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Title: Musical Myths and Facts, Volume II (of 2)
Author: Engel, Carl
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Libraries.) Music transcribed by Veronika Redfern.



     MUSICAL
     MYTHS AND FACTS

     BY

     CARL ENGEL.

     IN TWO VOLUMES.--VOL. II.

     LONDON:
     NOVELLO, EWER & CO.,
     1, BERNERS STREET (W.), AND 80 & 81, QUEEN STREET, CHEAPSIDE (E. C.)
     NEW YORK: J. L. PETERS, 843, BROADWAY.

     MDCCCLXXVI.

     [_All rights reserved._]



     NOVELLO, EWER AND CO.,
     TYPOGRAPHICAL MUSIC AND GENERAL PRINTERS,
     1, BERNERS STREET, LONDON.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II.


                                                            PAGE

     MATTHESON ON HANDEL                                       1

     DIABOLIC MUSIC                                           28

         The Awful Deception                                  28
         The Indefatigable Fiddler                            29
         The Effectual Expedient                              30
         The Old Chorale                                      31
         The Haunted Mansion                                  31
         The Mode Asbein                                      32
         Witches                                              33
         The Changeling                                       33
         The Vendish Sorcerer                                 36
         The Rat-Catcher of Hameln                            37
         The Exquisite Organ                                  39

     ROYAL MUSICIANS                                          41

     COMPOSERS AND PRACTICAL MEN                              56

     MUSIC AND MEDICINE                                       84

     POPULAR STORIES WITH MUSICAL TRADITIONS                 114

         The Royal Music-Master                              115
         The Handsome Minstrel                               115
         The Daisy Lady                                      116
         The Invisible Flute-Player                          118
         The Banished Musician                               119
         The Walriderske                                     120
         The Jew in the Thicket                              122
         The Pope's Wife                                     126
         The Two Hunchbacks                                  128
         The Parson's Advice                                 132
         Relics of the Goblins                               133
         The Golden Harvest                                  135
         Gipsies                                             137
         The Nautch-People                                   139
         The Monk of Afflighem                               141
         The Plague in Goldberg                              142
         Fictions and Facts                                  145

     DRAMATIC MUSIC OF UNCIVILIZED RACES                     147

     A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC                  171

     CHRONOLOGY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC                      179

     THE MUSICAL SCALES IN USE AT THE PRESENT DAY            228



[Illustration]

MATTHESON ON HANDEL.


The biographical notices of Handel's youth transmitted to us are but
scanty and unsatisfactory. The same might, however, be said of most of
our celebrated musicians, and the cause of the meagreness is, as we have
seen in another place, easily explicable.[1] Of Handel's musical
pursuits before his arrival in Hamburg, at the age of eighteen, we know
scarcely more than that he was a pupil of Zachau, an organist at Halle,
where Handel was born; that, as a boy, he paid a short visit to Berlin,
where his talent attracted some attention; and that subsequently he
studied Law, at the University of Halle. The latter fact indicates that
the choice of music as a profession was not hastily determined in his
childhood; and this surmise accords with the stated reluctance of his
father, a medical practitioner in Halle, to have his son brought up as a
musician.

Arrived in Hamburg, in the year 1703, Handel soon made the acquaintance
of Mattheson, an intelligent and industrious young musician, who was
competent to appreciate the genius of Handel, and faithfully to record
the progress of the promising youth during his sojourn in Hamburg, which
lasted about three years. Mattheson was four years older than Handel,--a
difference which, between two lads of twenty-two and eighteen, is not
without some weight in their mutual intercourse, especially if the elder
is already enjoying a certain success, while the younger is a new comer,
intent upon gaining a footing. Mattheson's observations about Handel,
although occasionally tinged with jealousy of his talented brother
artist, are therefore particularly noteworthy in the biography of the
great composer.

Johann Mattheson, born in Hamburg, in the year 1681, was at the time of
Handel's arrival tenor singer and musical composer at the theatre of the
town, and teacher of singing, the harpsichord, and thorough-bass. When,
in the year 1705, an increasing deafness compelled him to relinquish his
engagement as singer and actor in operas at the theatre, his
accomplishments, combined with commendable habits of industry and
punctuality, induced the British Ambassador at Hamburg to engage him as
tutor for his son, and afterwards to appoint him his secretary. During
an active life of unusual duration,--he died in the year 1764, at the
age of 83,--Mattheson published a great number of treatises on musical
subjects, some of which still possess value as books of reference. His
vanity, not unfrequently exhibited in his writings, may in some measure
have been nourished by his many flatterers among his musical
contemporaries, who evidently feared his sarcastic pen all the more
because they did not possess the literary ability to engage successfully
in a controversy with him when they disagreed with his opinion.

As regards the musical compositions of Mattheson, we know from his own
statement, in his autobiography, that his operas were greatly admired by
the public; but this favourable opinion is hardly supported by such of
his compositions as have appeared in print. A collection of twelve
Suites for the harpsichord, the manuscript of which he sent to England,
where it was published in two volumes, in the year 1714, bears the
title:--'Pièces de Clavecin, en deux Volumes, consistant des Ouvertures,
Preludes, Fugues, Allemandes, Courentes, Sarabandes, Gigues et Aires,
composées par J. Mattheson, Secr.--London, printed for J. D. Fletcher.'
The work is prefaced by an address to the musical public, written by the
editor, J. D. Fletcher, in which he says:--"Britain may now hope to
return those arts with interest, which she borrowed from other nations;
and foreigners in time may learn of those whom their forefathers
taught.... As the harpsichord is an instrument yet capable of greater
improvement, so the following pieces claim a precedence of all others of
this nature; not only that they are composed by one of the greatest
masters of the age, in a taste altogether pleasing and sublime; but, as
they are peculiarly adapted to that instrument, and engraven with an
exactness that cannot be equall'd by any of their nature yet extant."
Sir John Hawkins, who probably had not seen these Suites, relates:
"Mattheson had sent over to England, in order to their being published
here, two collections of lessons for the harpsichord, and they were
accordingly engraved on copper, and printed for Richard Meares in St.
Paul's Church-yard, and published in the year 1714. Handel was at that
time in London, and in the afternoon was used to frequent St. Paul's
Church for the sake of hearing the service, and of playing on the organ
after it was over; from whence he and some gentlemen of the choir would
frequently adjourn to the Queen's Arms tavern in St. Paul's Church-yard,
where was a harpsichord. It happened one afternoon, when they were thus
met together, Mr. Weely, a gentleman of the choir, came in and informed
them that Mr. Mattheson's lessons were then to be had at Mr. Meares'
shop; upon which Mr. Handel ordered them immediately to be sent for, and
upon their being brought, played them all over without rising from the
instrument." Still more odd appears Hawkins' statement that Handel
"approved so highly of the compositions of Mattheson, particularly his
lessons, that he was used to play them for his private amusement."[2]

