for filthines of liuyng, for
    Circes // dulnes to learning him selfe, for wilinesse in
    Court. // dealing with others, for malice in hurting without
    cause, should carie at once in one bodie, the belie of a Swyne,
    the head of an Asse, the brayne of a Foxe, the wombe of
    a wolfe.  If you thinke, we iudge amisse, and write to sore

    _the brynging vp of youth._     229

    against you, heare, what the _Italian_ sayth of the English man,
    what the master reporteth of the scholer: who // The Ita-
    vttereth playnlie, what is taught by him, and what // lians iudge-
    learned by you, saying, _Englese Italianato, e vn_ // ment of
    _diabolo incarnato_, that is to say, you remaine men // Englishmen
    in shape and facion, but becum deuils in life // brought vp
    and condition.  This is not, the opinion of one, // in Italie.
    for some priuate spite, but the iudgement of all, in a common
    Prouerbe, which riseth, of that learnyng, and those maners,
    which you gather in _Italie_: a good Scholehouse // The Ita-
    of wholesome doctrine: and worthy Masters of // lian diffa-
    commendable Scholers, where the Master had // meth him
    rather diffame hym selfe for hys teachyng, than // selfe, to
    not shame his Scholer for his learning.  A good // shame the
    nature of the maister, and faire conditions of the // Englishe
    scholers.  And now chose you, you _Italian_ English men, // man.
    whether you will be angrie with vs, for calling you monsters,
    or with the _Italianes_, for callyng you deuils, or else with your
    owne selues, that take so much paines, and go so farre, to make
    your selues both.  If some yet do not well vnder- // An Eng-
    stand, what is an English man Italianated, I will // lish man
    plainlie tell him.  He, that by liuing, & traueling // Italiana-
    in _Italie_, bringeth home into England out of _Italie_, // ted.
    the Religion, the learning, the policie, the experience, the maners
    of _Italie_.  That is to say, for Religion, // |   {1 Religion.}
    Papistrie or worse: for learnyng, lesse //             |   {2 Learn-    }
    commonly than they caried out with //               |   {      ing.      }
    them: for pollicie, a factious hart, a //                |   {3 Pollicie.  }
    discoursing head, a mynde to medle in //           |The{                  }gotten in
    all mens matters: for experience, //                    |   {4 Experi-   }_Italie_.
    plentie of new mischieues neuer //                     |   {      ence.    }
    knowne in England before: for maners, //         |   {5 Maners.    }
    varietie of vanities, and chaunge of //               |
    filthy lyuing.  These be the inchantementes of _Circes_, brought
    out of _Italie_, to marre mens maners in England: much, by
    example of ill life, but more by preceptes of fonde // _Italian_
    bookes, of late translated out of _Italian_ into // bokes trans-
    English, sold in euery shop in London, com- // lated into
    mended by honest titles the soner to corrupt // English.
    honest maners: dedicated ouer boldlie to vertuous and honor-

    230     _The first booke teachyng_

    able personages, the easielier to begile simple and innocent wittes.
    hand.gif // It is pitie, that those, which haue authoritie and
    charge, to allow and dissalow bookes to be printed,
    be no more circumspect herein, than they are.  Ten Sermons
    at Paules Crosse do not so moch good for mouyng men to trewe
    doctrine, as one of those bookes do harme, with inticing men
    to ill liuing.  Yea, I say farder, those bookes, tend not so moch
    to corrupt honest liuyng, as they do, to subuert trewe Religion.
    Mo Papistes be made, by your mery bookes of _Italie_, than by
    your earnest bookes of _Louain_.  And bicause our great
    Phisicians, do winke at the matter, and make no counte of this
    sore, I, though not admitted one of their felowshyp, yet hauyng
    bene many yeares a prentice to Gods trewe Religion, and trust
    to continewe a poore iorney man therein all dayes of my life,
    for the dewtie I owe, & loue I beare, both to trewe doctrine,
    and honest liuing, though I haue no authoritie to amend the
    sore my selfe, yet I will declare my good will, to discouer the
    sore to others.
         S. Paul saith, that sectes and ill opinions, be the workes of
    Ad Gal. 5. // the flesh, and frutes of sinne, this is spoken, no
    more trewlie for the doctrine, than sensiblie for
    the reason.  And why?  For, ill doinges, breed ill thinkinges.
    And of corrupted maners, spryng peruerted iudgementes.  And
    Voluntas}                {Bonum.  | // how? there be in man two speciall
                  } Respicit. {               | // thinges: Mans will, mans mynde,
    Mens     }                 { Verum. | Where will inclineth to goodnes,
    the mynde is bent to troth: Where will is caried from goodnes
    to vanitie, the mynde is sone drawne from troth to false
    opinion.  And so, the readiest way to entangle the mynde with
    false doctrine, is first to intice the will to wanton liuyng.
    Therfore, when the busie and open Papistes abroad, could not,
    by their contentious bookes, turne men in England fast enough,
    from troth and right iudgement in doctrine, than the sutle and
    hand.gif // secrete Papistes at home, procured bawdie bookes
    to be translated out of the _Italian_ tonge, whereby
    ouer many yong willes and wittes allured to wantonnes, do now
    boldly contemne all seuere bookes that sounde to honestie and
    godlines.  In our forefathers tyme, whan Papistrie, as a standyng
    poole, couered and ouerflowed all England, fewe bookes were
    read in our tong, sauyng certaine bookes of Cheualrie, as they

    _the brynging vp of youth._     231

    sayd, for pastime and pleasure, which, as some say, were made
    in Monasteries, by idle Monkes, or wanton Chanons: as one
    for example, _Morte Arthure_: the whole pleasure // Morte Ar-
    of which booke standeth in two speciall poyntes, // thur.
    in open mans slaughter, and bold bawdrye: In which booke
    those be counted the noblest Knightes, that do kill most men
    without any quarell, and commit fowlest aduoulteries by
    sutlest shiftes: as Sir _Launcelote_, with the wife of king _Arthure_
    his master: Syr _Tristram_ with the wife of king _Marke_ his
    vncle: Syr _Lamerocke_ with the wife of king _Lote_, // hand.gif
    that was his own aunte.  This is good stuffe, for
    wise men to laughe at, or honest men to take pleasure at.  Yet
    I know, when Gods Bible was banished the Court, and _Morte
    Arthure_ receiued into the Princes chamber.  What toyes, the
    dayly readyng of such a booke, may worke in the will of a yong
    ientleman, or a yong mayde, that liueth welthelie and idlelie,
    wise men can iudge, and honest men do pitie.  And yet ten
    _Morte Arthures_ do not the tenth part so much harme, as one of
    these bookes, made in _Italie_, and translated in // hand.gif
    England.  They open, not fond and common
    wayes to vice, but such subtle, cunnyng, new, and diuerse
    shiftes, to cary yong willes to vanitie, and yong wittes to
    mischief, to teach old bawdes new schole poyntes, as the simple
    head of an English man is not hable to inuent, nor neuer was
    hard of in England before, yea when Papistrie ouerflowed all.
    Suffer these bookes to be read, and they shall soone displace all
    bookes of godly learnyng.  For they, carying the will to
    vanitie, and marryng good maners, shall easily // hand.gif
    corrupt the mynde with ill opinions, and false
    iudgement in doctrine: first, to thinke ill of all trewe Religion,
    and at last to thinke nothyng of God hym selfe, one speciall
    pointe that is to be learned in _Italie_, and _Italian_ // hand.gif
    bookes.  And that which is most to be lamented,
    and therfore more nedefull to be looked to, there be moe of
    these vngratious bookes set out in Printe within these fewe
    monethes, than haue bene sene in England many score yeare
    before.  And bicause our English men made _Italians_, can not
    hurt, but certaine persons, and in certaine places, therfore these
    _Italian_ bookes are made English, to bryng mischief enough

    232     _The first booke teachyng_

    openly and boldly, to all states great and meane, yong and old,
    euery where.
         And thus yow see, how will intised to wantonnes, doth
    easelie allure the mynde to false opinions: and how corrupt
    maners in liuinge, breede false iudgement in doctrine: how sinne
    and fleshlines, bring forth sectes and heresies: And therefore
    suffer not vaine bookes to breede vanitie in mens willes, if yow
    would haue Goddes trothe take roote in mens myndes.
         That Italian, that first inuented the Italian Prouerbe
    against our Englishe men Italianated, ment no more their
    The Ita- // vanitie in liuing, than their lewd opinion in
    lian pro- // Religion.  For, in calling them Deuiles, he carieth
    uerbe ex- // them cleane from God: and yet he carieth them
    pounded. // no farder, than they willinglie go themselues,
    that is, where they may freely say their mindes, to the open
    contempte of God and all godlines, both in liuing and doctrine.
         And how?  I will expresse how, not by a Fable of _Homere_,
    nor by the Philosophie of _Plato_, but by a plaine troth of
    Goddes word, sensiblie vttered by _Dauid_ thus.  Thies men,
    _abhominabiles facti in studijs suis_, thinke verily, and singe
    gladlie the verse before, _Dixit insipiens in Corde suo, non est_
    _Psa._ 14. // _Deus:_ that is to say, they geuing themselues vp to
    vanitie, shakinge of the motions of Grace, driuing
    from them the feare of God, and running headlong into all
    sinne, first, lustelie contemne God, than scornefullie mocke his
    worde, and also spitefullie hate and hurte all well willers
    thereof.  Than they haue in more reuerence, the triumphes of
    Petrarche: than the Genesis of Moses: They make more
    accounte of _Tullies_ offices, than _S. Paules_ epistles: of a tale in
    _Bocace_, than a storie of the Bible.  Than they counte as
    Fables, the holie misteries of Christian Religion.  They make
    Christ and his Gospell, onelie serue Ciuill pollicie: Than
    neyther Religion cummeth amisse to them: In tyme they be
    Promoters of both openlie: in place againe mockers of both
    priuilie, as I wrote once in a rude ryme.

         _Now new, now olde, now both, now neither,
         To serue the worldes course, they care not with whether._

         For where they dare, in cumpanie where they like, they

    _the brynging vp of youth._     233

    boldlie laughe to scorne both protestant and Papist.  They
    care for no scripture: They make no counte of generall
    councels: they contemne the consent of the Chirch: They passe
    for no Doctores: They mocke the Pope: They raile on _Luther_:
    They allow neyther side: They like none, but onelie
    themselues: The marke they shote at, the ende they looke for,
    the heauen they desire, is onelie, their owne present pleasure,
    and priuate proffit: whereby, they plainlie declare, of whose
    schole, of what Religion they be: that is, Epicures in liuing,
    and atheoi in doctrine: this last worde, is no more vnknowne
    now to plaine English men, than the Person was vnknown
    somtyme in England, vntill som Englishe man tooke peines, to
    fetch that deuelish opinion out of Italie.  Thies men, thus
    Italianated abroad, can not abide our Godlie // The Ita-
    Italian Chirch at home: they be not of that // lian Chirche
    Parish, they be not of that felowshyp: they like // in London.
    not y^t preacher: they heare not his sermons: Excepte som-
    tymes for companie, they cum thither, to heare the Italian tonge
    naturally spoken, not to hear Gods doctrine trewly preached.
         And yet, thies men, in matters of Diuinitie, openlie pretend
    a great knowledge, and haue priuatelie to them selues, a verie
    compendious vnderstanding of all, which neuertheles they will
    vtter when and where they liste: And that is this: All the
    misteries of _Moses_, the whole lawe and Cerimonies, the
    Psalmes and Prophetes, Christ and his Gospell, GOD and the
    Deuill, Heauen and Hell, Faith, Conscience, Sinne, Death, and
    all they shortlie wrap vp, they quickly expounde with this one
    halfe verse of _Horace_.
                        _Credat Iudæus Appella._
         Yet though in Italie they may freely be of no Religion, as
    they are in Englande in verie deede to, neuerthelesse returning
    home into England they must countenance the profession of
    the one or the other, howsoeuer inwardlie, they laugh to
    scorne both.  And though, for their priuate matters they can
    follow, fawne, and flatter noble Personages, contrarie to them
    in all respectes, yet commonlie they allie them- // Papistrie
    selues with the worst Papistes, to whom they be // and impie-
    wedded, and do well agree togither in three // tie agree in
    proper opinions: In open contempte of Goddes // three opini-
    worde: in a secret securitie of sinne: and in // ons.

    234     _The first booke teachyng_

    a bloodie desire to haue all taken away, by sword or burning,
    _Pigius._ // that be not of their faction.  They that do
    read, with indifferent iudgement, _Pygius_ and
    _Machiaue-_ // _Machiauel,/i>, two indifferent Patriarches of thies
    _lus._ // two Religions, do know full well that I say trewe.
         Ye see, what manners and doctrine, our Englishe men fetch
    out of Italie: For finding no other there, they can bring no
    Wise and // other hither.  And therefore, manie godlie and
    honest tra- // excellent learned Englishe men, not manie yeares
    uelers. // ago, did make a better choice, whan open crueltie
    draue them out of this contrie, to place themselues there, where
    _Germanie._ // Christes doctrine, the feare of God, punishment
    of sinne, and discipline of honestie, were had in
    speciall regarde.
         I was once in Italie my selfe: but I thanke God, my
    _Venice._ // abode there, was but ix. dayes: And yet I sawe
    in that litle tyme, in one Citie, more libertie to
    sinne, than euer I hard tell of in our noble Citie of London in
    _London._ // ix. yeare.  I sawe, it was there, as free to sinne,
    not onelie without all punishment, but also
    without any mans marking, as it is free in the Citie of London,
    to chose, without all blame, whether a man lust to weare Shoo
    or pantocle.  And good cause why: For being vnlike in troth
    of Religion, they must nedes be vnlike in honestie of liuing.
    Seruice of // For blessed be Christ, in our Citie of London,
    God in // commonlie the commandementes of God, be more
    England. // diligentlie taught, and the seruice of God more
    reuerentlie vsed, and that daylie in many priuate mens houses,
    Seruice of // than they be in Italie once a weeke in their
    God in I- // common Chirches: where, masking Ceremonies,
    talie. // to delite the eye, and vaine soundes, to please
    the eare, do quite thrust out of the Chirches, all seruice of
    The Lord // God in spirit and troth.  Yea, the Lord Maior
    Maior of // of London, being but a Ciuill officer, is com-
    London. // monlie for his tyme, more diligent, in punishing
    sinne, the bent enemie against God and good order, than all
    The In- // the bloodie Inquisitors in Italie be in seauen yeare.
    quisitors in // For, their care and charge is, not to punish
    Italie. // sinne, not to amend manners, not to purge
    doctrine, but onelie to watch and ouersee that Christes trewe

    _the brynging vp of youth._  235

    Religion set no sure footing, where the Pope hath any
    Iurisdiction.  I learned, when I was at _Venice_, that there it is
    counted good pollicie, when there be foure or fiue // An ungod-
    brethren of one familie, one, onelie to marie: & // lie pollicie.
    all the rest, to waulter, with as litle shame, in
    open lecherie, as Swyne do here in the common myre.  Yea,
    there be as fayre houses of Religion, as great prouision, as
    diligent officers, to kepe vp this misorder, as Bridewell is, and
    all the Masters there, to kepe downe misorder.  And therefore,
    if the Pope himselfe, do not onelie graunt pardons to furder
    thies wicked purposes abrode in Italie, but also (although this
    present Pope, in the beginning, made som shewe of misliking
    thereof) assigne both meede and merite to the maintenance of
    stewes and brothelhouses at home in Rome, than let wise men
    thinke Italie a safe place for holsom doctrine, and godlie
    manners, and a fitte schole for yong ientlemen of England to
    be brought vp in.
         Our Italians bring home with them other faultes from
    Italie, though not so great as this of Religion, yet a great deale
    greater, than many good men can well beare.  For commonlie
    they cum home, common contemners of mariage // Contempt
    and readie persuaders of all other to the same: // of mariage.
    not because they loue virginitie, but, being free in Italie, to go
    whither so euer lust will cary them, they do not like, that lawe
    and honestie should be soch a barre to their like libertie at
    home in England.  And yet they be, the greatest makers of
    loue, the daylie daliers, with such pleasant wordes, with such
    smilyng and secret countenances, with such signes, tokens,
    wagers, purposed to be lost, before they were purposed to be
    made, with bargaines of wearing colours, floures, and herbes,
    to breede occasion of ofter meeting of him and her, and bolder
    talking of this and that &c.  And although I haue seene some,
    innocent of all ill, and stayde in all honestie, that haue vsed
    these thinges without all harme, without all suspicion of harme,
    yet these knackes were brought first into England by them,
    that learned them before in _Italie_ in _Circes_ Court: and how
    Courtlie curtesses so euer they be counted now, yet, if the
    meaning and maners of some that do vse them, were somewhat

    236  _The first booke teachyng_

    amended, it were no great hurt, neither to them selues, nor to
         An other propertie of this our English _Italians_ is, to be
    meruelous singular in all their matters: Singular in knowledge,
    ignorant of nothyng: So singular in wisedome (in their owne
    opinion) as scarse they counte the best Counsellor the Prince
    hath, comparable to them: Common discoursers of all
    matters: busie searchers of most secret affaires: open flatterers
    of great men: priuie mislikers of good men: Faire speakers,
    with smiling countenances, and much curtessie openlie to all
    men.  Ready bakbiters, sore nippers, and spitefull reporters
    priuilie of good men.  And beyng brought vp in _Italie_, in some
    free Citie, as all Cities be there: where a man may freelie
    discourse against what he will, against whom he lust: against
    any Prince, agaynst any gouernement, yea against God him
    selfe, and his whole Religion: where he must be, either
    _Guelphe_ or _Gibiline_, either _French_ or _Spanish_: and alwayes
    compelled to be of some partie, of some faction, he shall neuer
    be compelled to be of any Religion: And if he medle not ouer
    much with Christes true Religion, he shall haue free libertie to
    embrace all Religions, and becum, if he lust at once, without
    any let or punishment, Iewish, Turkish, Papish, and Deuillish.
         A yong Ientleman, thus bred vp in this goodly schole, to
    learne the next and readie way to sinne, to haue a busie head,
    a factious hart, a talkatiue tonge, fed with discoursing of
    factions: led to contemne God and his Religion, shall cum
    home into England, but verie ill taught, either to be an honest
    man him self, a quiet subiect to his Prince, or willyng to serue
    God, vnder the obedience of trewe doctrine, or within the
    order of honest liuing.
         I know, none will be offended with this my generall
    writing, but onelie such, as finde them selues giltie priuatelie
    therin: who shall haue good leaue to be offended with me,
    vntill they begin to amende them selues.  I touch not them
    that be good: and I say to litle of them that be nought.  And
    so, though not enough for their deseruing, yet sufficientlie for
    this time, and more els when, if occasion so require.
         And thus farre haue I wandred from my first purpose of
    teaching a child, yet not altogether out of the way, bicause

    _the brynging vp of youth._  237

    this whole taulke hath tended to the onelie aduauncement of
    trothe in Religion, and honestie of liuing: and hath bene wholie
    within the compasse of learning and good maners, the speciall
    pointes belonging in the right bringyng vp of youth.
         But to my matter, as I began, plainlie and simplie
    with my yong Scholer, so will I not leaue him,
    God willing, vntill I haue brought him a per-
    fite Scholer out of the Schole, and placed
    him in the Vniuersitie, to becum a fitte
    student, for Logicke and Rhetoricke:
    and so after to Phisicke, Law, or
    Diuinitie, as aptnes of na-
    ture, aduise of frendes, and
    Gods disposition shall
    lead him.

