Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

´╗┐Title: Bridge; its Principles and Rules of Play - with Illustrative Hands and the Club Code of Bridge Laws
Author: Elwell, J. B. (Joseph Bowne), 1874-1920
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Bridge; its Principles and Rules of Play - with Illustrative Hands and the Club Code of Bridge Laws" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



produced from scanned images of public domain material


    [Characters surrounded by  and  are characters which were
     underlined in the book.

    [C]=Clubs
    [S]=Spades
    [D]=Diamonds
    [H]=Hearts
    (note of etext transcriber)]



BRIDGE


    "Soon as she spreads her hand, the aerial guard
    Descend and sit on each important card."



BRIDGE

ITS PRINCIPLES AND RULES
OF PLAY

BY
J. B. ELWELL

[Illustration: colophon]

WITH ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS AND THE
CLUB CODE OF BRIDGE LAWS

NEW YORK
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
1906

COPYRIGHT, 1902, 1905, BY

J. B. ELWELL

TROW DIRECTORY
PRINTING AND BOOKBINDING COMPANY
NEW YORK


         TO HIS PUPILS
            AND TO
     ALL OTHERS INTERESTED IN
      THE GAME OF BRIDGE
          THE AUTHOR
    WOULD BEG LEAVE TO DEDICATE
           THIS BOOK



PREFACE


The main purpose which I have had in view in writing this book has been
to provide my pupils with a SIMPLE and ELEMENTARY work on Bridge. I have
endeavoured to abstain from assuming a knowledge of Whist or Whist terms
on the part of the reader, and have merely attempted to write a
text-book which shall combine clear and concise statements of my rules,
with a reason for and explanation of each one. These rules have stood
the test of practical experiment by myself and others for the last five
years, so that this statement of them will, I trust, be of benefit both
to the beginner and to the advanced player.

J. B. E.



BRIDGE


PLAYERS

Bridge is usually played by four persons. If there are more than four
candidates, the prior right to play is decided by cutting the cards.


CUTTING

This is done from a full pack of fifty-two cards which have been
shuffled and spread face downward on the table. Each player draws a
card. The four cutting the lowest cards play the first rubber. In
cutting ace is low. The cards are also cut to decide partners, the two
highest playing against the two lowest. _The dealer is the player
cutting the lowest card of all_, and he has the choice of the seats and
of the cards. Should the two players who cut the lowest cards draw cards
of equal value, they must cut again to decide which shall deal.


DEALING

Before being dealt, the cards must be shuffled by the dealer and then
cut by the player at his right. It is customary to play with two packs
of cards, the dealer's partner shuffling, or making up, for his
right-hand adversary. The cards are dealt one at a time, from left to
right, until all are exhausted, each player having thirteen cards. The
last card should not be turned face up. There is no penalty for a
misdeal.


THE OBJECT OF THE GAME

There are two separate scores to be played for--trick and honour scores.
The trick score is credited to the side that wins more than six tricks;
the honour score to the side that holds the majority of the trump
honours. The object of the game is to score more points than your
adversaries, tricks and honours included. This is best done by winning a
rubber.


THE GAME

The game consists of thirty or more trick points. All points in excess
of thirty are counted by the side winning them; but only one game can be
won in a deal. Honours are a separate score and do not count toward
winning the game.


THE RUBBER

The rubber is the best of three games. If the first two games are won by
the same partners the third is not played. One hundred points are added
to the total score of the side winning the rubber.


DECLARING THE TRUMP

The hand may be played either without a trump, or a trump suit may be
selected.

The dealer has the option of making a declaration or of passing that
privilege to his partner. If the dealer passes the make, his partner
must announce the trump. A trump once made cannot be changed at any time
during the deal.


TABLE OF TRICK VALUES

(_For each trick over six._)

    +-----------------------------------------------+
    |When | [S] | are trumps each trick counts |  2 |
    |-----+-----+------------------------------+----|
    |When | [C] | are trumps each trick counts |  4 |
    |-----+-----+------------------------------+----|
    |When | [D] | are trumps each trick counts |  6 |
    |-----+-----+------------------------------+----|
    |When | [H] | are trumps each trick counts |  8 |
    |-----+-----+------------------------------+----|
    |When |     |                              |    |
    |there| no  | trumps each trick counts     | 12 |
    |are  |     |                              |    |
    +-----------------------------------------------+


DOUBLING

After the trump has been declared each adversary, in turn, may increase
the value of the tricks by doubling.

The leader--the player at the left of the dealer--has the first right to
double. If the leader does not wish to double his partner may then do
so.


REDOUBLING

If either the leader or his partner has doubled the trump, the dealer or
his partner may re-double, the player who has made the trump having the
first right. This process may continue indefinitely. Doubling or
redoubling does not affect the value of the honours.


THE DUMMY

When the value of each trick has been determined, and after a card has
been led, the dealer's partner places his hand face upward on the
table--the trump suit at his right--and the dealer plays both hands. The
dealer's partner--the dummy--is not allowed to suggest, to touch or to
play a card except at the dealer's bidding. It is the dummy's right,
should the dealer refuse to follow in any suit, to endeavour to prevent
a revoke. (See Conversation of the Game.)


THE PLAY

In the play of the cards the ace is high and deuce low. You must follow
suit, but if you have no card of the suit led, you may either trump or
discard. At no-trump the best card of the suit led wins the trick.


THE CONVERSATION OF THE GAME

In order to avoid giving partner information as to the character of
one's hand, both the _conversation_ of the game and its order should be
strictly adhered to. To find that the wrong person has announced the
trump, or that a player has doubled out of turn, or that one has led
without asking permission, is most irritating to the other players, and
a severe penalty may often be exacted for such a mistake. The dealer may
either declare the trump or say, "I pass." If the dealer passes, his
partner must announce the trump. The leader may either double or say,
"May I Lead, Partner?" this indicates that he does not want to double,
but wishes to give his partner an opportunity to do so. The leader's
partner either says "No, I double," or "lead, please."

The conversation is indicated in the following diagram.

                       "Spades,"
                          or
                   "I make it Spades."

                  +-------------------+
                  |         Y         |
                  |       Dummy       |
                  |                   |
    "May I lead?" |                   | "No, I double,"
         or       |A Leader         B |       or
     "I double."  |                   | "Play, please."
                  |                   |
                  |       Dealer      |
                  |         Z         |
                  +-------------------+
                   "I make it Hearts,"
                           or
                        "I pass."

When the trump has been doubled the maker says, "I redouble," or "I am
satisfied." If the maker is satisfied his partner says, "I redouble," or
"I am satisfied." In many clubs the conversation is somewhat changed and
abbreviated. "Pass." "Hearts." "I double." "I go over." "I redouble" or
"I go back." "Enough," or a rap on the table to signify satisfaction.


TO PREVENT A REVOKE

If your partner refuses to follow suit, always ask, "Have you no
(hearts), Partner?" An error may then be rectified, but only before the
trick has been turned and quitted or before another card has been led.


SCORING

The score consists of two separate counts: trick score and honour score.
The trick score is made by the side winning more than six tricks in a
hand. The honour score, by the partners who hold the majority of the
trump honours. With a declared trump the honours are A K Q J and 10. At
no-trump only the Aces count as honours. Doubling does not increase the
honour score.

TABLE SHOWING VALUE OF HONOURS

    +-----------------------------------------------------+
    | AT NO-TRUMP                                         |
    +-----------------------------------+-----------------+
    | 3 ACES                            |   count     30  |
    |                                   |                 |
    | 4 ACES                            |     "       40  |
    |                                   |                 |
    | 4 ACES in one hand                |     "      100  |
    +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    | WHEN TRUMPS ARE             | [S] | [C] | [D] | [H] |
    +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
    | 3 Honours count             |   4 |   8 |  12 |  16 |
    |                             |     |     |     |     |
    | 4 Honours count             |   8 |  16 |  24 |  32 |
    |                             |     |     |     |     |
    | 5 Honours count             |  10 |  20 |  30 |  40 |
    |                             |     |     |     |     |
    | 4 Honours in one hand count |  16 |  32 |  48 |  64 |
    |                             |     |     |     |     |
    | 4 Honours in one hand, 5th  |     |     |     |     |
    |   in the partner's, count   |  18 |  36 |  54 |  72 |
    |                             |     |     |     |     |
    | 5 HONOURS in one hand count |  20 |  40 |  60 |  80 |
    +-----------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

A LITTLE SLAM, winning twelve of the thirteen tricks, adds 20 points to
the honour score.

A GRAND SLAM, winning all thirteen tricks, adds 40 points to the honour
score.

CHICANE, a hand which is without a trump, adds the value of three
honours to the honour score.

DOUBLE CHICANE, a player and partner having no trumps, adds the value of
four honours to the honour score.

THE METHOD OF SCORING

                   We.       They.
              +----------+----------+
              |          |          |
              |          |          |
              |          |          |
              |         H|          |
              |         o|          |
              |   100   n|          |
              |    64   o|     8    |
              |     4   u|    40    |
              |    30   r|    16    |
              |    24   s|          |
              |          |          |
              +----------+----------+
    1st Game. |    18    |    16    |
              |    12    |          |
              +----------+----------+
    2d Game.  |          |    60    |
              |          |          |
              +----------+----------+
              |         T|          |
              |         r|          |
    Rubber.   |     8   i|     8    |
              |    40   c|          |
              |         k|          |
              |         s|          |
              +----------+----------+
    Total.    |   300    |   148    |
              |          |          |
              |     300  |          |
              |     148  |          |
              |     ---  |          |
              |     152 points won. |
              +---------------------+

After the rubber has been won the honour score and the trick score of
each side are added, and the leaser total deducted from the greater.


THE SCORE

There is no part of the game of Bridge to which I would more urgently
request the attention of the player than to a careful consideration of
the state of the score. _It is useless to attempt to play good Bridge
without a knowledge of the score._ If you blindly follow rules for
making, doubling, and playing, without knowing exactly how many points
you require to win the game as well as the number needed by your
adversaries, you will needlessly lose many rubbers.

Before you declare the trump look at the score to determine the number
of points you must make in order to win the game.

Know the score when you contemplate doubling.

Never lead without knowing how many tricks you must make in order to
SAVE the game.

When you are the dealer outline your play to win the game; and if you
find it impossible to win the game be sure to SAVE it.


THE DECLARATION

While a few tricks may be dropped in the play of a hand, an unsound make
may result in the loss of several hundred points. The importance, both
of making the trump to the score and of considering the probability of
securing an honour score, cannot be too deeply impressed on the player's
mind. This, more than any part of the game, requires the exercise of
sound judgment. The good maker has an enormous advantage over the weak
one.

Try to select the trump that will win the greatest number of points with
a strong hand, and the one that will lose the fewest possible number
with a weak hand. Be liberal and bold when behind in the game and
conservative and timid when ahead.

In suggesting rules for the make this difficulty must be faced: the
exercise of the best judgment in the world will not enable one to select
the successful trump EVERY time; and players are apt to forget the many
times a particular make has won, and to be impressed by the one time the
rule failed them.

Follow consistently the laws for the make with a certainty that in the
large majority of cases they will prove successful; and digress from
these laws only when the score warrants.


NO-TRUMP DECLARATION BY THE DEALER

Provided the hand contain no large honour score in hearts or diamonds,
it is evident that the no-trump declaration is more likely than any
other to result in the gain of a large score; the dealer should,
therefore, first consider his chances of winning at no-trump. There is a
large percentage in favour of the success of an original no-trump make.
The dealer can see and combine his own with the dummy hand; while his
adversary makes the initial lead in the dark. The dealer can play false
cards; while the adversaries cannot afford to deceive each other. In
short the dealer plays the hand with an exact knowledge of the cards
that are held against him, and can take advantage of any error made, or
any information given by the adversaries. As tricks are won by small
suit cards in every no-trump hand, there is no method of estimating how
many tricks your hand may be worth. The dealer, in declaring no-trump,
may assume that his partner's hand will contain an average amount of
strength. If the dealer is weak in one suit he is justified in counting
on his partner's hand for some protection in that suit. The dealer
should not declare no-trump when he is reasonably sure of winning the
game or rubber with a trump suit; neither should the dealer declare
no-trump without an ace in his hand--unless the score is very desperate
and then only when his hand is exceptionally strong.


RULES FOR THE NO-TRUMP DECLARATION BY THE DEALER

          {4 Aces.
          {3 Aces.
  Holding {2 Aces and one other guarded suit.
          {1 Ace and three other guarded suits.
          {1 long established black suit (A K Q x x x[A]) and one other Ace.


         [A] "x" signifies small cards.


GUARDED SUITS

The following may be called guarded suits:

    K Q x    K J x    K x    Q J x    Q x x


WEAK NO-TRUMP MAKES TO THE SCORE

If the score warrants the dealer in taking a chance at a weak make, it
is safer to gamble at no-trump than at a weak red declaration. At
no-trump the dealer's partner has a wider field for assistance, as any
one good suit will help.

On the rubber game, with the score very much against him, the dealer
should declare no-trump.

            {2 Aces and a guarded Jack.
            {2 Aces, one suit being A K.
    Holding {1 Ace, a guarded K or Q and a K Q suit.
            {1 Ace and two guarded suits (K or Q).
            {1 long established black suit and a guarded King.


HEARTS

In considering a heart make, the dealer should be influenced by the
general strength of his hand and by the number of honours he holds in
the trump suit. Hearts should always be declared with four or five
honours in the hand irrespective of the strength of other suits; the
honour score will probably more than compensate for a possible loss of
trick points. A heart declaration with less than two honours is not
advisable--unless the hand contain great length in the trump suit or
great strength in the other suits--as the honour scores made against the
hand will usually exceed its trick value.


HEARTS IN PREFERENCE TO NO-TRUMP

As it requires three odd tricks to win a game of thirty points without a
trump, and but one trick more to win a game with a heart trump, the
dealer will often have occasion to choose between the two makes. With a
strong heart hand and a doubtful "no-trumper," or if the hand contain
one unguarded suit, hearts should always be given the preference. As the
adversaries have the lead and the privilege of doubling, a weak suit
exposes the hand to some danger at no-trump.


RULES FOR THE HEART MAKE

The dealer should declare hearts:

           {6 Hearts, including 1 honour and some protection in other suits.
           {5 Hearts, including 2 honours and some protection in other suits.
  Holding  {5 Hearts, including 1 honour with a good five-card plain suit,
              or with strong protection in other suits.
           {4 Hearts, including 3 honours and some protection in other suits.
           {4 Hearts, including 4 honours, with or without protection
              in other suits.


DIAMONDS

As there are two declarations of greater value than diamonds, there is
often a question as to the advisability of passing the make with a fair
diamond hand and of giving partner an opportunity to declare no-trump or
hearts. The dealer should always make the trump diamonds holding four or
five honours in his hand, irrespective of the state of the score;
holding less than four honours the dealer must be influenced by the
number of points that are necessary to win the game, and by the strength
of his hand. Many players are prejudiced against an original diamond
declaration when the score is love all; and, while the writer believes
it safer at this score to declare diamonds with a fair hand than to
chance the uncertainty of a passed make, yet the make SHOULD be
passed:--

When behind on the first game--as 0-24.

Having lost the first and with nothing scored on the second game.

When nothing on the rubber game.

In each of these positions, as the adversaries have the next deal and
may win the game, it is imperative that you score thirty points. To
accomplish this with a diamond trump it is necessary to win eleven of
the thirteen tricks; therefore, unless you hold a hand of more than the
average strength, it is advisable to pass the make in hopes that partner
can declare hearts or no-trump.

If there is a question between a diamond and no-trump declaration, the
latter is usually preferable; for while the risk is greater the reward
is double.

A diamond make is advisable whenever there is a fair chance to win the
game, as when but two or three odd tricks are needed.


RULES FOR THE DIAMOND MAKE

The dealer should declare diamonds:

          {6 Diamonds, including 1 honour and some protection in other suits.
  Holding {5 Diamonds, including 2 honours and some protection in other suits.
          {4 Diamonds, including 4 honours, with or without protection
             in other suits.


BLACK SUIT DECLARATIONS

The score should be the one excuse for an original black declaration,
and then only when comparatively sure of winning the game. Otherwise,
when the hand does not admit of a red or a no-trump declaration, the
make should be passed.


CLUBS

Clubs should be made originally only when the score is eighteen or more,
and the hand strong enough, with slight assistance, to win the game.
Clubs may be declared when there are four honours in one hand, providing
the dealer has won the first game and is eight or more on the second.
The trick and honour scores combined will count more than the average
make, and with great help the game _may_ be won.


SPADES

Spades may be made originally when six points or less are needed to win
the game.


DEFENSIVE SPADE MAKES

With a very weak hand some players advise a defensive spade make with
the object of preventing partner's attempting a make which may prove
disastrous. While much may be said in favour of an original black make
under these circumstances, it is doubtful whether it pays; the
adversaries are almost certain to double, and you eliminate the
possibility of securing a large honour score and of winning the game on
that deal. The one time that a defensive spade make might be justifiable
is when you are a game to the good and do not wish to lose the advantage
which this position offers.


SYNOPSIS OF THE MAKES

The dealer should declare


NO-TRUMPS,

             {4 Aces.
             {3 Aces.
             {2 Aces and a guarded K or Q.
    Holding  {1 Ace and a guarded K or Q in three other suits.
             {1 long established black suit (A K Q x x x) and one other Ace.