If Handel really could amuse himself by playing these lessons, which are
in no respect superior to the usual productions of the mediocre
musicians of his time, it probably was only from feelings of curiosity
and kindness towards a former friend. Mattheson composed a great deal,
and made at last even his own Funeral Anthem, which after his death was
performed to his honour, and which, if report speaks correctly, sounded
truly miserable; and this may well be believed, considering that when
he composed the music Mattheson had been deaf for nearly thirty years.
Still, though he was but a poor composer, he possessed ample musical
knowledge and practical skill to enable him to judge the works of his
superior contemporaries. His jealous disposition, however, sometimes
prevented him from forming a just opinion. His disparaging critique of
an early work of Handel, in his 'Critica Musica,' Hamburg, 1725, at a
time when Handel had become a resident in London, was evidently
influenced by jealousy, and the same is more or less observable in his
other writings. Nevertheless, he took every opportunity to keep up a
correspondence with Handel, and to boast of his former familiarity with
the celebrated man. Mattheson, having solicited Handel's opinion upon a
certain theoretical question on which he was in dispute with some German
musicians, and having also expressed the hope that Handel might favour
him with some biographical notices, Handel, at the conclusion of his
letter in reply, excuses himself for not complying with the second point
in question:--

     "Pour ce qui est du second point, vous pouvez juger vous même qu'il
     demande beaucoup de recueillement, dont je ne suis pas le maître
     parmi les occupations pressantes, que j'ai par devers moi. Dès que
     j'en ferai un peu debarassé, je repasserai les Epoques principales
     que j'ai eues dans le cours de ma Profession, pour vous faire voir
     l'estime et la consideration particulière avec laquelle j'ai
     l'honneur d'être,

                             Monsieur,
                                   Votre très humble et très
                                            Obeissant Serviteur,
                                                         G. F. HANDEL.

     A Londres, Fevr. 24, 1719."

In the year 1740, Mattheson published his _Grundlage einer Ehrenpforte_
('Foundation of a Triumphal Arch'), which contains a series of
biographies of the celebrated musicians of his time,--Mattheson's
included. During the preparation of this work, he addressed another
request to Handel to supply him with materials for a correct biography.
He also dedicated twelve fugues of his own composition to Handel, of
which he sent him a copy to ensure prompt attention. Handel's reply was
again evasive:--

                                    "A Londres ce 29 de Juillet, 1735.

     Monsieur,

     Il y a quelque tems que j'ai reçu une de vos obligeantes lettres;
     mais à présent je vien de recevoir votre dernière avec votre ouvrage.
     Je vous en remercie, Monsieur, et je vous assure que j'ai toute
     l'estime pour votre mérite, je souhaiterois seulement que mes
     circonstances m'étaient plus favorables pour vous donner des marques
     de mon inclination à vous servir. L'ouvrage est digne de l'attention
     des connoisseurs, et quand à moi, je vous rends justice.

     Au reste, pour rammasser quelque époque, il m'est impossible
     puisqu'une continuelle application au service de cette cour et
     noblesse me détourne de toute autre affaire.

                  Je suis, avec une considération très parfaite, etc."

Handel was at this period in circumstances by no means flourishing, his
operatic enterprises having failed. Mattheson's request came therefore
at a very inopportune time, since it would have been only painful to
Handel to occupy his mind with recollections of events of his earlier
life, and with the record of expectations which he now found were not to
be realized.

It is singular that almost all Handel's letters to Germans which have
been preserved, including those to his brother-in-law in Halle, are
written in French. Besides, they are so extremely formal and
ceremonious, even those to his nearest relations! This may be in great
measure accounted for by the usages of his time, and by the circumstance
of his coming frequently into contact with persons of a higher position
in society than himself. But, however reserved he may appear in his
letters, evidences are not wanting testifying to his kindheartedness and
generosity.

When Mattheson found that it was useless to endeavour to elicit
information direct from Handel for his 'Ehrenpforte,' he compiled a
biography interspersed with recollections of their mutual experiences
during the years of their intercourse in Hamburg. The following extracts
from Mattheson's gossip are translated as literally as possible:--

"In the summer of the year 1703 he came to Hamburg, rich in abilities
and good intentions. I was almost the first acquaintance he made, and I
took him to the organs and choirs of the town, and to operas and
concerts. I also introduced him to a certain family where all were
extremely devoted to music."

In another place Mattheson records that he made Handel's acquaintance
accidentally at the organ of the church of St. Mary Magdalen, and that
he took him at once with him to his father's house, and paid him every
possible attention. Mattheson further relates:--

"At first he played the second violin in the orchestra of the opera, and
seemed as if he could not count above five; in fact, he was naturally
much inclined to dry humour. But, one day, when a harpsichord player was
wanted, he allowed himself to be persuaded to take his place, and showed
himself a man, when no one but I expected it. I am sure if he reads this
he will laugh in his sleeve, for outwardly he seldom laughs. Especially
will he laugh if he recollects the pigeon-dealer who once travelled post
with us to Lübeck; likewise, the son of the pastry-cook who had to blow
the bellows while we were playing the organ in the church of St. Mary
Magdalen of this place. This was on the thirtieth of July, 1703, after
our having been out on the water on the fifteenth."

"He composed at that time very long, long airs, and almost endless
cantatas, which, although the harmonious treatment was perfect,
nevertheless had not the requisite fitness; nor did they exhibit the
proper taste. However, the high school of the opera soon put him on the
right track."

"He was great upon the organ, greater than Kuhnau in fugues and
counterpoint, especially in extemporizing. However, he knew but very
little of melody before he had to do with the operas in Hamburg. On the
other hand, Kuhnau's pieces were all exceedingly melodious, and suited
for the voice, even those arranged for playing. In the preceding century
scarcely any one thought of melody; all aimed merely at harmony."

"At that time he dined almost daily by invitation with my father, and in
return opened to me some particular manoeuvres in counter point. On
the other hand, in dramatic style I have been of no little service to
him; so that one hand washed the other."

"On the seventeenth of August, in the year 1703, we travelled together
to Lübeck, and in the carriage composed many double-fugues, _da mente
non da penna_. I had been invited there by the President of the Privy
Council, Magnus von Wedderkopp, in order to choose a successor for the
excellent organist, Dieterich Buxtehude. I took Handel there with me. We
tried almost all the organs and harpsichords in Lübeck; and, with regard
to our playing, we arranged between ourselves that he should play
exclusively on the organ, and I on the harpsichord. We also heard with
due attention the above-mentioned artist in his St. Mary's Church. But
when we found that a certain marriage, for which neither of us had the
slightest inclination, was a stipulated condition with the appointment,
[the successful candidate had to marry the daughter of Buxtehude] we
departed thence, after having received much honour, and having enjoyed
many entertainments. Johann Christian Schieferdecker subsequently
accommodated himself to the requirements, conducted the bride home, and
obtained the fine appointment."

"In the year 1704, when I was in Holland, intending to proceed to
England, I received in Amsterdam, on the twenty-first of March, a letter
from Handel in Hamburg, so obliging and pressing, that it at once
induced me to return home. The letter, which is dated March 18th, 1704,
contains, among others, these expressions:--

'I much desire your highly agreeable conversation, the privation of
which will soon be repaired, as the time approaches in which it will be
impossible to undertake anything in the way of operas without your
presence. I therefore pray you obediently to inform me of your
departure, that I may have the opportunity of showing my obligation by
meeting you with Miss Sbülens,' etc., etc."

