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Title: Scientific American Supplement, No. 433, April 19, 1884
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American Supplement, No. 433, April 19, 1884" ***

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[Illustration]



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT NO. 433



NEW YORK, APRIL 19, 1884

Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XVII, No. 433.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.


       *       *       *       *       *

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

I.    CHEMISTRY, METALLURGY, ETC.--New Analogy between
      Solids, Liquids, and Gases.

      Hydrogen Amalgam.

      Treatment of Ores by Electrolysis.--By M. KILIANI.

II.   ENGINEERING, AND MECHANICS.--Electric Railway at Vienna.--With
      engraving.

      Instruction in Mechanical Engineering.--Technical and trade
      education.--A course of study sketched out.--By Prof. R.H.
      THURSTON.

      Improved Double Boiler.--3 figures.

      The Gardner Machine Gun.--With three engravings showing the
      single barrel, two barrel, and five barrel guns.

      Climbing Tricycles.

      Submarine Explorations.--Voyage of the Talisman.--The Thibaudier
      sounding apparatus.--With map, diagrams, and engravings.

      Jamieson's Cable Grapnel.--With engraving.

      A Threaded Set Collar.

III.  TECHNOLOGY.--Wretched Boiler Making.

      Pneumatic Malting.--With full description of the most improved
      methods and apparatus.--Numerous figures.

      Reducing and Enlarging Plaster Casts.

      Stripping the Film from Gelatine Negatives.

IV.   ELECTRICITY.--Non-sparking Key.

      New Instruments for Measuring Electric Currents and Electromotive
      Force.--By MESSRS. K.E. CROMPTON and GISBERT
      KAPP.--Paper read before the Society of Telegraph Engineers.--With
      several engravings.

      When Does the Electric Shock Become Fatal?

V.    ART AND ARCHÆOLOGY.--Robert Cauer's Statute of Lorelei.--With
      engraving.

      The Pyramids of Meroe.--With engraving.

VI.   ASTRONOMY AND METEOROLOGY.--The Red Sky.--Cause of
      the same explained by the Department of Meteorology.

      A Theory of Cometary Phenomena.

      On Comets.--By FURMAN LEAMING, M.D.

VII.  NATURAL HISTORY.--The Prolificness of the Oyster.

      Coarse Food for Pigs.

VIII. BOTANY, HORTICULTURE, ETC.--Forms of Ivy.--With
      several engravings.

      Propagating Roses.

      A Few of the Best Inulas.--With engraving.

      Fruit Growing.--By P.H. FOSTER.

IX.   MEDICINE, HYGIENE, ETC.--A People without Consumption,
      and Some Account of Their Country, the Cumberland Tableland.
      --By E.M. WIGHT.

      The Treatment of Habitual Constipation.

X.    MISCELLANEOUS.--The French Scientific Station at Cape Horn.

XI.   BIOGRAPHY.--The Late Maori Chief, Mete Kingi.--With portrait.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE FRENCH SCIENTIFIC STATION AT CAPE HORN.


In 1875 Lieutenant Weyprecht of the Austrian navy called the attention
of scientific men to the desirability of having an organized and
continual system of hourly meteorological and magnetic observations
around the poles. In 1879 the first conference of what was termed the
International Polar Congress was held at Hamburg. Delegates from eight
nations were present--Germany, Austria, Denmark, France, Holland,
Norway, Russia, and Sweden.

The congress then settled upon a programme whose features were: 1. To
establish general principles and fixed laws in regard to the pressure
of the atmosphere, the distribution and variation of temperature,
atmospheric currents, climatic characteristics. 2. To assist the
prediction of the course and occurrence of storms. 3. To assist the
study of the disturbances of the magnetic elements and their relations
to the auroral light and sun spots. 4. To study the distribution of
the magnetic force and its secular and other changes. 5. To study the
distribution of heat and submarine currents in the polar regions. 6. To
obtain certain dimensions in accord with recent methods. Finally, to
collect observations and specimens in the domain of zoology, botany,
geology, etc.

The representatives of the various nations had several conferences
later, and by the 1st of May, 1881, there were sufficient subscribers to
justify the establishment of eight Arctic stations.

France entered actively in this work later, and its first expedition was
to Orange Bay and Cape Horn, under the surveillance and direction of
the Academy of Sciences, Paris, and responsible to the Secretary of the
Navy. On the 6th of September, 1882, this scientific corps established
itself in Orange Bay, near Cape Horn, and energetically began its
serious labors, and by October 22 the greater part of their preliminary
preparations was completed, comprising the erection of a magnetic
observatory, an astronomic observatory, a room for the determination of
the carbonic anhydride of the air, another for the sea register, and
a bridge 92 feet long, photographic laboratory, barometer room, and
buildings for the men, food, and appurtenances, together with a
laboratory of natural history.

In short, in spite of persistent rains and the difficulties of the
situation, from September 8 to October 22 they erected an establishment
of which the different parts, fastened, as it were, to the flank of a
steep hill, covered 450 square meters (4,823 square feet), and rested
upon 200 wooden piles.

From September 26, 1882, to September 1, 1883, night and day
uninterruptedly, a watch was kept, in which the officers took part, so
that the observations might be regularly made and recorded. Every four
hours a series of direct magnetic and meteorological observations was
made, from hour to hour meteorological notes were taken, the rise and
fall of the sea recorded, and these were frequently multiplied by
observations every quarter of an hour; the longitude and latitude were
exactly determined, a number of additions to the catalogue of the fixed
stars for the southern heavens made, and numerous specimens in natural
history collected.

The apparatus employed by the expedition for the registration of the
magnetic elements was devised by M. Mascart, by which the variations
of the three elements are inscribed upon a sheet of paper covered with
gelatine bromide, inclination, vertical and horizontal components, with
a certainty which is shown by the 330 diurnal curves brought back from
the Cape.

The register proper is composed of a clock and a photographic frame
which descends its entire length in twenty-four hours, thus causing the
sensitized paper to pass behind a horizontal window upon which falls the
light reflected by the mirrors of the magnetic instruments. One of those
mirrors is fixed, and gives a line of reference; the other is attached
to the magnetic bar, whose slightest movements it reproduces upon the
sensitized paper. The moments when direct observations were taken were
carefully recorded. The magnetic _pavilion_ was made of wood and copper,
placed at about fifty-three feet from the dwellings or camp, near the
sea, against a wooded hill which shaded it completely; the interior
was covered with felt upon all its sides, in order to avoid as much as
possible the varying temperatures.

The diurnal amplitude of the declination increased uniformly from the
time of their arrival in September up to December, when it obtained
its maximum of 7'40", then diminished to June, when it is no more than
2'20"; from this it increased up to the day of departure. The maximum
declination takes place toward 1 P.M., the minimum at 8:50 A.M. The
night maxima and minima are not clearly shown except in the southern
winter.

The mean diurnal curve brings into prominence the constant diminution
of the declination and the much greater importance of the perturbations
during the summer months. These means, combined with the 300 absolute
determinations, give 4' as the annual change of the declination.

M. Mascart's apparatus proved to be wonderfully useful in recording the
rapid and slight perturbations of the magnet. Comparisons between the
magnetic and atmospheric perturbations gave no result. There was,
however, little stormy weather and no auroral displays. This latter
phenomenon, according to the English missionaries, is rarely observed in
Tierra del Fuego.

The electrometer used at the Cape was founded upon the principle
developed by Sir William Thomson. The atmospheric electricity is
gathered up by means of a thin thread of water, which flows from a
large brass reservoir furnished with a metallic tube 6.5 feet long. The
reservoir is placed upon glass supports isolated by sulphuric acid, and
is connected to the electrometer by a thread of metal which enters a
glass vessel containing sulphuric acid; into the same vessel enters a
platinum wire coming from the aluminum needle. Only 3,000 observations
were given by the photographic register, due to the fact that the
instruments were not fully protected against constant wet and cold.

Besides these observations direct observations of the magnetometer were
made, and the absolute determination of the elements of terrestrial
magnetism attempted.

On the 17th of November, 1882, a severe magnetic disturbance occurred,
lasting from 12 M. until 3 P.M., which in three hours changed the
declination 42'. The same perturbation was felt in Europe, and the
comparison of the observations in the two hemispheres will prove
instructive.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY AT VIENNA.


The total length of this railway, which extended from the Eiskeller in
the Schwimmschul-Allee to the northern entrance of the Rotunda, was
1528.3 meters; the gauge was 1 meter, and 60 per cent. of the length
consisted of tangents, the remaining 40 per cent. being mostly curves
of 250 meters radius. The gradients, three in number, were very small,
averaging about 1:750.

Two generating dynamos were used, which were coupled in parallel
circuit, but in such a manner that the difference of potential in both
machines remained the same at all times. This was accomplished by the
well known method of coupling introduced by Siemens and Halske, in which
the current of one machine excites the field of the other.

Although the railroad was not built with a view of obtaining a high
efficiency, an electro-motive force of only 150 volts being used, a
mechanical efficiency of 50 per cent. was nevertheless obtained, both
with one generator and one car with thirty passengers, as well as with
two generators and two cars with sixty passengers; while with two
generators and three cars (two of them having motors) the same result
was shown.

[Illustration: THE ELECTRIC RAILWAY AT VIENNA.]

The curves obtained by the apparatus that recorded the current showed
very plainly the action within the machines when the cars were started
or set in motion; at first, the current rose rapidly to a very high
figure, and then declined gradually to a fixed point, which corresponded
to the regular rate of speed. The tractive power, therefore, increases
rapidly to a value far exceeding the frictional resistances, but this
surplus energy serves to increase the velocity, and disappears as soon
as a uniform velocity is reached.

The average speed, both with one and three cars, was 30 kilometers per
hour.--_Zeitsch. f. Elektrotechnik_.

       *       *       *       *       *



INSTRUCTION IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

By Professor R. H. THURSTON.


The writer has often been asked by correspondents interested in
the matter of technical and trade education to outline a course of
instruction in mechanical engineering, such as would represent his
idea of a tolerably complete system of preparation for entrance into
practice. The synopsis given at the end of this article was prepared
in the spring of 1871, when the writer was on duty at the U.S. Naval
Academy, as Assistant Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy,
and, being printed, was submitted to nearly all of the then leading
mechanical engineers of the United States, for criticism, and with a
request that they would suggest such alterations and improvements as
might seem to them best. The result was general approval of the course,
substantially as here written. This outline was soon after proposed as a
basis for the course of instruction adopted at the Stevens Institute of
Technology, at Hoboken, to which institution the writer was at about
that time called. He takes pleasure in accepting a suggestion that its
publication in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN would be of some advantage to
many who are interested in the subject.

The course here sketched, as will be evident on examination, includes
not only the usual preparatory studies pursued in schools of mechanical
engineering, but also advanced courses, such as can only be taught in
special schools, and only there when an unusual amount of time can be
given to the professional branches, or when post graduate courses can be
given supplementary to the general course. The complete course, as here
planned, is not taught in any existing school, so far as the writer is
aware. In his own lecture room the principal subjects, and especially
those of the first part of the work, are presented with tolerable
thoroughness; but many of the less essential portions are necessarily
greatly abridged. As time can be found for the extension of the course,
and as students come forward better prepared for their work, the earlier
part of the subject is more and more completely developed, and the
advanced portions are taken up in greater and greater detail, each year
giving opportunity to advance beyond the limits set during the preceding
year.

Some parts of this scheme are evidently introductory to advanced courses
of study which are to be taken up by specialists, each one being adapted
to the special instruction of a class of students who, while pursuing
it, do not usually take up the other and parallel courses. Thus, a
course of instruction in Railroad Engineering, a course in Marine
Engineering, or a course of study in the engineering of textile
manufactures, may be arranged to follow the general course, and the
student will enter upon one or another of these advanced courses as his
talents, interests, or personal inclinations may dictate. At the Stevens
Institute of Technology, two such courses--Electrical and Marine
Engineering--are now organized as supplementary of the general course,
and are pursued by all students taking the degree of Mechanical
Engineer. These courses, as there given, however, are not fairly
representative of the idea of the writer, as above expressed, since the
time available in general course is far too limited to permit them to be
developed beyond the elements, or to be made, in the true sense of the
term, advanced professional courses. Such advanced courses as the writer
has proposed must be far more extended, and should occupy the whole
attention of the student for the time. Such courses should be given in
separate departments under the direction of a General Director of the
professional courses, who should be competent to determine the extent of
each, and to prevent the encroachment of the one upon another; but they
should each be under the immediate charge of a specialist capable
of giving instruction in the branch assigned to him, in both the
theoretical and purely scientific, and the practical and constructive
sides of the work. Every such school should be organized in such a
manner that one mind, familiar with the theory and the practice of the
professional branches taught, should be charged with the duty of giving
general direction to the policy of the institution and of directing
the several lines of work confided to specialists in the different
departments. It is only by careful and complete organization in this, as
in every business, that the best work can be done at least expense in
time and capital.

In this course of instruction in Mechanical Engineering it will be
observed that the writer has incorporated the scheme of a workshop
course. This is done, not at all with the idea that a school of
mechanical engineering is to be regarded as a "trade school," but that
every engineer should have some acquaintance with the tools and the
methods of work upon which the success of his own work is so largely
dependent. If the mechanical engineer can acquire such knowledge in the
more complete course of instruction of the trade school, either before
or after his attendance at the technical school, it will be greatly to
his advantage. The technical school has, however, a distinct field; and
its province is not to be confounded with that of the trade school.
The former is devoted to instruction in the theory and practice of a
profession which calls for service upon the men from the latter--which
makes demand upon a hundred trades--in the prosecution of its designs.
The latter teaches, simply, the practical methods of either of the
trades subsidiary to the several branches of engineering, with only so
much of science as is essential to the intelligent use of the tools and
the successful application of the methods of work of the trade taught.
The distinction between the two departments of education, both of which
are of comparatively modern date, is not always appreciated in the
United States, although always observed in those countries of Europe
in which technical and trade education have been longest pursued as
essential branches of popular instruction. Throughout France and
Germany, every large town has its trade schools, in which the trades
most generally pursued in the place are systematically taught; and every
large city has its technical school, in which the several professions
allied to engineering are studied with special development of those to
which the conditions prevailing at the place give most prominence and
local importance.

A course of trade instruction, as the writer would organize it, would
consist, first, in the teaching of the apprentice the use of the tools
of his trade, the nature of its materials, and the construction and
operation of the machinery employed in its prosecution. He would next be
taught how to shape the simpler geometrical forms in the materials of
his trade, getting out a straight prism, a cylinder, a pyramid, or a
sphere, of such size and form as may be convenient; getting lines and
planes at right angles, or working to miter; practicing the working of
his "job" to definite size, and to the forms given by drawings, which
drawings should be made by the apprentice himself. When he is able to
do good work of this kind, he should attempt larger work, and the
construction of parts of structures involving exact fitting and special
manipulations. The course, finally, should conclude with exercises in
the construction and erection of complete structures and in the making
of peculiar details, such as are regarded by the average workman
as remarkable "_tours de force_." The trade school usually gives
instruction in the common school branches of education, and especially
in drawing, free-hand and mechanical, carrying them as far as the
successful prosecution of the trade requires. The higher mathematics,
and advanced courses in physics and chemistry, always taught in schools
of engineering, are not taught in the trade school, as a rule; although
introduced into those larger schools of this class in which the aim is
to train managers and proprietors, as well as workmen. This is done in
many European schools.

As is seen above, the course of instruction in mechanical engineering
includes some trade education. The engineer is dependent upon the
machinist, the founder, the patternmaker, and other workers at the
trades, for the proper construction of the machinery and structures
designed by him. He is himself, in so far as he is an engineer, a
designer of constructions, not a constructor. He often combines,
however, the functions of the engineer, the builder, the manufacturer,
and the dealer, in his own person. No man can carry on, successfully,
any business in which he is not at home in every detail, and in which he
cannot instruct every subordinate, and cannot show every person employed
by him precisely what is wanted, and how the desired result can be best
attained. The engineer must, therefore, learn, as soon and as thoroughly
as possible, enough of the details of every art and trade, subsidiary
to his own department of engineering, to enable him to direct, with
intelligence and confidence, every operation that contributes to the
success of his work. The school of engineering should therefore be so
organized that the young engineer may be taught the elements of every
trade which is likely to find important application in his professional
work. It cannot be expected that time can be given him to make himself
an expert workman, or to acquire the special knowledge of details and
the thousand and one useful devices which are an important part of the
stock in trade of the skilled workman; but he may very quickly learn
enough to facilitate his own work greatly, and to enable him to learn
still more, with rapidity and ease, during his later professional life.
He must also, usually, learn the essential elements and principles of
each of several trades, and must study their relations to his work, and
the limitations of his methods of design and construction which they
always, to a greater or less extent, cause by their own practical or
economical limitations. He will find that his designs, his methods of
construction, and of fitting up and erecting, must always be planned
with an intelligent regard to the exigencies of the shop, as well as to
the aspect of the commercial side of every operation. This extension of
trade education for the engineer into several trades, instead of its
restriction to a single trade, as is the case in the regular trade
school, still further limits the range of his instruction in each. With
unusual talent for manipulation, he may acquire considerable knowledge
of all the subsidiary trades in a wonderfully short space of time, if he
is carefully handled by his instructors, who must evidently be experts,
each in his own trade. Even the average man who goes into such schools,
following his natural bent, may do well in the shop course, under good
arrangements as to time and character of instruction. If a man has not a
natural inclination for the business, and a natural aptitude for it, he
will make a great mistake if he goes into such a school with the hope of
doing creditable work, or of later attaining any desirable position in
the profession.

The course of instruction, at the Stevens Institute of Technology,
includes instruction in the trades to the extent above indicated. The
original plan, as given below, included such a course of trade education
for the engineer; but it was not at once introduced. The funds
available from an endowment fund crippled by the levying of an enormous
"succession tax" by the United States government and by the cost of
needed apparatus and of unanticipated expenses, in buildings and in
organization, were insufficient to permit the complete organization
of this department. A few tools were gathered together; but skilled
mechanics could not be employed to take up the work of instruction in
the several courses. Little could therefore be done for several years in
this direction. In 1875 the writer organized a "mechanical laboratory,"
with the purpose of attaining several very important objects: the
prosecution of scientific research in the various departments of
engineering work; the creation of an organization that should give
students an opportunity to learn the methods of research most usefully
employed in such investigations; the assistance of members of the
profession, and business organizations in the attempt to solve such
questions, involving scientific research, as are continually arising in
the course of business; the employment of students who had done
good work in their college course, when they so desire, in work of
investigation with a view to giving them such knowledge of this peculiar
line of work as should make them capable of directing such operations
elsewhere; and finally, but not least important of all, to secure, by
earning money in commercial work of this kind, the funds needed to carry
on those departments of the course in engineering that had been, up
to that time, less thoroughly organized than seemed desirable. This
"laboratory" was organized in 1875, the funds needed being obtained
by drawing upon loans offered by friends of the movement and by the
"Director."

It was not until the year 1878, therefore, that it became possible to
attempt the organization of the shop course; and it was then only by the
writer assuming personal responsibility for its expenses that the plan
could be entered upon. As then organized--in the autumn of 1878--a
superintendent of the workshop had general direction of the trade
department of the school. He was instructed to submit to the writer
plans, in detail, for a regular course of shop instruction, and was
given as assistants a skilled mechanic of unusual experience and
ability, whose compensation was paid from the mechanical laboratory
funds, and guaranteed by the writer personally, and another aid whose
services were paid for partly by the Institute and partly as above. The
pay of the superintendent was similarly assured. This scheme had been
barely entered upon when the illness of the writer compelled him to
temporarily give up his work, and the direction of the new organization
fell into other hands, although the department was carried on, as above,
for a year or more after this event occurred.

The plan did not fall through; the course of instruction was
incorporated into the college course, and its success was finally
assured by the growth of the school and a corresponding growth of its
income, and, especially, by the liberality of President Morton, who met
expenses to the amount of many thousands of dollars by drawing upon his
own bank account. The department was by him completely organized, with
an energetic head, and needed support was given in funds and by a force
of skilled instructors. This school is now in successful operation.
This course now also includes the systematic instruction of students in
experimental work, and the objects sought by the writer in the creation
of a "mechanical laboratory" are thus more fully attained than they
could have possibly been otherwise. It is to be hoped that, at
some future time, when the splendid bequest of Mr. Stevens may be
supplemented by gifts from other equally philanthropic and intelligent
friends of technical education, among the alumni of the school and
others, this germ of a trade school maybe developed into a complete
institution for instruction in the arts and trades of engineering, and
may thus be rendered vastly more useful by meeting the great want, in
this locality, of a real trade school, as well as fill the requirements
of the establishment of which it forms a part, by giving such trade
education as the engineer needs and can get time to acquire.