The dealer should NOT declare no-trumps

With a strong heart and a doubtful no-trump hand,

Or

When the game can be won with a trump suit.

[H] HEARTS. [H]

    Holding

    6 Hearts, including 1 honour, and some protection in other suits.
    5 Hearts, including 1 honour, with a good five-card plain suit or with
        strong protection in other suits.
    5 Hearts, including 2 honours, and some protection in other suits.
    4 Hearts, including 3 honours, and some protection in other suits.
    4 Hearts, including 4 honours, with or without protection in other suits.

The dealer should NOT declare hearts

    Holding

    5 Hearts, including 1 or 2 honours } without protection
    4 Hearts, including 3 honours      } in other suits.

[D] DIAMONDS. [D]

    Holding

    6 Diamonds, including 1 honour, and some protection in other suits.
    5 Diamonds, including 2 honours, and some protection in other suits.
    4 Diamonds, including 4 honours, with or without protection in
      other suits.

The dealer should NOT declare diamonds:

When behind on the score, unless there are 4 honours, or 7 or 8 tricks,
in the hand.

When 0 to 24 on the first game.

Having lost the first and 0 on the second game.

When 0 on the rubber game.

The dealer should NOT declare clubs Unless his score is 18 or more
points, and the hand strong enough to win the game.

The dealer should NOT declare spades Unless his score is 24 or more
points, and the hand strong enough to win the game.


PASSED MAKES

The dummy hand, in declaring the trump, should keep in mind the rules
suggested for the dealer, and, at the same time, be governed in his
choice by the state of the score, by the general strength of his hand,
and by the dealer's acknowledged weakness. When the make has been
passed, one must infer that the dealer has not a strong hand, neither
has he much strength in the red suits. While the latter inference may be
doubtful, the dealer often passing a fair diamond hand, it is dangerous
to declare no-trump without protection in the red suits, and the
declaration may result in a disastrous loss.

The following suggestions may prove useful:

The fact that your hand is exposed gives the adversaries an opportunity
to take advantage of its weak points.

A no-trump make that is weak in the red suits, unless justified by the
score, is unsound.

A no-trump make that is weak in Hearts is liable to be doubled.

When a game ahead be conservative. When a game behind be bold.

Endeavour to prevent the adversaries from winning the first game on your
deal. When the adversaries have won a game and have the first deal on
the second, they hold an advantage you will find most difficult to
overcome.

If your hand is worth less than four tricks don't make the trump red.

If your hand is worth less than four tricks make the trump to lose as
little as possible.


EXAMPLES OF ORIGINAL MAKES

    NO-TRUMPERS WITH 3 ACES.

    [C]          [D]           [S]          [H]

    A 10 5 3     A J 9         K 8 A        10 6 5
    A K          Q 10 6 4 2    A J 6 5 3    A
    8 5 4        A 8 3         A 3 2        A 9 7 5

    WITH 2 ACES AND 2 GUARDED SUITS.

    [C]          [D]           [S]          [H]

    A K          K Q J 8 4     K 9 5        A 8  3
    A 7 6 3      K J x         Q J 3        A 10 9
    K Q 10 5 4   A             K 5 4        A 8  7 4
    A K Q        A 9           Q 9 7 6 5    Q 10 8
    A 10 3       Q 10 5 3      A 9 6        Q 9  6
    Q J 10 9     A 7           J 10 8 6     A 10 2

    WITH 2 ACES AND 1 PROTECTION.

    [C]           [D]           [S]           [H]

    K  J 8 7 5    J 3           A  6          A  K 9  6
    A  9 8        A 8 6         K  J 4 3      8  5 4
    A  Q 7        K J 10 4      Q  5          A  Q J  5
    A  K J 8      A Q           Q  9 7 6     10  4 2
    A  9 6       10 4           K 10 8 6      A  J 6  2
    A  J 4        9 5           A 10 2        Q 10 9  6 5
    A 10 8 6 5    A Q 3         8                Q J 10 4

    WITH 1 ACE AND 3 PROTECTIONS.

    [C]           [D]           [S]           [H]

    A  5 4        K 8           K Q 9 8 4     K  Q 3
    Q  J 3        A 3 2         K 7 6 5       K 10 4
    A 10 4        A J 10        Q J 3         K  9 8 7
    Q  9 6        K J 8         A K 8         J 10 8 4
    A  Q 5        Q 7 4         K 9 5 3       Q 10 9

    DOUBTFUL NO-TRUMPERS.

    [C]           [D]           [S]             [H]

     J 9 7 3      A 10  9 4    J  5             A  9 6
    10 6          A  Q  5      A 10 7 2         J 10 8 3
    10 5          A  Q  6 4    J  8 6           A  K 9 6
     A J 5 3      K  8  2      8  6             K  Q 7 2
    9             A  J 10      Q 10 8 6 4       K  J 8 6
    8            10  9         A  K Q 9 7 6 4   K 10 4
    A K Q 9 5    ----          J 10 5 3         Q 10 8 6

    HEARTS, NOT "NO-TRUMPS."

    [C]            [D]           [S]           [H]

    K Q 10 5 4     A K Q         2             A  5 4 3
    A K  Q 8 6     Q             A Q 5         A  K Q 4
    A K  J 9       K J 8 5 3     Q             Q  J 8
    Q J 10 9 7 6   A 7 6         A             A  5 3
    A Q  J 9 7     A J 9 8 6     K x           Q
    A K 10 9 6     A 8 7 6       5 4           K  9
    K J 10 7 2     A 8 6         Q 8 4         K 10

    BAD "RED" MAKES.

    [C]           [D]            [S]           [H]

     8 6           9  8 7        J 5 4         J 10 7 6 5
    10 9 5 3      10  6          5 4 3         A  K Q 4
     Q 7 5         J 10 2        6 2           J  8 6 4 3
     6 4 3         K 10 7 6 3    8 6           J  9 7
     9 4 3         6  2          9 8 7         Q 10 7 5 4
     Q 6 3        10  7 3        6 4 2         K  Q J 7


DOUBLING

If you--being the leader or his partner--are reasonably sure of the odd
trick, it is decidedly to your advantage to increase its value; but to
double "just for a gamble" rarely pays; it often results in a redouble,
and you are apt to find the sport expensive and your partner very
disagreeable.

In order to double with any degree of success, you must consider the
state of the score, the possibility of a redouble, and your position in
regard to the maker. Above all things, DEPEND ON YOUR OWN HAND and don't
expect your partner to take MOST of the tricks.

My advice to a beginner is: Be cautious and, until you have learned to
value your hand, be satisfied with the number of points you can make
without doubling.


ESTIMATING THE VALUE OF A HAND

To determine the probable trick-taking value of your hand, count each
Ace and King as a trick, and add to these the number of tricks you can
take in the trump suit. Queens count only as possible tricks, as the
third round of a suit may be trumped.

In determining the number of tricks you can take in the trump suit you
must remember that it makes a great difference on which side of you the
trump strength lies. For instance, holding Ace, Queen, and ten of
trumps, if you play after the maker, you will probably get three tricks;
but if the maker plays after you, your trumps can be led through, and
you may make but one trump trick.

If you play after the maker,

    J  x  x x     of trumps are worth 1 trick
    Q  x  x       "    "     "    "   1   "
    Q  J  x       "    "     "    "   1   "
    Q  J  x x     "    "     "    "   2   "
    K  Q  x       "    "     "    "   2   "
    K  J  x       "    "     "    "   2   "
    K  Q 10 x     "    "     "    "   3   "
    A  Q 10       "    "     "    "   3   "
    A 10  9 7 2   "    "     "    "   3   "


RULES FOR DOUBLING

To double spades, you should hold in your hand 4 tricks and a possible
5th.

To double hearts, diamonds, or clubs, you should hold five tricks and a
possible 6th.

To double "no-trumps," you should hold 6 tricks and a possible 7th.

Be careful about doubling "no-trumps," unless you hold a long
established suit. Your adversary may have seven tricks in _his_ long
suit, and it is hard to discard from a "good all-round hand."

Spades may be doubled when weak in trumps; but, to double hearts,
diamonds, or clubs, you should have some trump strength.

When doubling remember

That you show the dealer where the strength lies.

That you stand a better chance of winning the odd trick by not exposing
your strength.

That when the "maker" is on your right, you have the advantage that your
trumps are over his.

That when the "maker" is on your left you are at a disadvantage; his
trumps are over yours.

That it is a good time to double when the odd trick wins the game for
your adversaries, and does not win it for you.

That it is a poor time to double when the odd trick wins the game for
you and does not win it for your adversaries.

That with a doubtful hand it is better to be satisfied with what you can
make without doubling.

That if you double "no-trumps" your partner will lead you his best
heart.


THE LEAD WHEN PARTNER HAS DOUBLED

When your partner has doubled, the opening lead must depend greatly on
the scheme you adopt for the play of your hand. It is a mistake to
suppose your partner wishes a trump led EVERY time he doubles. On the
contrary, spades--when doubled--are seldom led by good players, unless
with a strong hand, until they have gained information to justify the
trump lead.

The majority of hands will be covered by the following rules:

If spades have been doubled and you hold four or more trumps you should
usually lead trumps.

It is fair to assume that your partner has doubled with a good suit
hand. Lead trumps if you are weak in spades, but hold a strong suit
hand. Your partner has probably doubled with trump strength.

If hearts, diamonds, or clubs have been doubled and dummy is the "maker"
it is usually good play to lead trumps; that is, when you have no short
suit and so are unable to use your trumps for ruffing.

If possible lead to take the first trick. After you have seen the dummy
you are in a position to judge as to the advisability of the trump
lead.

When hearts, diamonds, or clubs have been doubled and the dealer is the
maker, it is not sound play to lead trumps. You would place your partner
in a bad position by leading up to the dealer's declared strength.

When leading trumps always lead the top of two or three and the lowest
of four.


HEART CONVENTION

When you have the first lead and your partner has doubled a "no-trump"
make you are expected to lead your highest heart. As there are very few
hands where it is advisable to double "no-trump" on general strength, it
is necessary for the leader to know what suit to lead when his partner
has doubled.

When the leader holds an A K or an A K Q suit he should first lead the K
of that suit and then his highest heart.


WEAK-SUIT CONVENTION

In England and in some parts of this country the leader tries to guess
his partner's suit by leading the one in which he himself is weakest.
While this convention affords many more opportunities of doubling, it is
not nearly so safe as the heart convention. There is about an even
chance that the weak suit led will put the dealer or the dummy hand in
the lead.


THE NON-DEALER'S PLAY AGAINST A DECLARED TRUMP

The principles of play adopted against a trump and against a no-trump
declaration are entirely different; and it is for this reason that
Bridge is confusing to the beginner.

The important principles that govern the play against a trump
declaration are:

    To hold the lead in order to see the dummy hand.
    To make high cards before they can be trumped.
    To give your partner information.

The importance of first seeing the thirteen cards in the dummy is
self-evident. The play of an entire hand is often influenced by the
cards in the dummy; therefore, if you can win the first trick, you are
in a better position on the second lead to play your own and your
partner's hand to advantage.

These combinations should be selected in their order for the original
lead without reference to the length of the suit.

    A K Q
    A K

Ace from any other combination except A Q with one or two more.

    K Q J
    K Q
    Q J 10

As the maker, more especially if the trump is red, has shown strength,
your first consideration should be to save the game. This is best done
by leading your Aces and other high cards before the dealer has a chance
to discard and to trump. This is particularly true when there is an
established suit in the dummy hand; for then the dealer may be able to
exhaust trumps and discard his own losing cards on this established
suit.


ORIGINAL LEADS AGAINST A DECLARED TRUMP

    +------------------+----------------------+
    |       FROM       |         LEAD         |
    +------------------+----------------------+
    | A K Q            | King, then Queen.    |
    | A K              | King.                |
    +------------------+----------------------+
    | K Q J and others | King.                |
    | K Q              |                      |
    +------------------+----------------------+
    | Q J 10           | Queen.               |
    | Q J 9            |                      |
    +------------------+----------------------+
    | K J 10           | 10.                  |
    +------------------+----------------------+
    | A x x x or more. | Ace, then small one. |
    | A J x x          |  "    "     "    "   |
    | A Q J x          | Ace, then Queen.     |
    | A Q x x x        | Ace, then small one. |
    +------------------+----------------------+

When opposed to the dealer, aim to give your partner as much information
as possible. You certainly cannot expect to gain much by deceiving the
dealer--he knows what is held against him--and it is a decided advantage
for your partner to know where certain cards are and to understand what
you are trying to do. The best method of indicating the cards you hold
is to adhere strictly to the correct lead from each combination of
cards.

From all other combinations, such as

     K J 7 5 2 }
     K 8 6 2   }
     Q 9 7 5   } lead the 4th best card.
     J 6 5 2   }
    10 8 6 3   }

Don't lead low from suits headed by an Ace.

The lead of an _Ace_ followed by the _King_ shows no more of that suit.

The lead of a _King_ indicates the _Ace_, the _Queen_, or both.

With any three honours in a suit, your lead is always one of the
honours.

Holding but 3 or 4 cards in any of the following suits avoid leading if
possible. Wait until they are led to you.

    A Q x x
    A J x x
    K J x x
    K x x x

If in any doubt as to your lead select your longest and strongest suit
and lead the 4th best.

WHY THE 4TH BEST CARD IS LED

There are two reasons for leading the 4th best card of your long suit.

To show partner how many cards you hold in the suit.

To show partner what you have in the suit.

If you lead 4th best and afterward either discard or play a smaller one,
your partner will know that you originally held more than four cards in
that suit. The lead of a deuce, for instance, shows but four cards in
the suit. Your partner, by applying the "Rule of Eleven," can very often
tell the exact combination of cards from which you have led.


THE RULE OF ELEVEN

Deduct the size of the card led from eleven, and the difference will
show how many cards HIGHER than the one led are held outside the
leader's hand. If, for instance, your partner lead an eight spot, the
dummy having the queen and you holding A 10 x of the suit, as you see
three cards above the eight, you know the dealer cannot play higher and
that your partner must have led from K J 9 8.

       Q 6 2 (11 - 8 = 3)
      +---------+
      |    Y    |
      |         |
    8 | A     B | A 10 4
      |         |
      |    Z    |
      +---------+

This rule is especially important at "no-trump"; but players should not
give it much attention unless the card originally led is higher than a
five.

If your partner has had the original lead, and you have taken a trick,
either make your high cards or


LEAD UP TO WEAKNESS

Weakness means no high cards, and leading up to, is making a person play
fourth in hand to a trick. By leading a suit in which dummy has weak
cards, you may enable your partner to win a trick cheaply. Whenever the
dummy hand is on your right you should take this advantage of its
weakness. It is sometimes good play to lead a card higher than the
dummy's best. This, if the card you lead is not covered, gives your
partner a chance to pass the trick.


EXAMPLES OF OPENING LEADS

THE CARD IN RED INDICATES THE LEAD.

(_Hearts_) TRUMP DECLARED BY DEALER.

_Holding the Lead._

    ---------+--------------+-------------+----------
       [H]   |     [S]      |     [D]     |   [C]
    ---------+--------------+-------------+----------
     Q  6 2  | K J 7  6     | A  K Q 6 2  | 8
     7  5    | A K 4        | A  9 7 5 2  | 6 4 2
     5  3 2  | 9 8 6  2     | K  J 6 2    | A K
     8       | A Q 8  7 6 3 | K  7 6      | Q 9 8
    10  4    | A 8          | A  J 7 6 3 2| 9 6 2
     7  5    | A Q J 10 9 2 | 5  3        | 9 7 4
     Q  9    |10 7 5        | K  J 9 3    | A 8 6 5
     J 10 3  | A 9 6        |10  7 6 4    | J 4 3
     6  4 2  | 8 7 4        | A  J 8 4    | 9 6 2
     9  5 4  | A 7          | K  8 7 3    | A Q 6 2
     J  7 5  | 8 6 5  2     | A 10        | 9 7 4 3
    =========+==============+=============+==========


_Leading from a Sequence._

    ---------+--------------+-------------+----------
     9 2     | K Q  J  8 5 2| A J 7       | A 4
     J 8 7   | 9            | K Q J 9 6 2 | Q 4  2
     Q 8 4   | A Q  3       | A 7 3       | Q J 10 4
     A J 3   | K Q  J       | 7 5 3 2     | K 9  7
     K 9 4   | A 7  6       | K Q 7 5     | K 8  6
     K 7 4   | Q J 10       |10 7 4 2     | 8 6  3
     9 8 6 3 | K Q  J 10    | A 9 6 2     | 5
    =========+==============+=============+==========

    _Leading from Long Suits._

    ----------+----------+--------------+------------
       [H]    |    [S]   |     [D]      |    [C]
    ----------+----------+--------------+------------
     K  5     | 10 6 2   |  Q 10  9 6 5 |  J  8 7
     Q  7 4   |  A Q 5   | 10  7  4 3   |  K 10 3
     9  5     |  A J 2   |  9  8  6 2   |  K 10 7 4
     8  3 2   |  Q 8 7 4 |  9  6  2     | 10  6 3
     J  7 6 5 |  8       |  A  4  2     |  K 10 6 5 3
     A  J 8 6 |  J 4     | 10  9  7 6 2 |  3  2
     J 10     |  A J 6   |  A  Q  7 5   |  Q  J 4 2
     4  2     |  K 8 4   |  K  J 10 7 5 |  A  J 3
     K  6     |  7 5 2   |  9  8  4     |  Q  J 9 6 2
     Q 10 7 6 |  J 9 4   |  A  5        |  K 10 8 4
    ==========+==========+==============+============


    _Leading from Short Suits._

    ----------+----------+-------------+-----------
     9 4 3    |  A J 9 4 | 10  9       | A Q 8 6
     J 4 2    |  Q 7 4   |  K  8 7 6 5 | J 9
     9 6 4    | 10 6 4 2 |  A  4 3     | Q J 5
     A 9 5    |  8 6     | 10  6 4 3   | J 9 5 2
     7 4 3 2  |  8       |  9  7 6 4 2 | Q 6 3
     A Q 2    |  K J 7 4 |  J 10       | K 9 6 3
     K 5 3    |  J 10 4  |  K  9 7     | Q 7 6 3
     9 8 6    |  A Q 9 8 | 10          | J 9 5 3 2
     Q 7 4    |  A J 9 6 |  K  Q       | K J 7 3
     A 6 2    |  Q       |  K  8 6 4 3 | J 9 4 2
    ==========+==========+=============+===========


    (_Hearts_) TRUMP "PASSED MAKE."

