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Title: Terrestrial and Celestial Globes Volume 1 - Their History and Construction Including a Consideration of their Value as Aids in the Study of Geography and Astronomy
Author: Stevenson, Edward Luther, 1858-1944
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Table of Contents


  List of Illustrations                                           xiii

  Foreword                                                         xix

  Chapter I: Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity                         1

  The beginnings of astronomical and of geographical
  science.—Primitive attempts at map construction, as seen
  in the Babylonian plan of the world.—Anaximander probably
  the first scientific cartographer.—Statements of
  Herodotus.—The place of Hecataeus, Hipparchus, Marinus,
  Ptolemy.—The Romans as map makers.—The earliest beliefs
  in a globular earth.—Thales, the Pythagoreans,
  Aristotle.—Eratosthenes and his measurements of the
  earth.—Crates probably the first to construct a
  terrestrial globe.—Statements of Strabo.—Ptolemy’s
  statements concerning globes and globe construction.—The
  allusions of Pliny.

  Chapter II: Celestial Globes in Antiquity                         14

  Thales’ ideas, probably not a globe maker.—Eudoxus.—The
  Atlante Farnese.—Archimedes.—Allusion of
  Lactantius.—Pappus’ allusions.—Armillary spheres.—The
  astronomer Hipparchus.—Ptolemy.—Globes used for
  decorative purposes by the Romans.—Roman coins.—The
  Byzantine Leontius Mechanicus.

  Chapter III: Globes Constructed by the Arabs                      26

  Followers of Ptolemy.—Early armillary spheres.—Interest
  of the Califs in globes and astronomical instruments.—The
  record of the ‘Fihrist.’—Ibrahim.—Caissar.—Mohammed ben
  Helal.—Mohammed el Ordhi.—The Paris globes.—Ridhwan

  Chapter IV: Terrestrial and Celestial Globes in the
    Christian Middle Ages                                           35

  General attitude of the period toward the theories of the
  Greeks and the Romans.—Scripture statements as sources of
  information.—Inclination of certain early writers to
  accept the doctrine of a spherical earth.—The particular
  attitude of Pope Sylvester II.—The asserted interest of
  Emperor Frederick II in scientific studies.—Alfonso the
  Wise and the Alfonsian tables.—Interesting allusions in
  Alfonso’s work to globes and globe construction.—Giovanni
  Campano of Novara and the statements in his ‘Tractatis de
  sphera solida.’—The attitude of Albertus Magnus,
  Sacrobosco, Roger Bacon, Vincent of Beauvais, Dante.

  Chapter V: Globes Constructed in the Early Years of
    the Great Geographical Discoveries                              46

  Increasing interest in geographical discovery and maritime
  enterprise in the fourteenth and the fifteenth
  century.—Awakened interest in globe construction.—Martin
  Behaim and his globe of the year 1492.—The Laon
  globe.—Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus and their
  interest in globes.—John Cabot and his globe.—Globes of
  Johannes Stöffler.—Conrad Celtes and his part in arousing
  an interest in globes.

  Chapter VI: Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century                 59

  Summary of fifteenth century globe
  characteristics.—Increasing interest in globes.—Globes of
  Pope Julius II.—Friar Marco da Benevento.—Importance of
  the Rosselli family of Florence.—The globe of Barnaba
  Canti.—Friar Giuliano Vannelli.—Interest of Trithemius
  in globes.—The Bunau globe.—Waldseemüller’s map and
  globe.—Liechtenstein globes.—Büchlin reference.—Globus
  Mundi.—Welt Kugel.—Lenox globe.—Jagellonicus
  globe.—Hauslab.—Green globe of Paris.—Nordenskiöld
  gores.—So-called Leonardo da Vinci gores.—Boulengier
  gores.—Acton globes.—Globes of Magellan and of del
  Cano.—Globes of Schöner.

  Chapter VII: Globes of the Second Quarter of the
    Sixteenth Century                                               94

  Globes indicating (a) an Asiatic connection of the New
  World, (b) globes expressing a doubt of such Old World
  connection, (c) globes showing an independent position of
  the New World.—Franciscus Monachus.—Hakluyt’s
  reference.—The Gilt globe.—Parmentier.—Francesco
  Libri.—Nancy globe.—Globes of Gemma Frisius.—Robertus
  de Bailly.—Schöner globe of
  1533.—Schiepp.—Furtembach.—Paris Wooden globe.—Vopel
  globes.—Santa Cruz.—Hartmann gores.—Important globe of
  Ulpius.—Cardinal Bembo’s globes.—Mercator’s epoch-making
  activity.—Fracastro.—Ramusio’s references to
  globes.—Gianelli.—Florence celestial globe.

  Chapter VIII: Globes and Globe Makers of the Third
    Quarter of the Sixteenth Century                               146

  Revival of interest in globe making in Italy.—François De
  Mongenet of France and the reprint of his globe maps in
  Italy.—Gore map of Antonius Florianus.—Globe records
  left by Alessandro Piccolomini.—Ruscelli’s directions for
  globe construction.—Reference to the work of Sanuto and
  Gonzaga.—Armillary sphere of Volpaja.—Excellent
  workmanship in the celestial-terrestrial globe of
  Christian Heyden.—Metal globes of Johannes
  Praetorius.—Vasari’s reference to the work of Ignazio
  Danti.—The iron globe of Francisco Basso.—Armillary
  sphere of Giovanni Barrocci.—The work of Hieronymo de
  Boncompagni.—Emanuele Filiberto.—Anonymous globe of
  1575.—Laurentian armillary spheres.—Small globes of the
  Biblioteca Nationale of Florence.—Mario Cartaro.

  Chapter IX: Globes and Globe Makers of the Last
    Quarter of the Sixteenth Century                               172

  Brief summary of sixteenth-century globe making.—The
  close of the century introducing us to the great Dutch
  globe makers.—The clock maker Dasypodius.—Peter and
  Philip Apianus.—The armillary sphere of Carlus
  Platus.—Roll and Reinhold.—Tycho Brahe and his
  influence.—Titon du Tillet.—The terrestrial globe of
  Rouen.—Globes of Emery Molyneux.—Globes of
  Bürgi.—Zürich globe.—Beaker globes.—Ivory globe of
  Antonio Spano.—The Van Langren globes.—Santucci.—B. F.
  globe of Dresden.

List of Illustrations

  _Frontispiece._ Museum of The Hispanic Society of America Vol. I

  FIG.                                                            PAGE


   1. Fragment Map of Egyptian Gold Mines. _From Chabas_             2

   2. Tablet Representing Babylonian World-Plan. _Original in
        British Museum, London_                                      3

   3. Ptolemy World Map. _From Ebnerianus manuscript in
        New York Public Library, ca. 1466_                           4

   4. Sections of Peutinger Tables. _Original in Imperial Library,
        Vienna_                                                      6

   5. Globe according to Crates. _From pen drawing_                  7

   6. Globe according to Strabo. _From pen drawing_                  9


   7. Atlante Farnese, ca. 200 B.C. _From Passari’s
        Atlas Farnesianus_                                          14

   8. Atlante Farnese Constellation Figures. _From Passari’s
        Atlas_                                                      16

   9. Armillary Sphere according to Ptolemy. _From original
       Vopel globe in National Museum, Washington_                  20

  10. Bosco Reale Roman Fresco, ca. 50 A.D. _From original
        in Metropolitan Museum, New York_                           22

  11. Greek and Roman Coins. _From originals in collection of
        American Numismatic Society, New York_                       6

  12. Roman Gems. _From King’s Antique Gems and Rings_               6


  13. Northern Hemisphere of Globe by Mohammed ben Helal,
        1275. _From Dorn’s reproduction of original in London
        Asiatic Society’s collection_                               28

  14. Globe of Mohammed ben Muwajed el Ordhi, 1279. _From
        original in Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden_                     30

  15. Globe of Diemat Eddin Mohammed, 1573. _From original
        in National Library, Paris_                                 32

 15a. Anonymous Arabic Globe, 1635. _From original in Library
        Professor David E. Smith, New York_                         34


  16. The Universe according to Cosmas Indicopleustes, Sixth
        Century. _From reproduction by Montfauçon_                  36

  17. Cosmas’ Illustration Confuting the Existence of Antipodal
        Peoples. _From reproduction by Montfauçon_                  37

  18. Hereford World Map, ca. 1283                                  38

  19. The Earth Pictured as a Sphere by Nicolas d’Oresme,
        1377. _From reproduction in Santarem’s Atlas_               38

  20. The Constellation Taurus. _From Rico y Sinobas’ reproduction
        of Alfonsian Tables_                                        42


  21. Globe of Martin Behaim, 1492. _From reproduction of
        original in Library of the American Geographical Society,
        New York_                                                   46

  22. Portrait of Martin Behaim. _From Ghillany_                    48

  23. Globe of Martin Behaim in Hemispheres. _From Ghillany_        50

  24. Lorenzo Lotto Portrait of Columbus. _From original belonging
        to James W. Ellsworth, New York_                            52

  25. Portrait of Sebastian Cabot, Son of John Cabot. _From
        engraving by Rawle_                                         54


  26. Title-page of Johann Schöner’s Terrae Descriptio, 1518.
        _From original_                                             60

  27. Second Title-page of Mauro Fiorentino’s Sphera Volgare,
        1537. _From original_                                       61

  28. Holbein’s Ambassadors. _From original in National Art
        Gallery, London_                                            62

  29. Library of Escorial. _From an old print_                      64

  30. Castle of Prince Waldburg de Wolfegg. _From original
        photograph_                                                 66

  31. World Map of Martin Waldseemüller, 1507. _From
        Fischer and von Wieser’s reproduction_                      68

  32. Globe Gores Attributed to Martin Waldseemüller, 1509.
        _From original belonging to Prince Liechtenstein_           70

  33. Globus Mundi, 1509. _From original_                           73

  34. Lenox Globe, 1510. _From original in New York Public_
        _Library_                                                   72

  35. Lenox Globe in Hemispheres. _From pen drawing_                72

  36. Jagellonicus Globe, 1510. _From original in Cracow_           74

  37. Jagellonicus Globe in Hemispheres. _From reproduction by
        Estreicher_                                                 74

  38. Green Globe, 1515. _From original in National Library,
        Paris_                                                      76

  39. Liechtenstein Globe Gores, ca. 1518. _From original belonging
        to Prince Liechtenstein_                                    78

  40. Terrestrial Globe Gores of Boulengier, ca. 1518. _From
        original in New York Public Library_                        80

  41. Portrait of Magellan. _From an old print_                     82

  42. Portrait of Johann Schöner. _From an old engraving_           84

  43. Globe of Johann Schöner in Hemispheres, 1515. _From
        original and Jomard’s Atlas—pen drawing_                    84

  44. Western Hemisphere of Johann Schöner’s Globe, 1520.
        _From Ghillany_                                             86

 44a. Anonymous Globe Gores, ca. 1540. _From original in
        New York Public Library_                                    88

  45. Stabius World Globe Map, 1515. _From original in Imperial
        Library, Vienna_                                            88

  46. Northern Celestial Hemisphere of Albrecht Dürer. _From
        original in Imperial Library, Vienna_                       28


  47. Bartholomew Columbus Sketch Map, 1506. _From reproduction
        by von Wieser_                                              95

  48. Hemispheres of Franciscus Monachus, 1526. _From his De
        orbis situ_                                                 96

  49. Gilt Globe, ca. 1528. _From Harrisse drawing after the
        original in National Library, Paris_                        98

  50. Nancy Globe, ca. 1530. _From original in Nancy Museum_       100

 50a. Globe of Jacob Stamfer, 1539. _From original in Zürich_      100

 50b. Nancy Globe in Hemispheres. _From Blau’s reproduction_       102

  51. Portrait of Gemma Frisius. _From an old print_               104

  52. Terrestrial Globe of Robertus de Bailly—Nine of twelve
        gores exhibiting the map, 1530. _Redrawn for Rosenthal’s
        Catalogue, No. 100_                                        108

  53. Terrestrial Globe of Robertus de Bailly, 1530. _From
        original in Library of J. P. Morgan, New York_             108

  54. Schöner’s Terrestrial Globe, 1533 (Probable). _From his
        Opera Mathematica_                                         110

 54a. Schöner’s Celestial Globe, 1533 (Probable). _From his
        Opera Mathematica_                                         112

  55. Paris Wooden Globe, 1535. _From original in National
        Library, Paris_                                            114

  56. Vopel Globe, 1543. _From original in the Library
        of Congress, Washington_                                   116

 56a. Western Hemisphere of Vopel Terrestrial Globe. _From
        de Costa’s drawing_                                         98

  57. Terrestrial Globe of Euphrosynus Ulpius, 1541. _From
        original in Library New York Historical Society_           118

  58. Western Hemisphere of Ulpius Globe, 1541. _From the
        drawing by de Costa_                                       119

  59. Gore Map of Alonso de Santa Cruz, 1542. _From Dahlgren’s
        reproduction_                                              122

  60. Portraits of Gerhard Mercator and Jodocus Hondius.
        _From an old print_                                        124

  61. Six of Twelve Terrestrial Globe Gores by Gerhard Mercator,
        1541. _From reproduction by van Raemdonck_                 128

  62. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard Mercator, 1541. _From
        original in Astronomical Museum, Rome_                     134


  63. Terrestrial Globe Gores of François de Mongenet, 1552.
        _From original in New York Public Library_                 148

  64. Celestial Globe Gores of François de Mongenet, 1552.
        _From original in New York Public Library_                 150

  65. Globes of François de Mongenet, 1560, and of Gian
        Francesco Costa, 1784                                      150

  66. Globe Gores of Antonius Florianus, 1555. _From Lafreri’s
        Atlas_                                                     152

  67. Globe of Christian Heyden, 1560. _From original in Math.
        Phys. Salon, Dresden_                                      156

  68. Globe of Johannes Praetorius, 1566. _From original in
        Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden_                                158

  69. Terrestrial Globe of Mario Cartaro, 1577. _From original
        in possession of Mr. Reed, New York_                       168


  70. Strassburg Clock and Globe of Conrad Dasypodius, 1574.
        _From Schwilgué_                                           174

  71. Portrait of Peter Apianus. _From an old print_               176

  72. Globes of Philip Apianus, 1576. _From originals in K. B.
        Hof- u. Staatsbibliothek, Munich_                          178

  73. Silver-Gilt Globe of Gerhard Emmoser, 1573. _From original
        in Metropolitan Museum, New York_                          180

  74. Globe of George Roll and Johannes Reinhold, 1586. _From
        original in Math. Phys. Salon, Dresden_                    182

  75. Portrait of Tycho Brahe. _From an engraving by Kornenip_     184

  76. Interior of Tycho Brahe’s Observatory at Uranienburg.
        _From Blaeu’s Atlas_                                       186

  77. Globus Magnus of Tycho Brahe, 1584. _From his Astronomiae
        Instauratae Mechanica_                                     188

  78. L’Écuy Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1578. _From original in
        National Library, Paris_                                   190

  79. Terrestrial Globe of Emery Molyneux, 1592. _From original
        in Middle Temple, London_                                  192

  80. Anonymous Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1595. _From original in
        Landesmuseum, Zürich_                                      198

  81. Globe-Goblet of Abraham Gessner, ca. 1600. _From original
        in Wolfegg Castle, Wolfegg_                                200

  82. Gold Globe-Goblet, ca. 1575. _From original in Metropolitan
        Museum, New York_                                          200

  83. Ivory Terrestrial Globe of Antonio Spano, 1593. _From
        original in Library of J. P. Morgan, New York_             202

  84. South Polar Region on Globe of Antonio Spano. _From
        original in Library of J. P. Morgan, New York_             204

 84a. South Polar Region on Globe of Jodocus Hondius, 1600.
        _From original in Library of Henry E. Huntington, New
        York_                                                      204

  85. Terrestrial Globe of Van Langren, 1612. _From original
        in Royal Geographical Society, Amsterdam_                  208

  86. Armillary Sphere of Antonio Santucci (?), ca. 1580.
        _From original in Library of Henry E. Huntington,
        New York_                                                  214

  87. Celestial Globe of B. F., 1600. _From original in Math.
        Phys. Salon, Dresden_                                      216

   CHAP.                TAILPIECES                                PAGE

     II. The Egyptian Gnomon. _From pen drawing_                    25

    III. Arabic Celestial Globe. _From Dorn’s illustration_         34

      V. Ship. _From early portolan chart_                          58

     VI. Honter Globe. _From his Rudimenta cosmographica_           93

    VII. Portuguese Arms                                           145

   VIII. Compass Rose. _From Martines Atlas, 1582_                 171

     IX. Base of Apianus Globe, 1576                               218


Hitherto there has not appeared in English a detailed historical
treatise on globes terrestrial and celestial. The publications are
somewhat numerous, it is true, in which a very general consideration has
been given to the uses of globes, including a reference to their
important structural features, and to the problems geographical and
astronomical in the solution of which they may be counted of service.
There are a few studies, critical and historical, touching certain
selected examples of the early globe maker’s handiwork which can be
cited. Attention, for example, may here be directed to Sir Clements
Markham’s valuable introduction to his excellent English translation of
Hues’ ‘Tractatus de Globis,’ a work originally prepared for the purpose
of furnishing a description of the Molyneaux globes, in which
introduction he undertook “to pass in review the celestial and
terrestrial globes which preceded or were contemporaneous with the first
that were made in England (1592) so far as a knowledge of them has come
down to us,” yet the learned author cites but a fraction of the many
globes referred to in the following pages. In Ravenstein’s ‘Behaim, His
Life and His Globe,’ we have perhaps the most scholarly treatment of its
kind in any language, but the study is limited to the work of one man,
the maker of the oldest extant terrestrial globe, which is dated 1492.

The bibliographical list which is appended gives striking evidence that
there has been a more or less extended interest in the general subject
of the use and the construction of globes in France, in Germany, in
England, and in Italy. The author makes in this place special mention of
his indebtedness to the studies of the distinguished Italian scholar,
Professor Matteo Fiorini, adding that with some propriety his name might
have a place on the title-page. Had there not been a ready access to his
important works, had the Italian Geographical Society not so graciously
expressed to the author its willingness for the free use of as much of
his published investigations as might be desired, for which it stood in
the relation of sponsor publisher, a willingness which Fiorini himself
had assured to any who might have access to the printed results of his
studies within this field, the preparation of this work necessarily
would have extended over a considerable period of time. Special mention
must be made of his ‘Sfere Terrestri e Celesti di Autore Italiano oppure
fatte o conservate in Italia,’ and of his ‘Sfere cosmografiche e
specialmente le Sfere Terrestri.’ These works have been of very signal
value for the study of the Italian globes and globe makers. Not an
inconsiderable part of his descriptive details has been appropriated,
being given in free translation or in paraphrase, quotation marks having
been omitted. Special mention may also here be made of Sigmund Günther’s
interesting little volume, which he titles ‘Erd- und Himmelsgloben nach
dem italienischen Matteo Fiorinis frei bearbeitet.’ This has been of
special value for its bibliographical references and for its short
chapters on globe-gore construction.

To attempt the listing, with description, of all globes known to have
been constructed from the earliest times to the close of the eighteenth
century, the latter being a somewhat arbitrary date, is pretentious. The
fact is fully appreciated that in many instances the description given
is all too brief. Many of the individual terrestrial globe maps of the
period in question, it should be especially noted, are of the greatest
historical and scientific value; but to have undertaken a more detailed
and a more critical study merely of those which may be called the most
important might well have demanded far more time and special research
than could have been fittingly allowed for a general survey such as has
here been planned; in such a course we should indeed have been led
afield from our purpose.

It had been thought when this study was first undertaken that perhaps as
many as one hundred existing examples might be located, and that in
addition to these not a few important references might be found to work
actually done but now lost. Instead of the one hundred, more than eight
hundred and fifty have been listed, and from the interesting experience
in collecting material for the work, the pleasurable hope is entertained
that the published record of this effort will be in some measure the
means of bringing to light not a score but scores of other examples.
Indulging this hope there have been added to each copy of the book a few
blank pages for the insertion of a reference to any not mentioned in the
following printed pages. The author begs in this connection to add an
expression of his grateful appreciation for any word which may be sent
to him concerning unmentioned examples, to the end that in a revised
edition such examples may be fittingly noted. The great war checked the
search for existing examples, and prevented the inclusion of many
illustrations which had been promised, but these were promises which
could not be fulfilled.

An attempt has been made, as before noted, to treat the subject
historically, beginning with the earliest references to the belief in a
spherical earth and a spherical firmament encircling it. It is not easy
to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the
beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a
spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted,
and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed
to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We find allusions to celestial
globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in
the days of Crates and Hipparchus. We find that the Greek geographer
Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their
construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them
as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments
in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of
geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. There is,
however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that
ancient day, this a celestial globe, which is noted below and briefly
described as the Farnese globe. It is of marble, and is thought by some
to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before
the Christian era.

To the Mohammedans belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in
astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we
find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe
construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they
undertook the construction of terrestrial globes.

Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not
wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. We are now learning
that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in
sciences other than theological. In Justinian’s day, or near it, one
Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe
construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to
his work. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon
matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less
concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical
antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form or flat like a
circular disc, nor was it thought to matter overmuch as to the form of
the heavens. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily
are learning to call no longer dark, that geography and astronomy were
not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary
spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. The Venerable
Bede, Notker Labeo, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King
Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser
significance, displayed an interest in globes and globe making.

The modern age opens with an interest in the expansion of Europe
overland eastward, with this interest soon to be followed by greater
enthusiasm in transoceanic expansion. With the rapidly increasing
knowledge concerning the hitherto unknown or but little known regions of
the earth came a desire for better map making, came an interest
intelligently directed in the construction of terrestrial globes on
which the newly discovered parts might be represented in their relative
positions as they are on the real spherical earth. To this interest
Martin Behaim gave striking expression, producing in the year 1492 his
famous “Erdapfel” referred to above as the oldest extant terrestrial
globe. His century closes with every evidence that the spherical theory,
as Aristotle had expressed it nearly two thousand years before, could
alone be accepted by geographers, and if spherical, the fact could be
most impressively taught by the use of a material representation, that
is, by means of a terrestrial globe.

The sixteenth century opened with a marvelously increased interest in
geography, the result of a climax reached through the transoceanic
discoveries in which Columbus led the way. If the makers of plane maps
became now increasingly active, so the makers of globes were becoming
increasingly numerous, and at first in the countries of trans-alpine
Europe. Globes of metal with engraved maps, as the Lenox and the
Jagellonicus copper spheres, globes with manuscript maps covering a
sphere of special composition, as were those of Schöner, globes in the
preparation of which engraved gore maps were employed; as the
Waldseemüller, the Boulengier, the Gemma, and the Mercator, make their
appearance in ever increasing numbers, the activity encouraged by
those interested in a scientific study of geography and astronomy, and
notably by seamen, in whose collection of navigator’s instruments they
were long considered to be of the greatest importance.

How the globe interest in the several countries of Europe found
expression during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries
is fully set forth in the following pages, with something of an attempt
at a grouping and a classification of the results, to the end of making
more clear the trend of that interest, now quickened, now retarded, by
certain temporary or permanent national impulses.

It is especially interesting to note how a certain superiority in globe
making exhibited itself, now in one country, now in another, with a
lingering favor exhibited in Italy for the manuscript or the metal
globe, while in the North, globes with copper engraved gore maps found
increasing favor from the first, with a certain climax reached in the
Netherlands in the days of Hondius and Blaeu.

In the appended tabulated list of globes and globe makers, it will be
noted that the makers have been listed alphabetically, that the kind of
globe has been indicated, whether terrestrial, celestial or armillary
sphere, with the date given, though sometimes only approximately, and
with the diameter of each globe recorded in centimeters, so far as
obtainable with an acceptable degree of accuracy, fractions thereof
being omitted, these same measurements being repeated in the text
reference to each individual example or edition.

The author had been ambitious to include in his illustrations a
reproduction of each known example or edition, showing at least the
general appearance of each, but he fully realizes the more or less
unsatisfactory character of a small print, and the unsatisfactory
results of an attempt to photograph the curved surface of a sphere. Not
a few of the many examples would prove to be of the greatest interest
and scientific value could the entire map surface have been given in
reproduction and in size to be easily legible. It however can be readily
understood how such an undertaking was necessarily considered to be
unpractical. Out of the author’s collection of about four hundred globe
photographs, a selection has been made of those which it has been
thought would be most suitable for illustrative purposes.

It is hoped that the preliminary study herewith presented may lead to a
number of independent and thorough investigations of important
individual examples, to the end of clearly setting forth their great
documentary value.

There have been added to the list of illustrations certain important
legends as they appear in the original, likewise a number of
contemporary portraits of the distinguished globe and map makers of the
last three centuries. In most instances important legends have been
cited in the text in the exact language of the original, to which, with
very few exceptions, a translation is added. The critical student will
occasionally be somewhat astounded at the incorrectness of the language,
Latin, Italian, Spanish, French or German, in the original. The
translations into English, not infrequently, have been made with
difficulty; accordingly it will be noted in some instances that the
translation is conjectural. No attempt has been made to correct errors;
on the contrary, the greatest care has been exercised to adhere
faithfully to the original as given by the map or globe maker.

The bibliographical list appended is full, but completeness is not
pretended. Practically all of the works cited have been consulted, and
care has been taken to include those held to be of the greatest
importance. It will at least serve as a working list for those students
who may wish to make further investigations within the field under

An expression of sincerest thanks is here recorded to the very many
librarians, directors of museums, and private individuals who have so
graciously responded to requests for information concerning the globes
belonging to their several collections. The privilege so readily
conceded for photographing the several examples, and the time and
trouble expended in having this work of reproduction well done, are
nothing less than a striking evidence of the kindliest fraternal spirit
existing among those engaged in scientific and literary pursuits the
world over. To the requests presented even the antipodes have responded.

In concluding, the author might refer to his interest in globes as
dating from his early boyhood days, when, in that country school in
western Illinois, bearing the name Liberty, for it had been established
in the first years of the Civil War, he studied his geography and indeed
his astronomy lessons with the aid of a terrestrial globe and an orrery.
Can it be that we have revised our educational methods so far in this
country as practically to have eliminated the intelligent use of aids so
valuable in the study of the branches which globes concern? They enter
in fact but little into modern methods of instruction. If this work
could be made to encourage their extensive use, and serve in their
rehabilitation as aids of inestimable interest and value in geographical
and astronomical studies, it will have served the purpose which is most
pleasing to the author.

Chapter I

Terrestrial Globes in Antiquity

  The beginnings of astronomical and of geographical
  science.—Primitive attempts at map construction, as seen
  in the Babylonian plan of the world.—Anaximander probably
  the first scientific cartographer.—Statements of
  Herodotus.—The place of Hecataeus, Hipparchus, Marinus,
  Ptolemy.—The Romans as map makers.—The earliest beliefs
  in a globular earth.—Thales, the Pythagoreans,
  Aristotle.—Eratosthenes and his measurements of the
  earth.—Crates probably the first to construct a
  terrestrial globe.—Statements of Strabo.—Ptolemy’s
  statements concerning globes and globe construction.—The
  allusions of Pliny.

The beginnings of the science of astronomy and of the science of
geography are traceable to a remote antiquity. The earliest records
which have come down to us out of the cradleland of civilization contain
evidence that a lively interest in celestial and terrestrial phenomena
was not wanting even in the day of history’s dawning. The primitive
cultural folk of the Orient, dwellers in its great plateau regions, its
fertile valleys, and its desert stretches were wont, as we are told, to
watch the stars rise nightly in the east, sweep across the great vaulted
space above, and set in the west as if controlled in their apparent
movement by living spirits. To them this exhibition was one marvelous
and awe-inspiring. In the somewhat strange grouping of the stars they
early fancied they could see the forms of many of the objects about
them, of many of their gods and heroes, and we find their successors
outlining these forms in picture in their representations of the heavens
on the material spheres which they constructed. Crude and simple,
however, were their astronomical theories relative to the shape, the
structure, and the magnitude of the great universe in which they found
themselves placed.[1]

Then too, as stated, there was something of interest to the people of
that early day in the simple problems of geography; problems suggested
by the physical features of their immediate environment; problems
arising as they journeyed for trade or traffic, or the love of
adventure, to regions now near, now remote. Very ancient records tell us
of the attempts they made, primitive indeed most of them were, to sketch
in general outline small areas of the earth’s surface, usually at first
the homeland of the map maker, but to which they added as their
knowledge expanded. The early Egyptians, for example, as we long have
known, made use of rough outline drawings (Fig. 1)[2] to represent
certain features of special sections of their country, and recently
discovered tablets in the lower Mesopotamian valley (Fig. 2)
interestingly show us how far advanced in the matter of map making the
inhabitants of that land were two thousand years before the Christian
era.[3] We are likewise assured, through references in the literature of
classical antiquity, that maps were made by the early Greeks and Romans,
and perhaps in great numbers as their civilization advanced, though none
of their productions have survived to our day. To the Greeks indeed
belongs the credit of first reducing geography and map making to a real
science.[4] No recent discovery by archaeologist or by historian,
interesting as many of their discoveries have been, seems to warrant an
alteration of this statement, long accepted as fact.

[Illustration: Fig. 1. Fragment Map of Egyptian Gold Mines.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2. Tablet Representing Babylonian World-Plan.]

The credit of being the first scientific cartographer has been generally
assigned to the Greek Anaximander of Miletus (610-547 B. C.).[5] While
there is not a detailed description extant of the maps he is reputed to
have made, we know that he accepted the so-called Homeric idea, that the
earth has the form of a circular disc,[6] and is surrounded by the Ocean
Stream, an idea generally approved by the Ionic School of
Philosophers.[7] It is not improbable that we have an allusion to the
work of Anaximander in the History of Herodotus (484-400? B. C.),
wherein we are told that Aristagoras, the tyrant of Miletus, when on a
mission to Cleomenes, the King of Sparta, carried with him “a copper
plate on which was engraved the whole circuit of the earth, and likewise
all the Seas and Rivers.”[8] In another passage, Herodotus takes
occasion to criticise maps of this circular character. “I laugh,” he
says, “when I see that, though many before this have drawn maps of the
Earth, yet no one has set the matter forth in an intelligent way; seeing
that they draw the Ocean flowing round the Earth, which is circular as
if drawn with compasses, and they make Asia equal in size to Europe. In
a few words I shall declare the size of each division and of what nature
it is as regards outline.”[9] It is, however, interesting to observe
that the father of historical geography and of history nowhere records
his idea of a properly constructed map, and further that the circular
form, which he condemned, is one which found wide acceptance even to the
close of the middle ages.

We are not definitely informed as to just the course of improvement or
advancement in early scientific map making among the Greeks, yet not a
few names are known to us of those who made it a matter of special
endeavor, as they specifically stated, to improve the work of their
predecessors. We, for example, are told that Hecataeus (550-480 B.
C.),[10] likewise a native of Miletus, improved the maps of Anaximander,
and that scientists of his day were astonished at his results; that
Dicaearchus of Massina (350-290 B. C.)[11] was the first to employ a
central line of orientation on a map, one passing through the
Mediterranean east and west, and that he represented on his map all the
lands known since the expedition of Alexander the Great into the Far
East; and further, that Eratosthenes, the librarian of Alexandria
(276-196 B. C.),[12] was the first to attempt a representation of the
curved surface of the earth on a plane in accord with geometrical rules.
The scientific cartographical ideas of Eratosthenes were further
developed by Hipparchus (180-125 B. C.),[13] who is generally referred
to as the greatest astronomer of antiquity, and by Marinus of Tyre (fl.
ca. 100 A. D.),[14] who introduced the idea of inscribing lines of
latitude and longitude on a map, crossing the same at right angles,
which lines could be made to serve the useful purpose of orientation and
be of assistance in giving proper location to all known places on the
earth’s surface.

Map making in that early period reached its climax in the work of
Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria (ca. 87-150 A. D.).[15] His ideas,
however, seem not to have found general favor with his contemporaries,
nor with the geographers of the middle ages. (Fig. 3.) It was not until
the so-called period of great geographical discoveries and explorations
in the fifteenth century that he became a real teacher within his chosen

[Illustration: Fig. 3. Ptolemy World Map.]

Map making and the science of geography were continuously progressive
among the Greeks. Imperial Rome witnessed little progress in either
field. Among those who wrote in the Latin language, Pomponius Mela (fl.
ca. 43 A. D.)[16] and Pliny (ca. 23-79 A. D.)[17] alone have rank of
importance. In the matter of map construction the Romans held to many of
the cruder methods and ideas of the Greeks, a fact which we learn from
the fragmentary references in their literature, and from the itinerary
or road maps (Fig. 4), of the period of the emperors, which have come
down to us.[18]

[Illustration: Fig. 4. Sections of Peutinger Tables.]

The idea of a globular earth was at first accepted by the geographers of
antiquity with some hesitancy. That Thales (640-548 B. C.),[19] one of
the earliest astronomers and cosmographers, openly supported this
theory, as is sometimes asserted, is hardly probable. It is rather to
be assumed that according to his idea the earth has the form of a
cylinder, and that it moves within a hollow sphere, an idea upheld by
Anaximander, his disciple and successor, to whom reference has been made
above. It was the Pythagorean philosophers who appear to have first
transferred to the earth that which had already been accepted as a
theory relative to the heavens, including the imaginary circles and the
circular or spherical form, apparently arguing that the earth is a
sphere because that is the most perfect form, that it is located in the
center of the universe because that is the place of honor, and that it
is at rest because rest is more dignified than motion.[20] It however
was Aristotle who undertook, in the manner of a philosopher, an
elaborate defense of the Pythagorean doctrine of a globular earth,
supporting his arguments, first, through a reference to such positive
proof as may be found in gravitation or “the tendency of all particles
of matter to form themselves about the middle and thus make a sphere,”
and secondly, through a reference to the appearance of the earth’s
shadow cast during an eclipse of the moon.[21] A third proof, so
familiar to us today, that distant objects as we approach them gradually
reveal themselves above the horizon, seems not to have occurred to
Aristotle, but was first employed by Strabo. “It is evident,” says the
latter, “that, when persons on shipboard are unable to see at a distance
lights which are on a level with the eye, the cause of this is the
curvature of the sea; for if those lights are raised to a higher level,
they become visible, even though the distance is increased; and in like
manner, if the beholder attains a greater elevation he sees what was
previously hidden.... Again, when men are approaching the land from the
sea, the parts nearest the shore-line come more and more into view, and
objects which at first appeared low attain a greater elevation.”[22]

After the attempt had been made to determine the circumference of the
earth, as was done by Eratosthenes with more or less satisfactory
results, the thought, very naturally, was suggested of making an
artificial representation of the entire earth, so far as then
understood, that is, of making a terrestrial globe. There is no
intimation, however, in any early allusion to Eratosthenes that he was a
globe maker, or that he knew anything about globe construction. We know
that he thought of the earth as a sphere placed in the center of the
universe, around which the celestial sphere revolves every twenty-four
hours.[23] Strabo, at a much later date, in referring to the
geographical ideas of Eratosthenes, censured him for his unnecessarily
elaborate proofs of the earth’s spherical character, apparently thinking
the fact one too well known to require demonstration.

[Illustration: Fig. 5. Globe according to Crates.]

It appears to have been the grammarian Crates of Mallos, a contemporary
of Hipparchus, and a member of the Stoic School of Philosophers, who
made the first attempt to construct a terrestrial globe (Fig. 5), and
that he exhibited the same in Pergamum, not far from the year 150 B.
C.[24] It seems to have been Crates’ idea that the earth’s surface, when
represented on a sphere, should appear as divided into four island-like
habitable regions. On the one hemisphere, which is formed by a
meridional plane cutting the sphere, lies our own oecumene or habitable
world, and that of the Antoecians in corresponding longitude and in
opposite latitude; on the other hemisphere lies the oecumene of the
Perioecians in our latitude and in opposite longitude, and that of the
Antipodes in latitude and longitude opposite to us.[25] Through the
formulation and expression of such a theory the idea of the existence of
an antipodal people was put forth as a speculative problem, an idea
frequently discussed in the middle ages, and settled only by the actual
discovery of antipodal regions and antipodal peoples in the day of great
transoceanic discoveries.[26] That Strabo, at a later date, had this
Pergamenian example in mind when stating certain rules to be observed in
the construction of globes seems probable, since he makes mention of
Crates’ globe. Strabo alone among ancient writers, so far as we at
present know, treats of terrestrial globes, practically such as we find
in use at the present day. He thought that a globe to be serviceable
should be of large size, and his reasoning can readily be understood,
for what at that time was really known of the earth’s surface was small
indeed in comparison with what was unknown. Should one not make use of a
sphere of large dimensions, the habitable regions (Fig. 6), in
comparison with the earth’s entire surface, would occupy but small
space. What Strabo states in his geography is interesting and may here
well be cited. “Whoever would represent the real earth,” he says, “as
near as possible by artificial means, should make a sphere like that of
Crates, and upon this draw the quadrilateral within which his chart of
geography is to be placed. For this purpose however a large globe is
necessary since the section mentioned, though but a very small portion
of the entire sphere, must be capable of containing properly all the
regions of the habitable earth and of presenting an accurate view of
them to those who wish to consult it. Any one who is able will certainly
do well to obtain such a globe. But it should have a diameter of not
less than ten feet; those who can not obtain a globe of this size, or
one nearly as large, had better draw their charts on a plane surface of
not less than seven feet. Draw straight lines for the parallels, and
others at right angles to these. We can easily imagine how the eye can
transfer the figure and extent (of these lines) from a plane surface to
one that is spherical. The meridians of each country on the globe have a
tendency to unite in a single point at the poles; nevertheless on the
surface of a plane map there would be no advantage if the right lines
alone which should represent the meridians were drawn slightly to

[Illustration: Fig. 6. Globe according to Strabo.]

It is not at all improbable that Strabo and Ptolemy made considerable
advance in the practical construction of terrestrial globes, for it
seems reasonable to conclude that they were in possession of such
objects when writing, as they did, concerning them.

Ptolemy, we may note, expressly allowed that the size of a globe should
be that which one might desire, and that it was not necessary it should
be of large size. It was this great Alexandrian cosmographer who first
demonstrated the scientific value of drawing on the surface of a globe
or map the network of parallels and meridians, and of establishing by
means of the two geographical coördinates the true geographical position
of every known place. To the end of making globes more serviceable he
suggested the use of a meridian circle, such as is today employed in
globe construction, passing through both poles, within which circle the
globe might be made to move freely on its axis. He, however, in this
connection, did not give technical directions for the construction of
terrestrial globes, but he says enough to assure us that the art of
globe construction was measurably well understood in his day, and that
the Greeks and the Romans considered them very useful instruments in the
study of the heavens and the earth.[28]

The allusions of the naturalist Pliny (23-79) to the spherical shape of
the earth give us no particular intimation that he knew of the existence
of terrestrial globes, but they are interesting as indicating a belief
of his time in its spherical form, a belief, judging from the nature of
the argument, apparently drawn from Aristotle. Referring to the shape of
the earth, he observes that “everyone agrees it has the most perfect
figure. We always speak of the ball of the earth, and we admit it to be
a globe bounded by the poles. It has not indeed the form of an absolute
sphere, from the number of lofty mountains and flat plains; but if the
termination of the lines be bound by a curve, this would compose a
perfect sphere. And this we learn from arguments drawn from the nature
of things, although not from the same considerations which we have made
use of with respect to the heavens. For in the heavens the hollow
convexity everywhere bends on itself and leans upon the earth as a
center, whereas the earth rises up solid and dense like something that
swells up and is protruded outward. The heavens bend toward the center,
while the earth goes out from the center, the continual rolling of the
heavens about it forcing its immense mass into the form of a


[1] Most of the larger general works presenting an
historical survey of the science of astronomy give
consideration to its beginnings, noting the interest in the
subject exhibited by the early Egyptians, Assyrians,
Babylonians, and by other Eastern peoples. See the
introductory pages of such works as Dalambre, M. Histoire de
l’astronomie ancienne. Paris, 1817; Lockyer, J. N. The Dawn
of Astronomy. New York, 1894; Allan, H. A. Star Names and
their Meanings; Wolf, R. Geschichte der Astronomie. München,
1877; Mädler, J. H. Geschichte der Himmelskunde von den
ältesten bis auf die neuste Zeit. Braunschweig, 1873. 2
vols.; Narrien, J. N. An Historical Account of Origin and
Progress of Astronomy. London, 1833.

[2] Chabas, F. Ouvres diverses publiées par G. Maspero.
Paris, 1902. Tome deuxième, Plate II, p. 208, “Carte
Egyptienne de mines d’or.”

[3] Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets, etc., in
British Museum. London, 1906. Vol. 22, Plate 48. This
Babylonian plan of the world illustrates the idea concerning
the world which was current in the late Babylonian period.
It represents the region of Babylonia, Assyria, and the
neighboring districts as a circular plain surrounded by the
Persian Gulf (Ma-ra-tum). The city Babylon (Babylu) is
indicated near the center, and next to it the land of
Assyria (Ashshur). The position of certain other cities is
indicated. The district toward the south, bordering the
Persian Gulf, is represented as being full of canals and
marshes. Toward the north is marked a district which is
referred to as mountainous. Beyond the circle is represented
the Persian Gulf, and a number of triangles pointing outward
from the circular zone, each being labeled “region,”
indicating a vague conception concerning the same.

[4] Numerous works have been published referring to the
geography of the ancients. Mention may here be made of the
following as being important. In each may be found extensive
bibliographical references. Berger, H. Geschichte der
wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen. Leipzig,
1887-1894. This work was issued in four parts. Forbiger, A.
Handbuch der alten Geographie nach den Quellen bearbeitet.
Hamburg, 1877; Schmidt, M. C. P. Zur Geschichte der
geographischen Litteratur bei den Griechen und Römern.
Berlin, 1887; Bunbury, E. H. History of Ancient Geography.
London, 1883. 2 vols.; Tozer, H. F. A History of Ancient
Geography. Cambridge, 1897. See also The History of
Herodotus; The Geography of Strabo; The Natural History of
Pliny; The Geography of Ptolemy.

[5] Schmidt, op. cit., p. 12; Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. I, p.
122; Berger, op. cit., pt. 1, pp. 8-14.

[6] Iliad, XVIII, 446-447; XXI, 225-228; Odyssey, V, 282;
XII, 380.

[7] They indulged much in speculation concerning the
physical constitution of the world.

[8] Herodotus. Historia. Bk. V, chap. 49. Citation from
translation by Macaulay, G. C. The History of Herodotus.
London, 1890. 2 vols.

[9] Herodotus, op. cit., Bk. IV, chap. 8, 36; II, 21, 23.

[10] Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. I, chap. v; Schmidt, op. cit.,
p. 13; Berger, op. cit., pt. 1.

[11] Cicero. Epistolae ad Atticum. vi. 2; Bunbury, op. cit.,
Vol. I, p. 617.

[12] Berger, op. cit., pt. 3; Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. I,
chap. xvi.

[13] Berger, op. cit., pt. 3; Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. II,
chap. xvii, sec. 1.

[14] Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. II, chap. xxvi. Marinus is
known to us only at second-hand. Ptolemy extols him in the
highest terms, but he undertook to reform his maps just as
Marinus had undertaken to reform the maps of his

[15] Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. II, chaps. xxviii-xxix;
Mollweide, S. Die Mappierungskunst des Ptolemaus. (In: Zachs
Monatliche Korrespondence zur Beförderung der Erd- und
Himmelskunde. Weimar. Bd. 11, pp. 322 ff.); Nordenskiöld, A.
E. Facsimile Atlas. Stockholm, 1889. This last-named work
gives consideration to the Atlas of Ptolemy, to the numerous
editions of his Geographia, to his geographical errors. The
twenty-seven maps printed in the 1490 Rome edition of the
Atlas are reproduced. See also the printed lists of the
editions of Ptolemy’s Atlas by Eames, W., Winsor, J.,
Philipps, P. L.

[16] Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. II, chap. xxviii, sec. 2; Fink.
Mela und seine Geographie. Rosenheim, 1881. Mela titled his
work, “De situ orbis.” Excellent tr. into English by
Golding, Arthur. London, 1585. Various printed editions,
first in 1471.

[17] Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. II, chap. xxiv. Various
editions of original; various English translations. Pliny
titled his work, “Naturalis historia.”

[18] Miller, K. Die Weltkarte des Castorius, genannt
Peutingersche Tafel. Ravensburg, 1887; Porena, F. Orbis
pictus d’Agrippa. Roma, 1883; Desjardins, E. La Table de
Peutinger d’après l’original conservé à Vienne. Paris, 1896.

[19] Lewis, G. C. Historical survey of the Astronomy of the
Ancients. London, 1862. pp. 80 ff.; Berger, op. cit., pt. 1.

[20] Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. I, chap. iv, secs. 4, 5.

[21] A scientific foundation for the spherical theory seems
not to antedate Aristotle. See especially his work, De
Coelo, Bk. II, chap. 14, and for a good translation of this
work by Taylor, T., bearing title, On the Heavens, from the
Greek with copious elucidations. London, 1807. Plato’s
statement in Phaedo merely observes that the earth, if like
a ball, must be suspended without support in the interior of
a hollow sphere. See also the Book of Job, chap. xxvi, v. 7,
where reference is made to the earth hanging upon nothing.
There is here probably the expression of an early Assyrian
or Babylonian belief in a spherical earth.

[22] Strabo. Geographia. Bk. I, chap. 1, §20. See
translation by Jones, H. L. The Geography of Strabo. New
York, 1917. 8 vols.

[23] Bunbury, op. cit., Vol. I, pp. 619-620.

[24] Wachsmuth, C. De Cratte Mallota. Leipzig, 1860; Berger,
H. Entwickelung der Geographie der Erdkugel bei den
Hellenen. (In: Grenzboten, Vol. xxxiv, pp. 408 ff.);
Müllenhoff, C. (In: Deutsche alterthumskunde. Berlin, 1895.
p. 248.) Diodorus Siculus attributes the discovery of the
use of the globe to Atlas of Libya.

[25] Berger. Geschichte, pt. 2, p. 135; Friedrich, R.
Materialien zur Begriffsbestimmung des Orbis Terrarum.
Leipzig, 1887.

[26] A belief in the existence of antipodal peoples, very
clearly was accepted by Pythagoras, Eratosthenes, Crates,
Posidonius, Aristotle, Strabo, and later by Capella.
Numerous others presupposed the earth to be globular in
shape. See Kretschmer, K. Die physische Erdkunde im
christlichen Mittelalter. Wien, 1889. pp. 54-59, wherein the
author gives consideration to the doctrine of the antipodes
as held in the middle ages. Berger. Geschichte, pt. 3, p.
129, notes that the idea of the earth’s division into four
parts or quarters persisted for centuries after Crates’ day,
if not among scientific geographers, at least among those
who could be said to have possessed general culture.
Cleomedes, Ampelius, Nonnus, and Eumenius mention the idea
as one to be accepted. See in this connection the world map
of Macrobius, a reproduction of which may be found in
Nordenskiöld, op. cit., pl. XXXI. See also Miller, K. Die
Weltkarte des Beatus, 776 nach Christus. Stuttgart, 1895. p.

It was thought that Africa did not extend to the equator, or
at least was not habitable to the equator. Below the equator
there was thought to be water but beyond the uninhabitable
and impassable torrid zone a habitable region. The map of
Lambertus well represents this early theory. Pomponius Mela
called the inhabitants of this southern region
“Antichthoni,” their country being unknown to us because of
the torrid zone intervening. Pliny, and after him Solinus,
says that for a long time the island of Taprobana (Ceylon)
was thought to be the region occupied by the Antichthoni.

[27] Strabo, op. cit., Bk. II, chap. v, §10.

[28] Ptolemy. Geographia. Bk. I, chap. 22.

[29] Pliny, op. cit., Bk. II, chap. 64; Bk. II, chap. 2.

Chapter II

Celestial Globes in Antiquity

  Thales’ ideas, probably not a globe maker.—Eudoxus.—The
  Atlante Farnese.—Archimedes.—Allusion of
  Lactantius.—Pappus’ allusions.—Armillary spheres.—The
  astronomer Hipparchus.—Ptolemy.—Globes used for
  decorative purposes by the Romans.—Roman coins.—The
  Byzantine Leontius Mechanicus.

Though we find but an occasional reference to terrestrial globes in the
literature of classical antiquity, numerous statements appear therein
which assure us that celestial globes, solid balls as well as armillary
spheres, were constructed in those early centuries, for both practical
and ornamental purposes. There exists, however, considerable uncertainty
as to the exact character of the earliest of these globes.

The information we have concerning the Ionic School of Philosophers, of
which school Thales is reputed to have been the founder, does not give
us any satisfactory evidence that attempts were made by any of their
number at a material representation of their astronomical or
geographical theories. They were content, in the main, with mere
philosophical or cosmical speculations. The statement, therefore, that
Thales himself constructed a celestial globe, on which to represent his
notion of the crystal sphere, is not well authenticated.[30]

While not assured to us by any positive statement, there appears to be
good reason for believing the astronomer Eudoxus of Cnidos (409-356 B.
C.) made use of a celestial globe on which to represent certain
astronomical theories which he entertained.[31] He traveled in Egypt in
his later life, where he carried on his studies, and where he seems to
have learned the construction of star catalogues. On his return to his
own country he is reported to have undertaken the representation of the
several constellations known to him, on a celestial sphere. The
astronomical poem of Aratus (fl. 270 B. C.),[32] so frequently cited and
copied in following centuries, is considered to be a description of the
constellations according to Eudoxus.

In the Royal Museum of Naples there may be found a large marble
celestial globe, 65 cm. in diameter (Fig. 7), which the mythical Atlas
bears on his shoulders, the statue itself being 1.86 m. in height,
resting on one knee.[33] This very interesting and artistic object was
transferred to Naples museum from the Farnese Palace in Rome, hence is
generally referred to as the Atlante Farnesiano. Forty-two
constellations are represented on its surface (Fig. 8), and the five
wanting, including Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, probably owe their absence
to the obliteration which time has brought about. From the position of
the several constellations, relative to the intersecting points of the
ecliptic with the equator, it is thought that it must have been
constructed at least three hundred years before the Christian era. It
seems therefore to date from about the time of Eudoxus, being then the
oldest extant globe.

[Illustration: Fig. 7. Atlante Farnese, ca. 200 B. C.]

[Illustration: Fig. 8. Atlante Farnese Constellation Figures.]

We learn from Cicero and from other early writers that Archimedes (ca.
287-212 B. C.), the celebrated geometrician of Syracuse, constructed a
globe or contrivance for the purpose of demonstrating the movements of
the heavenly bodies. Cicero’s statements imply that the work of
Archimedes was well known in his day, yet he thought it merited a
special word of commendation from himself. “I shall propose nothing new
to you,” he says, “nor that which I have invented or discovered; but I
remember C. Sulpicius Gallus, a very learned man, as you know, when this
appearance (in the heavens) was spoken of, and he was, by chance, at
the house of Marcellus, who had been consul with him, he described a
globe among the spoils of that opulent and magnificent city of Syracuse,
when captured, as the only thing among all the spoils which he ordered
to be carried to his own house; about which globe I have often heard, on
account of the fame of Archimedes, although the work itself was not very
remarkable, for there was another far more beautiful and more honored by
the common people, made by the same Archimedes, and placed in the Temple
of Virtue by the same Marcellus. But afterward when Gallus began to
explain scientifically the object of the machine, I thought there was
more ingenuity in that Sicilian than human nature was capable of. For
Gallus informed me that there was another ancient invention of a solid
and elaborately formed globe which was made by Thales, the Milesian, to
revolve. And afterward the same was, by Eudoxus of Cnidos, the disciple
of Plato, adorned with the fixed stars of heaven, and with every
ornament and embellishment, as described by Eudoxus, and was many years
afterward celebrated by Aratus, not exactly in the scientific language
of astronomy, but with the graces of poetry. This species of globe
indeed, in which the sun and moon were made to revolve, and five of
those stars which have been called travelers, and as it were wanderers,
could not possibly be exhibited on that solid sphere. And more
especially was that invention of Archimedes to be admired, for he had so
contrived that one revolution of the machine served somehow to produce
unequal and varied movements through their different paths. For when
Gallus set the globe in motion, the moon succeeded the sun by as many
turns of the brass wheel of the machine as days in the heavens, so that
the globe represented in the heavens the same eclipse of the sun, when
the moon arrived at a certain place or point, as the shadow of the earth
did when the sun shone from the opposite region.”[34]

Lactantius’ allusion to Archimedes, at a later date, is perhaps derived
from Cicero, but it is none the less interesting as indicating a belief
that such a globe had existed. In his characteristic vein he refers to
the mechanical device, finding therein a support for his theological
arguments. “Was Archimedes of Sicily able to contrive a likeness and
representation of the universe in hollow brass,” he inquires, “in which
he so arranged the sun and moon, that they effected, as it were every
day, motions unequal and resembling the revolutions of the heavens, and
that sphere, while it revolved, exhibited not only the approaches and
with drawings of the sun or the increase and waning of the moon, but
also the unequal course of the stars, whether fixed or wandering? Was it
then impossible for God to plan and create the original, when the skill
of man was able to represent them by imitation? Would the stoic,
therefore, if he should have seen the figures of the stars painted and
fashioned in that brass, say that they moved by their own design, and
not by the genius of the artificer?”[35] Günther notes that at the
beginning of the seventh book of the collection of Pappus, geometrician
of Alexandria, may be found a reference to those skilled in mechanical
devices in which it is stated that “Mechanicians are those who
understand how to construct celestial globes and to represent the
heavens and the course of the stars moving in circles by means of like
circular movements of water.”[36] It has been thought that in this
passage we have a reference to a globe such as was probably constructed
by Archimedes, although the reference is not to any particular example.
It seems not improbable that the globe of Archimedes was made to revolve
by an hydraulic contrivance, and that it resembled a planetarium or
orrery.[37] That the science of hydrostatics had been developed by
Archimedes’ time to a high degree is very certain.

