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´╗┐Title: Grand Teton [Wyoming] National Park
Author: United States. Dept. of the Interior
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Grand Teton [Wyoming] National Park" ***

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Grand Teton
[WYOMING]
National Park

United States Department of the Interior
_Harold L. Ickes, Secretary_

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
_Arno B. Cammerer, Director_

[Illustration]

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1937



DO YOU KNOW YOUR NATIONAL PARKS?


     ACADIA, MAINE.--Combination of mountain and seacoast scenery.
     Established 1919; 24.08 square miles.

     BRYCE CANYON, UTAH.--Canyons filled with exquisitely colored
     pinnacles. Established 1928; 55.06 square miles.

     CARLSBAD CAVERNS, N. MEX.--Beautifully decorated limestone caverns
     believed largest yet discovered. Established 1930; 15.56 square
     miles.

     CRATER LAKE, OREG.--Astonishingly beautiful lake in crater of
     extinct volcano. Established 1902; 250.52 square miles.

     GENERAL GRANT, CALIF.--Celebrated General Grant Tree and grove of
     Big Trees. Established 1890; 3.96 square miles.

     GLACIER, MONT.--Unsurpassed alpine scenery; 200 lakes; 60 glaciers.
     Established 1910; 1,533.88 square miles.

     GRAND CANYON, ARIZ.--World's greatest example of erosion.
     Established 1919; 1,009.08 square miles.

     GRAND TETON, WYO.--Most spectacular portion of Teton Mountains.
     Established 1929; 150 square miles.

     GREAT SMOKY MOUNTAINS, N. C.-TENN.--Massive mountain uplift covered
     with magnificent forests. Established for protection 1930; 617
     square miles.

     HAWAII: ISLANDS OF HAWAII AND MAUI.--Volcanic areas of great
     interest, including Kilauea, famous for frequent spectacular
     outbursts. Established 1916; 245 square miles.

     HOT SPRINGS, ARK.--Forty-seven hot springs reserved by the Federal
     Government in 1832 to prevent exploitation of waters. Made national
     park in 1921; 1.58 square miles.

     LASSEN VOLCANIC, CALIF.--Only recently active volcano in
     continental United States. Established 1916; 163.32 square miles.

     MAMMOTH CAVE, KY.--Interesting caverns, including spectacular onyx
     cave formation. Established for protection 1936; 38.34 square
     miles.

     MESA VERDE, COLO.--Most notable cliff dwellings in United States.
     Established 1906; 80.21 square miles.

     MOUNT McKINLEY, ALASKA.--Highest mountain in North America.
     Established 1917; 3,030.46 square miles.

     MOUNT RAINIER, WASH.--Largest accessible single-peak glacier
     system. Established 1899; 377.78 square miles.

     PLATT, OKLA.--Sulphur and other springs. Established 1902; 1.33
     square miles.

     ROCKY MOUNTAIN, COLO.--Peaks from 11,000 to 14,255 feet in heart of
     Rockies. Established 1915; 405.33 square miles.

     SEQUOIA, CALIF.--General Sherman, largest and perhaps oldest tree
     in the world; outstanding groves of Sequoia gigantea. Established
     1890; 604 square miles.

     SHENANDOAH, VA.--Outstanding scenic area in Virginia section of
     Blue Ridge. Established 1935; 275.81 square miles.

     WIND CAVE, S. DAK.--Beautiful cavern of peculiar formations. No
     stalactites or stalagmites. Established 1903; 18.47 square miles.

     YELLOWSTONE: WYO.-MONT.-IDAHO.--World's greatest geyser area, and
     an outstanding game sanctuary. Established 1872; 3,471.51 square
     miles.

     YOSEMITE, CALIF.--Valley of world-famous beauty; spectacular
     waterfalls; magnificent High Sierra country. Established 1890;
     1,176.16 square miles.

     ZION, UTAH.--Beautiful Zion Canyon 1,500 to 2,500 feet deep.
     Spectacular coloring. Established 1919; 148.26 square miles.



RULES AND REGULATIONS


The Park Regulations are designed for the protection of the natural
beauties as well as for the comfort and convenience of visitors. The
following synopsis is for the general guidance of visitors, who are
requested to assist in the administration of the park by observing them.
Copies of the complete rules and regulations promulgated by the
Secretary of the Interior for the government of the park may be obtained
at the office of the superintendent and at other points of concentration
throughout the park.

The destruction, injury, defacement, or disturbance of any buildings,
signs, equipment, trees, flowers, vegetation, rocks, minerals, animal,
bird, or other life is prohibited.

Camps must be kept clean. Rubbish and garbage should be burned. Refuse
should be placed in cans provided for this purpose. If no cans are
provided where camp is made, refuse should be buried.

Do not throw paper, lunch refuse, or other trash on the roads and
trails. Carry until the same can be burned in camp or placed in
receptacle.

Fires shall be lighted only when necessary and when no longer needed
shall be completely extinguished. No lighted cigarette, cigar, match, or
other burning material shall be thrown from any vehicle or saddle animal
or dropped into any leaves, grass, twigs, or tree mold. Smoking or the
building of fires may be prohibited by the superintendent when the
hazard makes such action necessary.

The hunting, killing, wounding, frightening, capturing, or attempting to
capture any wild bird or animal is prohibited. Firearms are prohibited
within the park except with the written permission of the
superintendent.

When fishing, avoid closed waters. Except where otherwise posted, the
limit for a day's catch is 10 fish. The possession of more than 2 days'
catch at any one time is prohibited. Fishing in any way other than with
hook and line is prohibited.

Still- and motion-picture cameras may be freely used by amateurs in
the park for general scenic purposes.

No pictures for commercial use may be taken without special permission
from the superintendent.

All mountain climbers must report at a ranger station before and after
making the ascent of any peak. No solo climbs are permitted in this
park.

Drive carefully at all times. Muffler cut-outs must be kept closed.
Speed limits must be observed. All accidents must be reported at the
nearest ranger station or to the office of the superintendent.

The penalty for violation of the rules and regulations is a fine not
exceeding $500, or imprisonment not exceeding 6 months, or both,
together with all costs of the proceedings.

_=The Government is not responsible for accidents of any nature.=_



Events OF HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE


+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| 1807-8 | Discovery of the Tetons by John Colter.                   |
|        |                                                           |
|   1811 | The Astorians crossed Teton Pass.                         |
|        |                                                           |
|1810-45 | "The Fur Era" in the Rocky Mountains, which reached its   |
|        |   height between 1825 and 1840.                           |
|        |                                                           |
|   1829 | Capt. William Sublette named Jackson Hole after his       |
|        |   partner in the fur trade, David Jackson.                |
|        |                                                           |
|   1832 | Rendezvous of the fur trappers in Pierres Hole; the       |
|        |   Battle of Pierres Hole.                                 |
|        |                                                           |
|   1835 | Rev. Samuel Parker conducted the first Protestant service |
|        |   in the Rocky Mountains a few miles south of the Tetons. |
|        |                                                           |
|   1843 | Michaud attempted an ascent of the Grand Teton.           |
|        |                                                           |
|   1860 | Jim Bridger guided Capt. W. F. Reynolds' expedition       |
|        |   through the Teton country.                              |
|        |                                                           |
|   1872 | William H. Jackson, with a geological party of the Hayden |
|        |   survey in the Tetons, secured the first photographs of  |
|        |   these famous landmarks.                                 |
|        |                                                           |
|   1877 | The Hayden survey party of Orestes St. John made          |
|        |   geological studies in the Tetons.                       |
|        |                                                           |
|   1879 | Thomas Moran painted the Teton Range.                     |
|        |                                                           |
|   1884 | The first settlers entered Jackson Hole.                  |
|        |                                                           |
|   1897 | Teton Forest Reserve created.                             |
|        |                                                           |
|   1898 | The first major Teton peaks scaled (Buck Mountain and     |
|        |   Grand Teton).                                           |
|        |                                                           |
|   1909 | The Upper Gros Ventre landslide.                          |
|        |                                                           |
|   1925 | The Lower Gros Ventre landslide.                          |
|        |                                                           |
|   1927 | The Gros Ventre flood.                                    |
|        |                                                           |
|   1929 | Grand Teton National Park created and dedicated.          |
|        |                                                           |
|   1930 | The last major Teton peaks scaled (Nez Perce and Mount    |
|        |   Owen).                                                  |
+--------+-----------------------------------------------------------+



