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´╗┐Title: Alaeddin and the Enchanted Lamp
Author: Payne, John, 1842-1916 [Translator]
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "Alaeddin and the Enchanted Lamp" ***


Zein Ul Asnam and the King of the Jinn: Two Stories Done into English
from the Recently Discovered Arabic Text

By John Payne

London 1901

     Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton, K.C.M.G.,

     My Dear Burton,

     I give myself the pleasure of placing your name in the forefront
     of another and final volume of my translation of the Thousand and
     One Nights, which, if it have brought me no other good, has at
     least been the means of procuring me your friendship.

     Believe me,

     Yours always,

     John Payne.

        Twelve years this day,--a day of winter, dreary
      With drifting snows, when all the world seemed dead
        To Spring and hope,--it is since, worn and weary
           Of doubt within and strife without, I fled

          From the mean workday miseries of existence,
       From spites that slander and from hates that lie,
            Into the dreamland of the Orient distance
            Under the splendours of the Syrian sky,

         And in the enchanted realms of Eastern story,
           Far from the lovelessness of modern times,

           Garnered the rainbow-remnants of old glory
           That linger yet in those ancestral climes;

         And now, the tong task done, the journey over,
            From that far home of immemorial calms,
           Where, as a mirage, on the sky-marge hover
               The desert and its oases of palms,

          Lingering, I turn me back, with eyes reverted
             To this stepmother world of daily life,
          As one by some long pleasant dream deserted,
            That wakes anew to dull unlovely strife:

       Yet, if non' other weal the quest have wrought me.
               The long beloved labour now at end,
    This gift of gifts the untravelled East hath brought me,
            The knowledge of a new and valued friend.

5th Feb. 1889.



The readers of my translation of the Book of the Thousand Nights and One
Night will remember that, in the terminal essay (1884) on the history
and character of the collection, I expressed my conviction that the
eleven (so-called) "interpolated" tales, [1] though, in my judgment,
genuine Oriental stories, had (with the exception of the Sleeper
Awakened and Aladdin) no connection with the original work, but had been
procured by Galland from various (as yet) unidentified sources, for the
purpose of supplying the deficiencies of the imperfect MS. of the Nights
from which he made his version. [2] My opinion as to these talcs has
now been completely confirmed by the recent discovery (by M. Zotenberg,
Keeper of Oriental MSS. in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris) of two
Arabic MSS. of the Nights, both containing three of the missing stories,
i.e. (1) Zeyn Alasnam, (3) The Sleeper Awakened and (4) Aladdin, and
by the publication (also by M. Zotenberg) of certain extracts from
Galland's diary, giving particulars of the circumstances under which
the "interpolated" tales were incorporated with his translation of the
Arabian Nights. The Arabic text of the Story of Aladdin, as given by the
completer and more authentic of the newly-discovered MSS., has recently
been made by M. Zotenberg the subject of a special publication, [3]
in the preface to which (an exhaustive bibliographical essay upon the
various Texts of the Thousand and One Nights, considered in relation to
Galland's translation) he gives, in addition to the extracts in question
from Galland's Diary, a detailed description of the two MSS. aforesaid,
the more interesting particulars of which I now proceed to abstract for
the benefit of my readers.


The first MS. commences precisely where the third volume of Galland's
MS. ends, to wit, (see my Terminal essay, p. 265, note1) with the 281st
Night, in the middle of the story of Camaralzaman [4] and contains,
(inter alia) besides the continuation of this latter (which ends
with Night CCCXXIX), the stories of the Sleeper Awakened (Nights
CCCXXX-CCCC), Ganem (Nights CCCCXXVIII-CCCCLXX1V), Zeyn Alasnam (Nights
CCCCLXXV-CCCCXCI), Aladdin (Nights CCCCXCII-DLXIX) and three others
not found in Galland's version. The MS. ends in the middle of the 631st
night with the well-known Story of King Bekhtzad (Azadbekht) and his son
or the Ten Viziers, (which will be found translated in my "Tales from
the Arabic," Vol. I. pp. 61 et seq.) and contains, immediately after
Night CCCCXXVII and before the story of Ganem, a note in Arabic, of
which the following is a translation:

"The fourth volume of the wonders and marvels of the stories of the
Thousand Nights and One Night was finished by the hand of the humblest
of His' servants in the habit of a minister of religion (Kahin, lit.
a diviner, Cohen), the [Christian] priest Dionysius Shawish, a scion
(selil) of the College of the Romans (Greeks, Europeans or Franks, er
Roum), by name St. Athanasius, in Rome the Greatest [5] (or Greater, utsma,
fem. of aatsem, qu re Constantinople?) on the seven-and-twentieth of the
month Shubat (February) of the year one thousand seven hundred fourscore
and seven, [he being] then teacher of the Arabic tongue in the Library
of the Sultan, King of France, at Paris the Greatest."

From this somewhat incoherent note we may assume that the MS. was
written in the course of the year 1787 by the notorious Syrian
ecclesiastic Dom Denis Chavis, the accomplice of Cazotte in the
extraordinary literary atrocity shortly afterward perpetrated by the
latter under the name of a sequel or continuation of the Thousand and
One Nights [6] (v. Cabinet des Fees, vols. xxxviii--xli), [7] and in all
probability (cf. the mention in the above note of the first part, i.e.
Nights CCLXXXI-CCCCXXVII, as the fourth volume) to supply the place of
Galland's missing fourth volume for the Bibliotheque Royale; but there.
is nothing, except a general similarity of style and the occurrence
in the former of the rest of Camaralzaman and (though not in the same
order) of four of the tales supposed to have been contained in the
latter, to show that Dom Chavis made his copy from a text identical
with that used by the French savant. In the notes to his edition of the
Arabic text of Aladdin, M. Zotenberg gives a number of extracts from
this MS., from which it appears that it is written in a very vulgar
modern Syrian style and abounds in grammatical errors, inconsistencies
and incoherences of every description, to say nothing of the fact that
the Syrian ecclesiastic seems, with the characteristic want of taste
and presumption which might be expected from the joint-author of "Les
Veillees Persanes," to have, to a considerable extent, garbled the
original text by the introduction of modern European phrases and turns
of speech a la Galland. For the rest, the MS. contains no note or other
indication, on which we can found any opinion as to the source from
which the transcriber (or arranger) drew his materials; but it can
hardly be doubted, from internal evidence, that he had the command of
some genuine text of the Nights, similar to, if not identical with,
that of Galland, which he probably "arranged" to suit his own (and his
century's) distorted ideas of literary fitness. The discovery of the
interpolated tales contained in this MS. (which has thus presumably lain
unnoticed for a whole century, under, as one may say, the very noses of
the many students of Arabic literature who would have rejoiced in such a
find) has, by a curious freak of fortune, been delayed until our own day
in consequence of a singular mistake made by a former conservator of
the Paris Bibliotheque, the well-known Orientalist, M. Reinaud, who, in
drawing up the Catalogue of the Arabic MSS. in the collection described
(or rather misdescribed) it under the following heading:

"Supplement Arabe 1716. Thousand and One Nights, 3rd and 4th parts. This
volume begins with Night CCLXXXII and ends with Night DCXXXI. A copy in
the handwriting of Chavis. It is from this copy and in accordance with
the instructions (d'apres la indications) of this Syrian monk that
Cazotte composed (redigea) the Sequel to the Thousand and One Nights,
Cabinet des Fees, xxxvii et xl (should be tt. xxxviii-xli)."

It is of course evident that M. Reinaud had never read the MS. in
question nor that numbered 1723 in the Supplement Arabe, or he would at
once have recognized that the latter, though not in the handwriting of
the Syrian ecclesiastic, was that which served for the production of the
"Sequel" in question; but, superficial as was the mistake, it sufficed
to prevent the examination by students of the MS. No. 1716 and so
retarded the discovery of the Arabic originals of Aladdin and its
fellows till the acquisition (some two years ago) by the Bibliotheque
Nationale of another (and complete) MS. of the Thousand and One Nights,
which appears to have belonged to the celebrated Orientalist M. Caussin
de Perceval, although the latter could not have been acquainted with it
at the time (1806) he published his well-known edition and continuation
of Galland's translation, in the eighth and ninth volumes of which, by
the by, he gives a correct version of the tales so fearfully garbled by
Chavis and Cazotte in their so-called translation as well nigh to defy
recognition and to cause Orientalists in general to deny the possibility
of their having been derived from an Oriental source until the discovery
of the actual Arabic originals so barbarously maltreated [8]

This MS. is in the handwriting of of Sebbagh, the well-known Syrian
collaborator of Silvestre de Sacy, and is supposed to have been copied
by him at Paris between the years 1805 and 1810 for some European
Orientalist (probably de Perceval himself) from a Baghdad MS. of the
early part of the 18th century, of which it professes to be an exact
reproduction, as appears from a terminal note, of which the following is
a translation:

"And the finishing of it was in the first tenth (decade) of Jumada the
Latter [in the] year one thousand one hundred and fifteen of the Hegira
(October, 1703) in the handwriting of the neediest of the faithful [9]
unto God [10] the Most High, Ahmed ibn Mohammed et Teradi, in the city
of Baghdad, and he the Shafiy by sect and the Mosuli by birth and the
Baghdadi by sojourn, and indeed he wrote it for himself and set upon it
his seal, and God bless and keep our lord Mohammed and his companions!
Kebikej [11] (ter)."

This MS. contains the three "interpolated" tales aforesaid, i.e.
the Sleeper Awakened (Nights CCCXXXVII-LXXXVI), Zeyn Alasnam (Nights
CCCCXCVII-DXIII) and Aladdin (Nights DXIV-XCI), the last two bearing
traces of a Syrian origin, especially Aladdin, which is written in a
much commoner and looser style than Zeyn Alasnam. The two tales are
evidently the work of different authors, Zeyn Alasnam being incomparably
superior in style and correctness to Aladdin, which is defaced by all
kinds of vulgarisms and solecisms and seems, moreover, to have been less
correctly copied than the other. Nevertheless, the Sebbagh text is in
every respect preferable to that of Shawish (which appears to abound
in faults and errors of every kind, general and particular,) and M.
Zotenberg has, therefore, exercised a wise discretion in selecting the
former for publication.


Perhaps the most noteworthy feature of M. Zorenberg's long and
interesting introduction is a series of extracts from the (as yet
unpublished) MS. Diary regularly kept by Galland, the last four volumes
(1708-15) of which are preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale.
These extracts effectually settle the question of the origin of the
interpolated tales, as will be seen from the following abstract.

On the 25th March, 1709, Galland records having that day made the
acquaintance of a Maronite scholar, by name Youhenna Diab, [12] who
had been brought from Aleppo to Paris by Paul Lucas, the celebrated
traveller, and with whom he evidently at once broached the question
of the Nights, [13] probably complaining to him of the difficulty (or
rather impossibility) of obtaining a perfect copy of the work; whereupon
Hanna (as he always calls him) appears to have volunteered to help him
to fill the lacune by furnishing him with suitable Oriental stories for
translation in the same style as those already rendered by him and then
and there (says Galland) "told me some very fine Arabian tales, which
he promised to put into writing for me." There is no fresh entry on the
subject till May 5 following, when (says Galland) "The Maronite Hanna
finished telling me the tale of the Lamp." [14]

Hanna appears to have remained in Paris till the autumn of the year 1709
and during his stay, Galland's Diary records the communication by him to
the French savant of the following stories, afterwards included in the
ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth volumes of the latter's translation,
(as well as of several others which he probably intended to translate,
had he lived,) [15] i.e. (May 10, 1709) "Babe Abdalla" and "Sidi
Nouman," (May 13, 1709) "The Enchanted Horse," (May 22, 1709) "Prince
Ahmed and Pari Banou," (May 25, 1709) "The Two Sisters who envied their
younger Sister," (May 27, 1709) "All Baba and the Forty Thieves," (May
29, 1709) "Cogia Hassan Alhabbal" and (May 31, 1709) "Ali Cogia." The
Maronite seems to have left for the East in October, 1709, (Galland says
under date October 25, "Received this evening a letter from Hanna, who
writes me from Marseilles, under date the 17th, in Arabic, to the effect
that he had arrived there in good health,") but not without having
at least in part fulfilled his promise to put in writing the tales
communicated by him to Galland, as appears by the entry of November 3,
1710, "Began yesterday to read the Arabian story of the Lamp, which
had been written me in Arabic more than a year ago by the Maronite of
Damascus [16] whom M. Lucas brought with him, with a view to putting it
into French. Finished reading it this morning. Here is the title of this
tale, 'Story of Aladdin, son of a tailor, and that which befell him with
an African Magician on account of (or through) a lamp.'" (The Diary
adds that he began that evening to put his translation into writing and
finished it in the course of the ensuing fortnight.) And that of January
10, 1711, "Finished the translation of the tenth volume of the 1001
Nights after the Arabic text which I had from the hand (de la main) of
Hanna or Jean Dipi, [17] whom M. Lucas brought to France on his return
from his last journey in the Levant." The only other entry bearing upon
the question is that of August 24, 1711, in which Galland says, "Being
quit of my labours upon the translation etc. of the Koran, I read a part
of the Arabian Tales which the Maronite Hanna had told me and which I
had summarily reduced to writing, to see which of them I should select
to make up the eleventh volume of the Thousand and One Nights."

From these entries it appears beyond question that Galland received from
the Maronite Hanna, in the Spring and Summer of 1709, the Arabic text
of the stories of Aladdin, Baba Abdalla, Sidi Nouman and Cogia Hassan
Alhabbal, i.e. the whole of the tales included in his ninth and tenth
volumes (with the exception of The Sleeper Awakened, of which he does
not speak) and that he composed the five remaining tales contained
in his eleventh and twelfth volumes (i.e. Ali Baba, Ali Cogia, The
Enchanted Horse, Prince Ahmed and Pari Banou and The Two Sisters who
envied their younger Sister,) upon the details thereof taken down from
Hanna's lips and by the aid of copious summaries made at the time. These
entries in Galland's diary dispose, therefore, of the question of
the origin of the "interpolated" tales, with the exception (1) of The
Sleeper Awakened (with which we need not, for the present, concern
ourselves farther) and (2) of Nos. 1 and 2a and b, i.e. Zeyn Alasnam,
Codadad and his brothers and The Princess of Deryabar (forming, with
Ganem, his eighth volume), as to which Galland, as I pointed out in my
terminal essay (p. 264), cautions us, in a prefatory note to his ninth
volume, that these two stories form no part of the Thousand and
One Nights and that they had been inserted and printed without the
cognizance of the translator, who was unaware of the trick that had been
played him till after the actual publication of the volume, adding
that care would be taken to expunge the intrusive tales from the second
edition (which, however, was never done, Galland dying before the
republication and it being probably found that the stranger tales had
taken too firm a hold upon public favour to be sacrificed, as originally
proposed); and the invaluable Diary supplies the necessary supplemental
information as to their origin. "M. Petis de la Croix," says Galland
under date of January 17, 1710, "Professor and King's Reader of the
Arabic tongue, who did me the honour to visit me this morning, was
extremely surprised to see two of the Turkish [18] Tales of his
translation printed in the eighth volume of the 1001 Nights, which
I showed him, and that this should have been done without his

Petis de la Croix, a well-known Orientalist and traveller of the time,
published in the course of the same year (1710) the first volume of a
collection of Oriental stories, similar in form and character to the
1001 Nights, but divided into "Days" instead of "Nights" and called "The
Thousand and One Days, Persian Tales," the preface to which (ascribed
to Cazotte) alleges him to have translated the tales from a Persian work
called Hezar [o] Yek Roz, i.e. "The Thousand and One Days," the MS. of
which had in 1675 been communicated to the translator by a friend
of his, by name Mukhlis, (Cazotte styles him "the celebrated Dervish
Mocles, chief of the Soufis of Ispahan") during his sojourn in the
Persian capital. The preface goes on to state that Mukhlis had, in his
youth, translated into Persian certain Indian plays, which had been
translated into all the Oriental languages and of which a Turkish
version existed in the Bibliotheque Royale, under the title of Alfaraga
Badal-Schidda (i.e. El Ferej bad esh Shiddeh), which signified "Joy
after Affliction"; but that, wishing to give his work an original air,
he converted the aforesaid plays into tales. Cazotte's story of the
Indian plays savours somewhat of the cock and the bull and it is
probable that the Hezar o Yek Roz (which is not, to my knowledge,
extant) was not derived from so recondite a source, but was itself
either the original of the well-known Turkish collection or (perhaps) a
translation of the latter. At all events, Zeyn Alasnam, Codadad and the
Princess of Deryabar occur in a copy (cited by M. Zotenberg), belonging
to the Bibliotheque Nationale, of El Ferej bad esh Shidded (of which
they form the eighth, ninth and sixth stories respectively) and in a
practically identical form, except that in Galland's vol. viii. the two
latter stories are fused into one. Sir William Ouseley is said to have
brought from Persia a MS. copy of a portion of the Hezar o Yek Roz which
he describes as agreeing with the French version, but, in the absence
of documentary proof and in view of the fact that, notwithstanding the
unauthorized incorporation of three of the tales of his original with
Galland's Vol. viii, the published version of the Thousand and One Days
is apparently complete and shows no trace of the omission, I am inclined
to suspect Petis de la Croix of having invented the division into
Days, in order to imitate (and profit by the popularity of) his fellow
savant's version of the Thousand and One Nights. Galland's publisher was
doubtless also that of Petis de la Croix and in the latter capacity
had in hand a portion of the MS. of the 1001 Days, from which, no
doubt weary of waiting till Galland (who was now come to the end of
his genuine Arabic MS. of the 1001 Nights and was accordingly at a
standstill, till he met with Hanna,) should have procured fresh material
to complete the copy for his eighth volume, of which Ganem only was then
ready for publication, he seems to have selected (apparently on his own
responsibility, but, it must be admitted, with considerable taste and
judgment,) the three tales in question from the MS. of the 1001 Days, to
fill up the lacune. It does not appear whether he found Codadad and the
Princess of Deryabar arranged as one story ready to his hand or himself
performed (or procured to be performed) the process of fusion, which, in
any case, was executed by no unskilful hand. Be this as it may, Galland
was naturally excessively annoyed at the publisher's unceremonious
proceeding, so much so indeed as for a time to contemplate renouncing
the publication of the rest of the work, to spare himself (as he says
in his Diary, under date of Dec. 12, 1709) similar annoyances
(mortifications) to that which the printing of the eighth volume had
caused him. Indeed, the effect of this incident was to induce him, not
only to change his publisher, but to delay the publication of the next
volume (which, as we learn from the Diary, was ready for the press at
the end of November or the beginning of December, 1709) for a whole
year, at the end of which time (Diary, November 21, 1710) he made
arrangements with a new (and presumably more trustworthy) publisher, M.
Florentin de Laune, for the printing of Vol. ix.


Notwithstanding the discovery, as above set out, of three of the
doubtful tales, Zeyn Alasnam, Aladdin and The Sleeper Awakened, in two
MSS. (one at least undoubtedly authentic) of the Thousand Nights and
One Night, I am more than ever of opinion that none of the eleven
"interpolated" stories properly belongs to the original work, that is to
say, to the collection as first put into definite form somewhere about
the fourteenth century. [19] "The Sleeper Awakened" was identified by
the late Mr. Lane as a historical anecdote given by the historian El
Ishaki, who wrote in the first quarter of the seventeenth century, and
the frequent mention of coffee in both MSS. of Aladdin justifies us in
attributing the composition of the story to (at earliest) the sixteenth
century, whilst the modern vulgarisms in which they abound point to a
still later date. Zeyn Alasnam (in the Sebbagh MS. at least) is
written in a much purer and more scholarly style than Aladdin, but
its pre-existence in El Ferej bad esh Shiddeh (even if we treat as
apocryphal Petis de la Croix's account of the Hezar o Yek Roz) is
sufficient, in the absence of contrary evidence, to justify us in
refusing to consider it as belonging to the Thousand Nights and One
Night proper. As shown by Galland's own experience, complete copies
of the genuine work were rarely to be met with, collections of "silly
stories" (as the Oriental savant, who inclines to regard nothing in the
way of literature save theology, grammar and poetry, would style them),
being generally considered by the Arab bibliographer undeserving of
record or preservation, and the fragmentary copies which existed were
mostly in the hands of professional story-tellers, who were extremely
unwilling to part with them, looking upon them as their stock in trade,
and were in the habit of incorporating with the genuine text all kinds
of stories and anecdotes from other sources, to fill the place of the
missing portions of the original work. This process of addition
and incorporation, which has been in progress ever since the first
collection of the Nights into one distinct work and is doubtless still
going on in Oriental countries, (especially such as are least in contact
with European influence,) may account for the heterogeneous character
of the various modern MSS. of the Nights and for the immense difference
which exists between the several texts, as well in actual contents as in
the details and diction of such stories as are common to all. The Tunis
MS. of the 1001 Nights (which is preserved in the Breslau University
Library and which formed the principal foundation of Habicht's Edition
of the Arabic text) affords a striking example of this process, which we
are here enabled to see in mid-operation, the greater part of the tales
of which it consists having not yet been adapted to the framework of
the Nights. It is dated A.H. 1144 (A.D. 1732) and of the ten volumes of
which it consists, i, ii (Nights I--CCL) and x (Nights DCCCLXXXV-MI) are
alone divided into Nights, the division of the remaining seven volumes
(i.e. iii--ix, containing, inter alia, the Story of the Sleeper
Awakened) being the work of the German editor. It is my belief,
therefore, that the three "interpolated" tales identified as forming
part of the Baghdad MS. of 1703 are comparatively modern stories added
to the genuine text by Rawis (story-tellers) or professional writers
employed by them, and I see no reason to doubt that we shall yet
discover the Arabic text of the remaining eight, either in Hanna's
version (as written down for Galland) or in some as yet unexamined MS.
of the Nights or other work of like character.


M. Zotenberg has, with great judgment, taken as his standard for
publication the text of Aladdin given by the Sebbagh MS., inasmuch as
the Shawish MS. (besides being, as appears from the extracts given. [20]
far inferior both in style and general correctness,) is shown by the
editor to be full of modern European phrases and turns of speech and
to present so many suspicious peculiarities that it would be difficult,
having regard, moreover, to the doubtful character and reputation of the
Syrian monkish adventurer who styled himself Dom Denis Chavis, to resist
the conviction that his MS. was a forgery, i.e. professedly a copy of a
genuine Arabic text, but in reality only a translation or paraphrase in
that language of Galland's version,--were it not that the Baghdad MS.
(dated before the commencement, in 1704, of Galland's publication
and transcribed by a man--Mikhail Sebbagh--whose reputation, as a
collaborator of Silvestre de Sacy and other distinguished Orientalists,
is a sufficient voucher for the authenticity of the copy in the
Bibliotheque Nationale,) contains a text essentially identical with that
of Shawish. Moreover, it is evident, from a comparison with Galland's
rendering and making allowance for the latter's system of translation,
that the Arabic version of Aladdin given him by Hanna must either
have been derived from the Baghdad text or from some other practically
identical source, and it is therefore probable that Shawish, having
apparently been employed to make up the missing portion of Galland's
Arabic text and not having the Hanna MS. at his command, had (with
the execrable taste and want of literary morality which distinguished
Cazotte's monkish coadjutor) endeavoured to bring his available text
up to what he considered the requisite standard by modernizing and
Gallicizing its wording and (in particular) introducing numerous
European phrases and turns of speech in imitation of the French
translator. The whole question is, of course, as yet a matter of more
or less probable hypothesis, and so it must remain until further
discoveries and especially until the reappearance of Galland's missing
text, which I am convinced must exist in some shape or other and cannot
much longer, in the face of the revived interest awakened in the matter
and the systematic process of investigation now likely to be employed,
elude research.

M. Zotenberg's publication having been confined to the text of Aladdin,
I have to thank my friend Sir R. F. Burton for the loan of his MS. copy
of Zeyn Alasnam, (the Arabic text of which still remains unpublished) as
transcribed by M. Houdas from the Sebbagh MS.


There [21] was [once] in the city of Bassora a mighty Sultan and he was
exceeding rich, but he had no child who should be his successor [22]
after him. For this he grieved sore and fell to bestowing alms galore
upon the poor and the needy and upon the friends [23] of God and the
devout, seeking their intercession with God the Most High, so He to whom
belong might and majesty should of His favour vouchsafe him a son. And
God accepted his prayer, for his fostering of the poor, and answered his
petition; so that one night of the nights he lay with the queen and she
went from him with child. When the Sultan knew this, he rejoiced with
an exceeding joy, and as the time of her child-bearing drew nigh, he
assembled all the astrologers and those who smote the sand [24] and said
to them, "It is my will that ye enquire concerning the child that shall
be born to me this month, whether it will be male or female, and tell me
what will betide it of chances and what will proceed from it." [25] So
the geomancers smote their [tables of] sand and the astrologers took
their altitudes [26] and observed the star of the babe [un]born and said
to the Sultan, "O King of the age and lord of the time and the tide, the
child that shall be born to thee of the queen is a male and it beseemeth
that thou name him Zein ul Asnam." [27] And as for those who smote upon
the sand, they said to him, "Know, O King, that this babe will become
a renowned brave, [28] but he shall happen in his time upon certain
travail and tribulation; yet, an he endure with fortitude against that
which shall befall him, he shall become the richest of the kings of the
world." And the King said to them, "Since the babe shall become valiant
as ye avouch, the toil and travail which will befall him are nought, for
that tribulations teach the sons of kings."

Accordingly, after a few days, the queen gave birth to a male child,
extolled be the perfection of Him who created him surpassing in grace
and goodliness! His father named him Zein ul Asnam, and he was as say of
him certain of his praisers [29] in verse: [30]

 He shows and "Now Allah be blessed!" men say: "Extol we his Maker
      and Fashioner aye!
 The king of the fair [31] this is, sure, one and all; Ay, his thralls,
      every one, and his liegemen are they."

The boy grew and flourished till he came to the age of five [32] years,
when his father the Sultan assigned him a governor skilled and versed
in all sciences and philosophies, and he proceeded to teach him till he
excelled in all manner of knowledge and became a young man. [33]
Then the Sultan bade bring him before himself, and assembling all the
grandees of his realm and the chiefs of his subjects, proceeded to
admonish him before them, saying to him, "O my son Zein ul Asnam,
behold, I am grown stricken in years and am presently sick; and belike
this sickness will be the last of my life in this world and thou shalt
sit in my stead; [wherefore I desire to admonish thee]. Beware, O my
son, lest thou oppress any or turn a deaf ear to the complaining of the
poor; but do thou justify the oppressed after the measure of thy might.
And look thou believe not all that shall be said to thee by the great
ones of the people, but trust thou still for the most part to the voice
of the common folk; for the great will deceive thee, seeing they seek
that which befitteth themselves, not that which befitteth the subject."
Then, after a few days, the Sultan's sickness redoubled on him and he
accomplished his term and died; and as for his son Zein ul Asnam, he
arose and donning the raiment of woe, [mourned] for his father the space
of six days. On the seventh day he arose and going forth to the Divan,
sat down on the throne of the sultanate and held a court, wherein was a
great assemblage of the folk, [34] and the viziers came forward and the
grandees of the realm and condoled with him for his father and called
down blessings upon him and gave him joy of the kingship and the
sultanate, beseeching God to grant him continuance of glory and
prosperity without end.

When [35] Zein ul Asnam saw himself in this great might and wealth, and
he young in years, he inclined unto prodigality and to the converse
of springalds like himself and fell to squandering vast sums upon his
pleasures and left governance and concern for his subjects. The queen
his mother proceeded to admonish him and to forbid him from his ill
fashions, bidding him leave that manner of life and apply himself
governance and administration and the ordinance of the realm, lest the
folk reject him and rise up against him and expel [36] hira; but he
would hear not a word from her and abode in his ignorance and folly.
At this the people murmured, for that the grandees of the realm put out
their hands unto oppression, whenas they saw the king's lack of concern
for his subjects; so they rose up in rebellion against Zein ul Asnam
and would have laid violent hands upon him, had not the queen his mother
been a woman of wit and judgment and address, and the people loved her;
so she appeased the folk and promised them good. Then she called her son
Zein ul Asnam to her and said to him, "See, O my son; said I not to
thee that thou wouldest lose thy kingship and eke thy life, an thou
persistedst in this thine ignorance and folly, in that thou givest the
ordinance of the sultanate into the hands of raw youths and eschewest
the old and wastest thy substance and that of the realm, squandering it
all upon lewdness and the lust of thy soul?"

Zein ul Asnam hearkened to his mother's rede and going out forthright to
the Divan, committed the manage of the realm into the hands of certain
old men of understanding and experience; save that he did this only
after Bassora had been ruined, inasmuch as he turned not from his folly
till he had spent and squandered all the treasures of the sultanate and
was become exceeding poor. Then he betook himself to repentance and to
sorrowing over that which he had done, [37] so that he lost the solace
of sleep and eschewed meat and drink, till one night of the nights,--and
indeed he had spent it in mourning and lamentation and melancholy
thought until the last of the night,--his eyes closed for a little and
there appeared to him in his sleep a venerable old man, who said to him,
"O Zein ul Asnam, grieve not, for that nought followeth after grief save
relief from stress, and an thou desire to be delivered from this
thine affliction, arise and betake thee to Cairo, where thou wilt find
treasuries of wealth which shall stand thee in stead of that thou hast
squandered, ay, and twofold the sum thereof." When he awoke from his
sleep, he acquainted his mother with all that he had seen in his dream,
and she fell to laughing at him; but he said to her, "Laugh not, for
needs must I journey to Cairo." "O my son," answered she, "put not
thy trust in dreams, for that they are all vain fancies and lying
imaginations." And he said to her, "Nay, my dream was a true one and
the man whom I saw is of the Friends of God [38] and his speech is very

Accordingly, he left the sultanate and going forth a-journeying one
night of the nights, took the road to Egypt [and fared on] days and
nights till he came to the city of Cairo. So he entered it and saw it a
great and magnificent city; then, being perished for weariness, he took
shelter in one of its mosques. When he had rested awhile, he went forth
and bought him somewhat to eat; and after he had eaten, he fell asleep
in the mosque, of the excess of his weariness, nor had he slept but a
little when the old man appeared to him in his sleep and said to him, "O
Zein ul Assam, [39] thou hast done as I said to thee, and indeed I made
proof of thee, that I might see an thou wert valiant or not; but now
I know thee, inasmuch as thou hast put faith in my rede and hast done
according thereto. So now return to thine own city and I will make thee
a king rich after such a measure that neither before thee nor after thee
shall [any] of the kings be like unto thee." So Zein ul Asnam arose
from his sleep and said, "In the name of God the Compassionate, the
Merciful! What is this old man who hath wearier me, so that I came
to Cairo, [40] and I trusted in him and deemed of him that he was the
Prophet (whom God bless and keep) or one of the pious Friends of God?
But there is no power and no virtue save in God the Most High, the
Supreme. By Allah. I did well in that I acquainted none with my sallying
forth neither related my dream unto any! [41] Indeed. I believed in
this old man and meseemed by that which appeared to me, he was none of
mankind, [42] extolled be His perfection and magnified be He who [alone]
knoweth the truth! By Allah, I will leave trusting in this old man
[neither will I comply with him] in that which he would have me do!"
Accordingly, he lay [the rest of] that night [in the mosque] and at
daybreak he arose and mounting his courser, set out on his return to
Bassora, [the seat of] his kingship, where, after a few days, he arrived
and went in that same night to his mother, who asked him if aught had
befallen him of that which the old man had promised him. He acquainted
her with that which he had seen [in his sleep] and she fell to condoling
with him and comforting him, saying, "Grieve not, O my son, for, an God
the Most High have appointed thee aught of [good] fortune, thou wilt
attain thereto without either travail or toil; but I would have thee
be understanding and discreet and leave these things which have brought
thee to poverty, O my son, and eschew singing-wenches and the commerce
of youths and women; all this is for the baser sort, not for kings' sons
like thee." And he swore to her that he would never more gainsay her
commandment, but would observe all that she should say to him and
would turn his mind to the governance and the kingship and leave that
wherefrom she forbade him. Then he slept that night and what while he
was on sleep, the old man appeared to him and said to him, "O Zein ul
Asnam, O valiant one, whenas thou arisest from thy sleep this day, I
will accomplish my promise to thee; wherefore take thou a pickaxe and
go to the palace of thy father Such-an-one [43] in such a place and dig
there in the earth and thou wilt find that which shall enrich thee."

When Zein ul Asnam awoke from his sleep, he hastened to his mother,
rejoicing, and acquainted her with his dream; whereupon she fell again
to laughing at him and said to him, "O my son, indeed this old man
laugheth at thee, nought else; wherefore do thou turn thy thought from
him." But he said to her, "Nay, mother mine, indeed he is soothfast and
lieth not; for that, in the first of his dealing, he tried me and
now his intent is to accomplish unto me his promise." "In any case,"
rejoined she, "the thing is not toilsome; [44] so do that which thou
wilt, even as he said to thee, and make proof of the matter, and God
willing, thou shalt [45] return to me rejoicing; but methinketh thou
wilt return to me and say, 'Thou saidst sooth, O my mother, in thy
rede."' The prince accordingly took a pickaxe and going down to the
palace where his father was buried, fell a-delving in the earth; nor had
he dug long when, behold, there appeared to him a ring fixed in a slab
of marble. He raised the slab and seeing a stair, descended thereby and
found a great vault, all builded with columns of marble and alabaster;
then, proceeding innerward, he found within the vault a hall which
ravished the wit, and therein eight jars of green jasper; [46] and he
said, "What be these jars and what is in them?" So [47] he went up and
uncovering them, found them all full of old gold; [48] whereupon he took
a little in his hand and going to his mother, gave her thereof and said
to her, "Thou seest, O my mother." She marvelled at this thing and
said to him, "Beware, O my son, lest thou squander it, like as thou
squanderedst other than this." And he swore to her, saying, "Be not
concerned, O my mother, and let not thy heart be other than easy on my
account, for I would fain have thee also content with me." [49]

Then she arose and went with him, and they descended into the vault
and entered the [underground] hall, [50] where she beheld that which
ravished the wit and saw the jars of gold. What while they diverted
themselves with gazing upon these latter, behold, they espied a little
jar of fine jade; so Zein ul Asnam opened it and found in it a golden
key. Whereupon quoth his mother to him, "O my son, needs must there be
a door here which this key will open." Accordingly they sought in all
parts of the vault and the hall, so they might see an there were a door
or what not else to be found there, and presently espied a bolted lock,
to which they knew that this must be the key. So Zein ul Asnam went
up and putting the key in the lock, turned it and opened a door which
admitted them into a second hall, [51] more magnificent than the first;
and it was all full of a light which dazzled the sight, yet was there
no flambeau kindled therein, no, nor any window [52] there, whereat
they marvelled and looking farther, saw eight images of jewels, each one
piece, and that of noble jewels, pure and precious.

Zein ul Asnam was amazed at this and said to his mother, "How came my
father by these things?" And they fell to looking and considering, till
presently the queen espied a curtain of silk, whereon were these words
written: "O my son, marvel not at these great riches, whereto I have won
by dint of sore travail; but know that there existeth also another image
whose worth is more than that of these [eight] images twenty times told.
Wherefore, an thou wouldst come thereby, get thee to Cairo, where thou
wilt find a slave of mine, by name Mubarek, who will take thee and bring
thee in company [53] with the ninth image. When thou enterest Cairo, the
first man whom thou encounterest will direct thee to Mubarek's house,
for he is known in all Egypt." [54] When Zein ul Asnam read this
inscription, he said, "O my mother, it is my wish to journey to Cairo,
so I may make search for the ninth image. Tell me, how deemest thou of
my dream? Was it true or was it not? Wilt thou still say [55] to me,
'These be idle tales'? But I, O my mother, needs must I journey to
Cairo." "O my son," answered the queen, "since thou art under the
safeguard of the Apostle of God [56] (whom God bless and keep), go thou
in peace, and I [and] thy Vizier, we will govern the realm in thine
absence, against thou shalt return."

So Zein ul Asnam went forth and equipping himself [for travel, set out]
and journeyed till he came to Cairo, where he enquired for Mubarek's
house and the folk said to him, "O my lord, this is a man than whom
there is none richer in [all Cairo]; no, nor is there a more abounding
than he in bounty and beneficence, and his house is [still] open to the
stranger." So they directed him thither and he went till he came to the
house and knocked at the door; whereupon there came out to him one of
Mubarek's slaves and [57] opening the door, said to him, "Who art thou
and what wiliest thou?" Quoth Zein ul Asnam, "I am a stranger, a man
from a far country, and I heard tell of your lord, Mubarek, and how he
is renowned for hospitality and beneficence; so I came to him, that I
may be a guest with him." The slave entered and told his lord Mubarek;
then returned and said to Zein ul Asnam, "O my lord, blessing hath
descended upon us in thy coming. [58] Enter, for my lord Mubarek
awaiteth thee." So Zein ul Asnam entered into a courtyard, exceeding
spacious and all [full] of trees and waters, and the slave brought him
into the pavilion [59] where Mubarek sat. When he entered, the latter
arose forthright and coming to meet him, received him with cordiality
and said to him, "Blessing hath descended upon us and this night is
the most auspicious of nights in thy coming to us! But who art thou, O
youth, and whence comest thou and whither art thou bound?" The prince
answered him, saying, "I am Zein ul Asnam and I seek Mubarek, slave to
the Sultan of Bassora, who died a year agone and whose son I am." "What
sayst thou?" cried Mubarek. "Art thou the king's son of Bassora?" "Yea,
verily," replied Zein ul Asnam; "I am his son." Quoth Mubarek, "Nay, my
lord the king of Bassora left no son; but what is thine age, O youth?"
"About twenty years," replied Zein ul Asnam. "And thou," added he, "how
long is it since thou wentest out from my father's house?" "I went out
eighteen years agone," answered Mubarek. "But, O my son Zein ul Asnam,
by what token canst thou certify me that thou art the son of my lord
the king of Bassora?" Quoth Zein ul Asnam, "Thou knowest that my father
builded under his palace a vault and therein [a hall in which] he set
forty [60] jars of fine jade and filled them with ancient gold; [61] and
within this hall he made a second hall, wherein he placed eight images
of precious stones, each wroughten of a single jewel and seated upon a
throne of virgin gold. [62] Moreover, he wrote upon a curtain of silk
there and I read the writ, whereby I found that he bade me come to thee,
saying that thou wouldst acquaint me of the ninth image and where it is,
the which, said he, was worth the eight, all of them."

When Mubarek heard these words, he threw himself at Zein ul Asnam's feet
and fell to kissing them and saying, "Pardon me, O my lord! Verily, thou
art the son of my lord." Then said he to the prince, "O my lord, I make
to-day a banquet unto all the chief men of Cairo and I would fain have
thy highness honour me [with thy presence] thereat." And Zein ul Asnam
said, "With all my heart." [63] So Mubarek arose and foregoing Zein ul
Asnam, brought him into the saloon, which was full of the chief men of
Cairo, assembled therein. There he sat down and seating the prince
in the place of honour, called for the evening-meal. So they laid the
tables and Mubarek stood to serve Zein ul Asnam, with his hands clasped
behind him [64] and whiles seated upon his knees [and heels]. [65] The
notables of Cairo marvelled at this, how Mubarek, the chiefest of them,
should serve the youth, and [66] were sore amazed thereat, knowing not
[who or] whence he was. But, after they had eaten and drunken and supped
and were of good cheer, Mubarek turned to the company and said to
them, "O folk, marvel not that I serve this youth with all worship and
assiduity, for that he is the son of my lord the Sultan of Bassora,
whose slave I was, for that he bought me with his money and died without
setting me free; wherefore it behoveth me serve my lord, and all that my
hand possesseth of monies and gear is his, nor is anywhit thereof mine."
When the notables of Cairo heard this speech, they arose to Zein ul
Asnam and did him exceeding great worship and saluted him with all
reverence and prayed for him; [67] and he said, "O company, I am before
your presence and ye are witnesses [of that which I am about to do."
Then, turning to his host,] "O Mubarek, [quoth he,] thou art free and
all that is with thee of monies and gear appertaining unto us shall
henceforth be thine and thou art altogether acquitted thereof [68]
and of every part thereof. Moreover, do thou ask of me whatsoever thou
desirest by way of boon, [69] for that I will nowise gainsay thee in
aught thou mayst seek." [70] Thereupon Mubarek arose and kissed the
prince's hand and thanked him, saying, "O my lord, I will nought of thee
save that thou be well; for indeed the wealth that I have is exceeding
abundant upon me."

So Zein ul Asnam abode with Mubarek four days and every day the chief
men of Cairo came to salute him, whenas it reached them that this was
Mubarek's lord, the Sultan of Bassora; then, after he was rested, he
said to his host, "O Mubarek, indeed the time is long upon me;" [71] and
Mubarek said to him, "Thou must know, O my lord, that this whereof thou
art come in quest is a hard [72] matter, nay, even unto danger of death,
and I know not if thy fortitude may suffice thee for the achievement
thereof." [73] "Know, O Mubarek," rejoined Zein ul Asnam, "that wealth
[is gotten] by blood [74] and there betideth a man nought except by the
will and foreordinance of the Creator (to whom belong might and majesty
); so do thou take heart and concern not thyself on my account."
Accordingly Mubarek forthright commended his slaves equip them for
travel; so they made all ready and taking horse, journeyed days and
nights in the foulest of deserts, [75] witnessing daily things and
matters which confounded their wits,--things such as never in their time
had they seen,--until they drew near the place [of their destination];
whereupon they lighted down from their steeds and Mubarek bade the
slaves and servants abide there, saying to them, "Keep watch over the
beasts of burden and the horses till we return to you."