    _The ende of the first booke._

    _The second booke._

    AFter that your scholer, as I sayd before, shall cum in
    deede, first, to a readie perfitnes in translating, than, to a
    ripe and skilfull choice in markyng out hys sixe pointes, as,
              {1.  _Proprium._
              {2.  _Translatum._
              {3.  _Synonymum._
              {4.  _Contrarium._
              {5.  _Diuersum._
              {6.  _Phrases._
         Than take this order with him: Read dayly vnto him,
    _Cicero._ // some booke of _Tullie_, as the third booke of
    _de Senectute_, Epistles chosen out by _Sturmius, de Amicitia_,
    or that excellent Epistle conteinyng almost the
    whole first book _ad Q. fra_: some Comedie of
    _Terentius._ // _Terence_ or _Plautus_: but in _Plautus_, skilfull
    _Plautus._ // must be vsed by the master, to traine his Scholler
    to a iudgement, in cutting out perfitelie ouer old and vnproper
    _Iul. Cæsar._ // wordes: _Cæs. Commentaries_ are to be read with
    all curiositie, in specially without all exception to
    be made, either by frende or foe, is seene, the vnspotted
    proprietie of the Latin tong, euen whan it was, as the _Grecians_
    say, in akme, that is, at the hiest pitch of all perfitenesse: or
    _T. Liuius._ // some Orations of _T. Liuius_, such as be both longest
    and plainest.
         These bookes, I would haue him read now, a good deale at
    euery lecture: for he shall not now vse dalie translation, but
    onely construe againe, and parse, where ye suspect, is any nede:
    yet, let him not omitte in these bookes, his former exercise, in

    _The ready way to the Latin tong._ 239

    marking diligently, and writyng orderlie out his six pointes.
    And for translating, vse you your selfe, euery second or thyrd
    day, to chose out, some Epistle _ad Atticum_, some notable
    common place out of his Orations, or some other part of
    _Tullie_, by your discretion, which your scholer may not know
    where to finde: and translate it you your selfe, into plaine
    naturall English, and than giue it him to translate into Latin
    againe: allowyng him good space and tyme to do it, both with
    diligent heede, and good aduisement.  Here his witte shalbe
    new set on worke: his iudgement, for right choice, trewlie
    tried: his memorie, for sure reteyning, better exercised, than
    by learning, any thing without the booke: & here, how much
    he hath proffited, shall plainly appeare.  Whan he bringeth it
    translated vnto you, bring you forth the place of _Tullie_: lay
    them together: compare the one with the other: commend his
    good choice, & right placing of wordes: Shew his faultes iently,
    but blame them not ouer sharply: for, of such missings, ientlie
    admonished of, proceedeth glad & good heed taking: of good
    heed taking, springeth chiefly knowledge, which after, groweth
    to perfitnesse, if this order, be diligentlie vsed by the scholer &
    iently handled by the master: for here, shall all the hard
    pointes of Grammer, both easely and surelie be learned vp:
    which, scholers in common scholes, by making of Latines, be
    groping at, with care & feare, & yet in many yeares, they
    scarse can reach vnto them.  I remember, whan I was yong,
    in the North, they went to the Grammer schole, litle children:
    they came from thence great lubbers: alwayes learning, and
    litle profiting: learning without booke, euery thing, vnder-
    standyng within the booke, litle or nothing: Their whole
    knowledge, by learning without the booke, was tied onely to
    their tong & lips, and neuer ascended vp to the braine & head,
    and therfore was sone spitte out of the mouth againe: They
    were, as men, alwayes goyng, but euer out of the way: and
    why?  For their whole labor, or rather great toyle without
    order, was euen vaine idlenesse without proffit.  In deed,
    they tooke great paynes about learning: but employed small
    labour in learning: Whan by this way prescribed in this
    booke, being streight, plaine, & easie, the scholer is alwayes
    laboring with pleasure, and euer going right on forward with
    proffit: always laboring I say, for, or he haue construed

    240  _The second booke teachyng_

    parced, twise translated ouer by good aduisement, marked out
    his six pointes by skilfull iudgement, he shall haue necessarie
    occasion, to read ouer euery lecture, a dosen tymes, at the
    least.  Which, bicause he shall do alwayes in order, he shall do
    it alwayes with pleasure: And pleasure allureth loue: loue hath
    lust to labor: labor alwayes obteineth his purpose, as most
    Rhet. 2 // trewly, both _Aristotle_ in his Rhetoricke & _Oedipus_
    In Oedip. Tyr. // in _Sophocles_ do teach, saying, pan gar ekponou-
    Epist. lib. 7. // menon aliske. _et. cet._ & this oft reading, is the
    verie right folowing, of that good Counsell, which
    _Plinie_ doth geue to his frende _Fuscus_, saying, _Multum, non
    multa_.  But to my purpose againe:
         Whan, by this diligent and spedie reading ouer, those
    forenamed good bokes of _Tullie, Terence, Cæsar_, and _Liuie_, and
    by this second kinde of translating out of your English, tyme
    shall breed skill, and vse shall bring perfection, than ye may
    trie, if you will, your scholer, with the third kinde of translation:
    although the two first wayes, by myne opinion, be, not onelie
    sufficent of them selues, but also surer, both for the Masters
    teaching, and scholers learnyng, than this third way is: Which
    is thus.  Write you in English, some letter, as it were from
    him to his father, or to some other frende, naturallie, according
    to the disposition of the child, or some tale, or fable, or plaine
    narration, according as _Aphthonius_ beginneth his exercises of
    learning, and let him translate it into Latin againe, abiding in
    soch place, where no other scholer may prompe him.  But yet,
    vse you your selfe soch discretion for choice therein, as the
    matter may be within the compas, both for wordes and
    sentences, of his former learning and reading.  And now
    take heede, lest your scholer do not better in some point, than
    you your selfe, except ye haue bene diligentlie exercised in these
    kindes of translating before:
         I had once a profe hereof, tried by good experience, by
    a deare frende of myne, whan I came first from Cambrige, to
    serue the Queenes Maiestie, than Ladie _Elizabeth_, lying at
    worthie Syr _Ant. Denys_ in Cheston.  _Iohn Whitneye_, a yong
    ientleman, was my bedfeloe, who willyng by good nature and
    prouoked by mine aduise, began to learne the Latin tong, after
    the order declared in this booke.  We began after Christmas:
    I read vnto him _Tullie de Amicitia_, which he did euerie day

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  241

    twise translate, out of Latin into English, and out of English
    into Latin agayne.  About S. Laurence tyde after, to proue
    how he proffited, I did chose out _Torquatus_ taulke _de Amicitia_,
    in the later end of the first booke _de finib._ bicause that place
    was, the same in matter, like in wordes and phrases, nigh to
    the forme and facion of sentences, as he had learned before in
    _de Amicitia_.  I did translate it my selfe into plaine English,
    and gaue it him to turne into Latin: Which he did, so choislie,
    so orderlie, so without any great misse in the hardest pointes of
    Grammer, that some, in seuen yeare in Grammer Scholes, yea,
    & some in the Vniuersities to, can not do halfe so well.  This
    worthie yong Ientleman, to my greatest grief, to the great
    lamentation of that whole house, and speciallie to that most
    noble Ladie, now Queene _Elizabeth_ her selfe, departed within
    few dayes, out of this world.
         And if in any cause, a man may without offence of God
    speake somewhat vngodlie, surely, it was some grief vnto me,
    to see him hie so hastlie to God, as he did.  A Court, full of
    soch yong Ientlemen, were rather a Paradise than a Court vpon
    earth.  And though I had neuer Poeticall head, to make any
    verse, in any tong, yet either loue, or sorrow, or both, did wring
    out of me than, certaine carefull thoughtes of my good will
    towardes him, which in my murning for him, fell forth, more
    by chance, than either by skill or vse, into this kinde of
    misorderlie meter.

    _Myne owne Iohn Whitney, now farewell, now death doth parte vs
    No death, but partyng for a while, whom life shall ioyne agayne.
    Therfore my hart cease sighes and sobbes, cease sorowes seede to sow,
    Wherof no gaine, but greater grief, and hurtfull care may grow.
    Yet, whan I thinke vpon soch giftes of grace as God him lent,
    My losse, his gaine, I must a while, with ioyfull teares lament.
    Yong yeares to yelde soch frute in Court, where seede of vice is sowne,
    Is sometime read, in some place seene, amongst vs seldom knowne.
    His life he ledde, Christes lore to learne, with will to worke the
    He read to know, and knew to liue, and liued to praise his name.
    So fast to frende, so foe to few, so good to euery weight,
    I may well wishe, but scarcelie hope, agayne to haue in sight._

    242  _The second booke teachyng_

    _The greater ioye his life to me, his death the greater payne:
    His life in Christ so surelie set, doth glad my hearte agayne:
    His life so good, his death better, do mingle mirth with care,
    My spirit with ioye, my flesh with grief, so deare a frend to spare.
    Thus God the good, while they be good, doth take, and leaues vs ill,
    That we should mend our sinfull life, in life to tary still.
    Thus, we well left, be better rest, in heauen to take his place,
    That by like life, and death, at last, we may obteine like grace.
    Myne owne Iohn Whiteney agayne fairewell, a while thus parte in
    Whom payne doth part in earth, in heauen great ioye shall ioyne

         In this place, or I procede farder, I will now declare, by
    whose authoritie I am led, and by what reason I am moued, to
    thinke, that this way of duble translation out of one tong into
    an other, in either onelie, or at least chiefly, to be exercised,
    speciallie of youth, for the ready and sure obteining of any
         There be six wayes appointed by the best learned men, for
    the learning of tonges, and encreace of eloquence, as

              {1.  _Translatio linguarum._
              {2.  _Paraphrasis._
              {3.  _Metaphrasis._
              {4.  _Epitome._
              {5.  _Imitatio._
              {6.  _Declamatio._

         All theis be vsed, and commended, but in order, and for
    respectes: as person, habilitie, place,  and tyme shall require.
    The fiue last, be fitter, for the Master, than the scholer: for
    men, than for children: for the vniuersities, rather than for
    Grammer scholes: yet neuerthelesse, which is, fittest in mine
    opinion, for our schole, and which is, either wholie to be
    refused, or partlie to be vsed for our purpose, I will, by good
    authoritie, and some reason, I trust perticularlie of euerie
    one, and largelie enough of them all, declare orderlie vnto you.

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  243

    ¶ _Translatio Linguarum._

         Translation, is easie in the beginning for the scholer, and
    bringeth also moch learning and great iudgement to the
    Master.  It is most common, and most commendable of all
    other exercises for youth: most common, for all your con-
    structions in Grammer scholes, be nothing els but translations:
    but because they be not double translations, as I do require,
    they bring forth but simple and single commoditie, and bicause
    also they lacke the daily vse of writing, which is the onely
    thing that breedeth deepe roote, buth in y^e witte, for good
    vnderstanding, and in y^e memorie, for sure keeping of all that
    is learned.  Most commendable also, & that by y^e iudgement of
    all authors, which intreate of theis exercises.
    _Tullie_ in the person of _L. Crassus_, whom he // 1. de Or.
    maketh his example of eloquence and trewe iudgement in
    learning, doth, not onely praise specially, and chose this way of
    translation for a yong man, but doth also discommend and
    refuse his owne former wont, in exercising _Paraphrasin &
    Metaphrasin.  Paraphrasis_ is, to take some eloquent Oration,
    or some notable common place in Latin, and expresse it with
    other wordes: _Metaphrasis_ is, to take some notable place out of
    a good Poete, and turn the same sens into meter, or into other
    wordes in Prose.  _Crassus_, or rather _Tullie_, doth mislike both
    these wayes, bicause the Author, either Orator or Poete, had
    chosen out before, the fittest wordes and aptest composition for
    that matter, and so he, in seeking other, was driuen to vse the
         _Quintilian_ also preferreth translation before all other
    exercises: yet hauing a lust, to dissent, from // Quint. x.
    _Tullie_ (as he doth in very many places, if a man
    read his Rhetoricke ouer aduisedlie, and that rather of an
    enuious minde, than of any iust cause) doth greatlie commend
    _Paraphrasis_, crossing spitefullie _Tullies_ iudgement in refusing
    the same: and so do _Ramus_ and _Talæus_ euen at this day in
    _France_ to.  But such singularitie, in dissenting from the best
    mens iudgementes, in liking onelie their owne opinions, is
    moch misliked of all them, that ioyne with learning, discretion,
    and wisedome.  For he, that can neither like _Aristotle_ in
    Logicke and Philosophie, nor _Tullie_ in Rhetoricke and

    244  _The second booke teachyng_

    Eloquence, will, from these steppes, likelie enough presume, by
    like pride, to mount hier, to the misliking of greater matters:
    that is either in Religion, to haue a dissentious head, or in the
    common wealth, to haue a factious hart: as I knew one
    a student in Cambrige, who, for a singularitie, began first to
    dissent, in the scholes, from _Aristotle_, and sone after became
    a peruerse _Arrian_, against Christ and all true Religion: and
    studied diligentlie _Origene, Basileus_, and _S. Hierome_, onelie to
    gleane out of their workes, the pernicious heresies of _Celsus,
    Eunomius_, and _Heluidius_, whereby the Church of Christ, was so
    poysoned withall.
         But to leaue these hye pointes of diuinitie, surelie, in this
    quiet and harmeles controuersie, for the liking, or misliking of
    _Paraphrasis_ for a yong scholer, euen as far, as _Tullie_ goeth
    beyond _Quintilian, Ramus_, and _Talæus_, in perfite Eloquence,
    * Plinius // euen so moch, by myne opinion, cum they
    Secundus. // behinde _Tullie_, for trew iudgement in teaching
    Plinius de- // the same.
    dit Quin- //      * _Plinius Secundus_, a wise Senator, of great
    tiliano // experience, excellentlie learned him selfe, a liberall
    præceptori // Patrone of learned men, and the purest writer, in
    suo, in ma- // myne opinion, of all his age, I except not
    trimonium // _Suetonius_, his two scholemasters _Quintilian_ and
    filiæ, 50000 // _Tacitus_, nor yet his most excellent learned Vncle, the Elder
    numum. // _Plinius_, doth expresse in an Epistle to his frende
    Epist. lib. 7, // _Fuscus_, many good wayes for order in studie:
    Epist. 9. // but he beginneth with translation, and preferreth
    it to all the rest: and bicause his wordes be notable, I will
    recite them.

    Vtile in primis, vt multi præcipiunt, ex Græco in Latinum, & ex
         Latino vertere in Græcum: Quo genere exercitationis, proprietas
         splendorque verborum, apta structura sententiarum, figurarum
         copia & explicandi vis colligitur.  Præterea, imitatione optimorum,
         facultas similia inueniendi paratur: & quæ legentem, fefellissent,
         transferentem fugere non possunt.  Intelligentia ex hoc, & iudicium

         Ye perceiue, how _Plinie_ teacheth, that by this exercise of
    double translating, is learned, easely, sensiblie, by litle and litle,
    not onelie all the hard congruities of Grammer, the choice of

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  245

    aptest wordes, the right framing of wordes and sentences,
    cumlines of figures and formes, fitte for euerie matter, and
    proper for euerie tong, but that which is greater also, in marking
    dayly, and folowing diligentlie thus, the steppes of the best
    Autors, like inuention of Argumentes, like order in disposition,
    like vtterance in Elocution, is easelie gathered vp: whereby
    your scholer shall be brought not onelie to like eloquence, but
    also, to all trewe vnderstanding and right iudgement, both for
    writing and speaking.  And where _Dionys. Halicarnassæus_ hath
    written two excellent bookes, the one, _de delectu optimorum
    verborum_, the which, I feare, is lost, the other, of the right
    framing of wordes and sentences, which doth remaine yet in
    Greeke, to the great proffet of all them, that trewlie studie for
    eloquence, yet this waie of double translating, shall bring the
    whole proffet of both these bookes to a diligent scholer, and that
    easelie and pleasantlie, both for fitte choice of wordes, and apt
    composition of sentences.  And by theis authorities and reasons
    am I moued to thinke, this waie of double translating, either
    onelie or chieflie, to be fittest, for the spedy and perfit atteyning
    of any tong.  And for spedy atteyning, I durst venture a good
    wager, if a scholer, in whom is aptnes, loue, diligence, &
    constancie, would but translate, after this sorte, one litle booke
    in _Tullie_, as _de senectute_, with two Epistles, the first _ad Q. fra:_
    the other _ad lentulum_, the last saue one, in the first booke, that
    scholer, I say, should cum to a better knowledge in the Latin
    tong, than the most part do, that spend foure or fiue yeares, in
    tossing all the rules of Grammer in common scholes.  In deede
    this one booke with these two Epistles, is not sufficient to
    affourde all Latin wordes (which is not necessarie for a yong
    scholer to know) but it is able to furnishe him fully, for all
    pointes of Grammer, with the right placing ordering, & vse of
    wordes in all kinde of matter.  And why not? for it is read,
    that _Dion. Prussæus_, that wise Philosopher, & excellent orator of
    all his tyme, did cum to the great learning & vtterance that was
    in him, by reading and folowing onelie two bookes, _Phædon
    Platonis_, and _Demosthenes_ most notable oration peri parapres-
    beias.  And a better, and nerer example herein, may be, our
    most noble Queene _Elizabeth_, who neuer toke yet, Greeke nor
    Latin Grammer in her hand, after the first declining of a
    nowne and a verbe, but onely by this double translating of

    246  _The second booke teachyng_

    _Demosthenes_ and _Isocrates_ dailie without missing euerie forenone,
    and likewise som part of Tullie euery afternone, for the space
    of a yeare or two, hath atteyned to soch a perfite vnderstanding
    in both the tonges, and to soch a readie vtterance of the latin,
    and that wyth soch a iudgement, as they be fewe in nomber in
    both the vniuersities, or els where in England, that be, in both
    tonges, comparable with her Maiestie.  And to conclude in
    a short rowme, the commodities of double translation, surelie
    the mynde by dailie marking, first, the cause and matter: than,
    the wordes and phrases: next, the order and composition: after
    the reason and argumentes: than the formes and figures of both
    the tonges: lastelie, the measure and compas of euerie sentence,
    must nedes, by litle and litle drawe vnto it the like shape of
    eloquence, as the author doth vse, which is red.
              And thus much for double translation.


         _Paraphrasis_, the second point, is not onelie to expresse at
    Lib. x. // large with moe wordes, but to striue and contend
    (as _Quintilian_ saith) to translate the best latin
    authors, into other latin wordes, as many or thereaboutes.
         This waie of exercise was vsed first by _C. Crabo_, and taken
    vp for a while, by _L. Crassus_, but sone after, vpon dewe profe
    thereof, reiected iustlie by _Crassus_ and _Cicero_: yet allowed and
    made sterling agayne by _M. Quintilian:_ neuerthelesse, shortlie
    after, by better assaye, disalowed of his owne scholer _Plinius
    Secundus_, who termeth it rightlie thus _Audax contentio_.  It is
    a bold comparison in deede, to thinke to say better, than that is
    best.  Soch turning of the best into worse, is much like the
    turning of good wine, out of a faire sweete flagon of siluer, into
    a foule mustie bottell of ledder: or, to turne pure gold and
    siluer, into foule brasse and copper.
         Such kinde of _Paraphrasis_, in turning, chopping, and
    changing, the best to worse, either in the mynte or scholes,
    (though _M. Brokke_ and _Quintilian_ both say the contrary) is
    moch misliked of the best and wisest men.  I can better allow
    an other kinde of _Paraphrasis_, to turne rude and barbarus, into
    proper and eloquent: which neuerthelesse is an exercise, not
    fitte for a scholer, but for a perfite master, who in plentie hath

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  247

    good choise, in copie hath right iudgement, and grounded skill,
    as did appeare to be in _Sebastian Castalio_, in translating _Kemppes_
    booke _de Imitando Christo_.
         But to folow _Quintilianus_ aduise for _Paraphrasis_, were euen
    to take paine, to seeke the worse and fowler way, whan the
    plaine and fairer is occupied before your eyes.
         The olde and best authors that euer wrote, were content
    if occasion required to speake twise of one matter, not to change
    the wordes, but rhetos, that is, worde for worde to expresse it
    againe.  For they thought, that a matter, well expressed with
    fitte wordes and apt composition, was not to be altered, but
    liking it well their selues, they thought it would also be well
    allowed of others.
         A scholemaster (soch one as I require) knoweth that I say
         He readeth in _Homer_, almost in euerie booke, and speciallie
    in _Secundo et nono Iliados_, not onelie som verses, // _Homerus._
    but whole leaues, not to be altered with new, //     {2.
    but to be vttered with the old selfe same wordes. // {IL. {
         He knoweth, that _Xenophon_, writing twise of //    {9.
    _Agesilaus_, once in his life, againe in the historie // _Xenophon._
    of the Greekes, in one matter, kepeth alwayes the selfe same
    wordes.  He doth the like, speaking of _Socrates_, both in the
    beginning of his Apologie and in the last ende of apomnemoneu-
         _Demosthenes_ also in 4. _Philippica_ doth borow his owne
    wordes vttered before in his oration _de Chersoneso_.
    He doth the like, and that more at large, in his // _Demost-_
    orations, against _Androtion_ and _Timocrates_. // _henes._
         In latin also, _Cicero_ in som places, and _Virgil_ in mo, do
    repeate one matter, with the selfe same wordes. // _Cicero._
    Thies excellent authors, did thus, not for lacke // _Virgilius._
    of wordes, but by iudgement and skill: whatso-
    euer, other, more curious, and lesse skilfull, do thinke, write,
    and do.
         _Paraphrasis_ neuerthelesse hath good place in learning, but
    not, by myne opinion, for any scholer, but is onelie to be left
    to a perfite Master, eyther to expound openlie a good author
    withall, or to compare priuatelie, for his owne exercise, how
    some notable place of an excellent author, may be vttered with

    248  _The second booke teachyng_

    other fitte wordes: But if ye alter also, the composition, forme,
    and order than that is not _Paraphrasis_, but _Imitatio_, as I will
    fullie declare in fitter place.
         The scholer shall winne nothing by _Paraphrasis_, but onelie,
    if we may beleue _Tullie_, to choose worse wordes, to place them
    out of order, to feare ouermoch the iudgement of the master, to
    mislike ouermuch the hardnes of learning, and by vse, to gather
    vp faultes, which hardlie will be left of againe.
         The master in teaching it, shall rather encrease hys owne
    labor, than his scholers proffet: for when the scholer shall bring
    vnto his master a peece of _Tullie_ or _Cæsar_ turned into other
    latin, then must the master cum to _Quintilians_ goodlie lesson _de
    Emendatione_, which, (as he saith) is the most profitable part of
    teaching, but not in myne opinion, and namelie for youthe in
    Grammer scholes.  For the master nowe taketh double paynes:
    first, to marke what is amisse: againe, to inuent what may be
    sayd better.  And here perchance, a verie good master may
    easelie both deceiue himselfe, and lead his scholer into error.
         It requireth greater learning, and deeper iudgement, than is
    to be hoped for at any scholemasters hand: that is, to be able
    alwaies learnedlie and perfitelie