Contents


                                         Page

History of the Region                       2

Geographic Features                         6

  Teton Range                               6

  Jackson Hole                              8

The Work of Glaciers                        8

Trails                                     10

Mountain Climbing                          13

Wildlife                                   17

Trees and Plants                           19

Naturalist Service                         21

Fishing                                    23

Swimming                                   23

Hunting                                    23

Dude Ranches                               23

Administration                             24

How to Reach the Park                      24

  By Automobile                            24

  By Railroad                              24

  By Airplane                              25

Points of Interest Along the Way           25

Accommodations and Expenses                26

  Public Campgrounds                       27

  Saddle Horses                            27

  Boating                                  27

  Guide Service                            27

  Photographs                              27

  Motor Transportation                     28

Bibliography                               28

Government Publications                    30

[Illustration: TEEWINOT ACROSS JENNY LAKE

_Crandall photo._]



GRAND TETON _National Park_

OPEN FROM JUNE 1 TO OCTOBER 15


The GRAND TETON NATIONAL PARK embraces the most scenic portion of the
Teton Range of Wyoming, with an area of approximately 150 square miles,
or 96,000 acres. It varies from 3 to 9 miles in width and is 27 miles in
length. The northern extremity of the park is about 11 miles south of
the southern boundary of Yellowstone National Park. This park was
established by President Coolidge on February 26, 1929.

In addition to its sublime peaks and canyons, the Grand Teton National
Park includes six large lakes and many smaller bodies of water,
glaciers, and snowfields, and extensive forests of pine, fir, spruce,
cottonwood, and aspen. However, much of the park area is above timber
line (10,500 feet), the Grand Teton rising to more than 7,000 feet above
the floor of Jackson Hole.

The great array of peaks which constitutes the scenic climax of this
national park is one of the noblest in the world. It is alpine in the
truest sense. Southwest of Jenny Lake is a culminating group of lofty
peaks whose dominating figure is the Grand Teton, the famous mountain
after which the park takes its name. The resemblance of this group,
whose clustered, tapering spires tower aloft to a height of thousands of
feet and are hung with never-melting snowfields, to a vast cathedral,
must suggest itself to every observer.

However widely traveled, visitors viewing the Tetons for the first time
confess that the beauty of this park and the rugged grandeur of its
mountains come to them as a distinct revelation. This is amply proved by
the increasingly large number of visitors who return summer after summer
to spend their vacations in the Grand Teton National Park. The
recreational possibilities of these mountains, they have found, are
practically limitless. Here they may camp on the lakes, swim and fish,
ride or hike the trails, engage in the strenuous sport of
mountaineering, or--if their needs and wishes so dictate--simply relax
and rest.

The Grand, Middle, and South Tetons comprise the historic _Trois
Tetons_, which were noted landmarks to the trappers and explorers of the
early nineteenth century. The Three Tetons are seen to best advantage
from the west and southwest. As the observer's viewpoint is shifted, the
major peaks change greatly in outline and relative position, but despite
this fact one soon learns to recognize each.

Eleven peaks are of such boldness and prominence that they receive rank
as major peaks. In order of descending altitude they are: Grand Teton,
13,766 feet; Mount Owen, 12,922; Middle Teton, 12,798; Mount Moran
12,594; South Teton, 12,505; Mount Teewinot, 12,317; Buck Mountain,
11,923; Nez Perce, 11,900; Mount Woodring, 11,585; Mount Wister, 11,480;
and Mount St. John, 11,412.

In addition to the 11 major peaks there are an even larger number of
lesser prominence and altitude, such as Cloudveil Dome, 12,026 feet;
Eagle Rest, 11,257; Prospectors Mountain, 11,231; Mount Rockchuck,
11,150; Table Mountain, 11,075; Bivouac Peak, 11,045; Rendezvous Peak,
10,924; Fossil Mountain, 10,912; Rolling Thunder, 10,902; Mount Hunt,
10,775; Symmetry Spire, 10,546; and Storm Point, 10,040, as well as a
host of nameless pinnacles and crags which serve still further to make
the Teton skyline the most jagged of any on the continent. The larger
lakes of the park--Leigh, String, Jenny, Bradley, Taggart, and
Phelps--all lie close to the foot of the range and, like beads, are
linked together by the sparkling, tumbling waters of Cottonwood Creek
and neighboring streams. Nestled in dense forests outside the mouths of
canyons, these lakes mirror in their quiet depths nearby peaks whose
pointed summits rise with sheer slopes a mile or more above their level.

[Illustration: Grand Teton National Park Map]



HISTORY OF THE REGION


Many of our national parks have been carved from wilderness areas
previously little known to man and but seldom visited. The Tetons, on
the contrary, are remarkably rich in historic associations. The Grand
Teton itself has been referred to by an eminent historian as "the most
noted historic summit of the West."

Up to the beginning of the last century Indians held undisputed sway
over the country dominated by the Three Tetons. Then, as now, Jackson
Hole was literally a happy hunting ground, and, while the severe winters
precluded permanent habitation, during the milder seasons, bands of
Indians frequently came into the basin on hunting or warring
expeditions. They represented many tribes, usually hostile to each
other. The dreaded Blackfeet, the Crows, the Nez Perce, the Flatheads,
the Shoshoni, and others. There is little reason to believe that these
Indians ever invaded the more rugged portions of the Tetons, but it is
certain they regularly crossed the range, utilizing the several passes.

The Tetons probably first became known to white men in 1807-8, when the
intrepid John Colter crossed the range, presumably near Teton Pass on
the memorable journey which also made him discoverer of the Yellowstone
country. In 1811 the Astorians, under Wilson Price Hunt, entered Jackson
Hole by the Hoback Canyon and, failing in an attempt to navigate the
Snake River, likewise crossed the Teton Range in the vicinity of Teton
Pass, continuing thence to the mouth of the Columbia, where the trading
post, Astoria, was founded. The Tetons also figure in the adventures of
the returning Astorians in 1812. In Washington Irving's classic account
of the Astorian expedition (Astoria, published in 1836) the name
"Tetons" first appears in literature.

The decades which follow may truly be referred to as "the Fur Era", for
the Tetons became the center of remarkable activities on the part of fur
trappers representing both British and American interests, the former by
the Northwest and Hudson's Bay Companies, the latter by a succession of
companies operating out of St. Louis, Mo. "It was the trio of peaks so
distinctively presented from the west and southwest that made the Tetons
famous as landmarks among the roving trappers who, guiding their courses
by these easily recognized summits, singly or in groups passed over
Teton Pass and through Pierres Hole in their seasonal migrations to and
from their remote hunting grounds." Could these ancient monuments speak
they would make known some of the most interesting events in the annals
of the fur trade. For this was the paradise of the trapper. In every
direction meandered the streams along which he pursued his trade, and
nearby were the valleys where the rival companies gathered in annual
conclave to fight the bloodless battles of their business. There is
scarcely an acre of open country in sight of it that has not been the
scene of forgotten struggles with the implacable Blackfeet, while far
and near, in unknown graves, lie many obscure wanderers of whose lonely
fate no record survives. Captain Bonneville, Father DeSmet, Rev. Samuel
Parker, Jedediah Smith, Bridger, Kit Carson, David Jackson (after whom
Jackson Hole and Jackson Lake were named), Sublette, Joe Meek--these are
names to conjure with in western history. These and many others equally
distinguished appear in the records of the Teton country, particularly
in the third and fourth decades of the century. The 1832 rendezvous of
the American trappers was held in Teton Basin, then known as "Pierre's
Hole", at the west base of the Tetons. It was attended by many of the
most famous trappers of the time, and furnished occasion for the Battle
of Pierre's Hole, a notable engagement between the trappers and Gros
Ventres.