Then the twain set out together afoot and Mubarek said to Zein ul Asnam,
"O my lord, now behoveth fortitude, for that thou art in the land of the
image whereof thou comest in quest." And they gave not over walking till
they drew near a great lake and a wide, whereupon quoth Mubarek to
Zein ul Asnam, "Know, O my lord, that there will presently come to us a
little boat, bearing a blue flag and builded all with planks of sandal
and Comorin aloes-wood of price; and [thereanent] I have a charge to
give thee, which it behoveth thee observe." "What is this charge?"
asked the prince and Mubarek said to him, "In this boat thou wilt see a
boatman, [76] but his make is monstrous; [77] wherefore be thou ware and
again, I say, beware lest thou speak aught, for that he will incontinent
drown us; and know that this place appertaineth to the King of the Jinn
and that all thou seest is their handiwork." Then [78] they came to
the lake and behold, a little boat with planks of sandal and Comorin
aloes-wood and in it a boatman, whose head was [as] the head of an
elephant and the rest of his body [as that of] a wild beast. [79] When
he drew near them, he wrapped his trunk about them both and taking them
with him into the boat, rowed out with them to the midst of the lake,
then fared on with them [80] till he brought them to the other shore,
where they landed and walking on, saw there trees of ambergris [81]
and aloes and sandal-wood and cloves and jessamine, [82] full-grown
and laden with ripe fruits and flowers [83] whose fragrance dilated the
breast and cheered the spright; and there [they heard] the voices of the
birds twittering their various notes and ravishing the wit with their
warblings. So Mubarek turned to Zein ul Asnam and said to him, "How
deemest thou of this place, O my lord?" And the prince answered him,
saying, "Methinketh, O Mubarek, this is the paradise which the Prophet
(whom God bless and keep) promised us withal."

Then they fared on till they came to a magnificent palace, builded all
with stones of emerald and rubies, and its doors were of sheer gold.
Before it was a bridge, the length whereof was an hundred and fifty
cubits and its breadth fifty cubits, and it was [wroughten] of the rib
of a fish; whilst at the other end of the bridge were many warriors [84]
of the Jinn, gruesome and terrible of aspect, and all of them bore
in their hands javelins of steel that flashed in the sun like winter
lightning. [85] Quoth Zein ul Asnam to Mubarek, "This is a thing that
taketh the wits;" and Mubarek said to him, "It behoveth us abide in
our place neither fare forward, lest a mischance betide us. O God,
[vouchsafe us] safety!" Therewith he brought out of his pocket four
pieces of yellow silken stuff and girded himself with one thereof; the
second he laid on his shoulders and gave Zein ul Asnam other two pieces,
with which he girded himself [and covered his shoulders] on like
wise. Moreover, he spread before each of them a sash of white silk
and bringing forth of his pocket precious stones and perfumes, such as
ambergris and aloes-wood, (set them on the edges thereof) [86] after
which they sat down, each on his sash, and Mubarek taught Zein ul Asnam
these words, which he should say to the King of the Jinn, to wit: "O my
lord King of the Jinn, we are in thy safeguard." And Zein ul Asnam said
to him, "And I will instantly conjure him that he accept of us."

Then said Mubarek, "O my lord, by Allah, I am exceeding fearful. But now
hearken; an he be minded to accept of us without hurt, he will come to
us in the semblance of a man accomplished in grace and goodliness;
but, an he have no mind to us, he will come to us in a gruesome and a
frightful aspect. An thou see him surpassing in beauty, arise forthright
and salute him, but beware lest thou overpass thy sash." And Zein
ul Asnam said to him, "Hearkening and obedience." "And be this thy
salutation to him," continued Mubarek; "thou shalt say, 'O King of the
Jinn and lord of the earth, my father, the Sultan of Bassora, the angel
of death hath removed, as indeed is not hidden from thee. Now Thy Grace
was still wont to take my father under thy protection, and I come
to thee likewise to put myself under thy safeguard, even as did he.'
Moreover, [87] O my lord Zein ul Asnam," added he, "an the King of the
Jinn receive us with a cheerful favour, he will without fail ask thee
and say to thee, 'Seek of me that which thou wiliest and thou shalt
forthright be given [it].' [88] So do thou seek of him and say to him,
'O my lord, I crave of Thy Grace the ninth image, than which there is
not the world a more precious; and indeed Thy Grace promised my father
that thou wouldst give it to me."'

Having thus taught his lord how he should speak with the King of the
Jinn and seek of him the ninth image and how he should make his speech
seemly and pleasant, Mubarek fell to conjuring and fumigating and
reciting words that might not be understanded; and no great while passed
ere the world lightened [89] and rain fell in torrents [90] and it
thundered and darkness covered the face of the earth; and after this
there came a tempestuous wind and a voice like an earthquake of the
earthquakes [91] of the Day of Resurrection. When Zein ul Asnam saw
these portents, his joints trembled and he was sore affrighted, for
that he beheld a thing he had never in all his life seen nor heard.
But Mubarek laughed at him and said to him, "Fear not, O my lord; this
whereat thou art affrighted is that which we seek; nay, it is a presage
of good to-us. So take heart and be of good cheer." After this there
came a great clearness and serenity and there breathed pure and fragrant
breezes; then, presently, behold, there appeared the King of the Jinn in
the semblance of a man comely of favour, there was none like unto him
in his goodliness, save He who hath no like and to whom belong might and
majesty. He looked on Zein ul Asnam and Mubarek with a cheerful, smiling
countenance; whereupon the prince arose forthright and proffered him his
petition in the words which Mubarek had taught him.

The King of the Jinn turned to him, smiling, and said to him, "O Zein
ul Asnam, indeed I loved thy father the Sultan of Bassora, and I used,
whenassoever he came to me, to give him an image of those which thou
hast seen, each wroughten of a single jewel, and thou also shalt stand
in thy father's stead with me and shalt find favour in mine eyes, even
as did he, ay, and more. Before he died, I caused him write the writ
which thou sawest on the curtain of silk and promised him that I would
take thee under my protection, even as himself, and would give thee the
ninth image, which is more of worth than those which thou hast seen. Now
it is my intent to perform the promise which I made to thy father, that
I would take thee under my protection, and [92] [know that] I was the
old man whom thou sawest in thy sleep and it was I bade thee dig in
the palace for the vault wherein thou foundest the jars of gold and the
images of jewels. I know also wherefore thou art come hither; nay, I
am he that was the cause of thy coming, and I will give thee that which
thou seekest, albeit I had not given it to thy father; but on condition
that thou swear to me a solemn oath and abide me constant thereto, to
wit, that thou wilt return and bring me a girl of the age of fifteen
years, with whom there shall be none to match in loveliness, and she
must be a clean maid, who shall never have lusted after man, nor shall
man have lusted after her. Moreover, thou must swear to me that thou
wilt keep faith with her, coming, and beware lest thou play me false
with her by the way."

So Zein ul Asnam swore a solemn oath to him of this and said to him, "O
my lord, indeed, thou honourest me with this service; but methinketh it
will be hard to find a girl like this. Nay, supposing I find a damsel
fifteen years of age and beautiful exceedingly, according to Thy Grace's
requirement, how shall I know that she hath never in her time lusted
after man nor hath man lusted after her?" "O Zein ul Asnam," replied
the King of the Jinn, "thou art in the right and certain it is that this
knowledge is a thing unto which the sons of man may not avail; but I
will give thee a mirror of my fashion, and when thou seest a girl and
her beauty pleaseth thee and her grace, do thou open this mirror that
I shall give thee, and if thou find her image therein clear and bright,
thou shalt know forthright that she is pure without default and that all
good qualities are in her; so do thou take her for me. If thou find
her image in the mirror other than this, to wit, an it be troubled and
clothed with uncleanness, know that the girl is sullied and beware of
her; but, an thou find one such as she whose qualities I have set out
to thee, bring her to me and watch over her [by the way;] yet beware and
again I say, beware of treason and bethink thee that, an thou keep not
faith with me, thou wilt assuredly lose thy life."

So Zein ul Asnam made with him a stable and abiding covenant, the
covenant of the sons of kings, that he would keep the plighted faith
and never play him false, but [93] would bring him the damsel with all
continence. Then the King of the Jinn delivered him the mirror and said
to him, "O my son, take this mirror whereof I bespoke thee, and now
depart." Accordingly Zein ul Asnam and Mubarek arose and calling down
blessings upon the King, returned upon their steps till they came to
the lake, where they sat a little and behold, up came the boat which had
brought them and the genie rowing therein, whose head was as [94] the
head of an elephant. Now this was by the commandment of the King of the
Jinn; so they embarked with the genie and crossed with him to the other
shore; after which they returned to Cairo and entering Mubarek's
house, abode there awhile till they were rested from the fatigue of the

Then Zein ul Asnam turned to Mubarek and said to him, "Come, let us go
to the city of Baghdad, so we may seek for a girl who shall be according
to the requirement of the King of the Jinn." And Mubarek said to him,
"O my lord, we are in Cairo, the city of cities and the wonder of the
world. [95] I shall without fail find a girl here and it needeth not
that we go to a far city." "Thou sayst sooth, O Mubarek," rejoined the
prince; "but how shall we set about the matter and how shall we do to
come by [96] a girl like this and who shall go seeking her for us?" "O
my lord," replied Mubarek, "concern not thyself [97] for that, for I
have with me here an old woman (upon her, [to speak] figuratively, [98]
be the malediction [of God] [99]) who is a mistress of wiles and craft
and guile and not to be baulked by any hindrance, however great." Then
he sent to fetch the old woman and telling her that he wanted a damsel
fifteen years old and fair exceedingly, so he might marry her to the
son of his lord, promised her largesse galore, an she did her utmost
endeavour in the matter; whereupon, "O my lord," answered she, "be easy;
I will accomplish unto thee thy desire beyond thy wish; for that under
my hand are damsels unpeered in grace and goodliness and all of them
daughters of men of condition." But, O King of the time, [100] the old
woman had no knowledge of the affair of the mirror.

Then she arose and went out to go round about in the city and to run
along its ways, [101] seeking [102] the girl for Prince Zein ul Asnam,
and whenassoever she saw a fair damsel, accomplished in beauty, she
proceeded to bring her to Mubarek; but, when he looked at her in the
mirror, he would see her image troubled exceedingly and would leave her;
so that the old woman brought him all the damsels of Cairo, but there
was not found among them one whose image in the mirror was clear;
wherefore he bethought him to go to Baghdad, since he found not one in
Cairo who pleased him [or] who was a clean maid, like as the King of the
Jinn had enjoined him. So he arose and equipping himself, [set out and]
journeyed, he and Zein ul Asnam, till they came to the city of Baghdad,
where they hired them a magnificent palace amiddleward the city and took
up their abode therein. There the chief men of the city used to come
to them every day and sat at their table, even to the comer and goer by
night and by day. [103] Moreover, when there remained aught from their
table, they distributed it to the poor and the afflicted and all the
strangers in the mosques [104] would come and eat with them. So the
report was noised abroad in the land of their generosity and bounty and
they became in high repute and fair fame throughout all Baghdad, nor did
any talk but of Zein ul Asnam and his bounty and wealth.

Now it chanced that in one of the mosques was an Imam, [105] corrupt,
envious and despiteful in the extreme, and his lodging was near the
palace wherein Mubatek and Zein ul Asnam had taken up their abode. When
he heard of their bounty and generosity and of the goodliness of their
repute, envy get hold upon him and jealousy of them, and he fell to
bethinking himself how he should do, so he might bring some calamity
upon them and despoil them of that their fair fortune, for it is of the
wont of envy that it falleth not but upon the rich. So, one day of the
days, as he stood in the mosque, after the mid-afternoon prayer, he came
forward into the midst of the folk and said, "O my brethren, O ye of the
True Faith, ye who ascribe unity to God, know that in this our quarter
there be two men dwelling, strangers, and most like you are acquainted
with them. Now these twain spend and squander wealth galore, passing
all measure, and in my belief they are none other than thieves and
highwaymen and are come hither with that which they stole from their own
country, so they may squander it." Then [106] "O people of Mohammed,"
added he, "I rede you for God's sake keep yourselves from these
tricksters, [107] lest belike the Khalif come presently to know of these
two men and ye also fall with them into calamity. Now I have warned
you and I wash my hands of your affair, for that I have forewarned and
awakened you; so do that which you deem well." And they said to him, all
who were present, with one voice, "We will do whatsoever thou wiliest,
O Aboubekr!" When the Imam heard this from them, he arose and taking
inkhorn and pen and paper, fell to writing a letter to the Commander of
the Faithful, setting forth to him [the case] against Zein ul Asnam and

Now, as destiny willed it, the latter chanced to be in the mosque among
the folk and heard the accursed Imam's discourse and that which he did
by way of writing the letter to the Khalif; whereupon he tarried not,
but, returning home forthwith, took an hundred diners and made him
a parcel of price, all of silken clothes, [108] wherewith he betook
himself in haste to Aboubekr's house and knocked at the door. The Imam
came out to him and opened the door; and when he saw him, he asked him
surlily who he was and what he would; whereupon quoth the other, "O my
lord the Imam Aboubekr, I am thy slave Mubarek and I come to thee on the
part of my lord the Amir Zein ul Asnam. He hath heard of thy learning
and of the excellence of thy repute in the city and would fain become
acquainted with thee and do that which behoveth unto thee; wherefore
he hath presently sent me with these things and this money for thine
expenses and hopeth of thee that thou wilt not blame him, inasmuch as
this is little for thy worth, but hereafter, God willing, he will not
fail of that which is due unto thee." Aboubekr looked at [the coins and]
at their impress and yellowness [109] and at the parcel of clothes and
said to Mubarek, "O my lord, [I crave] pardon of thy lord the Amir, for
that I am presently abashed before him [110] and it irketh me sore that
I have not done my duty towards him; [111] but I hope of thee that thou
wilt intercede with him on my behalf, so he may of his favour pardon
me my default; and (the Creator willing) I will to-morrow do that which
behoveth me and will go do my service to him [112] and proffer him the
respect which is due from me to him." "O my lord Aboubekr," replied
Mubarek, "the extreme of my lord's desire is to look upon thy worship,
so he may be honoured by thy presence and get of thee a blessing." So
saying, he kissed the Imam's hand and returned to his lodging.

On the morrow, whilst Aboubekr was [engaged] in the Friday prayers at
dawn, he stood up amongst the folk, in the midst of the mosque, and
said, "O our brethren of the Muslims and people of Mohammed, all of you,
verily envy falleth not save upon the rich and the noble and passeth
by the poor and those of low estate. Know that of the two stranger men
against whom I spoke yesterday one is an Amir, a man of great rank
and noble birth, and the case is not as certain of the envious [113]
informed me concerning him, to wit, that he was a thief and a robber;
for I have enquired into the matter and find that the report lieth. So
beware lest any of you missay of the Amir or speak aught of evil against
him, such as that which I heard yesterday, or you will cause me and
yourselves fall into the gravest of calamities with the Commander of the
Faithful; for that a man of high degree like this cannot sojourn in the
city of Baghdad without the Khalif's knowledge." On [114] this wise,
then, the Imam Aboubekr did away from the minds of the folk the ill
thought [115] which he had planted [there] by his speech concerning Zein
ul Asnam.

Moreover, when he had made an end of the prayers, he returned to his
own house and donned his gabardine; then, weightening his skirts and
lengthening his sleeves, [116] he went forth and took his way to the
prince's house. When he came in to Zein ul Asnam, the latter rose to
him and received him with the utmost reverence. Now he was by nature
religious, [117] for all he was a youth of tender age; so he proffered
the Imam all manner of honour and seating him by his side on a high
divan, let bring him coffee with ambergris. Then the servants spread the
table for breakfast and they took their sufficiency of meat and drink,
and when they had finished, they fell to talking and making merry
together. Presently the Imam asked the prince and said to him, "O my
lord Zein ul Asnam, doth your highness purpose to sojourn long here in
Baghdad?" "Yea, verily, O our Lord the Imam," answered Zein ul Asnam;
"my intent is to sojourn here awhile, till such time as my requirement
be accomplished." "And what," asked Aboubekr, "is the requirement of my
lord the Amir? Belike, an I know it, I may avail to further him to his
wish, though I sacrifice my life for him." [118] And the prince said to
him, "I seek a damsel fifteen years of age and fair exceedingly, that I
may marry her; but she must be pure and chaste and a clean maid, whom
no man hath anywise defiled nor in all her life hath she thought upon a
man; [119] and she must be unique in grace and goodliness."

"O my lord," rejoined the Imam, "this is a thing exceeding hard to find;
but I know a damsel unique in her loveliness and her age is fifteen
years. Her father was a Vizier, who resigned office of his own motion,
and he abideth presently at home in his palace and is exceeding jealous
over his daughter and her bringing up. [120] Methinketh this damsel will
suit your Highness's mind, and she will rejoice in an Amir like your
Highness, as also will her parents." Quoth Zein ul Asnam, "God willing,
this damsel whereof thou speakest will answer my requirement and the
accomplishment of our desire shall be at thy hands; [121] but, O our
lord the Imam, before all things my wish is to see her, so I may know
an she be chaste or not. As for her beauty, I am assured of [122] your
worship's sufficiency and am content to trust to your word concerning
her loveliness, to wit, that she is surpassing; but, for her chastity,
you cannot avail to testify with certitude of her case." "And how,"
asked the Imam, "can it be possible unto you, O my lord the Amir, to
know from her face that she is pure? An this be so, your highness is
skilled in physiognomy. However, an your highness will vouchsafe to
accompany me, I will carry you to her father's palace and make you known
to the latter, and he shall bring her before you."

Accordingly, [123] the Imam Aboubekr took Zein ul Asnam and carried him
to the Vizier's house; and when they went in to him, the Vizier rose
and welcomed the prince, especially when he knew that he was an Amir and
understood from the Imam that he wished to marry his daughter. So he let
bring the damsel before him, and when she came, he bade her raise the
veil from her face. Accordingly she unveiled herself and Zein ul Asnam,
looking upon her, was amazed at her grace and goodliness, for that never
had he seen one to match with her in beauty; and he said in himself, "I
wonder if I shall [124] happen upon one like this damsel, since it is
forbidden that she should be mine!" Then he brought out the mirror
from his pocket and looked thereon; when, behold, its crystal was clear
exceedingly, as it were virgin silver; and he observed her image in
the mirror and saw it like a white dove. So he forthright concluded the
match and sent for the Cadi and the witnesses, who wrote the writ
[125] and enthroned the bride; [126] after which Zein ul Asnam took
the Vizier, the bride's father, home with him to his house and sent the
young lady jewels of great price. Then they celebrated the wedding and
held high festival, never was the like thereof, whilst Zein ul Asnam
proceeded to entertain the folk and made them banquets for the space of
eight days. Moreover, he honoured Aboubekr the Imam and gave him gifts
galore and brought the Vizier, the bride's father, presents and great

Then, the wedding festivities being ended, Mubarek said to Zein ul
Asnam, "Come, O my lord, let us set out on our way, lest we waste the
time in sloth, now we have found that whereof we were in search." And
the prince answered him, saying, "Thou art in the right." So Mubarek
arose and fell to equipping them for the journey; moreover, he let make
the young lady a camel-litter [127] with a travelling couch, [128] and
they set out. But Mubarek knew that Zein ul Asnam was sunken deep in
love of the damsel; so he took him and said to him, "O my lord Zein ul
Asnam, I would fain remind thee to watch over thyself; nay, again I say,
have a care and keep the faith which thou plightedst to the King of the
Jinn." "O Mubarek," answered the prince, "an thou knewest the transport
which possesseth me for the love of this young lady [129] and how I
still think of nothing but of taking her to Bassora and going in [to
her]!" And Mubarek said to him, "Nay, O my lord; keep thy troth and play
not the traitor to thine oath, lest there befall thee a sore calamity
and thou lose thy life and the young lady lose hers also. Bethink thee
of the oath which thou sworest and let not lust get the mastery over
thine understanding, lest thou lose guerdan [130] and honour and life."
"O Mubarek," rejoined Zein ul Asnam, "keep thou watch over her thyself
and let me not see her." So [131] Mubarek fell to keeping watch and ward
over the bride in the prince's stead and guarded the latter also, lest
he should look on her; and so they journeyed on past the road leading
unto Egypt and fared on their way to the Island of the Jinn.

When the bride beheld the journey (and indeed it was long upon her) and
saw not her husband in all this time since the night of the bridal, she
turned to Mubarek and said to him, "God upon thee, O Mubarek, tell me,
I conjure thee by the life of thy lord the Amir, are we yet far from the
dominions [132] of my bridegroom, the Amir Zein ul Asnam?" And he said
to her, "Alack, O my lady, it irketh me for thee and I will discover to
thee that which is hidden. To wit, thou deemest that Zein ul Asnam,
King of Bassora, is thy bridegroom. Far be it! [133] He is not thy
bridegroom. The writing of the writ of his marriage with thee [134] was
but a pretext before thy parents and the folk; and now thou art going
for a bride to the King of the Jinn, who sought thee from the Amir Zein
ul Asnam." When the young lady heard these words, she fell a-weeping and
Zein ul Asnam heard her and fell a-weeping also, a sore weeping, of the
excess of his love for her. And she said to them, "Is there no pity
in you and no clemency and have you no fear of God, that I, a stranger
maid, you cast me into a calamity like this? What answer will you give
unto God [135] concerning this treason that you have wroughten with me?"

But her weeping and her words availed her nothing, and they ceased not
to fare on with her till they came to the King of the Jinn, to whom they
straightway presented her. When he beheld her, she pleased him and he
turned to Zein ul Asnam and said to him. "Verily, the girl whom thou
hast brought me is exceeding in beauty and surpassing in loveliness; but
the goodliness of thy loyalty and shine overmastering of thyself for my
sake is fairer than she in mine eyes. So return now to thy place and
the ninth image that thou seekest of me thou shalt find, on thy return,
beside the other images; for I will send it to thee by one of my slaves
of the Jinn." Accordingly, Zein ul Asnam kissed the King's hand and
returned with Mubarek to Cairo; but, when they came thither, he chose
not to abide with Mubarek longer than a resting-while, of the excess of
his longing and his yearning to see the ninth image. Withal he ceased
not from mourning, bethinking him of the young lady and her grace and
goodliness; and he fell to lamenting and saying, "Alas for the loss of
my delights that were because of thee, O pearl of beauty and loveliness,
thou whom I took from thy parents and presented to the King of the Jinn!
Alack, the pity of it!" And [136] he chid himself for the deceit and the
perfidy which he had practised upon the young lady's parents and how he
had brought her to the King of the Jinn.

Then he set out and gave not over journeying till he came to Bassora
and entering his palace, saluted his mother and told her all that had
befallen him; whereupon quoth she to him, "Arise, O my son, so thou
mayst [137] see this ninth image, for that I am exceeding rejoiced at
its presence with us." So they both descended into the underground hall,
wherein were the eight images, and found there a great marvel; to wit,
instead of the ninth image, they beheld the young lady, resembling the
sun in her loveliness. The prince knew her, when he saw her, and she
said to him, "Marvel not to find me here in place of that which thou
soughtest; methinketh thou wilt not repent thee an thou take me in the
stead of the ninth image." "No, by Allah, oh my beloved!" replied Zein
ul Asnam, "For that thou art the end of my seeking and I would not
exchange thee for all the jewels in the world. Didst thou but know the
grief which possessed me for thy separation, thou whom I took from thy
parents by fraud and brought thee to the King of the Jinn!" [138]

Scarce had the prince made an end of his speech when they heard a noise
of thunder rending the mountains and shaking the earth and fear get hold
upon the queen, the mother of Zein ul Asnam, yea, and sore trembling;
but, after a little, the King of the Jinn appeared and said to her, "O
lady, fear not, it is I who am thy son's protector and I love him with
an exceeding love for the love his father bore me. Nay, I am he
who appeared to him in his sleep and in this I purposed to try his
fortitude, whether or not he might avail to subdue himself for loyalty's
sake. Indeed the beauty of this young lady beguiled him and he could not
avail to keep his covenant with me so strictly but [139] that he desired
her for his bride. However, I know the frailty of human nature and
withal I think greatly of him that he guarded her and kept her unsullied
and withdrew himself from her; [140] wherefore I accept this his
constancy and bestow her on him as a bride. She is the ninth image,
which I promised him should be with him, and certes she is fairer than
all these images of jewels, inasmuch as her like is rarely found in the
world." Then the King of the Jinn turned to Zein ul Asnam and said to
him, "O Prince Zein ul Asnam, this is thy bride; take her and go in
to her, on condition that thou love her and take not unto her a
second [wife]; and I warrant thee of the goodliness of her fidelity
to-thee-ward." Therewithal he vanished from them and Zein ul Asnam went
out, glad and rejoicing in the young lady; [141] and of [the excess
of] his love for her he went in to her that night and let celebrate the
bridal and hold high festival in all the kingdom. Then he abode upon the
throne of his kingship, judging and commanding and forbidding, whilst
his bride became queen of Bassora; and after a little his mother died.
So he made her funeral obsequies [142] and mourned for her; after which
he lived with his bride in all content till there came to them the
Destroyer of Delights and the Sunderer of Societies.


There [144] was [once] in a city of the cities of China a man, a tailor
and poor, and he had a son by name Alaeddin, who was perverse and
graceless from his earliest childhood. When he came to ten years of age,
his father would fain have taught him his own craft, for that, because
he was poor, he could not spend money upon him to have him taught
[another] trade or art [145] or the like; [146] so he carried him to his
shop, that he might teach him his craft of tailoring; but, forasmuch
as the lad was perverse and wont still to play with the boys of the
quarter, [147] he would not sit one day in the shop; nay, he would watch
his father till such time as he went forth the place to meet a customer
[147] or on some other occasion, when he would flee forth incontinent
and go out to the gardens with the good-for-nothing lads like himself.
This, then, was his case, [148] and he would not obey his parents, nor
would he learn a craft. His father sickened of his grief and chagrin for
his son's perversity and died, whilst Alaeddin abode on that his wise.
When his mother saw that her husband had departed this life [149] and
that her son was a scapegrace and a good-for-nought, she sold the
shop and all she found therein and fell to spinning cotton and feeding
herself and her graceless son Alaeddin with her toil. The latter,
seeing himself quit of his father's danger, [150] redoubled in his
gracelessness and his perversity and would not abide in their house save
eating-whiles; and his poor wretched mother supported him [151] by the
spinning of her hands till he came to fifteen years of age.

One [152] day of the days, as he sat in the street, playing with the
vagabond boys, behold, a Maugrabin [153] dervish came up and stopping
to look at the lads, singled out Alaeddin from his comrades and fell to
gazing upon him and straitly considering his favour. Now this dervish
was from the land of Hither Barbary [154] and he was an enchanter who
would cast mountain upon mountain with his sorcery and was skilled to
boot in physiognomy. [155] When he had well considered Alaeddin, he said
in himself, "Certes, this boy is he whom I seek and he it is in quest of
whom I came forth from my country." So he took one of the lads apart and
asked him of Alaeddin, whose son he was, and questioned him of all his
affairs; after which he went up to Alaeddin and taking him aside, said
to him, "Harkye, boy, art thou not the son of such an one the tailor?"
And he answered him, saying "Yes, O my lord; but my father died awhile
agone." When the Maugrabin magician heard this, he threw himself upon
Alaeddin and embracing him, fell to kissing him and weeping, that his
tears ran down upon his cheek.

Alaeddin was astonished at the Maugrabin's behaviour; so he asked him
and said to him, "What is the cause of thy weeping, O my lord, and
whence knewest thou my father?" The Maugrabin answered him, in a
mournful, broken voice, [156] saying, "How, O my son, canst thou ask me
this question, after telling me that thy father, my brother, is dead,
for thy father was [indeed] my brother [157] and I am newly come from my
country and was rejoicing exceedingly, after this my strangerhood, of my
expectation that I should see him and solace myself with him; [158] and
now thou tellest me that he is dead! Marry, blood discovered unto me
that [159] thou wast the son of my brother, and indeed I knew thee from
amongst all the lads; although thy father, when I left him, was not yet
married. And [160] now, O my son Alaeddin," continued he, "I have lost
my consolation [161] and my joy in thy father, my brother, whom I had
hoped, after my strangerhood, to see ere I died; but separation hath
afflicted me in him [162] and there is no fleeing from that which is
[163] nor is there any resource against the ordinance of God the Most

Then he took Alaeddin and said to him, "O my son, I have no comfort
[163] but in thee [164] and thou art [to me] in the stead of thy father,
since thou art his successor and whoso leaveth [a successor] is not
dead, O my son." With this he put his hand [to his pocket] and bringing
out ten diners, gave them to Alaeddin, saying, "O my son, where is your
house and where is thy mother, my brother's wife?" So Alaeddin took him
and showed him the way to their house; and the magician said to him, "O
my son, take these monies and give them to thy mother and salute her
on my behalf and tell her that thine uncle is come back from his
strangerhood; and God willing, to-morrow I will come visit you, so I
may salute her and look upon the house wherein my brother dwelt and see
where his tomb is." [165] Alaeddin kissed his hand and hastened home,
running in his joy, to his mother and entered, contrary to his wont, for
that he was not used to go in to her save at eating-times. So he went in
to her, rejoicing, and said to her, "O my mother, I bring thee glad news
of my uncle, in that he is come back from his absence, and he saluteth
thee." "O my son," quoth she, "meseemeth thou makest mock of me. Who is
thine uncle and whence hast thou an uncle on life?" And he said to her,
"O my mother, why didst thou tell me that I had no uncles and no
kinsfolk on life? Indeed, this man is my uncle and he embraced me and
kissed me, weeping, and bade me tell thee of this." And she answered
him, saying, "Yes, O my son, I knew thou hadst an uncle, but he is dead
and I know not that thou hast a second uncle."

As [166] for the Maugrabin enchanter, he went forth at dawn and fell to
searching for [167] Alaeddin, for that he might not brook parting from
him; [168] and as he went about in the thoroughfares of the city, he
came upon the lad, who was playing with the vagabonds, as of his wont.
So he went up to him and taking him by the hand, embraced him and kissed
him; then he brought out of his purse two diners and said to Alaeddin,
"Go to thy mother and give her these two diners and say to her, 'My
uncle would fain sup with us; so take these two diners and make a good
supper.' But first show me once more the way to your house." "On my head
and eyes, O my uncle," answered Alaeddin and foregoing him, showed him
the way to the house. Then the Maugrabin left him and went his way,
whilst Alaeddin returned home and telling his mother [what had passed],
gave her the two diners and said to her, "My uncle would fain sup with
us." So she arose forthright and went out to the market, where she
bought all that was needful and returning home, borrowed of her
neighbours that which she required of platters and the like and
proceeded to make ready for supper.

When the time of the evening-meal came, she said to Alaeddin, "O my son,
the supper [169] is ready and maybe shine uncle knoweth not the way to
the house. Go thou and meet him." And he answered her with "Hearkening
and obedience." But, whilst they were in talk, behold, there came a
knocking at the door; whereupon Alaeddin went out and opening, found the
Maugrabin enchanter, and with him a slave bearing wine and fruits. So he
brought them in and the slave went his way, whilst the Maugrabin entered
and saluted Alaeddin's mother; then he fell a-weeping and said to her,
"Where is the place in which my brother was wont to sit?" She pointed
him to her husband's sitting-place, whereupon he went thither and
prostrating himself, fell to kissing the earth and saying, "Alas, how
scant is my delight and how sorry my fortune, since I have lost thee,
O my brother and apple [170] of mine eye!" And the abode on this wise,
weeping and lamenting, till Alaeddin's mother was certified that he was
in earnest and that he was like to swoon of the excess of his wailing
and his lamentation. So she came to him and raised him from the ground,
saying, "What profiteth it that thou shouldst kill thyself?" And [171]
she proceeded to comfort him and made him sit down.

Then, before she laid the table, the Maugrabin fell to relating to her
[his history] and said to her, "O wife of my brother, let it not amaze
thee that in all thy days thou never sawest me neither knewest of me
in my late brother's lifetime, for that I left this country forty years
agone and became an exile from my native land. I journeyed to the lands
of Hind and Sind and all the country of the Arabs and coming presently
into Egypt, sojourned awhile in the magnificent city [of Cairo], which
is the wonder of the world. [172] Ultimately I betook myself to the land
of Hither Barbary [173] and sojourned there thirty years' space, [174]
till one day of the days, as I sat, [175] O wife of my brother, I
bethought me of my country and my native place and of my late brother
and longing waxed on me to see him and I fell a-weeping and lamenting
over my strangerhood and distance from him. In fine, my yearning for him
importuned me till I resolved to journey to this country, the which was
the falling-place of my head [176] and my native land, that I might see
my brother. And I said in myself, "O man, how long wilt thou be an exile
[177] from thy country and thy native place, whenas thou hast an only
brother and no more? Arise and journey and look upon him ere thou die.
Who knoweth the calamities of fate and the vicissitudes of the days?
Sore pity 'twere that thou shouldst die and not see thy brother.
Moreover, Allah (praised be He) hath given thee abundant wealth and it
may be thy brother is in poor case and straitened, and thou wilt help
him, an [178] thou see him." So I arose forthright and equipped myself
for travel; then, reciting the Fatiheh [179], I took horse, after the
Friday prayer, and came, after many hardships and fatigues,--which I
suffered, till the Lord (to whom belong might and majesty) protected
[me],--to this city. I entered it and as I went about its thoroughfares
the day before yesterday, I saw my brother's son Alaeddin playing with
the boys; and by Allah the Great, O wife of my brother, when I saw him,
my heart crave to him, for that blood yearneth unto blood, and my soul
foreboded me he was my brother's son. At his sight I forgot all my toils
and troubles and was like to fly for joy; then, when he told me that my
late brother had departed to the mercy of God the Most High, I swooned
away for stress of grief and chagrin; and most like he hath told thee
of that which overcame me. [180] But I comforted myself somewhat with
Alaeddin, who standeth in stead of [181] the departed, for that whoso
leaveth [a successor] [182] dieth not."

Then, [183] when he saw her weeping at this speech, he turned to
Alaeddin, by way of making her forget the mention of her husband and
feigning to comfort her, so he might the better accomplish his device
upon her, and said to him, "O my son Alaeddin, what hast thou learned of
crafts and what is thy business? Hast thou learned thee a trade whereby
thou mayst live, thou and thy mother?" At this Alaeddin was confounded
and abashed and hung down his head, bowing it to the ground, whilst his
mother said to the Maugrabin, "How? By Allah, he knoweth nought at all!
So graceless a lad I never saw. All day long he goeth about with the
vagabond boys of the quarter like himself; nay, his father, woe is me,
died not but of his chagrin concerning him; and now, as for me, my case
is woeful. I spin cotton and toil night and day, to earn two cakes of
bread, that we may eat them together. This, then, is his condition, O
my brother-in-law, and by thy life, he cometh not in to me save at
eating-times, and I am thinking to bolt the door of my house and not
open to him and let him go seek his living for himself, for that I am
grown an old woman and have no strength left to toil and provide for
the maintenance of a fellow like this. [184] By Allah, I get mine own
livelihood, I that need one who shall maintain me." [185]

Therewithal the Maugrabin turned to Alaeddin and said to him, "How is
this, O son of my brother? It is a disgrace to thee to go vagabonding
about in this abjection. This befitteth not men like thee. Thou art
gifted with understanding, O my son, and the child of [reputable] folk;
[186] I and it is a shame upon thee that thy mother, who is an old
woman, should toil for thy maintenance, now thou art grown a man.
Nay, it behoveth thee get thee some means whereby thou mayst maintain
thyself, O my son. See, by God's grace, (praised be He) here in our city
be masters of crafts, nowhere is there a place more abounding in them:
choose, then, the craft which pleaseth thee and I will establish thee
therein, so that, when thou growest up, O my son, thou mayst find thee
thy craft whereby thou shalt live. Belike thou hast no mind to thy
father's trade; so choose other than it. Tell me the craft which
pleaseth thee and I will help thee in all that is possible, O son of
my brother." Then, seeing that Alaeddin was silent and answered him
nothing, he knew that he had no mind to any craft at all and recked of
nothing but vagabondage and said to him, "O son of my brother, be not
abashed at me; [187] if so be withal [188] thou caress not to learn a
trade, I will open thee a merchant's shop of the costliest stuffs and
thou shalt make thyself acquainted with [189] the folk [190] and shalt
give and take and sell and buy and become known in the city."

When Alaeddin heard these words of his uncle the Maugrabin, to wit,
that it was his intent to make him a merchant, [191] a trader, [192] he
rejoiced exceedingly, well knowing that all merchants' apparel is neat
and elegant; [193] so he looked at the Maugrabin and smiled and bowed
his head, as who should say, "I am content." The [194] magician, seeing
him smile, knew that he was content to be a merchant and said to him,
"Since thou art content that I should make thee a merchant and open thee
a shop, be a man, O son of my brother, and to-morrow, God willing, I
will take thee first to the market and let cut thee an elegant suit of
clothes such as merchants wear; and after that I will look thee out a
shop and perform my promise to thee." Now Alaeddin's mother was in some
little doubt as to the Maugrabin; but, when she heard his promise to her
son that he would open him a shop as a merchant with stuffs and
capital and what not else, she concluded that he was in very deed her
brother-in-law, inasmuch as a stranger would not do thus with her
son. So she fell to admonishing her son and exhorting him to put away
ignorance and folly from his head and be a man, and bade him still yield
obedience to his uncle, as he were his father, and apply himself to make
up the time which he had wasted in idleness [with] those who were like
him, after which she arose and laying the table, spread the evening-meal
and they all sat down and fell to eating and drinking, whilst the
Maugrabin talked with Alaeddin upon matters of merchandry and the like.
Then, when he saw that the night was far spent, [195] he arose and went
to his lodging, promising to return in the morning and take Alaeddin, so
he might let cut him a merchant's suit.

Alaeddin slept not that night for joy and when it was morning, behold,
the Maugrabin knocked at the door. The lad's mother arose and opened
to him; however, he would not enter, but sought Alaeddin, that he might
take him with him to the market. So Alaeddin went out to him and gave
him good-morning and kissed his hand; whereupon the Maugrabin took him
by the hand and going with him to the market, entered the shop of a
seller of all manner of clothes and demanded a suit of costly stuffs.
The merchant brought him what he sought, all sewn and ready, and the
Maugrabin said to Alaeddin, "Choose that which pleaseth thee, O my son."
Alaeddin rejoiced exceedingly, when he saw that his uncle gave him
his choice, and chose clothes to his mind, such as pleased him. The
Maugrabin at once paid the merchant their price and going out, carried
Alaeddin to the bath, where they bathed and came forth and drank wine.
[196] Then Alaeddin arose and donned the new suit; whereat he rejoiced
and was glad and coming up to his uncle, kissed his hand and thanked
him for his bounties. After [197] this the Maugrabin carried him to the
bazaar of the merchants and showed him the market and the selling and
buying and said to him, "O my son, it behoveth thee consort with
the folk, especially with the merchants, so thou mayst learn of them
merchandry, since this is become thy craft."

Then he took him again and showed him the city and the mosques and all
the sights of the place; after which he carried him to a cook's shop,
where the morning-meal was set before them in silver platters. So they
ate and drank till they had enough and going forth, fared on, whilst the
Maugrabin proceeded to show Alaeddin the pleasaunces and fine buildings,
[198] going in with him to the Sultan's palace and showing him all the
fair and fine quarters [199] [of the city]; after which he carried him
to the Khan of the stranger merchants, where he himself lodged. and
invited certain of the merchants who were in the Khan. Accordingly they
came and sat down to supper, and he informed them that this was his
brother's son and that his name was Alaeddin. Then, after they had eaten
and drunken, the night being now come, the Maugrabin arose and taking
Alaeddin, carried him back to his mother.

When she saw her son as he were one of the merchants, her wit fled [and
she waxed] sorrowful for gladness and fell to extolling the Maugrabin's
bounty and saying to him, "O my brother-in-law, I might not suffice [to
thy deserts,] though I thanked thee all my life long and praised thee
for the good thou hast done with my son." "O wife of my brother,"
answered he, "this is no manner of kindness in me, [200] for that
this is my son and it behoveth me stand in the stead of my brother his
father; so be thou easy." Quoth she, "I pray God, by the glory of the
ancients [201] and the moderns, that He let thee [live] and continue
thee, O my brother-in-law, and prolong me thy life, so thou mayst be
[as] a wing [202] to this orphan boy; and he shall still be under thine
obedience and thy commandment and shall do nought but that which thou
biddest him." "O wife of my brother," rejoined the Maugrabin, "Alaeddin
is a man of understanding and [the son of] decent folk, and my hope is
in God that he will follow in his father's footsteps and be the solace
of shine eyes; [203] but it irketh me that, to-morrow being Friday, I
cannot open him a shop. It being congregation day, all the merchants
will go out after prayers to the gardens and pleasaunces; but, God
willing, on Saturday, an it please the Creator, we will do our business.
Tomorrow I will come to you and take Alaeddin, that I may show him the
gardens and pleasaunces without the city,--it may be he hath not
yet seen them,--and he shall see the merchant-folk and the notables
a-pleasuring there, so he may become acquainted with them and they with
him." [204]

The [205] Maugrabin lay the night in his lodging; and on the morrow he
came to the tailor's house and knocked at the door. Alaeddin--of the
excess of his joy in the clothes he had donned and of the pleasures he
had enjoyed on the past day, what with the bath and eating and drinking
and viewing the folk and the thought that his uncle was coming in the
morning to take him and show him the gardens--slept not that night
neither closed an eye and thought the day would never break. [206] So,
when he heard a knocking at the door, he went out at once in haste, like
a spark of fire, and opening, found his uncle the Maugrabin. The latter
embraced him and kissed him and took him by the hand, saying, "O son of
my brother, to-day I will show thee a thing such as thou never sawest in
thy life." Then they went off together and the Maugrabin fell to making
merry with [207] Alaeddin and amusing him with familiar talk. They went
forth the gate of the city and the Maugrabin proceeded to walk with him
among the gardens and to show him the fine pleasaunces and marvellous
high-builded palaces; and whenassoever they looked upon a garden or a
palace [208] or a pavilion, [209] he would stand and say to Alaeddin,
"Doth this please thee, O my son Alaeddin?"