Instruments for measuring angles and distances were very early employed
in the field of astronomy as well as in the field of geography. Of
these instruments the Egyptian _gnomon_ appears to have been the
oldest.[38] In its best form it consisted of a bowl having a
perpendicular rod or staff erected at the central point of the inner
curved surface. This rod cast a shadow upon the inner surface of the
bowl, which had been graduated, giving a reading in degrees which
furnished to the observer the information desired. Time brought
improvements and variations in the construction of simple instruments of
this character. As early as the third century before the Christian era,
adjustable rings, or armillae, for example, were employed by astronomers
to aid them in the solution of their problems, which instruments later
developed, as noted below, into the more elaborate and complex armillary
spheres. The simplest form of such an instrument appears to have been
but a single graduated circle. To this, at a very early date, a second
was added, thus providing an instrument in which one of the circles was
regarded as fixed in the plane of the equator, the other, intersecting
this at right angles, served as a meridian circle, being movable around
an axis which could be called the world axis, the axis of the celestial
sphere, or the axis of the universe. The position of a celestial body in
declination could be determined on the meridian circle, and its right
ascension on the fixed or horizon circle.[39] It seems altogether
probable that Eratosthenes made use of such an instrument in his efforts
to measure the obliquity of the ecliptic. He tells us that in his time
one of large dimensions hung in the portico of the academy of
Alexandria.[40] With the addition of other circles, and of an adjustable
view-tube, that more accurate and detailed measurements might be made,
this device, in Hipparchus’ day, came to be known as an astrolabe, and,
after the addition of other rings in later years, to be known as an
armillary sphere. Even in this last development it was not a true sphere
on which could be represented the starry constellations, but an
arrangement of circles forming a sort of imaginary sphere, the circles
being intended to represent the relative position of the principal
celestial circles. This instrument seems, at first, to have been
suspended, when in use, but later was made to rest upon a base, the
whole adjusted to revolve around an axis and within a graduated horizon
circle. In the earliest examples, the earth at the center of the
circles, it represented the Ptolemaic system (Fig. 9); in the later
examples, having the sun at the center, it represented the Copernican

[Illustration: Fig. 9. Armillary Sphere according to Ptolemy.]

It is expressly stated by Ptolemy that a celestial globe was constructed
by Hipparchus, who is reputed to have been the founder of spherical
trigonometry,[41] and Pliny tells us that Hipparchus was the inventor of
the astrolabe,[42] which statement probably means that he greatly
improved the simple armillae used at an earlier date as an instrument
for astronomical calculations.

Ptolemy, in his ‘Syntaxis,’ or ‘Almagest’ as it was called by the Arabs,
devoted a chapter to the method of constructing, and to the use of the
astrolabe, which must have closely resembled the armillary sphere,
describing therein, in terms not altogether easy of comprehension, its
several rings and cylinders, and the method of adjusting the same for
purposes of determining the latitude and the longitude of celestial
bodies. He tells us also how to construct a representation of the sphere
of the fixed stars by means of a solid ball, how to place thereon the
several constellations, and how to use the same in the study of
astronomical problems. Such a globe, he says, “should be of a dark
color, that it might resemble the night and not the day.” His
description is detailed as to the proper method of procedure in marking
the position of the celestial circles on this globe, in arranging the
movable rings of “hard and well polished material,” in graduating the
rings and adjusting them to move about an axis which is likewise an axis
of the globe proper. In marking the position of the fixed stars, we are
told that the proper method is to commence at some constant and
invariable point of a certain constellation, and he suggests that the
best starting point is the fixed star in Canis Major, that is, the
so-called dog star, or Sirius. “The position of the other fixed stars,
as they follow in the list, could easily be determined,” he says, “by
making the globe to turn upon the poles of the zodiac, thus bringing the
graduated circle to the proper point of each. The stars could be marked
with yellow or with such other color as one might choose, having due
regard for their brilliancy and magnitude. The outline of each of the
constellations should be made as simple as possible, indicating with
light strokes, differing but little in color from that of the surface of
the globe, the figures which the stars in the several constellations
represent, preserving in this manner the chief advantage of such
representation, which should be to make the several stars very prominent
without destroying, by a variety of color, the resemblance of the object
to the truth. It will be easy to make and to retain a proper comparison
of the stars if we represent upon the sphere the real appearance or
magnitude of the several stars. While neither the equator nor the
tropics can be represented on the globe, it will not be difficult to
ascertain the proper position of these circles. The first could be
thought of as passing through that point on the graduated meridian
circle which is 90 degrees from the poles. The points on this meridian
circle 23 degrees 51 minutes (_sic_) each side of the equator will
indicate the position of the tropics, that toward the north the summer
solstitial circle, that toward the south the winter solstitial circle.
With the revolution of the globe from east to west, as each star passes
under the graduated meridian circle, we should be able to ascertain
readily its distance from the equator or from the tropics.”[43]

That the Romans especially interested themselves in globes, either
celestial or terrestrial, is not at all probable, because of their very
practical inclinations. There is evidence, however, that in the time of
the emperors celestial globes were constructed, especially in the
studios of sculptors, but these were made largely for decorative
purposes, having therefore an artistic rather than a scientific value.
In the year 1900 there was found in a villa at Bosco Reale, not far from
Pompeii, an interesting fresco (Fig. 10), this being acquired by the
Metropolitan Museum of New York in the year 1903. It has been referred
to as a sundial, but was clearly intended to represent, in outline, a
globe exhibiting the prominent parallels and a certain number of the
meridians. It is not at all improbable that such subjects were
frequently selected for wall or floor decoration.[44] It appears that
astrologers at times made use of globes in forecasting events.[45] It
may further be noted that on certain early Roman coins there may be
found the representation of a globe (Figs. 11, 12), which perhaps had as
its prime significance the representation of universal dominion.[46]

[Illustration: Fig. 10. Bosco Reale Roman Fresco, ca. 50 A. D.]

[Illustration: Fig. 11. Greek and Roman Coins.]

[Illustration: Fig. 12. Roman Gems.]

Not until the day of the Byzantine Emperors do we meet with a real
scholar who made a particular study of such astronomical apparatus,
apparatus which he describes in a special treatise. Among historical
scholars the work of Leontius Mechanicus seems not to have found the
recognition which it deserves.[47] He appears to have been a practical
man, very active within the field concerning which he wrote, and from
his remarkably detailed description we are able to learn something of
the extent to which globe technique was carried in the days of the early
Eastern Emperors. We at any rate learn from him that globes were
constructed in his workshop, which globes, in all important respects,
were like those in use at the present time, being, for example, provided
with a meridian circle adjusted to move through notches in a horizon
circle. The information given us by Leontius, which here follows, is in
free translation or paraphrase of his treatise, the whole being
condensed. He appears to have been a student of astronomy, as
represented by Aratus, for he tells us that he had endeavored to
construct a globe on which the constellations and the circles could be
made to conform to the records of the ancient poet astronomer. He tells
us further that he constructed this globe for Elpidius, an estimable man
of letters, and one full of zeal for study; that at the time of its
construction, though he had the leisure, he did not prepare a
description of the globe, but on the insistence of his friends such
description he now proposed to write. This appears to be the _raison
d’être_ for his treatise. The importance of adhering closely to the
statements of Aratus he insists upon, though admitting that writer’s
errors, being convinced that most of the globes of which one had
knowledge in his day agreed neither with him nor with Ptolemy. Leontius
first directs attention to Aratus’ threefold plan in describing the
several constellations, in which description that author speaks first of
the relation which part bears to part in each; second, of the position
of each constellation relative to the celestial circles, as, for
example, to the tropics, and third, its position in the heavens relative
to the constellations in the zodiac. He follows this statement with a
somewhat lengthy reference to the constellation Ophiuchus, or the
Serpent, in explanation of the method of description. After having the
surface of the globe portioned out for the representation of the several
constellations and the important circles, he then proceeds, as he
states, to consider the execution, by which he means representing in
proper color and outline the several figures, and the mounting of the
globe. Upon a properly constructed support should first be placed the
horizon circle, through which a second circle should be made to pass;
this second circle will serve as a meridian. These circles, he observes,
will enclose the ball, all the points of the surface of which should be
equally distant from the inner surface of the horizon and meridian
circles, that is, there should be a perfect adjustment of the enclosing
rings and the enclosed ball. The surface of the sphere should be painted
a dark color, as, for example, azure. He sets forth, with considerable
detail, the proper method of procedure in locating the several
principal circles, each of which should be graduated. The zodiac
should be divided into twelve parts, and the constellations belonging to
each of the several parts should be designated by name, beginning with
Cancer, following this with Leo, Virgo, and so on, one after the other.
In giving the globe a position which actually conforms to the world, the
pole should be set to the north, and the movement of the sky can then be
imitated by turning the globe to the left. Leontius, by way of summary
and definition, at the conclusion of his treatise, speaks of a sphere as
a solid having a surface, from all the points of which, if straight
perpendicular lines of equal length be drawn, they will reach a point
within called the center. This center in the great sphere of the
universe is the earth. The poles of the sphere are the extremities of
the axis on which it turns. The horizon cuts the sphere into two
hemispheres, the one superior and the other inferior to the earth. The
sky, which is continually turning, encircles all, one half of it being
above, the other below the earth, which is as far removed from the
superior part of the heavens as from the inferior.[48]


[30] Cicero’s allusion to Thales, cited p. 16, is probably a
reference to a tradition.

[31] Wolf, R. Geschichte der Astronomie. München, 1877, p.
193; Gassendi, P. Opera Omnia. Leipzig, 1658. Vol. V, p.
375. See statement by Cicero, cited below, p. 17.

[32] Aratus’ poem bore the title, “Phaenomena.” See, for an
excellent edition of this poem, Prince, C. L. Phenomena. A
literal translation of the astronomy and meteorology of
Aratus. Lewes, 1895. In his “Bibliographical remarks,” the
translator refers to one hundred and nineteen editions of
this poem, dating from the first printed at Bonn in the year
1474. See also n. 19 (48), below.

[33] Passeri, G. B. Atlas Farnesianus Marmoreus insigne
vetustatis monumentum. (In: Gori, A. F. Thesaurus gemmarum
antiquarum astriferarum. Firenze, 1750. Vol. III.); Denza,
P. F. Globi celesti della Specola Vaticana. (In:
Publicazioni della Specola Vaticana. Torino, 1894. pp.

[34] Cicero. De Republica. Bk. I, chap. xiv. The citation is
from the translation by Hardingham, G. G. The Republic.
London, 1884.

[35] Lactantius. Institutiones divinae. Bk. II, chap. v.

[36] Pappus. Collectionum mathematicarum. Edited by
Commandino. Urbino, 1588. Bk. VII. See especially the

[37] Hultsch, F. Über den Himmelsglobus des Archimedes. (In:
Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik. Leipzig, 1878. Bd.
22. Hist. Litt. Abteilung, p. 106.); Same author.
“Archimedes.” (In: Real-encyklopädie der klassischen

[38] Wolf, op. cit., pp. 122-124.

[39] Wolf, op. cit., pp. 160-166.

[40] Wolf, op. cit., p. 130.

[41] Ptolemy, C. Syntaxis. (Almagest.) Various editions. Bk.
VII, chap. 1. This work was first printed in Venice, 1496;
the first Greek text in Basel, 1538. See Hues, Tractatus de
Globis, for an analysis of this work.

[42] Pliny. Historia Naturalis.

[43] Ptolemy, op. cit., Bk. V, chap. i; Bk. VII, chap. v;
Bk. VIII, chap. iii. Ptolemy mentions by name forty-eight
constellations, all of which he probably obtained from the
earlier Greeks. These constellations, the names being still
retained, are:

_The Zodiac._

  Aries             Cancer             Libra            Capricornus
  Taurus            Leo                Scorpio          Aquarius
  Gemini            Virgo              Sagittarius      Pisces

_The Northern Hemisphere._

  Andromeda         Corona             Lyra             Ursa Major
  Aquila            Cygnus             Ophiuchus        Ursa Minor
  Auriga            Delphinus          Pegasus          Sagitta
  Boötes            Draco              Perseus
  Cassiopeia        Equuleus           Serpens
  Cepheus           Hercules           Triangulum

_The Southern Constellations._

  Ara               Cetus              Crater           Lupus
  Argo Navis        Centaurus          Eridanus         Orion
  Canis Major       Corona Australis   Hydra            Piscis Australis
  Canis Minor       Corvus             Lepus

[44] Visconte, P. E. Nota intorno ad un’ antico globo
celeste scolpito in marmo porino. Roma, 1835; Gaedechens, R.
Der marmorne Himmelsglobus des fürstlich Waldechschen
Antikenkabinettes zu Arolsen. Göttingen, 1862.

[45] Schanz, M. Geschichte der römischen Litteratur bis zum
Gesetzgebungswerk des Kaisers Justinian. München, 1890. See
p. 75 for a reference to the astrologer Nigidius Figulus.

[46] Coins on which there appears a representation of a
globe were numerous. Attention may also here be called to
the imperial insignia, a part of which was a globe, which
the emperor was represented, in the pictures of the day, as
holding in his hand. See King, C. W. Antique Gems and Rings.
Vol. II, plates xxvi and xxxviii.

[47] Weidler, J. F. Historia astronomiae. Vitembergae, 1741.
This author is of the opinion that Leontius lived in the
eighth century, p. 201; Susemihl. Geschichte der
Griechischen Litteratur der alexandriner Zeit. Leipzig,
1891. See Vol. I, p. 294, for a statement of the belief that
Leontius lived in the seventh century.

[48] Halma, N. Les Phenoménes d’Aratus de Soles, et de
Germanicus Cesar; avec les Scholies de Théon, les
catasterismes d’Eratosthenes et la sphère de Leontius
traduit ... par l’Abbé N. Halma. Gr. avec Fr. Paris, 1821.
pp. 65-73.

[Illustration: The Egyptian Gnomon. _From pen drawing_]

Chapter III

Globes Constructed by the Arabs

  Followers of Ptolemy.—Early armillary spheres.—Interest
  of the Califs in globes and astronomical instruments.—The
  record of the ‘Fihrist.’—Ibrahim.—Caissar.—Mohammed ben
  Helal.—Mohammed el Ordhi.—The Paris globes.—Ridhwan

In passing from the period of classical antiquity to the so-called
Christian middle ages, attention may first be directed to the activities
of the Arabs in the field of astronomy and geography, in so far as their
activities had to do with the construction of globes.[49] The
information which we have, concerning their astronomical studies in
particular, is more detailed than is that which has come down to us
respecting any other peoples who may have been interested in these
centuries in the same field of study.

Doubt may be expressed at the outset that the Arabs were interested in
the construction of terrestrial globes, since with the matter of
descriptive geography they appear to have been very little concerned, a
fact which their imperfect cartographical attempts clearly
demonstrate.[50] Although the theory of a globular earth was early
accepted by their learned men,[51] there is scarcely a trustworthy
allusion in literature to Arabic terrestrial globes which can be cited.
An occasional reference, however, has been made by modern writers to a
globe said to have been constructed for King Roger of Sicily. Without
citing his authority, Freyheer F. v. Zach states that “the oldest
terrestrial globe which is known was made for King Roger II of Sicily in
the twelfth century, and is especially remarkable for the value of the
metal which was used in its construction, this being 400 pounds of
silver. A knowledge of this globe would not have come down to our day
had not Edrisi, a famous geographer of that time, given an especial
description of the same, under the title Nothatol mostak (Pleasure of
the Soul).”[52] It is probable that the reference here is to a circular
disc made by Edrisi, or an armillary sphere, but not to a terrestrial

As to Arabic celestial globes, a different situation presents itself. It
is well known that the inhabitants of Arabia, long before the time of
Islam, were in the habit of observing the stars, many of which, as Dorn
has noted, they knew and designated by names taken from pastoral life,
and several of which they worshiped as visible gods.[54]

Calif al-Mansur, who began his reign in 754 A. D., appears to have been
the first to show a decided taste for astronomical science, and for many
centuries following him this interest is strikingly pronounced among the
people of his country.[55] Scholars were eagerly attracted to the works
of Ptolemy, which were many times translated into Arabic, and
commentaries were written upon his description of the names and figures
of the several constellations. The only alteration they allowed
themselves to make in the names of the stars was to translate them into
their own language, or to substitute for those they could not understand
other names that conveyed an idea to their minds, applicable to the
constellation before the eyes. Andromeda they called “The Chained Lady”;
Cassiopeia they called “The Lady in the Chair”; Orion received the name
“The Giant.” They followed in the construction of their armillary
spheres and celestial globes the description laid down in Ptolemy’s
‘Syntaxis,’ modifying these astronomical instruments, from time to time,
as their studies directed them.[56]

The list of califs interested in astronomy is a long one, both of those
who remained in the original homeland, and of those who went to the new
home in the Iberian Peninsula.[57] The Mohammedan Hulagu Khan, for
example, erected, about 1264, an observatory in his Mongol capital,
Maragha, near Tabriz, which long remained a noted center for
astronomical studies.[58] This observatory, however, was but one of a
number of similar institutions erected either by the Arabs or by the
Persians. We are told that the construction of astronomical instruments
was brought to a high degree of perfection by these peoples in the
thirteenth century.[59] The names of many of the Arabic astronomers who
were particularly expert as globe makers are recorded, and there were
many who wrote on the subject of celestial spheres, armillary spheres,
and astrolabes, even before the tenth century.[60] The author of the
‘Fihrist,’ Ibn Abî Ja’kûb an-Nadîm, tells us that Kurra ben Kamîtâ
al-Harrânî constructed a globe which he himself had seen.[61] This, he
says, was made of unbleached material from Dabik, and colored, but that
the colors were much faded. Ibn Alnabdi, who was known as a clever
mechanic, mentions two globes which he had examined and admired for
their excellency of execution, in the public library of Kahira, in the
year 1043. One of these globes, he says, was made of brass, by Ptolemy
himself; the other, of silver, was constructed by Abul Hassan Alsufi,
for the immediate use of the king, Adad Eddoula.[62]

As a visible evidence of the interest of the Arabs in astronomical
science, and of their skill in the construction of astronomical
instruments, we have preserved to us, besides numerous astrolabes, no
less than seven globes, known to have been constructed prior to the year
1600. The oldest one extant is now in the possession of the R. Istituto
di Studi Superiori of Florence, Italy.[63] This fine example of the
skill which was attained by the instrument makers of Valencia, Spain, at
one time a flourishing center of Arabic culture, appears to date from
the second half of the eleventh century. According to an inscription on
the globe, we learn that it was made at Valencia by Ibrahim Ibn
Said-as-Sahli, in the year 473 of the Hegira, a date equivalent to
1080 A. D. This date Professor Meucci finds confirmed by a careful study
of the position of the stars represented on the globe. He notes, for
example, that the star Regulus had been placed at a distance of 16
degrees 40 minutes from the sign of Leo. Ptolemy, in the year 140 A. D.,
gave this distance as 2 degrees 30 minutes. According to Albaregnius,
this star advances about one degree every sixty-six years. Since 140
A.D. the star, therefore, would have moved 14 degrees 10 minutes, which
fact would lead astronomers to place this star, about 1080, as it
appears on the globe. The globe is of brass, 20 cm. in diameter, having
engraved on its surface forty-seven constellations, as given by Ptolemy,
omitting only the Cup, with 1042 stars, each with its respective
magnitude indicated.

A second Arabic celestial globe, which dates from the year 1225, has
been described in detail in a monograph by Assemani, which he issued in
the year 1790.[64] This remarkably interesting object belonged, at the
time, to the extensive and celebrated collection of antiquities and
curiosities of Cardinal Borgia, in Velletri, but may now be found in the
Museo Nazionale of Naples. It is composed of two brass hemispheres,
having both horizon and meridian circles, the whole resting upon four
supporting feet. A Cufic inscription tells us that it was made by
Caissar ben Abul Casem ben Mosafer Alabiaki Alhanefi, in the year of the
Hegira 622. Caissar probably was an astronomer at the court of Cairo,
and the Mohammedan date as given, translated into Christian reckoning,
gives us the year 1225.

In the year 1829 Dorn published a detailed description of an Arabic
globe which had been deposited in the museum of the Asiatic Society of
London (Fig. 13) by Sir John Malcolm.[65] It is of brass, has a diameter
of 24 cm., and is furnished with a substantial mounting. The peculiar
features of the figures which represent the several constellations
suggest Persian workmanship. In the vicinity of the south pole is an
inscription in Cufic characters, telling us that it was “Made by the
most humble in the supreme god, Mohammed ben Helal, the astronomer of
Monsul, in the year of the Hegira 674.” This year answers to the year
1275 of the Christian era, that is, it was constructed about the same
time as the Borgian globe and that belonging to the Dresden collection,
briefly described below. Forty-seven constellations are represented. On
the horizon circle, in their respective places, we find engraved the
words, “East,” “West,” “South,” “North.”

[Illustration: Fig. 13. Northern Hemisphere of Globe by Mohammed ben
Helal, 1275.]

The Arabic globe, to be found in the Mathematical Salon of Dresden (Fig.
14), has proved to be one of much interest and scientific value to
students of astronomy.[66] Bode, who described it in the year 1808,
refers to its remarkably fine execution and to its Cufic inscriptions as
being among the finest extant specimens of early Arabic writing. The
sphere is of brass, having a diameter of 14 cm., and is composed of two
parts, separable on the line of the ecliptic. It has a brass horizon
circle, on which is engraved at the east the word “rising,” and at the
west the word “setting.” It is not supplied with a movable meridian
circle, but within the horizon circle, from north to south, and from
east to west, there are two brass half circles, of the same diameter as
the horizon circle and so adjusted as to form one piece with it. Through
such an arrangement it is made possible to turn the globe in any desired
direction, one half of it being at all times above the horizon. In
addition to the above arrangement, there are two movable half circles,
attached at the zenith point by a pivot. These half circles are
graduated, and are movable, making it possible to find, by means of
them, the declination and right ascension of any star. The base, which
must be comparatively modern, consists of a circular plate, from which
rise four turned support columns, attached at their upper extremities to
the two half circles of brass, on which rests the horizon circle.

[Illustration: Fig. 14. Globe of Mohammed ben Muwajed el Ordhi, 1279.]

The date of construction cannot be far from 1279, which is
determinable from the position of the stars engraved thereon, relative,
for example, to the equinoctial points. The maker’s name, “Mohammed ben
Muwajed el Ordhi,” appears near the constellation Ursa Major, and is
inlaid in silver. There appear, very artistically engraved, the lines
representing the principal circles, the outlines of the several
constellations, with their names, some of these being inlaid with
silver, some with gold. The equator and the ecliptic are represented on
the surface of the sphere, each by two engraved parallel lines, and are
graduated, the graduation in each instance being represented by four
short and one long line, alternating thus by fives throughout the entire
three hundred and sixty degrees. The equator is inlaid with gold, the
other circles with silver. The names of the twelve constellations in the
zodiac are alternately inlaid with gold and silver, while all star
names, except as indicated, are inlaid with silver. The constellations
represented number forty-eight, the human figures all being clad,
turning the front and right face toward the observer.

The Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris possesses two ancient Arabic globes,
one of which, neither signed nor dated, has been thought to have been
constructed in the eleventh century.[67] This was obtained by Jomard, in
Egypt, more than sixty years ago. It has a diameter of about 19 cm., is
furnished with a horizon circle, which is upheld by four semicircular
arms, these, in turn, resting upon a base composed of four flat and
rather inartistic supports. The engraving on the surface of the brass
sphere closely resembles that on the Dresden globe. A detailed
description of this globe has not been obtainable.

A second Paris Arabic globe,[68] like the preceding, belongs to the
Bibliothèque Nationale (Fig. 15). It has a diameter of something less
than 15 cm., and was constructed by Diemat Eddin Mohammed, in the year
of the Hegira 981, which in the Christian reckoning corresponds to the
year 1573.

[Illustration: Fig. 15. Globe of Diemat Eddin Mohammed, 1573.]

The Imperial Library of Petrograd possesses an Arabic globe, constructed
in the year 1701.[69] It is described by Dorn as a fine example of the
globe maker’s art, closely resembling, in its general features, the
Arabic globe in the collection of the Royal Asiatic Society of London.
It has a diameter of about 19 cm., rests upon an ornamental tripod base,
and is adjusted to turn within a brass circle, which circle is fitted
into a larger one, so marked and graduated as to represent four
concentric circles. The first or inner circle, representing the horizon,
is divided into thirty-six divisions of ten degrees each; on the second
circle the degrees are indicated by letters; on the third circle appear
the twelve signs of the zodiac and the four principal directions, east,
west, north, south; the fourth circle is divided into thirty-six parts,
formed by the extension of the lines which divide the first, or horizon
circle, into thirty-six parts. On the last circle the names of one
hundred and four cities and countries are given. Not far from the north
pole is an inscription which gives us the name of the maker and the date
of construction. Therein we read that it was completed in the year 1113
of the flight of the Prophet, or in the year 1701 of Christian
reckoning, by Ridhwan, for Maulana Hassan Efendi, who, toward the end of
the seventeenth century, was director of the astronomical observatory of
Cairo, and gave substantial encouragement to makers of globes and of
other instruments employed in astronomical studies. The equator, the
ecliptic, and the parallels are represented, the first two by parallel
circles which are crossed or joined by lines dividing them into
seventy-two principal parts, each part being again subdivided into
fifths. The close resemblance of this example to the earlier known
Arabic globes suggests that there was little, if any, progress among
those peoples in the art of globe construction since the eleventh

[Illustration: Fig. 15a. Anonymous Arabic Globe, 1635.]


[49] Delambre, J. B. J. Histoire de l’Astronomie ancienne.
Paris, 1817. See Vol. I, pp. 372, 516, containing references
to globes, celestial and terrestrial, constructed in India
and in China about the years 450 and 724 A.D.

[50] Peschel, O. Geschichte der Erdkunde bis auf C. Ritter
und A. V. Humboldt. Berlin, 1877. See pp. 145-160, wherein
reference is made to their lack of interest in descriptive
geography; Beazley. Dawn of Modern Geography. Vol. I, chap.

[51] Günther, S. Studien zur Geschichte der mathematischen
und physikalischen Geographie. Halle, 1877. Heft 2; Ibn Abî
Ja’kûb an-Nadîm. Katâb al-Fihrist (Book of Records), ed. by
Gustav Flugel. Leipzig, 1871-1872. 2 vols. The greater part
of this Arabic work was written about the year 987 A. D.
Edrisi states it as “the opinion of philosophers, of
illustrious savants, and of skilled observers in the
knowledge of celestial bodies, that the earth is round as a
sphere.” See Edrisi, Geography, tr. de l’Arabe en français
par P. Amédée Jaubert. (In: Receuel de voyages et de
mémoires. Paris, 1830. 2 vols.) Vol. I, p. 1.

[52] Zach, F. v. Monatliche Korrespondenz. Gotha, 1806. Vol.
XIII, p. 157; Suter, H. Das Mathematiker-Verzeichniss im
Fihrist. (In: Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik.
Leipzig, 1892.) This work contains many references to
distinguished oriental scholars who treated in their
writings the doctrine of the sphere, the astrolabe, and the
armillary sphere.

[53] Wittstein, T. Historisch-astronomische Fragmente aus
der arabischen Litteratur. (In: Abhandlungen zur Geschichte
der Mathematik. Leipzig, 1892. Heft 6, p. 98.) The opinion
is here expressed that a terrestrial globe by Edrisi never
existed; Hadradauer, C. v. Die Feldzeugmeister Ritter von
Hauslabische Kartensammlung. (In: Mitteilungen der K. K.
Geographische Gesellschaft zu Wien. Wien, 1886. Neue Folge
19, pp. 387-388.) The opinion is expressed that Edrisi
constructed a planisphere and not a globe. Amari, M. Storia
dei Musulmani di Sicilia. Firenze, 1868. pp. 453 ff., 669

[54] Dorn, B. Description of an Arabic celestial globe. (In:
Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society. London, 1829.
Vol. II, pp. 371-392.)

[55] Dorn, op. cit.

[56] Dorn, op. cit.

[57] See the list as given in the Fihrist, referred to in
note 4. Naser ben Mohamed Abul Gioush, King of Castile, is
referred to as having been much interested in astronomy, in
which science he acquired such proficiency as to enable him
to construct a number of very useful astronomical

[58] Lelewel, J. Géographie du moyen âge. Bruxelles, 1857.
Vol. I, p. 116; Jourdain. Mémoire sur l’observatoire de
Méragah. Paris, 1810. It is well known that under the
direction of Nasr-Eddin, who was called to the charge of
this observatory by Hulagu Khan, astronomical instruments
were constructed.

[59] Dorn, op. cit.

[60] See the Fihrist, also a list as given by Dorn.

[61] Dorn, op. cit.

[62] Dorn, op. cit.

[63] Meucci, F. Il globo celeste arabico del seculo XI
esistente nel Gabinetto degli strumenti antichi di
Astronomia, Mathematica nel R. Istituto di Studi Superiori.
Firenze, 1878.

[64] Assemani, S. Globus coelestis cufico-arabicus
Veliterani Musei Borgiani. Patavii, 1790.

[65] Dorn, op. cit.

[66] Beigel, W. Nachricht von einer Arabischen Himmelskugel
mit Kufischer Schrift, welche im kurfürstlichen
Mathematischen Salon zu Dresden aufbewahrt wird. (In: Bodes
Astronomisches Jahrbuch für das Jahr 1808. Berlin, 1808. pp.
97 ff.); Drechsler, A. Der arabische Himmelsglobus
angefertigt 1279 zu Meragha. Dresden, 1873.

[67] Sedillot, L. A. Mémoire sur les instruments
astronomiques des Arabes. Paris, 1841. pp. 117 ff.; same
author. Matériaux pour servir à l’histoire comparée des
sciences mathématiques chez les grecs et les orientaux.
Paris, 1845. Vol. I, pp. 334 ff.; Jomard, M. Monuments de la
Géographie. Paris, 1854. It is very doubtful that a date so
early should be given to this globe.

[68] Information courteously given by M. L. Vallée.

[69] Dorn, B. Drei in der kaiserlichen öffentlichen
Bibliothek zu St. Petersburg befindliche astronomische
Instrumente mit arabischen Inschriften. (In: Mémoires de
l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg. St.
Pétersbourg, 1865. VIIᵉ serie, Tome IX, No. 1.)

[Illustration: Arabic Celestial Globe. _From Dorn’s illustration_]

Chapter IV

Terrestrial and Celestial Globes in the Christian Middle Ages

  General attitude of the period toward the theories of the
  Greeks and the Romans.—Scripture statements as sources of
  information.—Inclination of certain early writers to
  accept the doctrine of a spherical earth.—The particular
  attitude of Pope Sylvester II.—The asserted interest of
  Emperor Frederick II in scientific studies.—Alfonso the
  Wise and the Alfonsian tables.—Interesting allusions in
  Alfonso’s work to globes and globe construction.—Giovanni
  Campano of Novara and the statements in his ‘Tractatis de
  sphera solida.’—The attitude of Albertus Magnus,
  Sacrobosco, Roger Bacon, Vincent of Beauvais, Dante.

For many centuries following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, there
appears to have been in Christian Europe but little interest in the
fundamental principles of geographical or astronomical science. The
theories of the Greeks and the Romans respecting a spherical earth and a
spherical firmament encompassing it, in illustration of which they had
constructed globes, were not entirely forgotten, but such theories in
general were considered to be valueless, hindrances rather than helps to
the theological beliefs of the new Christian era.[70]

Though the early Church Fathers were inclined to reject the idea of a
globular earth,[71] there were not a few among them who found the theory
of a circular earth an acceptable one. The latter, it is true, was an
early Greek belief, referred to above as having been entertained in
Homer’s day, and as having been passed down to succeeding centuries,
but Christian writers did not find in the fact of its pagan origin a
particular argument for accepting it; on the contrary, the Bible was
held by many to be the fountain of all knowledge, and a sure guide no
less in the solution of problems pertaining to the physical sciences
than in the solution of problems pertaining to faith and doctrine. What
was contained in the Scriptures found a more ready acceptance than what
was to be found in pagan writers.[72] Isaiah’s statement, “It is He that
sitteth upon the circle of the earth,” was regarded as one altogether
adequate on which to found a theory of the form of the earth, and it was
accepted by such biblical interpreters as Lactantius, Cosmas
Indicopleustes (Figs. 16, 17), Diodorus of Tarsus, Chrysostom, Severian
of Gabala, by those who were known as the Syrians, by Procopius and
Decuil.[73] Men, however, such as Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, and
Philoponos inclined strongly toward the Aristotelian doctrine of a
spherical earth.[74] Isidore of Seville appears to have been a supporter
of the spherical doctrine,[75] as was also the Venerable Bede, who, in
his ‘De natura rerum,’ upholds the doctrine of a spherical earth on
practically the same grounds as those advanced by Aristotle.[76]

[Illustration: Fig. 16. The Universe according to Cosmas Indicopleustes,
Sixth Century.]

[Illustration: Fig. 17. Cosmas’ Illustration Confuting the Existence of
Antipodal Peoples.]

In illustration of the doctrine of a circular earth, terrestrial globes
certainly could not have been thought of as having any practical value.
With a rejection of the spherical theory of the ancients very naturally
went the rejection of their globes.

The circular or Homeric theory, as noted above, had its supporters, even
to the close of the middle ages, but the inclination is more or less
marked, even as early as the seventh century, to accept again the
doctrine of a spherical earth. It seems to have come into prominence
again with the growing belief in the importance of the place of the
earth in the universe. After the eighth century this theory may be said
to have had a very general acceptance by those who, Faust-like, felt a
desire for a larger freedom from theological restraint than the church
encouraged. (Figs. 18, 19.)

[Illustration: Fig. 18. Hereford World Map, ca. 1283.]

[Illustration: Fig. 19. The Earth Pictured as a Sphere by Nicolas
d’Oresme, 1377.]

Attention has been called to the attitude of the writings of the
Anglo-Saxon Church Father, the Venerable Bede. Although we have no
unquestionable proof that Bede, or Alcuin,[77] who was greatly
influenced by him, insisted on the use of globes in geographical
instruction, there is good reason for thinking these scholars would have
inclined to encourage their use. The monastic schools, which, in the
methods of instruction, rested upon the plan wrought out by Alcuin for
the Palace School of Charles the Great, considered globes to be
apparatus of great educational value. Professor Günther is inclined to
think it probable that celestial globes were used throughout the early
centuries of this mediaeval period in the better schools, though no
positive statement to that effect can be cited.[78]

We know that an exact knowledge of the movements of the sun, of the
moon, and of the constellations was considered to be of first importance
for the priesthood in the middle ages, since it was through a knowledge
of their movements that the times for the observance of the rigid church
rules were fixed.[79] The acquisition of such knowledge could best be
secured through the use of the celestial globe.[80] We learn from Notker
Labeo (950-1022), one of the most distinguished teachers of the monastic
school of St. Gallen, that he made use of such globes for
astro-geographical instruction, which, in their important features, were
like our modern celestial globes, for he tells us “they were supplied
with all necessary parts.” It seems evident that those of which he made
use could be adjusted to every desired altitude of the pole.[81]

One of the most distinguished scholars of the tenth century was Bishop
Gerbert (ca. 940-1003), later Pope Sylvester II, of whose learning we
possess reliable evidence.[82] His astronomical knowledge so astonished
his contemporaries that he was thought to be a necromancer and was
accused of being in league with the evil one.[83] He was a diligent
student of the literature of antiquity, which had survived to his day,
especially surpassing all others, it is reported, in his acquaintance
with the learning of pagan Rome. In the instruction which he gave in
astronomical science he made use of various instruments, to the end that
his pupils might the better understand the subject, among which
instruments were celestial globes and armillary spheres. These were a
source of much wonderment to his contemporaries. It is said that one of
these instruments was so skilfully constructed that even the untrained
by its use, having one constellation pointed out, would be able to
locate all others “with the aid of a globe and without the aid of a
teacher.”[84] In a letter to the monastic teacher Constantius, with whom
Gerbert stood in the friendliest relations for many years at Rheims, he
refers to the construction of a celestial globe, and in a more detailed
manner he makes mention of this when writing to Remigius of Trier. In
four of his letters to this last named prelate, Gerbert touches upon his
purpose to construct a globe, but on account of the added duties which
were his, occasioned by the death of Archbishop Adalbero, he seems not
to have been able to complete his work. He expresses himself, in the
third one of these letters, as hopeful that a favorable time might yet
come for him to take up the plan, but the increasing opposition of his
enemies left him no leisure for scientific labors of this character, and
it does not appear that he turned his attention again to globe

The thirteenth century furnishes us with the names of two distinguished
princes who were especially active in advancing scientific studies of
their times. One of these was the Hohenstaufen Frederick II, concerning
whom we are informed that he directed a learned Arabian, who sojourned
at his court, to construct for him a celestial globe of gold on which
the stars were to be represented by pearls.[86] We are further told that
as an outcome of his friendly relations with the rulers of the East,
the Sultan of Egypt sent to him an astronomical tent of wonderful
construction. In this the sun and the moon were represented and by means
of a skilfully constructed mechanism they were made to rise and set,
marking out the hours of day and night.[87]

As a ruler of like intellectual and scientific interests, the Castilian,
Alfonso X, who lived in the thirteenth century, known as “The Wise” and
as “The Astronomer,” deserves to be especially mentioned. By his order
an elaborate astronomical work was prepared, which holds a place of
first importance among mediaeval productions of its character. In this
work the construction of globes is discussed in a very detailed manner,
mention being made of every feature regarded as belonging to a properly
constructed celestial sphere. So significant are certain chapters of
this work for the history of globes and of globe making that a free
translation is here given of that part relating to materials of which
globes may be constructed.[88] “A sphere may be made of many materials,”
says the author, “as of gold, or silver, or copper, or brass, or iron,
or lead, or tin, or of a combination of these metals; or they may be
made of stone, or clay, or wood. They may also be made of leather, of
cloth, of parchment in many layers, and of many other materials which
men employ when they wish to give an exhibition of their skill. Those,
however, who have carefully considered these things, have decided that
there is nothing more suitable than wood and for the following reasons.
If the globe should be made of gold, only a very rich man would be able
to possess it; furthermore it would be very heavy. If it should be made
of thin sheets of gold it could be easily indented and would not long
remain a perfect sphere. If it should be made small, that which was
represented thereon would not appear distinct. The same thing may be
said of silver, although it is a metal stronger than gold, as it is
likewise harder, and therefore is not so easily indented. Copper is a
metal harder than either silver or gold, but is so dry that it can not
be easily fashioned into a globe, which should always be well made.
Brass, which is like dark colored copper, may be more easily fashioned,
because it is more malleable than copper, and is stronger than either
gold or silver. If, however, a globe made of this material should be
thin it might easily lose its shape, and if thick it would be very
heavy. Of all metals, however, this is the one most suitable for use in
making spheres, as it is the one most commonly employed. A globe of iron
would be very difficult to make and would be very heavy, and since the
rust would have to be removed from it very frequently, there would be
much danger of destroying the figures. A globe of tin, if made of a thin
sheet, could be easily indented, and would be very heavy if the sheet of
which made were thick. Lead, if thin, would offer less resistance to
injury than tin, and is a material much heavier. Furthermore, as lead is
inclined to turn black, the figures and the stars represented on a globe
of this material would soon become so discolored as to be no longer
visible. There is no way by which it can be cleaned without wiping out
the figures. Although the metal could be combined to form that material
of which water jugs and buckets are made it would be so fragile as to
break like glass. Clay, which is also used for the making of water jugs,
mortars, and fountains, is not suitable for globes, because if thin it
would break easily, and if thick it would be very heavy. Moreover this
material when prepared must be baked in a kiln which fact renders it
unsuitable for use in making spheres. A globe should not be made of
stone, since if this were transparent the figures could not easily be
seen, and such material would be very heavy. It would not be fitting to
make so noble an object as a sphere of the material of which jars are
made. Leather would not be suitable, though it might be fashioned into a
permanent spherical shape. Such material shrinks in hot weather or when
brought near a fire. Cloth would not be suitable, though it were made
very strong, since heat would cause it to shrink, and moisture would
cause it to lose its shape, and this same thing may be said of
parchment. A sphere of wood is strong and is of reasonable weight and
may be made in the manner which we shall set forth.” The original
manuscript of this work is profusely illustrated, including
representations of the figures of the several constellations (Fig. 20).

[Illustration: Fig. 20. The Constellation Taurus.]

In the latter part of the thirteenth century the mathematician, Giovanni
Campano, a native of Novara and it appears a particular friend and
supporter of Pope Urban IV, won distinction for his scholarly
attainments in the field of astronomy.[89] In addition to his work,
titled, ‘Teorica planetarum,’ wherein he comments on the subject of
astronomy and geometry, and makes copious references to the Greek
geometrician Euclid, whose works he had translated into Latin, he
prepared a treatise which he called ‘Tractatis de sphera solida.’ In the
prologue to this work, after noting that the number of astronomical
instruments which have been constructed is large, he states that in the
main they agree in their representation of the movements of the heavens,
adding that as the heavens are spherical, spherical instruments are to
be preferred. In his first chapter, after alluding to the astronomical
instruments described by Ptolemy, he proceeds to treat of the
composition of solid spheres, which he says may be made of metal, or
better, of wood. He gives rules for making the same by the use of the
lathe, and notes in conclusion it is well to make the sphere hollow in
order to lighten the weight. In the following chapters he treats of the
inscription of the circles of the sphere, of the construction of the
several rings employed in the mounting, such as the horizon and the
meridian circles, and gives consideration to the representation of the
several constellations on the surface of the ball. In the second part of
his treatise he gives instruction as to how to use the instrument in the
solution of astronomical problems.

There appears to be only the slightest evidence that Campano was
acquainted with the work of Alfonso. His presentation of the subject, in
all probability, was altogether independent of a knowledge of the
Alfonsian tables. It is interesting to observe that in the day when
astrology was in great favor in the universities of Europe, Campano
continued to be interested in genuine astronomical science.

Albertus Magnus, in his ‘Liber de coelo et mondo,’[90] devotes an entire
chapter to a theoretical consideration of gravitation, asserting that
the earth is spherical (Spherica sive orbicularis necessario), and
proceeds to a demonstration of the theory, in which he practically
follows the arguments of Aristotle, that every particle of the earth
away from the center is continually in movement seeking that center, the
result being the formation of a spherical body. He advances further, as
argument in proof of a spherical earth, that the shadow it casts in an
eclipse of the moon is circular.

Sacrobosco (John of Holywood or Halifax) (fl. 1230),[91] who was active
in the first half of the thirteenth century, much of the time as
professor of mathematics in the University of Paris, prepared a work
bearing the title, ‘Tractatus de sphaera,’ being in part a summary of
the ‘Almagest’ of Ptolemy. In this work the theory of a spherical earth
is supported in much the same manner as was done by Campano. The
‘Tractatus’ proved to be one of the most important quasi scientific
geographical and astronomical textbooks of the later middle ages, being
frequently copied, and frequently printed after the invention of that

Further reference might be made to a belief in a spherical earth, as
held by Roger Bacon (1214-1294),[93] by Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274),[94]
by Vincent of Beauvais (1190-1264),[95] by Dante (1265-1321),[96] and
still others of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. It
should, however, be stated that nowhere in the works of these authors
does there appear a reference to the construction of terrestrial globes,
and only incidentally the implication that they knew of or approved the
construction of celestial globes.

The increasing interest in geography and in astronomy in the closing
years of the middle ages led most naturally, in time, to much activity
in globe construction, and to this fact attention is directed in the
following chapter.


[70] Beazley’s monumental work, previously cited, considers
the geographical knowledge of the Christian middle ages,
from the closing years of the Western Roman Empire to the
early years of the fifteenth century. See especially Vol. I,
chap. vi; Vol. II, chap. vi; Vol. III, chap. vi. Marinelli,
G. Die Erdkunde bei den Kirchvätern. Leipzig, 1884;
Kretschmer, K. Die physische Erdkunde im christlichen
Mittelalter. Wien, 1889; Cosmas Indicopleustes. Christian
Topography, tr. by J. M. McCrindle. (In: Hakluyt Society
Publications. London, 1897); Günther, S. Die
kosmographischen Anschauung des Mittelalters. (In: Deutsch.
Rundschau für Geographie und Statistik. Vol. IV, pp. 135

[71] Zöckler, O. Geschichte der Beziehungen zwischen
Theologie und Naturwissenschaft. Gütersloh, 1877. pp. 122
ff.; White, A. D. A History of the Warfare of Science with
Theology in Christendom. New York, 1895-1897. See especially
chaps. ii-iii. See also references in note 1.

[72] Isaiah, chap. xl, v. 20; Ezechiel, chap. xxxviii, v.
12; Job, chap, xxvi, v. 7, 10; Psalm cxxxvi, 6.

[73] Note summary and citations in Kretschmer, op. cit.

[74] Note citations in Kretschmer, op. cit.

[75] See his works, Etymologia, 3, 24-71, and De natura
rerum, 9-27. Brehaut, E. An Encyclopedist of the Dark Ages.
Isidore of Seville. (In: Studies in History, Economics and
Public Law, Columbia University. New York, 1912. Vol.
xlviii, No. 1.)

It must be admitted that there is considerable incoherence
in the views of the world as expressed by the great majority
of the mediaeval writers. One not infrequently lands in
confusion when undertaking an investigation of their

[76] Beda. Opuscula scientifica. Ed. by J. A. Giles. London,
1843. See De natura rerum, chap. xlvi, titled, “Terram globo

[77] West, A. F. Alcuin and the Rise of Christian Schools.
New York, 1892; Mullinger, J. B. The Schools of Charles the
Great. New York, 1911; Fellner, R. Kompendium der
Naturwissenschaften an der Schule zu Fulda. Berlin, 1879.

The real founder of the monastic schools was Hrabanus
Maurus, who was a pupil of Alcuin, and who carried to the
monastery of Fulda that Englishman’s love for the

[78] Günther, S.-Fiorini, M. Erd- und Himmelsgloben.
Leipzig, 1895. p. 19.

[79] Specht, F. A. Geschichte des Unterrichtswesen in
Deutschland von den ältesten Zeiten bis zur Mitte des XIII
Jahrhunderts. Stuttgart, 1885. pp. 127 ff.

[80] Günther-Fiorini, op. cit., p. 18, n. 4, refers to a
star map made in the monastery of St. Emeran in the early
fifteenth century, and now belonging to the K. K. Hof- und
Staats-Bibliothek of Munich, which was intended for a
“Compositio spere solido.”

[81] Arx, J. v. Geschichte des Kantons St. Gallen. St.
Gallen, 1810. p. 265.

[82] Büdinger, M. Über Gerberts wissenschaftliche und
politische Stellung. Marburg, 1851; Werner, K. Gerbert von
Aurillac, die Kirche und die Wissenschaft seiner Zeit. Wien,

[83] Büdinger, op. cit., p. 38.

[84] Specht, op. cit., pp. 138-139; Dummler, E. Ekkehart IV
von St. Gallen. (In: Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum.
Berlin, 1869. Neue Folge, Vol. 2, p. 23.) The implication in
the last named work seems to be that globes were used in
many of the schools of this early day. Mabillon, J. Veterum
analectorum. Paris, 1676. Tom. 2, p. 212. The statement here
made clearly refers to the use of globes in astronomical

[85] Gerbert, Letters of, 983-997, publiées avec une
introduction et des notes par J. Havet. Paris, 1889. See
especially Nos. 134, 148, 152, 162. Gerbert refers, in these
letters to Remigius, to a globe which he intended to

[86] Lelewel, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 2.

[87] Raumer, F. v. Geschichte der Hohenstaufen und ihre
Zeit. Leipzig, 1878. Vol. III, p. 493. This astronomical
tent has sometimes been referred to as a globe.

[88] Libros del Saber de Astronomia del Rey D. Alfonso X de
Castilla. Compilados, anotados y comentados por Don Manuel
Rico y Sinobas. Madrid, 1863-1867. See especially Vol. I,
pp. 153 ff.

[89] Enciclopedia Universal illustrada, “Campano”;
Tiraboschi, G. Storia della letteratura italiana. Roma,
1782-1785. Tom. IV, lib. ii, cap. ii, §v; Fiorini. Sfere
terrestri. pp. 40-56.

There are numerous manuscripts of Campano to be found in the
University Library of Bologna, in the Ambrosiana of Milan,
and in the Library of San Marco in Venice. Fiorini refers to
a number of writers who may be said to have followed and in
part copied Campano.

[90] Albertus Magnus. Liber de coelo et mundo. Lib. II 4, c.
9. For a short biography of Albertus see Encyclopaedia
Britannica, “Albertus Magnus.”

[91] Günther, S. Geschichte des mathematischen Unterrichtes,
im deutschen Mittelalter bis zum Jahre 1525. Berlin, 1887.
pp. 184 ff.

[92] Catalogue of Printed Books in the British Museum
contains a list of more than fifty editions, the first being
printed in the year 1472.

[93] Biographies are numerous. See Dictionary of National
Biography, “Roger Bacon,” with bibliographical list. See
Bacon’s Opus Magnus, lib. I, 152-153, “necesse est vero
mundum extra habere figuram spericam ...”; also lib. IV, in
which he treats of the form of the earth.

[94] See for a short biography Nouvelle biographie. Paris,
1866. “Thomas d’Aquin.”

[95] Bourgeat, J. B. Études sur Vincent de Beauvais. Paris,

[96] Biographies of Dante are numerous. See his Purgatorio,
Canto XXVII, lines 1-4, referring to midday on the Ganges
when it is dawn in Jerusalem; see also his Aqua et Terra,
wherein he gives expression to a belief in the spherical

Chapter V

Globes Constructed in the Early Years of the Great Geographical

  Increasing interest in geographical discovery and maritime
  enterprise in the fourteenth and the fifteenth
  century.—Awakened interest in globe construction.—Martin
  Behaim and his globe of the year 1492.—The Laon
  globe.—Christopher and Bartholomew Columbus and their
  interest in globes.—John Cabot and his globe.—Globes of
  Johannes Stöffler.—Conrad Celtes and his part in arousing
  an interest in globes.

The fourteenth century witnessed among the peoples of Italy and of the
Iberian coast regions a rapidly rising interest in maritime enterprise.
The expansion of Europe, which for two centuries had been overland and
eastward, was now becoming oceanic, with an outlook southward and
westward into the Atlantic. In the fifteenth century, under the
inspiration of Prince Henry the Navigator, the Portuguese were feeling
their way down the coast of Africa, adding year by year to their
knowledge of hitherto unknown lands;[97] the Atlantic island groups, one
by one, were discovered or rediscovered,[98] and in 1487 Bartholomew
Diaz turned the Cape of Good Hope and opened a new way to the Indies of
the East.[99] Through all these enterprises a new and vigorous stimulus
was given to interest in geographical studies, just as an awakening had
followed the disclosure of the riches of the East by Carpini, Rubruquis,
and especially by Marco Polo in the earlier post-crusading years.[100]

Out of this lively interest in all that pertained to the expansion of
knowledge concerning the various regions of the earth came a desire for
better map making,[101] and attention was again intelligently directed
to the construction of terrestrial globes on which to represent the most
recently discovered seas, islands, and continental coasts.