The picturesque name "Jackson Hole" dates back to 1829, in which year
Capt. William Sublette so named it after his fellow trapper, David E.
Jackson, who was especially partial to this beautiful valley. The term
"hole" was used by the trappers of that period in much the same sense as
is the word "basin" today, being applied to any mountain-girt valley.

In the 1840's the value of beaver skins declined and with it the fur
trade. By 1845 the romantic trapper of "the Fur Era" had vanished from
the Rockies--not, however, without having won for himself an
imperishable place in American history. During the next four decades the
valleys near the Tetons were largely deserted, except for wandering
bands of Indians that still occasionally drifted in. But the frontier
was relentlessly closing in, and one Government expedition after another
passed through the Teton country or skirted its borders. Most important
of these were the Hayden surveys, which in 1871, 1872, 1877, and 1878
sent parties into the region. The names of several members of the 1872
expedition are perpetuated in connection with Leigh, Jenny, Bradley, and
Taggart Lakes. Orestes St. John, geologist with the 1877 Hayden party,
and the great artist, Thomas Moran, who in 1879 went with a military
escort to paint the Tetons, are similarly remembered in the names of two
of the principal peaks. To this transition period also belong the
earliest prospectors of Jackson Hole, as well as several famous big-game
hunters who came here in search of trophies--forerunners of the hundreds
of hunters who now annually invade this region.

In the middle eighties came the first settlers. They entered by the Gros
Ventre River and Teton Pass, and to begin with naturally settled in the
south end of the hole. Here as elsewhere the story of the homesteader
has been one of isolation, privations, and hardships, met, however, with
persistency and indomitable courage. Nor is the story confined to the
past, for maintaining a livelihood amongst these mountains still calls
for resourcefulness, fortitude, and--not infrequently--even heroism.

History, here, is still in the making. Teton Forest Reserve was not
created until 1897; the railroad reached Victor in 1912; the Jackson
Lake Dam was finished in 1914; many of the roads and bridges of the
region were constructed within the past decade; and the Grand Teton
National Park was created in 1929. The detailed exploration of the range
and the conquest of its high peaks have taken place in relatively recent
years, and since 1929 trails have been built which for the first time
make the Tetons really accessible to the public.

In later paragraphs will be found an account of the mountaineering
history of the Tetons. And so the dramatic human story of these
mountains is brought down to the present.

[Illustration: TEEWINOT, THE GRAND TETON, AND MOUNT OWEN FROM THE
NORTHEAST]



GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES


THE TETON RANGE

On the Jackson Hole side the Teton Range presents one of the most
precipitous mountain fronts on the continent. Except for Teton Pass, at
its southern end, the range is practically an insuperable barrier. Forty
miles in length, it springs abruptly from Jackson Hole and only a few
miles west of its base attains elevations of more than 13,000 feet above
the sea. Thus most of the range is lifted above timber line into the
realm of perpetual snow, and in its deeper recesses small glaciers still
linger. The grandeur of the beetling gray crags, sheer precipices, and
perennial snow fields, is vastly enhanced on this side by the total
absence of foothills and by contrast with the relatively flat floor of
Jackson Hole, from which they are usually viewed.

The Teton Range may be described as a long block of the earth that has
been broken and uplifted along its eastern margin, thus being tilted
westward. Movement of this sort along a fracture is what the geologist
terms "faulting." The total amount of uplift along the eastern edge of
the block amounts to more than 10,000 feet. Doubtless this uplift was
accomplished not by one cataclysm but by a series of small faulting
movements distributed over a very long period. Probably the time of
faulting was as remote as the middle of the Tertiary period (the period
just before the Ice Age, the latest chapter of the earth's history).

Very impressive is the contrast between the east and west sides of the
Teton Range. From the east, the Jackson Hole side, one views the
precipitous side of the mountain block as it has been exposed by uplift
and erosion. From the west, the Idaho side, is seen the broad top of the
block, which is gently inclined toward the west. In the eastern front,
furthermore, one sees the ancient, deep-seated crystalline rocks
(gneiss, schist, and pegmatite) belonging to the earliest known geologic
eras, the pre-Cambrian. In places on the top of the block, at the head
of Death and Avalanche Canyons, for example, are seen the inclined
layers of limestone, quartzite, and shale belonging to the less ancient
Paleozoic era. These layers formerly covered the entire block, but they
have been worn away from half of the area, thus exposing the underlying
crystallines. The west and north flanks of the range are overlapped by
relatively young beds of lava that are continuous with those covering
eastern Idaho and the Yellowstone plateaus.

[Illustration: NORTH VIEW OF TETONS]


JACKSON HOLE

Jackson Hole, which adjoins the park on the southeast, is one of the
most sequestered valleys in the Rockies, encompassed on all sides as it
is by mountain barriers. It is 48 miles long, for the most part 6 to 8
miles wide, and embraces an area of more than 400 square miles. The
floor of the valley slopes from an altitude of 7,000 feet at the north
end to 6,000 at the south. Jackson Hole lies a few miles west of the
Continental Divide, and occupies the central portion of the headwaters
area of the Snake River. Mountain streams converge radially toward it
from the surrounding highlands, and the Snake River receives these as it
flows through the valley.

Jackson Hole has largely been excavated by the Snake River and its
tributaries from the shale formations which once extended over the
region to a depth of several thousand feet. Rocks surrounding the
region, being more resistant, were reduced less rapidly and therefore
have been left standing in relief as highlands.



THE WORK OF GLACIERS


Here, as in several other national parks, the glaciers of the Ice Age,
known to the geologist as the Pleistocene period, played a leading role
in developing the extraordinary scenic features. Just as the streams now
converge toward Jackson Hole, so in ages past glaciers moved down
toward, and in many instances into, the basin from the highlands to the
east, north, and west. Detailed study has shown that the Ice Age was not
a single, simple episode, but is divisible into "stages"--glacial
stages, during which extensive ice fields formed, and interglacial
stages, during which these were largely or wholly withdrawn. The
duration of each is to be thought of in terms of tens of thousands of
years. In Jackson Hole, three glacial and two interglacial stages have
been recognized. Only the most recent glacial stage need concern us
here, the other two having occurred so long ago that their records are
much obscured.

This stage ended but yesterday, geologically speaking, and to it is due
much of the grandeur of the region. In the Teton Range every canyon from
Phillips northward contained a glacier, and many of these reached
eastward to the base of the range where they spread widely upon the
floor of Jackson Hole. Where Jackson Lake now is there lay a great,
sluggish field of ice resulting from the confluence of adjacent alpine
glaciers.

Moraines, outwash plains, and lakes are easily recognizable features
that originated during the latest glacial stages, and most of the peaks
and canyons were greatly modified.

Moraines are deposits of debris, piled up by the ice itself. Such are
the heavily wooded, hummocky embankments which rest along the base of
the mountains from Granite Canyon northward, rising in some cases 200 or
300 feet above the floor of Jackson Hole and heaped with enormous
boulders quarried by the ice far back in the range.

