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Title: Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 91, July 26, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 91, July 26, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

[Transcriber's note: Original spelling varieties have not been
standardized. Norwegian words have been retained as printed.
Underscores have been used to indicate _italic_ fonts. A list of
volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries" has been added at the end.]





"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

VOL. IV.--No. 91. SATURDAY, JULY 26. 1851.

Price Sixpence. Stamped Edition 7_d._




      Richard Rolle of Hampole                                    49

      Notes and Queries MSS.                                      50

      MS. Fragments of Old Poetry                                 51

      Folk Lore:--Medical Use of Mice--Legend of Haydon's
      Gully--The Crow Charm and the Lady-bird Charm--School
      Superstitions--The Nightmare--East Norfolk Folk Lore:
      1. Cure for Fits; 2. Cure for Ague--Extreme Ignorance
      and Superstition                                            52

      Minor Notes:--The Word "Repudiate"--The First
      Panorama--Chaucer and Gray--Burns and
      Propertius--Shakspeare in Sweden                            54


      On the Elision of the Letter "_v_"                          55

      Anthony Mundy, by Sir F. Madden                             55

      Minor Queries:--Margaret Maultasch--Arms of Halle--Test
      of Strength of a Bow--Vox Populi--Meaning of Whig and
      Tory--"Fortune, Infortune, Fort une"--Unde derivatur
      Stonehenge--Marriage of Bishops--The Sign ¶--Early German
      Virgil--Fairlight Church--The Leman Baronetcy--Armorial
      Bearings--History of Magnetical Discovery--George
      Chalmers--Mistake as to an Eclipse--Statue of Mrs.
      Jordan--"A Posie of other Men's Flowers"--Sir Edmund
      Ployden or Plowden--Pope's Translations or Imitations of
      Horace--John Bodley--Dr. Thomas Johnson--"You Friend drink
      to me Friend"--The Latin Termination "aster"--Portrait
      of Dryden--Inscription on a Claymore out in 1745            56


      De Rebus Septentrionalibus, by W. E. C. Nourse              59

      Hugh Holland and his Works, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault           62

      "Prenzie" in "Measure for Measure"                          63

      The Ten Commandments                                        63

      The Republic of San Marino, by Walter Montagu               64

      Shakespeare's Use of "Eisell"                               64

      Royal Library                                               69

      The Caxton memorial, by Beriah Botfield                     69

      Meaning of "Nervous," by W. E. C. Nourse and E. J. Jones    70

      The Duke of Monmouth's Pocket-books, by C. Ross             70

      Replies to Minor Queries:--Pope's "honest Factor"--Banks
      Family--Dies Iræ, Dies Illa--Equestrian Statues--Monumental
      Symbolism--Organs in Churches--Tennyson: "The
      Princess"--"Perhaps it was right to dissemble your
      love"--Sardonic Smiles--Epitaph on Voltaire--Voltaire,
      where situated--Children at a Birth--Milkmaids--"Heu
      quanto minus," &c.--The "Passellew" Family--Lady Petre's
      Monument--Spenser's Age at his Death--Blessing by the
      hand--Handel's Occasional Oratorio--Moore's Almanack--Kiss
      the Hare's Foot--Derivation of the World "Bummaree" or
      "Bumaree"--Sheridan and Vanbrugh--"Felix quem faciunt aliena
      pericula cautum"--"Alterius Orbis Papa"--Umbrella--To learn
      by Heart--"Suum cuique tribuere"--Frogs in Ireland--Round
      Towers--Lines on the Temple--Killigrew Arms--Meaning of
      Hernshaw--Theory of the Earth's Form--Coke and Cowper, how
      pronounced--Registry of British Subjects Abroad, &c.        71


      Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      77

      Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                78

      Notices to Correspondents                                   79

      Advertisements                                              79



If the following "Notes" do not demand too much of your valuable space,
they may possibly interest the philological reader, and elicit a number
of learned illustrations. They are drawn from a MS. belonging to this
University (Dd. I. 1.), of which the main part is a course of _metrical_
sermons upon the Gospels throughout the year. The author of most, if not
all, of the pieces, was the famous solitary, Richard Rolle, of Hampole,
near Doncaster, who died in 1348.

1. The first sample I shall give is a curious illustration of the way in
which the preachers of that age were wont to represent the harshness of
the great in their dealings with the poor:

      "For wiþ ensample may we se,
      Þ't al þis world is but as þe se
      Þ't bremli bariþ on banke wiþ bale,
      And grete fischis etin þerin þe smale.
      For riche men of þis world ete
      Þ't pore men wiþ traueyle gete:
      For wiþ pore men fariþ þe king
      Riht as þe hal wiþ þe hering,
      Riht as þe sturgeoun etiþ _merling_
      And _lobkeling_ etiþ _spirling_,
      So stroyen more men þe lesse
      Wiþ worldis wo and wrongwisnesse,
      All þ'e ska þe þt lesse sufferin of more
      Smytiþ as storm of þe se ful sore."

      Pp. 115, 116.

2. The word _keling_ (cod-fish) occurs again in the following passage,
where the subject of the preacher is the Incarnation of our Lord:

      "For right as bayt þe hok heliþ
      And so þe gredi keling teliþ,
      so telid Ih[=u]s wiþ flesch & blode
      _Gormond_ þe _gredi_ on þe rode:
      Gormond þe gredi I him calle
      Þt swelewiþ synful soulis alle,
      Þt neuer is ful but euer redi
      To ha[=u]se hem as _Gawen gredi_.
      Þis Gaweyn was hirchid on a hoke
      Þat flesch & bold on Marie toke
      for hirching þe bodi slas
      And so slow Ih[=e] Salhanas."--P. 193.

3. At p. 352. a rebuke is administered to the _gourmet_ in the following

      "Þat oþer gostli ydropicy
      Is called on Englisch gloteny,
      þ't mekil is vsed wiþ these burgese,
      þt lyue mekil at hir owne ese.
      þei gar (i.e. _cause to_) seke þ'e cuntre thorw,
      Boþe oplond and in borw,
      Riche metis for to bye,
      Summe to bake and summe to frye:
      Al schal ben brouht on to his ham
      Beste and foul boþ'e wylde & tame,
      And yet all þis way not fille
      His yernyng & his herte wille.
      On þe pore men þinkiþ he nought
      Ne on þt lord þt him der bought.
      Many a mes be forn him stondiþ
      And of ilkon sum þing he fondiþ,
      Of venyson, of gos and gryse,
      Tarte, _blawmanger_, and of ryse,
      Of euerilkon sumwhat he tastiþ
      And so forsoþe his kynde be wastiþ,
      For ser deyntes & many mes
      Make men falle in many sicknes.
      But if þe riche man wolde þinke
      Among al his mete & drynke,
      þt his flesch schol rote in molde,
      He wold not bin þerto so bolde."

4. The following passage is curious in more respects than one:

      "This day _witsonday_ is cald,
      For wisdom & wit seuene fald
      Was youen to þe apostles as þis day
      For wise in alle þingis wer thay,
      To spek wt outen mannes lore
      Al maner langage eueri whore.
      þei spak _latyn_, _frensch_ & _grew_,
      _Saresenay_, _deuenisch_ & _ebrew_,
      _Gascoyne_, _Pikard_, Englisch & Walsch
      And oþer speche spak þei als."

5. At p. 372. we have an interesting picture of a nun persecuted by the
rest of the sisterhood on account of her stricter living:

      "Hir cher was ay semand sori
      Hir felawis held hir wod forþ'i,
      And made of hir ful gret skornyng
      And callid hir oule & outcasting:
      For alle þe nonnes þ't were thore
      Wend wel þt sche fonned wore,
      And summe on hir foul water keste,
      And sumtyme draf & sometyme yeste,
      And summe rubbid hir wiþ oute
      Wiþ ground mustard al a boute;
      But sche made no grucching
      For al hir euyl skornying,
      Bul al sche suffrid ful mekeli
      And to hir seruise was ay redi,
      For ofte tymes sche grecid hir schos,
      And wisch hir vessel as a guystroun dos,
      And what so euer þei put hir to
      W't a good wil al dide scho.
      Hir hed was wounden al a boute
      Wiþ a foul lynen cloute,
      And for sche was so onlikli
      Alle þei letin of hir skornfulli,
      But yet sche was ful derworthi
      Beforn our lord god almyghti."

6. I will add, in conclusion, a sample from one of the prose treatises
contained in the same volume (p. 464.):

  "Oþere spices þer ben of pride whiche men & women ben founden
  inne, & it encresiþ fro day to day, of dyuers atire about þ'e
  bodi: as ofte streyte clothes & schorte daggid hodis, chaunsemlees
  (i.e. _shoes_) disgised & teyde op strayt in v. or vi. stedis:
  women with schorte clothis unneþe to þ'e hipes, _booses_ &
  _lokettes_ about þe heed, & vile stynkend hornes longe & brode, &
  oþer dyuers atire, þ't I can nought witen ne discryen of surche
  þinges. Eueri man & woman be his owne juge & loke weel if it be
  nought þus."

    C. H.

  St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.


The commencement of a new volume appears to be the signal for new
suggestions. May I fire one off as well as others?

In p. 282. of the Third, and in p. 19 of your present volume, you have
printed two MSS. relating to Cromwell, which I sent you. No doubt there
are many MSS. equally, or indeed more curious and interesting, scattered
throughout the country, which would be worthy of preservation in type in
your valuable columns, and which may possibly be so preserved. But what
shall become of the originals? Would not the possessors of twos or
threes of such documents be glad to place them in a safe and useful
repository, where they might be preserved and be made available to all
who take an interest in our history, whether social or political? And
how could this be better effected than by opening a book for their
reception and safe custody at your office; such book to be open to the
inspection of all applicants, under proper regulations; and, when full,
to be deposited in the British Museum as Vol. I. of the "NOTES AND

With regard to the two which you have thought worth printing, I would by
far prefer such a mode of disposing of them, to consigning them, as
trifles, to what might prove the bottomless pit of the Museum, or to
returning them to the snug dormitory in which I found them, between the
leaves of Bishop Kennett's _History of England_.

Should this hint find favour in the eyes of yourself and your learned
correspondents, not only are these at your service, but I might find
another or two to add to them. I think, however, that none should be
admitted into the collection but such as were considered worthy of being
also preserved in print in "NOTES AND QUERIES."

    S. H. H.

  St. John's Wood.

  [It can scarcely be necessary for us to add that we shall be very
  glad to do our part towards carrying out the very sensible and
  practical suggestion of our Correspondent. We shall indeed be glad
  to show the sense we entertain of the obligations which we, in
  common with all lovers of literature in this country, owe to the
  British Museum, by aiding in this or any other well connected
  scheme for enriching that storehouse of learning, and increasing,
  if possible, its present usefulness.]


I have before me a sheet of vellum, part of old tale or tales in verse,
which has been used as the cover of a manuscript book. I conceive it to
be about the time of Henry VI. Can any of your correspondents, from the
following extracts, give me any information as to the author, or the
work of which it is a part? There would appear to be parts of two tales,
at least.

    G. H. D.

      "Thanne seide the Prest, i will the telle,
      For alle my good i wele the selle,
      For alle the synnes that thou hast don,
      I graunte the hem alle sone anon.
        Alle gode dedes and eke preiere.
      That Marchaunt the Prest wel understod,
      That the Prestes chaffare was to hym good,
        Gif that it mythe awelde;
      And seide, as i am a trewe man,
      In alle the wittis that i can,
      Covenaunt i wele the helden.
      Gif thou wilt me with herte and thouth (thought),
      Give me alle thi gode dedes that thou hast wrouth,
        As covenaunt was before;
      Loke, he seide, to the Prest anon,
      That thou telle hem everecheon,
        That thou be nouth forswore.
      And i schal telle the anon,
      Alle the ... de dedes that I haue don,
        Alle with outen ende;
      The Prest began anon to telle,
      Of hese goodnesse anon snelle,
        No lengere he wolde hym wende.
      The Prest seide, while i was yonge,
      And coude gon and speke with tunge,
        I was sette to lore;
      Pore men i loved wel,
      Of that i hadde i zaf hem su ... el,
        Bothe lesse and more.
      And quanne i my primer cou[the],
      I seide it eche day with my mouthe,
        And forgat ... uth on;
      To God i made my preiere,
      And eche dai seide oure ladies [sa]utere,
        To God I made my mone.
      Evereche day to chirche i went,
      And seide my psauter with sex [en?]tente
        Both be dai and be nyth;
      Quanne i to bedde schulde go,
      Mi clothes i kest me fro,
        To serue God ful of myth.
      Certes oftyn i gan take,
      An usage on nyth moche to wake,
        And prei to hevene kyng;
      That i moste comen to this ... religion,
      To my soule Savacioun,
        To joye with outen endyng.
      And quanne i was made a prest here,
      God thewes i wolde lere,
        As I haue the told;
      Now thou woste with outen strife,
      How I haue led in lif,
        And all my goodnesse I haue thee solde.
      Thanne seide the Prest to the Marchaunt,
      Hold thou me my covenaunt,
        That I of haue of the bouth;
      Thou woste wel al untold,
      But gif a man wolde truthe hold,
        Marchaundize is rith nouth,
      With tretchere thou myth me katche,
      And do me _bie the cat in a Satche_,[1]
        Thyng that I may nouth se;
      All thi synnes thou me telle,
      And thou schalt be saued fro the payne of helle,
        Gif thou ne levest nouth me.
      The Marchaunt seide, geve me myn,
      And thou schalt have chaffare thin,
        Gif thou wilt understonde;
      This seide the Prest, be my leute,
      Alle thi synnes telle thou me,
        For no thyng that thou ne wende.
      The Marchaunt seide, wil I was yong,
      And coude gon and spake with tung,
        I was jolif and wilde;
      Be myn own sister I lay,
      Many a nyth and many a day,
        And gret sche was with childe.
      With childe she was, tho sothe to telle,
      And I gaf reed my fader to quelle,
        So God me bryng out of care;
      Now God Fader in Trinite,
      Have merci on here and on me,
        Of blisse I am all bare.
      And after that with outen othe,
      Oure fader and oure moder bothe,
        Whanne that it was eve;
      And thei bothe aslepe were,
      We wenten to hem bothe in fere,
        And slowe hem with outen weve (?).
      And quanne this dede was i-do,
      We wenten away bothe to,
        Mi sister wente behynde;
      As gret with childe as sche was,
      I lep to here a woligret pas,
        And dede here heved of wynde.
      Sche that was me lef and dere,
      I smot here heved of be the swere,
        Now lord, merci I crie;
      Fader, God omnipotent,
      Ne lete our soules never be schent,
        For the love of oure lefdie.
      Maries sone that sitteth in trone,
      Lade to the i make my mone,
        For thin holy grace;
      That we mote be present,
      At the day of jujement,
        And seen thin holi face."

      ... ... ...
      "Thanne he sei a leoun come,
      And taken awei hese yonge sone,
        On hym he gaped wide.
      The Lyoun bar that child with hym,
      Awei rennynge wroth and grym,
        The knyth was ney aswoune;
      There he was in the water deep,
      It was no wonder thow he wep,
        Of Care hadde [he] inow.
      Sore he gan to sihhe and grone,
      Thei he ne seide wordes none,
        To loude he moste tee;
      A wonder thyng he sey thar,
      A wolf hese other child away bar,
        He fel doun on swoune on kne.
      Tho that he aswouning ros,
      He loked abouten and hym agros,
        Hese wit was ney forlore;
      But yet he thouthe on Ihū Crist,
      On his deth and on hese uprist,
        That for us was i-bore.
      Lord God Almythti, thou it wost,
      Fadir sone and holi gost,
        To thee i menene my mone;
      For my spouse that was so trewe,
      Fadir hende brith of newe,
        Wol wo is me alone.
      For my sones that ben forlorn,
      That wilde bestes hath awei born,
        I not nouth where to wone;
      To wheche lond mai i fle,
      How longe schal i on lyve be,
        Sorewes comen gret wone.
      Of Job i well bethenke me,
      That long in welthe hadde be,
        And fel sone in care;
      Ih[=u] Crist for love of The,
      To carful well i nevere be,
        How so it ever fare.
      I have wepte al my fille,
      I nele no more, i well be stille,
        Goddes helpe is us ney;
      Thanne come an aungel from hevene,
      And spake to hym with mylde Stevene,
        Of God that woneth on hey.
      Be bold blithe, he seide, Eustace,
      For in hevene is maad thi place,
        There thou schalt myrie be;
      Thi children and thi wif,
      Schal have longe lyf,
        And al that blisse i-se.
      Thus long he wente forth his wai,
      Biddynge his bedes on hase lai,
        Til beter tyme come;
      To Swynke and swate he most,
      For hese spendying was ney go,
      ---- it under no ----
      With bowe and arwe and horn,
      For to kepe a lordis corn,
      Be day and eke be nyth;
      ... ... ...
                knythes from fer i fare
      For to seeke here and thare
      After on manne
      The emperoures counceyler
      We han forth far and ner
      There can no man hym kenne:
      The wisest knyth of hese coort he was,
      He was i hoten Sire Placidas,
      On huntynge out he ferde;
      And never after come he hom,
      Ne no tidyng of him com.
      ... ... ...
      On the mouthe is a wounde."

  [Footnote 1: Proverb.]

  [The first of these fragments is obviously a portion of a
  religious tale (similar to the French _Contes Dévots_, from one of
  which it is probably borrowed).

  The second is a portion of the Legend of St. Eustace, otherwise
  named Placidas, which occurs in an earlier metrical English form
  among the Collections of Lives of Saints in MS. Laud. 108. art.
  59.; MS. Digby 86.; MS. Bodl. 779. art. 64.; MS. Vernon, fol. 170;
  MS. Ashm. 43. art. 73.; and MS. Cott. Cal. A. II. It occurs as
  prose in the Golden Legend.]


_Medical Use of Mice._--Seeing some Queries and Replies on this subject,
I am induced to send you a few extracts from an old book in my
possession (marked "very scarce"), published in 1661. Its title is
_Panzoologicomineralogia, or a Compleat History of Animals and
Minerals_. By Richard Lovell, St. C. C. Oxon. It treats chiefly of the
medicinal uses of the various objects. I am tempted to tell you the use
of a "unicorne," but confine myself to the mouse.

  "The flesh eaten causeth oblivion, and corrupteth the meat; yet
  those of Chalecut eat them; it is hot, soft, and fattish, and
  expelleth melancholy.... A mouse dissected and applied, draweth
  out reeds, darts, and other things that stick in the flesh....
  Mice bruised, and reduced to the consistence of an _acopon_
  (what's that?), with old wine, cause hair on the eyebrows....
  Being eaten by children when rosted, they dry up the spittle. The
  magicians eat them twice a month against the paines of the teeth.
  The water in which they have been boiled helps against the
  quinsey. Being boiled and eaten, they help children's pissing in
  bed. The fresh blood kills warts. The ashes of the skinne, applied
  with vinegar, help the paines of the head. The head worn in a
  cloth, helps the headach and epilepsy. The braine being steeped in
  wine, and applied to the forehead, helpeth the headach. Used with
  water, it cureth the phrensy. The heart, _taken out of a mouse_
  WHEN ALIVE, worne about the arme of a woman, causeth no
  conception. The fillet of the liver, drunk with austere wine,
  helpeth quartans. The liver, rosted in the new of the moon, trieth
  the epilepsy. The dung, is corrosive. Given in any liquor, it
  helpeth the collicke. It looseneth the body; therefore some nurses
  use it for children in suppositories(?). It helpeth hollow teeth,
  being put therein."

There is more of the sort, to the extent of 2¾ closely printed pages.
It should be added that the author quotes authorities, old and new, for
the several facts he adduces. Pliny is a great authority with him, and
Galen is often cited.