It was Martin Behaim of Nürnberg (1459-1507),[102] who, in so far as we
have knowledge, constructed one of the first modern terrestrial globes
(Fig. 21), and it may, indeed, be said of his “Erdapfel,” as he called
it, that it is the oldest terrestrial globe extant. Behaim (Fig. 22)
belonged to the merchant class of a flourishing South German city. He
took advantage of the opportunities which were offered him for travel,
though it is hardly probable that he is entitled to that renown as an
African coast explorer with which certain of his biographers have
attempted to crown him, nor does it appear that he is entitled to a very
prominent place among the men famed in his day for their astronomical
and nautical knowledge. It was doubtless for reasons primarily
commercial that he first found his way to Portugal, where, shortly after
his arrival, probably in the year 1484, he was honored by King John with
an appointment as a member of a nautical or mathematical Junta. During
his earlier years in Portugal he was connected with one or more
expeditions down the coast of Africa, was knighted by the king,
presumably for his services, and made his home for some years on the
island of Fayal. In the year 1490 he returned for a visit to his native
city, Nürnberg, and there is reason for believing that on this occasion
he was received with much honor by his fellow townsmen. It was the
suggestion of George Holzschuher, member of the City Council, and
himself somewhat famed as a traveler, that eventually brought special
renown to our globe maker, for he it was who proposed to his colleagues
of the Council that Martin Behaim should be requested to undertake the
construction of a globe on which the recent Portuguese and other
discoveries should be represented. From a record on the globe itself,
placed within the Antarctic circle, we learn that the work was
undertaken on the authority of three distinguished citizens, Gabriel
Nutzel, Paul Volckamer, and Nikolaus Groland.[103] It is an interesting
fact that we are able to follow in detail the construction of the globe
through its several stages, as the accounts of George Holzschuher, to
whom was entrusted the general supervision of the work, have been
preserved.[104] From his report, presented at the conclusion of the
undertaking, we learn the names of those who participated in the
production of the globe; we learn the amount received by each for his
labors, and that the total cost to the city for the completed product
was something less than seventy-five dollars. Information is given
therein as to the division of the work; how the spherical shell was
prepared; how the vellum covering was fitted to the sphere; how the
rings and the globe supports were supplied; finally, how the artist,
Glockenthon, transferred the map to the prepared surface of the ball and
added to the same the several miniatures, illustrating in rich color a
variety of subjects.

[Illustration: Fig. 21. Globe of Martin Behaim, 1492.]

[Illustration: Fig. 22. Portrait of Martin Behaim.]

The globe, which still belongs to the Behaim family, was removed in the
year 1907, by Baron W. Behaim, from his residence in Egedienplatz,
Nürnberg, to the Germanic Museum, where it may now be found. It
originally stood on a tripod base of wood, but this was later replaced
by one of iron. The iron meridian circle is doubtless the work of Behaim
himself, while its brass horizon circle probably dates from the year

In his scholarly work Ravenstein thus describes this remarkable monument
of a period in which there was a rapid expansion of geographical
knowledge. “The globe has a circumference of 1595 mm., consequently a
diameter of 507 mm. or 20 inches. Only two great circles are laid down
upon it, viz., the equator, divided into 360 degrees, and the ecliptic
studded with the signs of the zodiac. The Tropics, the Arctic and the
Antarctic circles are likewise shown. The only meridian is drawn from
pole to pole 80 degrees to the west of Lisbon. The sea is colored a dark
blue, the land a bright brown or buff with patches of green and silver,
representing forests and regions supposed to be buried beneath perennial
ice and snow. Perhaps the most attractive feature of the globe consists
of 111 miniatures, for which we are indebted to Glockenthon’s clever
pencil. The vacant space within the Antarctic circle is occupied by a
fine design of the Nürnberg eagle with the virgin’s head, associated
with which are the arms of the three chief captains by whose authority
the globe was made.... There are, in addition, 48 flags (including 10 of
Portugal) and 15 coats of arms, all of them showing heraldic colors. The
miniatures represent a variety of subjects. Forty-eight of them show us
kings seated within tents or upon thrones; full-length portraits are
given of four Saints (St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Matthew, and St. Iago),
of missionaries instructing natives, and of travelers. Eleven vessels
float upon the sea, which is peopled by fishes, seals, sea-lions,
sea-cows, sea-horses, sea-serpents, mermen, and a mermaid. The land
animals include elephants, leopards, bears, camels, ostriches, parrots,
and serpents.... The only fabulous beings which are represented among
the miniatures are a merman and a mermaid, near the Cape Verde Islands,
and two Sciapodes in central South Africa, but syrens, satyrs, and men
with dogs’ heads are referred to in some of the legends. Nor do we meet
with the ‘Iudei clausi,’ or with a ‘garden of Eden,’ still believed in
by Columbus.... The globe is crowded with over 1100 place names and
numerous legends in black, red, gold, or silver.”[106]

The legends, in the South German dialect of the period, are very
numerous (Fig. 23), and are of great interest to students of history and
of historical geography. The following will serve to indicate the
character of Behaim’s numerous legends. “Nach cristi unsers lieben hern
gepurt 1431 jar also regiert in portugal jinfante don pedro wurden nach
notlusse zegericht zway schiff auf 2 Jar gespeisst von den hochgeburnen
Jnfanten don heinrichen dess koniks aufs portogalli bruder zu erfahren
wass do wer hinder sanct Jacob finisterre weliche schiff also gerüst
segelten alweg nach den untergang der sonnen bey 500 teutsche meilen
zuletst wurden sy ains tags ansichtig dies 10 inseln und aufs landt
trettendt funden nichts dann wildness und vögel die waren so zam dass sy
vor niemandt flohen aber von leutten oder thieren mit vier füssen war
von wegē der wildnuss keins darkhumen zu wohen um desswillen die
vögel mit scheuh waren also wurden sy geheissen insuln dos azores das
ist auf teutsch so vil als der habichen inseln und umb weliche wellen
der könik von portugal das ander jar schikt 16 schiff mit allerley zame
thiere und liess auf jede insel sein tail thun und darzu
multiplieieren.” This legend, which lies to the southeast of the Azores
Islands, reads in translation: “1431 years after the birth of our dear
Lord, when there reigned in Portugal the Infant Don Pedro, the infant
Don Henry, the King of Portugal’s brother, had fitted out two vessels
and found with all that was needed for two years, in order to find out
what was beyond the St. Jacob’s Cape of Finisterre. The ships thus
provisioned sailed continuously to the westward for 500 German miles,
and in the end they sighted these ten islands. On landing they found
nothing but a wilderness and birds which were so tame that they fled
from no one. But of men or of four footed animals none had come to live
there because of the wildness, and this accounts for the birds not
having been shy. On this ground the islands were called dos Azores, that
is, Hawk Islands, and in the year after, the king of Portugal sent
sixteen ships with various tame animals and put some of these on each
island there to multiply.”[107]

[Illustration: Fig. 23. Globe of Martin Behaim in Hemispheres.]

The following legend relates to the islands of Antilia. “Als man zelt
nach cristi gepurt 734 jar als ganz hispania von dn̄ heiden auf
affrica gewonon wurdt do wurdt bewont di obgeschriben Insuln Antilia
genant Septe citade von einem erzbischoff von porto portigal mit sech
andern bischoffs und andern cristen man und frawen dj zu sciff von
hispanie das geflohen kommen mit Irem vieh hab und gut anno 1414 ist
ein schiff aus hispania ungefert darbei gewest am negsten.” “In the year
734 of Christ when the whole of Spain had been won by the heathen of
Africa, the above island Antilia called Septa Citade (Seven Cities) was
inhabited by an archbishop from Porto in Portugal, with six other
bishops and other Christians, men and women, who had fled thither from
Spain by ship, together with their cattle, belongings and goods. 1414 a
ship from Spain got nighest it without being endangered.”[108]

Through the inspiration of Behaim the construction of globes in the city
of Nürnberg became a new industry to which the art activities of the
city greatly contributed. The chief magistrate induced his fellow
citizen to give instruction in the art of making such instruments, yet
this seems to have lasted but a short time, for we learn that not long
after the completion of his now famous “Erdapfel,” Behaim returned to
Portugal, where he died in the year 1507.

Martin Behaim’s map of the world was drawn on parchment which had been
pasted over a large sphere. The Laon globe,[109] apparently following
closely in time the former, is an engraved and gilded copper ball,
having a diameter of 17 cm. There is evidence that at one time it was
part of an astronomical clock.[110] The engraved surface, on which
appear the outlines of continents and islands, is well preserved. It has
two meridian circles, which intersect at right angles and which can be
moved about a common axis, likewise a horizon circle which is movable.
Numerous circles appear engraved on the surface of the ball, including
meridians and parallels. The prime meridian passes through the Madeira
Islands, a fact which suggests a Portuguese origin, since these islands
are generally thought to have been discovered by Lusitanian seamen. One
hundred and eighty degrees east of this prime meridian, a second
meridian is engraved, equally prominent, passing through the middle of
the continent of Asia, and 90 degrees still farther to eastward is a
third. Each of these meridians is divided into degrees, which are
grouped in fifths and are numbered by tens, starting at the equator. The
meridians are intersected by a number of parallels, lightly engraved in
the northern hemisphere, less distinct in the southern, and represent
the seven climates employed by the cosmographers of the Greek and Roman
period, as well as by those of the middle ages, in their division of the
earth’s surface.

As to its geographical representations, this terrestrial globe appears
to be older than that of Martin Behaim, yet at the southern extremity of
Africa we find the name “Mons Niger,” inscribed with the legend “Huc
usque Portugalenses navigio pervenere 1493.”

The great enterprise of Christopher Columbus (Fig. 24), wherein he may
be said to have achieved a final victory for the doctrine of a spherical
earth, entitled his name to a place of prominence in the history of
terrestrial globes. That Columbus himself constructed globes, as has
been sometimes inferred from a statement of Las Casas, may, however, be
questioned, since this statement touches the reputed correspondence
between Columbus and Toscanelli, which correspondence, in the light of
the very searching studies of Mr. Henry Vignaud, must now be considered
to be of doubtful authenticity.[111] It appears, however, from this
letter that the famous Italian cosmographer, Pauolo Toscanelli, himself
was accustomed to explain problems arising in the field of discovery by
the use of the globe, and Las Casas tells us that Columbus resolved to
write to him, making known his intentions, which he desired to be able
to fulfil, and sent to him a globe through Lorenzo Girardi, a
Florentine, at that time residing in Lisbon.[112] Ferdinand Columbus,
referring to this incident, says that “the globe was a small one.”[113]
In referring to Bartholomew, the son of Christopher Columbus, Las Casas
observes that “he was a man of prudence and of great intelligence in
all matters pertaining to the seas. I believe not much less learned in
cosmography and in what relates thereto, the making of navigator’s
charts and globes and other instruments of that kind.”[114] Again, we
find in a letter which Christopher Columbus directed to their Catholic
Majesties, that he “sent to their Majesties a certain round
representation.”[115] None of these references to globes, as before
stated, necessarily give us to understand that Christopher Columbus was
a globe maker. Certain it is that none is now known attributed to him or
to his son.

[Illustration: Fig. 24. Lorenzo Lotto Portrait of Columbus.]

The explorer, John Cabot (1450-1498) (Fig. 25), is likewise reputed to
have been interested in the construction of globes. In a dispatch sent
from London, December 18, 1497, by the envoy Raimondi di Soncino to the
Duke of Milan, we read that “this Master John has a description of the
world on a map, and also on a solid sphere, which he has made, and it
shows where he landed, and that sailing toward the east (west) he had
passed far beyond the region of the Tanais.”[116]

[Illustration: Fig. 25. Portrait of Sebastian Cabot, Son of John Cabot.]

That terrestrial globes were constructed toward the close of the
fifteenth century is of significance, not only as a response to a new
desire for more nearly accurate representation of the earth’s surface
than could be set forth on a plane map, but it is likewise significant
by reason of the fact that such globes as were constructed served to
demonstrate the value of globe maps, and this value once demonstrated,
they served to awaken a still further interest in globe making, which
bears abundant fruitage in the following century.

There is a very remarkable celestial globe of the fifteenth century now
belonging to the Lyceum Library of Constance, Switzerland. It is the
work of Johannes Stöffler (1452-1531),[117] at one time a pastor in the
town of Justingen, later a professor of mathematics in the University of
Tübingen, where he achieved renown as mathematician, astronomer,
cosmographer, and mechanic. It appears from the title of a publication
attributed to Stöffler, ‘De artificiosa globi terrestris
compositione,’[118] that he was a maker of terrestrial globes, though no
such globe of his is now known, and from his letters to Reuchlin we
learn that he made no less than three celestial globes.[119] One of the
latter he sent to his friend, Probst Peter Wolf of Denkendorf, which
represented the movements of the sun and of the moon. A second was
constructed for Bishop von Dalberg of Worms, on which the stars were
represented in gold.[120] Nothing further is definitely known of these
two globes. A third was constructed for Bishop Daniel of Constance,
which is the one now to be found in that city’s library.[121] This
sphere has a diameter of 48 cm., rests upon a wooden base, and is
furnished with a meridian and with a horizon circle. The forty-eight
constellations of Ptolemy are represented on a dark background and are
outlined in accord with recognized traditions. To a few of the
constellations double names are given, as “Hercules” and “Genuflexus,”
“Auriga” and “Agitator.” Stars of the first magnitude are especially
distinguished by name, the majority of which are of Arabic origin, and
more than one thousand stars are clearly indicated.

To the globe makers themselves, who were active agents in creating a
demand for globes, there should here be added the name of Conrad Celtes
(1459-1508),[122] the distinguished German humanist, as that of one who
contributed most in the first years of modern times toward arousing an
interest in the use of globes in the schools. Aschbach, in his History
of the Vienna University,[123] tells us of the school founded in Vienna
in the year 1510 by the Emperor Maximilian I, and of the instruction
given in this school by Celtes. We are informed that in his lectures on
mathematical geography he introduced a good text of Ptolemy in the
original Greek; this he translated into Latin, interpreting the same in
German, explaining the several sentences by reference to a terrestrial
and to a celestial globe. Having no record that such a method had been
earlier employed we may therefore conclude that this distinguished
teacher was the first to proceed in the manner designated, that is, he
was the first in modern times to make use of globes in geographical and
astronomical instruction.


[97] Major, R. H. Life of Prince Henry the Navigator.
London, 1868. This is one of the first, and, at the same
time, one of the most satisfactory biographies of Prince
Henry; Beazley, C. R. Prince Henry the Navigator. New York,
1895; Azurara, Gomez Eannes de. Chronicle of the Discovery
and Conquest of Guinea. Tr. and ed. by Charles Raymond
Beazley and Edward Prestage. (Hakluyt Society Publications.
London, 1896. 2 vols.)

[98] D’Avezac, M. A. P. Description et histoire des îles de
l’Afrique. Paris, 1848; same author, Notice des découvertes
faites au moyen âge dans l’Océan Atlantique. Paris, 1845;
same author, Les îles fantastiques de l’Océan occidental au
moyen âge. Paris, 1845; Margry, P. La conquête des îles
Canaries. Paris, 1896; Beazley. Dawn of Modern Geography.
Vol. III, chap. iv.

The Canary Islands, and perhaps others in the eastern
Atlantic, were known to the Romans, but appear to have been
lost to the knowledge of the Europeans during the greater
part of the middle ages, to be rediscovered in the period in
which modern geographical exploration was being entered

[99] Ravenstein, E. G. The voyages of Diogo Cão and
Bartholomew Diaz. (In: Geographical Journal. London, 1900.
Vol. XVI, pp. 625-655.)

[100] Beazley. Dawn of Modern Geography. Vol. II, chap. v;
Vol. III, chap. ii; Yule, H. The Book of Sir Marco Polo, the
Venetian, concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East.
London, 1903. 2 vols.

[101] Nordenskiöld, A. E. Facsimile Atlas. Stockholm, 1889;
same author, Periplus. Stockholm, 1897; Stevenson, E. L.
Portolan Charts, their origin and characteristics. New York,
1911; same author, Genoese World Map, 1457. New York, 1912;
same author, Facsimiles of Portolan Charts. New York, 1916.

From the above-named list of works, to which numerous
additions might be made, a general notion of the beginnings
of modern cartography can be obtained.

[102] Doppelmayr, J. S. Historische Nachricht von den
Nürnbergischen Mathematicis und Künstlern. Nürnberg, 1730.
pp. 27 ff. Murr, C. G. v. Diplomatische Geschichte des
portuguisischen berühmten Ritters Martin Behaim aus
Originalurkunden. Nürnberg, 1778; Ghillany, F. W. Der
Erdglobus des Martin Behaim von 1492, und der des Johann
Schöner 1520. Nürnberg, 1842; same author, Geschichte des
Seefahrers Ritter Martin Behaim, nach den ältesten
vorhandenen Urkunden bearbeitet. Nürnberg, 1853; Ziegler,
A. Martin Behaim, der Geistige Entdecker Amerikas. Dresden,
1859; Günther, S. Martin Behaim. Bamberg, 1890; Wieser, F.
v. Magalhâes-Strasse und Australkontinent auf den Globen des
Johannes Schöner. Innsbruck, 1881; Gallois, L. Les
Géographes allemands de la renaissance. Paris, 1890. Chap.
iii; Ravenstein, E. G. Martin Behaim, His Life and His
Globe. London, 1908; Harrisse, H. The Discovery of North
America. London, 1892. pp. 391.

Of the above-named works, that by Ravenstein is the most
satisfactory, being a most scholarly and scientific
treatment of his subject. His work is indeed a monument in
the field of historical geography. Of the reproductions of
the globe map, none surpasses the excellent facsimile in the
form of globe gores which he prepared to accompany his
studies. With the utmost care he deciphered the numerous
legends and place names, admitting, here and there, the
possibility of inaccuracy in the readings due to the damaged
condition of the globe. Vignaud, H., in his Toscanelli and
Columbus, pp. 182-186, gives a list of the numerous
reproductions of the globe map, with a brief word concerning
each. It may here be added that an excellent reproduction of
the globe, mounted as is the original, and made for Dr. W.
B. James of New York, in Nürnberg, the Ravenstein gores
being pasted over the prepared ball, may be seen in the map
department of The American Geographical Society. A similar
reproduction of the globe, with mounting of wood instead of
iron, was obtained by the author for exhibition in the Santa
Maria, Spain’s Official Replica of the Flagship of Admiral
Columbus, which was to have been exhibited in San Francisco
in 1915. It failed, however, to reach its destination, and
was returned to Chicago.

[103] See Fig. 23.

[104] The itemized statement of expenses, delivered to the
Nürnberg Council by George Holzschuher, was first published
by Peitz, J. (In: Mitteilungen des Vereins für die
Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg, Heft 6. Nürnberg, 1886.) It
is of sufficient interest in the history of globe making to
be cited here. The translation is Ravenstein’s, pp. 111-112.
“Expenditure on the globe. Expenditure, Nürnberg, August 26,
1494. Below is to be found a statement of what I, George
Holzschuher have expended by order of my lords of the city
treasury, upon limning and otherwise, for making the
‘apple,’ or mappa mundi in the shape of a sphere, and also
for making the map for the clerk’s office, which Mr. Marten
Beham, having expended thereon his art and pains, left
behind for the enjoyment of my lords of the worshipful

“_Item_ first, to Glockenthon, who painted the sphere, and
spent 15 weeks over it, fl. 14; to his wife, fl. 1, facit,
fl. 15, lb.- dn.- (£2 10s.)

“_Item_ paid for a loam mould over which the sphere was to
have been made, as a guide for Kalberger, 28 dn.; also for
linen for the first sphere, 21 dn.; also for wine and beer,
and other things, for the limner’s dinner whilst painting
the globe, and occasionally also for Peham; and for bread
for cleansing the globe, and making it nice, fl. 1, lb. 1,
dn. 16; also to Gagenhart for lettering, 16 dn.; fecit,
miscellaneous expenses.

  fl. 1, lb. 3, dn. 21 (14s. 5d.)

“_Item_ paid Glockengiesser for a mould broken by Kalperger,
and round which Kalperger was to have made a large sphere,
both through N. Gross and M. Peham

  fl. 2, lb.-, dn.- (£1.)

“_Item_ paid for white vellum (parchment) covering the
sphere, 80 dn.; also for a cover lined with skin to protect
the sphere from dust, 3 lb., 20 dn.; also to the smith for
two iron hoops within which the sphere revolves, 4 lb. 6
dn.; also to the joiner for wooden stand of the sphere, 4
lb. 6 dn. facit, miscellaneous expenses

  fl. 1, lb. 6, dn. 10 (17s. 7d.)

“_Item_ paid to Mr. Marten Beham for a printed mappa mundi,
embracing the whole world, which was used for the globe, and
is to be hung in the town office, 1 fl. 3 lb.; also for
painting, etc., 1 fl.; also for lining and glueing
(mounting) the same, 5 lb. 10 dn.; also to the joiner for a
frame and two panels, 1 fl.; also to the starch painter for
painting these panels,

  4 lb. 6 dn.; facit fl. 4, lb. 4, dn. 6 (£2 5s.)

“_Item_, Kalperger has not been paid for making the sphere:
he demands 3 fl., but owes for the linen which was used for
the old tent over the ‘beautiful fountain,’ in return for
which he was to have made the large sphere; he had also
broken the pattern or mould for which 2 gulden (20s) had to
be paid to Glockengiesser; he also promised Mr. Merten that
if he taught him the art of cosmography or the laying out
(planning) of the globe he would make another sphere during
the time.”

[105] An account of October 16, 1510, reads, “_Item_, 1 lb.
Nov for a large brass sign surrounding the map.” This
doubtless is a reference to the globe. Ghillany attributes
this work to Werner. See also Günther, S. Johann Werner von
Nürnberg und seine Beziehungen zur mathematischen und
physikalischen Erdkunde. Halle, 1878.

[106] Ravenstein, op. cit., pp. 59-60.

[107] Ravenstein, op. cit., pp. 75-76.

[108] Ravenstein, op. cit., p. 77.

[109] D’Avezac, M. A. P. Sur un globe terrestre trouvé a
Laon, anterieur à la découverte de l’Amérique. (In: Bulletin
de la Société de Géographie de France. Paris, 1860.)

This work contains an announcement of the discovery of the
globe, together with a description of the same.

Raemdonck, J. v. Les sphères céleste et terrestre de Gérard
Mercator. St. Nicolas, 1874. pp. 25 ff. Nordenskiöld.
Facsimile Atlas, p. 73.

[110] Britten, F. J. Old clocks and watches and their
makers. New York, 1911; Berthoud, F. Histoire de la mesure
du temps par les horologes. Paris, 1849.

Globe clocks, or clocks of which globes were a conspicuous
feature, were not uncommon in this period. See the
reference, p. 73, to the Lenox globe, the reference, p. 74,
to the Jagellonicus globe, and the reference, p. 173, to the
work of Dasypodius.

[111] Vignaud, H. Toscanelli and Columbus. London, 1902.

This is a very remarkable piece of historical criticism.
Citation is given for every statement of special importance,
including a reference to those students of the question who
do not agree with the author’s point of view. See also this
distinguished author’s work, Histoire critique de la Grande
Entreprise de Christophe Colomb. Paris, 1911. 2 vols.

[112] Las Casas, Bartolomè de. Historia de las Indias.
Madrid, 1875. Vol. I, p. 92.

[113] Ulloa, A. Histoire del S. D. Fernando Colombo. Venice,
1571. Chap. vii, p. 15. See Churchill, Voyages, also Bourne,
E. G., Spain in America. New York, 1904.

[114] Las Casas, op. cit., pp. 224 ff.

[115] Las Casas, op. cit., p. 48.

[116] Harrisse, H. Jean et Sébastien Cabot. Paris, 1862.
Doc. X, p. 324; Tarducci, F. Di Giovanni e Sebastiano
Caboto. Venezia, 1892. p. 351; Winsor, J. Narrative and
Critical History of America. Boston, 1884. Vol. III, pp.

Harrisse and Tarducci print the letter of Soncino in the
original Italian; Winsor gives the first translation into
English (tr. by Professor B. H. Nash). A very superior work
for reference to the Cabots is: Winship, G. P. Cabot
Bibliography. London, 1900.

[117] Moll, J. C. A. Johannes Stöffler von Justingen, ein
Characterbild aus dem ersten Halbjahrhundert der Universität
Tübingen. Lindau, 1877.

[118] This work is referred to by Moll in his chapter on
“Stöfflers Schriften.”

[119] Moll, op. cit., chap. ix, “Stöffler als Mechaniker,”
refers to him as globe maker and as clock maker, with
special mention of his three celestial globes.

[120] Günther is in error in referring to this globe as the
one now in Constance.

[121] Moll, op. cit., pp. 49-51.

[122] Günther, S. Geschichte. pp. 250 ff.

[123] Aschbach, J. v. Die Wiener Universität und ihre
Humanisten im Zeitalters Kaiser Maximilians I. (In:
Geschichte der Wiener Universität. Wien, 1877. Vol. II, p.

[Illustration: Ship. _From early portolan chart_]

Chapter VI

Globes of the Early Sixteenth Century

  Summary of fifteenth century globe
  characteristics.—Increasing interest in globes.—Globes
  of Pope Julius II.—Friar Marco da Benevento.—Importance
  of the Rosselli family of Florence.—The globe of Barnaba
  Canti.—Friar Giuliano Vannelli.—Interest of Trithemius
  in globes.—The Bunau globe.—Waldseemüller’s map and
  globe.—Liechtenstein globes.—Büchlin reference.—Globus
  Mundi.—Welt Kugel.—Lenox globe.—Jagellonicus
  globe.—Hauslab.—Green globe of Paris.—Nordenskiöld
  gores.—So-called Leonardo da Vinci gores.—Boulengier
  gores.—Acton globes.—Globes of Magellan and of del
  Cano.—Globes of Schöner.

Terrestrial globes of the early years of great geographical discoveries,
that is, of the fifteenth century, to which reference was made in the
preceding chapter, appear to have been constructed either of metal, on
the surface of which the map was engraved, of which the Laon globe is an
example; of a composition fashioned into a ball over a mould on which
strips of parchment or paper were then pasted, having the map drawn by
hand, as the Behaim globe; or the ball was of wood with map in
manuscript, as was probably the globe attributed to John Cabot. Here
were beginnings, and the following century witnessed a remarkable
increase of interest in globe construction. As the true position of
places on the earth’s surface, as well as the distance between any two
places, could best be represented on a globe, cartographers and globe
makers became active in their endeavors to meet the desires of those
interested in geography. They no longer confined themselves to such
globes as the Behaim and the Laon, which, in reality, are artistically
interesting rather than scientifically useful, but they sought to make
use of the new invention of printing. Maps giving the outlines of
continents, with place names, rivers, constellations, and star names
were printed from wood blocks or from copper engraved plates on paper
gores, which were so fashioned mathematically that they could be made to
fit the surface of a prepared ball, with careful adjustment and
manipulation. In this manner globes in great numbers could be prepared,
with the added advantage that they were all alike, or similar. The
sixteenth century soon furnished rules for globe-gore construction, and
while the methods of globe making hitherto common were not entirely
given over, as many artistic pieces of the period, which have come down
to us, testify, the new method was soon in general favor and became in
the course of time practically the only method employed. It is the globe
maker’s method today.

If the actual number of globes constructed shortly before and shortly
after 1500 appears to have been small, judging from the number extant,
we often find additional assurance of interest in such instruments in
the use that was made of them for illustrative purposes, and for
decoration. Terrestrial and celestial globes, as well as armillary
spheres, frequently appeared on title-pages (Figs. 26, 27), in
paintings (Fig. 28), or constituted a part of library furnishings (Fig.

[Illustration: Fig. 26. Title-page of Johann Schöner’s Terrae
Descriptio, 1518.]

[Illustration: Fig. 27. Second Title-page of Mauro Fiorentino’s Sphera
Volgare, 1537.]

[Illustration: Fig. 28. Holbein’s Ambassadors, ca. 1536.]

[Illustration: Fig. 29. Library of Escorial.]

Among the ducal houses, famous in Italy in this period for interest in
matters geographical, none was more conspicuous than was the house of
Este of Ferrara.[125] We have an interesting letter dated Rome, January
17, 1509, and written by Fioramonte Brognoli to Isabel of Este, wife of
Francis II, Marquis of Mantua, daughter of Hercules I, Duke of Ferrara,
who was responsible for the draughting of the Cantino map of the year
1502,[126] and granddaughter of Duke Borso, to whom Donnus Nicholas
Germanus dedicated or addressed, in 1466, his twenty-seven Ptolemy
maps.[127] Brognoli, having received from the Marchioness an order for a
copy of the globes, terrestrial and celestial, possessed by Pope Julius
II, made reply that “the map and celestial signs which are painted on
two solid spheres in the library of the Pope, of which your Excellency
would like to have copies, I have ordered, and the same to be made by a
good painter of the Palace, who tells me that it will take some time
because the matter is quite difficult. I will not fail in care, and will
provide the necessary funds, so that as soon as possible I will send
them to you by a trusty messenger.”[128] Again the Roman correspondent
wrote, the letter bearing date February 1, 1505, “That master painter
who would like to make copies of the map and the zodiac which are in the
library of the Pope, about which Your Excellency wrote me some time ago,
tells me that to make them with linen it will cost more than forty
ducats, but to draw them on paper according to a certain design which is
painted on canvas in that place, it would cost very little. I thought I
would inform Your Excellency before giving the order, that I might
ascertain your wishes, for I shall do exactly that which you
desire.”[129] February 20, 1505, the Marchioness replied from Mantua,
saying that “the expense of forty ducats will not deter us, if the copy
of the map and of the zodiac is well made and is similar to that found
in the library of the Pope. You may order it to be made with extreme
diligence and with exactness.”[130]

The globe of Pope Julius II, in question, must then have been
constructed prior to 1505, seeing this to be the year of the
correspondence to which reference has been made above. From the
partial description given in the letters we are led to the conclusion
that they were not engraved metal globes, but their maps were
manuscript, and were well decorated by hand. The Vatican Museum is still
in possession of a celestial globe which may well be one of those once
belonging to Pope Julius II, the terrestrial globe having disappeared.
From the interesting description of Denza[131] we learn that this
remaining one is a hollow wooden ball, 95 cm. in diameter. That there
might be an even surface on which to draw the star map, a covering of
plaster had been provided, 4 mm. in thickness. It is furnished with a
somewhat elaborate base, ornamented with sphinxes with the heads of
eagles and the feet of lions. Its horizon circle, supported by four
quarter circles, is a band 5 cm. wide, the surface of which is divided
into five concentric circles, within which are the names of the several
signs of the zodiac in Latin, the names of the days of the month, and
the names of the eight principal winds in the Italian language. Along
the outer edge of this horizon circle is the following inscription,
“Daniel Chassignet. Fecit. Romae 1617,” a name and date clearly applying
only to this circle or to the globe’s mounting. It has a meridian circle
within which the sphere revolves. On the surface of the ball we find
represented the principal circles, that is, the equator, the tropics,
the polar circles, with five meridians, and the ecliptic, its twelve
signs being represented in gilded characters. The coat of arms, painted
near the south pole, is not that of Pope Julius II, but of Cardinal Gian
Stefano Ferrero, Bishop of Bologna, who became a supporter of Juliani
della Rovere in his candidacy for the papal office, and to which office
he was elected, becoming known as Julius II. Fiorini thinks it probable
that the globe was presented by Cardinal Ferrero to the Pope, and that
while in his possession the coat of arms was painted on its surface. It
is indeed not improbable that it was originally constructed for the
Cardinal. Contrary to the opinion of Denza, Fiorini’s conclusion is
that the decoration of the globe is not to be attributed to Giulio
Romano, a distinguished pupil of Raphael, and the arguments presented
seem acceptable.[132]

As proof of an existing interest in globes, in Italy, in the first years
of the sixteenth century, other than that given by the letters of Isabel
of Este, and the globes of Pope Julius, we find an allusion to the
subject by Friar Marco da Benevento, member of the order of Celestini
and a renowned mathematician. In his ‘Orbis nova descriptio,’[133] which
he added to an edition of Ptolemy, issued in Rome in the year 1507 or
1508, he alludes to the difficulty of representing the earth upon a
solid sphere, adding that the greater the size of the same the greater
the difficulty there is in moving it, and that the larger the globe the
more difficult it is to take in at a glance any considerable part of the
map. While making no specific mention of any of the globe makers of the
time, his reference to the subject seems to assure us that globes were
objects more or less familiar to students of geography in his day.

Fiorini cites at some length an inventory relating to the printing
establishment of Alexander Rosselli of Florence, under whose father,
Francesco, this establishment became famous.[134] The father died in the
year 1510, but it is probable that this artist, painter, and
miniaturist, who issued for his establishment numerous maps, printed,
likewise, globe gores. While the inventory gives us intimation of his
great activity, we have no further knowledge of his work as a globe
maker than is contained therein. It may well have been that the
construction of globes with printed gore maps had its origin in Florence
in the very early sixteenth century, and that a credit we have been
accustomed to give to German map makers[135] is in reality due the
Rosselli family of Italy, particularly Francesco Rosselli.

Fiorini likewise alludes to a letter written by Friar Zenobio Acciaioli,
dated Lucca, May 12, 1509, and addressed to the Florentine, Luigi Pietro
Guicciardini, brother of the distinguished historian.[136] Request is
made in this letter that assistance and advice be given to a brother
monk, Barnaba Canti, who had been asked to describe a map on which the
newly discovered lands were well drawn, there being written on the map
the history of the islands, with a description of the lands and of the
customs of the peoples. Attention is likewise called to a globe which
Canti possessed, it being designated as “sphaerula” or small. The letter
further notes, “Cupit autem illam Joannes teutonicus astrologus, ut ex
suis ad me literis quas inclusas tibi in his mitto, videre poteris.”
“John the German astronomer desires this (map?) as you will be able to
see from his letters to me which enclosed I send to you.”

It is ingeniously argued that the Joannes referred to was none other
than John Schöner, who later became famous as mathematician and as map
and globe maker, and that the globe referred to by Acciaioli was one in
the construction of which the globe gores of Rosselli had been used,
since “Joannes teutonicus” in all probability would not have thought of
receiving from Italy a manuscript globe.

For the history of globe making as practiced in Florence in these early
years, there is in the record of the deliberations of the Florentine
Signoria, dated December 30, 1515, an entry of interest.[137] The Priors
and Gonfaloniers directed attention to the sphere, which had been placed
in the orologia or clock room, noting that the terrestrial orb which had
been painted thereon was greatly damaged, “... super qua depicta est
figura et situs orbis terrarum ... devastata et male picta.” They
expressed a desire that it should be fully repaired and be made suitable
as an adornment of the wonderful clock, and in keeping with the
remarkable celestial sphere which was placed near by: “ut similis sit et
non discrepet, in sua qualitate, a mirabili orologio predicto, et a
convicina et mirabili palla, ubi apparet figura et ambitus celi.” Having
knowledge of the ability and skill of Friar Giuliano Vannelli, it was
decided to entrust the reconstruction to him. We learn that on June 28,
1516, the Signoria directed payment of fifty large florins be made to
Friar Giuliano, in addition to the six already paid, for the painted
sphere; that on July 17, 1516, the officers of the Monte Comune directed
the payment of fifty-six large gold florins to “Don Giuliani Vanegli”
“in appreciation of his work, and as a reward for having made one of the
two balls of the clock, which is in the large room of the Signoria,
which ball he both designed and painted, showing on it the entire
universe, according to Ptolemy and other authors who deal with the
subject.” Fiorini notes that as at this time the terrestrial sphere was
damaged it probably was several years old, and that if badly painted
(male picta) the inference is, it failed to record the latest
discoveries. If the exact date of the construction of the spheres which
adorn this clock cannot be ascertained, it was at least before

We have further evidence of Vannelli’s interest in globe construction
contained in a letter dated Rome, November, 1524, and addressed to
Cardinal Giovanni Salviati, a legate of Lombardy. “Your Excellency has
asked me to make for you a small ball _de situ orbis_, of the size and
character of that of Giovanni Ruccellai.... I have made the said ball,
and have varnished it, but the weather being bad it will not be dry for
eight or ten days.... Your Excellency also tells me that you would like
to have a large globe similar to that of Mons. R. Rodulphis, which I
have begun. If you desire that I should go on with the work, I shall
willingly do so, putting aside all other work to serve you.”[139]

To the interest in globe making north of the Alps in the first quarter
of the sixteenth century attention may next be directed. In a letter
written by Johannes Trithemius to Vuilhelmus Veldicus Monapius, dated
August 12, 1507, may be found an early allusion to globes. He says:
“Orbem terrae marisqui et insularum quem pulchre depictum in Vuormotia
scribis esse venalem, me quidem consequi posse obtarum, sed
quadraginta pro illo expendere florenos, nemo mihi facile persuadet.
Comparavi autem mihi, ante paucos dies, pro aere modico sphaeram orbis
pulchram in quantitate parva ...” “I wanted to buy a finely painted
globe of the earth, seas, and islands, which I wrote was for sale in
Worms, but I could hardly be induced to give such a price for it as
forty florins. I purchased, however, a few days since at a low price, a
beautiful terrestrial globe of small size.”[140] He wrote further,
“Henricum de Bunau dies vita audini defunctum, sed libros eius et globum
cosmographiae quem alim comparavit ex officina tua remanisse apud
Saxoniae Principes, quod tu existimas non audini.” “I am informed that
Henry Bunau died some time ago, but I never heard it said that his books
and the cosmographical globe which he bought in your workshop remained
with the Princes of Saxony, as you believe.”[141] It has been thought by
some that the globe referred to as having been purchased in Worms was
the globe of Waldseemüller.

Since the discovery in 1902 of the long-lost Waldseemüller maps of 1507
and of 1516 by Professor Joseph Fischer, S.J., in the library of Prince
de Waldburg-Wolfegg (Fig. 30), great interest has centered especially in
the work of that early German map maker. As the new transatlantic
discoveries of the Spanish and the Portuguese greatly quickened interest
in geographical science and made necessary the construction of new maps
in rapid succession, Germany, already a land in which the renaissance
spirit had found an enthusiastic reception, and whose people were awake
to every new interest, soon became a center for the spread of
information concerning the new regions. Commercially important trade
cities of this country had been for some time in intimate touch with the
important maritime trade centers of Spain and Portugal. Word of the
newest discoveries was quickly carried over the Alps to France and to
Germany, and the latest publication of the writer on matters
geographical had its references to the parts of the world newly found of
which Ptolemy had not known.

[Illustration: Fig. 30. Castle of Prince Waldburg de Wolfegg.]

One of the first German geographers of the century, and now justly famed
as one of the most distinguished of the period, was Martin Waldseemüller
(ca. 1470-1522 ca.), whose name, according to the practice of the time,
was classicized as Hylacomylus.[142] So significant was the influence of
Waldseemüller in the mapping of the New World that a somewhat detailed
word concerning him may here well be given. When Duke René of Lorraine
(1451-1508) became a patron of learning, with particular interest in
cosmography or geography, the cartographical studies of the Germans
began to have a place of far-reaching importance. It was under this
enlightened duke that the little town of St. Dié became a center of
culture. Here was organized the Vosgian Gymnasium,[143] a society of
learned men not unlike the Platonic Academy of Florence or the Danubian
Society, Vienna. Of this St. Dié coterie none was more prominent than
Jean Bassin de Sandacourt,[144] the translator of the ‘Four Voyages’ of
Amerigo Vespucci from the French into the Latin, Lud, the ducal
secretary and author of an important little work of but few pages, which
he called ‘Speculi orbis succinciss ...,’[145] and Waldseemüller, the
professor of cosmography, the author of the ‘Cosmographiae Introductio
...,’[146] and a cartographer of great skill, who, with Ringmann,
planned and carried well on toward completion, as early as 1507 or 1508,
an edition of Ptolemy, which in 1513 was printed in the city of
Strassburg.[147] It probably was as early as 1505 that the plan was
under consideration for a new translation of Ptolemy from the Greek into
the Latin, and that thought perhaps had its inspiration in the letters
of Vespucci, in which he gave an account of his four voyages, and in the
new chart which but recently had fallen into the hands of Ringmann.
These charts, says Lud, in his ‘Speculum,’ came from Portugal, which, if
true, leads one to the belief that they exhibited genuine Vespucian
data.[148] Whatever the truth concerning the origin of these charts,
that determination became a starting point for a most important
evolution in cartographical history of the world.[149] In April, 1507,
Waldseemüller had written to his friend, Amerbach, in Basel, “Non credo
te latere nos Ptholomei cosmographiam, recognitio et adiectis quibusdam
novis tabulis impressuros in oppido Divi Deodati.... Solidum quod ad
generale Ptholomei paravimus nondum impressum est, erit autem impressum
infra mensis spacium.”[150] “I think you know already that I am on the
point of printing in the town of St. Dié (Lorraine), the Cosmography of
Ptolemy, after having added to the same some new maps.... the globe
comprising Ptolemy in general, which we have prepared, is not yet
printed, but will be so in a month.” While great interest centers in
these “new maps,” prepared for the proposed edition of Ptolemy, a
greater interest now centers in the map to which Waldseemüller
repeatedly alludes in the years 1507-1511, especially in his
‘Cosmographiae Introductio’ (Fig. 31), which map it was the good fortune
of Professor Joseph Fischer, S. J., to bring to light in the year 1902,
as noted above.[151] In the dedication of his little book to the Emperor
Maximilian, he says, “Hinc factū est v̄t me libros Ptholomei ad exēplar
Grecū quorunda ope p virili recognoscēte & quatuor Americi Vespucii
navigationū lustratioēs adiiciēte: totius orbis typū tā in solido q̄ȝplano
(velut preuiam quandā ysagogen) p cōmuno studiosorū vtilitate
parauerim.”[152] “Therefore studying to the best of my ability and with
the aid of several persons, the Books of Ptolemy from a Greek copy, and
adding the Relations of the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, I have
prepared for the general use of scholars a map of the whole world, like
an introduction, so to speak, both in the solid and on a plane.”
Waldseemüller says further, wherein he gives a description of his new
map, “Propositum est hoc libello quandam Cosmographie introductionē
scribere; quam nos tam in solido q̄ȝ plano depinximus. In solido
quidem spacio exclusi strictissime. Sed latius in plano....”[153] “The
purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map,
which we have designed, both as a globe and as a projection. The globe I
have designed on a small scale, the map on a larger.”

[Illustration: Fig. 31. World Map of Martin Waldseemüller, 1507.]

From the above citation it appears that as early as April, 1507, the
same preparation had been made for a globe that had been made for the
issue of a large world map. The map, as noted, has been found, but
neither a globe nor a set of globe gores is known bearing the
indisputable evidence of his authorship. In the library of Prince
Liechtenstein, however, is a somewhat crudely executed gore map (Fig.
32) which, according to certain cartographical students, should be
accepted as a copy of the work to which the allusions are made in the
‘Cosmographiae.’[154] These gores, twelve in number, and each 12 cm. in
length, this length representing the length of a meridian of the globe
ball which the gores could be made to cover, were printed from a wood
engraved block. They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with
the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the
Canerio map record, and that of Waldseemüller’s world map of 1507.[155]
The North American region is nameless, but the South American region
bears conspicuously the name “America.” At intervals of ten degrees
lines of latitude and longitude are marked. As a title to a lithographic
reproduction of this map issued some years since by the Prince, is the
subscription “Erster gedruckter Globus. Martin Hylocomylus
(Waltzemüller). Gehört wahrscheinlich zo seinem 1509 herausgegebenen
Buche Globus Mundi.” “First printed globe. Martin Hylacomylus
(Waltzemüller). Probably belonging to his Globus Mundus which appeared
in 1509.”[156]

[Illustration: Fig. 32. Globe Gores Attributed to Martin Waldseemüller,

That which adds special significance to this young German’s
representations of the new lands, so far as our study of globes is
concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or
contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced
by such cartographers as Johann Schöner of Nürnberg, and by those of his
school, as will be noted below. Both the globe and the large world map
were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed.
Waldseemüller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 that he had
printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies,[157] but one of which is
now known.

In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears
to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by
Waldseemüller. It is this reference which the Prince of Liechtenstein,
as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of
which is in his collection. The title of this tract reads, “Diss büchlin
saget wie die zwē durchlüchtigstē herrē her Fernandus, K. zů
Castilien und herr Emanuel, K. zů. Portugal haben das weyte mör
ersůchet unnd funden vil Insulen unnd ein Nüwe welt von wilden
nackenden Leüten vormals vnbekant.” “Gedruct zu Strassburg durch
Johānē Grünĭger Im Iar M.CCCCC.IX vff Letare. Wie du aber dye
Kugel dü beschreibung der gantzenn welt verston soltt würst die hernach
finden vnnd lesen.” “This little book relates how the two most
illustrious Lords Ferdinand, King of Castile and Emanuel, King of
Portugal have searched through the wide seas and discovered many islands
and a new world and naked peoples hitherto unknown.” “Printed at
Strassburg by Johann Grüniger. In the year MCCCCCIX on Letaro. But how
you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world
you will hereafter find out and read.”[158] Harrisse thinks it probable
that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume.[159]

In the same year, 1509, there issued from the press of Grüniger a second
volume, in character somewhat like the preceding, but in the Latin
language. In this the allusion to the globe is more definite, for its
title seems to assure us that it was prepared to accompany a real globe.
This title reads, “Globus mundi Declaratio siue descriptio mundi et
totius orbis terrarum. globulo rotundo comparati vt spera solida. Qua
cuiuis etiā mediocriter docto ad oculū videre licet antipodes
esse, quos pedes nostris oppositi sunt.” “Valete feliciter ex Argentina
ultima Augusti. Anno post natü salutatorē. M.D.ix. Johannes grüniger
imprimebat. Adelpho castigatore.” “The world globe. Exposition or
description of the world and of the terrestrial sphere constructed as a
round globe similar to a solid sphere, whereby every man even of
moderate learning can see with his own eyes that there are antipodes
whose feet are opposite ours.... Farewell, Strassburg on the last day of
August A.D. 1509. Printed by Johann Grüniger. Corrected by
Adolphus.”[160] Neither the author of this tract nor the maker of the
globe is known of certainty. They have been attributed to Glareanus as
well as to Waldseemüller.

There is still a third volume printed by Grüniger in this year, 1509,
which, however, appears to be but little more than a German translation
of the ‘Globus Mundi.’ The title, slightly altered, reads, “Der welt
kugel Beschrybūng der Welt und dess gātzēn Erttreichs hie angezogt ūnd
vergleicht einer rotunden kugeln die dan sunderlich gemacht hie zū
gehōrede darin der Kauffmā und ein ietlicher sehen ūnd mercken mag wie
die menschen undē gegē uns wonē ūn wie die son umbgang, herin beschriben
mit vil seltzamē dinge (wood cut of globe) Getrucht zū Strassburg. Von
Johanne Grüniger in yar. M.D.ix. uff ostern. Johanne Adelpho
castigator.” “Description of the world globe, of the world and the
entire terrestrial sphere here constructed and made to resemble a round
ball and is so arranged that the merchant and every man may clearly see
how that men live underneath us, and here may be seen how the sun moves
about (the earth) with many wonderful things. Printed at Strassburg. By
Johann Grüniger in the year 1509 at easter. Johann Adelpho
corrector.”[161] This can as confidently be taken to refer to a real
globe as the title in the tract to which reference has just been made.
It is probable that we can obtain some idea of the appearance of the
globe from the small woodcut printed on the title-page of both the Latin
and the German editions, of which a conspicuous feature is the
representation of a small land area southwest of Africa, bearing the
inscription “Nüw welt” (Fig. 33). As the little book was issued in both
Latin and German, Harrisse thinks it probable that two editions of the
globe likewise appeared.[162]

[Illustration: Fig. 33. Globus Mundi, 1509.]

The Lenox globe[163] is often referred to as the oldest extant
post-Columbian globe. It is an engraved copper ball of excellent
workmanship, 127 mm. in diameter (Figs. 34, 35), neither signed nor
dated, and is without mountings. A critical study of its geographical
records, particularly of the New World representations, has led to the
conclusion that it was made as early as 1510. The two sections or
hemispheres of which it is composed are joined at the equator. Neither
parallels nor meridians are indicated, and though a striking error
appears in giving to the eastern hemisphere, or the Old World, too great
an extension in longitude, the principal latitudes are well given. The
globe was found in the year 1850, in Paris, by Mr. Richard Hunt, by whom
it was presented to Mr. James Lenox, and is now one of the choicest
objects in that great collector’s library, which library constitutes an
important part of the New York Public Library. In its New World
representation, South America appears as a large island having three
regional names, “Mundus Novus,” “Terra Sanctae Crucis,” and “Terra de
Brazil.” “Isabel” (Cuba), “Spagnolla” (Haiti), and a few unnamed islands
belonging to the West Indies have been outlined. In the place of North
America there are scattered islands, one of which, located near the
northwest extremity of “Terra de Brazil,” bears the name “Zipangri”
(Japan), and one in the far north, but unnamed, clearly resembles the
Cortereal region, as it appears on the Cantino and on the Canerio map. A
few of the many islands in the eastern seas are designated by name as
“Taprobana,” “Madagascar,” and “Seilan.”

[Illustration: Fig. 34. Lenox Globe, 1510.]

[Illustration: Fig. 35. Lenox Globe in Hemispheres.]

A globe but little known, but resembling in a striking manner the Lenox,
is that belonging to the Jagellonicus University Library of Cracow,
Poland.[164] It is a gilded copper ball, 7.3 cm. in diameter (Figs. 36,
37), and constitutes a part of a fine old clock of the sixteenth
century. Meridians and parallels are engraved and numbered on its
surface at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing through
the island Ferro. While it is neither signed nor dated, there is
scarcely a doubt that it is as old as the Lenox globe; indeed, the
geographical features of the two globes are so similar that they appear
to be the work of the same globe maker, or copies of a common original,
yet it is noteworthy that the nomenclature of the Jagellonicus globe is
somewhat richer. The large island which lies southeast of Madagascar and
is nameless on the Lenox appears on the Jagellonicus with a very
interesting inscription, reading “America noviter reperta.” Comparing
the coast of “Mundus Novus” with the coast of this “America noviter
reperta,” Tadeus Estreicher finds support for the belief that the globe
was constructed soon after the year 1507, in which year Waldseemüller
suggested the name America for the region discovered by Amerigo
Vespucci. He, however, seems not to have noticed the possibility that
the inscription appearing on this large island indicated not only an
acquaintance, on the part of the Jagellonicus cartographer, with
Waldseemüller’s suggestion as to the name America, but a belief that
America was actually located in this particular region. In his chapter
on climates Waldseemüller says, “Atqȝ in sexto climate Antarcticù
versus & pars extrema Africae nuper reperta & Zamzibar Iauva minor &
Seula insule & quarta orbis pars (quam quia Americus inveuit Amerigen
quasi Americi terrā siue Americā nuncupare licet) sitae sunt.” “In
the sixth climate toward the Antarctic there are situated the farthest
part of Africa, recently discovered, the islands Zanzibar, the lesser
Java, and Seula, and the fourth part of the earth, which, because
Amerigo discovered it, we may call Amerige, the land of Amerigo, so to
speak, or America.”[165] Following the above, Waldseemüller notes what
Pomponius Mela has to say concerning “these southern climates,” that is,
concerning this antipodal region.

[Illustration: Fig. 36. Jagellonicus Globe, 1510.]

[Illustration: Fig. 37. Jagellonicus Globe in Hemispheres.]

In the rich cartographical collection of Prince Liechtenstein there may
be found, in addition to the globe gores referred to above, an
interesting globe, usually referred to as the mounted Hauslab
globe.[166] It is of wood, having a diameter of about 37 cm. and is
covered with a preparation on which a world map has been drawn or
painted. It is furnished with a wooden base, a meridian and a horizon
circle of brass, and an axis of iron on which it turns, all of which
furnishings, however, appear to be of later date than the sphere itself.
Though neither signed nor dated, it exhibits many features which suggest
a close relationship with the globes of Johann Schöner; indeed, it is
not improbable that it is an early example of his workmanship. “I am of
the opinion,” says Luksch, “that the globe of Schöner of 1515 and the
Hauslab globe were drawn from one common original sketch,” a conclusion
based largely upon the fact that on the two globes the outlines of the
New World are almost identical. As to the date when constructed, a
comparison with other globes of the second decade of the century has led
to the conclusion that it must have been prior to the year 1515, and
perhaps as early as 1513. In its representation of the Old World, the
land is made to extend through 240 degrees, counting from the island of
Porto Santo, whose meridian has been taken as the prime meridian. The
northern section of the New World is given the name “Par(ias),” the last
letters of the word having been obliterated by age, while the southern
section is called “America.” The great austral land south of the apex of
the southern continent, appearing on the Schöner globe of 1515 as
“Brasilie regio,” is omitted on the Hauslab globe. The continents,
rivers, and mountains represented are very dark in color, and were
probably originally blue, black, or red, and the seas are a dark blue.
The equator, as drawn on the surface of the sphere, is divided into
degrees, represented alternately in white and black, and every tenth
degree is indicated by an appropriate number, beginning, as stated
above, at the island of Porto Santo. By way of decoration a border of
gold is given to the lines representing the equator, the tropics, and
the polar circles.