With two exceptions each of the large moraines incloses a lake. In this
way Phelps, Taggart, Bradley, Jenny, Leigh, and Jackson Lakes
originated; all ranged along the western border of Jackson Hole. No
lakes were formed along the eastern border, inasmuch as on this side no
glaciers extended beyond their canyons. String Lake is dammed in part by
a gravel fill.

Outwash plains are the deposits formed by streams which, during the Ice
Age, issued from the glaciers. Of this origin are the broad,
cobble-strewn flats, usually overgrown with sage, which cover the floor
of Jackson Hole. They are diversified by bars, abandoned stream
channels, terraces and "pitted plains", features of exceptional interest
to one who examines them in detail. Several isolated buttes--Signal,
Blacktail, and the Gros Ventre Buttes--rise like islands a thousand feet
or more above these flats.

[Illustration: PROFILE OF THE YELLOWSTONE-GRAND TETON REGION]

Each canyon gives evidence of the vigor with which the glacier it once
contained gouged out its channel. In many places the rock of the broad
floors and steep sides is still remarkably polished. Every canyon leads
up to one or more amphitheaters, or cirques, with sheer bare walls
hundreds of feet high. Tracing these ice-gouged canyons headward one
will discover many rock-rimmed lakelets, some hung on precipitous
mountain sides where one might be pardoned for asserting that no lake
could possibly exist.

[Illustration: A CREVASSE IN TETON GLACIER

_Crandall photo._]

[Illustration: WINTER SCENE IN THE TETONS

_Copyright, Crandall._]



TRAILS


An unbroken wilderness a few years ago, the Grand Teton National Park is
now penetrated by some of the finest trails in the national-park system.
These trails, suitable alike for travel afoot or on saddle horses, are 3
to 4 feet wide, free of boulders, and of grade so moderate they may be
followed by old or young with full safety and a minimum of physical
exertion. While the trails are traversable during the greater part of
the summer, some of them may be blocked by snow early in the season.
Those visitors expecting to climb the high trails should inquire at park
headquarters or the office at the museum at Jenny Lake for information
regarding the condition of the high trails.

=_The Lakes Trail_= runs parallel to the mountains, following closely
the base of the range and skirting the shore of each large body of water
from Leigh Lake at the north to Phelps Lake at the south. It makes
accessible the most important lakes, canyons, and peaks of the park, and
is naturally the one from which all expeditions into the range begin.
One can encircle by trail either Jenny Lake or String Lake, the hike
around the former being one of the most popular in the park.

=_The Canyon Trails_= described below are spur trails extending westward
from the Lakes Trail, back into the most rugged areas in the Teton
Range. Intervening canyons have been left in their splendid wildness.

=_The Teton Glacier Trail_= extends up the east slope of the Grand Teton
to two alpine lakes, Surprise and Amphitheater, at altitudes close to
10,000 feet. By means of the 17 switchbacks on this trail the hiker or
horseman climbs to a point on the face of the Grand Teton, 3,000 feet
above the floor of the valley, throughout this ascent enjoying matchless
panoramas of the entire Jackson Hole country, and witnesses a view
extending eastward 80 miles to the Wind River Mountains, whose peaks and
glaciers are sharply outlined against the horizon. Amphitheater Lake, at
the end of the trail, occupies a protected glacial cirque and is the
starting point for Teton Glacier, the most accessible of the ice fields,
three-fourths of a mile northwest from the end of the trail. Though
seasoned hikers make the climb from Jenny Lake to the glacier by way of
this trail, one can, if he chooses, take horses as far as Amphitheater
Lake, and continue on foot with a guide over to the glacier.

=_The Indian Paintbrush Trail_= starts near the outlet of Leigh Lake and
follows up the bottom of Indian Paintbrush Canyon to connect with the
Cascade Canyon Trail by way of Lake Solitude, a lakelet of rarest beauty
at timber line near the head of the north fork of Cascade Canyon. The
wealth of wild flowers along this trail gives name to the canyon, and
early or late in the day one may see big game, especially moose, near
the lakes and swamps. This trail affords superb views of Jackson and
Leigh Lakes eastward beyond the mouth of the canyon, and westward along
the Divide glimpses of snowclad ridges and peaks.

=_The Cascade Canyon Trail_= passes through a chasm whose walls rise
sheer on either side for thousands of feet. By this trail one penetrates
into the deepest recesses of the Tetons. It skirts the base of several
of the noblest peaks, Teewinot, Mount Owen, Table Mountain, and the
Three Tetons, and it enables one to see these titans not only at close
range but from new and impressive angles. Lake Solitude may be reached
by means of this trail, by taking the Cascade Canyon-Indian Paintbrush
loop trail leading up the north fork of Cascade Canyon.

=_The Death Canyon Trail_= traverses the full length of a canyon which
in its lower portion is of profound depth and grandeur, as awesome as
its name, but which above opens into broad, sunny meadows. No canyon
better illustrates the difference between the rugged, alpine landscapes
developed in the crystalline rock of the Teton east border and the
softer contours formed in the sedimentary strata to the west, near the
Divide.

[Illustration: ALONG THE TRAIL AT THE HEAD OF CASCADE CANYON

_Grant photo._]

=_The Skyline Trail_= is that portion of the trail system which connects
the Indian Paintbrush, Cascade Canyon, and Death Canyon Trails.
Following down the north fork, then up the south fork of Cascade Canyon,
it crosses the head of Avalanche Canyon to Alaska Basin, in the western
watershed of the Tetons, thence over a high saddle on Buck Mountain and
down a series of switchbacks to join the Death Canyon Trail. This trail
takes the hiker, or rider, through alpine meadows to rugged cliffs and
ledges above timber line from which can be viewed to the westward the
valleys and mountains of Idaho, as well as the Wyoming country to the
east as far as the Wind River Range. In traversing this loop one
completely encircles the three Tetons and adjacent high peaks, viewing
them from all sides, and learns to know them with an intimacy impossible
to the visitor who contents himself with distant views.



MOUNTAIN CLIMBING


Among American climbers no range enjoys higher rank than the Tetons, and
its growing fame abroad is evidenced by increasingly large numbers of
foreign mountaineers who come here to climb. Leading mountaineers
unhesitatingly rank many of the Teton climbs with the best in the Alps
and other world-famous climbing centers. Though the majority of climbs
must be considered difficult even for mountaineers of skill and wide
experience, there are several peaks, notably the Middle Teton, South
Teton, and Mount Woodring, which have relatively easy routes that may be
safely followed by anyone of average strength.

Although the conquest of the Tetons has largely been accomplished within
the decade just closed, the beginnings of mountaineering go back nearly
a century. Naturally the Grand Teton was first to be challenged and the
Wyoming historian, Coutant, records that in 1843 a French explorer,
Michaud, with a well-organized party, attempted its ascent but was
stopped short of the summit by unscalable cliffs. It is possible that
even earlier white men--trappers and explorers--matched their strength
and strategy against this peak or others in the Tetons, but if so their
efforts have gone unrecorded. From the period of the Hayden surveys in
the seventies, accounts of several attempts have come down to us, and
one party, consisting of N. P. Langford and James Stevenson, purported
to have reached the summit on July 29, 1872. This claim to first ascent
has been generally discredited because of the serious discrepancies
between Langford's published account and the actual conditions on the
peak as now known. In 1891 and again in 1897 William O. Owen, pioneer
Wyoming surveyor, headed attempts to reach the summit which likewise
failed. Finally in 1898 a party sponsored by the Rocky Mountain Club, of
Colorado, and comprising Owen, Bishop Franklin S. Spalding, John Shive,
and Frank Petersen, on August 11 discovered the traverse which, 700 feet
beneath the summit, leads around the northwest face and so opens up a
clear route to the top.