    J. K.

_Legend of Haydon's Gully._--In the parish of Hinton-Blewett, North
Somersetshire, or immediately adjoining it, in the direction of West
Harptree, there is a wooded gorge in the hill-side, through which runs a
small stream, and which is called "Haydon's Gully." I have lately heard
the following tradition respecting it; viz. that a gentleman named
Colonel Haydon, who was accused of high treason, used to spend his
nights under his brother's roof, somewhere in the neighbourhood, and
every morning came and backed his horse into a hole in the bank, where
he spent the day in order to evade his pursuers. You will perhaps agree
with me, that this story, which, if it has any truth in it, probably
refers to Monmouth's days, is worth inquiring into.


_The Crow Charm and the Lady-bird Charm._--The following charms are
repeated by children throughout Yorkshire and Lancashire, and, I doubt
not, in other parts of the kingdom also. They may be classed with the
"Snail Charms" (Vol. iii., pp. 132. 179.):

      _Crow Charm._

      "Crow, crow, get out of my sight,
      Or else I'll eat thy liver and lights."

      _Lady-bird Charm._

      "Lady-bird, lady-bird, eigh thy way home;
      Thy house is on fire, thy children all roam,
      Except little Nan, who sits in her pan,
      Weaving gold-laces as fast as she can."

I remember, as a child, sitting out of doors on an evening of a warm
summer or autumn day, and repeating the crow charm to flights of rooks,
as they winked home to their rookery. The charm was chaunted so long as
a crow remained in sight, the final disappearance of them being to my
mind proof "strong as Holy Writ" of the efficacy of the charm.

The lady-bird charm is repeated to the insect (the _Coccinella
septempunctata_ of Linnæus)--the common seven-spotted lady-bird--to be
found in every field and garden during summer.

The lady-bird is placed upon the child's open hand, and the charm is
repeated until the insect takes to flight. The warmth and moisture of
the hand no doubt facilitate this, although the child believes fully in
the moving power of the charm.

N.B. The lady-bird is also known as _lady-cow_, _cow-lady_, and is
sometimes addressed as _cusha-cow-lady_.


_School Superstitions._--Several appear to exist in schools from
generation to generation: do they exist anywhere else? and whence their
origin? For instance "a boy who could not span his own wrist was a
bastard;" "if you said the Lords Prayer backwards, the devil would come
up," &c.

    A. C.

_The Nightmare._--I recently observed a large stone, having a natural
hole through it, suspended inside a Suffolk farmer's cow-house. Upon
inquiry of a labourer, I was informed this was intended as a preventive
of nightmare in the cattle. My informant (who evidently placed great
faith in its efficacy) added that a similar stone suspended in a
bed-room, or a knife or steel laid under the foot of the bed, was of
equal service to the sleeper, and that he had himself frequently made
use of this charm.

Is this practice common, and in what does it originate?

    J. B. C.


1. _Cure for Fits._--A similar superstition on this subject to the one
mentioned by D. (Vol. i, p. 11.) is prevalent in this vicinity. Nine or
eleven young men or maidens (an odd number is indispensable) contribute
each a silver coin for the manufacture of the ring. A friend of the
sufferer gives out that he is making a collection for the purpose, and
calls on the parties expected to contribute, and the coins must be given
_unasked_, to ensure its efficacy. A watchmaker in my parish tells me
that he has made ten or a dozen such rings within as many years, and
that he has full faith in their curative properties.

2. _Cure for Ague._--Being afflicted two years since with a severe
tertian ague, I was solicited, after the usual medical treatment had
failed, by a lady to take as much of the _snuff of a candle_ as would
lie on a sixpence, made into an electuary with honey. I complied and,
strange to say, a complete cure was effected. Whether the nausea
consequent on such an unpleasant remedy had any effect on the spasmodic
nature of the malady, I cannot say; but the fact is certain, and it is
esteemed a sovereign specific by the Norfolk rustics.

    E. S. TAYLOR.

  Martham, Norfolk.

_Extreme Ignorance and Superstition._--In a large village in
Dorsetshire, not far from the county town, an intelligent man went
recently into the house of a somewhat respectable woman who keeps a
general shop in the village, and who is the mother of a numerous family
and seeing her with a large family Bible open before her, and several of
her children collected around, while she was cutting and paring their
finger nails, and so holding their hands as that their cuttings might
drop on the leaves of the Bible, he asked her why she did this.
Suspecting, by her manner, that she had some object in view, judge of
his surprise, when she replied--"I always, when I cut the nails of my
children, let the cuttings fall on the open Bible, that they may grow up
to be _honest_. They will never steal, if the nails are cut over the
Bible!!" Do we not yet require the educator to be abroad?

    T. WE.

Minor Notes.

_The Word "Repudiate."_--I cannot help following DR. KENNEDY'S example,
and calling attention to another word in our language which is
now-a-days, on many occasions, used very erroneously; I allude to the
word _repudiation_, or rather the verb _repudiate_.

How frequently does one hear at public meetings such phrases as these:
"I utterly repudiate the idea," "I repudiate the sentiment," "I
repudiate the insinuation." A page might be filled with phrases of this
description occurring in reported speeches of recent date. The word, in
fact, is made by public speakers of "unadorned eloquence" and newspaper
writers, to do duty for such words as to _refuse_, _repel_, _reject_,
_abandon_, _disown_, _cast off_.

Now, Sir, I humbly conceive that repudiation means simply a dissolving
of the marriage contract, hence of any contract or obligation and I
believe I may say with safety, that in no standard classical author,
ancient or modern, is the term _repudiation_, or the verb, _repudiate_,
used, except in connexion with some _obligation_ expressed, or in
figurative allusion to such obligation. The term, when applied to the
"drab-coloured men of Pennsylvania," is undoubtedly proper; they have
indeed _repudiated_ their debt, and perhaps brought the word and the
thing into vogue; but to use such a phrase as "I repudiate the notion,"
is, I submit, surely to talk nonsense.

    H. C. K.

  ---- Rectory, Hereford.

_The First Panorama_ (Vol. iii., p. 526.).--E. N. W. must have made some
mistake in his recollection. Girton was a painter, and may have worked
at the Panorama of London; but the "first Panorama" was by Mr. Robert
Barker. The sketches were made by his son, Henry Aston Barker, when only
a lad aged fifteen. They were taken from the top of the Albion Mills:
they were also etched by H. A. Barker at the same age, and aqua-tinted
by Birnie, and published in six sheets, 22 by 17, a set of which I
possess, with a note of their history, as herein communicated, written
_in dorso_, long ago, from Mr. B.'s own lips.

    H. T. E.

E. N. W. is correct in saying, that a semicircular view of London from
the top of the Albion Mills, near Blackfriar's bridge, preceded Barker's
panoramas. It must have been painted about the year 1793. I saw it at
the end of that year, or at the very beginning of 1794. But it was not
exhibited in St. Martin's Lane, but in Castle Street, in a rough
building--not, I believe, erected for the purpose--at the back of a
small house on the eastern side of that street. Perhaps some other of
your octogenarian readers may recollect its being there, as well as
myself. The scene on the Thames was the water-procession on Lord Mayor's

    W. D.

_Chaucer and Gray_ (Vol. iii., p. 492).--MR. THOMS suggests a very
interesting parallel between a line in Chaucer, and Gray's "Even in our
ashes", &c. Gray himself refers to Petrarch as his original, and the
thought occurs in Shakspeare:

      "In me thou seest the glowing of such fire,
      That on the ashes of his youth doth lie."

And Malone, in a note on the passage (_Supplement to Shakspeare_, 1780,
vol. i. p. 640), adduces the passage in Chaucer quoted by MR. THOMS as
an illustration. Steevens has mentioned the following passage in Sir P.
Sidney's _Arcadia_ "In ashes of despair, though burnt, shall make thee
live." Compare, also, _Antony and Cleopatra_, Act V. Sc. 2.

    J. O. H.

To the verse,

      "Even in our ashes live their wonted fires,"

Gray has himself appended a note, indicating that it was suggested by
Petrarch, sonnet 169.; and "I will take the poet's word for a thousand
pounds." It was originally written--

      "Awake and faithful to her wonted fires,"

which has but little to do with Chaucer.


_Burns and Propertius._--There is a strange inclination to attribute
similarity of sentiment to plagiarism; as if it were almost impossible
for two men of genius to hit upon the same notions, independently of
each other. In Propertius (II. i. 3, 4.) we find--

      "Non hæc Calliope, non hæc mihi cantat Apollo,
      Ingenium nobis ipsa puella facit."

In Burns we read--

      "O, were I on Parnassus' hill!
      Or had of Helicon my fill;
      That I might catch poetic skill
          To sing how dear I love thee.
      But Nith maun be my Muse's well,
      _My Muse maun be thy bonnie sel'_."

Had Burns been much of a Latin scholar, he would probably have been
accused of stealing from Propertius.


_Shakspeare in Sweden._--The writings of Shakspeare would appear from
the following fact to be read with as much avidity and delight in Sweden
as in his native country. A translation of his plays by Hagberg,
Professor of Greek in the University of Lund, is now in course of
publication. Of this, twelve volumes have appeared; and although the
first edition consisted of no less than two thousand copies, the whole
have been sold off, and a second edition is in preparation. Professor
Hagberg's translation is most favourably spoken of by those who are
qualified to judge of its merits.

    W. J. T.



Through the medium of "NOTES AND QUERIES" I would be permitted to invite
attention to a peculiar pronunciation that has extensively prevailed,
though unnoticed I believe in print, of many words wherein the letter
_v_ occurs between two vowels.

While resident in the country, when a boy, I was struck with the
singular manner in which the names of certain places, having a _v_ so
circumstanced, were pronounced, for the _v_ was wholly silent, and
occasionally the latter vowel also; but as this was chiefly among
uneducated people, I was led to regard it as a provincialism. However,
as I became further acquainted with the names of places, I did not fail
to observe, that it was by no means limited to any particular part of
England. Thus, for example, the provincial pronunciation of Cavendish
(Suffolk) is Ca'endish; of Daventry, Da'entry; of Staverton and Coverley
(Warwickshire), Sta'erton and Co'erly; of Evesham, E'esham; of Davenham
(Cheshire), Da'enham; of Lavington (Lincolnshire), La'enton or Lenton;
of Avebury (Wilts), Abury; of Lavenham and Cavenham (Suffolk), Lanham
and Canham; of Overton (Leicestershire, Westmoreland, and Cumberland),
Orton; and the Principality gives us Aberga'enny for Abergavenny.
Ivilchester has become Ilchester, and Tovecester (now written Towcester)
is pronounced To'ecester; while Hoveden (Yorkshire) is called Ho'eden,
or Howden, as it is now commonly spelt. Similar examples might be
multiplied. Sometimes a succeeding consonant has undergone a change, as
Pe'emsey for Pevensey, and Rochester for Rovecester or Rofecester.
Numerous as the instances are, there has been some apparent caprice in
the matter, not easily explained. For though, as we have seen, Staverton
and Coverley in Warwickshire, and Daventry on the borders of that
county, undergo this change, yet, as far as I can learn, Coventry was
ever free from it; and in the like manner Twiverton in Devonshire is
called Twerton, yet I believe Tiverton was never Terton. There may have
been something in the original forms or meanings of Coventry, Tiverton,
and the like, that occasioned the _v_ to be retained.

Many examples of the omission of this letter might be adduced from
surnames, did space permit; indeed, several of those given above are
surnames, as well as names of places; and some readers may recollect the
change noticed in Selden's _Titles of Honour_, of Roger Wendover into
Roger of Windsor, the first step having been to write Roger of Windore.

Nor is the practice confined to names. All are familiar with such
contractions as _e'er_, _ne'er_, _o'er_, _e'en_, and _se'nnight_. We
have also _ill_ for _evil_, and the Scotch have _de'il_ for _devil_, and
_e'ening_ for _evening_. In like manner have we derived _lord_ from the
old English _loverd_ or _louerd_; _lark_ from _laverock_ (Anglo-Saxon
_lauerc_); _hawk_ from the Anglo-Saxon _hafoc_ or _hauoc_; and _head_
from the Anglo-Saxon _heafod_ or _heauod_; for the _f_ or _u_ in
Anglo-Saxon, when representing our _v_, became subject to this elision.
Time was, too, when _shovel_ was pronounced _sho'el_, and rhymed with
_owl_; as is exemplified in the nursery lay of the death and burial of
poor Cock Robin.

Without now attempting to account for this usage of speech, which seems
to imply the prevalence of a former pronunciation of _v_ very different
from the present, I will briefly notice that the like elision is of
frequent occurrence in Latin, chiefly in the perfect tenses and their
derivatives, as _amârunt_ for _amaverunt_, and _audîsset_ for
_audivisset_; occasionally, too, in nouns, as _labrum_ for _lavabrum_;
and also in the compounds of _versus_, as _retro'rsum_. It is found, I
may add, in a few French words derived from the Latin, as _oncle_ from
_avunculus_, and _cité_ from _civitas_. In the several languages above
mentioned the _v_ between two vowels is also found passing into _w_ or
_u_, especially after _a_ or _o_, the second vowel being in such cases
dropped, thus indicating the connexion that existed between _v_ and _u_,
which letters we know were in times past written indifferently for each
other. The discussion, however, of this connexion is beside my present

The Latin contractions that I have adverted to are well known, and often
noticed; and it is remarkable that the manner in which this treatment of
the _v_ has affected the pronunciation and orthography of our own
language, should have almost escaped observation. An acquaintance with
it has been found of service when consulting ancient writings and the
published records; for those who would use such sources of information
with advantage, should be prepared not only to recognise, but also to
anticipate, the various changes which names of persons and places have

    W. S. W*****D.


A few weeks since some manuscripts were placed in my hands belonging to
the Hon. E. M. L. Mostyn, M. P. (removed from the library at Mostyn
Hall in Flintshire), in order that I might ascertain the contents; and
on looking at them, I discovered a play in the autograph of Anthony
Mundy, with his signature at the end, and the date (supplied by another
hand) of December, 1595. This play, entitled "_A Booke of John a Kent
and John a Cumber_," seems to have been hitherto unknown to all the
writers on the history of the stage; and its plot and dialogue appearing
to me sufficiently curious to deserve publication, I lost no time in
communicating my discovery to Mr. J. Payne Collier, under whose able
editorship I am happy to learn that the work (by permission of Mr.
Mostyn) will shortly be printed by the Shakspeare Club. The object I now
have in view in making these remarks, is to point out an error relative
to MUNDY (as he spells his own name) which, if not corrected, may
acquire greater circulation than it possesses even at present. In
Warton's _History of English Poetry_, 4to. vol. iii. p. 292. _n._
(printed in 1781), at the close of his biographical account of Mundy, he
makes the following statement: "He [Mundy] collected the arms of the
county of Middlesex, _lately_ transferred from Sir Simeon Stuart's
library to the British Museum;" and this paragraph is copied word for
word by Chalmers (writing in 1812), and inserted in his _Biographical
Dictionary_ under the article MUNDAY (ANTONY). As no record exists in my
department of any such transfer, I was desirous to trace the truth of
this assertion, which the date of Chalmers could hardly have enabled me
to do, had I not fortunately consulted Nichols's _Literary Anecdotes_,
vol. viii. p. 645., where I found a letter from the Rev. Michael Tyson
to Gough, dated June 10, 1777, in which he mentions the manuscripts then
recently sold at the seat of Sir Simeon Stuart, in Hampshire, and adds--

  "A bookseller opposite the Exchange bought an heraldical lot of
  eighteen volumes, big and little, for which he asks twenty
  guineas: among them is Hawes's [_read_ Harvey's] original _Suffolk
  Church Notes_, and a beautiful _Visitation of Cambridge_."

With this clue I had little difficulty in ascertaining that the eighteen
volumes alluded to were preserved among the _Additional Manuscripts_ in
the British Museum, Nos. 4960-4977., and were probably purchased of the
bookseller named above. I can trace no copy of the sale catalogue of Sir
Simeon Stuart's library; but this library must have belonged to the
third baronet of that name, of Hartley-Maudit, co. Hants, who succeeded
to the title in 1761. The manuscripts in question all belonged in the
reign of Charles II. to Samuel Waker, painter-stainer, in whose
handwriting many of them are, among which is No. 4964, thus entitled:
"_Collections of Descents and Armes of the Gentry of Middlesex, whereof
was noe visitation generall of the same County, before that made by Sir
Henry St. George, Richmond Herald [in 1634], except 7 descents of these
are entered in the old visitation of Hertfordshire made in a'o 1572; all
the rest are the collections of mee_, RICH. MUNDY." It is evident that
this is the volume referred to by Warton and Chalmers; and no less
certain, that, by a careless blunder, the playwright _Anthony Mundy_ has
been confounded with his namesake _Richard Mundy_, the painter-stainer,
whose voluminous heraldic labours are recorded in the _Catalogue of the
Harleian MSS._, Nos. 1529-1534., 1536-1566., 1570. 1571. and 1577. The
Add. MS. 4964. is, in reality, only an incomplete copy by Waker of
Mundy's original manuscript, preserved in MS. Harl. 1551.

I beg leave to annex the three following Queries.

1. Did any relationship exist between Anthony and Richard Mundy?

2. What is the name of the bookseller who lived "opposite the Exchange"
in 1777?

3. Can any copy of the sale catalogue of Sir Simeon Stuart's library be
referred to in existence?

    F. MADDEN.

Minor Queries.

17. _Margaret Maultasch--Arms of Halle._--In "Marcel de Serres' Journey
in Bavaria and the Tyrol" (printed in Arliss's _Pocket Mag._ 1825), in
describing the statues ranged round the mausoleum of the Emperor Mathias
in the Franciscan churn at Innspruck, he says:

   "Amidst the Princesses, Margaret Maultasch may easily be
   discovered by the hideous conformation of her mouth, and her eyes
   which glow with sensual desires. The singular arms which may be
   seen over the gates of Halle, but too plainly betoken the
   shameful and licentious character of this insatiable female."

Where can I read the life of this "hideous" personage? And what are the
arms alluded to? She was Duchess of Tyrol, and her portrait is in the
Chateau d'Eu; but I have never seen an engraving.

    G. CREED.

18. _Test of Strength of a Bow._--What is the test of the strength of a

Does the distance the bow throws the arrow increase in ratio to its

What was the length of the bows used in the good old times? _Were the
bows then made of more than one piece?_ Is there any advantage in having
bow of _more_ than _two_ pieces?

What wood _were_ the _arrows_ made of?


19. _Vox Populi._--I have a copper coin in my cabinet (halfpenny size)
which I shall be glad to have explained.

The obverse has a bust laureate in profile to the left, with the letter
"P." close to the nose. The bust appears to be of some popular Irish
leader in 1760, as it is not like either to George II.'s or George
III.'s busts; and the legend "Voce Populi."

Reverse: The figure of Hibernia seated, with an olive branch in her
right hand, and a spear in her left; also a harp at her side. Legend:
"Hibernia." Exergue, "1760."

    J. N. C.

20. _Meaning of Whig and Tory._--May I beg sufficient space in your
journal to inquire for the _exact etymology_ of the terms "Whig" and
"Tory?" We all know the exact time when these first came into use. We
all understand precisely the meaning of the terms "Conservative,"
"Liberal," "Radical," "Peelite," "Protectionist," all of which, with the
exception of Peelite, are equally applicable to things not political;
but Whig and Tory can only be used in this one sense. From whence then
their derivation?


21. "_Fortune, Infortune, Fort une._"--In the church of Notre Dame de
Brou, near the town of Bourg, in the department de l'Ain, the following
inscription is engraved on the tomb of Marguerite d'Autriche, the wife
of Philibert le Beau, Prince of Savoy:--

      "Fortune, Infortune, Fort une."