In the geographical department of the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris is
a globe referred to in cartographical literature as the Green globe, or
the Quirini globe, the first name being given to it by Gabriel
Marcel,[167] by reason of the prominence of the color green employed in
painting the seas (Fig. 38). It is an unsigned and undated wooden
sphere, 24 cm. in diameter. Its surface appears to have been covered
with a coating of paint, originally white, and on this the world map was
drawn. There is much artistic skill displayed in the coast
configurations, with the deeply shaded seaboards making the land appear
to rise above the ocean surface, and in the representation of the
islands, most of which are made conspicuous in red or gold. The
inscriptions in dark brown, perhaps originally black, are neatly
written, clearly suggesting that the globe was constructed in the
first quarter of the sixteenth century, perhaps as early as 1513 or
1515. The equator, the tropics, and the polar circles are traced in
gold; the degrees of latitude and longitude are marked in red, and at
intervals of ten degrees. The prime meridian is made to pass through the
Cape Verde Islands, islands referred to as “Insule Portugalensium
invente anno Domini 1472.” This globe shows a striking resemblance to
those of Schöner of 1515, a fact which has led Marcel to refer it to the
Schönerian school, though not to attribute it directly to Schöner
himself. A very important and interesting feature of the globe is the
appearance of the name “America” no less than four times in the New
World; twice in what we now call North America and twice in South
America. It is, indeed, the oldest known cartographical monument on
which the name America is given both to the north and the south
continental areas. In the southern continent we read “America ab
inuentore nuncupata,” and near the Antilles “Iste insule per Columbus
genuensem almirantem et mandato regis castelle invente sunt.” “These
islands were discovered by Columbus, a Genoese admiral, by command of
the king of Castile.” Harrisse observes that it appears the cartographer
thought of Columbus as the discoverer of the West India Islands only,
and that he thought the honor of the discovery of the American
continents, north and south, belongs to Vespucius.[168] An austral land
appears, though nameless, which Schöner called “Brasilie regio” on his
globe of 1515, and “Brasilia inferior” on his globe of 1520.

[Illustration: Fig. 38. The Green Globe, 1515.]

Nordenskiöld has described a set of twelve globe gores, engraved on
wood, belonging to his own collection, which he assigns to the year
1518.[169] Of these particular gores three sets are known; one being in
the collection of Prince Liechtenstein (Fig. 39), one in the
Bibliothèque Nationale, and one, as noted, in the possession of
Nordenskiöld. On these gore maps North America bears the name “Terra
Cuba” and “Parias.” South America has the name “America” inscribed in
large letters, with an accompanying legend reading “Terra Noua Inuenta
est Anno 1497.” “The New World discovered in the year 1497.”[170] The
austral land, appearing on the Schöner globes, is wanting. By reason of
the fact that the names of but two European cities are inscribed, these
being “Ingolstadt” and “St. Jacobus,” the suggestion has been made that
the map is the work of Apianus, a celebrated geographer of Ingolstadt,
author of the important map of 1520 and a globe maker.[171] In their
general features these gores are of the Schönerian type, which we may
also characterize as Lusitano-Germanic.

[Illustration: Fig. 39. Liechtenstein Globe Gores, ca. 1518.]

In the Royal Collections of Windsor Castle may be found a set of eight
globe gores (Fig. 135), attributed by Major to Leonardo da Vinci, but
with very little more reason for the assignment than the fact that they
were found in a collection of papers in the handwriting of that famous
artist. They are drawn as equilateral triangles, each representing one
eighth of the earth’s surface, not as biangles, which is the usual form
for early globe gores.[172] Major described the map as the oldest known
on which the name America appears, giving as the probable date of
construction the year 1514, which date is thought by Harrisse to be five
or six years too early.[173] Such a distinction as was claimed for the
record of the name America by Major, being likewise assigned at various
times to other early maps, has at last been definitely fixed as
belonging to the world map of Waldseemüller of 1507.[174] The outlines
of the New World bear a resemblance to those found in the Lenox and the
Jagellonicus globes. The North American region is represented by two
islands, one of which bears the name “Bacalar,” the other “Terra
Florida.” South America, a large island, has conspicuously inscribed the
name “America,” together with a few prominent coast names. These gores
are chiefly of interest by reason of their peculiar form.

An interesting set of globe gores of the first quarter of the sixteenth
century is that attributed to Boulengier, of which but one copy, now
belonging to the New York Public Library, is known.[175] These gores,
twelve in number (Fig. 40), were printed from a copper engraved plate 18
by 36 cm. in size, but bear neither date nor name of author. The title
appearing across the bottom of the map reads, “Vniversalis cosmographie
descriptio tam in solido quem plano.” They were found in a copy of
Waldseemüller’s ‘Cosmographiae Introductio,’ printed at Lyons by Jean de
la Place, but undated. Harrisse gives as the probable date of the
publication between November 27, 1517, and May 26, 1518.[176] With this
engraved world map were found two other copper plates, one bearing the
title “Astrolabium Phisicum,” the other “Motus novae spere et
trepidacionis spere MDXIV,” and signed “Artificis Ludovici Boulengier,
Allebie, 1514.” As this edition of the ‘Cosmographiae’ was prepared for
the press by Boulengier,[177] who in his day achieved distinction as a
mathematician, astronomer, and geographer, this gore map has been
ascribed to him. It appears from a statement on the verso of a folded
plate belonging to Chapter VIII that a globe had been prepared to
accompany it.[178] This statement, while not agreeing in all respects
with one to be found in the edition of 1507, is of similar import.
Boulengier states in his dedicatory letter that he had noted other
globes which had been previously published. As a bit of copper engraving
it is very artistically done; its inscriptions, coast outlines, and
rivers are drawn in soft ornamental lines. That region representing
North America bears simply the name “Nova,” while South America is
referred to as “America noviter reperta,” a wording for this information
which elsewhere appears only on the Jagellonicus globe. These gores are
of sufficient dimensions to cover a ball 11 cm. in diameter.

[Illustration: Fig. 40. Terrestrial Globe Gores of Boulengier, ca.

In the year 1877 or 1878, reports Professor Ferdinando Jacoli, Admiral
William Acton acquired two interesting and scientifically valuable
terrestrial globes of the early sixteenth century once belonging to
Count Piloni of Belluno, Italy.[179] That one appearing to be the older
of the two resembles so closely the Paris green globe in size, having a
diameter of 24 cm., and in its details, that there is good reason for
thinking it to be the work of the same author. Like the Paris globe it
is neither signed nor dated. The surface of the ball is covered with a
preparation of plaster on which the geographical details have been
written. Seas and lands are colored, the equator, the tropics, and the
polar circles are indicated by gilded lines. Meridians are drawn at
intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing through the Canary
Islands, and parallels are likewise represented at intervals of ten
degrees. The metal meridian circle and the stand upon which the sphere
rests retain in places some of the old gilding. Professor Jacoli
expresses the opinion that it may be of Spanish or of Portuguese origin,
an opinion based upon the nomenclature. It seems, however, probable that
the author was an Italian and that he merely employed the Spanish or the
Portuguese sources, as was so frequent, and in so large a measure
necessary, in that day. In Africa the author has represented the
“Peludes nili,” and two lakes into which several rivers flow having
their source in the Mountains of the Moon. To the southeast of the
continent is represented “Zanzibar insula,” and near this are a number
of small islands with the legend “Iste insule ex mandato regis
Portugalliae lustrate sunt.” The islands of Ceylon and Sumatra are laid
down but are given the names “Taprobana” and “Seula” respectively. In
the interior of Asia we read “Carama civitas magna,” near this “Thebet
provincia mais,” and below “Hic dñat prespiter Johannes rex totius
Indiae.” In eastern Asia is the name “Catay” and near this the legend
“Zumsay est quedã civitas mag. in medio lacus magnus,” the Paris globe
having “Quinsay” instead of “Zumsay.” The New World in its outlines
bears striking resemblance to the early globes of Schöner. Along the
west coast of South America is the legend “Tota ista provincia inventa
est per mandatum regis Castelle,” near the same “Terra ultra
incognita,” and extending along the west coast of North America “Terra
ulterius incognita,” all of which legends, in identical wording, appear
on the Paris globe. The Antilles are referred to in the legend “iste
insule per Columbum Genuensem Almirantem ex mandato regis Castelle
perite sunt,” and in South America “America ab inventore nuncupata.”
Near the west coast of Africa we find “Insule portugalensium
invente—domini 1477,” one of which is called “visionis insula.” The
author has also represented an Antarctic continent but has made no
reference to it by specific name or legend. If the Paris globe was
constructed before 1520, as Marcel concluded, there is likewise good
reason why the Acton globe should also be assigned to the second decade
of the sixteenth century.

Las Casas, in his ‘Historia de las Indias,’ tells us that when Magellan
(Fig. 41) offered his services to the King of Spain for an expedition to
the Moluccas he had a globe to serve him in the demonstration of his
plan. “Traìa el Magallanes vn Globo bien pintado, en que toda la tierra
estaba, y alli señalò el camino que habia de llevar, salvo que el
estracho dejò, de industria, en blanco, porque alguno no se lo
saltease.”[180] “Magellan had a well painted globe, which exhibited the
entire earth, and he showed thereby the route which he thought of
taking, but with intention he had left the strait blank so that no one
might learn his secret.”

[Illustration: Fig. 41. Portrait of Magellan.]

Other allusions to this globe we do not have, unless there is such in a
letter written by Sebastian Alvares to King Don Manuel, dated Seville,
July 18, 1519. In giving information concerning the plan of Magellan
Alvares states: “A rrota que se diz que han de levar he dirᵗᵒ ao cabo
fryo ficando lhe o brasy a mão dirᵗᵃ ate pasar a linha da particâo e
daly navegar ao eloeste e loes noroeste dirᵗᵒˢ a maluco a quall
tr͊ra de maluco en vy asentada na poma e carta que ea fez o fᵒ de
Reynell a quall nò era acabada quando caa seu pay veo por ele, e seu pay
acabou tudo e pos estas tr͊ras de maluco e p este paderam se fazem
todallas cartas as quaêes faz diᵃ Ribeiro e faz as agulhas quadrantes e
esperas, porem nò vay narmada nem q͊r mais q͊ ganhar de comeer p seu
engenho.” “The course which it is said they are to take is straight to
Cape Frio, Brazil remaining on their right hand until they reach the
line of demarcation, thence they are to navigate to the west and
west-northwest straight to Moluco, which land of Moluco I have seen laid
down on the sphere and map which the son of Reynell made here which was
not complete when his father came here for him; and his father finished
it all, and placed these islands of Moluco; and after this pattern all
the maps are made which Diego Ribeiro makes, and he makes the compasses,
quadrants and globes, but he does not go in the fleet, nor does he wish
to do more than gain his living by his skill.”[181]

We find reference to a globe of this early period as belonging to Juan
Sebastian del Cano, the reference thereto being contained in his will
made on board the Victoria, June 26, 1526, and reading “Una esfera poma
del mondo.”[182] It probably was made of wood and painted, as there is
good reason for believing that such as were carried by early navigators
on their vessels were of this character. Harrisse thinks “this globe
would probably prove to be one of the most interesting of all for that
period, exhibiting, doubtless, the hypothesis of Magellan relative to
the configuration of the southwest coast of South America north of 50
degrees south latitude.”[183] Although the will of Del Cano is dated
1526 there is reason for thinking the globe was constructed prior to

Among the globe makers of the early sixteenth century none merits
greater distinction than Johann Schöner of Nürnberg (1477-1547) (Fig.
42), mathematician, astronomer, and geographer.[184] He was born in
Carlstadt, Franconia, held a church office for some years in Bamberg,
and in the year 1526, upon the advice of Melanchthon, became a professor
of mathematics in the gymnasium of Nürnberg, to the fame of which
city, as a scientific center, Regiomontanus had so greatly contributed
in the preceding century. His activities as a globe maker began as early
as the second decade of the century, and his influence soon became very
pronounced. In Nürnberg he labored until the time of his death in the
year 1547, editing, in addition to his other activities, the literary
and scientific works of Regiomontanus and of Werner, and each year until
1543 issued his so-called Calendars. His numerous publications,
mathematical, astronomical, and cosmographical, alone entitle him to a
place of first importance among German scientific leaders of his day.

[Illustration: Fig. 42. Portrait of Johann Schöner.]

It was as early as 1515, at the cost of a wealthy patron, Johann Seylor,
that he made in Bamberg what has usually been accepted as his first
globe, two copies of which are now known, and for which it has been
thought he wrote his tract bearing title ‘Luculentissima quaedā terrae
totius descriptio ... cum privilegio Invictis Romanorû Impera
Maximiliani per acto annos: ne quis imprimat: aut imprimere procuret
codices has: cum globis cosmographicis: Noribergae 1515.’ ‘A most
luminous description of the whole earth ... with the privilege of the
Invincible Emperor of the Romans, Maximilian, for eight years to the
effect that nobody shall print or have any of these books printed, with
the cosmographic globe.’[185] On the leaf preceding “fol. 1” is the
representation of a mounted globe.

One of Schöner’s globes of 1515 is to be found in the Grand Ducal
Library of Weimar, and one in the City Museum of Frankfurt (Fig. 43).
Wieser,[186] after a careful comparison, finds these globes to be
practically alike in all details. Each is 27 cm. in diameter, having the
usual mountings of brass, the whole resting on a wooden base. While
neither signed nor dated, they answer the description contained in
Schöner’s little tract referred to above. That region on the globe which
we may designate North America, he calls “Parias”; the South American
continent bears the name “America” and the austral land the name
“Brasilie regio.” In addition to these principal regions he has
represented the land discovered by the Cortereals, designating the same
as “Litus incognitum.” Cuba bears the name “Isabella” and Haiti the name
“Spagnolla.” The feature which seems to give special interest to these
globes of Schöner is the representation of a strait between “America”
and “Brasilie regio.” To the significance of this particular
representation Wieser has given very careful consideration. He cites
numerous passages from the tract of Schöner, and from the ‘Copia der
newen Zeitung aus Presillig Landt,’[187] a publication which he finds
good reason for believing appeared before 1515, and in which he finds an
acceptable explanation of the origin of this geographical notion
represented by Schöner, which antedates the Magellan expedition by a
period of five years.

[Illustration: Fig. 43. Globe of Johann Schöner in Hemispheres, 1515.]

It is a point to be especially noted that the dominant cosmographical
idea of the map makers of the first quarter of the century represented
the New World regions as independent of Asia. It is the idea set forth
in the Portuguese maps, such as the Cantino and the Canerio; it is the
idea which we find represented in the Waldseemüller maps and practically
in all the Lusitano-Germanic maps of the period.[188] Schöner had
written in his tract of 1515, “Hunc in modum terra quadriparita
cognoscitur, et sunt tres primae partes continentes, id est terra firma.
Sed quarta est insula, quia omniquoque mari circumdata conspicitur.” “It
has now been ascertained that the earth is divided into four parts, and
the first three parts are continents, that is, main lands, but the
fourth part is an island because we see it surrounded on all sides by
the sea.”[189] With regard to the relation of “Parias” to Asia, he
states, “Parias insula quae non est pars vel portio prioris, sed
specialis magna portio terrae huius quartae partis mundi.” “Parias is
not a part or portion of the aforesaid country, but a large independent
portion of the earth, in that fourth part of the world.”[190]

Of the globes constructed by Schöner, none is more important than that
bearing date 1520 (Fig. 44).[191] The wooden ball on which the map has
been drawn and colored by hand has a diameter of about 87 cm. and rests
upon a wooden base. Near the south pole is the date 1520 in large gilt
letters and an inscription stating that it was made at the expense of
Johannes Seyler by Jo. Schöner.[192] It is apparent that the same
sources were used for the drafting of the map on this globe that had
been used in the case of his earlier globes, but the geographical
information on this last globe is much more detailed. The New World
appears in five distinct parts, the first of which is called “Terra
Corterealis,” the second “Terra de Cuba,” the third “Insulae Canibalorum
siue Antiglia,” the fourth “Terra nova, America vel Brasilia sive
Papagelli Terra,” and the fifth “Brasilia inferior.” The globe is richly
decorated in colors, and its numerous descriptive legends, most of them
in Latin, give such geographical information as may be found in most of
the important maps of this early period.[193]

[Illustration: Fig. 44. Western Hemisphere of Johann Schöner’s Globe,

In 1523 Schöner issued a little tract of four pages which he called ‘De
nuper sub Castiliae ac Portugaliae Regibus Serenissimis repertis Insulis
ac Regionibus, Joannis Schöner Charolipolitani epistola et Globus
Geographicus, seriem navigationum annotantibus. Clarissimo atque
disertissimo viro Dño Rymero de Streytpergk, ecclesiae Babenbergensis
Canonico dictae. Timiripae, Anno Incarnat. Dni. 1523.’ ‘An epistle of
John Schöner of Carlstadt concerning the islands and regions recently
discovered by the Most Serene Kings of Castile and of Portugal, and a
geographical globe for the use of marking the course of those
navigations. Dedicated to the most distinguished and eloquent Reymer von
Streytperg, canon of the Church of Bamberg. Timiripae (Kirch-ehrenbach).
In the year of the Lord’s incarnation 1523.’[194] Though Schöner alone
gives us such information as we possess concerning this globe, it has
been the subject of much controversy, and if recovered it doubtless
would prove to be an object of much interest. There is, in the opinion
of the author, scarcely the slightest ground for accepting the
conclusions of Henry Stevens and Professor v. Wieser, that the globe
gores, now in the possession of the New York Public Library (Fig. 44a),
and described by them as the lost globe of Schöner of 1523, are of
Schönerian origin. The critical studies of Harrisse are sufficiently
convincing to set this question at rest.[195] Schöner concludes his
little tract in the following words: “Ego tam mirifice orbis
pervagationi nonnihil volens adiicere, ut quae lectu videantur
mirabilia, aspectu credantur prohabiliora, Globum hunc in orbis modum
effingere studui, exemplar haud fallibile aemulatus, quod Hispaniarum
solertia cuidam viro honore conspicuo transmisit. Nec ob id quem antea
glomeraveram abolitum iri volens, quippē qui es temporè, quantum phas
erat homini abdita mundi penetrare, abunde expressit, modo sese consona
admissione patientur, quod invenienda inventis non obstent. Accipe
igitur hunc a me formatum globum ea animi benignitate, qua eum laborem
ad tui nominis honorem lubens aggressus sum. Cognoscam profecto meas
lucubratiunculas tuae celsitudini nullatenus despectui fore. Vale.”
“Being desirous of making some small addition to this wonderful survey
of the earth, so that what appears very extraordinary to the reader may
appear more likely, when thus illustrated, I have been at the pains to
construct this globe, having copied a very accurate one which an
ingenious Spaniard has sent to a person of distinction. I do not however
wish to set aside the globe I constructed some time since, as it fully
showed all that had, at that time, been discovered: so that the former,
as far as it goes, agrees with the latter. Please then to accept this
globe in the same friendly spirit in which I undertook to construct it
for your gratification. But I am sure you will not despise my humble
attempt. Farewell.”[196] This statement assures us that he had
constructed a globe at the time of issuing his tract, and it gives us a
fairly definite idea of its New World configurations, and further, that
in the main it agreed with his earlier globes. It seems probable,
however, that in some manner he indicated an Asiatic connection of the
new lands, an idea which is so frequently expressed in the maps of the
next quarter of a century, especially in the globe maps, an idea not to
be finally set at rest until the discovery of Bering put an end to the

[Illustration: Fig. 44a. Anonymous Globe Gores, ca. 1540.]

How Schöner, and others, came to the conclusion that “Parias” (North
America) is not “a large independent portion of the earth in that fourth
part of the world,” but has an Asiatic connection, and how they set down
that conclusion in their maps will receive consideration in the
following chapter.

Though not a maker of globes, in so far as we have definite knowledge,
Albrecht Dürer turned his attention to the drafting of maps, two of
which have for us here a certain interest. In the year 1515 Johannes
Stabius designed a map of the Old World on a stereographic projection
(Fig. 45), one of the first of its kind, which Dürer is said to have
engraved. While the map itself is of little importance it is of interest
as an attempt to represent in perspective a spherical earth.[197]

[Illustration: Fig. 45. Stabius World Globe Map, 1515.]

Dürer likewise undertook the drafting and engraving of a celestial map
(Fig. 46), than which of this character there appears to be none earlier
known. It was not so drawn as to make possible its application to the
surface of a sphere, but its reshaping for that purpose could not have
been for him a difficult proposition. He, with others of this time, was
giving thought to the problem of globe-gore construction.

[Illustration: Fig. 46. Northern Celestial Hemisphere of Albrecht


[124] The illustrations given are typical, and to one
familiar with the works of the period on geographical and
astronomical subjects, others suggest themselves.

[125] For popular accounts of the Este family of Ferrara,
see Gardner, E. G. Princes and Poets of Ferrara. London,
1904; Cartwright, J. Isabella d’Este. London, 1903.

[126] Harrisse. Discovery. pp. 422-425; same author, Les
Corte-Real et leur voyages au Nouveau Monde. Paris, 1883,
with reproduction of the western half of the map, in colors;
Stevenson, E. L. Maps illustrating early discovery and
exploration in America. New Brunswick, 1906. No. 1 of this
series is a reproduction of the Cantino map in the size of
the original.

[127] Fischer, J. The Discoveries of the Norsemen in
America. London, 1903. pp. 112-118. Professor Fischer enjoys
the distinction of being the foremost living authority on

[128] D’Arco, C. Delle arti e degli artefici di Mantova.
Mantova, 1857. Vol. II, p. 53.

[129] Bertolotti, A. Artisti in relazione coi Gonzaga
Signori di Mantova. Modena, 1885. p. 143. (In: Estr. dagli
Atti e Memorie delle Deputazioni di storia patria per le
Provincie Modenesi e Parmensi. Série III, Vol. III, parte

[130] Harrisse. Discovery. p. 434.

[131] Denza, F. Globi celesti della Specola Vaticana. (In:
Publicazioni della Specola Vaticana. Torino, 1894. Vol. IV,
p. xvii.)

[132] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 88-89.

[133] See the edition of Ptolemy. Geographia—MDVIII. Rome.
Chap. xii.

[134] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 94-96, the citation being
made from Badia, Jodoco del. La bottega di Alessandro di
Francesco Rosselli merciaje e stampatore (1525). (In:
Miscellanea fiorentina di erudizione e storia. Luglio, 1894.
Vol. II, p. 14.)

[135] Zach, F. v. Monatliche Korrespondence. Gotha, 1806.
Vol. XIII, p. 157. Harrisse. Discovery. pp. 445-446.

[136] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 99.

[137] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 101.

[138] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 72.

[139] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 102. Of the further interest
taken by Cardinal Salviati in geography, see Stevenson, op.
cit., No. 7.

[140] Trithemius. Epistolae familiares. Haganoae, 1536. p.

[141] This is part of the letter of August 12.

[142] D’Avezac, M. A. P. Martin Hylacomylus Walzemüller ses
ouvrages et ses collaborateurs. Paris, 1867; Gallois. Les
Géographes. Chap. iv. “L’école Alsacienne-Lorraine”;
Schmidt, C. Histoire littéraire de l’Alsace a la fin du XVᵉ
et au commencement du XVIᵉ siècle. Paris, 1879.

[143] Schmidt, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 111; Humboldt, A. v.
Kritische Untersuchungen. Berlin, 1852. Vol. II, p. 363;
Gallois, L. Le Gymnase Vosgien. (In: Bulletin de la Société
de Géographie de l’Est. Paris, 1900. pp. 88 ff.); D’Avezac,
op. cit., p. 11.

[144] A canon of the cathedral of St. Dié. Lud gives us the
information that he was the translator of the Vespucci
narrative from the French into the Latin.

[145] Gravier, N. F. Histoire de Saint-Dié. Epinal, 1836. p.
202. The author refers to the character of Lud and to the
influence of the St. Dié press. Copies of Lud’s most
important little tract may be found in the British Museum,
and in the Imperial Library of Vienna; it was printed in the
St. Dié in the year 1507.

[146] The full title of this significant volume reads:
‘Cosmographiae Introductio cum quibusdam geometriae ac
astronomiae principiis ad eam rem necessariis, insuper
quatuor Americi Vespucci navigationes. Universalis
Cosmographie descriptio tam in solido q̄ȝ plano eis etiam
insertis que Ptholomeo ignota a nuperis reperta sunt.’
‘Introduction to Cosmography with certain necessary
principles of geometry and astronomy to which are added the
Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci a representation of the
entire world, both in the solid (globe?) and
projected on the plane, including also lands which were
unknown to Ptolemy, and have been recently discovered.’ Two
editions of the work appeared in 1507, and others at later
dates. An excellent reproduction of Waldseemüller’s book in
facsimile, with English translation, was published by the
United States Catholic Historical Society under the title,
‘The Cosmographiae Introductio of Martin Waldseemüller in
Facsimile followed by the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci
with their Translation into English.’ Ed. by C. G.
Herbermann. New York, 1907.

[147] This is one of the best of the early printed editions
of Ptolemy.

[148] May it not have been the Canerio chart to which
allusion was made by Lud, or a chart of exactly that type?
See Stevenson, E. L. Marine World Chart of Nicolo de Canerio
Januensis (ca.) 1502. With Facsimile of the unique original,
measuring 115 x 225 cm. New York, 1908.

[149] Stevenson, E. L. Martin Waldseemüller and the early
Lusitano-Germanic Cartography of the New World. New York,
1904. (In: Bulletin of the American Geographical Society.
New York, 1908. pp. 193-215.)

[150] Schmidt, C. (In: Mémoires de la Société d’Archéologie
lorraine. Nancy, 1875. p. 227.)

[151] Fischer, J. and Wieser, F. R. v. The oldest map with
the name America of the year 1507 and the Carta Marina of
the year 1516 by M. Waldseemüller (Ilacomilus). Innsbruck,
1903. Text in German and English, the maps in facsimile. The
authors in their text have considered such matters as the
Wolfegg collective volume, a description of the two maps,
the sources of Waldseemüller, and the influence of the maps
on the subsequent cartography, especially of the New World.

[152] Printed on fol. “Aii.”

[153] Printed on the back of folded leaf at the beginning of
“Caput IX.”

[154] Gallois. Les géographes. p. 48; Fischer and v. Wieser,
op. cit., p. 14.

[155] The crude character of the map is in striking contrast
with the world map of 1507.

[156] This is an excellent reproduction of the gores, copy
of which was courteously sent the author by Prince

[157] Printed in the lower corner of the chart on the left,
“Generalem igitur totius orbis typum, quem ante annos aucos
absolutum non sine grandi labore ex Ptolomei traditione ...
in lucem edideramus et in mille exemplaria exprimi

[158] Harrisse. B. A. V. No. 62.

[159] Harrisse. Discovery. p. 465.

[160] Harrisse. B. A. V. No. 61.

[161] Harrisse. B. A. V. No. 32, Ad.

[162] Harrisse. Discovery. p. 466.

[163] De Costa, B. F. The Lenox Globe. (In: Magazine of
American History. New York, 1879. pp. 529-540.) De Costa had
the globe map redrawn and printed in plane projection. See
for reproduction, Winsor, Nordenskiöld, Encyclopaedia
Britannica. An excellent reproduction from a direct
photograph of the globe may be found in Stevenson, E. L.
Typical early maps of the New World. (In: Bulletin of the
American Geographical Society. New York, 1907. pp. 202-224.)

[164] Estreicher, T. Ein Erdglobus aus dem Anfange des XVI
Jh. in der Jagellonischen Bibliothek. (In: Bulletin
International de l’Académie des Sciences de Cracovie.
Cracovie, 1900. pp. 96-105.)

The construction of the clockwork to be found in this small
copper sphere in La Nature, 1892. No. 996, p. 75. The globe
is referred to by Stevenson, E. L., in Martin Waldseemüller
and the Lusitano-Germanic Cartography of the New World. (In:
Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. New York,
1904. pp. 193-215.)

[165] Waldseemüller, op. cit., Caput vii.

[166] Luksch, M. J. Zwei Denkmale alter Kartographie. Wien,
1886. (In: Mitteilung der k. k. Geog. Gesellschaft. Wien,
1886. pp. 364-373.); Varnhagen, F. A. Jo. Schöner e P.
Apianus. Wien, 1872. On p. 52 the opinion is expressed that
the globe was made in Brixen from the fact that this
relatively unimportant town is inscribed. Harrisse.
Discovery. pp. 491, 492; Nordenskiöld. Facsimile Atlas. p.

[167] Marcel, G. Un globe manuscrit de l’école de
Schöner. Paris, 1889. (In: Bulletin de géographie historique
et descriptive. Paris, 1889. p. 173.); same author,
Reproduction de carte et de globes relatif à la découverte
de l’Amérique. Paris, 1894. pp. 11-14.

[168] Harrisse. Discovery. p. 490.

[169] Nordenskiöld. Facsimile Atlas. p. 76; reproduced on
pl. XXXVII; same author, Om en märklig globakarta frän
början af sextonde seklet. Stockholm, 1884. The latter has
been translated under the title, A remarkable globe map of
the sixteenth century, with facsimile, by E. A. Elfwing, and
published in Journal of the American Geographical Society.
New York, 1884.

[170] Here the name “America” is more clearly assigned to
the entire continent than in the Waldseemüller map.

[171] See below, p. 176.

[172] Major, R. H. Memoir on a mappemonde by Leonardo da
Vinci, being the earliest map hitherto known containing the
name America: now in the Royal Collection at Windsor.
London, 1865; Wieser. Magalhâes-Strasse. pl. III, a
reproduction of the gores showing the New World, joined in a
hemisphere; d’Adda, Marquis Girolamo. Leonardo da Vinci e la
Cosmografia. (In: La Perzeveranza. Milano, 1870.); Richter,
J. P. Literary Works of Da Vinci. London, 1883. Both d’Adda
and Richter doubt the Da Vinci origin of these gores.

[173] Harrisse, op, cit., p. 504.

[174] See above, p. 67.

[175] Nordenskiöld, op. cit., p. 76; reproduced on pl.
XXXVIII; Catalogue de livres appartenant à M. H. Tross.
Paris, 1881, item 4924, with a reproduction of the gores.

[176] Harrisse, op. cit., pp. 494-496.

[177] Marcel, G. Louis Boulengier d’Alby. Paris, 1890. (In:
Bulletin de géographie historique et descriptive. Paris,

[178] This statement reads: “Habes candide lector tabellam
preinsculptam tibi latitudinem graduum regionium ... In
globo vero diei quantitatem et noctis ... sic comprehendere
potes omni de regione tam per globum quam per sexagenarium.”
“You have, dear Reader, before you, a small plate on which
are inscribed the degrees of latitude of the countries ...
on the globe (you see) the duration of the day and night ...
thereby you will be able to ascertain (the position of)
every country by the globe as well as by the sexennium.”

[179] Tessier, A. Di Cesare Vecellio e de’ suoi dipinti e
disegni in una Collezione di libri dei secoli XV e XVI.
Rome, 1876. (In: Bollettino della Societe geografica
italiana. Rome, 1876. Série II, Vol. I, pp. 39-42.)

Tessier’s discourse was delivered at the Venetian Atheneum,
1875. Jacoli, F., likewise refers to this globe in Gazzetta
di Venezia, January 15, 1876. It is not known just what
disposition has been made of the globes by Admiral Acton.

[180] Las Casas. Historia. Tomo IV, lib. III, cap. ci, p.
377; Herrera, A. Descriptione las Indias Ocidentales.
Madrid, 1730. Tomo II, lib. II, cap. xix, p. 52.

[181] The first voyage around the world by Magellan. Tr. by
Stanley of Alderley, Lord. London, 1874. (In: Hakluyt
Society Publications. London, 1874. Vol. 52, p. xliv.);
Pigafetta, Antonio. Magellan’s Voyage around the world. The
original text of the Ambrosian MS., with English
translation, notes, bibliography, and index. Ed. by
Robertson, J. A. Cleveland, 1906.

[182] Documentos ineditos por la Historia de España. Madrid,
1847. Vol. I, p. 265.

[183] Harrisse, op. cit., p. 544.

[184] Doppelmayr. Nachrichten. pp. 45-50; Varnhagen, F. A.
de. Jo. Schöner e P. Apianus (Benewitz) influencia de um e
outro e de varios de seus contemporaneos na adopção do nome
America. Vienna, 1872; Stevens, H. Johann Schöner, professor
of Mathematics at Nuremberg; a reproduction of his globe of
1523 long lost; his dedicatory letter to Reymer von
Streytperck and the ‘De Moluccis’ of Maximilianus
Transylvanus, with a new translation and notes of the globe.
Ed. with an introduction and bibliography by Coote, C. H.
London, 1888. pp. xxxix-xliv contains a short biography of
Schöner; Algemeine Deutsche Biographie, “Schöner.”

[185] Harrisse. B.A.V. No. 80. The full title with
bibliographical references are here given. In addition to
the mere title we read “Cum Globis cosmographicis: sub
mulcta quinquaginta florenorum Rhen. et amissione omnium
exemplarium.” “With a cosmographical globe: under a fine of
five hundred Rhenish florins and forfeiting all copies.”

[186] Wieser. Magalhâes-Strasse. See especially chap. iii,
“Der Globus Schöners vom J. 1515,” and reproduction, pl. II;
Reproduction in Jomard, Nos. 15-16.

[187] Harrisse. B.A.V. p. xlix, note 156; also Nos. 99, 100.

[188] Stevenson. Martin Waldseemüller and the early
Lusitano-Germanic Cartography.

[189] Schöner. Luculentissima. fol. 60.

[190] Schöner. Luculentissima. verso of fol. 60.

[191] Wieser, op. cit.; Ghillany. Geschichte des Seefahrers
Ritter Martin Behaim. pp. 8-12. Ghillany reproduces the
western hemisphere of the globe in the original colors;
Kohl, J. G. History of the Discovery of Maine. (In:
Documentary history of the State of Maine. Portland, 1869.)
Vol. I, pp. 158-163. This contains a much reduced
reproduction of Ghillany’s facsimile of the western
hemisphere; Nordenskiöld, op. cit., p. 80; Santarem. Atlas.
pl. 52 (H. S. A. copy); Lelewel. Géographie du moyen âge.
pl. 46.

[192] The inscription reads as given by Ghillany.

[193] Practically all of the works cited relating to Schöner
treat more or less fully of the geographical features of
Schöner’s globes. Wieser’s work is particularly valuable.

[194] Stevens, op. cit., gives this letter in facsimile with
translation; Wieser, op. cit., pp. 118-122, reprints the
Latin of this letter.

[195] Harrisse, op. cit., pp. 519-528.

[196] Wieser, op. cit., p. 121.

[197] Oberhummer, E. Leonardo da Vinci and the art of the
renaissance in its relation to geography. (In: The
Geographical Journal. London, 1909. See pp. 561-569 on
Albrecht Dürer.)

[Illustration: Honter Globe. _From his Rudimenta cosmographica_]

Chapter VII

Globes of the Second Quarter of the Sixteenth Century

  Globes indicating (a) an Asiatic connection of the New
  World, (b) globes expressing a doubt of such Old World
  connection, (c) globes showing an independent position of
  the New World.—Franciscus Monachus.—Hakluyt’s
  reference.—The Gilt globe.—Parmentier.—Francesco
  Libri.—Nancy globe.—Globes of Gemma Frisius.—Robertus
  de Bailly.—Schöner globe of
  1533.—Scheipp.—Furtembach.—Paris Wooden globe.—Vopel
  globes.—Santa Cruz.—Hartmann gores.—Important globe of
  Ulpius.—Cardinal Bembo’s globes.—Mercator’s epoch-making
  activity.—Fracastro.—Ramusio’s references to
  globes.—Gianelli.—Florence celestial globe.

As in the first quarter of the sixteenth century, so in the second we
find engraved brass and copper globes, globes with manuscript maps, and
those with printed or engraved gore maps. Since the latter in this
period have especially found favor, attention is more and more directed
toward the shaping of the segments or gores with that mathematical
nicety which, as previously stated, would admit of a perfect or almost
perfect adjustment when they were applied to the surface of a prepared

To the independent position of the New World as represented on the globe
maps prior to 1525 attention has been called in the preceding chapter,
but the idea of such independence, it may here be noted, is one contrary
to that very generally though erroneously entertained by historians who
have written of the period, an error doubtless in large measure due to
a failure on their part to give proper heed to the record of the maps as
expressing the geographical notions commonly accepted. Harrisse has well
stated the case in referring to the geographical opinions of the
earliest explorers, observing that the moment search began for a
waterway leading from Oceanus Occidentalis to Oceanus Orientalis, that
moment opinion began to become conviction that a new continental region
had been found, that a New World had been discovered,[198] and
practically all of the early explorers had hope of finding such a
waterway. It is very true that more than two hundred years passed from
Columbus’ day before there was positive proof of an independence of the
newly found land, but the earliest map makers outlined it as if
believing in its independence of an Old World or Asiatic
connection.[199] The so-called Bartholomew Columbus sketch maps,[200]
probably drawn in the first decade of the sixteenth century (Fig. 47),
alone can be cited, among the maps of any particular importance in the
first quarter of this century, as distinctly indicating a belief in an
Asiatic connection. Attention was likewise called in the preceding
chapter to the fact that toward the close of the century’s first quarter
the idea that a veritably independent new continent had been found was
beginning to be doubted.[201] This doubt seemed to follow close upon the
publication of the report of Magellan’s expedition.[202] It indeed
appears to be generally accepted that to the report of that remarkable
circumnavigation, to the letters of Cortes respecting his Mexican
expedition,[203] and to the failure of his and of other Spanish attempts
to find a strait north of the equator through which one might pass from
Oceanus Occidentalis to Oceanus Orientalis,[204] the changed conception
of the geography of the New World was due.

[Illustration: Fig. 47 Bartholomew Columbus Sketch Map, 1506.]

This changed conception seems to have found first expression, on a map,
in a little volume prepared by Franciscus Monachus, a friar of Mechlin,
about 1525. The title of this volume reads in part,[205] ‘De orbis situ
ac descriptione. ad Reuerendiss. D. archiepiscopum Panormitanum,
Francisci, Monachi ordinis Franciscani, epistola sane quã luculenta ...’
‘A very excellent letter from Franciscus, a monk of the Franciscan
Order, to the Most Reverend Archbishop of Palermo, touching the site and
description of the world,’ with a colophon reading “Excudebat Martinus
Caesar, expensis honesti viri Rolandi Bollaert ...” “Martinus Caesar
prepared this at the expense of the upright man Roland Bollert.” Its two
small woodcut maps representing the world in hemispheres, respectively
the Old and the New World (Fig. 48), are of striking historical
interest, while the text contains many references which are of
importance for the light they cast upon the geographical opinions of the
time respecting the New World. Here, as noted, the New World is first
represented on a map as having distinctly an Asiatic connection, the
southern continent (South America) being separated from the northern
only by that narrow strait which we find so prominently represented on
the Maiollo map of 1527, and there called “stretto dubitoso.”[206] While
these hemispheres cannot themselves be referred to as a globe, they may
serve to give us a general idea of the geographical representations on
the globe, which, as appears probable, was at that time constructed by
the author of the text. To the Ecclesiastical Prince, to whom Franciscus
dedicated his little volume, information was sent concerning his globe
on which he had drawn by hand a map of the world as he said, the reply
to his letter containing the following statement, “Orbis globum, in quo
terrae ac maria luculenter depicta sunt, una cum epistola accepimus.”
“We accept the globe of the world on which the land and the seas are
elegantly depicted, together with the epistle.”[207] Being a gift it
would seem reasonable to conclude that the globe was not duplicated and
offered for sale and that the example referred to was therefore probably
unique. The text of the ‘De orbis situ ...,’ as it appears, was printed
because it was thought there was much contained therein that was new and
not in harmony with geographical ideas hitherto expressed. The first
edition was undated, nor was the second dated, but it agreed in
practically all particulars with the first excepting a slight
alteration in the title. A third edition was issued in the year 1565,
and is still known in many copies, of which Gallois gives an excellent
reprint in his biography of Orontius Finius.[208] It is in the first and
second editions that the hemispheres appear; they are wanting in the
third, but as a substitute therefor a small globe resting on a base
appears on the verso of the title-page, which in its general features
may be a representation of Franciscus’ globe.

[Illustration: Fig. 48. Hemispheres of Franciscus Monachus, 1526.]

Hakluyt, in his ‘Discourse on Western Planting,’ alludes to “an olde
excellent globe in the Queenes privie gallory at Westminster which also
seemeth to be of Verarsanus makinge, havinge the coste described in
Italian, which laieth oute the very selfe same streite necke of lande in
latitude of 40. degrees, with the sea joynninge harde on bothe sides, as
it dothe on Panama and Nombre di Dios; which would be a matter of
singule importannce, yf it shoulde be true, as it is not unlikely.”[209]
To this particular globe we do not seem to be able to find any other

In the geographical department of the Bibliothèque Nationale there may
be found an exceedingly well-executed globe, neither signed nor dated,
but which appears to have been constructed about the year 1528.[210] It
is an unmounted gilded copper sphere (Fig. 49), having a diameter of
about 23 cm. Its title reads “Nova et integra universi orbs descriptio,”
“A new and complete description of the entire world,” which, with all
legends and local names, is engraved in small capitals. Based upon the
description we possess of the Schöner globe of 1523, and upon the close
resemblance of its coast outlines to those of the Weimar globe of 1533,
there is reason for assigning it to the Schönerian school. It, however,
is to be noted that the nomenclature of the northeast coast of North
America is very different from that which appears on the last-mentioned
globe, and that it more nearly resembles in that region the simple
cordiform map of Orontius Finius of the year 1536.[211] The latest
geographical information which it records seems to relate to the
expedition of Verrazano. In the region corresponding to the present New
England, we find the legend “TERRA FRANCESCA NUPER LUSTRATA.” The Gulf
of Mexico is called “SINUS S. MICHAELIS,” and the Caribbean Sea, “MARE
HERBIDIUM.” In South America are the conspicuous legends “AMERICA
INVENTA 1497,” “BRAZILIO REGIO,” and “TERRA NOVA.” The great Antarctic
land bears the inscription “REGIO PATALIS.” The Amazon appears as a
river of considerable length, with numerous tributaries. The course of
Magellan’s voyage, so frequently laid down on the maps of the period,
here finds record in the threadlike line which encircles the globe. As
in the hemispheres of Franciscus, so here, America is laid down as a
part of the Asiatic continent. The workmanship of the globe is equal to
the best that one could find in the Italy, France or Germany of that
day, while the few German words among the numerous Latin names, as
“Baden,” “Braunschweig,” and “Wien,” give some support for the claim
that it is of German origin. A Spanish origin, as has sometimes been
claimed for it, can hardly be accepted.

[Illustration: Fig. 49. Gilt Globe, ca. 1528.]

Parmentier, a native of the famous seaport Dieppe, had in his day, as a
maker of charts, a very substantial reputation. Whether one should
conclude from references to him as a cartographer that he busied himself
with the construction of globes cannot be definitely determined, as
these references indicate that his maps were merely constructed on a
projection which enabled him in some measure to represent the curved
surface of the earth. Schefer, in his work ‘Le discours de la navigation
de Jean et Raoul Permentier,’ says, “Permentier estoit bon cosmographe
et géographe, et par lui ont esté composez plusieurs mappes monde en
globe et en plat et plusieurs cartes marines, sur les quelles plusieurs
ont navigué seurement.” “Parmentier was a good cosmographer and
geographer, and many maps of the world both in the form of globes and as
plane maps were made by him, also numerous marine charts by means of
which many sailed the seas with safety.”[212]

Vasari gives us information concerning one Francesco Libri, member of a
famous Veronese artist family, who won distinction as a globe maker in
the early sixteenth century, and who apparently was most active in this
field of endeavor about the year 1530. Although all trace of the globes
he is said to have constructed is lost, Vasari’s reference is worthy

“Among other things,” says that interesting, if not always accurate,
Italian biographer, “he constructed a large globe of wood, being four
feet in diameter; this he then covered externally with a strong glue, so
that there should be no danger of crack or other injury. Now the globe
or ball thus constructed was to serve as a terrestrial globe. Wherefore
when it had been carefully divided and exactly measured under the
direction and in the presence of Fracastro and Baroldi, both well versed
in physics and distinguished as cosmographers and astrologers, it was
afterward to be painted by Francesco for a Venetian gentleman, Messer
Andrea Navagero, a most learned orator and poet, who intended to make a
present of the same to King Francis of France, to whom he was about to
be sent as ambassador from the Republic. But scarcely had Navagero
arrived in France and entered on his office, when he died. The work
consequently remained unfinished, which was much to be regretted since,
executed by Francesco, under the guidance and with the advice and
assistance of two men so distinguished as were Fracastro and Baroldi, it
would doubtless have turned out a very remarkable production. It
remained unfinished, however, as I have said, and what is worse, even
that which had been done received considerable injury, I know not of
what kind, in the absence of Francesco; yet spoiled as it was, the globe
was purchased by Messer Bartolommeo Lonichi who has never been prevailed
upon to give it up, although he has been frequently much entreated to
do so, and offered large sums of money for it.”

“Francesco had made two smaller globes before commencing the large one;
and of these one is now in the possession of Mazzanti, Archdeacon of the
cathedral of Verona; the other belonging to the Count Raimondo della
Torre, and is now the property of his son, the Count Giovanni Battista,
by whom it is very greatly valued, seeing that this also was constructed
with the assistance and after measurements of Fracastro, who was a very
intimate friend of Count Raimondo.”[213]

As before noted, the exact date when Francesco constructed his globes is
unknown. Vasari, however, informs us, as noted above, that the large one
was constructed for Andrea Navagero, who wished to present it to the
King of France, and that very shortly after his arrival in France on his
special mission his death occurred, which we know to have been the
eighth of May, 1529. It must therefore have been in that year that
Francesco completed the construction of his globe. It would be
interesting to know the geographical configuration of the New World as
laid down by Fracastro and Francesco on this large globe, remembering
that it was not long after the mission of Navagero to King Francis that
the first Cartier expedition sailed for the western continent. We cannot
be certain, as stated, of its geographical data, but it seems probable
that it followed the Verrazanian type as represented, for example, in
the Maiollo map of 1527, or in the Verrazano map of 1529.

The Lorraine Museum of Nancy possesses a fine globe, neither signed nor
dated, but which usually is referred to as the Nancy globe (Figs. 50,
50a), and is thought to have been constructed about the year 1530.[214]
It is a silver ball 16 cm. in diameter, divided on the line of the
equator into hemispheres, and is supported on a small statue of Atlas.
The equator, the tropics, the polar circles, the zodiac, and one
meridian circle passing through the western part of Asia in the Old
World and through the peninsula of Florida in the New World, are
represented. It is an object of interest not only for its scientific
value in giving us a geographical record of the period, but it is also
of interest for its fine workmanship, having its land areas gilded and
its seas blue enameled, in which sea monsters and ships of artistic
design appear. We have the record that in the year 1662, Charles IV,
Duke of Lorraine, presented it to the church of Nôtre Dame de Sion in
his residence city, and that by this church it was long used as a
pyx.[215] There is a striking resemblance of its land configurations,
and of its geographical nomenclature to that of the Gilt globe, of the
Wooden globe, and of the World map of Orontius Finaeus of 1531. The New
World is represented as a part of the Asiatic continent, and the central
section of that region, to which we may refer as North America, is
designated “Asia Orientalis” and “Asia Major.” To the east of these
names are numerous regional names, conspicuous among which are “Terra
Francesca,” “Hispania Major,” and “Terra Florida.” The Gulf of Mexico
appears as “Mare Cathayum.” Mexico bears the name “Hispania Nova,” while
the sea to the west is named “Mare Indicum Australe.” The South American
continent is called “America Nova,” and the names are very numerous
which have been given to the various sections, among which we find
“Terra Firma,” “Papagelli,” “Terra Canibale,” “Parias,” and “Peru
Provincia.” The large austral land bears the name “Brasielie Regio,”
which name is placed southeast of Africa, and the name “Patalis Regio”
appears southwest of South America.

[Illustration: Fig. 50. Nancy Globe, ca. 1530.]

[Illustration: Fig. 50a. Globe of Jacob Stamfer, 1539.]

[Illustration: Fig. 50b. Nancy Globe in Hemispheres.]

Gemma Frisius (1508-1555), a native of Docum (Fig. 51), and for a number
of years professor of medicine and mathematics in the University of
Louvain,[216] issued a little book, in the year 1530, bearing the title
‘De principiis Astronomiae et Cosmographiae, deque usu globi, ab eodem
editi, item de orbis divisione et insulis, rebusque nuper inventis ...
Antverp, 1530.’[217] It seems probable that this was issued to serve
as explanatory text for a globe or globes he had constructed or was
preparing to construct. In it we have one of the earliest technical yet
practical explanations of the parts and uses of the globe, and a
somewhat detailed statement how such instruments may be serviceably
employed in cosmographical studies. On the title-page there appears the
representation of a globe resting on a base having three feet, which has
been thought to be a representation of his completed work.[218] We are
told in his ‘Epistola salutatoria,’ at least in an implied manner, that
there were to be numerous copies of the globes, seeing that they were
intended for the trade, and Roscelli’s statement would lead us to
believe that they had found their way into Italy. All copies, however,
appear to have been lost until a few years since, when both a
terrestrial and a celestial globe of Frisius’ making was found in the
Gymnasium Francisceum of Zerbst, to which discovery a very considerable
interest and importance attaches. In a paper read before the
International Congress of Americanists in 1904, Dr. W. Walter Ruge, all
too briefly, describes them, from which paper the following information
is taken.[219]

[Illustration: Fig. 51. Portrait of Gemma Frisius.]

The terrestrial globe, he notes, is not well preserved, being in certain
parts so injured as to render the inscriptions illegible; but in this
fact he, however, finds a certain compensation, as these injuries are of
such character as to disclose the manner of construction. The globe
ball, he finds, consists of two hemispheres of papier-mâché 3 mm. in
thickness over which is a layer of plaster 1½ mm. in thickness. On
the smooth surface thus furnished the twelve gores of which the map is
composed had been pasted, these gores extending from pole to pole.[220]
Though undated, the following inscription gives information concerning
the map maker and the engravers. “Gemma Frisius Medicus ac Mathematicus
ex varijs descripsit geographicorum observationibus, atque in hanc
formam redegit; Gerardus Mercator Rupelmundanus coelavit cum Caspare a
Myrica, cui et sumptibus permaximis et laboribus nequaquam minoribus
opus constat.” “Gemma Frisius, physician and mathematician, made (this
globe) from the various observations of geographers, and fashioned it in
this form. Gerhard Mercator of Rupelmunde with Caspar Miracus engraved
(it) and expended on the work a large sum and no little labor.”

Frisius appears in this legend as the maker of the map, with Mercator
and Myrica as the engravers. The date of construction is not given, but
it clearly does not belong to the issue of 1530 referred to above. We
read, for example, along the west coast of South America such names as
“Tumbes,” “tangara siue s. michaelis,” and “Turicarami fluvius,” and
find that this west coast is sketched as far as latitude 5 degrees
south. S. Michaelis was founded in 1532, and information concerning
Pizarro’s discoveries probably did not reach Europe until 1534. Europe
has still many of the Ptolemaic features, as has also the continent of
Asia. North America, which is rather better drawn than on any of the
earlier maps, has the legend “Hispania Maior a Nuño Gusmaño devicta anno
1530.” The west coast becomes a very indefinite line at latitude 25
degrees north, at which point we read “Matonchel siue petra portus.” It
then sweeps northeastward in a flattened curve to “Baccalearum Regio”
with its “Promōtoriū agricule seu cabo del labrador.” From the
land around the north pole, which is connected with Asia, the continent
is separated by a narrow strait which is referred to as “Fretum arcticum
siue trium fratrum, par quod lusitani in orientem et ad Indios et
Moluccas nauigare conati sunt.” “The Arctic strait or the strait of the
three brothers through which the Portuguese attempted to sail to the
East and to the Indies and the Moluccas.” No general name is given to
South America, but we find such regional names as “Nw Peru Provincia”
and east of this “Bresilia.” In the interior are such legends and local
names as “Caxamalca fuit regis Atabaliape,” “Cuzco,” “Cincha,” “Collao.”
The nomenclature shows decided Spanish influence, as we find “la
laguna poblada,” “R. de los esclavos,” “R. d. los furmos,” “Cabo corto.”