The establishment of advanced courses of special instruction in
the principal branches of mechanical engineering may, if properly
"dovetailed" into the organization, be made a means of somewhat
relieving the pressure that must be expected to be felt in the attempt
to carry out such a course as is outlined below. The post-graduate
or other special departments of instruction, in which, for example,
railroad engineering, marine engineering, and the engineering of cotton,
woolen, or silk manufactures, are to be taught, may be so organized that
some of the lectures of the general course may be transferred to them,
and the instructors in the latter course thus relieved, while the
subjects so taught, being treated by specialists, may be developed more
efficiently and more economically.

Outlines of these advanced courses, as well as of the courses in trade
instruction comprehended in the full scheme of mechanical engineering
courses laid out by the writer a dozen years ago, and as since recast,
might be here given, but their presentation would occupy too much space,
and they are for the present omitted.

The course of instruction in this branch of engineering, at the Stevens
Institute of Technology, is supplemented by "Inspection Tours," which
are undertaken by the graduating class toward the close of the last
year, under the guidance of their instructors, in which expeditions they
make the round of the leading shops in the country, within a radius of
several hundred miles, often, and thus get an idea of what is meant by
real business, and obtain some notion of the extent of the field of work
into which they are about to enter, as well as of the importance of
that work and the standing of their profession among the others of the
learned professions with which that of engineering has now come to be
classed.

At the close of the course of instruction, as originally proposed, and
as now carried out, the student prepares a "graduating thesis," in which
he is expected to show good evidence that he has profited well by the
opportunities which have been given him to secure a good professional
education. These theses are papers of, usually, considerable extent, and
are written upon subjects chosen by the student himself, either with or
without consultation with the instructor. The most valuable of
these productions are those which present the results of original
investigations of problems arising in practice or scientific research
in lines bearing upon the work of the engineer. In many cases, the
work thus done has been found to be of very great value, supplying
information greatly needed in certain departments, and which had
previously been entirely wanting, or only partially and unsatisfactorily
given by authorities. Other theses of great value present a systematic
outline of existing knowledge of some subject which had never before
been brought into useful form, or made in any way accessible to the
practitioner. In nearly all cases, the student is led to make the
investigation by the bent of his own mind, or by the desire to do work
that may be of service to him in the practice of his profession. All
theses are expected to be made complete and satisfactory to the head
of department of Engineering before his signature is appended to the
diploma which is finally issued to the graduating student. These
preliminaries being completed, and the examinations having been reported
as in all respects satisfactory, the degree of Mechanical Engineer is
conferred upon the aspirant, and he is thus formally inducted into the
ranks of the profession.


COURSE OF INSTRUCTION IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.


Robert H. Thurston--July, 1871.

I.

MATERIALS USED IN ENGINEERING.--Classification, Origin, and Preparation
(where not given in course of Technical Chemistry), Uses, Cost.

_Strength and Elasticity_.--Theory (with experimental illustrations),
reviewed, and tensile, transverse and torsional resistance determined.

_Forms_ of greatest strength determined. _Testing_ materials.

_Applications_.--Foundations, Framing in wood and metal.

FRICTION.--Discussion from Rational Mechanics, reviewed and extended.

_Lubricants_ treated with materials above.

Experimental determination of "coefficients of friction."

II.

TOOLS.--Forms for working wood and metals. Principles involved in their
use.

Principles of pattern making, moulding, smith and machinists' work so
far as they modify design.

Exercises in Workshops in mechanical manipulation.

Estimates of _cost_ (stock and labor).

MACHINERY AND MILL WORK.--Theory of machines. Construction. Kinematics
applied. Stresses, calculated and traced. Work of machines. Selection
of materials for the several parts. Determination of _proportions_ of
details, and of _forms_ as modified by difficulties of construction.

Regulators, Dynamometers, Pneumatic and Hydraulic machinery. Determining
_moduli_ of machines.

POWER, transmission by gearing, belting, water, compressed air, etc.

LOADS, transportation.

III.

HISTORY AND PRESENT FORMS OF THE PRIME MOVERS.

_Windmills_, their theory, construction, and application.

_Water Wheels_. Theory, construction, application, testing, and
comparison of principal types.

_Air, Gas, and Electric Engines_, similarly treated.

STEAM ENGINES.--Classification. [Marine (merchant) Engine assumed as
representative type.] Theory. Construction, including general design,
form and proportion of details.

_Boilers_ similarly considered. Estimates of _cost_.

_Comparison_ of principal types of Engines and Boilers. Management and
repairing. Testing and recording performance.

IV.

MOTORS APPLIED to Mills. Estimation of required power and of _cost_.

Railroads. Study of Railroad machinery.

Ships. Structure of Iron Ships and rudiments of Naval architecture and
Ship propulsion.

PLANNING Machine shops, Boiler shops, Foundries, and manufactories of
textile fabrics. Estimating _cost_.

LECTURES BY EXPERTS.

GENERAL SUMMARY of principal facts, and natural laws, upon the thorough
knowledge of which successful practice is based; and general _resume_
of principles of business which must be familiar to the practicing
engineer.

V.

GRADUATING THESES.

GRADUATION.

Accompanying the above are courses of instruction in higher mathematics,
graphics, physics, chemistry, and the modern languages and literatures.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED DOUBLE BOILER.


The operation of boiling substances under pressure with more or less
dilute sulphuric or sulphurous acid forms a necessary stage of several
important manufactures, such as the production of paper from wood, the
extraction of sugar, etc. A serious difficulty attending this process
arises from the destructive action of the acid upon the boiler or
chamber in which the operation is carried on, and as this vessel, which
is generally of large dimensions, is exposed to considerable pressures,
it is necessarily constructed of iron or some other sufficiently
resisting metal. An ingenious method of avoiding this difficulty has
been devised, we believe in Germany, and has been put into practice with
a certain amount of success. It consists in lining the iron boiler with
a covering of lead, caused by fusion to unite firmly to the walls of the
boiler, and thus to protect it from the action of the acid. No trouble,
it is stated, is found to arise from the difference in expansion of the
two metals, which, moreover, adhere fairly well; but, on the other hand,
we believe it does actually occur that the repairs to this lead lining
are numerous, tedious, and costly of execution, so that the system can
scarcely be regarded as meeting the requirements of the manufacturer.
It is to secure all the advantages possessed by a lead-lined vessel,
without the drawback of frequent and expensive repairs, that the
digester, of which we annex illustrations, has been devised by Mr.
George Knowles, of Billiter House, Billiter Street. It consists of a
closed iron cylindrical vessel suitable for boiling under pressure, and
containing a second vessel open at the top, and of such a diameter as to
leave an annular space between it and the walls of the outer shell. This
inner receiver, which may be made of lead, glass, pottery, or any
other suitable material, contains the substance to be treated and the
sulphurous acid or other solution in which it is to be boiled. The
annular space between the two vessels is filled with water to the same
level as the solution in the receiver, and the latter is provided with
suitable pipes or coils, in which steam is caused to circulate for
the purpose of raising the solution of the desired temperature, and
effecting the digesting process. At the same time any steam generated
collects in the upper part of the boiler, and maintains an equal
pressure within the whole apparatus. Figs. 1 to 3 show the arrangement
clearly. Within the boiler, a, is placed the receiver, b, of pottery,
lead, or other material, leaving an annular space between it and the
boiler; this space is filled with water. The receiver, b, is furnished
with a series of pipes, in which steam or hot water circulates, to heat
the charge to the desired temperature. These pipes may be arranged
either in coils, as shown at d, Fig. 1, or vertically at d, Fig. 3. The
latter are provided with inner return pipes, so that any condensed water
accumulating at the bottom may be forced up the inner pipes by the
steam pressure and escape at the top. The vessel is charged through the
manhole, e, and the hopper, c, provided with a perforated cover, and is
discharged at the bottom by the valve, f, shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The
upper part of the boiler serves as a steam dome, and the pressure on the
liquid in the receiver and on the water in the annular space is thereby
maintained uniform. The necessary fittings for showing the pressure
in the vessel, water level indicator, safety valve, cocks for testing
solutions, etc., are of course added to the apparatus, but are not
indicated in the drawing. The arrangement appears to us to possess
considerable merit, and we shall refer to it again on another occasion,
after experiments have been made to test its efficiency.--_Engineering_.

[Illustration: IMPROVED DOUBLE BOILER.]

       *       *       *       *       *



THE GARDNER MACHINE GUN.


[Illustration: FIG. 1.--SINGLE BARREL GARDNER MACHINE GUN.]

The mechanism by which the various functions of loading, firing, and
extracting are performed is contained in a rectangular gun metal case,
varying in dimensions with the number of barrels in the arm. In the
single barrel gun the size of this case is 14 inches in length, 5½
inches in depth, and 2½ inches in width. The top of the box is hinged,
so that easy access can be had to the mechanism, which consists of a
lock, the cartridge carrier, and the devices for actuating them. In the
multiple barrel guns, the frames which, with the transverse bar at the
end, hold the barrels in place, form the sides of the mechanism chamber,
in the front end of which the barrels are screwed. The mechanism is
actuated by a cam shaft worked by a hand crank on one side of the
chamber. By this means the locks are driven backward and forward,
the latter motion forcing the cartridges into place, and the former
withdrawing the empty cartridge case after firing. The extractor hook
pivoted to the lock plunger rises, as the lock advances, over the rim of
the case, but is rigid as the lock is withdrawn, so that the action is
a positive one. The cartridges, which are contained in a suitable
frame attached to the forward part of the breech chamber, pass through
openings in the top plate of the latter, an efficient distribution being
secured by means of a valve having a transverse motion. Each cartridge
as it falls is brought into the axis of the barrel and the plunger,
while the advance motion of the lock forces them into position. In the
five-barrel gun illustrated by Fig. 3 the cartridge feeder contains 100
cartridges, in five Vertical rows of 20 cartridges each, and these are
kept supplied, when firing, from supplementary holders. Fig. 1 shows the
portable rest manufactured by the Gardner Gun Company. It consists of
two wrought iron tubes, placed at right angles to each other; the front
bar can be easily unlocked, and placed in line with the trail bar, from
which project two arms, each provided with a screw that serves for the
lateral adjustment of the gun. These screws are so arranged as to allow
for an oscillating motion of the gun through any distance up to 15 deg.
The tripod mounting, used for naval as well as land purposes, is shown
in Fig. 2, which illustrates the two barrel gun complete. The five
barrel gun, Fig. 3, is shown mounted on a similar tripod. The length of
this weapon over all is 53.5 inches, the barrels (Henry system) are 33
inches long, with seven grooves of a uniform twist of one turn in 22
inches.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--TWO BARREL GARDNER GUN.]

Gardener's five barrel gun in the course of one of the trials fired
16,754 rounds with only 24 jams, and in rapid firing reached a maximum
of 330 shots in 30 seconds. The two barrel gun fired 6,929 rounds
without any jam; the last 3,000 being in 11 minutes 39 seconds, without
any cleaning or oiling.--_Engineering_.

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--FIVE BARREL GARDNER GUN.]

       *       *       *       *       *



CLIMBING TRICYCLES.


The cycle trade is one which has been developed with great rapidity
within the last ten years, and, like all new industries, has called
forth a considerable amount of ingenuity and skill on the part of those
engaged in it. We cannot help thinking, however, that much of this
ingenuity has been misplaced, and that instead of striving after new
forms involving considerable complication and weight, it would have
been better and more profitable if manufacturers had moderated their
aspirations, and aimed at greater simplicity of design; for it must
be remembered that cyclists are, as a rule, without the slightest
mechanical knowledge, while the machines themselves are subject to very
hard usage and considerable wear and tear in traveling over the
ordinary roads in this country. We refer, of course, more especially to
tricycles, which in one form or another are fast taking the place of
bicycles, and which promise to assume an important position in every
day locomotion. Hitherto one of the chief objections to the use of the
tricycle has been the great difficulty experienced in climbing hills, a
very slight ascent being sufficient to tax the powers of the rider to
such an extent as to induce if not compel him in most instances to
dismount and wheel his machine along by hand until more favorable ground
is reached. To obviate this inconvenience many makers have introduced
some arrangement of gearing speeds of two powers giving the necessary
variation for traveling up hill and on the level. We noticed, however,
one machine at the exhibition which seemed to give all that could be
desired without any gearing or chains at all. This was a direct action
tricycle shown by the National Cycle Company, of Coventry, in which the
pressure from the foot is made to bear directly upon the main axle, and
so transmitted without loss to the driving wheels on each side, the
position of the rider being arranged so that just sufficient load is
allowed to fall on the back wheel as to obtain certainty in steerage.
The weight of this machine is much less than when gearing is used, and
the friction is also considerably reduced, trials with the dynamometer
having shown that on a level, smooth road, a pull of 1 lb. readily
moved it, while with a rider in the seat 4 lb. was sufficient. On this
tricycle any ordinary hill can, it is stated, be ascended with great
ease, and as a proof of its power it was exhibited at the Stanley show
climbing over a piece of wood 8 in. high, without any momentum whatever.
We understand that at the works at Coventry a flight of stairs has been
erected, and that no difficulty is experienced in ascending them on one
of these machines.--_The Engineer_.

       *       *       *       *       *



SUBMARINE EXPLORATIONS.

VOYAGE OF THE TALISMAN.


It was but a few years ago that the idea was prevalent that the seas at
great depths were immense solitudes where life exhibited itself under no
form, and where an eternal night reigned. To-day, thanks to expeditions
undertaken for the purpose of exploring the abysses of the ocean, we
know that life manifests itself abundantly over the bottom, and that
at a depth of five and six thousand meters light is distributed by
innumerable phosphorescent animals. Different nations have endeavored to
rival each other in the effort to effect these important discoveries,
and several scientific missions have been sent to different points of
the globe by the English and American governments. The French likewise
have entered with enthusiasm upon this new line of research, and for
four consecutive years, thanks to the devoted aid of the ministry of the
marine, savants have been enabled to take passage in government vessels
that were especially arranged for making submarine explorations.

[Illustration: THE FRENCH SCIENTIFIC STEAMER TALISMAN.]

The first French exploration, which was an experimental trip, was made
in 1880 by the Travailleur in the Gulf of Gascogne. Its unhoped
for results had so great an importance that the following year the
government decided to continue its researches, and the Travailleur was
again put at the disposal of Mr. Alph. Milne Edwards and the commission
over which he presided. Mr. Edwards traversed the Gulf of Gascogne,
visited the coast of Portugal, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, and
explored a great portion of the Mediterranean. In 1882 the same vessel
undertook a third mission to the Atlantic Ocean, and as far as to the
Canary Islands. The Travailleur, however, being a side-wheel advice-boat
designed for doing service at the port of Rochefort, presented none
of those qualities that are requisite for performing voyages that are
necessarily of long duration. The quantity of coal that could be stored
away in her bunkers was consumed in a week, and, after that, she could
not sail far from the points where it was possible for her to coal up
again. So after her return Mr. Edwards made a request for a ship that
was larger, a good sailer, and that was capable of carrying with it a
sufficient supply of fuel for remaining a long time at sea, and that
was adapted to submarine researches. The Commission indorsed this
application, and the Minister of Instruction received it and transmitted
it to Admiral Jauréguiberry--the Minister of the Marine--who at once
gave orders that the Talisman should be fitted up and put in commission
for the new dredging expedition. This vessel, under command of Captain
Parfait, who the preceding year had occupied the same position on the
Travailleur, left the port of Rochefort on the 1st of June, 1883, having
on board Mr. Milne Edwards and the scientific commission that had been
appointed by the Minister of Public Instruction. The Talisman explored
the coasts of Portugal and Morocco, visited the Canary and Cape Verd
Islands, traversed the Sea of Sargasso, and, after a stay of some time
at the Azores, returned to France, after exploring on its way the Gulf
of Gascogne (Fig.).

[Illustration: FIG.1.--CHART OF THE TALISMAN'S VOYAGE.]

The magnificent collections in natural history that were collected
on this cruise, and during those of preceding years made by the
Travailleur, are, in a few days, to be exhibited at the Museum of
Natural History. We think we shall be doing a service to the readers of
this journal, in giving them some details as to the organization of the
Talisman expedition as well as to the manner in which the dredgings were
performed.

[Illustration: FIG.2.--PLAN OF THE VESSEL.]

The vessel, as shown by her plan in Fig. 2, had to undergo important
alterations for the cruise that she was to undertake. Her deck was
almost completely freed from artillery, since this would have encumbered
her too much. Immediately behind the bridge, in the center of the
vessel, there were placed two windlasses, one, A, to the right, and the
other, B, to the left (Fig. 2). These machines, whose mode of operation
will be explained further along, were to serve for raising and lowering
the fishing apparatus. A little further back there were constructed
two cabins, G and HH. The first of these was designed to serve as a
laboratory, and the second was arranged as quarters for the members of
the mission.

The sounding apparatus, the Brothergood engine for actuating it, and the
electric light apparatus were placed upon the bridge. The operating
of the sounding line and of the electric light was therefore entirely
independent of that of the dredges. On the foremast, at a height of
about two meters, there was placed a crane, F, which was capable of
moving according to a horizontal plane. Its apex, as may be seen from
the plan of the boat, was capable of projecting beyond the sides of the
ship, to the left and right. To this apex was fixed a pulley over which
ran the cable that supported the dredges or bag-nets, which latter were
thus carried over the boat's sides.

[Illustration: FIG.3.--DIAGRAM OF THE THIBAUDIER SOUNDING APPARATUS.]

The preliminary operation in every submarine exploration consists in
exactly determining the depth of the sea immediately beneath the vessel.
To effect this object different sounding apparatus have been proposed.
As the trials that were made of these had shown that each of them
possessed quite grave defects, Mr. Thibaudier, an engineer of the navy,
installed on board the Talisman last year a new sounding apparatus which
had been constructed according to directions of his and which have given
results that are marvelous. The apparatus automatically registers the
number of meters of wire that is paid out, and as soon as the sounding
lead touches bottom, it at once stops of itself. This apparatus is shown
in Fig. 4, and a diagram of it is given in Fig. 3, so that its operation
may be better understood. The Thibaudier sounding apparatus consists of
a pulley, P (Fig. 3), over which is wound 10,000 meters of steel wire
one millimeter in diameter. From this pulley, the wire runs over a
pulley, B, exactly one meter in circumference; from thence it runs to a
carriage, A, which is movable along wooden shears, runs up over a fixed
pulley, K, and reaches the sounding lead, S, after traversing a guide,
g, where there is a small sheave upon which it can bear, whatever be the
inclination of the boat. The wheel, B, carries upon its axle an endless
screw that sets in motion two toothed wheels that indicate the number
of revolutions that it is making. One of these marks the units and the
other the hundredths (Fig. 5). This last is graduated up to 10,000
meters. As every revolution of the wheel, B, corresponds to one meter,
the number indicated by the counter represents the depth. Upon the axle
of the winding pulley there is a break pulley, p. The brake, f, is
maneuvered by a lever, L, at whose extremity there is a cord, C, which
is made fast to the carriage, A. When, during the motions due to
rolling, the tension of the steel wire that supports the lead diminishes
or increases, the carriage slightly rises or falls, and, during these
motions, acts more or less upon the brake and consequently regulates the
velocity with which the wire unwinds. When the lead touches bottom, the
wire, being suddenly relieved from all weight (which is sometimes as
much as 70 kilos), instantly stops.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--GENERAL VIEW OF THE SOUNDING APPARATUS IN THE
"TALISMAN:"]

The maneuver of this apparatus may be readily understood. The apparatus
and its weights are arranged in the interior of the vessel. A man bears
upon the lever, L (Fig. 3), and the counter is set at zero. All being
thus arranged, the man lets go of the break, and the unwinding then
proceeds until the lead has touched bottom. During the operation of
sounding, the boat is kept immovable by means of its engine, so that the
wire shall remain as vertical as possible. The bottom being reached, the
unwinding suddenly ceases, and there is nothing further to do but read
the indication given by the differential counter, this giving the depth.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--APPARATUS FOR MEASURING THE LENGTH OF THE WIRE
PAID OUT.]

Near the winding pulley, there is a small auxiliary engine, M, which
is then geared with the axle of the said pulley, and which raises the
sounding apparatus that has been freed from its weight by a method that
will be described further along.

We have endeavored in Fig. 4 to show the aspect of the bridge at the
moment when a sounding was about being made. From this engraving (made
from a photograph) our readers may obtain a clear idea of the Thibaudier
sounding apparatus, and understand how the wheel over which the wire
runs is set in motion by the Brothergood engine.--_La Nature_.

       *       *       *       *       *



CABLE GRAPNEL.