These extracts from Mattheson's 'Ehrenpforte' are quoted here because
they throw light upon some occurrences alluded to in the remarks with
which Mattheson has interspersed his German translation of Mainwaring's
'Memoirs of the Life of the late George Frederick Handel; to which is
added a Catalogue of his works, and observations upon them; London,
1760.'

Mainwaring was a young clergyman, whose admiration of Handel induced him
to collect as much material for the compilation of a biography as he was
able to obtain. His work, published anonymously a year after Handel's
death, much as it has been disparaged on account of its chronological
inaccuracies and its want of musical erudition, is certainly valuable as
containing the fullest account of Handel's life in England written by a
contemporary of the great musician. Mattheson's German translation, with
annotations, is entitled _Georg Friderich Händel's Lebensbeschreibung,
nebst einem Verzeichnisse seiner Ausübungswerke und deren Beurtheilung;
übersetzt, auch mit einigen Anmerkungen, absonderlich über den
hamburgischen Artikel, versehen von Legations-Rath Mattheson. Hamburg.
Auf Kosten des Uebersetzers_, 1761. ('George Frederick Handel's
Biography, with a list of his Compositions, and a critical examination
of them; translated, and annotated with some remarks, especially upon
the part relating to Hamburg, by Mattheson, Councillor of Legation.
Hamburg. Published at the expense of the translator, 1761.') The book is
now scarce. Victor Schoelcher, in his 'Life of Handel,' London, 1857,
notices it only with the remark: "My endeavours have hitherto been in
vain to obtain a copy of this in Germany, and it is not to be found in
the British Museum." At any rate, it is not likely to be known to many
English musicians. A translation of Mattheson's annotations is therefore
offered here.

As regards the Introduction with which Mattheson has prefaced his
translation, it is so diffuse, and contains so little about Handel, that
few musicians now would care to read it entirely. It is headed by a
quotation in English, from the _Tatler_ (No. 92):--"_Panegyricks are
frequently ridiculous, let them be addressed where they will._"

Mattheson aims more at impressing the reader with his own merits than
with those of Handel. He says, for instance: "In describing an artist's
life, it is not sufficient to represent the man only as an artist; the
artist must rather be considered also as a man; for thus only can his
merits be properly understood. However, no one is able to know or to do
everything in his vocation. Thus, in music, one performer excels on the
organ-pedals, while another surpasses him on the harpsichord. The first
may be called coarse; the second, delicate. The first may be only
appreciated by connoisseurs; the second, by everyone. A company of
artists--if any such exists--is like a bunch of different keys. No one
of these is to be extolled before the other but only in so far as it
opens an important lock which encloses a treasure. One musician is not
only a player, but also a singer; another never opens his mouth to
sing--nay, not even to laugh. The former, besides being able to compose,
to sing, to play, and to dance, acts a principal character on the stage;
the latter, with his quantity of musical scores, has taken care not to
appear upon the boards of the theatre. Indeed, he would have cut a funny
figure had he done so. Here, some one who occupies himself with music,
and also with various sciences, in a superior manner, works at the same
time for kings and princes; there some one employs his gifts principally
in the service and for the amusement of the subjects. From this it is
clear that each in his particular line may deserve honour and laudation;
not properly on account of his person, but on account of his
achievements.... No mere _Musicus practicus ecclesiastico-dramaticus_,
who took a high rank as a director of the orchestra, and a still higher
rank as an organist, but who was neither a singer nor an actor, and
least of all a mathematician--has ever, before Handel, attained to this,
that without his help a special book of a considerable size on his life
has been written, and supplied with instructive observations--still
more, that his biography has been translated into another language by a
brother-artist by no means of the common class. Competing successors do
not feel hurt by these stimulating spurs!"

In order to render the following annotations by Mattheson properly
intelligible, the statements of Mainwaring to which they refer are
inserted with them. The latter are copied exactly as they were
originally written; while Mattheson's annotations are translated from
the German.

_Mainwaring_ (P. 1). "George Frederick Handel was born at Hall,[3] a
city in the circle of Upper-Saxony, the 24th February, 1684,[4] by a
second wife of his father, who was an eminent surgeon and physician of
the same place, and above sixty when his son was born."

_Mattheson._ "The author is wrong in calling Halle a town of
Upper-Saxony. It lies in the Dukedom of Magdeburg, which belongs to
Lower-Saxony. Handel was, therefore, no Upper-Saxon, but rather a
Lower-Saxon."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 6). "It may not be unpleasant to the reader just now to
remind him of the minute and surprising resemblance between the early
periods of Handel's life and some which are recorded in that of the
celebrated M. Pascal, written by his sister. Nothing could equal the
bias of the one to Mathematics but the bias of the other to Music; both
in their very childhood out-did the efforts of maturer age; they pursued
their respective studies not only without any assistance, but against
the consent of their parents, and in spite of all the opposition they
contrived to give them."

_Mattheson._ "Almost the same was the case with Tycho Brahe, and with
the translator of this biography, each in his vocation."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 15). "Zackaw [Zachau] was proud of a pupil who already
began to attract the attention of all persons who lived near Hall
[Halle], or resorted thither from distant quarters. And he was glad of
an assistant who, by his uncommon talents, was capable of supplying his
place whenever he had an inclination to be absent, as he often was, from
his love of company and a cheerful glass."

_Mattheson._ "Could not the life of Handel have been written without
aspersing the brave tone-artist Zachau forty years after his death on
account of a glass of wine?"

_Mainwaring_ (P. 15). "It may seem strange to talk of an assistant of
seven years of age, for he could not be more, if indeed he was quite so
much, when first he was committed to the care of this person."

_Mattheson._ "The author appears to have not the least scruple in
committing the most palpable anachronism by making his hero the younger
the taller he grows. This will presently appear evident."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 16). "We have already hinted at some striking
coincidences of life and character which are found in him and the famous
Pascal. In this place we may just observe that the latter at the age of
twelve compos'd a treatise on the propagation of sounds, and at sixteen
another upon conic sections."

_Mattheson._ "But it must be remembered that afterwards he entirely gave
up mathematics. _See_ Bayle."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 18). "It was in the year 1698 that he went to Berlin.
The opera there was in a flourishing condition under the direction of
the King of Prussia (grandfather of the present), who, by the
encouragement which he gave to singers and composers, drew thither some
of the most eminent from Italy and other parts."

_Mattheson._ "Anno 1698 there was no King in Prussia; the first dated
from 1701. Handel has, therefore, seen no king in Berlin. That the
author is as bad a genealogist and politician as he is a chronologist,
is proved by his mistaking the grandfather of the present king for the
father, and by his always mentioning the then reigning Elector as the
King."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 20). "Attilio's fondness for Handel commenced at his
first coming to Berlin, and continued to the time of his leaving it. He
would often take him on his knee, and make him play on his harpsichord
for an hour together, equally pleased and surprised with the
extraordinary proficiency of so young a person; for at this time he
could not exceed thirteen, as may easily be seen by comparing dates."