Alaeddin was like to fly for joy, inasmuch as he saw that which he had
never in his life seen, and they gave not over walking and gazing till
they were weary, when they entered a fine garden there, that cheered
the heart and brightened the eye with its springs [210] welling up among
flowers and its waters issuing from the mouths of lions of brass like
unto gold, and sitting down by a lake, rested awhile. As for Alaeddin,
he rejoiced and was exceeding glad and fell a-jesting with the Mangrabin
and making merry with him, as he were his uncle in very deed. Then the
latter arose and loosing his girdle, brought out therefrom a bag full
of victual and fruit and the like and said to Alaeddin, "O son of
my brother, thou art maybe anhungred; come, eat what thou wilt." So
Alaeddin proceeded to eat and the Maugrabin with him and they were
gladdened and refreshed and their souls were cheered. Then said the
Maugrabin, "Rise, O my son, an thou be rested, so we may walk a little
and fare onward." [211] So Alaeddin arose and the Maugrabin walked on
with him from garden to garden till they had passed them all and came to
a high mountain. [212]

Now Alaeddin had never gone forth the gate of the city nor in all his
life had he walked the like of that walk; so he said to the Maugrabin,
"O my uncle, whither are we going? See, we have left all the gardens
behind us and are come to the foot of a mountain. [213] If the way be
[yet] far, I have no strength left me for walking, for that I am worn
out with fatigue and there remain no more gardens before us; so let us
turn back and return to the city." "O my son," replied the Maugrabin,
"this is the way and the gardens are not yet at an end, for we are going
[214] to view a garden, whose like is not with the kings and compared
with which all these which thou hast seen are as nothing. So gird up thy
loins [215] for walking; praised be God, thou art a man." And he fell
to amusing him with fair words and telling him rare stories, true and
false, till they reached the place at which this Maugrabin enchanter
aimed and in quest whereof he was come from Barbary [216] to the land of
China; whereupon, "O son of my brother," quoth he to Alaeddin, "sit and
rest thee; this is the place for which we were making; and now, please
God, I will show thee marvellous things, the like whereof no one in the
world hath seen, nor hath any looked upon that which thou art about to
behold. But [217] do thou, after thou art rested, arise and seek sticks
and grass and reeds and such like matters as are small and dry, so we
may kindle a fire, and I will cause thee look, O son of my brother, upon
a thing which passeth understanding." [218]

When Alaeddin heard this, he yearned to see what his uncle was about to
do; so he forgot his fatigue and rising forthright, fell to gathering
brushwood and dry sticks and gathered till the Maugrabin said to him,
"Enough, O son of my brother." Then he brought out of his pocket a
casket, from which he took what he needed of perfumes, and proceeded
to make fumigations and conjurations, speaking words that might not be
understanded; and straightway it darkened and thundered and the earth
quaked and opened. At this Alaeddin was sore affrighted and would have
fled; which when the Maugrabin enchanter saw, he was exceeding, incensed
at him, for that without Alaeddin his labour was of none avail, since
the treasure whereat he sought to come might not be opened save by
means of the lad. So, when he saw him offer to flee, he rose to him and
lifting his hand, smote him on his head, that he came nigh to knock out
his teeth; whereupon Alaeddin swooned away and fell upon the earth;
but, after a little, he recovered his senses, by the virtue of the
Maugrabin's enchantments, and falling a-weeping, said to him, "O my
uncle, what have I done to deserve from thee this blow?" The Maugrabin
proceeded to soothe him and said to him, "O my son, it is my desire to
make thee a man; so cross me not, for that I am thine uncle and as it
were thy father; wherefore do thou obey me in that which I shall say to
thee, and after a little thou shalt forget all this travail and annoy,
whenas thou lookest upon things marvellous."

Now, when the earth clove in sunder before the enchanter, there appeared
to him an alabaster slab and in it a ring of molten brass; [219] so he
turned to Alaeddin and said to him, "An thou do that which I shall tell
thee, thou shalt become richer than all the kings; and on this account,
O my son, I beat thee, for that here is a treasure and it is in thy
name, and thou, thou wouldst fain have passed it by and fled. But
now collect thy wits [220] and see how I have opened the earth by my
conjurations and incantations. Under [221] yonder stone, wherein is the
ring, is the treasure whereof I have told thee; so do thou put thy hand
to the ring and lift the slab, for that none of mankind can open it but
thou and none but thou can set his foot within this treasure, since it
is guarded for thee. But needs must thou hearken from me that which I
shall teach thee and lose not [222] a syllable of my speech. Marry, all
this, O my son, is for thy good, for that this is an exceeding great
treasure, the kings of the world possess not its like, and it is thine
and mine." So poor Alaeddin forgot fatigue and beating and weeping, of
his amazement at the Maugrabin's speech and joy that he should become
rich after such a measure that even the kings would be no wealthier than
he, and said to him, "O my uncle, command me all thou wilt, for I will
be obedient unto thy commandment." And the Maugrabin said to him, "O
son of my brother, thou art as my very son, nay, dearer, for being my
brother's son. I have no kindred other than thyself and thou art my
natural heir and successor, O my son."

Therewith he came up to Alaeddin and kissed him saying, "All these my
toils, whom do they concern? [223] They are all for thy sake, O my son,
that I may make [224] thee a man rich and great [225] exceedingly; so
gainsay me not in aught that I shall tell thee; but go up to yonder ring
and raise it, as I bade thee." "O my uncle," quoth Alaeddin, "this stone
is heavy; I cannot raise it of myself, [226] so come thou also and help
me raise it, for I am little of years." "O son of my brother," replied
the Maugrabin, "it will not be possible for us to do aught, an I help
thee, and our toil will be wasted in vain; but do thou put thy hand to
the ring and raise it and it will immediately come up with thee; for, as
I said to thee, none may handle it but thou. But, when thou raisest
it, name thine own name and those of thy father and mother and it will
straightway rise with thee, nor shalt thou feel its weight."

Accordingly, Alaeddin took courage and summoning his resolution, did
as the Maugrabin bade him and raised the slab with all ease, whenas he
pronounced his own name and those of his father and his mother. So the
stone came up and he threw it aside; whereupon [227] there appeared to
him an underground place and its door, whereas one entered by a stair of
some dozen steps, and the Maugrabin said to him, "O Alaeddin, give heed
[228] and do punctually that which I shall tell thee, neither fail of
aught thereof. Go down with all circumspection into yonder vault till
thou come to the bottom thereof and thou wilt find there a place divided
into four chambers, [229] in each of which thou wilt see four jars of
gold and others of native ore and silver. Beware lest thou handle them
or take aught therefrom, but pass them by till thou come to the fourth
chamber, and let not thy clothes or thy skirts touch the jars, no, nor
the walls, and stay not one moment; for, an thou do contrary to this,
thou wilt forthright be transformed and wilt become a black stone. When
thou comest to the fourth chamber, thou wilt find there a door; open
it and speak the names which thou spokest over the slab; then enter and
thou wilt find thyself in a garden, all adorned with trees and fruits.
Thence do thou fare on some fifty cubits in the path thou wilt find
before thee and thou wilt come to a dais, [230] with [231] a stair of
some thirty steps. Above the dais thou [232] wilt find a lamp hung up;
take it and pour out the oil that is therein and put it in thy sleeve;
[233] and fear not for thy clothes therefrom, for that it [234] is not
oil. And as thou returnest, thou mayst pluck from the trees what thou
wilt, for that it is thine, what while the lamp abideth in thy hand."

When the Maugrabin had made an end of his speech, he drew from his
finger a ring and putting it on Alaeddin's finger, said to him, "And
this ring, O, my son, shall deliver thee from all hurt and all fear that
may betide thee, provided thou observe all that I have said to thee. So
now arise and go down; gird thy loins and summon up thy resolution and
fear not, for that thou art a man and not a child; and after this, O
my son, thou shalt in a little time become the richest of mankind."
So Alaeddin arose and going down into the underground, found the four
chambers and in each four jars of gold. He passed them by with all care
and precaution, even as the Maugrabin had bidden him, and entering the
garden, fared on there through till he came to the dais and mounting the
stair, entered [235] and found the lamp. So he quenched it and pouring
out the oil that was therein, put it in his sleeve; then, going down
into the garden, he fell to gazing upon its trees, whereon were birds
extolling with their songs [236] the perfection of the Great Creator,
and he had not seen them as he entered. Now the fruits of these trees
were all precious stones, each tree bearing fruit of one colour and
kind of jewel, and these fruits were of all colours, green and white and
yellow and red and what not else of colours. Their glitterance outshone
the rays of the sun in its forenoon splendour and the bigness of each
jewel overpassed description; suffice it that not one of them might be
found with the greatest of the kings of the world, [237] no, nor a gem
half the bigness of the smallest that was there.

Alaeddin [238] entered among the trees and proceeded to gaze upon them
and upon these things which amazed the sight and ravished the sense
and observing them, saw that, instead of fruits, they bore magnificent
jewels from the mines, emeralds and diamonds and rubies and pearls and
topazes [239] and the like of precious stones, such as confounded the
wit. Now, for that this was a thing Alaeddin had never in his life seen,
neither was he of ripe age, so he should know the value of these jewels,
by reason of his being yet a young lad, he thought that they were all
glass or crystal; so he gathered of them what filled his sleeves [240]
and fell to looking an they were grapes or figs and the like of fruits
that might be eaten or not; but, finding them like glass, he proceeded
to gather in his sleeve [241] of every kind that was upon the trees,
albeit he knew not jewels nor their worth, saying in himself, since he
had been baulked in his intent of eating, "I will gather of these fruits
of glass and will play with them at home." Accordingly he proceeded to
pluck and put in his pockets [242] and his sleeves [243] till he filled
them; after which he filled his girdle with the fruits and girt himself
withal; in fine, he carried off as much as he might, purposing to lay
them up with him in the house by way of ornament, for that he thought
them glass, as I have said. Then he quickened his pace, of his fear of
his uncle the Maugrabin, and hastened through the four chambers and the
[outer] vault nor looked, as he returned, at the jars of gold, albeit he
might now have taken of them. [244]

When he came to the stair [245] and ascended it and there remained to
him but a small matter, to wit, the last step, which was much higher
than the others, he could not avail to mount it of himself, having
regard to that which he was carrying; so he said to the Maugrabin, "O
my uncle, give me thy hand and help me up." Quoth he, "O my son, give
me the lamp and lighten thyself; maybe it is that which hindereth thee."
"Nay, O my uncle," answered Alaeddin, "the lamp hindereth me nought; but
do thou give me thy hand and when I am up, I will give thee the lamp."
The enchanter, who wanted the lamp and that only, fell to urging
Alaeddin to give it him; but the latter, having wrapped it within his
clothes, with purses [246] of jewel-fruits atop of it, [247] could
not reach it with his hand, so he might give it him. [248] The [249]
Maugrabin was instant with him to give him the lamp and was like to lose
his wits for rage, seeing he attained not his object, albeit Alaeddin
still promised him that he would give it him as soon as he was forth of
the vault, [and that] without lying thought or ill intent. Then, when he
saw that Alaeddin would not give it him, he was angry with an exceeding
anger and abandoning all hope of the lamp, conjured and enchanted and
cast perfumes into the midst of the fire; whereupon the slab immediately
turned over [250] and shut [251] of itself by the might of his
enchantments; the earth covered it like as it was before and Alaeddin
abode under the ground, unable to come forth.

Thus the enchanter--forasmuch as he was a stranger and no uncle of
Alaeddin, as he said, but had counterfeited himself and avouched
leasing, so he might get the lamp by means of the lad, unto whom that
treasure was fortuned by the stars-shut up [252] the earth upon him and
left him to die of hunger. Now this accursed Maugrabin wizard was from
the city of Africa [253] in Hither Barbary and had from his childhood
been addicted to magic and all the occult arts, for which the city in
question is renowned. He ceased not from his tenderest years to study
and learn in his native land Africa till he became versed in all
sciences, and of the much skill and proficiency which he acquired,
by dint of study and application for the space of forty years, in the
matter of incantations and conjurations, it was discovered to him, [254]
one day of the days, that among the uttermost of the cities of China
was a city called El Kelaas and in this city a vast treasure, the like
whereof no king of the kings of the world ever possessed; but the rarest
[was] that in this treasure [was] [255] a wonderful lamp, [256] whereat
if one should come, there might no man be found on earth richer than he,
whether in might or in wealth, nor might the greatest king in the
world avail unto aught of the riches of this lamp and its puissance and
virtue. Moreover [257] he saw that this treasure was to be achieved
by means of a lad of mean birth, by name Alaeddin, who was of the city
aforesaid, and that it was eath to take and unarduous: so he tarried
not, but equipped himself forthright for the voyage to China, as we have
said, and did that which he did with Alaeddin, thinking to come by the
lamp. But his endeavour was baffled and his expectation baulked and his
toil wasted in vain; whereupon he sought to kill Alaeddin and closed up
the earth upon him by his sorcery, so he might die (and the live hath
no slayer [258]); moreover, he purposed by this that Alaeddin should
not come forth and that the lamp should not be brought up from under the
earth. Then he went his ways and returned to his country Africa, woeful
and despairing of his hope.

So much for the enchanter and as for what came of Alaeddin, after the
earth closed over him, he fell to calling upon the Maugrabin, whom he
thought his uncle, to give him his hand, so he might come forth the
underground to the surface of the earth; but, when he found that none
returned him an answer, he was ware of the cheat which the Maugrabin had
put upon him and knew that he was none of his uncle, but a liar and a
sorcerer. Therewith he despaired of his life and knew, to his woe, that
there was no more going forth for him upon the face of the earth; so he
fell to weeping and lamenting over that which had befallen him. Then,
after a little, he arose and went down, that he might see if God the
Most High had vouchsafed him a door whereby he might go forth; and he
went seeking right and left, but saw nought save darkness and four walls
shut upon him; for that the Maugrabin sorcerer had by his enchantments
locked all the doors and had even shut up the garden, so he might leave
him no door whereby he should come forth upon the face of the earth
and so hasten his death upon him. Alaeddin's weeping redoubled and his
lamentation waxed when he saw all the doors shut and eke the garden, for
that he thought to solace himself with them [259] a little; but he found
them locked, so he fell to crying out and weeping, as he whose hope is
cut off, and returning, sat down upon the steps of the stair whereby he
had entered the vault, weeping [260] and wailing; and indeed he had lost

But it is a small matter for God (extolled be His perfection and exalted
be He) whenas He willeth a thing, to say to it "Be," and it is; for that
He createth relief out of the midst of stress; by token that, when the
Maugrabin enchanter sent Alaeddin down into the vault, he gave him a
ring and put it on his finger, saying, "This ring will deliver thee from
all stress, an thou be in calamities or vicissitudes, and will remove
from thee troubles; yea, it will be thy helper whereassoever thou art;"
and this was by the foreordinance of God the Most High, so it might be
the means of Alaeddin's deliverance. So, as he sat weeping and bewailing
his case and indeed his hope was cut off of life and despair was heavy
upon him, he fell, of the excess of his anguish, to wringing [261] his
hands, after the wont of the woeful; then, raising them [to heaven], he
made supplication to God, saying, "I testify that there is no God but
Thou alone, the Mighty, the Powerful, the Conquering, the Giver of Life
and Death, [262] Creator and Accomplisher [263] of necessities, Resolver
of difficulties and perplexities and Dispeller thereof, [264] Thou
my sufficiency, Thou the most excellent Guardian, and I testify that
Mohammed is Thy servant and Thine apostle. O my God, I conjure Thee, by
his [265] glory with Thee, deliver me from my extremity."

Whilst he was thus supplicating God and wringing his hands in the
excess of his affliction for that which had befallen him of calamity,
he chanced to rub upon the ring, and immediately, behold, a genie [266]
rose up before him and said to him, "Here am I; thy slave is before
thee. Seek whatsoever thou wilt, for that I am his slave who hath the
ring in hand, the ring of my lord." [267] Alaeddin looked and saw a
Marid, [268] as he were of the Jinn of our lord Solomon, standing before
him, and shuddered at his frightful aspect; but, when he heard the genie
say to him, "Seek whatsoever thou wilt, for that I am thy slave, since
the ring of my lord is on thy hand," he took heart and bethought him
of the Maugrabin's speech to him, whenas he gave him the ring. So he
rejoiced exceedingly and took courage and said to him, "O slave of the
lord of the ring, I will of thee that thou bring me out upon the face of
the earth." Hardly had he made an end of that his speech when, behold,
the earth opened and he found himself without, at the door of the
treasure, to wit, upon the surface of the earth.

Now, he had been three days under the earth, sitting in the treasure in
the dark; so, when the light of day smote on his face and the rays of
the sun, he might not unclose his eyes, but took to opening them little
by little and shutting them again till they became stronger and grew
used to the light and were cleared of the darkness. Then, [269] seeing
himself upon the surface of the earth, he rejoiced exceedingly, but
marvelled to find himself overagainst the entrance of the treasure,
whereby he went down, whenas the Maugrabin enchanter opened it; and now
the stone was shut down and the earth levelled, nor was there any sign
therein of a door. So he redoubled in wonderment and thought himself
otherwhere; nor was he assured that he was in the very place, till
he saw whereas they had kindled the fire of sticks and brushwood
and whereas the Maugrabin enchanter had made his fumigations and
conjurations. Then he turned right and left and saw the gardens afar off
and looked at the way and knew it for that by which they had come. So he
gave thanks to God the Most High, who had brought him out on the earth's
face and had delivered him from death, after he had given up hope of
life. Then he arose and fared homeward, by the way which he knew, till
he came to the city and entering, betook himself to their house and
went in to his mother. When he saw her, he fell down before her, of
the greatness of the joy which possessed him for his deliverance, and
swooned away for the affright and the weariness which he had suffered,
more by token that he was weak with hunger.

Now his mother had been woebegone since he left her and sat wailing and
weeping for him; so, when she saw him come in to her, she rejoiced in
him with an exceeding joy, but grief overwhelmed her, whenas she saw
him fall aswoon upon the earth. However, she wasted no time in vain
lamentation, but hastened to sprinkle water on his face and sought of
her neighbours somewhat of perfumes, to which she made him smell. When
he was a little recovered, he prayed her bring him somewhat to eat,
saying to her, "O my mother, these three days past I have eaten
nothing." So she arose and setting before him that which she had ready,
said to him, "Rise, O my son, eat and restore thyself; and when thou
art rested, tell me what hath happened to thee and what calamity hath
befallen thee. I will not question thee now, because thou art weary."
So, [270] when he had eaten and drunken and had refreshed himself and
was rested and restored, he said to her, "Alack, mother mine, I have a
sore grief against thee in that thou leftest me to yonder accursed man,
who strove for my destruction. Indeed, he sought to kill me; nay, I saw
death face to face from that accursed wretch, whom thou deemedst mine
uncle, and but for God the Most High, who delivered me from him, [I had
perished]. Marry, both I and thou, O my mother, suffered ourselves to be
deluded by him after the measure of that which the accursed promised
to do with me of good and of the love which he professed for me. Know,
then, O my mother, that this man is an accursed Maugrabin enchanter,
a liar, a deceiver, an impostor and a hypocrite; methinketh the devils
that be under the earth are not his match, may God put him to shame in
every book! [271] Hear, O my mother, what this accursed did; nay, all
I shall tell thee is truth and soothfastness. Do but see the villain's
duplicity; bethink thee of the promises he made me that he would do me
all manner of good [272] and the love he professed to me, and how he did
all this that he might accomplish his purpose; nay, his intent was to
kill me, and praised be God for my deliverance! Hearken, O my mother,
and learn what this accursed one did."

Then he told her all that had befallen him from the time of his leaving
her, weeping the while for excess of joy; how the Maugrabin brought
him to the hill, wherein was the treasure, and how he conjured and
fumigated. "And indeed. O my mother," said he, "there overcame me
exceeding fear, whenas the hill clove in sunder and the earth opened
before me by his enchantments; and I quaked with terror at the voice of
the thunder which I heard and the darkness which befell of his spells
and fumigations, and of my dismay at these portents, I would have fled.
When he saw me offer to flee, he reviled me and smote me, dealing me
a buffet which caused me swoon for pain [273] but, inasmuch as the
treasure was opened and he could not go down into it himself, seeing he
had opened it by my means and that it was in name and not for him, he
knew, being a foul sorcerer, that it might [only] be achieved through me
and that this adventure was [reserved] for me. [274] Accordingly [275]
he applied himself to make his peace with me, that he might send me down
into the treasure, now it was opened, and attain his object by my means;
and when he sent me down, he gave me a ring, which he had on his hand,
and put it on my finger. So I descended into the treasure and found four
chambers, all full of gold and silver and the like; but this all was
nothing and the accursed one charged me take nought thereof. Thence I
entered a magnificent garden, [276] all full of high trees, whose
fruits ravished the wits, O my mother, for that they were all of
various-coloured crystal, [277] and I fared on till I came to the
pavilion [278] wherein was this lamp; whereupon I took it forthright and
quenching it, poured out that which was therein."

[So saying,] he pulled out the lamp from his sleeve and showed it to his
mother. Moreover, he showed her the jewels which he had brought from
the garden. Now there were two great purses [279] full of these jewels,
whereof not one was to be found with the kings of mankind; and Alaeddin
knew not their value, but thought that they were glass or crystal.
"Then, O my mother," continued he, "after I had fetched the lamp and had
gone forth [the garden] and came to the door of the treasure, I cried
out to the accursed Maugrabin, who feigned himself my uncle, to give me
his hand and pull me up, for I was laden with things which weighed me
down, so that it was not possible for me to mount alone. However, he
would not give me his hand, but said to me, 'Reach me the lamp that
is with thee, and after I will give thee my hand and pull thee up.'
I, seeing that I had put the lamp within my sleeve and the purses atop
[280] of it, could not reach it to give it to him and said to him, 'O
my-uncle, I cannot give thee the lamp. When I come up, I will give it
to thee.' But he would not help me up; nay, he would e'en have the lamp,
and his intent was to take it from me and turn back the earth over me
and destroy me, even as he did with me in the end. This, then, O my
mother, was what befell me from that foul wizard." And he told her all
that had passed between them from first to last and fell to reviling
the Maugrabin with all rancour and heat of heart, saying, "Out on this
accursed one, this foul sorcerer, this hard-hearted oppressor, this
inhuman, perfidious, hypocritical villain, lacking [281] all mercy and

When [282] Alaeddin's mother heard her son's speech and that which the
accursed Maugrabin did with him, she said to him, "Yea, verily, O my
son, he is a misbeliever and a hypocrite, who destroyeth folk with his
sorcery; but glory [283] to God the Most High, who hath delivered thee
from the perfidy and guile of this accursed sorcerer, of whom I thought
that he was in very deed thine uncle." Now, Alaeddin had passed three
days without sleep and found himself drowsy; so he [withdrew to his
chamber and] slept. His mother did likewise and Alaeddin ceased not to
sleep till next day, [284] near noontide, when he awoke and immediately
sought somewhat to eat, for that he was anhungred; and his mother said
to him, "O my son, I have nought to give thee to eat, for that all I had
by me thou atest yesterday. But wait awhile; I have here a little yarn
by me and I am going down to the market, so I may sell it and buy thee
withal somewhat thou mayst eat." "O my mother," rejoined Alaeddin, "keep
the yarn and sell it not; but give me the lamp which I brought home,
so I may arise and sell it and with its price buy somewhat we may eat.
Methinketh it will fetch more than the yarn." So she arose and fetched
the lamp; but, finding it exceeding dirty, she said to him, "O my son,
this lamp is dirty, and if we wash it and furbish it, it will sell for
a better price." Accordingly she took a little sand and fell to scouring
the lamp withal; but scarce had she begun to rub it when there appeared
to her one of the Jinn, foul of favour and monstrous of make as he were
of the giants, and said to her, "Say what thou wilt of me. Here am I,
thy slave and the slave of whoso hath in his hand the lamp; and not I
alone, but all the slaves of the wonderful lamp that is in thy hand."
When she saw his frightful aspect, she trembled and fear get hold upon
her and her tongue was tied, nor could she return an answer, for that
she was not used to look upon apparitions like unto this; so [285] she
fell down aswoon of her terror.

Now Alaeddin her son was standing afar off and he had seen the slave
of the ring which he had rubbed in the treasure; so, when he heard the
genie's speech to his mother, he hastened to take the lamp from her hand
and said to him, "O slave of the lamp, I am hungry; my will is that
thou bring me somewhat I may eat, and be it somewhat good past conceit."
[286] The genie was absent the twinkling of an eye and [returning,]
brought him a great costly tray of sheer silver, whereon were twelve
platters of various kinds and colours [287] of rich meats and two silver
cups and two flagons [288] of clarified old wine and bread whiter than
snow; all which he set before him and disappeared. So Alaeddin arose and
sprinkled rosewater on his mother's face and made her smell to strong
[289] perfumes; whereupon she revived and he said to her, "Rise, O
my mother, so we may eat of this food that God the Most High hath
vouchsafed us." [290] When she saw the great silver tray, she marvelled
and said to Alaeddin, "O my son, who is the generous, the bountiful one
that hath sought out our hunger [291] and our poverty? Indeed, we are
beholden to him. [292] Apparently the Sultan hath heard of our case and
our wretchedness and hath sent us this tray." "O my mother," answered
Alaeddin, "this is no time for questioning; rise, so we may eat, for we
are anhungred."

So they arose and sitting down to the tray, proceeded to eat, whilst
Alaeddin's mother tasted food such as she had never in all her life
eaten. And they ate diligently [293] with all appetite, for stress of
hunger, more by token that the food [was such as] is given to kings,
nor knew they if the tray were precious or not, for that never in their
lives had they seen the like of these things. When they had made an end
of eating and were full (and there was left them, over and above what
sufficed them, [enough] for the evening-meal and for the next day
also), they arose and washing their hands, sat down to talk; whereupon
Alaeddin's mother turned to her son and said to him, "O my son, tell me
what befell of [294] the genie, now that, praised be God, we have eaten
of His bounty and are satisfied and thou hast no pretext for saying
to me, 'I am anhungred.'" So he told her all that had passed between
himself and the genie, whenas she fell down aswoon of her affright;
whereat exceeding wonderment took her and she said to him, "It is true,
then, [295] that the Jinn appear to the sons of Adam, though I, O my
son, in all my days, I have never seen them, and methinketh this is
he who delivered thee, whenas thou west in the treasure." "Nay, O my
mother," answered he, "this was not he; he who appeared to thee is the
slave of the lamp." "How so, [296] O my son?" asked she; and he said,
"This slave is other of make than that. That was the servant of the ring
and this thou sawest is the slave of the lamp which was in thy hand."
When [297] his mother heard this, "Well, well!" cried she. "Then the
accursed who appeared to me and came nigh to kill me for affright is
of the lamp?" "Ay is he," answered Alaeddin; and she said to him, "I
conjure thee, O my son, by the milk thou suckedst of me, that thou cast
away from thee both lamp and ring, for that they will be to us a cause
of exceeding fear and I could not endure to see them [298] a second
time; nay, their commerce is forbidden unto us, for that the prophet
(whom God bless and keep) warneth us against them." [299] "O my mother,"
answered Alaeddin, "thy speech is on my head and eyes; [300] but, as for
this that thou sayest, it may not be that I should cast away either the
lamp or the ring; nay, thou seest that which it [301] did with us of
good, whenas we were anhungred, and know, O my mother, that the lying
Maugrabin enchanter, what time I went down into the treasure, sought
nought of gold nor of silver, whereof the four places were full, but
charged me bring him the lamp and that only, for that he knew the
greatness of its virtues; [302] and except he knew it to be exceeding of
might, he had not toiled and travailed and come from his land to this in
quest of it, nor had he shut the treasure on me, whenas he failed of the
lamp, seeing I gave it him not. Wherefore, O my mother, it behoveth us
keep this lamp and guard it with all care, for that this is our support
and this it is shall enrich us; and it behoveth us show it not unto any.
On like wise, as for the ring, it may not be that I should put it off
from my finger, forasmuch as, but for this ring, thou hadst not seen me
again on life; nay, I had died under the earth within the treasure; so
how can I put it off from my hand and who knoweth what may happen to
me in time to come of error or calamity or shift of the shifts of
mischance, from which the ring might deliver me? However, of regard for
thy wish, I will lay up the lamp and let thee not see it henceforth."
When his mother heard his words and pondered them, she saw them to be
just and true and said to him, "O my son, do what thou wilt. For my
part, I wish never to see them nor ever again to behold that loathsome
aspect [303] which I saw [but now]."

Alaeddin [304] and his mother abode two days eating of the food which
the genie had brought, and when it was finished and he knew that there
was left them nothing to eat, he arose and taking a platter of those
which the slave had brought on the tray (now they were of fine gold,
but Alaeddin knew it not) went with it to the market, where a Jew, a
man viler than devils themselves, accosted [305] him and he gave him the
platter. When the Jew saw it, he took Alaeddin aside, so none might see
him, and examining the platter, found it of fine gold, [306] but knew
not if Alaeddin was ware of its worth or if he was ignorant thereof; so
he said to him, "How much, O my lord, for this platter?" And Alaeddin
answered him, saying, "Thou knowest how much it is worth." The Jew was
perplexed how much he should give Alaeddin for the platter, by reason of
his having made him an adroit answer, and bethought himself to give him
little, but feared lest he should be aware of its value and debated with
himself if he should give him much. Then said he in himself, "Most like
he knoweth not its value;" so he brought out of his pocket a gold diner
and gave it to him. When Alaeddin saw the diner in his hand, he took it
and went off in haste, whereby the Jew knew that the lad was unaware
of the value of the plate and repented him sore that he had given him a
gold diner and not a carat of three-score: [307]

Meanwhile Alaeddin tarried not, but went forthright to the baker and
bought of him bread and changed the diner; then, returning to his
mother, he gave her the bread and the rest of the money and said to her,
"O my mother, go and buy us what we need." So she arose and going to the
market, bought all that they needed and they ate and were cheered.
Then, whenassoever the price of a platter was spent, Alaeddin would take
another and carry it to the Jew; on which wise the accursed Jew bought
them all of him for a small matter and would fain also have reduced the
price; but, since he had given him a diner the first time, he feared to
offer him less, lest the lad should go and sell to another [308] and he
lose that excessive profit. Accordingly, Alaeddin ceased not to sell him
platter after platter till he had sold them all and there was left
him only the tray whereon they had been; then, for that it was big and
heavy, he went and fetched the Jew to the house and brought out to him
the tray. When he saw it and noted its bigness, he gave Alaeddin ten
diners, which he took, and the Jew went his way.

Alaeddin and his mother lived upon the ten diners till they came to an
end; then he arose and bringing out the lamp, rubbed it, whereupon the
slave of the lamp, to wit, the genie whom he had seen before, appeared
to him and [309] said to him, "Seek what thou wilt, O my lord, for that
I am thy slave and the slave of whoso hath with him the lamp." Quoth
Alaeddin, "It is my will that thou bring me a tray of food like unto
that which thou broughtest me erewhen, for that I am hungry;" and the
slave brought him, in the twinkling of an eye, a tray like unto that
which he had brought him before, and on it twelve magnificent platters
full of rich meats, together with flagons [310] of clarified wine and
bread of the finest. Now Alaeddin's mother, when she knew that her son
was minded to rub the lamp, had gone out, so she might not see the genie
again; but, after a little, she came in to him and seeing the tray full
of silver platters, whilst the whole house reeked with the fragrance of
the rich meats, marvelled and rejoiced; and Alaeddin said to her, "O
my mother, thou badest me throw away the lamp. See now its uses." "O my
son," answered she, "may God prosper him; [311] but fain would I not see
him." Then they sat down to the tray and ate and drank till they were
satisfied, laying up that which remained with them against the morrow.

Then, when that which was with them of food was finished, Alaeddin arose
and taking one of the platters under his clothes, went in quest of the
Jew, so he might sell it to him; but, as chance willed it, he passed by
the shop of a goldsmith, an honest, pious man, who feared God. When the
latter saw Alaeddin, he accosted him and said to him, "O my son, what
wilt thou? This many a time have I seen thee pass hereby and betake
thyself to such an one, a Jew, and I have seen thee give him certain
things. Nay, methinketh even now thou hast somewhat with thee and art
seeking him, so thou mayst sell it to him. But thou knowest not, O my
son, that the good of the Muslims, believers in the unity of God the
Most High, is lawful spoil in the eyes of Jews; nay, they still cheat
the Muslims and especially this accursed one with whom thou dealest and
into whose hands thou hast fallen. Wherefore, O my son, an thou have
with thee aught thou wouldst sell, show it to me and fear nothing, for
that, by the truth of God the Most High, I will give thee its price."
Accordingly, Alaeddin brought out the platter to the old man, who took
it and weighing it in his scales, said to him, "Was it the like of this
thou usest to sell to the Jew?" "Ay," replied Alaeddin, "its like and
its brother." "And how much," asked the goldsmith, "useth he to give
thee to its price?" And Alaeddin said, "He useth to give me a diner."

When [312] the goldsmith heard this, "Out on this accursed one," cried
he, "who fleeceth the servants of God the Most High!" Then he looked
at Alaeddin and said to him, "O my son, this Jew is a cheat, who hath
cheated thee and laughed at thee, for that the silver of this thy
platter is pure and fine; and I have weighed it and find its worth
threescore diners and ten; so, an it please thee take its price, take
[it]." Accordingly, he counted out to him seventy diners and he took
them and thanked him for his kindness, in that he had shown him the
Jew's trickery. Thenceforward, whenassoever the price of one platter was
spent, he would carry another to the old goldsmith, and on this wise he
and his mother increased in substance; but they ceased not to live at
their sufficiency, [313] midwise [betwixt rich and poor], [314] without
excessive spending [315] or squandering. As for Alaeddin, he left
idleness and the commerce of striplings and took to consorting with
grown men; [316] nay, he would go every day to the market of the
merchants and sit with the great and the small of them and question
of the ways and fashions of commerce and the prices of articles of
merchandise [317] and otherwhat. He used also to go to the market of the
goldsmiths and the market of the jewellers, and there he would sit and
look upon the different kinds of jewels and see them bought and sold;
whereby he became aware that the fruits of the trees, wherewith he had
filled the purses, [318] whenas he was in the treasure, were neither
glass nor crystal, but jewels, and knew that he had happened upon great
wealth, such as kings might nowise compass. Moreover, he noted all
the jewels that were in the jewellers' market, but saw not [among] the
biggest [of them] one to match with the smallest of those he had at

He ceased not to go daily to the market of the jewellers and to clap
up acquaintance with the folk, making friends with them and questioning
them of buying and selling and giving and taking and dear and cheap,
till, one day of the days, he arose in the morning and donning his
clothes, went forth, intending, as of wont, for the jewellers' market;
but, as he went, he heard the crier proclaiming aloud on this wise, "By
commandment of the Lord of Beneficence, the king of the age and monarch
of the time and the tide, let all the folk shut their shops and stores
and enter their houses, for that the Lady Bedrulbudour, daughter of
the Sultan, purposeth to go to the bath, and whoso transgresseth the
commandment, his punishment shall be death and his blood be on his own
head." [319] When Alaeddin heard this proclamation, he longed to look
upon the Sultan's daughter and said in himself, "All the folk talk of
her grace and goodliness, and the uttermost of my desire is to see her."
So [320] he cast about for a device how he might contrive to see the
Lady Bedrulbudour and him-seemed he were best stand behind the door of
the bath, that he might see her face, as she entered. Accordingly he
betook himself to the bath, awhile in advance, and posted himself behind
the door, whereas none of the folk might see him.

Presently, the Sultan's daughter came forth and went round about the
city and its thoroughfares and diverted herself by viewing it; then
she repaired to the bath and when she came thither, she lifted her
face-veil, as she entered; whereupon her face shone out, as it were the
resplendent sun or a precious pearl, and she was as saith of her one of
her describers:

   Who sprinkled the kohl of enchantment upon her eyes
        And gathered the bloom of the rose from her cheeks, fruit-wise?
   And who was it let down the curtained night of her hair
        And eke through its glooms made the light of her forehead rise?

When she raised the veil from her face and Alaeddin saw her, he said,
"Verily, her fashion glorifieth the Great Creator and extolled be the
perfection of Him who made her and graced her with this beauty and
goodliness!" And his back was cloven in sunder, [321] when he saw her;
his thought was confounded and his understanding [322] dazed and
the love of her gat hold upon his whole heart; so he turned back and
returning home, went in to his mother, like one distraught. She bespoke
him and he answered her neither yea nor nay; then she brought him the
morning-meal, as he abode on this wise, and said to him, "O my son, what
hath betided thee? Doth there ail thee aught? Tell me what hath befallen
thee, for that, against thy wont, I bespeak thee and thou answerest me

Now Alaeddin had been used to think that women were all like his mother
and he had heard of the beauty of the Lady Bedrulbudour, daughter of the
Sultan, but had not known what beauty and grace were; so he turned to
his mother and said to her, "Leave me;" but she was instant with him
to come and eat. Accordingly, he came forward and ate a little; then,
rising, he threw himself on his bed and lay musing till break of morn;
and on this wise he abode all next day. His mother was perplexed at his
case, unknowing what had befallen him, and bethought herself that belike
he was sick; so she came up to him and questioned him, saying, "O my
son, an thou feel aught of pain or otherwhat, tell me, that I may go
fetch thee a physician, more by token there is presently in the city a
physician from the land of the Arabs, whom the Sultan hath sent to bring
hither, and report saith of him that he is exceeding skilful; so [tell
me] if thou art sick, that I may go and call him to thee."

When [323] Alaeddin heard his mother offer to fetch him the physician,
he said to her, "O my mother, I am well and not sick, but I had thought
that women were all like unto thee. However, yesterday, I saw the Lady
Bedrulbudour, the Sultan's daughter, as she went to the bath;" and
he told her all that had happened to him, adding, "And most like thou
heardest the crier proclaiming that none should open his shop nor stand
in the road, so the Lady Bedrulbudour might pass to the bath; but I saw
her even as she is, for that, when she came to the door of the bath, she
lifted her veil, and when I noted her favour and viewed that noble form
of hers, there befell me, O my mother, a passion of yearning for love of
her and desire of her [324] usurped mine every part; nor can I ever more
have ease, except I get her, and I purpose, therefore, to demand her of
the Sultan her father in the way of law and righteousness."

When Alaeddin's mother heard her son's speech, she thought little of
his wit and said to him, "O my son, the name of God encompass thee!
Meseemeth thou hast lost thy wit; return to thy senses, [325] O my son,
and be not like the madmen!" "Nay, O my mother," replied he, "I have
not lost my wits nor am I mad; and this thy speech shall not change that
which is in my mind, nor is rest possible to me except I get the darling
of my heart, the lovely Lady Bedrulbudour. And my intent is to demand
her of her father the Sultan." So she said to him, "O my son, my life
upon thee, speak not thus, lest one hear thee and say of thee that thou
art mad. Put away from thee this extravagance: [326] who shall undertake
an affair like this and demand it of the Sultan? Meknoweth not how thou
wilt do to make this request of the Sultan, and if thou speak sooth,
[327] by whom wilt thou make it?" "O my mother," rejoined Alaeddin, "by
whom [should I make] a request like this, when thou art at hand, and
whom have I trustier [328] than thyself? Wherefore my intent is that
thou shalt make this request for me." "O my son," quoth she, "God
deliver me from this! What, have I lost my wits like thee? Put away this
thought from thy mind and bethink thee who thou art, O my son,--the son
of a tailor, the poorest and least of the tailors in this city, and I
also am thy mother and my folk are exceeding poor; so how wilt thou dare
to demand the Sultan's daughter, whom her father would not vouchsafe
to marry with kings' sons and Sultans, except they were his peers in
puissance and rank and noblesse; nay, were they one degree less than he,
he would not give them his daughter."

Alaeddin [329] waited till his mother had made an end of her speech and
said to her, "O my mother, all that thou thinkest I know; marry, I know
full well that I am the son of poor folk, nor may all this thy talk
anywise avail to move me from my purpose; but I beseech thee, an I be
thy very son and thou love me, do me this kindness; else wilt thou lose
me, for death hasteneth upon me, an I attain not my wish of the beloved
of my heart. In any case, O my mother, I am thy son." When his mother
heard his speech, she wept of her concern for him and said to him, "Yes,
O my son, I am thy mother and thou art my son and the darling of my
heart; [330] I have none other than thee and the extreme of my desire is
to rejoice in thee and marry thee. So, an thou wilt, I will seek thee a
bride of our own rank. But suppose [I do this], they [331] [will] ask at
once an thou have craft or land or trade or garden, so thou mayst live,
and what shall I answer them. And if I cannot answer poor folk like
ourselves, how, O my son, shall I dare to seek the King's daughter of
China, who hath none before him and none after him? Wherefore do thou
ponder this matter in thine understanding. And who seeketh her? The son
of a tailor. [332] Indeed, I know that, an I speak of this, it will but
be for the increase of our ill luck, for that this affair will bring us
in great danger with the Sultan and belike there will be death therein
for thee and for me. As for me, how can I adventure upon this danger and
this effrontery? Moreover, O my son, on what wise shall I demand thee
his daughter of the Sultan and how shall I avail to go in to him? Nay,
if they question me, what shall I answer them? Most like they will deem
me a madwoman. And suppose I gain admission to the presence, what shall
I take by way of offering to the Sultan's highness? It [333] is true, O
my son, that the Sultan is clement and rejecteth none that cometh to him
for protection or craveth a boon of him, for that he is bountiful and
beneficent unto all, great and small; [334] but he bestoweth his favours
upon those who are deserving thereof or who have done some feat of arms
before him or have wrought for the service or defence of the realm; and
thou, O my son, tell me, what hast thou done for [335] the Sultan or the
realm, that thou shouldst merit of him this boon? Again, this that thou
cravest is beyond thy condition; [336] so it cannot be that the king
will grant thee that which thou seekest. Moreover, whoso presenteth
himself before the Sultan and craveth favours of him, it behoveth him
take in his hand somewhat that sorteth with the royal dignity; and as
I said to thee, how canst thou presume to present thyself before the
Sultan and seek of him his daughter, without aught thou mayst proffer
him of that which sorteth with his rank?"