Ruge further notes the finding in the same Gymnasium of Zerbst of a
celestial globe on which appears the following legend, “Faciebant Gemma
Frisius medicus ac mathematicus, Gaspar a Myrica & Gerardus Mercator
Rupelmundanus anno a partu virgineo 1537.” “Gemma Frisius physician and
mathematician, Gaspar Myrica and Gerhard Mercator of Rupelmunde made
this globe in the year 1537.” A comparison of this legend with that of
the terrestrial globe leads to the somewhat ingenious argument that the
latter, though undated, is the older of the two. We know that Mercator
was a pupil of Gemma Frisius,[221] and that after leaving his university
studies he found employment with the master in draughting maps and in
the construction of mathematical instruments. In the dated legend of
1537 Mercator and Myrica appear to have advanced in importance, seeing
that in the undated legend they are merely referred to as the engravers,
while Frisius alone is mentioned as the maker of the map. Since this
discovery we are better informed as to the source of Mercator’s
information which he gives in his map of 1538; the evidence being
conclusive that in the main he followed the records of Frisius, adapting
his map, however, to the double cordiform projection.[222]

Harrisse describes a gilded copper globe, belonging to the collection of
the Bibliothèque Nationale, having a diameter of 14 cm. and bearing the
author and date legend reading “Robertus de Bailly 1530.”[223] It is
composed of two parts rather insecurely joined on the line of the
equator, and is entirely without mountings. The engraving of the names,
all in small capitals, has been remarkably well done. In outlining the
contour of the New World the draughtsman of the map has been influenced
by the Verrazanian data, and although exhibiting minor differences in
details there is a striking resemblance to the map of Maiollo of
1527,[224] to that of Verrazano of 1529,[225] and to that of Ulpius of
1541.[226] The region called by Maiollo “Francesca,” by Verrazano
“Verrazana sive Gallia nova,” by Ulpius “Verrazana sive Nova Gallia,”
Robertus calls “Verrazana.” In addition we find such names as “TERRA

A second globe by Robertus de Bailly may be found in the library of Mr.
J. P. Morgan of New York City (Fig. 52). This example, signed and dated
“Robertus de Bailly 1530,” and acquired a few years since, may be
counted one of the finest metal globes of the period. None can be
referred to which is in a better state of preservation, if we can accept
its mounting as the original.[227] In Rosenthal’s catalogue No. 100 it
is referred to as a “Verrazzano-Globus,” which is clearly an error, if
there was thought of ascribing it to Giovanni Verrazano, the explorer,
or to his brother Hieronimus, the chart maker. The outlines of its map
of the New World are clearly of Verrazanian origin (Fig. 53), which
therefore give to it a particular interest and value.

[Illustration: Fig. 52. Terrestrial Globe of Robertas de Bailly, 1530.
Nine of twelve gores exhibiting the map.]

[Illustration: Fig. 53. Terrestrial Globe of Robertus de Bailly, 1530.]

Harrisse, in 1896, called attention to his discovery of two globes
apparently of the early fourth decade of the sixteenth century.

The first of these he refers to as a gilded copper sphere about 12 cm.
in diameter, and fashioned to contain the mechanism by means of which it
is made to revolve. It is neither signed nor dated. At the extremity of
the rod passing through the sphere is an arrangement apparently for
attachment to a second piece of mechanism, probably a planetarium. It is
surrounded by a disc on which the hours are engraved in Roman numerals.
The geographical outlines are clearly of Verrazanian origin,
representing the New World relatively long and narrow and having no
Asiatic connection. With few exceptions the nomenclature is in the Latin
language, but we read for instance “El pasaie de S. Michel” and “Rio de
las Amazonas”. The name “America” appears only on the southern continent,
where we also find such legends as “Francisi Pizarri hoc m(onticu?) lo
contra indos insignis victoria anno 1533,” and off the coast of Peru
“Ulterius incognitum.”

The second of these globes is likewise of copper, having a diameter of
21 cm. and carries the inscription “Christoff Schiepp sculpsit.
Augusta,” which is placed around a cartouch especially designed for a
representation of the coat of arms of the Welser family. This family, it
will be remembered, figured conspicuously in connection with the German
attempt at the colonization of Venezuela. The engraved title of the map
is practically the same as that to be found on the Paris gilt globe and
reads “Nova et integra universi orbis descriptio.” It omits, however,
the legend “Francesca” and “Verrazana sive nova Gallia,” which fact may
be due to its German origin. The nomenclature in Mexico and in South
America is very detailed. The La Plata River, for example, as in the
Gilt globe and in the Wooden globe, is called “Sinus Juliani”; the
Pacific is called “Oceanus Magnus Gelanicus.” The austral land is
referred to as “Terra australis nuper inventa, sed nondum plene

While the first of these globes is unmounted, Scheipp’s globe is
furnished with gilded meridian and horizon circle, the whole being
supported by a dolphin on a plinth of ebony.

In the year 1533 Johann Schöner issued a small tract bearing the title
‘Joannis Schoneri Carolostadii Opusculum Geographicum ex diversorum
libris ac cartis summa cura & diligentia collectum, accomodatum ad
recenter elaboratum ab eodem globum descriptiones terrenae.’ ‘A
geographical tract of John Schöner of Carlstadt, extracted from various
books and maps with much care and diligence and arranged for a recently
elaborated globe, being a description of the earth.’[228] This little
book was dedicated to John Frederick of Saxony “Ex urbe Norica Id.
Novembris Anno MDXXXIII.” To it more than usual interest attaches. As
the title states, it was issued as an explanatory text for a new
globe,[229] while in referring to the geography of the New World it
clearly sets forth a reason for the changed notion concerning that
geography, to which allusion has already been made,[230] a change from a
belief in the independent position of the new lands to a belief that
these lands were but a part of the continent of Asia. With reference to
this point Schöner says, “Unde longissimo tractu occidentem versus ab
Hispani terra est, quae Mexico et Temistitan vocatur superiori India,
quam priores vocavere Quinsay id est civitatem coeli eorum lingui.” “By
a very long circuit westward, starting from Spain, there is a land
called Mexico and Temistitan in Upper India, which in former times was
called Quinsay, that is the city of Heaven, in the language of the
country.” He adds the statement, “Americus tamen Vesputius maritima loca
Indiae superioris ex Hispaniis navigio ad occidentem palustrans, eam
partem que superiore Indiae est, credidit esse insulam, quam a suo
nomine vocari institituit. Alii vero nunc recentiores Hydrographi eam
terram ulterius ex alia parte invenerunt esse continentem Asiae nam sic
etiam ad Moluccas insulas superioris Indiae pervenerunt.” “Americus
Vespuccius, sailing along the coasts of Upper India, from Spain to the
west, thought that the said part which is connected with Upper India,
was an island which he had caused to be called after his own name. But
now other hydrographers of more recent date have found that that land
(South America) and others beyond constitute a continent, which is Asia,
and so they reached as far as the Molucca Islands in Upper India.” A
later passage in this tract is likewise interesting in this connection.
After noting that America had been called the fourth part of the world
he adds, “Modo vero per novissimas navigationes, factas anno post
Christum 1519 per Magellanum ducem navium invictissimi Caesaris divi
Caroli etc. versus Moluccas insulas, quas alii Moluquas vocant, in
supremo oriente positas, eam terram invenerunt esse continentem
superioris Indiae, quae pars est Asiae.” “But very lately, thanks to the
very recent navigations accomplished in the year 1519 A. C. by Magellan,
the commander of the expedition of the invincible, the divine Charles
etc. towards the Molucca Islands, which some call Maluquas which are
situated in the extreme east, it has been ascertained that the said
country (America) was the continent of Upper India, which is a part of

It seems very probable that the globe referred to in this tract is one
of those (Figs. 54, 54a), bearing neither date nor name of maker, to be
found in the Grand Ducal Library of Weimar.[231] This conclusion, it may
be stated, is based upon the fact of a striking agreement between the
configurations on the globe and the descriptions to be found in
Schöner’s tract. The date 1534, which appears on the support, is
doubtless of later origin than the globe itself, just as the date 1510
inscribed on the horizon circle of the Behaim globe is known not to
indicate the year in which that work was completed. Wieser expresses the
conviction that this globe is an improved reproduction of the one
constructed in the year 1523, and he notes the interesting fact of its
configurations resembling closely those of the Orontius Finaeus map of
1531, believing that it was the latter, however, who was the borrower.

[Illustration: Fig. 54. Schöner’s Terrestrial Globe, 1533 (Probable).]

[Illustration: Fig. 54a. Schöner’s Celestial Globe, 1533 (Probable).]

The Schiepp globe, referred to above, appears to have been constructed
for a member of the Welser family, a rich patrician of South Germany. To
Raymond Fugger, likewise a South German patrician, a member of a rich
banker family of Augsburg, one Martin Furtembach dedicated a terrestrial
globe which he had constructed in the year 1535.[232] This date and the
wording of the dedication we get from a record of the year 1565. “Viro
Magnifico Dn. Raymundo Fuggero, Invictissimorum Caroli V. Imperatoris,
Ferdinandi primi Regis Romanorum a Consilijs, prudentissimo,
studiosorum Mecaenasi, pauperum Christi asylo cantatissimo, Martinus
Furtenbachius Abusiacus, Astrophilus typum hunc Cosmographicum
universalem composuit atque dedicavit Anno a nato Christo M.D.XXXV.” “To
the Magnificent Dn. Raymond Fugger, most competent counselor of the most
invincible Prince Charles V Emperor, and Ferdinand the First King of the
Romans, a Maecenas of scholars, a most provident supporter of the poor
in Christ, Martin Furtembach lover of astronomy, composed and dedicated
this universal cosmographical figure, in the year of Christ 1535.” This
globe, which we learn was taken from the Fugger castle of Kirchbay to
the Vienna Imperial Library, in what year we do not know, seems to have
disappeared some time after 1734, since, as Harrisse notes, no reference
to it can be found after that date. It is described as a gilt copper
ball of large size and an object of real art, being “ornamented on all
sides with various figures of exquisite engraving, and is supported by a
figure of Atlas with his right hand holding a compass, but with the rest
of his body supported by his left hand, in a stooping posture.”

In addition to the globes previously referred to as belonging to the
Bibliothèque Nationale, there is one supposed to have been constructed
about the year 1535. It is neither signed nor dated, but is usually
referred to as the Paris Wooden globe.[233] The diameter of the sphere
is 20 cm. It is without the usual mountings of meridian and horizon
circles but is supported by an iron rod attached to a wooden base (Fig.
55), which rod serves as an axis about which it may be revolved. A thick
layer of paint covers the surface of the ball, on which the geographical
names, legends, and configurations have been inscribed with a pen in a
running hand. The poor calligraphy suggests that it is not the work of
an expert cartographer, but of one who somewhat hastily and carelessly
had undertaken to copy a globe map of the type represented in the work
of Franciscus, of the maker of the Paris Gilt globe, or of Schöner in
his globe of 1533. Meridians are represented at intervals of ten
degrees commencing at a prime meridian which passes through the Cape
Verde Islands, while the parallels are similarly marked, the graduation
being indicated on the prime meridian. The globe maker has retained in
his representations the old climatic idea, of which climates there are
nine specifically designated. We find on this globe such inscriptions as
“Baccalarum Regio,” with its neighboring “Pelagus Baccalarum,” “Terra
Francesca,” “Hispania Major,” “Terra Florida,” with the Gulf of Mexico
bearing the name “M. Cathayum” as in the Nancy globe. The South American
continent is conspicuously marked as “America Nova Orbis Pars,” and
contains in addition many regional names. The western ocean, beginning
with that part which washes the coast of Mexico, thence southward, is
called “Mare di Sur,” “Mare Culuacanum,” “Mare Indicum Australe,” “Mare
Pacificum,” and “Oceanus Magellanicus.” The location of the colony which
was planted by Pizarro in 1532, and which is called “S. Michaelis,” is
made prominent.

[Illustration: Fig. 55. Paris Wooden Globe, 1535.]

Caspar Vopel,[234] born at Medebach near Cologne, in the year 1511, was
of that group of German cartographers and globe makers active in the
second quarter of the sixteenth century in giving to the general public
a knowledge of the great geographical discoveries of the day. Though
much of the information through the maps which they constructed was
strikingly inaccurate, their work is none the less interesting to the
student of historical geography. It appears that Vopel entered the
University of Cologne in the year 1526, that at a later date he became a
professor of mathematics in a Cologne gymnasium, and that he continued
to reside in this city until his death in the year 1561. During these
years he became well known as a maker of maps and globes. Of his very
large and important world map, issued in the year 1558, and which so
admirably sets forth his geographical notion of an Asiatic connection of
the New World, an original copy may be found in the collection of
Prince Liechtenstein, which is reproduced, after Giriva’s redraughting,
in Nordenskiöld’s ‘Facsimile Atlas.’[235] In the history of cartography
his map of Europe and his Rhine map especially merit a place of

Nine of his globes are known, most of which are constructed as armillary
spheres, having within the numerous armillae or circles a small
terrestrial globe, or at least that which passes as a representation of
the same. His first work of which we have knowledge, now belonging to
the city of Cologne, and to be found in the collection of its archives,
is inscribed “Caspar Medebach opus hoc astronomicum fecit 1532 Martii.”
It is a credit to the youthful artist and cosmographer, suggesting, says
Korth,[236] the possession of a technic resembling that of Dürer. This
is a celestial globe 28 cm. in diameter, having its star map drawn by
hand, which is now somewhat discolored with age.

Four years later Vopel constructed a second celestial globe, apparently
a reproduction of the first but having its map printed on gores which he
pasted on the surface of the sphere. It bears the inscription “Caspar
Vopel, Medebach, hanc Cosmogr. faciebat sphaeram Coloniae Ao 1536,” has
the same diameter as the one of 1532, and is now its companion in the
city archives of Cologne.[237]

The National Museum of Washington possesses a fine example of Vopel’s
work (Fig. 9), concerning which Mr. Maynard, curator of Mechanical
Technology, writes that “the globe in this Museum is an armillary sphere
of eleven metal rings, 4½ inches in diameter, with a very small globe
in the center. The rings are elaborately inscribed with astronomical
signs and scales, with names in Latin. On one of the rings is the
inscription, ‘Caspar Vopel, Artium Professor, Hanc Sphaeram Faciebat
Colonia, 1541.’”[238]

In 1542 he constructed his first terrestrial globe, a copy of which is
to be found in the Cologne archives.[239] It has a diameter of 28 cm.,
its map gores, as in the case of the celestial globe of 1536, being
printed from an engraved plate. Excepting the discoloration of age and a
slight indentation near the north pole, it is well preserved. The title
legend reads “Nova et integra universi orbis descriptio.” “A new and
complete description of the entire globe.” A second legend, placed in
the middle Atlantic, reads “Caspar Vopel Medebach geographicam sphaeram
hanc faciebat Coloniae A. 1542.” “Caspar Vopel of Medebach made this
globe in 1542 at Cologne.” His terrestrial map assures us of his
acceptance of the idea that the American continent could be but an
extension of the continent of Asia; that is, like his predecessor
Schöner and others of the second quarter of the sixteenth century,
referred to above, he had concluded after Magellan had found a
termination of the newly found transatlantic region at the south, and no
passageway from the Atlantic to the Pacific north of the equator had
been found though search had frequently been made for the same, this
country could therefore no longer be considered as an independent
continent. The river “Cham,” which on his map he made to empty into the
Gulf of Mexico, he gives as the dividing line between “Hispania Nova”
and “Cathay.” There is striking evidence that Vopel was acquainted with
Orontius Finaeus’ map of 1531 or its source, as, for example, he writes
across the great austral continent, “Terra Australis recenter inventa,
sed nondum plene cognita,” adding the words “Anno 1499,” which also
appear on the Paris Wooden globe of 1535.

In the Old Nordiske Museum of Copenhagen is an armillary sphere of
Vopel, composed of eleven brass rings representing the equator, the
ecliptic, the tropics, the polar circles, etc., within which is a small
terrestrial globe, on the surface of which is a manuscript world map.
Quad refers to this globe in the following words: “Item ein Astrolabium
novum varium ac plenum das auff alle Landschafften (kann) dirigiert
werden beide den Mathematicis unnd Medicis sehr nutz, in funffzehen
Stöck und auff acht bogen gedruckt, darunder auch ein kleine artige
Mappa Mundi ins runde gelegt ist.”[240]

On the circle representing the Tropic of Cancer is engraved the legend
“Caspar Vopell Medebach hanc sphaeram faciebat Coloniae 1543.” “Caspar
Vopel of Medebach made this globe in Cologne in the year 1543.” On the
bottom of the box in which the globe is kept is a modern label reading
“Nocolaus Copernicus 1543 ... ty ... Brah.” Copernicus died in the year
designated, and Tycho Brahe was born in the year 1546. It appears,
therefore, that this globe once belonged to the great Danish astronomer.

In the Library of Congress, acquired from L. Friedrichsen of Hamburg, is
a fine example of the work of Vopel.[241] This armillary sphere of
eleven rings, encircling a terrestrial globe 7.2 cm. in diameter, is
mounted on a copper base. On the circle representing the Tropic of
Cancer is the inscription “Caspar Vopel artiv̄ profes. hanc sphaeram
faciebat Coloniae 1543.” “Caspar Vopel professor of arts made this globe
in Cologne in the year 1543,” while on the remaining circles are
engraved numerous cosmographical signs and names. The terrestrial globe
is covered with a manuscript map in colors, and bears the title legend
“Nova ac generalis orbis descriptio,” and the author legend “Caspar
Vopel mathe. faciebat.” Most of the regional names on the map are in
red, and a red dot is employed to indicate the location of certain
important cities, the names in general being omitted. The globe is
remarkably well preserved (Fig. 56).

[Illustration: Fig. 56. Vopel Globe, 1543.]

[Illustration: Fig. 56a. Western Hemisphere of Vopel Terrestrial Globe.]

In the collection of Jodoco del Badia, state archivist of Florence, is a
Vopel armillary sphere of the year 1544.[242] The engraved inscription
on the Tropic of Cancer reads “Caspar Vopel Me. Matem. hanc sphaeram
faciebat coloniae 1544.” Within the eleven armillae is a very small
wooden sphere intended to represent a terrestrial globe of wood, about 3
cm. in diameter, on which the equator and the tropics are represented,
but no geographical details of any value appear because of the small
size of the ball.

A Vopel armillary sphere, apparently like the preceding, bearing the
same date and legends, is reported as belonging to the city museum of

A somewhat detailed description, by J. H. Graf, of a Vopel armillary
sphere in the possession of the Herr Forstinspector Frey of Bern,
appeared in the year 1894, in the Jahresbericht of the Geographical
Society of Munich.[244] It is composed of twelve instead of eleven
armillae, and at the common center is a small terrestrial ball. The
inscriptions appearing on each of the several rings are given by Graf,
and the work of Vopel is compared with that of other map makers of the
time. On circle 3, for example, counting from the outermost, is a
citation from Ovid (Amores I. 6. 59), “Night, love, and wine are not
counselors of moderation.” On circle 5, which represents the Tropic of
Cancer, is the author and date legend, reading “Caspar Vopellius Mathe.
Profes. hanc sphaeram faciebat Coloniae 1545.” On circle 7 we read “Fate
rules the world, all stands secure according to unchangeable law, and
the long lapse of time is marked by certain course.” On one of the
circles movable about the pole of the ecliptic is the inscription “The
sun, called Helios, moves through the entire circle of the zodiac in 365
days and about 6 hours.” Graf notes the striking similarity of this
sphere to that belonging to the Old Nordiske Museum of Copenhagen, and
adds to his paper a reproduction of the terrestrial globe map in plane
projection.[245] The feature common to all of the Vopel maps, viz., the
connection of the New and the Old Worlds, is particularly emphasized.
The name “America” appears only on South America, and rightly so, if at
all, in keeping with his geographical ideas.

Günther reports that there may be found in the Hof- und Staatsbibliothek
of Munich (Sig. Math. A 41, fol.), a volume of drawings and engravings
once belonging to the Nürnberg mathematician, George Hartmann.[246] In
this collection there are two sets of celestial globe gores, the one
containing nine, originally ten parts, dated February, 1535, the other
containing ten undated parts. It is thought by Günther that we have
here, in all probability, the earliest example of engraved celestial
globe gores, a second example in date being that by Vopel of 1536, and
referred to above.

In the year 1859 Mr. Buckingham Smith obtained in the city of Madrid an
engraved copper globe of striking scientific value and interest. On the
death of Mr. Smith this globe, now known as the Ulpius globe (Fig. 57),
was purchased by Mr. John David Wolf and later was presented to the
Library of the New York Historical Society, where it may now be found
among that society’s rich collection of historical treasures.[247] It is
of large size, having a diameter of 39 cm., rests upon an oak base, and
measuring from the bottom of the base to the top of the iron cross which
tips the north polar axis, its entire height is 111 cm. The hollow
hemispheres of which the ball is composed are made to join at the line
of the equator, the parts being held together by iron pins. In addition
to its copper equatorial circle, which is neatly graduated and engraved
with signs of the zodiac, it has a meridian and an hour circle of brass.
On the surface of the globe itself the principal parallels are drawn,
and meridians at intervals of thirty degrees, the line of the ecliptic
being very prominent, and the boundary line proposed by Pope Alexander
VI, marking a terminus for the claims of Spain and Portugal to newly
discovered regions, is strikingly conspicuous, with its legend reaching
from pole to pole, “Terminus Hispanis et Lusitanis ab Alexandro VI P. M.
assignatus.”[248] “Limit to Spain and Portugal set by Pope Alexander

[Illustration: Fig. 57. Terrestrial Globe of Euphrosynus Ulpius, 1541.]

That a globe of such large dimensions, and of date so early, should come
down to our day scarcely injured in the slightest degree, is a source of
much delight to students of early cartography and of early discovery and

In a neat cartouch we read the following inscription: “Regiones orbis
terrae quae aut aveterib traditae aut nostra patrūq memoria compertae
sint. Euphrosynus Ulpius describebat anno salutis M.D.XLII.” “Regions of
the terrestrial globe which are handed down by the ancients or have been
discovered in our memory or that of our fathers. Delineated by
Euphrosynus Ulpius in the year of salvation 1542.” The work is dedicated
to “Marcello Cervino S. R. E. Presbitero Cardinali D. D. Rome,”
“Marcellus Cervino, Cardinal Presbyter and Doctor of Divinity of the
Holy Roman Church, Rome,”[249] the dedication being inscribed in a
cartouch ornamented with wheat or barley heads, a device to be found in
the coat of arms of the Cervino family, and with the deer which may be
taken as an allusion to the name.

Not the least interesting feature of its geographical record in the New
World is that wherein testimony is given to the voyage of Verrazano in
the year 1524. The outline of the North American continent is strikingly
like that given in the Verrazano map of 1529 (Fig. 58), showing an
isthmus in the vicinity of Chesapeake Bay, beyond which stretches a
great unnamed sea to the west, called in some of the early maps the Sea
of Verrazano. Ulpius attests the discovery in the following legend,
“Verrazana sive Nova Gallia a Verrazano Florentino comperta anno Sal.
M.D.” “Verrazana or New France discovered by Verrazano a Florentine in
the year of salvation 1500.” The date in this legend is taken to be an
incomplete rather than an erroneous record, the correct date being
obtainable from the following legend appearing on the map of Hieronimus
Verrazano, brother of the explorer, “Verrazana sive nova gallia quale
discopri 5 anni fa giovanni di verrazano fiorentino per ordine et
commandamento del Christianissimo re di francia.” “Verrazana or New
France discovered five years since by Giovanni Verrazano a Florentine by
order and command of the Most Christian King of France.”[250] Ulpius
must have made use of this Verrazano map in drawing the outline of
North America, though he did not copy slavishly, as we find that he
greatly improved on that map in the trend he has given the Atlantic
coast line of North America, and in the numerous details he has
inscribed. In very many of the Atlantic coast names, however, there is a
practical agreement between those on the globe and those on the map.

[Illustration: Fig. 58. Western Hemisphere of Ulpius Globe, 1541.]

To the continent of South America is given both the name “America” and
“Mundus Novus,” while numerous provincial names appear, as “Peru,”
“Bresilia,” “Terra de giganti.” The land areas of both the New and the
Old World are liberally ornamented with representations of the local
animal life, the traditional belief in the existence of cannibals in
Mundus Novus being especially prominent. The oceans are made to abound
in sea monsters, and vessels sail hither and thither over the courses
then followed by navigators. Though South America has the entire coast
line represented, that section stretching southward from Peru is marked
as “terra incognita.” Separated from the mainland by the Strait of
Magellan, marked by the legend, “initium freti magellanici,” is an
extensive land area, that part lying to the southwest of the strait
being called “Regio Patalis,” that to the southeast as “Terra Australis
adhuc incomperta,” while from this particular region there stretches
away to the east, as far as the meridian passing through the southern
point of Africa, a peninsula across which is the legend “Lusitani ultra
promotorium bone spei i Calicutium tendentes hanc terra viderut, veru
non accesserunt, quamobrem neq nos certi quidqȝ afferre potuimus.” “The
Portuguese sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope to Calicut, saw this
land but did not reach it, wherefore neither have we been able to assert
anything with certainty concerning it.”

In the main Ptolemy served as a source of information for the regions of
the East, although much of the information which the earlier years of
the century had contributed to a knowledge of that far-away country is

The large size of the globe gave opportunity for the inscription of
numerous geographical details, and of this opportunity the engraver
fully availed himself. It may well be referred to as one of the most
interesting of the early globes, and its map records as possessing great
scientific value.

Tiraboschi alludes to a globe possessed by Cardinal Pietro Bembo
(1470-1547), citing a letter written by Giacomo Faletti at Venice, June
3, 1561, to Alfonso II D’Este of Ferrara, in which mention is made of
the same. “I have bought,” says Faletti, “the globe of Cardinal Bembo
for fifteen scudi which is the price of the metal composing it, and I
have given it out to be decorated hoping to make of it the most
beautiful globe which is possessed by any Prince in the world. It will
cost altogether 25 scudi.”[251] This globe must have been made before
the year 1547, in which year occurred the death of the cardinal. Fiorini
expresses the opinion that it probably was owned by him while making his
residence at Padua, when, free from care, he was giving himself to study
and to the collection of scientific and artistic objects.[252]

One of Spain’s distinguished chart makers of the middle of the sixteenth
century was Alonso de Santa Cruz (1500-1572).[253] Although but few of
his cartographical productions are known, there is to be found in the
survivals abundant evidence of his marked ability. We learn concerning
him that by royal order of July 7, 1536, he was created cosmographer of
the Casa de Contratacion at a salary of 30,000 maravedis, that in this
capacity it was his duty to examine and pass upon sailing charts, that
shortly after the above-named date he became Cosmografo Major, and that
some time before his death, which occurred in the year 1572, Philip II
appointed him to the office of Royal Historian.[254] His best-known work
is his ‘Yslario general del mondo,’ of which three signed manuscript
copies are known, no one of which, however, appears to be complete. Two
of these copies are to be found in the Royal Library of Vienna;[255] the
third, now belonging to the City Library of Besançon, was at one time in
the possession of Cardinal Granvella.[256] The National Library of
Madrid possesses a fine manuscript atlas, which has been generally
attributed to Garcia Cespedes, since his name appears on the
frontispiece, but which now is thought by those who have most carefully
examined it to be the work of Santa Cruz. There are evidences that it
has been somewhat altered in parts, which alterations may have been the
work of Cespedes.[257]

In addition to his ‘Yslario’ we still have his remarkable map of the
city of Mexico, belonging to the University Library of Upsala,[258] and
one copy of his world map in gores (Fig. 59), preserved in the Royal
Library of Stockholm. It is this last-named map which especially
interests us here.[259]

[Illustration: Fig. 59. Gore Map of Alonso de Santa Cruz, 1542.]

Though the form of the map suggests that it had been the author’s
intention to paste it on the surface of a prepared sphere, there appears
to be good reason for thinking that this particular copy was not
intended to serve him in a terrestrial globe construction. It is
surrounded with an ornamental border finely executed in gold and white,
and stretching across the top is a waving scroll in which has been
written the inscription “Nova verior et integra totius orbis descriptio
nunc primum in lucem edita per Alfonsum de Sancta Cruz Caesaris Charoli
V. archicosmographum. A.D. M.D.XLII.” “A very new and complete
description of the whole world now first prepared by Alfonso de Santa
Cruz Cosmographer Major of the Emperor Charles V. 1542.” The original
map is drawn on three connected sheets of parchment, as Dahlgren states
in his excellent monograph, the total dimensions of which are 79 by 144
cm. In the lower corner on the left is the dedication: “Potentiss. Caes.
Carlo V. Usi sumus et hic ad terrae, marisque simul, demonstractionem,
sectione alia, Augustiss. Caesar, per equinotialem lineam Polum quemque,
dividui ipsius globi, singula medietas obtinens, depressoque utroque in
planum Polo, equinotialem ipsam secantes, rationem prospectivam
servavimus, quemadmodum et in alia, veluti solutis Polis, itidem in
planum discisis meridianis propalavimus, neque pretermissis hic
longitudinum latitudinumque graduum parallelorum climatumque
dimensionibus. Vale.” “O powerful Caesar! we have, here also in this map
of land and sea, made use of a new division of the globe; namely, at the
equator, so that each half of the globe thus divided has one of the
poles as its center. By depressing the pole to the plane of the equator
and by making incisions from the equator to the pole, we have made a
projection similar to that presented to the public on the other map with
detached poles and with the meridians separated on the same plane,
without disregarding the correct dimensions of the longitude, latitudes,
degrees, parallels, and climates. Farewell.”

The map represents the world in two hemispheres, a northern and a
southern, each drawn on thirty-six half gores or sectors. The following
appears to have been the method of construction. With the poles as
centers, and with a radius equal to one fourth of the length of a
meridian circle of the globe he drew his large circle or circles
representing the equator and forming the bases of each of the half
gores. Each of the large or equatorial circles he divided into
thirty-six equal arcs, and from the points establishing such divisions
he drew a meridian line extending in each hemisphere to the pole or
center of his circle. These meridian lines were graduated and lines or
arcs representing parallels of latitude were drawn intersecting them at
intervals of ten degrees, having the pole as the common center in each
hemisphere. Marking off on each of these parallels or arcs both to right
and left a distance representing five degrees of the earth’s longitude,
he thus established the points through which to draw his meridians which
marked the boundaries of each sector, leaving between the sectors equal
spaces to be cut away should the sectors be used for pasting on the
surface of a sphere. Every fifth meridian and every tenth parallel is
drawn in black; the equator, the tropics, the polar circles, and the
prime meridian are gilded. The prime meridian runs somewhat to the west
of the Island of Fayal. At longitude 20 degrees west is the papal line
of demarcation which is called “Meridianus particionis,” crossing South
America south of the mouth of the Amazon. On the one side of this line
in the southern hemisphere appears the flag of Spain, on the other that
of Portugal, thus designating specifically the “Hemisperium Regis
Castelle,” and the “Hemisperium Regis Portugalie.” California is
referred to as “yᵃ q̄ descubrio el marq’s del valle,” “island discovered
by the Marquis del Valle,” and the coast north of this point is called
“ter̄a q̄ cnbio(?) a descubrio dē antᵒ d’ mēdoca,” “land to discover
which Don Antonio de Mendoza sent out an expedition.” In drawing the
outlines of his continents he seems to have made use of the best
available sources. The New World follows the Sevillan type, as
represented in the Ribeiro maps, particularly the eastern or Atlantic
coast regions, including, though in somewhat abbreviated form, the
references to Gomez, Ayllon, and Narvaez. There is no distinct coast
line north of California, which line follows the meridian of 105 degrees
as far north as the Arctic circle, hence there is no positive
representation of an Asiatic connection, but rather the indication of a
doubt, as was indicated on maps of the type.

If Santa Cruz intended his peculiar gores to serve in the construction
of a terrestrial globe, we cannot find that he impressed his method on
the globe makers of the period. We seem to have but one striking
imitation of his work, viz., in the gore map of Florianas, to which
reference is made below.[260]

To that striking feature of many of the globe maps of the second quarter
of the sixteenth century, in which an Asiatic connection of the New
World is represented, attention has been called in the preceding pages;
there likewise has been noted the fact that not a few of the map makers
of the period expressed a certain degree of doubt as to whether the
prevailing idea of the first quarter of the century (that the lands
discovered in the west constituted a veritable New World) should be
given over, preferring to omit altogether the west and northwest coast
line of North America, or to make very indefinite allusion to the
geography of the region.

We now come to the consideration of a map and globe maker who carries us
back to the geographical notion of the earlier years of the century,
namely, to the idea that the New World was nothing less than an
independent continent. The activities of Gerhard Mercator (1512-1594)
(Fig. 60) were epoch making, and a reference to him more detailed than
has been accorded his predecessors is fitting.[261] He was a native of
Rupelmunde, a small town situated in the Pays de Waes in East
Flanders, not far from the city of Antwerp. His parents died while he
was still a mere lad, but in a great-uncle he found a faithful guardian
and a generous benefactor, who took care that his education should be
the best that was afforded by the schools of the Netherlands. In 1527,
at the age of fifteen, he entered the College of Bois-le-Duc in Brabant,
where he studied for three and one half years, and in 1530 he was
matriculated as a student in the University of Louvain, famous
throughout Europe at that early date as a center of learning.[262]
During his university career he appears to have given much thought to
the problems of science, including the “origin, nature, and destiny” of
the physical universe. While these studies did not bear directly upon
that branch of science in which he was to win for himself such marked
distinction in later years, they indicate the early existence of a
desire for knowledge scientific rather than for knowledge theological,
notwithstanding the fact that his guardian and patron was an

[Illustration: Fig. 60. Portraits of Gerhard Mercator and Jodocus

In Gemma Frisius, an eminent professor of mathematics in the University
of Louvain, and at one time a pupil of Apianus, he appears, as before
noted, to have found a sympathetic friend and counselor.[263] It
probably was Frisius who suggested a career for the young scientist,
since we find him, shortly after graduation, turning his attention to
the manufacture of mathematical instruments, to the drawing, engraving,
and coloring of maps and charts, wherein he found a vocation for the
remainder of his life. In 1537 his first publication, a map of
Palestine, appeared, to which he gave the title “Amplissima Terrae
Sanctae descriptio.”[264] Immediately thereafter, at the instance of a
certain Flemish merchant, he undertook the preparation of a map of
Flanders, making for the same extensive original surveys. This map was
issued in the year 1540.[265] Mercator’s first published map of the
world bears the date 1538. This map was drawn in the double cordiform
projection which seems first to have been employed by Orontius Finaeus
in his world map of 1531.[266] In this map Mercator departed from the
geographical notions generally entertained at this particular period
which made America an extension of Asia. He represented the continent of
Asia separated from the continent of America by a narrow sea, an idea
which increased in favor with geographers and cartographers long before
actual discovery proved this to be a fact. This map is one to which
great importance attaches, but it is not the first world map on which
there was an attempt to fasten the name America upon both the northern
and the southern continents of the New World, although it frequently has
been referred to as such; this honor, so far as we at present know,
belongs to a globe map referred to and briefly described above.[267] His
large map of Europe, the draughting of which appears to have claimed
much of his time for a number of years, was published in the year 1554,
and contributed greatly to his fame as a cartographer.[268] In 1564
appeared his large map of England,[269] and in the same year his map of
Lorraine based upon his own original surveys.[270] In the year 1569 a
master work was issued, this being his nautical chart, “ad usum
navigantium,” as he said of it, based upon a new projection which he had
invented.[271] It is the original chart setting forth the Mercator
projection which is now so extensively employed in map making. In the
year 1578 he issued his revised edition of the so-called Ptolemy maps,
and eight years later these same maps again, revised with the complete
text of Ptolemy’s work on geography. Mercator expressly stated it to be
his purpose, in this last work, not to revise the text in order to make
it conform to the most recent discoveries and geographical ideas, but
the rather to have a text conforming, as nearly as possible, to
Ptolemy’s original work. This edition still ranks as one of the best
which has ever been issued. His great work, usually referred to as his
‘Atlas of Modern Geography,’ the first part of which appeared in 1585,
and a second part in 1590, was not completed during his lifetime,
though but four months after his death, in the year 1594, Rumold
Mercator published his father’s collection of maps, adding a third part
to those which previously had been issued. It was this publication which
bore the title ‘Atlas sive cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mundi
et fabricati figura.’ Apparently for the first time the term “atlas” had
here been employed for a collection of maps, a term which we know had
its origin with Gerhard Mercator himself. A reference to his general
cartographical work more detailed than the above cannot here find place.
It is his globes which call for special consideration.

There is reason for thinking it was Nicolás Perrenot, father of Cardinal
Granvella, who suggested to Mercator the construction of a globe; it at
least was to this great Prime Minister of the Emperor Charles V that he
dedicated his first work of this character, a terrestrial globe dated
1541.[272] That Mercator had constructed such a globe had long been
known through a reference in Ghymmius’ biography, yet it had been
thought, until 1868, that none of the copies of this work had come down
to us. In that year there was offered for sale, in the city of Ghent,
the library of M. Benoni-Verelst and among its treasures was a copy of
Mercator’s engraved globe gores of the year 1541, which were acquired by
the Royal Library of Brussels, where they may still be found. Soon
thereafter other copies of these gores, mounted and unmounted, came to
light in Paris, in Vienna, in Weimar, in Nürnberg, and later yet other
copies in Italy, until at present no less than twelve copies are known.

These gores were constructed to cover a sphere 41 cm. in diameter, and
the map represents the entire world, with its seas, its continents, and
its islands. The names of the various regions of the earth, of the
several empires, and of the oceans are inscribed in Roman capital
letters; the names of the kingdoms, of the provinces, of the rivers, are
inscribed in cursive Italic letters, while for the names of the several
peoples he employed a different form of letter. The gores, twelve in
number, were engraved and printed in groups of threes (Fig. 61), each
gore having an equatorial diameter of thirty degrees. Mercator worked
out mathematically the problem dealing with the proper relation of the
length of each of the gores to its width, or of its longer diameter to
its shorter, in his endeavor to devise a map as nearly perfect as
possible in shape for covering a ball, knowing full well the difficulty
of fitting a flat surface to one that is curved. Each of the gores he
truncated twenty degrees from the poles, and for the polar areas he
prepared a circular section drawn according to the rule applicable to an
equidistant polar projection. It appears, as before noted, that he was
the first to apply this method in globe construction.

[Illustration: Fig. 61. Six of Twelve Terrestrial Globe Gores by Gerhard
Mercator, 1541.]

The ecliptic, the tropics, and the polar circles are represented at
their proper intervals, with other parallels at intervals of ten
degrees, and meridians at intervals of fifteen degrees. As in his double
cordiform map of 1538, his prime meridian passes through the island of
“Forte Ventura,” one of the Fortunate Islands of the ancients, but which
had long been known as the Canary Islands. To his globe map he added a
feature of special value to seamen. From the numerous compass or wind
roses, distributed with some regularity over its surface, he drew
loxodromic lines, or curved lines cutting the meridians at equal
angles.[273] This feature could not have failed to win the approval of
navigators, since they well knew that the previous attempts to represent
these rhumbs as straight lines on maps drawn on a cylindrical
projection, led to numerous errors in navigation. A second somewhat
curious and interesting feature of his globe, a feature which I do not
recall to have noticed in any other, is the representation in various
localities on land and on sea of certain stars, his idea being that he
could thus assist the traveler to orient himself at night. In his list
of stars on his globe map, we find, for example, “Sinister humerus
Boötes” near latitude 40 degrees north, longitude 210 degrees; “Corona
septentrionalis” near latitude 29 degrees north, longitude 227 degrees;
“Cauda Cygni” near latitude 44 degrees north, longitude 305 degrees;
“Humerus Pegasus” near latitude 12 degrees north, longitude 340 degrees;
“Crus Pegasi” near latitude 26 degrees north, longitude 339 degrees; six
of the important stars in “Ursa Major,” including “Stella Polaris,” and
in the present California, somewhat strangely prophetic, “Caput

On the ninth gore, counting from the prime meridian eastward, is a
legend giving the author’s name, the date of issue, and a reference to
the publication privilege, reading “Edebat Gerardus Mercator
Rupelmundanus cum privilegio Ces Maiestatis ad an sex Lovanii an 1541.”
“Published by Gerard Mercator of Rupelmunde under the patent of His
Imperial Majesty for six years at Louvain in the year 1541.” In a
corresponding position on the seventh gore is the dedication “Illustris:
Dnō Nicolao Perrenoto Domino à Granvella Sac. Caesaree Maᵗⁱ à consiliis
primo dedecatũ.” “Dedicated to the very distinguished Seigneur Nicholás
Perrenot, Seigneur de Granvella; first counselor of His Imperial
Majesty,” over which is the coat of arms of the Prime Minister. On gore
six we read “Ubi & quibus argumentis Lector ab aliorum descriverimus
editione libellus noster indicabit.” “Reader, where and in what subjects
we have copied from the publications of other men will be pointed out in
our booklet,” in which there appears to be a reference to an intended
publication wherein his globe was to be described and its uses
indicated. No such work by Mercator is known to exist, although we find
that in the year 1552 he issued a small pamphlet bearing the title
‘Declaratio insigniorum utilitatum quae sunt in globo terrestri,
caelesti et anulo astronomico. Ad invictissimum Romanum Imperatorus
Carolum Quintum.’ ‘A presentation of the particular advantages of the
terrestrial, celestial, and armillary spheres. Dedicated to the
invincible Roman Emperor Charles Fifth.’[274]

He tells us in one of his legends how to find the distance between two
places represented on the globe, observing, “Si quorum voles locorū
distantiā cognoscere ... trāsferto, hic tibi, q̄ libet particula
ĭtercepta millaria referet, Hisp: 18, Gal: 20, Germ: 15, Milia pass;
60, Stadia 500,” from which it appears that he gives as the value of an
equatorial degree 60 Italian miles or 500 stadia, equivalent to 18
Spanish miles, to 20 French miles, and to 15 German miles. Finding
numerous errors in Ptolemy’s geography of the Old World, he tells us
that he undertook to correct these errors from the accounts of Marco
Polo, whom he calls “M. Paulo Veneto,” and from the accounts of Vartema,
whom he calls “Ludovico, Rom Patricii.” Between parallels 50 degrees and
60 degrees south latitude and meridians 60 degrees and 70 degrees east
longitude is the inscription “Psitacorum regio a Lusitanis anno 1500 ad
millia passum bis mille praetervectis, sic appellata quod psitacos elat
inaudite magnitudinis, ut qui ternos cubitos aequent longitudine.”
“Region of parrots discovered by the Portuguese in 1500 who sailed along
2000 miles; so called because it has parrots of unheard-of size,
measuring three cubits in length.” America, he notes, is called New
India, “America a multis hodie Noua India dicta.” In the Antarctic
region an inscription tells of the notion entertained by many
geographers of his day and by some in an earlier day, that in addition
to the four known parts of the world, Europe, Asia, Africa, and America,
there is here a fifth part of large size stretching for a number of
degrees from the pole, which region is called “terra Australe.” Mercator
undertook, in Chapter X of his ‘Atlas,’ to demonstrate that a large
Antarctic continent must of necessity exist as a balance to the weight
of the other four continents or parts of the world lying in the northern

In 1551 he issued his copper engraved gores for a celestial globe,
dedicating the same to Prince George of Austria, natural son of the
Emperor Maximilian, who was Bishop of Brixen, Archbishop of Valencia,
and Bishop of Liège in the year 1544. A set of these gores was likewise
acquired by the Royal Library of Brussels at the same time it acquired
the terrestrial globe gores referred to above.[276] The dedication reads
“Ampliss: Preculi Principiqȝ Illᵐᵒ Georgio ab Austria Dei dispositione
Episcopo Leodiensi, Duci Bullonensi, Marchioni Francimotensi, Comiti
Lossensi &c̃ mecaenati optime merito dd. Gerardus Mercator
Rupelmundanus.” “To the Magnificent Protector and Prince, the very
distinguished George of Austria, by the Grace of God, Bishop of Liège,
Duke of Bouillon, Marquis of Francimontensi, Count of Lossensi, the very
splendid patron of arts and science, dedicated by Gerard Mercator of
Rupelmunde.” Near the above inscription we find the date and place of
issue given as follows, “Lovanii anno Domini 1551 mense Aprili,” and a
reference to his privilege “Inhibitum est ne quis hoc opus imitetur, aut
alibi factum vendat, intra fines Imperii, vel provinciarum inferiorum
Caes: Mt̄is an: te decennium, sub poenis & mulctis in diplomatibus
cotentis. Oberburger & Soete subscrib.” “All persons are forbidden to
reproduce this work or to sell it when made elsewhere within the Empire
or the Low Countries of His Imperial Majesty until after ten years,
under the penalties and fines prescribed in the patent. Signed by
Oberburger and Soete.” It clearly was the intention that this should
serve as the companion of his terrestrial globe of 1541, described
above, since the gores are of the same size, each of the twelve being
truncated in the same manner, and the circular section being prepared
for the polar areas. Mercator’s merits as an astronomer by no means
equaled his merits as a geographer. However, his celestial globe, by
reason of the exactness of the composition, by reason of its simplicity,
and by reason of the artistic skill exhibited in the workmanship, is a
most worthy work of that great scientist. On this globe are represented
the forty-eight constellations of Ptolemy, to which have been added
three which he calls Antinous, Lepus and Cincinnus, the first formed of
six stars and located on the equator below the constellation Aquila, the
second in the southern hemisphere under the feet of Orion, and the third
in the northern hemisphere near the tail of Ursa Major.[277] His
constellations, as well as the principal stars in the same, have, in the
majority of instances, Greek, Latin, and Arabic names. It does not
appear that Mercator felt himself bound to a strictly scientific
representation and interpretation of the celestial bodies, for he pays
more or less homage to astrology, inscribing on the horizon circle of
his globe the horoscope as used by astrologists in calculating
nativities, perhaps recognizing, from a business standpoint, the
advantage of an appeal to certain superstitions which he found still
lingering among both the learned and the unlearned.

By reason of their size and the great care with which they had been
prepared, his globes must have found general favor, not only with those
of rank and distinction, for whom copies _de luxe_ were issued, but with
geographers and scholars in general, who found it possible to obtain at
a comparatively small price the more modest copies. That they found
favor in Germany is assured us by Mercator’s correspondence with
Camerarius of Nürnberg, in which mention is made of the sale of six
pairs of his globes in that city, and of others at the Frankfort book
market.[278] Thomas Blundeville tells us in his ‘Exercises’ that
Mercator’s globes were in common use in England until 1592,[279] and the
number of his globes which have become known since 1868 in various parts
of Europe assure us that copies of that master’s work must have been
easily obtainable by those interested. Ruscelli, in referring to printed
spheres, notes that they usually were made small, and that those of
large size are not exact, but he adds that he had seen some that were
three and one half palms in diameter, such as that which years ago
Aurelio Porcelaga sent to him to examine, printed in Germany, and given
to him by Monseigneur Granvella, to whom or to whose father, not
recalling which, it had been dedicated, but which he remembered was very
beautiful and very exact, being evidently engraved by one very expert,
judged by the beauty of the design and the artistic quality of the
letters.[280] Fiorini is of the opinion that these globes were
Mercator’s, and that they were carried into Italy in the late years of
the sixteenth century when a friendly relationship existed between
certain Italian princes and the Spanish authorities then ruling in

Attention has been called above to the acquisition by the Royal Library
of Brussels of a copy each of the terrestrial and the celestial globe
gores, and that the discovery of the same having created an especial
interest in his work, other examples were soon brought to light in
Italy, in Spain, in France, in Germany, and in Austria. A pair may be
found in the Muséum Astronomique of Paris, a pair in the Royal Library
of Vienna, a pair in the Germanisches National Museum in Nürnberg, a
pair in the archives of the town of St. Nicholas de Waes, a copy of the
terrestrial globe in the Grand Ducal Library of Weimar, a copy of the
celestial in the Convent of Adamont, Istria, and a copy of the
terrestrial in the Convent of Stams, Tyrol. Dr. Buonanno, director of
the Biblioteca Governativa of Cremona, in 1890 briefly described a pair
of Mercator’s globes belonging to that library, and what he was able to
learn as a result of their damaged condition of Mercator’s method of
construction is not without interest. He found that over a framework
composed of thin, narrow strips of wood had been pasted first a cloth
covering, over this a thin layer of plaster and that to this was added a
covering of a pastelike substance about six or seven millimeters in
thickness, consisting of plaster, wood fiber, or sawdust, and glue. On
this prepared surface had then been pasted the engraved gores. The
learned librarian’s conjecture as to the manner in which these globes
found their way into Italy, if correct, is of interest, pointing as it
does to the formation of a great art collection in that period. He
recalls that Caesar Speciano, Bishop of Cremona, had been sent in 1592
as nuncio to Germany, and that he had occasion, during his mission, to
attend to certain matters pertaining to the inheritance of William, Duke
of Cleves, in whose country there must still have existed the workshop
of Mercator. The opinion is expressed that on the return of the Bishop
to Italy he carried with him many books and art objects, which had come
into his hands either through purchase or through gift, and that the
same passed into the possession of the Cremona Library, a library
belonging to the Jesuits until the time of the suppression of that

The Biblioteca Municipale of Urbania possesses a pair of Mercator’s
globes of 1541 and 1551, which are reported to be in a fair state of
preservation. It is thought that they may have come into the library’s
collection through the last reigning member of the house, Duke Francesco

In the Museo Astronomico of Rome two copies of the terrestrial globe of
1541 may be found, and a copy of the celestial of the year 1551. These,
it will be seen from the reproduction (Fig. 62), are not in a good state
of preservation, although a very considerable portion of the map records
can be read.

[Illustration: Fig. 62. Terrestrial Globe of Gerhard Mercator, 1541.]

In addition to the globes of Mercator referred to above, it is known
that after taking up his residence in Duisburg he constructed a small
celestial globe of glass, on the surface of which he engraved with a
diamond the several constellations, and that he likewise constructed a
very small terrestrial globe of wood, apparently such as were later
called pocket globes, having all geographical records given as
accurately presented as on the larger globes.[283]

How great was the direct influence of Mercator on globe making
activities, it may not be easy to trace, but the evidence seems to be
conclusive, as Breusing has noted, that his should be counted the
greatest, among those active within this field, for fifty years and
more, following the issue of his first work in the year 1541. It is
among the Italian globe makers, and those in the peninsula interested in
such instruments, that we seem to find the first and most striking
evidence of his influence, which will be noted in the following pages.

Giovanni Gianelli of Cremona is referred to, by certain early Italian
writers, as a clock and globe maker of remarkable ability,[284] the
justice of which estimate is abundantly supported by the character of
the one example of his handiwork extant, belonging to the Biblioteca
Ambrosiana of Milan, to which it came from the collection of Canon
Manfred Settàla about the middle of the seventeenth century. This is an
armillary sphere of brass, the diameter of its largest or zodiacal
circle being 14 cm. This circle is graduated and has engraved on its
outer surface the names of the twelve constellations. It is likewise
provided with a graduated equatorial circle, with polar circles and
those representing the tropics. At the common center of the several
rings is a small ball, 5 cm. in diameter, which is made to serve as a
terrestrial globe. On one of the circles is the inscription “Janellus
MDXLIX Mediolani fecit,” and we further find inscribed the name
“Hermetis Delphini,” which perhaps tells us of a one-time possessor. In
a volume describing the museum of Canon Settàla, and issued in the year
1666, Gianelli and his work are thus referred to:

“To that great man Gianelli of Cremona there is due great honor, whose
personal qualities made him an especial favorite of His Catholic Majesty
Philip II. Among the many globes which he constructed our museum
possesses one of surpassing excellence, in that it exhibits, in addition
to other movements, that which astrologers call the movement of
trepidation, and which movement was set forth in theory by Thebit.”[285]

The Emperor Charles V, when in Pavia, we are told, had his attention
directed to an armillary sphere constructed by Dondi in the fourteenth
century. On finding this sphere much injured by rust and usage he called
upon Giovanni Gianelli to restore it, but it was reported to be beyond
repair. Thereupon the Emperor gave direction to have the sphere
reproduced, which, when completed, was carried by His Majesty to Spain.
No trace of this work by Gianelli can now be found.