              {_Mutare quod ineptum est:_
              {_Transmutare quod peruersum est:_
              {_Replere quod deest;_
              {_Detrahere quod obest:_
              {_Expungere quod inane est._

         And that, which requireth more skill, and deaper conside-

              {_Premere tumentia:_
              {_Extollere humilia:_
              {_Astringere luxuriantia:_
              {_Componere dissoluta._

         The master may here onelie stumble, and perchance faull in
    teaching, to the marring and mayning of the Scholer in learning,
    whan it is a matter, of moch readyng, of great learning, and
    tried iudgement, to make trewe difference betwixt

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  249

              {_Sublime, et Tumidum:_
              {_Grande, et immodicum:_
              {_Decorum, et ineptum:_
              {_Perfectum, et nimium._

         Some men of our time, counted perfite Maisters of eloquence,
    in their owne opinion the best, in other mens iudgements very
    good, as _Omphalius_ euerie where, _Sadoletus_ in many places, yea
    also my frende _Osorius_, namelie in his Epistle to the Queene &
    in his whole booke _de Iusticia_, haue so ouer reached them selues,
    in making trew difference in the poyntes afore rehearsed, as
    though they had bene brought vp in some schole in _Asia_, to
    learne to decline rather then in _Athens_ with _Plato, Aristotle_, and
    _Demosthenes_, (from whence _Tullie_ fetched his eloquence) to
    vnderstand, what in euerie matter, to be spoken or written on,
    is, in verie deede, _Nimium, Satis, Parum_, that is for to say, to
    all considerations, _Decorum_, which, as it is the hardest point, in
    all learning, so is it the fairest and onelie marke, that scholers, in
    all their studie, must alwayes shote at, if they purpose an other
    day to be, either sounde in Religion, or wise and discrete in any
    vocation of the common wealth.
         Agayne, in the lowest degree, it is no low point of learnyng
    and iudgement for a Scholemaster, to make trewe difference

              {_Humile & depressum:_
              {_Lene & remissum:_
              {_Siccum & aridum:_
              {_Exile & macrum:_
              {_Inaffectatum & neglectum._

         In these poyntes, some, louing _Melancthon_ well, as he was
    well worthie, but yet not considering well nor wiselie, how he
    of nature, and all his life and studie by iudgement was wholly
    spent in _genere Disciplinabili_, that is, in teaching, reading, and
    expounding plainlie and aptlie schole matters, and therfore
    imployed thereunto a fitte, sensible, and caulme kinde of
    speaking and writing, some I say, with very well louyng,
    but not with verie well weying _Melancthones_ doinges,
    do frame them selues a style, cold, leane, and weake,
    though the matter be neuer so warme & earnest, not moch
    vnlike vnto one, that had a pleasure, in a roughe, raynie, winter

    250  _The second booke teachyng_

    day, to clothe him selfe with nothing els, but a demie, bukram
    cassok, plaine without plites, and single with out lyning: which
    will neither beare of winde nor wether, nor yet kepe out the
    sunne, in any hote day.
         Some suppose, and that by good reason, that _Melancthon_
    Paraphra- // him selfe came to this low kinde of writing, by
    sis in vse of // vsing ouer moch _Paraphrasis_ in reading: For
    teaching, // studying therebie to make euerie thing streight
    hath hurt // and easie, in smothing and playning all things to
    _Melanch-_ // much, neuer leaueth, whiles the sence it selfe be
    _tons_ stile in // left, both lowse and lasie.  And some of those
    writing. // _Paraphrasis of Melancthon_ be set out in Printe, as,
    _Pro Archia Poeta, & Marco Marcello:_ But a scholer, by myne
    opinion, is better occupied in playing or sleping, than in
    spendyng time, not onelie vainlie but also harmefullie, in soch
    a kinde of exercise.
         If a Master woulde haue a perfite example to folow, how,
    in _Genere sublimi_, to auoide _Nimium_, or in _Mediocri_, to atteyne
    _Satis_, or in _Humili_, to exchew _Parum_, let him read diligently
    _Cicero._ // for the first, _Secundam Philippicam_, for the meane,
    _De Natura Deorum_, and for the lowest, _Partitiones_.
    Or, if in an other tong, ye looke for like example, in like
    _Demost-_ // perfection, for all those three degrees, read _Pro_
    _henes._ // _Ctesiphonte, Ad Leptinem, & Contra Olympiodorum_,
    and, what witte, Arte, and diligence is hable to
    affourde, ye shall plainely see.
         For our tyme, the odde man to performe all three perfitlie,
    whatsoeuer he doth, and to know the way to do them skilfullie,
    _Ioan. Stur._ // what so euer he list, is, in my poore opinion,
    _Ioannes Sturmius_.
         He also councelleth all scholers to beware of _Paraphrasis_,
    except it be, from worse to better, from rude and barbarous, to
    proper and pure latin, and yet no man to exercise that neyther,
    except soch one, as is alreadie furnished with plentie of learning,
    and grounded with stedfast iudgement before.
         All theis faultes, that thus manie wise men do finde with
    the exercise of _Paraphrasis_, in turning the best latin, into other,
    as good as they can, that is, ye may be sure, into a great deale
    worse, than it was, both in right choice for proprietie, and trewe
    placing, for good order is committed also commonlie in all

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  251

    common scholes, by the scholemasters, in tossing and trobling
    yong wittes (as I sayd in the beginning) with that boocherlie
    feare in making of Latins.
         Therefore, in place, of Latines for yong scholers, and of
    _Paraphrasis_ for the masters, I wold haue double translation
    specially vsed.  For, in double translating a perfite peece of
    _Tullie_ or _Cæsar_, neyther the scholer in learning, nor y^e
    in teaching can erre.  A true tochstone, a sure metwand lieth
    before both their eyes.  For, all right congruitie: proprietie of
    wordes: order in sentences: the right imitation, to inuent good
    matter, to dispose it in good order, to confirme it with good
    reason, to expresse any purpose fitlie and orderlie, is learned
    thus, both easelie & perfitlie: Yea, to misse somtyme in this
    kinde of translation, bringeth more proffet, than to hit right,
    either in _Paraphrasi_ or making of Latins.  For though ye say
    well, in a latin making, or in a _Paraphrasis_, yet you being but
    in doute, and vncertayne whether ye saie well or no, ye gather
    and lay vp in memorie, no sure frute of learning thereby: But
    if ye fault in translation, ye ar easelie taught, how perfitlie to
    amende it, and so well warned, how after to exchew, all soch
    faultes againe.
         _Paraphrasis_ therefore, by myne opinion, is not meete for
    Grammer scholes: nor yet verie fitte for yong men in the
    vniuersitie, vntill studie and tyme, haue bred in them, perfite
    learning, and stedfast iudgement.
         There is a kinde of _Paraphrasis_, which may be vsed, without
    all hurt, to moch proffet: but it serueth onely the Greke and
    not the latin, nor no other tong, as to alter _linguam Ionicam aut
    Doricam_ into _meram Atticam_: A notable example there is left
    vnto vs by a notable learned man _Diony_: _Halicarn_: who, in his
    booke, peri syntaxeos, doth translate the goodlie storie of
    _Candaules_ and _Gyges_ in 1. _Herodoti_, out of _Ionica lingua_,
    _Atticam_.  Read the place, and ye shall take, both pleasure and
    proffet, in conference of it.  A man, that is exercised in reading,
    _Thucydides, Xenophon, Plato_, and _Demosthenes_, in vsing to turne,
    like places of _Herodotus_, after like sorte, shold shortlie cum to
    soch a knowledge, in vnderstanding, speaking, and writing the
    Greeke tong, as fewe or none hath yet atteyned in England.
    The like exercise out of _Dorica lingua_ may be also vsed, if a
    man take that litle booke of _Plato, Timæus Locrus, de Animo et_

    252  _The second booke teachyng_

    _natura_, which is written _Dorice_, and turne it into soch Greeke,
    as _Plato_ vseth in other workes.  The booke, is but two leaues:
    and the labor wold be, but two weekes: but surelie the proffet,
    for easie vnderstanding, and trewe writing the Greeke tonge,
    wold conteruaile wyth the toile, that som men taketh, in
    otherwise coldlie reading that tonge, two yeares.
         And yet, for the latin tonge, and for the exercise of _Para-
    phrasis_, in those places of latin, that can not be bettered, if some
    yong man, excellent of witte, corragious in will, lustie of nature,
    and desirous to contend euen with the best latin, to better it, if
    he can, surelie I commend his forwardnesse, and for his better
    instruction therein, I will set before him, as notable an example
    of _Paraphrasis_, as is in Record of learning.  _Cicero_ him selfe,
    doth contend, in two sondrie places, to expresse one matter,
    with diuerse wordes: and that is _Paraphrasis_, saith _Quintillian_.
    The matter I suppose is taken out of _Panætius_: and therefore
    being translated out of Greeke at diuers times, is vttered for his
    purpose, with diuers wordes and formes: which kinde of exercise,
    for perfite learned men, is verie profitable.

              2.  De Finib.

         a.  _Homo enim Rationem habet à natura menti datam quæ, &
    causas rerum et consecutiones videt, & similitudines, transfert, &
    disiuncta coniungit, & cum præsentibus futura copulat, omnemque
    complectitur vitæ consequentis statum._  b.  _Eademque ratio facit
    hominem hominum appetentem, cumque his, natura, & sermone in vsu
    congruentem: vt profectus à caritate domesticorum ac suorum, currat
    longius, & se implicet, primò Ciuium, deinde omnium mortalium
    societati: vtque non sibi soli se natum meminerit, sed patriæ, sed suis,
    vt exigua pars ipsi relinquatur._  c.  _Et quoniam eadem natura
    cupiditatem ingenuit homini veri inueniendi, quod facillimè apparet,
    cum vacui curis, etiam quid in cœlo fiat, scire auemus, &c._

              1.  Officiorum.

         a.  _Homo autem, qui rationis est particeps, per quam conse-
    quentia cernit, & causas rerum videt, earumque progressus, et quasi
    antecessiones non ignorat, similitudines, comparat, rebusque præsentibus
    adiungit, atque annectit futuras, facile totius vitæ cursum videt, ad_

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  253

    _eamque degendam præparat res necessarias._  b.  _Eademque natura vi
    rationis hominem conciliat homini, & ad Orationis, & ad vitæ
    societatem: ingeneratque imprimis præcipuum quendam amorem in
    eos, qui procreati sunt, impellitque vt hominum cœtus & celebrari
    inter se, & sibi obediri velit, ob easque causas studeat parare ea,
    quæ suppeditent ad cultum & ad victum, nec sibi soli, sed coniugi,
    liberis, cæterisque quos charos habeat, tuerique debeat._  c.  _Quæ cura
    exsuscitat etiam animos, & maiores ad rem gerendam facit: impri-
    misque hominis est propria veri inquisitio atque inuestigatio: ita cum
    sumus necessarijs negocijs curisque vacui, tum auemus aliquid videre,
    audire, addiscere, cognitionemque rerum mirabilium.  &c._

         The conference of these two places, conteinyng so excellent
    a peece of learning, as this is, expressed by so worthy a witte,
    as _Tullies_ was, must needes bring great pleasure and proffit to
    him, that maketh trew counte, of learning and honestie.  But
    if we had the _Greke_ Author, the first Patterne of all, and therby
    to see, how _Tullies_ witte did worke at diuerse tymes, how, out
    of one excellent Image, might be framed two other, one in face
    and fauor, but somwhat differing in forme, figure, and color,
    surelie, such a peece of workemanship compared with the
    Paterne it selfe, would better please the ease of honest, wise,
    and learned myndes, than two of the fairest Venusses, that euer
    Apelles made.
         And thus moch, for all kinde of _Paraphrasis_, fitte or vnfit,
    for Scholers or other, as I am led to thinke, not onelie, by mine
    owne experience, but chiefly by the authoritie & iudgement of
    those, whom I my selfe would gladliest folow, and do counsell
    all myne to do the same: not contendyng with any other, that
    will otherwise either thinke or do.


         This kinde of exercise is all one with _Paraphrasis_, saue it is
    out of verse, either into prose, or into some other kinde of
    meter: or els, out of prose into verse, which was // _Plato_ in
    _Socrates_ exercise and pastime ( as _Plato_ reporteth) // Phædone.
    when he was in prison, to translate _æsopes Fabules_
    into verse.  _Quintilian_ doth greatlie praise also this exercise:
    but bicause _Tullie_ doth disalow it in yong men, by myne
    opinion, it were not well to vse it in Grammer Scholes, euen

    254  _The second booke teachyng_

    for the selfe same causes, that be recited against _Paraphrasis_.
    And therfore, for the vse, or misuse of it, the same is to be
    thought, that is spoken of _Paraphrasis_ before.  This was
    _Sulpitius_ exercise: and he gathering vp therby, a Poeticall kinde
    of talke, is iustlie named of _Cicero, grandis et Tragicus Orator:_
    which I think is spoken, not for his praise, but for other mens
    warning, to exchew the like faulte.  Yet neuertheles, if our
    Scholemaster for his owne instruction, is desirous, to see a
    perfite example hereof, I will recite one, which I thinke, no
    man is so bold, will say, that he can amend it: & that is
    _Hom._ 1. _Il._ // _Chrises_ the Priestes Oration to the _Grekes_, in
    _Pla._ 3. _Rep._ // beginnyng of _Homers Ilias_, turned excellentlie
    into prose by _Socrates_ him selfe, and that aduised-
    lie and purposelie for other to folow: and therfore he calleth
    this exercise, in the same place, mimesis, that is, _Imitatio_, which
    is most trew: but, in this booke, for teachyng sake, I will name
    it _Metaphrasis_, reteinyng the word, that all teachers, in this
    case, do vse.

              Homerus.  I.  Iliad.

                   o gar elthe thoas epi neas Achaion,
         lysomenos te thygatra, pheron t apereisi apoina,
         stemmat echon en chersin ekebolou Apollonos,
         chryseo ana skeptro kai elisseto pantas Achaious,
         Atreida de malista duo, kosmetore laon.
              Atreidai te, kai alloi euknemides Achaioi,
         ymin men theoi doien, Olympia domat echontes,
         ekpersai Priamoio polin eu d oikad ikesthai
         paida d emoi lysai te philen, ta t apoina dechesthai,
         azomenoi Dios uion ekebolon Apollona.
              enth alloi men pantes epeuphemesan Achaioi
         aideisthai th ierea, kai aglaa dechthai apoina
         all ouk Atreide Agamemnoni endane thymo,
         alla kakos aphiei, krateron d epi mython etellen.
              me se, geron, koilesin ego para neusi kicheio,
         e nyn dethynont, e ysteron autis ionta,
         me ny toi ou chraisme skeptron, kai stemma theoio
         ten d ego ou lyso, prin min kai geras epeisin,
         emetero eni oiko, en Argei telothi patres

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._ 255

         iston epoichomenen, kai emon lechos antioosan.
         all ithi, me m erethize saoteros os ke neeai.
              os ephat eddeisen d o geron, kai epeitheto mytho
         be d akeon para thina polyphloisboio thalasses,
         polla d epeit apaneuthe kion erath o geraios
         Apolloni anakti, ton eukomos teke Leto.
              klythi meu, argyrotox, os Chrysen amphibebekas,
         killan te zatheen, Tenedoio te iphi anasseis,
         smintheu, ei pote toi Charient epi neon erepsa,
         e ei de pote toi kata piona meri ekea
         tauron, ed aigon, tode moi kreenon eeldor
         tiseian Danaoi ema dakrua soisi belessin.

              Socrates in 3. _de Rep._ saith thus,

              Phraso gar aneu metrou,
              ou gar eimi poietikos.

    elthen o Chryses tes te thygatros lytra pheron, kai iketes
    ton Achaion, malista de ton basileon: kai eucheto, ekeinois
    men tous theous dounai elontas ten Troian, autous de sothenai,
    ten de thygatera oi auto lysai, dexamenous apoina, kai ton
    theon aidesthentas.  Toiauta de eipontos autou, oi men alloi
    esebonto kai synenoun, o de Agamemnon egriainen, entel-
    lomenos nyn te apienai, kai authis me elthein, me auto to te
    skeptron, kai ta tou theou stemmata ouk eparkesoi.  prin
    de lythenai autou thygatera, en Argei ephe gerasein meta ou.
    apienai de ekeleue, kai me erethizein, ina sos oikade elthoi.
    o de presbytes akousas edeise te kai apeei sige, apocho-
    resas d ek tou stratopedou polla to Apolloni eucheto,
    tas te eponymias tou theou anakalon kai ypomimneskon kai
    apaiton, ei ti popote e en naon oikodomesesin, e en ieron
    thysiais kecharismenon doresaito. on de charin kateucheto
    tisai tous Achaious ta a dakrua tois ekeinon belesin.

         To compare _Homer_ and _Plato_ together, two wonders of
    nature and arte for witte and eloquence, is most pleasant and
    profitable, for a man of ripe iudgement.  _Platos_ turning of
    _Homer_ in this place, doth not ride a loft in Poeticall termes,
    but goeth low and soft on foote, as prose and _Pedestris oratio_
    should do.  If _Sulpitius_ had had _Platos_ consideration, in right

    256  _The second booke teachyng_

    vsing this exercise, he had not deserued the name of _Tragicus
    Orator_, who should rather haue studied to expresse _vim Demos-
    thenis_, than _furorem Poætæ_, how good so euer he was, whom he
    did folow.
         And therfore would I haue our Scholemaster wey well
    together _Homer_ and _Plato_, and marke diligentlie these foure
    pointes, what is kept: what is added: what is left out: what
    is changed, either, in choise of wordes, or forme of sentences:
    which foure pointes, be the right tooles, to handle like a worke-
    man, this kinde of worke: as our Scholer shall better vnder-
    stand, when he hath bene a good while in the Vniuersitie:
    to which tyme and place, I chiefly remitte this kinde of exercise.
         And bicause I euer thought examples to be the best kinde
    of teaching, I will recite a golden sentence out of that Poete,
    which is next vnto _Homer_, not onelie in tyme, but also in
    worthines: which hath bene a paterne for many worthie
    wittes to follow, by this kind of _Metaphrasis_, but I will content
    my selfe, with foure workemen, two in _Greke_, and two in _Latin_,
    soch, as in both the tonges, wiser & worthier, can not be looked
    for.  Surelie, no stone set in gold by most cunning workemen,
    is in deed, if right counte be made, more worthie the looking
    on, than this golden sentence, diuerslie wrought vpon, by soch
    foure excellent Masters.

              _Hesiodus_.  2.

         1.  outos men panariotos, os auto panta noese,
             phrassamenos ta k epeita kai es telos esin ameino:
         2.  esthlos d au kakeinos, os eu eiponti pithetai,
         3.  os de ke met autos noee, met allou akouon
             en thymo balletai, o d aut achreios aner.

              ¶  Thus rudelie turned into
                   base English.

              1.  _That man in wisedome passeth all,
                  to know the best who hath a head:_
              2.  _And meetlie wise eeke counted shall,
                  who yeildes him selfe to wise mens read:_
              3.  _Who hath no witte, nor none will heare,
                  amongest all fooles the bell may beare._

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  257

              _Sophocles in Antigone._

              1.          Phem egoge presbeuein poly,
                  Phynai ton andra pant epiotemes pleon:
              2.  Ei d oun (philei gar touto me taute repein),
                  Kai ton legonton eu kalon to manthanein.

         Marke the wisedome of _Sophocles_, in leauyng out the last
    sentence, because it was not cumlie for the sonne to vse it to
    his father.

                   ¶ _D. Basileus in his Exhortation to youth._

         Memnesthe tou Esiodou, os phesi, ariston men einai
    ton par eautou ta deonta xynoronta.  2.  Esthlon de kakei-
    non, ton tois, par eteron ypodeicheisin epomenon.  3.  ton
    de pros oudeteron epitedeion achreion einai pros apanta.

                   ¶ M. Cic. Pro A. Cluentio.

    1.     _Sapientissimum esse dicunt eum, cui, quod opus sit, ipsi veniat in
      mentem:_  2.  _Proxime accedere illum, qui alterius bene inuentis
      obtemperet._  3.  _In stulticia contra est: minus enim stultus est
      is, cui nihil in mentem venit, quam ille, qui, quod stultè alteri venit
      in mentem comprobat._

         _Cicero_ doth not plainlie expresse the last sentence, but doth
    inuent it fitlie for his purpose, to taunt the folie and simplicitie
    in his aduersarie _Actius_, not weying wiselie, the sutle doynges
    of _Chrysogonus_ and _Staienus_.

              ¶ Tit. Liuius in Orat. Minutij.  Lib. 22.