Some improvements have recently been made by Mr. Alexander Glegg and the
inventor in the well-known Jamieson grapnel used for raising submerged
submarine cables. The chief feature of the grapnel is that the flukes,
being jointed at the socket, bend back against a spring when they catch
a rock, until the grapnel clears the obstruction, but allow the cable
to run home to the crutch between the fluke and base, as shown in the
figures. In the older form the cable was liable to get jammed, and cut
between the fixed toe or fluke and the longer fluke jointed into it.
This is now avoided by embracing the short fluke within the longer one.
The shank, formerly screwed into the boss, is now pushed through and
kept up against the collar of the boss, by the volute spring, which at
the same time presses back the hinged flukes after being displaced by
a rock. The shank can now freely swivel round, whereas before it was
rigidly fixed. The toes or flukes are now made of soft cast steel, which
can be straightened if bent, and the boss is made of cast steel or
gun-metal.

[Illustration: JAMIESON'S GRAPNEL.]

       *       *       *       *       *



WRETCHED BOILERMAKING.


_To the Editor of the Scientific American_:

As long as I have been a reader of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN I have been
pleased with the manner in which you investigate and explain the cause
of any boiler explosion which comes to your knowledge; and I have
rejoiced when you heaped merited censure upon the fraudulent
boilermaker. In your paper in December last you copied a short article
on "Conscience in Boilermaking," in which the writer, after speaking
of the tricks of the boilermaker in using thinner iron for the center
sheets than for the others, and in "upsetting" the edges of the plates
to make them appear thicker, goes on to say: "We call attention to this,
because the discovery of such practice has made serious trouble between
the boilermaker and the steam user. We would not believe that there were
men so blind to the duties and obligations which rest upon them as
to resort to such practice, but the careful inspector finds all such
defects, and in time we come to know whose work is carefully and
honestly done, and whose is open to suspicion. In States and cities
where inspection laws are in force that give the methods and rules by
which the safe working pressure of a boiler is calculated, there is no
alternative except to follow the rules; and if certain requirements
regarding construction are a part of the law, there is no authority or
right to depart from it, and yet there are boilermakers who try to force
their boilers into such localities when their work is not up to the
requirements of the law."

Now, if some boilermakers are so dishonest as to try and impose upon the
locomotive engineer, who they know will carefully examine every part of
his boiler, and who is able to detect any flaw, it is not to be expected
that the farmer will escape. Nor does he. The great number of explosions
of boilers used in thrashing and in other farm work proves that there
are boilermakers who "force their boilers into such localities
when their work is not up to the requirements of the law." And the
boilermaker, if he be dishonest, is doubly tempted if the broad width of
a continent intervenes between him and the farmer for whom his work is
intended, and if in the place where the boiler is to be used there are
no inspection laws in force. The farmer who lives many miles from a
city, and who has no means of testing any boiler he may purchase,
is wholly at the mercy of the boilermaker, and must run it until it
explodes or time proves it to have been honestly made. Then, again,
there are boilermakers who, although making boilers of good iron and of
the proper thickness, finish them off so badly that the farmer is put to
great inconvenience and expense to put them in working order. Two years
ago I purchased a straw-burning engine and boiler made by an Eastern
firm. Before it had run ten days the boiler began to leak at the
saddle-bolt holes. The engineer tightened the nuts as far as possible,
but could not stop the leaks, which at last became so bad that we had to
stop work and take the engine to the shop. Upon taking off the saddle
and taking out the bolts it was discovered that they were too small for
the holes in the boiler, and that they had been wrapped with candle wick
and white lead to make them fill the holes, and that a light washer had
been put on each bolt between the head and the inside of the boiler.
This washer kept the lead in its place, and prevented the boiler from
showing a leak when first fired up. The water pipes in the fire-box soon
gave out and became utterly useless. Upon inquiring of the patentee of
this straw-burning device, who was supposed to have put it in my boiler,
he stated that he had had nothing to do with it, but that it was put in
by the firm selling these engines, and "as cheaply as possible." Before
I got this boiler and engine in fair running order I had spent hundreds
of dollars and had to do entirely away with the water grates.

Last summer, needing another tharshing engine, I was induced to buy
one of the same make as my old one, but with a different straw-burning
device. The firm who sold it to me agreed that it should have none of
the faults of the old one. Well, I got it, and, upon hauling it out to
my ranch, and getting up steam, I found it to be much worse than the
first one I had bought. The boiler leaked at nearly every hole where
a tap had been screwed into it. It took an engineer, a boilermaker, a
blacksmith, and a fireman several days to get it in shape so that we
could use it at all; and after we did start up, the boilermaker had
to be sent for several times to stop new leaks that were continually
showing themselves.

I send you by this mail for your inspection one of the saddle bolts and
one of the bolts taken out of the piston, and also the certificates of
the engineer, boilermaker, and machinist who repaired the boiler. In
justice to my fellow-farmers I ought to publish these certificates and
the names of these boilermakers to the world, but, for the present at
least, I refrain from so doing. These boilermakers will see this article
and they will know, if the public does not, for whom it is intended. If
it has the effect of making them exercise more care in the construction
and fitting up of their engines and boilers, I have not written in vain.

D. FREEMAN.

Los Angeles, Cal., March 7,1884.

[The two bolts and the certificates above referred to accompany the
letter of Mr. Freeman. We can only wonder how it was that, after having
been treated as he relates in the first instance, he should have had any
further business with parties who would send out such boilers, for the
testimony of the engineer and workmen make the case even stronger than
Mr. Freeman has put it.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *



A THREADED SET COLLAR.


There are cases where a long screw must be rotated with a traversing nut
or other threaded piece traveling on its thread a limited and variable
distance. At one time the threaded nut or piece may be required to
go almost the entire length of the screw, and at another time a much
shorter traverse would be required. In many instances the use of side
check nuts is inconvenient, and in some it is impossible. One way of
utilizing the nut as a set collar is to drill through its side for a set
screw, place it on its screw, pour a little melted Babbitt metal, or
drop a short, cold plug of it into the hole, tap the hole, and the tap
will force the Babbitt into the threads.

Insert the set screw, and when it acts on the Babbitt metal it will
force it with great friction on to the thread without injuring the
thread; and when the set screw tension is released, the nut turns
freely. A similar and perhaps a better result may be obtained by
slotting the hole through the nut as though for the reception of a key.
Secure a key (preferably of the same material as the nut) by slight
upsetting at its ends, and then thread the nut, key, and all. Place
a set screw through the nut over the threaded key, and the job is
complete.

       *       *       *       *       *



PNEUMATIC MALTING.


The lethargy in the malting trade, and in all matters relating to
malting processes, induced by two centuries of restrictive legislation,
is being gradually shaken off by the malting industry under the new law.
For many years nearly all improvements in malting processes originated
abroad, as numberless Acts of Parliament fettered every process and the
use of every implement requisite in a malt-house in this country. The
entire removal of these legislative restrictions gives an opportunity
for improved processes, which promises to open up a considerable
field for engineering work, and to develop a very backward art by the
application of scientific principles. The present time is, therefore,
one of more material change than malting has ever experienced.

[Illustration: PNEUMATIC MALTING AT TROYES. Fig. 1.]

Of the numerous improvements effected in the past few years, those made
by M. Galland in France, and more recently by M. Saladin, are by far the
most prominent. M. Galland originated what is known as the pneumatic
system eight or nine years ago. This system is carried out at the
Maxéville brewery, near Nancy.

[Illustration: PNEUMATIC MALTING AT TROYES. Fig. 2.]

Since that time further improvements have been made by M. Galland; but
more recently great advances have been made in the system by M.
Saladin. He has developed the practice of the leading principle, and in
conjunction with Mr. H. Stopes, of London, has added improved kilns and
various mechanical apparatus for performing the work previously done by
hand. He has also devised a very ingenious machine for cooling the moist
air by which the process is carried on.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--ECHANGEUR AND TURNING MACHINE.]

At the recent Brewery Exhibition, some of the machinery used in these
new maltings was shown in action by Messrs. H. Stopes & Co., together
with drawings of a malting constructed at Troyes for M. Bonnette under
M. Saladin's instructions. This malting is the third constructed for the
same firm, the others being at Nancy. That at Troyes we now illustrate.
We will not occupy space by a general description of the pneumatic
system, one great feature in which is the continuous manufacture of malt
throughout the year instead of only from five to eight months of the
year, as it will be gathered from the following description of the
Troyes malting:

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--ECHANGEUR, AXIAL SECTION.]

In our engravings, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, the letter A indicates the
germinating cases; B, Saladin's patent turning screws; C A, air
channels; D, passages; E R, main driving shafts; e, pulleys; F, metal
recesses to fit turning screws; G, elevators; H, trap doors; I, air
channels; J, openings to growing floor for air; K S, engines and fan
room; L N, fans, supply and exhaust; T, boiler; U, chimney; f, well. The
capacity of the malting is 130 qr. malt every day. This is equivalent to
an English house of 520 qr. steep. The whole space occupied is the area
necessary for kilns, malt and barley stores, engine and boiler house,
and fans. No additional area is required for germinating floors, as ten
germinating cases, A, are placed in the basement below the kilns and
stores. The building is of brick, with the internal walls below the
ground line resting upon cast iron columns and rolled joists. The
germinating cases, A A, are of iron; the bottoms are double. One of
perforated plate is placed 6 inches above the bottom. These plates admit
of draining the corn if the germinating case is used as a steeping
cistern also. Their chief object is, however to admit of ready
circulation of the air by the means presently to be described. Large
channels, A a, serve as drains for moisture and to convey the air to or
from the growing corn. Between each case is a passage, D, enabling the
maltster to have free access to the corn at all points.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--ECHANGEUR TRANSVERSE SECTION.]

With the exception of the driving shaft, E, all the machinery is in
duplicate, so that the possibility is remote of any breakdown that would
seriously affect the working of the house. This is necessary, as should
the fans, L N, be stopped for twenty-four hours the corn germinating
at a depth exceeding 30 inches would heat and impair its vitality. The
boilers, T, and engines, S, are of the common type of 20 horse power
nominal. The fans, L N, are the Farcot patent, illustrated a short time
since in our pages. The lower floors of the kilns are provided with
the Schlemmer patent mechanical turners. The turners, Fig. 4, in the
germinating cases are Saladin's patent.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--ECHANGEUR, SECTIONAL PLAN.]

The germination of the grain is effected by means of cool moist air
provided by the fan described and the cooler and moistener--Figs. 5, 6,
and 7, herewith--known as an _echangeur_. As the germinating grain has
a depth of from 30 inches to 40 inches some pressure is required, and
mechanical means are necessary for efficient and economical turning.
The _echangeur_ is a very ingenious application of the well understood
rapidity of evaporation of any liquid when spread out in very thin
layers over large surfaces and exposed to a current of air. It consists
of a cylinder, or series of cylinders, of increasing diameter, placed
one within another. Each consists of finely perforated sheet iron. They
are placed in a trough of water, just sufficiently immersed to insure
complete wetting. When rotated at a slow speed, the surfaces of all the
cylinders are kept just wetted. A volume of air is either driven or
drawn through, as may be required for any particular purpose. In the
model malting, as shown at Fig. 4, taken from that shown at the Brewery
Exhibition, the air was driven through the _echangeur_ and thence
through the germinating barley. Here or as employed in the malting
illustrated, the air in its passage comes first into contact with the
moistened cylinders, and if hot and dry it becomes moist and cool, for
the constant evaporation upon the cylinders has a very considerable
refrigerating effect.

This was well known to the Egyptians over four thousand years ago, and
the porous bottle--_gergeleh_--of Esnch has been made until the present
day, to keep the drinking water cool and fresh. The _echangeur_ is
like a gigantic gergeleh, and by increasing the size and number of the
cylinders, and causing the water in the moistening trough to circulate,
any volume of air can be wetted to the saturation limit corresponding to
its temperature. It will be seen that this apparatus gives the maltster
complete control of the humidity and heat as well as volume of the air
driven through germinating corn.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

The turning apparatus is shown by Fig. 4, and consists, as will be seen,
of a cylindrical frame provided with rollers which run on rails at the
edge of the germinating cases. It is carried to and fro from either end
of the case by compensating rope gearing which at the same time gives
motion to the gearing actuating the turning screws. These screws do not
quite touch the bottom of the germinating case, but are provided with a
pair of small brushes, as shown in the annexed engraving, Fig. 8, which
just skim it. The apparatus shown has but three of these screws, but the
cases are generally made wide enough for six. The kilns are double,
each possessing two floors, and worked upon the Stopes' system. The
construction of the furnaces is of the ordinary French pattern. The
arrangement of the house permits of great regularity in working. Every
day 130 qrs. of barley is screened, sorted, cleaned, and passed into a
steeping cistern. When sufficiently steeped it runs through piping into
the germinating case, which, in the natural order of working, is empty.
Here it forms the couch. When it is desirable to open couch a small
amount of air is forced through the grain by opening the trap door
connected with the main air channel. This furnishes the growing corn
with oxygen, removes the carbonic acid gas, and regulates temperatures
of the mass of grain. Later the Saladin turner is put in motion about
every eight to twelve hours. The screws in rotating upon their axes are
slowly propelled horizontally. They thus effectually turn the grain and
leave it perfectly smooth. This turning prevents matting of the roots,
the regulation of temperature and exposure to air being effected
by means of the cold air from the _echangeur_. When the grain is
sufficiently grown it is elevated to the kilns. For forty hours it
remains upon the top floor. It is then dropped upon the bottom floor, a
further charge of green corn following upon the top floor. The benefit
is mutual. The bottom floor is maintained at an even temperature, being
virtually plunged in an air bath; free radiation of heat is prevented;
the top surface of the malt is necessarily nearly as warm as that next
the wires, which in its turn is subject to lower heats than would be
necessary if free radiation from the surface was allowed. The top floor
is by the intervention of the layer of malt between it and the fire
prevented it from coming into direct contact with heat of a dangerous
and damaging degree. The same heat which is used to dry one floor, and
in an ordinary kiln passes at once into the air as waste, is the best
possible description of heat, namely, very slightly moistened heated
air, to remove the moisture from the second layer of malt at a low
temperature. It is of vital importance to retain this green malt at a
low heat so long as any percentage of moisture exceeding, say, 15 per
cent, is retained by the corn.

The regulation of temperature is shown by the diagrams, Figs. 9 and 10:

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]

[Illustration: Fig. 10.]

The distribution of the heated air in the kiln is rarely as uniform as
is supposed, the temperature of the malt on drying floor being very
different at different parts. In illustration of this, the following may
be taken from a statement by Mr. Stopes of the results of an examination
of the temperatures at different parts of a drying floor in a kiln in
Norfolk: "A malting steeping 105 qr. every four days has a kiln 75
feet by 36 feet; an average drying area of under 26 feet per qr. The
consequent depth of green malt when loaded is over 10 inches. The total
area of air inlets is less than 27 feet super. The air outlet exceeds
117 feet, a ratio of 13 to 3. The capacity of head room equals 44,550
feet cube. The area of each tile is 144 inches, with 546 holes, giving
an effective air area of some 32 inches. The ratio of non-effective
metallic surface to air space is thus 9 to 2." The Casella anemometer
gave no indications at several points, and fluctuating up and down
draughts were observable at many others, especially at two corners and
along the center. "The strongest upward draught pulsated with the gusts
of wind and ranged from 30 feet to 54 feet per minute, a down draught of
equal intensity occurring at intervals at the same spot, notwithstanding
the fact that the air was rushing in at the inlets below the floor at
the high velocity of 785 feet per minute. The temperatures of the drying
malt and superimposed air consequent upon the conditions thus indicated
were naturally as follows: At B, the place supposed to be hottest: Heat
of malt touching tiles, 216 deg.; heat of malt 1 inch above tiles, 167
deg.; heat of malt 3 inches above tiles 154 deg.; heat of malt 4 inches
above tiles, 152 deg.; heat of malt 5 inches above tiles, 142 deg.; heat
of malt on surface, 112 deg. At A, the place supposed to be coldest:
Heat of malt next tiles, 174 deg.; heat of malt 2 inches above tiles,
143 deg.; heat of malt 4 inches above tiles, 135 deg.; heat of malt on
surface, 104 deg.; the heat of the air 3 feet above tiles, 84 deg.; the
heat of the air 5 feet above tiles, 82 deg. Fig. 9 shows the temperature
at twenty-six points close to the tiles, taken with twelve registered
and accurate thermometers in the space of fifteen minutes." These and
other similar tests have led to the conclusion that the best malt drying
cannot be done on a single floor.

Fig. 10 is a similar diagram showing the temperatures on a drying floor
of kiln at Poole, Dorset, altered to Stopes' system of drying. The
temperature at different depths of the drying grain was as follows: Malt
at surface of tiles, 142 deg.; malt at 1 inch above tiles, 142 deg.;
malt at 2 inches above tiles, 142 deg.; malt at 4 inches above tiles,
141 deg.; malt on surface, 140 deg.

The advantages of the Saladin system over that hitherto working in
Britain are numerous, and are thus enumerated by Messrs. Stopes & Co.
who are agents for M. Saladin: The area occupied by the building does
not equal one-third of that otherwise required. The actual growing-floor
space is only about one-seventh, and the number of workmen is ruled
necessarily by the size of the house, but on an average is reduced
two-thirds; but the employment of much more power is necessary, and the
power is used at more frequent intervals. The use of plant and premises
is continuous, the processes of malting being equally well performed
during the summer months. The further advantage of this is that brewers
secure entire uniformity in age of malt. By the English system the
stocks of finished malt necessarily fluctuate largely. All grain is
subjected to the same conditions of surrounding air, exposure, and
temperature. The volume of air supplied to the germinating corn is
entirely under control, as are also its temperature and humidity. When
germination is arrested and the green malt is drying, the double kilns
insure control of the temperatures of the corn in the kilns. The
infrequency of turning the germinating grain benefits the growth of the
roots and the development of the plumule, besides saving much labor. No
grains are crushed or damaged by the feet or shovels of workmen. The air
supplied to the corn can be inexpensively freed from disease germs
and impurities. The capital needed for malting can be reduced by the
diminished cost of installation, and the reduced stocks of malt on hand.
The quality of the malt made is considerably improved. The percentages
of acidity are much reduced. The stability of the beer is increased,
and a greater percentage of the extractive matter of the barley is
obtainable by the brewer.--_The Engineer_.

       *       *       *       *       *



NON-SPARKING KEY.


Profs. Ayrton and Perry lately described and exhibited before the
Physical Society their new ammeters and voltmeters, also a non-sparking
key. The well known ammeters and voltmeters of the authors used for
electric light work are now constructed so as to dispense with
a constant, and give the readings in amperes and volts without
calculation. This is effected by constructing the instruments so
that there is a falling off in the controlling magnetic field, and a
considerable increase in the deflecting magnetic field. The deflections
are thus made proportional to the current or E.M.F. measured. The
ingenious device of a core or soft iron pole-piece, adjustable between
the poles of the horseshoe magnet, is used for this purpose. By means of
an ammeter and voltmeter used conjointly, the resistance of part of the
circuit, say a lamp or heated wire, can be got by Ohm's law. Profs.
Ayrton and Perry's non-sparking key is designed to prevent sparking with
large currents. It acts by introducing a series of resistance coils
determined experimentally one after the other in circuit, thereby
cutting off the spark.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR MEASURING ELECTRIC CURRENTS AND ELECTRO-MOTIVE
FORCE.

By Messrs. R. E. CROMPTON and GISBERT KAPP.

[Footnote: Paper read before the Society of Telegraph Engineers, 14th
February, 1884.]


In consequence of the rapid development of that part of electrical
science which may be termed "heavy electrical engineering," reliable
measuring instruments specially suitable for the large currents
employed in lighting and transmission of energy have become an absolute
necessity. As usual, demand has stimulated supply, and many ingenious
and useful instruments have been invented, the manufacture of which
forms at the present day an important industry. Mr. Shoolbred, in a
paper which he recently read before this Society, gave a full and
interesting account of the labors of our predecessors in this field.
To-day we add to the list then given a class of instruments invented by
us, examples of which are now before you on the table. We have preferred
to call them current and potential indicators in preference to meters,
considering that the latter term, or rather termination, ought to be
applied rather to integrating instruments, which the necessities of
electric lighting, we believe, will soon bring into extensive use. The
principal aim in the design of these indicators has been to obtain
instruments which will not alter their calibration in consequence of
external disturbing forces. If this object can be attained, then it will
be possible to divide the scale of each instrument directly into amperes
or volts, as the cause may be, and thus avoid the use of a coefficient
of calibration by which the deflection has to be multiplied. This is an
important consideration when it is remembered that in many cases
these instruments have to be used by unskilled workmen, to whom a
multiplication involving the use of demical fractions is a tedious and
in some cases even an impossible task.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. FIG. 2.]