_Mattheson._ "He was born anno 1684.[5] He arrived in Berlin anno 1698.
Even if the various occurrences with Buononcini and Attilio, with the
Elector and his court, took only a few hours--nay, even if they are not
taken into account at all, there are still at least fourteen years. One
should think that he was much above seven years when Ariosti (Attilio)
took him on his lap."[6]

_Mainwaring_ (P. 31). "Before we advance any farther in his history, it
is necessary some account should be given of the opera at Hamburg, as
well as some character of the composer and singers. The principal
singers were Conratini and Mathyson. The latter was secretary to Sir
Cyril Wych, who was resident for the English court, had Handel for his
music-master, and was himself a fine player on the harpsichord. Mathyson
was no great singer, for which reason he sung only occasionally; but he
was a good actor, a good composer of lessons, and a good player on the
harpsichord. He wrote and translated several treatises. One that he
wrote was on composition. He had thoughts of writing the life of Handel
many years before his death. Had he pursued this design, he would have
had advantages beyond what we can pretend to, _i. e._, ampler and
fresher materials; at least, for so much of the life as had then
elapsed. All that is here intended, is to give a plain, artless account
of such particulars as we have been able to learn, and such only as we
have reason to believe authentic."

_Mattheson._ "This whole story, with everything subsequently recorded
about the operas in Hamburg, is so full of errors that one can scarcely
rectify them. The Conradin (not Conratini) possessed almost perfect
beauty, and had withal an extraordinary splendid voice, which extended
in equal power from [Music: 'A' below the treble staff] to [Music: 'D'
above the treble staff]. This gave her claim to be the principal singer.
Mattheson (not Mathyson) instructed her for several years; _i. e._, he
sung everything to her daily until she could retain it in her memory. At
that time no gentleman was called a great singer unless he had a soprano
voice, and such a gentleman we did not possess. An inferior teacher
would certainly have been of no use to the Conradin. It is ridiculous to
say of Mattheson that he sang only occasionally, considering that he was
fifteen years at the theatre, that he acted almost always the principal
character, exciting his audience by means of his unaffected singing as
well as by his mimic art, which is of the utmost importance in opera,
sometimes fear and terror, sometimes tears, sometimes merriment and
delight. On the 9th of June, 1703, he made Handel's acquaintance at an
organ, when Handel was 19-1/4 years old, and Mattheson 21-3/4, so that
the difference in age amounted only to two years and a half.[7] On the
17th of August, in the same year, they travelled together to Lübeck, and
played in that town, as well as in Hamburg, on the organ and
harpsichord, so to say in emulation, in which Handel proved himself the
most successful on the former instrument, but acknowledged himself
obliged to yield the palm to his rival on the latter instrument; so that
they made a compact together never to encroach upon each other's ground.
This they have also faithfully kept during five or six years. On the
20th of October, Mattheson brought out his fifth, or sixth opera, called
Cleopatra, on which occasion Handel played the harpsichord under the
direction of the former. Soon afterwards, on the 7th of November in the
same year, Sir John Wich,[8] Knight, Royal Ambassador of Great Britain,
engaged Mattheson as teacher and tutor for his son Cyril Wich, nine
years old; and soon afterwards he made him his Secretary, with a salary
of three hundred Reichsthaler, and two hundred _ditto_ perquisites _per
annum_. This gave occasion for jealous looks, especially as he now bid
farewell to the theatre. Thus, after a secure foundation had been laid,
the progress was very perceptible. True, the young master Wich had
already had a few very unimportant lessons from Handel; they did not
give satisfaction; the tutor was therefore appealed to, and under his
guidance the young gentleman attained, in the course of time, a high
degree of perfection. He succeeded his father, after the death of the
latter, and obtained in 1729 the hereditary dignity of a Baronet.
Mattheson always remained in royal service, was twelve or thirteen times
'Chargé des Affaires,' was employed on important missions, etc.,--as has
already been circumstantially recorded in the 'Ehrenpforte,' published
in 1740. At last, after the lapse of fifty years, the highly-meritorious
Baronet departed to a better world on the 18th of August, when he had
just returned from an embassy to Russia. If the author of the present
biography had consulted Mattheson's books, especially the
above-mentioned 'Ehrenpforte,' and the 'Critica Musica,' which are
_publici juris_, he would not have been devoid of authentic materials.
Under those favourable conditions the though not _great_ yet formerly
_principal_ singer and actor composed, notwithstanding all diplomatic
and pressing dispatches in the whole district of Lower-Saxony, not only
a great number of sacred pieces for the Church, but oratorios, operas,
and music for the harpsichord and other instruments, which cannot be
unknown in England. Besides he was occupied as Kapellmeister of the Duke
of Holstein, as Canonicus et Cantor Cathedralis Hamburgensis, and as
director of several grand concerts; he wrote not _one_, but _eighty-six_
books, most of which treat profoundly of the theory of music and the art
of singing. Furthermore, when the St. Michael's Church was burnt down,
he contributed some forty thousand marks for a new organ, paid the money
in advance, and intends to do more _per codicillum_ in different ways.
His life, led in the fear of God, extends now to the eightieth year, in
cheerfulness and useful works. For the sake of truth this is here
inserted."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 32). "Conratini excelled greatly, both as an actress
and as a singer. Keysar[9] did the same as a composer; but, being a man
of gaiety and expence, involved himself in debts, which forced him to
abscond. His operas for some time continued to be performed during his
absence. On his disappearing, the person who before had played the
second harpsichord demanded the first. This occasioned a dispute between
him and Handel, the particulars of which, partly for the sake of their
singularity, and partly on account of their importance, may deserve to
be mentioned. On what reasons Handel grounded his claim to the first
harpsichord I do not understand. He had played a violin in the
orchestra, he had a good command on this instrument, and was known to
have a better on the other. But the older candidate[10] was not unfit
for the office, and insisted on the right of succession. Handel seemed
to have no plea but that of natural superiority, of which he was
conscious, and from which he would not recede. This dispute occasioned
parties in the Opera-house. On the one side it was said, with great
appearance of reason, that to set such a boy as Handel over a person so
much his senior, was both unjust and unprecedented. On the other, it was
urged with some plausibility, that the opera was not to be ruined for
punctilios; that it was easy to foresee, from the difficulties Keysar
was under, that a composer would soon be wanted, but not so easy to find
a person capable of succeeding him, unless it were Handel. In short,
matters, they said, were now at that pass that the question, if fairly
stated, was not who should conduct the opera, but whether there should
be any opera at all. These arguments prevailed; and he to whom the first
place seemed of course to be due, was constrained to yield it to his
stripling competitor. But, how much he felt the indignity may be guessed
from the nature and degree of his resentment, more suited to the
glowing temper of an Italian, than to the phlegmatic constitution of a
German."