    1.       _Sæpe ego audiui milites; eum primum esse virum, qui ipse
      consulat, quid in rem sit:_  2.  _Secundum eum, qui bene monenti
      obediat:_  3.  _Qui, nec ipse consulere, nec alteri parere scit, eum
      extremi esse ingenij._

         Now, which of all these foure, _Sophocles, S. Basil, Cicero_, or
    _Liuie_, hath expressed _Hesiodus_ best, the iudgement is as hard, as
    the workemanship of euerie one is most excellent in deede.  An
    other example out of the _Latin_ tong also I will recite, for the
    worthines of the workeman therof, and that is _Horace_, who hath

    258  _The second book teachyng_

    so turned the begynning of _Terence Eunuchus_, as doth worke in
    me, a pleasant admiration, as oft so euer, as I compare those
    two places togither.  And though euerie Master, and euerie
    good Scholer to, do know the places, both in _Terence_ and
    _Horace_, yet I will set them heare, in one place togither, that
    with more pleasure, they may be compared together.

                   ¶ Terentius in Eunucho.

         _Quid igitur faciam?  non eam?  ne nunc quidem cum accersor
    ultrò?  an potius ita me comparem, non perpeti meretricum con-
    tumelias?  exclusit: reuocat, redeam?  non, si me obsecret._  PAR-
    MENO a little after.  _Here, quæ res in se neque consilium neque modum
    habet vllum, eam consilio regere non potes.  In Amore hæc omnia
    insunt vitia, iniuriæ, suspiciones, inimicitiæ, induciæ, bellum, pax
    rursum.  Incerta hæc si tu postules ratione certa facere, nihilo plus
    agas, quem si des operam, vt cum ratione insanias._

                   ¶ Horatius, lib. Ser. 2. Saty. 3.

                   _Nec nunc cum me vocet vltro,
         Accedam?  an potius mediter finire dolores?
         Exclusit: reuocat, redeam?  non si obsecret.  Ecce
         Seruus non Paulo sapientior: ô Here, quæ res
         Nec modum habet, neque consilium, ratione modóque
         Tractari non vult.  In amore, hæc sunt mala, bellum,
         Pax rursum: hæc si quis tempestatis propè ritu
         Mobilia, et cæca fluitantia sorte, laboret
         Reddere certa, sibi nihilò plus explicet, ac si
         Insanire paret certa ratione, modòque._

         This exercise may bring moch profite to ripe heads, and
    stayd iudgementes: bicause, in traueling in it, the mynde must
    nedes be verie attentiue, and busilie occupide, in turning and
    tossing it selfe many wayes: and conferryng with great pleasure,
    the varietie of worthie wittes and iudgementes togither:  But
    this harme may sone cum therby, and namelie to yong Scholers,
    lesse, in seeking other wordes, and new forme of sentences, they
    chance vpon the worse: for the which onelie cause, _Cicero_
    thinketh this exercise not to be fit for yong men.

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  259


         This is a way of studie, belonging, rather to matter, than to
    wordes: to memorie, than to vtterance: to those that be
    learned alreadie, and hath small place at all amonges yong
    scholers in Grammer scholes.  It may proffet priuately some
    learned men, but it hath hurt generallie learning it selfe, very
    moch.  For by it haue we lost whole _Trogus_, the best part of
    _T. Liuius_, the goodlie Dictionarie of _Pompeius festus_, a great
    deale of the Ciuill lawe, and other many notable bookes, for the
    which cause, I do the more mislike this exercise, both in old
    and yong.
         _Epitome_, is good priuatelie for himselfe that doth worke it,
    but ill commonlie for all other that vse other mens labor therein:
    a silie poore kinde of studie, not vnlike to the doing of those
    poore folke, which neyther till, nor sowe, nor reape themselues,
    but gleane by stelth, vpon other mens growndes.  Soch, haue
    emptie barnes, for deare yeares.
         Grammer scholes haue fewe _Epitomes_ to hurt them, except
    _Epitheta Textoris_, and such beggarlie gatheringes, as _Horman,
    whittington_, and other like vulgares for making of latines: yea
    I do wishe, that all rules for yong scholers, were shorter than
    they be.  For without doute, _Grammatica_ it selfe, is sooner and
    surer learned by examples of good authors, than by the naked
    rewles of _Grammarians_.  _Epitome_ hurteth more, in the vni-
    uersities and studie of Philosophie: but most of all, in diuinitie
    it selfe.
         In deede bookes of common places be verie necessarie, to
    induce a man, into an orderlie generall knowledge, how to
    referre orderlie all that he readeth, _ad certa rerum Capita_, and
    not wander in studie.  And to that end did _P. Lombardus_ the
    master of sentences and _Ph. Melancthon_ in our daies, write two
    notable bookes of common places.
         But to dwell in _Epitomes_ and bookes of common places, and
    not to binde himselfe dailie by orderlie studie, to reade with all
    diligence, principallie the holyest scripture and withall, the best
    Doctors, and so to learne to make trewe difference betwixt, the
    authoritie of the one, and the Counsell of the other, maketh so
    many seeming, and sonburnt ministers as we haue, whose

    260  _The second booke teachyng_

    learning is gotten in a sommer heat, and washed away, with
    a Christmas snow againe: who neuerthelesse, are lesse to be
    blamed, than those blind bussardes, who in late yeares, of
    wilfull maliciousnes, would neyther learne themselues, nor
    could teach others, any thing at all.
         _Paraphrasis_ hath done lesse hurt to learning, than _Epitome_:
    for no _Paraphrasis_, though there be many, shall neuer take
    away _Dauids_ Psalter.  _Erasmus Paraphrasis_ being neuer so
    good, shall neuer banishe the new Testament.  And in an
    other schole, the _Paraphrasis_ of _Brocardus_, or _Sambucus_, shal
    neuer take _Aristotles_ Rhetoricke, nor _Horace de Arte Poetica_, out
    of learned mens handes.
         But, as concerning a schole _Epitome_, he that wold haue an
    example of it, let him read _Lucian_ peri kallous which is the
    verie _Epitome_ of _Isocrates_ oration _de laudibus Helenæ_,
    he may learne, at the least, this wise lesson, that a man ought
    to beware, to be ouer bold, in altering an excellent mans
         Neuertheles, some kinde of _Epitome_ may be vsed, by men
    of skilful iudgement, to the great proffet also of others.  As if
    a wise man would take _Halles_ Cronicle, where moch good
    matter is quite marde with Indenture Englishe, and first change,
    strange and inkhorne tearmes into proper, and commonlie vsed
    wordes: next, specially to wede out that, that is superfluous
    and idle, not onelie where wordes be vainlie heaped one vpon
    an other, but also where many sentences, of one meaning, be
    clowted vp together as though _M. Hall_ had bene, not writing
    the storie of England, but varying a sentence in Hitching
    schole: surelie a wise learned man, by this way of _Epitome_, in
    cutting away wordes and sentences, and diminishing nothing at
    all of the matter, shold leaue to mens vse, a storie, halfe as
    moch as it was in quantitie, but twise as good as it was, both
    for pleasure and also commoditie.
         An other kinde of _Epitome_ may be vsed likewise very well,
    to moch proffet.  Som man either by lustines of nature, or
    brought by ill teaching, to a wrong iudgement, is ouer full of
    words, sentences, & matter, & yet all his words be proper, apt
    & well chosen: all his sentences be rownd and trimlie framed:
    his whole matter grownded vpon good reason, & stuffed with
    full arguments, for his intent & purpose.  Yet when his talke

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  261

    shalbe heard, or his writing be red, of soch one, as is, either of
    my two dearest frendes, _M. Haddon_ at home, or _Iohn Sturmius_
    in Germanie, that _Nimium_ in him, which fooles and vnlearned
    will most commend, shall eyther of thies two, bite his lippe, or
    shake his heade at it.
         This fulnes as it is not to be misliked in a yong man, so in
    farder aige, in greater skill, and weightier affaires, it is to be
    temperated, or else discretion and iudgement shall seeme to be
    wanting in him.  But if his stile be still ouer rancke and lustie,
    as some men being neuer so old and spent by yeares, will still
    be full of youthfull conditions as was Syr _F. Bryan_, and euer-
    more wold haue bene: soch a rancke and full writer, must vse,
    if he will do wiselie the exercise of a verie good kinde of
    _Epitome_, and do, as certaine wise men do, that be ouer fat and
    fleshie: who leauing their owne full and plentifull table, go to
    soiorne abrode from home for a while, at the temperate diet of
    some sober man: and so by litle and litle, cut away the
    grosnesse that is in them.  As for an example: If _Osorius_
    would leaue of his lustines in striuing against _S. Austen_, and his
    ouer rancke rayling against poore _Luther_, and the troth of Gods
    doctrine, and giue his whole studie, not to write any thing of
    his owne for a while, but to translate _Demosthenes_, with so straite,
    fast, & temperate a style in latine, as he is in Greeke, he would
    becume so perfit & pure a writer, I beleue, as hath bene fewe
    or none sence _Ciceroes_ dayes: And so, by doing himself and all
    learned moch good, do others lesse harme, & Christes doctrine
    lesse iniury, than he doth: & with all, wyn vnto himselfe many
    worthy frends, who agreing with him gladly, in y^e loue &
    liking of excellent learning, are sorie to see so worthie a witte,
    so rare eloquence, wholie spent and consumed, in striuing with
    God and good men.
         Emonges the rest, no man doth lament him more than
    I, not onelie for the excellent learning that I see in him, but
    also bicause there hath passed priuatelie betwixt him and me,
    sure tokens of moch good will, and frendlie opinion, the one
    toward the other.  And surelie the distance betwixt London and
    Lysbon, should not stoppe, any kinde of frendlie dewtie, that I
    could, eyther shew to him, or do to his, if the greatest matter
    of all did not in certeyne pointes, separate our myndes.
         And yet for my parte, both toward him, and diuerse others

    262  _The second booke teachyng_

    here at home, for like cause of excellent learning, great wisdome,
    and gentle humanitie, which I haue seene in them, and felt at
    their handes my selfe, where the matter of indifference is mere
    conscience in a quiet minde inwardlie, and not contentious
    malice with spitefull rayling openlie, I can be content to followe
    this rewle, in misliking some one thing, not to hate for anie
    thing els.
         But as for all the bloodie beastes, as that fat Boore of the
    _Psal._ 80. // wood: or those brauling Bulles of Basan: or any
    lurking _Dormus_, blinde, not by nature, but by
    malice, & as may be gathered of their owne testimonie, giuen
    ouer to blindnes, for giuing ouer God & his word; or soch as
    be so lustie runnegates, as first, runne from God & his trew
    doctrine, than, from their Lordes, Masters, & all dewtie, next,
    from them selues & out of their wittes, lastly from their Prince,
    contrey, & all dew allegeance, whether they ought rather to be
    pitied of good men, for their miserie, or contemned of wise
    men, for their malicious folie, let good and wise men deter-
         And to returne to _Epitome_ agayne, some will iudge moch
    boldnes in me, thus to iudge of _Osorius_ style: but wise men do
    know, that meane lookers on, may trewelie say, for a well made
    Picture: This face had bene more cumlie, if that hie redde in
    the cheeke, were somwhat more pure sanguin than it is: and
    yet the stander by, can not amend it himselfe by any way.
         And this is not written to the dispraise but to the great
    commendation of _Osorius_, because _Tullie_ himselfe had the same
    fulnes in him: and therefore went to _Rodes_ to cut it away: and
    saith himselfe, _recepi me domum prope mutatus, nam quasi referuerat
    iam oratio_.  Which was brought to passe I beleue, not onelie by
    the teaching of _Molo Appollonius_ but also by a good way of
    _Epitome_, in binding him selfe to translate _meros Atticos Oratores_,
    and so to bring his style, from all lowse grosnesse, to soch firme
    fastnes in latin, as is in _Demosthenes_ in Greeke.  And this to be
    most trew, may easelie be gathered, not onelie of _L. Crassus_
    talke in 1. _de Or._ but speciallie of _Ciceroes_ owne deede in
    translating _Demosthenes_ and _æschines_ orations peri steph. to that
    verie ende and purpose.
         And although a man growndlie learned all readie, may take
    moch proffet him selfe in vsing, by _Epitome_, to draw other mens

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  263

    workes for his owne memorie sake, into shorter rowme, as
    _Conterus_ hath done verie well the whole _Metamorphosis_ of _Ouid_,
    & _Dauid Cythræus_ a great deale better, the ix. Muses of _Hero-
    dotus_, and _Melanchthon_ in myne opinion, far best of all, the whole
    storie of Time, not onelie to his own vse, but to other mens
    proffet and hys great prayse, yet, _Epitome_ is most necessarie of
    all in a mans owne writing, as we learne of that noble Poet
    _Virgill_, who, if _Donatus_ say trewe, in writing that perfite worke
    of the _Georgickes_, vsed dailie, when he had written 40. or 50.
    verses, not to cease cutting, paring, and pollishing of them, till
    he had brought them to the nomber of x. or xij.
         And this exercise, is not more nedefullie done in a great
    worke, than wiselie done, in your common dailie writing, either
    of letter, or other thing else, that is to say, to peruse diligentlie,
    and see and spie wiselie, what is alwaies more than nedeth:
    For, twenty to one, offend more, in writing to moch, than to
    litle: euen as twentie to one, fall into sicknesse, rather by ouer
    moch fulnes, than by anie lacke or emptinesse.  And therefore
    is he alwaies the best English Physition, that best can geue
    a purgation, that is, by way of _Epitome_, to cut all ouer much
    away.  And surelie mens bodies, be not more full of ill humors,
    than commonlie mens myndes (if they be yong, lustie, proude,
    like and loue them selues well, as most men do) be full of fansies,
    opinions, errors, and faultes, not onelie in inward inuention, but
    also in all their vtterance, either by pen or taulke.
         And of all other men, euen those that haue y^e inuentiuest
    heades, for all purposes, and roundest tonges in all matters and
    places (except they learne and vse this good lesson of _Epitome_)
    commit commonlie greater faultes, than dull, staying silent men
    do.  For, quicke inuentors, and faire readie speakers, being
    boldned with their present habilitie to say more, and perchance
    better to, at the soden for that present, than any other can do,
    vse lesse helpe of diligence and studie than they ought to do:
    and so haue in them commonlie, lesse learning, and weaker
    iudgement, for all deepe considerations, than some duller heades,
    and slower tonges haue.
         And therefore, readie speakers, generallie be not the best,
    playnest, and wisest writers, nor yet the deepest iudgers in
    weightie affaires, bicause they do not tarry to weye and iudge
    all thinges, as they should: but hauing their heades ouer full of

    264  _The second booke teachyng_

    matter, be like pennes ouer full of incke, which will soner
    blotte, than make any faire letter at all.  Tyme was, whan
    I had experience of two Ambassadors in one place, the one of
    a hote head to inuent, and of a hastie hand to write, the other,
    colde and stayd in both: but what difference of their doinges
    was made by wise men, is not vnknowne to some persons.  The
    Bishop of Winchester _Steph_: _Gardiner_ had a quicke head, and
    a readie tong, and yet was not the best writer in England.
    _Cicero_ in _Brutus_ doth wiselie note the same in _Serg: Galbo_, and
    _Q. Hortentius_, who were both, hote, lustie, and plaine speakers,
    but colde, lowse, and rough writers: And _Tullie_ telleth the
    cause why, saying, whan they spake, their tong was naturally
    caried with full tyde & wynde of their witte: whan they wrote
    their head was solitarie, dull, and caulme, and so their style was
    blonte, and their writing colde: _Quod vitium_, sayth _Cicero_,
    _peringeniosis hominibus neque satis doctis plerumque accidit_.
         And therfore all quick inuentors, & readie faire speakers,
    must be carefull, that, to their goodnes of nature, they adde
    also in any wise, studie, labor, leasure, learning, and iudgement,
    and than they shall in deede, passe all other, as I know some do,
    in whome all those qualities are fullie planted, or else if they
    giue ouer moch to their witte, and ouer litle to their labor and
    learning, they will sonest ouer reach in taulke, and fardest cum
    behinde in writing whatsoeuer they take in hand.  The methode
    of _Epitome_ is most necessarie for soch kinde of men.  And thus
    much concerning the vse or misuse of all kinde of _Epitomes_ in
    matters of learning.

                  [dingbat omitted] _Imitatio._

         _Imitation_, is a facultie to expresse liuelie and perfitelie that
    example: which ye go about to folow.  And of it selfe, it is
    large and wide: for all the workes of nature, in a maner be
    examples for arte to folow.
         But to our purpose, all languages, both learned and mother
    tonges, be gotten, and gotten onelie by _Imitation_.  For as ye
    vse to heare, so ye learne to speake: if ye heare no other, ye
    speake not your selfe: and whome ye onelie heare, of them ye
    onelie learne.
         And therefore, if ye would speake as the best and wisest do,

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  265

    ye must be conuersant, where the best and wisest are: but if
    yow be borne or brought vp in a rude contrie, ye shall not chose
    but speake rudelie: the rudest man of all knoweth this to be
         Yet neuerthelesse, the rudenes of common and mother
    tonges, is no bar for wise speaking.  For in the rudest contrie,
    and most barbarous mother language, many be found can speake
    verie wiselie: but in the Greeke and latin tong, the two onelie
    learned tonges, which be kept, not in common taulke, but in
    priuate bookes, we finde alwayes, wisdome and eloquence, good
    matter and good vtterance, neuer or seldom a sonder.  For all
    soch Authors, as be fullest of good matter and right iudgement
    in doctrine, be likewise alwayes, most proper in wordes, most
    apte in sentence, most plaine and pure in vttering the same.
         And contrariwise, in those two tonges, all writers, either in
    Religion, or any sect of Philosophie, who so euer be founde
    fonde in iudgement of matter, be commonlie found as rude in
    vttering their mynde.  For Stoickes, Anabaptistes, and Friers:
    with Epicures, Libertines and Monkes, being most like in
    learning and life, are no fonder and pernicious in their opinions,
    than they be rude and barbarous in their writinges.  They be
    not wise, therefore that say, what care I for a mans wordes and
    vtterance, if his matter and reasons be good.  Soch men, say
    so, not so moch of ignorance, as eyther of some singular pride
    in themselues, or some speciall malice or other, or for some
    priuate & perciall matter, either in Religion or other kinde of
    learning.  For good and choice meates, be no more requisite
    for helthie bodies, than proper and apte wordes be for good
    matters, and also plaine and sensible vtterance for the best and
    depest reasons: in which two pointes standeth perfite eloquence,
    one of the fairest and rarest giftes that God doth geue to man.
         Ye know not, what hurt ye do to learning, that care not
    for wordes, but for matter, and so make a deuorse betwixt the
    tong and the hart.  For marke all aiges: looke vpon the whole
    course of both the Greeke and Latin tonge, and ye shall surelie
    finde, that, whan apte and good wordes began to be neglected,
    and properties of those two tonges to be confounded, than also
    began, ill deedes to spring: strange maners to oppresse good
    orders, newe and fond opinions to striue with olde and trewe
    doctrine, first in Philosophie: and after in Religion: right

    266  _The second booke teachyng_

    iudgement of all thinges to be peruerted, and so vertue with
    learning is contemned, and studie left of: of ill thoughtes
    cummeth peruerse iudgement: of ill deedes springeth lewde
    taulke.  Which fower misorders, as they mar mans life, so
    destroy they good learning withall.
         But behold the goodnesse of Gods prouidence for learning:
    all olde authors and sectes of Philosophy, which were fondest in
    opinion, and rudest in vtterance, as Stoickes and Epicures, first
    contemned of wise men, and after forgotten of all men, be so
    consumed by tymes, as they be now, not onelie out of vse, but
    also out of memorie of man: which thing, I surelie thinke,
    will shortlie chance, to the whole doctrine and all the bookes of
    phantasticall Anabaptistes and Friers, and of the beastlie
    Libertines and Monkes.
         Againe behold on the other side, how Gods wisdome hath
    wrought, that of _Academici_ and _Peripatetici_, those that were
    wisest in iudgement of matters, and purest in vttering their
    myndes, the first and chiefest, that wrote most and best, in
    either tong, as _Plato_ and _Aristotle_ in Greeke, _Tullie_ in Latin, be
    so either wholie, or sufficiently left vnto vs, as I neuer knew
    yet scholer, that gaue himselfe to like, and loue, and folow
    chieflie those three Authors but he proued, both learned, wise,
    and also an honest man, if he ioyned with all the trewe doctrine
    of Gods holie Bible, without the which, the other three, be but
    fine edge tooles in a fole or mad mans hand.
         But to returne to _Imitation_ agayne: There be three kindes
    of it in matters of learning.
         The whole doctrine of Comedies and Tragedies, is a
    perfite _imitation_, or faire liuelie painted picture of the life of
    euerie degree of man.  Of this _Imitation_ writeth _Plato_ at
    large in 3. _de Rep._ but it doth not moch belong at this time to
    our purpose.
         The second kind of _Imitation_, is to folow for learning of
    tonges and sciences, the best authors.  Here riseth, emonges
    proude and enuious wittes, a great controuersie, whether, one
    or many are to be folowed: and if one, who is that one: _Seneca_,
    or _Cicero_: _Salust_ or _Cæsar_, and so forth in Greeke and Latin.
         The third kinde of _Imitation_, belongeth to the second: as
    when you be determined, whether ye will folow one or mo, to
    know perfitlie, and which way to folow that one: in what