All measurements are comparative. We measure weights or forces by
comparison with some generally known and accepted unit standard
weights, lengths, areas, and volumes, by comparison with a unit length,
resistance by a standard ohm, and so forth. In the same way currents
could be measured by comparison with a standard current: but this
would be a troublesome process, not only on account of the apparatus
necessary, but also because it would be a matter of some difficulty to
have a standard current always ready for use. In general, measurement
by direct comparison with a standard unit is discarded for the more
indirect method of measuring not the current itself, but its chemical,
mechanical, or magnetic effect. The chemical method is very accurate if
a proper density of current through the surface of the electrodes be
used,[1] but since it requires a considerable time, and, above all, an
absolutely constant current, its use is almost entirely restricted
to laboratory work and to the calibration of other instruments. For
practical ready use, instruments employing the mechanical or magnetic
effect of the current are alone suitable. We weigh, so to speak, the
current against the force of a magnet, of a spring, or of gravity.
The measurement will be exact if the thing against which we weigh or
counterbalance the current itself retains its original standard value.
Where permanent magnets or springs are used as a balancing force, this
condition of constancy in our weights and measures is not always fully
maintained, and to make matters worse, there is no visible sign by which
a change, should it have occurred, can be readily detected. A spring
may have been overstrained or a steel magnet may have become weakened
without showing the least alteration in outward appearance. To overcome
this difficulty, the obvious remedy is not to use springs or steel
magnets at all, but to substitute for these some other force which
should be either absolutely constant, such as the force of gravity, or
at least should, vary only within narrow limits, and this in accordance
with a definite law. This latter condition can be fulfilled by the
employment of electro-magnets.

[Footnote 1: According to recent experiments made by Dr. Hammerl, the
density of current in a copper voltameter should be half an ampere per
square inch of surface.]

[Illustration: FIG 3.]

To imitate with an electro magnet as nearly as possible a permanent
magnet, so that the former can be used to replace the latter, it is
necessary that the magnetism in the iron core should remain constant.
This could, of course, be done by exciting the electro magnet with a
constant current from a separate source. (In a recent note to the Paris
Academy of Science, M.E. Ducretet described a galvanometer with steel
magnet, which is surrounded by an exciting coil. When recalibration
appears necessary, a known standard current from large Daniell cells is
sent through this coil during a certain time, and thus the magnet is
brought back to its original degree of saturation. M. Ducretet also
mentions the use of a soft iron bar instead of a steel magnet, in which
case the current from the Daniell cells must be kept on during the time
an observation is taken.) But such a system would appear to be too
complicated for ready use. Moreover, some sort of indicator would be
required by which we could make sure that the exciting current has the
normal strength.

[Illustration: FIG 4.]

The plan we adopt is to excite the electro magnet by the whole or a part
of the current which is to be measured. Since this current varies, the
power exciting the core of the electro magnet must also vary; and since
we require the core to have as nearly as possible a permanent magnetic
force, we are brought face to face with the question, whether an electro
magnet can be constructed that has a constant moment under varying
exciting currents. This question has been answered by the well known
experiments of Jacobi, Dub, Mueller, Weber, and others. To get an
absolutely constant magnetic moment, is not possible, but between
certain limits we can get a very near approximation to constancy.

[Illustration]

The relation between exciting power and magnetic moment is very
complicated, depending not only on the dimensions and shape of the core
and the manner of winding, but also on the chemical constitution of the
iron of the core. It is not possible, or at least it has hitherto not
been found possible, to embody all these various elements into an exact
mathematical formula, which would give the magnetic moment as a function
of the exciting current; but the above mentioned experiments have shown
that within certain limits, and in the neighborhood of the point of
saturation, the relation between the two is that of an arc to its
geometrical tangent. It will be seen that for large angles the arc
increases much slower than the tangent; that is, for strongly excited
cores, a very large increase of the exciting current will produce only
a slight increase of magnetic moment. If Mueller's formula were correct
for all currents, absolute saturation could only be reached with an
infinite current. Whether this be the case or not, it is certain that
the greater the exciting current the less will a variation in it affect
the magnetic moment of the core. To imitate as nearly as possible
permanent steel magnets, it is therefore necessary to use electro
magnets, the cores of which are easily saturated. The core should be
thin and long and of the horseshoe type; the amount of wire wound round
it should be large in comparison with the size of the core.

[Illustration]

Here is a magnet partly wound which was used in one of our earliest
experiments, but which was a failure on account of having far too much
mass in the core in comparison with the amount of copper wire wound
round it. Since then we have greatly diminished the iron and increased
the copper. The cores of the instruments on the table are composed of
two or three No. 18 b.w.g. charcoal iron wires, and are wound with one
layer of 0'120 inch wire in the case of the current indicators, and
eighteen layers of 0.0139 inch wire in the case of the potential
indicator. If from the diagram, Fig. 1, we plot a curve the abscissae of
which represent exciting current, and the ordinates magnetic moment of
the soft iron core, we find that a considerable portion of the curve
is almost a straight and only slightly inclined line. If it, were a
horizontal straight line the core would be absolutely saturated, but
such as it is, it answers the purpose sufficiently well, for with a
variation of exciting current from 10 to 100 amperes the magnetic moment
varies but slightly. If a small soft iron or magnetic steel needle, _n
s_, be suspended between the poles, S N, of an electro magnet of such
proportions as described above, and the current, after exciting the
electro magnet, _e e_, be lead round the coils, DD, it will be found
that for all currents between 10 and 100 amperes the needle, _n
s_, shows a definite deflection for each current. Here we have a
galvanometer with permanent calibration. In this case the deflection of
the needle will not strictly follow the law of tangents, because the
directing power of the electro magnet is not absolutely constant; but
whatever the exact ratio between deflection and current may be, it must
always remain the same, and to each angle of deflection corresponds one
definite strength of current.

[Illustration]

The force with which the electro magnet tends to keep the needle in its
zero position, that is, in line with the poles, S N, is due partly to
the magnetism of the core, which is nearly constant, and partly to the
magnetic influence of the coils, _ee_, themselves, which is, of course,
simply proportional to the current. The total magnetic force acting on
the needle is, therefore, represented by the sum of these two forces,
and consequently not nearly so constant as might be desired in order to
get a good imitation of a tangent galvanometer with a permanent magnet.
In the diagram, Fig. 2, the curve, O A B, represents the magnetic moment
of the iron core, the straight line, ODE, that of the exciting coils per
se, and the dotted line, O F M, the sum of the two, obtained by adding
for every current, O C, the respective ordinates, CD and C A.

  CF = CD + CA

The rise of this curve shows that the force which tends to bring the
needle back to its zero position increases with the current, though at a
slower ratio than the deflecting force of the current. It follows from
this that for large currents the increment in the angle of deflection is
comparatively small, and the divisions on the scale whereon the current
is to be read off would come too near together to allow accurate
readings to be taken. In other words, the range of accurate reading in
an instrument so constructed would only be limited. But it is very easy
to eliminate the magnetic effect of the coils of the electro magnet on
the needle, by introducing an opposite magnetic effect, so that only
that part of the force remains which belongs to the soft iron core
proper. One way of doing this is by surrounding the needle with a coil,
the plane of which is at right angles to the line, S N, and coupling
this coil in series with the deflecting coil, D D. If the proportions
of this transverse coil and the direction of the current through it
be properly chosen, its magnetic effect can be made to exactly
counterbalance that of the exciting coils, _e e_, without perceptibly
weakening the magnetism of the iron core. But instead of employing two
coils, one parallel and the other transversely to the zero position of
the needle, we can obtain the same result in a more simple manner with
one coil only, if this be placed at such an angle that its magnetic
effect can be substituted for the combined effects of the two coils. In
other words, we set the deflecting coil, D D, at a certain angle to the
zero position of the needle.

A similar arrangement, though not precisely for the same purpose, has
already been suggested and tried by Messrs. Deprez, Carpentier, Ayrton,
and Perry, in galvanometers with permanent steel magnets. If the coil,
D D, be so placed, the deflecting force which now acts obliquely can be
considered as the resultant of two forces, one acting at right angles to
the line, S N, as in an ordinary galvanometer, and the other parallel to
this line, but in a sense opposed to the action of the electro magnet
and its exciting coils. If the angle of obliquity be so chosen that this
latter component exactly equals the magnetic effect of the exciting
coils _per se_, an equality which holds good for all currents, then we
shall have an almost perfect imitation of a tangent galvanometer with
permanent magnets. But we can go a step further than this; we can
overbalance the exciting coils by setting the deflecting coil at a
greater angle than necessary for the mere elimination of the former, and
thus attain that an increase of current results in a slight weakening of
the field in which the needle swings, thus allowing the increment of the
angle of deflection to be comparatively large even for large currents.
In this way it is possible to obtain a more evenly divided scale than
in the case when the deflection follows the law of tangents, as in an
ordinary tangent galvanometer. This principle of overbalancing the
exciting coils is shown on diagram, Fig. 2. The straight line, O G,
represents the magnetic effect on the needle of that component of the
deflecting force which is parallel, but in sense opposed to S N;
as mentioned above, the magnetic effect of the exciting coils is
represented by the straight line, O E. The combined effect of these two
forces on the needle is represented by the line, O K, the ordinates
of which must be deducted from those of the curve, O A B, in order to
obtain the total directing force due to each current. This is shown by
the curve, O P Q, shown in a thick full line. This curve shows how
the directing force or strength of field in which the needle swings
decreases with an increasing current. That this does actually take place
can easily be proved by experiment.

Fig. 4 shows two curves; the one drawn in a full line is obtained
by plotting the deflection in degrees of the needle of a potential
indicator as abscissae, and the corresponding electromotive forces
measured simultaneously on a standard instrument as ordinates; the
dotted line shows what this curve would be with an ordinary tangent
galvanometer.

The needle of the potential indicator is mounted at the lower end of
a steel axle, to the upper end of which is fastened a light aluminum
pointer, whereby the deflection of the needle can be read off on a scale
divided directly into volts. The scale is placed within a circular dial
plate with glass cover, giving sufficient room for the pointer to swing
all round, and the needle is placed within a central tube fitting it
closely, which acts as a damper and so makes the instrument almost
dead beat. Tube and dial are in one casting. The electro magnet is of
horseshoe form fastened to a central tubular stand, which also serves
to support the two deflecting coils, one on either side of it. The tube
within which the magnetic needle swings is inserted into the stand,
which is bored out to the external diameter of the tube. The electro
magnet and deflecting coils are wound with from 50 to 100 ohms of fine
insulated copper wire, and an additional resistance coil of from 450
to 900 ohms of German silver is added, which can, however, be short
circuited by depressing a key when the instrument has to be used for
reading low electromotive forces. In this case the indication of the
pointer must be divided by ten. If a current be sent through the
instrument the wrong way, the needle turns through an angle of 180°, and
thus brings the pointer to the side of the dial opposite to where the
scale is. In this position no reading can be taken, and to facilitate
the sending of the current in the right direction a commutator is added,
and the same is so coupled up that when the pointer stands over the
scale the handle on the commutator points to the positive terminal
screw. There is a limit of electromotive force below which the indicator
fails to give reliable readings. For instance, an instrument wound with
100 ohms of copper wire and 900 ohms of German silver can be used for
electromotive forces varying between 300 and 3 volts, but would not be
reliable for measuring less than 3 volts.

For very exact measurements the instrument should be placed north and
south, in the same position in which it was calibrated. Two different
patterns of current indicators are on the table; one with double needles
suspended on a point in the way compass magnets are suspended, the other
with one lozenge shaped needle mounted on an axle and pivoted on jewels,
in every way similar to the needle of the potential indicator first
described.

For measurements of currents from 10 amperes upward, there is no need
to employ a complete coil as the deflecting agent; one half-coil or one
strip passing close under the needle gives sufficient deflecting force,
and thus the construction of the instrument is rendered extremely
simple. The current, after entering at one of the flat electrodes,
splits in two parts, each part passing round the winding of an electro
magnet of horseshoe form, the similar poles of both magnets pointing
toward each other and toward the needle. After traversing the winding,
the current unites again, and passes through a metal strip close under
the needle, and finally out of the instrument by the other electrode,
which lies close under that at which the current entered, but is
insulated from it by a sheet of fiber. The metal strip is set at an
angle, to balance or overbalance, as may be preferred, the magnetic
influence of the exciting coils. The effect of this overbalancing is
shown in Fig. 5, where the full curve represents the current as a
function of the deflection--obtained by comparison with a standard
instrument--and the dotted curve shows what that relation between
deflection and current would be if the law of tangents held good for
these instruments. It will be seen that, about the middle of the scale,
the dotted line coincides nearly with the full line, while at the
extreme end of the scale the dotted line is higher. From this follows,
that if we compare our indicator from which this curve was taken with
any form of tangent instrument showing an equal angle of deflection at
the medium reading, it will be seen that the needle of our indicator
will be deflected to a greater angle at high readings than that of the
tangent galvanometer. Consequently, the divisions on the scale will
be widest apart in our instruments, which greatly facilitates high
readings.

       *       *       *       *       *



SECONDARY BATTERIES.


The Consolidated Electric Light Company has now completed the secondary
battery which has for some time engaged the attention of its officers,
and their regular manufacture and use for electric lighting stations
have been fairly entered upon. Among other places to which the batteries
have been sent and put into work is Colchester, where the company
has for some time had an installation at work, chiefly employing
incandescent lamps. The battery consists of lead electrodes, anode and
cathode being of the same character. They are constructed of narrow
ribbons of lead, each element being made from long lengths of the ribbon
about or nearly 0.20 in. width, rolled together into a flat cake like
rolls of narrow webbing, as illustrated by the annexed diagram, Fig.
1, the greater part of the ribbon being very thin and flat; but
intermediate thicker ribbons are also employed, as in Fig. 2, this
thicker ribbon being corrugated as shown, and affording passage room
for the circulation of the electrolyte. From four to eight coils of the
plain ribbons are between every pair of corrugated ribbons. They are
wound up together tightly, and pressed into the nearly rectangular form
shown. The bar for suspending the coil plates so made in the cells is
soldered to the coil. The object of this construction is of course to
obtain large lead surface, and of course a much larger surface is so
obtained than could be practically obtained from plain lead plates in
the same compass. A battery thus made may be seen at the offices of the
company, 110 Cannon Street.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. FIG. 2.]

A very ingenious device for cutting the battery out of circuit when
charged as much as is thought desirable is used by the company. In a
cell is an element which has a determined lower capacity than those in
the rest of the battery. Over this element is placed a gas-tight chamber
in which is a diaphgram, this diaphragm being of very flexible material
placed in the cover of the box of cells. When charging has proceeded as
long as is desirable, or proceeds too fast, hydrogen is evolved, and
this collecting in the chamber referred to acts upon the diaphragm, and
by means of a rod connected thereto, switches the current, which is
supplied to an electro-magnet and by which circuit is made through the
medium of mercury contacts. The object, of this is to save the
battery from destruction by over-charging or charging by too large a
current.--_The Engineer_.

       *       *       *       *       *



ACETYLENE FROM IODOFORM.


P. CAZENEUVE publishes in the _Comptes Rendus_ a new method for the
preparation of acetylene, which consists in mixing iodoform intimately
with moist and finely divided silver. An abundant evolution of acetylene
takes place without heating. The reaction is represented by the
following formula: 2CHI_{3} + 6Ag = C_{2}H_{2} + 6 AgI. The
decomposition of the iodoform is hastened if the silver is mixed with
finely divided copper, such as can be obtained by precipitating it from
its sulphate by means of zinc.

Cazeneuve also observed that most metals which have any affinity for
iodine will decompose iodoform in the presence of water, forming
acetylene and an iodide of the metal. By the use of zinc he obtained a
liquid having a pleasant ethereal odor, and a gas mixture that contained
besides acetylene an iodine compound which burned with a purple-edged,
fawn-colored flame.

       *       *       *       *       *



WHEN DOES AN ELECTRICAL SHOCK BECOME FATAL?


In this age of electricity and electric wires carrying currents of
various intensity, the question of danger arising from contact with them
has caused considerable discussion. An examination into the facts as
they exist may therefore enlighten some who are at present in the dark.

To begin with, we often hear the question asked--why is it that certain
wires carrying very large currents give very little shock, whereas
others, with very small currents, may prove fatal to those coming in
contact with them? The answer to this is--that the shock a person
experiences does not depend upon the current _flowing in the wires_, but
upon the current _diverted from them_ and _flowing through the body_.

The muscular contraction due to a galvanic current, which was first
observed in the frog, gives a good illustration of the fact that it
requires only a very minute current to flow through the muscles in order
to contract them. Thus the simple contact of pieces of zinc and copper
with the nerves generated current sufficient to excite the muscles--a
current which would require a delicate galvanometer for its detection.
What is true of the muscles of the frog holds good also for the human
muscles; they too are very susceptible to the passage of a current.

In order to determine the current which proves fatal we need only to
apply the formula which expresses Ohm's law, viz., C=E/R, or the current
(ampere) equals the electromotive force (volt) divided by the resistance
(ohm).

According to the committee of Parliament investigation, the
electromotive force dangerous to life is about 300 volts; this then is
the quantity, E, in the formula. There remains now only to determine the
resistance in ohms which the body offers to the passage of the current.
In order to obtain this, a series of measurements under different
conditions were made. On account of the nature of the experiment a high
resistance Thomson reflecting galvanometer was used, with the following
results.

When the hands had been wiped perfectly dry, the resistance of the body
was about 30,000 ohms; with the hands perspiring ordinarily it fell to
10,000 ohms; whereas when they were dripping wet it was as low as 7,000
ohms. Our readers can judge this resistance best when we state that the
Atlantic cable offers a resistance of 8,000 ohms.

Taking an ordinary condition of the body, with the hands perspiring as
usual, we would have the resistance equal to 10,000 ohms. Applying the
two known quantities in the formula, we get:

  C = (300 / 10,000) - (1 / 33.333+)

This means, therefore, that when the electromotive force or potential is
great enough to send a current of 1/33 ampere through the body, fatal
results will ensue. This current is so minute that it would deposit only
about 6 _grains_ of copper in _one hour_, a grain being 1/7,000 of a
pound.

Let us now compare these figures with some actual cases, taking as
an example a system of incandescent lighting. In these systems the
difference of potential between any two points of the circuit outside of
the lamps does not exceed 150 volts. Taking this figure, therefore, it
will be seen that under no circumstances can the shock received from
touching these wires become dangerous--not even by touching the
terminals of the dynamo itself; because in neither case can a current be
driven through the body, sufficient to cause an excessive contraction of
the muscles.

In a system of arc lighting, however, we have to deal with entirely
different conditions; for, while in the incandescent system the adding
of a lamp, which diminishes the resistance, requires no increase of
electromotive force, the contrary is the case in the arc light system.
Here every additional lamp added to the circuit means an increase in
resistance, and consequent increase in electromotive force or potential.
Taking for example a well known system of arc lighting, we find that the
lamps require individually an electromotive force of 40 volts with a
current of 10 amperes. In other words, the difference in potential at
the two terminals of every such lamp is 40 volts. Consequently, if the
circuit were touched in two places, including between them only one
lamp, no injurious effects would ensue. If we touch the circuit so as
to include two lamps between us, the effect would be greater, since the
potential between those two points is 2 x 40 volts. We might continue
in this manner touching the circuit until we had included about 7 or
8 lamps, when the shock would become fatal, since the point would be
reached at which the difference of potential is great enough to send a
dangerous current through the body.

Up to this point we have assumed that, while touching two points in the
wire, the rest of the circuit is perfectly insulated, so that no current
can leak, in other words, that the circuit is nowhere "grounded." If
this is not the case we may, under suitable conditions, receive a
shock by touching only _one_ point of the wire. This becomes clear
by considering the current to leak from another spot of different
potential, to pass through the ground and into the body; thus, on
touching the wire the body virtually makes a connection between the
two points of the circuit. In clear dry weather such leaks are
insignificant; but in damp and rainy weather, and with poor insulation,
they may rise to such a point at which it would be dangerous to touch
the circuit even with one hand, the leaks being sometimes so great as
to cause the lamps to burn in a fitful, desultory manner, and to go out
entirely.

There is still another factor which enters into the discussion of the
danger of electric light wires. This must be looked for in the fact that
the physiological effects are greatest at the moment of the opening or
the closing of the circuit; or in a closed circuit they are the more
marked when the flow of current stops and starts, or diminishes and
increases. In dynamo electric machines the current is not absolutely
continuous or uniform, since the coils on the armature being separated a
distance cause a slight break or diminution of the current between each.
This break is so short that it does not interfere with the practical
work for lighting; in some constructions, nevertheless, the distances
apart is so great that, while not interfering with light, its effects
upon the muscles are greatly increased over those of other constructions
which give a more uniform current.

All these statements might lead to the conclusion that arc light wires
are dangerous under any circumstances; but this is not the case. The
first and only requisite is, that they be perfectly insulated. When thus
protected accidents from them are impossible, and all mishaps that have
occurred through them can be traced directly to the lack of insulation.
Nevertheless, we would warn our readers against experimenting upon arc
wires by actual trial, because unforeseen conditions might lead to
disagreeable results.

       *       *       *       *       *



ROBERT CAUER'S STATUE OF LORELEI.