[Illustration: THE ICY WATERS OF CASCADE CANYON

_Copyright, Crandall._]

The conquest of the Grand Teton achieved, public interest waned and a
quarter century elapsed before the peak was again scaled. In 1923 two
parties retraced the route of 1898, and each year thereafter numerous
ascents have been made. In recent years as many as 30 to 40 parties have
climbed the peak each summer.

Repeated efforts were made to achieve the summit of the Grand Teton by
routes other than the traditional one, and in 1929 one of these resulted
in a successful ascent of the east ridge by Kenneth A. Henderson and
Robert L. M. Underhill. In 1931 no less than three additional routes
were discovered: the southwest ridge was climbed by Glenn Exum; the
southeast ridge by Underhill, Phil Smith, and Frank Truslow; and the
north face by Underhill and Fritiof Fryxell. In 1936 a second route up
the extremely hazardous north face was established by Paul and Eldon
Petzoldt and Jack Durrance. Thus, six wholly distinct routes have been
employed on this mountain, though only the traditional route and
possibly the southwest ridge can be recommended to any except most
expert alpinists.

Within the last decade other peaks in the range have come in for more
and more attention. This they richly deserve, since from both a scenic
and mountaineering standpoint many of them are worthy peers of the Grand
Teton itself. Mount Moran, Mount Owen, Teewinot, Nez Perce, and the
Middle Teton comprise a mountain assemblage which, for nobility of form
and grandeur, would be difficult to equal anywhere.

So far as known, Buck Mountain, most southerly of the "Matterhorn
peaks", was the first major peak in the range to be scaled, the ascent
being made early in 1898 by the topographical party of T. M. Bannon.
Thereafter no important ascents were made until 1919, when LeRoy Jeffers
scaled the lower summit of Mount Moran. The main summit of this peak was
first climbed in 1922 by L. H. Hardy, Ben C. Rich, and Bennet McNulty.
In 1923 A. R. Ellingwood climbed both the Middle and South Tetons on the
same day, on the South Teton being accompanied by Eleanor Davis. In 1928
Mount Wister was climbed by Phil Smith and Oliver Zierlein; in 1929
Teewinot and Mount St. John by Fryxell and Smith; in 1930 Nez Perce by
Fryxell and Smith; and Mount Owen by Underhill, Henderson, Fryxell, and
Smith. With the ascent of Mount Owen the conquest of the major peaks,
begun so many years before, was at length completed.

In the meantime the minor peaks were by no means neglected, the first
ascents being made principally since 1929 by the climbers whose names
have already been mentioned. As in the case of the Grand Teton, a
variety of routes have been worked out on almost all of the major and
minor peaks. Between 1929 and 1931 the important summits of the range
were equipped with standard Government register tubes and register
books, in which climbers may enter records of their ascents. The story
of the conquest of the Tetons is told in a book entitled "The Teton
Peaks and Their Ascents." (See Bibliography.)

[Illustration: TEEWINOT AND THE GRAND TETON FROM A HIGH MOUNTAIN SLOPE]


SUGGESTIONS TO CLIMBERS

Since 1931 authorized guide service has been available in the park. In
view of the difficulties one encounters on the Teton peaks and the
hazards they present, prospective climbers--especially if
inexperienced--are urged to make use of the guide service. If venturing
out unguided, climbers should under all circumstances consult rangers
or guides for full information relative to routes and equipment. Failure
to heed this caution has, in the past, led to accidents and even
fatalities. Climbing parties _are required, under all circumstances_, to
report at either park headquarters or Jenny Lake Ranger Station before
and after each expedition, whether guided or unguided. _Climbing alone,
without a companion, is absolutely prohibited._

The climbing season varies with the amount of snow in the range and the
character of the weather, but ordinarily it extends from the middle of
June to the end of September, being at its best during July, August, and
early September. In most cases it is advisable to allow 2 days for an
ascent of the Grand Teton, Mount Owen, or Mount Moran, and one day for
the other major peaks. Jenny Lake Campground is the logical outfitting
point for most expeditions; it is close to the peaks and the sources of
supply as well. For most ascents the usual alpine equipment--ice axes,
rope, and hobbed boots or climbing shoes--is essential. In the case of
guided parties arrangements for renting equipment may be made with the
guides.



WILDLIFE


For a great many years Jackson Hole has been famed for its big game, and
to those who wish to see wild animals the expenditure of a little time
in favorable localities usually will reveal them.

The visitor should not be disappointed if he does not see animals from
his automobile as he drives through the park. In most cases the roads
have been built so as to avoid going through localities inhabited by
wildlife for fear of frightening it and driving it away.

Within the actual confines of the park, Shiras' moose is the most common
big game animal, and it is frequently seen in the smaller ponds and
marshy meadows. Though the moose is the largest member of the deer
family, it is not as wary as the deer and is comparatively easy to see.

Mule deer are increasing in the park, as well as in the rest of Jackson
Hole. Though quite shy, they are often seen along the many miles of
trail which are accessible to both rider and hiker.

The elk, or wapati, have been the most important of the big game animals
in Jackson Hole, at least since the occupancy of white men; and they
have done much to make the valley known to the world. Their history
constitutes one of the most interesting chapters in the story of the
valley. Not many years ago as the winter range of the elk was more and
more taken up by the cattleman and rancher, depriving the elk of the
areas where they might find winter forage not too deeply covered by
winter snow, it became apparent that something must be done to save
these magnificent animals. Toward this end a Government ranch was
established near the town of Jackson, where the elk could be fed during
the winter months. The preservation of the Jackson Hole elk herd is now
assured.

In the spring elk leave the low country and the Government feed grounds
and move toward the high country in Yellowstone Park and south of it, on
Big Game Ridge, the Thorofare Plateau, and in the mountains east of
Jackson Hole. A small herd summers in the north end of the Teton Range.
With snowfall in the high country, the elk again move down until by
November or December they are back on the feed grounds.

A small herd of bighorns, or Rocky Mountain sheep, ranges in the Teton
Mountains. Large numbers of bighorns are found, however, in the
mountains east and south of Jackson Hole.

In the park there are many smaller mammals, among them the marmot, or
"rockchuck", whose shrill whistling makes his presence known at all
altitudes from the valley floor to the peak summits. Marmots make
interesting pets, and tame ones are not uncommon. Like bears, marmots
hibernate through the winter.

Conies (pikas) are common throughout the rock slides, where these little
animals find numerous refuges. They are guinea-piglike creatures,
usually grayish in color and 7 or 8 inches long. In the rock slides one
may find the little hay piles which they make of the plants growing
nearby. Though very little is known concerning the winter habits of
these alpine animals, it is probable that they do not hibernate but
during the winter live on their stored hay and what additional food is
to be found under the snow.

Bears are found only in the mountains and canyons of the park. _They do
not invade the campgrounds._

[Illustration: BULL ELK

_Photo by Crandall._]

That most interesting of smaller mammals, the beaver, is common, and it
is not difficult to find the houses and dams which they have built. In
the campgrounds are pine squirrels, chipmunks, ground squirrels, and
mice. Mink, marten, otter, weasels, coyotes, badgers, fox, and lynx also
are found in the park.

The Grand Teton National Park offers much to the bird student. Though
the region is old in history, it is new in possibilities of avian
observation, and the seeker finds types from those which inhabit the
arid sagebrush plains to those which spend their lives in the frigid
atmosphere far above timber line.

In number, there are more than 100 species, a variety which will keep
any ornithologist busy for as long as his stay permits. A list of 93
species was made during June and July 1933, and at least 3 more species
were added in 1934. Many of these are easily studied within a few
hundred yards of the Jenny Lake Ranger Station.