In this epitaph, the first two words are intelligible enough, and allude
to certain reverses of fortune which had chequered the life of the
princess; but the expression _fort une_ reads somewhat enigmatical, and
I shall be obliged to any of your readers who can give the meaning of


  St. Lucia, June, 1851.

22. _Unde derivatur Stonehenge._--Antiquaries and topographers
generally (Stukeley and Sir R.C. Hoare included) have been
hitherto content to consider this word as a compound of _stan_ and
_henge_, Anglo-Saxon;--that is, "hanging stone." Now this
etymology of the word has always appeared to me very
unsatisfactory. The cross stones do not hang; they lie on the
uprights, and are kept in their places by mortice holes. An
ingenious friend of mine has, by what I consider a happy train of
reasoning, arrived at another and a better conclusion. Every one
knows that our German ancestors used the word _horse_ adjectively.
And we still have it so in use to designate many things as the
largest of their kind; as _horse-chestnut_, _horse-daisey_,
_horse-mushroom_, _horse-emmet_, &c. &c. _Horsa_ and _hengst_ or
_hengist_, are convertible terms or if any difference, the latter
word is used for _stallion_. If so, then, is it not reasonable to
suppose that the stones of this Druid temple would provoke the
largest idea of magnitude, and thence be called Stone-Hengst, or
more euphoniously, Stone-henge,--stallion stones?

    P. P.

23. _Marriage of Bishops._--I should feel obliged to any of your
correspondents who would supply me with an example from early Church
history of a bishop or priest marrying after ordination.

Deacons were expressly allowed to marry by the Council of Ancyra; but I
should wish an example of either of the others.

Marriage after priestly ordination is now forbidden by the Greek church,
and since the Council of Trullo bishops must be celibate or continent.

Second Query--What evidence is there that bishops in early times, if
already married, were obliged to put away their wives? It is said that
St. Gregory Nazianzen's father had children after he was raised to the
episcopate. Can this be proved, and are there other instances?

From the silence of early Church writers as to any difference between
the clergy and laity on this point, I am much inclined to believe that
the Roman requirement of celibacy was then confined to the bishopric of
Rome itself, and the immediately adjoining country.

St. Paul, in 1 Cor. ix.5., says:

  "Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as the
  other apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord and Cephas?"

implying that he had power to marry even then; and our Saviour speaks of
continence as a gift given only to certain persons. (St. Matthew, chap.
xix. ver. 11, 12.)

    A. B. C.

  Edinburgh, July 10. 1851.

24. _The Sign ¶._--What is the meaning, and whence the origin of the
sectional sign ¶, so much used in the Bible, and also at the head of the
rubrical instructions in the Book of Common Prayer?

    P. P.

25. _Early German Virgil._--I should like to know if the following name
is that of a well-known publisher; and whether the book, from which I
take the name, is known? also, whether it is very rare, and of literary
value? "_Gedruckt zu Frankfurt am Main durch David Zöpffeln zum Eisern
Huth, 1559._"

I find this at the end of a curious German translation of Virgil into
verse--short and easy flowing.

There is a summary in verse, and a quaint engraving to every book. Bound
in wood and leather. It has many odd peculiarities too long to mention.

In the Preface, this is said to be the _second_ edition, that the first
was published "many years ago, by a learned man." It must have been
published about the same time as _Bishop Gawain (or Gawin) Douglas's_,
and is something like it.

    R. S. T.

26. _Fairlight Church._--In Diplock's _New Guide to Hastings, St.
Leonard, and the Neighbourhood_, which, unfortunately, like most other
works of this class, is worse than useless to the architectural visitor,
it is stated that the old church at Fairlight, which was taken down not
very long since, "was a small but ancient structure, apparently of the
early part of the _thirteenth century_: it consisted of a chancel, nave,
and square tower, and _was built of brick_."

Can any of your readers inform a visitor here whether this is a correct


  St. Leonard's on Sea.

27. _The Leman Baronetcy._--I shall be extremely obliged by any account
as to the succession of the disputed Leman Baronetcy or estates. Sir
William Leman, of Northaw (or Northall), Herts, was, I believe, the last
of that designation, and up to the present time doubts exist as to the
heir male or other descendants, although great property and possessions
are in abeyance or at stake.

    H. M.

28. _Armorial Bearings._--Can any of your correspondents inform me to
what family the following arms belonged: Sa. a lion ramp. or, betw.
three fleur-de-lys ermine. Crest, a sea-horse. Motto, "Fortior vi

The above arms are painted on the portrait of a gentleman wearing a
ruff, temp. James I., in the possession of my family, and I am anxious
to ascertain who it represents.

    F. J. B.


29. "_History of Magnetical Discovery._"--In the _Gentleman's Magazine_
for April 1840, I find the following notice:

  "Thomas Stephens Davies, Esq., Fellow of the Royal Societies of
  London and Edinburgh, Professor of Mathematics in the Royal
  Military Academy at Woolwich, and Author of the _History of
  Magnetical Discovery_, &c. &c."

Being interested in all that concerns the late Mr. Davies, I shall feel
much obliged to any one who will state where I can find the _History_
here alluded to. I may add that I am acquainted with his papers on
"Terrestrial Magnetism," published in the London _Philosophical
Transactions_ for 1835-6; but since they do not much partake of the
character of "History," they can scarcely be the papers intended.

    T. T. W.

  Burley, Lancashire.

30. _George Chalmers._--Can any of your correspondents inform me what
became of the MSS. of the late Mr. George Chalmers?

On the titles of many of the older poets and dramatists of Scotland I
have met with his notes referring evidently to some MS. list of the
lives of such writers in his possession. My inquiry has reference,
therefore, more particularly to the MS. in question, which has not, I
think, been published.

    J. O.

31. _Mistake as to an Eclipse._--

  "Some," says Meric Casaubon, "have been deceived in the hour [of
  an eclipse], as in the eclipse that happened _April 3, 1605_;
  about which some very able artists are noted to have mistaken; and
  the reason is given by astronomers how such a mistake might

Such is my "Note;" but I cannot just now give the reference. I will
answer for its accuracy. Can any one give some account of that eclipse,
and state the reasons alleged why "such a mistake might happen?"


32. _Statue of Mrs. Jordan._--In visiting Chantrey's studio some years
since, in company with a sculptor still living, we received from Mr.
Allan Cunningham a similar account to that which MR. PETER CUNNINGHAM
has given, that is to say, that the design was _Stodhart's_, of which,
indeed, it bore too certain evidence.

Chantrey was engaged at that time upon a colossal equestrian figure of
Sir Thomas Picton, destined, I believe, for India. On that visit I was
singularly impressed with the gracefulness and beauty of the statue of a
female figure with three children; one was at her breast, and in the
curled head of another at her feet was the mother's hand enfolded. On
the pedestal of the statue was this inscription:

      "Sacred to the memory of Norah Bland."

I learnt from Mr. Cunningham that this was the statue of Mrs. Jordan,
and was executed for William IV., and that there was some difficulty
respecting its place of reception. What is become of this noble work of
art? The little boy amongst whose curls the mother's hand played, was
the late Earl of Munster.



33. "_A Posie of other Men's Flowers._"--Can any of your readers refer
me to the following passage?--

  "I have cull'd me a posie of other men's flowers, and nothing, save
  the string that binds them, is mine own."

    D. Q.

34. _Sir Edmund Ployden or Plowden._--I am desirous of obtaining
information respecting Sir Edmund Ployden or Plowden, who (according to
a tract published at Middleburg in Holland, in 1648, by a writer signing
himself "Beauchamp Plantagenet") received a grant of land from the crown
of England, covering portions of the present states of Maryland,
Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. Of this province,
which was called New Albion, the grantee was "Lord Proprietor," "Earl
Palatine," "Governor," and "Captain General." Your assistance I venture
to ask, as this is a matter of historical interest here.


  Philadelphia, July, 1851.

35. _Pope's Translations or Imitations of Horace_ (Vol. i., p.
230.).--As you have, I hope, very largely increased the number of
readers and contributors since I asked the question above referred to,
and as it has as yet received no answer, I hope you will allow me to
repeat it, in the hope that some of your new correspondents may be able
to tell me what satirical "_Imitation of Horace_" can have been, so
early as 1716, attributed to Pope?

I would also, on the same grounds, beg leave to repeat another question,
formerly proposed by P. C. S. S. and by myself (Vol. i, pp. 201. 246.):
What is the precise meaning of the last couplet of these lines of Pope:

      "The hero William, and the martyr Charles,
      One knighted Blackmore and one pensioned Quarles,
      _Which made old Ben and surly Dennis swear,
      'No Lord's anointed, but a Russian bear.'_"

That Pope had a precise meaning cannot be doubted; but I have never
heard a reasonable guess at what it might be.


36. _John Bodley._--Among the Parker MSS. in Corpus Library at Cambridge
is a patent of Queen Elizabeth to John Bodeleigh to print the English
Bible for seven years.

In the list of translators of the Bible in 1611, as given in the
Introduction to Jameson's _Glossary of the Holy Scriptures_, appears the
name "Burleigh, M.A.," but without any biographical notice, as in the
other instances.

In Burn's _Livre des Anglois à Génève_, it is stated that John Bodleigh,
the father of the celebrated Sir Thomas Bodley, was one of the
translators of the Bible.

Can any of your readers throw light on the history of either of these
men, or kindly point to any sources of information respecting them?

    S. S. S.

37. _Dr. Thomas Johnson._--Can your readers give me _any_ particulars of
_Dr. Thomas Johnson_, the editor of _Gerarde's Herbal_? I do not require
such information as I can obtain concerning him in Wood's _Athenæ
Oxonienses_, or Pulteney's _Sketches of Botany_; but I especially wish
for some information relative to his place of burial, and whether there
is any monumental or other record of its whereabout. He died from a
wound he received during a _sortie_ from Basing House on the 14th of
September, 1644.


38. "_You Friend drink to me Friend._"--Can you inform me in what
collection of glees I shall find an old one, the burden or chorus of
which is--

      "The more we love good liquor, the merrier we shall be?"

I think the first line is--

      "You friend drink to me friend, and I friend drink to thee."

    AN M. D.

39. _The Latin Termination "aster."_--Can any of your correspondents
tell me why the termination _aster_ is used in a depreciatory sense in
Latin, as _poetaster_, a bad poet; _oleaster_, the wild olive;
_pinaster_, the wild pine? With regard to this latter substantive, I
have seen the mistake made in a descriptive catalogue of the pine
species, of calling this the _star pine_; but I have no doubt that it
was named _pinaster_, as inferior to the stone pine, or _Pinus pinea_,
which embellishes the Italian gardens, while the _pinaster_ flourishes
on the mountains and the sea-coast.

Probably other examples may be found where the terminal _aster_ is used
in a similar sense.


40. _Portrait of Dryden._--Can any of your correspondents or readers
inform me where any _undoubted_ original portrait of John Dryden is to
be found? Malone, Dryden's biographer, enumerates seven or eight
portraits, and he states where they were in 1800. I am aware that two
are in the Bodleian Gallery at Oxford, the one stated by Malone "painter
unknown;" and the other alleged to be by Kneller; but I do not consider
the latter to be an original. I wish more particularly to know who has a
_half-length_ original portrait. Dryden was painted by Kneller,
Closterman, and Riley.


41. _Inscription on a Claymore out in 1745._--On the retreat of the
Highland army from England in 1746, Prince Charles Edward and his staff
passed through Dumfries, and slept in a house now known as the
Commercial Inn.

After their departure there was found a light claymore, apparently the
property of an officer; and as it was never claimed, it remained in the
house for some years, and ultimately came into my possession. It is
formed of the finest tempered steel, and bears the following very
curious inscription on one side,

      ☓ GOTT BEWAR DE;

and on the other,


Some of your learned correspondents will oblige by giving a translation,
and a reason for such an inscription on a Scottish sword.

    T. M. W.




At page 371. of Vol. iii. I addressed a Query as to the best mode of
reaching Iceland. I have since ascertained that the principal
communication with Iceland is from Copenhagen; whence during the season
sail a monthly packet, sundry trading-vessels, and sometimes a Danish
frigate. Danish vessels also call at Hull and Liverpool to load with
salt for Iceland. The Norwegian trade thither has ceased since 1814, and
it has now scarcely any intercourse except with Denmark. A few dirty
smacks of fifty or sixty tons, from the Thames and another place or two,
resort there to fish, they do not go into port. There is no further mode
of reaching that interesting and remarkable island, except per yacht, or
by one of the steam-excursions which are occasionally advertised in _The
Times_. The Danish steamers mentioned in Murray's _Guide-book_ have
discontinued running.

Murray gives but little respecting, Iceland, but that little is good.
The best book on it that I have met with is, _An Historical and
Descriptive Account of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faröe Islands, with
Illustrations of their Natural History_, by James Nicol: Oliver and
Boyd, Edinburgh, 1844. It embodies the substance of all the best
information in small space. The last published English visit to Iceland
seems to be that of Barrow in 1835 but a much more recent account has
been published in German by that enterprising lady Ida Pfeiffer, of a
voyage she made there. An interesting statement of the diseases and
sanatory condition of Iceland is found in the _British and Foreign
Medico-Chirurgical Review_ for 1850, vol v., being a notice of a work
entitled, _Island undersögt fra lægevidenskabeligt Synspunct_, by Dr.
Schleisner, Fellow of the Royal Medical Society of Copenhagen, who went
to Iceland purposely to examine into its medical condition.

Of works on Norway, Murray's _Hand-book_ is the best, and contains a
list of books on Scandinavia published up to 1848. Besides these, there
are the following:--

1. _Scandinavian Sketches; or, a Tour in Norway._ By Lieutenant Breton,

2. Wittich's _Visit to the Western Coast of Norway_: London, 1848.
Contains accurate physical descriptions of the country.

3. Forester's _Norway in 1848 and 1849_: London, 1850. Conveys to the
mind an excellent and very complete picture of Norwegian scenery,
travelling, manners and customs, &c., and gives much valuable
information. The plates are very truthful and characteristic.

4. Ross's _Yacht Voyage to Norway_ is not worth much; and

5. Jones's _Angler's Guide to Norway_ is worth less.

6. Barrow's _Visit to Iceland by way of Trondhjem in 1834_ contains much
about some parts of Norway.

Written in Norwegian, and published in Christiania, is a fine work
entitled, _Norge Fremstillet i Tegninger_, 1848. The "Tegninger" are
lithographs, eighty-two in number, and well executed and the
descriptions are highly interesting. There is also now publishing a
series of coloured plates of the Norwegian costumes, denominated _Norske
Nationaldragter tegnede efter Naturen af forskjellige Norske kunstnere,
og ledsagede med en oplysende Text_: Christiania, 1850. The plates are
highly coloured, and the letter-press is in Norsk, German, and English.
Mr. Schirmer of Christiania is also publishing a series of magnificent
architectural drawings of the old cathedrals of Norway. There are
several excellent maps of Norway, of which Munch's is the best but the
only geological map is a very large and complicated one in many sheets,
I think by Professor Keilhau. On the botany of Norway there are,
Hartmann, _Handbok i Skandinaviens Flora_: Stockholm, 1843, and Lund,
_Haandbog i Christianias phanerogame Flora_: Christiania, 1846. The
Danish pharmacopoeia is still employed by the Norwegian apothecaries. On
the dreadful disease found in the Bergen-Stift, called _Elephantiasis
Græcorum_, or _Spedalskhed_, Doctors Danielssen and Boeck have put forth
a work in French and Norwegian, embodying an immense deal of research
and information, accompanied with an Atlas of twenty-four coloured
plates. They consider this disease to be identical with the leprosy of
Scripture. Their book was published in 1847; and contains references to
every known account of the disease up to that date, in a bibliographical
list of great length. An article upon it, comprehending a short but
complete account of the disease, may be found in the _British and
Foreign Med. Chir. Review for 1850_, vol. v.

Of Norwegian national songs and music, there are, besides Lindeman's
_Norske Field-Melodier_, the following publications:--

1. _Folke Sange og Melodier, Fædrelandske og Fremmelse, udsalte for
Pianoforte_, 1844.

2. _Sangsamling for Norske Selskabskredse: udgiven af det Norske
Studenter-samfund_: Christiania, 1839. The students of the Christiania
University have much taste for music, and are very fond of singing in
parts and choruses.

3. _Scandinaviske Folkesange udsalte for Pianoforte af Niels W. Gade._

4. _Norske Viser og Stev i Folkesproget. Anden Udgave_: Christiania,
1848. This contains forty-three national ballads, mostly in provincial
dialects, and consequently very difficult to translate but, in many
respects, extremely curious, referring to the manners, customs, and
superstitions of the peasantry. The new edition is edited by P. A.
Munch, Professor of History in the University of Christiania. The notes
of some national airs are added at the end.

Professor Munch also published in 1850, _Symbolæ ad Historiam
Antiquiorem Rerum Norvegicarum. I. Breve Chronicon Norvegiæ. II.
Genealogia Comitum Orcadensium. III. Catalogus Regum Norvegiæ. E. Codice
quoad magnam partem hactenus inedito, et in orcadibus, ut videtur, medio
sæculo XVto conscripto._ Appended to it is the following curious

"Stemma, originem celsissimæ principis LUDOVICÆ, futuræ Principis nostri
uxoris, nec non VICTORIÆ, augustissimæ Britanniarum reginæ, a _Sancto
Olao_, patrono Norvegiæ, illustrans."

              "SANCTUS OLAUS, rex Norveg., ob. 1030, pr. kal. Sept. Uxor
                      |    Astrida, filia _Olai_ regis Sveciæ.
              _Ulfhilda_, mar. _Ordulfus_, dux Saxoniæ, ob. 1074.
              _Magnus_, dux Sax. ob. 1106.
              _Ulfhilda_, mar. _Henricus Niger_, dux Bavariæ.
              _Henricus Superbus_, dux Bavariæ et Saxoniæ, ob. 1130.
              _Henricus Leo_, id. ob. 1195.
              _Wilhelmus_, dux, ob. 1213.
              _Otto Puer_, dux Brunsvico-Luneburgensis, ob. 1252.
              _Albertus Magnus_, dux Brunsv. ob. 1279.
              _Albertus pinguis_, dux Br. Göttingen, ob. 1318.
              _Magnus pius_, dux Brunsv. ob. 1368.
              _Magnus Torquatus_, dux Brunsv. ob. 1373.
           |                          |
      _Bernhardus_, dux Lun.       _Henricus_, dux Br.
           |    ob. 1434.             |    ob. 1416.
      _Fridericus pius_, id.       _Wilhelmus victoriosus_, dux
           |    ob. 1478.             |    Br. ob. 1482.
      _Otto Magnanimus_, id.       _Wilhelmus junior_, dux Br.
           |    ob. 1471.             |    Guelferb. ob. c.
           |                          |    1500.
      _Henricus junior_, id.       _Henricus malus_, dux Br.
           |    ob. 1532.             |    Guelf. ob. 1514.
      _Ernestus_, d. Cellæ,        _Henricus junior_, id. ob.
           |    ob. 1546.             |    1575.
      _Wilhelmus junior_, d. Lun.  _Julius_, id. ob. 1589.
           |    ob. 1592.             |
      _Georgius_, id.              _Henricus Julius_, id. ob.
           |    ob. 1641.             |    1613.
      _Ernestus Augustus_,         _Sophia Hedviga_, ob. 1642,
           |    Elector Hannov.       |    nupta _Ernesto
           |    1698.                 |    Casimiro_, Com. de
           |                          |    Nassau-Dietz.
      _Georgius I._ rex Brit.      _Wilhelmus Fridericus_, com.
           |    ob. 1727.             |    de N.-D. vicerex
           |                          |    Fresiæ, ob. 1664.
      _Georgius II._ rex Br.       _Henricus Casimirus_, pr. de
           |    ob. 1760.             |    Nassau-Dietz, v.
           |                          |    Fresiæ, ob. 1696.
      Fridericus Ludovicus,        _Johannes Willelmus Friso_,
           |    princ. Brit.          |    pr. de Nassau-Dietz,
           |    ob. 1751.             |    vic. her. Fresiæ,
           |                          |    ob. 1711.
      _Georgius III._ rex Br.      _Willelmus Carolus Henricus
           |    ob. 1820.             |    Friso_, pr.
           |                          |    Arausionensis, vic.
           |                          |    her. Bat.  ob. 1751.
      _Edwardus Augustus_, dux     _Willelmus V._ pr.
           |    Cantiæ,               |    Arausionensis, vic.
           |    ob. 1820.             |    her. Bat. ob. 1806.
      VICTORIA, regina             _Willelmus I._ rex Bat. ob.
          Britanniarum.               |    1843.
                         |                         |
                   _Willelmus II._           _Willelmus Fridericus
                         |    rex Bat.             |    Carolus_,
                         |    ob. 1849.            |    pr. Bat.
                   WILLELMUS III.            WILLELMINA FRIDERICA
                       rex Bat.                  ALEXANDRINA, Anna
                                                 Ludovica, nata 5 Aug.