The statue of Lorelei, the mythical siren of the Rhine, represented in
the annexed cut, which is taken from the _Illustrirte Zeitung_, was
modeled by Robert Cauer, of Kreuglach on the Rhine. He was born at
Dresden in 1831, and is the son of the well-known sculptor Emil Cauer,
and a brother of the sculptor Karl Cauer.

[Illustration: LORELEI STATUE BY ROBERT CAUER.]

       *       *       *       *       *



REDUCING AND ENLARGING PLASTER CASTS.


Ordinary casts taken in plaster vary somewhat, owing to the shrinkage of
the plaster; but it has hitherto not been possible to regulate this
so as to produce any desired change and yet preserve the proportions.
Hoeger, of Gmuend, has, however, recently devised an ingenious method
for making copies in any material, either reduced or enlarged, without
distortion.

The original is first surrounded with a case or frame of sheet metal or
other suitable material, and a negative cast is taken with some elastic
material, if there are undercuts; the inventor uses agar-agar. The usual
negative or mould having been obtained as usual, he prepares a gelatine
mass resembling the hektograph mass, by soaking the gelatine first, then
melting it and adding enough of any inorganic powdered substance to give
it some stability. This is poured into the mould, which is previously
moistened with glycerine to prevent adhesion. When cold, the gelatine
cast is taken from the mould, and is, of course, the same size as the
original. If the copy is to be reduced, this gelatine cast is put in
strong alcohol and left entirely covered with it. It then begins to
shrink and contract with the greatest uniformity. When the desired
reduction has taken place, the cast is removed from its bath. From
this reduced copy a cast is taken as usual. As there is a limit to the
shrinkage of the gelatine cast, when a considerable reduction is desired
the operation is repeated by making a plaster mould from the reduced
copy, and from this a second gelatine cast is taken and likewise
immersed in alcohol and shrunk. It is claimed that even when repeated
there is no sacrifice of the sharpness of the original.

When the copy is to be enlarged instead of reduced, the gelatine cast is
put in a cold water bath, instead of alcohol. After it has swollen as
much as it will, the plaster mould is made as before. For enlarging,
the mould could also be made of some slightly soluble mass, and then by
filling it with water the cavity would grow larger, but it would not
give so sharp a copy.

       *       *       *       *       *



STRIPPING THE FILM FROM GELATINE NEGATIVES.


We have frequent inquiries as to the best means of removing a
gelatino-bromide negative from its glass support so that it can be used
either as a direct or reversed negative, and it does not appear to be
very generally known that about two years ago Mr. Plener described a
method which answers well under all circumstances, whether a substratum
has been used or not.

If a negative is immersed in extremely dilute hydrofluoric acid
contained in an ebonite dish, say half a teaspoonful to half a pint of
water, the film very soon becomes loosened, and floats off the glass,
this circumstance being due to the solvent action which the acid
exercises upon the surface of the plate as soon as it has penetrated the
film. If the floating film be now caught upon a plate which has been
slightly waxed, and it is allowed to dry on this plate, it will become
quite flat and free from wrinkles. To wax the plate, it should be held
before the fire until it is moderately hot, after which it is rubbed
over with a lump of wax, and the excess is polished off with a piece
of flannel. When the film is dry, it will leave the waxed glass
immediately, if one corner is lifted by means of a penknife. The film
will become somewhat enlarged during the above-described operation; but,
by taking suitable precautions, this enlargement may be avoided. It is
also convenient to prepare the hydrofluoric acid extemporaneously by the
action of sulphuric acid on fluoride of sodium; and, in many cases, it
is advisable to thicken up the film by an additional layer of gelatine.

The following directions embody these points. The negative, which must
be unvarnished, is leveled, and covered with a layer of warm gelatine
solution (one in eight) about as thick as a sixpence. This done, and
the gelatine set, the plate is immersed in alcohol for a few minutes
in order to remove the greater part of the water from the gelatinous
stratum. The next step is to allow the plate to remain for five or six
minutes in a cold mixture of one part of sulphuric acid with twelve
parts of water, and in the mean time two parts of sodium fluoride are
dissolved in one hundred parts of water, an ebonite tray being used. A
volume of the dilute sulphuric acid equal to about one-fourth of the
fluoride solution is next added from the first dish, and the plate
is then transferred to the second dish, when the film soon becomes
liberated. When this is the case, it is placed once more in the dilute
sulphuric acid. After a few seconds it is rinsed in water, and laid on a
sheet of waxed glass, complete contact being established by means of a
squeegee, and the edges are clamped down by means of strips of wood held
in position by American clips or string. All excess of sulphuric acid
may now be removed by soaking the plate in methylated alcohol, after
which it is dried. It is as well to add a few drops of ammonia to the
last quantity of alcohol used.

The plate bearing the film negative is now placed in a warm locality,
under which circumstances a few hours will suffice for the complete
drying of the pellicular negative, after which it may be detached
with the greatest ease by lifting the edges with the point of a
penknife.--_Photo. News_.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW ANALOGY BETWEEN SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES,

By W. SPRING.


The author asks in the first place, What is the cause of the different
specific gravities of one and the same metal according as it has been
cast, rolled, drawn into wire, or hammered? Does the difference observed
prove a real condensation of the matter under the action of pressure, or
is it merely due to the expulsion by pressure of gases which have been
occluded when the ingot was cast? According to well-known researches,
metals such as platinum, gold, silver, and copper, which have
been proved to occlude gases on fusion, and to let them escape,
_incompletely_, on solidification, are precisely those which are
most increased in their specific gravity by pressure. The author has
submitted to pressures of about 20,000 atmospheres metals which possess
this property, either not at all, or to a very trifling extent, and he
finds that though a first pressure produces a slight permanent increase
of density, its repetition makes little difference. Their density is
found to have reached a maximum. Hence the density of solids, like that
of liquids, is only really modified by temperature. Pressure effects
no permanent condensation of solid bodies, except they are capable of
assuming an allotropic condition of greater density. The author's former
researches tend to show that solid matter, in suitable conditions of
temperature, takes the state corresponding to the volume which it is
compelled to occupy. Hence there is an analogy between the allotropic
states of certain solids and the different states of aggregation of
matter. Possibly the different forms of matter may be due to a single
cause--polymerization. The limit of elasticity of a solid body is the
critical moment when the matter begins to flow under the action of the
pressure to which it is submitted, just as, e.g., ice at or below 0° may
be liquefied by strong pressure. A brittle body is simply one which does
not possess the property of flowing under the action of pressure.

       *       *       *       *       *



HYDROGEN AMALGAM.


Hydrogen, although a gas, is recognized by chemists as a metal, and when
combined with any solid metal--as in the case known to electricians as
the polarization of a negative element,--the compound may correctly be
termed an alloy; while any compound of hydrogen with the fluid metal
mercury may with equal correctness be termed an amalgam of hydrogen, or
"hydrogen amalgam." The efforts of many chemists and mining engineers
have for many years been devoted to a search for some effective and
economical means for preventing the "sickening" of mercury and its
consequent "flouring" and loss. Some sixteen or more years ago,
Professor Crookes, F.R.S., discovered and, after a series of
experiments, patented the use of an amalgam of the metal sodium for this
purpose. He made the amalgam in a concentrated form, and it was added
in various proportions to the mercury used for gold amalgamation. Water
becoming present, it will readily be understood that the sodium, in
being converted into the hydrate (KHO) of that metal, caused a rapid
evolution of hydrogen. The hydrogen thus evolved was the excess over a
certain proportion which enters into combination with the mercury. While
the mercury retained the charge of hydrogen, the "quickness" of the
fluid metal was preserved; but upon the loss of the hydrogen the
"quickness" ceased, and the mercury was acted upon by the injurious
components contained in the ore.

Since the introduction of the sodium amalgam, many attempts have been
made, more especially in America, to overcome the tendency of mercury to
"sicken" and lose its "quickness." The greater number of these efforts
have been made by the use of electricity as the active agent in
attaining this end; but such efforts have been generally of a crude and
unscientific character. Latterly Mr. Barker, of the Electro-amalgamator
Company, Limited, has introduced a system--already detailed in these
pages--by which the mercury is "quickened." In his method the running
water passing over the tables, or other apparatus of a similar
character, is used as the electrolyte. In this arrangement, the mercury
being the cathode, plates or wires of copper constituting anodes are
brought into contact with the water passing over the mercury in each
"riffle." Both the cathode and the anodes are, of course, maintained in
contact with the poles of a suitable source of electrical supply. The
current then passes from the copper anode through the running water
to the mercury cathode, and so on to the negative pole of the
electro-motor. As a consequence of this arrangement, hydrogen is evolved
from the water, and has the effect of reducing any oxide or other
detrimental compound of the metal; in other words, it "quickens" and
prevents "sickening" of the fluid metal, and consequent "flouring" and
loss. While the hydrogen is evolved at the cathode, oxygen enters into
combination with the copper constituting the anodes. This to some extent
impairs the conductivity of the circuit.

The latest process, however, is that of Mr. Bernard C. Molloy, M.P.,
which we have already characterized as highly scientific and effective,
the production of a suitable amalgam being obtained under the most
economical and simple conditions. This process has the advantage of
producing not only a hydrogen amalgam, but also at will an amalgam of
hydrogen combined with any metal electro-positive to this latter. Thus
hydrogen potassium or hydrogen sodium can be obtained, as will be seen
by the following description.

Mr. Molloy's effort appears to have been, in the first place, directed
to a system which could be adapted to any existing apparatus, and in
certain cases where water was scarce, to avoid altogether the use of
that, in some districts, rare commodity. For the purpose of explanation
we select an ordinary amalgamating table fitted with mercury riffles.
The surface of the table is in no way interfered with or disturbed. The
bed of the riffle, however, is constructed of some porous material, such
as leather, non-resinous wood, or cement, which serves as the diaphragm
upon which the mercury rests, and separates the fluid metal from the
electrolyte beneath. Running the full length of the table is a thin
layer of sand, supported and pressing against the diaphragm, and lying
in this sand is the anode, formed preferably of lead. A peroxide of
that metal is formed by the action of the currents, and may be readily
reduced for use over and over again after working for from one to three
months. The peroxide of lead, as is well known, is a conductor of
electricity, and this fact constitutes an important advantage in the
working of the process. The thin layer of sand is saturated with an
electrolyte, such as dilute sulphuric acid (H_{2}SO_{4} + 20H_{2}O)
to give a simple hydrogen amalgam; (Na_{2}SO_{4} + xH_{2}O) to give a
hydrogen sodium amalgam; or (K_{2}SO_{4} + xH_{2}O) to give a hydrogen
potassium amalgam. Numerous other electrolytes constituted by acids,
alkalies, and salts can be used to form an amalgam permanently
maintained in a condition of "quickness" and freed from all liability
to "sicken," whatever the components of the ore may be. The mercury
is connected with the negative pole of the voltaic battery or other
electro-motor, and the lead made with the positive pole of the same
source. When the current passes there is formed according to the nature
of the electrolyte, a hydrogen amalgam, or an amalgam of hydrogen with a
metal electro-positive to hydrogen. The electrolyte, which, it will be
understood, is distinct and apart from the body of water passing over
the table, will last almost indefinitely, there being no consumption of
any of its constituents, excepting hydrogen and oxygen from the water
of solution. The quantity of acid or saline material contained in the
electrolyte is so very small that there can be no difficulty in finding
a supply in any district. The question of the supply of electricity is
one which in many mining districts involves considerations of practical
importance, since a large supply would necessitate water or steam power.
It has been found that two cells having an electromotive force of about
two volts each will in this process suffice; if preferred, however,
a very small dynamo machine can be used. In connection with the
electro-motive force it is requisite to use, it may be observed that an
amalgam of sodium containing only a small quantity of this metal would,
when constituting a positive element in conjunction with a lead negative
and on an aqueous electrolyte, give an opposing electro-motive force of
less than three volts. Such an amalgam could therefore be obtained under
an electro-motive force of about four volts. The electrical resistance
in the circuit constituted by the apparatus being very small, no
electrical power is wasted. When water constitutes the electrolyte, as
in Barker's system, then the electro-motive force required to obtain a
given current would be very much greater than that above specified.
The conditions assured under this process appear to be all that can
be required, while the amalgams obtained are those most calculated to
preserve the "quickness" and prevent the "sickening" of the mercury.

Mr. Molloy has designed a special form of amalgamating machine to be
used in conjunction with the above process, and with or without the aid
of water. By the employment of this machine, each particle of the ore
is slowly rolled in the quickened mercury for from fifteen to thirty or
more seconds.

When the extent of the gold and silver mining industries is considered,
and when it is borne in mind that a considerable percentage of the
precious metal present in the ore is, in the ordinary process of
extraction, lost through defective amalgamation--due to insufficient
contact with the mercury or to a total absence of contact, as in the
case of float gold--it is obvious that the introduction of any system
obviating such loss is a matter of very great importance to those who
are interested in the above mentioned industries. We expect shortly to
hear of the practical introduction on a large scale of Mr. Molloy's
process, and we look forward with interest to the results which may be
obtained from it.--_The Engineer_.

       *       *       *       *       *



TREATMENT OF ORES BY ELECTROLYSIS.

By M. KILIANI.


The author lays down general principles for electrolytic metallurgy.
Ores must be distinguished as good and bad conductors; the former
may serve directly as anodes, and are easily oxidized by the
electro-negative radicals formed at their contact, and dissolve readily
in the electrolyte. The bad conductors have to be placed in contact
with a conducting anode, formed of an inoxidizable substance, such as
platinum, manganese peroxide, or coke. In laboratory experiments a good
conducting ore is electrolyzed by suspension from a platinum wire in
connection with the source of electricity, and is then immersed in the
bath. On an industrial scale the ore, coarsely broken up, is placed in
one of the compartments of a trough divided by a diaphragm.

On the fragments of the ore which extend up outside of the electrolytic
bath is laid a plate of copper connected with the positive wire. Care
must be taken that this plate does not plunge into the bath, otherwise
the current would not traverse the ore at all. The cathode is preferably
formed of the same metal which is to be obtained. The bath should
not contain organic acids. In practice the common mineral acids are
employed, or their salts, selecting by preference a salt of the metal
which is to be isolated. It is convenient to pass the current through
the greatest possible number of small decomposition troughs, taking care
that the resistance in each is not too great. With a current of one and
the same intensity we obtain in n troughs n times as much metal as in a
single one. To keep down the resistance of the circuit we employ poles
of a large surface, i.e., plenty of ore and baths which are as good
conductors as possible.

The state in which the metal is deposited at the negative pole depends
on the secondary actions undergone by the electrolyte, and especially of
the escape of gas. This is a function of the _density_, of the current,
i.e., the proportion of its intensity to the surface of the cathode. If
the density is too great there is an escape of hydrogen, and the metal
is deposited in a spongy condition. If the density of the current falls
below a certain minimum, an oxide is deposited in place of metal. The
electrolytic treatment of ores often renders it possible to separate
the different metals which may be present. These are deposited in
succession, and are sharply separated if the electromotive power is not
too great.

1. _Zinc_.--The zinciferous compounds--calamine, blende, and zinc
ash--are all poor conductors. They are first dissolved, and the salts
obtained are electrolyzed, employing anodes of coke. Blende should be
roasted before it is dissolved. The electrolytic bath should be as
concentrated as possible to avoid sponginess of the metal and an escape
of hydrogen. In a saturated solution the formation of hydrogen decreases
as the density of the current augments.

2. _Lead_.--Galena is a good conductor, and may be directly
electrolyzed. The best bath is a solution of lead nitrate. The
arborescent crystallizations extend rapidly, and must be broken from
time to time to prevent the formation of a metallic connection between
the anode and the cathode. The sulphur of the galena falls to the bottom
of the bath, and may be separated from the gangue by solution in carbon
disulphide.

3. _Copper_.--Native copper sulphide, though a good conductor, cannot
be directly electrolyzed en account of the presence of iron sulphide,
whence iron would be deposited along with the copper. The copper pyrites
are roasted, dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, and the liquid thus
obtained is submitted to electrolysis.

       *       *       *       *       *



A PEOPLE WITHOUT CONSUMPTION, AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THEIR COUNTRY--THE
CUMBERLAND TABLELAND.

By E. M. WIGHT, M.D., Chattanooga, Tenn., Late Professor of Diseases
of the Chest and State Medicine, Medical Department University of
Tennessee; Late Member of the Tennessee State Board of Health, and
ex-President of the Tennessee State Medical Society.


During the ten years that I have practiced medicine in the neighborhood
of the Cumberland Tablelands, I have often heard it said that the
people on the mountains never had consumption. Occasionally a traveling
newspaper correspondent from the North found his way down through the
Cumberlands, and wrote back filled with admiration for their grandeur,
their climate, their healthfulness, and almost invariably stated that
consumption was never known upon these mountains, excepting brought
there by some person foreign to the soil, who, if he came soon enough,
usually recovered. Similar information came to me in such a variety of
ways and number of instances, that I determined some four years ago,
when the attempt to get a State Board of Health organized was first
discussed by a few medical men of our State, that I would make an
investigation of this matter. These observations have extended over that
whole time, and have been made with great care and as much accuracy
as possible, and to my own astonishment and delight, I have become
convinced that pulmonary consumption does not exist among the people
native and resident to the Tablelands of the Cumberland Mountains.

In the performance of the work which has enabled me to arrive at this
conclusion, I have had the generous assistance of more than twenty
physicians, who have been many years in practice in the vicinity of
these mountains. Their knowledge of the diseases which had occurred
there extended over a, period of more than forty years. Some of these
physicians have reported the knowledge of the occurrence of deaths from
consumption on the Tablelands, but when carefully inquired into they
have invariably found that the person dying was not a native of the
mountains, but, a sojourner in search of health. In answer to the
question: "How many cases of pulmonary consumption have you known to
occur on Walden's Ridge, among the people native to the mountains?"
eleven physicians say, "Not one." All of these have been engaged in
practice there more than three years, four of them more than ten years,
one of them more than twenty, and one of them more than forty years. All
the physicians of whom inquiries have been made are now residents, or
have been, of the valleys contiguous to Walden's Ridge, and know the
mountain people well. Four other physicians in answer to the same
question say, that they have known from one to four cases, numbering
eleven in all, but had not ascertained whether five of them were born
and raised on the mountains or not. The names and place of death of all
these cases were given, and I have traced their history and found that
but three of them were "natives," or had lived there more than five
years, and that one of these was 57 years of age when she died, and had
suffered from cancer for three years before her death. The two others
died within six months after returning home from long service in the
army, where both contracted their disease.

All these investigations have been made with more particular reference
to that part of the Cumberlands known as Walden's Ridge than to the
mountains as a whole. This ridge is of equal elevation and of very
similar character to the main Cumberland range in the southern part of
Tennessee, northwest Georgia, and northwest Alabama, and what is true of
this particular part of the great Cumberland table is, in the main, true
of the remainder.

Sequatchee Valley lies between Walden's Ridge and what is commonly known
in that neighborhood as the Cumberland Mountains, and separates it from
the main range for a distance of about one hundred miles, from the
Tennessee River below Chattanooga to Grassy Cove, well up toward the
center line of the State. Grassy Cove is a small basin valley, which
was described to me there as a "sag in the mountains," just above the
Sequatchee Valley proper. It is here that the Sequatchee River rises,
and flowing under the belt of hills which unites the ridge and the main
range, for two miles or more, rises again at the head of Sequatchee
Valley. Above Grassy Cove the mountains unite and hold their union
firmly on their way north as far as our State reaches.

Topographically considered as a whole, the Cumberland range has its
southern terminus in Alabama, and its northern in Pennsylvania. It
is almost wholly composed of coal-bearing rocks, resting on Devonian
strata, which are visible in many places in the valleys.

But a small portion of the Cumberland lies above a plane of 2,000 feet.
Walden's Ridge and Lookout Mountain vary in height from 2,000 to 2,500
feet.

North of Grassy Cove, after the ridges are united, the variation from
2,000 feet is but little throughout the remainder of the State, and
the general character of the table changes but little. The great and
important difference is in the climate, the winters being much more
severe in these mountains in the northern part of the State than in the
southern, and the summers much more liable to sudden changes of weather.
Scott, Fentress, and Morgan counties comprise this portion of the table,
and these have not been included in my examination, excepting as to
general features.

In all our southern country, and I may say in our whole country, there
is no other large extent of elevated territory which offers mankind
a pleasant living place, a comfortable climate--none too cold or too
hot--and productive lands. We have east of the upper waters of the great
Tennessee River, in our State, and in North Carolina and Georgia, the
great Blue Ridge range of mountains, known as the Unaka, or Smoky,
Chilhowee, Great and Little Frog, Nantahala, etc., all belonging to the
same family of hills. This chain has the same general course as the
Cumberlands. It is a much bolder range of mountains, but it is vastly
less inhabitable, productive, or convenient of access. The winters there
are severely cold, and the nights in summer are too cold and damp for
health and comfort, as I know by personal experience of two summers on
Nantahala River. But the trout fishing is beyond comparison, and that
is one inducement of great value for a stout consumptive _who is a good
fellow_. These mountains are much more broken up into branches, peaks,
and spurs than the Cumberlands. They afford no table terrritory of
any extent. There are some excellent places there for hot summer
visits--Ashville, Warm Springs, Franklin, and others.