"O my mother," replied Alaeddin, "thou speakest justly and deemest that
which is true, [337] and it behoveth me consider all that whereof thou
mindest me; but, O my mother, the love of the Sultan's daughter, the
Lady Bedrulbudour, hath entered into the innermost of my heart; and
there can be no rest for me, except I obtain her. Moreover, thou mindest
me of somewhat I had forgotten, and that a thing which emboldeneth me to
seek of him his daughter by thee. Thou sayst, O my mother, that I have
no gift to present to the Sultan, according to the wont of the folk,
whilst in fact I have by me a gift and an offering, the like whereof
methinketh no king ever possessed, no, nor aught to match therewith; for
[338] thou must know, O my mother, that the fruits, which I brought in
the purses [339] from the treasure and which I deemed glass or crystal,
are very jewels, methinketh all the kings of the world may not compass
the least of them, and I, of my companying with the jewellers, know that
they are precious stones. Wherefore, an thou please, have the goodness
to rise and bring me such a China dish which we have by us, [340] that
I may fill it with these jewels, and thou shalt take it as a present to
the Sultan. By this means I am assured that the thing will be easy to
thee, and do thou stand before the Sultan and seek of him my desire;
but, O my mother, an thou refuse to further me with thine endeavour for
the attainment of my wish of the Lady Bedrulbudour, know that I am a
dead man. Be not concerned for the gift, for these be exceeding precious
jewels, and know, O my mother, that I have gone many a time to the
market of the jewellers and have seen them sell jewels, that had not an
hundredth part [341] of the beauty of these of ours, at exceeding high
prices such as man's wit cannot conceive. When, therefore, I saw this,
I said [in myself], 'Verily, the jewels that are with us are exceeding
precious.' So now, O my mother, arise, as I bade thee, and fetch me the
China dish whereof I bespoke thee, that we may range of these jewels
therein and see how they show."

Accordingly, she arose and brought the China dish, saying in herself,
"Let us see if my son's speech be true concerning these jewels or not."
So she set the dish before Alaeddin and he brought out jewels of all
kinds from the purses and proceeded to range them in the dish till he
filled it. When it was full, his mother looked at the dish, but could
not gaze fixedly thereon, for the radiance of the jewels and their
lustre and the excess of their flashing; so she shut her eyes and her
wit was confounded at them; yet was she not certified that their value
was in very deed so great as her son had said, but bethought her that
his speech might be true in that their like was not found with kings.
Then Alaeddin turned to her and said, "See, O my mother, this is a
magnificent present for the Sultan and I am assured that thou wilt
get of him exceeding honour and that he will receive thee with all
consideration. And now, O my mother, there remaineth to thee no excuse;
so be good enough [342] to take this dish and go with it to the palace."

"O my son," replied she, "true it is that the present is exceedingly
costly and precious and as thou sayest, none hath the like thereof;
but who shall dare to come forward and seek of the Sultan his daughter
Bedrulbudour? Nay, I dare not adventure myself and say to him, 'I want
thy daughter,' whenas he asketh me, 'What wouldst thou?' Marry, O my
son,, my tongue will be tied. And grant that Allah make [the thing]
possible and I take courage and say to him, 'I desire to ally myself
to thee by [marrying] thy daughter the Lady Bedrulbudour with my son
Alaeddin,' they will straightway deem me mad and will put me out with
ignominy and reproach; nay, I need not tell thee that by this I shall
fall into danger of death, and not I only, but thou also. Withal, O my
son, of regard for thy wish, needs must I take courage and go; but, O my
son, if the King receive me and honour me for the gift's sake and I seek
of him that which thou wilt in [343] the matter of marrying his daughter
and he ask me, after the wont of the folk, what are thy possessions and
thy revenues, what shall I say to him? And most like, O my son, he will
ask me of this ere he ask me of thyself." And Alaeddin said to her,
"Nay, it cannot be that the Sultan will ask this, whenas he seeth the
jewels and their magnificence, and it booteth not to think of a thing
that will not happen. Do thou but rise and seek me his daughter of him
and proffer him these jewels and sit not magnifying the affair in thy
thought beforehand. Moreover, O my mother, thou knowest of the lamp
which is with me and which presently provideth for our livelihood; [344]
nay, all that I seek of it it will bring me, and I trust by its means I
shall know how to answer the Sultan, an he ask me of this."

They abode in talk of the matter all that night and when the morning
morrowed, Alaeddin's mother arose and fortified her heart, more by token
that her son expounded to her somewhat of the properties of the lamp and
its uses, in that it would bring them all they sought. But, when he saw
that she heartened herself for that which he set forth to her of its
virtues, he feared lest she should talk of this to the folk, so he said
to her, "O my mother, beware lest thou bespeak any of the lamp and its
uses, for that this is our fortune; be careful [345] and exceed not in
speech thereof to any one, lest we lose it and lose this our present
prosperity, for that it is from it." [346] "Have no fear for that, O my
son," answered she and rising, took the dish wherein were the jewels
and wrapping it in a fine handkerchief, went forth betimes, so she might
reach the Divan and enter, ere it became crowded. When she came to the
palace, the Divan was not yet assembled [347] and she saw the Vizier and
certain of the chiefs of the state entering the presence-chamber. After
a while, the Divan being complete with the Viziers and the chiefs of the
state and officers and Amirs and grandees, the Sultan appeared and the
Viziers and other the officials and notables ranged themselves before
him, whilst he sat down on the throne of his kingship and all who were
present in the Divan stood before him, with hands clasped behind them,
[348] awaiting his commandment to sit. So he bade them be seated and
they all sat down, each in his several room; then the petitioners [349]
presented themselves before the Sultan and each affair was decided in
its course, [350] till the Divan came to an end, when the King rose and
entered the palace and each went his way.

As [351] for Alaeddin's mother, having come before all, she found room
to enter, but withal none bespoke her, so he should bring her in before
the Sultan; wherefore she ceased not standing till the Divan broke up
and the Sultan rose and entered the palace and all went their ways. When
she saw the Sultan rise from his throne and enter the harem, she
took her way homeward and returning on her steps, entered her house.
Alaeddin, seeing her with the dish in her hand, knew that most like
some mischance had betided her, but cared not to question her till she
entered and setting down the dish, told him what had passed and finally
said to him, "God be praised, O my son, I mustered courage to find
myself a place in the Divan, albeit I could not win to speak with the
Sultan to day; but to-morrow, an it please God the Most High, I will
bespeak him. To-day there were many other folk, like myself, unable
to get speech of the Sultan; but be easy, O my son; to-morrow I will
without fail bespeak him on thy behalf, and what happened not shall
happen." When Alaeddin heard his mother's words, he rejoiced with an
exceeding joy, albeit, of the excess of his love and longing for the
Lady Bedrulbudour, he had looked for the matter to be accomplished then
and there; nevertheless, he used patience.

They slept that night and on the morrow Alaeddin's mother arose and went
with the dish to the Sultan's Divan, but found it closed; so she asked
the folk and they said to her, "The Sultan holdeth a Divan but thrice
a week;" wherefore she was compelled [352] to return home. Then she
proceeded to go every day, and whenas she found the Divan open, she
would stand before the door, [353] till it broke up, when she would
return home; and whiles she went and found the Divan closed. [354] On
this wise she abode a week's space [355] and the Sultan saw her at
each Divan; so, when she went on the last day [of the week] and stood,
according to her wont, before the Divan, till it was ended, but could
not muster courage to enter [356] or say aught, the Sultan arose and
entering the harem, turned to his chief Vizier, who was with him, and
said to him, "O Vizier, these six or seven days [357] past I have seen
yonder old woman come hither at every Divan and I note that she still
carrieth somewhat under her veil. [358] Hast thou any knowledge of her,
O Vizier, and knowest thou what is her want?" "O our lord the Sultan,"
replied the Vizier, "verily women are little of wit; and most like this
woman cometh to complain to thee of her husband or one of her folk,"
The Sultan was not content with the Vizier's reply, but bade him, an
she came again to the Divan, bring her before him forthright; [359]
whereupon the Vizier laid his hand on his head and answered, "Hearkening
and obedience, O our lord the Sultan."

Meanwhile, [360] Alaeddin's mother, albeit she was grown exceeding weary
and dejected, yet made light of all weariness, for her son's sake, and
continued, as of her wont, to go every court-day and stand in the Divan
before the Sultan. [361] Accordingly, one day of the days, she went to
the Divan, as of her wont, and stood before the Sultan; and when he saw
her, he called his Vizier and said to him, "Yonder is the woman of whom
I bespoke thee yesterday; bring her now before me, so I may see what
her suit is and accomplish unto her her occasion." So the Vizier arose
forthright and let bring Alaeddin's mother in before the Sultan. When
she came into the latter's presence, she made her obeisance to him and
did him reverence, wishing him glory and continuance and eternity of
prosperity and kissing the ground before him. Then said he to her, "O
woman, I see thee come every day to the Divan and thou speakest not of
aught. Tell me an thou have a want, that I may accomplish it unto thee;"
whereupon she kissed the earth a second time and called down blessings
upon him, then answered, "Ay, O King of the Age, as thy head liveth,
I have indeed a want; but before all things do thou give me thine
assurance, [362] so I may make bold to prefer my suit to the hearing of
our lord the Sultan, for that belike Thy Grace will find it a strange

The Sultan, that he might learn what her suit was and for that he was of
his nature exceeding clement, gave her his assurance and bidding all
who were with him go out forthright, abode alone [with her], he and the
Grand Vizier. Then he turned to her and said, "Tell me thy suit, and the
assurance [363] of God the Most High be upon thee." Quoth she, "O King
of the Age, I wish thy pardon also." And he said to her, "God pardon
thee!" [364] Then said she to him, "O our lord the Sultan, I have a
son, whose name is Alaeddin, and one day of the days he heard the
crier proclaim that none should open his shop nor show himself in the
thoroughfares of the city, [365] for that the Lady Bedrulbudour, the
daughter of our lord the Sultan, was going to the bath. When my son
heard this, he wished to see her; so he hid himself in a place,
whence he might see her well, and this was behind the door of the bath.
Accordingly, when she came up, he saw her and viewed her well, beyond
his wish; and from that time till now, O King of the Age, life hath
not been pleasant to him [366] and he will e'en have me seek her of Thy
Grace, [367] so thou mayst marry her with him, and I cannot do away this
conceit from his wit, for that the love of her hath gotten possession of
his vitals, so that he saith to me, 'Know, O mother mine, that, except
I attain my desire, assuredly I am a dead man.' Wherefore I crave Thy
Grace's clemency and hope that thou wilt pardon me and my son this
effrontery neither be wroth with us therefor."

When the King heard her story, he fell a-laughing, of his clemency,
[368] and asked her, "What is that thou hast with thee and what is that
bundle?" [369] Whereupon she, seeing that he was not angered at her
words, but laughed, opened the handkerchief forthright and proffered him
the dish of jewels. When the Sultan saw the jewels (and indeed, whenas
she raised the handkerchief from them, the Divan became as it were
all illumined with lamp-clusters and candlesticks), he was amazed and
confounded at their radiance and fell a-marvelling at their lustre and
bigness and beauty; and [370] he said, "Never saw I the like of these
jewels for beauty and bigness and perfection, nor methinketh is one of
them found in my treasuries." Then he turned to his Vizier and said to
him, "How sayst thou, O Vizier? Sawest thou ever in thy life the like of
these magnificent jewels?" "Never, O our lord the Sultan," replied the
Vizier, "nor, methinketh, is the least of those which be here found in
the treasuries of our lord the King." Quoth the Sultan, "Doth not he
who giveth me these jewels deserve to be bridegroom to my daughter
Bedrulbudour? Marry, by what I see, meseemeth none is worthier of her
than he."

When the Vizier heard the Sultan's words, his tongue was tied for
despite and he was overcome with exceeding chagrin, forasmuch as the
King had promised him that he would marry his daughter to his son;
so, after a little, he said to him, "O King of the age, Thy Grace
condescended to promise me [371] that the Lady Bedrulbudour should be my
son's; wherefore it behoveth thine exalted highness appoint a delay of
three months, [372] and God willing, my son's present shall be greater
than this." The King, for all he knew that this was a thing whereto the
Vizier might not avail, no, nor the greatest King, [373] nevertheless
exercised his clemency [374] and granted him the delay he sought; then,
turning to the old woman, he said to her, "Go to thy son and tell him
I give him [my] word that my daughter shall be in his name; [375] but
needs must I take order for her equipment; [376] wherefore it behoveth
him grant us a delay of three months."

Alaeddin's mother took the answer and thanked the Sultan and prayed for
him, then went forth and fared homeward in haste, flying of her joy,
till she came to the house and entered. Her son saw her laughing-faced
and foreboded good news; more by token that she returned forthright
and tarried not, as on each day past, neither brought back the dish.
Accordingly he asked her and said to her, "God willing, O my mother,
thou bringest me good news; the jewels and their value have wrought
their work and thou wilt have found acceptance with the Sultan; yea, he
will have shown thee favour and given ear unto thy suit." So she told
him all that had passed and how the Sultan had received her and had
marvelled, both he and his Vizier, at the size and beauty of the jewels,
and how he had promised her that [quoth she] "his daughter shall be in
thy name. But, O my son, ere he promised me, the Vizier whispered [377]
him somewhat, whereupon he appointed me for three months hence; and I
am fearful lest the Vizier be a man of evil disposition, [378] who will
change the King's mind."

When [379] Alaeddin heard his mother's words and how the Sultan had
appointed her for [380] three months [thence], his heart was lightened
and he rejoiced with an exceeding joy and said, "Since the Sultan hath
promised for [381] three months [hence], true, it [382] is long, but in
any case my joy is great." Then he thanked her for her kindness and the
pains she had taken [383] and said to her, "By Allah, O my mother, it
is as I were in a tomb and now thou hast raised me up therefrom; and
I praise God the Most High, for I am presently certified that there is
none richer or happier than I in the world." Then he waited till two
of the three months were past, when his mother went out one day of the
days, at sundown, to buy oil, and saw the markets closed and the city
all decorated and the folk setting candles and flowers in their windows
and saw troops, horse and foot, and mounted eunuchs drawn up in state,
with cressets and lustres burning. At this wonder took her; [384]he went
to an oilman's shop there open and buying oil of him, said to him, "[I
conjure thee] by thy life, O uncle, tell me what is toward to-day in
this city, that the folk are making this decoration and the markets
[are shut] and the houses all adorned and the troops drawn up in state?"
Quoth he, "O woman, methinketh thou art a stranger and art not of this
city." "Nay," answered she, "but I am of this city;" and he said to her,
"Thou art of this city and knowest not that this is the night of
the going in of the Grand Vizier's son to the Lady Bedrulbudour, the
Sultan's daughter? Nay, he is presently in the bath and yonder Amirs
and troops are drawn up awaiting him, against he come forth, so they may
carry him in procession to the palace of the Sultan's daughter."

When Alaeddin's mother heard this, she was troubled and perplexed in
her wit how she should do to acquaint her son with this woeful news, for
that the poor wretch was counting the hours till the three months should
be ended. So she returned home forthright and going in to Alaeddin, said
to him, "O my son, I have news to tell thee, but it irketh me for thy
chagrin therefrom." Quoth he, "Speak; what is the news?" And she said to
him, "The Sultan hath gone from his promise to thee in the matter of his
daughter, the Lady Bedrulbudour, for that this very night the Vizier's
son goeth in to her; and indeed methought at the time, [385] O my son,
the Vizier would change the Sultan's mind, even as I told thee that he
bespoke him privily before me." "How knewest thou this," asked Alaeddin,
"that the Vizier's son goeth in this night to the Lady Bedrulbudour?" So
she told him all she had seen of the decorations in the city, whenas she
went to buy the oil, and how the eunuchs and chiefs of the state were
drawn up awaiting the Vizier's son, against he should come forth of the
bath, for that this was the night of his going in. When Alaeddin heard
this, he fell into a fever of chagrin; [386] but presently he bethought
him of the lamp and rejoiced and said to his mother, "By thy life, O my
mother, methinketh the Vizier's son shall not rejoice in her, as
thou deemest. But now leave us be with this talk and go lay us the
evening-meal, so we may sup; then, when I shall have passed a while in
my chamber, all shall yet be well."

Accordingly, [387] after he had supped, he went into his chamber and
locking the door on himself, fetched the lamp and rubbed it; whereupon
the genie at once appeared to him and said, "Seek what thou wilt, for I
am thy slave and the slave of whoso hath in his hand the lamp, I and all
the slaves of the lamp." And Alaeddin said to him, "Harkye, I sought of
the Sultan to marry his daughter, and he appointed me for [388] three
months' time; however, he abode not by his promise, but gave her to the
Vizier's son, and the latter purposeth to go in [to her] this night.
Wherefore I do presently command thee, as thou art a loyal servant of
the lamp, that this night, whenas thou seest the bride and bridegroom
abed together, thou take them up in their bed [and bring them] hither.
This is what I seek of thee." "Hearkening and obedience," answered the
genie, "and if thou have a service [to require of me] other than this,
command me whatsoever thou seekest." And Alaeddin said to him, "I have
no present requirement save that whereof I have bespoken thee." So the
slave disappeared and Alaeddin returned to finish his supper [389] with
his mother.

When he deemed it time for the genie's coming, he arose and entered his
chamber; and after a little, the Marid appeared with the bridal pair in
their bed; whereat Alaeddin rejoiced with exceeding great joy and said
to the slave, "Bear this gallowsbird hence and couch him in the house of
easance." [390] The genie accordingly took up the bridegroom and couched
him in the draught-house; moreover, ere he left him, he blew on him a
blast wherewith he dried him up, and the Vizier's son abode in woeful
case. Then he returned to Alaeddin and said to him, "An thou need
otherwhat, tell me." And Alaeddin said to him, "Return in the morning,
so thou mayst take them [back] to their place." "Hearkening and
obedience," answered the genie and was gone; whereupon Alaeddin
arose,--and indeed he had scarce believed that the thing should succeed
with him,--and when he saw the Lady Bedrulbudour in his house, he
entreated her with respect, albeit he had long burned for love of her,
and said to her, "O princess of the fair, think not that I have brought
thee hither to soil shine honour. God forbid! Nay, it was that I might
not let others [391] enjoy thee, for that thy father the Sultan gave me
his word upon thee; so be thou in peace and assurance." As [392] for
the princess, when she found herself in that mean dark; house and heard
Alaeddin's words, fear and trembling get hold upon her and she was
confounded and could return him no answer. Then he arose and putting off
his clothes, placed a sword between himself and her and lay down by her
side in the bed, without treason; [393] it sufficed him to prevent [the
consummation of] her marriage with the Vizier's son. Nevertheless, the
Lady Bedrulbudour passed the sorriest of nights, never in her life had
she known a worse; whilst the Vizier's son lay in the draught-house and
dared not stir for fear of the genie.

When it was morning, the genie presented himself before Alaeddin,
without his rubbing the lamp, and said to him, "O my lord, an thou
wish aught, command me withal, so I may do it on my head and eyes." And
Alaeddin bade him go carry the bride and bridegroom to their own place.
The genie did his bidding in the twinkling of an eye and laying the
Vizier's son with the Lady Bedrulbudour, took them up and set them down
in their place in the palace, without their seeing any one; but they
were like to die of fright, when they felt themselves carried from
place to place. Hardly had the genie set them down and gone out when the
Sultan came to visit his daughter; and when the Vizier's son heard the
door open, he straightway sprang out of bed, knowing that none might
enter but the Sultan, and donned his clothes, [394] albeit this irked
him sore, for that he would fain have warmed himself a little, having
had no time [to do so] since he left the draught-house. The [395] Sultan
came in to his daughter and kissing her between the eyes, gave her
good-morrow and asked her of her bridegroom and if she was content with
him; but she returned him no answer and looked at him with a dejected
air. [396] He bespoke her several times, but she was silent and answered
him not a word; so he went out from her and going in to the Queen, told
her what had passed between himself and the Lady Bedrulbudour.

The Queen, so she might not leave the Sultan angry with the Lady
Bedrulbudour, said to him, "O King of the Age, this is the wont of
most brides, on their wedding-day, to be shamefast and show somewhat of
coyness. So be not vexed with her and after a day or two she will return
to herself and proceed to speak with the folk; but now, O King of the
Age, shame hindereth her from speaking. However, I purpose to go to her
and see her." Accordingly she arose and donning her clothes, repaired
to her daughter's apartment. Then, going up to her, she gave her
good-morrow and kissed her between the eyes; but the Lady Bedrulbudour
returned her no manner of answer and the Queen said in herself, "Needs
must some strange thing have befallen her, to trouble her thus." So
she asked her, saying, "O my daughter, what is the cause of this thy
behaviour? Tell me what aileth thee, that I come to thee and give thee
good-morrow and thou returnest me no answer."

The Lady Bedrulbudour raised her head and said to her, "Blame me not,
O my mother; indeed, it behoved me receive thee with all reverence and
worship, since thou honourest me by coming to me; but I beseech thee
hear the cause of this my case and see how this night I have passed
hath been for me the sorriest of nights. Hardly had we lain down, O
my mother, when one, whose fashion I know not, took up the bed and
transported us to a place dark, foul [397] and mean." Then she told her
mother the queen all that had betided her that night and how they had
taken her bridegroom, leaving her alone, and how after a little there
came another youth and lay down in the place of her bridegroom, putting
a sword between himself and her; "and in the morning" [quoth she] "he
who had brought us thither returned and taking us up, carried us back to
our place here: and hardly had he brought us hither and left us when my
father the Sultan entered and I had neither heart nor tongue to answer
him for stress of fright and trembling which possessed me. And belike my
father is vexed with me; wherefore I prithee, O my mother, tell him
the cause of this my case, so he be not wroth with me for my failure to
answer him neither blame me, but excuse me."

When [398] the queen heard the princess's story, she said to her, "O my
daughter, beware of [399] telling this tale before any, lest they [400]
say, 'Verily the Sultan's daughter hath lost her wits.' Marry, thou
diddest well in that thou acquaintedst not thy father with this;
and beware, yea [again I say,] beware, O my daughter, of telling him
thereof." "O my mother," rejoined the Lady Bedrulbudour, "indeed, I
bespoke thee in sober earnest and have not lost my wits; nay, this
is what happened to me, and an thou believe it not from me, ask my
bridegroom." Quoth the queen, "Rise, O my daughter, and put away these
illusions from thy thought; nay, don thy clothes and see the rejoicing
that is toward in the town on thine account and the festivities that
they celebrate in the kingdom for thy sake and hear the drums and the
singing and look upon the decorations, all in honour of thy nuptials, O
my daughter." Accordingly, she summoned the tirewomen, who dressed the
Lady Bedrulbudour and busked her; whilst the Queen went in to the Sultan
and told him that there had that night betided the princess a dream
and illusions, saying, "BIame her not for her failure to answer thee."
Moreover, she sent for the Vizier's son privily and questioned him of
the affair, whether the Lady Bedrulbudour's speech was true or not; but
he, of his fear to lose his bride, lest she should go from his hand,
said to her, "O my lady, I know nothing of that which thou sayest;"
wherefore the queen was certified that there had betided her daughter
illusions and a dream.

The wedding rejoicings continued all that day, with dancing-women and
singing-women, and all the instruments of mirth and minstrelsy were
smitten, whilst the queen and the Vizier and his son were exceeding
assiduous in keeping up the festivities, so the Lady Bedrulbudour should
rejoice and her chagrin be dispelled; nay, they left nought that day
of that which exciteth unto liesse but they did it before her, so she
should leave what was in her mind and be cheered. But all this had no
effect on her and she was silent and thoughtful and confounded at that
which had befallen her that night. True, the Vizier's son had fared
worse than she, for that he was couched in the draught-house; but he
belied [401] the matter and put away that tribulation from his thought,
of his fear lest he should lose his bride and his rank, [402] more by
token that all the folk envied him his lot, for the much increase of
honour it brought him, as also for the exceeding beauty and loveliness
of the Lady Bedrulbudour.

As for Alaeddin, he went out that day and saw the rejoicings toward in
the city and the palace and fell a-laughing, especially when he heard
the folk speak of the honour which had betided the Vizier's son and
the greatness of his good luck, in that he was become the Sultan's
son-in-law, and the exceeding pomp used in his marriage and bridal
festivities; and he said in himself, "Ye know not, good simple folk that
ye are, [403] what befell him last night, that ye envy him." Then, when
the night came in and it was the season of sleep, Alaeddin arose and
entering his chamber, rubbed the lamp, whereupon the genie appeared
to him forthright and [404] he bade him bring the princess and her
bridegroom, as on the past night, ere the Vizier's son should take her
maidenhead. The genie delayed not, but was absent a little while; and
when it was the appointed time, he returned with the bed and therein the
Lady Bedrulbudour and the Vizier's son. With the latter he did as he
had done the past night, to wit, he took him and couched him in the
draught-house, where he deft him parched for excess of fright and
dismay; whilst Alaeddin arose and placing the sword between himself and
the Lady Bedrulbudour, lay down and slept till the morning, when the
genie appeared and restored the twain to their place, leaving Alaeddin
full of joy at [the discomfiture of] the Vizier's son.

When the Sultan arose in the morning, he bethought himself to visit his
daughter Bedrulbudour and see an she should do with him as she had done
on the past day; so, as soon as he awoke from his sleep, he rose and
donning his clothes, went to his daughter's chamber and opened the door.
Whereupon the Vizier's son arose forthright and coming down from the
bed, fell to donning his clothes, with ribs cracking for cold; for
that, when the Sultan entered, it was no great while since the genie
had brought them back. The Sultan went up to his daughter, the Lady
Bedrulbudour, as she lay abed, and raising the curtain, gave her good
morning and kissed her between the eyes and asked her how she did. She
frowned and returned him no answer, but looked at him sullenly, as she
were in sorry case. He was wroth with her, for that she made him no
answer, and thought that something had betided her; so he drew the sword
and said to her, "What hath befallen thee? Either thou shalt tell me
what aileth thee or I will do away thy life this very moment. Is this
the respect that is due to my rank and the honour in which thou holdest
me, that I bespeak thee and thou answerest me not a word?"

When the Lady Bedrulbudour knew that her father was angry and saw the
naked sword in his hand, she was like to swoon for fear; [405] so she
raised her head and said to him, "Dear [406] my father, be not wroth
with me, neither be thou hasty in thine anger, for that I am excusable
in that which thou hast seen from me. [407] Do but hearken what hath
betided me and I am well assured that, whenas thou hearest my story of
that which hath happened to me these two nights past, thou wilt excuse
me and Thy Grace will be moved to compassion upon me, as I know from thy
love for me." [408] Then she acquainted him with all that had befallen
her and said to him, "O my father, an thou believe me not, ask my
bridegroom and he will resolve Thy Grace of everything, albeit I know
not what they did with him, when they took him from my side, nor where
they set him." When [409] the Sultan heard his daughter's story, he
was sore concerned and his eyes brimmed with tears; then, sheathing
the sword and coming up to her, he kissed her and said to her, "O my
daughter, why didst thou not tell me yesterday, so I might have warded
off from thee the torment and affright which have befallen thee this
night? But no matter; arise and put away from thee this thought, and
to-night I will set over thee those who shall guard thee, so there shall
not again befall thee that which befell yesternight." Then he returned
to his pavilion and sent at once for the Vizier, who came and stood
before him, awaiting his commands; and the Sultan said to him, "O
Vizier, how deemest thou of this affair? Most like thy son hath told
thee what happened to him and to my daughter." "O King of the Age,"
answered the Vizier, "I have not seen my son or yesterday or to-day."
Whereupon the Sultan acquainted him with all that his daughter the Lady
Bedrulbudour had told him and said to him, "It is now my will that thou
enquire of thy son the truth of the case, for it may be my daughter
knoweth not for fright what happened to her, though methinketh her tale
is all true." So the Vizier arose and sending for his son, asked him of
all that the Sultan had told him, if it were true or not. Whereupon,
"O my father the Vizier," replied the youth, "[God] preserve the Lady
Bedrulbudour from leasing! [410] Indeed, all she saith is true and these
two nights past have been for us the sorriest of nights, instead of
being nights of pleasance and delight. Marry, that which befell me was
yet worse, for that, instead of sleeping with my bride in bed, I lay
in the draught-house, a place dark and frightful, noisome of smell and
accursed, and my ribs were straitened [411] with cold." Brief, he told
the Vizier all that had befallen him and ultimately said to him; "Dear
[412] my father, I beseech thee speak with the Sultan that he release me
from this marriage. True, it is great honour for me to be the Sultan's
son-in-law, more by token that the love of the Lady Bedrulbudour hath
gotten possession of my vitals, but I cannot avail to endure one more
night like the two that are past."

When [413] the Vizier heard his son's words, he grieved and was
exceeding chagrined, for that he had thought to greaten his son and
advance him by making him the King's son-in-law; so he bethought himself
and was perplexed anent the matter and what was to do therein; [414] and
indeed it irked him sore that the marriage should be dissolved, for that
he had long besought [415] the Ten [416] that he might compass the like
of that affair; [417] so he said to his son, "Have patience, O my son,
so we may see [how it will be] to-night, and we will set over you guards
to guard you; but do not thou let slip this great honour, for that
it hath fallen to none other than thyself." Therewith he left him and
returning to the Sultan, told him that the Lady Bedrulbudour's story was
true; whereupon quoth the Sultan, "Since the case is thus, we need
no wedding-festivities." [418] And he bade forthright break off the
rejoicings and the marriage was dissolved. The folk and the people of
the city marvelled at this strange thing, especially when they saw the
Vizier and his son go forth the palace in a pitiable plight for stress
of chagrin and despite, and they fell to asking, "What hath happened
and why is the marriage avoided and the rejoicings broken off?" But none
knew what was to do save Alaeddin, the suitor, [419] who laughed in his
sleeve. So the marriage was annulled; but the Sultan had forgotten his
promise to Alaeddin's mother and never again bethought him thereof,
neither he nor the Vizier; nor knew they whence came that which had

Alaeddin waited till the three months had elapsed, after which the
Sultan had promised that he would marry him to his daughter, the Lady
Bedrulbudour, then despatched his mother to the Sultan to require him of
the performance of his promise. So she repaired to the palace and
when the Sultan came to the Divan and saw her standing before him, he
remembered his promise to her, that after three months he would marry
his daughter to her son, and turning to the Vizier, said to him, "O
Vizier, yonder is the woman who presented us with the jewels and we gave
her our word that after three months [we would marry our daughter to her
son]. Bring her before me forthright." So the Vizier went and brought
Alaeddin's mother before the Sultan; and when she came into the
presence, she made her obeisance to him and prayed God to vouchsafe him
glory and endurance of prosperity. The Sultan asked her if she had a
need, and she said to him, "O King of the Age, the three months are
ended, after which thou didst promise me thou wouldst marry my son
Alaeddin to thy daughter the Lady Bedrulbudour." The Sultan was
perplexed at this her claim, more by token that he saw her in poor case,
as she were the meanest of the folk; but the present which she had made
him was exceeding magnificent [and indeed] beyond price; [420] so he
turned to the Vizier and said to him, "How deemest thou? What shall we
do? [421] It is true I gave her my word, but meseemeth they are poor
folk and not of the chiefs of the people."

The [422] Vizier, who was like to die of envy and chagrin for that which
had befallen his son, said in himself, "How shall one like this marry
the Sultan's daughter and my son lose this honour?" So he said to the
Sultan, [423] "O my lord, it is an easy matter to rid ourselves of [424]
this vagabond, [425] for that it would not beseem Thy Grace to give thy
daughter to a man like this, of whom it is not known what he is." Quoth
the Sultan, "On what wise shall we rid ourselves of this man, seeing
I have given him my word and a King's word is his bond?" "O my lord,"
answered the Vizier, "my counsel is that thou require of him forty
dishes of pure virgin gold, full of jewels, such as she [426] brought
thee the other day, [427] and forty slave-girls to bear the dishes and
forty black slaves." "By Allah, O Vizier," rejoined the Sultan, "'thou
speakest rightly; for that this is a thing to which he may not avail
and so we shall be rid of him by [fair] means." [428] So he said to
Alaeddin's mother, "Go and tell thy son that I abide by the promise
which I made him, but an if he avail unto my daughter's dowry; to wit,
I require of him forty dishes of pure gold, which must all be full
of jewels [such as] thou broughtest me [erst], together with forty
slave-girls to carry them and forty male slaves to escort and attend
them. If, then; thy son avail unto this, I will marry him to my

Alaeddin's mother returned home, shaking her head and saying, "Whence
shall my poor son get these dishes of jewels? Supposing, for the jewels
and the dishes, that he return to the treasure and gather the whole from
the trees,--and withal methinketh not it is possible to him; but say
that he fetch them,--whence [shall he get] the slaves and slave-girls?"
And she gave not over talking to herself till she reached the house,
where Alaeddin awaited her, and when she came in to him, she said to
him, "O my son, said I not to thee, 'Think not to attain to the Lady
Bedrulbudour'? Indeed, this is a thing that is not possible unto folk
like ourselves." Quoth he, "Tell me what is the news." And she said to
him, "O my son, the Sultan received me with all courtesy, according to
his wont, and meseemeth he meant fairly by us, but [for] thine accursed
enemy the Vizier; for that, after I had bespoken the Sultan in thy name,
even as thou badest me, reminding him that the term for which he had
appointed us was past and saying to him, 'If Thy Grace would vouchsafe
to give commandment for the marriage of thy daughter the Lady
Bedrulbudour with my son Alaeddin,'--he turned to the Vizier and spoke
to him. The Vizier replied to him in a whisper and after that the Sultan
returned me an answer." Then she told him what the Sultan required of
him and added, "O my son, he would fain have present answer of thee; but
methinketh we have no answer to give him."

When [429] Alaeddin heard his mother's speech, he laughed and said, "O
my mother, thou sayest we have no answer to make him and deemest the
thing exceeding hard; but now be good enough to rise [430] and fetch us
somewhat to eat, and after we have dined, thou shalt (an it please the
Compassionate) see the answer. The Sultan like thyself, thinketh he hath
sought of me an extraordinary matter, so he may divert me from the Lady
Bedrulbudour; but the fact is that he seeketh a thing less than I had
looked for. But go now and buy us somewhat we may eat and leave me to
fetch thee the answer." Accordingly, she arose and went out to buy her
need from the market, so she might make ready the morning-meal; whilst
Alaeddin entered his chamber and taking the lamp, rubbed it. The genie
immediately appeared to him and said, "Seek what thou wilt, O my lord;"
whereupon quoth Alaeddin, "I seek the Sultan's daughter in marriage and
he requireth of me forty dishes of pure gold, each ten pounds in weight
and full of the jewels which be in the garden of the treasure, the
forty dishes to be borne by forty slave girls and each slave-girl to be
accompanied by a male slave; wherefore I will have thee bring me this,
all of it." "Hearkening and obedience, O my lord," replied the genie
and disappearing, was absent awhile, then returned with the forty
slave-girls, each attended by a male slave and bearing on her head a
dish of pure gold, full of precious jewels. So he brought them before
Alaeddin and said to him, "Here is that which thou soughtest. Tell me
an thou need thing or service other than this." Quoth Alaeddin, "I need
nothing [more]; if I need aught, I will summon thee and tell thee."

Accordingly, the genie vanished and after a little, Alaeddin's mother
returned and entering the house, saw the slaves and slave-girls; whereat
she marvelled and said, "All this is of the Lamp; God continue it unto
my son!" Then, before she put off her veil, Alaeddin said to her, "O my
mother, this is thy time, ere the Sultan enter his palace [and withdraw]
to his harem. Take him what he seeketh, and that forthright, so he may
know that I can avail unto that which he requireth, ay, and more, and
that he was deluded by the Vizier; albeit he thought to baffle me, he
and his Vizier." Then he arose and opening the house-door, let out the
damsels and the slaves, pair by pair, each damsel with a slave by her
side, so that they filled the street. His mother forewent them and the
people of the quarter, when they saw that rare and magnificent
sight, stood looking and marvelling and gazing upon the faces of the
slave-girls and their grace and goodliness [and their apparel], for that
they were clad in clothes all inwoven with gold and studded with jewels;
nay, the least one's clothes of them were worth thousands. Moreover they
looked at the dishes [431] and saw flashing therefrom a radiance that
outshone the light of the sun, albeit each dish was covered with a
piece of brocade, gold-inwrought and studded eke with precious jewels.
Alaeddin's [432] mother fared on and the damsels and slaves followed
after her, in all fair ordinance and disposition, whilst the folk stood
to gaze on the beauty of the slave-girls and extolled the perfection of
the Almighty Creator, till she reached the palace and entered it with

When the eunuchs and chamberlains and captains of the guard saw them,
wonder took them and they were breathless for amaze at this sight, the
like whereof they had never in their lives seen, and especially at the
slave girls, each one of whom would ravish the wit of an anchorite.
Withal, the chamberlains and captains of the Sultan's guards were all
of them sons of grandees and Amirs; and they marvelled yet more at the
damsels' costly raiment and the dishes which they bore on their heads
and on which they might not open their eyes, [433] for the excess of
their flashing and radiance. Then the guards [434] entered and told the
Sultan, who bade bring them before him forthright into the Divan.
So Alaeddin's mother entered with them and when they came before the
Sultan, they all did obeisance to him with the utmost courtliness and
gravity and invoked on him glory and prosperity; then, raising the
dishes from their heads, they set them down before him and stood with
their hands clasped behind them, after they had removed the covers.

The Sultan wondered with an exceeding wonderment and was confounded
at the beauty of the girls and their loveliness, which overpassed
description; his wit was bewildered, when he saw the golden dishes, full
of jewels that dazzled the sight, and he was amazed at this marvel, so
that he became as one dumb, unable to speak aught, of the excess of his
wonderment; nay, his wit was the more perplexed, forasmuch as this
had all been accomplished in an hour's time. Then he bade carry the
slave-girls and their burdens to the pavilion of the Lady Bedrulbudour;
so the damsels took up the dishes and entered; whereupon Alaeddin's
mother came forward and said to the Sultan, "O my lord, this is no great
matter for the Lady Bedrulbudour's exalted rank; nay, she deserveth
manifold this." So the Sultan turned to the Vizier and said to him, "How
sayst thou, O Vizier? He that can in so short a time avail unto riches
like these, is he not worthy to be the Sultan's son-in-law and to have
his daughter to bride?" Now the Vizier marvelled at the greatness of
these riches yet more than the Sultan, but envy was killing him and
waxed on him more and more, when he saw that the Sultan was content with
the bride-gift [435] and the dowry; withal he could not gainstand the
[manifest] truth and say to the Sultan, "He is not worthy;" so he cast
about to work upon him by practice, that he might hinder him from giving
his daughter the Lady Bedrulbudour to Alaeddin, and accordingly said to
him, [436] "O my lord, all the treasures of the world were not worth
a paring of thy daughter Bedrulbudour's nails; indeed, Thy Highness
overrateth this upon her." [437]

When [438] the Sultan heard the Vizier's words, he knew that this his
speech arose from the excess of his envy; so he turned to Alaeddin's
mother and said to her, "O woman, go to thy son and tell him that I
accept of him the marriage-gift and abide by my promise to him and that
my daughter is his bride and he my son-in-law; so bid him come hither,
that I may make acquaintance with him. There shall betide him from me
nought but all honour and consideration and this night shall be the
beginning of the bridal festivities. But, as I said to thee, let him
come hither to me without delay." So she returned home swiftlier than
the wind, [439] of her haste to bring her son the good news; and she
was like to fly for joy at the thought that her son was to become the
Sultan's son-in-law. As soon as she had taken her leave, the Sultan
bade break up the Divan and entering the Lady Bedrulbudour's pavilion,
commanded to bring the damsels and the dishes before his daughter and
himself, so she should see them. So they brought them and when the Lady
Bedrulbudour saw the jewels, she was amazed and said, "Methinketh there
is not one of these jewels found in the treasuries of the world." Then
she looked at the damsels and marvelled at their beauty and grace and
knew that this was all from her new bridegroom and that he had proffered
it to her service. So she rejoiced, albeit she had been sad and sorry
for her [whilom] bridegroom the Vizier's son,--she rejoiced, [I say],
with an exceeding joy, when she saw the jewels and the beauty of the
damsels, and was cheered; whilst her father rejoiced exceedingly in her
joy, in that he saw her put off chagrin and dejection. Then he said
to her, "O my daughter Bedrulbudour, doth this please thee? Indeed,
methinketh this thy bridegroom is goodlier [440] than the Vizier's son,
and God willing, O my daughter, thou shalt rejoice with him abundantly."