Further elucidating the ancient history of Scandinavia are the following

_Fagskrinna. Kortfaltet Norsk Konge-Saga fra slutningen af det 12te
eller begyndelsen af det 13de aarhundrede. Udgivet af P. A. Munch,
Professor i Historie, og C. R. Unger, Stipendiat i Nordisk
Sprogvidenskab_: Christiania, 1847. In Icelandic, with Norwegian
introduction and notes. _C. M. Falsen, Geografisk Beskrivelse over
Kongeriget Norge og Udsigt over dets ældre Historie, som Indledning til
Norges udförlige Historie_, 1821; and _Norges Historie under Kong Harald
Haarfager og hans mandlige Descendenter_, 1824, by the same author.

The various works and sources of information above mentioned will be
found to lead on to many others, so that it will not be difficult for
those who wish it, and can afford the time, to enter fully into the
highly interesting and curious history of the North--a subject which
once entered upon is not easy to quit. The literature of Scandinavia is
considerable: although that of Denmark and of Norway is less known,
distinctively, in this country, than the Swedish portion; partly, no
doubt, because the semi-barbarous Gothic character is still much used
instead of the clearer Roman type. English literature is much liked in
Norway, and they have translations of Scott, Bulwer, Laing, Washington
Irving, and some others.

I am very anxious to obtain information on the unanswered points
referred to at page 370.


_Postscriptum._--In enumerating recent works on Iceland and the North, I
omitted to mention Dillon's _Winter in Iceland and Lapland_, 2 volumes,
London, 1840 an excellent work not sufficiently known.

The trading vessels to Iceland are exceedingly rough and dirty. The
Dart, Madeira packet, a fine brig of 350 tons, will probably go thither
this summer with passengers.

    W. E. C. N.


(Vol. iii., p. 427.)

MR. BOLTON CORNEY having favoured your readers with "a notice of some of
the statements" contained in my article above-named, I deem it a duty
incumbent upon myself to make a few remarks upon these "notices," which
I shall do in the briefest manner possible.

The object of my paper was to call attention to a forgotten poet, and to
endeavour to obtain some information regarding the locality of his
manuscripts. Had I been writing the life of Hugh Holland, I should, of
course, have investigated the dates of his biography and works more
fully than it was necessary to do for a trifling article like that in
question. But, as it is, the facts and dates which I have given are all
derived from creditable and well-known sources and all the facts and
dates in question are the _facts and dates_ of older writers than
myself, as will appear by the following.

1. "He was born at Denbigh in 1558." He was born at Denbigh, but not in
1558. In 1625 he thus expressed himself:

      "Why was the fatall spinster so vnthrifty?
      To draw my third four yeares to tell and fifty!"

_Answer._ Where are these lines taken from, and what do they mean? What
is the proof that they relate to _Hugh Holland_? "Hugh Holland, an
esquire's son of Denbighshire," was matriculated at Baliol College,
Oxford, anno 1582, aged twenty-four. My authority is Wood's _Athenæ_,
edit. Bliss, vol. ii. p. 560.

2. He did not quit Westminster school till 1589. If ever he pursued his
studies at Baliol College, it was some ten years afterwards.

_Answer._ Who says he did not quit Westminster school till 1589?--Joseph
Welch, or MR. BOLTON CORNEY? Allowing it to be the former, are all
Welch's dates correct? I have Wood's authority that Hugh Holland
matriculated at Baliol in 1582.

3. "About 1590 he succeeded to a fellowship at Trinity College,
Cambridge." In 1589 he was elected from Westminster to a _scholarship_
in Trinity College, Cambridge--not to a _fellowship_. At a later period
of life he may have succeeded to a fellowship.

_Answer._ My words are, "_about_ 1590 he succeeded to a fellowship." MR.
CORNEY adds, "In 1589" he was elected to a _scholarship_. I must again
refer to honest old Wood, who expressly says that he was a _fellow_ of
Trinity College.

4. "Holland published two works: 1. _Monumenta Sepulchralia Sancti
Pauli_, Lond. 1613, 4to. 2. _A Cypress Garland_, &c., Lond. 1625, 4to."
Hugh Holland was not the compiler of the first-named work: the initials
H. H. admit of another interpretation.

_Answer._ Why does not MR. CORNEY give your readers his interpretation
of the mysterious "H. H.?" One Henry Holland was the author of _A Booke
of Kings, being the true Effigies of our English Kings_, &c.: Lond.
1618, 4to. Is this the interpretation? If so, I ask for the proof.

5. The dates assigned to the _Monumenta Sancti Pauli_ are "1613, 1616,
1618, and 1633." Here are three errors in as many lines. The _first_
edition is dated in 1614. The edition of 1633, which is entitled
_Ecclesia Sancti Pauli illustrata_, is the _second_. No other editions

_Answer._ The edition of 1614 was certainly the first, and that of 1633
_certainly_ the second. In the preface to the latter the author says,
"My first collection of these Monumentall Epitaphs I published anno
1614, full nineteen yeeres sithence." My authority, however, for the
"three errors in as many lines" is Cole's Collections for an _Athenæ
Cantabrigenses_. (See Brydges _Restituta_, vol. iii p. 215.)

6. "Holland also printed a copy of Latin verses before Alexander's
_Roxana_, 1632." No such work exists. He may have printed verses before
the _Roxana_ of W. Alabaster, who was his brother-collegian.

_Answer._ My authority again is Cole's Collections in _Restituta_, vol.
iii. p. 215, where, under the head of "Hugh Holland, fellow of Trinity
College," is this line: "Has a copy of Latin verses before Dr.
Alexander's _Roxana_, 1632." I shall therefore leave the shade of Cole
and MR. BOLTON CORNEY to settle the question as to whether any such work

I have now disposed of the six statements, and have only to add, that
the authorities which I have consulted are those which I have named.



(Vol. iii., p. 522)

The suggestion of _primzie_ is too ingenious, and too apparently happy,
to be passed over without adducing some reason for refusing to give it
the preference to Tieck's reading of _precise_.

The terminal adjuncts _zie_, _sie_, _some_, generally imply some playful
diminutive variation of the original word, certainly they never add
force or gravity to it: _prim_, in itself, is a diminutive of
_primitive_, and applies more to external appearance than to internal
character. I do not think, therefore that even _prim_ would be a word
sufficiently dignified for the situation and context; much less is its
diminutive _primsie_.

It seems to me that the character of Angelo is generally mistaken; he is
too often looked upon as a mere hypocrite, whereas Shakspeare depicts
him, before his fall, as a rigid but _sincere_ ascetic. This view of his
character accounts for his final condemnation of Claudio: he has no
mercy for _the crime_, even while committing it himself; and he was just
the man who, had he escaped detection, would probably have passed the
remainder of his life in the exercise of self-inflicted penance.

Viewing Angelo, therefore, as a man proverbial for rigidly virtuous
conduct; who stood "at a guard with envy;" who challenged scrutiny; and
who was above the tongue of slander; I do not think that _primsie_ can
be looked upon as an appropriate designation in the mouth of Claudio. He
would use some word in the greatest possible contrast to the infamous
conduct Isabella was imputing to Angelo: _primsie_ would be weak and
almost unmeaning, and, as such, I will not receive it as Shakespeare's,
so long as the choice of a better remains.

Does not Shakspeare, by his frequent repetition of _precise_, in this
play, seem purposely to stamp it with that peculiar signification
necessary to his meaning, that is, rigidly virtuous? Another example of
it, not, I believe, before noticed, is where Elbow describes his "two
notorious benefactors" as "precise villains," "void of all profanation
that good Christians ought to have."

The humour of this is in the contrast afforded by Elbow's association of
incongruous and inconsistent terms, causing Escalus to exclaim, "Do you
hear how he misplaces?" _Precise_ therefore in this place also requires
a meaning as opposite as possible to villany, something _more_ than
formal, in order that the humour may be fully appreciated.

With respect to Halliwell's quotation from Fletcher's poems, it
certainly confers upon _prin_ a very different meaning from any that
_prim_ is capable of receiving: the context requires _prin_ to have some
signification akin to _fleshless_; like "bodyes at the resurrection,
just rarifying into ayre." _Prin_, in this sense, would seem to have
some relation to _pine_, since _pin_ and _prin_ were synonymous.

    A. E. B.

  Leeds, July, 1851


(Vol. iii, pp. 166, 230, 412.)

The earliest divisions of the Decalogue are those of Josephus (_Ant.
Jud._, lib. iii. c. v. s. 5.), the Chaldee Paraphrase of Jonathan, and
_Philo-Judæus de Decem Oraculis_. According to the two former, the 3rd
verse of Exod. xx., "Thou shalt have no other gods but me," contains the
first commandment, the 4th, 5th, and 6th, the second. Philo makes the
Preface or Introduction to be a distinct commandment, as do also St.
Jerome and Hesychius. The two latter make what we call the first and
second to be the second only; but Philo does not recite the words "Thou
shalt have no other gods but me;" and whether he understood them in the
first or the second, does not hence appear. The same uncertainty is
found in Athanasius in _Synopsi S. Scripturæ_.

It may however be inferred, from these two writers giving the
commencement only of the other commandments, that they made the
prohibition, "Thou shalt not make," &c., in the same manner the
commencement of the second; and therefore joined the other, "Thou shalt
have," &c., to the words "I am the Lord thy God."

Those which we call the first and second were united by St. Augustine.

The distinction made by Josephus and the Chaldee Paraphrast, separating
the two prohibitions, was adopted by the following early writers: Origen
(Hom. viii. in Exod.); Greg. Nazianzen (_Carmina, Mosis Decalogus_)
Irenæus (lib. ii. c. xlii.); Ambrose (in _Ep. ad Ephes._ c. vi.).

The Jews divide the Decalogue thus:

      1. I am....
      2. Thou shalt not have....
      3. Thou shalt not take....

But in the field of speculation, the Jews have followed a variety of
systems for dissecting the Decalogue, as may be seen in Abarvanel in the
Pericope "Jethro," and in Voisin's _Prooemium ad Martini Pugionem

The following authors may be consulted on the arguments which have been
adduced to support their respective divisions by the Church of Rome and
the Lutherans on the one side, and the Reformers or Calvinists and the
Church of England on the other.

1. Church of Rome.--Gother's _Papist Misrepresented_; Godden's
_Catholics No Idolaters_; _Gotti Vera Ecclesia Christi_.

2. Lutherans.--_Salmuthi Theses_; _Winckelmanni Dissertatio, &c._;
_Crameri de distinguendo decalogo, &c._; _Franzii Disputatio_; _Weimari
Demonstratio_; _Opitii Dissertatio de usu accentuationis geminæ in
genuina divisione decalogi_; _Dasdorfii Dissertatio de decalogo, ex
fundamento accentuum examinato_; _Hackspanii Notæ Philologicæ in varia
loca S. Scripturæ_; _Pfeifferi Opera_ (_cent._ 1.).

3. Reformers.--_Sam. Bohlii vera divisio decalogi ex infallibili
principio accentuationis._

In reference to this argument, which is used by both parties, I have
been favoured with the following remarks by a learned professor of
languages, of the Jewish faith:

  "On the subject of your inquiry, the accents do not appear to me
  to offer any decision. They show which words are to be connected
  with each other to make up one proposition; but not how many
  propositions shall go to make up one commandment."

4. The Church of England.--Ussher's _Answer to a Jesuit (Images), and
his Sermon preached before the Commons House of Parliament_, 1620;
Taylor's _Ductor Dubitantium_ (where, in connexion with the Romish
controversy, this subject is exhausted); Stillingfleet's _Replies to
Gother and Godden_; and _Forbesii Theologia Christiana_.

    T. J.


(Vol. iii., pp. 321. 376.)

Though your correspondent MR. SYDNEY SMIRKE has brought to our notice
the existence of the republic of San Marino, and informed us of many
facts in connexion therewith, and though F. C. B. has enlightened us on
several points of interest in the history of this state, still I do not
find in either of these communications the following particulars of its
foundation, which are in Addison's _Remarks on Italy_, pp. 62, 63. (ed.
Talboys, 1830), and which may interest some of your readers.

  "San Marino was its founder, a Dalmatian by birth and by trade a
  mason. He was employed above thirteen hundred years ago in the
  reparation of Rimini, and after he had finished his work, retired
  to this solitary mountain as finding it very proper for the life
  of a hermit, which he led in the greatest rigours and austerities
  of religion. He had not been long here before he wrought a reputed
  miracle, which, joined with his extraordinary sanctity, gained him
  so great an esteem that the princess of the country made him a
  present of the mountain, to dispose of at his own discretion. His
  reputation quickly peopled it, and gave rise to the republic which
  calls itself after his name.... The best of their churches is
  dedicated to the saint, and holds his ashes. His statue stands
  over the high altar, with the figure of a mountain in its hands
  crowned with three castles, which is likewise the arms of the
  commonwealth. They attribute to his protection the long duration
  of their state, and look on him as the greatest saint next the
  blessed Virgin. I saw in their statute book a law against such as
  speak disrespectfully of him, who are to be punished in the same
  manner as those who are convicted of blasphemy."



(Vol. ii., pp. 241. 286. 329., &c.; Vol. iii., pp. 66. 119. 210., &c.)

After so much has "been said on both sides," in the pages of "NOTES AND
QUERIES," on the signification of _eisill_ or _esil_ in _Hamlet_, it
appears to me that the evidence requires to be carefully summed up. This
task I would willingly leave to other hands; but since no correspondent
attempts it, I will venture, if I may be allowed, to take it on myself,
and will strive to perform it to the best of my ability.

The question is, whether by the word under discussion we are to
understand _vinegar_ (or some such liquid) or _a river_. It will be
proper, in taking a view of the matter, to "begin from the beginning,"
and to see, in the first place, what the earlier commentators have said.

1. What the critics before Theobald thought of the word, is not quite
certain; but Theobald states that it had, "through all the editions,
been distinguished by Italic characters, as if it were the proper name
of a river; and so," he adds, "I dare say all the editors have from time
to time understood it to be." But not being able to satisfy himself what
river could be meant, he preferred to understand it of vinegar, and
interprets the passage, "Wilt thou swallow down large draughts of

2. Sir Thomas Hanmer, on the contrary, was so convinced that a river was
signified, that he actually altered the passage, _arbitrio suo_, to

      "Wilt drink up _Nile_? or eat a crocodile?"

3. Johnson was silent, and left the explanation of the word to Steevens,
who, observing that Hamlet meant to rant (as he says he will), supposed
him to defy Laertes "to drink up a river, or try his teeth on an animal
whose scales are supposed to be impenetrable." The word, he thinks, may
be irrecoverably corrupted, but he finds plenty of rivers in Denmark of
a somewhat similar sound, any one of which should "serve Hamlet's turn."

4. Malone, in his first edition, deeming that Hamlet was not speaking of
"impossibilities," but merely of "difficult or painful exertions,"
decided on adhering to Theobald and his vinegar. But in his second
edition he repented, and expressed his conviction that "Mr. Steevens's
interpretation is the true one," remarking that "this kind of hyperbole
is common among our ancient poets."

5. Steevens, before he published his second edition, read the
observations in favour of _vinegar_ given in Malone's first edition but,
though he allowed them to be "acute," was not moved by anything advanced
in them to depart from his opinion that a river was intended.

6. Boswell followed Malone's second thoughts.

7. Mr. Singer, in his edition printed in 1826, had so little notion that
_vinegar_ could be signified, that he does not even advert to a single
argument in behalf of that opinion, attending only to the consideration
"what river, lake, or firth, Shakspeare meant."

8. Mr. Collier makes no decision, observing only that _eyesel_ is
certainly the old word for _vinegar_, but that there is considerable
doubt whether that be meant here and that "some of the commentators
suppose Hamlet to challenge Laertes to drink up the river Yssell or

9. Mr. Knight favoured the river, remarking that "there is little doubt
that Shakspeare referred to the river Yssell, Issell, or Izel, the most
northern branch of the Rhine, and that which is nearest to Denmark."

Thus we have, on the side of _vinegar_, Theobald, and Malone's first
edition, on the side of the _river_, Sir T. Hanmer, Steevens, Malone's
second edition, Boswell, Mr. Singer in 1826, and Mr. Knight; six against
two. I say nothing of Johnson, whom, however, we may consider to have
been favourable to Steevens; or of the earlier editors, who, according
to Theobald, printed the word in Italics as a proper name.

So the matter remained; most readers, as well as critics, being, I
believe, of opinion that a river was intended, until MR. SINGER, in the
46th No. of "NOTES AND QUERIES," revived the notion that some kind of
drink was signified.

10. Let us now consider what testimonies are advanced by the various
critics on behalf of each of these opinions. That _eysell_ (the 4to.,
1604, reads _esil_, and the folio _esile_) was used as synonymous with
one kind of drink, viz. _vinegar_, is apparent from the following
authorities. Malone observes that it occurs in Chaucer and Skelton, and
also in Sir Thomas More, _Works_, p. 21., edit. 1557

                            ---- "with sowre pocion
      If thou paine thy taste, remember therewithal
      That Christ for thee tasted _eisil_ and gall."

He also remarks that it is found in Minsheu's _Dictionary_, 1617, and in
Coles's _Latin Dictionary_, 1679.

Shakspeare himself, as Farmer was the first to point out, has, in his
111th Sonnet,

      ---- "like a willing patient I will drink
      Potions of _eysell_ 'gainst my strong infection;
      No bitterness that I will bitter think,
      Nor double penance to correct correction."

From Chaucer, Richardson's _Dictionary_ supplies,

      "She was like thing for hunger deed
      That lad her life only by breed
      Kneden with _eisel_ strong and agre,
      And thereto she was lean and megre."

      _Romaunt of the Rose._

and another passage thus:

      "Then these wretches full of all frowardnesse
      Gave him to drink _eisel_ temp'red with gall."

      _Lamentation of Mary Magdalen._

Todd, also, in his edition of Johnson, says that the old English _aysel_
for _vinegar_ is used by Wicliffe.

11. Next comes the consideration whether, if _vinegar_ were intended,
the expression _drink up_ could properly have been used in reference to
it. On this point Theobald says nothing, except intimating that "drink
up" is equivalent to "swallow down." Steevens denies that if Shakspeare
had meant Hamlet to say, "Wilt thou drink vinegar?" he would have used
"the term _drink up_," which means "_totally to exhaust_." Malone, in
his first edition, remarks on the subject as follows:

  "On the phrase _drink up_ no stress can be laid, for our poet has
  employed the same expression in his 114th Sonnet, without any idea
  of entirely exhausting, and merely as synonymous to _drink_:

      'Or whether doth my mind, being crowned with you,
      _Drink up_ the monarch's plague, this flattery?'