    ----------+-----------+------------+-----------
     J 10     |  K 9 8 6  | A  Q 7     | K 6 4 2
     8  5 2   |  A Q 7 3  | K  J 6     | A J 8
     4  3     |  K 9 4 2  | Q 10  7 6  | J 9 4
     J  4 2   | 10 6      | Q 10  9 4 2| Q 8 3
     Q  6     |  Q 7 4 3  | K  Q 10    | 8 6 4 2
     Q        |  K 8 5 2  | Q  8  3    | A Q 5 4 3
     Q  6 2   |  A 5      | K 10  7 5 2| 9 7 4
     9  4 3   |  A Q 7 6 5| J  9       | K 8 6
     K  8 5   |  K 9 7 4  | Q  J       | K 9 4 3
     8  7     |  Q 6 3    | K  J  9 3  | A 8 6 5
     9  8     |  A Q 6 3 2| Q  J  6 2  | K 7
    ==========+===========+============+===========


AFTER THE FIRST TRICK

After you have led and have won the first trick, examine the exposed
hand carefully; then either continue with the suit led originally or
lead through strength.


LEADING THROUGH STRENGTH

The beginner will appreciate the fact that strength in a suit consists
of high cards, but is apt to find the term "leading through" difficult
to understand. Leading through means to make a person play second in
hand to the trick. You always lead through your left-hand adversary.

The object of leading through strength is to help your partner make his
high cards by giving him the advantage of playing after the exposed
hand.

Holding a sequence of two or more cards, headed by a Queen, Jack, or
Ten, when there is an honour in the dummy it is good play to lead the
highest card. If the dummy does not cover this lead, it gives your
partner an opportunity to pass the trick.

Holding one or two high cards of dummy's strong suit that are _not_ in
sequence, avoid leading the suit. Wait until dummy leads to you.

Don't lead through strength when dummy holds a sequence of three or more
cards, as

    A K Q
    K Q J
    Q J 10

Holding a high card or cards in a suit in which the dummy is weak, avoid
leading that suit. Try to put your partner in the lead, so that he may
lead it to you.

Holding no high cards in the suit, the following combinations should be
led through:

    A Q x
    A J x
    A x x
    K Q x
    K J x
    K x x
    Q x x

Holding a sequence of two or more cards the following combinations
should be led through:

    K x x
    K x
    Q x x


FORCING

Judicious forcing will do more than anything else to break up a strong
trump hand.

Forcing means making a player trump--the object being to weaken his
hand.

It is good play to force the strong trump hand.

When the strong trump hand holds no more cards of your long suit, do all
damage possible with it. Unless trumps are out, the suit is of no other
use to you.

It is bad play to force the weak trump hand. Unless you can make the
strong hand trump it is better to stop leading the suit.

Do not lead a suit that will allow the weak hand to trump and the other
hand to discard; the adversaries take the trick and get rid of a losing
card.

It is too late to force when the dummy has an established suit and the
dealer has the last trump or trumps. Make what you can before giving up
the lead.

When the weak hand can ruff your suit, it is sometimes good play to lead
trumps; but only when, in doing so, you are leading trumps through the
strong hand, and when you have some protection in the other suits.


SHORT SUITS

There are two lines of play that may be followed to make tricks against
the dealer. The first--to make your high cards--has been explained. The
second is to make your small trumps by ruffing.

When you have no high card lead, or if you are anxious to be led up to,
it is often good play to throw the lead and, at the same time, to try
to make your small trumps. This can be done by leading a short suit.

A short suit is a suit of less than four cards; but the term is commonly
used to denote a singleton or a two-card suit.

In order that your partner may understand that you are leading a short
suit (and not the fourth best card of a long one) it is customary to
lead the highest card. (If you are forced to open a suit with K J x, K x
x or Q x x, the low card should be led.)

To detect a short suit apply the "Rule of Eleven." If there are (in your
hand and the dummy) more higher cards than the rule allows, the lead
cannot be the fourth-best card.

Under the following circumstances a short suit should not be led.

If you hold four trumps, including any one honour, don't lead a short
suit. Your best play is to open your long suit and force the dealer to
trump. In this way you weaken the dealer's hand and you may prevent his
bringing in his long suit or you may even establish and make your own.

If the make has been passed, don't lead a short black suit. It is
natural to suppose that the dealer is strong in black suits--if in
any--and you would be leading up to declared strength.

If you can take the first trick, do so and then judge of the
advisability of the short-suit lead.


THE DISCARD

There is considerable discussion and a wide diversity of opinion among
Bridge Players as to the best suit to throw away. You should, therefore,
before playing, ask your partner which method he adopts. Some advantage
may be claimed for each theory of discard; but the main object of them
all is the same--to indicate to partner the suit you wish led and at the
same time protect any honours you may hold in other suits.

The three different discards used by Bridge Players are:

    Strength, both with a trump and at "no-trump."
    Strength, with a trump and weakness at "no-trump."
    Weakness, both with a trump and at "no-trump."

The discard of strength with a trump and weakness at "no-trump" is the
one most commonly used. This discard of weakness at "no-trump," while it
has the advantage of saving all the cards of the long suit, which you
may make, has also several disadvantages.

To show your suit absolutely you need two discards.

In order not to deceive your partner it may be necessary to unguard
honours, such as J x x x, 10 x x x, Q x x, or even K x.

By discarding weakness you show the dealer against which hand to
finesse.

The writer, after the analysis of many thousand hands, believes that at
"no-trump" the first discard from strength, _i.e._, the long suit or the
suit you wish partner to lead, is the safest and best, both for
protecting the hand and for showing the suit beyond possibility of
mistake.

The main advantages of the strength discard are:

It takes but one discard positively to show the suit wanted.

You can protect the high cards in your weaker suits without deceiving
your partner.

It does not show the dealer so clearly on which side to take a finesse.

By showing your suit earlier in the hand, you enable your partner to
discard to better advantage.

There are but few "no-trump" hands in which it is possible to make all
the small cards of one's suit against the dealer--unless it be the suit
first opened. Occasionally the suit in which the dealer is weak in both
hands will be made; but more often this suit is never brought in,
because the adversaries do not know the cards they hold in the two
hands.

For years whist authorities have agreed that with trump strength
declared against you the first discard should be from strength. Why,
then, when strength in all of the suits has been declared, should not
the strength discard be the best defensive discard for the majority of
bridge hands? In order not to lose an opportunity of making all of the
long suit, players will continually unguard cards in the weak suits
which, if properly protected, would win tricks; and when using the weak
suit discard these cards _must_ be unguarded in order to show partner
your suit.

There may be an occasional trick lost by discarding from strength at
"no-trump," but there are so many tricks thrown away by unguarding
honours in weak suits, and so many games and rubbers lost by guessing
the wrong suit, that Bridge Players will find the strength discard will
save more and lose less than any other discard. You do not expect to win
on your adversaries' make; you hope to prevent their winning a large
score.

If you have once led, you have shown your strength, and may then discard
from any suit you wish.

Discard only once from your strength, and then as the situation and the
hand warrant.


THE REVERSE DISCARD

In discarding, the play of a high and then a lower card reverses the
original meaning of the discard. If you adopt the strength discard, and
wish to throw away your weak suit at "no-trump," do so by discarding
first a high and then a lower card. If you use the weak discard and wish
to throw away your strong suit, discard first a high and then a lower
card.

The reverse discard should be used only when it is clearly shown that
two discards can be made.


HINTS ON DISCARDING

Watch the dealer's discards and protect the suit that he is saving.

After you have led or shown your suit, the discard of a high and then a
lower card in another suit shows command of the second suit.

The discard of an Ace shows great strength in the suit.

If a spade declaration has been doubled by you or your partner--and
especially when either of you has indicated strength by leading
trumps--the first discard should be from weakness.

In discarding at "no-trump," don't throw away all the cards of one suit:
it exposes your partner's hand, and makes it easy for the dealer to
tell how that suit is placed. Besides, you may need one card of that
suit to put your partner in the lead.

Save at least one card of your partner's long suit, unless you are
forced to give it up in order to protect your hand.

After you have led or shown your suit your discard should be from
weakness.

If your partner is discarding from weakness, protect the suit that he is
throwing away, if you can.

If forced to protect honours in other suits, don't be afraid to unguard
honours in the suit in which partner is strong.


NON-DEALER'S PLAY

SECOND HAND

In determining the card to play second in hand, you will find it a great
assistance to ask yourself why the dealer is leading that suit. You can
usually infer from the dummy's cards and your own hand what the dealer
must hold to have led the suit.

Cover an honour with an honour. This should always be done holding a
perfect or an imperfect fourchette (a card higher and a card lower than
the one led). An honour should be covered when by so doing you hope to
make a card good in your partner's hand. Don't cover holding a K, Q, or
J three times guarded, unless your next best card is a nine or better.

Don't hesitate. By hesitation a player often shows the dealer how to
play his cards. Play quickly, and if there is any doubt as to your play,
play the lowest card you hold.

If the dummy has a tenace over your cards or can take any card you hold,
play low; let the dealer do the guessing.

Holding any two or more honours in sequence, play the lowest honour of
the sequence.

    A K      K  Q
    Q J      J 10

Beat the dummy. When the dealer leads, it is usually advisable to play a
card higher than the best in the dummy.

If you hold ace and others of the suit which the dummy leads, and the
trumps are all against you, play your ace second in hand. If you wait,
your ace may be trumped.


THIRD HAND

In this position your play should be guided by a knowledge of the leads,
an application of the "Rule of Eleven," and a close observance of the
dummy hand.

Unless you hold two or more honours in sequence, play your highest card.
The object of doing this is either to win the trick, or, by forcing a
still higher card from your adversary, to make a card good in your
partner's hand.

Do not deceive your partner by playing an unnecessarily high card.
Holding any two honours in sequence, play the lower.


FINESSING ON PARTNER'S LEAD

When the dummy holds no honour, it is not good play to "finesse against
your partner." If you hold K J or A Q, by playing any card but the best
you not only give the dealer an opportunity to make a trick, but you run
the risk of losing your own high cards in that suit. If, however, the
dummy holds an honour, K or Q, and you hold A and J of the suit, you are
justified in finessing the J, hoping your partner holds the missing
honour. At "no-trump"--when the dummy holds an honour--it is customary
to finesse much deeper, hoping to catch the honour exposed on the table
and so establish partner's suit.


THE ECHO

Some players use the echo only when they can trump the third round of a
suit.

The echo is a signal used by Bridge players to show ability to win the
third round of the suit either with a trump or a high card.

If your partner leads the K and then the A when you hold only two cards
of that suit, show you can trump the third round by playing first the
higher and then the lower.

If you hold the Q and your partner leads the K and A, show in the same
manner that you can win the third round of the suit.

Don't echo with an honour; it may deceive your partner.

At "no-trump" the echo is used to encourage partner to continue that
suit.

On a doubled spade, if your partner leads a high trump, echo with three
by playing the intermediate trump to the first round.


THE DEALER'S PLAY WITH A DECLARED TRUMP

In playing the two hands, the dealer must take advantage of any
information he can gain from the leads and plays of the adversaries;
and, in return, try to convey a false impression of his own hand. Above
all, the dealer should know the score and estimate the number of tricks
he must take to win the game; always bearing in mind that if he cannot
win the game, he should try to prevent the adversaries from so doing.


LEADING TRUMPS

One of the worst faults of the beginner is refusing to lead trumps. When
you hold seven or more trumps in the two hands, usually lead them. If
you hold commanding suit cards, the trump lead will prevent their being
ruffed. When you have no suit to make the lead will establish your trump
suit. If you hold high cards that should be led up to, lead trumps to
throw the lead and to compel the adversaries to lead to you.

Arrange to lead your trumps advantageously--from the weak hand to the
strong.

After trumps are exhausted, try to clearer establish the longest suit in
the two hands.

It is usually good play to draw two trumps for one; but when the best
trump is against you, do not waste two of yours to get it out.

Lead the losing trump only when you have an established suit and a sure
re-entry.

When you hold one or more trumps and a losing card, always lead the
trumps. This will force the adversaries to discard and they may not save
the right suit.

Aim to discard your losing cards from the one hand, on the commanding
cards in the other.

With a weak hand you are more likely to make your high cards if you put
your adversaries in the lead.


NOT LEADING TRUMPS

The exception to the trump lead is when the weaker of the two trump
hands contains a short suit and can ruff; then, before leading trumps,
allow the weak hand to trump your losing cards.

Unless a cross ruff can be established, it is usually bad play to weaken
your strong trump hand by forcing it to ruff. If you do this, you will
find it difficult to exhaust trumps from the adversaries' hands and to
make any commanding suit cards you may hold.

If your adversary has doubled, be cautious about leading trumps. It is
good play to lead through the doubling hand; but bad play to lead up to
it.


THE NON-DEALER'S PLAY OF A "NO-TRUMP" HAND

With a declared trump you aim to make your high cards; but at no-trump
the high cards take care of themselves and you must try to establish
your small cards.

If you are the leader at "no-trump," open your longest suit. Save the
high cards of your other suits for re-entry and try to establish the
small cards of your long suit.

Don't lead your aces and kings to take a look at dummy; later in the
hand you will need them to get the lead and bring in your established
suit.

The majority of "no-trump" makes are strong in three suits. Your long
suits may be the weak spot in the dealer's hand.

Try to infer, from the dummy hand and your own, the high cards the
dealer must hold to have declared "no-trump." You will be surprised to
find how many times an inference thus drawn will enable you to play your
hand to advantage.

Having started your long suit, usually the best play is to continue that
suit until it becomes established, especially if you hold one or two
re-entry cards.

Don't change suits unless your suit is hopelessly against you. When it
requires two leads to clear your suit, and you hold no cards of
re-entry, abandon it and play for your partner's suit--the suit that he
has shown by his discard, or the suit which must be his, judging from
your own and the dummy hand.

In leading to your partner's declared suit, always lead your highest
card; this will enable him to tell what high cards are held against his
suit and it will prevent your blocking his hand.


RETURN YOUR PARTNER'S LEAD

If your partner has had the original lead, RETURN HIS SUIT. There are
very few "no-trump" hands where it is possible to bring in more than
one suit, and if, instead of returning your partner's suit, you lead
your own, you are playing for one suit and your partner for another, and
as a result you will probably establish neither.

When it is evident that your suit is stronger than your partner's--i.e.,
if you have re-entry cards and can establish the suit in one lead--then,
by all means, play for your own suit; but don't be deterred from
returning your partner's lead simply because you see that the best card
of his suit is against him. That card will have to make anyway, and by
forcing it out of dummy at once you may enable partner to make the rest
of his suit.

In returning your partner's lead, return your highest card. The
importance of this is apparent: your partner can see the cards in his
own and in the dummy hand, and if you return your best card he also
knows what the dealer holds in that suit. It may prevent his leading up
to the dealer's tenace; it may show him that the suit should be
abandoned or that it should be again led from your hand. Returning the
highest card minimises the risk of blocking the suit. Very often, by not
getting rid of a 7, 8, 9, or 10 early in the hand, you make it
impossible for your partner to make his small cards.

Don't be deceived by the dealer's play. His object is to fool you; and
if he holds cards of equal value, he will probably take the trick with
the highest.

Notice carefully your partner's first discard. It shows you the suit to
lead and may also affect your own discard.

Don't, because the dealer leads the suit, refuse to take tricks with
your aces and kings. By taking the trick, you may make a card good in
your partner's hand. It is only the dealer who is in a position to know
when to refuse tricks; he sees the two hands.

When there is no chance that your partner can take a trick in the suit
led, it is sometimes wise to keep the commanding card until one hand
cannot put the other in the lead, especially when there is no re-entry
card in the hand with the long suit.


OPENING LEAD AT "NO-TRUMP"

Unless your partner has doubled (see Heart and Weak Suit Conventions)
lead from your longest suit. It is not advisable, especially when you
hold no cards of re-entry, to lead aces and kings, except when you hope
to catch all of the smaller cards. Two rounds may exhaust the suit in
your partner's hand; and if you have no re-entry card and he has none of
your suit to lead you, your long suit, even though established, is
absolutely worthless.

The lead of an ace, king, or queen indicates great strength, either
seven cards or three honours.