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  267

    place: by what meane and order: by what tooles and instru-
    mentes ye shall do it, by what skill and iudgement, ye shall
    trewelie discerne, whether ye folow rightlie or no.
         This _Imitatio_, is _dissimilis materiei similis tractatio_: and also,
    _similis materiei dissimilis tractatio_, as _Virgill_ folowed _Homer_: but
    the Argument to the one was _Vlysses_, to the other _æneas_.
    _Tullie_ persecuted _Antonie_ with the same wepons of eloquence,
    that _Demosthenes_ vsed before against _Philippe_.
         _Horace_ foloweth _Pindar_, but either of them his owne
    Argument and Person: as the one, _Hiero_ king of _Sicilie_, the
    other _Augustus_ the Emperor: and yet both for like respectes,
    that is, for their coragious stoutnes in warre, and iust gouern-
    ment in peace.
         One of the best examples, for right _Imitation_ we lacke, and
    that is _Menander_, whom our _Terence_, (as the matter required) in
    like argument, in the same Persons, with equall eloquence, foote
    by foote did folow.
         Som peeces remaine, like broken Iewelles, whereby men
    may rightlie esteme, and iustlie lament, the losse of the
         _Erasmus_, the ornament of learning, in our tyme, doth wish
    that som man of learning and diligence, would take the like
    paines in _Demosthenes_ and _Tullie_, that _Macrobius_ hath done in
    _Homer_ and _Virgill_, that is, to write out and ioyne together,
    where the one doth imitate the other.  _Erasmus_ wishe is good,
    but surelie, it is not good enough: for _Macrobius_ gatherings for
    the _æneidos_ out of _Homer_, and _Eobanus Hessus_ more diligent
    gatherings for the _Bucolikes_ out of _Theocritus_, as they be not
    fullie taken out of the whole heape, as they should be, but euen
    as though they had not sought for them of purpose, but fownd
    them scatered here and there by chance in their way, euen so,
    onelie to point out, and nakedlie to ioyne togither their
    sentences, with no farder declaring the maner and way, how
    the one doth folow the other, were but a colde helpe, to the
    encrease of learning.
         But if a man would take this paine also, whan he hath layd
    two places, of _Homer_ and _Virgill_, or of _Demosthenes_ and
    togither, to teach plainlie withall, after this sort.
         1.  _Tullie_ reteyneth thus moch of the matter, thies
    sentences, thies wordes:

    268  _The second booke teachyng_

         2.  This and that he leaueth out, which he doth wittelie to
    this end and purpose.
         3.  This he addeth here.
         4.  This he diminisheth there.
         5.  This he ordereth thus, with placing that here, not
         6.  This he altereth and changeth, either, in propertie of
    wordes, in forme of sentence, in substance of the matter, or in
    one, or other conuenient circumstance of the authors present
    purpose.  In thies fewe rude English wordes, are wrapt vp all
    the necessarie tooles and instrumentes, wherewith trewe _Imita-
    tion_ is rightlie wrought withall in any tonge.  Which tooles,
    I openlie confesse, be not of myne owne forging, but partlie left
    vnto me by the cunningest Master, and one of the worthiest
    Ientlemen that euer England bred, Syr _Iohn Cheke_: partelie
    borowed by me out of the shoppe of the dearest frende I haue
    out of England, _Io. St._  And therefore I am the bolder to
    borow of him, and here to leaue them to other, and namelie to
    my Children: which tooles, if it please God, that an other day,
    they may be able to vse rightlie, as I do wish and daylie pray,
    they may do, I shal be more glad, than if I were able to leaue
    them a great quantitie of land.
         This foresaide order and doctrine of _Imitation_, would bring
    forth more learning, and breed vp trewer iudgement, than any
    other exercise that can be vsed, but not for yong beginners,
    bicause they shall not be able to consider dulie therof.  And
    trewelie, it may be a shame to good studentes who hauing so
    faire examples to follow, as _Plato_ and _Tullie_, do not vse so wise
    wayes in folowing them for the obteyning of wisdome and
    learning, as rude ignorant Artificers do, for gayning a small
    commoditie.  For surelie the meanest painter vseth more witte,
    better arte, greater diligence, in hys shoppe, in folowing the
    Picture of any meane mans face, than commonlie the best
    studentes do, euen in the vniuersitie, for the atteining of
    learning it selfe.
         Some ignorant, vnlearned, and idle student: or some busie
    looker vpon this litle poore booke, that hath neither will to do
    good him selfe, nor skill to iudge right of others, but can lustelie
    contemne, by pride and ignorance, all painfull diligence and
    right order in study, will perchance say, that I am to precise, to

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  269

    curious, in marking and piteling thus about the imitation of
    others: and that the olde worthie Authors did neuer busie their
    heades and wittes, in folowyng so preciselie, either the matter
    what other men wrote, or els the maner how other men wrote.
    They will say, it were a plaine slauerie, & inurie to, to shakkle
    and tye a good witte, and hinder the course of a mans good
    nature with such bondes of seruitude, in folowyng other.
         Except soch men thinke them selues wiser then _Cicero_ for
    teaching of eloquence, they must be content to turne a new
         The best booke that euer _Tullie_ wrote, by all mens iudge-
    ment, and by his owne testimonie to, in writyng wherof, he
    employed most care, studie, learnyng and iudgement, is his
    book _de Orat. ad Q. F._  Now let vs see, what he did for the
    matter, and also for the maner of writing therof.  For the
    whole booke consisteth in these two pointes onelie: In good
    matter, and good handling of the matter.  And first, for the
    matter, it is whole _Aristotles_, what so euer _Antonie_ in the
    second, and _Crassus_ in the third doth teach.  Trust not me,
    but beleue _Tullie_ him selfe, who writeth so, first, in that goodlie
    long Epistle _ad P. Lentulum_, and after in diuerse places _ad
    Atticum_.  And in the verie booke it selfe, Tullie will not haue
    it hidden, but both _Catulus_ and _Crassus_ do oft and pleasantly lay
    that stelth to _Antonius_ charge.  Now, for the handling of the
    matter, was _Tullie_ so precise and curious rather to follow an
    other mans Paterne, than to inuent some newe shape him selfe,
    namelie in that booke, wherin he purposed, to leaue to
    posteritie, the glorie of his witte?  yea forsoth, that he did.
    And this is not my gessing and gathering, nor onelie performed
    by _Tullie_ in verie deed, but vttered also by _Tullie_ in plaine
    wordes: to teach other men thereby, what they should do, in
    taking like matter in hand.
         And that which is specially to be marked, _Tullie_ doth vtter
    plainlie his conceit and purpose therein, by the mouth of
    the wisest man in all that companie: for sayth _Scæuola_ him
    selfe, _Cur non imitamur, Crasse, Socratem illum, qui est in Phædro
    Platonis &c._
         And furder to vnderstand, that _Tullie_ did not _obiter_ and
    bichance, but purposelie and mindfullie bend him selfe to
    a precise and curious Imitation of _Plato_, concernyng the shape

    270  _The second booke teachyng_

    and forme of those bookes, marke I pray you, how curious
    _Tullie_ is to vtter his purpose and doyng therein, writing thus to
         _Quod in his Oratorijs libris, quos tantopere laudas, personam
    desideras Scæuolæ, non eam temerè dimoui: Sed feci idem, quod in
    politeia Deus ille noster Plato, cum in Piræeum Socrates venisset ad
    Cephalum locupletem & festiuum Senem, quoad primus ille sermo
    haberetur, adest in disputando senex: Deinde, cum ipse quoque
    commodissimè locutus esset, ad rem diuinam dicit se velle discedere,
    neque postea reuertitur.  Credo Platonem vix putasse satis consonum
    fore, si hominem id ætatis in tam longo sermone diutius retinuisset:
    Multo ego satius hoc mihi cauendum putaui in Scæuola, qui & ætate
    et valetudine erat ea qua meministi, & his honoribus, vt vix satis
    decorum videretur eum plures dies esse in Crassi Tusculano.  Et erat
    primi libri sermo non alienus à Scæuolæ studijs: reliqui libri
    technologian habent, vt scis.  Huic ioculatoriæ disputationi senem
    illum vt noras, interesse sanè nolui._
         If _Cicero_ had not opened him selfe, and declared hys owne
    thought and doynges herein, men that be idle, and ignorant, and
    enuious of other mens diligence and well doinges, would haue
    sworne that _Tullie_ had neuer mynded any soch thing, but that
    of a precise curiositie, we fayne and forge and father soch
    thinges of _Tullie_, as he neuer ment in deed.  I write this, not
    for nought: for I haue heard some both well learned, and
    otherwayes verie wise, that by their lustie misliking of soch
    diligence, haue drawen back the forwardnes of verie good wittes.
    But euen as such men them selues, do sometymes stumble vpon
    doyng well by chance and benefite of good witte, so would
    I haue our scholer alwayes able to do well by order of learnyng
    and right skill of iudgement.
         Concernyng Imitation, many learned men haue written,
    with moch diuersitie for the matter, and therfore with great
    contrarietie and some stomacke amongest them selues.  I
    haue read as many as I could get diligentlie, and what I
    thinke of euerie one of them, I will freelie say my mynde.
    With which freedome I trust good men will beare, bicause
    it shall tend to neither spitefull nor harmefull controuersie.
         In _Tullie_, it is well touched, shortlie taught, not fullie
    _Cicero._ // declared by _Ant. in_ 2. _de Orat_: and afterward
    in _Orat. ad Brutum_, for the liking and misliking

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  271

    of _Isocrates_: and the contrarie iudgement of _Tullie_ against
    _Caluus, Brutus_, and _Calidius, de genere dicendi Attico & Asiatico_.
         _Dionis. Halic._ peri mimeseos.  I feare is lost: which
    Author, next _Aristotle, Plato_, and _Tullie_, of all // _Dio. Hali-_
    other, that write of eloquence, by the iudgement // _car._
    of them that be best learned, deserueth the next
    prayse and place.
         _Quintilian_ writeth of it, shortly and coldlie for the matter,
    yet hotelie and spitefullie enough, agaynst the // _Quintil._
    Imitation of _Tullie_.
         _Erasmus_, beyng more occupied in spying other mens faultes,
    than declaryng his own aduise, is mistaken of // _Erasmus._
    many, to the great hurt of studie, for his authoritie
    sake.  For he writeth rightlie, rightlie vnderstanded: he and
    _Longolius_ onelie differing in this, that the one seemeth to giue
    ouermoch, the other ouer litle, to him, whom they both, best
    loued, and chiefly allowed of all other.
         _Budæus_ in his Commentaries roughlie and obscurelie,
    after his kinde of writyng: and for the matter, // _Budæus._
    caryed somwhat out of the way in ouermuch
    misliking the Imitation of _Tullie_. // _Ph. Me-_
         _Phil. Melancthon_, learnedlie and trewlie. // _lanch._
         _Camerarius_ largely with a learned iudgement, // _Ioa. Cam-_
    but somewhat confusedly, and with ouer rough // _mer._
    a stile.
         _Sambucus_, largely, with a right iudgement but somewhat
    a crooked stile. // _Sambucus._
         Other haue written also, as _Cortesius_ to // _Cortesius._
    _Politian_, and that verie well: _Bembus ad Picum_ // _P. Bembus._
    a great deale better, but _Ioan. Sturmius de_ // _Ioan. Stur-_
    _Nobilitate literata, & de Amissa dicendi ratione_, // _mius._
    farre best of all, in myne opinion, that euer tooke
    this matter in hand.  For all the rest, declare chiefly this point,
    whether one, or many, or all, are to be followed: but _Sturmius_
    onelie hath most learnedlie declared, who is to be followed, what
    is to be followed, and the best point of all, by what way & order,
    trew Imitation is rightlie to be exercised.  And although _Sturmius_
    herein doth farre passe all other, yet hath he not so fullie and
    perfitelie done it, as I do wishe he had, and as I know he could.
    For though he hath done it perfitelie for precept, yet hath he

    272  _The second booke teachyng_

    not done it perfitelie enough for example: which he did, neither
    for lacke of skill, nor by negligence, but of purpose, contented
    with one or two examples bicause he was mynded in those two
    bookes, to write of it both shortlie, and also had to touch other
         _Barthol. Riccius Ferrariensis_ also hath written learnedlie,
    diligentlie and verie largelie of this matter euen as hee did before
    verie well _de Apparatu linguæ Lat._  He writeth the better in
    myne opinion, bicause his whole doctrine, iudgement, and
    order, semeth to be borowed out of _Io. Stur._ bookes.  He
    addeth also examples, the best kinde of teaching: wherein he
    doth well, but not well enough: in deede, he committeth no
    faulte, but yet, deserueth small praise.  He is content with the
    meane, and followeth not the best: as a man, that would feede
    vpon Acornes, whan he may eate, as good cheape, the finest
    wheat bread.  He teacheth for example, where and how, two
    or three late _Italian_ Poetes do follow _Virgil_: and how _Virgil_
    him selfe in the storie of _Dido_, doth wholie Imitate _Catullus_ in
    the like matter of _Ariadna_: Wherein I like better his diligence
    and order of teaching, than his iudgement in choice of examples
    for _Imitation_.  But, if he had done thus: if he had declared
    where and how, how oft and how many wayes _Virgil_ doth folow
    _Homer_, as for example the comming of _Vlysses_ to _Alcynous_ and
    _Calypso_, with the comming of _æneas_ to _Cartage_ and
_Dido_: Like-
    wise the games running, wrestling, and shoting, that _Achilles_
    maketh in _Homer_, with the selfe same games, that _æneas_
    maketh in _Virgil_: The harnesse of _Achilles_, with the harnesse
    of _æneas_, and the maner of making of them both by _Vulcane_:
    The notable combate betwixt _Achilles_ and _Hector_, with as
    notable a combate betwixt _æneas_ and _Turnus_.  The going
    downe to hell of _Vlysses_ in _Homer_, with the going downe to hell
    of _Æneas_ in _Virgil_: and other places infinite mo, as similitudes,
    narrations, messages, discriptions of persones, places, battels,
    tempestes, shipwrackes, and common places for diuerse purposes,
    which be as precisely taken out of _Homer_, as euer did Painter in
    London follow the picture of any faire personage.  And when
    thies places had bene gathered together by this way of diligence
    than to haue conferred them together by this order of teaching
    as, diligently to marke what is kept and vsed in either author,
    in wordes, in sentences, in matter: what is added: what is left

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  273

    out: what ordered otherwise, either _præponendo, interponendo_, or
    _postponendo_: And what is altered for any respect, in word,
    phrase, sentence, figure, reason, argument, or by any way of
    circumstance: If _Riccius_ had done this, he had not onely bene
    well liked, for his diligence in teaching, but also iustlie com-
    mended for his right iudgement in right choice of examples for
    the best _Imitation_.
         _Riccius_ also for _Imitation_ of prose declareth where and how
    _Longolius_ doth folow _Tullie_, but as for _Longolius_, I would not
    haue him the patern of our _Imitation_.  In deede: in _Longolius_
    shoppe, be proper and faire shewing colers, but as for shape,
    figure, and naturall cumlines, by the iudgement of best iudging
    artificers, he is rather allowed as one to be borne withall, than
    especially commended, as one chieflie to be folowed.
         If _Riccius_ had taken for his examples, where _Tullie_ him selfe
    foloweth either _Plato_ or _Demosthenes_, he had shot than at the
    right marke.  But to excuse _Riccius_, somwhat, though I can
    not fullie defend him, it may be sayd, his purpose was, to teach
    onelie the Latin tong, when thys way that I do wish, to ioyne
    _Virgil_ with _Homer_, to read _Tullie_ with _Demosthenes_ and
    requireth a cunning and perfite Master in both the tonges.  It
    is my wish in deede, and that by good reason: For who so euer
    will write well of any matter, must labor to expresse that, that
    is perfite, and not to stay and content himselfe with the meane:
    yea, I say farder, though it be not vnposible, yet it is verie rare,
    and meruelous hard, to proue excellent in the Latin tong, for
    him that is not also well seene in the Greeke tong.  _Tullie_ him
    selfe, most excellent of nature, most diligent in labor, brought
    vp from his cradle, in that place, and in that tyme, where and
    whan the Latin tong most florished naturallie in euery mans
    mouth, yet was not his owne tong able it selfe to make him so
    cunning in his owne tong, as he was in deede: but the
    knowledge and _Imitation_ of the Greeke tong withall.
         This he confesseth himselfe: this he vttereth in many places,
    as those can tell best, that vse to read him most.
         Therefore thou, that shotest at perfection in the Latin tong,
    thinke not thy selfe wiser than _Tullie_ was, in choice of the way,
    that leadeth rightlie to the same: thinke not thy witte better
    than _Tullies_ was, as though that may serue thee that was not
    sufficient for him.  For euen as a hauke flieth not hie with one

    274  _The second booke teachyng_

    wing: euen so a man reacheth not to excellency with one
         I haue bene a looker on in the Cokpit of learning thies
    many yeares: And one Cock onelie haue I knowne, which
    with one wing, euen at this day, doth passe all other, in myne
    opinion, that euer I saw in any pitte in England, though they
    had two winges.  Yet neuerthelesse, to flie well with one
    wing, to runne fast with one leg, be rather, rare Maistreis
    moch to be merueled at, than sure examples safelie to be
    folowed.  A Bushop that now liueth, a good man, whose
    iudgement in Religion I better like, than his opinion in per-
    fitnes in other learning, said once vnto me: we haue no nede
    now of the Greeke tong, when all thinges be translated into
    Latin.  But the good man vnderstood not, that euen the best
    translation, is, for mere necessitie, but an euill imped wing to
    flie withall, or a heuie stompe leg of wood to go withall: soch,
    the hier they flie, the sooner they falter and faill: the faster
    they runne, the ofter they stumble, and sorer they fall.  Soch
    as will nedes so flie, may flie at a Pye, and catch a Dawe: And
    soch runners, as commonlie, they shoue and sholder to stand
    formost, yet in the end they cum behind others & deserue
    but the hopshakles, if the Masters of the game be right iudgers.
         Therefore in perusing thus, so many diuerse bookes for
    Optima // _Imitation_, it came into my head that a verie pro-
    ratio Imi- // fitable booke might be made _de Imitatione_, after
    tationis. // an other sort, than euer yet was attempted of that
    matter, conteyning a certaine fewe fitte preceptes,
    vnto the which should be gathered and applied plentie of
    examples, out of the choisest authors of both the tonges.
    This worke would stand, rather in good diligence, for the
    gathering, and right iudgement for the apte applying of those
    examples: than any great learning or vtterance at all.
         The doing thereof, would be more pleasant, than painfull,
    & would bring also moch proffet to all that should read it, and
    great praise to him would take it in hand, with iust desert of
         _Erasmus_, giuyng him selfe to read ouer all Authors _Greke_
    _Erasmus_ // and _Latin_, seemeth to haue prescribed to him
    order in his // selfe this order of readyng: that is, to note out
    studie. // by the way, three speciall pointes: All Adagies,

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  275

    all similitudes, and all wittie sayinges of most notable person-
    ages: And so, by one labour, he left to posteritie, three notable
    bookes, & namelie two his _Chiliades, Apophthegmata_ and _Similia_.
    Likewise, if a good student would bend him selfe to read
    diligently ouer Tullie, and with him also at //        {_Plato._
    the same tyme, as diligently _Plato_, & _Xenophon_, //         {_Xenophon._
    with his bookes of Philosophie, _Isocrates_, & // Cicero. {_Isocrates._
    _Demosthenes_ with his orations, & _Aristotle_ with //        {_Demosth._
    his Rhetorickes: which fiue of all other, be //        {_Aristotles._
    those, whom _Tullie_ best loued, & specially followed: & would
    marke diligently in _Tullie_ where he doth _exprimere_ or _effingere_
    (which be the verie propre wordes of Imitation) either, _Copiam
    Platonis_ or _venustatem Xenophontis, suauitatem Isocratis_, or _vim
    Demosthenis, propriam & puram subtilitatem Aristotelis_, and not
    onelie write out the places diligentlie, and lay them together
    orderlie, but also to conferre them with skilfull iudgement by
    those few rules, which I haue expressed now twise before: if
    that diligence were taken, if that order were vsed, what perfite
    knowledge of both the tonges, what readie and pithie vtterance
    in all matters, what right and deepe iudgement in all kinde of
    learnyng would follow, is scarse credible to be beleued.
         These bookes, be not many, nor long, nor rude in speach,
    nor meane in matter, but next the Maiestie of Gods holie word,
    most worthie for a man, the louer of learning and honestie, to
    spend his life in.  Yea, I haue heard worthie _M. Cheke_ many
    tymes say: I would haue a good student passe and iorney
    through all Authors both _Greke_ and _Latin_: but he that will
    dwell in these few bookes onelie: first, in Gods holie Bible, and
    than ioyne with it, _Tullie_ in _Latin, Plato, Aristotle: Xenophon:
    Isocrates_: and _Demosthenes_ in _Greke_: must nedes proue an excel-
    lent man.
         Some men alreadie in our dayes, haue put to their helping
    handes, to this worke of Imitation.  As _Peri-_ // _Perionius._
    _onius, Henr. Stephanus in dictionario Ciceroniano_, // _H. Steph._
    and _P. Victorius_ most praiseworthelie of all, in // _P. Victor-_
    that his learned worke conteyning xxv. bookes _de_ // _ius._
    _varia lectione_: in which bookes be ioyned diligentlie together the
    best Authors of both the tonges where one doth seeme to
    imitate an other.
         But all these, with _Macrobius, Hessus_, and other, be no