So much for the Sultan and as for Alaeddin, when his mother came to the
house and entered and he saw her laughing of the excess of her joy,
he foreboded good news and said, "To God Everlasting [442] be praise!
Accomplished is that which I sought." And she said to him, "Glad
tidings, O my son! Let thy heart rejoice and thine eye be solaced in the
attainment of thy desire, for that the Sultan accepteth thine offering,
to wit, the bride gift and the dowry of the Lady Bedrulbudour, and she
is thy bride and this, O my son, is the night of your [443] bridal and
thy going in to the Lady Bedrulbudour. Nay, the Sultan, that he might
certify me of his word, proclaimed thee his son-in-law before the folk
and declared that this should be the wedding-night; but he said to me,
'Let thy son come hither to me, so I may make acquaintance with him, and
I will receive him with all honour and worship.' And now, O my son, my
office [444] is ended, whatsoever remaineth is a matter for thee." [445]

Alaeddin kissed his mother's hand and thanked her amain for her
kindness; [446] then he arose and entering his chamber, took the lamp
and rubbed it; whereupon the genie presented himself and said to him,
"Here am I; seek what thou wilt." Quoth Alaeddin, "My will is that thou
take me to a bath, whose like is not in the world, and fetch me a suit
of royal raiment and exceeding costly, such as no king can boast."
"Hearkening and obedience," replied the Marid and taking him up, brought
him intro a bath, never saw King nor Kisra [447] its like, for it was
of alabaster and agate and full of marvellous limnings that ravished the
sight, and therein was a saloon all embossed with precious jewels. None
was there; but, when Alaeddin entered, there came in to him one of the
Jinn in human semblance and washed him and bathed him to the utmost of
the wish: after [448] which he went forth the bath to the outer saloon,
where he found his clothes taken away and in their stead a suit of the
richest royal apparel. Then sherbets were brought him and coffee with
ambergris and he drank and arose; whereupon there came to him a troop
of slaves and clad him in those [449] sumptuous clothes [450] and he
dressed and perfumed himself with essences and sweet-scented smoke.
[451] Now thou knowest [452] that Alaeddin was the son of a poor man,
a tailor: yet now none had thought it, [453] but had said, "This is the
chiefest of the sons of the kings," extolled be the perfection of Him
who changeth and is not changed!

Then the slave of the lamp came to him and taking him up, set him down
in his house and said to him, "O my lord, dost thou need aught?" "Yes,"
answered Alaeddin; "I will have thee bring me eight-and-forty mamelukes,
[454] four-and-twenty to walk before me and four-and-twenty to walk
behind me, with their horses and clothes and arms, and let all that is
upon them and their horses be of stuffs costly and precious exceedingly,
such as are not found in kings' treasuries. Then bring me a stallion
fit for the riding of the Chosroes and be his trappings all of gold,
embossed with noble jewels; and bring me eight-and-forty thousand
diners, in each mameluke's hand a thousand, for that I purpose presently
to visit the Sultan; wherefore delay thou not on me, since I cannot go
thither without all that whereof I have bespoken thee. Bring me also
twelve slave-girls, who must be unique in loveliness and clad in the
richest of raiment, so they may attend my mother to the Sultan's palace,
and let each slave-girl have with her a suit of apparel fit for the
wearing of kings' wives." [455]

"Hearkening and obedience," replied the genie and disappearing, brought
him in the twinkling of an eye all that he had commanded him withal,
whilst in his hand he held a stallion, whose like is not among the
horses of the Arabs of the Arabs, [456] with housings of the richest
stuffs brocaded with gold; whereupon Alaeddin called his mother
forthright and delivered her the twelve slave-girls and gave her the
[twelve] suits, [457] so she might dress herself [458] and go with them
to the Sultan's palace. Then he despatched one of the mamelukes thither,
to see an the Sultan were come forth of the harem or not; so he went and
returning, swiftlier than lightning, said to him, "O my lord, the Sultan
awaiteth thee." Accordingly he arose and mounting, [set forth], whilst
the mamelukes rode before him and after him, (extolled be the perfection
of the Lord who created them with [459] that which clothed them of
beauty and grace!), strewing gold upon the folk before their lord
Alaeddin, who overpassed them all of his grace and goodliness, and ask
thou not of kings' sons, [460] extolled be the perfection of the Giver,
the Eternal! Now all this was of the virtue of the wonderful lamp, [461]
which gifted whoso possessed it with goodliness and grace and wealth and

The folk marvelled at Alaeddin's bounty and at the excess of his
munificence and were amazed when they saw that which graced him of
beauty and goodliness and his courtliness and dignity; yea, they
extolled the perfection of the Compassionate One for this His noble
creature and all of them great and small [462] called down blessings
on him, albeit they knew him for the son of such an one the tailor; yet
none envied him, but all said, "He is deserving." So [463] he fared on
his way, with the mamelukes before him and behind him, scattering gold
upon the folk, till he came to the palace.

Now the Sultan had summoned to his presence the chiefs of his state
and telling them that he had passed his word for the marriage of his
daughter to Alaeddin, bade them await the latter, commanding them that,
when he came, they should all go out to meet him; moreover, he assembled
the amirs and viziers and chamberlains and guards and captains of the
troops and they were all awaiting Alaeddin at the door of the palace.
When he arrived, he would have dismounted at the door, but there came up
to him one of the Amirs, whom the Sultan had deputed to that office, and
said to him, "O my lord, the commandment is that thou enter, riding on
thy charger, so thou mayst alight at the door of the Divan." So they
all forewent him and he entered till they brought him to the door of the
Divan. There sundry of them came forward and held his stirrup, whilst
some supported him on both sides and other some took him by the hand,
and so they dismounted him. Then the Amirs and officers of state
forewent him and brought him into the Divan, till he drew near the
Sultan's throne; whereupon the latter came down forthright from his seat
and embracing him, hindered him from kissing the carpet and seated him
beside himself on his right hand. Alaeddin did that which behoveth and
befitteth unto kings of obeisance and invocation and said to him, "O our
lord the Sultan, thy Grace's munificence hath vouchsafed [464] to accord
me the Lady Bedrulbudour thy daughter, albeit I am unworthy of this
great favour, for that I am of the lowliest of thy slaves; wherefore I
beseech God that He keep and continue thee. Indeed, O King, my tongue
faileth to thank thee [as were behoving] for the greatness of this boon,
overpassing its competence, [465] wherewith thou hast favoured me, and
I beseech Thy Grace to vouchsafe me ground, such as is meet, so I may
build thereon a palace that shall be fit for the Lady Bedrulbudour."

The Sultan was amazed when he saw Alaeddin in this regal array and
beheld his grace and goodliness and the mamelukes standing in attendance
upon him in all their comeliness and fair favour; yea, and his
wonderment redoubled when Alaeddin's mother came up attired in rich and
costly raiment, as she were a queen, and he saw twelve slave-girls in
her service, preceding her, their hands clasped behind their backs, with
all worship and observance. Moreover, he noted Alaeddin's eloquence and
the elegance of his speech and was amazed thereat, he and all who were
present with him in the Divan, whilst fire was kindled in the Vizier's
heart for envy of Alaeddin, so that he was like to die. Then, after the
Sultan had heard Alaeddin's compliment and had seen the greatness of his
quality and his modesty and eloquence, he strained him to his bosom and
kissed him, saying, "It irketh me, O my son, that I have not known thee
[466] before to-day." So, [467] when he saw Alaeddin on this fashion, he
rejoiced in him with an exceeding joy and at once bade the music [468]
and the drums [469] strike up; then, rising, he took him by the hand and
carried him into the palace, where the evening-meal had been made ready
and the servants set the tables. There he sat down and seated Alaeddin
on his right hand; whereupon the viziers and chiefs of the state and
the grandees of the realm sat also, each in his several room, whilst the
drums beat and they held high festival in the palace. [470]

The Sultan proceeded to make familiar with Alaeddin and to talk with
him, and Alaeddin answered him with all courtliness and fluency, as he
had been bred in kings' palaces or as he were their constant associate;
[471] and the more the talk was prolonged between them, the more
gladness and joy redoubled on the Sultan for that which he heard of the
goodliness of Alaeddin's answers and the sweetness of his speech. Then,
when they had eaten and drunken and the tables were removed, the Sultan
bade fetch the Cadis and the witnesses; so they came and knotted the
knot and wrote the writ [of marriage] between Alaeddin and the Lady
Bedrulbudour. Therewith Alaeddin arose and would have taken leave; but
the Sultan laid hold on him and said to him, "Whither away, O my son?
The bride-feast is toward and the bride present; the knot is knotted
and the writ written." "O my lord the king," answered Alaeddin, "I
would fain build the Lady Bedrulbudour a palace, besorting her rank and
station, and it may not be that I should go in to her without this; but,
God willing, the building shall, by the diligent endeavour of thy slave
and by Thy Grace's auspice, [472] be right speedily despatched. Indeed,
I long for present enjoyment of the Lady Bedrulbudour; but it behoveth
me [first] apply myself to that which is incumbent on me for her
service." [473] Quoth the Sultan, "O my son, look thyself out the ground
which thou deemest apt to thine end and take it. All is in thy hand;
[474], but here before my palace is a spacious piece of ground, which
meseemeth were best; so, if it please thee, build thou the palace
thereon." And Alaeddin answered him, saying, "Indeed, it is my utmost
desire to be near Thy Grace."

Then he took leave of the Sultan and going forth, mounted and rode, with
his mamelukes before him and behind him, whilst the folk all prayed for
him and said, "By Allah, he is deserving!" till he came to his house and
alighting from his stallion, entered his chamber and rubbed the lamp;
whereupon the genie stood before him and said to him, "Seek what thou
wilt, O my lord" Quoth Alaeddin, "I desire of thee an important service,
to wit, that thou build me with all speed a palace before that of the
Sultan, which shall be marvellous in its building, never saw kings
its like, and be it complete with all its requisites of kingly and
magnificent furniture and so forth." "Hearkening and obedience," replied
the genie and [475] disappeared; but, before the dawn broke, he came
to Alaeddin and said to him, "O my lord, the palace is finished to the
utmost of the wish; wherefore, an thou wouldst see it, arise forthright
and look on it." So Alaeddin arose and the genie carried him, in the
twinkling of an eye, to the palace, which when he saw, he was amazed
at its building, for that all its stones were of jade and alabaster and
porphyry and mosaic. The genie carried him into a treasury full of all
manner of gold and silver and precious jewels past count or reckoning,
price or estimation; then he brought him into another place, where he
saw all the requisites of the table, platters and spoons and ewers and
basins and cups, of gold and silver, and thence to the kitchen, where
he found cooks, [476] with their cooking-gear and utensils, all on like
wise of gold and silver. Moreover, he brought him into a place, which he
found full of coffers overflowing with royal raiment, such as ravished
the wit, gold-inwoven stuffs, Indian and Chinese, and brocades, and
he showed him also many other places, all full of that which beggareth
description, till at last he brought him into a stable, wherein
were horses whose like is not found with the kings of the world; and
therewithin he showed him a storehouse, full of housings and saddles of
price, all broidered with pearls and precious stones and so forth.

Alaeddin was amazed and bewildered at the greatness of these riches,
whereunto the mightiest king in the world might not avail, and all the
work of one night; more by token that the palace was full of slaves and
slave girls such as would bewitch a saint with their loveliness. But the
most marvellous of all was that he saw in the palace an upper hall [477]
and [478] a belvedere [479] with four-and-twenty oriels, all wroughten
of emeralds and rubies and other jewels, and of one of these oriels
the lattice-work was by his desire left unfinished, [480] so the Sultan
should fail of its completion. When he had viewed the palace, all of it,
he rejoiced and was exceeding glad; then he turned to the genie and said
to him, "I desire of thee one thing which is lacking and whereof I had
forgotten to bespeak thee." Quoth the slave, "Seek what thou wilt, O my
lord;" and Alaeddin said to him, "I will have thee bring me a carpet
Of fine brocade, all inwoven with gold, and spread it from my palace to
that of the Sultan, so the Lady Bedrulbudour, whenas she cometh hither,
may walk thereon and not upon the earth." So the genie was absent
a little and returning, said to him, "O my lord, that which thou
soughtest of me is here." Therewithal he took him and showed him the
carpet, which ravished the wit, and it was spread from the Sultan's
palace to that of Alaeddin; then taking him up, he set him down in his
own house.

It [481] was now grown high day; so the Sultan arose from sleep and
opening a window of his pavilion, looked forth and saw buildings [482]
before his palace; whereupon he fell to rubbing his eyes and opening
them wide and looking farther, saw a magnificent palace, that bewildered
the wits, and a carpet spread therefrom to his own palace; as on like
wise did the doorkeepers and all who were in the palace, and their wits
were bewildered at the sight. At this juncture the Vizier presented
himself and as he entered, he espied the new palace and the carpet and
marvelled also; so, when he came in to the Sultan, the twain fell to
talking of this strange matter and marvelling, for that they saw a thing
which amazed the beholder and dilated the heart; and they said, "Verily,
methinketh kings may not avail unto the building of the like of this
palace." Then the Sultan turned to the Vizier and said to him, "How now?
Deemest thou Alaeddin worthy to be bridegroom to my daughter the Lady
Bedrulbudour? Hast thou seen and considered this royal building and all
these riches which man's wit cannot comprehend?" The Vizier, of his
envy of Alaeddin, answered him, saying, "O King of the Age, indeed this
palace and its building and all these riches may not be but by means of
enchantment, for that no man among men, no, not the mightiest of them in
dominion or the greatest in wealth, might avail to upraise and stablish
[the like of] this building in one night." Quoth the Sultan, "I marvel
at thee how thou still deemest evil of Alaeddin; but methinketh it
ariseth from thine envy of him, for that thou wast present when he
sought of me a place whereon to build a palace for my daughter and I
accorded him, before thee, [leave to build] a palace on this ground;
and he who brought me, to my daughter's dower, jewels such that no
kings possess one thereof, shall he lack ableness to build a palace like
this?" When [483] the Vizier heard the Sultan's speech and understood
that he loved Alaeddin greatly, his envy of him increased; withal he
availed not to do aught against him, so he was dumb and could make the
Sultan no answer.

Meanwhile Alaeddin--seeing that it was high day and that the time was
come when he should go to the palace, for that his wedding-festivities
were toward and the Amirs and Viziers and chiefs of the state were
all with the Sultan, so they might be present at the bridal--arose and
rubbed the lamp; whereupon the genie presented himself and said to
him, "O my lord, seek what thou wilt, for that I am before thee, at thy
service." Quoth Alaeddin, "I purpose presently to go to the Sultan's
palace, and to-day is the wedding; wherefore I have occasion for ten
thousand diners, which I will have thee bring me." The slave was absent
the twinkling of an eye and returned to him with the money; whereupon
Alaeddin arose and taking horse, with his mamelukes behind him and
before him, rode to the palace, scattering gold upon the folk, as
he passed, so that they were fulfilled with the love of him and the
greatness of his munificence. [484] When he came to the palace and the
Amirs and eunuchs and soldiers, who were standing awaiting him, saw him,
they hastened forthright to the Sultan and told him; whereupon he arose
and coming to meet him, embraced him and kissed him; then he took him by
the hand and carried him into the palace where he sat down and seated
him on his right hand.

Now the city was all adorned and the instruments [of music] were smiting
in the palace and the singing-women singing. Then the Sultan trade serve
the morning-meal; so the slaves and mamelukes hastened to spread the
table and it was such as kings might take example by. [485] The Sultan
sat with Alaeddin and the officers of state and the chiefs of the realm
and they ate and drank till they were satisfied; and great was the
rejoicing in the palace and the city. Glad were all the chiefs of the
state and the folk rejoiced in all the realm, whilst there came from far
regions the notables of the provinces and the governors of the cities,
so they might see Alaeddin's wedding and his bride-feast. The Sultan
still marvelled in himself at Alaeddin's mother, how she had come to him
in poor clothes, whilst her son had command of this exceeding wealth;
and as for the folk, who came to the Sultan's palace, to gaze upon the
wedding-festivities, when they saw Alaeddin's palace and the goodliness
of its building, there took them great wonderment how so magnificent a
building had been upreared in one night and they fell all to praying for
Alaeddin and saying, "God prosper him! By Allah, he is deserving. God's
blessing on his days!"

Meanwhile [486] Alaeddin, having made an end of the morning-meal, arose
and taking leave of the Sultan, mounted with his mamelukes and rode to
his palace, so he might prepare for the reception of his bride, the
Lady Bedrulbudour. As he passed, all the folk cried out to him with
one voice, saying, "God gladden thee! God increase thee in glory! God
continue thee!" And so they brought him home in great procession, what
while he showered gold on them. When he came to his palace, he alighted
and entering, sat down in the Divan, whilst the mamelukes stood before
him with clasped hands. After a little they brought him sherbets and he
gave commandment to his mamelukes and slave-girls and eunuchs and all
who were in his palace that they should make ready to receive the Lady
Bedrulbudour, his bride. Then, when it was the time of the midafternoon
prayer [487] and the air grew cool and the heat of the sun abated, [488]
the Sultan bade the troops and the Amirs and the Viziers go down to
the horse-course. So they all repaired thither and with them the Sultan
himself; whereupon Alaeddin also arose and mounting with his mamelukes,
went down into the plain and showed his horsemanship; then he fell
to playing [489] in the tilting-ground and there was none could stand
before him. Now he was riding a stallion whose like is not among
the horses of the Arabs of the Arabs [490] and his bride the Lady
Bedrulbudour was looking upon him from the window of her pavilion, and
when she saw his grace and goodliness and knightly prowess, she was
overcome with his love and was like to fly for joy in him. Then, after
they had played [some] bouts [491] in the plain and each had shown what
was in him of horsemanship, (but Alaeddin overpassed them all,) the
Sultan went to his palace and Alaeddin on like wise returned home.

When it was eventide, the chiefs of the state and the Viziers went
and taking Alaeddin, carried him in procession to the Royal Bath, the
Renowned; [492] so he entered and bathed and perfumed himself, then,
coming forth, he donned a suit yet richer than the first and mounted,
whilst the troops rode before him and the Amirs and Viziers. So they
fared on with him in great state, with four of the Viziers for his
sword-bearers, whilst all the troops and people of the city, both
townsfolk and strangers, walked in procession before him, carrying
flambeaux and drums and flutes and instruments of mirth and music, till
they brought him to his palace, when he alighted and entering, sat down,
as did also the Viziers and Amirs who were in his company, whilst the
mamelukes brought sherbets and sweetmeats [493] and gave all who were
with him in the procession to drink, albeit they were a multitude of
folk whose number might not be told. Moreover, he gave commandment unto
his mamelukes, and they went out to the door of the palace and fell to
showering gold upon the folk.

Meanwhile, [494] when the Sultan returned from the horse-course and
entered his palace, he bade forthright carry his daughter the Lady
Bedrulbudour in procession to the palace of her bridegroom Alaeddin. So
the troops forthright mounted with the officers of state, who had been
in Alaeddin's procession, and the slave-girls and eunuchs went out
with flambeaux and carried the Lady Bedrulhudour in great state to her
bridegroom's palace, Alaeddin's mother by her side and before her the
women of the Viziers and Amirs and grandees and notables. Moreover, she
had with her eight and-forty slave-girls, whom Alaeddin had presented to
her, in each one's hand a great candle of camphor and ambergris, set in
a candlestick of gold, studded with jewels; and all the men and women in
the palace went out with her and fared on before her, till they brought
her to her bridegroom's palace and carrying her up to her pavilion,
[495] attired her in various robes [496] and displayed her. Then, after
they had made an end of displaying her, they carried her to the pavilion
of her groom Alaeddin and he went in to her. Now his mother was with the
Lady Bedrulbudour, and when he came up and did off her veil, she fell to
gazing upon the bride's beauty and grace and looked at the pavilion, the
which was all wroughten [497] of gold and jewels and therein were golden
lustres, all embossed with emeralds and rubies; and she said in herself,
"Methought the Sultan's palace was magnificent; but, for this pavilion
[498] alone, I doubt me the greatest of the Chosroes and the kings never
owned its match; nor, methinketh, might all mankind avail to make
the like thereof." And the Lady Bedrulbudour also fell to looking and
marvelling at the palace [499] and its magnificence. Then the table was
laid and they ate and drank and made merry; and presently there appeared
before them fourscore slave-girls, each with an instrument in her hand
of the instruments of mirth and music. So they plied their finger-tips
and touching their strings, struck up with plaintive airs, till
they clove in sunder the hearts of the listeners, whilst the Lady
Bedrulbudour redoubled in wonderment and said in herself, "Never in my
life heard I the like of these songs;" so that she forgot to eat and
fell to listening. As for Alaeddin, he proceeded to pour to her the wine
and give her to drink with his own hand, and mirth and good cheer and
delight went round among them and it was a rare night, such as Iskender
of the Horns [500] never in his time spent. Then, after they had made an
end of eating and drinking, the tables were removed from before them and
Alaeddin arose and went in to his bride.

When it was the morning, Alaeddin arose and his treasurer brought him
a costly suit of the richest of kings' raiment; so he donned it and
sat down; whereupon coffee was brought him with ambergris and he drank
thereof and called for the horses. Accordingly, they were saddled and he
mounted and rode, with his mamelukes behind him and before him, to the
Sultan's palace. When he reached it and entered, the eunuchs went in and
acquainted the Sultan with his presence; which [501] when he heard, he
arose forthwith and coming to meet Alaeddin, embraced him and kissing
him, as he were his son, seated him on his right hand. Moreover the
Viziers and Amirs and officers of state and grandees of the realm
invoked blessings on him and the Sultan gave him joy [502] and prayed
God prosper him. Then he bade lay breakfast; [503] so they laid [it] and
they all broke their fast; and after they had eaten and drunken their
sufficiency and had finished and the servants had removed the tables
from before them, Alaeddin turned to the Sultan and said to him, "O my
lord, [belike] Thy Grace will vouchsafe to honour me this day at the
morning-meal [503] with the Lady Bedrulbudour, thy precious daughter,
and be Thy Grace's company all thy viziers and the chief officers of
thy state." Quoth the Sultan, (and indeed he rejoiced in him), "Gladly,
[504] O my son," and bidding the Viziers and officers of state and
grandees attend him, arose forthright and mounted; whereupon Alaeddin
and the others mounted also and they all rode till they came to
Alaeddin's palace.

When the Sultan entered the palace and viewed its building and ordinance
and saw its stones, which were of jade and agate, he was amazed
[505] and his wit was bewildered at that affluence and wealth and
magnificence; so he turned to the Vizier and said to him, "How sayst
thou, O Vizier? Hast thou in all thy days seen aught like this? Are
there found with the greatest of the kings of the world riches and gold
and jewels such as these we see in this palace?" "O my lord the King,"
answered the Vizier, "this is a thing beyond the competence of a king of
the sons of Adam, nor might all the people of the earth together avail
to build a palace like this; nay, there are no craftsmen living able
to do work like this, except it be, as I said to Thy Grace, by might of
magic." [506] The Sultan knew that the Vizier, in seeking to convince him that
this was not by might of men, but all of it enchantment, still spoke not
but of his envy of Alaeddin; so he said to him, "Enough, O Vizier; let
us have no more of thy talk. I know the cause which maketh thee speak on
this wise."

Then Alaeddin forewent the Sultan till he brought him to the high
pavilion [507] and he looked at the belvedere [508] and its oriols
[509] and lattices, [510] all wroughten of emeralds and rubies and other
precious stones, and was amazed and astonied; his wit was bewildered and
he abode perplexed in his thought. Then he fell to going round about
the pavilion and viewing these things that ravished the sight, till
presently he espied the casement [511] which Alaeddin had purposely left
wanting and unfinished. When the Sultan examined it and saw that it was
unfinished, he said, "Woe is me for thee, O casement, that thou art not
perfect!" Then, turning to the Vizier, he said to him, "Knowest thou the
reason of the lack of completion of this casement and its lattices?" "O
[512] my lord," answered the Vizier, "methinketh it is because Thy Grace
hastened upon Alaeddin with the wedding and he had no time to complete
it." Now Alaeddin had meanwhile gone in to his bride, the Lady
Bedrulbudour, to acquaint her with the coming of her father the Sultan;
and when he returned, the Sultan said to him, "O my son Alaeddin, what
is the reason that the lattice[-work] of yonder oriel [513] is not
completed?" "O King of the Age," replied Alaeddin, "by reason of the
haste made with the bridal, the craftsmen might not avail to [514]
finish it." Quoth the Sultan to him, "It is my wish to finish it
myself." And Alaeddin answered, saying, "God prolong thy glory, O King;
so shall there remain unto thee a remembrance [515] in thy daughter's

Accordingly the Sultan bade straightway fetch jewellers and goldsmiths
and commanded to give them from the treasury all that they needed of
gold and jewels and [precious] metals; so they came and he bade them do
that which was wanting of the lattice-work of the [unfinished] oriel.
[516] Meanwhile, the Lady Bedrulbudour came out to receive her father
the Sultan, and when she came up to him and he saw her smiling-faced he
embraced her and kissed her and taking her [by the hand], went in with
her to her pavilion. So they entered all, for that it was the appointed
time of the morning-meal and they had set one table for the Sultan and
the Lady Bedrulbudour and Alaeddin and another for the Vizier and
the officers of state and grandees of the realm and captains and
chamberlains and deputies. The Sultan sat between his daughter, the Lady
Bedrulbudour, and his son-in-law Alaeddin, and when he put his hand to
the food and tasted it, wonder took him at the richness of the meats and
the exquisiteness of their seasonings. [517] Now there stood before them
fourscore damsels, each as it were she said to the full moon, "Rise,
so I may sit in thy place;" and in each one's hand was an instrument
of mirth and music. So they tuned their instruments and touched their
strings and struck up with plaintive [518] airs that dilated the
mourning heart. [519] The Sultan was cheered and the time was pleasant
to him and he rejoiced and said, "Verily, Kings and Kaisers would fail
of [520] this thing."

Then they fell to eating and drinking and the cup went round among them
till they had taken their sufficiency, when there came sweetmeats [521]
and various kinds of fruits and so forth; and these were laid in another
saloon. So they removed thither and took their fill of those dainties;
after which the Sultan arose, that he might see if the work of the
jewellers and goldsmiths likened that of the palace. So he went up to
them and viewed their work and how they wrought and saw that they were
far from availing to do work like that [of the rest] of Alaeddin's
palace. [522] Moreover [523] they told him that all they found in his
treasury they had brought and it sufficed not; whereupon he bade open
the Great Treasury and give them what they needed and that, if it
sufficed not, they should take that which Alaeddin had given him. So
they took all the jewels assigned them by the Sultan and wrought with
them, but found that these also sufficed them not, nor might they
complete withal the half of that which lacked of the lattice work of the
oriel; [524] whereupon the Sultan bade take all the jewels which should
be found with the Viziers and chiefs of the state; and accordingly they
took them all and wrought therewith; but this also sufficed not.

When it was morning, Alaeddin went up to view the jewelers' work and saw
that they had not completed half the lacking lattice-work; whereupon
he bade them incontinent undo all that they had wrought and restore the
jewels to their owners. Accordingly, they undid it all and sent to the
Sultan that which was his and to the Viziers [and others] that which
was theirs. Then they went to the Sultan and told him that Alaeddin had
commanded them of this; whereupon he asked them, "What said he to you
and why would he not have the lattice-work finished and why undid he
that which you had done?" And they said to him, "O my lord, we know
nothing, save that he bade us undo all that we had done." Whereupon the
Sultan immediately called for the horses and arising, mounted and rode
to Alaeddin's palace.

Meanwhile Alaeddin, after dismissing the goldsmiths and the jewellers,
entered his closet and rubbed the lamp; whereupon the genie forthwith
appeared and said to him, "Seek what thou wilt; thy slave is before
thee." And Alaeddin said to him, "It is my will that thou complete the
lacking lattice-work of the oriel." [525] "On my head and eyes [be it],"
replied the slave and disappearing, returned after a little and said to
him, "O my lord, that whereof thou commandedst me I have performed." So
Alaeddin went up to the belvedere [526] and found all its lattices [527]
perfect; and whilst he was viewing them, behold the [chief] eunuch [528]
came in to him and said to him, "O my lord, the Sultan cometh to visit
thee and is at the palace-door." So he came down forthright and went to
meet the Sultan, who [529] said to him, when he saw him, "Wherefore, O
my son, hast thou done thus, and why sufferedst thou not the jewellers
complete the lattice-work of the oriel, [530] so there might not remain
a place in thy palace [531] defective?" "O King of the Age," answered
Alaeddin, "I left it not imperfect but of my free will, nor did I lack
of ableness to complete it. However, I could not brook that Thy Grace
should honour me [with thy presence] in a palace [532] wherein there was
somewhat lacking; wherefore, so thou mayst know that it was not for lack
of ableness that I left it uncomplete, [533] let Thy Grace go up and see
the lattice-work of the kiosk, [534] an there be aught lacking thereto."

The Sultan accordingly went up to the pavilion [535] and entering the
kiosk, [536] viewed it right and left and saw no manner defect in its
lattices, but found them all perfect; whereat he was astounded and
embracing Alaeddin, fell a-kissing him and saying, "O my son, what is
this extraordinary thing? In one night thou dost a work wherefrom the
jewellers would fail in months! By Allah, methinketh thou hast not thy
fellow [537] in the world!" Quoth Alaeddin, "God prolong thy life and
perpetuate thy continuance! Thy slave is not worthy of this praise." "By
Allah, O my son," rejoined the Sultan, "thou deservest all praise, in
that thou hast done a thing wherefrom [all the] craftsmen of the
world would fail." Then he went down and entering the pavilion of his
daughter, the Lady Bedrulbudour, found her rejoicing exceedingly over
this great magnificence wherein she was; and after he had rested with
her awhile, he returned to his palace.

Now Alaeddin used every day to mount and ride through the town, with
his mamelukes behind him and before him, strewing gold upon the people,
right and left, and the folk, stranger and neighbour, near and far, were
fulfilled with the love of him for the excess of his munificence and his
bounty. Moreover he exceeded in benefaction of the poor and the indigent
[538] and used himself to distribute his alms to them with his own hand.
After this fashion he won himself great renown in all the realm and the
most of the chiefs of the state and the Amirs used to eat at his table
and swore not but by his precious life. Moreover, he fell to going
everywhile [539] to the chase and the horse course and to practicing
horsemanship and archery [540] before the Sultan, whilst the Lady
Bedrulbudour redoubled in love of him, whenassoever she saw him
disporting himself a horseback, and thought in herself that God had
wrought exceeding graciously by her in that there had befallen her
what befell with the Vizier's son, so He might keep her for her true
bridegroom Alaeddin. So [541] he went daily waxing in goodliness of
repute and in praise and the love of him redoubled in the hearts of the
common folk and he was magnified in men's eyes.

Now in those days certain of the Sultan's enemies took horse against
him; so he levied troops to repel them and made Alaeddin chief thereof.
Alaeddin set out with his host and fared on till he drew near the enemy,
whose troops were exceeding many; where upon he drew his sword and fell
upon them and there befell battle and slaughter and sore was the stress
of the mellay; but Alaeddin broke them and routed them and slew the most
part of them. Moreover, he plundered their goods and possessions and gat
him spoil beyond count or reckoning, wherewith he returned in triumph,
[having gained] a great victory, and entered the city, which had adorned
itself for him of its joy in him. The Sultan came out to meet him
and give him joy and embraced him and kissed him, and there was high
festival holden in the kingdom and great rejoicing. Then the Sultan and
Alaeddin betook themselves to the latter's palace; [542] whereupon his
bride, the Lady Bedrulbudour, came out to meet him, rejoicing in
him, and kissed him between the eyes, and he went in with her to her
pavilion; [543] whither after a little came the Sultan and they sat down
and the slave-girls brought sherbets. [544] So they drank and the Sultan
commanded that all the realm should be decorated for Alaeddin's victory
over the enemy; whilst it became [a saying] with the commons and the
troops and the folk, all of them, "Allah in heaven and Alaeddin on
earth." and they loved him yet more, having regard not only to the
excess of his bounty and munificence, but to his knightly prowess, in
that he had done battle for the kingdom and had routed the enemy.

So much for Alaeddin, and now to return to the Mangrabin enchanter. When
he returned to his country, he abode all this time, bewailing that which
he had endured of toil and stress, so he might compass the lamp, yet had
his travail all been wasted and the morsel had escaped from his hand,
after it had reached his mouth; and he still thought upon all this,
bemoaning himself and reviling Alaeddin of the excess of his anger
against him; and whiles he said in himself, "Since yonder whoreson is
dead under the earth, I am content withal and I have hopes of the lamp,
that I may yet achieve it, inasmuch as it is still safeguarded." Then,
one day of the days, he smote the sand and extracting the figures, set
them down after the most approved fashion [545] and adjusted [546] them,
so he might see and certify himself of the death of Alaeddin and the
safe keeping of the lamp under the earth; and he looked well into [547]
the figures, both mothers and daughters, [548] but saw not the lamp,
whereupon rage overrode him and he smote the sand a second time, that
he might certify himself of Alaeddin's death, but saw him not in the
treasure; whereat he redoubled in wrath, and yet more when it was
certified to him that the lad was alive upon the surface of the earth
and he knew that he had come forth from under the ground and had gotten
the lamp, on account whereof he himself had suffered toil and torment
such as passeth man's power to endure. So he said in himself, "I have
suffered many hardships for the sake of the lamp and have endured
fatigues such as none but I might brook, [549] and now yonder accursed
one taketh it without stress and it is evident [550] [that], an he have
learned the use thereof, there will be none in the world richer than

Then, [551] when he saw and was certified that Alaeddin had come forth
from under the earth and had happened upon the good of the Lamp, [552]
he said in himself, "Needs must I go about to kill him." So he smote the
sand once more and examining its figures, saw that Alaeddin had gotten
him exceeding wealth and had married the Sultan's daughter; whereat he
was all afire for rage and envy and arising then and there, equipped
himself for travel and set out for the land of China. When he came to
the city of the sultanate, [553] wherein was Alaeddin, he entered and
alighting at one of the khans, heard the folk talking of nought but the
magnificence of Alaeddin's palace; then, after he was rested from his
journey, he changed [554] his clothes and went down to go round about
in the thoroughfares of the city. He passed no folk but they were
descanting upon the palace and its magnificence and talking of
Alaeddin's grace and comeliness and his bounty and munificence and the
goodliness of his manners and disposition; so [555] he went up to one
of those who were extolling Alaeddin on this wise and said to him,
"Prithee, fair youth, who is this whom you describe and praise?" "O man,"
replied the other, "meseemeth thou art a stranger and comest from afar;
but, granting thou art from a far country, hast thou not heard of the
Amir Alaeddin, whose repute, methought, filled the earth, and of his
palace, a wonder of the world, whereof both far and near have heard? How
is it thou hast heard nought of this nor of the name of Alaeddin, whom
Our Lord increase in glory and prosper?" Quoth the Maugrabin, "Marry, it
is the utmost of my wish to look upon the palace; so, an thou wouldst do
me a kindness, direct me thither, for that I am a stranger." "Hearkening
and obedience," replied the other and going before him, guided him to
Alaeddin's palace.

The Maugrabin fell to examining it and knew that this all of it was the
work of the Lamp; so he said, "Alack! Alack! Needs must I dig a pit for
this accursed one, this tailor's son, who could not come by a night's
supper; but, an destiny enable me, I will send his mother back to spin
at her wheel, like as she did erst, and as for him, it shall cost him
[556] his life." Then he returned to the khan in a woeful state of
chagrin and colour and despite, for envy of Alaeddin, and [557] taking
his geomantic instruments, [558] smote his [tablet of] sand, so he might
learn where the lamp was, and found that it was in the palace and not
with Alaeddin; [559] whereat he rejoiced with an exceeding joy and said,
"Now it will be an easy matter for me to bereave this accursed of his
life and I have a way to come at the lamp." Accordingly he went to a
coppersmith and said to him, "Make me so many [560] lamps [561] and
take of me their worth in full; [562] but I will have thee despatch them
quickly." "Hearkening and obedience," replied the smith and falling to
work on them, speedily despatched them for him. When they were finished,
the Maugrabin paid him their price, even that which he sought, and
taking the lamps, carried them to the khan, where he laid them in a
basket and fell to going round about in the markets and thoroughfares
of the city and crying out, "Ho! who will barter an old lamp for a new
lamp?" When the folk heard him crying this, they laughed at him and
said, "Certes, this man is mad, since he goeth about, bartering new
lamps for old." Moreover, people [563] followed him and the street-boys
caught him up from place to place [564] and laughed at him. However, he
fended not himself neither took heed of this, but ceased not to go round
about the city till he came under Alaeddin's palace, where he fell
to crying his loudest, whilst the children called after him, "Madman!

Now as fate willed it, the Lady Bedrulbudour was in the kiosk and
hearing one crying out and the boys calling after him and understanding
not what was toward, bade one of the slave-girls "Go see what is this
man who crieth out and what he crieth." So the girl went and looking,
saw one crying out, "Ho, who will barter an old lamp for a new lamp?"
with the boys after him, laughing at him; so she returned and told her
mistress, saying, "O my lady, this man crieth, 'Ho! who will barter an
old lamp for a new lamp?' and the boys are following him and laughing
at him;" and the Lady Bedrulbudour laughed also at this marvel. Now
Alaeddin had forgotten the lamp in his pavilion, [565] without locking
it up in his treasury [as was his wont], and one of the girls had seen
it; so she said to the princess, "O my lady, methinketh I have seen an
old lamp in my lord Alaeddin's pavilion; let us barter it with this
man for a new one, so we may see an his speech be true or leasing." And
[566] the princess said to her, "fetch the lamp whereof thou speakest."
Now the Lady Bedrulbudour had no knowledge of the lamp and its
properties, neither knew she that this it was which had brought Alaeddin
her husband to that great estate, and it was the utmost of her desire to
prove and see the wit of this man who bartered new for old, nor was
any one aware of the Maugrabin enchanter's craft and trickery. So the
slave-girl went up into Alaeddin's pavilion and returned with the lamp
to the Lady Bedrulbudour, who bade the Aga of the eunuchs [567] go down
and exchange it for a new one; so he took it and going down, gave it to
the Maugrabin and took of him a new lamp, with which he returned to the
princess, who examined it and finding it new and real, fell to laughing
at the Maugrabin's [lack of] wit. Meanwhile, when the enchanter had
gotten the lamp and knew it for that of the Treasure, he thrust it
forthwith into his sleeve [568] and leaving the rest of the lamps to
the folk who were in act to barter of him, set off running, till he came
without the city, and walked about the waste places, awaiting the coming
of the night. Then, when he saw himself alone in the open country, he
brought out the lamp from his sleeve and rubbed it; whereupon the Marid
immediately appeared to him and said, "Here am I; thy slave [is] before
thee. Seek of me what thou wilt." Quoth the Maugrabin, "My will is that
thou take up Alaeddin's palace from its place, with its inhabitants and
all that [569] is therein and myself also, and set it down in my country
of Africa. [570] Thou knowest my town and I will have this palace be
thereby among the gardens." "Hearkening and obedience," replied the
Marid. "Shut [thine] eye and open [thine] eye, and thou wilt find
thyself in thine own country with the palace." And immediately this
befell in the twinkling of an eye and the Maugrabin was transported,
with Alaeddin's palace and all that was therein, to the land of Africa.

So much for the enchanter, and now let us return to the Sultan and
Alaeddin. The Sultan, of his love and affection for his daughter the
Lady Bedrulbudour, was wont, every day, when he awoke from his sleep,
to open the window and look at her therefrom; so he arose on the morrow,
according to his wont, and opened his chamber-window, so he might
see his daughter; but [571] when he put out his head and looked for
Alaeddin's palace, he beheld nothing but a place swept [and level],
like as it was aforetime, and saw neither palace nor inhabitants; [572]
whereat amazement clad him and his wit was bewildered and he fell
to rubbing his eyes, so haply they were bleared or dimmed. Then he
proceeded to look closely till at last he was certified that there was
neither trace nor sign left of the palace and knew not what was come of
it; whereupon he redoubled in perplexity and smote hand upon hand
and his tears ran down upon his beard, for that he knew not what had
befallen his daughter. So he sent forthright to fetch the Vizier,
who came in to him and seeing him in that woeful state, said to him,
"Pardon, O King of the Age (God keep thee from harm!) why art thou
woeful?" Quoth the Sultan, "Meseemeth thou knowest not of my affair."
And the Vizier said to him, "By Allah, O my lord, I have no knowledge
of aught whatsoever." "Then," rejoined the Sultan, "thou hast not looked
towards Alaeddin's palace." "Nay, O my lord," replied the Vizier, "it
is yet shut." And the Sultan said to him, "Since thou hast no news of
aught, rise and look at it from the window and see where it is, this
palace of Alaeddin's, whereof thou sayest that it is yet shut." The
Vizier arose and looked from the window towards Alaeddin's palace,
but could see nothing, neither palace nor aught else; so his wit was
bewildered and he was amazed and returned to the Sultan, who said to
him, "Now knowest thou the cause of my distress and seest Alaeddin his
palace, whereof thou saddest that it was shut." "O King of the Age,"
rejoined the Vizier, "I told Thy Grace aforetime that this palace and
these affairs were all of them [the work of] enchantment."

At this the Sultan was fired with wrath and said to him, "Where is
Alaeddin?" And he answered, "He is at the chase." Whereupon the Sultan
bade sundry of his eunuchs and officers go straightway fetch him bound
and shackled. So they went till they came to Alaeddin and said to him,
"O our lord Alaeddin, blame us not, for that the Sultan hath bidden
us carry thee to him, bound and shackled; wherefore we beseech thee
of excusement, for that we are under a royal commandment and may not
gainsay it." When Alaeddin heard their speech, wonderment took him and
his tongue was tied, for that he knew not the cause; then he turned to
the eunuchs and officers and said, "Prithee, sirs, [573] have you no
knowledge of the cause of this commandment of the Sultan? I know myself
guiltless, forasmuch as I have done no sin against the Sultan nor
against his realm." And they said to him, "O our lord, we have no manner
of knowledge thereof." So Alaeddin lighted down from his stallion and
said to them, "Do with me that which the Sultan biddeth you, for that
his commandment is upon the head and eyes." Accordingly [574] the
officers shackled him and pinioning him, haled him along in irons and
entered the city with him.