Holding two suits of equal length and strength, lead a red suit in
preference to a black, especially if the make has been passed,

Holding two suits of equal length, keep for re-entry the suit with the
higher cards, as,

            { A 8 6 3 2
    holding {   and       if you open the Q suit
            { Q 9 8 6 3

and establish it, the ace is a sure re-entry card; if you open the ace
suit the queen is a very doubtful card of re-entry.

With a weak long suit and no re-entry card, many good bridge players
open the highest card of a short suit, preferably hearts or diamonds.
The theory is that, had the dealer been strong in the red suits, he
would have declared a red trump; and with a worthless hand, this short
suit lead may assist partner. While there is much to be said in favour
of this play, I would suggest that, unless your partner thoroughly
understands the game and your play, it is safer to open your long suit.

When you are opening a long, weak suit from a hand without re-entry
cards it is advisable that you convey this information to your partner.
This you can do by leading the top or an intermediate card of your long
suit; your partner, by applying the "Rule of Eleven," can see that you
are not leading the fourth best card, and unless it is for the best
interest of the two hands will not return the suit. For example:

    From 10 8 7 6 3, lead the 8
    From 9 8 5 3 2,  lead the 9
    From 8 7 5 3,    lead the 8


THE ORIGINAL LEAD IN NO-TRUMPS

    +----------+----------------------------------------------------+
    |   LEAD   |                   HOLDING                          |
    +----------+----------------------------------------------------+
    |          | Ace, Queen, Jack, and others with a Re-entry card. |
    |   ACE    | Ace, with 7 or more others.                        |
    |          | Ace, Queen, with 5 others.                         |
    |          | Ace, Jack, with 5 others.                          |
    +----------+----------------------------------------------------+
    |          | Ace, King, Queen, and others.                      |
    |          | Ace, King, Jack, and others.                       |
    |          | Ace, King, ten, and 3 others, with a Re-entry card.|
    |   KING   | Ace, King, and 5 or more others.                   |
    |          | King, Queen, Jack, and others.                     |
    |          | King, Queen, ten, and others.                      |
    |          | King, Queen, and 5 others.                         |
    +----------+----------------------------------------------------+
    |          | Queen, Jack, ten, and others.                      |
    |  QUEEN   | Queen, Jack, nine, and others.                     |
    |          | Ace, Queen, Jack, and others. No card of Re-entry. |
    +----------+----------------------------------------------------+
    |   JACK   | Jack, ten, nine, and others.                       |
    +----------+----------------------------------------------------+
    |   TEN    | King, Jack, ten, and others.                       |
    +----------+----------------------------------------------------+
    | 4TH BEST | From other combinations.                           |
    +----------+----------------------------------------------------+


UNBLOCKING

Unblocking is getting rid of high cards so that your partner can make
smaller ones.

You seldom unblock except at "no-trump."

Study the "no-trump" leads, and on the lead of any high card prepare to
get out of your partner's way. It is rarely that you can lose more than
one trick by unblocking, and a failure to take advantage of the position
when it presents itself may result in the loss of three to six tricks.

With four cards of the suit of which your partner leads the A, K, or Q,
keep the lowest card until the final round.

    +---------+----------------------+--------+
    | HOLDING | ON PARTNER'S LEAD OF |  PLAY  |
    +---------+----------------------+--------+
    |  K x    |        A             | K      |
    |  A x    |        K             | A      |
    |  K x    |        Q             | K      |
    |  Q x x  |        K and A       | Q on A |
    |  K Q x  |        A             | Q      |
    |  Q J x  |        A             | J      |
    |  Q J x  |        K             | J      |
    |  K Q x  |        J             | Q      |
    +---------+----------------------+--------+


THE DEALER'S PLAY OF A NO-TRUMP HAND

The dealer's play of a "no-trump" hand is both the most interesting and
the most intricate part of Bridge. Very often a single error will
result in the loss of three or more tricks; so that it behooves the
dealer--as he has no assistance from his partner--to make himself
thoroughly conversant with the strategy of the game.

The following rules cover all the important points in the dealer's play.

Keep the commanding card of your adversary's suit.

This the beginner invariably refuses to do; he is too anxious to take a
trick and does not realise that he will often gain several by passing.

Before playing the commanding card of your adversaries' suit, wait--if
you can--until the leader's partner has played his last card of that
suit; he is then unable to return the lead, and there may be no card of
re-entry in his partner's hand.

Rarely refuse to take tricks with your Kings and Queens.

When an entire suit is against you, it pays to take the lead; the
adversaries may change the suit.

When you see in your hands enough tricks to win the game, always take
the lead.

Always take the lead when doing so makes a card good in either of your
hands.

Play for the longest suit in the two hands.

After taking the lead, count the cards of each suit in the combined
hands and make it your object to play for the longest. It may sometimes
be necessary, in order to lead the suit to the best advantage, to wait
until it can be led from the other hand.

With two suits of equal length, play for the one in the hand that has
cards of re-entry.

With two suits of equal length, play for the one that is shown on the
table. Don't give your opponents unnecessary information of your
strength.

With two suits of equal length, play for the one which, when
established, will give you the greater number of tricks, as

    7 cards in one hand and 1 in the other.
    6 cards in one hand and 2 in the other.
    5 cards in one hand and 3 in the other.
    4 cards in one hand and 4 in the other.

Holding only seven cards of a suit, you will often find an adversary
with four cards of that suit.

Holding only six cards of a suit, remember that your adversaries have
seven and that leading the suit will establish it against you.

When the best card of your suit is against you, lead to get it out of
your way. It pays to establish one suit.

The beginner will usually play his high cards, and, after establishing
one or two tricks in that suit for his adversaries, proceed to do the
same with another suit and end by abusing his partner for making it
"no-trump" with so weak a hand.

Lead from the weak hand to the strong.

This is the secret of playing the two hands well. Play for the longest
suit in the two hands; but arrange the lead so that it comes from the
hand that has no high cards.

    Lead from            to
    x  x x             K x x x
    x  x x             A Q x x
    x  x x             K Q x x
    10 x x             K J x 4

Holding a combination of Ace, Queen, Jack in the two hands, try to catch
the King by leading the highest card from the one hand up to the Ace in
the other.

This is really a continuation of the last rule, but its importance
demands a separate heading. The correct play of this combination will
win more tricks than any one other play in Bridge.

If the King is guarded, and you lead the Ace or from the Ace, the King
_must_ win; but if you lead from the other hand, there is an even
chance that you will find the King on the side you wish. If it is in the
other hand, it would probably make anyhow.

Avoid blocking your suit, by leading or playing the high cards from the
shorter of the two hands.

As with A K x in one hand and Q x x x x x in the other, play A K x.

As with A Q x in one hand and K x x x x x in the other, play A Q x.

Keep a re-entry card in the hand that has the long suit.

If you are able to take the trick in either hand, do not take it with
the hand that has the long suit, unless that suit is established. If you
cannot place the lead in the hand with the long suit, it is useless to
establish that suit. It is often advisable to refuse to part with the
highest card of a long suit, if that card is the only re-entry for the
suit.


FINESSING

At "no-trump" the dealer has many opportunities to win tricks with cards
that are not the best. In attempting this he should be guided by the
following principles.

It is better to finesse on the second round of the suit than on the
first.

By forcing discards, you can often tell which adversary is holding and
protecting an honour in the suit in question, and on which side the
finesse should be taken.

When there is a question on which side to take the finesse, be careful
to shut out the hand with the established suit.

Do not finesse with nine cards of a suit in the two hands, including
both the Ace and King. As there are but four more cards of the suit, the
Queen will probably fall on one of the two leads.

Holding ten cards of one suit, including the Ace, Queen, Jack
combination, lead the Queen toward the Ace; but if the Queen is not
covered by the King, play the Ace on it.


"BRIDGE DON'TS"

Don't form the habit of playing slowly.

Don't expect your partner to play well when you criticise him. A little
encouragement will win you rubbers and will add to your popularity.

Don't forget that it requires more skill to play a poor hand than it
does to play a good one.

Don't miss an opportunity to win the game or to save it.

Don't complain if you hold poor cards and don't exult over good ones.

Don't criticise at all; but, if you must, wait until the hand is
finished.

Don't hurry when exacting a penalty.

Don't think entirely of your own hand.

Don't take advantage of your partner's breach of etiquette.

Don't think that bad play won't sometimes win tricks.

Don't forget the score for an instant.

Don't ignore the value of small cards.

Don't fail to see your partner's first discard.

Don't be deceived by the dealer's play.


RULES

It is impossible to suggest rules that will cover the play of every
hand. Rules are formulated after the analysis of a great many hands, and
are therefore made to meet the _usual_ distribution of the cards. When
the fall of the cards reveals an unusual situation, unusual means must
be adopted to meet it; and here your reason and common sense must come
to your aid.

The best Bridge players have the greatest regard for the rules; but the
strong player recognises a situation for which a rule is not provided,
and he allows his reason to dictate to him the times to follow and the
times to violate them.


MANNERISMS

There is nobody who cares to be told that he plays cards unfairly; but,
if you permit your manner to give your partner or the opponents the
slightest intimation of the cards you hold, you lay yourself open to
such criticism. Cards do not carry with them a license to be unfair or
rude, yet, at the Bridge table, many socially correct people are both.

Try always to pause the same length of time before making the trump or
passing. Do not allow your manner to express approval or disapproval of
your partner's make or of the cards he plays, and select each of your
own cards with equal deliberation. When you hold good cards be content
to win tricks with them, without manifesting glee at your adversaries'
defeat. When your cards are poor, do not complain of them; you imply
that the opponents profit by your weak hands and not by their own skill,
and, as a rule, the more you rail at your luck the worse it becomes. Be
generous with your praise of a well-played hand, and be sure your
partner will play a better game if he does not fear your adverse
criticism. Do not permit yourself to take advantage of, or be deceived
by, any mannerisms of your partner or of the opponents, and let your own
manner be uniformly such that nobody can tell from it whether you are
winning or losing.


MEMORY

It is not necessary to have a fine memory in order to play Bridge well;
but it _does_ require the ability to count thirteen. If you know _how
many_ cards of a suit have been played, you soon will be able to tell
_what_ cards have been played.

Begin with one suit, preferably your own, and count each card of that
suit as it is played; you will be surprised to find that you will soon
notice not only where the cards of that suit are, but just what cards
have been played. A little practice will enable you to do the same with
all of the suits.

No matter what may be your position at the table, you may cultivate your
memory by observing carefully the cards laid down by the dummy. The
number of cards remaining in a suit at any stage of the play will assist
you in recalling how many rounds of that suit have been played, and this
will help you in recollecting what high cards were played in those
rounds.

When you are dummy, and have nothing to do with the play, occupy your
time and attention with a determined effort to remember each card played
by your partner, the dealer. At the end of the hand see if you can
recall how many of each suit he held. With a little practice you will be
able to recall what his high cards were as well as the number in each
suit. Memory is simply a matter of observation and practice.


INFERENCES

The play of each card conveys some information; and the secret of
playing Bridge well lies in being able to draw inferences rapidly and
correctly and in utilising the knowledge thus gained. If you simply
look, in a mechanical way, at the cards as they fall without inferring
what was meant by the play, you are apt to find yourself in the lead and
at a complete loss as to what to do next.


THE FOLLOWING ARE SUGGESTIONS FOR INFERENCES TO BE DRAWN BY THE DEALER.

What will the make probably be if you pass? Your partner is apt to make
it the suit in which you are weakest.

Does the opening lead show a long or a short suit? If short, be on the
alert to get the lead and exhaust trumps. If long, how many cards does
the leader hold, and what high cards does his lead show?

Ask yourself why does the adversary discard one suit and save another?
This will aid in locating honours and in making successful finesses.

If the left-hand adversary leads through the Ace Queen suit in dummy, he
probably does not hold the King and is tempting you to finesse. If he
refuses to lead through the Ace Queen suit he is very likely waiting for
you to up to his King.

If the make has been doubled try to infer what trump honours are in the
doubling hand; this will enable you to judge as to the advisability of
the trump lead.


SUGGESTIONS FOR THE NON-DEALER

From what combination of cards is your partner leading? Remember the
high cards that he holds.

The lead of a King, for instance, shows you that partner has the Ace,
the Queen, or both.

The lead of a Jack indicates the top of a suit.

The lead of a seven, eight, or nine probably means the highest card of a
short suit.

Don't draw rigid inferences from the dealer's play; he will endeavour to
deceive you by playing false cards.

If it is an original make, your own and the dummy hand will help you to
infer what trumps or high cards the dealer holds.

If the dealer seems backward in leading trump he is probably aiming to
ruff with the weak hand and a trump lead from you may prevent this.

Endeavour to understand your partner's discards. You can then protect
the suit in which he is weak, and, if necessary, unguard honours in the
suit in which he has shown strength.

When partner returns your lead in No-trump, notice carefully the card
that he plays. It will help you to place the suit and prevent your
leading to a possible tenace in the dealer's hand.


COMBINING THE HANDS OF DEALER AND DUMMY

The following table gives the different combinations of cards and shows
how they should be played to get the best results when the dealer holds
one combination and the dummy holds the other. An "x" means one or more
small cards.

The following combinations may be led from either hand:

    +----------------+-----------------+
    | _In One Hand._ | _In the Other._ |
    +----------------+-----------------+
    |     A  K  x    |     Q  x  x     |
    |     A  Q  x    |     K  x  x     |
    |     K  Q  x    |     J  x  x     |
    |     K  J  x    |     Q  x  x     |
    |     K  x  x    |     Q  J  x     |
    |     Q  J  x    |    10  x  x     |
    |     Q 10  x    |     J  x  x     |
    |     Q  x  x    |     J 10  x     |
    +----------------+-----------------+

If forced to lead from any of the following combinations, lead from the
weaker of the two hands. In these, lead the highest card of the three
in the weak hand:

    +---------+---------+
    | _In One | _In the |
    |  Hand._ | Other._ |
    +---------+---------+
    |  x x x  |  K Q x  | First trick, play queen.
    |  x x x  |  K J x  | First trick, play jack.
    |  x x x  |  K x x  | First trick, play king.
    |  J x x  |  K x x  | First trick, play low.
    +---------+---------+

In the following, lead from the weaker hand, but begin by playing the
lowest card:

    +---------+---------+
    | _In One | _In the |
    |  Hand._ | Other._ |
    +---------+---------+
    |  Q x x  |  A x x  | First trick, play ace.
    |  J x x  |  A x x  | First trick, play ace.
    |  Q x x  |  K x x  | First trick, play king.
    |  J x x  |  Q x x  | First trick, play queen.
    +---------+---------+

These rules are based on the supposition that the second hand has not
played a higher card than any in the hand to which you lead.

There is a difference of one or two tricks in all these combinations,
depending on whether you or your adversaries open the suit. Try to get
the adversaries to open such suits for you, as you do so yourself to a
disadvantage. Throw the lead into their hands and make them lead to you.


FINESSING

COMBINING THE HANDS OF DEALER AND DUMMY.

With any of the following combinations divided between the two hands,
the lead should always be from the weaker hand, in the left-hand column,
and the _highest_ card should be led, always playing the _smallest_ card
from the stronger combination. For instance, in the first one given, you
should lead the jack from J 10 x and play the small card from A K x. An
"x" means any small card, or more than one small.

    +----------------+-----------------+
    | _In One Hand._ | _In the Other._ |
    +----------------+-----------------+
    |     J 10  x    |     A  K  x     |
    |     x  x  x    |     A  K  J     |
    |     x  x  x    |     A  Q  J     |
    |     J  x  x    |     A  Q  x     |
    |     Q  x  x    |     A  J  x     |
    |     Q  J  x    |     A  x  x     |
    |     x  x  x    |     K  J 10     |
    |    10  x  x    |     K  J  x     |
    |     J  x  x    |     K 10  x     |
    |     J  x  x    |     K  x  x     |
    |     x  x  x    |     Q 10  x     |
    |    10  x  x    |     Q  x  x     |
    +----------------+-----------------+

In the following combinations, the lead should be the best card in the
weaker hand, and the smallest card in the stronger hand should be played
to the first round, allowing the adversary to win the first trick. The
weak hand must then get into the lead again, so as to take the second
finesse, hoping both honours are not on the wrong side:

    +----------------+-----------------+
    | _In One Hand._ | _In the Other._ |
    +----------------+-----------------+
    |     x  x  x    |     A  J 10     |
    |    10  x  x    |     A  J  x     |
    |     x  x  x    |     A  J  x     |
    |     J  x  x    |     A 10  x     |
    |     J 10  x    |     A  x  x     |
    |     x  x  x    |     A  J  9     |
    +----------------+-----------------+


SECOND-HAND PLAYS

Showing all of the different combinations between dealer and dummy and
their play. The second hand is the hand that is led through, it being
supposed that a small card is led.