    276  _The second booke teachyng_

    more but common porters, caryers, and bringers of matter and
    stuffe togither.  They order nothing: They lay before you,
    what is done: they do not teach you, how it is done: They
    busie not them selues with forme of buildyng: They do not
    declare, this stuffe is thus framed by _Demosthenes_, and thus and
    thus by _Tullie_, and so likewise in _Xenophon, Plato_ and _Isocrates_
    and _Aristotle_.  For ioyning _Virgil_ with _Homer_ I haue suf-
    ficientlie declared before.
         The like diligence I would wish to be taken in _Pindar_ and
    _Pindarus._ // _Horace_ an equall match for all respectes.
    _Horatius._ //      In Tragedies, (the goodliest Argument of all,
    and for the vse, either of a learned preacher, or a
    Ciuill Ientleman, more profitable than _Homer, Pindar, Virgill_,
    and _Horace_: yea comparable in myne opinion, with the doctrine
    _Sophocles._ // of _Aristotle, Plato_, and _Xenophon_,) the
    _Euripides._ // _Sophocles_ and _Euripides_ far ouer match our
    _Seneca._ // in _Latin_, namely in oikonomia _et Decoro_, although
    _Senacaes_ elocution and verse be verie commendable for his tyme.
    And for the matters of _Hercules, Thebes, Hippolytus_, and _Troie_,
    his Imitation is to be gathered into the same booke, and to be
    tryed by the same touchstone, as is spoken before.
         In histories, and namelie in _Liuie_, the like diligence of
    Imitation, could bring excellent learning, and breede stayde
    iudgement, in taking any like matter in hand.
         Onely _Liuie_ were a sufficient taske for one mans studie,
    _Tit. Liuius._ // to compare him, first with his fellow for all re-
    _Dion. Hali-_ // spectes, _Dion. Halicarnassæus_: who both, liued in
    _carn._ // one tyme: tooke both one historie in hande to
    write: deserued both like prayse of learnyng and eloquence.
    _Polibius._ // Than with _Polybius_ that wise writer, whom _Liuie_
    professeth to follow: & if he would denie it, yet
    it is plaine, that the best part of the thyrd _Decade_ in _Liuie_, is in
    _Thucidides._ // a maner translated out of the thyrd and rest of
    _Polibius_: Lastlie with _Thucydides_, to whose Imita-
    tion _Liuie_ is curiouslie bent, as may well appeare by that one
    1 _Decad._ // Oration of those of _Campania_, asking aide of the
    _Lib._ 7. // _Romanes_ agaynst the _Samnites_, which is wholie
    taken, Sentence, Reason, Argument, and order,
    _Thucid._ 1. // out of the Oration of _Corcyra_, asking like aide of
    the _Athenienses_ against them of _Corinth_.  If some

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  277

    diligent student would take paynes to compare them togither, he
    should easelie perceiue, that I do say trew.  A booke, thus
    wholie filled with examples of Imitation, first out of _Tullie_,
    compared with _Plato, Xenophon, Isocrates, Demosthenes_ and
    _Aristotle_: than out of _Virgil_ and _Horace_, with _Homer_ and
    _Pindar_: next out of _Seneca_ with _Sophocles_ and _Euripides_:
    out of _Liuie_, with _Thucydides, Polibius_ and _Halicarnassæus_,
    gathered with good diligence, and compared with right order,
    as I haue expressed before, were an other maner of worke for
    all kinde of learning, & namely for eloquence, than be those
    cold gatheringes of _Macrobius, Hessus, Perionius, Stephanus_, and
    _Victorius_, which may be vsed, as I sayd before, in this case, as
    porters and caryers, deseruing like prayse, as soch men do
    wages; but onely _Sturmius_ is he, out of whom, the trew suruey
    and whole workemanship is speciallie to be learned.
         I trust, this my writyng shall giue some good student
    occasion, to take some peece in hand of this worke of Imitation.
    And as I had rather haue any do it, than my // Opus de
    selfe, yet surelie my selfe rather than none at all. // recta imi-
    And by Gods grace, if God do lend me life, with // tandi ratione.
    health, free laysure and libertie, with good likyng
    and a merie heart, I will turne the best part of my studie and
    tyme, to toyle in one or other peece of this worke of Imitation.
         This diligence to gather examples, to giue light and vnder-
    standyng to good preceptes, is no new inuention, but speciallie vsed
    of the best Authors and oldest writers.  For _Aristotle_ // _Aristoteles._
    him selfe, (as _Diog. Laertius_ declareth) when he
    had written that goodlie booke of the _Topickes_, did gather out
    of stories and Orators, so many examples as filled xv. bookes,
    onelie to expresse the rules of his _Topickes_.  These were the
    Commentaries, that _Aristotle_ thought fit for hys // Commen-
    _Topickes_: And therfore to speake as I thinke, I // tarij Græ-
    neuer saw yet any Commentarie vpon _Aristotles_ // ci et Lati-
    Logicke, either in _Greke_ or _Latin_, that euer I // ni in Dia-
    lyked, bicause they be rather spent in declaryng // lect.  Ari-
    scholepoynt rules, than in gathering fit examples // stotelis.
    for vse and vtterance, either by pen or talke.  For preceptes in
    all Authors, and namelie in _Aristotle_, without applying vnto
    them, the Imitation of examples, be hard, drie, and cold, and
    therfore barrayn, vnfruitfull and vnpleasant.  But _Aristotle_,

    278  _The second booke teachyng_

    namelie in his _Topicks_ and _Elenches_, should be, not onelie
    fruitfull, but also pleasant to, if examples out of _Plato_, and
    other good Authors, were diligentlie gathered, and aptlie
    Precepta // applied vnto his most perfit preceptes there.
    in Aristot. // And it is notable, that my frende _Sturmius_ writeth
    Exempla // herein, that there is no precept in _Aristotles_
    in _Platone._ // _Topickes_ wherof plentie of examples be not
    manifest in _Platos_ workes.  And I heare say, that an excellent
    learned man, _Tomitanus_ in _Italie_, hath expressed euerie fallacion
    in _Aristotle_, with diuerse examples out of _Plato_.  Would to
    God, I might once see, some worthie student of _Aristotle_ and
    _Plato_ in Cambrige, that would ioyne in one booke the preceptes
    of the one, with the examples of the other.  For such a labor,
    were one speciall peece of that worke of Imitation, which I do
    wishe were gathered together in one Volume.
         Cambrige, at my first comming thither, but not at my
    going away, committed this fault in reading the preceptes of
    _Aristotle_ without the examples of other Authors: But herein,
    in my time thies men of worthie memorie, _M. Redman_,
    _M. Cheke, M. Smith, M. Haddon, M. Watson_, put so to
    their helping handes, as that vniuersitie, and all studentes there,
    as long as learning shall last, shall be bounde vnto them, if that
    trade in studie be trewlie folowed, which those men left behinde
    them there.
         By this small mention of Cambridge, I am caryed into three
    imaginations: first, into a sweete remembrance of my tyme
    spent there: than, into som carefull thoughts, for the greuous
    alteration that folowed sone after: lastlie, into much ioy to
    heare tell, of the good recouerie and earnest forwardnes in all
    good learning there agayne.
         To vtter theis my thoughts somwhat more largelie, were
    somwhat beside my matter, yet not very farre out of the way,
    bycause it shall wholy tend to the good encoragement and right
    consideration of learning, which is my full purpose in writing
    this litle booke: whereby also shall well appeare this sentence
    to be most trewe, that onely good men, by their gouernment
    & example, make happie times, in euery degree and state.
         Doctor _Nico. Medcalfe_, that honorable father, was Master
    _D. Nic._ // of _S. Iohnes_ Colledge, when I came thether: A
    _Medcalf._ // man meanelie learned himselfe, but not meanely

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  279

    affectioned to set forward learning in others.  He found
    that Colledge spending scarse two hundred markes by yeare:
    he left it spending a thousand markes and more.  Which
    he procured, not with his mony, but by his wisdome; not
    chargeablie bought by him, but liberallie geuen by others by his
    meane, for the zeale & honor they bare to learning.  And that
    which is worthy of memorie, all thies giuers were almost
    Northenmen: who being liberallie rewarded in the seruice of
    their Prince, bestowed it as liberallie for the good of their
    Contrie.  Som men thought therefore, that _D. Medcalfe_ was
    parciall to Northrenmen, but sure I am of this, that North-
    renmen were parciall, in doing more good, and geuing more
    landes to y^e forderance of learning, than any other // The parci-
    contrie men, in those dayes, did: which deede // alitie of
    should haue bene, rather an example of goodnes, // Northren
    for other to folowe, than matter of malice, for any // men in
    to enuie, as some there were that did.  Trewly, // _S. Iohnes_
    _D. Medcalfe_ was parciall to none: but indifferent // College.
    to all: a master for the whole, a father to euery one, in that
    Colledge.  There was none so poore, if he had, either wil to
    goodnes, or wit to learning, that could lacke being there, or
    should depart from thence for any need.  I am witnes my selfe,
    that mony many times was brought into yong mens studies by
    strangers whom they knew not.  In which doing, this worthy
    _Nicolaus_ folowed the steppes of good olde _S. Nicolaus_, that
    learned Bishop.  He was a Papist in deede, but would to God,
    amonges all vs Protestants I might once see but one, that would
    winne like praise, in doing like good, for the aduauncement of
    learning and vertue.  And yet, though he were a Papist, if any
    yong man, geuen to new learning (as they termed it) went
    beyond his fellowes, in witte, labor, and towardnes, euen the
    same, neyther lacked, open praise to encorage him, nor priuate
    exhibition to mainteyne hym, as worthy Syr _I. Cheke_, if he
    were aliue would beare good witnes and so can many mo.
    I my selfe one of the meanest of a great number, in that
    Colledge, because there appeared in me som small shew of
    towardnes and diligence, lacked not his fauor to forder me in
         And being a boy, new Bacheler of arte, I chanced amonges
    my companions to speake against the Pope: which matter was

    280  _The second booke teachyng_

    than in euery mans mouth, bycause _D. Haines_ and _D. Skippe_
    were cum from the Court, to debate the same matter, by
    preaching and disputation in the vniuersitie.  This hapned the
    same tyme, when I stoode to be felow there: my taulke came
    to _D. Medcalfes_ eare: I was called before him and the Seniores:
    and after greuous rebuke, and some punishment, open warning
    was geuen to all the felowes, none to be so hardie to geue me
    his voice at that election.  And yet for all those open threates,
    the good father himselfe priuilie procured, that I should euen
    than be chosen felow.  But, the election being done, he made
    countinance of great discontentation thereat.  This good mans
    goodnes, and fatherlie discretion, vsed towardes me that one
    day, shall neuer out of my remembrance all the dayes of my
    life.  And for the same cause, haue I put it here, in this small
    record of learning.  For next Gods prouidence, surely that day,
    was by that good fathers meanes, _Dies natalis_, to me, for the
    whole foundation of the poore learning I haue, and of all the
    furderance, that hetherto else where I haue obteyned.
         This his goodnes stood not still in one or two, but flowed
    aboundantlie ouer all that Colledge, and brake out also to
    norishe good wittes in euery part of that vniuersitie: whereby,
    at this departing thence, he left soch a companie of fellowes and
    scholers in _S. Iohnes_ Colledge, as can scarse be found now in
    some whole vniuersitie: which, either for diuinitie, on the one
    side or other, or for Ciuill seruice to their Prince and contrie,
    haue bene, and are yet to this day, notable ornaments to this
    whole Realme: Yea _S. Iohnes_ did then so florish, as Trinitie
    college, that Princely house now, at the first erection, was but
    _Colonia deducta_ out of _S. Iohnes_, not onelie for their Master,
    fellowes, and scholers, but also, which is more, for their whole,
    both order of learning, and discipline of maners: & yet to this
    day, it neuer tooke Master but such as was bred vp before in
    _S. Iohnes_: doing the dewtie of a good _Colonia_ to her _Metropolis_,
    as the auncient Cities in Greice and some yet in Italie, at this
    day, are accustomed to do.
         _S. Iohnes_ stoode in this state, vntill those heuie tymes, and
    that greuous change that chanced. An. 1553. whan mo perfite
    scholers were dispersed from thence in one moneth, than many
    Psal. 80. // yeares can reare vp againe.  For, whan _Aper de
    Sylua_ had passed the seas, and fastned his foote

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  281

    againe in England, not onely the two faire groues of learning
    in England were eyther cut vp, by the roote, or troden downe
    to the ground and wholie went to wracke, but the yong spring
    there, and euerie where else, was pitifullie nipt and ouertroden
    by very beastes, and also the fairest standers of all, were rooted
    vp, and cast into the fire, to the great weakning euen at this
    day of Christes Chirch in England, both for Religion and
         And what good could chance than to the vniuersities, whan
    som of the greatest, though not of the wisest nor best learned,
    nor best men neither of that side, did labor to perswade, that
    ignorance was better than knowledge, which they ment, not for
    the laitie onelie, but also for the greatest rable of their spiritu-
    altie, what other pretense openlie so euer they made: and
    therefore did som of them at Cambrige (whom I will not name
    openlie,) cause hedge priestes fette oute of the contrie, to be
    made fellowes in the vniuersitie: saying, in their talke priuilie,
    and declaring by their deedes openlie, that he was, felow good
    enough for their tyme, if he could were a gowne and a tipet
    cumlie, and haue hys crowne shorne faire and roundlie, and
    could turne his Portesse and pie readilie: whiche I speake not
    to reproue any order either of apparell, or other dewtie, that
    may be well and indifferentlie vsed, but to note the miserie of
    that time, whan the benefites prouided for learning were so
    fowlie misused.  And what was the frute of this seade?
    Verely, iudgement in doctrine was wholy altered: order in
    discipline very sore changed: the loue of good learning, began
    sodenly to wax cold: the knowledge of the tonges (in spite of
    some that therein had florished) was manifestly contemned:
    and so, y^e way of right studie purposely peruerted: the choice
    of good authors of mallice confownded.  Olde sophistrie (I say
    not well) not olde, but that new rotten sophistrie began to
    beard and sholder logicke in her owne tong: yea, I know, that
    heades were cast together, and counsell deuised, that _Duns_, with
    all the rable of barbarous questionistes, should haue dispossessed
    of their place and rowmes, _Aristotle, Plato, Tullie_, // _Aristoteles._
    and _Demosthenes_, when good _M. Redman_, and // _Plato._
    those two worthy starres of that vniuersitie, // _Cicero._
    _M. Cheke_, and _M. Smith_, with their scholers, had // _Demost._
    brought to florishe as notable in Cambrige, as

    282  _The second booke teachyng_

    euer they did in Grece and in Italie: and for the doctrine of
    those fowre, the fowre pillers of learning, Cambrige than geuing
    place to no vniuersitie, neither in France, Spaine, Germanie,
    nor Italie.  Also in outward behauiour, than began simplicitie
    in apparell, to be layd aside: Courtlie galantnes to be taken vp:
    frugalitie in diet was priuately misliked: Towne going to good
    Shoting. // cheare openly vsed: honest pastimes, ioyned with
    labor, left of in the fieldes: vnthrifty and idle
    games, haunted corners, and occupied the nightes: contention
    in youth, no where for learning: factions in the elders euery
    where for trifles.  All which miseries at length, by Gods
    prouidence, had their end 16. _Nouemb._ 1558.  Since which
    tyme, the yong spring hath shot vp so faire, as now there be in
    Cambrige againe, many goodly plantes (as did well appeare at
    the Queenes Maiesties late being there) which are like to grow
    to mightie great timber, to the honor of learning, and great good
    of their contrie, if they may stand their tyme, as the best
    plantes there were wont to do: and if som old dotterell trees,
    with standing ouer nie them, and dropping vpon them, do not
    either hinder, or crooke their growing, wherein my feare is y^e
    lesse, seing so worthie a Iustice of an Oyre hath the present
    ouersight of that whole chace, who was himselfe somtym, in
    the fairest spring that euer was there of learning, one of the
    forwardest yong plantes, in all that worthy College of _S. Iohnes_:
    who now by grace is growne to soch greatnesse, as, in the
    temperate and quiet shade of his wisdome, next the prouidence
    of God, and goodnes of one, in theis our daies, _Religio_ for
    sinceritie, _literæ_ for order and aduauncement, _Respub._ for happie
    and quiet gouernment, haue to great rejoysing of all good men,
    speciallie reposed them selues.
         Now to returne to that Question, whether one, a few, many
    or all, are to be folowed, my aunswere shalbe short: All, for
    him that is desirous to know all: yea, the worst of all, as
    Questionistes, and all the barbarous nation of scholemen, helpe
    for one or other consideration: But in euerie separate kinde of
    learning and studie, by it selfe, ye must follow, choiselie a few,
    and chieflie some one, and that namelie in our schole of
    eloquence, either for penne or talke.  And as in portraicture
    and paintyng wise men chose not that workman, that can onelie
    make a faire hand, or a well facioned legge but soch one, as can

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  283

    furnish vp fullie, all the fetures of the whole body, of a man,
    woman and child: and with all is able to, by good skill, to giue
    to euerie one of these three, in their proper kinde, the right
    forme, the trew figure, the naturall color, that is fit and dew,
    to the dignitie of a man, to the bewtie of a woman, to the
    sweetnes of a yong babe: euen likewise, do we seeke soch one
    in our schole to folow, who is able alwayes, in all matters, to
    teach plainlie, to delite pleasantlie, and to cary away by force of
    wise talke, all that shall heare or read him: and is so excellent
    in deed, as witte is able, or wishe can hope, to attaine vnto:
    And this not onelie to serue in the _Latin_ or _Greke_ tong, but
    also in our own English language.  But yet, bicause the prouid-
    ence of God hath left vnto vs in no other tong, saue onelie in
    the _Greke_ and _Latin_ tong, the trew preceptes, and perfite
    examples of eloquence, therefore must we seeke in the Authors
    onelie of those two tonges, the trewe Paterne of Eloquence, if
    in any other mother tongue we looke to attaine, either to perfit
    vtterance of it our selues, or skilfull iudgement of it in others.
         And now to know, what Author doth medle onelie with
    some one peece and member of eloquence, and who doth
    perfitelie make vp the whole bodie, I will declare, as I can call
    to remembrance the goodlie talke, that I haue had oftentymes,
    of the trew difference of Authors, with that Ientleman of
    worthie memorie, my dearest frend, and teacher of all the litle
    poore learning I haue, Syr _Iohn Cheke_.
         The trew difference of Authors is best knowne, _per diuersa
    genera dicendi_, that euerie one vsed.  And therfore here I will
    deuide _genus dicendi_, not into these three, _Tenuè, mediocrè, &
    grande_, but as the matter of euerie Author requireth, as

         _in Genus_{_Philosophicum._

         These differre one from an other, in choice of wordes, in
    framyng of Sentences, in handling of Argumentes, and vse of
    right forme, figure, and number, proper and fitte for euerie
    matter, and euerie one of these is diuerse also in it selfe, as the

    284  _The second booke teachyng_

              _Poeticum, in_ {_Epicum._

         And here, who soeuer hath bene diligent to read aduisedlie
    ouer, _Terence, Seneca, Virgil, Horace_, or els _Aristophanes, Sophocles,
    Homer_, and _Pindar_, and shall diligently marke the difference
    they vse, in proprietie of wordes, in forme of sentence, in
    handlyng of their matter, he shall easelie perceiue, what is fitte
    and _decorum_ in euerie one, to the trew vse of perfite Imitation.
    Whan _M. Watson_ in S. Iohns College at Cambrige wrote his
    excellent Tragedie of _Absalon, M. Cheke_, he and I, for that part
    of trew Imitation, had many pleasant talkes togither, in com-
    paring the preceptes of _Aristotle_ and _Horace de Arte Poetica_,
    with the examples of _Euripides, Sophocles_, and _Seneca_.  Few
    men, in writyng of Tragedies in our dayes, haue shot at this
    marke.  Some in _England_, moe in _France, Germanie_, and _Italie_,
    also haue written Tragedies in our tyme: of the which, not
    one I am sure is able to abyde the trew touch of _Aristotles_
    preceptes, and _Euripides_ examples, saue only two, that euer I
    saw, _M. Watsons Absalon_, and _Georgius Buckananus Iephthe_.
    One man in Cambrige, well liked of many, but best liked of
    him selfe, was many tymes bold and busie, to bryng matters
    vpon stages, which he called Tragedies.  In one, wherby he
    looked to wynne his spurres, and whereat many ignorant felowes
    fast clapped their handes, he began the _Protasis_ with _Trochæijs
    Octonarijs_: which kinde of verse, as it is but seldome and rare
    in Tragedies, so is it neuer vsed, saue onelie in _Epitasi_: whan
    the Tragedie is hiest and hotest, and full of greatest troubles.
    I remember ful well what _M. Watson_ merelie sayd vnto me of
    his blindnesse and boldnes in that behalfe although otherwise,
    there passed much frendship betwene them.  _M. Watson_ had an
    other maner care of perfection, with a feare and reuerence of
    the iudgement of the best learned: Who to this day would
    neuer suffer, yet his _Absalon_ to go abroad, and that onelie,
    bicause, in _locis paribus, Anapestus_ is twise or thrise vsed in stede
    of _Iambus_.  A smal faulte, and such one, as perchance would
    neuer be marked, no neither in _Italie_ nor _France_.  This I write,
    not so much, to note the first, or praise the last, as to leaue in

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  285

    memorie of writing, for good example to posteritie, what
    perfection, in any tyme, was, most diligentlie sought for in like
    maner, in all kinde of learnyng, in that most worthie College
    of S. Iohns in Cambrige.