_Mattheson._ "He calls the Germans phlegmatic, and a _querelle
allemande_ does not occur to him."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 35). "For, determined to make Handel pay dear for his
priority, he stifled his rage for the present, only to wait an
opportunity to give it full vent. As they were coming out of the
orchestra, he made a push at him with a sword, which, being aimed full
at his heart, would for ever have removed him from the office he had
usurped, but for the friendly _Score_ which he accidentally carried in
his bosom; and through which to have forced it, would have demanded all
the might of Ajax himself. Had this happened in the early ages, not a
mortal but would have been persuaded that Apollo himself had interposed
to preserve him, in the form of a music-book. From the circumstances
which are related of this affair, it has more the appearance of an
assassination than of a rencounter; if the latter, one of Handel's years
might well be wanting the courage, or the skill, to defend himself; if
the former, supposing him capable of making a defence, he could not be
prepared for it. How many great men, in the very dawning of their glory
have been planted, like him, on the very verge of destruction! as if
Fortune, jealous of Nature, made a show of sacrificing her noblest
productions only to remind her of that supremacy to which she aspires.
Whatever might be the merits of the quarrel at first,"----

_Mattheson._ "Here I must again interrupt the subtle reasoner, in order
to show him his confusion, which is even greater and ruder than the
preceding one, since that contained only above a dozen falsehoods, while
we have here double the number. The cause of the quarrel was, indeed,
quite different from what is here related. It was already mentioned long
since, with all possible modesty, in the 'Ehrenpforte,' p. 94 and 193;
but there was then no occasion, as there is now, to remind the reader
that a cool box on the ear is no assassination, but rather a necessary
warning to prepare for defence. This settles the first statement. The
incorrectly-informed author relates a fable rather than a true event.
Never, so long as can be remembered, have two harpsichords been played
together in the orchestra of the opera in Hamburg at the same time; and
as there has always been but one, a dispute about it, as narrated, could
not possibly have occurred. Now, as to this dispute is attributed the
origin of the fight, the remainder of the invention falls with it to the
ground. There we have the second blunder. Subsequently erroneous
statements are so frequent that it is scarcely possible to count them.
Handel, in the beginning, played only the second violin in the
orchestra; and he was, as may easily be conceived, not a more
accomplished performer on that instrument than any other member of the
orchestra. There we have the third falsehood, which is besides a
boasting untruth. The fray occurred on the 5th of December, 1704.
Handel, whom the biographer insists, as much as is in his power, on
making younger the older he grows, was nearly twenty-one years of
age,[11] tall, strong, broad, and vigorous in body; he was,
consequently, man enough to defend himself, and to make use of the sword
which he had hanging at his side. That is the fourth point, and a strong
one too, which a writer very sensitive of his reputation should
especially bear in mind when he, instead of recording real facts,
indulges in high-flown laudations, and occasions the translator much
unnecessary trouble."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 37). "Whatever might be the merits of the quarrel at
first, Handel seemed now to have purchased his title to precedence by
the dangers he had incurred to support it. What he and his friends
expected, soon happened. From conducting the performance, he became
composer of the opera. Keiser, from his unhappy situation, could no
longer supply the manager, who therefore applied to Handel, and
furnished him with a drama to set. The name of it was Almira, and this
was the first opera which he made. The success of it was so great that
it ran for thirty nights without interruption. He was at this time not
much above fourteen; before he was fifteen he made a second, entitled
Florinda; and soon after, a third, called Nerone; which were heard with
the same applause."

_Mattheson._ "The fifth brag, as to a certain opera having been
performed in Hamburg, with every advantage and good result, thirty times
without intermission, is surely not worth mentioning. The sixth,
however, is even still finer. Let us just analyze it a little. 'Almira'
was performed the first time on the 8th of January, anno 1705. Now, our
chronologist counts from the 24th of February, 1684, when Handel was
born, until the 8th of January, 1705, as a little more than fourteen
years, while the period really is nearly twenty-one years.[12] But he is
not particular about seven years. A fine arithmetician, to be sure!
Mistake No. 7. 'Nero' was not the third of Handel's operas, as our
author erroneously states (mistake No. 8), but the second; and it was
performed for the first time on the 25th of February, in 1705. Thus,
there were only forty-eight days between the two performances; at the
utmost, seven weeks. In the seven weeks there were seven Sundays, seven
Saturdays, fourteen post-days, not to count the St. Mary-days and the
holydays. How is it then possible that the 'Almira' could have been
represented thirty times without interruption? Whoever believes only
half of what this historicus here writes, believes too much. That was
mistake No. 9. The tenth concerns the Florindo as a man, not the
Florinda as a female. Handel's opera called 'Florindo' was not his
second, but his third; and it was performed in 1708, three years after
'Nero.' Meanwhile, Keiser had not only composed a new 'Almira,' as well
as the operas 'Octavia,' 'Lucretia,' 'Fedelta coronata,' 'Masagnello
furioso,' 'Sueno,' 'Genio di Holsatia,' 'Carnival of Venice;' but also
Schieferdecker had brought out his 'Justin'; Grünwald, his 'Germanicum;'
and Graupner his 'Dido.' In the year 1708, Handel produced another
opera, called 'Daphne,' which was the fourth of those he wrote for
Hamburg, and which appears to be unknown to his biographer, as he omits
it entirely. Has the man not had trustworthy sources for
information?[13] Howbeit, the dozen mistakes is complete, and we merely
remark in addition, that in 1708 Handel was not 15 years of age, but
quite 24. This _error calculi_ may be regarded as a master stroke. Did
we not know with certainty that George Frederick Handel died anno 1759,
on the fourteenth of April, at the age of 76,[14] and we had to rely
upon this blundering prosaic Homer for information respecting our
musical Achilles, he would have remained constantly fifteen years,
perhaps even _imberbis_ until he came to the grave, and our barber in
Hamburg, who every alternate day attended him, during five or six years,
would have gained his money wrongfully. If an Englishman thinks that he
can entertain us with his dreams in his mixture-language, he must be
prepared for an answer from us in our heroic language. We understand him
well, and have learnt his tongue; if he does not understand us, he may
still learn this too.... Having observed Handel during his sojourn in
Hamburg, we leave the celebrated man to the Italians and the English;
but we do not believe that the moon is made of green cheese."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 42). "Four or five years had elapsed from the time of
his coming to Hamburg to that of his leaving it."

_Mattheson._ "Should say five or six."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 42). "Instead of being chargeable to his mother he
began to be serviceable to her before he was well settled in his new
situation. Though he had continued to send her remittances from time to
time, yet, clear of his own expenses, he had made up a purse of 200
ducats. On the strength of this fund he resolved to set out for Italy."

_Mattheson._ "Anno 1709 he was still in Hamburg, but did nothing.[15]
Then there occurred the opportunity of his travelling with Herr von
Binitz to Italy, free of expense; and in 1710 he had his 'Agrippina'
performed at Venice."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 44). "The very first answer of the fugue in the
overture for 'Mucius Scævola' [an opera by Handel] affords an instance
of this kind [viz., a musical licence]. Geminiani, the strictest
observer of rule, was so charmed with this direct transgression of it
that, on hearing its effect, he cried out _Quel semitono_ (meaning the
F-sharp) _vale un mondo_!"