    +------------+-------------+--------------------+
    | _2d Hand._ | _4th Hand._ |     _Play._        |
    +------------+-------------+--------------------+
    |  A  K  x   |   J  x  x   | K, _or_ Low        |
    |  A  K  x   |  10  x  x   | King (T) Low (N T) |
    |  A  Q  x   |   J  x  x   | Low                |
    |  A  Q  x   |  10  x  x   | Low                |
    |  A  Q  x   |   x  x  x   | Queen              |
    |  A  J  x   |   Q  x  x   | Low                |
    |  A 10  x   |   J  x  x   | Low                |
    |  A  x  x   |   Q  x  x   | Low                |
    |  K  Q  x   |   x  x  x   | Queen              |
    |  K  J  x   |   x  x  x   | Low                |
    |  K  J      |   x  x  x   | Jack (T) K (N T)   |
    |  K  J      |   A  x  x   | Jack               |
    |  K  J  x   |  10  x  x   | Low                |
    |  K 10  x   |   J  x  x   | Low                |
    |  K  x  x   |   Q  x      | Low                |
    |  K  x      |   x  x      | Low (T) K (N T)    |
    |  K  x      |   J  x  x   | Low                |
    |  K  x      |   Q  x  x   | Low (T) K (N T)    |
    |  K  x      |   Q 10  x   | Low                |
    |  K  x      |   A 10  x   | Low                |
    |  K  x      |   A  J  x   | Low                |
    |  Q  J  x   |   x  x  x   | Jack               |
    |  Q  J  x   |   A  x  x   | Jack               |
    |  Q 10  x   |   A  x  x   | Low                |
    |  Q  x  x   |   K  x  x   | Low                |
    |  Q  x  x   |   x  x  x   | Low                |
    |  Q  x      |   A  x  x   | Queen              |
    |  Q  x      |   A 10  x   | Low                |
    |  Q  x      |   A  J  x   | Low                |
    |  Q  x      |   K  x  x   | Low (T) Q (N T)    |
    |  Q  x      |   J  x  x   | Low                |
    |  Q  x      |   x  x  x   | Queen              |
    |  J 10  x   |   A  K  x   | Ten                |
    |  J 10  x   |   A  x  x   | Ten                |
    |  J 10  x   |   K  x  x   | Ten                |
    |  J  x      |   K 10  x   | Low                |
    |  J  x      |   K  x  x   | Jack               |
    |  J  x      |   Q  x  x   | Low                |
    |  J  x      |   A  K  x   | Jack               |
    |  J  x      |   A  Q  x   | Low                |
    | 10  x      |   A  K  x   | Ten                |
    | 10  x      |   A  Q  x   | Ten                |
    | 10  x      |   A  J  x   | Low                |
    +------------+-------------+--------------------+

(T) means with a declared trump.

(N T) means with no trumps.

[Illustration: ILLUSTRATIVE HANDS]


NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 1

TRICK 1.--The dealer refuses to give up the A of spades, as he wishes to
exhaust the spades in one hand before he attempts to clear his club
suit.

TRICK 4.--B, hoping to take the last club from the dealer's hand,
refuses to part with the A of clubs.

TRICK 6.--B tries to put his partner in the lead so that he may make the
spades.


ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 1

_Keeping the Command of the Adversaries' Suit._

The score is love-all, rubber game. The dealer, Z, makes it no-trump. A
leads for the first trick. The underlined card wins the trick and the
card under it is the one led for the next trick.

                      [S] 9
                      [C] K Q J 5 4 2
                      [D] Q 6 5
                      [H] 7 6 3
                     +---------+
     [S] K Q J 8 6 2 |    Y    | [S] 10 7 5
     [C] 9 8         |         | [C] A 7
     [D] 9 4         |A       B| [D] J 10 8 7
     [H] 10 8 2      |         | [H] A J 9 5
                     |    Z    |
                     +---------+
                     [S] A 4 3
                     [C] 10 6 3
                     [D] A K 3 2
                     [H] K Q 4

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    |   1   |    K[S]|       9[S]    |       5[S]    |       3[S]    |
    |   2   |    Q[S]|    [H]3       |       7[S]    |       4[S]    |
    |   3   |       2[S]    |    [H]6       |      10[S]    |    A[S]|
    |   4   |    [C]8       |    [C]2       |    [C]7       | [C]10  |
    |   5   |    [C]9       |    [C]J       | [C]A   |    [C]6       |
    |   6   |    [H]2       |    [H]7       |    [H]5       | [H]K   |
    |   7   |       6[S]    | [C]4   |    [H]9       |    [C]3       |
    |   8   |       8[S]    | [C]5   |    [H]J       |    [H]4       |
    |   9   |       J[S]    | [C]Q   |       7[D]    |    [H]Q       |
    |  10   |       4[D]    | [C]K   |       8[D]    |       2[D]    |
    |  11   |       9[D]    |    Q[D]|      10[D]    |       3[D]    |
    |  12   |    [H]8       |       6[D]    |       J[D]    |    K[D]|
    |  13   |    [H]10      |       5[D]    |    [H]A       |    A[D]|
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer wins ten tricks.


NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 2

TRICK 1.--A leads from his longest suit.

TRICK 2.--B returns his partner's lead with his highest card, which the
dealer refuses to take, as he wishes to wait until B has no more of the
suit.

TRICK 3.--A again leads a diamond, as he has the K of spades for
re-entry and wishes to establish the diamond suit.

TRICK 4.--The dealer plays for the clubs, his longest suit, and takes
the first trick, as he holds J and 10 and can clear the suit in one more
lead.

TRICK 6.--B, having no diamonds, opens his heart suit, hoping to put his
partner in the lead. The dealer applying the "Rule of Eleven," and
finding that he holds the four cards above the seven, passes so as to
take the lead in the dummy hand.

TRICK 7.--Leading through.

TRICKS 8 AND 9.--Making the clubs and putting the dummy hand in the lead
so as to come through the K and J of hearts.


ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 2

_Playing for the Longest Suit in the Two Hands._

The score is love-all, rubber game. The dealer, Z, makes it no-trump and
A leads for the first trick.

                     [S] 8 6 4
                     [C] 7 6 5 2
                     [D] A 6 3
                     [H] 9 5 4
                    +---------+
     [S] K J 10 2   |    Y    | [S] Q 7 5
     [C] 9 8        |         | [C] K Q 3
     [D] Q J 7 5 4  |A       B| [D] K 8 2
     [H] 6 3        |         | [H] K J 8 7
                    |    Z    |
                    +---------+
                    [S] A 9 3
                    [C] A J 10 4
                    [D] 10 9
                    [H] A Q 10 2

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    |   1   |       5[D]    |       3[D]    |    K[D]|       9[D]    |
    |   2   |    J[D]|       6[D]    |       8[D]    |      10[D]    |
    |   3   |       4[D]    |    A[D]|       2[D]    |       3[S]    |
    |   4   |    [C]8       |    [C]2       |    [C]Q       | [C]A   |
    |   5   |    [C]9       |    [C]5       | [C]K   |    [C]J       |
    |   6   |    [H]3       | [H]9   |    [H]7       |    [H]2       |
    |   7   |    [H]6       |    [H]4       |    [H]8       | [H]10  |
    |   8   |       2[S]    |    [C]6       |    [C]3       | [C]10  |
    |   9   |      10[S]    | [C]7   |       5[S]    |    [C]4       |
    |  10   |       7[D]    |    [H]5       |    [H]J       | [H]Q   |
    |  11   |       Q[D]    |       4[C]    |    [H]K       | [H]A   |
    |  12   |       J[S]    |       6[S]    |       7[S]    |    A[S]|
    |  13   |    K[S]|       8[S]    |       Q[S]    |       9[S]    |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer wins nine tricks.


NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 3

TRICK 1.--A opens his fourth best heart, as his hand is strong, and he
wishes his partner to return that suit.

THE DEALER.--As the longest suit in the two hands is diamonds, the
dealer takes the first trick with the A of hearts, so that he may be
able, if necessary, to put the dummy hand in the lead; also so that the
adversaries may not know the cards he holds in the heart suit.

TRICK 2.--A refuses to part with the commanding card of the diamond
suit.

TRICK 3.--The dealer takes the lead in the dummy hand in order to
establish his diamond suit.

TRICK 4.--As the dealer has now no diamonds, it is useless to hold up
any longer.

TRICK 6.--If A leads either clubs or spades he must lose a trick; his
best play is to continue with the heart suit.


ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 3

_Making a Re-entry Card for Dummy's Long Suit._

The score is 24 to 0 against the dealer on the rubber game. The dealer,
Z, makes it no-trump and A leads for the first trick.

                    [S] A 2
                    [C] J 10
                    [D] Q J 9 5 4 3 2
                    [H] Q 7
                    +---------+
     [S] K J 4      |    Y    | [S] 10 9 7 5
     [C] A 4        |         | [C] Q 9 6 3
     [D] A 8 6      |A       B| [D] 10 7
     [H] 10 8 6 5 4 |         | [H] 9 3 2
                    |    Z    |
                    +---------+
                    [S] Q 8 6 3
                    [C] K 8 7 5 2
                    [D] K
                    [H] A K J

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    |   1   |    [H]5       |    [H]7       |    [H]9       | [H]A   |
    |   2   |       6[D]    |       2[D]    |       7[D]    |    K[D]|
    |   3   |    [H]4       | [H]Q   |    [H]2       |    [H]J       |
    |   4   |    A[D]|       Q[D]    |      10[D]    |    [C]2       |
    |   5   |    [H]6       |    [C]10      |    [H]3       | [H]K   |
    |   6   |       4[S]    |    A[S]|       5[S]    |       3[S]    |
    |   7   |       8[D]    |    J[D]|    [C]3       |    [C]5       |
    |   8   |    [C]4       |    9[D]|       7[S]    |    [C]7       |
    |   9   |       J[S]    |    5[D]|       9[S]    |       6[S]    |
    |  10   |    [H]8       |    4[D]|      10[S]    |       8[S]    |
    |  11   |    [H]10      |    3[D]|    [C]6       |       Q[S]    |
    |  12   | [C]A   |    [C]J       |    [C]Q       |    [C]K       |
    |  13   |    K[S]|       2[S]    |    [C]9       |    [C]8       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer wins ten tricks.


NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 4

TRICK 2.--As the adversaries must take one trick in the spade suit, the
dealer allows them to win the first trick, in order to take the third
round with the A, the A being the only re-entry card in the dummy.

TRICK 3.--A continues with his long suit. The dealer, hoping that the A
of diamonds is in B's hand, refuses to give up the commanding card.

TRICK 5.--The dealer, so that the suit will not be blocked, leads the K
of spades.

TRICK 6.--The diamond discard loses a trick.

TRICK 9.--The dealer, holding the A of clubs for re-entry, now clears
the diamond suit.


ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 4

_Saving a Re-entry Card for the Dummy's Long Suit._

The score is love-all, rubber game. The dealer, Z, makes it no-trump,
and A leads for the first trick.

                   [S] A 9 6 5 2
                   [C] 9 8 7
                   [D] 6 5 4
                   [H] 6 5
                  +---------+
    [S] J 10      |    Y    | [S] Q 7 4
    [C] K 10      |         | [C] Q J 5 4 3
    [D] J 9 7 2   |A       B| [D] A 3
    [H] K J 8 4 2 |         | [H] 10 9 7
                  |    Z    |
                  +---------+
                  [S] K 8 3
                  [C] A 6 2
                  [D] K Q 10 8
                  [H] A Q 3

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    |   1   |    [H]4       |    [H]5       |    [H]9       | [H]Q   |
    |   2   |   10[S]|       2[S]    |       4[S]    |       3[S]    |
    |   3   | [H]J   |    [H]6       |    [H]7       |    [H]3       |
    |   4   |    [H]2       |    [C]7       |    [H]10      | [H]A   |
    |   5   |       J[S]    |       5[S]    |       7[S]    |    K[S]|
    |   6   |       2[D]    |    A[S]|       Q[S]    |       8[S]    |
    |   7   |       7[D]    |    9[S]|    [C]3       |    [C]2       |
    |   8   |       9[D]    |    6[S]|       3[D]    |    [C]6       |
    |   9   |       J[D]    |       4[D]    |    A[D]|       8[D]    |
    |  10   |    [C]10      |    [C]8       |    [C]4       | [C]A   |
    |  11   |    [H]8       |       5[D]    |    [C]5       |    K[D]|
    |  12   |    [H]K       |       6[D]    |    [C]J       |    Q[D]|
    |  13   |    [C]K       |    [C]9       |    [C]Q       |   10[D]|
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer wins ten tricks.

NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 5

TRICK 1.--A opens his longest suit with the fourth best card.

TRICK 2.--B returns his partner's lead.

TRICK 3.--A continues with his suit in order to establish it, as he
holds the K of diamonds and the Q of clubs for re-entry.

TRICK 4.--The dealer has the choice of three suits, the spades, clubs,
and diamonds being of equal length. If he leads a spade he takes away
the re-entry card for the dummy's club suit. If he takes the lead in the
dummy and attempts to catch the K of diamonds by leading the Q up to the
A, he gives A an opportunity of making his two hearts and of saving the
game. In order to win three by-cards and the game, he must prevent A
from getting the lead; he therefore leads the club and allows B to win
the trick.

TRICK 5.--The dealer must play the A of diamonds; for if the clubs fall
evenly the rest of the tricks are his.


ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 5

_Keeping the Hand Holding an Established Suit from Getting into the
Lead._

The score is 24 to 0 against the dealer, Z, who makes it no-trump. A
leads for the first trick.

                    [S] Q 10 8
                    [C] A K 9 8 7 2
                    [D] Q 9
                    [H] J 2
                   +---------+
    [S] 5 4 2      |    Y    | [S] 9 7 6
    [C] Q 4 3      |         | [C] J 10 6
    [D] K 8        |A       B| [D] 5 4 3 2
    [H] K 10 5 4 3 |         | [H] A 9 6
                   |    Z    |
                   +---------+
                    [S] A K J 3
                    [C] 5
                    [D] A J 10 7 6
                    [H] Q 8 7

  +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
  | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
  |-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------|
  |   1   |    [H]4       |    [H]2       | [H]A[H]K |    [H]J       |    [H]9       |    [H]8       |
  |   3   |    [H]3       |       8[S]    |    [H]6       | [H]Q   |
  |   4   |    [C]3       |    [C]7       | [C]10  |    [C]5       |
  |   5   |       8[D]    |       9[D]    |       2[D]    | A[D]   |
  |   6   |       2[S]    |   Q[S] |       6[S]    |       3[S]    |
  |   7   |    [C]4       |   [C]A |    [C]6       |       6[D]    |
  |   8   |    [C]Q       |   [C]K |    [C]J       |       7[D]    |
  |   9   |       4[S]    |   [C]9 |       7[S]    |      10[D]    |
  |  10   |       5[S]    |   [C]8 |       9[S]    |       J[D]    |
  |  11   |    [H]5       |   [C]2 |       3[D]    |       J[S]    |
  |  12   |    [H]10      |      10[S]    |       4[D]    | K[S]   |
  |  13   |       K[D]    |       Q[D]    |       5[D]    | A[S]   |
  +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer wins ten tricks.


NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 6

TRICK 1.--A leads from his only four-card suit. The dealer plays the ace
second in hand in order to trump his losing diamond.

TRICK 2.--The dealer false-cards so that the adversaries will not know
that he holds the queen.

TRICK 3.--As A led the deuce of diamonds, showing but four cards in the
suit, the dealer knows that B has one more diamond. He therefore, before
leading trumps, allows dummy to trump a losing card.

TRICKS 4, 5, AND 6.--The dealer now proceeds to lead trumps, and, as he
has no strength in clubs in his own hand, he throws away clubs from the
dummy hand.

TRICK 7.--Holding but six spades in the two hands, the dealer tries to
force discards of spades.

TRICK 8.--Forcing another discard with the best diamond.

TRICKS 9, 10, AND 11.--The spades fall, leaving dummy with the best
spade and the ace of clubs as re-entry.

ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 6

_Allowing the Weaker of the Two Hands to "Ruff" before Leading Trumps._

The score is love-all. The dealer, Z, makes it hearts, having four
honours in one hand. A leads to the first trick.

                 [S] A 6 4 3
                 [C] A J 9 4 3
                 [D] A 4
                 [H] 9 5
                +---------+
    [S] Q 10 5  |    Y    | [S] 9 8 7 2
    [C] 8 7 6   |         | [C] K Q 10
    [D] J 9 7 2 |A       B| [D] 10 8 6
    [H] 7 6 4   |         | [H] 10 3 2
                |    Z    |
                +---------+
                 [S] K J
                 [C] 5 2
                 [D] K Q 5 3
                 [H] A K Q J 8

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    |-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------|
    |   1   |       2[D]    | A[D]   |       6[D]    |       3[D]    |
    |   2   |       7[D]    |       4[D]    |       8[D]    | K[D]   |
    |   3   |       9[D]    | [H]5   |      10[D]    |       5[D]    |
    |   4   |    [H]4       |    [H]9       |    [H]2       |[H]A    |
    |   5   |    [H]6       |    [C]3       |    [H]3       |[H]K    |
    |   6   |    [H]7       |    [C]4       |    [H]10      |[H]Q    |
    |   7   |    [C]6       |    [C]9       |    [C]10      |[H]J    |
    |   8   |       J[D]    |    [C]J       |       2[S]    | Q[D]   |
    |   9   |       5[S]    |       3[S]    |       7[S]    | K[S]   |
    |  10   |       Q[S]    | A[S]   |       8[S]    |       J[S]    |
    |  11   |      10[S]    |       4[S]    |       9[S]    |[H]8    |
    |  12   |    [C]7       | [C]A   |    [C]Q       |    [C]2       |
    |  13   |    [C]8       | 6[S]   |    [C]K       |    [C]5       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer makes a grand slam.

NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 7

TRICK 1.--The scheme which the dealer must adopt for the play of the two
hands is to exhaust trumps and to establish the club suit. Holding the
A, Q, and J of diamonds, in order to catch the K, the lead must come
from the dummy; and so that he may lead up to his tenace in trumps, the
dealer trumps the Q of hearts.

TRICK 2.--As the finesse succeeds the dealer must place the lead in
dummy so that he may again lead through the K of diamonds.

TRICK 3.--The dealer holds too many clubs, so must use the A of spades
to get the lead in dummy, even though it clears the spade suit for the
adversaries.

TRICKS 4 AND 5.--The trumps fall evenly, leaving the dealer with the
last trump.

TRICK 6.--The K of clubs, being guarded, must make.

ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 7

_Trumping Your Own Trick to get the Lead into the Right Hand._

The score is 18 to 0 in favour of the dealer, Z, who has a game in and
makes it diamonds, having four honours.

                      [S] A 8 7 6 5
                      [C] A Q 10 5 4
                      [D] 8 7 6
                      [H] None
                     +---------+
    [S] K J 9 3      |    Y    | [S] Q 10 4
    [C] None         |         | [C] K 7
    [D] 5 4 3        |A       B| [D] K 9 2
    [H] K J 10 8 4 2 |         | [H] 9 7 6 5 3
                     |    Z    |
                     +---------+
                      [S] 2
                      [C] J 9 8 6 3 2
                      [D] A Q J 10
                      [H] A Q

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    |-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------|
    |   1   |    [H]10      | 6[D]   |    [H]3       |    [H]Q       |
    |   2   |       3[D]    |       7[D]    |       2[D]    | Q[D]   |
    |   3   |       3[S]    | A[S]   |       4[S]    |       2[S]    |
    |   4   |       4[D]    |       8[D]    |       9[D]    | J[D]   |
    |   5   |       5[D]    |       5[S]    |       K[D]    | A[D]   |
    |   6   |    [H]2       |    [C]10      |[C]K    |    [C]2       |
    |   7   |    [H]4       |       6[S]    |    [H]5       |[H]A    |
    |   8   |    [H]8       |[C]Q    |    [C]7       |    [C]3       |
    |   9   |    [H]J       |[C]A    |    [H]6       |    [C]6       |
    |  10   |    [H]K       |    [C]5       |    [H]7       |[C]8    |
    |  11   |       9[S]    |    [C]4       |    [H]9       |[C]9    |
    |  12   |       J[S]    |       7[S]    |      10[S]    |[C]J    |
    |  13   |       K[S]    |       8[S]    |       Q[S]    |10[D]   |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer makes a little slam.

NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 8

TRICK 1.--By playing the king of spades second in hand, the dealer hopes
to win two tricks in that suit.

TRICK 2.--As the adversaries must make one trick in the club suit, Z
tries to place the lead in A's hand so that the queen of spades may be
led up to.

The eight of clubs is a clever play. If the king were led, A would know
positively that Z held the ace.

TRICK 3.--The leader has but little information to guide him in his next
play. He does not dare to lead the hearts, as it may establish that suit
against him; the lead of the queen of clubs is tempting; but judging
from the development of the hand the ace of spades is probably his best
play.

ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 8

_Throwing the Lead and Refusing to take First Trick in Long Suit._

The score is 22 to 0 against the dealer, Z, who makes it no-trump. A
leads for the first trick.

                    [S] K 7
                    [C] K 8
                    [D] Q 10 7 3
                    [H] Q 10 5 4 3
                   +---------+
    [S] A J 6 4 3  |    Y    | [S] 10 8 2
    [C] Q 10       |         | [C] J 4 2
    [D] 8 6 4 2    |A       B| [D] 9 5
    [H] 8 7        |         | [H] A K J 9 2
                   |    Z    |
                   +---------+
                    [S] Q 9 5
                    [C] A 9 7 6 5 3
                    [D] A K J
                    [H] 6

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    |-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------|
    |   1   |       4[S]    | K[S]   |       2[S]    |       5[S]    |
    |   2   | [C]10  |    [C]8       |    [C]2       |    [C]3       |
    |   3   | A[S]   |       7[S]    |       8[S]    |       9[S]    |
    |   4   |       3[S]    |    [H]3       |      10[S]    | Q[S]   |
    |   5   |    [C]Q       |[C]K    |    [C]4       |    [C]5       |
    |   6   |       2[D]    |       3[D]    |       5[D]    | A[D]   |
    |   7   |       6[S]    |    [H]4       |    [C]J       |[C]A    |
    |   8   |       J[S]    |    [H]5       |    [H]2       |[C]9    |
    |   9   |       4[D]    |    [H]10      |    [H]9       |[C]7    |
    |  10   |       6[D]    |    [H]Q       |    [H]J       |[C]6    |
    |  11   |       8[D]    |       7[D]    |       9[D]    | K[D]   |
    |  12   |    [H]7       | Q[D]   |    [H]K       |       J[D]    |
    |  13   |    [H]8       | f>10[D]   |    [H]A       |    [H]6       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer wins eleven tricks.

NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 9

TRICK 1.--The correct second in hand play of this combination is the
queen, hoping to win two tricks in the suit. Z, in order to win three
by-cards and the rubber, must take a finesse in spades; and so not only
refuses to play the queen second in hand, but will not take the trick
fourth in hand. His object is to wait until B's last heart has been
played.

TRICK 2.--If B starts the diamond suit, the dealer cannot make more than
the odd trick; but the situation looks as if A holds both ace and king
of hearts.

TRICK 3.--A, having a possible re-entry card, must establish his suit.

TRICK 4.--Z leads the club suit in order to force discards, and arranges
the lead so that his tenace in spades may be led up to.

TRICK 9.--Z cannot afford to let A get the lead.

ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 9

_Refusing to Win Either the First or the Second Round of the
Adversaries' Suit._

It is the rubber game. Score 24 to 0 against the dealer. Z, the dealer,
makes it no-trump, and A leads for the first trick.

                     [S] A Q 8 7 3
                     [C] K J 8 5
                     [D] J 9
                     [H] Q 5
                    +---------+
    [S] 6 4         |    Y    | [S] K 9 5
    [C] 7 3         |         | [C] 9 6 4
    [D] K 10 5      |A       B| [D] Q 8 6 4 2
    [H] A J 9 7 4 3 |         | [H] 10 8
                    |    Z    |
                    +---------+
                     [S] J 10 2
                     [C] A Q 10 2
                     [D] A 7 3
                     [H] K 6 2

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    |-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------|
    |   1   |    [H]7       |    [H]5       |[H]10   |    [H]2       |
    |   2   |[H]A    |    [H]Q       |    [H]8       |    [H]6       |
    |   3   |    [H]3       |    [C]5       |    2[D]       |[H]K    |
    |   4   |    [C]3       |[C]K    |    [C]4       |    [C]2       |
    |   5   |    [C]7       |[C]J    |    [C]6       |    [C]10      |
    |   6   |       4[S]    |    [C]8       |    [C]9       |[C]Q    |
    |   7   |       5[D]    |       9[D]    |       5[S]    |[C]A    |
    |   8   |       6[S]    |       3[S]    | K[S]   |       J[S]    |
    |   9   |      10[D]    |       J[D]    |       4[D]    |A[D]    |
    |  10   |    [H]4       |       7[S]    |       9[S]    |10[S]   |
    |  11   |    [H]9       | A[S]   |       6[D]    |       2[S]    |
    |  12   |    [H]J       | Q[S]   |       8[D]    |       3[D]    |
    |  13   |       K[D]    | 8[S]   |       Q[D]    |       7[D]    |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer wins ten tricks.


NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 10

TRICK 1.--As A may have both king and queen of diamonds, Z passes the
first trick, hoping to win with his ten.

TRICK 2.--Many players would lead the club suit because of dummy's
weakness; but in the original play of this hand B led the queen of
hearts.

TRICK 3.--Z starts the spade suit and finds the queen is guarded in A's
hand.

TRICK 4.--In order to prevent the queen of spades from winning, Z must
get the lead in his own hand. If he takes the finesse in clubs and it
loses, the adversaries must make the entire heart suit. The finesse can
win only _one_ trick, and it might lose five or six tricks.

TRICK 5--To catch the queen of spades is now easy.

TRICK 7--- A clever play to get the lead and to play through the king of
diamonds.


ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 10

_Leading Through._

The score is love-all. The dealer, Z, passes the make. Y declares
no-trump. A leads for the first trick.

                 [S] A K J 10 5 2
                 [C] 2
                 [D] A J 9 4 3
                 [H] A
                 +---------+
    [S] Q 8 3    |    Y    | [S] NONE
    [C] K 8 4    |         | [C] J 10 9 7 6 5
    [D] K 8 6 2  |A       B| [D] Q
    [H] K 5 4    |         | [H] Q J 10 9 8 7
                 |    Z    |
                 +---------+
                 [S] 9 7 6 4
                 [C] A Q 3
                 [D] 10 7 5
                 [H] 6 3 2

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    |   1   |       2[D]    |       3[D]    |    Q[D]|       5[D]    |
    |   2   |    [H]4       | [H]A   |    [H]Q       |    [H]2       |
    |   3   |       3[S]    |    K[S]|    [C]5       |       4[S]    |
    |   4   |    [C]4       |    [C]2       |    [C]9       | [C]A   |
    |   5   |       8[S]    |   10[S]|    [C]6       |       6[S]    |
    |   6   |       Q[S]    |    A[S]|    [H]7       |       7[S]    |
    |   7   |    [H]K       |       2[S]    |    [C]7       |    9[S]|
    |   8   |       6[D]    |       4[D]    |    [H]8       |   10[D]|
    |   9   |       8[D]    |    9[D]|    [C]10      |       7[D]    |
    |  10   |       K[D]    |    A[D]|    [H]9       |    [H]3       |
    |  11   |    [C]8       |    J[D]|   [C]J        |    [H]6       |
    |  12   |    [H]5       |    J[S]|     [H]10     |    [C]3       |
    |  13   |    [C]K       |    5[S]|    [H]J       |    [C]Q       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer makes a little slam.


NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 11

TRICK 1.--A leads from his long suit, and Z wins the trick with the
singleton ace.

TRICK 2.--The dealer, having eight clubs and eight spades in the two
hands, has now a choice of suits. The king of spades _must_ make against
him while he has a finesse in the club suit. If he leads the clubs first
he is compelled to guess in which hand to take the finesse; he therefore
leads the spade, hoping by establishing that suit to force discards and
find out where the two queens are.

TRICK 3.--B might make it more difficult for A by not playing the king
of spades.

TRICKS 5, 6, 7, AND 8.--A's two discards of clubs show that the queen is
not in his hand, while B's heart discard indicates that he does not hold
the queen of hearts. The queen of hearts is also marked in A's hand by
the fact that he is discarding his winning diamonds and protecting
hearts.


ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 11

_Choice of Suits.--Watching the Adversaries' Discards._

The score is love-all. The dealer, Z, makes it no-trump, and A leads for
the first trick.

                    [S] A 9 7 5
                    [C] K J 3 2
                    [D] K 8
                    [H] K 10 7
                    +---------+
    [S] J 3         |    Y    | [S] K 6 4
    [C] 6 5         |         | [C] Q 9 7
    [D] Q 9 7 6 5 4 |A       B| [D] J 10 3 2
    [H] Q 9 3       |         | [H] 6 5 4
                    |    Z    |
                    +---------+
                    [S] Q 10 8 2
                    [C] A 10 8 4
                    [D] A
                    [H] A J 8 2

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    |   1   |       6[D]    |       8[D]    |      10[D]    |    A[D]|
    |   2   |       3[S]    |    A[S]|       4[S]    |       2[S]    |
    |   3   |       J[S]    |       5[S]    |    K[S]|       8[S]    |
    |   4   |       4[D]    |    K[D]|       J[D]    |    [C]4       |
    |   5   |    [C]5       |       7[S]    |       6[S]    |    Q[S]|
    |   6   |    [C]6       |       9[S]    |    [H]4       |   10[S]|
    |   7   |       5[D]    | [C]K   |    [C]7       |    [C]8       |
    |   8   |       7[D]    |    [C]2       |    [C]9       | [C]10  |
    |   9   |       9[D]    |    [C]3       |    [C]Q       | [C]A   |
    |  10   |    [H]3       | [H]10  |    [H]5       |    [H]2       |
    |  11   |       Q[D]    | [C]J   |       2[D]    |    [H]8       |
    |  12   |    [H]9       | [H]K   |    [H]6       |    [H]J       |
    |  13   |    [H]Q       |    [H]7       |       3[D]    | [H]A   |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer makes a little slam.


NOTES ON ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 12

TRICKS 1 AND 2.--A leads high, hoping in three leads to drop all the
diamonds.

TRICK 3.--B discards a spade, plainly indicating the suit he wishes A to
lead.

If the discard of a heart is made, indicating weakness, A is compelled
to choose between the clubs and spades, and as he cannot afford to lead
from the king of spades once protected will undoubtedly lead the jack of
clubs.

The discard from weakness in this hand, should A guess the wrong suit,
may lose six or seven tricks.


ILLUSTRATIVE HAND NO. 12

_The Discard of Strength versus Weakness._

The score is 24 to 0 against the dealer on the rubber game. The dealer,
Z, makes it no-trump, and A leads for the first trick.

                 [S] 9 8 7 6
                 [C] 8 3 2
                 [D] 9 6 2
                 [H] 10 5 2
                 +---------+
    [S] K 10     |    Y    | [S] A Q J 5 4 3 2
    [C] J 10 5   |         | [C] None
    [D] A K Q 4  |A       B| [D] 7 5
    [H] 7 6 4 3  |         | [H] K J 9 8
                 |    Z    |
                 +---------+
                 [S] None
                 [C] A K Q 9 7 6 4
                 [D] J 10 8 3
                 [H] A Q

    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    | TRICK |       A       |       Y       |       B       |       Z       |
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+
    |   1   |    K[D]|       2[D]    |       5[D]    |       3[D]    |
    |   2   |    Q[D]|       6[D]    |       7[D]    |       8[D]    |
    |   3   |    A[D]|       9[D]    |       2[S]    |      10[D]    |
    |   4   |    K[S]|       8[S]    |       3[S]    |    [H]Q       |
    |   5   |      10[S]    |       7[S]    |    A[S]|    [C]4       |
    |   6   |       4[D]    |       8[S]    |    Q[S]|    [C]6       |
    |   7   |    [H]3       |       9[S]    |    J[S]|    [C]7       |
    |   8   |    [H]4       |    [C]2       |    5[S]|    [C]9       |
    |   9   |    [H]6       |    [C]3       |    4[S]|    [C]Q       |
    |  10   |    [H]7       |    [H]2       |    [H]8       | [H]A   |
    |  11   |    [C]5       |    [C]8       |    [H]9       | [C]A   |
    |  12   |    [C]10      |    [H]5       |    [H]J       | [C]K   |
    |  13   |    [C]J       |    [H]10      |    [H]K       |    J[D]|
    +-------+---------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+

The dealer loses three by-cards and the rubber.


BRIDGE FOR THREE PLAYERS

When the game is played by three persons the cards are cut to decide
which shall have the dummy; the one cutting the lowest card has the deal
and a permanent dummy during the game or the rubber, as the case may be.
It is then customary for each player to have dummy in turn, during one
game or rubber.

In playing rubbers, 100 points are added to the score of the winning
side.

In playing games, 50 points are added to score of the winning side.

If the make is passed to dummy, four aces or three aces constitute a
compulsory "no-trump" declaration; otherwise, dummy must declare the
longest suit.

When there are two suits of equal length, dummy must select the suit
which counts most by spots, the ace counting eleven and the other
honours ten each. If the suits are still equal, dummy declares the one
having the higher trick valuation.

Only one adversary, the leader, can double.

If the dealer has seen the two hands, he is not allowed to re-double.

The dummy hand is not exposed until the doubling has been settled and a
card led.

When the dummy is the leader, his partner must look at dummy hand and
lead from it before seeing his own cards; and dummy alone has the right
to double.


DUPLICATE BRIDGE

Bridge, when first introduced, was played almost entirely for a stake;
but, in the last few years, many players have taken up the game--_per
se_--on account of its interesting possibilities and the intellectual
pleasure it gives. Duplicate and Progressive Bridge have, therefore,
become very popular.

The object of Duplicate Bridge is to eliminate, as nearly as is
possible, the element of luck, and to make the game not so much a
question of holding good cards as a comparative test of skill between
players. A perfect test cannot be made by a single trial, as an unusual
distribution of the cards might defeat two strong players, but in a
series of duplicate games, good makes and good plays will undoubtedly
mark the better Bridge players.

As Duplicate Bridge is played for points, not games or rubbers, the
honour score requires as much attention as the trick score.

Remember that holding three red honours you can stand the loss of two
odd tricks (unless the mate is doubled) without losing on the deal, and
that there is almost an even chance that your partner will hold another
honour.

It you make it red with but one honour, your adversaries will probably
secure the honour score.

If you declare "no-trump" with but one ace the honours will probably be
even; but you may find three aces against you.

Remember that four honours in clubs count as much as the average deal is
worth.


PROGRESSIVE BRIDGE

Progressive Bridge may be played in much the same manner as Progressive
Euchre. While to win at this game is very largely a matter of holding
good cards, it forms an interesting social amusement; and, to players
who are unaccustomed to the arrangement of the cards in Duplicate
Bridge, is much less confusing.