Girolamo Fracastoro, a distinguished Italian physician, a famous man of
letters, and a great philosopher of the first half of the sixteenth
century, was also a skilful globe maker, as we learn from Ramusio,[286]
and from the sketch of his life which usually appears as an introduction
to his collected works.[287]

Vasari also gives us certain information concerning him, noting that he
assisted Francesco dai Libri in the construction of his large
globe,[288] and we are led to believe that he was often consulted as an
expert by globe makers of his day. While none of those he may have
constructed are extant, what is known of his interest in these aids to
geographical and astronomical studies entitles him here to a word of

Ramusio says[289] that on the occasion of a visit, with the architect
Michele S. Micheli, to the home of their common friend, Girolamo
Fracastoro, at Caffi, they found him in the company of a gentleman, a
very distinguished philosopher and mathematician, who was showing him an
instrument based on a newly found movement of the heavens; that after
they had considered for some time this new movement, they had brought
before them a large and very detailed globe of the entire world, and
about this the distinguished gentleman began to speak. Fiorini argues,
somewhat ingeniously, that this globe may have been one constructed by
Mercator in 1541, if not one by Libri, in the making of which Fracastoro
himself had assisted. The letters of Fracastoro assure us that he made
use of globes in his geographical and astronomical studies, and that
his friends did likewise. January 25, 1533, he wrote Ramusio, “If you
should chance to speak to that master who made your metal spheres, I
should like you to ascertain how much a simple but perfect one, one foot
in diameter, would cost.” Writing again to Ramusio January 10, 1534,
concerning the “Southern Cross,” he adds: “Just reflect a little, and if
you have not sent away the celestial globe, look at that Centaurus and
you will find all that I am writing to you. You might perhaps write
about these doubts to Mr. Oviedo, or perhaps I might; it would be a good
idea and we might ask him about the very prominent star in the right
foot to ascertain whether it is a separate star or is one of those in
the ‘Southern Cross.’” On the twenty-fifth of January, 1548, he again
wrote to Ramusio: “On my globe Zeilan is just below the Cape of Calicut,
on the equinoctial line, and it may be that which Jambolo discovered was
Zeilan or Taprobana; I am inclined to believe it was Taprobana.” His
letter of May 10, 1549, also to Ramusio, is of special interest,
indicating, as it does, his estimate of the value of terrestrial and
celestial globes in the study of astrology (astronomy) and geography.
“In regard to what you write me about M. Paolo, I thoroughly approve of
his taking up the sacred study of astrology and geography, subjects of
study for every learned gentleman and nobleman, as he would have as his
guide and teacher the very well-known Piedmontese to whom we owe so many
excellent things, but first I should advise you to have M. Paolo
construct two solid spheres. On one of these should be represented all
the celestial constellations, and the circles should all have their
place, that is to say, not as Ptolemy represents the stars as they were
located in his time, but according to the investigations of our own
times, that is, about twenty degrees further east. The other should be a
terrestrial globe constructed according to modern ideas, which he should
always follow in his studies. He will use the first globe for a thousand
and one things; it will be his guide by day and by night, and by making
use of the quadrant he will be able easily to locate the things to be
seen in the heavens. Then when he shall have been well started I want
that you should have him read that little book of mine on
homocentricity, wherein he will be able to learn what astrology is, but
for the present let him learn ordinary astrology which has been treated
in so barbarous a manner as to lose much of its dignity.” Writing again
from Verona January 21, 1550, to Paolo, after telling him what he should
point out to his father, he says: “You will tell him also that M.
Michele di San Michele has seen my globe and that he likes it.... When I
come I will make note of the principal places, for I desire very much to
verify them with the report of navigators telling what they have found,
concerning which matter, I think, no one knows more than you do, or
especially your distinguished father. As to the celestial sphere, I
should like very much to compare one I have with the one your father is
having made, that I may learn how the constellations compare, and how
many more of the fixed stars have been inserted. I have changed their
position twenty degrees. Whether he agrees with me or not I do not


[198] Harrisse. Discovery, p. 247.

[199] This is clearly recorded in such important maps as the
Cantino, Canerio, Waldseemüller, Schōner globe maps of
1515 and 1520, Boulengier gores, Liechtenstein gores, et al.

[200] Wieser, F. R. v. Die Karte des Bartolomeo Columbo über
die vierte Reise des Admirals. Innsbruck, 1893.

[201] See above, p. 88.

[202] A letter written by Maximilianus Transylvanus to the
Cardinal of Salzburg, dated Valladolid, October, 1522, and
published in Cologne in January, 1523, under the title ‘De
Molucca insulis ...,’ gave the first printed notice of
Magellan’s voyage. See Harrisse. B. A. V. Nos. 122, 123,
124. There are numerous editions of Antonio Pigafetta’s
account of the Magellan voyage, which account is the
principal original source of information concerning that
eventful circumnavigation. See J. A. Robertson (Ed.),
Pigafetta, Antonio. Magellan’s Voyage around the World.

[203] MacNutt, F. A. Letters of Cortes to Charles V. New
York, 1908. This English edition of the letters of Cortes
contains a brief biographical sketch with valuable notes.
Cortes, to the last, appears to have believed in the
existence of a strait through which one might find a shorter
way from Spain to the Indies of the East than was hitherto
known. Sanuto Livio. Geographia distincta. Venitia, 1588.
Argument against the idea of an Asiatic connection is
advanced by Sanuto on the ground that the natives were
frightened at Cortes’s horses. Asiatics were acquainted with
the horse.

[204] Estevan Gomes, who had sailed with Magellan, undertook
in 1524, under a royal commission, “the search for a new
route leading to Cathay between the land of Florida and the
Baccalaos,” says Peter Martyr. Decad VI, lib. x.

[205] In this volume, verso of seventh leaf, Franciscus
states that in attempting to prepare his description of a
globe, he had collected all the maps of the world he could
find. He especially commends one attributed to Maximilianus
Transylvanus, and although constructed with much skill, he
could not agree with its geographical representations,
admitting, however, that many did accept the same, but
objecting to the separation of Calvacania (Mexico) from the
eastern country because he believed it to be joined to the
kingdom of the Great Khan. See Harrisse. Discovery. pp. 281,

[206] Stevenson. Maps illustrating early discovery. No. 10
of this series is a reproduction of Maiollo’s map in the
size and in the colors of the original.

[207] Harrisse. Discovery. p. 546.

[208] Gallois, L. De Orontio Finaeo. Paris, 1890.

[209] Hakluyt, R. Discourse on Western Planting. Ed. by
Charles Deane, with introduction by Leonard Wood. (In: Maine
Historical Society, Collections, second series, ii, and
printed as Documentary History of the State of Maine. Vol.
II. Cambridge, 1877. Chap. XVII, §11, p. 116.)

In chapter 10 of the Discourse Hakluyt refers to the Locke
map and its configurations, which map clearly is a modified
reproduction of Verrazano’s map of 1529.

[210] Harrisse. Discovery. pp. 562-568.

[211] Nordenskiöld. Facsimile Atlas. p. 89. The author
reproduces the Finaeus map from a 1566 reprint, observing
that he was unable to locate a copy of the 1536 edition.

[212] Schefer, C. H. A. Le discours de la navigation de Jean
et Raoul Parmentier. Paris, 1883. p. ix. The citation is
from a contemporary source.

[213] Vasari, G. Lives of the painters. Tr. by Mrs. J.
Foster. London, 1850-1885. (In: Bohn Library, Vol. III, pp.

[214] Blau, M. Mémoires de la Société Royal de Nancy. Nancy,
1836. pp. xi-xiv, 107. An excellent reproduction of the
globe in hemispheres accompanies this article; Vincent, R.
P. Histoire de l’ancienne image miraculeuse de Nôtre-Dame de
Sion. Nancy, 1698. This work contains the first description
of the globe; De Costa, B. F. The Nancy Globe. (In: The
Magazine of American History. New York, 1881. pp. 183-187.)
A representation of the globe in hemispheres is presented
with this article, being a slightly reduced copy of the Blau
illustration; Nordenskiöld. Facsimile Atlas. p. 82; same,
Periplus, p. 159; Winsor. Narrative and Critical History.
Vol. II, p. 433, also Vol. III, p. 214; Compt-Rendu,
Congrès des Americanistes. Paris, 1877. p. 359.

[215] The probability is it was not originally constructed
for this purpose, although globe goblets were not uncommon
in this century. See below, p. 199.

[216] Quetelet, L. A. J. Histoire des sciences mathématiques
et physiques chez les Belges. Brussel, 1871, pp. 78 ff.;
Ruscelli, G. La Geografia di Claudio Tolomeo. p. 32, there
is reference to a “Globo, grande”; Kästner, Vol. II, pp. 579
ff.; Breusing, A. Leitfaden durch das Wiegenalter der
Kartographie bis zum Jahre 1600. Frankfurt, 1883. p. 32.

[217] This book appears to be one of the earliest works
treating of the scientific construction of globes, and of
the use of trigonometry in the preparation of the globe

[218] The representation closely resembles that given by
Schöner. See Fig. 54.

[219] Ruge, W. Ein Globus von Gemma Frisius. (In:
Internationaler Amerikanisten-Kongress, vierzehnte Tagung.
Stuttgart, 1904. pp. 3-10.)

[220] See below, p. 128, for the novelty introduced by
Mercator, in which he truncated the gores near the poles.

[221] Raemdonck, J. van. Gérard Mercator, sa vie et ses
oeuvres. St. Nicolas, 1869. p. 38.

[222] Nordenskiöld. Facsimile Atlas, pp. 87-90. On map
projection in general, see Wagner, H. Lehrbuch, der
Geographie. Leipzig, 1903. Chap. iv; Zondervan, H.
Allgemeine Kartenkunde. Leipzig, 1901. Chap. iii. See also
references below to Mercator’s world map of the year 1538,
p. 125.

[223] Harrisse, H. Un nouveau globe Verrazanien. (In: Revue
de Géographie. Paris, 1895. pp. 175-177.) An extensive
Verrazanian bibliography may be found in Phillips, P. L.
Descriptive list of maps of Spanish possessions in the
United States. Washington, 1912. pp. 39-40.

[224] See Stevenson reproduction, n. 9, above.

[225] See Stevenson reproduction, n. 9, above.

[226] See references to Ulpius below, p. 117.

[227] Compare this mounting with that of Schöner as seen in
Fig. 26.

[228] This is a tract of 44 pages.

[229] Schöner, J. Opera Mathematica. Norimbergae, 1551. See
p. 127 for what has been thought to be a representation of
Schöner’s terrestrial and celestial globes of 1533. It will
be noted that the maps in each of these globe pictures have
been reversed.

[230] See above, p. 96.

[231] Wieser. Magalhâes-Strasse. p. 76, and Tab. V, which is
a copy of the southern hemisphere; Harrisse. Discovery. pp.
592-594, and pl. XVII, which is a copy of the western
hemisphere; Santarem, V. de. Notice sur plusieurs monuments
géographiques inedits.... (In: Bulletin de la Société de
Géographie. Paris, 1847. p. 322.); Stevens, H. Notes. New
Haven, 1869. p. 19; Nordenskiöld. Facsimile Atlas, pp. 80,
83; Winsor. Narrative and Critical History. Vol. VIII, p.

[232] Harrisse. Discovery. p. 610.

[233] Harrisse. Discovery. p. 613, and pl. XXII, which is a
representation of the western hemisphere.

[234] Michow, H. Caspar Vopell ein Kölner Kartenzeichner des
16 Jahrhunderts mit 2 Tafeln und 4 Figuren. (In:
Hamburgische Festschrift zur Erinnerung an die Entdeckung
von Amerika. Hamburg, 1892. Vol. I, pt. 4.); Graf, J. H. Ein
Astrolabium mit Erdkugel aus dem Jahre 1545, von Kaspar
Volpellius. (In: Jahresbericht d. Geographischen
Gesellschaft zu München. 15 Heft, p. 228); Nordenskiöld, op.
cit., p. 83, and pl. XL, which gives a representation of the
globe of 1543, twelve gores in colors; Merlo, J. J.
Nachrichten vom Leben und den Werken Kölner Künstler, Köln,
1850. p. 493.

[235] Nordenskiöld, op. cit., pl. XLV.

[236] Korth, L. Die Kölner Globen des Kaspar Vopelius. (In:
Globus. Braunschweig, 1883. Vol. XLIV, pp. 62-63.)

[237] Described briefly by Michow, op. cit., p. 12.

[238] Letter of August 12, 1913.

[239] Described briefly by Michow, op. cit., p. 13.

[240] Described by Michow, op. cit., p. 14. Michow cites a
letter written by Postell to Abr. Ortelius, April 9, 1567,
in which the accusation is made against Vopel that merely to
please the Emperor Charles V he had joined America and Asia
in his globe map. In this letter the New World is called

[241] Such globes, it will be noted, represent the Ptolemaic

[242] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 214.

[243] Wieser, F. R. v. A. E. Nordenskiöld’s Facsimile Atlas.
(In: Petermanns Geographischen Mitteilungen. Gotha, 1890. p.

[244] Graf, op. cit., n. 37.

[245] Compare with that reproduced by Nordenskiöld, n. 38

[246] Günther. Erd- und Himmelsgloben. p. 57; Doppelmayr,
op. cit., p. 56. Hartmann was a noted manufacturer of globes
and mathematical instruments in Nürnberg. In his youth he
spent several years in Italy, probably in Venice.

[247] De Costa, B. F. The Globe of Ulpius. (In: Magazine of
American History. New York, 1879. pp. 17-35.) Accompanying
the article is a re-draughted representation of the western
hemisphere; same author. Verrazano the Explorer. New York,
1881. (In: Magazine of American History. New York, 1881. p.
64.); Winsor, op. cit., Vol. III, p. 214; Harrisse, H. Notes
sur la Nouvelle France. Paris, 1872. p. 222; Murphy, H. C.
Inquiry into the authenticity of Verrazano’s claims. New
York, 1903. p. 114.

[248] Thatcher, J. B. Christopher Columbus. New York, 1903.
Vol. II, pp. 93-209. In these pages may be found a critical
consideration of questions relating to the subject of the
Line of Demarcation. Linden, H. V. Alexander VI and the
demarcation of the maritime and colonial domains of Spain
and Portugal, 1493-1494. (In: American Historical Review.
1916. pp. 1-21.)

[249] Polidori, P. De vita gestis et moribus Marceli II,
Pontificis Maximi commentarius. Romae, 1744; Cordella, L.
Memorie storiche dei Cardinali della Sancta Romana Chiesa.
Roma, 1792. Vol. IV, p. 225.

Marcello Cervino was born in the year 1501. For his
attainments in the field of literature, Italian, Latin, and
Greek, in philosophy, jurisprudence, and mathematics he held
a place of great distinction among his contemporaries. In
the year 1539 he was made a cardinal prefect of the Vatican,
and the year 1555 he was elevated to the Papacy, but died
twenty-one days thereafter.

[250] Hall, E. H. Giovanni da Verrazano and his Discoveries
in North America. (In: Fifteenth Annual Report of the
American Scenic and Historical Preservation Society. New
York, 1910.)

There is an extensive Verrazano literature. The original
letter written by the explorer to Francis I of France, under
whose auspices he had sailed on his voyage of discovery in
the year 1524, seems to have been lost, but copies of the
same, it may have been with alterations, were sent to
Verrazano’s relatives and friends in Italy. Ramusio, in the
year 1556, and Hakluyt, in the year 1582, published one of
these copies, and it has since been frequently printed.

In addition to the above, there exists a manuscript copy,
sometimes referred to as the Florentine or Magliabechian
codex, a fragmentary copy in the Academy of Cimento, and a
manuscript copy recently discovered, which from the name of
its present owner may be called the Cellere codex. Hall has
printed the original document and has given an excellent
translation of the same.

[251] Tiraboschi. Storia. Tom. VII, pt. i, p. 205.

[252] Fiorini, op. cit., p. 117.

[253] Navarrete, M. F. de. Noticia biografia de Alonso de
Santa Cruz. Madrid, 1835. Reprinted in his Opúsculos. Tom.
II; Nicolao, A. Biblioteca Hispana. Romae, 1672. Tom, I, p.
37; Harrisse. Discovery, p. 736; also in his Jean et
Sébastian Cabot, p. 173; Espada, J. de la. Relaciones
geograficas de Indias, publicalas el Ministerio de Fomento
Perú. Madrid, 1885. Tom. II, p. xxi; pp. xxx-xxxvi.

In the second reference is a reprint of an inventory, made
at the time of the death of Santa Cruz, of his collection of
maps, pictures, and manuscripts and especially referred to
in the receipt given by Juan Lopez, his successor as Royal
Cosmographer, mention being made of no less than
eighty-seven items.

[254] He seems to have produced nothing of special
importance in his capacity as “Historicus Regius,” giving,
however, some attention to the subjects of heraldry, and
genealogy. The question of the determination of longitude
interested him, and there is still preserved, in the Royal
Library of Madrid, his manuscript bearing the title “Libro
de las longitudes y manera que hasta ago se ha tenido en el
arte de navegar con sus demonstraciones y examplos.” At the
time of his death there was also left a paper in manuscript,
treating of the subject of longitude, which probably
contains a summary of suggestions made to the Junta in
Sevilla in the year 1536 “sobre la orden que se ha tenido en
el dar de la longitud.”

[255] Wieser, F. R. v. Die Karten von Amerika in den Islario
General des Alonso de Santa Cruz Cosmografo Mayor des
Kaisers Karl V, mit der spanischen original Texte und einer
Kritischen Einleitung. Innsbruck, 1908. This work was
reviewed by Stevenson, E. L. (In: American Historical
Review. 1910. pp. 392-394.)

[256] Catalogue Général des Manuscrits des Bibliothèques
Publiques de France. Department Tom. XXXII. Paris, 1897. p.
399; Harrisse. Discovery. p. 621.

[257] Schuller, R. R. Arcerca del “Yslario General” de
Alonso de Santa Cruz. London, 1913. (In: Proceedings of the
XVIII Session of the International Congress of Americanists.
London, 1913. Vol. II, pp. 415-432.); Islario general de
todas las islas del mundo dirigido á la S. C. R. M. del rey
don Phelipe miestro Señor por Alᵒ de Santa Cruz su
cosmographo mayor, con grabados en el texto y varias
láminas. (In: Boletin de la Sociedad Geografica de Madrid.
Madrid, 1918, 1919.)

[258] Harrisse. Discovery. p. 624; Nordenskiöld, Facsimile
Atlas, p. 109, gives an excellent reproduction of this map.

[259] Dahlgren, E. W. Map of the World by Alonzo de Santa
Cruz, 1542. Stockholm, 1892. Dahlgren has given us an
excellent facsimile of this map, with critical text
including a summary of the work of Santa Cruz and a list of
the names on the map.

[260] See p. 150.

[261] Raemdonck, J. v. Gérard Mercator, sa vie et ses
oeuvres. St. Nicolas, 1869; Wauvermans, H. E. Histoire de
l’école cartographique belge et anveroise au XVI siècle.
Anvers, 1895. Vol. II, pp. 37-109; 174-213; Breusing, A.
Gerhard Kremer, genannt Mercator, der deutsche Geograph.
Duisbourg, 1869; Raemdonck, J. van. Gérard de Cremer ou
Mercator, Géographe Flamand. Réponse à la Conférence du Dr.
Breusing, tenue à Duisbourg le 30 mars, 1869. St. Nicolas,
1870; Hall, E. H. Gérard Mercator, his Life and Work. New
York, 1878. pp. 163-196.

[262] The University Library is reported to have possessed
many of the original Mercator manuscripts. One cannot at
present tell the fate of these manuscripts. They may have
been destroyed at the time of the recent German invasion, or
have been carried away with other material by the
booty-loving invaders.

[263] See p. 102.

[264] Raemdonck, J. v. La Géographie ancienne de la
Palestine. Lettre de Gérard Mercator, mai 22, 1567. St.
Nicolas, 1884. This map of Palestine, published in large
folio size, was dedicated to François Craneveld, Counseiller
to the Grand-Conseil of Malines, and published at Louvain in
the year 1537. A copy of this cannot now be located.

[265] Raemdonck, J. v. De groote kaart van Vlaanderen
vervaardidg in 1540 door G. Mercator, bij middel van
lichtdruk weergeg, naar het ex. behoorende aan het Museum
Plantin-Moretus ... en voorzien met eens verklarende
inleiding. Antwerp, 1882. This map, in four sheets,
measuring 110 by 80.6 cm., was dedicated to Charles V and
published at Louvain.

[266] Raemdonck, J. v. Orbis Imago. Mappemonde de Gérard
Mercator. St. Nicolas, 1882. (In: Annales du Cercle
Archéologique du Pays de Waes. St. Nicolas, 1882. Tom. X,
4ᵐᵋ Livr.)

On the title-page of a separate of this article we read
“Notice publiée à l’occasion de la reproduction par la
phototypie du seul exemplaire connu de la susdite mappemonde
conserve par la Société de géographie d’Amérique, à
New-York, reproduction due à la sollicitude éclairée et
généreuse de cette même société.” “Seul exemplaire connu” is
not correct. A fine example of the original 1538 edition may
be found in the New York Public Library.

In addition to the reproduction prepared by The American
Geographical Society a fine facsimile may be found in
Nordenskiöld. Facsimile Atlas. pl. XLIII; also by Lafrere
about 1560.

A comparison with the Orontius Finaeus double cordiform map
of the year 1531 is interesting. It has been stated that
Mercator copied the work of Finaeus. The projections appear
to be practically identical, but it will be noted that
Mercator represents the New World as independent of the Old
World, whereas Finaeus represents the Asiatic connection.
Fiorini, M. Le projezioni cordiformi nella cartografia.
Rome, 1889. (In: Boll. della Società Geografica Italiana.
Roma, 1889.)

[267] See p. 76.

[268] Heyer, A. Drei Mercatorkarten in der Breslauer
Stadtbibliothek. (In: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche
Geographie. Weimar, 1890. pp. 379-389; 474-487; 507-528.);
Drei Karten von Gerhard Mercator, Europa, Britische Inseln,
Weltkarte. Facsimile-Lichtdruck nach den Originalen der
Stadtbibliothek zu Breslau. Herausgegeben von der
Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin. 41 Tafeln. Berlin,
1891. With title “Europae descriptio.”

The map of Europe in six sheets, four of which were engraved
at Louvain and two at Duisbourg, was dedicated to Antoine
Perrenot, Bishop of Arras, and published at Duisbourg in the
year 1554. The only original example now known is that
belonging to the Breslau Library.

[269] This map with title “Britannicarum insularum
descriptio” was published at Duisbourg in the year 1564.
Reproduction of the only known original example noted in n.

[270] This was prepared with great care and offered in
person by Mercator to Duke Charles of Lorraine at Nancy.
Apparently no original copy is in existence.

[271] Raemdonck. Orbis Imago; Breusing, A. Das Verebnen der
Kugeloberfläche. Bremen, 1893. pp. 31-48; Steinhauser, A.
Stabius redivivus, eine Reliquie aus dem 16 Jahrhundert.
(In: Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Geographie. Wien,
1885. pp. 289-291.); D’Avezac, M. A. P. de. Coup d’oeil
historique sur la projection des cartes de géographie.
Paris, 1875. (In: Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de
Paris. Paris, 1865. Tom. V.); Wright, E. The correction of
certain errors in navigation. London, 1599.

There may be found numerous references to the principle
underlying the Mercator projection. See in addition to above
references Wagner, op. cit.; Zondervand, op. cit.; Hall, op.
cit., each with noted citations.

This map, with title “Nova et aucta orbis terrae descriptio
ad usum navigantium emendate accommodata,” was dedicated to
Duke William of Cleves, and was published at Duisbourg in
the year 1569. Original copies may be found in the
Bibliothèque Nationale, and in the Stadtbibliothek of
Breslau, the former reproduced by Jomard, the latter as
noted in n. 71. A long inscription on the map explains the
principle of the new projection and its use for navigation.

[272] Raemdonck, J. van. Les sphères terrestre et céleste de
Gérard Mercator (1541-1551). Notice publiée a l’occasion de
la reproduction de ces sphères a l’aide de facsimilé de
leurs fuseaux origineaux, gravés par Mercator et conservés a
la Bibliothèque Royale a Bruxelles. St. Nicolas, 1875;
Fiorini M. Globi di Gerardo Mercatore in Italia. Rome, 1890.
(In: Bollitino della Societe Geografica Italiana. Roma,
1890.); Breusing. Gerhard Kremer, p. 9. Gérard Mercator,
p. 9.

This author writes: “Auch seine mechanischen Arbeiten hatten
bei den Männern der Wissenschaft eine so günstige Aufnahme
gefunden, dass er dadurch ermutigt wurde, sich an ein
grösseres Werk, einen Erdglobus, zu machen, den er nach
anderthalbjähriger Arbeit im Jahre 1541 vollendete und dem
kaiserlichen Geheimrate und Reichssiegelbewahrer Granvella
widmete. Und wenn Ruscelli uns erzähle, er habe mit Staunen
einen herrlichen Globus von drei und halben Palme im
Durchmesser betrachten müssen, der von deutscher Arbeit und
Granvella gewidmet gewesen sei und an Schönheit der
Zeichnung und Schrift alles früher Geleistete übertreffe, so
ist wohl kaum ein Zweifel, dass dies der fragliche Globus
Mercators gewesen ist. Ich will hier gleich hinzufügen, dass
im ganzen XVI Jahrhundert, wenn von ausgezeichneten Globen
die Rede ist, diejenigen Mercators immer als die besten
genannt werden.”

[273] Günther, S. Geschichte der loxodromischen Kurve.
Halle, 1879. (In: Studien zur Geschichte der mathematischen
und physikalischen Geographie. Halle, 1879. Heft 6.);
Grünert, J. A. Loxodromische Trigonometrie. Leipzig, 1869;
Hues, R. Tractatus de globis; Markham, Ed. See pp. 127-147.

[274] This was edited by Van Raemdonck and published at St.
Nicolas, 1888.

[275] Ghymmius, op. cit. Caput decimum, Gerardi Mercatoris
De mundi creatione ac fabrica; Raynaud, A. Le Continent
Austral, hypothèses et découvertes. Paris, 1893; Wieser,
Magalhâes-Strasse, Chap. VI, with references.

[276] See references in n. 75.

[277] Baily, F. The Catalogues of Ptolemy, Ulug Beigh, Tycho
Brahe, Halley, Hevelius, deduced from the best authorities.
London, 1843. Consult for lists of the several

[278] See a reference to the sale of Mercator globes. (In:
Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Geographie, I Jahrgang, p.

[279] Blundeville, T. Exercises, pp. 204-243.

[280] Ruscelli, op. cit., Cap. IV.

[281] Fiorini. Sfere terrestre et celeste, p. 144.

[282] Fiorini. Sfere, etc. p. 140.

[283] Mercator, G. Declaratio insigniorum utilitatum. St.
Nicolas, 1888. Ed. by Raemdonck, J. v.

[284] Sacco, B. De italicarum rerum varietate et elegantia.
Papiae, 1565, lib. x, fol. 76.

[285] Thebit, an Arabic astronomer, to whom reference is
here made, lived in the latter part of the ninth century. He
was chiefly distinguished for his revision of the

[286] Ramusio, G. B. Navigationi et Viaggi. Vol. III.

[287] Hieronymi Fracastorii Veronensis opera omnia. The
biography is thought to have been written by Adamo Fumano.

[288] See above, p. 100.

[289] Ramusio, op. cit., Vol. I.

[Illustration: Portuguese Arms]

Chapter VIII

Globes and Globe Makers of the Third Quarter of the Sixteenth Century

  Revival of interest in globe making in Italy.—François De
  Mongenet of France and the reprint of his globe maps in
  Italy.—Gore map of Antonius Florianus.—Globe records
  left by Alessandro Piccolomini.—Ruscelli’s directions for
  globe construction.—Reference to the work of Sanuto and
  Gonzaga.—Armillary sphere of Volpaja.—Excellent
  workmanship in the celestial-terrestrial globe of
  Christian Heyden.—Metal globes of Johannes
  Praetorius.—Vasari’s reference to the work of Ignazio
  Danti.—The iron globe of Francisco Basso.—Armillary
  sphere of Giovanni Barrocci.—The work of Hieronymo de
  Boncompagni.—Emanuele Filiberto.—Anonymous globe of
  1575.—Laurentian armillary spheres.—Small globes of the
  Biblioteca Nationale of Florence.—Mario Cartaro.

Among those interested in map and globe making, in the third quarter of
the sixteenth century, none seems to have surpassed the Italians. In the
art of map engraving they attained to a high degree of merit, and much
of the finest work of the middle of the century is the product of the
peninsula. With few exceptions it is the Italians who hold the field in
this line of scientific activity. There can undoubtedly be traced here
the influence of Mercator, but there appear to have been not a few who
worked on what might be called independent lines. The interest of
illustrious personages in the construction and the possession of globes
prompted activity in this field. While the number extant, of those
manufactured in this period, is not large, there are not a few
references in letters and in scientific works assuring us of the
construction of many which cannot now be traced.

We may call attention first to François De Mongenet, who appears to have
been a native of Franche-Comté and well known in his day as a globe
maker. He was, however, quite forgotten until a few years since, when a
copy each of his terrestrial and celestial globe gores was purchased by
the antiquarian Rosenthal of Munich,[290] and sold to Mr. Kalbfleisch of
New York, from whose collection they passed into the possession of the
New York Public Library. Since this discovery of De Mongenet’s
interesting work, a number of copies of the same or of subsequent
editions have come to light, both of the terrestrial and of the
celestial globe, some of which copies are mounted, some remain
unmounted, some are of his first edition of the year 1552, others are of
the second edition, undated, somewhat altered, and printed in Italy. All
of his globes are of small size, having each a diameter of about 85 mm.

De Mongenet was born at Vesoul in France, and in the university of his
town he studied medicine, mathematics, and probably geography or
cosmography. There seems to be but little known concerning the family to
which François belonged, but such details as it was possible to gather
Marcel brought together in a carefully prepared paper.[291] This author
thinks it probable that he could be counted among the circle of learned
and distinguished men whom Granvella was accustomed to bring together in
his palace at Besançon on frequent occasions during the five years he
passed in that city after he had given over his administration of the
Netherlands. If true, there may here be found a connecting link between
De Mongenet and Mercator, remembering that the latter dedicated his
globe of 1541 to the father of the distinguished cardinal
statesman.[292] The suggestion of Mercator’s influence on De Mongenet
appears quite evident on a comparison of the outlines of their globe

The Lenox copy of the terrestrial gores (Fig. 63) is dedicated to
“Eximio Viro: D:I:P:A Monte Maiore,” while the celestial gores (Fig. 64)
carry the dedication “Eximio Viro D. Gabrieli a Tiesbach.” Marcel is of
the opinion that the dedication of the first to “Monte Maiore” refers to
a prelate of the illustrious house of Granmont, whose name in the
sixteenth century was often spelled Grandmont, and that Gabrieli
Tiesbach (Diesbach) belonged to a family of Besançon, originally from
Freiburg, and that he was a knight of St. George. The author and date
legend of the first reads “Faciebat Franciscus De Mongenet anno 1552,”
while that of the second reads “Elaborabat Franciscus De Mongenet. Anno
1552.” The gores of each map as printed measure from pole to pole 13.7
cm., the length of the equatorial line being 27.5 cm. Around each set
there is a narrow black border. A zodiacal circle is likewise printed on
the first sheet 5 cm. in width, and of sufficient length to encompass
the gores when mounted, being divided into twelve parts, in which, in
regular order, are the figures of the twelve zodiacal constellations.
With but few exceptions the several inscriptions are in small capitals,
and are well executed.

[Illustration: Fig. 63. Terrestrial Globe Gores of François de Mongenet,

[Illustration: Fig. 64. Celestial Globe Gores of François de Mongenet,

The draughtsmanship which the terrestrial map exhibits in all parts, as
well as that exhibited by the celestial, displays skill of very
considerable merit. The general outline of the New World’s coasts is
quite as well done as on any of the maps of the day, the Pacific coast
line of North America sweeping in a great curve northward and
northeastward, while a great broad stretch of ocean separates the
continent from Asia. In North America we find only the inscriptions
“Hispania maior” and “baccalea.” South America bears the inscription
“America,” so extended as to cover the continent. The names of
geographical localities are comparatively few, the size of the globe
making it impossible to insert many details.

On a second pair of De Mongenet’s globes, referred to by Marcel, the
dedications and inscriptions differ slightly from those given above.
On the terrestrial gores we find “Illustr. Ac Rever. D. D. CL. A. Bauma
Arch. Bis.,” and the signature, “Elaborabat Francis. De Mongenet. V. E.
V.” On the celestial gores we read “Illustr. Ac Rever. D. D. CL. A.
Bauma Arch. Bis. E. V.,” the signature “Elaborabat Franciscus De.
Mongenet. V.,” and the privilege “Cum privilegio Pont. Max. Sqe. Ven.”
Citing again Marcel’s opinion, the Claudio de la Baume referred to was
Archbishop of Besançon, and the letter “V” placed after the name of the
globe maker doubtless refers to Vesoul, his birthplace; the letters “E.
V.” may stand either for “Excusum Venetiis,” indicating the city in
which the work was done, or for “Enea Vico,” the name of the actual
engraver of the gores, who is known as having been at that time an
engraver of medals, being now especially remembered for his medals of
the first twelve Emperors of Rome.[293]

The gores of the first edition were printed from engraved wooden blocks;
the second were printed from engraved copper plates which exhibit a very
superior workmanship, and it is to be noted that many more names appear
on the terrestrial gores than on those of the first edition. Ruscelli,
in his edition of Ptolemy of 1561, makes mention of “a little globe,
published lately by Francesco Mongonetto Borgonone,”[294] which allusion
would seem to indicate a reference to the second edition and to its
issue near 1561. Although this second edition contains more names than
does the first, it gives little indication that the author had knowledge
of discoveries subsequent to the first edition. Like Mercator he
represents North America as separated from Asia, as before noted, by a
wide expanse of ocean, to which no name has been given, and like
Mercator he lays down a large austral continent. His globes could hardly
have been received with as much favor as were those by his Flemish
contemporary, since they were so small as to appear like mere

Of the first edition, other than those gores to be found in the New
York Public Library, a set of the terrestrial and the celestial gores is
in the British Museum, and of the terrestrial in the Germanisches
Nationalmuseum of Nürnberg.

Of the second edition, copies of the unmounted gores may be found in the
Bibliothèque Nationale, in the British Museum, in the private library of
Prince Trivulzio of Milan. A mounted pair of the second edition may be
found in the Osservatorio Astronomico of Rome (Fig. 65), and in addition
a second example of the celestial globe, which is described as having
excellent mountings of brass, so arranged as to make possible a
revolution of the globe both on an equatorial axis and an axis of the
ecliptic. Its horizon circle is supported by two brass semicircles, the
whole resting on four wooden columns of modern construction, and these
in turn resting on representations of lion’s paws in bronze. An example
of the mounted terrestrial globe is said to belong to the collection of
Sr. Bazolle of Belluno, which example once belonged to the Counts of

[Illustration: Fig. 65. Globes of François de Mongenet, 1560, and of
Gian Francesco Costa, 1784.]

Attention has been called to the peculiar gore map of Santa Cruz,[295]
and to the fact that his method of construction seems not to have won
favor. We, however, find among the map makers of Italy, in the period of
which we are now speaking, one Antonius Florianus,[296] who, if not
copying the plan of Santa Cruz, followed closely his scheme. His map, of
which numerous copies are known (Fig. 66), seems to have been prepared
for mounting on a ball, although no such mounted example can now be
located. With the poles as centers, and with a radius equal to one
quarter of the circumference of the sphere he proposed to construct, he
drew his equatorial circles, which thus gave him two hemispheres,
respectively, a northern and a southern; in the same manner he drew his
parallels at intervals of ten degrees, using for each the common polar
centers. In each of the hemispheres he drew thirty-six sectors, each
sector being made to represent ten degrees of longitude, and they were
so shaped mathematically that their combined width at the equator
would equal the circumference of the sphere of which the selected
radius, referred to above, represented one quarter of that
circumference. When prepared for mounting, the vacant space between the
several sectors could be cut away, leaving the thirty-six engraved
sectors, on which the world map appeared, to be pasted on the surface of
the sphere. The scheme which Florianus devised was practically that
employed by Werner in his equivalent cordiform projection, and likewise
that of Finaeus and Mercator.[297]

[Illustration: Fig. 66. Globe Gores of Antonius Florianus, 1555.]

It was the eighteenth of January, in the year 1555, that Florianus
obtained a copyright from the Venetian senate for his map,[298] but it
is probable he died before the map appeared in print, since there is
evidence of incompleteness in the known copies. In the spaces, with
artistic borders, which had been designed for inscriptions, nothing
appears, and in but two of the four cartouches evidently intended for
portraits do such portraits appear, viz., that of Ptolemy and of the
author himself.

The geographical outlines of the map closely resemble those of De
Mongenet, as well as those of Mercator. North America is given
practically the same shape. The great expanse of ocean lying between
this continent and Asia is called “Oceanus orientalis indicus,” and
midway between the continents, in latitude 45 degrees, is “Sipango.”
North America is called “Americae,” also “Hispania maior,” while South
America is likewise called “Americae.” The great austral land is
represented but is unnamed. The whole is indeed a fine example of
Italian copper engraving.

Numerous copies of Florianus’ map are known. It usually appears in the
Lafreri collection, and Fiorini notes that copies may be found in the
Archivo di State of Turin, in the Marciana of Venice, in the Biblioteca
Vittorio Emanuele of Rome, in the Biblioteca Comunale of Treviso, in the
private library of Professor Marinelli of Florence, in the British
Museum, in the private library of Nordenskiöld. To the above may be
added the New York Public Library, the Library of Congress, and the
Harvard Library, which likewise possess copies.

Among the numerous references appearing here and there in the literature
of Italy, assuring us of the interest in that country in globe
construction, reference may be made to the record left by Alessandro
Piccolomini, a native of Siena, and author of a work on the extent of
the land and water,[299] who, in the preparation of his work, made
extensive study of the records to be found in plane maps and globes. In
his work published in Venice in the year 1558, though his dedication to
M. Jacomo Cocco, Archbishop of Corfu, reads August 28, 1557, “Della mia
casa di S. Giorgio, di Siena, il di XXVIII di Agosto MDLVII,” he tells
of several globes which it had been his privilege to examine. “I have
zealously examined geographical maps, both plain and spherical, and
especially those which are reputed to be most faithful, for example,
among others, a solid terrestrial sphere shown me by Cardinal
Viseo.[300] Another I saw at the home of the Cardinal of Carpi,[301]
exhibiting mountain elevations in a new and excellent manner, and still
another much larger kept at present at the home of Cardinal of
Urbino.[302] There is also a globe having a diameter of about an arm’s
length, which I saw two years since at the home of the Archbishop of
Corfu, and still another I have recently seen about the same size or
about one arm’s length in diameter, which had been presented to His
Excellency the Duke of Paliano.” He adds that he had made careful
geographical computations in his investigations, employing the
last-named sphere. As to his method of procedure in his studies he
states that “first of all having placed before me a solid sphere of
about three feet in diameter, the most exact I have been able to find
among those referred to above, namely, the one with the equinoctial
circle and with the meridian passing through the Canaries of the
Fortunate islands where Ptolemy located the prime meridian, I have
divided it into four equal parts—two northern and two southern.” It
seems probable that the globe here referred to is that which he stated
belonged to the Cardinal of Urbino, and which he noted was larger than
was that belonging to Cardinal Viseo or to the Cardinal of Carpi, the
diameter of which he stated to be an arm’s length. Piccolomini gives us
no intimation as to the authorship of the five globes he says he
examined. He adds an interesting word concerning the character of the
globe of Cardinal Carpi, seeming to imply that it was not a printed
globe, since it represented “mountain elevations.” We perhaps are
justified, says Fiorini, in concluding from this and other evidence that
the maps on these globes were not printed, since they were of very large
size, and we know that Mercator’s globes 41 cm. in diameter were then
considered to have special value because larger than others constructed
in a similar manner, that is, having their maps engraved or printed.

We may here again refer to Ruscelli’s directions for globe
construction,[303] to which he added certain suggestions for globe
adornment, that they might appeal to princes and nobles. “Globes of
copper, bronze or silver,” he says, “such as princes would desire to
possess, to be fine, durable and rare should be plated, that is, the
circles, the letters, the outlines of the countries should first be
engraved and then there should be added gold or silver plating.” “A
generous prince,” he adds, “could have them made in Asimino or Tausia
style, as they say, that is, have the copper surface engraved, and the
grooves filled with silver or gold thread. By forcing this in the work
can be made very strong.” He states in one of his chapters that globes
so constructed are usually small, but he adds that he had seen globes
three and a half palms in diameter, such as that sent to him by Zurelio
Porcelaga. Of this last he speaks in words of praise, passing on to
refer to two large ones then under construction in Venice. “One of
these,” he says, “is of copper being made by Giulio Sanuto, which it is
hoped will be one of the best as one of the most beautiful of any
constructed up to the present time.” The implication seems to be, from
the words of Ruscelli, that at least some part of the printing was to be
made directly on the surface of the sphere. Further information given by
Ruscelli touching Sanuto and Gonzaga in this connection is here of
interest. He states “besides the fact that Giulio Sanuto is very skilful
in drawing and engraving, especially in geographical maps of the world
and its parts, he is, in this task, being aided by Livio Sanuto,[304] a
Venetian nobleman, his brother, among whose many good qualities he
possesses to a degree above the ordinary, are his attainments in the
profession of geography. Both are giving so much attention to this globe
that it is expected, in both matter and form, it will be perfect.
Another globe three arm’s length in diameter has, since last year, been
begun by Curtio Gonzaga, which he intends shall contain all of those
things that Taisnero has included in his globe as well as many other
things that the said gentleman intends to add, hoping to make one of the
most beautiful and perfect spheres to be seen for many years to come.
This can easily be believed, for he will do everything himself, and as
the greater diligence will thus be exercised we will have all of the
advantages of his great knowledge of geography, to which subject as
ever, he is giving all of his attention, and the advantage of his great
skill in lettering and designing.”[305]

Ruscelli maintained that globes are preferable to ordinary maps in
geographical studies, stating that “although maps of three or four arm’s
length and width are to be found they are not numerous and are not of
great value, and furthermore we have globes, which, in extent of space
exhibited, surpass them. Granting that some Princes and certain others
do have maps very large, as for example, such as Pope Paul II had made
for the palace of S. Marco in Rome, there are also Princes and private
persons who have globes which in size much surpass the plane maps that
I have ever seen or heard of.” “Until a few years since no one knew how
to print such globes, and all were made with pen and brush, ... later
geniuses have found a way for printing globe maps very accurately,
which, in a wonderful way they can place over the surface of a sphere; a
way has also been found for making the spheres round and exact, and a
method for computing measurements for the coverings to fit the sphere,
and for the construction of such other things as belong thereto.”[306]

The Volpaja family of Florence achieved considerable distinction in the
late fifteenth and in the sixteenth century, through those members who
were interested in the construction of astronomical instruments and
particularly in armillary spheres. Vasari tells us that “in the chapel
of Santa Trinita, in fresco, is a picture of the Magnificent Lorenzo de’
Medici, father of Pope Leo X.... In the same picture is Lorenzo della
Volpaja, a most excellent master in the art of making watches, and a
distinguished astrologer, by whom a most beautiful clock was made for
Lorenzo de’ Medici, which the most illustrious Duke Cosimo now has in
his palace, and wherein all of the movements of the planets are
perpetually shown by means of wheels, a very rare thing, and the first
that was made in that manner.”[307]

At the time of its founding there came to the Museo di Strumenti Antichi
di Astronomia e di Fisica of Florence a fine armillary sphere inscribed
“Hieronimus Camilli Vulpariae Florent: fe: 1557.” It is of gilded metal,
having five spheres or rings ranging from 60 to 75 mm. in diameter, and
in addition eighteen circles, including polar, tropical, and equatorial
circles with meridian and horizon, the latter having a diameter of 144
mm. Further information recorded by Fiorini tells us that it is mounted
on a wooden base.[308] On the equatorial circle of the smallest sphere
is engraved “Deferens Augiem,” on the next, “Deferens Epiciculum,” on
the third, “Deferens Augiem,” on the fourth, “Deferens Dragonem.” The
fifth sphere is composed of six large circles and four small ones. The
circles which represent the meridians, the equator, the ecliptic, and
the horizon are graduated, while on the ecliptic appear the names of the
twelve zodiacal constellations, and on the horizon the names of the
principal winds or directions. This globe is referred to as one of
special interest because of its peculiar and somewhat complicated
construction; it is mounted on a wooden base, which is more modern than
the globe proper, and in many parts gives evidence of restoration.

In the same museum there is a second armillary sphere constructed by a
member of the Volpaja family, perhaps by the same one who constructed
the preceding. It is inscribed “Hieronimus Vulpariae Florentius Fe.
A.D.MDLXIIII” and was a gift to the museum by the Grand Duke Leopold I.
The diameter of its horizon circle, including the attached parts, is 41
cm., and its height, including its base, 76 cm. It has been described as
follows: “An armillary sphere, the armillae of which are of gilded
brass. The small globe within the circles representing the earth is of
the clearest crystal. The horizon is of gilded brass and rests on a
branched support ornamented with human heads in relief. The lower part
of the branches is attached to a base resting on three lion’s paws. The
branches, the heads, the base, and the paws are all of brass. In the
northern and southern sections of the horizon there are attachments
containing receptacles for holding the magnetic needle, but which needle
in both places is wanting. The equator, the tropics, and the polar
circles are not zones but are triangular prisms bent in the form of
circles. Furthermore a part of the ecliptic, that is to say, one of its
zones, is of gilded brass and is graduated, and shows the names of the
months and the signs of the zodiac. The diameter of the sphere is 12.6
pollici (inches?).”[309]

There is to be found in the Mathematical Salon of Dresden a fine example
of the work of Christian Heyden (1525-1576), son of a rector of the St.
Sebaldus School of Nürnberg. Doppelmayr[310] tells us that after years
of study in Leipzig and Wittenberg, he returned to his native city,
became interested in making mathematical instruments, and in 1564 he was
appointed to a professorship of mathematics in the famous Nürnberg
gymnasium. His biographer does not refer to his activity as a globe
maker, but tells us that about the year 1570 he constructed for the
Emperor Maximilian II a mechanical device for illustrating the movement
of the sun and the moon, which instrument, he notes, especially
interested the noted Frenchman, Petrus Ramus, who carefully examined it
on the occasion of a visit to Nürnberg. The Dresden example of his work
(Fig. 67), the only example known, consists of a brass celestial globe
encased in a covering of brass, on the surface of which is engraved a
terrestrial map. It has a diameter of 72 cm., the whole being furnished
with a horizon, a meridian, and an hour circle. This is indeed a choice
specimen of a sixteenth-century engraved metal globe, of which we have
numerous examples, but it is rather an ornamental piece than one of
great scientific value.

[Illustration: Fig. 67. Globe of Christian Heyden, 1560.]

Doppelmayr likewise gives us a brief biographical note referring to one
Johannes Praetorius, a globe maker, born at Joachimsthal in the year
1537.[311] After a considerable period of study, chiefly at Wittenberg,
where he turned his attention to the philosophical and mathematical
sciences, he took up a residence in Nürnberg in the year 1562. Here he
became interested in the construction of mechanical and astronomical
instruments, and soon won the favor of the Emperor Maximilian II, which
favor he enjoyed to the end of that Emperor’s reign. It was about the
year 1576 that he became a professor of mathematics at Altdorf, where he
died in the year 1616. Doppelmayr refers to a number of the mathematical
and astronomical instruments constructed by him, noting that in the year
1566 he completed two globes of metal richly gilded, each having a
diameter of 11¼ inches, that each was furnished with an hour circle,
a movable quadrant and semicircles, and that a compass was set in the
base of each. We learn also from the same biographer that in the year
1568 he completed a brass astrolabe having a diameter of “one schuh”
(foot?), three and one half inches, and that it was supplied with all
parts essential to a complete apparatus of its character. We are further
informed that shortly after the beginning of his career in Altdorf he
undertook the construction of a large celestial globe of wood and paper,
having a diameter of four Nürnberg feet, that he was assisted in this
work by the artist and draughtsman, Christopher Heinrichs, and that on
the surface of the sphere one thousand six hundred and fifty stars were
indicated with appropriate accompanying inscriptions.

Two pairs of Praetorius’ globes are now known, one pair in the
Mathematical Salon of Dresden (Fig. 68),[312] and the other in the
Germanisches National Museum of Nürnberg. These globes are of brass,
each having a diameter of 28 cm.; each is supplied with meridian,
horizon, and hour circles and rests on a tripod base. They are richly
engraved pieces, the terrestrial example being remarkably well
preserved, the celestial being slightly injured, through rubbing which
has removed parts of certain figures of the constellations.

[Illustration: Fig. 68. Globe of Johannes Praetorius, 1566.]

Among those Italians who, in the sixteenth century, acquired
well-merited fame as globe makers may be mentioned Ignazio Danti
(1536-1586),[313] known as Pellegrino before he entered the order of the
preaching friars in his nineteenth year. The name Danti appears to have
been given him chiefly on account of his great learning, particularly in
the field of mathematics and astronomy. In the same branches of science
his father had achieved distinction, and likewise his grandfather,
Vicenzo de Rinaldi, who, in the year 1571, issued a translation of the
‘Sfera’ of Sacrobosco, and who constructed, as we are told, an astrolabe
and an armillary sphere.[314] It seems to have been early in the year
1563 that Danti was called to Florence by Duke Cosimo for the purpose
of constructing, under his patronage, nautical and astronomical
instruments and geographical maps. Of his work which is still known to
us there may be first mentioned an astronomical quadrant placed on the
façade of the church of Santa Maria Novella, and an equinoctial armilla
placed within the same church. We have first mention in Vasari’s ‘Lives’
of the globe and map work of his which especially concerns us here. It
is an interesting account of his activity in this field, an account
worthy of citation. “Fra Ignazio Danti is very learned in cosmography
and a man of distinguished ability in letters, in so much that the Duke
Cosimo has committed to his care a work than which none more perfect in
design, or more important in the results to be expected from it, has
ever been executed in that kind. His excellency has caused a room of
considerable extent to be prepared on the second floor of his palace, as
a continuation of, and an addition to the guardaroba; around this room
he has had cabinets arranged seven braccia high, and richly carved in
walnut wood, intending to place within them the most valuable and
beautiful works of art in his possession; and on the doors of the same
he has caused fifty-seven pictures, about two braccia in height and of
proportionate width, to be painted in oil on wood in the manner of
miniatures. The subjects delineated are the Ptolemaic Tables, measured
by Don Ignazio with the most exact perfection, and corrected according
to the latest authorities; sea-charts of the utmost accuracy are added,
the scale and the degrees being adjusted with all possible care, and all
having the ancient, as well as the modern, names; the division made of
these works being as follows. At the principal entrance into the room
are seen four pictures executed on the sides of the cabinets, and
representing in perspective the halves of four spheres, those below
showing the earth, and those above the heavens with all their signs and
celestial figures. Proceeding toward the right we have all Europe
depicted in fourteen compartments, the pictures succeeding each other
to the center of the wall which is at the head of the room, and opposite
to the principal door, that namely whereon is placed the horologue with
its wheels, and the daily motions made by the planets in their spheres;
I mean that so much renowned clock made by the Florentine Lorenzo della
Volpaja. Above the compartments representing Europe, are those of Africa
in eleven divisions; these extend to the horologue itself, beyond which
and on the lower part is Asia, which occupies a consecutive range of
four compartments, extending to the principal door. There are besides
the West Indies, which commence from the clock, and continue to the
principal door; the whole series forming the fifty-seven divisions
before mentioned. On the lower part of the walls and immediately beneath
the geographical delineations, in an equal number of compartments will
be the various plants and animals produced by the respective countries,
all depicted from nature. Over the cornice of the said cabinets, which
completes the decorations, there are to be niches dividing the pictures,
and in these will be placed certain antique busts in marble,
representing the Emperors and Princes by whom these lands have been
possessed, so far as those portraits are known to exist or can be
procured. The ceiling is entirely in carved wood-work, and within the
compartments of the same are twelve large pictures, in each of which are
to be four celestial signs, making in the whole forty-eight; the figures
are to be but little less than life size, each accompanied by its stars.
On the walls beneath are three hundred portraits of distinguished
persons belonging to the last five centuries, or somewhat more; they are
painted in oil; but, that I may not make too long a story, I refer the
mention of their names to the tables of my work. All have frames of
similar size, very richly carved in oak, and producing an exceedingly
fine effect.”