TREES AND PLANTS


In several respects the flora of the Tetons is unique. The high
mountains have constituted a barrier to plant migration which many forms
could not cross; hence the range limit of a number of plants is found
here. Representatives from north, south, east, and west are found in
this general region, this being the limit, in many instances, of their
distribution. There are many plants typical of the central Rockies, and
a few known only to this range. Five life zones are recognized within
the park, all occurring in a distance of less than 15 miles. Plants
migrating from other regions have grown equally well in each zone.

The flowering period begins in the park as soon as the ridges and flats
are free of snow in May, and it continues until about August 15 in the
Arctic-Alpine Zone. Hence, plants of at least one zone and usually of
several may be seen blooming at any time in the spring or summer.

The evergreen trees form an appropriate frame for the majestic Teton
peaks and are reflected in the beautiful lakes which they encircle.

Lodgepole pine is the most common tree, covering the floor of the valley
and extending up the mountains to about 8,000 feet. The pines may be
easily distinguished from the other evergreens by the long slender
needles occurring in bundles. Lodgepole has two needles in each bundle.
Trees of this species were extensively used by the Indians for lodge
poles.

Whitebark pine is the tree of timber line; the occasional specimens
found at a lower elevation are usually dwarfed. Needles occur five in
each bundle; cones 2 to 3 inches long and almost ovate; the tree is
much-branched and of medium size.

[Illustration: THE SNOW-CAPPED TETONS LOOK DOWN ON BEAUTIFUL WILD-FLOWER
FIELDS

_Copyright, Crandall._]

Douglas tree has been called "Douglas spruce", "Douglas fir", and "red
fir"; however, it is neither a spruce nor a fir but is worthy of
separate distinction. One needle; cones 2 to 4 inches long; a
three-lobed bract projects from beneath each scale of the cone, a very
distinctive character; common at middle elevations.

Alpine fir grows from the base of the mountains to timber line; at high
altitudes it is dwarfed and sprawling. One needle, flat; cones 2 to 3
inches long, scales paper-like; tree usually pyramidal and beautifully
symmetrical.

Engelmann spruce is the largest tree in the park, and is usually found
growing in moist places and near the lakes and streams. One needle,
square in cross section, stiff and sharp; cones 2 to 3 inches long,
scales papery.

Blue spruce is not common and is found only in the Snake River bottoms.
The form found here is not typical, lacking the blue cast. One needle,
square in cross section, stiff and sharp; cones 3 to 5 inches long,
scales papery.

Creeping juniper is not common. It is a prostrate form, lacking definite
trunk. Leaves awllike, one-half inch long or less, stiff and sharp,
spreading from the twigs; fruit, berrylike.

Aspen is the most common deciduous tree of the valley, growing on the
slopes up to about 8,000 feet. The leaves are on very slender stalks and
the slightest breeze puts them into motion, hence the popular names
"Quaking asp" and "Quaking aspen." Leaves rounded, 1 to 3 inches broad,
with a slender stalk of about the same length; bark smooth and whitish.

Balsam poplar is found along some of the stream banks and is the largest
deciduous tree of the park. Leaves about 3 inches long and 2 inches
broad, longer than the stalk; bark smooth on the young trees, becoming
rough as the trees get older. The small seed pods contain many seeds, to
each of which is attached a tuft of white hair or "cotton"; hence one of
the common names, "Cottonwood."



NATURALIST SERVICE


At Jenny Lake is located the park museum, which also serves as the
ranger station. In it are housed exhibits pertaining to the history,
geology, fauna, and flora of the Teton-Jackson Hole country. The
collection devoted to mountaineering is in many respects unique.
Adjacent to the museum is an open-air amphitheater where campfire talks
on geology, wildlife, and other subjects related to the park are given
every evening at dusk by a ranger-naturalist. A nature walk, auto
caravan, or all-day hike is conducted each day by a member of the
ranger-naturalist staff.

[Illustration: THE TETON RANGE MIRRORED IN JACKSON LAKE

_Copyright, Crandall._]

An information desk is maintained at the museum, and rangers are there
at all hours of the day to answer inquiries. Information service is also
maintained at park headquarters.



FISHING


Grand Teton Park offers splendid opportunities for fishing. Fish may be
taken with the artificial fly during most of the summer, but the lake or
mackinaw trout which are present in Jackson and Jenny Lakes must be
lured with bait and caught with heavy tackle by means of trolling. Other
species of trout in park waters are the cutthroat (also known as native,
red-throat, and blackspotted) and the brook or speckled trout. The park
waters are being stocked through the cooperation of the United States
Bureau of Fisheries. A Wyoming fishing license, costing $1.50 for State
residents and $3 for nonresidents, is required. For $1.50, however,
nonresidents may secure a 5-day fishing permit.



SWIMMING


Jenny and Leigh Lakes offer opportunities for those who enjoy lake
bathing. A small beach of clean white sand at the end of the Leigh Lake
Road is especially frequented by bathers.



HUNTING


Jackson Hole has long been a noted hunting country, and under Wyoming
laws elk, deer, sheep, moose, and bear may be hunted in the mountains
east and south of Jackson Hole. Parties interested in hunting should
consult the local game warden or the State Fish and Game Department at
Cheyenne, Wyo., for information as to licenses and seasons.

No hunting is permitted in the Grand Teton National Park, which, of
course, will always be a complete sanctuary for wildlife.



DUDE RANCHES


The trail of the summer vacationist has deviated during the last decade
from the old familiar courses to embrace vast areas in Wyoming and
Montana. A veritable invasion of eastern tourists, known in the parlance
of men of the range as "dudes", has followed the opening up by modern
transportation of this beautiful country.

Located in the mountainous regions of these two far western States, on
the last frontier, are the dude ranches, in the mouths of canyons, among
foothills, or in clearings in the forest. These ranches are not
pretentious places, but are rustic and unique. Their popularity began in
1904, when Howard, Willis, and Alden Eaton established the now famous
Eaton Brothers' "Dude Ranch" at Wolf, Wyo.

Many of these ranches are situated in territory within easy access to
the Grand Teton Park. A complete list may be obtained by addressing the
Dude Ranchers' Association, Billings, Mont.



ADMINISTRATION


The representative of the National Park Service in immediate charge of
the park is Thomas E. Whitcraft, superintendent, with office at park
headquarters; address, Moose, Wyo.



HOW TO REACH THE PARK


BY AUTOMOBILE

The Grand Teton National Park is reached by automobile from the north,
south, east, and west. Each of these approaches is highly scenic in
character affording splendid distant views of the Teton Range and
Jackson Hole. United States Highway No. 287 connects Jackson Hole with
Yellowstone Park and is the north approach to the Teton Park. One mile
north of Moran the traveler reaches United States Highway No. 187 which
traverses Jackson Hole and makes the park accessible. From the east
United States Highway No. 287, known as the Atlantic-Yellowstone-Pacific
Highway, enters Jackson Hole through Togwotee Pass, altitude 9,658 feet,
and the Buffalo Fork of the Snake River, joining the road from
Yellowstone Park, 1 mile north of Moran. The south road enters Jackson
Hole via Hoback Canyon. This is an improved highway (US 187) leaving
Rock Springs, Wyo., on the Lincoln Highway. United States Highway No. 89
leading to Kemmerer, Wyo., connects with United States Highway No. 187
at Daniel, Wyo. The western approach road from Idaho, via Teton Pass, to
Wilson and Jackson crosses the Teton Range at an altitude of 8,431 feet.
This road connects with the West Yellowstone-Salt Lake City Highway (U S
191) at Sugar City, Idaho, or by traveling via Pine Creek Pass and Swan
Valley, at Idaho Falls.


BY RAILROAD

At the present time parties may reach the Grand Teton National Park by
using rail lines to several gateways. The Union Pacific System has its
nearest terminal at Victor, Idaho. It operates daily trains to and from
Victor in the tourist season, and there is bus service from the rail
terminus to Jackson, Grand Teton National Park, and Moran. Union Pacific
passengers upon leaving the train at Rock Springs, Wyo., may make
connections with the mail stage which leaves daily except Sunday to the
Teton region, by way of Hoback Canyon.