The folk, seeing Alaeddin pinioned and shackled with iron, knew that
the Sultan was minded to cut off his head, and forasmuch as he was
extraordinarily beloved of them, they all gathered together and taking
up arms, came forth their houses and followed the troops, so they might
see what was to do. When the officers came with Alaeddin to the palace,
they entered and told the Sultan, who immediately bade the headsman go
and cut off his head. But the commons, hearing of this his commandment,
shut the gates of the palace and sent to say to the Sultan, "This very
moment we will overthrow the palace upon thee and all who are therein,
an the least harm happen to Alaeddin." So the Vizier went and told the
Sultan and said to him, "O King of the Age, all will be over with us
forthright; [575] wherefore thou wert best pardon Alaeddin, lest some
calamity befall us, for that the commons love him more than us." Now the
headsman had spread the carpet of blood and seating Alaeddin thereon,
had bound his eyes and gone round him three times, [576] awaiting the
King's final commandment. The Sultan looked at his subjects and seeing
them swarming upon him and climbing up to the palace, that they might
overthrow it, commanded the headsman to hold his hand from Alaeddin and
bade the crier go forth among the people and proclaim that he pardoned
Alaeddin and took him [again] into favour.

When Alaeddin found himself released and saw the Sultan sitting, he went
up to him and said to him, "O my lord, since Thy Grace hath bountifully
vouchsafed me my life, [577] favour me [yet farther] and tell me the
manner of my offence." "O traitor," replied the Sultan, "till [but] now
I knew not thine offence;" then, turning to the Vizier, he said to
him, "Take him, that he may see from the windows where his palace is."
Accordingly the Vizier took him and Alaeddin looked from the windows in
the direction of his palace and finding the place swept and clear, like
as it was before he built the palace thereon, neither seeing any
trace of the latter, he was amazed and bewildered, unknowing what had
happened. When he returned, the King said to him, "What hast thou seen?
Where is thy palace and where is my daughter, my heart's darling and
mine only one, than whom I have none other?" And Alaeddin answered him,
saying, "O King of the Age, I have no knowledge thereof, neither know I
what hath befallen." And the Sultan said to him, "Know, O Alaeddin, that
I have pardoned thee, so thou mayst go and look into this affair and
make me search for my daughter; and do not thou present thyself but with
her; nay, an thou bring her not back to me, as my head liveth, I will
cut off thine." "Hearkening and obedience, O King of the Age," replied
Alaeddin. "Grant me but forty days' grace, and an I bring her not after
that time, cut off my head and do what thou wilt." Quoth [578] the
Sultan to him, "I grant thee, according to thy request, the space of
forty days; but think not to flee from my hand, for that I will fetch
thee back, though thou wert above the clouds, not to say upon the face
of the earth." "O my lord the Sultan," rejoined Alaeddin, "as I said
to Thy Grace, an I bring her not to thee in this space of time, I will
present myself before thee, that thou mayst cut off my head."

Now the commons and the folk, one and all, when they saw Alaeddin,
rejoiced in him with an exceeding joy and were glad for his deliverance;
but the ignominy which had befallen him and shame and the exultation of
the envious had bowed down his head; so he went forth and fell to going
round about the city, perplexed anent his case and unknowing how all
this had happened. He abode in the city two days in the woefullest
of case, knowing not how he should do to find his palace and the Lady
Bedrulbudour, his bride, what while certain of the folk used to come to
him privily with meat and drink. Then he went forth, wandering in the
deserts and knowing not whitherward he should aim, and ceased not going
till he came to a river; whereupon, his hope being cut off for stress of
chagrin that possessed him, he thought to cast himself into the stream;
but, for that he was a pious Muslim, professing the unity of God, he
feared God in himself and stood on the bank; of the stream to perform
the ablution. [579] So he took of the water in his hands and proceeded
to rub between his fingers; and in doing this, his rubbing chanced upon
the ring, whereupon a Marid appeared to him and said to him, "Here am I;
thy slave is before thee. Seek what thou wilt."

When Alaeddin saw the Marid, he rejoiced with an exceeding joy and said
to him, "O slave, I will have thee bring me my palace, with my bride,
the Lady Bedrulbudour, and all that is therein." "O my lord," replied
the Marid, "it irketh me sore that what thou seekest of me is a thing
unto which I cannot avail, for that it pertaineth unto the slaves of
the Lamp and I may not adventure upon it." "Then," said Alaeddin,
"since this is not possible unto thee, take me and set me down beside
my palace, in what land soever it is." "Hearkening and obedience, O
my lord," replied the Marid and taking him up, set him down, in the
twinkling of an eye, beside his palace in the land of Africa and before
his wife's pavilion. By this time, the night was come; so he looked
at his palace and his cares and sorrows were dispelled from him and he
trusted in God, after he had forsworn hope, that he should see his bride
once again. Then he fell to thinking upon the hidden mercies of God
(glorified be His might!) and how He had vouchsafed [580] him the ring
and how his hope had been cut off, except God had provided him with the
slave of the Ring. So he rejoiced and all chagrin ceased from him; then,
for that he had been four days without sleeping, of the stress of his
chagrin and his trouble and his grief and the excess of his melancholy,
he went to the side of the palace and lay down under a tree; for that,
as I have said, the palace was among the gardens of Africa without the
city. [581] He [582] lay that night under the tree in all ease; but
he whose head is in the headsman's hand sleepeth not anights. [583]
However, fatigue and lack of sleep for four days past caused slumber
get the mastery over him; [584] so he slept till break of morn, when he
awoke at the chirp [585] of the sparrows. He arose and going to a stream
there which flowed into the city, washed his hands and face; then,
making the ablution, he prayed the morning-prayer and after returned and
sat under the windows of the Lady Bedrulbudour's pavilion.

Now the princess, of the excess of her grief for her separation from her
husband and the Sultan her father and of her sore distress at that which
had betided her with the accursed Maugrabin enchanter, used every day to
arise, at the first peep of dawn, [586] and sit weeping; nay, she slept
not anights and forswore meat and drink. Her handmaid used to go in to
her at the time of the Salutation, [587] so she might dress her, and
that morning, by the decree of destiny, the damsel opened the window at
that time, thinking to solace her mistress with the sight of the trees
and streams. So she looked out and seeing her lord Alaeddin sitting
under the windows of the pavilion, said to the princess, "O my lady, my
lady, here is my lord Alaeddin sitting under the pavilion!" Whereupon
the Lady Bedrulbudour arose in haste and looking from the window, saw
Alaeddin, and he raised his head and saw her; so she saluted him and he
her and they were both like to fly for joy. Then said she to him, "Arise
and come in to me by the privy door, for that the accursed one [588] is
not now here;" and she bade her handmaid go down and open the door.
So the damsel went down and opened to Alaeddin, who arose and entered
thereby. His wife, [589] the Lady Bedrulbudour, met him at the door and
they embraced and kissed each other with all joyance, till they fell
a-weeping of the excess of their gladness.

Then they sat down and Alaeddin said to her, "O Lady Bedrulbudour, there
is somewhat whereof I would ask thee, before all things. I used to lay
an old copper lamp in such a place in my pavilion..." When the princess
heard this, she sighed and answered him, saying, "O my beloved, it was
that which was the cause of our falling into this calamity." [590] Quoth
he, "How came this about?" So she acquainted him with the whole matter
from first to last, telling him how they had bartered the old lamp for
a new one; "and next morning," added she, "we found ourselves in this
country and he who had cozened me and changed the lamp told me that he
had wroughten these tricks upon us of the might of his magic, by means
of the lamp and that he is a Maugrabin from Africa [591] and that we are
now in his native land." When [592] she had made an end of her story,
Alaeddin said to her, "Tell me, what does this accursed one purpose with
thee; what saith he to thee and of what doth he bespeak thee and what is
his will of thee?" "Every day," answered the princess, "he cometh to me
once and no more and seeketh to draw me to his love, willing me take
him in thy stead and forget and renounce thee; nay, he told me that my
father the Sultan had cut off thy head. Moreover, he useth to say to me
of thee that thou art the son of poor folk and that he was the cause of
thine enrichment and seeketh to cajole me with talk, but never hath he
seen of me aught but tears and weeping or heard from me one soft
word." [593] Quoth Alaeddin, "Tell me where he layeth the lamp, an thou
knowest." And she said, "He still carrieth it [about him] nor will part
with it a moment; nay, when he acquainted me with that whereof I have
told thee, he brought out the lamp from his sleeve and showed it to me"

When Alaeddin heard this, he rejoiced with an exceeding joy and said to
her, "Harkye, Lady Bedrulbudour; it is my present intent to go out and
return in disguise. [594] Marvel thou not at this and let one of thy
slave-girls abide await at the privy door, to open to me forthright,
when she seeth me coming; and I will cast about for a device whereby I
may slay this accursed one." Then he rose and going forth the [privy]
door of his palace, walked on till he encountered a peasant by the way
and said to him, "Harkye, sirrah, take my clothes and give me thine."
The man demurred, but Alaeddin enforced him and taking his clothes from
him, donned them and gave him his own costly apparel. Then he fared on
in the high road till he came to the city and entering, betook himself
to the drug-market, where for two diners he bought of [one of] the
druggists two drachms of rare strong henbane, the son of its minute,
[595] and retracing his steps, returned to the palace. When the damsel
saw him, she opened him the privy door and he went in to the Lady
Bedrulbudour [596] and said to her, "Harkye, I will have thee dress and
tire thyself and put away melancholy from thee; and when the accursed
Maugrabin cometh to thee, do thou receive him with 'Welcome and fair
welcome' and go to meet him with a smiling face and bid him come sup
with thee and profess to him that thou hast forgotten thy beloved
Alaeddin and thy father and that thou lovest him with an exceeding love.
Moreover, do thou seek of him wine, and that red, [597] and make him a
show of all joy and gladness and drink to his health. [598] Then, when
thou hast filled him two or three cups of wine, [599] [watch] till thou
take him off his guard; then put him this powder [600] in the cup and
fill it up with wine, and an he drink it, he will straightway turn
over on his back, like a dead man." When the Lady Bedrulbudour heard
Alaeddin's words, she said! to him, "This is a thing exceeding hard on
me to do; but it is lawful to slay this accursed, so we may be delivered
from his uncleanness who hath made me rue thy separation and that of my
father." Then Alaeddin ate and drank with his wife that which stayed
his hunger and rising at once, went forth the palace; whereupon the Lady
Bedrulbudour summoned her tirewoman, who busked her and adorned her, and
she rose and donned fine clothes and perfumed herself. Whilst she was
thus engaged, the accursed Maugrabin presented himself and was exceeding
rejoiced to see her on this wise, more by token that she received
him with a smiling face, contrary to her wont; so he redoubled in
distraction for her love and longing for her. Then she took him and
seating him by her side, said to him, "O my beloved, an thou wilt, come
hither to me this night and we will sup together. Enough of mourning;
for that, an I sat grieving a thousand years, what were the profit?
Alaeddin cannot return from the tomb and I have considered and believe
[601] that which thou saidst to me yesterday, to wit, that most like
my father the Sultan hath slain him, in the excess of his grief for my
loss. Nay, marvel not at me to-day, that I am changed since yesterday,
for that I have bethought me to take thee to beloved and companion
in Alaeddin's stead, seeing there is left me no man other than thou.
Wherefore it is my hope that thou wilt come to-night, so we may sup
together and drink somewhat of wine with each other, and I will have
thee let me taste of the wine of thy country Africa, for that belike it
is better [than ours]. Wine, indeed, I have by me; but it is that of our
country, and I desire exceedingly to taste the wine of your country."

When [602] the Maugrabin saw the love which the Lady Bedrulbudour
professed to him and that she was changed from her whilom plight of
grief, he thought that she had given up her hope of Alaeddin; so he
rejoiced greatly and said to her, "O my soul, hearkening and obedience
unto all that which thou wiliest and biddest me withal. I have with
me in my house a jar of the wine of our country, the which I have kept
stored these eight years under the earth; so I go now to fill from it
our sufficiency and will return to thee forthright." Therewithal the
Lady Bedrulbudour, that she might beguile him more and more, said to
him, "O my beloved, do not thou go thyself and leave me. Send one of thy
servants to fill us from the jar and abide thou sitting with me, that I
may take comfort in thee." "O my lady," answered he, "none knoweth the
place of the jar save myself; but I will not keep thee waiting."
[603] So saying, he went out and returned after a little with their
sufficiency of wine; and the Lady Bedrulbudour said to him, "Thou hast
been at pains [604] [for me], and I have put thee to unease, [605] O
my beloved." "Nay," answered he, "O [thou that art dear to me as] mine
eyes, I am honoured by thy service." Then she sat down with him at table
and they both fell to eating. Presently, the princess called for drink
and the handmaid immediately filled her the cup; then she filled for the
Maugrabin and the Lady Bedrulbudour proceeded to drink to his life and
health, [606] and he also drank to her life and she fell to carousing
[607] with him. Now she was unique in eloquence and sweetness of speech
and she proceeded to beguile him and bespeak him with words significant
[608] and sweet, so she might entangle him yet straitlier in the toils
of her love. The Maugrabin thought that all this was true [609] and knew
not that the love she professed to him was a snare set for him to slay
him. So he redoubled in desire for her and was like to die for love
of her, when he saw from her that which she showed him of sweetness
of speech and coquetry; [610] his head swam with ecstasy [611] and the
world became changed [612] in his eyes.

When they came to the last of the supper and the princess knew that the
wine had gotten the mastery in his head, she said to him, "We have in
our country a custom, meknoweth not if you in this country use it or
not." "And what is this custom?" asked the Maugrabin. "It is," answered
she, "that, at the end of supper, each lover taketh the other's cup and
drinketh it." So saying, she took his cup and filling it for herself
with wine, bade the handmaid give him her cup, wherein was wine mingled
with henbane, even as she had taught her how she should do, for that all
the slaves and slave-girls in the palace wished his death and were at
one against him with the Lady Bedrulbudour. So the damsel gave him the
cup, and he, hearing the princess's words and seeing her drink in his
cup and give him to drink in hers, deemed himself Iskender of the Horns,
whenas he saw from her all this love. Then she bent towards him, swaying
gracefully from side to side, and laying her hand on his, said, "O my
life, here is thy cup with me and mine is with thee; thus do lovers
drink one from other's cup." Then she kissed [613] his cup and drinking
it off, set it down and came up to him and kissed him on the cheek;
[614] whereat he was like to fly for joy and purposing to do even as
she had done, raised the cup to his mouth and drank it all off, without
looking if there were aught therein or not; but no sooner had he done
this than he turned over on his back, like a dead man, and the cup fell
from his hand.

The Lady Bedrulbudour rejoiced at this and the damsels ran, vying with
each other in their haste, [615] and opened the palace-door [616] to
Alaeddin, their lord; whereupon he entered and [617] going up to his
wife's pavilion, [618] found her sitting at the table and the Maugrabin
before her, as one slain. So he went up to the princess and kissed
her and thanked her for this [that she had done] and rejoiced with
an exceeding joy. Then said he to her, "Get thee now into thine inner
chamber, thou and thy damsels, and leave me alone, so I may consider
of that which I have to do." Accordingly, the Lady Bedrulbudour tarried
not, but entered the inner pavilion, she and her women; whereupon
Alaeddin arose and locked the door on them and going up to the
Maugrabin, put his hand to his sleeve and pulled out the lamp; after
which he drew his sword and cut off the sorcerer's head. Then he rubbed
the lamp and the Marid, its slave, appeared to him and said, "Here am I,
O my lord; what wiliest thou?" Quoth Alaeddin, "I will of thee that thou
take up this palace from this country and carry it to the land of China
and set it in the place where it was erst, before the Sultan's
palace." "Hearkening and obedience, O my lord," replied the Marid [and
disappeared], whilst Alaeddin went in and sat with the Lady Bedrulbudour
his bride and embraced her and kissed her and she him; and they sat
talking and making merry, what while the Marid took up the palace with
[619] them and set it down in its place before the Sultan's palace.

Presently Alaeddin called for food; so the slave-girls set the tray
before him and he sat, he and the Lady Bedrulbudour his wife, and ate
and drank in all joy and gladness till they had taken their sufficiency.
Then they removed to the chamber of wine and carousel, where they sat
drinking and making merry and kissing one another with all eagerness,
for that it was long since they had had easance together; and they
ceased not from this till the sun of wine rose in their heads and sleep
took them; whereupon they arose and lay down on their bed in all
rest and delight. In the morning Alaeddin arose and aroused his wife,
whereupon her women came to her and dressed her and busked her and
adorned her; whilst he, on his part, donned the richest of raiment,
[620] and both were like to fly for joy at their reunion with each
other, after their separation, whilst the Lady Bedrulbudour was
especially glad, for that she looked to see her father that day.

So much for Alaeddin and the Lady Bedrulbudour; and as for the Sultan,
after he had released Alaeddin, he ceased not to mourn for the loss of
his daughter and to sit and weep for her, like a woman, at every time
and tide; for that she was his only one and he had none other than her.
And every day, whenas he arose from his sleep in the morning, he would
go hastily to the window and opening it, look towards the place where
Alaeddin's palace was erst and weep till his eyes were dried up and
their lids ulcered. He arose that day at dawn, according to his wont,
and opening the window, looked out and saw before him a building; so he
fell to rubbing his eyes and looking closelier, was certified that it
was Alaeddin's palace; whereupon he immediately called for the horses.
Accordingly, they saddled them and he went down and mounting, rode to
Alaeddin's palace. When the latter saw him coming, he went down and
meeting him half-way, took him by the hand and carried him up to the
pavilion of the Lady Bedrulbudour, his daughter. Now she also longed
sore for her father; so she came down and met him at the stair-foot
door, over against the lower hall; whereupon he embraced her and fell
to kissing her and weeping and on this wise did she also. Then Alaeddin
brought them up to the upper pavilion, [621] where they sat down and the
Sultan proceeded to question the princess of her case and of that which
had befallen her, whilst [622] she acquainted him with all that had
happened to her and said to him, "O my father, I breathed not till
yesterday, when I saw my husband, and he it is who delivered me from the
bondage of a Maugrabin, an accursed sorcerer, methinketh there is not
a filthier than he on the face of the earth; and but for my beloved
Alaeddin, I had not won free of him and thou hadst not seen me all thy
life. Indeed, O my father, there possessed me grief and sore chagrin,
not only for my severance from thee, but also for the loss of my
husband, to whom I shall be beholden all the days of my life, seeing he
delivered me from that accursed enchanter."

Then she went on to acquaint her father with all that had befallen her
and to tell him of the Maugrabin's dealings and what he did with her
and how he feigned himself a lampseller, who bartered new for old. "And
when," [quoth she]; "I saw this [seeming] lack of wit in him, I fell to
laughing at him, unknowing his perfidy and his intent; so I took an old
lamp that was in my husband's pavilion and sent it by the eunuch, who
exchanged it with him for a new lamp; and next day, O my father, at
daybreak, we found ourselves in Africa, with the palace and all that
was therein; and I knew not the properties of the lamp which I had
exchanged, till my husband Alaeddin came to us and contrived against
the Maugrabin a device whereby he delivered us from him. Now, except my
husband had won to us, it was the accursed one's intent to go in to me
perforce; but Alaeddin, my husband gave me a powder, the which I put
for him in a cup of wine and gave it him to drink. So he drank it and
fell-back as one dead; whereupon my husband Alaeddin came in to me and
meknoweth not how he wrought, so that he transported us back from the
land of Africa to our place here." And Alaeddin said to the Sultan,
"O my lord, when I came up and saw him cast down like one slain and
sleeping for the henbane, I said to the Lady Bedrulbudour, 'Go in, thou
and thy women, to the inner pavilion.' So she arose and went in, she and
her damsels, from that loathsome sight; whilst I went up to the accursed
Maugrabin and putting my hand to his sleeve, pulled out the lamp, for
that the Lady Bedrulbudour had told me he still carried it there. Then,
when I had gotten it, I drew my sword and cut [off] the accursed's
[head] and making use of the lamp, bade its servants take us up, with
the palace and all that was therein, and set us down here in our place.
And if Thy Grace be in doubt of my words, do thou come with me and see
the accursed Maugrabin."

So the King arose and going in with Alaeddin to the pavilion, saw the
Maugrabin [Iying ]: whereupon he bade forthright take the carcase and
burn it and scatter its ashes [to the winds]. Then he embraced Alaeddin
and fell to kissing him and said to him, "Excuse me, O my son, for that
I was going [623] to bereave thee of thy life, through the wickedness of
yonder accursed sorcerer who cast thee into this pit; and indeed, O my
son, I was excusable in that which I did with thee, inasmuch as I saw
myself bereft of my daughter and mine only one, who is dearer to me
than my kingdom, and thou knowest how fathers' hearts yearn upon their
children, more by token that I have but the Lady Bedrulbudour." And he
went on to excuse himself to him and kiss him; and [624] Alaeddin said
to him, "O Lord of the Age, thou didst with me nothing contrary to the
law and I also was guiltless of offence; but the thing came all of that
vile Maugrabin enchanter." Then the Sultan bade decorate the city and
hold festival and rejoicings and commanded the crier to cry in the
city that that day was a great festival, wherefore rejoicings should be
holden in all the realm during the space of a month, [to wit,] thirty
days' time, for the return of the Lady Bedrulbudour his daughter and her
husband Alaeddin.

This, then, is what befell Alaeddin with the Maugrabin; but Alaeddin,
for all this, was not altogether [625] quit of the accursed enchanter,
withal his body had been burned and given to the winds; for that the
accursed one had a brother viler than he [and yet more skilled] in magic
and geomancy and astrology; [nay, they were even] as saith the proverb,
"A bean and it was cloven in twain;" [626] and each dwelt in one quarter
of the world, so they might fill it [627] with their sorcery and craft
and guile. It chanced one day that the Maugrabin's brother was minded to
know how it was with his brother; so he fetched his sand-board and smote
it and extracted its figures; then he considered them and examining them
throughly, found his brother in the house of the tomb; [628] whereat
he mourned and was certified that he was indeed dead. Then he smote the
sand a second time, so he might learn how and where he died, and found
that he had died in the land of China and by the foulest of deaths and
knew that he who slew him was a youth by name Alaeddin. So he rose at
once and equipping himself for travel, set out and traversed plains and
deserts and mountains months and months, till he came to the land of
China [and entering] the city of the sultanate, wherein was Alaeddin,
repaired to the Strangers' Khan, where he hired him a lodging and rested
there a little.

Then he arose to go round about the thoroughfares of the city, that he
might spy him out a means of compassing his fell purpose, the which
was to take vengeance of his brother on Alaeddin. So he entered a
coffee-house in the market, a mighty fine place whither there resorted
great plenty of folk, some to play tables, [629] some draughts [630] and
other some chess and what not else. There he sat down and heard those
who sat beside him talk of an old woman, an anchoress, by name Fatimeh,
who still abode in her place without the city, serving [God], and came
not down into the town but two days in the month, avouching her to be
possessed of divine gifts galore. [631] When the Maugrabin enchanter
heard this, he said in himself, "Now have I found that which I sought.
An it please God the Most High, I shall achieve my quest by means of
this woman." So [632] he went up to the folk who were speaking of the
devout old woman's supernatural powers and said to one of them, "O
uncle, I hear you talk of the divine gifts of one she-saint, [633] by
name Fatimeh. Who [634] is she and where is her place?" "Wonderful!"
cried the man. "What, thou art in our city and hast not heard of the
divine gifts of my Lady [635] Fatimeh? Apparently, good man, [636] thou
art a stranger, since thou hast never chanced to hear of the fasts of
this holy woman and her abhorrence of the world and the goodliness
of her piety." "Ay, my lord," replied the Maugrabin, "I am indeed a
stranger and arrived but yesternight in this your town; wherefore I
beseech thee tell me of the divine gifts of this holy woman and where
her place is, for that I have fallen into a calamity and would fain go
to her and crave her of prayer, so haply God (to whom belong might and
majesty) may deliver me from my stress, by means of her intercession."
The man accordingly told him of the divine gifts of the holy woman
Fatimeh and her piety and the excellence of her devotion; then, taking
him by the hand, he carried him without the city and showed him the way
to her abiding-place, which was in a cavern on the top of a little hill;
whereupon the Maugrabin thanked him amain for his kindness [636] and
returned to his place in the Khan.

Now, by the decree of destiny, Fatimeh came down on the morrow to the
city and the enchanter, going forth the Khan in the morning, saw the
folk crowding together; so he went up, to see what was toward, and found
Fatimeh standing, whilst every one who had a pain or an ache came to
her, seeking her blessing and soliciting her prayers, and whenas she
stroked him, he was made whole of his ailment. The Maugrabin followed
her, till she returned to her cavern, and waited till nightfall, when he
arose and entering a sherbet-sellers [637] shop, drank a cup of liquor,
[638] then went forth the city, intending for the cavern of Fatimeh the
recluse. When he came thither, he entered and saw her sleeping on her
back on a piece of matting; so he went up to her and sitting down [639]
on her breast, [640] drew his dagger and cried out at her; whereupon she
awoke and opening her eyes, saw a man, a Maugrabin, with a drawn dagger,
sitting on her breast [641] and offering to kill her. So she feared and
trembled and he said to her, "Harkye, an thou say aught or cry out, I
will kill thee on the spot. Arise now and do all that I shall bid thee."
And he swore an oath to her that, if she did for him that which he
should bid her, he would not kill her.

Then he rose from her and she rose also, and he said to her, "Give me
thy clothes and take mine." So she gave him her clothes and head-bands
and her kerchief and veil; and he said to her, "Now must thou anoint
me, to boot, with somewhat, so my face may become like unto shine in
colour." Accordingly Fatimeh went within the cavern and bringing out a
vial of ointment, took thereof in her palm and anointed his face withal,
whereupon it became like unto hers in colour. Then she gave him her
staff and taught him how he should walk and how he should do, whenas he
went down into the city; moreover, she put her rosary on his neck and
finally giving him the mirror, said to him, "Look now; thou differest
not from me in aught." So he looked and saw himself as he were Fatimeh
herself. [642] Then, when he had gotten his desire, he broke his oath
and sought of her a rope; so she brought him a rope and he took her and
strangled her therewith in the cavern. When she was dead, he dragged her
forth and cast her into a pit therewithout; then, [643] returning to her
cavern, he slept there till the day broke, when he arose and going down
into the city, came under Alaeddin's pavilion. [644]

The folk gathered about him, believing him to be Fatimeh the Recluse,
and he proceeded to do like as she had been used to do, laying hands on
those in pain and reciting for this one the Fatiheh [645] and for that
a[nother] chapter of the Koran and praying for a third. Then, for
the much crowding upon him and the clamour of the folk, the Lady
Bedrulbudour heard and said to her women, "See what is to do and what is
the cause of this noise." So the Ada of the eunuchs went to see what was
toward and returning, said to her, "O my lady, this clamour is because
of the Lady Fatimeh. An it please thee bid me fetch her to thee, so thou
mayst ask a blessing of her...." And the Lady Bedrulbudour said to him,
"Go and bring her to me; marry, this long while past I have still heard
of her gifts and excellences and have yearned to see her, so I may ask a
blessing of her, for that the folk are beyond measure abundant [in
talk] of her [646] virtues." So the Aga went and brought the enchanter,
disguised as Fatimeh, before the Lady Bedrulbudour; whereupon the
Maugrabin offered up abundance of prayers for her, and none misdoubted
of him but that he was Fatimeh the recluse. The princess rose and
saluting him, seated him by her side and said to him, "O my Lady
Fatimeh, I will have thee with me alway, that I may be blessed in thee
and eke that I may learn of thee the ways of God-service and piety and
model myself on thee."

Now this was what the accursed sorcerer aimed at; however, the better to
accomplish his perfidious intent, [647] he [dissembled and] said to her,
"O my lady, I am a poor woman sitting in the desert and it beseemeth
not that the like of me should abide in kings' palaces." Quoth the Lady
Bedrulbudour, "Have no manner of care, O my lady Fatimeh; I will give
thee a place in my house, where thou shalt do thy devotions, and none
shall ever go in to thee; nay, here shalt thou serve God better than in
thy cavern." And the Maugrabin said to her, "Hearkening and obedience,
O my lady; I will not gainsay thy commandment, for that the speech of
princes may not be crossed neither disputed; but I beg of thee that my
eating and drinking and sitting may be in my closet alone [and] that
none may come in upon me. Moreover, I need no rich viands, but every
day do thou favour me and send me by thy handmaid a piece of bread and
a draught of water to my closet; and when I am minded to eat, I will eat
in my closet alone." (Now this the accursed did, of his fear lest his
chin veil should be raised, when he ate, and so his case be exposed
and they know him for a man by his beard and moustaches.) "O my lady
Fatimeh," rejoined the princess, "be easy; nothing shall betide save
that which thou wiliest; so rise now [and come] with me, that I may show
thee the pavilion [648] which I purpose to order for thine inhabitance
with us." So [649] saying, she arose and carrying the sorcerer to the
place which she had appointed him wherein to abide, said to him, "O my
lady Fatimeh, here shalt thou dwell; this pavilion is in thy name and
thou shalt abide therein in all quiet and ease of privacy." And the
Maugrabin thanked her for her bounty and prayed for her.

Then the Lady Bedrulbudour took him and showed him the belvedere [650]
and the kiosk of jewels, with the four-and-twenty oriels, [651] and
said to him, "How deemest thou, O my Lady Fatimeh, of this wonderful
pavilion?" [652] "By Allah, O my daughter," replied he, "it is indeed
marvellous in the extreme, [653] nor methinketh is its like found in the
world; nay, it is magnificent exceedingly; but oh, for one thing which
would far increase it in beauty and adornment!" And the princess said
to him, "O my Lady Fatimeh, what is lacking to it and what is this
thing which would adorn it? Tell me of it; I had thought that it was
altogether perfect." "O my lady," answered the sorcerer, "that which
lacketh to it is the egg of the bird Roc, which being hung in its dome,
there were no like unto this pavilion in all the world." "What is this
bird." asked the princess, "and where shall we find its egg?" And the
Moor said to her, "O my lady, this is a great bird that taketh up camels
and elephants in its talons and flieth with them, of its bigness
and greatness; it is mostly to be found in the mountain Caf and the
craftsman who builded this palace [654] is able to bring its egg." Then
they left that talk and it was the time of the morning-meal. So the
slave-girls laid the table and the Lady Bedrulbudour sat down and sought
of the accursed sorcerer that he should eat with her; but he refused
and rising, entered the pavilion which she had given him, whither the
slave-girls carried him the morning-meal.

When it was eventide and Alaeddin returned from the chase, the Lady
Bedrulbudour met him and saluted him: whereupon he embraced her and
kissed her and looking in her face, saw that she was somewhat troubled
and smiled not, against her wont. So he said to her, "What aileth thee,
O my beloved? Tell me, hath there befallen thee aught to trouble thee?"
And she answered him, saying, "There aileth me nothing; but, O my
beloved, I had thought that our palace [655] lacked of nought; however,
O my eyes [656] Alaeddin, were there hung in the dome of the upper
pavilion [657] an egg of the bird Roc, there were not its like in the
world." "And wast thou concerned anent this?" rejoined Alaeddin. "This
is to me the easiest of all things; so be easy, for it is enough that
thou tell me of that which thou wishest and I will fetch it thee from
the abysses of the world on the speediest wise." Then [658] after he had
comforted the princess and promised her all she sought, he went straight
to his closet and taking the lamp rubbed it; whereupon the Marid at once
appeared and said to him, "Seek what thou wilt;" and Alaeddin, "I will
have thee bring me a Roc's egg and hang it in the dome of the [upper]
pavilion." [659]

When the Marid heard Alaeddin's words, his face frowned and he was
wroth and cried out with a terrible great voice, saying, "O denier of
benefits, doth it not suffice thee that I and all the slaves of the Lamp
are at thy service and wouldst thou eke have me bring thee our liege
lady, for thy pleasure, and hang her in the dome of thy pavilion, to
divert thee and thy wife? By Allah, ye deserve that I should forthright
reduce you both to ashes and scatter you to the winds! But, inasmuch as
ye are ignorant, thou and she, concerning this matter and know not its
inward from its outward, [660] I excuse you, for that ye are innocent.
As for the guilt, it lieth with the accursed one, the surviving [661]
brother of the Maugrabin enchanter, who feigneth himself to be Fatimeh
the Recluse; for lo, he hath slain Fatimeh in her cavern and hath donned
her dress and disguised himself after her favour and fashion and is come
hither, seeking thy destruction, so he may take vengeance on thee for
his brother; and he it is who taught thy wife to seek this of thee."
[662] Therewith he disappeared, and as for Alaeddin, when he heard this,
his wit fled from his head and his joints trembled at the cry wherewith
the Marid cried out at him; but he took heart and leaving his closet,
went in straightway to his wife and feigned to her that his head irked
him, of his knowledge that Fatimeh was renowned for the secret of
healing [663] all aches and pains. When the Lady Bedrulbudour saw him
put his hand to his head and complain of its aching, [664] she asked him
what was the cause and he said, "I know not, except that my head irketh
me sore." Accordingly she sent forthwith to fetch Fatimeh, so she
might lay her hand on his head; whereupon quoth Alaeddin, "Who is this
Fatimeh?" And the princess told him how she had lodged Fatimeh the
recluse with her in the palace. [665]

Meanwhile the slave-girls went and fetched the accursed Maugrabin, and
Alaeddin arose to him, feigning ignorance of his case, and saluted
him, as he had been the true Fatimeh. Moreover he kissed the hem of his
sleeve and welcomed him, [666] saying, "O my Lady Fatimeh, I beseech
thee do me a kindness, since I know thy usances in the matter of the
healing of pains, for that there hath betided me a sore pain in my
head." The Maugrabin could scarce believe his ears of this speech, [667]
for that this was what he sought; so he went up to Alaeddin, as he would
lay his hand on his head, after the fashion of Fatimeh the recluse, and
heal him of his pain. When he drew near-him, he laid one hand on his
head and putting the other under his clothes, drew a dagger, so [668] he
might slay him withal. But Alaeddin was watching him and waited till he
had all to-drawn the dagger, when he gripped him by the hand and taking
the knife from him, planted [669] it in his heart.

When the Lady Bedrulbudour saw this, she cried out and said to him,
"What hath this holy anchoress done, that thou burthenest thyself with
the sore burden of her blood? Hast thou no fear of God, that thou dost
this and hast slain Fatimeh, who was a holy woman and whose divine gifts
were renowned?" Quoth he to her, "I have not slain Fatimeh; nay, I have
slain him who slew her; for that this is the brother of the accursed
Maugrabin enchanter, who took thee and by his sorcery transported the
palace with thee to the land of Africa. Yea, this accursed one was
his brother and came to this country and wrought these frauds, slaying
Fatimeh and donning her clothes and coming hither, so he might take
vengeance on me for his brother. Moreover, it was he who taught thee to
seek of me a Roc's egg, so my destruction should ensue thereof; and if
thou misdoubt of my word, come and see whom I have slain." So saying, he
did off the Maugrabin's chin veil and the Lady Bedrulbudour looked and
saw a man whose beard covered his face; whereupon she at once knew the
truth and said to Alaeddin, "O my beloved, twice have I cast thee into
danger of death;" and he said to her, "O Lady Bedrulbudour, thanks to
thine eyes, [670] no harm [hath betided me thereof; nay,] I accept with
all joy everything that cometh to me through thee." When the princess
heard this, she hastened to embrace him and kissed him, saying, "O my
beloved, all this was of my love for thee and I knew not what I did;
[671] nor indeed am I negligent of thy love." [672] Whereupon Alaeddin
kissed her and strained her to his breast and love redoubled between

Presently, in came the Sultan; so they told him of all that had passed
with the Maugrabin enchanter's brother and showed him the latter, as he
lay dead; whereupon he bade burn him and scatter his ashes to the winds.
Thenceforward Alaeddin abode with his wife the Lady Bedrulbudour in
all peace and pleasure and was delivered from all perils. Then, after
a while, the Sultan died and Alaeddin sat down on the throne of the
kingdom and ruled and did justice among the people; and all the folk
loved him and he lived with his wife, the Lady Bedrulbudour, in all
cheer and solace and contentment till there came to them the Destroyer
of Delights and the Sunderer of Societies.


[Footnote 1: i.e. (1) Zeyn Alasnam, (2) Codadad. (3) The Sleeper
Awakened. (4) Aladdin. (5) Baba Abdallah. (6) Sidi Nouman. (7) Cogia
Hassan Alhabbah (8) Ali Baba. (9) Ali Cogia. (10) Prince Ahmed and
Pari-Banou. (11) The Sisters who envied their younger Sister.]

[Footnote 2: "M. Galland was aware of the imperfection of the MS. used
by him and (unable to obtain a more perfect copy) he seems to have
endeavoured to supply the place of the missing portions by incorporating
in his translation a number of Persian, Turkish and Arabic Tales,
which had no connection with his original and for which it is generally
supposed that he probably had recourse to Oriental MSS. (as yet
unidentified) contained in the Royal Libraries of Paris." Vol. IX. p.
263. "Of these the Story of the Sleeper Awakened is the only one which
has been traced to an Arabic original and is found in the Breslau
edition of the complete work, printed by Dr. Habicht from a MS. of
Tunisian origin, apparently of much later date than the other known
copies.....Galland himself cautions us that the Stories of Zeyn Alasnam
and Codadad do not belong to the Thousand and One Nights and were
published (how he does not explain) without his authority." p. 264. "It
is possible that an exhaustive examination of the various MS. copies of
the Thousand and One Nights known to exist in the public libraries of
Europe Might yet cast some light upon the origin of the interpolated
tales; but, in view of the strong presumption afforded by internal
evidence that they are of modern composition and form no part of the
authentic text, it can hardly be expected, where the result and the
value of that result are alike so doubtful, that any competent person
will be found to undertake so heavy a task, except as incidental to some
more general enquiry. The only one of the eleven which seems to me to
bear any trace of possible connection with the Book of the Thousand
Nights and One Night is Aladdin, and it may be that an examination of
the MS. copies of the original work within my reach will yet enable me
to trace the origin of that favourite story." pp. 268-9.]

[Footnote 3: Histoire d' 'Ala Al-Din ou la Lampe Merveilleuse. Texte
Arabe, Publie avec une notice de quelques Manuscrits des Mille et Une
Nuits et la traduction de Galland. Par H. Zotenberg. Paris, Imprimerie
Nationale, 1888.]

[Footnote 4: For the sake of uniformity and convenience of reference, I
use, throughout this Introduction, Galland's spelling of the names which
occur in his translation, returning to my own system of transliteration
in my rendering of the stories themselves.]

[Footnote 5: i.e. God's.]

[Footnote 6: "La suite des Mille et une Nuits, Contes Arabes trafluits
par Dom Chavis et M. Cazotte. Paris 1788." The Edinburgh Review (July,
1886) gives the date of the first edition as 1785; but this is an error,
probably founded upon the antedating of a copy of the Cabinet des Fees,
certain sets of which (though not actually completed till 1793) are
dated, for some publisher's reason, 1785. See also following note.]

[Footnote 7: These four (supplemental) vols. of the Cabinet des Fees
(printed in 1793, though antedated 1788 and 1789) do not form the first
edition of Chavis and Cazotte's so-called Sequel, which was in 1793
added, by way of supplement, to the Cabinet des Fees, having been
first published in 1788 (two years after the completion-in thirty-seven
volumes-of that great storehouse of supernatural fiction) under the
title of "Les Veillees Persanes" or "Les Veillees du Sultan Schahriar
avec la Sultane Scheherazade, histoires incroyables, amusantes et
morales, traduites par M. Cazotte et D. Chavis, faisant suite aux Mille
et Une Nuits."]

[Footnote 8: I cannot agree with my friend Sir R. F. Burton in his
estimate of these tales, which seem to me, even in Caussin de Perceval's
corrector rendering and in his own brilliant and masterly version, very
inferior, in style, conduct and diction, to those of "the old Arabian
Nights," whilst I think "Chavis and Cazotte's Continuation" utterly
unworthy of republication, whether in part or "in its entirety." Indeed,
I confess the latter version seems to me so curiously and perversely and
unutterably bad that I cannot conceive how Cazotte can have perpetrated
it and can only regard it as a bad joke on his part. As Caussin de
Perceval remarks, it is evident that Shawish (whether from ignorance or
carelessness) must, in many instances, have utterly misled his French
coadjutor (who had no knowledge of Arabic) as to the meaning of the
original, whilst it is much to be regretted that a writer of exquisite
genius and one of the first stylists of the 18th century, such as the
author of the Diable Amoureux, (a masterpiece to be ranked with Manon
Lescaut and Le Neveu de Rameau,) should have stooped to the commission
of the flagrant offences against good taste and artistic morality which
disfigure well nigh every line of the so-called "Sequel to the 1001
Nights." "Far be it" (as the Arabs say) that we should do so cruel a
wrong to so well and justly beloved a memory as that of Jacques Cazotte
as to attempt to perpetuate the remembrance of a literary crime which
one can hardly believe him to have committed in sober earnest! Rather
let us seek to bury in oblivion this his one offence and suffer kind
Lethe with its beneficent waters to wash this "adulterous blot" from his
else unsullied name.]

[Footnote 9: Lit. "Servants" (ibad) i.e. of God.]

[Footnote 10: i.e. he who most stands in need of God's mercy.]

[Footnote 11: Kebikej is the name of the genie set over the insect
kingdom. Scribes occasionally invoke him to preserve their manuscripts
from worms.-Note by M. Zotenberg.]