“In the two pictures occupying the center of the ceiling, each of which
is four braccia wide, are the celestial signs; these can be thrown back
by means which cannot be perceived; and in a space representing the
concave are to be two large spheres, one representing the earth: this
will be made to descend by a concealed windlass, and will then be
balanced on a support adequate to that purpose, so that when fixed, all
the pictures and the maps on the cabinet will be reflected therein, each
part being thus readily found on the sphere. On the other globe the
forty-eight celestial signs will be arranged, in such sort that all the
operations of the astrolabe may be performed most perfectly by the aid
thereof. The plan of this work has proceeded from the Duke Cosimo, who
desired to have all these parts of the earth and heaven brought for once
fairly together in their just positions, exactly and without errors, to
the end that they might be observed and measured, either apart or all
together, as might be desired by those who study and delight in this
most beautiful science. I have therefore thought myself bound to make a
memorial of the same in this place, for the sake of Fra Ignazio; and
that his ability, with the magnificence of that great Prince, who has
judged us worthy to enjoy the benefits of so honorable a labor, may be
made known to all the world.”[315]

Danti must have undertaken this great work shortly after his arrival in
Florence, since one of his maps, to which Vasari refers, is dated 1563,
and it appears that the terrestrial globe must have been finished by
1567, since the general Depositaria of that year, as cited by Badia,
records that twenty lire were paid to the gold-leaf maker, Taddeo di
Francesco, for the five hundred leaves of gold to be used for the globe,
and there is no succeeding entry referring to this particular piece of
work.[316] We know that he never completed the task which had been
assigned to him. Duke Cosimo’s death occurred in the year 1575, and his
son and successor, Francesco, manifested but little interest in
furthering the cause of science. It was perhaps at the instance of
Francesco that the general of the Dominican Order directed Danti to
leave Florence, and he passed the remainder of his days in Bologna.
Apparently but thirty of the fifty-seven maps which were to be made by
Danti were completed at the time of his dismissal, and only the
terrestrial globe. As evidence that he did not construct the celestial
globe, Badia cites a letter written by Antonio Lupicini to the Grand
Duke Ferdinand, dated October 27, 1587. After reference to certain great
works planned by Cosimo in the last years of his life, such as those
referred to by Vasari, he adds that “when it seemed that nothing else
was to be seen in the room, at a certain sign these historical
representations disappeared and the cosmography of the whole mechanism,
constructed after the manner of Ptolemy, was uncovered; in doing so they
opened the ceiling and let down the representations of the planets,
resting them on a stand which came out of the floor, and from the floor
also appeared a terrestrial and a celestial globe each three and a half
braccia in diameter, one of which had been made by Fra Ignazio, and the
model of which I myself have.”[317] The terrestrial globe, at first
placed in the room for which it was intended, was later removed to the
gallery, where on account of much handling it was greatly injured, and
in the year 1595 the cosmographer, Antonio Santucci, was entrusted with
its restoration.[318] Admired as it has been for more than three hundred
years, on account of its size and excellent workmanship, repeatedly
handled through all these years by careless visitors, a second
restoration was undertaken a few years since by Ferdinando Meucci,
director of the museum to which it finally passed. Meucci directed this
work with great care, studying minutely the construction of the globe
under the opportunity thus offered. Fiorini, citing information
especially given him by Meucci,[319] says that the diameter of this
globe is 2.04 m.; that the ball is of wood having a papier-mâché
covering, protected without by a wrapping of cord and metal plates, and
that it is very substantially braced within. Danti himself in describing
the construction of the globe, on receiving an order for a similar one,
says that “the surface of this globe is thirty-six square braccia and it
is supported within by an iron frame, as a globe of this size would not
stand without bracing; it represents a new invention by means of which,
though large, it can be moved in every direction with a single finger,
and its pole can be easily elevated or depressed.”[320] These Medici
globes, it seems, attracted much attention, and not alone in Italy.
Pontanus, in the preface of his edition of Hues’ ‘Tractatus de Globis,’
after a reference to the celestial globe of Tycho Brahe, six feet in
diameter, adds that Ferdinand I of Tuscany possessed two globes, one
terrestrial and the other an armillary sphere with circles and orbs, and
that these globes were constructed by the same hand.[321] This last
statement we now know to be an error, since the terrestrial globe alone
was the work of Ignazio Danti, the armillary sphere being the work of
Antonio Santucci.

The Biblioteca Nationale of Turin possesses a unique and highly
interesting globe signed “Franciscus Bassus Mediolanensis feccit 1570,”
called Basso in his day, although his name appears to have been
Francesco Pelliccioni or Pilizzoni.[322] In this we have one of the
finest examples of the style of constructing and ornamenting metal
globes, described by Ruscelli as _agemina_, in which gold and silver
threads and plates are forced into the engraved outlines on the surface
of the ball.

The globe, a hollow iron sphere about 56 cm. in diameter, is in an
excellent state of preservation. The engraved parallels and meridians
are indicated at intervals of ten degrees, the prime meridian passing
through the Canary Islands. It has thus been described by the librarian,
Francesco Carta:[323] “The parts of the globe in gold are the equator,
the tropics, the polar circles and many mountain chains; the known and
the unknown polar regions are flaked with gold. In gold are the crowns
which designate the several kingdoms, the small islands and the
graduated prime meridian. In gold and silver are the ships which sail
the seas, the smaller being entirely of gold. The ecliptic, the
meridians excepting the prime meridian, the parallels, the majority of
the mountain chains of the unknown lands, the rivers, as well as the
outlines of the lands and the seas. On the graduated horizon circle are
the Latin names of the winds in silver capital letters. These are the
twelve winds of Timostene. A graduated metal meridian passes through the
poles and is attached to the rational horizon which is supported by four
small pyramidal columns having quadrangular bases. At the top, and
fastened to the framework of the globe with a silver ribbon, is a silver
heart having extended wings, the feathers of which are of gold and
silver. From this heart rises a small gilded design representing an
olive branch, having leaves of gold. From the lower part of the support
hang silver ribbons flaked with gold.” Practically all inscriptions are
in silver capital letters, the majority being in Latin, but a few are in
Italian and in Spanish. To North America which is connected with Asia,
in accord with the idea so prevalent in the second quarter of the
century, is given the name “Asia magna quae India borealis,” and to
South America the name “America Nova.” In addition to the above
inscriptions we find such as “Hispania Major,” “G. d. Anian,” “Oceanus
Indicus,” “Sinus Magnus Aphricae.” In Brazil is the inscription, “His
Leoni Copia.” The inscription “Terra Australis recenter inventa anno
1499, sed nondum plene cognita terra,” closely resembles an inscription
similarly placed on the world map of Orontius Finaeus of 1531, which
reads “Terra Australis recenter inventa sed nondum plene cognita.”[324]
It does not appear that great scientific value attaches to this globe,
since there clearly was no attempt to produce a terrestrial map to date.
It, however, is a most interesting example of globe construction in a
day when globes were so much in favor.

The Lancisiana Biblioteca of Rome possesses an artistically constructed
armillary sphere, apparently the work of Giovanni Maria Barrocci, who,
in the second half of the sixteenth century, achieved distinction as a
maker of watches and of mathematical instruments. Fiorini gives reason
for thinking this to be of about the year 1570, as well as reason for
attributing the work to Barrocci,[325] finding it in an epitaph of a
member of the family in which there is allusion to the construction of a
celestial globe for Pope Pius V.

Two globes, one celestial attributed to Hieronymo de Boncompagni, and
one terrestrial attributed to Emanuele Filiberto and probably
constructed about the year 1570, are briefly referred to by Fiorini as
belonging to the Osservatorio del Collegio Romano.[326] Further
reference to these globes has not been obtainable, there being no
mention of the same in a communication received by the author from this

The Biblioteca Nationale Vittorio Emanuele of Rome possesses two
remarkably fine manuscript globes, a terrestrial and a celestial, the
latter bearing the inscription “Anno Jobel[327] 1575 ad que supputatae
sunt stellae.” “In the Jubilee year for which the positions of the stars
have been computed.” While not giving with certainty the exact date of
their construction, it seems that it could not have been later than that
given in the legend. The globes bear the coat of arms of the Jesuits,
which may only suggest that the maker was a member of that order. Each
of these globes, or globe balls, is constructed of a wooden framework,
covered with a preparation of plaster, over which has been added a coat
of thick varnish. On the surface thus prepared the map has been drawn
and painted in colors. Each has a diameter of about 70 cm., is mounted
on a pyramidal base, 77 cm. in height, from which rises a rod 45 cm. in
length, supporting two semicircles which serve as a direct base support
for the iron horizon circle. The celestial globe has represented on its
surface the equator, the tropics, the polar circles, the colures, the
ecliptic, and the zodiac, and the figures representing the several
constellations. These figures are very artistically painted, having
their several names written in gold in the Latin language; some figures
and names unfortunately are wanting by reason of injury to the surface
of the globe. On the terrestrial globe the equator, the tropics, and the
polar circles are represented, while but two meridians are indicated,
the prime meridian passing through the Canary Islands while the other
has been drawn ninety degrees from this, that is, cuts it at right
angles at the poles.

The Biblioteca Laurentiana of Florence possesses four small armillary
spheres, bearing neither date nor author legends.[328] The larger of
these has a diameter of about 32 cm., is of brass, and rests upon an
artistic support composed of a group of bronze satyrs. The other three,
by reason of their close resemblance, appear to be the work of the same
artist. Each has a diameter of about 23 cm. and a base of brass on which
stands a small bronze statue, which bears on its shoulders a globe. This
globe supports the several circles composing the armillary sphere. The
supporting statue in one of these is clad and is represented as wearing
sandals on the feet, supposedly representing the mythical Atlas. In
another of these the statue is that of a man resting on the right knee
with the left hand uplifted, while in the third the statue is that of a
woman resting upon the left knee, having the right hand uplifted. These
globes are reported as not being in good condition, but each exhibits
artistic merit of a high order.

There is likewise to be found in the Biblioteca Nationale of Florence a
small celestial globe of bronze, and a celestial and terrestrial globe
of silver. These globes are neither signed nor dated but are thought to
belong to the period now under consideration. The bronze globe has the
constellations represented in relief. It is exceedingly small, having a
diameter of about 10 cm. The silver globes have diameters about half the
preceding, or about 4.5 cm. They are furnished with horizon and meridian
circles, and have mountings which clearly are modern. The several
constellations represented on the celestial globe are exceedingly well
done, as are all of the decorative figures appearing on the terrestrial
globe. Geographical names are necessarily few because of the size of the

Attention has been called to the references which Ruscelli makes in his
‘Geografia’ to globe construction.[329] Notice may likewise here be
called to a similar reference, though much more brief, made by Francesco
Maurolico, a native of Messina, and often referred to as the new
Archimedes, because of his great fame acquired in the field of
mathematics and astronomy. In his work, published in the year 1575,[330]
he devoted part of one chapter to the subject “De sphaera solida,”
describing the construction of a celestial globe, and the use of the
same. We have no evidence that he was ever engaged in the construction
of such instruments as aids in the study of his science.

Lastly, in this chapter, mention may be made of the work of Mario
Cartaro. It appears that with his work that of the Italian globe makers
of the century practically came to a close; the names of but two or
three appear in the last quarter.

Cartaro first achieved distinction as a designer and engraver in Rome,
where he issued a work containing the portraits of the first twenty-four
Roman Emperors.[331] From Rome it appears that he went to Naples, where
he continued to reside until the time of his death. That he was much
favored in Naples is attested by the fact that he was given a commission
to design or to represent all places and plants in the kingdom, and to
receive for the same “ten scudi per month.”[332] It is probable that as
a result of this commission we have that fine manuscript atlas of
thirteen maps now belonging to the Biblioteca Nationale of Naples,
representing the provinces of the kingdom and signed “M. Cartaro F.
1613.”[333] This manuscript gives striking evidence of his
cartographical ability. The manuscript is of paper, its first map
representing the ancient kingdom of Naples, on which is placed the
Spanish coat of arms. The remaining twelve represent the following named
provinces: Terra di Lavorro, Principato Citra, Principato Ultra,
Basilicata, Calabria Citra, Calabria Ultra, Terra d’Otranto, Terra di
Bari, Capitanata, Contado di Molise, Abruzzo Citra, Abruzzo Ultra.

Cartaro’s globes are of solid wood about 16 cm. in diameter, the balls
being covered with engraved gore maps. On his celestial globes appears
the inscription, “Marius Cartarus Viterbensis Autor incidebat Romae
cũ priv. 1577.” The twelve or rather twenty-four half gores, since
they are cut on the line of the ecliptic, are copper engraved. The
equator, the tropics, the polar circles, and the colures are
represented, the ecliptic and the equator being graduated, the degrees
being alternately colored red and yellow. The several constellations are
well drawn, are colored yellow with shading, and stand out prominently
against a blue background representing the sky. His terrestrial globes
bear the inscription “Marius Cartarus Viterbensis Autor incidebat Romae
MDLXXVII cum privilegio,” the gores being divided, as in the preceding,
into twenty-four. Meridians and parallels are drawn at intervals of
fifteen degrees, alternate degrees being colored red and yellow, the
prime meridian passing through the Canary Islands and being graduated.
In the Osservatorio del Collegio Romano may be found two copies of the
celestial and one example of the terrestrial globe, one of the former
once belonging to the astronomer, Virgilio Spada, and later to the
Biblioteca Vallicelliana. Neither of these globes is well preserved, the
original mountings are wanting, and each rests on a base of wood which
has been merely designed to serve as a support.

A copy of the celestial globe may be found in the Museo di Strumenti
Antichi of Florence, which was presented to the museum by the Grand Duke
Leopold I. This example is reported to be in good condition, being
mounted on a base of wood, and having a horizon and a meridian circle of
wood, both of which are graduated. On the horizon appear the names of
the eight principal winds, with representations of the wind heads having
distended cheeks.

A fairly well-preserved example of the terrestrial globe (Fig. 69) was
recently purchased by Mr. Reed of New York City, by whose courteous
permission it was photographed for reproduction in this work. It has a
single pedestal base which is gilded, is furnished with horizon and
meridian circles, the former being supported by two semicircles, which
in turn rest on the pedestal base. Practically all of the inscriptions
are in capitals, and all of the work of the engraver has been very
artistically done. The outline of the New World resembles closely that
given by Mercator and by Zaltiari. In North America we find
interestingly represented a great lake drained by two rivers,
apparently, but not accurately drawn as the Mississippi and the St.
Lawrence. The southwestern part is called “Nova Spagna,” Mexico is
designated as “Nova Galitia”; in the northeast we find “La Nova Franza,”
and “Terra de Norũbeca,” and in the southeast “Florida,” although the
peninsula is not well drawn. South America bears the name “America,” so
drawn as practically to cover the continent, and in addition we find
“Castiglia de Loro,” “Para,” “Peru Provin,” “Chili,” and lake “Tichia,”
located well inland. It will be noted in the reproduction that the
sphere is well shot through by the industrious book- or woodworm.

[Illustration: Fig. 69. Terrestrial Globe of Mario Cartaro, 1577.]


[290] See his catalogue No. XLII, item 133; also catalogue
No. L, item 327. Nordenskiöld. Facsimile Atlas. Plate XL
reproduces the terrestrial globe gores.

[291] Marcel, G. François De Mongenet, géographe
franc-comtois. (In: Bulletin de géographie, historique et
descriptive. Paris, 1889. pp. 31-40.); Günther, S. Die
mathematischen Sammlung des Gesmanischen Museums zu
Nürnberg. (In: Leopoldina, Heft 14, p. 110.)

[292] See above, p. 129.

[293] Vasari, op. cit., Vol. III, pp. 500, 512, 514.

[294] Ruscelli, G. La geografia di Claudio Tolomeo
Alessandrino monumente tradotta di greco in italiano.
Venezia, 1561. p. 32.

[295] See above, p. 122.

[296] Joppi, V. Pittori e scultori. Venezia, 1881. p. 86.

[297] Fiorini, M. Le projezioni delle carte geografiche.
Bologna, 1881. Chap. vi, §5; same author. Le projezioni
cordiformi nella Cartografia. (In: Bolletino della Società
Geografica Italiana. Roma, 1889. pp. 554-579.)

[298] Joppi, op. cit., pp. 71 ff.

[299] The title-page reads, Della grandezza della terra et
dell’ acqua. Trattato di M. Alessandro Piccolomini,
nuovamente mandato in luce all’ Illustr. et Rev. S. Monsig.
M. Jacomo Cocco Arcivescovo di Corfù. Con privilegio. In
Venetia MDLVIII.

[300] Cardella. Memorie storiche del Cardinali della Santa
Romana Chiesa. Roma, 1792. Tom. IV, p. 233.

[301] Cardella, op. cit., Tom. IV, p. 173.

[302] Cardella, op. cit., Tom. IV, p. 287.

[303] Ruscelli, op. cit. See that section appearing as a
second part or appendix to this work titled “Espositioni et
introductioni.” Chap. ii.

[304] Sanuto. Geografia di Livio Sanuto distinta in XII
libri. Vinezia, 1588.

[305] Ruscelli. Espositioni. Chap. iii.

[306] Ruscelli. Geografia. pp. 58, 59.

[307] Vasari, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 65.

[308] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 218.

[309] Inventario del Reale Gabinetto redatto nel 1776, Vol.
II, n. 175.

[310] Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 75; Gerland, E. Beiträge zur
Geschichte der Physik. (In: Leopoldina, Heft 18, p. 69.);
Weidler, J. F. Historia astronomiae. Vitembergae, 1741. p.
390; Drechsler, A. Katalog der Sammlung des
Königl.-Mathematisch-Physikalischen Salon zu Dresden.
Dresden, 1874. p. 53.

[311] Doppelmayr, op. cit., pp. 83-90.

[312] Drechsler, op. cit., pp. 53, 54; Gerland, op. cit., p.

[313] Del Badia, J. Egnazio Danti cosmografo e matematico.
Firenze, 1882; Marchese, R. Memorie dei più illustri
pittori, scultori ed architetti Dominicani. Bologna, 1879.
Vol. II, p. 357; Porena, F. La Geografia in Roma e il
mappamondo Vaticano. (In: Boll. della Società Geografica
Italiana. Roma, 1888. pp. 221 ff.)

[314] Uzielli, G. L’epistolario Colombo-Toscanelliano e di
Danti. (In: Boll. della Società Geografica Italiana. Roma,
1889. p. 836.) In this the author refers to the numerous
editions of Sacrobosco translated by Rinaldi.

[315] Vasari, op. cit., Vol. V, pp. 493-496.

[316] Del Badia, op. cit., p. 30.

[317] Del Badia, op. cit., p. 28.

[318] Del Badia, op. cit., p. 31.

[319] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 179.

[320] Tiraboschi, G. Storia della litteratura italiana.
Roma, 1873. Tom. VII, pt. I, lib. ii, p. 439.

[321] Hues, R. Tractatus de globis coelesti et terrestri
eorumque usu. Amstelodame, 1617. Ed. by Joannis Isaci
Pontanus. See the Preface.

[322] Moriggia, R. P. F. La nobilita di Milano. Milano,
1595. Lib. V, cap. xvii.

[323] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 184;
Kretschmer, K. Die Entdeckung Amerikas in ihrer Bedeutung
für die Geschichte des Weltbildes. Berlin, 1892. p. 436, and
Tav. xxix.

[324] Nordenskiöld. Facsimile Atlas, plate XLI.

[325] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 220.

[326] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 284.

[327] The word “Jobel” is thought to mean jubilee.

[328] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. pp. 497-500.

[329] See above, n. 294, 303.

[330] His work bears the title D. Francisci Maurolyci
Abbatis Messanensis Opuscula mathematica nunc primum in
lucem edita. Venetiis, 1575.

[331] Gori-Gandellini, G. Notizie storiche degli
intagliatori. Siena, 1771. Tom. I, p. 25.

[332] Archivo Storico della Provincie Napoletane. Anno primo
Napoli. 1876. p. 405.

[333] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 191. See for
catalogue reference Sala dei MSS. Scaffale XII, palchetto D,
n. 100.

[Illustration: Compass Rose. _From Martines Atlas, 1582_]

Chapter IX

Globes and Globe Makers of the Last Quarter of the Sixteenth Century

  Brief summary of sixteenth-century globe making.—The
  close of the century introducing us to the great Dutch
  globe makers.—The clock maker Dasypodius.—Peter and
  Philip Apianus.—The armillary sphere of Carlus
  Platus.—Roll and Reinhold.—Tycho Brahe and his
  influence.—Titon du Tillet.—The terrestrial globe of
  Rouen.—Globes of Emery Molyneux.—Globes of
  Bürgi.—Zürich globe.—Beaker globes.—Ivory globe of
  Antonio Spano.—The Van Langren globes.—Santucci.—B. F.
  globe of Dresden.

In the last three chapters attention has been called to the globes and
globe makers of the earlier years of the sixteenth century, special
mention having been made in Chapters VI and VII of the notions
entertained concerning the geography of the New World as exhibited in
the terrestrial globe maps. In the first quarter of the century, as was
stated, the newly discovered lands were represented as having no
geographical connection with the Old World, and with few exceptions the
two continents of the western hemisphere were separated from each other
either by a strait or by a wide expanse of ocean. In the second quarter
of the century the belief seemed to have found very general acceptance
that the New World was but a prolongation or eastward extension of the
Asiatic continent, a belief which found expression in the plane as well
as in the globe maps. Exceptions to such belief were likewise noted, as
was also the inclination manifesting itself in this second quarter to
return to the earlier notions, that a great body of water separated
Asia from the northern continent, in the spread of which notion Mercator
seems to have exerted a dominating influence. In the third quarter of
the century the globe maps indicate that a belief in the independent
position of the New World had again found very general acceptance,
although there appeared now and then an expression in the maps that the
theory of an Asiatic connection still lingered. In this third quarter it
was the Italian globe makers who were the most active, yet it must be
admitted that the majority of the globes produced in these years in the
peninsula were not of striking importance. In the literature of the
period, references to globes which were constructed, and which appear to
have been well known, are not infrequent, but one is inclined to a
belief, based upon these references, and upon those globes which are
extant, that time has destroyed the best of them.

The records of the last quarter of the century, of which we come now to
speak in this chapter, seem to show a decline of interest in globe
making among the Italians, the examples of their work left to us being
exceedingly few. We note a rising interest and activity in globe making
in the North in this period, which reaches a climax during the early
years of the seventeenth century in the splendid work given out by the
great masters of the Netherlands. A well-merited fame especially crowns
the labors of members of the Van Langren, the Blaeu, and the Hondius

Although remembered chiefly for his part in the construction of the
famous Strassburg cathedral clock, Conrad Dasypodius (1530-1600) can
also claim a place among the globe makers of his day, that is, of the
period we now have under consideration.[335] He was the son of Petrus
Dasypodius, a native of Frauenfeld in Switzerland, whose name originally
was Rauhfuss or Hasenfuss, and who for some years held a position as
professor of the Greek language in Zürich. In the year 1530 he removed
to Strassburg to accept a similar position in the Strassburg Academy,
where he died in the year 1559. Young Conrad, after an association for a
period with the then famous Strassburg mathematician, Christian
Herlin,[336] as his favorite pupil, traveled extensively, going to Paris
and later to Lyons, where he continued his mathematical studies. In
October, 1562, he became the successor of Herlin, and in the year 1563
canon of St. Thomas. To the impulse which he contributed to mathematical
studies is due the high place held for a considerable period by the
Strassburg Academy.[337] It is a part of his great service that he not
only encouraged the study of the Greek mathematicians, but he also was
especially interested in having their works brought to the attention of
the public through their reissue, especially the works of Euclid. The
list of Dasypodius’ publications[338] is a long one and is such as to
place him among the foremost scholars of his day, but it was, however,
his astronomical clock, noted above, which brought him special renown in
the larger circles. It was near the middle of the fourteenth century
that the first clock, which was of wood, was constructed for the
cathedral, but time had wrought its destructive work, and as early as
1547 a commission was appointed to consider the question of its
restoration, and of this commission Christian Herlin was a prominent
member. His death in the year 1562 left the plan incomplete, and eight
years passed before his pupil, Dasypodius, was successful in urging the
magistrates of the city to take up the work anew. In the year 1570,
through his advice, two young globe makers of Schaffhausen, Isaac and
Josias Habrecht,[339] who had given aid to their father in the
construction of the “Frohnwaagthurm Uhr” of the last-named city,
together with the Schaffhausen artists, Tobias and Josias Stimmer,[340]
were invited to take up the work under his supervision. At the end of
three years the clock was completed and soon came to be referred to as
one of the seven wonders of Germany. “Truly a masterpiece,” said
Montucla, “and the first of its kind in all Europe by reason of the
numerous movements which it executes.”[341] In the year 1580 a
description of the same was prepared and published by Dasypodius
himself.[342] Although calling for frequent repairs the clock continued
running until the year 1789, when it ceased, and after fifty years had
passed the old mechanism was replaced by new, the work of
Schwilgué.[343] Remarkable as is the entire masterpiece, it is the
globes with which Dasypodius furnished it that especially interest us
here. At the base of the clock is placed a celestial sphere (Fig. 70)
three feet in diameter, supported by four columns of wood richly carved.
On the surface appear the forty-eight Ptolemaic constellations, each
constellation having its appropriate figure, and the 1022 stars which
had been located in Ptolemy’s day. The globe is so connected with the
machinery, by which the various parts of the clock are made to perform
their functions, that it makes one revolution on its axis every
twenty-four hours, thus representing the rising and the setting of the
several celestial bodies. Two circles were added, one carrying the sun
and the other the moon, adjusted so as to turn about the globe, the
first in twenty-four hours, and the second in about twenty-five. The
arrangement of the movements, it appears, was not greatly altered in the
reconstruction of 1838-1842, and the clock, as it now stands, is thus
described by Britten: “On the floor level is a celestial globe
indicating siderial time. In its motion round its axis the globe carries
with it the circles that surround it—namely, the equator, the ecliptic,
the solstitial and equinoctial colures, while the meridian and horizon
circles remain motionless, so that there are shown the rising and the
setting, as well as the passage over the meridian of Strassburg, of all
stars that are visible to the naked eye, and which appear above the
horizon. Behind the celestial globe is the calendar; on a metallic band,
nine inches wide and thirty feet in circumference, are the months and
the days of the months, Dominical letters, fixed and movable feast days.
The band is shifted at midnight, and a statue of Apollo points out the
day of the month and the name of the saint corresponding to that day.
The internal part of the annular band indicates true solar time, the
rising and the setting of the sun, the diurnal motion of the moon around
the earth, and its passage over the meridian, the phases of the moon and
the eclipses of the sun and moon. Adjacent compartments are devoted to a
perpetual calendar, solar and lunar cycles and other periodic
occurrences, solar and lunar equations, etc. Above the calendar appear
allegorical figures, seated in chariots, and representing the days of
the week. These chariots, drawn by such animals as are assigned as
attributes of the divinities, run on a circular railway and appear each
in order. In the story above the globe is a planetarium in which the
revolutions of the planets are represented upon a large dial plate, and
above the planetarium, and upon a star-decked sky, is a globe devoted to
showing the phases of the moon. In the second story of the clock has
been placed a terrestrial globe, which likewise is adjusted to revolve
in representation of the revolution of the earth.”[344]

[Illustration: Fig. 70. Strassburg Clock and Globe of Conrad Dasypodius,

Peter Apianus (Bienewitz or Bennewitz) (1495-1552) was a native of
Leisnig, Saxony.[345] His earliest education was received in the village
of Roschlitz, but at the age of twenty-three he entered the University
of Leipzig, where it appears that astronomy and mathematics chiefly
claimed his interest (Fig. 71). In 1527 he received and accepted an
appointment as professor of mathematics in the University of Ingolstadt,
and in 1541, for his distinguished abilities, he was ennobled by the
Emperor Charles V. In addition to the fame acquired through his
mathematical treatises he became widely known as a maker of physical and
astronomical instruments, among which were celestial globes. Numerous as
appear to have been these globes of his construction, no example at
present is known bearing the unmistakable evidence of his workmanship.
Clemens, in his description of the Library of the Escorial,[346] gives
us to understand that it possessed at one time one or more Peter Apianus
globes, which were probably carried to Spain by the Emperor himself.
It seems probable that a diligent search through public and private
libraries and museums in that country would lead to the discovery of
some of his globes or mathematical instruments.

[Illustration: Fig. 71. Portrait of Peter Apianus.]

Kepler tells us of an Apianus globe which he saw on a journey from
Würtemberg to Gratz, noting that it was so constructed that the stars
could be removed at pleasure from the sphere.[347] Of this particular
globe nothing seems now to be known. It is thought hardly probable that
the one referred to by Kepler is that fine celestial Apianus globe (Fig.
72) belonging to the K. B. Hof- u. Staats Bibliothek of Munich. There
seems to be scarcely a doubt that this, as its companion, a terrestrial
globe, is the work of the son Philip. Repeated inquiry has not resulted
in obtaining definite answer as to the dimensions of these globes nor a
description of such detailed features as would here prove of interest.
The photographic reproductions show them to be of remarkably artistic
workmanship. Each is furnished with a heavy meridian circle, and with a
similarly designed horizon circle supported by a semicircle which rests
upon an elaborately constructed base.[348] The history of these globes
seems not to be known, as stated above. We have an inventory of the
Herzoglich-Bayrische collection of mathematical and astronomical
instruments, prepared by the Jesuit, Fickler, which contains, page 147,
the following entry relative to the globes to be found therein: “Folget
die Tafl. Nr. 34. Daraus stehen drey grosser hulzinen Globi Coelestes,
davon d. ain in einem messingen gestell, mit ainem messingem zodiaco,
der dritt von mettall. 1777. Sechs grosser Globi terrestres von Holz.
mit mettallinen zodiacis 1778. Zwei claine Globi der ain Coelestis der
ander Terrestris, auf gedraxelten holzen fuesslen.”[349] “Next in order
is table No. 34. On this there stand three large celestial globes of
wood, one of which has a base of brass, with a brass horizon circle, the
third of metal, 1777. There are six large terrestrial globes of wood,
with metal horizon circles, 1778. Two small globes, one celestial, the
other terrestrial, resting on turned wooden feet.” It will be noted,
however, that there is no mention therein of Apianus globes. Kobalt
tells us that Apianus “vertigte allerley mathematische instrumente, als
Cosmolabium, Globos duos Caeli et Terrae maximos, und Planisphaerium,”
“constructed many kinds of mathematical instruments such as astrolabes,
two large globes celestial and terrestrial and planispheres.” This same
author gives us the information that “in der k. b. Central-Bibliothek
befinden sich zwei grosse, von Apian ververtigte und von Johann Mielichs
gemalte Globi Coelestes et Terrestres, worauf folgende Inschrift zo
lesen ist, ‘Illustrss Seren. Principi ac Domino D. Alberto Com. Pal.
Rheni. Sub. Inf. que Bar. Duci Domino suo Clementissimo Globum hunc
geographicum cels. ejus jussu juxta veterum ac recentium
Historiographorum Observationes Traditionesque Descr. et Ded. Philippus
Apianus M. D. Anno Salutis 1576.’” “In the K. B. Central Library there
are two large globes celestial and terrestrial constructed by Apianus
and painted by Johan Müelichs, on which is the following inscription:
‘To the Most Illustrious, Most Serene Prince and Lord D. Albert Count of
the Rhenish Palatinate, etc. His Most Clement Lord this celestial globe
by his command, fashioned according to the observations and traditions
of both ancient and modern historiographers dedicates Philip Apianus in
the year of Salvation 1576.’”[350] It seems, therefore, probable, from
the above citation, that it was the son Philip who constructed these
Munich globes. It was in the year 1552 that he followed his father as
professor of mathematics in the University of Ingolstadt and like his
father soon won distinction for himself as cartographer, producing his
famous Bayrische Landtafeln as his first work of note. It seems further
probable that shortly after this work he became interested in globe
construction, in which line of activity he made for himself a place of
first rank.

[Illustration: Fig. 72. Globes of Philip Apianus, 1576.]

The celestial globe referred to above has represented on its surface
the several Ptolemaic constellations, exquisitely colored, and the stars
have been given names in Greek, Latin, and Arabic. The terrestrial globe
map is considerably injured, especially in the polar regions, but the
continental and other outlines are all clearly traceable. Three large
compass roses, of ornamental pattern, are placed along the Line of
Demarcation. The coast outline of Europe is, in the main, well done, as
is that of Africa and the New World. The Nile and the Niger rivers no
longer find their source in the same common lake. The representations of
the far eastern regions indicate that Apianus had a fairly good
knowledge of the records of the Holland explorers.

A fine example of the metal worker’s art of this period may be found in
a silvered bronze celestial globe (Fig. 73) belonging to the Morgan
collection recently placed in the Metropolitan Museum of New York. On
the meridian circle we find the maker and date legend reading “Gerhard
Emmoser, sac. caes. meis horologiarius, F. Viennae 1579.” The sphere,
which can be opened on the line of the ecliptic, has a diameter of about
13 cm. Within has been placed a delicately constructed mechanism by
means of which the sphere is made to rotate once in twenty-four hours on
its equatorial axis, the key winding stem for this machinery projecting
at the north pole through an engraved hour plate with pointer. With its
meridian and its horizon circle it is adjusted to make one revolution in
three hundred and sixty-five days. A stationary ring, about 2 cm. in
width, which closely surrounds the horizon circle and in its same plane,
fits the instrument as a calendar. This ring has engraved on its surface
crossing lines, one for each day of the year, to each month there being
assigned its proper number of days or lines, as, for example, “October
habet 31 dies,” “November habet 30 dies.” As the sphere with its circles
revolves, a pointer attached to the horizon circle indicates on the
calendar ring each day of each month in succession. The surface of the
sphere is exquisitely engraved with representations of the several
constellations, the name of each being given in Latin. The instrument is
made to rest upon the back of a winged horse in silvered bronze, this in
turn standing upon an artistic circle base. It is well preserved and is
a choice example of such instruments, which in this period were in
particular favor.

[Illustration: Fig. 73. Silver-Gilt Globe of Gerhard Emmoser, 1573.]

Carlus Platus, a maker of metal globes in the last quarter of the
sixteenth century, is known to us through two fine extant examples of
his work.[351] The first of these, inscribed “Romae a. 1578 Car. Pl.,”
may be found in the Museo di Strumenti Antichi of Florence, having been
added to this collection by its former distinguished director, F.
Meucci. The horizon diameter of this armillary sphere is about 21 cm. It
has been described as one beautifully constructed of brass and mounted
on a carved wooden base. The circle representing the course of the sun
and that made to represent the course of the moon are made to revolve on
the axis of the ecliptic, and a small ball, of recent construction,
representing the earth, is placed in the common center of the armillae,
and is made to revolve on the axis of the equator. A dial attached to
the axis of the earth below the meridian circle marks the hours, which
are engraved on the Arctic polar circle. A few points marked on the
colures indicate the position of the principal stars. All of the circles
have been carefully graduated. On that one representing the zodiac have
been engraved the names of the months and the pictures of the several
zodiacal figures, while on the horizon circle are the names of the
principal winds in Greek, Latin, and Italian.

A second globe of Platus, signed “Carolus Platus Romae Anno 1598,” may
be found in the Biblioteca Barbarini of Rome. It is composed of two
hollow brass hemispheres, making a ball 14 cm. in diameter, which is
surrounded by a brass meridian and a brass horizon circle, the whole
resting on a tripod base. It is a fine example of an early metal
engraved globe, the representation of the figures of the constellations
in particular being done in a very superior manner. On the surface of
the sphere the equator, the ecliptic, the equinoctial, and the
solstitial colures are represented. The history of the globe seems not
to be known, but it is probable that it came to the Barbarini Palace in
the time of Pope Urban VIII, who, before filling his pontifical office,
was known as Maffeo Barbarini.

Of the celestial globes constructed by George Roll and Joannes Reinhold
three examples are known.[352] One of these may be found in the
collection of the Mathematical Salon of Dresden (Fig. 74) one in the
Osservatorio di Capodimonte of Naples and one in the K. K. Hofbibliothek
in Vienna. The Roll and Reinhold globe of the Dresden collection,
bearing the inscription “Georg Roll et Joannes Reinhold elaborabant
Augustae 1586,” is an exceedingly interesting instrument, unique in the
manner of its construction and remarkably well preserved. It is of
brass, having a diameter of 36 cm., and is furnished with numerous
movable circles, a large meridian circle surmounted with an armillary
sphere, and a brass horizon circle on which are marked the old and the
new calendars, the names of the twelve months and of the important holy
days. The globe base, very artistically wrought, rests upon four
griffin’s feet, between which a small terrestrial globe 10 cm. in
diameter has been placed, this having been furnished with its own
independent support. The large celestial sphere is furnished with a
clocklike mechanism by means of which it is made to revolve in
representation of the diurnal motion of the heavens. According to
existing records it was purchased in the year 1593 by order of the
Elector Christian II, and by him was presented to the Academy of Arts of
Dresden. Zeiller tells us that this and the Heyden globe were those
“with which the Prince Elector Augustus was accustomed to amuse

[Illustration: Fig. 74. Globe of George Roll and Johannes Reinhold,

It has not been possible to obtain a description of the Vienna globe. It
appears that it was constructed in the year 1588, and that, like the
Dresden example, the celestial sphere is made to revolve by means of

The Roll and Reinhold globe belonging to the Osservatorio di
Capodimonte, according to Fiorini, is one especially worthy of
mention.[353] This is described as a hollow ball having a diameter of
about 21 cm. The sphere itself is made of copper, the remaining parts of
gilded brass. The horizon circle is composed of several overlapping
brass plates. A clockwork mechanism is supplied, by means of which the
sphere and certain circles may be made to revolve. The surface of the
copper sphere is artistically engraved, having numerous circles
representing the ecliptic system with its parallels and meridians, and
the equatorial system including its five zones. The Ptolemaic
constellations are represented, the figure of each being engraved in
outline with the name in Latin. The several stars are not named but near
each is an engraved number to indicate its magnitude, these numbers
ranging from 1 to 6. Nebulae are distinguished by small circles, and the
Milky Way by numerous dots. The meridian circle, in which the sphere
revolves, has the usual graduation from 0 to 90, but has in addition a
climatic graduation designed “Climata ex Ptolomeo,” and a division into
zones called “Torrida Zona,” “Zona habitabilis temperata,” and “Frigida
zona.” On the convex surface of the horizon circle we find engraved the
names of the four cardinal points, and on the upper surface of this
circle are engraved the Julian and the Gregorian calendars, the names of
the saints, the dates on which the sun enters the various signs of the
zodiac, and the ancient names of the principal winds. The globe
mountings, all of brass, are artistic and well preserved. Like the
Dresden example it rests upon a four-branched support, the extremities
of each branch representing the claws of the griffin. Including the
base, the instrument is 43 cm. in height. It seems not to be known when
or how this globe, constructed in Augsburg, found its way to the Naples
Museum, where it is treasured as one of the choicest of ancient
astronomical instruments.

Tycho Brahe, the great Danish astronomer (Fig. 75), was a native of
Knudtstrup near Helsingborg, born in the year 1546.[354] The care of his
early education was assumed by an uncle, George Brahe, who in the year
1559 sent him to the Academy of Copenhagen with the intention of fitting
him for the legal profession. Three years later we find him registered
at the University of Leipzig, then famous for its department of
jurisprudence. Like many another of the world’s great men for whom, in
the days of his youth, interested relatives or friends have chosen a
life career only to find in later life the choice not well made, Tycho’s
bent was not for the legal profession but for science, that is, for
mathematics and astronomy. While yet a student in Copenhagen an eclipse
of the sun which occurred August 21, 1560, interested him greatly, and
here we seem to find the beginning of that great future which was to be
his. Forbidden by his schoolmaster to give his time to a study of the
stars, in the quiet of the night he would secretly betake himself into
the open, there to watch with unaided eye the movements of the heavenly
bodies, or to follow these movements as best he could with the
assistance of a simple astronomical circle and a small celestial globe
which he had been able to purchase. It probably was in his Leipzig days
that he became intimate with Bartholomaus Scultetus (Schultz), lecturer
on mathematical subjects, and by him was encouraged to pursue further
his astronomical studies. Among the first practical results of his
activities in this field we have his correction table for readings with
the Jacob staff. The death of his uncle in the year 1565 occasioned his
return to his native country, but Germany offering him special
opportunities for continued study in his favorite field, we soon find
him in Wittenberg, later in Rostock, where in a quarrel with a peasant
he lost part of his nose and thereafter to the end of his days wore a
silver substitute. In 1567 we find him in Lauingen engaged in the study
of astronomy with the distinguished Cyprian Leowitz, in 1568 in Basel
with Peter Ramus, and for two years thereafter in Augsburg with the
brothers Johan and Paul Hainzel, with whom he constructed a large
quadrant having a radius of seventeen and one half feet. While in
Augsburg it appears that he began the construction of a celestial globe
four feet in diameter, but there is some uncertainty as to his
completion of this work. A short but unhappy sojourn in his native town
followed his years of congenial study in Germany, and we soon learn of
his visit to the observatory of Landgraf Wilhelm of Cassel, an event of
great significance for him. His travels carried him to other cities of
Germany, including the city of Regensburg, where he witnessed the
coronation of the Emperor Rudolf II. Landgraf Wilhelm, a Maecenas of
wide repute in his day, had been greatly impressed with the abilities of
Tycho, and he urged upon the Danish King Frederick that he should make
suitable provision for the further astronomical studies of his
distinguished subject, which suggestion the King generously met. In the
year 1575 the documents were signed and sealed granting to Tycho full
possession for life of the little Island of Hveen, lying between Seeland
and Schonen; in addition he was furnished with all the means necessary
for the erection of an observatory and the adequate equipment of the
same (Fig. 76). The Uranienburg, as his observatory was called,[355]
became a great center for astronomical studies, and students came to him
from various European lands, among these being Arnold van Langren,
Willem Jansz. Blaeu, and Longomontanus (Christian Severin of Longberg).
The death of his patron, King Frederick II, in the year 1588 brought
misfortune to Tycho, in so far as his life and studies on the Island of
Hveen were concerned, since the succeeding ruler, Christian IV, was but
little interested in the further promotion of astronomical science.
Enduring court intrigue for nine years, he determined, in the year 1597,
to leave the scenes of his remarkable successes, and after a brief
sojourn with Count Henry of Ranzau near Hamburg, he accepted an
invitation from the Emperor Rudolf II to become imperial astronomer and
counselor at Prague. Thither he went with his family in the year 1599,
at the same time taking with him those astronomical instruments which
had served him in his studies in the northern island home. While
preparations were under way for the erection of a new observatory for
him he died in the year 1601. From Tycho’s heirs the Emperor Rudolf
purchased his instruments and manuscripts, the latter passing into the
hands of Kepler, his successor at the Imperial Court, but as to the fate
of his instruments little seems to be known. Kästner tells us that in
1619, during an uprising in the city of Prague, some of these were
destroyed while others were carried away, and at present only an iron
quadrant, once in his observatory, remains in that city.

[Illustration: Fig. 75. Portrait of Tycho Brahe.]

[Illustration: Fig. 76. Interior of Tycho Brahe’s Observatory at

His large brass celestial globe, six feet in diameter, was carried back
to Copenhagen in the year 1623 by King Christian’s son, Ulrich, and
there it was carefully kept until the year 1728, when with the castle in
which it had been placed it was destroyed by fire.

Recalling the far-reaching influence of Tycho Brahe on astronomical
studies and on celestial globe making, it cannot be without interest to
quote here his own reference to his great globe, wherein he describes
its construction.

“This globe,” he says,[356] “which is a very large one, we have made
with great care, but with none the less than we have employed in all of
our others. The interior is of wood with many intersecting circles and
special supports, strengthened here and there from the center, and being
then fashioned into a spherical shape. As for its parts of wood, these
were made at Augsburg in the year 1570 before I returned to my native
land, as I found there a capable workman, having sought for a long time
elsewhere in vain for such an one. There, on account of its size, which
made it difficult to move, it had remained for five years, when I
returned to Augsburg; this was in the year 1575 as I came out of Italy
on my way to Ratisbon to be present at the coronation of the August
Emperor Rudolf II, when I found the globe had been finished some time
previously. But its shape (sphericity) did not altogether satisfy me,
moreover certain cracks could be seen. In the following year, and not
without much difficulty I had it carried to Denmark. There the cracks
were filled in and the sphericity made more nearly perfect by laying
over the surface about one hundred skins. There followed a testing for a
period of two years to ascertain whether the cracks would reappear after
two summers and two winters. When, after this test, I saw that it
retained its sphericity, I covered it over with thin brass plates of
uniform thickness without mishap, and this I did with such care and
skill that you would be led to say the globe was made of solid brass,
the joinings of the plates being scarcely visible. I next fashioned it
into a perfect sphere and marked thereon the zodiac, and the equator
with its poles, also the degrees each of sixty minutes by engraved lines
as we do in such work. I then left it for the space of one year, as
there was some doubt after putting on the brass plates as to whether the
globe would retain its sphericity in winter and in summer. When it had
been sufficiently tested not only did I indicate the circles of which I
have spoken but also all the stars of the eighth sphere I represented in
their proper places, as many stars as were to be seen in the heavens,
and I increased their number more and more in succeeding years up to
1600. Thus I with purpose added all the stars visible to the naked eye,
in their proper places adapted to the year 1600 which was near at hand.
And so there passed nearly twenty-five years from the first work on this
globe until it was finished, by the addition of its proper divisions and
its stars. This delay, although it might seem tedious, was not without
its value; for all things were thus done more carefully and better.
‘Work quickly only if you work well.’ Then the outer circles were fitted
to it, that is, a meridian and after that a horizon circle. This
meridian is made of brass, and each degree is divided into minutes, and
the horizon has the width of a palm of the hand, being covered with
brass having the degrees and minutes marked. The vertical quadrant
passing from the zenith to the horizon is of brass.

“The globe rests on a firm base having two iron supports crossing each
other, two of which you see on one side and two on the other. These are
for the purpose of giving strength lest the horizon of the instrument
should not be firm because of its bulk and weight.

“The entire support is five feet high, and on the lower part of the
structure various mathematical devices are to be seen skilfully painted
for the sake of ornamentation, and with the other features adding beauty
to the whole. The globe itself is approximately six feet in diameter,
and from this dimension the size of the meridian, of the horizon and of
the rest of the instrument can be obtained.

“Such a globe, so solidly made, so finely wrought, and in every part so
finely constructed and properly constituted never before in any part of
the world, so I believe and say without the thought of arousing envy,
has been completed. It is an immense and a magnificent work; so much so
that many have come from various countries to Denmark that they might
have a view of it together with my other instruments, while the Kingdom
of Urania and its far-famed citadel were standing.

“Around the horizon circle one could read in letters of gold ‘In the
year of Christ CIƆ IƆ XXCIV (1584), Frederick II reigning in Denmark,
this globe like unto a celestial machine, in which are fixed the stars
of the eighth sphere as set down on his globe each exactly in its place,
also the wandering stars as they appear among these, Tycho Brahe, to all
on earth who desire to understand this matter, shows the heavens by this
mechanical device which he perfected for his sons, for himself and for

“The date 1584 is inscribed hereon because that is the middle of the
period of time in which it was in the process of construction, and
further it is the year before the death of King Frederick of most worthy
memory, who liberally supported both myself and my work, and his
princely love followed me as long as he lived. I will add only this one
thing—this globe has a canopy indicated by Y Z (Fig. 77) circular, and
concave within to enclose the upper half of the globe, which canopy,
fastened to the roof by a chain, may be let down as a protection from
dust and from other injury. The use of the globe is the same as is that
of others, and this use I have decided to describe in a special work
during my leisure time, since it cannot be done in few words. This globe
has, on account of its great size, an advantage over all others, namely
that all details on it can be given with the utmost exactness and
minuteness. And those points concerning the doctrine of the _primum
mobilum_ and the study of the heavenly bodies in their relations to the
position of the ecliptic and the equator and of certain other circles on
the globe, are easily determined with a minimum of trouble and without
any laborious effort, by the machine.”

[Illustration: GLOBVS MAGNVS ORICHALCICUS. Fig. 77. Globus Magnus of
Tycho Brahe, 1584.]

Van Raemdonck refers to a globe by Titon du Tillet, of the year 1584,
citing a reference to this work to be found in “Memoirs lus à la
Sorbonne.” We have been unable to obtain concerning Titon any additional
information to that given in the above citations.[357]

In March, 1861, the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris acquired by purchase
a copper engraved globe mounted on a metal base.[358] The record
referring to the purchase reads “Trouvé à Lignières (Cher) et provenant
de l’abbé L’Écuy.” (Fig. 78.)

[Illustration: Fig. 78. L’Écuy Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1578.]

Aside from its geographical interest it is particularly significant in
that it is the only globe of metal known to have been made in Rouen in
that period. It is neither signed nor dated, but its inscriptions seem
to assure us that it was not made prior to 1578, yet in all probability
before 1600. It seems not to be known how the globe found its way into
the locality designated. The Abbé L’Écuy died in Paris in the year
1634 at the age of eighty-four, Vicar General of the Prebendary of Nôtre
Dame. It is probable that at the death of the Abbé the globe was taken
to the province of Cher by some dealer or purchaser, as he was born in
the town Yvoi-Carignan in French Luxembourg. Of the earliest history of
this remarkably interesting object we know only that it was made in
Rouen, at a date we cannot definitely fix.

It has a diameter of 25.6 cm. In an oval cartouch one finds the
inscription “Nova et integra universi orbis descriptio. Rothomagi.” “A
new and complete description of the world. Rouen.” Below the last line
there appears to be space left for the insertion of the author’s name, a
thought suggested by the arrangement for the inscription, and underneath
the cartouch is engraved a representation of Neptune driving his sea
horses and chariot and armed with a trident. There are numerous vessels
represented on the globe, sailing the seas, in the style of the
sixteenth century. The prime meridian passes through the Canary Islands.
The author seems to have drawn largely from Spanish sources, but to some
extent from the Portuguese.

The outlines of the several countries of the Old World are not
particularly well drawn, and it does not appear that the author thought
of making an especial point of accuracy. Africa has the outlines of the
maps of the sixteenth century, but with an indifference to details. The
Senegal and the Niger are made to unite to form the Nile. Asia is not
particularly well drawn. Below the island of Cipango the author has
engraved the following legend, “Hoc loco secuti sumus recentiores hanc
partem verius a continente separantes.” “In this place we have followed
the most recent (observers) who rightly separate this part from the

The western coast of America gives evidence of a want of detailed
knowledge. Here we read “Haec littora nondum cognita,” “this coast is
not yet known,” and below this, “Novus orbis,” and “Hispania major a
Nuño Gusmano devicta anno 1539,” “Greater Spain conquered by Nuño Gusman
in the year 1539.” California is represented as a peninsula and not an
island as on so many of the maps of the closing years of the sixteenth
century. The nomenclature along the coast of Mexico is exceedingly rich.
Pizarro’s conquest is referred to, but Chili is unknown, “Ulterius
incognitum.” The estuary of La Plata is represented as very large. The
coast names north of Florida seem to have been obtained from the
Verrazano sources of 1524. In the region of Newfoundland, which is
represented as a region of numerous small islands, we find “Baccalearum
regio,” “Gamas,” “insule Corteralis,” “terro de laborador.” The strait
separating Greenland from the mainland is referred to as “Fretum
arcticum per quod Lusitani in orientem et ad Indos et Molucas navigare
conati sunt,” “Arctic strait through which the Portuguese attempted to
sail to the east and to the Indies and the Moluccas,” an allusion to the
unhappy results of the Cortereal expedition. Along the coast of the
strait which forms the northern boundary of North America we read “Terra
per Britannos inventa,” “Land discovered by the British.” A very curious
legend along the east coast of Greenland reads “Quii populi ad quos
Joañes Scovus Danus pervenit anno 1476,” “These are the people to whom
the Dane John Scovus came in the year 1476.” Humboldt was one of the
first to call attention to this expedition, and Gomara was actually the
first to mention it, that is, to give a reference to the Dane

There are no more interesting survivals among the globes of the late
sixteenth century than are those constructed by Emery Molyneux, now
belonging to the Middle Temple Library of London (Fig. 79), which Sir
Clements Markham refers to as “their burial place,” considering this to
be “a strange depository for geographical documents of such interest and
importance.” In the address “To the Reader” or preface to his ‘Voyages,’
Hakluyt gives the first reference in print to these globes. “Nowe,” he
says, “because peraduenture it would bee expected as necessarie, that
the descriptions of so many parts of the world would farre more easily
be conceiued of the Readers, by adding Geographicall, and
Hydrographicall tables thereunto, thou art by the way to be admonished
that I have contented my selfe with inserting into the worke one of the
best generall mappes of the world onely, untill the coming out of a very
large and most exact terrestriall Globe, collected and reformed
according to the newest, secretest, and latest discoueries, both
Spanish, Portugall, and English, composed by M. Emmerie Mollineux of
Lambeth, a rare gentleman in his profession, being therein for diuers
yeeres, gratly supported by the purse and liberalitie of the worshipfull
marchant M. William Sanderson.”[360] It was not until near the close of
the year 1592 that the globes were completed, and soon thereafter we
have their first printed description, which description was given by Dr.
Hood of Trinity College, Cambridge, a lecturer on mathematics and
navigation in the city of London.[361] Blundeville, in his
‘Exercises,’[362] refers to them, and in 1594 Robert Hues published the
first edition of his most valuable and interesting treatise on globes,
bearing the title, ‘Tractatus de Globis et eorum usu, accomodatus iis
qui Londini editi sunt anno 1593,’ taking the Molyneux globes as the
basis for his observations.