  "Again, in the same Sonnet:

                      ---- 'Tis flattery in my seeing
      And my great mind most kingly _drinks_ it _up_.'

  "Again, in _Timon of Athens_:

      'And how his silence _drinks up_ his applause.'

  "In Shakspeare's time, as at present, to _drink up_ often meant no
  more than simply _to drink_. So in Florio's _Italian Dictionary_,
  1598: '_Sorbire_, to sip or _sup up_ any drink.' In like manner we
  sometimes say, 'When you have _swallowed down_ this potion,'
  though we mean no more than, 'When you have _swallowed_ this

In his second edition, however, Malone abandoned his first
interpretation, and his remarks on _drink up_ then went for nothing.

Discussion on this point has occupied some paragraphs in "NOTES AND
QUERIES." MR. SINGER, in his first paper (Vol. ii., p. 241.), asserts
that "_to drink up_ was commonly used for simply _to drink_." MR.
HICKSON, too (No. 51.), affirms that "_drink up_ is synonymous with
_drink off_, _drink to the dregs_," and observes that "a child taking
medicine is urged to _drink it up_." But H. K. S. C., or Mr. H. K. S.
CAUSTON, as he afterwards signs himself, denies that _drink up_ can be
used of _eysell_, or any other liquid, unless a _definite quantity_ of
it be signified; that is, you may say to any one, if you please, in
allusion to a _definite quantity of vinegar_, "Drink it up;" but if you
allude to _vinegar in general_, without limitation of quantity, you will
say merely, "Drink vinegar." So if you would ask your friend whether he
drinks wine or water, you would say, "Do you drink wine or water?" not
"Do you drink up wine or water?" which would be to ask him whether he
drinks up _all_ the wine or water in the world, or at least _all the
definite quantities of either_ that come within his reach. MR. SINGER
professes not to understand this doctrine, and refers MR. CAUSTON to the
nursery rhyme:

      "_Eat up_ your cake, Jenny,
      _Drink up_ your wine,"

"which," he says, "may perhaps afford him further apt illustration;" but
which supplies, MR. CAUSTON rejoins, only another example that _drink
up_ is applied to definite quantity; a quantity which, in this case, is
"neither more nor less than the identical glass of wine which Jenny had
standing before her." The line in Shakspeare's 114th Sonnet is, MR.
CAUSTON adds, "a parallel passage." To _drink up_, therefore, he
concludes, must be used of "a noun implying _absolute entirety_, which
might be a river, but could not be grammatically applied to any
unexpressed quantity." In these remarks there seems to be great justness
of reasoning. MR. CAUSTON might also have instanced the lines:

      "Freely welcome to my cup,
      Couldst thou sip, and sip it up:"

that is, "couldst thou _go on sipping_ till thou hast _sipped up_, or
_entirely exhausted, the whole definite quantity_ in the cup."

12. But MR. SINGER in 1850, differing so much from Mr. Singer in 1826
(who thought that a river was signified), supposes that though a sort of
drink is intended, it is not _vinegar_, but _wormwood-wine_. To this
purpose he cites the lines of Shakspeare's 111th Sonnet, which we have
already transcribed:

      "Whilst like a willing patient I will drink
      Potions of _eysell_ 'gainst my strong infection;
      No _bitterness_ that I will bitter think
      Nor double penance to correct correction."

"Here we see," he observes, "that it was a _bitter potion_ which it was
a penance to drink." This does not seem to be clearly apparent from the
passage for it is not absolutely certain that the _bitterness_ in the
third line refers to the _eysell_ in the second. But he adds another
quotation from the _Troy Boke_ of Lydgate:

      "Of _bitter eysell_, and of eager wine."

After which he subjoins:

  "Numerous passages in our old dramatic writers show that it was a
  fashion with the gallants of the time to do some extravagant feat,
  _as a proof of their love_, in honour of their mistresses; and
  among others, the swallowing some nauseous potion was one of the
  most frequent: but vinegar would hardly have been considered in
  this light; _wormwood_ might. In Thomas's _Italian Dictionary_,
  1562, we have 'Assentio, _Eysell_;' and Florio renders that word
  [Assentio] by _Wormwood_. What is meant, however is _absinthites_,
  or _wormwood wine_, a nauseously bitter medicament then much in
  use; and this being evidently the _bitter potion_ of _eysell_ in
  the poet's sonnet, was certainly the nauseous draught proposed to
  be taken by Hamlet, among the other extravagant feats as tokens of

The reader will judge with what justice the words "evidently" and
"certainly" are used. MR. SINGER then cites Junius, but to little
purpose; Hutton's _Dictionary_, to prove that _absinthites_ meant
"wormwood-wine;" and Stuckius's _Antiquitates Convivales_ to show that
absinthites was a _propoma_; but Stuckius, be it observed, mentions this
_propoma_ only as a stomachic, _quod vim habet stomachum corroborandi et

It is not surprising, therefore, that LORD BRAYBROOKE (Vol. ii., p.
286.) should quote against MR. SINGER'S theory the following paragraph:

  "If, as MR. SINGER supposes, '_Eisell_ was absinthites, or
  wormwood-wine, a nauseously bitter medicament then much in use,'
  Pepys's friends must have had a very singular taste, for he
  records on the 24th of November, 1660:

  'Creed, and Shepley, and I, to the Rhenish wine-house, and there I
  did give them two quarts of wormwood wine.'

  "Perhaps the beverage was doctored for the English market, and
  rendered more palatable than it had been in the days of Stuckius."

Two other correspondents of the "NOTES AND QUERIES" also, C. H. (Vol.
iii., p. 508.) and GOMER (_ibid._), assert that _eysell_, if it means
any potion at all, must mean vinegar; C. H. referring to a MS. at
Cambridge (Dd. i. fol. 7.), date about 1350, in which occurs,--

      "Þe iewis herde þis word wet alle
      And anon _eysel_ þei mengid wiþ galle:"

and GOMER relying on the support of the Welsh word _Aesell_, which
implies verjuice or vinegar. D. ROCK, too, adduces the 'Festival' in the
sermon for St. Michael's day:

  "And other angellis with h[=i] (St. Michael) shall bring all the
  Instrum[=e]tis of our lordis passyon; the crosse; the crowne;
  spere; nayles; hamer; sponge; _eyseel_; gall, &c."

There is therefore, it appears, ample testimony to show that _eysell_
was used for _vinegar_; but to prove that it meant _wormwood-wine_, MR.
SINGER'S instances seem insufficient.

13. Before we proceed further, let us, supposing that no bitter or sour
potion, but a river, is meant, advert to the consideration what river
may be intended? Theobald observed that there was no river of that name
in Denmark, nor any resembling it in name but "_Yssel_, from which the
province of Overyssel derives its name in the German Flanders."
Steevens, however, is well content to take this _Yssel_ as that which
Hamlet had in his thoughts. "But," he adds, "in an old Latin account of
Denmark, and the neighbouring provinces, I find the names of several
rivers little differing from _Esil_ or _Eisill_ in spelling or
pronunciation. Such are the Essa, the Oesil, and some others.... The
poet," he further remarks, "might have written the Weisel; a
considerable river, which falls into the Baltic Ocean, and could not be
unknown to any prince in Denmark." MR. SINGER of 1826 suggests that the
_Issel_ is perhaps meant, but that the firth of _Iyze_ is nearest to the
scene of action. MR. KNIGHT has little doubt that the Yssell, Issell, or
Izel, the most northern branch of the Rhine, and that which is nearest
to Denmark, is signified.

MR. HICKSON, indeed, who favours MR. SINGER'S wormwood-wine, says (Vol.
iii., p. 119.), that the word cannot mean a river, because the definite
article is omitted before it. But this is an assertion of very little
weight. H. K. S. C. (Vol. iii., p. 68.) very justly observes, that we
may as correctly say,--"Woul't drink up Thames?" without the article, as
"Woul't drink up Eisell?" without the article. Let MR. HICKSON call to
mind Milton's lines on English rivers:

      "And sullen Mole, that runneth underneath
      And Severn swift, guilty of maiden's death,"

ending with--

      "And Medway smooth, and royal-tower'd Thame,"

and ask himself whether the names of rivers are not with perfect
propriety used without the article. Pope has--

      "And sails far off, among the swans of Thames."

And is not Sir Thomas Hammer quite correct in expression, when he alters
the hemistich into "Wilt drink up _Nile_?" But to multiply examples on
such a point would be idle.

14. It is now to be considered whether, supposing that the word might
mean _a potion_ (whether of _vinegar_ or _wormwood_) or _a river_, the
potion or the river is the more applicable to the passage in which it
occurs. It cannot be denied that the whole passage is full of rant and
extravagance. Laertes begins to rant, and Hamlet answers him in a
similar strain:

      "Now pile your dust (says Laertes) upon quick and dead,
      Till of this flat a mountain you have made,
      T' o'ertop old Pelion, or the skyish head
      Of blue Olympus."

This is surely extravagant enough. Hamlet retorts, in correspondent

                    "What is he whose grief
      _Bears such an emphasis_? whose phrase of sorrow
      _Conjures the wand'ring stars, and makes them stand
      Like wonder-wounded hearers_?"

Then comes the struggles in which they are parted by the attendants
after which Hamlet cries out with like "emphasis:"

      "Why I will fight with him upon this theme
      _Until my eye-lids can no longer wag_.


      I lov'd Ophelia; _forty thousand brothers_
      Could not, with all their quantity of love,
      Make up my sum--what wilt thou do for her?"

On which the king exclaims, with much reason,

      "O, he is mad, Laertes."

Hamlet continues, as if to make his madness indisputable:

              "Zounds! show me what thoul't do:
      Woul't weep? woul't fight? woul't fast? woul't tear thyself?
      Woul't drink up _Esil_? eat a crocodile?
      I'll do't. Dost thou come here to whine?
      To outface me with leaping in her grave?
      Be buried quick with her, and so will I:
      And, if thou prate of mountains, let them throw
      _Millions of acres on us_; till our ground,
      _Singeing his pate against the burning zone,
      Make Ossa like a wart! Nay, an thoul't mouth,
      I'll rant as well as thou_."

The queen justly observes:

      "This is _mere madness_."

Hamlet goes off, but maintains his extravagance of language to the last:

      "Let Hercules himself do what he may,
      The cat will mew, and dog will have his day."

If, then, a literary jury be required to decide this question, the point
on which they have to give a verdict is, whether _to drink vinegar_ (or
wormwood-wine) or _to drink up a river_ is more in consonance with the
tenor of Hamlet's speech. Theobald indeed says, that "Hamlet is not
proposing any _impossibilities_ to Laertes, such as drinking up a river
would be, but rather seems to mean, Wilt thou resolve to do _things the
most shocking and distasteful to human nature_?" But on what ground does
this assertion rest? Laertes himself commences with what we may surely
call an impossibility:

      "Till of this flat," &c.

And Hamlet speaks of more impossibilities, when he talks of throwing up
"millions of acres," to "make Ossa like a wart." The drinking up a
river is certainly more in unison with these extravagant proposals than
a defiance "to swallow down (as Theobald has it) large draughts of
vinegar;" or, as Malone gives it, "to drink a potion of vinegar." Such a
proposition, Theobald admits, "is not very grand;" "a challenge to
hazard a fit of the heartburn or the colic, is," says Steevens, "not
very magnificent." But it is not only far from "grand" and
"magnificent," but, what is worse, it is utterly tame and spiritless, in
a place where anything but tameness is wanted, and where it is, quite
out of keeping with the rest of the speech. MR. HICKSON, it is true,
says (Vol. ii, p. 329.), that "the notion of drinking up a river would
be quite unmeaning and out of place;" but this assertion is as
groundless as Theobald's, and is somewhat surprising from a gentleman
who exhorts those who would be critics "to master the grammatical
construction of a passage, deducing therefrom its general sense," and,
we may presume, its _general drift_, "before they attempt to fix the
meaning of a doubtful word." Had MR. HICKSON looked to the _general
drift_ of this passage, before he attempted to fix the meaning of
_eisell_, or to concur with MR. SINGER of 1850 in his attempt to fix it,
he would, we may suppose, have been less ready to pronounce the notion
of drinking up a river _out of place_. It would have been better for him
to have adhered to the judgment of Archdeacon Nares, as cited by MR.
SINGER (Vol. ii., p. 241.):--"The challenge to drink _vinegar_, in such
a rant," says the Archdeacon, "is so inconsistent, and even ridiculous,
that we must decide for the _river_, whether its name be exactly found
or not. To drink up a river, and eat a crocodile with his impenetrable
scales, are two things equally impossible. There is no kind of
comparison between the others."

15. Though examples of similar rant are quite unnecessary to support
this opinion, let us nevertheless conclude by noticing those which the
critics have adduced on this passage:

  "This sort of hyperbole," says Malone, in his second edition, "was
  common among our ancient poets. So, in Eastward Hoe, 1609:

      'Come drink up Rhine, Thames, and Meander, dry.'.

  "So also in Greene's _Orlando Furioso_, 1599:

      'Else would I set my mouth to Tigris' streames,
      And drink up overflowing Euphrates.'

  "Again, in Marlowe's _Jew of Malta_:

      'As sooner shalt thou drink the ocean dry,
      Than conquer Malta.'"

To which Boswell adds:

  "Our author has a similar exaggeration in _Troilus and Cressida_,
  Act III. Scene 2.:

  'When we (_i. e._ lovers) vow to weep seas, live in fire, eat
  rocks, tame tigers,' &c.

  "In Chaucer's _Romaunt of the Rose_, we find the following lines:

      'He underfongeth a grete paine,
      That undertaketh to drink up Seine.'"

Steevens notices _King Richard II._, Act II Scene 2.:

          "The task he undertakes,
      Is numb'ring sands, and _drinking oceans dry_."

But enough. The majority of readers, like the majority of critics, will
surely be for the river, in the proportion of at least six to two.
_Verbum non amplius addam._

    J. S. W.


_Eisell--Wormwood--Scurvy Ale._--Such of your readers who have not yet
made up their minds whether "eisell" and "wormwood" are identical, will
not object to be reminded that Taylor, the Water Poet, in his _Pennyless
Pilgrimage_, describing his hospitable reception at Manchester, when
speaking of the liquid cheer supplied to him, says:--

      "... Eight several sorts of ale we had
      All able to make one stark drunk, or mad.


      We had at one time set upon the table
      Good ale of hyssop ('twas no Æsop fable);
      Then had we ale of sage, and ale of malt
      And ale of _wormwood_ that could make one halt
      With ale of rosemary, and of bettony,
      And two ales more, or else I needs must lie.
      But to conclude this drinking aley tale
      We had a sort of ale called scurvy ale."

It would seem that in most of these drinks, the chief object was to
impart an exciting but not disagreeable bitterness to the beverage,
groping as it were, by instinct, after that enduring and gratifying
bitter now universally derived from the hop. Wormwood, hyssop, rosemary,
sage, bettony, each furnished its peculiar temptation to the Manchester
drinkers, who some two centuries ago wanted an "excuse for the glass."
Can any of your correspondents state what were the components of the
_scurvy ale_ spoken of by Taylor? This was, perhaps, a really medicated

It may not be generally known, that even at this day, In some of the gin
shops and taverns of London, gin, in which the herb rue is infused, is a
constant article of sale; and many, who assume a most respectable
blueness of physiognomy at the bare mention of "old Tom" in his
undisguised state, scruple not to indulge in copious libations of the
same popular spirit, provided it be poured from a bottle in which a few
sprigs of rue are floating. But what was _scurvy ale_?



(Vol. iii., p. 427.)

In the following passage (extracted from the _Quarterly Review_, No.
CLXXV., Dec. 1850, p. 143.) it is declared that the nation _did_ "pay"
for this "munificent present." The writer is understood to be Mr. R.
Ford; and if his statement is not refuted, the business will henceforth
take its place as a sale which the nation was duped into regarding as a

  "The secret history," says the reviewer, "was this: King George
  IV., having some pressing call for money, did not decline a
  proposition for selling the library to the Emperor of Russia. Mr.
  _Heber_, having ascertained that the books were actually booked
  for the Baltic, went to Lord _Sidmouth_, then Home Secretary, and
  stated the case; observing what a shame it would be that such a
  collection should go out of the country: to which Lord Sidmouth
  replied: 'Mr. Heber, it shall not!'--and it did not. On the
  remonstrance of Lord Sidmouth, of whose manly and straightforward
  character George IV. was very properly in awe, the last of the
  _grands monarques presented_ the books to the British Museum, _on
  the condition_ that the value of the rubles they were to have
  fetched should be somehow or other made good to him by ministers
  in pounds sterling. This was done out of the surplus of certain
  funds furnished by France for the compensation of losses by the
  Revolution. But his ministers, on a hint from the House of Commons
  that it was necessary to refund those monies, had recourse, we are
  told, to the droits of the Admiralty."

So that the books were not given, but paid for, out of public monies:
which ministers could not have made the object of a bargain, had they
been the king's, and not the nation's. And the inscription in the
Museum--like many others--"lifts its head and lies," _i. e._ unless the
_Quarterly Review_ has been inventing a story, instead of telling a true
bit of secret history, decidedly worth noting if true.


  [We believe the Quarterly Reviewer has been misinformed as to the
  facts connected with the transfer of the Royal Library to the
  British Museum. We have reason to know that George IV., being
  unwilling to continue the expense of maintaining the Library,
  which he claimed to treat, not as a heirloom of the crown, but as
  his own private inheritance, entertained a proposal for its
  purchase from the Russian Government. This having come to the
  knowledge of Lord Liverpool (through Dibdin, from Lady Spencer, to
  whom it had been mentioned by the Princess Lieven), the projected
  sale was, on the remonstrance of the Minister, abandoned, and the
  Library presented to the nation. The King thus got rid of the
  annual expenses; and although we do not believe that any bargain
  was made upon the subject, it is not unlikely that the Ministry
  felt that this surrender of the Library to the country gave the
  King some claim to assistance towards the liquidation of his
  debts, and that such assistance was accordingly furnished. Even if
  this were so, though the result might be the same, the transaction
  is a very different one from the direct bargain and sale described
  in the _Quarterly Review_.]

In justice to Kind George IV., the letter which he addressed to the late
Earl of Liverpool, on _presenting_ the books to his own subjects, should
be printed in your columns. I saw the autograph letter soon after it was
written, and a copy of it would be very easily met with.

Would it not have been both desirable and very advantageous, to have
converted the banqueting room at Whitehall into a receptacle for this
magnificent collection, which would doubtless have been augmented from
time to time?

Instead of concentrating such vast literary treasures at the Museum,
might it not have been expedient to diffuse them partially over this
immense metropolis?

To Peers and M. P.'s, especially, a fine library at Whitehall would be a
great boon. The present chapel was never consecrated, and its beautiful
ceiling is little suited to a house of prayer.

    J. H. M.


(Vol. iv., p. 33.)

For the information of your correspondent MR. BOLTON CORNEY, I beg to
inform him that there was an intermediate meeting of the subscribers to
the Caxton Memorial at the house of the Society of Arts between the
first meeting to which he alludes, and the last, held at the same place
the other day. Over that meeting I had the honour of presiding, and it
was determined to persevere in the object of erecting a statue in
Westminster to the memory of the first English printer; but the report
of the last meeting shows that the funds have not been so largely
contributed as might have been expected, and are now far short of the
sum, 500_l._, required for the erection of an iron statue of the
illustrious typographer. True it is that no authentic portrait of Caxton
is known, but the truthful picture by Maclise might very well supply the
deficiency; and I see the engraving to be made from that painting rather
ostentatiously advertised as "the Caxton Memorial." The original design
of the Dean of St. Paul's, for "a fountain by day, and a light by
night," was abandoned as more poetical than practical; my chief
apprehension being either that the gas would spoil the water, or that
the water would put out the light. The statue was therefore resolved
upon as less costly and more appropriate than the fountain.