[Footnote 12: Galland calls him "Hanna, c'est... dire Jean Baptiste,"
the Arabic Christian equivalent of which is Youhenna and the Muslim
Yehya, "surnomme Diab." Diary, October 25, 1709.]

[Footnote 13: At this date Galland had already published the first six
(of twelve) volumes of his translation (1704-5) and as far as I can
ascertain, in the absence of a reference copy (the British Museum
possessing no copy of the original edition), the 7th and 8th volumes
were either published or in the press. Vol. viii. was certainly
published before the end of the year 1709, by which time the whole of
vol. ix. was ready for printing.]

[Footnote 14: i.e. Aladdin.]

[Footnote 15: Galland died in 1715, leaving the last two volumes of his
translation (which appear by the Diary to have been ready for the prep
on the 8th June, 1713) to be published in 1717.]

[Footnote 16: Aleppo.]

[Footnote 17: i.e. Yonhenna Diab.]

[Footnote 18: For "Persian." Galland evidently supposed, in error, that
Petis de la Croix's forthcoming work was a continuation of his "Contes
Turcs" published in 1707, a partial translation (never completed) of the
Turkish version of "The Forty Viziers," otherwise "The Malice of
Women," for which see Le Cabinet des Fees, vol. xvi. where the work
is, curiously enough, attributed (by the Table of Contents) to Galland

[Footnote 19: See my terminal essay. My conclusions there stated as
to the probable date of the original work have since been completely
confirmed by the fact that experts assign Galland's original (imperfect)
copy of the Arabic text to the latter part of the fourteenth century, on
the evidence of the handwriting, etc.]

[Footnote 20: In M. Zotenberg's notes to Aladdin.]

[Footnote 21: Night CCCCXCVII.]

[Footnote 22: Khelifeh.]

[Footnote 23: Or "favourites" (auliya), i.e. holy men, devotees,

[Footnote 24: i.e. the geomancers. For a detailed description of this
magical process, (which is known as "sand-tracing," Kharu 'r reml,) see
posl, p. 199, note 2.{see FN#548}]

[Footnote 25: i.e. "What it will do in the course of its life"]

[Footnote 26: Or "ascendants" (tewali).]

[Footnote 27: i.e. "Adornment of the Images." This is an evident mistake
(due to some ignorant copyist or reciter of the story) of the same
kind as that to be found at the commencement of the story of Ghanim ben
Eyoub, (see my Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night, Vol I. p. 363
et seq.), where the hero is absurdly stated to have been surnamed at
birth the "Slave of Love," a sobriquet which could only have attached
itself to him in after-life and as a consequence of his passion for
Fitoeh. Sir R. F. Burton suggests, with great probability, that the
name, as it stands in the text, is a contraction, by a common elliptical
process, of the more acceptable, form Zein-ud-din ul Asnam, i.e.
Zein-ud-din (Adornment of the Faith) [he] of the Images, Zein
(adornment) not being a name used by the Arabic-speaking races, unless
with some such addition as ud-Din ("of the Faith"), and the affix
ul Asnam ( "[He] of the Images") being a sobriquet arising from
the circumstances of the hero's after-life, unless its addition,
as recommended by the astrologers, is meant as an indication of the
latter's fore-knowledge of what was to befall him thereafter. This
noted, I leave the name as I find it in the Arabic MS.]

[Footnote 28: Sheji nebih. Burton, "Valiant and intelligent."]

[Footnote 29: Syn. "his describers" (wasifihi).]

[Footnote 30: Wa huwa hema caiou fihi bads wasifihi shiran. Burton
(apparently from a different text), "and presently he became even as the
poets sang of one of his fellows in semblance."]

[Footnote 31: Milah, plural of melih, a fair one.]

[Footnote 32: Khemseh senin. Burton, "fifteen."]

[Footnote 33: Shabb, adult, man between sixteen and thirty.]

[Footnote 34: Femu ghefir min el aalem. Burton, "All the defenders of
the realm."]

[Footnote 35: Night CCCCXCVIII.]

[Footnote 36: Syn. "depose."]

[Footnote 37: Lit. "that which proceeded from him."]

[Footnote 38: See ante, p. 3, note.{see FN#23}]

[Footnote 39: Night CCCCXCIX.]

[Footnote 40: i.e. imposed on me the toil, caused me undertake the
weariness, of coming to Cairo for nothing.]

[Footnote 41: Forgetting his mother.]

[Footnote 42: i.e. no mortal.]

[Footnote 43: Keszr abouka 'l fulani (vulg. for abika'l fulan). Burton,
"Such a palace of thy sire."]

[Footnote 44: i.e. it is not like the journey to Cairo and back.]

[Footnote 45: i.e. in God grant thou mayst.]

[Footnote 46: Or "jade" (yeshm).]

[Footnote 47: Night D.]

[Footnote 48: "Edh dheheb el atic." Burton, "antique golden pieces"; but
there is nothing to show that the gold was coined.]

[Footnote 49: The "also" in this clause seems to refer to the old man of
the dream.]

[Footnote 50: Keszr, lit. palace, but commonly meaning, in modern Arabic,
an upper story or detached corps de logis (pavilion in the French sense,
an evident misnomer in the present case).]

[Footnote 51: Lit. "put the key in the lock and opened it and behold,
the door of a palace (hall) opened."]

[Footnote 52: Takeli, sing. form of tac, a window. Burton, "recess for

[Footnote 53: Lit. "till he join thee with."]

[Footnote 54: Or "Cairo," the name Misr being common to the country and
its capital.]

[Footnote 55: Badki tecouli[na]. Badki (lit. after thee) is here used in
the modern sense of "still" or "yet." The interrogative prefix A appears
to have dropped out, as is not uncommon in manuscripts of this kind.
Burton, "After thou assuredst me, saying, &c."]

[Footnote 56: Here she adopts her son's previous idea that the old man
of the dream was the Prophet in person.]

[Footnote 57: Night DI.]

[Footnote 58: Cudoum. The common form of welcome to a guest.]

[Footnote 59: Or "upper room" (keszr).]

[Footnote 60: Eight; see ante, p. 14. {see FN#46}]

[Footnote 61: Edh dheheb el kedim.]

[Footnote 62: Edh dhelieb er yemli, lit. sand. (i.e. alluvial) gold,
gold in its native state, needing no smelting to extract it. This,
by the way, is the first mention of the thrones or pedestals of the

[Footnote 63: Lit. "[With] love and honour" (hubban wa kerametan). a
familar phrase implying complete assent to any request. It is by some
lexicologists supposed to have arisen from the circumstance of a man
answering another, who begged of him a wine-jar (hubb), with the words,
"Ay, I will give thee a jar and a cover (kerameh) also," and to have
thus become a tropical expression of ready compliance with a petition,
as who should say, "I will give thee what thou askest and more."]

[Footnote 64: The slave's attitude before his master.]

[Footnote 65: The like.]

[Footnote 66: Night DII.]

[Footnote 67: i.e. invoked blessings upon him in the manner familiar to
readers of the Nights.]

[Footnote 68: Lit. thou [art] indulged therein (ent musamih fiha).]

[Footnote 69: Mehmy (vulg. for mehma, whatsoever) telebtaha minni min en
miam. Burton, "whatso of importance thou wouldst have of me."]

[Footnote 70: Lit. "in a seeking (request) ever or at all" (fi tilbeti
abdan). Burton, "in thy requiring it."]

[Footnote 71: "Tal aleyya" wect, i.e. I am weary of waiting. Burton, "My
tarrying with thee hath been long."]

[Footnote 72: Or "difficult" (aziz); Burton, "singular-fare."]

[Footnote 73: Lit. "If the achievement thereof (or attainment thereunto)
will be possible unto thee [by or by dint of] fortitude,"]

[Footnote 74: Lit. "Wealth [is] in (or by) blood."]

[Footnote 75: El berr el atfer. Burton translates, "the wildest of
wolds," apparently supposing atfer to be a mistranscription for aefer,
which is very possible.]

[Footnote 76: Kewaribji, a word formed by adding the Turkish affix ji
to the Arabic kewarib, plural of carib, a small boat. The common form
of the word is caribji. Burton reads it, "Kewariji, one who uses the

[Footnote 77: Lit "inverted" (mecloubeh). Burton, "the reverse of

[Footnote 78: Night DIII.]

[Footnote 79: Wehsh. Burton, "a lion."]

[Footnote 80: Lit. "then they passed on till" (thumma fatou ila [an]).]

[Footnote 81: Sic (ashjar anber); though what the Arabic author meant
by "trees of ambergris" is more than I can say. The word anber (pro.
pounced amber) signifies also "saffron"; but the obbligato juxtaposition
of aloes and sandal-wood tends to show that what is meant is the
well-known product of the sperm-whale. It is possible that the mention
of this latter may be an interpolation by some ignorant copyist, who,
seeing two only of the three favourite Oriental scents named, took upon
himself to complete the odoriferous trinity, so dear to Arab writers, by
the addition of ambergris.]

[Footnote 82: Yas, Persian form of yasm, yasmin or yasimin. Sir R. F.
Burton reads yamin and supposes it to be a copyist's error for yasmin,
but this is a mistake; the word in the text is clearly yas, though
the final s, being somewhat carelessly written in the Arabic MS, might
easily be mistaken for mn with an undotted noun.]

[Footnote 83: Lit. "perfect or complete (kamil) of fruits and flowers."]

[Footnote 84: Lit. "many armies" (asakir, pl. of asker, an army), but
asker is constantly used in post-classical Arabic (and notably in the
Nights) for "a single soldier," and still more generally the plural
(asakir), as here, for "soldiers."]

[Footnote 85: Syn. "the gleaming of a brasier" (berc kanoun). Kanoun
is the Syrian name of two winter months, December (Kanoun el awwal or
first) and January (Kanoun eth thani or second).]

[Footnote 86: So as to form a magic barrier against the Jinn, after the
fashion of the mystical circles used by European necromancers.]

[Footnote 87: Night DIV.]

[Footnote 88: Fe-halan tuata, the time-honoured "Ask and it shall be
given unto thee."]

[Footnote 89: Sic (berec ed dunya); but dunya (the world) is perhaps
meant to be taken here by synecdoche m the sense of "sky."]

[Footnote 90: Syn. "darkness was let down like a curtain."]

[Footnote 91: Lit. "like an earthquake like the earthquakes"; but the
second "like" (mithl) is certainly a mistranscription for "of" (min).]

[Footnote 92: Night DV.]

[Footnote 93: Night DVI.]

[Footnote 94: Here we have the word mithl (as or like) which I supplied
upon conjecture in the former description of the genie; see ante, p. 24,

[Footnote 95: Medinetu 'l meda'n wa ujoubetu 'l aalem. It is well known
(see the Nights passim) that the Egyptians considered Cairo the city of
cities and the wonder of the world.]

[Footnote 96: Lit. "How [is] the contrivance and the way the which we
shall attain by (or with) it to...."]

[Footnote 97: I.a tehtenim; but the text may also be read la tehettem
and this latter reading is adopted by Burton, who translates, "Be not
beaten and broken down."]

[Footnote 98: Or "in brief" (bi-tejewwuz). Burton translates, "who
maketh marriages," apparently reading bi-tejewwuz as a mistranscription
for tetejewwez, a vulgar Syrian corruption of tetezewwej.]

[Footnote 99: Said in a quasi-complimentary sense, as we say, "Confound
him, what a clever rascal he is!" See the Nights passim for numerous
instances of this.]

[Footnote 100: Quoth Shehrzad to Shehriyar.]

[Footnote 101: Syn. "to work upon her traces or course" (tesaa ala

[Footnote 102: Night DVII.]

[Footnote 103: Lit. "the thirsty one (es szadi) and the goer-forth
by day or in the morning" (el ghadi); but this is most probably a
mistranscription for the common phrase es sari (the goer by night) wa 'l
ghadi, often used in the sense of "comers and goers" simply. This would
be quite in character with the style of our present manuscript, which
constantly substitutes sz (sad) for s (sin), e.g. szerai for serai
(palace), szufreh, for sufreh (meal-tray), for hheresza for hheresa(he
guarded), etc., etc., whilst no one acquainted with the Arabic written
character need be reminded how easy it is to mistake a carelessly
written-r (ra) for d (dal) or vice-versa]

[Footnote 104: The mosque being the caravanserai of the penniless

[Footnote 105: The person specially appointed to lead the prayers of the
congregation and paid out of the endowed revenues of the mosque to which
he is attached.]

[Footnote 106: Night DVIII.]

[Footnote 107: Burton translates, "these accurseds," reading melaa'n
(pl. of melaoun, accursed); but the word in the text is plainly
mulaa'bein (objective dual of mulaa'b, a trickster, malicious joker,
hence, by analogy, sharper).]

[Footnote 108: Eth thiyab el heririyeh. Burton "silver-wrought."]

[Footnote 109: Netser ila necshetihim (lit. their image, cf. Scriptural
"image and presentment") wa szufretihim, i.e. he satisfied himself by
the impress and the colour that they were diners, i.e. gold.]

[Footnote 110: Lit. I am now become in confusion of or at him (lianneni
alan szirtu fi khejaleh (properly khejleh) minhu). Burton, "for that I
have been ashamed of waiting upon him."]

[Footnote 111: Lit. "That which was incumbent on me to him."]

[Footnote 112: Lit. "go to (or for) his service," or, as we should say,
"attend him."]

[Footnote 113: Burton, "one of the envious;" but the verb is in the

[Footnote 114: Night DIX.]

[Footnote 115: Et tsenn er redi. Burton, "the evil."]

[Footnote 116: So that they might hang down and hide his feet and hands,
it being a point of Arab etiquette for an inferior scrupulously to avoid
showing either of these members in presenting himself (especially for
the first time) before his superior.]

[Footnote 117: Lit., "religiousness or devoutness (diyaneh) was by
nature in him," i.e. he was naturally inclined to respect religion and
honour its professors. Burton, "He was by nature conscientious," which
does not quite express the meaning of the text; conscientiousness being
hardly an Oriental virtue.]

[Footnote 118: Lit, "I may (or shall) ransom him with m' life till I (or
so that I may) unite him therewith."]

[Footnote 119: Iftekeret fi rejul.]

[Footnote 120: Terbiyeh. This word is not sufficiently rendered by
"education," which modern use has practically restricted to scholastic
teaching, though the good old English phrase "to bring up" is of course
a literal translation of the Latin educare.]

[Footnote 121: i.e. "I shall owe it to thee."]

[Footnote 122: Lit. "It is certain to me," Constat mihi, fe-meikeni
(vulg. for fe-yekin) indi.]

[Footnote 123: Night DX.]

[Footnote 124: Or perhaps "Would I might."]

[Footnote 125: i.e. the contract of marriage.]

[Footnote 126: See my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night"
passim, especially Vol. I pp. 190 et seq.]

[Footnote 127: Miheffeh, a kind of howdah with a flat roof or top.]

[Footnote 128: Tekht-rewan, a sort of palanquin drawn or carried by
mules or camels wherein she could recline at length. Burton renders
Miheffeh bi-tekhtrewan "a covered litter to be carried by camels."]

[Footnote 129: Burton adds here, "Thou wouldst feel ruth for me."]

[Footnote 130: Lit. profit, gain (meksib), i.e. the ninth image,
which he was to receive as a reward for the faithful execution of his

[Footnote 131: Night DXI.]

[Footnote 132: [A] nehnu bedna baud an hukm. The word hukm, which
commonly signifies the exercise of government or judicial power, is here
used metonymically in the sense of the place of dominion, the seat of
government. Burton, "Have we fared this far distance by commandment of
my bridegroom?"]

[Footnote 133: Or "God forbid!" (Hhasha), a common interjection,
implying unconditional denial.]

[Footnote 134: Lit. "The writing of (or he wrote) his writ upon thee"
(ketb kitabiki aleiki).]

[Footnote 135: i.e.. at the Last Day, when men will be questioned of
their actions.]

[Footnote 136: Night DXII.]

[Footnote 137: Sic (tentsur), but this is probably a copyist's error for
"we may see" (nentsur), the difference being only a question of one or
two diacritical points over the initial letter.]

[Footnote 138: Here Burton adds, "Indeed I had well nigh determined
to forfeit all my profit of the Ninth Statue and to bear thee away to
Bassorah as my own bride, when my comrade and councillor dissuaded me
from so doing, lest I should bring about my death."]

[Footnote 139: Night DXIII.]

[Footnote 140: Or (vulg.) "I thank him, etc." (istekthertu aleihi
elladhi hefitsaha wa sanaha wa hejeba rouhaku anha). Burton, "Albeit
I repeatedly enjoined him to defend and protect her until he concealed
from her his face."]

[Footnote 141: Or we may read "went out, glad and rejoicing, with (bi)
the young lady;" but the reading in the test is more consonant with the
general style of the Nights.]

[Footnote 142: Azaa, strictly the formal sitting in state to receive
visits of condolence for the death of a relation, but in modern parlance
commonly applied, by extension, to the funeral ceremonies themselves.]

[Footnote 143: El kendil el meshhour. The lamp is however more than once
mentioned in the course of the tale by the name of "wonderful" (ajib,
see post, p. 88, note 4) so familiar to the readers of the old version.]

[Footnote 144: Night DXIV.]

[Footnote 145: Khilafahu, lit. "the contrary thereof;" but the
expression is constantly used (instead of the more correct gheirahu) in
the sense of "other than it," "the take," etc.]

[Footnote 146: Or "street-boys" (auladu 'l hhareh).]

[Footnote 147: Zeboun.]

[Footnote 148: Burton adds here, "Counsel and castigation were of no

[Footnote 149: Lit. "had been recalled" (tuwouffia), i.e. by God to

[Footnote 150: This old English and Shakspearean expression is the exact
equivalent of the Arabic phrase Khelesza min sherr walidihi. Burton,
"freed from [bearing] the severities of his sire."]

[Footnote 151: Kanet wayyishuhu. Burton, "lived only by."]

[Footnote 152: Night DXV.]

[Footnote 153: I prefer this old English form of the Arabic word
Meghrebiy (a native of El Meghreb or North-Western Africa) to "Moor,"
as the latter conveys a false impression to the modern reader, who would
naturally suppose him to be a native of Morocco, whereas the enchanter
came, as will presently appear, from biladu 'l gherbi 'l jewwaniy,
otherwise Ifrikiyeh, i.e. "the land of the Inner West" or Africa proper,
comprising Tunis, Tripoli and part of A]geria.]

[Footnote 154: Min biladi 'l gherbi 'l jewwaniy. The Muslim provinces of
North-Western Africa, extending from the north-western boundary of Egypt
to Cape Nun on the Mogador Coast, were known under the general name of
El Meghreb (modern Barbary) and were divided into three parts, to wit
(1) El Meghreb el Jewwaniy, Inner, i.e. Hither or Nearer (to Egypt)
Barbary or Ifrikiyeh, comprising Tripoli, Tunis and Constantine (part of
Algeria), (2) El Meghreb el Aouset, Central Barbary. comprising the
rest of Algeria, and (3) El Meghreb el Acszaa, Farther or Outer Barbary,
comprising the modern empire of Morocco.]

[Footnote 155: El hieh. Burton translates, "astrology," and astrology
(or astronomy); is the classical meaning of the word; but the common
meaning in modern Arabic is "the science of physiognomy," cf. the Nights
passim. See especially ante, p. 42.]

[Footnote 156: Bi-szaut hezin meksour. Burton, "in a soft voice saddened
by emotion."]

[Footnote 157: Burton, "brother-german."]

[Footnote 158: Or "comfort myself in him" (ateazza bihi). Burton
"condole with him [over the past]."]

[Footnote 159: Lit. "hid not unto me that" (ma ekhfa aleyya an).]

[Footnote 160: Night DXVI.]

[Footnote 161: Teaziyeti. Burton, "I have now railed in the mourning

[Footnote 162: El bein ked efjaani fihi, i e. "I have been stricken with
separation from him." Burton, "Far distance wrought me this trouble."]

[Footnote 163: Lit. "the being (el ka'n, i.e. that which is, the
accomplished fact) there is not from it a refuge or place of fleeing"
(mehreb). Burton, "nor hath the creature aught of asylum from the

[Footnote 164: Or "consolation" (azaa).]

[Footnote 165: Burton, "I have none to condole with now save thyself"]

[Footnote 166: Night DXVII.]

[Footnote 167: Burton, "finding out."]

[Footnote 168: Lit. "He had no longer a heart to part with him," i.e..
he could not bear him out of his sight, Alaeddin being necessary for the
achievement of the adventure of the lamp. See post.]

[Footnote 169: El asha. Burton, "the meat."]

[Footnote 170: Lit. "vein" (irc).]

[Footnote 171: Night DXVIII.]

[Footnote 172: Ujoubetu 'l aalem. See ante, p. 32, note. {see FN#95}]

[Footnote 173: Ila biladi 'l gherbi 'l jewwaniy.]

[Footnote 174: Burton, "to the regions of the Setting Sun and abode
for a space of thirty years in the Moroccan interior." See ante, p. 57,
notes. {see FN#154}]

[Footnote 175: Burton adds, "Alone at home."]

[Footnote 176: i.e. birthplace, a child being bow head-foremost.]

[Footnote 177: Burton, "wander like a wild Arab."]

[Footnote 178: Lit. "and "; but this is the error of some copyist, who,
by leaving out an initial l, has turned lau (if) into wa (and).]

[Footnote 179: The first chapter of the Koran; a common usage in
anticipation of travel or indeed before commencing any enterprise of

[Footnote 180: Istehhweda (vulg. for istehhwedha) aleyya. Burton, "of
the pains which prevailed upon me."]

[Footnote 181: Or "succeedeth" (yekklufu). Burton, "the legacy
bequeathed to us by."]

[Footnote 182: Khellefa.]

[Footnote 183: Night DXIX.]

[Footnote 184: Lit. "abide in the subsistence of the like of this one"
(acoumu fi ma"sh mithl hadha). Burton, "go about for a maintenance after
this fashion."]

[Footnote 185: Uhheszszilu ana ma"ski ana buddi men yuayyishani. Burton,
"I am compelled to provide him with daily bread when I require to be

[Footnote 186: Ibn nas generally signifies "a man of good family" (Fr.
fils de famille), but here the sense seems to be as in the text.]

[Footnote 187: Or "constrain not thyself for me," in do not be ashamed
to say what thou wishes", lit. "let it not be hard or grievous upon thee
from or on account of me" (la yesubu aleika minni). Burton, "Let not my
words seem hard and harsh to thee."]

[Footnote 188: Fe-in kana keman (vulg. for kema anna). Burton, "if
despite all I say."]

[Footnote 189: Fi, lit. "in," but here used, as is common in Syria,
instead of bi "with."]

[Footnote 190: Burton, "Shalt become famous among the folk."]

[Footnote 191: Khwaja (Persian).]

[Footnote 192: Tajir (Arabic equivalent of khwaja).]

[Footnote 193: Burton, "that such folk dress handsomely and fare

[Footnote 194: Night DXX.]

[Footnote 195: Lit. "was past" (fata). Burton, "the dark hours were
passing by and the wine was drunken."]

[Footnote 196: Sherab. Burton, "sherbets."]

[Footnote 197: Night DXXI.]

[Footnote 198: Or "places" (amakin).]

[Footnote 199: Or "streets" (mehellat). Burton, "apartments."]

[Footnote 200: i.e. "It is no merit in me that I do what I have done."]

[Footnote 201: Bi-jahi 'l awwelin. Burton, "by the honour of the

[Footnote 202: i.e.. "a protection."]

[Footnote 203: Lit. "that thine eye will be cooled with (or by) him."]

[Footnote 204: Likai yetearrefa fihim wa yetearrefou fihi. This passage
confirms my reading of a former one; see ante, p. 68, note 3. {see

[Footnote 205: Nighs DXXII.]

[Footnote 206: Lit. "believed not what time (ayyumetn) the day broke;"
but ayyumeta (of which ayyumeta is a vulgar corruption) supposes
the future and should be used with the aorist. The phrase, as I have
translated common in the Nights.]

[Footnote 207: Or, "laughing at" (yudsahiku).. Burton, "he began to make
the lad laugh."]

[Footnote 208: Szeraya (for seraya).]

[Footnote 209: Keszr.]

[Footnote 210: Newafir, an evident mistranscription, probably for some
such word as fewawir, irregular form of fewwarat, pl. of fewwareh, a
spring or jet of water.]

[Footnote 211: Burton adds, "and reach the end of our walk."]

[Footnote 212: Jebel aali. Burton, "the base of a high and naked hill."]

[Footnote 213: Lit. "before or in front of a mountain." Burton, "we have
reached the barren hill-country."]

[Footnote 214: Ra'hhin, a vulgarism of frequent occurrence in this

[Footnote 215: Shudd heilek.]

[Footnote 216: Lit. the land of the West (biladu 'l gherb); see ante, p.
57, notes. {see FN#153}]

[Footnote 217: Night DXXIII.]

[Footnote 218: Lit. "without aught" (bilash), i e. without [visible]
cause or reason. Burton, "beyond the range of matter."]

[Footnote 219: Nuhhas szebb (for szebeb min er) reml, lit. "brass poured
[forth from] sand," i.e. cast in a mould of sand. Cf. 1 Kings, vii 16,
"two chapiters of molten brass."]

[Footnote 220: Dir balek, lit. "turn thy thought (i.e. be attentive)
[Footnote to that which I shall say to thee]."]

[Footnote 221: Night DXXIV.]

[Footnote 222: Lit. "pass not by" (la tuferwwit). Burton, "nor

[Footnote 223: Yani li-min (vulg. for tani li-men), i.e. on whose behalf
do I undertake all these my toils?]

[Footnote 224: Lit. "leave"; but the verb khella (II. of khela is
constantly used in the present text in the sense of "he made."]

[Footnote 225: There is some mistake here in the text. The word which
I translate "great" is akabir (pl. of akber, most great), apparently
inserted by mistake for kebir, great. But that akabir is followed by
jiddan (exceedingly), I should be inclined to read the phrase [kebiru
'l] akabir, greatest of the great.]

[Footnote 226: Wehdi, lit. "my lone," a Scotch expression, which might
be usefully acclimatized in English prose and verse.]

[Footnote 227: Night DXXV.]

[Footnote 228: Or "pay attention," dir (vulg. for adir) balek. See ante,
p. 78, note. {see FN#220}]

[Footnote 229: Lit. "a place divided into four places" I take the
variant aweds, chambers. from Chavis's copy of the MS., as quoted by M.

[Footnote 230: Liwan, i.e. an estrade or recessed room, raised above the
level of the ground and open in front.]

[Footnote 231: Lit. "in it" (fihi); but the meaning is as in the text,
i.e. connected with it or leading thereto. This reading is confirmed by
the terms in which the stair is afterwards mentioned, q.v. post, p. 83,
and note. {see FN#235}]

[Footnote 232: Night DXXVI.]

[Footnote 233: Ubb. Burton, "breast-pocket," the usual word for which
is jeib. Ubb is occasionally used in this sense; but it is evident from
what follows (see post, p. 85. {see FN#243} "Alaeddin proceeded to pluck
and put in his pockets (ajyab, pl. of jeib), and his sleeves" (ibab),
and note) that ubb is here used in the common sense of "sleeve."]

[Footnote 234: i.e. "that which is in the lamp."]

[Footnote 235: Burton transposes, "where he entered the saloon and
mounted the ladder;" but the context shows that the stair was a flight
of steps leading up to the dais and not a ladder in it. The word fihi in
the magician's instructions might indeed be taken in this latter sense,
but may just as well be read "thereto" or "pertaining thereto" as
"therein." See also below, where Alaeddin is made to descend from the
dais into the garden.]

[Footnote 236: Lit. voices (aswat). Burton, "fond voices"]

[Footnote 237: Burton, "Furthermore the size of each stone so far
surpassed description that no king of the kings of the world owned a
single gem of the larger sort."]

[Footnote 238: Night DXXVII.]

[Footnote 239: Toubasi. I insert this from the Chavis MS. Burton adds,
"spinels and balasses."]

[Footnote 240: Ibab.]

[Footnote 241: Ubb.]

[Footnote 242: Ajyab, pl. of jeib, the bosom of a shirt, hence a breast
or other pocket.]

[Footnote 243: Ibab. Burton, "pokes and breast-pockets."]

[Footnote 244: The possession of the lamp rendering him superior to the
spells by which they were enchanted.]

[Footnote 245: Burton says here, "The text creates some confusion by
applying sullem to staircase and ladder; hence probably the latter is
not mentioned by Galland and Co., who speak only of an 'escalier de
cinquante marches.'" As far as I can see, Galland was quite right, a
staircase (and not a ladder) being, in my judgment, meant in each case,
and Sir Richard Burton's translation of sullem min thelathin derejeh as
"a ladder of thirty rungs" (see ante p. 82, note {see FN#231}) seems to
me founded on a misconception, he being misled by the word "fihi" (see
my note ante, p. 83 {see FN#235}). He adds, "sullem in modern Egyptian
is used for a flight of steps;" but it signifies both "ladder" and
"flight of steps" in the classic tongue; see Lane, p. 1416, colt 2,
"sullem, a ladder or a series of stairs or steps, either of wood or
clay, etc." His remark would apply better to derej (class. "a way," but
in modern parlance "a ladder" or "staircase" which the story-teller uses
interchangeably with sullem, in speaking of the stair leading down
into the underground, thus showing that he considered the two words

[Footnote 246: Akyas. This is the first mention of purses.]

[Footnote 247: Lit. "without" (kharijan).]

[Footnote 248: Burton, "Forasmuch as he had placed it at the bottom
of his breast-pocket and his other pockets being full of gems bulged

[Footnote 249: Night DXXVIII.]

[Footnote 250: Lit. "was locked," inkefelet, but I take this to be a
mistranscription of inkelebet, "was turned over."]

[Footnote 251: Lit. "was covered over, shut like a lid" (intebeket).]

[Footnote 252: Tebbeca, i.e. caused (by his enchantments) to become
covered or closed up like a lid.]

[Footnote 253: Ifrikiyeh, see ante, p. 57, note 1. {see FN#153} Here the
story-teller takes the province for a city.]

[Footnote 254: Burton adds, "by devilish inspiration."]

[Footnote 255: Wa [kan] el aghreb an fi hadha 'l kenz [kana]. Burton
"the most marvellous article in this treasure was, etc."]

[Footnote 256: Kendil ajib.]

[Footnote 257: Night DXXIX.]

[Footnote 258: A proverbial expression, meaning that, as he did not
absolutely kill Alaeddin, though doing what was (barring a miracle)
certain to cause his death, he could not be said to be his slayer; a
piece of casuistry not peculiar to the East, cf. the hypocritical show
of tenderness with which the Spanish Inquisition was wont, when handing
over a victim to the secular power for execution by burning alive, to
recommend that there should be "no effusion of blood." It is possible,
however, that the proverb is to be read in the sense of "He who is
destined to live cannot be slain."]

[Footnote 259: i.e. with the contents of the chambers and the garden.]

[Footnote 260: Night DXXX.]

[Footnote 261: Lit. rubbing in or upon.]

[Footnote 262: Lit. "The Quickener, the Deadener" (el muhheyyi, el
mumit), two of the ninety-nine names of God.]

[Footnote 263: Or "Judge" (cadsi).]

[Footnote 264: Farijuha. Burton, "Bringer of joy not of annoy."]

[Footnote 265: i.e. Mohammed's.]

[Footnote 266: Lit. a servant or slave, i.e. that of the ring. Burton,
"its Familiar."]

[Footnote 267: i.e. Solomon.]

[Footnote 268: See my Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night, Vol. 1.
p 33, note. {see Payne's Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night, Vol.
1 FN#16}]

[Footnote 269: Night DXXXI.]

[Footnote 270: Night DXXXII.]

[Footnote 271: i.e.. in all the registers of men's actions fabled to be
kept in heaven.]

[Footnote 272: Lit. "see the accursed his duplicity and his promises
that he promised me withal in that he would do all good with me."
Burton, "see how the dammed villain broke every promise he made,
certifying that he would soon work all good with me."]

[Footnote 273: Lit. "on account of my pain therefrom when I was absent
from the world."]

[Footnote 274: Hatha 'l metleb li, lit. "this quest (or object of quest)
[was] mine (or for me)." Metleb is often used in the special technical
sense of "buried treasure."]

[Footnote 275: Night DXXXIII.]

[Footnote 276: Bustan.]

[Footnote 277: Bilaur.]

[Footnote 278: Keszr, instead of liwan (dais), as in previous

[Footnote 279: Keisan. Burton, "bag-pockets."]

[Footnote 280: Lit. "without" (kharij).]

[Footnote 281: Aadim, present participle of adima, he lacked.]

[Footnote 282: Night DXXXIV.]

[Footnote 283: Lit. the pre-eminence (el fedsl).]

[Footnote 284: Thani youm, Burton, "the second day," which, though
literal, conveys a false impression.]

[Footnote 285: Night DXXXV.]

[Footnote 286: Or "beyond desire" (fauca 'l khatir), i.e. inconceivably
good. Burton, "beyond our means."]

[Footnote 287: It is a favourite device with Oriental cooks to colour
dishes (especially those which contain rice) in various ways, so as to
please the eye as well as the palate.]

[Footnote 288: Lit. "black bottles" (museunvedetein). Burton, "black

[Footnote 289: Zekiyyeh (pure) for dhekiyyeh (strong, sharp, pungent), a
common vulgar corruption.]

[Footnote 290: Burton, "wherewith Allah Almighty hath eased our

[Footnote 291: Elladhi iftekeda juana. Burton, "who hath abated our
hunger pains."]

[Footnote 292: Lit. "we are under his benefit."]

[Footnote 293: Hhizana for hhezzaza?]

[Footnote 294: Lit. "whet proceeded from."]

[Footnote 295: Lit. "but" (lakin for Iekan, "then").]

[Footnote 296: Keif dhalik. Lit. "How this?" Burton, "Who may this be?"]

[Footnote 297: Night DXXXVI.]

[Footnote 298: i.e. the Jinn of the lamp and the ring.]

[Footnote 299: Apparently referring to chap. xxiii, verses 99, l00,
of the Koran, "Say, 'Lord, I take refuge in Thee from the suggestions
of the devils, and I take refuge in thee, Lord, that (i.e. Iest) they
appear!'" Mohammed is fabled by Muslim theologians to have made a
compact with the Jinn that they should not enter the houses of the
faithful unless expressly summoned..]

[Footnote 300: i.e. "I am, in general, ready to obey all thy

[Footnote 301: i.e. the lamp.]

[Footnote 302: Lit. "uses," "advantages" (menafi).]

[Footnote 303: Referring, of course, to the slave of the lamp.]

[Footnote 304: Night DXXXVII.]

[Footnote 305: Lit. "saw."]

[Footnote 306: Afterwards "silver"; see pp. 108 and l10.]

[Footnote 307: A carat is generally a twenty-fourth part of a diner,
i.e. about 5d.; but here it appears to be a sixtieth part or about 2d.
Burton, "A copper carat, a bright polished groat."]

[Footnote 308: Lit. "to the contrary of him" (ila khilafihi). See ante,
p. 55, note 4. {see FN#145}]

[Footnote 309: Night DXXXVIII.]

[Footnote 310: Kenani, pl. of kinnineh, a bottle or phial.]

[Footnote 311: i.e. the genie.]

[Footnote 312: Night DXXXIX.]

[Footnote 313: Ala kedhum. Burton, "after their olden fashion."]

[Footnote 314: Lit. "[in] middling case" (halet[an] mustewessitet[an]).
Burton translates, "as middle-class folk," adding in a note, "a phrase
that has a European touch."]

[Footnote 315: Burton adds, "on diet."]

[Footnote 316: "Er rijal el kamiloun," lit. "complete men." Burton, "good
men and true."]

[Footnote 317: Bedsa'a. Burton, "investments,"]

[Footnote 318: Keisein. Burton, "his pockets."]

[Footnote 319: Lit. "neck." The Muslims fable that all will appear at
the Day of Resurrection with their good and evil actions in visible form
fastened about their necks. "And each man, we constrain him to carry his
actions (ta'r, lit. bird, i.e. fortune as told by augury from the flight
of birds, according to the method so much in favour with the ancients,
but interpreted by the scholiasts as 'actions,' each man's actions
being, according to them, the cause of his good and evil fortune,
happiness or misery), on (or about,.fi) his neck."--Koran, xvii, 14.]

[Footnote 320: Night DXL]

[Footnote 321: An idiomatic expression, equivalent to our vulgar English
phrase, "He was struck all of a heap."]

[Footnote 322: Beszireh, mental (as opposed to bodily) vision.]

[Footnote 323: Night DXLI.]

[Footnote 324: Gheramuha.]

[Footnote 325: Lit. "be rightly guided," "return to the right way."]

[Footnote 326: Heds, Syrian for hheds.]

[Footnote 327: i.e.. if thou be in earnest.]

[Footnote 328: Aamin. Burton, "fonder and more faithful."]

[Footnote 329: Night DXLII.]

[Footnote 330: Lit. "blood of my liver."]

[Footnote 331: i.e. the bride's parents.]

[Footnote 332: Burton, "Also who shall ask her to wife for the son of a

[Footnote 333: Night DXLIII.]

[Footnote 334: Lit. "near and far," the great being near to the king's
dignity, and the small far from it.]

[Footnote 335: Lit. "before" (cuddam).]

[Footnote 336: Lit. "thou art not of its measure or proportion" (kedd).]

[Footnote 337: Ijreker ti bi 'l hhecc. Burton. "thou hast reminded me

[Footnote 338: Night DXLIV.]

[Footnote 339: Kiyas, a mistake for akyas, pl. of keis, a purse.]

[Footnote 340: Lit. "So, an thou wilt, burden thy mind (i.e. give
thyself the trouble, kellifi khatiraki,) and with us [is] a China dish;
rise and come to me with it." Kellifi (fem.) khatiraki is an idiomatic
expression equivalent to the French, "donnez-vous (or prenez) la peine"
and must be taken in connection with what follows, i.e. give yourself
the trouble to rise and bring me, etc. (prenez la peine de vous lever
et de m'apporter, etc.). Burton, "Whereupon, an-thou please, compose thy
mind. We have in our house a bowl of china porcelain: so arise thou and
fetch it."]

[Footnote 341: Lit. "were not equal to one quarter of a carat," i.e. a
ninety-sixth part, "carat" being here used in its technical sense of a
twenty-fourth part of anything.]

[Footnote 342: Kellifi khatiraki (prenez la peine) as before. Burton,
"Compose thy thoughts."]

[Footnote 343: Night DXLV.]

[Footnote 344: Elladhi hu alan ca'm bi maashina. Burton, "Ere this thou
hast learned, O mother mine, that the Lamp which we possess hath become
to us a stable income."]

[Footnote 345: Or "pay attention" (diri balek); see ante, pp. 78 and 81.
{see FN#220 and FN#228}]

[Footnote 346: Minhu. Burton translates, "for that 'tis of him," and
says, in a note, "Here the MS. text is defective, the allusion is, I
suppose, to the Slave of the Lamp." I confess I do not see the defect of
which he speaks. Alaeddin of course refers to the lamp and reminds his
mother that the prosperity they enjoy "is (i.e. arises) from it."]

[Footnote 347: Lit. "completed," "fully constituted."]

[Footnote 348: The attitude implied in the word mutekettif and
obligatory in presence of a superior, i.e. that of a schoolboy in

[Footnote 349: Or "complainants," "claimants."]

[Footnote 350: Fi teriketihi, apparently meaning "in its turn." Burton,
"Who (i.e. the Sultan) delivered sentence after his wonted way."]

[Footnote 351: Night DXLVI.]

[Footnote 352: Illezemet. Burton, "she determined."]

[Footnote 353: Lit. "the Divan;" but the door of the presence-chamber is
meant, as appears by the sequel.]

[Footnote 354: Burton, "and when it was shut, she would go to make sure

[Footnote 355: Muddeh jumah. Burton, "the whole month."]

[Footnote 356: Burton, "come forward."]

[Footnote 357: Burton, "levee days"]

[Footnote 358: Izar. Burton, "mantilla."]

[Footnote 359: Here the copyist, by the mistaken addition of fe (so),
transfers the "forthright" to the Vizier's action of submission to the
Sultan's order.]

[Footnote 360: Night DXLVII.]

[Footnote 361: I have arranged this passage a little, to make it read
intelligibly. In the original it runs thus, "Alaeddin's mother, whenas
she took a wont and became every Divan-day going and standing in
the Divan before the Sultan, withal that she was dejected, wearying
exceedingly, but for Alaeddin's sake, her son, she used to make light of
all weariness."]

[Footnote 361: Aman; i.e. promise or assurance of indemnity, permission
to speak freely, without fear of consequences.]

[Footnote 362: Aman in secondary sense of "protection" or "safeguard."]

[Footnote 363: i.e. I pardon thee, under God, ("then I" being
understood). The right of pardon residing with God, the pious Muslim can
only say, "God pardon thee first and then I pardon thee."]

[Footnote 364: Burton, "shun the streets."]

[Footnote 365: Arad. Burton, "felt an uncontrollable longing."]

[Footnote 366: Or "food (aish, bread) hath not been pleasant (or had any
savour) for him."]

[Footnote 367: Seadetuk, lit. "thy felicity;" this and jenabuk (lit.
"thy side"), "thine excellence" or "thy highness," and hhedsretuk "thy
highness," (lit. "thy presence") are the titles commonly given to kings
in Arabic-speaking countries, although hhedsretuk is strictly applicable
only to the Prophet and other high spiritual dignitaries. They are
often, but erroneously, rendered "thy majesty"; a title which does not
exist in the East and which is, as is well known to students of history,
of comparatively recent use in Europe.]

[Footnote 368: Lit, "having regard to his clemency, he took to laughing
and asked her." Burton, "He regarded her with kindness, and laughing
cloud, asked her."]