         _Historicum in_ {_Commentarios._
                   {_Iustam Historiam._

         For what proprietie in wordes, simplicitie in sentences,
    plainnesse and light, is cumelie for these kindes, _Cæsar_ and
    _Liuie_, for the two last, are perfite examples of Imitation: And
    for the two first, the old paternes be lost, and as for some that
    be present and of late tyme, they be fitter to be read once for
    some pleasure, than oft to be perused, for any good Imitation of

         _Philosophicum in_ {_Sermonem_, as _officia Cic. et Eth. Arist._

         As, the Dialoges of _Plato, Xenophon_, and _Cicero_: of which
    kinde of learnyng, and right Imitation therof, _Carolus Sigonius_
    hath written of late, both learnedlie and eloquentlie: but best
    of all my frende _Ioan. Sturmius_ in hys Commentaries vpon
    _Gorgias Platonis_, which booke I haue in writyng, and is not yet
    set out in Print.

         _Oratorium in_ {_Mediocre._

         Examples of these three, in the _Greke_ tong, be plentifull &
    perfite, as _Lycias, Isocrates_, and _Demosthenes_: and // _Lisias._
    all three, in onelie _Demosthenes_, in diuerse orations // _Isocrates._
    as _contra Olimpiodorum, in leptinem, & pro Ctesi-_ // _Demost._
    _phonte_.  And trew it is, that _Hermogines_ writeth
    of _Demosthenes_, that all formes of Eloquence be perfite in him.
    In _Ciceroes_ Orations, _Medium & sublime_ be most // _Cicero._
    excellentlie handled, but _Humile_ in his Orations,
    is seldome sene: yet neuerthelesse in other bookes, as in some
    part of his offices, & specially _in Partitionibus_, he is comparable
    _in hoc humili & disciplinabili genere_, euen with the best that euer

    286  _The second booke teachyng_

    wrote in _Greke_.  But of _Cicero_ more fullie in fitter place.  And
    thus, the trew difference of stiles, in euerie Author, and euerie
    kinde of learnyng may easelie be knowne by this diuision.

         _in Genus_ {_Philosophicum._

         Which I thought in this place to touch onelie, not to
    prosecute at large, bicause, God willyng, in the _Latin_ tong,
    I will fullie handle it, in my booke _de Imitatione_.
         Now, to touch more particularlie, which of those Authors,
    that be now most commonlie in mens handes, will sone affourd
    you some peece of Eloquence, and what maner a peece of
    eloquence, and what is to be liked and folowed, and what to
    be misliked and eschewed in them: and how some agayne will
    furnish you fully withall, rightly, and wisely considered, som-
    what I will write as I haue heard Syr _Ihon Cheke_ many tymes
         The Latin tong, concerning any part of purenesse of it,
    from the spring, to the decay of the same, did not endure moch
    longer, than is the life of a well aged man, scarse one hundred
    yeares from the tyme of the last _Scipio Africanus_ and _Lælius_, to
    the Empire of _Augustus_.  And it is notable, that _Velleius Pater-
    culus_ writeth of _Tullie_, how that the perfection of eloquence did
    so remayne onelie in him and in his time, as before him, were
    few, which might moch delight a man, or after him any, worthy
    admiration, but soch as _Tullie_ might haue seene, and such as
    might haue seene _Tullie_.  And good cause why: for no perfec-
    tion is durable.  Encrease hath a time, & decay likewise, but
    all perfit ripenesse remaineth but a moment: as is plainly seen
    in fruits, plummes and cherries: but more sensibly in flowers,
    as Roses & such like, and yet as trewlie in all greater matters.
    For what naturallie, can go no hier, must naturallie yeld &
    stoup againe.
         Of this short tyme of any purenesse of the Latin tong, for
    the first fortie yeare of it, and all the tyme before, we haue no
    peece of learning left, saue _Plautus_ and _Terence_, with a litle
    rude vnperfit pamflet of the elder _Cato_.  And as for _Plautus_,
    except the scholemaster be able to make wise and ware choice,

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  287

    first in proprietie of wordes, than in framing of Phrases and
    sentences, and chieflie in choice of honestie of matter, your
    scholer were better to play, then learne all that is in him.  But
    surelie, if iudgement for the tong, and direction for the maners,
    be wisely ioyned with the diligent reading of _Plautus_, than
    trewlie _Plautus_, for that purenesse of the Latin tong in Rome,
    whan Rome did most florish in wel doing, and so thereby, in
    well speaking also, is soch a plentifull storehouse, for common
    eloquence, in meane matters, and all priuate mens affaires, as
    the Latin tong, for that respect, hath not the like agayne.
    Whan I remember the worthy tyme of Rome, wherein _Plautus_
    did liue, I must nedes honor the talke of that tyme, which we
    see _Plautus_ doth vse.
         _Terence_ is also a storehouse of the same tong, for an other
    tyme, following soone after, & although he be not so full &
    plentiful as _Plautus_ is, for multitude of matters, & diuersitie of
    wordes, yet his wordes, be chosen so purelie, placed so orderly,
    and all his stuffe so neetlie packed vp, and wittely compassed in
    euerie place, as, by all wise mens iudgement, he is counted the
    cunninger workeman, and to haue his shop, for the rowme that
    is in it, more finely appointed, and trimlier ordered, than
    _Plautus_ is.
         Three thinges chiefly, both in _Plautus_ and _Terence_, are to
    be specially considered.  The matter, the vtterance, the words,
    the meter.  The matter in both, is altogether within the
    compasse of the meanest mens maners, and doth not stretch
    to any thing of any great weight at all, but standeth chiefly in
    vtteryng the thoughtes and conditions of hard fathers, foolish
    mothers, vnthrifty yong men, craftie seruantes, sotle bawdes,
    and wilie harlots, and so, is moch spent, in finding out fine
    fetches, and packing vp pelting matters, soch as in London
    commonlie cum to the hearing of the Masters of Bridewell.
    Here is base stuffe for that scholer, that should becum hereafter,
    either a good minister in Religion, or a Ciuill Ientleman in
    seruice of his Prince and contrie: except the preacher do know
    soch matters to confute them, whan ignorance surelie in all soch
    thinges were better for a Ciuill Ientleman, than knowledge.
    And thus, for matter, both _Plautus_ and _Terence_, be like meane
    painters, that worke by halfes, and be cunning onelie, in making
    the worst part of the picture, as if one were skilfull in painting

    288  _The second booke teachyng_

    the bodie of a naked person, from the nauell downward, but
    nothing else.
         For word and speach, _Plautus_ is more plentifull, and _Terence_
    more pure and proper: And for one respect, _Terence_ is to be
    embraced aboue all that euer wrote in hys kinde of argument:
    Bicause it is well known, by good recorde of learning, and that
    by _Ciceroes_ owne witnes that some Comedies bearyng _Terence_
    name, were written by worthy _Scipio_, and wise _Lælius_, and
    namely _Heauton_: and _Adelphi_.  And therefore as oft as I reade
    those Comedies, so oft doth sound in myne eare, the pure fine
    talke of Rome, which was vsed by the floure of the worthiest
    nobilitie that euer Rome bred.  Let the wisest man, and best
    learned that liueth, read aduisedlie ouer, the first scene of
    _Heauton_, and the first scene of _Adelphi_, and let him consideratlie
    iudge, whether it is the talke of a seruile stranger borne, or
    rather euen that milde eloquent wise speach, which _Cicero_ in
    _Brutus_ doth so liuely expresse in _Lælius_.  And yet neuerthelesse,
    in all this good proprietie of wordes, and purenesse of phrases
    which be in _Terence_, ye must not follow him alwayes in placing
    of them, bicause for the meter sake, some wordes in him,
    somtyme, be driuen awrie, which require a straighter placing in
    plaine prose, if ye will forme, as I would ye should do, your
    speach and writing, to that excellent perfitnesse, which was
    onely in _Tullie_, or onelie in _Tullies_ tyme.
         The meter and verse of _Plautus_ and _Terence_ be verie meane,
    _Meter in_ // and not to be followed: which is not their reproch,
    _Plautus &_ // but the fault of the tyme, wherein they wrote, whan
    _Terence._ // no kinde of Poetrie, in the Latin tong, was brought
    to perfection, as doth well appeare in the fragmentes
    of _Ennius, Cæcilius_, and others, and euidentlie in _Plautus_ &
    _Terence_, if thies in Latin be compared with right skil, with _Homer_,
    _Euripides, Aristophanes_, and other in Greeke of like sort.  _Cicero_
    him selfe doth complaine of this vnperfitnes, but more plainly
    _Quintilian_, saying, _in Comœdia maximè claudicamus, et vix leuem
    consequimur vmbram_: and most earnestly of all _Horace in Arte
    Poetica_, which he doth namely _propter carmen Iambicum_, and
    referreth all good studentes herein to the Imitation of the Greeke
    tong, saying.
                        _Exemplaria Græca
              nocturna versate manu, versate diurna._

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  289

         This matter maketh me gladly remember, my sweete tyme
    spent at Cambrige, and the pleasant talke which I had oft with
    _M. Cheke_, and _M. Watson_, of this fault, not onely in the olde
    Latin Poets, but also in our new English Rymers at this day.
    They wished as _Virgil_ and _Horace_ were not wedded to follow
    the faultes of former fathers (a shrewd mariage in greater
    matters) but by right _Imitation_ of the perfit Grecians, had
    brought Poetrie to perfitnesse also in the Latin tong, that we
    Englishmen likewise would acknowledge and vnderstand right-
    fully our rude beggerly ryming, brought first into Italie by
    _Gothes_ and _Hunnes_, whan all good verses and all good learning
    to, were destroyd by them: and after caryed into France and
    Germanie: and at last, receyued into England by men of
    excellent wit in deede, but of small learning, and lesse iudge-
    ment in that behalfe.
         But now, when men know the difference, and haue the
    examples, both of the best, and of the worst, surelie, to follow
    rather the _Gothes_ in Ryming, than the Greekes in trew versifiyng,
    were euen to eate ackornes with swyne, when we may freely
    eate wheate bread emonges men.  In deede, _Chauser, Th.
    Norton_, of Bristow, my L. of Surrey, _M. Wiat, Th. Phaer_,
    and other Ientlemen, in translating _Ouide, Palingenius_, and
    _Seneca_, haue gonne as farre to their great praise, as the copie
    they followed could cary them, but, if soch good wittes, and
    forward diligence, had bene directed to follow the best examples,
    and not haue bene caryed by tyme and custome, to content
    themselues with that barbarous and rude Ryming, emonges
    their other worthy praises, which they haue iustly deserued,
    this had not bene the least, to be counted emonges men of
    learning and skill, more like vnto the Grecians, than vnto the
    Gothians, in handling of their verse.
         In deed, our English tong, hauing in vse chiefly, wordes of
    one syllable which commonly be long, doth not well receiue the
    nature of _Carmen Heroicum_, bicause _dactylus_, the aptest foote
    for that verse, conteining one long & two short, is seldom there-
    fore found in English: and doth also rather stumble than stand
    vpon _Monosyllabis.  Quintilian_ in hys learned Chapiter // hand.gif
    _de Compositione_, geueth this lesson _de Monosyllabis_,
    before me: and in the same place doth iustlie inuey against all
    Ryming, that if there be any, who be angrie with me, for

    290  _The second booke teachyng_

    misliking of Ryming, may be angry for company to, with
    _Quintilian_ also, for the same thing: And yet _Quintilian_ had
    not so iust cause to mislike of it than, as men haue at this day.
         And although _Carmen Exametrum_ doth rather trotte and
    hoble, than runne smothly in our English tong, yet I am sure,
    our English tong will receiue _carmen Iambicum_ as naturallie, as
    either _Greke_ or _Latin_.  But for ignorance, men can not like, &
    for idlenes, men will not labor, to cum to any perfitenes at all.
    For, as the worthie Poetes in _Athens_ and _Rome_, were more
    carefull to satisfie the iudgement of one learned, than rashe in
    pleasing the humor of a rude multitude, euen so if men in
    England now, had the like reuerend regard to learning skill and
    iudgement, and durst not presume to write, except they came
    with the like learnyng, and also did vse like diligence, in
    searchyng out, not onelie iust measure in euerie meter, as euerie
    ignorant person may easely do, but also trew quantitie in euery
    foote and sillable, as onelie the learned shalbe able to do, and as
    the _Grekes_ and _Romanes_ were wont to do, surelie than rash
    ignorant heads, which now can easely recken vp fourten sillables,
    and easelie stumble on euery Ryme, either durst not, for lacke
    of such learnyng: or els would not, in auoyding such labor, be
    hand.gif // so busie, as euerie where they be: and shoppes in
    London should not be so full of lewd and rude
    rymes, as commonlie they are.  But now, the ripest of tong,
    be readiest to write: And many dayly in setting out bookes and
    balettes make great shew of blossomes and buddes, in whom is
    neither, roote of learning, nor frute of wisedome at all.  Some that
    make _Chaucer_ in English and _Petrarch_ in _Italian_, their Gods in
    verses, and yet be not able to make trew difference, what is
    a fault, and what is a iust prayse, in those two worthie wittes,
    will moch mislike this my writyng.  But such men be euen
    like followers of _Chaucer_ and _Petrarke_, as one here in England
    did folow Syr _Tho. More_: who, being most vnlike vnto him, in
    wit and learnyng, neuertheles in wearing his gowne awrye vpon
    the one shoulder, as Syr _Tho. More_ was wont to do, would
    nedes be counted lyke vnto him.
         This mislikyng of Ryming, beginneth not now of any
    newfangle singularitie, but hath bene long misliked of many,
    and that of men, of greatest learnyng, and deepest iudgement.
    And soch, that defend it, do so, either for lacke of knowledge

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  291

    what is best, or els of verie enuie, that any should performe that
    in learnyng, whereunto they, as I sayd before, either for
    ignorance, can not, or for idlenes will not, labor to attaine vnto.
         And you that prayse this Ryming, bicause ye neither haue
    reason, why to like it, nor can shew learning to defend it, yet I
    will helpe you, with the authoritie of the oldest and learnedst
    tyme.  In _Grece_, whan Poetrie was euen at the hiest pitch of per-
    fitnes, one _Simmias Rhodius_ of a certaine singularitie wrote a
    booke in ryming _Greke_ verses, naming it oon, conteyning the
    fable, how _Iupiter_ in likenes of a swan, gat that egge vpon _Leda_,
    whereof came _Castor, Pollux_ and faire _Elena_.  This booke was
    so liked, that it had few to read it, but none to folow it:
    But was presentlie contemned: and sone after, both Author and
    booke, so forgotten by men, and consumed by tyme, as scarse
    the name of either is kept in memorie of learnyng: And the like
    folie was neuer folowed of any, many hondred yeares after
    vntill y^e _Hunnes_ and _Gothians_, and other barbarous nations, of
    ignorance and rude singularitie, did reuiue the same folie agayne.
         The noble Lord _Th._ Earle of Surrey, first of all English
    men, in translating the fourth booke of _Virgill_: // The Earle of
    and _Gonsaluo Periz_ that excellent learned man, // Surrey.
    and Secretarie to kyng _Philip_ of _Spaine_, in // _Gonsaluo_
    translating the _Vlisses of Homer_ out of _Greke_ into // _Periz._
    _Spanish_, haue both, by good iudgement, auoyded the fault of
    Ryming, yet neither of them hath fullie hite perfite and trew
    versifiyng.  In deede, they obserue iust number, and euen feete:
    but here is the fault, that their feete: be feete without ioyntes,
    that is to say, not distinct by trew quantitie of sillables: And so,
    soch feete, be but numme feete: and be, euen as vnfitte for
    a verse to turne and runne roundly withall, as feete of brasse or
    wood be vnweeldie to go well withall.  And as a foote of wood,
    is a plaine shew of a manifest maime, euen so feete, in our
    English versifiing, without quantitie and ioyntes, be sure signes,
    that the verse is either, borne deformed, vnnaturall and lame,
    and so verie vnseemlie to looke vpon, except to men that be
    gogle eyed them selues.
         The spying of this fault now is not the curiositie of English
    eyes, but euen the good iudgement also of the best // _Senese_
    that write in these dayes in _Italie_: and namelie of // _Felice_
    that worthie _Senese Felice Figliucci_, who, writyng // _Figliucci._

    292  _The second booke teachyng_

    vpon _Aristotles Ethickes_ so excellentlie in _Italian_, as neuer did yet
    any one in myne opinion either in _Greke_ or _Latin_, amongest
    other thynges doth most earnestlie inuey agaynst the rude
    ryming of verses in that tong: And whan soeuer he expresseth
    _Aristotles_ preceptes, with any example, out of _Homer_ or
    _Euripides_, he translateth them, not after the Rymes of _Petrarke_,
    but into soch kinde of perfite verse, with like feete and quantitie
    of sillables, as he found them before in the _Greke_ tonge: ex-
    hortyng earnestlie all the _Italian_ nation, to leaue of their rude
    barbariousnesse in ryming, and folow diligently the excellent
    _Greke_ and _Latin_ examples, in trew versifiyng.
         And you, that be able to vnderstand no more, then ye finde
    in the _Italian_ tong: and neuer went farder than the schole of
    _Petrarke_ and _Ariostus_ abroad, or els of _Chaucer_ at home though
    you haue pleasure to wander blindlie still in your foule wrong
    way, enuie not others, that seeke, as wise men haue done before
    them, the fairest and rightest way: or els, beside the iust
    reproch of malice, wisemen shall trewlie iudge, that you do so,
    as I haue sayd and say yet agayne vnto you, bicause, either, for
    idlenes ye will not, or for ignorance ye can not, cum by no
    better your selfe.
         And therfore euen as _Virgill_ and _Horace_ deserue most
    worthie prayse, that they spying the vnperfitnes in _Ennius_ and
    _Plautus_, by trew Imitation of _Homer_ and _Euripides_, brought
    Poetrie to the same perfitnes in _Latin_, as it was in _Greke_, euen
    so those, that by the same way would benefite their tong
    and contrey, deserue rather thankes than disprayse in that
         And I rejoyce, that euen poore England preuented _Italie_,
    first in spying out, than in seekyng to amend this fault in
         And here, for my pleasure I purpose a litle, by the way, to
    play and sporte with my Master _Tully_: from whom commonlie
    I am neuer wont to dissent.  He him selfe, for this point of
    learnyng, in his verses doth halt a litle by his leaue.  He could
    not denie it, if he were aliue, nor those defend hym now that
    Tullies // loue him best.  This fault I lay to his charge:
    saying a- // bicause once it pleased him, though somwhat
    gainst Eng- // merelie, yet oueruncurteslie, to rayle vpon poore
    land. // England, obiecting both, extreme beggerie, and

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  293

    mere barbariousnes vnto it, writyng thus vnto his frend _Atticus_:
    There is not one scruple of siluer in that whole // Ad Att.
    Isle, or any one that knoweth either learnyng or // Lib. iv. Ep.
    letter. // 16.
         But now master _Cicero_, blessed be God, and his sonne Iesu
    Christ, whom you neuer knew, except it were as it pleased him
    to lighten you by some shadow, as couertlie in one place ye
    confesse saying: _Veritatis tantum vmbram consectamur_, // Offic.
    as your Master _Plato_ did before you: blessed be
    God, I say, that sixten hundred yeare after you were dead and
    gone, it may trewly be sayd, that for siluer, there is more
    cumlie plate, in one Citie of England, than is in foure of the
    proudest Cities in all _Italie_, and take _Rome_ for one of them.
    And for learnyng, beside the knowledge of all learned tongs and
    liberall sciences, euen your owne bookes _Cicero_, be as well read,
    and your excellent eloquence is as well liked and loued, and as
    trewlie folowed in England at this day, as it is now, or euer
    was, sence your owne tyme, in any place of _Italie_, either at
    _Arpinum_, where ye were borne, or els at _Rome_ where ye were
    brought vp.  And a litle to brag with you _Cicero_, where you
    your selfe, by your leaue, halted in some point of learnyng in
    your owne tong, many in England at this day go streight vp,
    both in trewe skill, and right doing therein.
         This I write, not to reprehend _Tullie_, whom, aboue all
    other, I like and loue best, but to excuse _Terence_, because in his
    tyme, and a good while after, Poetrie was neuer perfited in
    _Latin_ vntill by trew _Imitation_ of the Grecians, it was at length
    brought to perfection: And also thereby to exhorte the goodlie
    wittes of England, which apte by nature, & willing by desire,
    geue them selues to Poetrie, that they, rightly vnderstanding the
    barbarous bringing in of Rymes, would labor, as _Virgil_ and
    _Horace_ did in Latin, to make perfit also this point of learning,
    in our English tong.
         And thus much for _Plautus_ and _Terence_, for matter, tong, and
    meter, what is to be followed, and what to be exchewed in them.
         After _Plautus_ and _Terence_, no writing remayneth vntill
    _Tullies_ tyme, except a fewe short fragmentes of _L. Crassus_
    excellent wit, here and there recited of _Cicero_ for example sake,
    whereby the louers of learnyng may the more lament the losse
    of soch a worthie witte.