The Cumberland Mountains, as a whole, are flat, in broad level spaces,
broken only by the "divides," or "gulfs," as they are called by the
inhabitants, where the streams flow out into the valleys.

Walden's Ridge, of which we come now to speak particularly, is the best
located of any part of the Cumberlands as a place for living. From the
separation of this ridge from the main range of Grassy Cove to its
southern terminus at the Tennessee River, it maintains a remarkably
uniform character in every particular. From it access to commerce is
easy, having the Tennessee River and the new (now building) Cincinnati
Southern Railroad skirting its entire length on the east. It rises very
abruptly from both the Tennessee and Sequatchee Valleys, being from
1,200 to 1,500 feet higher than the valleys on each side. Looking from
below, on the Tennessee Valley side, the whole extent of the ridge
appears securely walled in at the top by a continuous perpendicular wall
of sandstone, from 100 to 200 feet high; and from the Sequatchee side
the appearance is very similar, excepting that the wall is not so
continuous, and of less height.

The top of the ridge is one level stretch of plain, broken only by the
"gulfs" before mentioned and an occasional prominent sandstone wall or
bowlder. The width on top is, I should judge, 6 or 7 miles. The soil is
of uniform character, light, sandy, and less productive for the ordinary
crops of the Tennessee farmer than the soil of the lowlands. The grape,
apple, and potato grow to perfection, better than in the valleys, and
are all never failing crops; so with rye and buckwheat. Corn grows
well, very well in selected spots, and where the land is made rich
by cultivation. The grasses are rich and luxuriant, even in the wild
forests, and when cultivated, the appearance is that of the rich farms
of the Ohio or Connecticut Rivers, only here they are green and growing
the greater part of the year; so much so that sheep, and in the mild
winters the young cattle, live by the wild grasses of the forests the
whole year. The great stock raisers of the Sequatchee and Tennessee
Valleys make this the summer pasture for their cattle, and drive them to
their own farms and barns or to market in winter. The whole Cumberland
table, with the exception of that small part which is under cultivation,
is one great free, open pasture for all the cattle of the valleys.
Thousands of cattle graze there whose owners never pay a dollar for
pasturage or own an acre of the range, though, as a rule, most of the
well-to-do stock farmers in the valleys own more or less mountain lands.
These lands have, until quite recently, been begging purchasers at from
12½ to 25 cents per acre in large tracts of 10,000 acres and upward, and
perhaps the same could be said of the present time, leaving out choice
tracts and easily accessible places, which are held at from 50 cents to
$2 per acre, wooded virgin lands.

The forest growth of Walden's Ridge is almost entirely oak and chestnut.
Hickory, perhaps, comes next in frequency, and pine after. There is but
little undergrowth, and where the forests have never been molested there
are but few small trees. This is due to the annual fires which occur
every autumn, or some time in winter, almost without exception, and
overrun the whole ridge. It does not rage like a prairie fire. Its
progress is usually slow, the material consumed being only the dry
forest leaves and grasses. The one thing essential to its progress is
these dry leaves, hence it cannot march into the clearings. Nearly all
the small shrubs are killed by these fires, otherwise they are harmless,
and are greatly valued by the stock men for the help they render in the
growth of the wild grasses. The free circulation of air through these
great unbroken forests is certainly much facilitated by these fires,
since they destroy every year what would soon become impediments. The
destruction of this undergrowth leaves the woods open, and the lands are
mainly so level that a carriage may be driven for miles, regardless of
roads, through the forests in every direction.

The shrubs about the fields and places where the forests have
been interrupted by civilization and other causes are blackberry,
huckleberry, raspberry, sumac, and their usual neighbors, with the
azalia, laurel, and rhododendron on the slopes and in the shade of the
cliffs.

The kinds of wild grasses, I regret to say, I have not noted, and the
same of the rich and varied display of wild flowers.

The whole ridge is well supplied with clean, soft running water, even
in the driest of the season. There are no marshes, swamps, or bogs, no
still water--not even a "puddle" for long--for the soil is of such a
character, that surface water quickly filters away into the sands and
mingles with the streams in the gulfs. Springs of mineral water are
abundant everywhere. Probably there is not a square mile of Walden's
Ridge which does not furnish chalybeate water abundantly. Sulphur
springs with Epsom salts in combination are nearly as common.

The entire extent of Walden's Ridge is underlaid with veins of coal, and
iron ore is plentiful, especially in the foot hills. The coal and iron
are successfully mined in many places on the eastern slope; on the
western they are nearly untouched for the want of transportation. I find
that the impression prevails that the minerals of the Cumberlands are
largely controlled by land agents and speculators. This is only true as
applied to a very small part of the whole, not more than 1 per cent. The
mineral ownership remains with the lands almost entirely.

The prevailing winds on Walden's Ridge are from the southwest; northers
and northeasters are of rare occurrence. One old lady who had resided
there for forty years, in answer to my query upon this subject, said:
"Nine days out of ten, the year round, I can smell Alabama in the air."
This was the usual testimony of the residents. Winds of great velocity
never occur there. In summer there is always an evening breeze,
commencing at 4 to 6 o'clock, and continuing until after sunrise
the next morning. In times of rain, clouds hang low over the ridge
occasionally, but they never have fogs there.

The range of the thermometer is less on the Tablelands than in the
adjacent valleys. I have had access to the carefully taken observations
of the Lookout Mountain Educational Institute, such published accounts
as have been made by Professor Safford, State Geologist, Mr. Killebrew,
the thorough and painstaking private record of Captain John P. Long,
of Chattanooga, and many more of less length of time. From all these I
deduce the fact that the summer days are seven or eight degrees cooler
on the mountains than in the Tennessee Valley at Chattanooga, and five
or six degrees cooler than in the Sequatchee Valley, as far up as Dunlay
and Pikeville. The nights on the table are cooler than in the lower
lands by several more degrees than the days; how much I have thus far
not been able to state. The late fall months, the winter, and early
spring are not so much colder than the valleys as the summer months, the
difference between the average temperature of the mountains and valleys
being at that time four or five degrees less than in the summer. There
is no record of so hot a day ever having occurred on the Cumberladd
Mountains as to cause mercury to run so high as 95° F., or so cold a day
as to cause it to run so low as 10° below zero.

In the average winter the ground rarely freezes to a greater depth than
2 or 3 inches, and it remains frozen but a few days at a time. Ice has
been known to form 8 inches thick, but in ordinary winters, 3 or 4
is the maximum. Snow falls every winter, more or less, and sometimes
remains for a week. Old people have a remembrance of a foot of snow
which lasted for a week.

Walden's Ridge has a total population of a little more than 4,000,
scattered over 600 square miles of surface. The number of dwellings is
about 800. Ninety per cent. of these are log houses; 70 per cent. of
them are without glass windows; light being furnished through the
doorways, always open in the daytime, the shuttered window openings, and
the open spaces between the logs of the walls. Less than 2 per cent. of
these houses have plastered walls or ceilings, and less than 5 per cent.
have ceiled walls or ceilings. About 20 per cent. of them are fairly
well chinked with clay between the logs, the remainder being but
indifferently built in that particular. Fully 90 per cent. of these
abodes admit of free access of air at all times of day and night,
through the floors beneath as well as the walls and roof above. It is
the custom of the people to guard against the coldest of days and nights
by hanging bed clothes against the walls, and many good housewives have
a supply of tidy drapery which they keep alone for this purpose.

Wood, always at hand, is the only fuel in use. The whole heating
apparatus consists in one large open fireplace, built of stone,
communicating with a large chimney outside the house at one end, and
frequently scarcely as high as the one story building which supports it.
This chimney is constructed in such a manner as to be a great ventilator
of the whole room, quite sufficient, it would be thought, if there were
no other means of ventilation. It is usually made of stone at the
base, and that part above the fire is of sticks laid upon one another,
cobhouse fashion, and plastered over inside and between with similar
clay as that with which the house walls are chinked.

Very few of these houses are more than one story high. They are all
covered with long split oak shingles--the people there call them
"boards"--rifted from the trunks of selected trees. There is no
sheathing on the roof beneath these shingles. They are nailed down upon
the flat hewn poles running across the rafters, at convenient distances.
Looking up through the many openings in the roof in one of these house,
one would think that this would be but poor protection against rain, but
they rarely leak.

Not one family in fifty is provided with a cooking stove. They bake
their bread in flat iron kettles, with iron covers, covered with hot
coals and ashes. These they call ovens. The meat is fried, with only the
exception of when accompanied by "turnip greens."

The question, "What is the principal food of the people who live on
these mountains?" has been asked by me several hundred times. The
almost invariable answer has been, "Corn bread, bacon, and coffee."
Occasionally biscuits and game have been mentioned in the answers. All
food is eaten hot. Coffee is usually an accompaniment of all three
meals, and is drunk without cream and often without sugar. Some families
eat beef and mutton for one or two of the colder months in the year on
rare occasions, though beef is commonly considered "onfit to go
upon," as I was told upon several occasions, and mutton sustains less
reputation. Chickens are used for food while they are young and tender
enough to fry, on occasions of quarterly meetings, visits of "kinfolks"
or the "preachers" and the traveling doctors. Fat young lambs are plenty
in many settlements from March to October, and can be had at fifty cents
each, but I could not learn that one was ever eaten.

A large majority of the adult population use tobacco in some shape--the
men by chewing or smoking, the women by smoking or dipping snuff. They
never have dyspepsia, nor do they ever get flesh, after they pass out of
childhood, though nearly all the children are ruddy in appearance, and
well rounded with fat.

One physical type prevails among the people in middle life, and carries
along into old age but little change; and old age is common there.
Nearly every house has its old man or old woman, or both. Everybody,
father and mother, and frequently grandfather and grandmother, is still
on hand, looking as brisk and moving about as lively as the newer
generations. After they pass their forty years, they never seem to
grow any older for the next twenty or thirty, and the grandfathers and
grandmothers can scarcely be selected, by comparison, from their own
children and grandchildren. The men are taller than the average, and
the women, relatively, taller than the men. They are all thin featured,
bright eyed, long haired, sharp looking people, with every appearance of
strength and power of endurance.

I think the men who live on Walden's Ridge can safely challenge the
world as walkers--aborigines and all; and unless the challenge should be
accepted by their own women folks, I feel quite sure they would "win the
boots." They go everywhere on foot, and never seem to tire.

Nearly all the people of the Tablelands are employed in the pursuits of
agriculture. Very few of them seem to be hard workers. The men are all
great lovers of the forest sports, much given to the good, reliable, old
fashioned long rifles. The women and children are much employed in out
door occupations, and live a great portion of their time in the open
air. The clothing of all classes is scanty. The use of woolen fabrics
for underwear has not yet been introduced, and coarse cotton domestic
is the universal shirting, and cotton jeans, or cotton and wool mixed,
constitute the staple for outer wearing apparel. The men wear shoes
throughout the year much more commonly than boots. They never wear
gloves, mittens, scarfs, or overcoats, and they scorn umbrellas.
Probably this whole 4,000 people do not possess two dozen umbrellas or
twice as many overcoats. The women go about home with bare feet a great
part of the summer. They never wear corsets or other lacing.

I have learned by careful inquiry that very few of the people of the
Ridge have ever had the diseases of childhood. Scarlet fever I could
hear of in but two places, and I suppose that not one person in fifty
has had it. Whooping cough and measles have occurred but rarely, and the
large majority have not yet experienced the realities of either. Very
few people there have ever been vaccinated, nor has smallpox ever
prevailed. Typhoid, typhus, and intermittent fevers are unknown. In the
great rage of typhoid fever which took place ten or twelve years ago in
the Tennessee and Sequatchee Valleys, not a single case occurred on the
Mountains, as I have been informed by physicians who were engaged in
practice in the neighborhood at the time. Diphtheria has never found a
victim there; so of croup. Nobody has nasal catarrh there, and a cough
or a cold is exceedingly rare.

I have said that these observations refer more particularly to Walden's
Ridge than to the Cumberland Tablelands in our State as a whole. This
ridge was chosen by me for this examination, mainly for the reason of
its convenience, but partly owing to its being more generally settled
than any other equal portion of the table which lies in Tennessee.
Lookout Mountain is not as well located; it is on the wrong side of the
Tennessee River, and but a few acres of it belong in this State. Sand
Mountain is altogether out of the State, but it is perhaps nearer like
Walden's Ridge in its physical features than Lookout. That part of the
Cumberlands west of Sequatchee Valley is Walden's Ridge in duplicate,
excepting that it is further west, and nearer the Middle Tennessee
basin. There are some small towns, villages of miners, and summer
resorts there, which interferes with that evenness of the distribution
of population which Walden's Ridge has, rendering it more liable to
visitations of epidemic and contagious diseases. The tablelands north
of the center line of the State, above Grassy Cove, are very similar
to Walden's Ridge, as far up as Kentucky, with the exception before
mentioned--that of climate--it being from one to ten degrees colder in
winter.

This whole Cumberland Table is no small country. It comprises territory
enough to make a good sized State. At present, it is almost one great
wilderness, in many particulars as unknown as the Black Hills. It is
coming into the world now, and will be well known in a few years. The
great city of Cincinnati has determined to build a railroad through
the very center of this great table in the north part of the State,
connecting with Chattanooga in the southern part. This road is nearly
bored through, and in another year or two the Cumberland Tablelands in
Tennessee will be much heard of at home and abroad.

It seems to me this country has merits. It is located in the latitude of
mild climate; not so far south as to be scorched by the hot summer sun,
or visited by the great life destroying epidemics; not so far north as
to meet the severe and lengthened winters.

Climate, we know, is a fixture; it has a government; it has rules; the
weather may change, but climate does not; it is a permanent out-door
affair, and what is true of to-day was true centuries ago, and will
be true forever, in the measure of any practical scope, at least. The
people of the world are beginning to know that the greatest destroyer of
human life has its remedy in climate.

Mr. Lombard, in his famous exhibit in relation to the prevalence of
consumption among the people of different occupations, circumstances of
life, and place of dwelling, gives the lowest number of deaths from this
cause to those who live in the open air. He found the people who lived
most in the open air, as would be readily conjectured, in the mild
latitudes, not in the countries of hot sands or cold snows.

[The above article, in regard to which we have noticed frequent
allusions in many of our exchanges, all erroneously attributing it to
_Dr. Wright_, of Tennessee, and for which we have received repeated
requests quite recently, was read by the lamented Dr. E.M. Wight at
the 43d annual meeting of the Tennessee State Medical Society, held
at Nashville, April 4, 5, and 6, 1876. Its distinguished and talented
author will long be remembered as one of the most active, earnest, and
zealous members of the State Society. At this meeting he also read a
very admirable paper on "The Microscopic Appearance of the Blood in
Syphilis," and prepared the report of the Committee on State Board
of Health, to which report may be ascribed the honor of securing the
necessary legislation organizing the Board. A true, upright, honest man,
an earnest, devoted and zealous physician, universally esteemed and
beloved by all who knew him; himself the subject of tuberculosis, dying
in the prime of a brilliant manhood. He had but few equals in the
glorious profession he honored and loved so well.

From a careful reading of his paper, we find that he describes a large
area of territory, free, absolutely free, from subsoil moisture, a
climate mild and equable, a soil capable of producing nearly everything
necessary for the comfortable maintenance of human life, surroundings
that tempt, nay, compel the greatest possible amount of open air
life. His description is exceedingly accurate of a plain, primitive,
simple-minded people with but few wants, many of the virtues and few
of the vices of humanity. With their surroundings, soil, climate,
residence, and mode of living, need we be surprised that "there is
a people," or a land "free from consumption"?--ED.]--_Southern
Practitioner_.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE TREATMENT OF HABITUAL CONSTIPATION.


Dr. F.P. Atkinson thus writes in the _Practitioner_, January, 1884: I
suppose there is no derangement of the system we are more frequently
called upon to treat than habitual constipation; and though all kinds of
medicines are suggested for its relief, they rarely produce more than
temporary benefit--and it is difficult to see how the result can well be
otherwise, while the root of the evil remains untouched. Now by far the
more numerous subjects of this disorder are women; and as they do not
seem to know that regularity is essential to the performance of every
one of nature's operations, they appoint no stated times for trying to
get the bowels relieved, but trust to receiving intimation when the
rectal accumulation and distension can be borne no longer. This method
of action may and does answer fairly well for a time; but nature
gradually gets upset, the sensation of the lower bowel becomes blunted,
and at last it ceases to respond to the ordinary stimulus. Then
aperients are regularly resorted to, and although these act fairly
well for a time, they gradually have to be increased in strength
and frequency. Now, as regards the treatment, the first thing to be
accomplished is of course to get the rectum well relieved; the next,
to get the actions to take place at fixed times; and lastly, it is
necessary to get more tone imparted to the muscular tissue of the
bowels, so that the regularity of action may be helped and also
maintained. In order, then, to get the bowels relieved in the first
instance, it is well to give five grains of both compound colocynth and
compound rhubarb pill at bed-time (this rarely requires to be repeated),
then to take a tumblerful of cold water the next morning on waking, and
repeat it regularly at the same time each day. Should the bowels remain
sluggish for some time, the same quantity of water may be taken daily
before each meal. Supposing no action takes place on rising or shortly
after, a small injection of warm water may be resorted to. After each
movement of the bowels, a small hand-ball syringeful of _cold_ water
should be thrown into the rectum and retained. A soup plateful of coarse
oatmeal porridge (made with water and taken according to the Scotch
method, viz., by filling half the spoon with the hot porridge and the
other with cold milk) each night at bed-time, or even every night and
morning for a time, is often a very great help. But above all things,
it is necessary for the patient to _try_ and get relief at a certain
_fixed_ time regularly every day. If these directions are strictly
carried out in their entirety, the evil, even if it has been of long
standing, will generally be corrected, and the patient will improve in
health and appearance. Of course where the constipation results from
exhaustion of the nervous system (such, for instance, as is brought
about by self-abuse), the special cause has to be taken into
consideration, and such treatment adopted as is suited to the particular
necessities of the case.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE PYRAMIDS OF MEROE.


About fifty miles from the mouth of the Atbara, and, of course, on the
eastern bank of the Nile, stand the pyramids of Meroe. They consist
of three groups, and there are, in all, about eighty pyramids. The
presumption is that they represent the old sepulchers of the kings of
Meroe. Candance, Queen of the Ethiopians, mentioned in Acts, chap.
viii., v. 27, is supposed to have belonged to Meroe, that being the name
also of the capital, which is understood to have been somewhere not far
distant from the sepulchers. These pyramids of Meroe possess one marked
feature, distinguishing them from the pyramids of Egypt proper--that is,
they have an external doorway or porch. As there is no entrance to the
pyramid at these porticoes, it is quite possible that they were temples
for worship or making offerings to the dead. By comparing them with
the pyramids of Ghizeh, it will be seen that they are also taller in
proportion to their base. Another important point in these porches
or temples is the existence of the arch; and that, too, an arch in
principle, with a keystone.--_Illustrated London News_.

[Illustration: THE PYRAMIDS OF MEROE, ON THE NILE.]

       *       *       *       *       *



THE PROLIFICNESS OF THE OYSTER.