The statue of Gutenberg at Mentz is a good example of what might be
erected in Westminster; yet I very much doubt whether any likeness of
the great printer has been preserved. The expense necessarily attendant
upon MR. CORNEY'S Literary Memorial appears to me to be fatal to its
success; for, however dear to the bibliographer, I fear but little
public interest is now felt in the writings of Caxton. The
_Typographical Antiquities_ contain copious extracts from his works; and
the biographies of Lewis and Knight appear to have satisfied public
curiosity as to his life. Besides, a memorial of this nature would be
hidden in a bookcase, not seen in a highway. I may add that the present
state of the Caxton Memorial is this: the venerable Dean of St. Paul's
is anxious to be relieved from the charge of the funds already
subscribed, and to place them in the hands of the Society of Arts, if
that body will receive them, and undertake to promote the object of the
original subscribers by all the means at its command.



(Vol. iv., p. 7.)

Medically, the word _nervous_ has the following meanings:--

1. Of or belonging to the anatomical substance called nerve, _e. g._ the
"nervous system," "nervous sheaths," "nervous particles," &c.

2. A predomination of the nervous system, when it is unusually active or
highly developed, which is what we mean in speaking of a "nervous
temperament," "a nervous person," &c.

3. Certain functional disorders of the nervous system are so termed, and
in this sense we speak of "nervous people," "nervous complaints," and so

4. Nervous is also used, more poetically than correctly, to signify
_muscular_, and as synonymous with brawny, sinewy, &c., thus conveying
an idea of strength and vigour. But _nerve_ is not _muscle_, therefore
this inaccurate use of the word, though sanctioned by some good old
writers, must cease.

5. Nervous, in speaking of a part of the body, signifies a part in which
there are many nerves, or much nervous matter, or which is endowed with
extra sensibility.

These are the various ideas commonly attached to the word _nervous_.
They are too many for the word to be a closely accurate one, but we must
take them, not make them. We can, however, avoid the future inaccurate
use of the term alluded to in explanation 4., and all the metaphorical
derivations thereof, such as a "nervous style of writing," &c., and
adhere to those two significations which are physiologically and
pathologically correct, and which are obviously derivable from the
several meanings and explanations above enumerated, viz.--

1. Of or belonging to the natural structure or functions of nerve; and

2. The quality of functional disorder or weakness of the nervous system
in certain respects.


Every one knows that instances of _catachresis_ occur in all languages;
but I think this case may be more satisfactorily explained by
considering that the _nerves_ consist of two very distinct and
independent classes of organs--nerves of sensation, which conduct
impressions to the sensorium; and nerves of volition, which convey the
mental impulse to the muscles. From this it necessarily follows that
when the former class are _over-active_ (and _redundancy_ is decidedly
the adjectival idea in the word _nervous_), a morbid excitability of
temper, with a perturbable anxious state of mind are produced (making
the "bad" sense of the word); while from a similar state of the nerves
of volition results a powerful and vigorous system of muscular action
and mental energy (making the "good" sense of the word).



(Vol. i., p. 198.; Vol. iv., p. 1.)

I am anxious to acknowledge that SIR F. MADDEN has established, beyond
all doubt, the facts that _several_ manuscript books were found on the
Duke of Monmouth when he was captured, and that the volume rescued from
oblivion by Dr. Anster, and now placed in the British Museum, is one of
these, and also in Monmouth's handwriting. I take this opportunity of
saying, that I, unfortunately, have not seen Dr. Anster's reply to my
communication; and it is to be regretted that it was not copied from the
_Dublin University Magazine_ into "NOTES AND QUERIES," so that we (the
readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES") might have had the whole subject before
us. This is a course which I think our kind Editor may usefully adopt on
similar occasions.

Referring unsuccessfully to Lowndes' _Manual_ for an answer to SIR F.
MADDEN'S question as to the date of the first edition of Welwood's
_Memoirs_, I was pleased, however, to find that my edition (the sixth,
published in 1718) possesses a value which does not attach to previous
editions, inasmuch as it contains "A short introduction, giving an
account how these memoirs came at first to be writ." From this it
appears that there are spurious editions of the work, for Welwood

  "I have given my bookseller leave to make a sixth impression of
  the following memoirs; and the [rather] that some time ago one
  Baker printed more than one edition of them without my knowledge,
  very incorrect, and on bad paper."

We may fairly assume, that the first edition was published at the
beginning of 1699, for [the] "epistle dedicatory" to King William is
dated February of that year. If this be so, it must be taken as a proof
of extraordinary popularity that the work should have reached a third
edition as early as 1700, as stated by SIR F. MADDEN. The "account how
these memoirs came at first to be writ" possesses some interest. It
appears that Queen Mary used to hold frequent converse with the Doctor
on the subject of her great-grandfather's and grandfather's history,

  "At last she fell to regret the insuperable difficulties she lay
  under (for I well remember that was her mind) of knowing truly the
  history of her grandfather's reign; saying that most of the
  accounts she had read of it were either panegyrick or satire, not
  history. Then with an inimitable grace she told me, 'If I would in
  a few sheets give her a short sketch of the affairs of that reign,
  and of the causes that produced such dreadful effects, she would
  take it well of me.' Such commands were too sacred not to be
  obeyed; and when I was retiring from her presence, she stopt me to
  tell me she expected I would do what she had desired of me in such
  a manner, and with that freedom, as if I designed it for the
  information of a friend, and not one of the blood of King Charles
  I., promising to show it to none living without my consent."

Welwood further states, that after Mary's death, King William--

  "Sent me, by the late Earl of Portland, the manuscript I had given
  his Queen, found in her cabinet; where, upon the back of it, she
  had writ with her own hand the promise she had made me of showing
  it to nobody without my consent."

In addition to the extract from Monmouth's _Diary_ given in my former
communication, Welwood publishes a letter of the Duke's to the brave and
true Argyle, which is perhaps more creditable to Monmouth than any other
memorial he has left. The letter, as Welwood suggests, appears to have
been written shortly after the death of Charles II. I copy it; but if
you think this paper too long, omit it:--

  "I received both yours together this morning, and cannot delay you
  my answer longer than this post though I am afraid it will not
  please you so much as I heartily wish it may. I have weighed all
  your reasons, and everything that you and my other friends have
  writ me upon that subject; and have done it with the greatest
  inclination to follow your advice, and without prejudice. You may
  well believe I have had time enough to reflect sufficiently upon
  our present state, especially since I came hither. But whatever
  way I turn my thoughts, I find insuperable difficulties. Pray do
  not think it an effect of melancholy, for that was never my
  greatest fault, when I tell you that in these three weeks'
  retirement in this place I have not only looked back, but forward;
  and the more I consider our present circumstances, I think them
  still the more desperate, unless some unforeseen accident fall out
  which I cannot divine nor hope for. [Here follow sixteen lines all
  in cyphers.] Judge then what we are to expect, in case we should
  venture upon any such attempt at this time. It's to me a vain
  argument that our enemies are scarce yet well settled, when you
  consider that fear in some, and ambition in others, have brought
  them to comply; and that the Parliament, being made up, for the
  most part, of members that formerly run our enemy down, they will
  be ready to make their peace as soon as they can, rather than
  hazard themselves upon an uncertain bottom. I give you but hints
  of what, if I had time, I would write you at more length. But that
  I may not seem obstinate in my own judgment, or neglect the advice
  of my friends, I will meet you at the time and place appointed.
  But for God sake think in the mean time of the improbabilities
  that lie naturally in our way, and let us not by struggling with
  our chains make them straighter and heavier. For my part, I'll run
  the hazard of being thought anything rather than a rash
  inconsiderate man. And to tell you my thoughts without disguise, I
  am now so much in love with a retired life, that I am never like
  to be fond of making a bustle in the world again. I have much more
  to say, but the post cannot stay; and I refer the rest till
  meeting, being entirely


Monmouth's ill-concerted and ill-conducted expedition following, at no
distant period, the prudent resolutions expressed in the above letter
places the instability of his character in a strong light.

    C. ROSS.

Replies To Minor Queries.

_Pope's "honest Factor"_ (Vol. iv., p. 7.).-The

      "Honest factor who stole a gem away,"

to whom Pope alludes, was Thomas Pitt, Esq., (ancestor of the Earl of
Chatham), who was by Queen Anne appointed Governor of Fort St. George in
the East Indies, and purchased there for the sum of 20,400_l._, or
48,000 pagodas, a diamond weighing 127 carats, which he sold to the King
of France about 1717, and is now known as the Pitt diamond. I suppose it
is at present in the possession of the Republic of France.

    DE H.

  Temple, July 5. 1851.

_Banks Family_ (Vol. iii., pp. 390. 458. 507. 524.).--I am obliged by
your inserting my note on this subject. I can inform L. H. that the
present owner of the lead mines in Keswick _is related_, though
distantly, to John Banks the philosopher, who was born at Grange in
Borrowdale. Can any of your correspondents give any reason why the crest
of this branch of the family should be exactly similar in every respect
to that of the Earl of Lonsdale?


_Dies Iræ, Dies Illa_ (Vol. ii p. 72. Vol. iii., p. 468.).--Although
some time has elapsed since the Query on this hymn appeared, yet as no
very definite reply has been given, I send the following.

This hymn is one of the four "proses" or verses without measure, made
use of in the services of the Roman Catholic Church. The invention of
these proses is attributed to Nolker, a monk of the Convent of St. Gall,
who wrote about the year 880; and who says in his work that he had seen
them in a book belonging to the Convent of St. Jumièges, which was
destroyed by the Normans in 841. Of the many proses which were composed,
the Roman Catholic Church has retained but four, of which the above is
one. Who the author really was, is very uncertain; the majority of
writers on the subject appear to concur in the opinion that Cardinal
Frangipani, a Dominican, otherwise called Malabrancia, a Doctor of
Paris, and who died at Pérouse in 1294, was the composer but it has also
been assigned to St. Gregory and St. Bernard. Bzovius, an. 1294, states
the author to have been either Cardinal Orsino or Cardinal Frangipani,
and other writers maintain it to have been the production of Agostino
Biella, who died 1491; or of Humbertus, General of the Dominicans. The
original consists of fifty-six lines, and may be found in almost every
book of Catholic devotion.


In No. 84, for June 9th, the Roman Catholic hymn "Dies Iræ" is referred
to, and works cited as to its author. To these may be added the 39th No.
of the _Dublin Review_, where it will be found that Latino Frangipani,
nephew of Pope Nicholas III., and known under the name of the Cardinal
Malabrancia, was more generally considered the writer. The account there
given of it is not uninteresting, and is preceded by a cursory
advertence to the other hymns of the Middle Ages, including a Greek
version of some of the stanzas of Thomas Aquinas, the "Angelic
Doctor's," impressive "Lauda Sion."


_Equestrian Statues_ (Vol. iii., p. 494.).--I should inform Fm. that
there is an equestrian statue of the Earl of Hopetown in front of the
Royal Bank, St. Andrew's Square, Edinburgh. The earl, however, is not
mounted; he stands beside the horse.

    S. WMSON.

_Monumental Symbolism_ (Vol. iii, p. 449.).--I have seen no answer to
Reader's inquiry. I have always understood that the kneeling figures
were the children who died in the lifetime of their parents (sometimes
they are even represented in the swaddling-bands of Chrysom children),
while those represented standing survived them. This of course is only
when some are represented kneeling and others standing, as in some
instances _all_ are kneeling. I believe my supposition is grounded on
some better authority than my own fancy, but I cannot refer to any at


  Bilton, July 3. 1851.

_Organs in Churches_ (Vol. iii., p. 518.).--R. W. B. will find some
information on the subject of _organs_ in Staveley's _History of
Churches in England_, pp. 203. 207., a work replete with much
interesting matter connected with churches.


  Exeter, July 1. 1851.

_Tennyson: "The Princess"_ (Vol. iii., p. 493.).--Does not the passage--

      "Dare we dream of that, I asked,
      Which wrought us, as the workman and his work
      That practice betters"--

simply mean, "Dare we dream of" the God who made us as of a finite
creature, who requires "practice" ere His work can be perfect, and whose
skill shall be progressive? In short, "dare we" think of Him as such an
one as ourselves?


Information on this subject will be found in Hawkins's _History of
Music_, vol. i. p. 398. _et seq._; Burney's _History of Music_, vol. ii.
p. 131. Busby's _Dictionary of Music_; John Gregory's _Works_
("Discourse declaring what Time the Nicene Creed began to be Sung in the
Church"), and in Staveley's _History of Churches in England_.

    T. J.

"_Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love_" (Vol. iv., p. 24.).--


      "When late I attempted your pity to move,
        Why seem'd you so deaf to my prayers?
      Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love,
        But--Why did you kick me down stairs?"

      From _An Asylum for Fugitive Pieces, in Prose and Verse, not in
      any other Collection_, vol. i. p. 15. London: Debrett, 1785.

The above has been inquired for: of the author I know nothing.

    S. H.

  St. Johns Wood.

_Sardonic Smiles_ (Vol. iv., p. 18.).--It is very difficult to strike
out the verse in Homer's Odyssey (Υ, 302.). To suppose that in
him the word is derived from Sardinia, is exceedingly improbable, if
not, as Payne Knight says, quite absurd because, not only is Sardinia
not mentioned in Homer, but his geography, even where half-fabulous, and
with other names than the modern ones, does not extend so far west.
Payne Knight says the word is derived from σαρδαίνω, but where
such a word is found I cannot learn. There is σαρδάζω in
Suidas, "to laugh bitterly," but unluckily the very same words are given
as the interpretation of σαρκάζω, and σαρκάζω is a
perfectly established word. _Sarcasm, sarcastic_, are derived from it;
and its own derivation from σάρξ "flesh," seems certain. This
makes it highly probable that the first word in Suidas is a mistake for
the other. All Greek writers borrowed so much from Homer that the
occurrence of the word in them, where obviously meaning Sardinian,
seems to prove nothing but that they thought it had that meaning in him.

    C. B.

_Epitaph on Voltaire_ (Vol. iii., p. 518.).--The question is asked, "Has
the name of the lady of Lausanne, who wrote the epitaph on Voltaire,

      'Ci gît l'enfant gâté du monde qu'il gâta,'

been ascertained?" It has; and the lady was Madame la Baronne de
Montolieu, who wrote a great variety of novels, of which by far the
best, and indeed one of the most interesting in the French language, is
her _Caroline de Lichtfield_, first published at Lausanne in 1786, two
volumes 8vo. Her family name was de Bottens (Pauline-Isabelle), born at
Lausanne in 1751, and there died in December, 1832. Her first husband
was Benjamin de Crouzas, son to one of Montesquieu's adversaries, after
whose death she married the Baron de Montolieu. It was Gibbon's most
intimate friend and literary _collaborateur_, Deyverdun, who published,
and indeed corrected, her then anonymous _Caroline de Lichtfield_.

Voltaire's friend and mistress, the learned Madame du Châtelet, had
prepared an inscription for his portrait, which may be considered an
anticipated epitaph:

      "Post-genitis Hic canis erit, nunc canis amicis;"

but one of a very different tenor was written by J. J. Rousseau, we are
told by Lord Brougham:

      "Plus bel esprit que grand génie,
      Sans loi, sans moeurs, et sans vertu;
      Il est mort comme il a vécu,
      Couvert de gloire et d'infamie."

    J. R.

_Voltaire, where situated_ (Vol. iii, pp. 329.433.).--The inquiry,
"Where is Voltaire situated?" was answered in a late number, and
reference made to the _Essays of an Octogenarian_, a privately-printed
work, and therefore not generally accessible; but the subject will be
equally found elucidated in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for July, 1846,
p. 25. No such place ever existed, as there made clear; for it is the
simple anagram of his patronymic, Arouet l j (_le jeune_), framed by
himself though by Condorcet and other biographers, ignorant of the fact,
supposed to be a landed property. Voltaire loved not his paternal name,
as will be there found, and gladly changed it. The article embraces
various particulars of Voltaire's life, in refutation of Lord Brougham's
errors; some of them strange enough, and not inconsiderable in number,
so as to excite surprise in so accomplished a person.

    J. R.

_Children at a Birth_ (Vol. iii., p. 347.).--See _Quarterly Review_, No.
xxix. vol. xv. p. 187., where Southey quotes _Hakewill's Apology_ as
authority for an epitaph in Dunstable Church to a woman who had, at
three several times, three children at a birth; and five at a birth two
other times.

    A. C.

_Milkmaids_ (Vol. iii., p. 367.).--

  "May 1.--I was looking out of the parlour window this morning, and
  receiving the honours which Margery, the milkmaid to our lane, was
  doing me, by dancing before my door _with the plate of half her
  customers on her head_."--_Tatler_ for May 2, 1710.

    R. J. R.

_"Heu quanto minus," &c._ (Vol. iv., p. 21.).--

      "Heu quanto minus est cum aliis versari quam tui meminisse,"

is the end of an inscription at the Leasowes "to Miss Dolman, a
beautiful and amiable relation of Mr. Shenstone's, who died of the
small-pox, about twenty-one years of age," in the following words. On
one side:

      "Peramabili suæ consobrinæ

On the other side:

              "Ah Maria
        puellarum elegantissima
      Ah flore venustatis abrepta
      Heu quanto minus est," &c.

      Shenstone's _Works_, 1764, vol. ii. p. 356.

    C. B.

This quotation is Shenstone's "Epitaph on his Sister."

J. O. B., however, has given it incorrectly: it should be--

      "Heu quanto minus est cum reliquis versari quam tui meminisse."

Moore has done something towards giving the force of this strikingly
concentrated sentence, thus:--

      "Tho' many a gifted mind we meet,
        Tho' fairest forms we see,
      To live with them is far less sweet,
        Than to remember thee."

    H. E. H.

_The "Passellew" Family_ (Vol. i., p. 319.).--I think there can be
little doubt that the "Robert Passellew" of Waltham Abbey, and "John
Paslew," the last abbot of Whalley, belong to the same family. A
reference to Burke's _General Armory_ proves the armorial bearings to be
the same, and also that the family was connected with the county of
Durham. The following extract from the _Historical, Antiquarian, and
Picturesque Account of Kirkstall Abbey_ (Longmans, 1827), will show that
a century later the Paslews had obtained a footing in Yorkshire, and had
become benefactors of Kirkstall:

  "Robert Passelowe, with King Richard II.'s licence, gave one toft,
  five acres of land, and an annual rent of 2_s._ 6_d._ in Bramley,
  with the reversion of nine messuages, seven oxgangs, and six acres
  and a half of land, after the decease of the tenants, ..., all
  which premises were valued at £4 2_s._ 6_d._ per annum."--P. 208.

    T. T. W.

  Burnley, Lancashire.

_Lady Petre's Monument_ (Vol. iv., p. 22.).--"A E I O U." Do not these
letters stand for "αει ου"--_non semper_? alluding to the
resurrection from the tomb.

    J. H. L.

May not the five vowels at the end of the Latin epitaph of Lady Petre's
monument mean,

      "A Eternæ Ianua Obitus Uitæ?"

    F. A.


_Spenser's Age at his Death_ (Vol. i., p. 481.).--Touching this subject
I can state that I am well acquainted with an admirable portrait of the
poet, bearing date 1593, in which he is represented as a man of not more
than middle age; so that, whether he died in 1596 or 1598, he may be
said to have died prematurely--_immaturâ morte obiisse_, as the monument


_Blessing by the Hand_ (Vol. iii., pp. 477. 509.).--The priest of the
Greek church, in blessing with the hand, anciently held it with the
thumb crossing the third finger, the first finger being held straight,
the second and fourth curved, so as to represent altogether the Greek
letters I C X C, the first and last letters of "Jesus Christ." The same
letters are impressed on the bread used in their eucharist, the bread
being marked with the Greek cross, similar to our cross-buns, with the
letters I C and X C in the upper angles of the cross, and the letters N
and K in the two lower angles. The N K is the abbreviation of νίκᾳ,
and the whole phrase is "Jesus Christ conquers." This church
derived the expression from the standard (labarum) of Constantine,
ἐν τούτῳ νίκᾳ = _in hoc signo vinces_. In Goar's notes on the
Greek rituals, especially that of Chrysostom's, much information may be
obtained on the symbolisms of Christianity.