In Progressive Bridge the players are usually numbered, 1, 2, 3, 4
playing at Table 1, and 5, 6, 7, 8 at Table 2, etc.

At each table the cards are cut in the usual manner for partners and for
the deal; and a stated number of hands played for points, tricks and
honours included, without regard to games or rubbers.

After playing the number of deals decided upon, the winning pair move
to the next table, where the cards are again cut for partners, and for
the deal.

An individual score is kept of the points lost and won during the entire
game; the points lost being deducted from those won, and the player
making the best net score being declared the winner.



THE LAWS OF BRIDGE

REVISED, 1905

_The laws of Bridge published in this edition have been prepared by the
author, who has used as a foundation the codes accepted by the principal
clubs of the world. The author does not favour the exaction of a penalty
for the dealer's lead out of turn. The American opinion on this point is
divided, but the English practice is to exact no penalty. Otherwise the
various club codes show but minor differences._


THE RUBBER

1. The partners first winning two games win the rubber. If the first two
games be won by the same partners, the third game is not played.


SCORING

2. A game consists of thirty points obtained by tricks alone, exclusive
of any points counted for honours, chicane or slam.

3. Every hand is played out, and any points in excess of thirty points
necessary for the game are counted.

4. Each trick above six counts two points when spades are trumps, four
points when clubs are trumps, six points when diamonds are trumps,
eight points when hearts are trumps, and twelve points when there are no
trumps.

5. Honours are ace, king, queen, knave and ten of the trump suit; or the
aces when no trump is declared.

6. Honours are credited to the original holders and are valued as
follows:

    +------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------+
    |        Declaration.                | [S] | [C] | [D] | [H] |  No    |
    |                                    |     |     |     |     | Trumps |
    +------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------+
    |          Each Trick above Six      |  2  |  4  |  6  |  8  |   12   |
    |        { 3 Honours                 |  4  |  8  | 12  | 16  |   30   |
    |        { 4    "                    |  8  | 16  | 24  | 32  |   40   |
    |HONOURS { 4    "   (All in one hand)| 16  | 32  | 48  | 64  |  100   |
    |        { 5    "                    | 10  | 20  | 30  | 40  |   --   |
    |        { 5    "   (4 in one hand)  | 18  | 36  | 64  | 72  |   --   |
    |        { 5    "   (All in one hand)| 20  | 40  | 60  | 80  |   --   |
    |                     Chicane        |  4  |  8  | 12  | 16  |   --   |
    +------------------------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+--------+
    |             Rubber 100, Grand Slam 40, Little Slam 20.              |
    +---------------------------------------------------------------------+

7. If a player and his partner make thirteen tricks, independently of
any tricks gained by the revoke penalty, they score Grand Slam and add
forty points to their honour count.

8. Little slam is twelve tricks similarly scored, and adds twenty points
to the honour count.

9. Chicane (one hand void of trumps) is equal in value to three
honours, _i.e._, if partner of player having chicane scores honours he
adds the value of three honours to his honour score, while, if the
adversaries score honours, it deducts an equal value from their honour
score. Double Chicane (a player and his partner both void of trumps) is
equal in value to four honours, and the value thereof may be deducted
from the total honour score of the adversaries.

10. The value of honours, slam, little slam, or chicane, is in nowise
affected by doubling or redoubling.

11. At the conclusion of a rubber the scores for tricks, honours,
Chicane, and Slam, obtained by each side are added, and one hundred
points are added to the score of the winners of the rubber. The
difference between the completed scores is the number of points won or
lost by the winners of the rubber.

12. If an erroneous score affecting tricks be proven, such mistake must
be corrected prior to the conclusion of the game in which it has
occurred, and such game shall not be considered as concluded until the
following deal has been completed and the trump declared, unless it be
that the game is the last one of the rubber,--then the score is subject
to inquiry until an agreement between the sides (as to the value of the
rubber) shall have been reached.

13. If an erroneous score affecting honours, chicane or slam be proven,
such mistake may be corrected at any time before the score of the rubber
has been made up and agreed upon.


CUTTING

14. The ace is the lowest card.

15. In all cases every player must cut from the same pack.

16. Should a player expose more than one card, he must cut again.


FORMING TABLES

17. The prior right of playing is with those first in the room. If there
are more than four candidates for seats at a table, the privilege of
playing is decided by cutting. The four who cut the lowest cards play
first.

18. After the table is formed, the players cut to decide on partners;
the two lowest play against the two highest. The lowest is the dealer,
who has choice of cards and seats, and who, having once made his
selection, must abide by it.

19. Should the two players who cut lowest, secure cards of equal value,
they shall re-cut to determine which of the two shall deal, and the
lower on the re-cut deals.

20. Should three players cut cards of equal value, they cut again; if
the fourth card be the highest, the two lowest of the new cut are
partners and the lower of the two the dealer; if, however, the fourth
card be the lowest, the two highest on the re-cut are partners and the
original lowest the dealer.

21. Six players constitute a full table, and no player shall have a
right to cut into a game which is complete.

22. When there are more than six candidates, the right to succeed any
player who may retire is acquired by announcing the desire to do so, and
such announcement shall constitute a prior right to the first vacancy.


CUTTING OUT

23. If at the end of a rubber, should admission be claimed by one or two
candidates, the player or players having played a greater number of
consecutive rubbers shall withdraw; but when all have played the same
number, they must cut to decide upon the outgoers; the highest are out.


RIGHTS OF ENTRY

24. A candidate desiring to enter a table must declare such wish before
any player at the table cuts a card, either for the purpose of beginning
a new rubber or of cutting out.

25. In the formation of new tables, those candidates who have neither
belonged to nor played at any other table have the prior right of entry.
Those who have already played decide their right of admission by
cutting.

26. A player who cuts into one table while belonging to another, shall
forfeit his prior right of re-entry into the latter, unless by doing so
he enables three candidates to form a fresh table. In this event he may
signify his intention of returning to his original table, and his place
at the new one can be filled.

27. Should any player quit the table during the progress of a rubber, he
may, with the consent of the other three players, appoint a substitute
during his absence; but such appointment shall become void with the
conclusion of the rubber, and shall not in any way affect the
substitute's rights.

28. If anyone break up a table, the remaining players have a prior right
to play at other tables.


SHUFFLING

29. The pack must neither be shuffled below the table nor so the face of
any card be seen.

30. The dealer's partner must collect the cards for the ensuing deal and
he has the first right to shuffle the cards. Each player has the right
to shuffle subsequently. The dealer has the right to shuffle last, but
should a card or cards be seen during his shuffling, or whilst giving
the pack to be cut, he must re-shuffle.

31. Each player, after shuffling, must place the cards properly
collected and face downward to the left of the player next to deal.


THE DEAL

32. Each player deals in his turn; the order of dealing goes to the
left.

33. The player on the dealer's right cuts the pack, and in dividing it
he must not leave fewer than four cards in either packet; if in cutting
or in replacing one of the two packets a card be exposed, or if there be
any confusion of the cards or a doubt as to the exact place in which
the pack was divided, there must be a fresh cut.

34. When the player whose duty it is to cut has once separated the pack
he can neither re-shuffle nor re-cut the cards.

35. Should the dealer shuffle the cards, after the pack is cut, the pack
must be cut again.

36. The fifty-two cards shall be dealt face downward. The deal is not
completed until the last card has been dealt face downward.

37. THERE IS NO MISDEAL.


A NEW DEAL

38. There must be a new deal--

_a_ If the cards be not dealt into four packets, one at a time, and in
regular rotation, beginning at the dealer's left.

_b_ If, during a deal, or during the play of a hand, the pack be proven
incorrect or imperfect.

_c_ If any card be faced in the pack.

_d_ If any player have dealt to him a greater number of cards than
thirteen.

_e_ If the dealer deal two cards at once and then deal a third before
correcting the error.

_f_ If the dealer omit to have the pack cut and the adversaries call
attention to the fact prior to the conclusion of the deal and before
looking at their cards.

_g_ If the last card do not come in its regular order to the dealer.

39. There may be a new deal--

_a_ If the dealer or his partner expose a card. The eldest hand may
claim a new deal.

_b_ If either adversary expose a card. The dealer or his partner may
claim a new deal.

_c_ If, before fifty-one cards are dealt, the dealer should look at any
card. His adversaries have the right to see it, and the eldest hand may
exact a new deal.

_d_ If, in dealing, one of the last cards be exposed by the dealer or
his partner, and the deal is completed before there is reasonable time
for the eldest hand to decide as to a new deal. But in all other cases
such penalties must be claimed prior to the completion of the deal.

40. The claim for a new deal by reason of a card exposed during the deal
may not be made by a player who has looked at any of his cards. If a new
deal does not take place, the card exposed during the deal cannot be
called.

41. Should three players have their right number of cards, and should
the fourth, not being dummy, have less than thirteen and not discover
such deficiency until he has played any of his cards, the deal stands
good; should he have played, he is answerable for any revoke he may have
made as if the missing card or cards had been in his hand. The other
pack may be searched for the missing card or cards.

42. If during the play of a deal a pack be proven incorrect or
imperfect, such proof renders only the current deal void, and does not
affect any prior score. The dealer must deal again (Law 38, _b_).

43. Anyone dealing with the adversaries' cards must be corrected before
the play of the first card, otherwise the deal stands good. If anyone
deals when it is the turn of an adversary, such error must be corrected
before the cards are dealt for the following deal.

44. A player can neither shuffle, cut nor deal for his partner without
the permission of his adversaries.


DECLARING TRUMPS

45. The trump is declared. No card is turned.

_a_ The dealer may either make the trump or pass the declaration to his
partner.

_b_ If the declaration be passed to partner, he must make the trump.

46. Should the dealer's partner make the trump without receiving
permission from the dealer, the eldest hand may demand,

    1st. That the trump shall stand, or

    2d. That there shall be a new deal.

But if any declaration as to doubling, or not doubling, shall have been
made, or if a new deal be not claimed, the declaration wrongly made
shall stand. The eldest hand is the player on the left of the dealer.

47. Should the dealer's partner pass the declaration to the dealer it
shall be the right of the eldest hand to claim a new deal or to compel
the offending player to declare the trump; provided, that no declaration
as to doubling has been made.

48. If either of the dealer's adversaries make or pass the declaration,
the dealer may, after looking at his hand, either claim a new deal or
proceed as if no declaration had been made.

49. A declaration once made cannot be altered.


DOUBLING, RE-DOUBLING, ETC.

50. The effect of doubling, re-doubling, and so on, is that the value of
each trick above six is doubled, quadrupled, and so on.

51. After the trump declaration has been made by the dealer or his
partner, their adversaries have the right to double. The eldest hand has
the first right. If he does not wish to double, he may ask his partner,
"May I lead?" His partner shall answer, "Yes" or "I double."

52. If either of their adversaries elect to double, the dealer and his
partner have the right to re-double. The player who has declared the
trump shall have the first right. He may say, "I re-double" or
"Satisfied." Should he say the latter, his partner may re-double.

53. If the dealer or his partner elect to re-double, their adversaries
shall have the right to again double. The original doubler has the first
right.

54. If the right-hand adversary of the dealer double before his partner
has asked "May I lead?" the declarer of the trump shall have the right
to say whether or not the double shall stand. If he decide that the
double shall stand, the process of re-doubling may continue as described
in paragraphs 52, 53, 55.

55. The process of re-doubling may be continued indefinitely.[B] The
first right to continue the re-doubling on behalf of a partnership
belongs to that player who has last redoubled. Should he, however,
express himself satisfied, the right to continue the re-doubling passes
to his partner. Should any player re-double out of turn, the adversary
who last doubled shall decide whether or not such double shall stand. If
it is decided that the re-double shall stand, the process of re-doubling
may continue as described in this and foregoing laws (52 and 53). If any
double or re-double out of turn be not accepted there shall be no
further doubling in that hand. Any consultation between partners as to
doubling or re-doubling will entitle the maker of the trump or the
eldest hand, without consultation, to a new deal.

56. If the eldest hand lead before the doubling be completed, his
partner may re-double only with the consent of the adversary who last
doubled; but such lead shall not affect the right of either adversary to
double.

    [B] In some clubs, doubling ceases whenever the value of the
    odd trick exceeds one hundred points; in other clubs the limit is placed
    at two hundred points.

57. When the question, "May I lead?" has been answered in the
affirmative or when the player who has the last right to continue the
doubling, expresses himself satisfied, the play shall begin.

58. Should the eldest hand lead without asking permission, his partner
may double, but only if the maker of the trump consent.

59. Should the right-hand adversary of the dealer ask permission to
lead, the eldest hand does not thereby lose his right to double. Should
the right-hand adversary of the dealer double before his partner has
asked "May I lead?" the maker of the trump shall have the right to say
whether or not the double shall stand. If he decide that the double
shall stand, the process of re-doubling may continue as described in
Laws 52, 53, 55.

60. If the right-hand adversary of the dealer lead out of turn, the
maker of the trump may call a suit from the eldest hand, who may only
double if the maker of the trump consent.

A declaration as to doubling or re-doubling once made cannot be altered.


DUMMY

61. As soon as the eldest had has led, the dealer's partner shall place
his cards face upward on the table, and the duty of playing the cards
from that hand shall devolve upon the dealer, unassisted by his partner.

62. Before exposing his cards, the dealer's partner has all the rights
of a player, but after his cards have been shown the dealer's partner
takes no part whatever in the play, except that he has the right--

_a_ To ask the dealer whether he has none of the suit in which he may
have renounced.

_b_ To ask the dealer when called upon to play his highest or lowest
card whether he has conformed to the penalty.

_c_ To call the dealer's attention to the fact that a trick has not been
completed.

_d_ To correct the claim of either adversary to a penalty to which the
latter is not entitled.

_e_ To call attention to the fact that a trick has been erroneously
taken by either side.

_f_ To participate in the discussion of any disputed question of fact
which may arise between the dealer and either adversary.

_g_ To correct an erroneous score.

63. Should the dealer's partner call attention to any other incident of
the play, in consequence of which any penalty might be exacted, the fact
of his so doing precludes the dealer exacting such penalty.

64. If the dealer's partner, by touching a card or otherwise, suggest
the play of a card from dummy, either of the adversaries may, but
without consultation, call upon the dealer to play or not to play the
card suggested.

65. Dummy is not liable to the penalty for a revoke; and if he should
revoke and the error be not discovered until the trick is turned and
quitted, the trick stands good.

66. A card from the dealer's hand is not played until actually quitted;
but should the dealer name or touch a card from the dummy hand, such
card is considered as played, unless the dealer in touching the card or
cards says, "I arrange," or words to that effect.


CARDS EXPOSED BEFORE PLAY

67. If, after the deal has been completed and before the trump
declaration has been made, either the dealer or his partner expose a
card from his hand, the eldest hand may, without consulting with his
partner, claim a new deal.

68. If, after the deal has been completed and before a card is led, any
player shall expose a card, his partner shall forfeit any right to
double or re-double which he otherwise would have been entitled to
exercise; and in case of a card being so exposed by the leader's
partner, the dealer may either call the card or require the leader not
to lead the suit of the exposed card.


CARDS EXPOSED DURING PLAY

69. All cards exposed by the dealer's adversaries are liable to be
called, and such cards must be left face upward on the table.

70. The following are exposed cards:

1st. Two or more cards played at once.

2d. Any card dropped with its face upward, or in any way exposed on or
above the table, even though snatched up so quickly that no one can name
it.

3d. Every card so held by a player that his partner can see any portion
of its face.

71. A card dropped on the floor or elsewhere below the table is not an
exposed card.

72. If two or more cards be played at once, by either of the dealer's
adversaries, the dealer shall have the right to call which one be
pleases to the current trick, and the other card or cards shall remain
face upward on the table and may be called at any time.

73. If, without waiting for his partner to play, either of the dealer's
adversaries should play on the table the best card or lead one which is
a winning card, as against the dealer and dummy, or should continue
(without waiting for his partner to play) to lead several such cards,
the dealer may demand that the partner of the player in fault, win, if
he can, the first, or any other of these tricks, and the other cards
thus improperly played are exposed cards.

74. If either or both of the dealer's adversaries throw his or their
cards on the table face upward, such cards are exposed and are liable to
be called; but if either adversary retain his hand he cannot be forced
to abandon it. If, however, the dealer should say, "I have the rest," or
any other words indicating that the remaining tricks are his, the
adversaries of the dealer are not liable to have any of their cards
called should they expose them, believing the dealer's claim to be true,
should it subsequently prove false.

75. If a player who has rendered himself liable to have the highest or
lowest of a suit called (Laws 82, 91, 92 and 100), fail to play as
directed, or if, when called on to lead one suit, lead another, having
in his hand one or more cards of the suit demanded (Law 76), or if
called upon to win or lose a trick, fail to do so when he can (Laws 73,
82 and 100), he is liable to the penalty for revoke, unless such play be
corrected before the trick is turned and quitted.


LEADS OUT OF TURN

76. If either of the dealer's adversaries lead out of turn, the dealer
may call the card erroneously led, or may call a suit when it is the
turn of either adversary to lead.

77. If the dealer lead out of turn, either from his own hand or dummy,
he incurs no penalty; but he may not rectify the error after the second
hand has played.

78. If any player lead out of turn and the other three follow him, the
trick is complete and the error cannot be rectified; but if only the
second, or second and third play to the false lead, their cards may be
taken back; there is no penalty against anyone except the original
offender, who, if he be one of the dealer's adversaries, may be
penalised as provided in Laws 60 and 76.