[Footnote 369: Surreh, lit. purse and by extension, as here, anything
tied up in bag-shape.]

[Footnote 370: Night DXLVIII.]

[Footnote 371: Lit. "Be clement unto me, Thy Grace promised me."]

[Footnote 372: Lit. "Forbearance (hhilm, clemency, longanimity, delay
in requiting an evil-doer) is incumbent from thine exalted highness unto
(ila) three months."]

[Footnote 373: Aatsem melik, an ungrammatical construction of common
occurrence in the present MS., properly aatsemu 'l mulouk.]

[Footnote 374: Syn. "his clemency required."]

[Footnote 375: i.e. shall be reserved for him alone.]

[Footnote 376: i.e. the marriage trousseau.]

[Footnote 377: Lit. "Except that, O my son, the Vizier bespoke him a
privy word (kelam sirriyy) ere he promised me; then, after the Vizier
bespoke him a word privily (sirran), he promised me to (ila) three

[Footnote 378: Lit. an ill presence (mehhdser sau). This expression
has occurred before in the Nights, where I have, in deference to
the authority of the late M. Dozy (the greatest Arabic scholar since
Silvestre de Sacy) translated it "a compend of ill," reading the second
word as pointed with dsemmeh (i.e. sou, evil, sub.) instead of with
fetheh (i.e. sau, evil, adj.), although in such a case the strict rules
of Arabic grammar require sou to be preceded by the definite article
(i.e. mehhdseru's sou). However, the context and the construction of the
phrase, in which the present example of the expression occurs, seem to
show that it is not here used in this sense.]

[Footnote 379: Night DXLIX.]

[Footnote 380: Lit. (as before) "promised her to" (ila).]

[Footnote 381: Lit. "to" (ila), as before.]

[Footnote 382: i.e. the delay.]

[Footnote 383: Lit. "he thanked his mother and thought (or made) much
of her goodness (istekthera bi-kheiriha, a common modern expression,
signifying simply 'he thanked her') for her toil." Burton, "Then he
thanked his parent, showing her how her good work had exceeded her toil
and travail "]

[Footnote 384: Lit. "Wonder took her at this wonder and the decoration."
Burton amplifies, "She wondered at the marvellous sight and the glamour
of the scene." Me judice, to put it in the vernacular, she simply
wondered what the dickens it was all about.]

[Footnote 385: Min wectiha. Burton, "And for some time, O my son, I have
suspected." See ante, p. 134. {see FN#378}]

[Footnote 386: Lit. "fever seized him of his chagrin."]

[Footnote 387: Night DL.]

[Footnote 388: Lit. "promised me to" (ila), as before.]

[Footnote 389: Eshaa; or, if we take the word as pointed with kesreh
(i.e. ishaa), we may read, with Burton, "to pass the rest of the
evening," though this expression seems to me hardly in character with
the general tone of the MS.]

[Footnote 390: Musterah.]

[Footnote 391: Sic (el gheir).]

[Footnote 392: Night DLI.]

[Footnote 393: Min doun khiyaneh i.e. without offering her any affront.
Burton, "and he did no villain deed."]

[Footnote 394: Galland adds, "et passe dans une garde-robe o--il s'etoit
deshabille le soir." Something of the kind appears to have dropped out
of the present MS.]

[Footnote 395: Night DLII.]

[Footnote 396: Lit. "with the eye of anger." Ghedseb (anger) and its
synonym ghaits are frequently used in the Nights in this sense; see
especially Vol. II. of my translation, p. 234, "she smiled a sad smile,"
lit. a "smile of anger," (twice) and p. 258, "my anguish redoubled,"
lit. "I redoubled in anger."]

[Footnote 397: Wesikh. Burton, "fulsome."]

[Footnote 398: Night DLIII.]

[Footnote 399: Diri balek an [la]. Burton, "compose thy thoughts. If,
etc." See ante, passim.]

[Footnote 400: Sic.]

[Footnote 401: Kedhebaka.]

[Footnote 402: i.e. that which he derived from such an alliance.]

[Footnote 403: Lit. "Wretches" (mesakin).]

[Footnote 404: Night DLIV.]

[Footnote 405: Inketaet (lit. "she was cut or broken") min el khauf.
Burton, "She was freed from her fear of the past."]

[Footnote 406: Or "honoured" (azlz)]

[Footnote 407: i.e. "in my behaviour to thee."]

[Footnote 408: Kema akedu min mehebbetika li. Burton, "even as I claim
of thee affection for thy child."]

[Footnote 409: Night DLV.]

[Footnote 410: Hhashaha min el kidhb; lit. "Except her from lying!"
Hhasha (which commonly signifies, "Far be it," "God forbid!") is here
used in a somewhat unusual manner. The sense seems to be, "God forbid
that the Lady Bedrulbudour should be suspected of lying! "]

[Footnote 411: Or "shrunken" (kusziret). Burton, "bursten."]

[Footnote 412: Or "honoured" (aziz).]

[Footnote 413: Night DLVI.]

[Footnote 414: Lit. "how [was] the device therein;" i.e how he should
do for an expedient thereanent. Burton, "the device whereby he should
manage it."]

[Footnote 415: Or "called upon" (nedeh).]

[Footnote 416: El ashreh [mubeshshereh understood], "the ten [who were
rejoiced with glad tidings]," i.e. ten of Mohammed's companions
(Abou Bekr, Omar, Othman, Ali, Telheh, Zubeir, Saad ibn Abi Weccas,
Abdurrehman ibn Auf, Abou Ubeideh ibnu'l Jerrah and Said ibn Zeid), to
whom (and to whom alone) he is said to have promised certain entrance
into Paradise. They are accordingly considered to have pre-eminence over
the Prophet's other disciples and are consequently often invoked by the
less orthodox Muslims as intercessors with him, much after the fashion
of the Quatuordecim Adjutores, the Fourteen Helpers [in time of need],
(i.e. Saints Catherine, Margaret, Barbara, Pantaleon, Vitus, Eustace,
Blase, Gregory, Nicholas, Erasmus, Giles, George, Leonard and
Christopher) of Romish hagiology.]

[Footnote 417: i.e the marriage of his son to the Sultan's daughter.
Burton, "it having been a rare enjoyment to him that he had fallen upon
such high good fortune."]

[Footnote 418: Lit. "marriage," i.e. "wedding festivities are out of
place." The word (zijeh) here used is a dialectic (Syrian) variant of
zewaj, marriage. Burton, "we require no delay,"]

[Footnote 419: Lit. "the lord (i.e. he) of the suit or claim" (sahibu 'd

[Footnote 420: Or "inestimable," lit. "might not be measured by (or
appraised at) a price or value." Burton, "far beyond his power to pay
the price."]

[Footnote 421: Lit. "How is the management or contrivance (tedbir) with
thee?" i.e. "canst thou suggest to us any expedient?"]

[Footnote 422: Night DLVII.]

[Footnote 423: Burton adds, "speaking privily."]

[Footnote 424: Or perhaps, "we may with impunity rebut," etc.]

[Footnote 425: Gherib, lit. a stranger, an exile, but vulg. by
extension, a poor, homeless wretch.]

[Footnote 426: i.e Alaeddin's mother.]

[Footnote 427: Lit. "that day."]

[Footnote 428: Fr. "... l'aimable." Lit. "by a way or means"
(bi-terikeh). It may be we should read bi [hatheti'll] terikeh, "by
[this] means;" but the rendering in the text seems the more probable
one, the Sultan meaning that he would thus get rid of Alaeddin's
importunity by practice, without open breach of faith or violence.]

[Footnote 429: Night DLVIII.]

[Footnote 430: Lit. "Burden thyself (prenez la peine) and rise",
(kellifi khatiraki, etc., as before).]

[Footnote 431: Here szewani (trays) instead of, as before, szuhoun

[Footnote 432: Night DLIX.]

[Footnote 433: i.e. "look with open eyes"]

[Footnote 434: En nuwwab, i.e. those whose turn it was to be on guard.]

[Footnote 435: Need (lit. coin), a vulgar Syrian corruption of neket,
customary gift of money or otherwhat to a bride on the marriage-day.]

[Footnote 436: The whole of the foregoing passage is so confused that I
think it well to add here (l) a literal translation, as I read it: "So
the Vizier, yea, indeed, he marvelled at the greatness of that wealth
more than the Sultan, but envy was killing him and waxed on him more and
more when he saw the Sultan that he was satisfied with (or accepted of)
the bride-gift and the dowry; however, it was not possible to him that
he should gainsay the truth and should say to the Sultan, 'He is not
worthy;' only, he practised with a device upon the Sultan so he should
not let him give his daughter the Lady Bedrulbudour to Alaeddin, and
this [Footnote was] that he said to him, etc,"--and also (2) the
version given by Sir K. F. Burton, who takes a different view of the
passage: "Then the Minister (although he marvelled at these riches
even more than did the Sultan), whose envy was killing him and growing
greater hour by hour, seeing his liege lord satisfied with the moneys
and the dower and yet being unable to fight against fact, made answer,
'Tis not worthy of her.' Withal he fell to devising a device against the
King, that he might withhold the Lady Badr-al-Budur from Alaeddin, and
accordingly he continued, etc."]

[Footnote 437: Or "in comparison with her" (ent hhedsretuk istatsemet
hatha aleiha). This is an ambiguous passage and should perhaps be read,
"Thou magnifiest this (i.e. the gift) over her."]

[Footnote 438: Night DLX.]

[Footnote 439: Lit. "swiftly, the winds overtook her not."]

[Footnote 440: Aksen. Burton, "more suitable to thee."]

[Footnote 441: Kethir[an]. Burton, "And right soon (Inshallah!) O my
daughter, thou shalt have fuller joy with him."]

[Footnote 442: Muebbed. Burton, "alone."]

[Footnote 443: Sic (kum),]

[Footnote 444: Or "commission" (mishwar).]

[Footnote 445: Bekia ma bekia hatha shey aleik, lit. "remaineth what remaineth
this is a thing upon (or for) thee." Burton, "Happen whatso may happen;
the rest is upon thy shoulders." The first bekia is perhaps used in the
common colloquial sense of "then."]

[Footnote 446: Shekeraha wa istekthera bi-kheiriha. See ante, p. 155,
note 3. Burton, "enhancing her kindly service."]

[Footnote 447: Surname of the ancient Kings of Persia, vulg. Chosroes.]

[Footnote 448: Night DLXI.]

[Footnote 449: Lit. "the."]

[Footnote 450: Burton, "the costliest of clothes."]

[Footnote 451: Generally that of aloes-wood.]

[Footnote 452: Quoth Shehrzad to Shehriyar.]

[Footnote 453: Yetsunnuhu; quare a clerical error for yentsuruku ("had
seen him" )?]

[Footnote 454: i.e. male white slaves (memlouk, whence our "mameluke,"
sing. for plural memalik).]

[Footnote 455: Lit. "and let there be with each slave-girl a suit, etc."
Burton "And let every handmaid be robed in raiment that befitteth queens
wearing." The twelve suits of clothes to be brought by the slave-girls
were of course intended for the wearing of Alaeddin's mother; see post,
p. 167. {see FN#457 in text}]

[Footnote 456: i.e. the genuine Arabs of the unmixed blood.]

[Footnote 457: See ante, p. 166, note 2. {see FN#455}]

[Footnote 458: Likai telbesa (tetelebbesa?) hiya. Burton, "she should

[Footnote 459: Sic, the meaning seeming to be that kings' sons were out
of comparison with Alaeddin, as who should say (in Cockney parlance)
"Don't talk to me about kings' sons."]

[Footnote 460: Lit. "upon."]

[Footnote 461: El kendil el ajib.]

[Footnote 462: Syn. "old and young."]

[Footnote 463: Night DLXII.]

[Footnote 464: Ictedsa an tesmuha li bi, lit. "decided (or demanded)
that thou be bountiful to (or grace) me with;" but icledsa is here used
in the colloquial sense of "willed, vouchsafed."]

[Footnote 465: i.e. that of his tongue, lit. "its bounds or reach"
(kheddahu). Burton, "passing all measure."]

[Footnote 466: Lit. "acquired, gotten, come by thee" (khetsitu bika).]

[Footnote 467: Night DLXIII.]

[Footnote 468: Nuweb (properly naubat).]

[Footnote 469: Musica.]

[Footnote 470: Acamou el fereh el atsim. Burton, "a mighty fine
marriage-feast was dispread in the palace."]

[Footnote 471: Muashir.]

[Footnote 472: Netser.]

[Footnote 473: Lit. "but the behoving on me for her service engageth (or
enforceth) me to apply myself hereunto."]

[Footnote 474: i.e. at thy disposition.]

[Footnote 475: Night DLXIV.]

[Footnote 476: Tebakhin. Burton, "kitcheners."]

[Footnote 477: Keszr.]

[Footnote 478: Wa, but quaere au ("or")?]

[Footnote 479: Kushk.]

[Footnote 480: The description of the famous upper hall with the
four-and-twenty windows is one of the most contused and incoherent parts
of the Nights and well-nigh defies the efforts of the translator to
define the exact nature of the building described by the various and
contradictory passages which refer to it. The following is a literal
rendering of the above passage: "An upper chamber (keszr) and (or?) a
kiosk (kushk, a word explained by a modern Syrian dictionary as meaning
'[a building] like a balcony projecting from the level of the rest of
the house,' but by others as an isolated building or pavilion erected
on the top of a house, i.e. a keszr, in its classical meaning of 'upper
chamber,' in which sense Lane indeed gives it as synonymous with the
Turkish koushk, variant kushk,) with four-and-twenty estrades (liwan, a
raised recess, generally a square-shaped room, large or small, open on
the side facing the main saloon), all of it of emeralds and rubies and
other jewels, and one estrade its kiosk was not finished." Later on,
when the Sultan visits the enchanted palace for the first time, Alaeddin
"brought him to the high kiosk and he looked at the belvedere (teyyareh,
a square or round erection on the top of a house, either open at the
sides or pierced with windows, =our architectural term 'lantern') and
its casements (shebabik, pl. of shubbak, a window formed of grating or
lattice-work) and their lattices (she"ri for she"rir, pl. of sheriyyeh,
a lattice), all wroughten of emeralds and rubies and other than it of
precious jewels." The Sultan "goes round in the kiosk" and seeing "the
casement (shubbak), which Alaeddin had purposely left defective, without
completion," said to the Vizier, "Knowest thou the reason (or cause) of
the lack of completion of this casement and its lattices?" (shearihi, or
quaere, "[this] lattice," the copyist having probably omitted by mistake
the diacritical points over the final ha). Then he asked Alaeddin, "What
is the cause that the lattice of yonder kiosk (kushk) is not complete?"
The defective part is soon after referred to, no less than four times,
as "the lattice of the kiosk" (sheriyyetu 'l kushk), thus showing that,
in the writer's mind, kushk, liwan and shubbak were synonymous terms for
the common Arab projecting square-sided window, made of latticework,
and I have therefore rendered the three words, when they occur in this
sense, by our English "oriel," to whose modern meaning (a window that
juts out, so as to form a small apartment), they exactly correspond.
Again, in the episode of the Maugrabin's brother, the princess shows the
latter (disguised as Fatimeh) "the belvedere (teyyarrh) and the kiosk
(kushk) of jewels, the which [was] with (i.e. had) the four-and-twenty
portals" (mejouz, apparently a Syrian variant of mejaz, lit. a place of
passage, but by extension a porch, a gallery, an opening, here (and here
only) used by synecdoche for the oriel itself), and the famous roe's
egg is proposed to be suspended from "the dome (cubbeh) of the upper
chamber" (el keszr el faucaniyy), thus showing that the latter was
crowned with a dome or cupola. It is difficult to extricate the author's
exact meaning from the above tangle of confused references; but, as far
as can be gathered. in the face of the carelessness with which the text
treats kushk as synonymous now with keszr or teyyareh and now with liwan
or shubbak, it would seem that what is intended to be described is a
lofty hall (or sorer), erected on the roof of the palace, whether round
or square we cannot tell, but crowned with a dome or cupola and having
four-and-twenty deep projecting windows or oriels, the lattice or
trellis-work of which latter was formed (instead of the usual wood) of
emeralds, rubies and other jewels, strung, we may suppose, upon rods of
gold or other metal I have, at the risk of wearying my reader, treated
this point at some length, as well because it is an important one as to
show the almost insuperable difficulties that beset the. conscientious
translator at well-nigh every page of such works as the "Book of the
Thousand Nights and One Night."]

[Footnote 481: Night DLXV.]

[Footnote 482: The text has imar (an inhabited country), an evident
mistake for emair (buildings).]

[Footnote 483: Night DLXVI.]

[Footnote 484: Atsm sekhahu. Burton. "his dignity was enhanced."]

[Footnote 485: Or "imitate" (yetemathelou bihi). Burton, "which are such
as are served to the kings."]

[Footnote 486: Night DLXVII.]

[Footnote 487: Wectu 'l asr, i.e. midway between noon and nightfall.]

[Footnote 488: Lit. "was broken" (inkeseret).]

[Footnote 489: Burton, "with the jerid," but I find no mention of this
in the text. The word used (le'ba, lit. "he played") applies to all
kinds of martial exercises; it may also mean simply, "caracoling."]

[Footnote 490: See ante, p. 167, note 1. {see FN#456}]

[Footnote 491: Or "turns" (adwar).]

[Footnote 492: El hemmam a sultaniyy el meshhour. Burton, "the royal
Hammam (known as the Sult ni)."]

[Footnote 493: Muhliyat. Burton, "sugared drinks."]

[Footnote 494: Night DLXVIII.]

[Footnote 495: Keszriha. Burton, "her bower in the upper story."]

[Footnote 496: Lit. "changed the robes (khila) upon her." For the
ceremony of displaying (or unveiling) the bride, see my "Book of the
Thousand Nights and One Night," Vol. I. pp. 192 et seq., and "Tales from
the Arabic," Vol. III. pp. 189 et seq.]

[Footnote 497: Meshghoul.]

[Footnote 498: Keszr.]

[Footnote 499: Szeraya, properly serayeh.]

[Footnote 500: i.e. Alexander the Great; see my "Book of the Thousand
Nights and One Night," Vol. V. p. 6, note.]

[Footnote 501: Night DLXIX.]

[Footnote 502: Henahu.]

[Footnote 503: Fetour, the slight meal eaten immediately on rising,
answering to the French "premier dejeuner," not the "morning-meal"
(gheda), eaten towards noon and answering to the French "dejeuner... la

[Footnote 504: Gheda.]

[Footnote 505: Tekerrum (inf. of V of kerem), lit. "being liberal to any
one." here an idiomatic form of assent expressing condescension on the
part of a superior. Such at least is the explanation of the late Prof.
Dozy; but I should myself incline to read tukremu (second person
sing. aorist passive of IV), i.e. "Thou art accorded [that which thou

[Footnote 506: Indhehela.]

[Footnote 507: Or "upper hall, gallery." Lit. "kiosk." See ante, p.l75,
note 4. {see FN#480}]

[Footnote 508: Teyyareh. See ante, l.c. The etymology of this word is
probably [caah] teyyareh, "a flying [saloon]."]

[Footnote 509: Shebabik, pl. of shubbak; see ante, l.c.]

[Footnote 510: Sheari, see ante, l.c.]

[Footnote 511: Shubbak.]

[Footnote 512: Night DLXX.]

[Footnote 513: Lit. "kiosk" (kushk); see ante, p. 175, note 4.{see

[Footnote 514: Ma lehiket el muallimin (objective for nom. muallimoun,
as usual in this text) an.]

[Footnote 515: Yebca lika dhikra. Burton, "So shall thy memory endure."]

[Footnote 516: Lit. "kiosk."]

[Footnote 517: ? (teba'kh).]

[Footnote 518: Or "melodious."]

[Footnote 519: El kelb el hhezin.]

[Footnote 520: i.e. "might not avail unto."]

[Footnote 521: Muhlivat, as before; see ante. p. 183, note 2. {see

[Footnote 522: Szeraya.]

[Footnote 523: Night DLXXI.]

[Footnote 524: Sheriyyetu 'l kushk.]

[Footnote 525: Lit. "the lattice of the kiosk which (i.e. the lattice)
is lacking or imperfect." The adjective (nakiszeh) is put in the
feminine, to agree with "lattice" (sheriyyeh), which is femminine, kiosk
(kushk) being masculine.]

[Footnote 526: Kushk.]

[Footnote 527: She"rihi.]

[Footnote 528: Et tewashiyy, a term here used for the first time in the
present text, where we generally find the Turkish Aga in this sense.]

[Footnote 529: Night DLXXII.]

[Footnote 530: Lit. "kiosk" (kushk).]

[Footnote 531: Fi szerayyetika.]

[Footnote 532: Szeraya.]

[Footnote 533: Lit. "that I was not lacking in ableness to complete

[Footnote 534: Kushk, here used in sense of "belvedere."]

[Footnote 535: Or "upper chamber" (keszr).]

[Footnote 536: Kushk. From this passage it would seem as if the
belvedere actually projected from the side of the upper story or soler
(keszr), instead of being built on the roof, lantern-wise, or being (as
would appear from earlier passages) identical with the hall itself, but
the whole description is as before remarked. so full of incoherence
and confusion of terms that it is impossible to reconcile its

[Footnote 537: Lit. "a brother resembling thee."]

[Footnote 538: Lit. "he increased (or exceeded) in the salaries (or
allowances) of the poor and the indigent" (zada fi jewanicki 'l fukera
wa 'l mesakin). Jewamek is an Arabicized Persian word, here signifying
systematic or regular almsgivings.]

[Footnote 539: Kull muddeh.]

[Footnote 540: Labu 'l andab, lit. "arrow-play."]

[Footnote 541: Night DLXXIII.]

[Footnote 542: Szerayeh.]

[Footnote 543: Keszr.]

[Footnote 544: Burton adds, "and confections."]

[Footnote 545: Lit. "he set them down the stablest or skilfullest
(mustehhkem) setting down."]

[Footnote 546: Hherrem, i.e. arranged them, according to the rules of
the geomantic art.]

[Footnote 547: Netsera jeyyidan fi. Burton, "He firmly established the
sequence of."]

[Footnote 548: Technical names of the primary and secondary figures.
The following account of the geomantic process, as described by
Arabic writers de re magicf, is mainly derived from the Mukeddimat or
Prolegomena of Abdurrehman ibn Aboubekr Mohammed (better known as Ibn
Khaldoun) to his great work of universal history. Those (says he) who
seek to discover hidden things and know the future have invented an art
which they call tracing or smiting the sand; to wit, they take paper
or sand or flour and trace thereon at hazard four rows of points, which
operation, three times repeated (i.e. four times performed), gives
sixteen rows. These points they eliminate two by two, all but the last
(if the number of the points of a row be odd) or the last two (if it be
even) of each row, by which means they obtain sixteen points, single
or double. These they divide into four figures, each representing the
residual points of four lines, set one under another, and these four
figures, which are called the mothers or primaries, they place side by
side in one line. From these primaries they extract four fresh figures
by confronting each point with the corresponding point in the next
figure, and counting for each pair a single or double point, according
to one of two rules, i.e. (1) setting down a single point for each
single point being on the same line with another point, whether single
or double, and a double point for. each pair of double points in line
with each other, or (2) reckoning a double point for each pair of like
points (single or double), corresponding one with another on the same
line' and a single point for each, unlike pair. These new figures (as
well as those that follow) are called the daughters or secondaries and
are placed beside the primaries, by confrontation with which (i,e, 5
with 1, 6 with 2, 7 with 3 and with 4) four fresh figures are obtained
after the same fashion and placed side by side below the first eight.
From this second row a thirteenth and fourteenth figure are obtained in
the same way (confronting 9 with lo and 1 l with 12) and placed beneath
them, as a third row. The two new figures, confronted with each other,
in like manner, furnish a fifteenth figure, which, being confronted
with the first of the primaries, gives a sixteenth and last figure,
completing the series. Then (says our author), the geomant proceeds to
examine the sixteen figures thus obtained (each of which has its name
and its mansion, corresponding to one of the twelve signs of the zodiac
or the four cardinal points, as well as its signification, good or bad,
and indicates also, in a special way, a certain part of the elemental
world) and to note each figure according to its presage of weal or ill;
and so, with the aid of an astrological table giving the explanations
of the various signs and combinations, according to the nature of
the figure, its aspect, influence and temperament (astrologically
considered) and the natural object it indicates, a judgment is formed
upon the question for a solution of which the operation was undertaken.
I may add that the board or table of sand (tekht reml), so frequently
mentioned in the Nights, is a shallow box filled with fine sand,
carefully levelled, on which the points of the geomantic operation are
made with a style of wood or metal. (The name tekht reml is however
now commonly applied to a mere board or tablet of wood on which the
necessary dots are made with ink or chalk. ) The following scheme of
a geomantic operation will show the application of the above rules.
Supposing the first haphazard dotting to produce these sixteen rows of

  1......... (9)  5.....   (6) 9.........  (9)  13......   (6)
  2......... (9)  6....    (4) 10........  (8)  14....     (4)
  3........  (8)  7....... (7) 11......... (9)  15........ (8)
  4.......   (7)  8.....   (5) 12.......   (7)  16.....    (5)

 By the process of elimination we get the following four primaries:

 Fig. 1  x    Fig. 2  x x    Fig. 3  x    Fig. 4  x x
         x            x x           x x           x x
        x x            x             x            x x
         x             x             x             x

 The process of confrontation of the corresponding points of these
 four figures (according to rule 2) gives the following four

 Fig. 5  x     Fig. 6  x     Fig. 7  x     Fig. 8  x
         x            x x           x x            x
         x            x x            x            x x
        x x           x x           x x           x x

 By confrontation of the points of each secondary with those of
 its corresponding primary, the following four fresh figures are

 Fig. 9  x x   Fig. 10  x    Fig. 11  x x   Fig. 12  x
         x x           x x            x x            x
          x             x             x x           x x
          x             x              x             x

   Fig. 9, confronted with Fig. 10 gives a thirteenth figure x
                                                            x x
                                                            x x
                                                            x x

   And Fig. 11 confronted with Fig. 12, a fourteenth         x
                                                            x x
                                                            x x

   Figures 13 and 14, similarly treated, yield a fifteenth figure

                                                             x x
                                                             x x
                                                             x x

   Which, in its turn, confronted with Fig. 1, gives a sixteenth
 and last figure,                                             x
                                                             x x
                                                             x x

 Completing the scheme, which shows the result of the operation as

 (1) x (2) x x (3) x (4) x x (5) x (6) x (7) x   (8) x
     x     x x    x x    x x     x    x x   x x      x
    x x     x      x     x x     x    x x    x      x x
     x      x      x      x     x x   x x   x x     x x

   (9) x x         (10) x         (11) x x     (12) x
       x x             x x             x x          x
        x               x              x x         x x
        x               x               x           x

            (13) x                        (14) x
                x x                            x
                x x                           x x
                x x                           x x

                       (15) x x
                            x x
                            x x

                       (16)  x
                            x x
                            x x

[Footnote 549: Burton adds here, "in order that other than I may carry
it off."]

[Footnote 550: Min el meloum, lit. "[it is] of the known (i.e. that
which is known)." Burton, "who knoweth an he wot, etc."]

[Footnote 551: Night DLXXIV.]

[Footnote 552: Sic, meaning of course that he had discovered its
properties and availed himself thereof.]

[Footnote 553: Medinetu 's seltaneh, i e. the seat of government or

[Footnote 554: Lit. "donned" (lebesa).]

[Footnote 555: Here Galland says, "Il entra dans le lien le plus fameux
et le plus frequente par les personnel de grande distinction, ou l'on
s'assembloit pour boire d'une certaine boisson chance qui luy etoit
connue des son premier voyage. Il n'y e-t pas plust"t pris place qu'on
lay versa de cette boisson dans une tasse et qu'on la luy presenta.
En la prenant, comme il prestoit l'oreille... droite et... gauche, il
entendit qu'on s'entretenoit du palais d'Aladdin." The Chavis MS. says,
"He entered a coffee-house (kehweh, Syrian for kehawi), and there used
to go in thereto all the notables of the city, and he heard a company,
all of them engaged in (ammalin bi, a very vulgar expression) talking of
the Amir Alaeddin's palace, etc." This (or a similar text) is evidently
the original of Galland's translation of this episode and it is
probable, therefore, that the French translator inserted the mention
"of a certain warm drink"(tea), out of that mistaken desire for local
colouring at all costs which has led so many French authors (especially
those of our own immediate day) astray. The circumstance was apparently
evolved (alla tedesca) from his inner consciousness, as, although China
is a favourite location with the authors of the Nights, we find no
single mention of or allusion to tea in the rest of the work.]

[Footnote 556: Lit. "I will make him lose."]

[Footnote 557: Night DLXXV.]

[Footnote 558: Lit. "Instruments of astronomy or astrology" (tenjim);
but tenjim is also used in the sense of geomancy, in which operation,
as before explained, astrology plays an important part, and the context
shows that the word is here intended to bear this meaning. Again, the
implements of a geomancer of the higher order would include certain
astrological instruments, such as an astrolabe, star-table, etc.,
necessary, as I have before explained, for the elucidation of the scheme
obtained by the sand-smiting proper.]

[Footnote 559: He had apparently learned (though the Arabic author
omits, with characteristic carelessness, to tell us so) that Alaeddin
was absent a. hunting.]

[Footnote 560: Akemm, vulg. for kemm, a quantity.]

[Footnote 561: Minareh, lit. "alight-stand," i.e. either a lamp-stand or
a candlestick.]

[Footnote 562: Bi-ziyadeh, which generally means "in excess, to boot,"
but is here used in the sense of "in abundance."]

[Footnote 563: Aalem.]

[Footnote 564: After the wont of "the natural enemy of mankind' in all

[Footnote 565: Keszr.]

[Footnote 566: Night DLXXVI.]

[Footnote 567: Aghatu 't tuwashiyeh.]

[Footnote 568: Ubb.]

[Footnote 569: Lit. "who" (men), but this is probably a mistake for ma
(that which).]

[Footnote 570: Ifrikiyeh.]

[Footnote 571: Night DLXXVII.]

[Footnote 572: Ummar. This may, however, be a mistake (as before, see
ante p. 177, note 2 {see FN#482}) for ema'r (buildings).]

[Footnote 573: Lit. "O company" (ya jema't), a polite formula of
address, equivalent to our "Gentlemen."]

[Footnote 574: Night DLXXVIII.]

[Footnote 575: Lit. "the affair (or commandment, amr) is going to be
sealed upon us."]

[Footnote 576: Sic (dara haulahu thelatheta dauratin); but qu're should
it not rather be, "gave three sweeps or whirls with his sword round his
head"? See my "Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night," Vol. VI. p.

[Footnote 577: Lit. "hath been bountiful unto me;" [the matter of] my

[Footnote 578: Night DLXXIX.]

[Footnote 579: Previous to prayer.]

[Footnote 580: Lit. made easy to (yessera li).]

[Footnote 581: The name of the province is here applied to an imaginary

[Footnote 582: Night DLXXX.]

[Footnote 583: Lit. "who hath a head with the head-seller or dealer in
heads, etc." The word here employed (rewwas) commonly signifies "a man
who cooks and sells sheepsheads, oxheads, etc." M. Zotenberg makes the
following note on this passage in. his edition of Alaeddin; "Rewwas (for
raa"s) signifies not only 'he who sells cooked heads,' but also 'he who
makes a business of cooking heads.' Consequently whoso entrusteth a head
to the rewwas is preoccupied and sleeps not." M. Zotenberg's note is
unintelligible, in consequence of his having neglected to explain that
the passage in question is a common Egyptian proverb, meaning (says
Burckhardt), "the person whose fortune is entrusted to the hands of
strangers cannot enjoy repose." "The poor," adds he, "at Cairo buy
sheepsheads and for a trifle have them boiled in the bazaar by persons
who are not only cooks, but sellers of sheepsheads, and are therefore
called raa"s, or in the Egyptian dialect rewwas." The proverb is in
the present case evidently meant as a play upon the literal meaning
("headsman," hence by implication "executioner") of the word rewwas,
although I cannot find an instance of the word being employed in this
sense. It is, however, abundantly evident from the general context that
this is the author's intention in the passage in question, Alaeddin's
head being metaphorically in the hands of (or pledged to) the headsman,
inasmuch as he had engaged to return and suffer decapitation in case he
should not succeed in recovering the princess within forty days.]

[Footnote 584: I suppose the verb which I render "caused [sleep] get the
mastery," to be ghelleba, II of gheleba, as the only way of making sense
of this passage, though this reading involves some irregularity from a
grammatical point of view. This, however, is no novelty in the present
text. Burton, "But whoso weareth head hard by the headsman may not sleep
o'nights save whenas slumber prevail over him."]

[Footnote 585: Zeczekeh, a word which exactly renders the sparrow's

[Footnote 586: Lit. "From (as Fr. des) the deep or remote dawn" (min
el fejri 'l ghemic, Syr. for emic), cf. Matthew Arnold's "Resignation;"
"The cockoo, loud on some high lawn, Is answered from the depth of

[Footnote 587: The terminal formula of the dawn-prayer.]

[Footnote 588: i.e. the magician]

[Footnote 589: Lit. "bride'' (arouseh). She is always, to the end of the
tale, spoken of as Alaeddin's "bride," never as his "wife," whilst he,
in like manner, is called her "bridegroom" (arous).]

[Footnote 590: This, at first sight, appears a contradiction, as we are
distinctly told (see ante, p. 207) that the princess was unaware of the
properties of the lamp; but the sequel shows that she had learned them,
in the mean time. from the magician himself. See post.]

[Footnote 591: Ifrikiyeh.]

[Footnote 592: Night DLXXXI.]

[Footnote 593: Lit. "a spit (ric) of sweet." We may also read reic or
reyyic, "the first part of anything" (especially "the first drop of

[Footnote 594: Lit. "having changed the clothes of this my dress."]

[Footnote 595: i.e. taking effect the moment of its administration.]

[Footnote 596: Night DLXXXII.]

[Footnote 597: Because white wine would have been visibly troubled by
the drug.]

[Footnote 598: Ishebi bi-surrihi (lit. "drink by his pleasure or
gladness;" surr or surour). Burton, "Pledge him to his secret in a
significant draught."]

[Footnote 599: Kasein thelatheh, lit. two cups three (unusual way of
putting it).]

[Footnote 600: Reshoush (for reshash), "anything sprinkled," i.e. powder
or drops. I translate "powder," as I find no mention in the Nights of
the use of this narcotic in a liquid form.]

[Footnote 601: Takkeltu, lit. "I have conceived in my mind." Sir R.
Burton is apparently inclined to read tallectu by transposition, as he
translates, "I depend upon thy say."]

[Footnote 602: Night DLXXXIII.]

[Footnote 603: Lit. "I will not delay upon thee."]

[Footnote 604: Lit. "Thou hast burdened or incommoded thyself" (kellefta
khatiraka), see previous note, p. 120, {see FN#340} on this idiomatic

[Footnote 605: Ana atebtu mizajaka, lit. "I have wearied thy

[Footnote 606: Lit. "pleasure" (surr), see ante, p. 223, note 2. {see

[Footnote 607: Or "playing the boon-companion."]

[Footnote 608: Syn. "equivocal, a double entente."]

[Footnote 609: Lit. "proceeded from her in truth."]

[Footnote 610: Tih, lit. pride, haughtiness, but, by analogy,

[Footnote 611: Lit. "Gaiety, ecstasy or intoxication (keif) whirled
(dara) in his head."]

[Footnote 612: Lit. "not itself exactly with him" (ma hiya bi-eimhi

[Footnote 613: Lit. "turned over" (kelebet, a clerical error for

[Footnote 614: Tekeddemet lihi wa basethu fi kheddihi. Burton, "again
she kissed its lip and offered it to him."]

[Footnote 615: Terakedsou, lit. raced with one another.]

[Footnote 616: Babu 'sz szeray.]

[Footnote 617: Night DLXXXIV.]

[Footnote 618: Keszr.]

[Footnote 619: Lit. "in" (fi); but fi is evidently used here in mistake
for bi, the two prepositions being practically interchangeable in modern
Arabic of the style of our present text.]

[Footnote 620: Burton, "his costliest raiment."]

[Footnote 621: Or chamber (keszr).]

[Footnote 622: Night DLXXXV.]

[Footnote 623: Sic (raihh), a common vulgarism in this text.]

[Footnote 624: Night DLXXXVI.]

[Footnote 625: Lit. "also" (eidsan).]

[Footnote 626: i.e. the two were as like as two halves of a bean.]

[Footnote 627: i.e. the world.]

[Footnote 628: Or death (Saturn), the eighth division of the common
astrological figure.]

[Footnote 629: Menkeleh. See my Book of the Thousand Nights and One
Night, Vol. I. p. 129, note 1. {see Vol. 1 of Payne's Book of the
Thousand Nights and One Night, FN#41}]

[Footnote 630: Dsameh.]

[Footnote 631: Liha keramat kethireh. Kerameh (sing. of keramat),
properly a favour or mark of grace, a supernatural gift bestowed by God
upon His pious servants, by virtue whereof they perform miracles, which
latter are also by derivation called keramat. Cf. Acts viii. 28:
"Thou hast thought that the gift of God," i.e. the power of performing
miracles, "may be purchased with money."]

[Footnote 632: Night DLXXXVII.]

[Footnote 633: Weliyeh.]

[Footnote 634: Fe-ain (where), probably a mistranscription for fe-men

[Footnote 635: Sitti, fem. of Sidi, "my lord," the common title of a
saint among modern Arabic-speaking peoples.]

[Footnote 635: Meskin, lit. "poor wretch," but used as our "good
man" and the French "bonhomme," in a sense of somewhat contemptuous

[Footnote 636: Lit. "wished the man increase of his good (istekthera
bi-kheirihi, for which idiomatic expression= "he thanked him," see ante,
p. 135, note 3 {see FN#383}), and thanked his excellence" (favour or
kindness, fedsl).]

[Footnote 637: Sherabati. Burton, "vintner."]

[Footnote 638: Keniz, a word which I cannot find in any dictionary,
but which appears to be the past participle (in the secondary form for
mecnouz, as ketil, slain, for mertoul,) of keneza, a lost verb of which
only the fourth form acneza, he drank from a cup (kinz), survives, and
to mean "something drunk from a cup." Burton, "wine."]

[Footnote 639: Ca"da. Burton translates "he mounted," apparently reading
szfida for ca"da.]

[Footnote 640: Lit. "belly" (betn); but that "breast" is meant is shown
by the next line, which describes Fatimeh as finding the enchanter
seated on her heart.]

[Footnote 641: Lit. "heart" (kelb).]

[Footnote 642: The text adds here, "she went not and came not" (la rahet
wa la jaet). Burton translates, "as though she had never gone or come"
and adds, in a note, by way of gloss, "i.e. as she was in her own home;"
but I confess that his explanation seems to me as obscure as the text.]

[Footnote 643: Night DLXXXVIll.]

[Footnote 644: Keszr.]

[Footnote 645: The first or "opening" chapter of the Koran.]

[Footnote 646: En nas bi 'l ghewali kethir an, lit. "The folk in
(things) precious (or dear or high-priced, ghewali, pl. of
ghalin, also of ghaliyeh, a kind of perfume) are abundant anent." This
is a hopelessly obscure passage, and I can only guess at its meaning.
Bi 'l ghewali may be a clerical error for bi 'l ghalibi, "for the most
part, in general," in which case we may read, "Folk in general abound
[in talk] anent her virtues;" or bi 'l ghewali may perhaps be used in
the sense (of which use, however, I know no instance) of 'in excessive
estimation,' in which latter case the passage might be rendered, "Folk
abound in setting a high value on (or extolling) her virtues." Burton
boldly amplifies, "the folk recount her manifestations in many cases of

[Footnote 647: Lit. "That he might complete his deceit the more."
The meaning is that he dissembled his satisfaction at the princess's
proposal and made a show of refusal, so he might hoodwink her the more

[Footnote 648: Keszr.]

[Footnote 649: Night DLXXXIX.]

[Footnote 650: Teyyareh.]

[Footnote 651: Lit. "openings for passage" (mejous). See ante, p. 176,
note. {see FN#480}]

[Footnote 652: Keszr.]

[Footnote 653: Lit. "an extreme" (ghayeh).]

[Footnote 654: Szeraya.]

[Footnote 655: Szeraya.]

[Footnote 656: i.e. "O thou that art dear to me as mine eyes."]

[Footnote 657: Keszr.]

[Footnote 658: Night DLXC.]

[Footnote 659: Keszr.]

[Footnote 660: i.e. its apparent from its real import.]

[Footnote 661: Mustekim.]

[Footnote 662: Minka. Burton, "of me."]

[Footnote 663: Lit. "for that secret that she healed." Burton, "for the
art and mystery of healing."]

[Footnote 664: Min wejaihi.]

[Footnote 665: Szeraya.]

[Footnote 666: Terehhhheba bihi.]

[Footnote 667: Lit. "believed not in."]

[Footnote 668: Night DLXCI.]

[Footnote 669: Ghereza (i.q.. gheresa).]

[Footnote 670: Lit. "Out of regard to or respect for thine eyes."
(Keramet[an] li-uyouniki), i.e. "Thanks to the favourable influence
of thine eyes." When "the eye" is spoken of without qualification, the
"evil eye" is commonly meant; here, however, it is evident that the
reverse is intended.]

[Footnote 671: Lit. "I had no news or information (ma indi kkeber) [of
the matter]."]

[Footnote 672: Lit. "neglectful of the love of thee." This is a
difficult passage to translate, owing to its elliptical form; but the
meaning is that the princess wished to assure Alaeddin that what had
happened was not due to any slackening in the warmth of her affection
for him.]

*** End of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "Alaeddin and the Enchanted Lamp" ***

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