[Illustration: Fig 79. Terrestrial Globe of Emery Molyneux, 1592.]

Very little is known of the life of Molyneux. He appears to have been a
member of the Cavendish expedition of the years 1586-1588, as is
suggested by one of the legends on his terrestrial globe. He was known
to Sir Walter Raleigh, to Richard Hakluyt, to Edward Wright, and to John
Davis. To the suggestions of the last-named we perhaps owe the existence
of these globes.[363] As noted by Hakluyt in his preface, the globes
were constructed at the expense of William Sanderson, a merchant prince
of London, a liberal and patriotic citizen, one interested in
geographical exploration, who had fitted out the Davis Arctic

Sir Clements Markham, in his edition of Robert Hues’ ‘Tractatus de
Globis,’[364] edited for the Hakluyt Society and published in the year
1889, gives in his introduction the following brief but adequate
description of these globes: “The Molyneux globes are 2 feet 2 inches in
diameter, and are fixed on stands. They have graduated brass meridians,
and on that of the terrestrial globe a dial circle or ‘Horarius’ is
fixed. The broad wooden equator, forming the upper part of the stand, is
painted with the zodiac signs, the months, the Roman calendar, the
points of the compass, and the same in Latin, in concentric circles.
Rhumb lines are drawn from numerous centers over the surface of the
terrestrial globe. The equator, the ecliptic, the polar circles are
painted boldly; while the parallels of latitude and meridians, at every
ten degrees, are very faint lines. The globe received additions,
including the discoveries of Barents in Novaya Zemlya, and the date has
been altered with a pen from 1592 to 1603. The constellations and fixed
stars on the celestial globe are the same as those on the globe of
Mercator, except that the Southern Cross has been added. On both the
celestial and the terrestrial globes of Molyneux there is a square label
with this inscription ‘This globe, belonging to the Middle Temple, was
repaired in the year 1818 by J. and W. Newton, Globe Makers, Chancery

“Over North America are the arms of France and England quarterly;
supporters, a lion and dragon; motto of the garter; crown, crest, and
baldrequin; standing on a label, with a long dedication to Queen

“The achievement of Mr. William Sanderson is painted on the imaginary
southern continent to the south of Africa. The crest is a globe with the
sun’s rays behind. It stands on a squire’s helmet with baldrequin. The
shield is quarterly; 1st, paly of six azure and argent, over all a bend
sable for Sanderson; 2nd, gules, lions, and castles in the quarters for
Skirne alias Castilion; 3rd, or, a chevron between 3 eagles displayed
sable, in chief a label of three points sable for Wall; 4th,
quarterly, or and azure, over all a bend gules for Langston. Beneath
there is an address from William Sanderson to the gentle reader, English
and Latin, in parallel columns.

“In the north polar regions there are several new additions, delineating
the discoveries of English and Dutch explorers for the first time. John
Davis wrote, in his ‘World’s Hydrographical Discovery’: ‘How far I
proceeded doth appear on the globe made by Master Emerie Molyneus.’
Davis Strait is shown with all the names on its shores which were given
by its discoverer, and the following legend ‘Joannes Davis Anglus anno
1583-86-87 littora Americae circumspectantia a quinquagesimo quinto
grado ad 73 sub polarem scrutando perlegit.’ (‘John Davis, an Englishman
in the years 1583-86-87, gave these names when he mapped the shores of
America lying between the parallels of 55 degrees and 73 degrees north
latitude.’) On another legend we have ‘Additions in the north parts to
1603’; and below it are the discoveries of Barents, with his Novaya
Zemlya winter quarters—‘Het behouden huis.’ Between Novaya Zemlya and
Greenland there is an island called ‘Sir Hugo Willoghbi his land.’ This
insertion arose from a great error in longitude, Willoughby having
sighted the coast of Novaya Zemlya; and the island, of course had no
existence, though it long remained on the maps. To the north of Siberia
there are two legends, ‘Rd. Cancelarius et Stephanus Burrow Angli
Lappiae et Coreliae oras marinas et Simm. S. Nicolai vulgo dictum anno
1553 menso Augusto exploraverunt’ (‘Richard Chancelor and Stephen Burrow
Englishmen explored the shore of Lapland and Corelia, and of Simm. S.
Nicolai commonly so called, in the month of August 1553’), and ‘Joannes
Mandevillanus eques Anglius ex Anglia anno 1332 Cathaiae et Tartariae
regiones penetravenit.’ (‘John Mandeville an English knight from England
in the year 1322 entered the regions of Cathay and Tartary.’)

“Many imaginary islands, in the Atlantic, are retained on the globe:
including ‘Frisland,’ ‘Buss Ins,’ ‘Brasil,’ ‘Maidas,’ ‘Heptapolis,’ ‘St.
Brandan.’ On the eastern side of North America are the countries of
Florida, Virginia, and Norumbega; and also a large town of Norumbega up
a gulf full of islands.

“The learned Dr. Dee had composed a treatise on the title of Queen
Elizabeth to Norumbega; and in modern times Professor Horsford has
written a memoir to identify Norumbega with a site up the Charles River,
near Boston. On the Atlantic, near the American coast, is the following
legend ‘Virginia primum lustrata, habitata, et cultu ab Anglis impensis
D. Gualteri de Ralegh Equitis Aurati ammenti Elizabethae Angliae
Reginae.’ (‘Virginia first surveyed, inhabited and cultivated by the
English at the expense of Sir Walter Raleigh, Knight, subsidized by the
gold of Elizabeth Queen of England.’)

“A legend in the Pacific Ocean furnishes direct evidence that
information, for compiling the globe was supplied by Sir Walter Raleigh.
It is in Spanish: ‘Islas estas descubrio Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa por
la Corona de Castella y Leon desde el ano 1568 llamolas Islas de Jesus
aunque vulfarmente las llaman Islas de Salomon.’ (‘Pedro Sarmiento of
Gamboa discovered these islands in the year 1568 for the crown of
Castile and Leon calling them the Islands of Jesus though they are
commonly called the Salomon Islands.’)

“Pedro Sarmiento was the officer who was sent to fortify the Strait of
Magellan after Drake had passed through. He was taken prisoner by an
English ship on his way to Spain, and was the guest of Raleigh in London
for several weeks, so that it must have been on information communicated
by Raleigh that the statement respecting Sarmiento on this legend was

“Besides ‘Insulae Salmonis’ there are two islands in the Pacific, ‘Y
Sequenda de los Tubarones,’ and ‘San Pedro,’ as well as the north coast
of New Guinea, with the names given on Mercator’s map.

“Cavendish also appears to have given assistance, or possibly Molyneux
himself accompanied that circumnavigator in his voyage of 1587. The
words of a legend off the Patagonian coast seem to countenance this
idea, reading, ‘Thomas Caundish 18 Dec. 1587 haec terra sub nostris
oculis primum obtulit sub latitud 47 cujus seu admodum salubris Incolae
maturi ex parte proceri sunt gigantes et vasti magnitudinis.’

“The great southern continent is made to include Tierra del Fuego and
the south coast of Magellan’s Strait, and extends over the greater part
of the south frigid zone.

“S. Matheo, an island in the Atlantic, south of the line, was visited by
the Spanish ships under Loaysa and Sebastian del Cano, but has never
been seen since. It appears on the globe. In the south Atlantic there
are painted a sea-serpent, a whale, Orpheus riding on a dolphin, and
ships under full sail—fore and main courses and topsails, a sprit sail,
and the mizzen with a long lateen yard.

“The track of the voyage of Sir Francis Drake and Master Thomas
Cavendish round the world are shown, the one by a red and the other by a
blue line. That these tracks were put on when the globe was first made
is proved by the reference to them in Blundeville’s ‘Exercises.’

“The name of the author of the globe is thus given: ‘Emerum Mullineus
Angl. sumptibus Guilelm Sanderson Londinensis descripsit.’”

Markham likewise tells us that the celestial globe, in its general
features, closely resembles the terrestrial. It carries the same arms of
Sanderson, and the same label of Newton, but a briefer dedication to the
Queen. It appears that the map was engraved and printed by Hondius of
Amsterdam, since it carries the brief legend “Judocus Hondius Fon. Sc.”
In addition to the Molyneux globes in the Middle Temple, a pair may be
found in the Royal Museum of Cassel. A detailed description of this
pair it has not been possible to obtain.

Jost Bürgi, a native of Lichtensteig in the Toggenburg, Switzerland, was
born in the year 1552 and died in Cassel in the year 1632.[365] Early in
life he became a clock maker’s apprentice, and for some time was engaged
with Dasypodius in the construction of the famous Strassburg Cathedral
clock. In the year 1579 he was called to the court of Landgrave William
IV in Cassel, under whose patronage he won great distinction as a maker
of astronomical and mathematical instruments. In the year 1603 he was
called into the service of the Emperor at Prague, but in the year 1631
he returned to Cassel, where he died in the following year. Bürgi,
skilful workman that he was, seems not to have found time to tell in
words of his various activities. “He found pleasure in work,” says one
of his biographers, and left it for others to write of his attainments,
which, it may here be said, they seem not to have done in a very
detailed manner.

Landgrave William’s interest in the promotion of scientific studies led
him to the founding of a museum to which he made numerous contributions
of apparatus, mathematical and astronomical. This museum, in the course
of years, became one of the most famous of its kind in all Europe, and
indeed remains such to this day. In its collections the work of Bürgi is
well represented, which in the quality of the workmanship exhibited, as
in the interest it awakens by reason of its place as a nucleus around
which so much of value has been gathered, is unsurpassed.

Among the first of his instruments may be mentioned an astronomical
clock, elaborately wrought, with movable discs and circles for
illustrating the movements of the heavenly bodies, and surmounted with
an engraved celestial globe, which, driven by clockwork, is made to turn
on its axis once in twenty-four hours. It seems evident that Bürgi
constructed other clocks of like character, supplied, as is this
example, with a celestial globe.

In this same Museum of Cassel there is a second celestial globe, the
work of Bürgi, which was begun in the year 1585, and not entirely
completed until the year 1693 by Heinrich van Lannep. This copper
sphere, 72 cm. in diameter, is remarkably well preserved. It has a heavy
brass meridian circle to which is attached an engraved hour circle 46
cm. in diameter. A large brass semicircle intersects this meridian
circle at right angles through the north pole, and is attached to the
horizon circle at its extremities. The instrument rests upon an artistic
and substantial brass support. On the surface of the sphere are engraved
the principal celestial circles, including the colures, the equator, the
tropics, the polar circles, the ecliptic, and twelve parallels. The
stars, of which the largest are distinguished by a bit of inlaid silver,
and the several figures of the constellations which are very
artistically engraved, are clearly the work of a master.

A third globe of gilded brass, containing clockwork within by means of
which it is made to revolve and apparently the work of Bürgi, may also
be found in this Cassel collection. A small silver sun, movable along
the equator, is mechanically attached in such manner as to serve
admirably for demonstrative purposes. The engraved surface of the globe
is equal in its artistic merits to that of the copper globe referred to

There is yet a fourth metal globe in this collection, apparently the
work of Bürgi, which is not gilded. In other respects it is said to
resemble the one designated above as the third globe. Kepler is said to
have held in the highest esteem the scientific work of Bürgi, and to
have placed him, within his field, as high as he did Albrecht Dürer
among artists. There appears to be good reason for attributing the
invention of the pendulum clock to Jost Bürgi, and that before 1600 he
had proved this method of clock regulation practical.

Among the numerous and interesting treasures to be found in the
Landesmuseum of Zürich is a terrestrial globe (Fig. 80) having neither
name of maker nor date of construction, but belonging, undoubtedly, to
the late sixteenth century.[366] The sphere has a diameter of about 121
cm., is mounted on a substantial wooden base, and appears to have been
made for the monastery of St. Gall, from which place it was taken to
Zürich in the year 1712. On the semicircular arms which support the
equatorial circle are represented the armorial bearings of the abbey and
monks of St. Gall, and the date in gold, 1595, which may refer to the
date of construction or to the date when it was placed in the monastery.
On the equatorial circle one finds represented the signs of the zodiac,
the calendar, the names of the saints and of the winds. On the heavy
meridian circle are indicated the climatic zones and the degrees of
latitude. The prime meridian is made to pass through the Azores Islands.
The sphere is of papier-mâché and plaster, on which the engraved gores
are mounted. The seas have been colored green, the lands a dull yellow,
the mountain ranges brown. Numerous barbaric kings are represented in
picture, likewise numerous animals of land and sea, and ships
artistically drawn sail hither and thither over the oceans. The austral
continent is wanting. Marcel especially notes the striking resemblance
of the globe map to the Mercator map of 1569, suggesting the possibility
of its Mercatorian origin, in support of which suggestion he quotes a
number of geographical names as well as certain legends. The globe, it
appears, has never been critically studied, but is clearly an
interesting geographical monument of the period.

[Illustration: Fig. 80. Anonymous Terrestrial Globe, ca. 1595.]

The making of globe-goblets in the latter half of the sixteenth century
and early seventeenth appears to have been in response to a fashion
especially pronounced in South Germany, although their construction was
not limited to that region. Not a few of such globes are extant, which
are fine examples of the metal worker’s art, having, however, a
decorative rather than a scientific value.

Professor Fischer gives us an interesting description of such a goblet
of gilded silver (Fig. 81), dating from the end of the sixteenth or the
beginning of the seventeenth century, and it is from his account that
the following reference is taken.[367] This piece he pronounces the most
valuable treasure in the plate room of the princely castle of Wolfegg,
to which castle it was the author’s privilege to pay a most interesting
visit more than a decade ago. The globe was long considered a
christening gift from the Emperor Francis to his godson Francis of the
Waldburg zu Wolfegg princely family and was supposed to date from the
end of the eighteenth century. Professor Fischer, however, found this
“globis terrestris” referred to in a testament dated January 17, 1779,
with instructions that it, with certain other treasures, should not be
recast or otherwise altered from its ancient form. It was at that time
recognized as a masterpiece, but from the hands of an unknown master,
and not until recently was it definitely determined to be the work of
the Zürich goldsmith, Abraham Gessner (1552-1613). “Gessner appears to
have manufactured his globe-goblets,” says Fischer, “not in response to
orders previously given, but in the regular pursuit of his trade. At a
time when rich merchants and scholars took such a lively interest in
geography, and the opening up of new countries, he could count upon a
market all the more readily because his goblets were made with the
utmost care in every detail and were perfect examples of the various
branches of the goldsmith’s art; casting, embossing, chasing, engraving,
and solid gilding.”[368]

[Illustration: Fig. 81. Globe-Goblet of Abraham Gessner, ca. 1600.]

The goblet is 58 cm. in height. Its larger globe, a terrestrial, is
composed of two hemispheres joined on the line of the equator, and has a
diameter of 17 cm. The support is a standing figure of Atlas, which also
serves as a stem of the lower half or the lower goblet, just as the
celestial sphere with its support which tops the piece serves as the
stem of the upper half or upper goblet.

The oceans, lakes, and rivers have a silver surface, while the
continents, islands, sea monsters, sailing vessels, principal parallels,
and meridians are gilded. The continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa,
and the “terra australis sive Magallanica” have their outlines drawn in
the main as they appear on Mercator’s map of 1569. While certain recent
discoveries as “Nowaja Semlja” (Nova Zembla) are represented, it does
not appear that Gessner was inclined to insist on his map records being
laid down with the strictest accuracy as to geographical detail.

The celestial globe topping the goblet is given an artistic setting. It
is furnished with horizon, meridian, and hour circles. The several
constellations represented on the surface of the sphere are, through
gilding, given special prominence, their execution, like other parts of
the piece, being of the finest workmanship.

The figure of Atlas supporting the globes exhibits skill in its
construction. It stands with one foot slightly advanced, with the right
hand extended upward as if to catch the ball should it fall from the
head of the figure. The hair and the beard are gilded, as is also the
drapery, one end of which hangs loosely over the right shoulder, while
the other covers the front of the body and is held in the left hand at
the back, being made to serve in part as a support.

Fischer calls attention to two globe-goblets belonging to the University
of Basel and to one privately owned; to one in the town hall of
Rappoltsweiler; one in what was formerly the Rothschild Collection of
Frankfurt, and to one in the Museum of Stockholm, once the property of
Gustavus Adolphus, which probably is the one elsewhere referred to; and
he also calls attention to an undated globe-goblet, purchased in Paris
in the year 1901 by the Swiss National Museum of Zürich for the sum of
forty-two thousand francs. It had previously been referred to by Marcel
as the work of Gessner, in proof of which he noted that it bears the
mark of this goldsmith, the same being the letter “Z.” The terrestrial
globe, like that of Wolfegg, has a diameter of 17 cm., the whole being
very artistically designed and engraved. It, too, is surmounted by a
celestial globe and rests on a figure of Atlas, which figure in turn
stands upon an ornamental base. Each of the two globes can be opened on
the line of the equator, thus practically making four drinking cups. On
the terrestrial globe, Marcel notes, California is represented as an
island. Near “Nova Guinea” one finds the inscription “Nova Guinea semper
inventa qual ... insula an pars continentas australis.” A large austral
land is represented with the inscription “Hanc continentem australem
nonvulli Magelanicam regionem ab ejus inventore nuncupant.” The absence
of the Strait of Lemaire and of New Zealand, with the representation of
the austral land with more or less indefinite outline, Marcel thinks
warrants a belief that it was constructed near the close of the
sixteenth century. Attention is likewise called by Marcel in his article
to three other small globes which he found in the Museum des Cordeliers
of Basel, and also to one “très beau et très riche” in the Museé Ariana
of Geneva.

A very artistic gold beaker globe (Fig. 82) may be found in the
collection presented by Mr. J. P. Morgan to the Metropolitan Museum of
New York City. The sphere of this, which opens on the line of the
ecliptic, has a diameter of 8 cm. and rests upon the figure of a satyr
with uplifted hands forming a part of the support, this figure in turn
resting upon an ornamental circular base. Topping the sphere is a small
figure of Neptune carrying a trident and standing in a shell or
conventionalized small boat. The engraved figures of the many
constellations decorate the surface of the sphere.

[Illustration: Fig. 82. Gold Globe-Goblet, ca. 1575.]

In the private library of Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan may be found a fine
example of an ivory terrestrial globe of this period (Fig. 83). It is
hollow, being composed of two hemispheres joined on the line of the
equator, and has a diameter of about 8 cm. Near the south pole is the
author and date legend (Figs. 84, 84a) “Antonius Spano tropiensis fecit
1593.” “Made by Antonio Spano of Tropea, 1593.” In the unnamed southern
continent, and over a representation of the Spanish arms, is the
dedication to the Infante Philip, afterward Philip III, reading
“Principi Philip. Philip II Hisp. Indiar. Neap. e Siciliae Cathol. Regis
Filio,” and within the Antarctic circle a salutation reading “Princeps
felicissime totus Orbis ad se gubernandum te vocat et expectat.” “O most
fortunate ruler, the whole world calls and awaits you to govern it.”
Antonio, a native of Tropea, near Naples, was granted in the year 1595 a
pension of one hundred ducats, by his master and patron, Philip II. This
he seems to have enjoyed until his death, which occurred in Madrid in
the year 1615. We learn that this was continued to his son, Francisco
Spano, by King Philip III. The mounting of the globe, which is simple,
seems to be of a later date than that given as the year of construction
in the date legend, but it is well suited to the artistic piece. The
world map is well executed, and may be said to be in a perfect state of
preservation. Its geographical details, in so far as given, are quite as
good as the best to be found at this time, though it is very evident
that the piece was primarily intended to possess decorative rather than
scientific value. The Mediterranean region gives us in its general
features a representation of the Ptolemaic ideas, particularly to be
observed in the representation of Italy and the Caspian Sea. In Chinese
Asia appears a legend reading, “Hic artem impremendi ante mille años
habuerunt.” “Here they had the art of printing a thousand years ago.”

[Illustration: Fig. 83. Ivory Terrestrial Globe of Antonio Spano, 1593.]

[Illustration: Fig. 84. South Polar Region on Globe of Antonio Spano,

[Illustration: Fig. 84a. South Polar Region on Globe of Jodocus Hondius,

In “Ratai” (Katai) a flag is represented reminding of Marco Polo, and
near this the legend “His magnus Cham Tartarorum et Chataiae imperator
longe dominatur.”

In this Asiatic region we find such names as “Tabin,” “Ania,” “Quinsai,”
“Catigara,” “Zaiton,” “India Orientalis.” “Stretto Anian” appears as
a long channel. In Africa we read, “His Imperator magnus Presbyter
Africae Rex potentis mus.” In the New World we find “America sive India
nova,” which is not connected with Asia. The coast in the northern
regions is better drawn than in the southern. The St. Lawrence River is
represented, but the Great Lakes are omitted. “Estland,” “Frisland,” and
“St. Brandan” are laid down. The austral land, as represented, is very
large, being designated “Terra Australis: Vastissimas his esse regiones
ex M. Pauli Ven. et Lud. Vartomani scriptis perigrinationibus constat.”
“Austral land: here is known to be a very extensive region referred to
in the travel records of Marco Polo and of Ludovico Vartema.” Mr.
Beazley says of the globe that it once belonged to the Kempenaer family
of Leenwarden, and was later acquired by Mr. H. J. Pfungst through the
firm of Miller & Company of Amsterdam.[369] It later passed into the
library of Mr. Morgan.

As noted at the beginning of this chapter, leadership in globe and map
making, in the closing years of the century, was passing into the
Netherlands, which in the second quarter of the century had contributed
in this field of scientific endeavor the great Mercator. His influence,
as was also noted, found its way into Italy and into favor with certain
globe makers, although the individualistic spirit of the Italians seemed
to show a marked preference for manuscript and engraved metal globes. In
the front rank of those who were to lead the Low Countries into their
place of preëminence stood the Van Langren family, the father, Jacobus
Florentius, as he was accustomed to call himself, and the sons, Arnoldus
Florentius, Henricus Florentius, and Michael Florentius.[370] The father
was a native of Denmark, but sometime prior to 1580 he transferred his
residence to Arnhem in Gelderland, and later to Amsterdam. Legends on
his oldest extant globe give us to understand that at the time of its
construction he labored jointly with his son Arnold in this work, these
legends reading “Jacobus Florentius Ultrajectensis autor,” and
“Arnoldus Florentius filius sculptor Amstelodami 1585,” that is, the
father was the author and the son was the engraver.

In the early seventeenth century the family left Amsterdam, going to
Antwerp in the Spanish Netherlands. Here in the year 1609, according to
an Antwerp record, Arnold constructed a “Sphaera Mundi,” which he
dedicated to the chief magistrate of that city, receiving therefor 120
Artois livres. It probably was not long after this date that he was
appointed Globe Maker of the Archdukes, a title he retained until the
death of the Archduke Albert in the year 1621, and a somewhat later
record tells us that he was honored shortly after that event by an
appointment to the office of Royal Cosmographer and Pensioner of His
Majesty the Catholic King. Michael became a resident of Brussels, where
he carried on his work as an engraver, particularly of maps, but it was
as an astronomer that he won special distinction, having given much
attention to the investigations of methods for the determination of
longitude and he is further credited with having given the so-called
seas of the moon the names by which they are still known.

As globe maker perhaps the greater honor is due Jacobus Florentius,
since it appears that Arnold, though perhaps the more active, reproduced
in the main only the works of his father, adding improvement here and
there and endeavoring, perhaps in part for business reasons, to keep his
globe maps up to date. Reference has been made above to the oldest
extant Van Langren globe, which bears the date 1585. Van der Aa refers
to a request of Arnold Floris van Langelaer and of his father, Jacob
Floris van Langelaer, presented to the States of Gelderland and
accompanying a copy of his globe, which seems to have been dated 1580.
Of this globe it is stated that it was “een seer correcte ende schoone
Globum terrestrem, van de grootste forme,” and that it was inscribed as
is that of the year 1585. A doubt, however, arises as to the accuracy of
the date 1580, since Van der Aa states in the same article that
Arnoldus was born in the year 1571. This particular globe was formerly
kept in the “Geldersch Gerichtshof,” as Van Hasselt tells us, but since
the destruction of that court nothing has been known of the inventory of
the objects which had been placed therein. In support, however, of an
early date, perhaps 1580, for the first Van Langren globe, we find in
the dedication of a work by Nicolas Petri, published in the year 1588,
and issued as a manual for the use of globes, that it was especially
made for the use of a Van Langren globe. In this work the author is
represented in picture in the act of examining a globe, a picture
practically the same as that appearing in a work by Petri issued in the
year 1583. It seems, therefore, not to be an erroneous inference that
the author gives us here a representation of the Van Langren globe of
1580, which is wanting much in the accuracy with which its details are

The globe of 1585, referred to above as the oldest extant of Van
Langren, may be found in the collection of the Museo dell’ Osservatorio
del Collegio Romano (Fig. 84). The dedication under an elaborately
colored coat of arms of Denmark reads, “Serenissimo atque potentissimo
Principi Domino D. Christiano nn. Daniae Norvegiae Vandalorum et
Gothorum Regi Duci Slesvivi Holsatiae Stormariae et Dithmortiae Comiti
Oldenburgi et Del menorsti Jacobus Florentius dedicabat.” “To the Most
Serene and mighty Prince Lord D. Christian King of Denmark, Norway, the
Wends and the Goths, Duke of Schleswick Holstein, Stormarn, Ditmarsh,
Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst (this globe) is dedicated by Jacobus
Florent.” The usual letter to the reader or to the one who might have
occasion to make use of the globe gives the information: “In
descriptione hujus globi ubiq: sequuti sumus castigatissimas Tabulas
geographicas quibus Hispani et Lusitani in suis americis et indicis
navigationibus utantur; aliorumque probatissimas Septentrionalium
regionum descriptiones. De nostro suis locis addidimus quadrata ut
vocant nautica et ventorum regiones quae omnia ad usum navigantium ad
amussim accomodavimus quaemadmodum Geographiae candidati propius
inspiciendo reperient. Vale fruere.” “In the construction of this globe
I have everywhere made use of the most accurate geographical tables,
such as were used by the Spaniards and the Portuguese in their voyages
to America and the East Indies; as also for the northern regions the
very best drawings of others. My own contribution has been to insert in
the proper places the nautical squares, as they are called, and the
directions of the winds, all of which I have carefully adapted to the
need of the navigator, as experts in geography will, on examination,
recognize. Farewell and may you be happy.” In a cartouch on the left we
read “Jacobus Florentius Ultrajectensis autor,” and on the right
“Arnoldus Florentius filius sculptor Amstelodami 1585.” The sphere,
which is hollow, is constructed of wooden strips covered with a
preparation of plaster. It has a diameter of about 32 cm. and is
therefore slightly smaller than is the Mercator globe of 1541. It is
furnished with a graduated brass meridian circle and with a horizon
circle of the same material, which is supported by four arms or
quadrants upheld by a simple base. The engraved gores pasted on the ball
are twelve in number and extend to within twenty degrees of the poles,
the remaining space being covered with an engraved circular disc, in
accord with a method first employed by Mercator. The surface of the
globe is not well preserved, yet notwithstanding the injuries which time
has brought to it, it remains a masterpiece of engraving and a valuable
geographical record of that early day. Its numerous inscriptions are of
much interest. We read, for example, in latitude 35 degrees south and
longitude 185 degrees, “Vastissimas hic esse regiones ex M. Pauli Veneti
et Ludovico Vartomanni scriptis peregrinationibus liquido constat.” “The
voyage of Marco Polo and of Ludovico Varthema make it certain that an
enormous territory exists here.” In latitude 16 degrees south and
longitude 175 degrees is the legend, “Moluccae vocantur 5 insulae
ordine postiae juxta Gilolo quarum suprema Tarenare deinceps Tidore
Motir Machiam et infima Bachiam.” “The Moluccas is the name given to the
five islands in a row close to Gilolo, the uppermost of which is
Tarenare, then Tidore, Motir, Machiam, and the lowest Bachiam.” In
latitude 10 degrees south and longitude 348 degrees we read, “Marañon
fluvius investus fuit a Vincentio Yañes Pinzon an: 1499 et an: 1542
totus a fontibus fere ad ostia usq: divulgatus a Francesco Oregliana
leucis 1560 mensibus 8 dulces in mari servat aquas usque 40 leucis.”
“The Amazon River was discovered by Vicente Yañez Pinzon in 1499, while
in 1542 Francisco Orellana explored it a distance of 1560 leagues or
almost its entire length from source to mouth in eight months. In the
sea its waters are still fresh forty leagues from land.” The following
is placed in latitude 28 degrees north and longitude 320 degrees, “A. D.
1492. 12 octobris Christophorus Columbus novam Indiam nomine regis
Castellae delexit, prima terra quam conquisit fuit Haiti nunc
Hispaniola.” “October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus took possession of
New India in the name of the King of Castile. The first land he
conquered was called Haiti now called Hispaniola.” In latitude 65
degrees north and longitude 230 degrees is the legend, “Regio deserta in
qua equi oves et boves silvestres sunt plurimi quales esse in una
Hebridum insularum narratur.” “A desert country in which there are a
great many wild horses, sheep and cattle, as is said to be the case in
one of the Hebrides.”

That this Van Langren globe was well received by his contemporaries
seems to be witnessed by the special privilege granted September 9,
1592, to Jacobus Florentius a Langren by the Estates of Amsterdam to
issue the same.[371] On presenting his request for the privilege the
author states that he was the inventor of globes of this character, that
his globes were unsurpassed in the matter of correctness by any which
had been previously issued, and that with the aid of his globes certain
Dutch navigators had sailed to Pernambuco in Brazil, to the island of
St. Thomas under the equator, to the Isle de Principe and to other
places. This privilege was renewed to him and to his sons Arnoldus and
Henricus in the year 1596. In the following year the Estates General
granted a privilege to Jodocus Hondius, who had constructed a globe in
England in the year 1593, of which, however, no example appears now to
be known. The Van Langrens contested this claim at law, the results of
which contest seem not to be recorded, but we know that Jodocus Hondius
enumerated at this time what he considered to be the particular points
in which his own globes excelled.[372] In his report he enumerated no
less than fourteen important geographical discoveries which were not
represented on the globes of his opponents, the Van Langrens, the
majority of which, as corrections, seem to have been accepted, since
they appear on the later Van Langren globes and not on the earlier, that
is, on the one of 1585.

The Kon. Nederl. Aardrijkskundig Genootschap has recently come into
possession of the finest known example of the Van Langren globes (Fig.
85), as indeed it is one of the finest extant globes of that
period.[373] The engraved gores, twelve in number, are pasted on a
hollow sphere of papier-mâché and plaster, having a diameter of 52.8 cm.
It is furnished with a graduated copper meridian circle within which it
is adjusted to revolve, a horizon circle of wood on which appear the
names of the winds in Greek, Latin, and Dutch, the names of the months,
the names of the principal feast days, and the signs of the zodiac, the
whole resting on a base of oak having six supporting columns. As an
example of the engraver’s art the map which covers the sphere is one of
superior excellence. A manuscript dedication, pasted on its surface near
the “Mar di India” and surmounted by a representation of the Spanish
coat of arms, reads, “Collegio Ratiociniorum Brabanti regnantibus;
Alberto et Isabellae Opt. Max. Belgii Principibus. Singulari observantia
Dedicabat Arnoldus Florentinus a Langren. Ano Dni 1612.” “To the
College of Computations of Brabant, to Albert and Isabella, the very
great Princes of Belgium, Arnold Florentius van Langren dedicates with
great respect (this globe) in the year 1612.” Beneath “Nova Guinea” is
given the privilege “Cautum est privilegio ordinum Confoederatorum
Inferioris Germaniae, ne quis alius ad decennium globum hunc terrestrem
absq. consensu Jacobi Florentii civis Amsteldamen. typis mandare vel
simili, vel alia forma excudere, vel alibi impressum adducere, aut
vendere ausit, sub poena in diplomate statuta, 1608.” “Warning is given
by the privilege (copyright) of the Confederated States of the
Netherlands that no other individual for a period of ten years, shall
venture to print in similar or in other form, to stamp (engrave) or make
an impression, or to sell, under penalty set down in the diploma, 1608.”
In this legend the date 1608 has been written over the engraved date

[Illustration: Fig. 85. Terrestrial Globe of Van Langren, 1612.]

Among the legends appearing in the southern hemisphere is one which is
but a repetition of that appearing in the edition of 1585 referring to
the source of information beginning, “In descriptio hujus ...” Beneath
the artistic cartouch wherein is placed the last-named legend is one in
which are recorded the names of the author and the engraver, “Jacobus
Florentius Ultrajectensis Author: Arnoldus Florentius filius sculptor
Amstelredami Ao. Dni,” the date, partially erased from the copper plate
employed in the printing, seems to read 1585. Certain regions are
adorned with pictures in which are represented the aborigines, and the
local fauna and flora. Sea monsters constitute a part of the decorative
features of the globe map, and ships sail hither and thither over the
oceans, carrying the flags of their respective countries. The author has
laid down the “Streto de Anian” which separated America from Asia, and
California is a peninsula. The “Quivira regnum” is made to include a
part of western North America, and the great stretch of country to the
west of the Mississippi appears to be the home of wild horses and
cattle. The eastern coast line of America included within the present
limits of the United States is represented with a remarkable approach to
accuracy, a portion of his information for that region being derived
from the report of Thomas Heriot. Following Mercator there have been
placed four large islands around the north pole, and in the north
Atlantic “Frisland,” “S. Brandain,” and “Brasil.” India, Australia, and
other regions of the Far East have been represented with remarkable
faithfulness to the latest and best records of Dutch navigators, and the
author profited by Dutch records of exploration in his representation of
the Nova Zembla region. There is yet a far from accurate delineation of
the great eastern archipelago. Java, Celebes, Borneo, and “Nova Guinea”
have been fairly well outlined, and about the south pole is that great
austral continent conspicuous on the maps of the period, but very
generally outlined as the fancy of the map maker directed.

In the library of the University of Ghent is a Van Langren terrestrial
globe undated but apparently completed not long after 1616, since it
directs attention to the Strait of Lemaire, discovered in that year. It
has the authors’ inscription “Jacobus Florentius Ultrajectensis Author.
Arnoldus Florentius filius sculptor Amsterdam,” and bears in addition
the legend “Arnoldus Florentius a Langren, Serenissum. Archiducu. Austr.
Burgundiae, Brabantiae, Ducum, Sphaereographus Author. Cum Privileg.”
“Arnoldus Florentius a Langren globe maker and author to the most Serene
Archduke of Austria, of Burgundy, Duke of Brabant. With privilege.” This
globe is described as one well preserved, resembling very closely that
of 1612, particularly in its geographical details as well as in its

The Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris possesses a Van Langren terrestrial
globe, with date illegible, but thought to be 1625, which appears to be
a reissue of the previous editions, especially of the later ones. A
legend including an address to the reader concludes with a reference to
the author “Arnoldus Florentio a Langren Reg. Cat. Majis. cosmografo et
pensionario.” “Arnoldus Florentius a Langren, cosmographer and pensioner
of His Catholic Majesty.”

There are two globes of Arnoldus, a celestial and a terrestrial,
formerly in the Municipal Archives of Antwerp, now in the
Plantin-Moritus Museum. An inscription on the celestial globe reads:
“Globus coelestis stellarum fixarum loca ipsis in coelo ad amussim
congrua repraesentans ad annum 1600 juxta accuratas observationes
Tychonis Brahe denuo ad annum 162- diligentiss. restitutus novis item
stellis 400 hactenus non notatis. Ornatusque trecentis stellis circa
polum antarcticum ab Houtmanno Holando observatis industria Arnoldi
Florentii van Langren Cosmographici, qui olim observationibus: Tyconis
interfuit. Operam sibi filii parenti felicissime contulerunt.” “A
celestial globe which represents the position of the fixed stars,
corresponding to the actual position of the stars in the sky in the year
1600, following the accurate observations of Tycho Brahe and with great
care again calculated for the year 162-: also 400 new stars are added
which had not hitherto been recorded. Also there have been added 300
south polar stars that were observed by Houtman of Holland. Constructed
by Arnold Florent van Langren, cosmographer who assisted Tycho in his
observations. The sons have aided their father with the happiest

The terrestrial globe, in a much better state of preservation, contains,
in a neat cartouch, an address to the reader, explaining the merits of
the globe map: “Quandoquidem quotidiana diversarum nationum, praecipue
tamen Holandorum navigatione omnes mundi plagas perlustrantium, varii
orbis tractus, remotae insulae et quamplurima regna hactenenus incognita
nunc in dies innotuere, et quae fuere cognita majori studio et situs
observatione perlustrata sunt. Prodit hic noster Globus multo
praecedentibus a nobis editis, qui primi in his provinciis prodierunt
accuratior et emendatior. In quo omnium locorum nomina, et quo tempore,
et cujus auspiciis quaeque detecta sint expressimus. Curavimus
praeterea non sine magno labore et cura, ut singulae Regiones, Insulae,
Portus, Braevia, et Scopuli suae longitudini et latitudini respondeant,
quibus Indices seu lineas ventorum ...” “Inasmuch as, on account of
voyages, daily undertaken by various nations, especially the Dutch, who
have sailed along all the coasts of the world, the various regions of
the earth, distant islands, and innumerable countries hitherto unknown,
have every day become better known (additional facts) and our knowledge
of those already discovered has become much clearer through a more
detailed examination and detailed observation, this present globe of
ours, presents itself to the public as one much more exact, more free
from errors than those previously issued by us, which were the first
ever presented to the public of these provinces. On it we have recorded
the names of all places, also when and under whose auspices they were
severally discovered. We have taken the greatest care and pains to make
the location of the various regions, islands, seaports, shoals, and
rocks correspond to the true latitude and longitude, whereby the
directions of the winds (loxodromic lines) ...” The concluding lines of
this address are illegible, but there seems to be nothing of special
importance lost. The author’s signature reads “Auctor Arnoldo Florentio
a Langre Reg. Cat: Maᵗⁱˢ Cosmographo et Pensionario.” “Author
Arnoldus Florentius a Langren, cosmographer and pensioner of His Royal
Catholic Majesty.”

A copy of a Van Langren globe may be found in the Museum of Zütphen, but
information concerning it has not been obtainable other than that it is
in a damaged condition, and is apparently another example of the one
referred to above as of 1612.

Among those interested in geography, in astronomy, and particularly in
the construction of armillary spheres in this period very special
mention should be made of Antonio Santucci. For some time he served
Prince, later Grand Duke, Ferdinand de’ Medici as his cosmographer. It
was during this period of service that he restored the famous
terrestrial globe of Egnazio Danti which was a particularly creditable
piece of work. In the year 1582 he constructed a large armillary sphere
composed of wooden rings, very artistically gilded and painted,
representing in particular the orbits of the planets. This the Prince is
said to have presented to one Battaglioni of Naples; further than this
fact nothing seems to be known of this particular example. In the year
1606, we are informed, he collected and sent to the Grand Duke a number
of valuable maps relating to Europe, Asia, Africa, and the West Indies,
and to the several separate countries of Europe. In the year 1619 he
published, through the favor of Duke Ferdinand, a treatise on comets and
the new stars appearing between the years 1577 and 1607. What is
probably the finest of all his spheres belongs to the Museo di Strumenti
Antichi of Florence, which has been restored and interestingly described
by the distinguished scholar, Ferdinand Meucci.[374] As an instrument
intended to represent the entire universe, though constructed for
display rather than for use, it remains one of the finest constructed in
the peninsula during the century.

The largest of its nine concentric circles has a diameter of 220 cm.,
the smallest a diameter of 70 cm., and at the common center is a
terrestrial globe having a diameter of 60 cm. Each of the nine great
circles or spheres has its own smaller circles representing the equator,
the ecliptic, the colures, and the polar circles, the ninth having also
the tropics and the hour circle. The eighth, representing the starry
heavens, has its ecliptic four times the width of the corresponding
circles of the other spheres. Meucci states, in his detailed
description, that there are no less than eighty-two armillae or rings,
large and small, to which, he adds, eight larger ones might be added,
these being cut in half and arranged somewhat in the form of a cup, the
lower half supporting the horizon circle, the upper half serving as a
support for an adjustable cover of the entire instrument. This
arrangement suggests that it was the author’s intention to have these
last-named half circles represent the empyrean or home of the celestial
spirits, a thought supported by the fact that at the common intersecting
point of the upper half of these circles is placed a disc on which is
represented the Deity in the act of contemplating his creation. The
whole instrument is topped by a cross.

Meucci, in referring to his own work of restoring and remounting the
great sphere, observes that at the poles of the ecliptic there are two
discs on which have been painted the coat of arms of the Medici family
together with the coat of arms of the Lorena, Christina di Lorena being
the wife of Ferdinand, to whom the work had been dedicated. He further
notes that his researches led him to the discovery that the instrument
originally cost 1052.2 scudi, which, with an incidental addition of 170
scudi, thought proper to be included in the reckoning, would make the
entire expense of construction 1222.2 scudi or about 7187 liri, that is,
less than $1400. The amount seems insignificant, remembering that the
work was begun in the year 1588 and was not completed until the year
1593, claiming therefore five years of the maker’s time. The map on the
terrestrial globe seems to have been well drawn, and is remarkable for
its representation of the geography of the interior of Africa,
particularly for the region about the source of the Nile.

In the library of Mr. Henry E. Huntington may be found an exceedingly
fine armillary sphere (Fig. 86). It is neither signed nor dated, but
there appears to be good reason for attributing it to Antonio Santucci,
and its date to about the year 1580. Constructed entirely of wood, with
paper identifying labels pasted on the surface of each of the numerous
circles, it is a well-preserved example of Italian workmanship. It is
furnished with horizon, meridian, tropical, polar, and ecliptic circles,
the first being graduated on both the outer and the inner edge. This
horizon circle has a diameter of about 50 cm., and a width of about 7
cm., the width of the other circles being well proportioned for artistic
effect. Within the circles named are those representing the orbits of
“Luna,” “Mercurio,” “Venere,” “Sole,” “Marte,” “Giove,” “Saturno,” with
the earth at the center according to the Ptolemaic system. It has a
single standard support resting on a solid circular disc about 33 cm. in

[Illustration: Fig. 86. Armillary Sphere of Antonio Santucci (?), ca.

The Mathematisch-Physikal. Salon of Dresden possesses a fine celestial
globe signed and dated “B. F. 1600.” It is an exceedingly elaborate
piece (Fig. 87), being made of gilded bronze and furnished with a
mounting of ornamental design. The sphere, having a diameter of 11.6
cm., exhibits on its engraved surface in outline the figures of the
several constellations, with the name of each, and in addition the
principal celestial circles including the meridians. It is furnished, in
its mountings, with a graduated bronze meridian circle to which is
attached, near the north equatorial pole, a clock dial with hour and
minute hands, the dial being marked with the hours from I to XII.
Surmounting the whole is an artistic bronze box, within which have been
placed the works by means of which the clock is driven and the sphere
made to revolve. The broad horizon circle, which is engraved with the
usual concentric circles, rests upon branched supports, which in turn
are attached to a finely wrought base having four curved legs
terminating in conventionally designed griffin claws.

[Illustration: Fig. 87. Celestial Globe of B. F., 1600.]

Though differing very considerably in the details of its construction,
it may be classed with such globes as are those made by Roll and
Reinhold, briefly described above. Indeed, the suggestion forces itself
upon one that to their workshop or to one who may be referred to as a
workman of their school, we owe this interesting example. Attention has
been previously called to certain early globes which seem primarily to
have been constructed to contain the works of clocks such as the
Jagellonicus. Here as in the case of the Roll and Reinhold globes, and
as in certain other examples, we find clockwork attachments designed to
regulate the revolutions of the globe of which they form a part. While
the globe is the more elaborately wrought part of this particular
example, it does not seem improbable that the clock originally was
considered to be the more important part.


[334] See Chap. X.

[335] Kästner. Geschichte der Mathematik. Vol. II, pp. 215
ff.; Wolf, R. Notizen zur Geschichte der Mathematik in der
Schweiz, “Conrad Dasypodius.” (In: Mitteilung der
naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Bern. Bern, 1845. No. 56.);
Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, “Dasypodius, Conrad.”

[336] Doppelmayr. Historische Nachricht. p. 51.

[337] Schricker, A. Z. Zur Geschichte der Universität
Strassburg. Strassburg, 1872; Heitz, E. Zur Geschichte der
alten Strassburger Universität. Strassburg, 1885.

[338] The British Museum Catalogue lists many of these

[339] Wolf, R. Nachrichten. (In: Mitteilung der
naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Bern. Bern, 1854. p. 69.);
Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 115; Habrecht, I. Tractatus de
planiglobis coelestis ac terrestris. Strassburg, 1628.

[340] Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 208.

[341] Montucla, J. E. Histoire des Mathématiques ... Paris,

[342] Dasypodius, C. Horologii astronomei Argentorati in
summo templo erecti descriptio. Argentorati, 1580; same
author. Warhafftige Auslegung des astronomischen Uhrwercks
zu Strassburg. Strassburg, 1580.

[343] Schwilgué, C. Description abrégée de l’horologe
astronomique de la cathédrale de Strassbourg. Strassbourg,

[344] Britten, F. J. Old clocks and watches and their
makers. London, 1899.

[345] Varnhagen, A. de. J. Schöner e P. Apian. Wien, 1872;
Günther, S. Peter und Philipp Apian, zwei deutsche
Mathematiker und Kartographen. Prag, 1882; Nordenskiöld.
Facsimile Atlas, p. 100.

In the year 1520 Peter Apianus published in his edition of
Solinus’ Polyhistor a world map, following therein the
general design of Waldseemüller in his world map of the year
1507. The map of Apianus has long been regarded as one of
the most important of the early printed maps on which the
New World is represented. Until the recent discovery by
Professor Joseph Fischer of Waldseemüller’s long-lost map,
it has frequently been referred to as the first engraved map
on which the name “America” appears. The ‘Cosmographia’ of
Apianus, first issued in the year 1524, was frequently
reissued thereafter, notably by Gemma Frisius.

[346] Clemens, C. Musei, sive bibliothecae tam privatae quam
publicae extructio. Lugduni, 1635. Liber Quartus. p. 527.

[347] Kepler, J. Joannis Kepleri Opera Omnia. Ed. by Frisch.
Frankfurt, 1858. Vol. I, p. 812.

[348] Gemelin, L. Untersatz eines Globus von Philipp Apian.
(In: Stuttgarter Gewerbhalle. Stuttgart, 1885. Taf. 62.);
Günther, S. Die Münchener Globen Philipp Apians. (In:
Jahrbuch für münchener Geschichte. München, 1888. pp.

[349] Günther. Die Münchener Globen. p. 132.

[350] Zimmermann, M. Hans Müelich und Herzog Albrecht V.
München, 1885. The author thinks it hardly probable that
Müelich was the artist employed in the decoration of these
globes, but praises the excellent workmanship exhibited.
Kobolt, A. M. Bairisches Gelehrten-Lexikon. Landshut, 1795.
pp. 52 ff.; also in his Erganzungen und Berichtigungen.
Landshut, 1824. p. 21.

[351] Fiorini. Sfere terrestri e celesti. p. 221. The author
briefly describes the Plautus globes. The information
contained therein was also kindly sent for insertion in this
work by the director of the Museum.

[352] Gerland. Beiträge. p. 69. See Chap. viii, n. 21.

[353] Fiorini, op. cit., pp. 200-202.

[354] Gassendi, P. Tychonis Brahei equitis Dani astronomorum
coryphaei vita. Hagae, 1655; Dreyer, J. L. E. Tycho Brahe, a
picture of scientific life and work in the sixteenth
century. Edinburgh, 1890; Brahe, T. Astronomiae instauratae
mechanica. Noribergae, 1602; Brahe, T. Epistolarum
astronomicarum libri. Uraniburgi, 1596; Brahe, T. Tychonis
Brahe mathim: eminent: Dani Opera Omnia. Ed. by J. G.
Schonvetteri, Francofurti, 1648; Wolf. Geschichte der
Astronomie. pp. 269-281; Kästner. Geschichte der Mathematik.
Vol. II, pp. 376-411.

[355] Dreyer, op. cit., Chaps. v, vi.

[356] Tyconis Brahe astronomiae instauratae Mechanica.

[357] Raemdonck. Les sphères terrestres. p. 28; Chatel, M.
Note sur une globe terrestre ... de la succession de Titon
du Tillet. (In: Mémoire lus à la Sorbonne. Paris, 1865. pp.

[358] Marcel, G. Note sur une sphère terrestre faite en
cuivre à la fin du XVIᵉ Siècle. (In: Bulletin de la Société
normande de Géographie. Rouen, 1891. pp. 153-160.)

[359] Humboldt, A. Examen Critique. Paris, 1836-1839. Vol.
II, pp. 152-155; Harrisse. Discovery, pp. 657-658.

[360] Hakluyt, R. The principal Navigations, Voyages and
Discoveries of the English Nation. London, 1589.

[361] Hood, D. The use of both the Globes, celestial and
terrestrial, most plainly delivered in the form of a
dialogue. London, 1592.

[362] Blundeville, T. Mr. Blundeville his Exercises. London,

[363] See above, p. 193.

[364] The several editions of this work are given by
Markham, C. Hues, Treatise on Globes, pp. xxxvii-xl.

[365] Allgemeine deutsche Biographie “Bürgi, Jobst”;
Doppelmayr, op. cit., p. 163; Wolf, R. Bürgi. (In: Biograph.
z. Kulturgeschichte, 1 Zyklus, pp. 57 ff.); Weidler, F.
Historia astronomiae. Vitembergae, 1741. p. 375; Gerland,
op. cit., p. 68.

[366] Marcel, G. Note sur une mission géographique en
Suisse. (In: Bulletin de la Société de Géographie. Paris,
1899. pp. 76-94.)

[367] Fischer, J. The globe-goblet of Wolfegg. (In: United
States Catholic Historical Society Historical Records and
Studies. New York, 1913. pp. 275-279.) See for mention of
other Gessner globe cups.

[368] A sixteenth century globe cup. (In: Royal Geographical
Journal. London, 1919. pp. 196-197.) This particular globe
of Gessner was sold at Christie’s in London, July 23, 1919,
for £3800. It is thought to have been made in the year 1595.
Attention is called in this article to a globe cup in the
British Museum, dated 1569.

[369] Beazley, C. R. Globe of 1593. (In: Royal Geographical
Journal. London, 1904. pp. 496-498.)

[370] Poggendorff, J. C. Biographisch-literarisches
Handwörterbuch. Leipzig, 1863; Kästner, op. cit., p. 393;
Génard, P. Les Globes du géographe Arnauld Florent van
Langren et de Guill. Blaeu. (In: Bulletin de la Société
Royale Géographie d’Anvers. Anvers, 1883. pp. 150 ff.; Van
der Aa.)

[371] Wieder, F. C. De Globe van Van Langren Aᵒ 1612. (In:
Kon. Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, 2ᵉ Série Dl.
XXXII, 1915, pp. 231-239.)

[372] Jonge, J. K. J. de. Opkomst van het Nederlandsch gezag
in Oost-Indie. Gravenhage, 1862. Vol. I, p. 179. The author
gives here a report rendered by J. Hondius in which he
refers to the superiority of his globes to those of Van
Langren. The report is dated 1597.

[373] Wieder, op. cit., n. 36 above, is a description of
this globe with illustrations.

[374] Meucci, F. La Sfera armillere di Tolomeo construita da
Antonia Santucci. Firenze, 1876.

[Illustration: Base of Apianus Globe, 1576]

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