_Mattheson._ "What does that prove? Nothing!"

_Mainwaring_ (P. 50). "At the age of eighteen he made [at Florence] the
opera of Rodrigo, for which he was presented with 100 sequins and a
service of plate."

_Mattheson._ "Actually an intentional miscalculation of eight years!"

_Mainwaring_ (P. 52). "In three weeks he finished [at Venice] his
'Agrippina,' which was performed twenty-seven nights successively."

_Mattheson._ "In the year 1709, at his departure from Hamburg, Handel
was 25 years old. He resided a year in Florence before he went to
Venice, where he had his 'Agrippina' performed at the theatre of St. Gio
Crisostomo, during the Carnival in 1710. Now, let him calculate who can,
and convince himself whether this makes, from February 24th, 1684,
eighteen years, as our biographer says, or whether it amounts to
twenty-six."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 74). "It was in the winter of the year 1710 when he
arrived at London."

_Mattheson._ "In this year he performed his 'Agrippina' at Venice, and
in 1709 he was still in Hamburg."[16]

_Mainwaring_ (P. 74). "During this period scarce a mail arrived from
Holland which did not bring some fresh accounts of victories or
advantages gained by the English hero [Marlborough] over the armies of a
monarch but lately the terror of Europe, though now the scorn of every
Dutch burgomaster."

_Mattheson._ "What a Frenchman may say to this is his own concern. In
Handel's biography it is lugged in; and such scurrilities reveal an
ignoble heart."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 88). "Our business is not to play the panegyrist but
the historian."

_Mattheson._ "If you know that, blessed are you if you act upon it."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 110). "Having one day some words with Cuzzoni on her
refusing to sing _Falsa imagine_ in 'Ottone': 'Oh! Madame,' Handel said,
'je scais bien que vous êtes une véritable diablesse; mais je vous ferai
scavoir, moi, que je suis Beelzebub, le _chef_ des diables!' With this
he took her up by the waist, and swore that if she made any more words
he would fling her out of the window. It is to be noted that this was
formerly one of the methods of executing criminals in some parts of
Germany, a process not unlike that of the Tarpeian rock, and probably
derived from it."

_Mattheson._ "This heroic deed was undoubtedly accomplished unawares.
Who could face such a woman with her claws? The Quixotic story with its
ingenious reference to the Tarpeian rock, and to criminal processes,
testify to the author's extensive reading in law and history. Whoever
can read it without a smile is commendable, especially if he is a
German, better informed and phlegmatic."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 115). "The little taste he [Handel] had already had of
adversity lessened that self-confidence which success is apt to inspire.
He found that it was not the necessary consequence of great abilities,
and that without prudence the greatest may be almost annihilated in the
opinions of men."

_Mattheson._ "To this the British proverb applies: 'Give a man luck and
throw him into the Thames.'"

_Mainwaring_ (P. 116). "He now removed to Covent-garden, and entered
into partnership with Rich, the master of that house. Hasse and Porpora
were the composers at the Haymarket. When the former was invited over,
it is remarkable that the first question he asked was whether Handel was
dead. Being answered in the negative he refused to come, from a
persuasion that where his countryman was--for they were both Saxons by
birth--no other person of the same profession was likely to make any
figure."

_Mattheson._ "This agrees with a remark of mine before made. Hasse was
born in Bergedorf, a small town belonging to Hamburg and Lübeck in
common; he is, therefore, a Lower-Saxon of the highest type.... However,
the reason why these two Saxons did not wish to encroach upon each
other's precincts was a very different one from that indicated by our
biographer."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 132). "Dublin has always been famous for the gaiety and
splendour of its court, the opulence and spirit of its principal
inhabitants, the valour of its military, and the genius of its learned
men. Where such things were held in esteem he [Handel] rightly reckoned
that he could not better pave the way to his success than by setting out
with a striking instance and public act of generosity and benevolence.
The first step that he made was to perform his Messiah for the benefit
of the city-prison."

_Mattheson._ "On a beau être généreux et liberal, quand il n'en coute
que des chansons, et que d'autres payent les violons; c'est en bon
allemand: _Mit der Wurst nach dem Schinken werfen_ ('To throw the
sausage at the ham')."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 135). "The Foundling Hospital [in London] originally
rested on the slender foundation of private benefactions. At a time when
this institution was yet in its infancy; when all men seemed to be
convinced of its utility; when nothing was at all problematical but the
possibility of supporting it;--Handel formed the noble resolution to
lend his assistance, and perform his Messiah annually for its benefit.
The sums raised by each performance were very considerable, and
certainly of great consequence in such a crisis of affairs. But, what
was of much greater, was the magic of his name and the universal
character of his sacred drama."

_Mattheson._ "Notes were his magic, or his black-art."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 137). "So that it may truly be affirmed that one of the
noblest and most extensive charities that ever was planned by the
wisdom, or projected by the piety of men, in some degree owes its
continuance as well as prosperity to the patronage of Handel."

_Mattheson._ "By this he was not out of pocket; it rather brought him
credit, which is better than money."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 138). "In the year 1751 a gutta serena deprived him of
his sight. This misfortune sunk him for a time into the deepest
despondency. He could not rest until he had undergone some operations as
fruitless as they were painful. Finding it no longer possible for him to
manage alone, he sent to Mr. Smith to desire that he should play for
him, and assist him in conducting the oratorios."

_Mattheson._ "He remained blind until his death,--a period of eight
years. Nothing is said here of a so-called monumental column, and of an
amazingly large property left by Handel, although it has been a subject
of much gossip."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 141). "His incessant and intense application to the
studies of his profession, rendered constant and large supplies of
nourishment the more necessary to recruit his exhausted spirits."

_Mattheson._ "J. Sirach, chap. xxxviii., v. 34; Phil., chap. iii., v.
19."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 142). "The design of the foregoing sheets is only to
give the reader those parts of his character as a Man, that any way tend
to open and explain his character as an Artist."

_Mattheson._ "If this were done, the arts and the manners would exhibit
not unfrequently striking contrasts."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 143). "The author has nothing to add but his sincere
wishes that every artist who is truly deserving in his profession may
meet with a person equally desirous of doing justice to his memory."

_Mattheson._ "This wish is as kind as it is reasonable. It proves the
belief of the author that there must be other people, unknown to him,
who, on account of their arts, deserve quite as much honour as Handel.
Alas! how much pains has the 'Great-Thorough-Bass School' taken to show
this, not to mention the 'Triumphal Arch.'[17] ... Bach, Fux, Graun,
Graupner, Grünewald, Heinichen, Keiser, etc., have died without
experiencing it; perhaps the same will happen with Hasse, and with
several others."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 149). "A great quantity of music, not mentioned in the
Catalogue, was made [by Handel] in Italy and Germany. How much of it is
yet in being, is not known. Two chests-full were left at Hamburg,
besides some at Hanover, and some at Halle."