In an article by Prof. Karl Mobius on "The Oyster and Oyster Culture,"
reproduced in the recently issued report of the U. S. Commissioner of
Fish and Fisheries, the author says:

A mature egg-bearing oyster lays about one million of eggs, so that
during the breeding season there are upon our oyster beds at least
2,200,000,000,000 young oysters, which surely would suffice to transform
the entire extent of the sea-flats into an unbroken oyster bed; for if
such a number of young oysters should be distributed over a surface 74
kilometers long by 22 broad, 1,351 oysters would be allotted to every
square meter. But this sum of 2,200,000,000,000 young oysters is
undoubtedly less than that in reality hatched out, for not only do those
full-grown oysters which are over six years of age spawn, but they begin
to propagate during their second or third year, although it is true that
the young ones have fewer eggs than those which are fully developed. At
a very moderate estimation, the total number of three to six year old
oysters which lie upon our beds will produce three hundred billions of
eggs. This number added to that produced by the five millions of full
grown oysters would give for every square meter of surface not merely
1,351 young oysters, but at least 1,535. In order to determine how
many eggs oysters produce, they must be examined during their spawning
season. This begins upon the Schleswig-Holstein beds in the middle of
June, and lasts until the end of August or beginning of September. The
spawning oyster does not allow its ripe eggs to fall into the water, as
do many other mollusks, but retains them in the so-called beard, the
mantle, and gill-plates until they become little swimming animals. The
eggs are white, and cover the mantle and gill-plates as a semi-fluid,
cream-like mass. As soon as they leave the generative organs the
development of the germ begins. The entire yolk-mass of the egg divides
into cells, and these cells form a hollow, sphere-like body, in which an
intestinal canal arises by the invagination of one side. Very soon the
beginnings of the shell appear along the right and left sides of the
back of the embryo, and not long afterward a ciliated pad, the velum, is
formed along the under side. This velum can be thrust out from between
the valves of the shell at the will of the young animal, and used by the
motion of its cilia as an organ for driving food to the mouth, or
in swimming as a rudder. During these transformations the original
cream-white color of the germ changes into pale gray, and finally into a
deep bluish-gray color. At this time they have a long oval outline, and
are from 0.15 to 0.18 of a millimeter in breadth. Over 300,000 can find
room upon a square centimeter of surface. If an oyster in which the
embryos are in this condition is opened, there will be found upon its
beard a slimy coating thickly loaded with grayish-blue granules. These
granules are the embryo oysters, if a drop of the granular slime be
placed in a dish with pure sea water, the young animals will soon
separate from the mass, and spread swimming through the entire water.
When the embryos are at this stage their number may be estimated in the
following manner: The whole mass of embryos is carefully scraped from
the beard of the mother oyster by means of a small hair brush. The whole
mass is then weighed, and afterward a small portion of the mass. This
small portion is then diluted with water or spirits of wine, and the
embryos portioned out into a number of small glass dishes, so that they
can be placed under the microscope and counted. Thus, knowing the weight
of the small portion and the number of embryos in it by count, we can
estimate the total number of embryos from the weight of the entire mass,
which is also known. In this manner I estimated the number of embryos
in each of five full grown Schleswig-Holstein oysters caught in August,
1869, and found that the average number was 1,012,956.

Notwithstanding this great fecundity, but an extremely small proportion
of the young oysters produced during the course of the summer arrive
at maturity, 421 only out of 500,000,000 escaping destruction. The
immolation of a vast number of young germs is the means by which nature
secures to a few germs the certainty of arriving at maturity. In order
to render the ideas of germ-fecundity and productiveness more easily
understood, Prof. Mobius makes the following comparison between the
oyster and man:

According to Wappaus, for every 1,000 men there are 347 births.
According to Bockh, out of every 1,000 men born 554 arrive at maturity,
that is, live to be twenty years or more of age; thus, on an average,
347 children are produced from 554 mature men, or 626 children from
1,000 mature men. Since 1,000 full-grown oysters produce 440,000,000 of
germs, then the germ fecundity of the oyster is to the germ fecundity of
man as 440,000,000 to 6.26, or as 7,028,754 to 1. On the other hand, the
number which arrive at maturity is 579,002 times as great with mankind
as with the oyster; for of 1,000 human embryos brought into the world
554 arrive at maturity, or of 440,000,000 newly born 243,760,000 would
live to grow up, while of 440,000,000 young oysters only 421 ever become
capable of propagating their species. The proportion is then 421 to
243,760,000, or as 1 to 579,002. I am fully persuaded that these figures
represent the number of oysters which arrive at maturity more favorably
than is really the case, since from every thousand of full grown oysters
it is certain that, on an average, more than 440,000,000 young are
produced.

       *       *       *       *       *



RED SKY.


The beautiful red sky which has been so frequent of late, morning as
well as evening, has excited much comment. The comment, however, has
consisted more of description, statement of fact, theory, and wonder as
to cause, rather than as to satisfactory explanation.

Facts in the case which would reveal the secret of this beautiful
display of nature are not complete and numerous enough at present to
establish the cause of this phenomenon on a sure basis; yet enough
facts, it would seem, have been obtained to satisfy the strong mind
capable of bridging over a wide expanse.

Facts in an argument are like piers to a bridge-the more we have of
them, c. p., the more substantial the structure. When the facts are
_legion_, the structure becomes a causeway, and there is no need of
argument.

Argument is a bridge--the fewer the facts, the more the necessity for
the bridge; the less the facts, the more argument necessary to connect
the few we have, and the more skill is required to make substantial
connecting links between the few solid piers (facts) that exist.

One of the queer things in connection with this is, the public have
looked chiefly, if not wholly, to the astronomers for an explanation
of this phenomenon, when it is not their special province to explain
matters in this department of nature.

The explanation belongs to the department of meteorology, and not to
astronomy. But the fact of having looked to the astronomers shows how
little the world knows of meteorology and how few meteorologists
there are able, ready, and willing to rise and explain in face of the
opposition of the public, who seem to think that the explanation must
necessarily belong to astronomy. Astronomy proper deals with the
position of the earth in space and its relation to the other heavenly
bodies, whether suns, fixed stars, planets, satellites, comets, or other
bodies in the vast space about us. Meteorology deals with the atmosphere
of the globe, in all its forms. Astronomy could be studied in the early
ages; its grand facts were not wholly dependent upon the advanced
condition of the mechanic arts; it could be studied even without the aid
of telescopes, though telescopes have added much to its advancement.
Meteorology, on the contrary, depended on the advancement of the arts
and sciences; they must first be perfected ere we could know much about
this branch of science. To one unfamiliar with the advancement and
perfection of meteorology within the past ten years, this statement
may seem strange, yet it is an undisputable fact that, prior to the
establishment of the daily weather reports, the knowledge on this
subject amounted to very little, and was not even worthy of being
designated a science. Prior to the advent of the weather map the world
was in absolute ignorance of the laws governing the atmosphere. Sure, we
had had large volumes on the laws of storms, but the later revelations
leave them shelved high and dry on the shores and as useless as a wreck
in a similar condition; with the daily weather map before us we have no
need to even open these huge volumes; they are completely circumvented,
and only negative in value--to show how little was known of the subject
without the full and complete facts daily collected and spread before us
on the map published by the Weather Bureau.

In order to understand the color of our sky, we must understand the
subject which is so immediately connected with it and its creation.

The earth is a sphere in space; generally speaking, it is composed of
land and water. These are two factors; the heat that it derives from
the sun forms a third factor; the three--land, water, and heat--are
essential to life, at least the higher conditions of life which
culminate in man. The old physical geography taught us this much, but
it was not able to go further and tell us why it was cold or warm
independent of the seasons; it could not explain why it was at times as
warm, and even warmer, half-way to the pole than at the equator; why it
was at times very warm in the extreme northeast while very cold in
the Southern States; cold in the northwest when it was warm in the
northeast, and warm in the northwest when cold all along the upper
Atlantic seaboard; it could not forewarn us of storms. These and a
host of other facts, which the weather map makes as plain as astronomy
demonstrates that Jupiter is a planet, the new revelation, through the
instrumentality of the perfected telegraph system, makes exceedingly
plain to us if we will but seek the easily obtained information.

The principal revelations of the weather map are the facts in regard to
the areas of high and low barometer, and the influence they exert upon
the climate of the globe.

These conditions--high and low barometer--move on general lines from the
west towards the east, or towards the rising sun, and around the world
in irregular belts. The centers of low barometer are various distances
apart, from a thousand to two thousand and even more miles apart--call
the average about two thousand miles.

The clouds are formed from the moisture present by the action of the
sun's heat. The direction of the wind is from the area of high barometer
to that of low. The nearer the winds approach the center of "low" (low
barometer), the more they partake of the lines of the volute curve, or
curve of the sea shell or water in a whirlpool. High barometer is the
atmospheric hill; low barometer is the atmospheric valley. But time at
present will not permit more than these general statements; a close
study of the weather map for a season will reveal the beautiful minor
details.

To the reader it may seem a long way round, yet in order to fully
understand the nature of the atmosphere which surrounds our globe we
must pay due attention to these newly discovered physical laws.

The red sky which was so noticeable, in the fall of 1883, the
astronomers have told us was due to "meteoric dust" which was produced
by the volcanic eruption on the island of Java, August 27, 1883.

This "meteoric dust" they say combined with the atmosphere, followed it
around the earth, and caused the beautiful redness of the sky at morning
and evening. For one, I do not believe dust of any description in the
atmosphere would produce such an effect.

There is nothing luminous, transparent, or delicate about dust. Dust
would not remain in the atmosphere for months, it would settle in a very
short time, and if thick enough in the atmosphere to obstruct the light
of the sun it would be visible, discernible, to the eye, and manifest
on the face of nature. Years ago, before the age of the weather map, we
might have thought that the atmosphere followed the surface of the earth
like the water on a grindstone, but it does not. As already seen, the
wind is from the area of high barometer to that of low, and there are
many of these "low centers."

From the best calculation we can make at present, there would be at
least some six centers on an average between the center of the United
States and the island of Java. In addition to this there would also be
a number of belts of "low" centers, which would complicate the thing
threefold at least. At all these different centers the winds would be
blowing from all points of the compass at the same time. Such winds
would not be apt to bring the "meteoric dust" from Java to the United
States, either in an easterly or westerly direction. But, it is said,
"dust" has been gathered.

How high from the surface of the ground has this _dust_ been
gathered--at what elevation?

There is undoubtedly a little dust in the air most of the time, but I do
not think that it extends very high. Where it would be the highest and
most perceptible would be on the arid plans of Africa and Asia, when
the _simoom_ is passing, or in the track of a tornado. But from the
multiplicity of these storm centers and the varied winds they would
produce even this dust could not travel from Java to America.

Again, all clouds, no matter how high or how low, are affected by the
low centers, as the movement of clouds prove, and travel from the "high"
to the "low," from and to all points of the compass. High authority
gives the heights of the clouds as follows: lower clouds, 16,000 feet;
upper clouds, 23,000 feet.

As all clouds, from the highest to the lowest, are affected by the
centers as above referred to, it follows that if this "meteoric dust"
follows the earth around, as it would have to do in order to make good
this theory, it would have to travel suspended in the atmosphere above
the upper clouds, or at a height of more than 23,000 feet, or at an
elevation of over four miles!

Now, is it reasonable to believe that dust, however fine, will remain in
the atmosphere at that elevation for over six months?

As a side argument it is suggested that the smoke of the burning woods,
or few years ago in Michigan, caused as peculiar condition of the
atmosphere. This extensive fire was on a day when the area of low
barometer was on a high line of latitude and passing to the eastward.
This naturally took the smoke, which is far lighter than dust, along
with it. It mingled with the muggy condition of an extensive "low," and
produced a yellowness of the atmosphere. This however was of only a few
hours' duration, and was only visible in favorable localities.

Here again we see the advantage of the weather maps; but for this map we
would never have been able to have satisfactorily explained the peculiar
phenomenon produced by the great Michigan fire.

If the delicate redness of the sky is not caused by dust, what is it
caused by?

But for the weather map, I think we should still be in the dark in
regard to it.

In the first place, this redness is nothing new, only the conditions
are more favorable sometimes than at others. It has always existed and
always will exist, independent of earthquakes, volcanoes, etc. Nature
is ever changing; the movements of the atmosphere more resemble the
kaleidoscope than any thing else.

The summer and fall of 1883, the movements of "high" (high barometer)
over the United States were quite central and extensive, causing this
peculiar phenomenon over a wide extent of territory.

We have no information of the condition of the barometer over the other
part of the world; we speak move particularly of the United States; yet
if certain conditions produce certain effects here, it is quite safe to
say that the same effects are produced by the same cause elsewhere.

As now well established by the map, the surface wind is from the area
of high barometer to that of low--from the atmospheric hill to the
atmospheric valley.

The tendency of this is to free "high" of all clouds and moisture; but
then it is impossible to free "high" entirely of moisture; a little
will remain, and it is just this little, which is highly rarefied, that
produces the result. We look around us and above, we see little or no
evidence of evaporation, yet it is the while going on. When the sun is
immediately below the horizon, where it will shine horizontally through
the mass of light, suspended moisture, the delicate presence of vapor
heretofore unnoticed is revealed. The action of the sun's rays is the
same as when illuminating a well formed cloud--it is an embodiment
of the same principle, but the material is much more expanded. The
particles of suspended moisture are very fine, few and far between,
therefore the effect of the light upon it is more diffused and
transparent. It is much like looking through a piece of window glass
flatwise and endwise; flatwise we do not perceive any color; endwise,
from seeing through a greater mass, the glass has a very perceptible
green color.

We see the same idea also in the rising and setting sun and moon. On
a clear, cloudless night, when nothing seems to interfere with the
brightness of the stars, we cannot, by looking upward, perceive any
moisture present in the atmosphere; but if we cast our eyes to the
horizon, whereby we see through the mass of atmosphere endwise, as it
were, and note the appearance of the stars there, or the rising or
setting moon, we will see that the atmosphere there gives a redness
to the rising body, which it does not have when it has ascended to
mid-heaven. On a clear night, which is caused by the presence of the
area of high barometer, the moon when in mid-heaven is of a clear,
silver-white, and it is the same moon that at the horizon was a deep
red. The color of the moon has not changed; it is simply the medium
through which it is seen that produces the difference in color.

Occasionally, on a clear, bright ("high") night, when the moon is full,
prior to rising, when just below the horizon, it will so illuminate this
lower strata of atmosphere as to appear like a great fire; the moon
rises red, but its deep color gradually fades as it rises, and when well
up in the heavens we perceive that this deep coloring was an illusion
and merely the influence of its surroundings. I never, though, knew of
any one to attempt to account for this by "meteoric dust;" and yet it is
an embodiment of the same principle. Place the sun where the moon is,
and from its far superior abundance of light we have a much grander
display.

Under no other conditions or relations of the sun and earth is it
possible to have this phenomenon of the delicate red sky but when a
positive area of high barometer is passing and extends over us. In
order to produce this effect we must have the clear atmosphere of high
barometer, when there is a minimum of moisture present. The action of
the sun's rays upon this extensive area of slightly moist rarefied
air is unconfined by clouds, and reaches far and wide, and produces
a delicacy of color which from no other source or condition can be
realized.

ISAAC P. NOYES.

Washington, D. C., 1884.

       *       *       *       *       *



A THEORY OF COMETARY PHENOMENA.


_To the, Editor of the Scientific American_:

The following subject, substantially, was written more than a year ago
with a view to its publication. It was not, however, until January of
the present year that I sent a brief communication to the _Brooklyn
Eagle_, which was published Feb. 3, giving my views in relation to
cometary phenomena. With this I might remain satisfied, were it not
that the interesting paper by G. D. Hiscox, published in the SCIENTIFIC
AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, Feb. 16, impressed me with the idea that the theory
I advanced might assist in explaining others, if brought to the notice
of those interested through the columns of your valuable journal.

The theory that I advance to account for the several phenomena relating
to comets' tails is, that comets are non-luminous, transparent bodies;
that they transmit the light of the sun; that the transmitted light
reflected by the particles of matter in space constitutes the tails of
comets. "Like causes produce like effects." By contraries, then, like
effects must be produced by similar causes; for, if an effect produced
by a cause which is known is similar to an effect produced by a cause
which is not known, the cause which is known must be similar to the
cause which is not known. This is true or not.

I submit the following experiments to substantiate the theory advanced.

Partially fill a vial or a tumbler with water, hold it by the rim,
and move it around a lighted candle placed upon a table. A shadow
surrounding the transmitted light will be cast upon the table. As the
tumbler approaches the light, the shadow follows the tumbler, and when
receding the tumbler follows the shadow; and as the tumbler is moved
around the light, the shadow will swing round from one side to the
other. If the tumbler be held so that a puff of smoke can be blown
into the transmitted rays, the particles of smoke will reflect the
transmitted light, and will illustrate my idea of what constitutes a
comet's tail. A dark band may be observed in this stream of light, as
also in the light cast upon the table.

In these experiments, we see the effects produced by a cause which is
known; the effects are similar to those observed in the tails of comets,
the cause of which we do not know; but is it not reasonable to assume
that the cause is similar?

Assuming now that comets are transparent, can any other phenomena
peculiar to comets be accounted for upon this hypothesis? Next to
the tail itself, the curve is the most noticeable feature, and if we
consider the extraordinary length of these appendages, the astounding
velocity at which comets move in their orbits, and the time that would
elapse before a ray of light, emitted from the nucleus, would reach the
end of the tail, perhaps the curve--which, if I am not deceived in my
observations, always dips toward its orbit--can be accounted for. If a
comet moved in a direct line toward the center of the sun, there would
be no curve to the tail. But taking Donati's comet of 1858 as an
example, the tail of which was said to be about 200,000,000 miles long,
a ray of light traveling at the rate of 192,000 miles per second would
be about twenty minutes in going from the nucleus to the end of the
tail.

But during that time the comet would move in its orbit, say, 50,000
miles, and as light moves in a straight line, and other rays are
constantly emerging from the nucleus as it moves along in its course,
the result is that the tail has a curved appearance.

I have no data at hand regarding this comet, but what I have said will
serve to illustrate my ideas. Again, referring to this comet, I remember
to have read the statement of an astronomer that, after passing round
the sun, a new tail was formed opposite the original one. Now, it seems
to me that that is just what would happen, for in moving round the sun
the comet would travel say 3,000,000 miles; the greater portion of the
tail then, would extend millions of miles upon one side of the sun,
while from the nucleus upon the opposite side of the sun a new tail
would appear to be formed.

Upon this hypothesis, the extraordinary length of their tails and the
fact that stars are visible through the densest portion of them is
explained; as also the fact that they so rapidly disappear from view
when moving from the sun, the light received by them from the sun
being in proportion to their distance from it, and but little of that
reflected.

JOHN M. HUGHES.

Brooklyn, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

[FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.]



ON COMETS.


When we see a comet approaching the sun with its tail following in the
orbit of the nucleus, we have no great difficulty in believing the
common theory that a comet consists of nucleus attracted toward the sun,
while the tail is repelled; and that we see the whole of it. But as it
approaches the sun, difficulties arise that make us doubt whether the
theory be true.

Let us suppose a comet with a tail 50,000,000 miles in length, and that
it will require two days to pass round the sun. Now the tail, being
always in a line drawn through the center of the sun and center of the
nucleus, will, when it reaches the long axis of the elliptical orbit,
stand perpendicularly to the orbit of the nucleus. That is, the
extremity of the tail farthest from the sun, in addition to its onward
motion, has acquired a lateral motion that has lifted it 50,000,000
miles in the first day of its perihelion. The velocity of the extremity
has been vastly accelerated over that of the nucleus, and it has
moreover a sheer lift above the orbit of the nucleus. Now this lift is
in opposition to gravity; neither is it in consequence of any previous
momentum, for its velocity is accelerated and its previous momentum
would be a hindrance; nor is the lift in consequence of any repelling
force from the sun, for such force would be diminished in proportion to
the square of the distance, and the far end would be acted on less than
the nucleus end of the tail, whereas the velocity of the former is
increased a hundred fold over that of the latter. A polar force in the
comet would merely draw the comet into the sun. We therefore find no
force adequate for such a lift, but on the contrary all the forces are
opposed to it.

But if the first day of the perihelion overwhelms us with difficulty,
the second day will prove disastrous to the common theory. For the
extremity of the tail farthest from the sun will be required to pass
with lateral motion from its perpendicular 100,000,000 miles, so that it
may be in advance of the nucleus and again rest on its orbit. This orbit
is an impassable line, and therefore instantly arrests the prodigious
lateral velocity of the tail. That impassable orbital line is to it
as solid and inflexible as a wall of adamant. The motion so instantly
arrested would be disastrous to any tail, whether composed of gas,
meteorites, or electricity, whatever that may be.

Having shown that the common theory of comets is filled with insuperable
difficulties, I will again call attention to a theory proposed about
eighteen months ago in the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

According to this theory, a comet consists of a nucleus and an
atmosphere, for the most part invisible, surrounding it on all sides to
an extent at least equal to the length of the tail. The rays of the sun
in passing through or near the nucleus are so modified as to become
visible in their further progress through the cometic atmosphere, while
all the rest remain invisible. What we call the tail is merely a radius
of the cometic atmosphere made visible, and as the comet moves through
space, only different portions of the atmosphere come in sight, in
obedience to the ordinary laws of light. There is no difficulty in
accounting for the rise and fall of the tail at perihelion, nor for the
tail preceding the nucleus afterward.

The spherical theory accounts easily for the different forms of tail
seen in different comets. The sword shaped tails, at variance with the
common theory, can be accounted for by supposing a slight difference in
density or material in the cometic atmosphere, which will deflect the
light as seen. The comet of 1823, which cannot be explained on the
common theory, is very easily explained on the spherical. That comet
showed two tails, apparently of equal length, which moved opposite to
each other, and perpendicularly to the orbit of the nucleus, and showing
no signs of repulsive force from the sun. On the spherical theory it is
only necessary to suppose such an arrangement of the nucleus as would
reflect the rays of the sun laterally; a slight modification of the
nucleus would give not only two but any number of tails pointing in
different directions.