    T. J. BUCKTON.


_Handel's Occasional Oratorio_ (Vol. iii., p. 426.).--This oratorio
doubtless received its name from the special _occasion_ when it was
composed, viz. the suppression of the rebellion in 1745. It was
published by Tonson in Feb. 1746, at the price of 1_s._, together with
various poems, &c. relating to the same important event. The Oratorio is
divided into three parts: with the exception of the overture, four of
the airs, and two of the choruses, it contains little that can be
popular at the present day.

    J. H. M.

_Moore's Almanack_ (Vol. iii., pp. 263. 339. 381. 466.).--Francis Moore
was not a real personage, but a pseudonyme adopted by the author, Mr.
Henry Andrews, who was born at Frieston, near Grantham, Lincolnshire,
February 4, 1744, and died at Royston, Herts, January 26, 1820. Andrews
was astronomical calculator to the Board of Longitude, and for years
corresponded with Maskelyne and other eminent men. A portrait of Andrews
is extant; one is in my possession: they are now extremely scarce.

As to the date of the almanack's first appearance I can afford no
information; but it can be obtained of Mr. W. H. Andrews, only son of
the astronomer, who still resides at Royston, and is in possession of
his MSS., consisting of astronomical and astrological calculations,
notes of various phenomena, materials for a history of Royston, memoir
of his own life, his correspondence, &c.


_Kiss the Hare's Foot_ (Vol. iv., p. 21.).--This saying occurs in
Browne's _Britannia's Pastorals_:

      "'Tis supper time with all, and we had need
      Make haste away, unless we mean to speed
      With those that kiss the hare's foot. Rheums are bred,
      Some say, by going supperless to bed,
      And those I love not; therefore cease my rhyme
      And put my pipes up till another time."

      _Brit. Past._, Book 2., Song. 2.

This quotation may not be of much service as a clue to the discovery of
the _origin_ of the saying; but it may be interesting to MR. BREEN as a
proof that the saying itself must be considerably more than two hundred
years old, the second part of the _Pastorals_ having been first
published in 1616.

    C. FORBES.


_Derivation of the Word "Bummaree" or "Bumaree"_ (Vol. iv., p. 39.).--

  "BOMERIE, S. F. [terme de mer, prêt à la grosse aventure] bottomry
  or bottomree."--Boyer's _Fr. and Engl. Dict._, ed. London, 1767.

The leading idea in the term _Bomerie_, and its English equivalent, when
applied to borrowing money "on a ship's keel," is the hazarding all on a
single venture: hence it is not difficult to see its application to
other transactions, especially those connected with sea; such as
wholesale purchases of fish, in which a large risk is run, with an
uncertain prospect of return.

The meaning of the word, if it be really the same, when adopted by
confectioners, would probably be assignable either to the shape of the
pans, or the use to which they were applied.

I know not whether this is to be classed among the "unsatisfactory"
derivations already submitted to your correspondent, but should be glad
to hear his opinion on its soundness.

    E. A. D.

_Sheridan and Vanbrugh_ (Vol. iv. p. 24.).--Had O. O. consulted the
"Life of Sheridan" which precedes Bohn's Collection of the _Dramatic
Works of Sheridan_ (which, having the volume in his hand, he ought to
have done), he would have seen that it is expressly mentioned (p. 51.)
that Sheridan, having become part proprietor of Drury Lane Theatre--

  "His first commencement as a manager was not of that brilliant
  kind to give any promise of great improvement in the conduct of
  the theatre. _An alteration_ of Vanbrugh's play the _Relapse_ was
  the first production, under the name of a _Trip to Scarborough_.
  It was brought out on February 24, 1777. This was an unfortunate
  commencement: neither the public nor the actors were satisfied."

Further, it is printed at the end of Sheridan's _Dramatic Works_,
followed by _Pizarro_, printed in smaller type, so as to make them
appear like an appendix; and hence it could hardly be expected that any
one would think of attributing the _Trip to Scarborough_, altered from
Vanbrugh's _Relapse_, to Sheridan, any more than it could be considered
as intended to call him the author of _Pizarro_, because he altered
Kotzebue's _Spaniards in Peru_, and adapted it to, and had it
represented on, the stage.


"_Felix quem faciunt aliena pericula cautum_" (Vol. iii., p.
482.).--This line of Plautus is followed by parallel quotations from
other writers. To these I may add the French version:

      "Heureux celui qui pour devenir sage,
      Du mal d'autrui fait son apprentisage."

    J. R.

"_Alterius Orbis Papa_" (Vol. iii., p. 497.; Vol. iv., p. 11.).--Fuller,
in his _Worthies of England_, edit. London, 1662, "Staffordshire," p.
41., uses this expression, writing, of Cardinal Pole. It is as follows:

  "Yet afterwards he (Pole) became '_Alterius Orbis Papa_,' when
  made Archbishop of Canterbury by Queen Mary."

    J. N. B.

  West Bromwich, June 28. 1851.

_Umbrella_ (Vol. iii., pp. 37. 60. 126. 482.).--In Fynes Moryson's
_Itinerary_, "printed by John Beale, 1617, part iii. booke i. chap. ii.
p. 21.," is the following passage:

  "In hot regions, to auoide the beames of the sunne, in some places
  (as in Italy) they carry Vmbrels, or things like a little canopy,
  over their heads; but a learned Physician told me, that the use of
  them was dangerous, because they gather the heate into a
  pyramidall point, and thence cast it down perpendicularly upon the
  head, except they know how to carry them for auoyding that

    C. DE D.

_To learn by Heart, "Apprendre par Coeur"_ (Vol. iii., pp. 425.
483.).--Quitard, a French writer on Proverbs, says,--

  "On a regardé le coeur comme le siége de la Mémoire. De là les
  mots _recorder_, _se recorder_, _récordance_, _récordation_, en
  Latin _recordari_, _recordatio_; de là aussi l'expression
  _apprendre par coeur_. Rivarol dit que cette expression, si
  ordinaire et si énergique, vient du plaisir que nous prenons à ce
  qui nous touche et nous flatte. La mémoire, en effet, est toujours
  aux ordres du coeur."

    J. M.


"_Suum cuique tribuere_" (Vol. iii. p. 518.).--I beg to refer your
correspondent M. D. to Cicero's _De Claris Oratoribus_, which is the
nearest parallel passage I can find: viz.

  "Erat omnius tum mos, ut in reliquis rebus melior, sic in hoc ipso
  humanior: ut faciles essent in _suum cuique tribuendo_."

In a note, an allusion to Justice is made: but my Cicero is a very old
edition, and is divided into four tomes. The above is from tome i. p.
305, letter F.

The only other parallel passage is from Liber II., "Ad Herennium," thus:

  "_Justitia_ est habitus animi, communi utilitate conservata, _suam
  cuique tribuens_ dignitatem."

    J. N. C.

  King's Lynn, June 28. 1851.

_Frogs in Ireland--Round Towers_ (Vol. iii., pp. 353. 428. 490.).--I
must take leave to doubt the fact, mentioned in Vol. iii., p. 490., of
the introduction of frogs into Ireland first in the year 1696. They are
much too plentiful in the country districts, leaving out their abundance
in the county Dublin, to warrant any such supposition. In the Queen's
County, particularly, I have seen them in myriads. With regard to those
gentlemen who are pleased to import snakes into Ireland, I can only wish
them some worthier occupation.

There are two birds, the occurrence of which about Dublin I do not find
noticed by naturalists. One is the common skylark, the other is the
Royston crow, which, strange to say, is not a migratory visitor, but is
found there the whole year round.

Concerning Round Towers, mentioned at pages 353. and 428., I beg to
refer W. R. M. to the works of Wilkinson, Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, and
Moore's _History of Ireland_, in addition to Petrie, Keating, &c. When
in Galway, in January, 1850, I noticed some remarkable instances of
resemblance to Spaniards amongst the peasant women and girls. It was,
however, by no means general; but only observable here and there, in a
few particular instances. Between Galway and Oughterard I passed a girl
walking barefooted along the dirty road, whose features were strikingly
beautiful, set off with long raven tresses and large _dark_ eyes, signs
apparently of her Spanish origin. The town of Galway is full of
interesting memorials of its connexion with Spain, and well repays a
visit. Its ancient prosperity will now be probably revived again, and,
with its singularly advantageous position, and its future intercourse
with America, it cannot fail to rise once more from its ruins and its
dirt, unless prevented by the prevalence of political agitation.


_Lines on the Temple_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--J. S. will find these lines
_in print_, in the "Poetry" of the _Annual Register_ for 1764, vol. vii.
p. 247. They are said to have been stuck on the Temple gate.

    J. K.

_Killigrew Arms_ (Vol. i., pp. 204. 231. 283.).--A more correct
description will be found in Lysons' _Cornwall_: see "Town Seal of

    S. H. (2)

_Meaning of Hernshaw_ (Vol. iii., p. 450.).--In Poulson's _Beverlac; or
History of the Antiquities of Beverley in Yorkshire_, pp. 263, 264. et
seq., is an account of the expenses of the "Twelve Governors of Beverley
on a visit to the Earl of Northumberland at Leconfield Castle." Among
the presents made to the Earl (Henry Algernon Percy, fifth earl, born
Jan. 1477-8, died 1527) for so distinguished an honour are four
heronsewes, heronseu, hornsue, or _hernshaw_, for it is written in all
these ways. Was a young heron formerly esteemed a choice delicacy?
Chaucer, describing the feast of Cambisscan, says:

      "I wol not tellen of hir strange sewes,
      Ne hir swannes, ne hir heronsewes."

But even the full-grown bird was not too powerful for the digestive
organs in those days: it was termed _viand royal_, and heronries were
maintained for the purpose of food, as well as diversion. In the
Northumberland Household Book, these birds, with many others, are named
as then served up at table, but which are now discarded as little better
than carrion.

From _hernshaw_, still further corrupted, arose the proverbial
expression introduced by Shakspeare into _Hamlet_,--

  "I am but mad north-north-west, when the wind is southerly, I know
  a hawk from a _hand-saw_."

    G. P.

_Theory of the Earth's Form_ (Vol. iii., pp. 331. 508.).--Do the
following passages from the "Version of the Psalms" in the _Book of
Common Prayer_ throw any light upon the subject?

  "And the foundations of the _round_ world were discovered."--Ps.
  xviii. 15.

  "The _compass_ of the world, and they that dwell therein."--Ps.
  xxiv. 1.

  "Thou hast laid the foundation of the _round_ world, and all that
  therein is."--Ps. lxxxix. 12.

  "He hath made the _round_ world so sure."--Ps. xciii. 2.

  "And that it is he who hath made the _round_ world so fast that it
  cannot be moved."--Ps. xcvi. 10.

  "The _round_ world, and they that dwell therein."--Ps. xcviii. 8.

    R. H.

_Coke and Cowper, how pronounced_ (Vol. iv., p. 24.).--_Coke_ is by
lawyers generally pronounced like the article which feeds our
steam-engines; but the late Earl of Leicester was generally, in Norfolk
and elsewhere, called _Cook_. The presumption is, that _Cook_ was the
ancient sound given to the word _Coke_. _Cowper_ is a similar instance:
I believe it has always been called _Cooper_. In an old electioneering
squib by the late Lord John Townshend, _Cowper_ is made to rhyme to
_Trooper_. The passage alludes to an old county scandal, and I do not
therefore quote it.

    J. H. L.

There can be no doubt (as it seems to me) that the poet's name _ought_
to be pronounced according to the spelling. I am enabled to state
decidedly that he himself pronounced his name _Cowper_, and _not
Cooper_. I venture to think that the same might also be said with
respect to Lord Coke's name; _i. e._ that the pronunciation Cook is only
a "modern affectation."


_Registry of British Subjects Abroad_ (Vol. iv., p. 7.).--All English
chaplains on the Continent are licensed to their respective chaplaincies
by the Bishop of London, and are within his ecclesiastical jurisdiction.
This _may_ have given rise to the notion of which your correspondent


_Hanging out the Broom at the Mast-heads of Ships to be sold_ (Vol. ii.,
p. 226.).--In reply to the question of your correspondent W. P., I beg
to inform him that the custom originated from that period of our history
when the Dutch admiral, Van Tromp, with his fleet appeared on our coasts
in hostility against England. The broom was hoisted as indicative of his
intention to sweep the ships of England from the sea. To repel this
insolence the English admiral hoisted a horse-whip, equally indicative
of his intention to chastise the Dutchman. The pennant which the
horse-whip symbolised has ever since been the distinguishing mark of
English ships of war.


_William Godwin_ (Vol. i., pp. 415. 478.).--Your correspondents N. and
C. H. may find some interesting passages of Godwin's life in his
_Memoirs of Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin_: Johnson, St. Paul's Church
Yard, 1798.


_Family of Kyme_ (Vol. iv., p. 23.).--Bold may find some information
which will assist him in a pedigree and account of this family, showing
the descent of the manor of South and North Kyme in Lincolnshire, in
Creasy's _History of Sleaford and the surrounding Neighbourhood_, p.
274. The barony of Kyme appears to have passed into the female line by
the death of William de Kyme without issue in 12 Edward III.

    J. P. JUN.

_Plaids and Tartans_ (Vol. iv., p. 7.).--

  "The belted plaid was the original dress. It is precisely that of
  a savage, who, finding a web of cloth he had not skill to frame
  into a garment, wrapt one end round his middle, and threw the rest
  about his shoulders.... And it is little to the honour of Highland
  ingenuity, that although the chiefs wore long pantaloons called
  _trews_, the common _gael_ never fell upon any substitute for the
  belted plaid, till an English officer, for the benefit of the
  labourers who worked under his direction on the military roads,
  invented the _fileah beg_, philabeg, or little petticoat, detached
  from the plaid, and fastened by a buckle round the waist."

Although the above extract from the _Quarterly Review_, vol. i. p. 186.,
is not exactly a reply to the Query of A JUROR (Vol. iv., p. 7.), still
it may be of some use to him.

I would like also to learn how much of the reviewer's story is founded
upon fact, as I confess I am very much inclined to doubt the truth of it
_in toto_.


_Peace Illumination_, 1802 (Vol. iv., p. 23.).--The story referred to by
MR. CAMPKIN does not appear to be so apocryphal as he supposes. Southey,
who was an eye-witness of the illuminations, gives it as an indisputed
fact. His words are:

  "We entered the avenue immediately opposite to M. Otto's, and
  raising ourselves by the help of a garden wall, overlooked the
  crowd, and thus obtained a full and uninterrupted sight of what
  thousands and tens of thousands were vainly struggling to see. To
  describe it, splendid as it was, is impossible; the whole building
  presented a front of light. The inscription was 'Peace and Amity:'
  it had been 'Peace and Concord,' but a party of soldiers in the
  morning, whose honest patriotism did not regard trifling
  differences of orthography, insisted upon it that they were not
  _conquered_, and that no Frenchman should say so; and so the word
  Amity, which can hardly be regarded as English, was substituted in
  its stead."[2]

  [Footnote 2: _Letters from England, by Don Manuel Alvarez
  Espriella, translated from the Spanish_ (3 vols. 12mo. London,
  1807), vol. i. lett. 8. p. 93.]


_Basnet Family_ (Vol. iii., p. 495.).--I can perhaps give D. X. some
information respecting the ancient family of Basnet, being related to
them through my mother.

From papers in our possession, we have always considered ourselves
descended from Edward Basnet, the first married Dean of St. Patrick's;
and I drew up a pedigree of the family, which is in Berry's _Berkshire_.
But the _proofs_ only go as far as Thomas Basnet, of Coventry, born in
1590. Lawrance Basset, otherwise Bassnet, of Bainton, in the fee of the
hundred of Hatton, in the parish of Budworth, in the palatine of
Chester, living in the 27th of Henry VIII., anno 1536, was descended of
a younger house of Sir Philip Basset, knight, &c. of St. Hillane, in the
county of Glamorgan. He had Piers Basnet, of Bainton aforesaid, lived in
the time of Henry VIII., anno 1547, purchased land in Bainton of Edward
Starkie, of Simondston in Lancashire, married Ann, dau. of Robert Eaton,
of Over Whitley, first wife, by whom he had two sons, Thomas and Henry.
The second wife was dau. of ---- Stretch, of Leigh, had one son Robert,
of the city of Chester.

The second son of Lawrance Basset, or Bassnet, was Hugh, of Leigh,
living temp. Henry VIII., anno 1543.

The third son was Thomas, temp. Henry VIII., 1539, whose son (we
suppose) was Edward Basnet, Dean of St. Patrick's whose grandson was an
ensign in General Monk's own regiment, the Coldstream Guards, 1660. He
left the regiment in 1665.

In the Egerton Papers, Camden Soc., vol. xii., is this account:

  "Amongst those appointed for the Privy Council for the better
  government of Ireland, in the year July 1550, was Edward Basnet,
  clerk, late Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin."

The arms of the present family are Argent, a cheveron gules, between
three helmets, close ppr. Crest: an arm, embowed, in armour, holding a
cutlas, all proper.

By applying to Charles Basnett, Esq., No. 3. Brock Street, Bath, D. X.
may have a full account of this family.


  Southcote Lodge, July 17. 1851.



As we last week called attention to the _Three Treatises by John
Wickliffe_ just published by Dr. Todd of Dublin, we may very properly
record the sale by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson on Tuesday the 8th of
this month of a MS. volume containing twelve treatises (which are all
said to be unpublished) written by John Wickliffe and Richard Hampole.
The volume, a small 8vo., was of the fourteenth century, with a few
leaves supplied by a hand of the sixteenth, and contained "A Tretis on
the Ten Heestis (_i.e._ Commandments), A Prologue of the Paternoster,
'Here suen dyverse chapitris excitynge men to hevenli desijr,' the
Councell of Christ, Off vertuous pacience, Wickliffe's Chartre of
Hevene, The Hors or Armour off Hevene, the Name off Jhesu, The Love of
Jhesu, Off verri Mekenes, Off the Effect off Mannes Will, Of Actif Liif
and Contemplatif Lyf, The Mirrour of Chastitee." It was purchased by
Bumstead of Holborn for 11_l._ The next lot in the same sale was the
original manuscript Diary, extending from October, 1675, to September,
1684, of Annesley Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal in the reign of
Charles II., which was purchased by Boone, it is believed on commission
for the British Museum, for the sum of 12_l._ 10_s._

The _Athenæum_ of Saturday last publishes some inquiries from Mr. Payne
Collier connected with the manuscript play by Anthony Mundy, which forms
the subject of SIR F. MADDEN'S interesting, communication in our present
number. Mr. Collier is about to edit the drama in question for the
Shakspeare Society; and the object of his paper, which well deserves the
attention of our readers, is to obtain information respecting two
wizards or magicians who figure in it, the one named John a Kent, and
the other John a Cumber, who must formerly have been popular heroes, and
been recorded in ballads and chapbooks which have now entirely
disappeared. We call attention to these inquiries with the view of
giving additional publicity to them, and in the hope of procuring from
Mr. Collier some Notes respecting these old world heroes, of one of
whom, John a Kent, some particulars are to be found, we believe, in
Coxe's _Monmouthshire_.

The obituary of the past week contains the name of one of the most
distinguished historical writers of the present day, the Rev. Dr.
Lingard. An able and zealous champion of the Church of which he was so
eminent a member, his tolerant spirit and independent principles show
that of Dr. Lingard may be said, what was applied with admirable
propriety to his co-religionist, the late learned librarian at Stowe, by
Sir James Macintosh, that he was

      "True to his faith, but not the slave of Rome."