_Mattheson._ "We Hamburgians have hitherto heard nothing of those two
chests. In Wich's music-book of the year 1704 are two minuets and half
an air, that is all."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 164). "The generality of mankind have not enough of
delicacy to be much affected with minute instances of beauty, but yet
are so formed as to be transported with every the least mark of grandeur
and sublimity."

_Mattheson._ "That is true."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 165). "The taste in music, both of the Germans and
Italians, is suited to the different characters of the two nations. That
of the first is rough and martial; and their music consists of strong
effects produced, without much delicacy, by the rattle of a number of
instruments."

_Mattheson._ "Surely this is not phlegmatic, as before said."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 174). "However well some of the Italians may have
succeeded in the management of the instrumental parts in their
song-music, there is one point in which Handel stands alone, and in
which he may possibly never be equalled; I mean in the instrumental
parts of his choruses and full church-music."

_Mattheson._ "This is true enough; but it was all derived from Zachau
and his organ-playing. Germany is the fatherland of all powerful
harmony, elaborate compositions for the organ, fugues and chorales, used
in Divine Service. Italy has melody for her daughter, with songstresses,
singers, and very delicate solo-players on violin-instruments to touch
the heart. France produces its magnificent choruses, instrumental
pieces, dance-music, to cheer the heart; and to England we leave the
honour of admiring and recompensing these rarities."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 179). "But how shall we excuse for those instances of
coarseness and indelicacy which occur so frequently in the airs of his
oratorios? For, as the melody is a fundamental and essential part in
vocal music, it should seem that nothing can atone for the neglect of
it. The best painter would be blamed should he draw off the attention
too much from the principal figure in his piece, however perfect, by the
very high and exquisite finishing of some inferior object; but, much
more would he deserve to be blamed if he left that figure the least
finished which all the rules of his art required to be the most so. Now,
in music, though there may sometimes be occasion for giving the
instruments the ascendancy over the voices, yet never should the
song-parts be unmeaning or inexpressive, much less coarse or ordinary."

_Mattheson._ "Golden words! All this, however, is owing to the
circumstance that Handel was neither a singer nor an actor. During a
period of five or six years, when we had daily intercourse with each
other, I never heard a singing tone from his mouth. When Earl Granville
(at that time Lord Carteret) was here in Hamburg, and heard me sing and
also play, he said: 'Handel plays also thus, but he does not sing thus.'
In my opinion singing and acting are of great assistance to a composer
of dramatic music. Hasse knows this well, and has cultivated both
earnestly, _me teste_. Keiser, likewise, sang very admirably. Both have,
therefore, extraordinarily charming melodies."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 202). "In his fugues and overtures, Handel is quite
original. The style of them is peculiar to himself, and in no way like
that of any master before him. In the formation of these pieces,
knowledge and invention seem to have contended for the mastery."

_Mattheson._ "A certain philosopher recently made himself conspicuous by
maintaining that the Fine Arts ought not to be regarded as Sciences,
because their systems are sensuous. Nevertheless, the old adage always
stands firm: _Nihil esse in intellectu quod non prius fuerit in sensu._
Our biographer belongs perhaps to that sect, for he scarcely uses the
word science, even when he refers to the science of music, as on the
present occasion. He always uses only the word _knowledge_ or _skill_.
Perhaps this is unintentional. Thus much, however, is certain: musicians
are in need of literary works, and he who can only write notes, his
honour and reputation are only _vox, practeraque nihil_. On the second
of March, this year [1761,] we had here, in Hamburg, a sale of a large
number of scarce and valuable books on all sciences; but the science of
music was not represented by a single work in the comprehensive
catalogue. That is surely neglect of a science! If any one can show me
that I am mistaken, I shall be happy."

_Mainwaring_ (P. 208). "Little, indeed, are the hopes of ever equalling,
much less of excelling, so vast a proficient in his own way; however, as
there are so many avenues to excellence still open, so many paths to
glory still untrod, it is hoped that the example of this illustrious
foreigner will rather prove an incentive than a discouragement to the
industry and genius of our own countrymen."

_Mattheson._ "Whoever intends to describe accurately the life of Handel,
can hardly do it without a reference to the following books: 'Musica
Critica,' Hamburg, 1722; 'The Musical Patriot,' Hamburg, 1728;
'Ehrenpforte,' Hamburg, 1740."

Mattheson now quotes an extract from a letter of Handel's, dated
February 24th, 1719, which has already been given above;[18] and he
remarks: "To promise, and to fulfil a promise, are two things." He
quotes once more Handel's complimentary letter, also given above,[19]
which evidently afforded him great satisfaction; and he adds: "Even the
most insignificant letters in some degree depict the writer, in
reference to the time and place in which they were written. Horace is
quite right: _Coelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt._"

Some writers have blamed Mattheson very much on account of his vanity
and his jealousy of Handel. Still, it remains a debatable question
whether the conceit of his detractors does not perhaps surpass his own.
It is a common practice with inferior musical authors to assume an air
of superiority, and to endeavour to make themselves important by finding
fault with others who have distinguished themselves in the same field in
which they are labouring, and to whom they ought to be grateful.

Mattheson had not only a better scientific education than most musicians
of his time, but his literary productions are also more readable than
those of his modern commentators who censure him.

[Illustration]

[1] Vol. I., p. 94.

[2] Hawkins's 'History of Music,' Vol. V., p. 253.

[3] Halle.

[4] Should be 1685.

[5] That Handel was born on the 23rd of February, 1685, and not on the
24th of February, 1684, is correctly stated in J. J. Walther's
'Musicalisches Lexicon,' Leipzig, 1732. To settle the uncertainty about
the date, which appears to have arisen chiefly through Mainwaring's
mis-statement, J. J. Eschenburg consulted the Baptismal Register of the
Frauenkirche in Halle, where he found the year 1685 given. (_See_ 'Dr.
Karl Burney's Nachricht von Georg Friedrich Handel's Lebens umständen,
und der ihm zu London im May und Juny, 1784, angestellten
Gedächtnissfeyer, aus den Englischen übersetzt von J. J. Eschenburg;
Berlin, 1785').--Förstemann ('Händel's Stammbaum,' Leipzig, 1844), and
others, have subsequently convinced themselves that Eschenburg's date is
correct. The year 1684, given on Handel's Monument in Westminster Abbey,
therefore, requires rectifying.

[6] Chrysander ('G. F. Handel,' Leipzig, 1858, Vol. I., p. 52) surmises
that Handel was not in Berlin in 1698, but in 1696, when he was eleven
years old.

[7] This is a mis-statement. Handel, born in 1685, was 18 years old; and
Mattheson, born in 1681, was 22 years old.

[8] Wych?

[9] Keiser.

[10] Mattheson.

[11] He was not quite twenty years old.

[12] See the note above, page 11.

[13] Mainwaring had probably obtained some of his information
from Handel himself; but he may have forgotten the dates, or Handel may
not have remembered them exactly.

[14] Handel was 74 years old when he died.

[15] Mattheson is mistaken here. It has been satisfactorily
ascertained that Handel left Hamburg for Italy in the year 1706. (See G.
F. Händel, von F. Chrysander, Leipzig, 1858, Vol. I., p. 139.)