It may be objected to the spherical theory that a tail 50,000,000 miles
long would call for a sphere 100,000,000 miles in diameter, and that
would be too vast for our solar system. But it is claimed for this
sphere that it consists of the same material as the so-called tail, and
that it has the same capability of moving among planets without manifest
disturbance to either.

The sphere at the perihelion would envelop the sun, and as a noticeable
reduction is sometimes found in its so-called tail, the cometic
atmosphere may impart to the sun at that time whatever is necessary to
its use.

That there is something in common between the sun's corona and cometary
matter was shown by the last solar eclipse observed in South Pacific
Ocean, where the spectrum of sun's corona was found to be the same as
that of a comet's tail. Are we to attribute in any degree the different
appearances of the sun's corona to the presence or absence of a comet
at its perihelion? At the eclipse of the sun seen in Upper Egypt two or
three years ago, a comet was seen close to the sun, but I have seen no
account of the appearance of the corona at that time.

FURMAN LEAMING, M.D.

Romney, Tippecanoe Co. Indiana.

       *       *       *       *       *



FORMS OF IVY.


It is scarcely possible for us to bee too emphatic in our praises of the
most distinct forms of ivy, since but few other hardy climbing plants
ever give to us a tithe of their freshness and variety. A good long
stretch of wall covered with a selection of the best green-leaved kind
is always interesting, and never more so than during the winter months,
especially if at intervals the golden Japanese jasmine is planted among
them or a few plants of pyracantha or of Simmon's cotoneaster for the
sake of their coral fruitage. The large-leaved golden ivy is also very
effective here and there along a sunny wall, especially if contrasted
with the small-leaved kind--atropurpurea--which has dark purple or
bronzy foliage at this season. Of the large-leaved kinds, one of the
most distinct is canariensis, or large-leaved Irish ivy, and Raegner's
variety, with leathery, heart-shaped foliage, is also handsome. The
birdsfoot ivy (pedata) is curious, as it clings to the stones like
delicate leaf embroidery, and for shining green leafage but few equal
to the one called lucida. The two other kinds sketched are hastata and
digitata, both free growing and distinct sorts.

[Illustration: VARIOUS FORMS OF IVY. Heart-leaved Ivy (Hedera
Raegenerana). Glossy Ivy (H. lucida). Arrow-leaved Ivy (H. hastata).]

_Ivy Leaves_.--Common ivy is tolerably plentiful nearly everywhere, but
it is not common to find a good distinct series of its many varieties
even in the best gardens. Of all the different forms of ivy, I think
the large-leaved golden one of the best; certainly the best of the
variegated kinds. Raegner's variety is also very bold, its great glossy,
heart-shaped leaves most effective. Algeriensis is another fine-leaved
kind, the form dentata producing foliage even still larger when well
grown. For making low evergreen edgings on the turf, for carpeting
banks, the covering of bare walls and the old tree stumps, we have no
other evergreen shrub so fresh and variable, or so easily cultivated as
are these forms of the ivy green. Perhaps one reason why the finer kinds
of ivy are comparatively uncommon is the fact that a strong prejudice
exists against ivy in many minds. It is an erroneous notion that ivy
injures buildings against the walls of which it is planted; it never
injures a good wall, nor a sound house, but on the contrary, hides and
softens the stony bareness of the one and adds beauty and freshness to
the other.--_The Garden_.

[Illustration: VARIOUS FORMS OF IVY. Finger-leaved Ivy (H. Itata). Irish
Ivy (H. canariensis). Rira's foot Ivy (H. pedata).]

       *       *       *       *       *



PROPAGATING ROSES.


In an article on this subject an English horticultural journal describes
the method pursued by a London florist. After stating that out of a case
containing 310 cuttings only five failed to root, the article proceeds:
The case or box is made of common rough deal boards. It is five feet
six inches long and one foot in depth. Within half an inch of the top a
groove is cut inside the box, into which the glass is slid, after the
manner of a sliding box lid. In the end of the third week in July the
box was placed in the kitchen garden under the shadow of a high north
wall; it was then about half filled with good turfy loam, to which had
been added a little leaf mould and a good sprinkling of sharp sand. The
soil was then pressed down very firmly (the box being nearly half full
when pressed), and then thoroughly well soaked with rain water, and
allowed to stay uncovered until the next day. The next day good stout
cuttings were taken of all the roses, both tea and hybrid perpetual,
which it was desired to add to the stock. They were then inserted
closely and firmly in the soil, just over the bottom leaf, the glasses
were slipped on and puttied down; the grooves in which the glass slid,
and even the joints in the glass, being filled with putty, so as to
exclude the air. The whole thing completed, nothing more remained to be
done but to leave the box in its cool, shady nook for five or six weeks,
when the growing points of the free starting kinds gave notice that the
glasses might be removed, a bit at a time, with safety. Nothing could be
more simple, or demand less skill, and the operation may be carried out
successfully by an amateur at any time during the season, when good firm
cuttings can be got, and when six weeks' tolerably fine weather may be
counted on. The success of the whole thing depends on having the glasses
fixed so that they may not be removed until the cuttings are rooted, and
in placing the boxes in a shady place. So treated, carnations and many
of our shrubs and herbaceous perennials may be propagated by unskilled
persons with certainty, and without much trouble.

       *       *       *       *       *



A FEW OF THE BEST INULAS.


Of the fifty-six species of Inula described in scientific works,
probably not more than thirty are at present in cultivation in
this country, and those are chiefly confined to botanic gardens,
notwithstanding the fact that many of them are useful garden plants.
They are principally distributed throughout Southern Europe, although we
find them extending to Siberia and the Himalayas; indeed, it is to the
Himalayas we are indebted for the kinds that are most ornamental. Some
of the low-growing species are extremely useful for the rockery, such
as I. montana (the Mountain Inula), a fine dwarf plant with woolly
lanceolate leaves and dense heads of orange-colored flowers, resembling
in habit and general appearance some of the creeping Hieraciums. It is a
handsome and desirable plant for the decoration of old walls and similar
places, where it can be a little sheltered from rain and drip. Another
very useful species for this purpose is I. rhizocephaloides, found
plentifully in the Himalayas. It is one of the prettiest Alpine
composites we have. It seldom attains more than from one inch to two
inches in height, forming a dense rosette of short, hairy, oval leaves,
in the center of which the bright purple involucres, in the form of a
ball, are extremely interesting. It is easily cultivated, requiring,
however, a rather snug nook, where it will not be allowed to become too
dry. It is best propagated from seed. Then there is the woolly Inula (I.
candida), a pretty plant with small oval leaves, covered with a thick,
silky down, and much in the way of the white-leaved I. limonifolia, both
of which are very effective when grown in masses, which should always
be low down near the front of a rockery, or as an edging for a mixed
border. The glandular-leaved Inula (I. glandulosa), of which a good
representation is here given, is a beautiful hardy perennial. It is a
native of Georgia and the Caucasian Alps, near the Caspian Sea. It is
a rather robust-growing species, with large, bright, orange-yellow
flowers, varying from three to five inches in diameter, the narrow and
very straggly ray florets contrasting nicely with the rather prominent
disk. The leaves, although quite entire, seem notched, owing to large
black glands which form on their margins. They are lanceolate, and clasp
the stem. The plant is very variable, both as regards robustness and
size of flowers, and this may in a measure account for the confusion
existing between it and I. Oculus-Christi.

The soil most suitable for the full development of I. glandulosa is a
strong, clayey, retentive loam; it does not thrive well in the light
shallow soils in the neighborhood of London, except in shady positions.
I. Hookeri is a free-flowering perennial, with pointed lanceolate
leaves, of a delicate texture, bright green, and very finely toothed.
The flowers, which are sweet-scented, are not so large as those of I.
glandulosa, and are produced singly, the ray florets being, however,
much more numerous, rarely numbering less than thirty. It is found in
abundance in rocky places in Sikkim, where it replaces the nearly allied
I. grandiflora, a dwarfer species, with much shorter, shining leaves;
both are very desirable plants either for rockery or flower border work.
The Elecampane (I. Helenium) is an imposing, robust-growing species,
having large, broad leaves a foot or more in length. It grows from four
feet to five feet in height, and its thick, shaggy branches are crowned
with large yellow flowers. For isolating in woods this plant, is very
useful, and with the exception of Telekia cordifolia, it would be hard
to find a rival to it. It is, I believe, pretty extensively used for
planting in shrubberies, but unless they are thin and open it is seldom
seen to advantage. It is found wild or naturalized in some parts of
England. It flowers in June and July, and even into August when the
season has been favorable.

[Illustration: INULA GLANDULOSA (_flowers deep yellow_.)]

For naturalizing in woods the following will be found useful, _viz_., I.
salicina, I. Oculus-Christi, I. squarrosa, I. britannica, and many more,
the true beauty of which can only be realized in this way. With the
exception of I. rhizocepbaloides, they are all propagated by division
with the greatest ease, or by seed, which is best sown as soon as it is
ripe.--_D.K., The Garden_.

       *       *       *       *       *



FRUIT GROWING.

By P.H. FOSTER.


In the first place, if you contemplate appropriating a portion of your
land for the raising of fruits, you should have the orchard so situated
that no large animals can run at large on the grounds. Prepare your soil
in the most thorough manner; underdrain, if necessary, to carry off
surplus water; dig deep, large holes; fill in the bottom with debris;
in the very bottom put a few leaves, clam and oyster shells, etc., then
sods; above and below the roots put a good garden or field soil; do not
give the trees fresh manure at the time of setting, but the following
fall manure highly with any kind on top of the ground; dig it in the
following spring; keep the soil frequently worked during the summer,
and, if convenient, mulch with hay, straw, or leaves.

Now you are on the road to progress, provided you have made no mistake
in the selection of your trees. The purposes for which you intend your
fruit is highly important. You should well consider at the outset if
for family or market use. This is a business which requires a long look
ahead, for it is said, "He who plants pears looks ahead for his heirs."

Caution should be used in procuring your stock; little should be planted
that is not fairly tested on the Island, purchased of parties who can be
fully relied upon to give you what you want. Do not buy your stock of
parties who carry labels in their pockets to make to order what you want
out of the same bundle of trees.

Now, having your trees set out in a proper manner, of such varieties
as you desire, the next important step is to bring the trees into
usefulness. My plan is to use bone--fine bone--very freely about every
three years. Another important matter is that of trimming. "Fire
purifies," and the knife regulates the grand balance or equilibrium
between roots and tops. In most cases the top outgrows the roots, the
consequence of which is an ultimate weakness of the tree. It is thrown
into excessive fruiting, disease, and premature decay. To avoid this
result, use the knife when required. Thin out the inside branches when
small, and if the tree does not make a satisfactory growth, cut back
half way to the ground.

We will suppose that you have got your trees growing nicely, and they
have begun to bear fruit. There are other important steps to be taken,
which will be of little cost to you. Provide a wind-break for the
orchard. Evergreens answer the purpose, being a protection against the
wind. Having this matter attended to, there are other enemies with which
we must contend. I refer to the apple and peach tree borers. The former
will live in the tree for three years, if unmolested; the latter, one
year only. They are very easily destroyed by looking over the trees and
taking them out with a knife; or maybe prevented from touching the trees
by wrapping a piece of felt paper, 8 inches wide, around the tree near
the ground, the bottom being covered with dirt and the top tied tightly
above. The pear is not generally disturbed by these insects--only the
apple, peach, and quince. We have another insect very destructive to the
plum, peach, cherry, and apple--the _curcutio_, or plum weavel. This
season for the first time in twenty years we have gathered a small
crop of that very desirable plum, the Purple Favorite. We simply threw
air-slaked lime over the trees nearly every morning for from four to six
weeks, from the time the tree was out of bloom. Peach trees should be
treated in the same manner. Another method of fighting this insect is to
spread a sheet under the tree, and with a blow jar off the little Turk
and secure him on the sheet. But I consider the lime procedure the less
trouble and more effective. The tent caterpillar, which is easily seen,
should be destroyed at once. We have yet another insect to contend with
which infests the apple and pear, commonly called the Coddling Moth,
and the larva, the apple-worm (_Garpocapsa pomonella_). The loss by the
ravaaes of this insect alone to the fruit growers of the United States
fan hardly be estimated, as in many cases the whole crop is rendered
worthless. Such a vast destruction of two of the most valuable fruits
the world produces should stimulate scientists in this age of progress
to discover an effectual remedy against such a gigantic evil.

I have never yet discovered nor tried an effectual remedy against this
insect. The nearest I have approached his extermination is in the
following manner: After it has entered the fruit and accomplished its
damage, the time arrives when it has to leave the fruit and hide itself
in a quiet, secure position to undergo the transition from the larva to
the pupa state, which requires, in the early part of the season, eight
or ten days; after this time the miller is hatched and is again ready to
besiege the fruit with its sting. The insect, being two-brooded in this
climate at least, if not disturbed, has an aggregating force to do
mischief the second time. The progeny for the succeeding year have alone
to depend on the security of this second generation of larvæ. As they
may often be found in bark of apple trees during winter, my plan of
destruction is, about the first of July to take woolen rags long enough
to wrap around the trees, and say four inches wide. Each week I look
over the trees, and destroy the worms secreted under the rags and
wherever I find them until the fruit is off the trees. I have all the
green fruit, of every kind, carefully picked up as soon as it falls,
thereby destroying many of the curculio as well as the apple-worms.

One word upon the grape--the insect part of the question. The
_Phylloxera vastatrix_, or grape-vine louse, is already at work on Long
Island. It is found very difficult to raise many of our fine, new grapes
with us in consequence of the depredations of this very minute insect,
it being almost too small to be seen by the naked eye. There has lately
been discovered a remedy which is entirely chemical and as yet but
little disseminated. Very soon, no doubt, a discovery will be made that
will stay the progress of this destructive enemy.

We should plant aplenty of cherry and small fruit trees to yield feed
for birds. In return they will assist us in our efforts to preserve a
bountiful supply of this health producing element.

       *       *       *       *       *



COARSE FOOD FOR PIGS.


A recent subscriber wants advice how to feed pigs of 25 to 35 pounds
weight, that are to be kept over winter and fitted for sale at about six
months old--whether coarse food will not help them as much in winter as
in summer. How roots and pumpkins will answer in lieu of grass, and what
can be fed when this green food is gone? He has had poor success in
growing young pigs on corn alone. He has a reasonably warm pen for
winter.

The question of food is constantly recurring, and this is one of the
best evidences of the advancement of the country in the feeder's
art. When people are making no inquiry as to improved methods in any
direction, no progress can be made. There has been more progress made
in the philosophy of feeding during the last thirty years than in the
century and a half previous.

In pig feeding in the dairy districts, young pigs generally grow up in
a very healthy condition, owing to the refuse milk of the dairy, which
furnishes the principal food of young pigs. Skim-milk contains all the
elements for growing the muscles and bones of young pigs. This gave them
a good, rangy frame, and, when desired, could be fed into 400 or 500
pounds weight. But the fault attending this feeding was, that it was too
scanty to produce such rapid growth as is desired. It took too long to
develop them for the best profit. It had not then been discovered by the
farmer that it costs less to put the first hundred pounds on the pig
than the second, and less for the second than the third, etc.; that it
was much cheaper to produce 200 pounds of pork in six months than in
nine and twelve months. When it became evident that profit required more
rapid feeding, then they began to ply them continually with the most
concentrated food--corn meal or clear corn. If this was fed in summer,
on pasture, no harm was observed, for the grass gave bulk in the
stomach, and the pigs were were healthy and made good progress. But if
the young pigs were fed in pen in winter upon corn meal or clear corn,
the result was quite different; this concentrated food produced feverish
symptoms, and the pigs would lose their appetite for a few days,
drinking only water, which, after a while, would relieve the stomach,
and the pigs would eat vigorously again. Now, had they been fed a few
quarts of turnips, carrots, beets, or pumpkins, to give bulk to the
stomach, and separate the concentrated food, no harm would have come.
This gives the gastric juice a free circulation through the contents of
the stomach, the food is properly digested and applied to the needs of
the body instead of causing fever by remaining in the stomach.--_Live
Stock Journal_.

       *       *       *       *       *



METE KINGI.


Our engraving is a portrait of a familiar character in New Zealand,
chief Mete Kingi, who recently died at the age of one hundred years.
He was a fine specimen of the Maori race, the native New Zealanders, a
branch of the Malayo-Polynesian family. The New Zealanders surpassed
all other people in the art of tattooing, to which their chiefs gave
especial attention. Mete Kingi, as our picture shows, was no exception.
Tattooing on the face they termed _moko_. The men tattoo their faces,
hips, and thighs; the women their upper lips; for this purpose charcoal
made from kauri gum is chiefly used. It has the blue color when pricked
into the skin, growing lighter in shade in the course of years. The
subject of our illustration embraced Christianity, and was much
respected. Our engraving is from the _Illustrated Australian News_.

[Illustration: THE LATE MAORI CHIEF METE KINGI.]

       *       *       *       *       *



LAKE TAHOE.


Some very interesting information by Prof. John Le Conte, is given in
the _Overland Monthly_, being the result of some physical observations
made by the author at Lake Tahoe, in 1873. Lake Tahoe, also called Lake
Bigler, is situated at an altitude of 6,247 feet in the Sierra Nevada
Mountains, partly in California, partly in Nevada. The lake has a length
of 22 and a width of 12 miles. As regards its origin, the author regards
it as a "plication hollow," or a trough produced by the formation of two
mountain ridges, afterward modified by glacial agency. The depth of the
lake is remarkable; the observations taken at ten stations along the
length of the lake gave the following depths in feet: 900, 1,385, 1,495,
1,500, 1,506, 1,540, 1,504, 1,600, 1,640, 1645. This depth exceeds that
of the Swiss lakes proper--Lake Geneva, for example, has a maximum depth
of 1,096 feet--but is considerably less than that of Lakes Maggiore and
Como, on the Italian side of the Alps. A series of observations of the
temperature of the water were taken between the 11th and 18th of August.
The average corrected results are as follows:

   Depth in feet.                               Temp. (C.)
     0(surface).................................19.4
    50..........................................17.2
   100..........................................12.8
   150..........................................10.0
   200.......................................... 8.9
   250.......................................... 8.3
   300.......................................... 7.8
   330 (bottom)................................. 7.5
   400.......................................... 7.2
   480 (bottom)................................. 6.9
   500.......................................... 6.7
   600.......................................... 6.1
   772 (bottom)................................. 5.0
  1506 (bottom)..............,.................. 4.0

The temperature, therefore, diminishes with increasing depth to about
700 or 800 feet, and below this remains sensibly the same down to 1,506
feet; or in other words, a constant temperature of 4° C. prevails at all
depths below about. 820 feet. This is in accordance with the theory, the
temperature named being that of the maximum density of water, and it
confirms the recent observations of Prof. Forel in Switzerland; he
found, for example, that a constant temperature of 4° C. was reached in
Lake Zurich at a depth of nearly 400 feet, the lake being then covered
with 4 inches of ice. The explanation of the observed fact that Lake
Tahoe does not entirely freeze over even in severe winters is found in
the extreme depth; and the fact that the bodies of drowned persons do
not rise to the surface after the lapse of the usual time is explained
by the low temperature prevailing near the bottom, which does not allow
the necessary decomposition to go forward so as to produce the ordinary
result.

The water of Lake Tahoe is remarkable both for its transparency and
beauty of color. A series of observations made at the close of August or
beginning of September showed that a horizontally adjusted dinner plate
of about 9½ inches diameter was visible at noon at a depth of 108 feet.
The maximum depth of the limit of visibility as found by Prof. Forel, in
Lake Geneva, was 56 feet. He showed, moreover, that this limit is much
greater in. winter than in summer, as explained in part by the greater
absence of suspended matter and in part by the fact that increase of
temperature increases the absorbing power of water for light. The
maximum depth of visibility in the Atlantic Ocean, as found by Count
de Pourtales, was 162 feet, and Prof. Le Conte states his belief that
winter observations in Lake Tahoe would place the limit at even a
greater depth than this. The author gives a detailed and interesting
discussion in regard to the blue color of lake waters, reviewing in full
the results of previous writers on the subject, and concludes that while
pure water unquestionably absorbs a larger part of the red end of the
spectrum, and hence appears blue by transmitted light, the color seen by
diffuse reflection is mainly due to the selective reflection from the
fine particles suspended in it.

The last subject discussed by the author is that of the rhythmical
variations of level, or "seiches," of deep lakes; he applies the usual
formula to Lake Tahoe, and calculates from it the length of a complete
longitudinal and of a transverse "seiche;" these are found to be
eighteen or nineteen minutes in the first case and thirteen minutes in
the second.

       *       *       *       *       *

A catalogue, containing brief notices of many important scientific
papers heretofore published in the SUPPLEMENT, may be had gratis at this
office.

       *       *       *       *       *



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