79. In no case can a player he compelled to play a card which would
oblige him to revoke.

80. The call of an exposed card may be repeated at every trick until
such card has been played.

81. If a player called on to lead a suit have none of it, the penalty is
paid.


CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR

82. Should the third hand not have played and the fourth play before his
partner, the latter (not being dummy or dealer) may be called upon to
play his highest or lowest card of the suit played, or to win or lose
the trick.

83. If anyone, not being dummy, omit playing to a former trick and such
error be not corrected until he has played to the next, the adversaries
may claim a new deal; should they decide that the deal stands good, the
surplus card at the end of the hand is considered to have been played to
the imperfect trick, but does not constitute a revoke therein.

84. If anyone (except dummy) play two cards to the same trick, or mix a
card with a trick to which it does not belong, and the mistake be not
discovered until the hand is played out, he is answerable for any
consequent revokes he may have made. If during the play of the hand the
error be detected, the tricks may be counted face downward, in order to
ascertain whether there be among them a card too many; should this be
the case, the trick which contains a surplus card may be examined and
the card restored to its original holder, who (not being dummy) shall
be liable for any revoke he may meanwhile have made.


THE REVOKE

85. A revoke occurs when a player (other than dummy), holding one or
more cards of the suit led, plays a card of a different suit. The
penalty for a revoke takes precedence of all other counts.

86. A revoke is established if the trick in which it occurs be turned
and quitted, _i.e._, the hand removed from the trick after it has been
gathered and placed face downward on the table; or if either the
revoking player or his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise,
have led or played to the following trick.

87. The penalty for a revoke is three tricks taken from the revoking
player and added to those of the adversaries.

88. The penalty is applicable only to the score of the game in which it
occurs.

89. Under no circumstances can the revoking side score game in that
hand. Whatever their previous score may have been, the side revoking
cannot attain a higher score toward game than twenty-eight.

90. A player may ask his partner whether he has not a card of the suit
which he has renounced; should the question be asked before the trick is
turned and quitted, subsequent turning and quitting does not establish a
revoke, and the error may be corrected unless the question be answered
in the negative or unless the revoking player or his partner has led or
played to the following trick.

91. If a player correct his mistake in time to save a revoke, any player
or players who have followed him may withdraw their cards and substitute
others, and the cards so withdrawn are not exposed cards. If the player
in fault be one of the dealer's adversaries, the card played in error is
an exposed card, and the dealer can call it whenever he pleases; or he
may require the offender to play his highest or lowest card or the suit
to the trick in which he has renounced.

92. If the player in fault be the dealer, the eldest hand may require
him to play the highest or lowest card of the suit in which he has
renounced, provided both adversaries of the dealer have played to the
current trick; but this penalty cannot be exacted against the dealer
when he is fourth in hand, nor can it be enforced at all from dummy.

93. At the end of a hand the claimants of a revoke may search all the
tricks. If the cards have been mixed the claim may be urged and proved
if possible; but no proof is necessary, and the revoke is established
if, after it has been claimed, the accused player or his partner mix the
cards before they have been sufficiently examined by the adversaries.

94. A revoke must be claimed before the cards have been cut for the
following deal.

95. Should the players on both sides subject themselves to the revoke
penalty neither can win the game by that hand.

96. The revoke penalty may be claimed for as many revokes as occur
during a hand; but the accumulated penalty shall in no event exceed
thirteen tricks. (See Law 7.)


GENERAL RULES

97. There should not be any consultation between partners as to the
enforcement of penalties. If they do so consult, the penalty is paid.

98. Once a trick is complete, turned and quitted it must not be looked
at (except under Law 84), until the end of the hand.

99. Any player during the play of a trick or after the four cards are
played and before they are touched for the purpose of gathering them
together, may demand that the cards be placed before their respective
players.

100. If either of the dealer's adversaries, prior to his partner's
playing, should call attention to the trick, either by saying it is his,
or, without being requested so to do, by naming his card or drawing it
toward him, the dealer may require that opponent's partner to play his
highest or lowest card of the suit led, or to win or lose the trick.

101. Either of the dealer's adversaries may call his partner's attention
to the fact that he is about to lead out of turn, but if he make any
unauthorised reference to any incident of the play the dealer may call a
suit from the adversary whose turn it is next to lead.

102. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender is
bound to give reasonable time for the decision of his adversaries; but
if a wrong penalty be demanded none can be enforced.

103. The partner of the eldest hand may inform him that their
adversaries have incurred a penalty, but may not give any further
information. Should he suggest the penalty, or demand the enforcement
of it, such action shall be deemed a consultation, and no penalty can be
enforced.


NEW CARDS

104. Unless a pack be imperfect, no player shall have the right to call
for one new pack. If fresh cards are demanded, two packs must be
furnished and paid for by the player who has demanded them. If they are
furnished during a rubber, the adversaries shall have their choice of
new cards. If it is the beginning of a new rubber, the dealer, whether
he or one of his adversaries be the party calling for the new cards,
shall have the choice. New cards must be called for before the pack is
cut for a new deal.

105. A card or cards torn or marked must be replaced by agreement or new
cards furnished.


BYSTANDERS

106. While a bystander, by agreement among the players, may decide any
question, yet he must on no account say anything unless appealed to; and
if he make any remark which calls attention to an oversight affecting
the score, or to the exaction of a penalty, he is liable to be called on
by the players to pay the stakes on that rubber.


SPADE CONVENTION

I.--Where players agree "not to play spades" the rule is, that if the
spade make is not doubled, the hand shall be played where either side is
20 or over.

II.--If the third hand player ask, "Shall I play?" or should he lead out
of turn, or should the eldest hand lead without asking permission to
play, the spade maker may take two on the score or may call a lead and
require the hand to be played out.

III.--Should the third hand player double before his partner asks
permission to play, the spade maker may decide whether the double shall
stand or not; but the hand must be played out.


ETIQUETTE

It has been truthfully said that there is no game in which slight
intimations can convey so much information as that of Bridge. In justice
to those who, by their manner, give information, it may be stated that
most of the apparent unfairness at the Bridge table is unintentional.
Hesitation and mannerisms, however, cannot be too carefully avoided;
such a breach of etiquette is an offence for which the adversaries have
no redress except perhaps a refusal to continue the play.

It is obviously a greater fault to take advantage of information thus
given. A play in your judgment may be perfectly sound, but you leave
yourself open to criticism if it is in any way contingent on information
obtained from your partner's manner.

Cultivate uniformity in your style of play; let there be no remarkable
haste or hesitation in making or passing; try always to use the same
formula of words, and do not call attention to the score after the cards
have been dealt.

Remember that any undue hesitancy in regard to doubling will deprive a
fair-minded partner of the privilege of so doing. Such delays are too
frequent at spade declarations.

Emphasise no play of your own and show no pleasure or displeasure at any
other play.

Do not ask to have the cards placed unless it is solely for your own
information.

It is an offence either to revoke purposely or to make a second revoke
in order to conceal the first.

The dealer's partner should not call attention to the score nor to any
card or cards that he or the other players hold, and neither should he
leave his seat for the purpose of watching his partner's play.

When there is an unusual distribution of the cards, no remarks of any
kind should be allowed.

After a hand has been played, it may be discussed to the common benefit;
but the bore who is continually blowing up his partner to show his
superior knowledge, together with the player who interrupts the game to
discuss the play, should be ostracised from the card-room. Superiority
of skill is shown by the play of the cards, not by mannerisms.

It is often difficult to refrain from showing _pleasure_ at the
accomplishment of a desired purpose, but undue elation is most
aggravating to the adversaries.

Do not make a dig at the adversaries by confiding to your partner that
your success was due to an ill-judged play of the opponent.

It is not good form to complain of poor cards, as you imply that the
adversaries profit by your weak hands and not by their skill.

The better players rarely criticise unless asked to do so; it is usually
the inexperienced player who offers an astonishing amount of gratuitous
and unsought-for advice.

Do not tell your partner, after seeing all the cards, what he should
have done, but think what you would have done in your partner's place.
Do not criticise at all, but if you must, criticise fairly.



GLOSSARY


=Book.=--The first six tricks won by the same partners.

=By-cards.=--The number of tricks won, more than six, or over the "book,"
is the number "by-cards." For instance, eight tricks are equal to two
by-cards.

=Card of Re-entry.=--A winning card which will bring into play another
suit. Sometimes the re-entry is in the suit itself, but when a suit with
a re-entry is spoken of it means that the re-entry is in another suit.

=Command.=--The best card or cards of a suit. The ability to stop the suit
at any time.

=Covering.=--Putting a higher card on the trick when not the last player.

=Discarding.=--When unable to follow suit, throwing away some card of
another suit which is not trumps.

=Doubling.=--Increasing the value of the trick points.

=Doubtful Card.=--Cards which may or may not win the trick. The king is
led, and you do not know who holds the ace; the king is therefore a
doubtful card.

=Dummy.=--The player whose cards are exposed on the table. The dealer's
partner.

=Duplicate.=--A modification in which each hand is played more than once,
usually in tournaments.

=Echo.=--Playing a higher card before a lower, when no attempt is made to
win the trick.

=Eldest Hand.=--The player on the dealer's left.

=Established Suit.=--A suit in which the partners can win every trick, no
matter who leads it.

=Exposed Card.=--Any card which is shown, but is not played to the trick,
such as two cards played at once, one of which is an exposed card.

=False Cards.=--Playing the ace, holding the king, or any similar attempt
to conceal the cards held.

=Finesse.=--Any attempt to win a trick with a card which is not the best
in the hand, nor in sequence with it.

=Forcing.=--Making a player trump a suit which he does not want to trump.
See Ruffing.

=Fourchette.=--The cards above and below another card. A Q are fourchette
over the K.

=Fourth-best.=--Counting from the highest card in the suit.

=Going Over.=--Doubling the value of the trick points.

=Guarded Suits.=--A high card so protected by smaller cards that it cannot
be caught by the adversaries leading higher cards.

=Holding Up.=--Refusing to play the best card of a suit.

=Honours.=--In trumps, the A K Q J 10 of the suit. At no-trump, the four
aces.

=Leader.=--The first player in any trick.

=Leading Up To.=--Playing a suit with a view to what the fourth hand holds
in it.

=Leading Through.=--Leading a suit with a view to what the second hand
holds in it.

=Little Slam.=--Twelve tricks won out of thirteen.

=Losing Card.=--Any card which cannot possibly take a trick.

=Love-all.=--The state of the score before either side has made a point.

=Odd Trick.=--The first trick over the book of six.

=Original Lead.=--The opening of the hand or suit.

=Re-entry.=--See Card of Re-entry.

=Revoke.=--Renouncing, while still holding cards of the suit led.

=Rubber.=--Two out of three games.

=Ruffing.=--Trumping a trick willingly. See Forcing.

=Slam.=--Winning all thirteen tricks.

=Tenace.=--The best and third best of a suit. A and Q are tenace.

=Third Hand.=--The leader's partner.

=Unblocking.=--Getting rid of any card which might stop the run of a long
suit.

=Weakness.=--Inability to stop a suit.

=Weak Suits.=--Those in which tricks are impossible, or very improbable.



INDEX


Aces, second hand, playing, 23

Advantages of discarding strength, 41

Avoid leading certain combinations, 27

Avoid leading trumps, 57


Bad red-suit makes, 22

Beating dummy's cards, 43

Black suit declarations, 16

Bridge, duplicate, 97

Bridge for three players, 96

Bridge, laws of, 101

Bridge, progressive, 98

Bystanders, 125


Cards played in error, 120

Chicane and double chicane, 7

Choice of seats and cards, 1

Clubs, 16

Combining hands of dealer and dummy, 64

Commanding card, holding up, 54

Conversation of the game, 4

Covering honours with honours, 42

Cutting, 104

Cutting for the right to play, 1

Cutting out, 105

Dealer's play at no-trump, 53

Dealer's play with a declared trump, 45

Dealer's play with a trump, 49

Dealing, 1, 107

Declaration, the, 9

Declaring trumps, 110

Determining value of the rubber, 9

Diamond make, rules for, 16

Diamonds, 14

Different systems of discarding, 39

Discard after showing a suit, 38

Discard, the reverse, 41

Discarding, 38

Discarding, hints on, 41

Discarding strength always, 38

Don't change suits, 48

Don'ts for bridge players, 58

Doubling no-trumpers, 23

Doubling, rules for, 23

Doubling spades, 23

Doubling trick values, 3

Doubling with success, 22

Doubtful no-trumpers, 43

Dummy, 114

Dummy bridge, 64

Dummy's hand and duties, 4

Dummy holding tenaces, 43

Duplicate bridge, 97


Echo at no trump, 45

Echo, the, 44

Echo to show you can ruff, 45

Eleven, the rule of, 30

Entry, rights of, 106

Error, cards played in, 120

Estimating value of hands, 22

Examples of original leads, 32

Examples of original makes, 20

Exposing cards before play, 116

Exposing cards during play, 117


Finessing, 66

Finessing by the dealer, 57

Finessing on partner's lead, 44

First trick, after the, 34

Forcing the strong trump hand, 35

Forming tables, 104

Fourth-best leads, 30


Game, points in the, 2

General rules of play, 123

Giving partner information, 29

Glossary, 130

Going over, 111

Good suits to lead, 29

Guarded suits, meaning of, 12


Hand, estimating value of, 22

Heart contention, 26

Hearts, 13

Hearts instead of no-trump, 13

Hearts led at double no-trump, 26

Hearts, rules for make, 14

High cards, second hand, 43

Hints for discarding, 41

Holding a combination, 56

Holding up the command, 55

Honours are a separate score, 2

Honours, value of, 7

Honours when there is trump, 7

Honours when there is no trump, 7


Illustrative hands, 73

Importance of good makes, 10

Importance of the score, 9

Inferences, 62

Inferring what dealer holds, 48


Judgment in the makes, 10


Keeping command of a suit, 73


Laws of bridge, 101

Lead when partner has doubled, 25

Leading aces first, 29

Leading from three honours, 29

Leading from weakness to strength, 34, 56

Leading high cards, 27

Leading red suits instead of black, 51

Leading short suits, 36

Leading through strength, 56

Leading to partner's suit, 48

Leading trumps, 46

Leading up to weakness, 31

Leading weak suits, 51

Leads out of turn, 117

Letting the weak hand ruff, 47

Longest suit should be played first, 54


Makes, examples of original, 20

Makes, passed, 19

Making the trump, 10

Making up the table, 1

Mannerisms, 59

Memory, 60

Method of scoring, 6

Misdeals, none in bridge, 2


New cards, 125

New deal, 108

Non-dealer's play against a declared trump, 27

Non-dealer's play at no-trump, 47

Non-dealer's play, second hand, 42

Non-dealer's play, third hand, 43

No-trump declaration by dealer, rules for, 12

No-trump makes, 10


Object of leading through strength, 56

Object of the game, 2

Opening leads at "no-trump," 50

Opening leads, examples of, 32

Original lends against a declared trump, 28

Original leads in no-trump, 52

Original leads with a trump, 28

Original makes, examples of, 20

Original no-trump makes, 17


Partner doubles, suit to lead, 22

Partner's suit, leading to, 49

Passed makes, 19

Placing aces, second hand, 43

Placing cards by eleven rule, 30

Play of the cards, 4

Players, number of, 1

Playing your suit, not partner's, 49

Points in the game, 2

Preventing revokes, 6

Probable value of partner's hand, 11

Progressive bridge, 98

Protection, or guarded suits, 12

Protecting suits and honours, 42


Rank of cards in cutting, 1

Rank of cards in play, 4

Redoubling trick values, 3, 4

Re-entry cards, 77

Returning partner's suits, 48

Reverse discards, 41

Revoke, the, 121

Revoke, to prevent a, 6

Rights of entry, 106

Rubber, the, 101

Rubber points added, 2

Ruff before leading trumps, 83

Rules for discarding, 38, 41

Rules for doubling, 23

Rules for finessing, 59, 66

Rules for forcing, 35

Rules for inferences, 62

Rules for leading short suits, 36

Rules for leading trumps, 46

Rules for no-trump makes, 12

Rules for passed makes, 19

Ruled for playing to the score, 9


Score-sheet, how used, 8

Scoring, 6, 101

Scoring, knowledge of, 9

Scoring, method of, 8

Second-hand play, dealer and dummy, 65

Second-hand plays, 67

Seeing dummy's hand, 27

Short suits, when to lead, 36

Shuffling, 107

Shuffling the still pack, 1

Slams and their value, 7

Spade makes, defensive, 17

Spades, 16

Specimen score-sheet, 8

Suggestions for doubting, 23

Suggestions for the non-dealer, 63


Table of honour values, 7

Table of leads at no-trump, 52

Tables, forming, 104

Taking the lead, 54

Three-handed bridge, 96

Trick values, table of, 3

Trump, declaring the, 3

Trump, the, 102

Trumps, avoid leading, 57

Trumps, declaring, 110

Trumps, how made, 5

Trumps, leading, 46


Unblocking, 53


Value of any hand, 22

Value of partner's hand, 11

Value of trumps you hold, 23


Weak no-trump makes, 21

Weakness, leading up to, 31

Weak suits at doubled no-trump, 31

Weak-suit convention, 25





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Bridge; its Principles and Rules of Play - with Illustrative Hands and the Club Code of Bridge Laws" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home