The sale of M. Donnadieu's valuable collection of Autographs will
commence on Tuesday next, and occupy five days. The Catalogue, which has
been prepared by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson with their usual care, is
itself a very interesting document. Our limits will not of course admit
of our specifying a tithe of the curious and valuable articles which are
now to be brought to the hammer: but as specimens of the richness of the
collection, we will point out a few which are of importance, as
illustrative of English history. Lot 165, for instance, is _Charles I.'s
Marriage Contract with the Infanta of Spain_, a document of the highest
value, but which has not, we believe, as yet been printed either
accurately or entirely. Lot 184 is a most interesting letter from
_Charles II. to his Sister the Duchess of Orleans_, written from
Canterbury the day after he landed at Dover; while Lot 661 is a most
pathetic _Letter from the Duke of Monmouth to the Earl of Rochester_,
entreating his intercession with James, and written five days before his
execution. Lot 254 is _The Original Warrant to the Lord Mayor of London,
directing him to proclaim Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of the
Commonwealth of England, Scotland, Ireland, and the Dominions thereto
belonging_; and Lot 500, a _Warrant of the Privy Council of Lady Jane
Gray_, is a document of the highest importance, as proving (what has
been doubted) that the Council of Lady Jane Grey did actually perform
official acts as a Council. These of course are among the gems of the
collection; but in the whole thousand lots there is not one but is of

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--J. Sage's (4. Newman's Row, Lincoln's Inn Fields)
Miscellaneous List for July, 1851, of Valuable and Interesting Books; T.
Kerslake's (3. Park Street, Bristol) Catalogue of Books lately bought.


LIFE OF DR. ARNOLD. 2 Vols. 8vo.

RAILWAY MAGAZINE or Journal, 1844 and 1845.




BRITISH POETS. Whittingham's Edition, boards or quires, without the


TYNDALE'S "PARABLE OF THE WICKED MAMMON." Any Edition prior to 1550.

THE DAPHNIS AND CHLOE OF LONGUS. Courier's French Translation.









DOMESDAY BOOK. 4 Vols. Folio.


Leeu, 1492.



Two copies wanted.

Stewart's Philosophy of the Human Mind. 4to. Vol. I.


THE DEMON, &c., by James Hinton. London: J. Mason.

VET. TEST. Hafniæ. 4to. 1652.



Longmans and Co. 1821. Vols. I. V. and VIII. wanted.


MARKHAM'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Vol. II. 1836. Sixth Edition.

JAMES'S NAVAL HISTORY. (6 Vols. 8vo.) 1822-4. Vol. VI.

HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. (8 Vols. 1818.) Vol. IV.




OLD BAYLEY SESSIONS PAPERS, 1744 to 1774, or any portion thereof. 4to.

Lond. 1755.



CHEVALIER RAMSAY, ESSAI DE POLITIQUE, où l'on traite de la Nécessité, de
l'Origine, des Droits, des Bornes et des différentes Formes de la
Souveraineté, selon les Principes de l'Auteur de Télémaque. 2 Vols.
12mo. La Haye, without date, but printed in 1719.

The same. Second Edition, under the title "Essai Philosophique sur le
Gouvernement Civil, selon les Principes de Fénélon," 12mo. Londres,





ART JOURNAL, 1839 to 1844 inclusive. Also 1849.

BULWER'S NOVELS. 12mo. Published at 6_s._ per Vol. Pilgrims of the
Rhine, Alice, and Zanoni.


  [Star symbol] Letters, stating particulars and lowest price,
  _carriage free_, to be sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND
  QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

Notices to Correspondents.

LADY FLORA HASTINGS' BEQUEST. _The communications we have received
reiterating Miss Barber's claim to the authorship of this Poem shall
appear in our next number._

JARLTZBERG. _Will this correspondent say how we may address a
communication to him?_

_The necessity of making up our Paper earlier than usual in consequence
of issuing a_ DOUBLE NUMBER _has compelled us to omit two or three
Queries, to which, at the special request of the writers, we should
otherwise have given immediate insertion. They shall appear next week._

A. G. W. _will find the proverbial saying:_

  "Quem Deus vult perdere prius dementat,"

_very fully illustrated in_ "NOTES AND QUERIEs," Vol. i., pp. 347. 351.
421. 476.

ÆGROTUS _is thanked. His communication has only been laid aside until we
have time to separate the different articles. Our correspondents would
greatly oblige us if they would, when writing on several subjects, keep
them separate and distinct. Are we at liberty to publish any of the
anecdotes contained in Ægrotus' last letter?_

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Kiss the Hare's Foot--Family of Kyme-Registry
of British Subjects Abroad--Coke and Cowper--Dr. Elrington's
Edition of Ussher--Dunmore Castle--Bummaree--Notation by
Coal-whippers--William Hone--Baronets of Ireland--Dryden and
Oldham--Bellarmin's Monstrous Paradox--Book Plates--Thread the
Needle--Miss or Mistress--Planets of the Month--Theobald
Anguilbert--Heu quanto minus--Peace Illumination--Salting the
Dead--Lady Flora Hastings' Bequest--P's and Q's--Nervous--Scandal
against Elizabeth--Mosaic--"Rack" in the Tempest--Jonah and the
Whale--Gooseberry Fool--Spencer Perceval--Sardonic Smiles._

T. E. H., _that by way of hastening the period when we shall be
justified in permanently enlarging our Paper to 24 pages, we should
forward copies of our_ PROSPECTUS _to correspondents who would kindly
enclose them to such friends as they think likely, from their love of
literature, to become subscribers to_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," _has already
been acted upon by several friendly correspondents, to whom we are
greatly indebted. We shall be most happy to forward Prospectuses for
this purpose to any other of our friends able and willing thus to assist
towards increasing our circulation._

_The commencement of a New Volume with our 88th Number affords a
favourable opportunity to gentlemen resident in the country to commence
the work. The Subscription for the Stamped Edition of_ "NOTES AND
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paid by Post-Office Order, drawn in favour of our Publisher,_ MR. GEORGE
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VOL. III., _neatly bound in cloth, and with very copious Index, is now
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  Society's House on or before the THIRTEENTH OF NOVEMBER, 1851,
  addressed to George Grove, Esq., Secretary, from whom additional
  particulars may be learned.

  By order of the Council, GEORGE GROVE, Sec.

      Adelphi, June 1. 1851.
      Post 8vo., price One Shilling.

MR. SINGER'S "WORMWOOD;" embracing a restoration of the Author's reply,
mutilated in "NOTES AND QUERIES," No. 72.; with a Note on the Monk of
Bury; and a Reading of Shakespeare's Sonnet cxi., "supplementary to all
the Commentators." By H. K. STAPLE CAUSTON.

  London: HENRY KENT CAUSTON, Nag's Head Court, Gracechurch St.

Just published, price 7_s._ 6_d._, neatly bound in cloth.


  Now first printed from a Manuscript in the Library of Trinity
  College, Dublin, with Notes and a Glossary. By JAMES HENTHORN
  TODD, D.D., Senior Fellow of Trinity College, Professor of Hebrew
  in the University, and Treasurer of St. Patrick's Cathedral,


  "The Tracts here collected are now, for the first time, printed.
  They are interesting as being, perhaps, the latest of Wycklyffe's
  writings, and as expressing, it may be presumed, his matured
  opinions and judgement, on the important subjects of which they
  treat. One of them, the Treatise _On the Church and its Members_,
  contains internal evidence of having been composed within the last
  year of the Reformer's life: the others, from their close
  connexion with this, in style and subject-matter, were probably
  written at the same time."

  "It is scarcely necessary to say that the Editor, in printing
  these curious tracts, has no wish to recommend _all_ the doctrines
  they advocate. His object is to make them known as documents
  essential to the right understanding of the attempt made by
  Wycklyffe and his followers for the reformation of the Church.
  They are interesting also as monuments of the state of the English
  language in the fourteenth century, and they throw great light on
  the manners, customs, and religion of our ancestors at that

  "Some _Notes_ have been added explanatory of obscure allusions,
  and with verifications of the quotations from ancient writers,
  occurring in the Text. A copious _Glossary_ has also been
  compiled, to assist the reader in understanding the obsolete words
  and spellings of the original.

  "The Editor is not without a hope that the publication of these
  Treatises may direct the attention of influential scholars to the
  importance of collecting and printing, under the care of competent
  Editors, all the existing writings which remain in our libraries,
  under the name of Wycklyffe and his contemporaries. Until this is
  done, a most important period of our ecclesiastical history must
  continue in comparative obscurity."

  Dublin: HODGES AND SMITH, Grafton Street, Booksellers to the


      Incorporated by Act of Parliament, 12 and 13 Vict. c. 91.
      HENRY KER SEYMER, Esq., M.P., Hanford. Dorset, Chairman.
      JOHN VILLIERS SHELLEY, Esq., Maresfield Park, Sussex,
      John Chevallier Cobbold, Esq., M.P., Ipswich.
      William Cubitt, Esq., Great George Street, Westminster.
      Henry Currie, Esq., M.P., West Horsley, Surrey.
      Thomas Edward Dicey, Esq., Claybrook Hall, Lutterworth.
      William Fisher Hobbs, Esq., Boxted Lodge, Colchester.
      Edward John Hutchins, Esq., M.P., Eaton Square, London.
      Samuel Morton Peto, Esq., M.P., Great George Street.
      Colonel George Alexander Reid, M.P., Bulstrode Park, Bucks.
      William Tite, Esq., F.R.S., Lowndes Square, London.
      William Wilshere, Esq., The Frythe, Welwyn, Herts.

  This Company is empowered to execute--

  1. All works of Drainage (including Outfalls through adjoining
  Estates), Irrigation, Reclaiming, Enclosing, and otherwise
  improving Land.

  2. To erect Farm Homesteads, and other Buildings necessary for the
  cultivation of Land.

  3. To execute Improvements, under Contract, with Commissioners of
  Sewers, Local Boards of Health, Corporations, Trustees, and other
  Public Bodies.

  4. To purchase Lands capable of Improvement, and fettered by
  Restrictions of Entail; and having executed the necessary Works,
  to resell them with a Title communicated by the Company's Act.

  Owners of Entailed Estates, Trustees, Mortgagees, Corporations.
  Incumbents, Life Tenants, and other Persons having only limited
  Interests, may obtain the use of the Company's Powers to carry out
  every kind of permanent Improvement, either by the Application of
  their own or the Company's Funds, secured by a yearly Charge on
  the Property improved.

  Proposals for the Execution of Works to be addressed to

      WILLIAM CLIFFORD, Secretary
      Offices, 52. Parliament Street,

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride in the City of London, and
published by GEORGE BELL of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, July 26, 1851.

      [List of volumes and pages in "Notes and Queries", Vol. I-IV]

      | Notes and Queries Vol. I.                                   |
      | Vol., No.     | Date, Year        | Pages     | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. I No.  1 | November  3, 1849 |   1 -  17 | PG #  8603  |
      | Vol. I No.  2 | November 10, 1849 |  18 -  32 | PG # 11265  |
      | Vol. I No.  3 | November 17, 1849 |  33 -  46 | PG # 11577  |
      | Vol. I No.  4 | November 24, 1849 |  49 -  63 | PG # 13513  |
      | Vol. I No.  5 | December  1, 1849 |  65 -  80 | PG # 11636  |
      | Vol. I No.  6 | December  8, 1849 |  81 -  95 | PG # 13550  |
      | Vol. I No.  7 | December 15, 1849 |  97 - 112 | PG # 11651  |
      | Vol. I No.  8 | December 22, 1849 | 113 - 128 | PG # 11652  |
      | Vol. I No.  9 | December 29, 1849 | 130 - 144 | PG # 13521  |
      | Vol. I No. 10 | January   5, 1850 | 145 - 160 | PG #        |
      | Vol. I No. 11 | January  12, 1850 | 161 - 176 | PG # 11653  |
      | Vol. I No. 12 | January  19, 1850 | 177 - 192 | PG # 11575  |
      | Vol. I No. 13 | January  26, 1850 | 193 - 208 | PG # 11707  |
      | Vol. I No. 14 | February  2, 1850 | 209 - 224 | PG # 13558  |
      | Vol. I No. 15 | February  9, 1850 | 225 - 238 | PG # 11929  |
      | Vol. I No. 16 | February 16, 1850 | 241 - 256 | PG # 16193  |
      | Vol. I No. 17 | February 23, 1850 | 257 - 271 | PG # 12018  |
      | Vol. I No. 18 | March     2, 1850 | 273 - 288 | PG # 13544  |
      | Vol. I No. 19 | March     9, 1850 | 289 - 309 | PG # 13638  |
      | Vol. I No. 20 | March    16, 1850 | 313 - 328 | PG # 16409  |
      | Vol. I No. 21 | March    23, 1850 | 329 - 343 | PG # 11958  |
      | Vol. I No. 22 | March    30, 1850 | 345 - 359 | PG # 12198  |
      | Vol. I No. 23 | April     6, 1850 | 361 - 376 | PG # 12505  |
      | Vol. I No. 24 | April    13, 1850 | 377 - 392 | PG # 13925  |
      | Vol. I No. 25 | April    20, 1850 | 393 - 408 | PG # 13747  |
      | Vol. I No. 26 | April    27, 1850 | 409 - 423 | PG # 13822  |
      | Vol. I No. 27 | May       4, 1850 | 425 - 447 | PG # 13712  |
      | Vol. I No. 28 | May      11, 1850 | 449 - 463 | PG # 13684  |
      | Vol. I No. 29 | May      18, 1850 | 465 - 479 | PG # 15197  |
      | Vol. I No. 30 | May      25, 1850 | 481 - 495 | PG # 13713  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. II.                                  |
      | Vol., No.      | Date, Year         | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. II No. 31 | June  1, 1850      |   1- 15 | PG # 12589  |
      | Vol. II No. 32 | June  8, 1850      |  17- 32 | PG # 15996  |
      | Vol. II No. 33 | June 15, 1850      |  33- 48 | PG # 26121  |
      | Vol. II No. 34 | June 22, 1850      |  49- 64 | PG # 22127  |
      | Vol. II No. 35 | June 29, 1850      |  65- 79 | PG # 22126  |
      | Vol. II No. 36 | July  6, 1850      |  81- 96 | PG # 13361  |
      | Vol. II No. 37 | July 13, 1850      |  97-112 | PG # 13729  |
      | Vol. II No. 38 | July 20, 1850      | 113-128 | PG # 13362  |
      | Vol. II No. 39 | July 27, 1850      | 129-143 | PG # 13736  |
      | Vol. II No. 40 | August  3, 1850    | 145-159 | PG # 13389  |
      | Vol. II No. 41 | August 10, 1850    | 161-176 | PG # 13393  |
      | Vol. II No. 42 | August 17, 1850    | 177-191 | PG # 13411  |
      | Vol. II No. 43 | August 24, 1850    | 193-207 | PG # 13406  |
      | Vol. II No. 44 | August 31, 1850    | 209-223 | PG # 13426  |
      | Vol. II No. 45 | September  7, 1850 | 225-240 | PG # 13427  |
      | Vol. II No. 46 | September 14, 1850 | 241-256 | PG # 13462  |
      | Vol. II No. 47 | September 21, 1850 | 257-272 | PG # 13936  |
      | Vol. II No. 48 | September 28, 1850 | 273-288 | PG # 13463  |
      | Vol. II No. 49 | October  5, 1850   | 289-304 | PG # 13480  |
      | Vol. II No. 50 | October 12, 1850   | 305-320 | PG # 13551  |
      | Vol. II No. 51 | October 19, 1850   | 321-351 | PG # 15232  |
      | Vol. II No. 52 | October 26, 1850   | 353-367 | PG # 22624  |
      | Vol. II No. 53 | November  2, 1850  | 369-383 | PG # 13540  |
      | Vol. II No. 54 | November  9, 1850  | 385-399 | PG # 22138  |
      | Vol. II No. 55 | November 16, 1850  | 401-415 | PG # 15216  |
      | Vol. II No. 56 | November 23, 1850  | 417-431 | PG # 15354  |
      | Vol. II No. 57 | November 30, 1850  | 433-454 | PG # 15405  |
      | Vol. II No. 58 | December  7, 1850  | 457-470 | PG # 21503  |
      | Vol. II No. 59 | December 14, 1850  | 473-486 | PG # 15427  |
      | Vol. II No. 60 | December 21, 1850  | 489-502 | PG # 24803  |
      | Vol. II No. 61 | December 28, 1850  | 505-524 | PG # 16404  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. III.                                 |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. III No. 62 | January  4, 1851  |   1- 15 | PG # 15638  |
      | Vol. III No. 63 | January 11, 1851  |  17- 31 | PG # 15639  |
      | Vol. III No. 64 | January 18, 1851  |  33- 47 | PG # 15640  |
      | Vol. III No. 65 | January 25, 1851  |  49- 78 | PG # 15641  |
      | Vol. III No. 66 | February  1, 1851 |  81- 95 | PG # 22339  |
      | Vol. III No. 67 | February  8, 1851 |  97-111 | PG # 22625  |
      | Vol. III No. 68 | February 15, 1851 | 113-127 | PG # 22639  |
      | Vol. III No. 69 | February 22, 1851 | 129-159 | PG # 23027  |
      | Vol. III No. 70 | March  1, 1851    | 161-174 | PG # 23204  |
      | Vol. III No. 71 | March  8, 1851    | 177-200 | PG # 23205  |
      | Vol. III No. 72 | March 15, 1851    | 201-215 | PG # 23212  |
      | Vol. III No. 73 | March 22, 1851    | 217-231 | PG # 23225  |
      | Vol. III No. 74 | March 29, 1851    | 233-255 | PG # 23282  |
      | Vol. III No. 75 | April  5, 1851    | 257-271 | PG # 23402  |
      | Vol. III No. 76 | April 12, 1851    | 273-294 | PG # 26896  |
      | Vol. III No. 77 | April 19, 1851    | 297-311 | PG # 26897  |
      | Vol. III No. 78 | April 26, 1851    | 313-342 | PG # 26898  |
      | Vol. III No. 79 | May  3, 1851      | 345-359 | PG # 26899  |
      | Vol. III No. 80 | May 10, 1851      | 361-382 | PG # 32495  |
      | Vol. III No. 81 | May 17, 1851      | 385-399 | PG # 29318  |
      | Vol. III No. 82 | May 24, 1851      | 401-415 | PG # 28311  |
      | Vol. III No. 83 | May 31, 1851      | 417-440 | PG # 36835  |
      | Vol. III No. 84 | June  7, 1851     | 441-472 | PG # 37379  |
      | Vol. III No. 85 | June 14, 1851     | 473-488 | PG # 37403  |
      | Vol. III No. 86 | June 21, 1851     | 489-511 | PG # 37496  |
      | Vol. III No. 87 | June 28, 1851     | 513-528 | PG # 37516  |
      | Notes and Queries Vol. IV.                                  |
      | Vol., No.       | Date, Year        | Pages   | PG # xxxxx  |
      | Vol. IV No. 88  | July  5, 1851     |   1- 15 | PG # 37548  |
      | Vol. IV No. 89  | July 12, 1851     |  17- 31 | PG # 37568  |
      | Vol. IV No. 90  | July 19, 1851     |  33- 47 | PG # 37593  |
      | Vol I. Index. [Nov. 1849-May 1850]            | PG # 13536  |
      | INDEX TO THE SECOND VOLUME. MAY-DEC., 1850    | PG # 13571  |
      | INDEX TO THE THIRD VOLUME. JAN.-JUNE, 1851    | PG # 26770  |

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Vol. IV, Number 91, July 26, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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