For many years the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. has operated
daily bus service between Old Faithful and Moran. It makes connections
at Old Faithful, which enable passengers coming to Yellowstone Park via
the Union Pacific (West Yellowstone Gateway), Northern Pacific (Gardiner
Gateway), Chicago, Burlington & Quincy (Cody Gateway), and Chicago,
Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific (Gallatin Gateway), to reach the Grand
Teton National Park.


BY AIRPLANE

United Air Lines in its transcontinental route from New York to San
Francisco has a stop at Rock Springs, Wyo., which makes available for
persons of limited time an opportunity to visit the park.

A mail stage leaves Rock Springs daily, except Sunday, for Grand Teton
National Park via the Hoback Canyon.

National Park Airways, connecting with United Air Lines at Salt Lake
City, operates daily during the summer season via Idaho Falls and West
Yellowstone to Butte and Great Falls, Mont.



POINTS OF INTEREST ALONG THE WAY


The Grand Teton National Park is located in the interior of a vast
mountain region, and its avenues of approach are, of necessity, through
canyons and passes. These approaches are themselves of great interest
and beauty, and afford magnificent distant views of the Teton Range. The
country traversed is rich in associations of the Old West and contains
numerous historic shrines which deserve the attention of the passing
traveler.

The north approach, from Yellowstone Park by United States Highway No.
287, passes over the Continental Divide just a few miles south of West
Thumb, and in leaving the Yellowstone Plateau follows the course of
Lewis River. In the dense forests along this wilderness stream there are
opportunities to see big game, such as elk, deer, moose, and bears.
Descending into Jackson Hole, the highway skirts the east shore of
Jackson Lake, and the view of the distant Tetons, rising from the far
shore of the lake, is one the traveler will not soon forget. At this
distance they glisten in delicate blue and white, so sharp they seem
actually to bristle.

The west approach, from Salt Lake City and points farther west, leaves
United States Highways Nos. 91 and 191 at Idaho Falls or Sugar City,
Idaho, traverses historic Teton Basin, the "Pierres Hole" of the early
trappers, and passes over Teton Pass, elevation 8,429 feet, to the town
of Jackson, which lies in the south end of Jackson Hole about 15 miles
south of Teton Park headquarters. This approach is the only one from
which the three Tetons, noted landmarks of a century ago, stand out
prominently, and the view of this trio is highly impressive. No less
spectacular is the panorama of Jackson Hole revealed as one reaches the
summit of Teton Pass. Undoubtedly the Teton Pass view is the finest to
be had of this basin from any point on the highways.

The south approach, from Evanston, Kemmerer, Rock Springs, and other
towns in southern Wyoming, follows United States Highway No. 187 or US
89, and avoids all high mountain passes, entering Jackson Hole by way of
the Hoback Canyon. This road does not open up glimpses of the Tetons
until one is well into Jackson Hole, but it affords excellent views of
the snow-clad Wind River Range. Strung along its course is a series of
interesting monuments marking such historic spots as the site of Fort
Bonneville, founded in 1832; the location of the fur trappers'
rendezvous of 1824; the grave of John Hoback, guide to the early
expedition known as "the Astorians"; and similar interesting places. At
a point called "Names Hill", between Kemmerer and Tulsa, Wyo., can be
seen names and dates as old as the 1820's carved in sandstone by the
early trappers and travelers in this region.

The east approach, from the Black Hills, Casper, and points farther
east, crosses the Wind River Range into Jackson Hole over the
Continental Divide at Togwotee Pass, on United States Highway No. 287.
If so desired, in driving from Casper to Lander one can choose the
modern road which retraces part of the Oregon Trail, past such famous
landmarks on the old trail as Independence Rock, Devils Gate, Muddy Gap,
Whiskey Gap, and Split Rock. From Lander or Riverton a visit to the
Shoshone Indian Reservation can be made with little increase of mileage.
The approach to Togwotee Pass from either side is surprisingly fine, and
the view of the Tetons from points just west of this pass is one of the
finest obtainable. For boldness and jaggedness of skyline the Tetons
thus seen from a distance of 40 miles have no rival anywhere.



ACCOMMODATIONS AND EXPENSES


There are no hotels or lodges within the park, but these accommodations
are available nearby at Jackson and Moran at reasonable rates. Dude
ranches and cabin camps near the park also offer suitable accommodations
at reasonable rates. The National Park Service has no control over these
enterprises.


PUBLIC CAMPGROUNDS

There is a modern, well-developed campground at Jenny Lake. This camp is
supplied with running water, sanitary facilities, and cooking grates.
There are also many camping sites away from the main campground,
suitable for overnight stops for pack outfits. Supplies, including
fishing tackle, may be procured at Jenny Lake, Moose, Jackson, or Moran.


SADDLE HORSES

Grand Teton is primarily a saddle horse park. Access to the interior of
the park is possible only by trails, as no highways have been built or
are planned.

At the south end of Jenny Lake, near the ranger station, there is
maintained an excellent string of saddle and pack horses with good
equipment for short or long trips. One may rent saddle horses without
guides, but only to ride over well-defined trails in designated areas.
Discretion as to the ability of patrons to ride, or to go unguided,
rests with the operator. Saddle-horse trips to special points of
interest, such as Teton Glacier, are made daily at reasonable rates.
Pack trips to any part of the park or surrounding country, with guide,
cook, and complete camping equipment may be taken if arrangements are
made in advance.


BOATING

At the south end of Jenny Lake also, D. Kenneth Reimers maintains
motorboat and rowboat service. Four or more persons may make a trip
around Jenny Lake for 50 cents each. Rowboats may be rented for 50 cents
an hour or $2 a day. Motorboats, with a driver, are $2 an hour, $1.50
each additional hour, and $10 a day; without a driver, $1.50 an hour,
and $6 a day.


GUIDE SERVICE

The authorized official guide for mountain-climbing trips in Grand Teton
National Park is Paul Petzoldt. He maintains summer headquarters at
Jenny Lake, and charges $8 a day, a person, for his services. Climbers
may provide their own food or have their meals at $2 each at a timber
line camp. Blankets and eiderdown sleeping bags may be rented for $2.


PHOTOGRAPHS

The Crandall Studios maintain up-to-date picture shops at Jenny Lake and
Moran. Photographs of the Teton Mountains and the surrounding country in
all sizes and styles, as well as hand-painted enlargements, paintings,
moving pictures, and souvenir postcards, are on sale. Laboratories in
the park are maintained for developing, printing, and enlarging
photographs.

This booklet is issued once a year, and the rates mentioned herein may
have changed slightly since issuance, but the latest rates approved by
the Secretary of the Interior are on file with the superintendent and
the park operators.


MOTOR TRANSPORTATION

Regular bus service is maintained between Yellowstone and Moran Wyo.;
also from Moran to Victor, Idaho, via Grand Teton National Park. Inquire
at any concentration point about rates and schedules.



BIBLIOGRAPHY


GENERAL

ALBRIGHT, HORACE M., and TAYLOR, FRANK J. Oh, Ranger! A book about the
national parks. Illustrated.

BURT, STRUTHERS. Diary of a Dude Wrangler. Charles Scribner's Sons,
1924. 331 pages.

FRYXELL, FRITIOF. The Grand Tetons, Our National Park of Matterhorns.
American Forests and Forest Life, National Parks Number (August 1929).
Pages 453-456.

WISTER, OWEN. The Virginian. Macmillan Co., 1902. 506 pages. (The
setting for portions of this famous novel is taken from the
Teton-Jackson Hole region.)