    294  _The second booke teachyng_

         And although the Latin tong did faire blome and blossome
    in _L. Crassus_, and _M. Antonius_, yet in _Tullies_ tyme onely, and
    in Tullie himselfe chieflie, was the Latin tong fullie ripe, and
    growne to the hiest pitch of all perfection.
         And yet in the same tyme, it began to fade and stoupe, as
    _Tullie_ him selfe, in _Brutus de Claris Oratoribus_, with weeping
    wordes doth witnesse.
         And bicause, emongs them of that tyme, there was some
    difference, good reason is, that of them of that tyme, should be
    made right choice also.  And yet let the best _Ciceronian_ in
    Italie read _Tullies_ familiar epistles aduisedly ouer, and I beleue
    he shall finde small difference, for the Latin tong, either in
    propriety of wordes or framing of the stile, betwixt _Tullie_, and
    those that write vnto him.  As _ser. Sulpitius, A. Cecinna,
    M. Cælius, M. et D. Bruti, A. Pollio, L. Plancus_, and diuerse
    Epi. Planci // other: read the epistles of _L. Plancus_ in _x. Lib._
    x. lib. Epist. // and for an assay, that Epistle namely to the _Coss._
    8. // and whole _Senate_, the eight Epistle in number,
    and what could be, eyther more eloquentlie, or more wiselie
    written, yea by _Tullie_ himselfe, a man may iustly doubt.  Thies
    men and _Tullie_, liued all in one tyme, were like in authoritie,
    not vnlike in learning and studie, which might be iust causes of
    this their equalitie in writing: And yet surely, they neyther
    were in deed, nor yet were counted in mens opinions, equall
    with _Tullie_ in that facultie.  And how is the difference hid in
    his Epistles? verelie, as the cunning of an expert Sea man, in
    a faire calme fresh Ryuer, doth litle differ from the doing of
    a meaner workman therein, euen so, in the short cut of a
    priuate letter, where, matter is common, wordes easie, and
    order not moch diuerse, small shew of difference can appeare.
    But where _Tullie_ doth set vp his saile of eloquence, in some
    broad deep Argument, caried with full tyde and winde, of his
    witte and learnyng, all other may rather stand and looke after
    him, than hope to ouertake him, what course so euer he hold,
    either in faire or foule.  Foure men onely whan the Latin tong
    was full ripe, be left vnto vs, who in that tyme did florish, and
    did leaue to posteritie, the fruite of their witte and learning:
    _Varro, Salust, Cæsar_, and _Cicero_.  Whan I say, these foure
    onely, I am not ignorant, that euen in the same tyme, most
    excellent Poetes, deseruing well of the Latin tong, as _Lucretius_,

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  295

    _Cattullus, Virgill_ and _Horace_, did write: But, bicause, in this
    litle booke, I purpose to teach a yong scholer, to go, not to
    daunce: to speake, not to sing, whan Poetes in deed, namelie
    _Epici_ and _Lyrici_, as these be, are fine dauncers, and trime
    singers, but _Oratores_ and _Historici_ be those cumlie goers, and
    faire and wise speakers, of whom I wishe my scholer to wayte
    vpon first, and after in good order, & dew tyme, to be brought
    forth, to the singing and dauncing schole: And for this consi-
    deration, do I name these foure, to be the onelie writers of that

              ¶ _Varro._

         _Varro_, in his bookes _de lingua Latina, et Analogia_ as these be
    left mangled and patched vnto vs, doth not enter // _Varro._
    there in to any great depth of eloquence, but as
    one caried in a small low vessell him selfe verie nie the common
    shore, not much vnlike the fisher men of Rye, and Hering men
    of Yarmouth.  Who deserue by common mens opinion, small
    commendacion, for any cunning saling at all, yet neuertheles
    in those bookes of _Varro_ good and necessarie stuffe, for that
    meane kinde of Argument, be verie well and learnedlie gathered
         His bookes of Husbandrie, are moch to be regarded, and
    diligentlie to be read, not onelie for the proprietie, // De Rep.
    but also for the plentie of good wordes, in all // Rustica.
    contrey and husbandmens affaires: which can not
    be had, by so good authoritie, out of any other Author, either
    of so good a tyme, or of so great learnyng, as out of _Varro_.
    And yet bicause, he was fourescore yeare old, whan he wrote
    those bookes, the forme of his style there compared with _Tullies_
    writyng, is but euen the talke of a spent old man: whose
    wordes commonlie fall out of his mouth, though verie wiselie,
    yet hardly and coldie, and more heauelie also, than some eares
    can well beare, except onelie for age, and authorities sake.  And
    perchance, in a rude contrey argument, of purpose and iudge-
    ment, he rather vsed, the speach of the contrey, than talke of
    the Citie.
         And so, for matter sake, his wordes sometyme, be somewhat
    rude: and by the imitation of the elder _Cato_, old and out of vse:

    296  _The second booke teachyng_

    And beyng depe stept in age, by negligence some wordes do so
    scape & fall from him in those bookes, as be not worth the
    Lib. 3. // taking vp, by him, that is carefull to speake or
    Cap. 1. // write trew Latin, as that sentence in him, _Romani,
    in pace à rusticis alebantur, et in bello ab his tuebantur_.
    A good student must be therfore carefull and diligent, to read
    with iudgement ouer euen those Authors, which did write in the
    most perfite tyme: and let him not be affrayd to trie them,
    both in proprietie of wordes, and forme of style, by the touch
    stone of _Cæsar_ and _Cicero_, whose puritie was neuer soiled, no
    not by the sentence of those, that loued them worst.
         All louers of learnyng may sore lament the losse of those
    The loue // bookes of _Varro_, which he wrote in his yong and
    of Var- // lustie yeares, with good leysure, and great learnyng
    roes // of all partes of Philosophie: of the goodliest argu-
    bookes. // mentes, perteyning both to the common wealth,
    and priuate life of man, as, _de Ratione studij, et educandis liberis_,
    which booke, is oft recited, and moch praysed, in the fragmentes
    of _Nonius_, euen for authoritie sake.  He wrote most diligentlie
    and largelie, also the whole historie of the state of _Rome_: the
    mysteries of their whole Religion: their lawes, customes, and
    gouernement in peace: their maners, and whole discipline in
    warre: And this is not my gessing, as one in deed that neuer
    saw those bookes, but euen, the verie iudgement, & playne
    testimonie of _Tullie_ him selfe, who knew & read those bookes,
    in these wordes: _Tu ætatem Patriæ: Tu descriptiones temporum:_
    In Acad. // _Tu sacrorum, tu sacerdotum Iura: Tu domesticam,
    Quest. // _tu bellicam disciplinam: Tu sedem Regionum, locorum,_
    _tu omnium diuinarum humanarumque rerum nomina,
    genera, officia, causas aperuisti. &c._
         But this great losse of _Varro_, is a litle recompensed by the
    happy comming of _Dionysius Halicarnassæus_ to _Rome_ in
    _Augustus_ dayes: who getting the possession of _Varros_ librarie,
    out of that treasure house of learning, did leaue vnto vs some
    frute of _Varros_ witte and diligence, I meane, his goodlie bookes
    _de Antiquitatibus Romanorum.  Varro_ was so estemed for his
    excellent learnyng, as _Tullie_ him selfe had a reuerence to his
    Cic. ad // iudgement in all doutes of learnyng.  And
    Att. // _Antonius Triumuir_, his enemie, and of a contrarie
    faction, who had power to kill and bannish whom

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  297

    he listed, whan _Varros_ name amongest others was brought in a
    schedule vnto him, to be noted to death, he tooke his penne and
    wrote his warrant of sauegard with these most goodlie wordes,
    _Viuat Varro vir doctissimus_.  In later tyme, no man knew better,
    nor liked and loued more _Varros_ learnyng, than did _S. Augustine_,
    as they do well vnderstand, that haue diligentlie read ouer his
    learned bookes _de Ciuitate Dei_: Where he hath this most
    notable sentence: Whan I see, how much _Varro_ wrote, I
    meruell much, that euer he had any leasure to read: and whan
    I perceiue how many thinges he read, I meruell more, that euer
    he had any leasure to write. &c.
         And surelie, if _Varros_ bookes had remained to posteritie, as
    by Gods prouidence, the most part of _Tullies_ did, than trewlie
    the _Latin_ tong might haue made good comparison with the


         _Salust_, is a wise and worthy writer: but he requireth
    a learned Reader, and a right considerer of him. // _Salust._
    My dearest frend, and best master that euer I had // Syr Iohn
    or heard in learning, Syr _I. Cheke_, soch a man, as // Chekes
    if I should liue to see England breed the like // iudgement
    againe, I feare, I should liue ouer long, did once // and coun-
    giue me a lesson for _Salust_, which, as I shall neuer // sell for rea-
    forget my selfe, so is it worthy to be remembred // dyng of
    of all those, that would cum to perfite iudgement // _Saluste._
    of the Latin tong.  He said, that _Salust_ was not verie fitte for
    yong men, to learne out of him, the puritie of the Latin tong:
    because, he was not the purest in proprietie of wordes, nor
    choisest in aptnes of phrases, nor the best in framing of
    sentences: and therefore is his writing, sayd he neyther plaine
    for the matter, nor sensible for mens vnderstanding.  And what
    is the cause thereof, Syr, quoth I.  Verilie said he, bicause in
    _Salust_ writing, is more Arte than nature, and more labor than
    Arte: and in his labor also, to moch toyle, as it were, with an
    vncontented care to write better than he could, a fault common
    to very many men.  And therefore he doth not expresse the
    matter liuely and naturally with common speach as ye see
    _Xenophon_ doth in Greeke, but it is caried and driuen forth

    298  _The second booke teachyng_

    artificiallie, after to learned a sorte, as _Thucydides_ doth in his
    orations.  And how cummeth it to passe, sayd I, that _Cæsar_
    and _Ciceroes_ talke, is so naturall & plaine, and _Salust_ writing so
    artificiall and darke, whan all they three liued in one tyme?
    I will freelie tell you my fansie herein, said he: surely, _Cæsar_
    and _Cicero_, beside a singular prerogatiue of naturall eloquence
    geuen vnto them by God, both two, by vse of life, were daylie
    orators emonges the common people, and greatest councellers in
    the Senate house: and therefore gaue themselues to vse soch
    speach as the meanest should well vnderstand, and the wisest
    best allow: folowing carefullie that good councell of _Aristotle_,
    _loquendum vt multi, sapiendum vt pauci_.  _Salust_ was no soch man,
    neyther for will to goodnes, nor skill by learning: but ill geuen
    by nature, and made worse by bringing vp, spent the most part
    of his yougth very misorderly in ryot and lechery.  In the
    company of soch, who, neuer geuing theyr mynde to honest
    doyng, could neuer inure their tong to wise speaking.  But at
    last cummyng to better yeares, and bying witte at the dearest
    hand, that is, by long experience of the hurt and shame that
    commeth of mischeif, moued, by the councell of them that
    were wise, and caried by the example of soch as were good,
    first fell to honestie of life, and after to the loue of studie and
    learning: and so became so new a man, that _Cæsar_ being
    dictator, made him Pretor in _Numidia_ where he absent from his
    contrie, and not inured with the common talke of Rome, but
    shut vp in his studie, and bent wholy to reading, did write the
    storie of the Romanes.  And for the better accomplishing of
    the same, he red _Cato_ and _Piso_ in Latin for gathering of matter
    and troth: and _Thucydides_ in Greeke for the order of his storie,
    and furnishing of his style.  _Cato_ (as his tyme required) had
    more troth for the matter, than eloquence for the style.  And
    so _Salust_, by gathering troth out of _Cato_, smelleth moch of the
    roughnes of his style: euen as a man that eateth garlike for
    helth, shall cary away with him the sauor of it also, whether he
    will or not.  And yet the vse of old wordes is not the greatest
    cause of _Salustes_ roughnes and darknesse: There be in _Salust_
    Lib. 8. // some old wordes in deed as _patrare bellum, ductare_
    Cap. 3. // _exercitum_, well noted by _Quintilian_, and verie
    De Orna- // much misliked of him: and _supplicium_ for _suppli-_
    tu. // _catio_, a word smellyng of an older store than the

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  299

    other two so misliked by _Quint_: And yet is that word also in
    _Varro_, speaking of Oxen thus, _boues ad victimas faciunt, atque ad
    Deorum supplicia_: and a few old wordes mo.  Read _Saluste_ and
    _Tullie_ aduisedly together: and in wordes ye shall finde small
    difference: yea _Salust_ is more geuen to new wordes, than to
    olde, though som olde writers say the contrarie: as _Claritudo_
    for _Gloria_: _exactè_ for _perfectè_: _Facundia_ for
_eloquentia_.  Thies
    two last wordes _exactè_ and _facundia_ now in euery mans mouth,
    be neuer (as I do remember) vsed of _Tullie_, and therefore
    I thinke they be not good: For surely _Tullie_ speaking euery
    where so moch of the matter of eloquence, would not so
    precisely haue absteyned from the word _Facundia_, if it had
    bene good: that is proper for the tong, & common for mens
    vse.  I could be long, in reciting many soch like, both olde &
    new wordes in _Salust_: but in very dede neyther oldnes nor
    newnesse of wordes maketh the greatest difference // The cause why
    betwixt _Salust_ and _Tullie_, but first strange phrases // Salust is not
    made of good Latin wordes, but framed after the // like Tully.
    Greeke tonge, which be neyther choisly borowed of them, nor
    properly vsed by him: than, a hard composition and crooked
    framing of his wordes and sentences, as a man would say,
    English talke placed and framed outlandish like.  As for
    example first in phrases, _nimius et animus_ be two vsed wordes,
    yet _homo nimius animi_, is an vnused phrase.  _Vulgus, et amat, et
    fieri_, be as common and well known wordes, as may be in the
    Latin tong, yet _id quod vulgò amat fieri_, for _solet fieri_, is but
    a strange and grekish kind of writing.  _Ingens et vires_ be
    proper wordes, yet _vir ingens virium_ is an vnproper kinde of
    speaking and so be likewise,

                   {_æger consilij._
                   {_promptissimus belli._
                   {_territus animi._

    and many soch like phrases in _Salust_, borowed as I sayd not
    choisly out of Greeke, and vsed therefore vnproperlie in Latin.
    Againe, in whole sentences, where the matter is good, the
    wordes proper and plaine, yet the sense is hard and darke, and
    namely in his prefaces and orations, wherein he vsed most
    labor, which fault is likewise in _Thucydides_ in Greeke, of whom
    _Salust_ hath taken the greatest part of his darkenesse.  For

    300  _The second booke teachyng_

    _Thucydides_ likewise wrote his storie, not at home in Grece, but
    abrode in Italie, and therefore smelleth of a certaine outlandish
    kinde of talke, strange to them of _Athens_, and diuerse from their
    writing, that liued in Athens and Grece, and wrote the same
    tyme that _Thucydides_ did, as _Lysias, Xenophon, Plato_, and
    _Isocrates_, the purest and playnest writers, that euer wrote in any
    tong, and best examples for any man to follow whether he
    write, Latin, Italian, French, or English.  _Thucydides_ also
    semeth in his writing, not so much benefited by nature, as
    holpen by Arte, and caried forth by desire, studie, labor, toyle,
    and ouer great curiositie: who spent xxvii. yeares in writing his
    eight bookes of his history.  _Salust_ likewise wrote out of his
    Dionys. // contrie, and followed the faultes of _Thuc._ to
    Halycar. // moch: and boroweth of him som kinde of writing,
    ad Q. / which the Latin tong can not well beare, as _Casus_
    Tub. de // _nominatiuus_ in diuerse places _absolutè positus_, as in
    Hist. Thuc. // that place of _Iugurth_, speaking _de leptitanis, itaque ab
    imperatore facilè quæ petebant adepti, missæ sunt eò cohortes
    quatuor_.  This thing in participles, vsed so oft in _Thucyd._ and other
    Greeke authors to, may better be borne with all, but _Salust_ vseth
    the same more strangelie and boldlie, as in thies wordes, _Multis
    sibi quisque imperium petentibus_.  I beleue, the best Grammarien in
    England can scarse giue a good reule, why _quisque_ the nominatiue
    case, without any verbe, is so thrust vp amongest so many
    oblique cases.  Some man perchance will smile, and laugh to
    scorne this my writyng, and call it idle curiositie, thus to busie
    my selfe in pickling about these small pointes of Grammer, not
    fitte for my age, place and calling, to trifle in: I trust that man,
    be he neuer so great in authoritie, neuer so wise and learned,
    either, by other mens iudgement, or his owne opinion, will yet
    thinke, that he is not greater in England, than _Tullie_ was at
    _Rome_, not yet wiser, nor better learned than _Tullie_ was him
    selfe, who, at the pitch of three score yeares, in the middes of
    the broyle betwixt _Cæsar_ and _Pompeie_, whan he knew not,
    whether to send wife & children, which way to go, where to
    hide him selfe, yet, in an earnest letter, amongest his earnest
    Ad Att. // councelles for those heuie tymes concerning both
    Lib. 7. Epi- // the common state of his contrey, and his owne
    stola. 3. // priuate great affaires he was neither vnmyndfull
    nor ashamed to reason at large, and learne gladlie of _Atticus_,

    _the ready way to the Latin tong._  301

    a lesse point of Grammer than these be, noted of me in _Salust_,
    as, whether he should write, _ad Piræea, in Piræea_, or _in
    Piræeum_, or _Piræeum sine præpositione:_ And in those heuie
    tymes, he was so carefull to know this small point of Grammer,
    that he addeth these wordes _Si hoc mihi zetema persolueris,
    magna me molestia liberaris_.  If _Tullie_, at that age, in that
    authoritie, in that care for his contrey, in that ieoperdie for him
    selfe, and extreme necessitie of hys dearest frendes, beyng also
    the Prince of Eloquence hym selfe, was not ashamed to descend
    to these low pointes of Grammer, in his owne naturall tong,
    what should scholers do, yea what should any man do, if he do
    thinke well doyng, better than ill doyng: And had rather be,
    perfite than meane, sure than doutefull, to be what he should
    be, in deed, not seeme what he is not, in opinion.  He that
    maketh perfitnes in the _Latin_ tong his marke, must cume to it
    by choice & certaine knowledge, not stumble vpon it by chance
    and doubtfull ignorance: And the right steppes to reach vnto it,
    be these, linked thus orderlie together, aptnes of nature, loue of
    learnyng, diligence in right order, constancie with pleasant
    moderation, and alwayes to learne of them that be best, and so
    shall you iudge as they that be wisest.  And these be those
    reules, which worthie Master _Cheke_ dyd impart vnto me con-
    cernyng _Salust_, and the right iudgement of the _Latin_ tong.

                   ¶ _Cæsar._

         _Cæsar_ for that litle of him, that is left vnto vs, is like the
    halfe face of a _Venus_, the other part of the head beyng hidden,
    the bodie and the rest of the members vnbegon, yet so
    excellentlie done by _Apelles_, as all men may stand still to mase
    and muse vpon it, and no man step forth with any hope to
    performe the like.
         His seuen bookes _de bello Gallico_, and three _de bello Ciuili_, be
    written, so wiselie for the matter, so eloquentlie for the tong,
    that neither his greatest enemies could euer finde the least note
    of parcialitie in him (a meruelous wisdome of a man, namely
    writyng of his owne doynges) nor yet the best iudegers of the
    _Latin_ tong, nor the most enuious lookers vpon other mens
    writynges, can say any other, but all things be most perfitelie
    done by him.

    302  _The ready way to the Latin tong._

         _Brutus, Caluus_, and _Calidius_, who found fault with _Tullies_
    fulnes in woordes and matter, and that rightlie, for _Tullie_ did
    both, confesse it, and mend it, yet in _Cæsar_, they neither did,
    nor could finde the like, or any other fault.
         And therfore thus iustlie I may conclude of _Cæsar_, that
    where, in all other, the best that euer wrote, in any tyme, or in
    any tong, in _Greke_ or _Latin_, I except neither _Plato, Demosthenes_,
    nor _Tullie_, some fault is iustlie noted, in _Cæsar_ onelie, could
    neuer yet fault be found.
         Yet neuertheles, for all this perfite excellencie in
    him, yet it is but in one member of eloquence, and
    that but of one side neither, whan we must
    looke for that example to folow, which hath
    a perfite head, a whole bodie, forward
    and backward, armes and
    legges and all.


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