YARD, ROBERT STERLING. The Book of our National Parks. Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1928. Illustrated. The Tetons on pages 227-228.


HISTORICAL

ALTER, J. CECIL. James Bridger. Shepard Book Co., Salt Lake City, 1925.

CHITTENDEN, BRIG. GEN. HIRAM MARTIN. The Yellowstone National Park.
Stanford University Press, 1933 (fourth edition). Illustrated. 286
pages. The standard history of the Yellowstone region. History of the
American Fur Trade of the Far West. 3 volumes. New York, 1902.

COUTANT, C. G. History of Wyoming. Volume 1. Laramie, Wyo., 1899. 712
pages. (This volume, the only one issued, contains scattered references
to the region.)

DALE, HARRISON C. The Ashley-Smith Explorations. Arthur H. Clark Co.,
Cleveland, 1918.

FRYXELL, FRITIOF. The Story of Deadman's Bar. Annals of Wyoming, volume
5 (June 1929). Pages 128-148.

IRVING, WASHINGTON:

     Astoria, or Anecdotes of an Enterprise Beyond the Rocky Mountains.
     New York, 1836. (This classic work contains the earliest known use
     of the name "Tetons.")

     Adventures of Captain Bonneville. New York, 1837. (An important
     early work containing many references to the region.)

JACKSON, WILLIAM H.:

     The Pioneer Photographer. World Book Co., 1929. The Tetons on pages
     123-141. 314 pages. (An account of the Hayden surveys in the Teton
     Region.)

     Address Regarding the First Photographing of the Tetons. Prepared
     for the Dedication of the Grand Teton National Park. Annals of
     Wyoming, volume 6 (July-October, 1929). Pages 189-191.

PARKER, REV. SAMUEL. Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky
Mountains Andrus, Woodruff, and Gauntlett, Ithaca, New York (4
editions), 1844.

STONE, ELIZABETH A. Uinta County, its Place in History.

VINTON, STALLO. John Colter, Discoverer of Yellowstone Park. Edward
Eberstadt, publisher, 1926. 114 pages. (Ch. 11, pp. 43-63, is a
discussion of the probable crossing of the Teton Range by John Colter in
1807.)


SCIENTIFIC

BRADLEY, FRANK H. (Geological.) Report of Snake River Division. In Sixth
Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories (Hayden
Surveys of 1872). Washington, 1873. Pages 217-223, 261-271.

BRANDEGEE, T. C. Teton Forest Reserve. In Nineteenth Annual Report, U.
S. Geological Survey (for 1898), part V, Washington, 1899. Pages
191-212.

CAREY, MERRITT. Life Zone Investigations in Wyoming. North American
Fauna No. 42, Biological Survey, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Washington, 1917. 95 pages.

FRYXELL, FRITIOF:

     Glacial Features of Jackson Hole, Wyo. Published by Augustana
     College, Rock Island, Ill., 1930. Illustrated. 128 pages.

     Glacial Studies in the Tetons. Journal of Geology, Vol. XLI (1930),
     pp. 642-646 and 737-747; Vol. XLIII (1935).

IDDINGS, J. P., and WEED, W. H. Descriptive Geology of the Northern End
of the Teton Range. Chapter IV (pp. 149-164) of Monograph XXXII, part
II, Geology of the Yellowstone National Park. U. S. Geological Survey,
Washington, 1899. 893 pages.

PREBLE, EDWARD A. Report on Condition of Elk in Jackson Hole, Wyo., in
1911. Bulletin No. 40, Biological Survey, U. S. Department of
Agriculture. Washington, 1911. 23 pages.

SHELDON, CHARLES. The Conservation of the Elk of Jackson Hole, Wyo. Elk
Commission Report. Washington, 1927. 36 pages.

ST. JOHN, ORESTES. Report of the Geological Field Work of the Teton
Division. In Eleventh Annual Report of the U. S. Geological Survey of
the Territories (Hayden Surveys of 1877). Washington, 1879. Pages
321-508.


MOUNTAINEERING

The mountaineering literature on the Teton Range is voluminous and only
a few references are cited here. For other articles see the files of
Trail and Timberline, Bulletin of the Sierra Club, Appalachia, American
Alpine Journal, Canadian Alpine Journal, etc.

ELLINGWOOD, A. R. Our American Matterhorn. Outdoor Life, volume 54
(1924). Pages 181-186.

FRYXELL, FRITIOF:

     The Teton Peaks and Their Ascents. Crandall Studios, Jenny Lake,
     Wyo., 1932. 106 pages. Illustrated (including map). (A history of
     mountaineering in the Tetons up to 1931, inclusive. Summarizes the
     known routes up each peak. Bibliography.)

     The Ascent of Mount Owen. American Alpine Journal, 1931, pages
     320-326.

HENDERSON, KENNETH A. The Grand Teton. American Alpine Journal, 1930.
Pages 138-139.

OWEN, WILLIAM O. Ascent of the Grand Teton. Outing, volume 38 (1901).
Pages 302-307.

UNDERHILL, ROBERT L. M.:

     The Grand Teton by the East Ridge. The Alpine Journal (London),
     November 1930. Pages 267-277.

     Two New Routes Up the Grand Teton. The Canadian Alpine Journal,
     1931. Pages 72-86.



GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS


=_Motorist Guide Map of Yellowstone National Park._= Shows roads,
campgrounds, lodges, and hotels, and gives condensed information about
Yellowstone National Park. Distributed in the park only. Free.

=_Recreational Map._= Shows Federal and State recreational areas
throughout the United States and gives brief descriptions of principal
ones. Address Director, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. Free.

=_Glimpses of Our National Parks._= Brief descriptions of the national
parks. Address Director, National Park Service, Washington, D. C. Free.

=_National Parks Portfolio._= By Robert Sterling Yard. Cloth bound and
illustrated with more than 300 pictures of places of outstanding scenic
interest. Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. $1.50.

=_Fauna of the National Parks, Series No. 1._= By G. M. Wright, J. S.
Dixon, and B. H. Thompson. A survey of wildlife with recommendations for
adequate protection. 157 pages, illustrated. Superintendent of
Documents, Washington, D. C. Price, 20 cents.

=_Fauna of the National Parks, Series No. 2._= By G. M. Wright and B. H.
Thompson. Wildlife management in the national parks. 142 pages,
illustrated. Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 20 cents.

Illustrated booklets about the following national parks may be obtained
free of charge by writing to the National Park Service:

Acadia, Maine.
Carlsbad Caverns, N. Mex.
Crater Lake, Oreg.
General Grant, Calif.
Glacier, Mont.
Grand Canyon, Ariz.
Great Smoky Mts., N. C.-Tenn.
Hawaii, Hawaii.
Hot Springs, Ark.
Lassen Volcanic, Calif.
Mesa Verde, Colo.
Mount McKinley, Alaska.
Mount Rainier, Wash.
National Capital Parks, Washington, D. C.
Platt, Okla.
Rocky Mountain, Colo.
Sequoia, Calif.
Wind Cave, S. Dak.
Yellowstone, Wyo.-Mont.-Idaho.
Yosemite, Calif.
Zion and Bryce Canyon, Utah.

[Illustration: AREAS ADMINISTERED BY THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE]


       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber's Notes

Words surrounded with _underscores_ are originally in italics.

Words surrounded with =equal signs= are originally in bold.

Words surrounded with =_both symbols_= are originally in bold italics.

DO YOU KNOW YOUR NATIONAL PARKS: changed stalacites to stalactites.
    (WIND CAVE, S. DAK.--Beautiful cavern.... No stalacites....)

Page 15: Changed climed to climbed.
    (... 30 to 40 parties have climed the peak each summer.)

Page 25: Changed magnificient to magnificent.
    (and afford magnificient distant views of the Teton Range.)





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