[16] The following well-authenticated data may serve to correct
the "corrections" of Mattheson:--Handel was born in 1685; went to
Hamburg in 1703; thence to Italy in 1706; from Italy to Hanover in 1710;
thence to London in 1710; back to Hanover in 1711; returned to England
in 1712, where he died in 1759.

[17] Two works by Mattheson.

[18] Page 4.

[19] Page 7.



[Illustration]

DIABOLIC MUSIC.


It is a suggestive fact that those spirits of the mountains, rivers, and
of lonely places, which delight in music and dancing, are, according to
popular tradition, generally well-intentioned and harmless creatures.
Sometimes, however, a very evil-disposed spirit resorts to these arts
for the purpose of accomplishing some wicked design. A few stories from
different countries which illustrate the superstitious notions on the
subject will be given here. Although the stories are still in the mouth
of the people, it can hardly be said that they are still really
believed, at least not in European countries. But there are always
ignorant persons who half believe whatever appeals forcibly to their
imagination.


THE AWFUL DECEPTION.

At Arfeld, a small village in Germany, a number of young lads and lasses
were assembled one winter evening in a warm and comfortable room, the
girls spinning and singing, as they usually do on these occasions.

One of the lads, in silly playfulness, said to the girls he should like
them to try whether they could hang him on a single thread of their
spinning. The novel idea found ready approval. They made him stand on a
chair, and bound a thin thread around his neck, fastening it on a nail
under the ceiling.

At this moment all were greatly surprised by hearing strains of
exquisitely fine music penetrating into the house. They directly
hastened outside the door to ascertain whence it came; but there they
neither heard nor saw anything.

On returning to the room, they found, to their great astonishment and
dismay, that the chair had been drawn from under the lad, and that the
poor fellow was hanging on the thread and was dead.[20]


THE INDEFATIGABLE FIDDLER.

The following strange event happened in the parish of Börne, two miles
south of Ripen, in Denmark, and is still known to the people in all its
details.

One Sunday evening, a company of young men and girls of the village had
assembled in a farm-house, and were indulging in all kinds of frolic and
flirting. After they had enjoyed their nonsense for some time they
thought they should like to have a little dancing. In the midst of much
noisy and useless debating how to procure a musician to play to them,
one of the youths--the wildest of the party--cut the matter short by
saying boastingly: "Now, my lads, leave that to me! I will bring you a
musician, even if it should be the devil himself!" With these words the
wicked youth placed his cap knowingly on one side of his head, and
marched out of the room.

He had not advanced many steps along the road when he met with an old
beggarly-looking man, who carried a fiddle under his arm. The lad lost
no time in striking a bargain with the man, and triumphantly introduced
him into the house. In a few minutes all the young folks were wildly
dancing up and down the room to the old crowder's fascinating music; and
soon the perspiration actually streamed down their faces. They now
desired to stop for a moment to rest themselves a little. But this they
found impossible so long as the old crowder continued playing; and they
could not induce him to leave off, however earnestly they implored him.
It was really an awful affair!

Soon they would have been all dead from sheer exhaustion, had it not so
happened, fortunately for them, that there resided in the lower part of
the house an old deaf woman, the housekeeper of the farmer, who
accidentally becoming aware of the desperate condition of the dancers,
ran as fast as she could to fetch the parish priest. The holy man was
already in bed, and it took some time to arouse him; and then he had to
dress himself. But at last he was quite prepared; and when he arrived at
the farm-house and saw the fearful scene, he at once took out of his
pocket a little book, from which he read something in Latin or Hebrew.
Scarcely had he read a verse, when the indefatigable fiddler let his arm
sink, and drawing himself gradually up until he stood merely on the tips
of his toes, he suddenly vanished through the ceiling, leaving no traces
behind. Some people say, however, that there was a sulphurous odour
about the house shortly after this miraculous event.


THE EFFECTUAL EXPEDIENT.

The next story, told by the Manx people, is almost literally transcribed
from Waldron's 'History and Description of the Isle of Man,' London,
1744.

"A fiddler having agreed with a person, who was a stranger, for so much
money, to play to some company he should bring him to, all the twelve
days of Christmas, and having received an earnest for it, saw his new
master vanish into the earth the moment he had made the bargain. Nothing
could exceed the terror of the poor fiddler. He found he had engaged
himself in the devil's service, and he looked on himself as already
doomed; but, having recourse to a clergyman he received some hope. The
clergyman desired him, as he had taken an earnest, to go when he should
be summoned; but, whatever tunes should be called for, to play none but
psalm-tunes.

"On the day appointed the same person appeared, with whom he went, but
with what inward reluctance it is easy to guess. He punctually obeying
the minister's directions, the company to whom he played were so angry
that they all vanished at once, leaving him at the top of a high hill,
and so bruised and hurt, though he was not sensible when or from what
hand he received the blows, that it was with the utmost difficulty he
got home."


THE OLD CHORALE.

The following is recorded from Oldenburg, North Germany.

The sexton at Esenshammer, one day on entering the church alone, heard
the organ playing most charmingly. He looked up and saw to his great
surprise that there was no player; it played by itself. He lost no time
in running to the Pastor, to tell him what was going on in the church.

The Pastor quickly put on his gown and hastened with his sexton to
witness the phenomenon. Sure enough; the organ was playing wonderfully
all kinds of profane airs; they both heard it distinctly. But, look
where they would, they could not see any performer.

After having recovered a little from his astonishment, the Pastor in a
solemn tone of voice called out towards the organ:--

"If thou up there canst play everything, just play to me our old Chorale
_Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten_."

In a moment the organ was silent.


THE HAUNTED MANSION.

Diabolic musical performances have often been heard at midnight in a
certain mansion in Schleswig-Holstein. Years ago, the young and gay
daughter of the then lord of the manor, at a family festivity and grand
ball, proved herself so insatiable in dancing, that, after having danced
all the evening, she flippantly exclaimed: "And if the devil himself
appeared and invited me to dance, I should not decline!"

Scarcely had she said these words, when the door of the ball-room flew
open, and an unknown cavalier entered, went up to her, and led her to
dance. Round and round they whirled, unceasingly, incessantly faster and
faster, until--O, horror! suddenly she fell down dead.

A long time has elapsed since this occurred; but the lady still haunts
the mansion. Every year on the day when the frightful event took place,
precisely at midnight, the mansion resounds with the most diabolic
music. The lady arises from her grave and repairs to the ball-room,
where she anxiously waits for a partner; for, if any good Christian
should come and dance with her, she afterwards will have rest. Hitherto
no one has had the courage to stay in the house during the awful hour. A
daring young adventurer once had nearly succeeded. In that case, the
mansion would have come into his possession, according to an old deed
found in the house. But as soon as the diabolic music began, his courage
forsook him, and he made off as fast as he could. It terrified him so
much, that even now when he hears violins he trembles all over, and
imagines the diabolic noise is recommencing.


THE MODE ASBEIN.

A modern writer on Arabic music, as it is practised in Algiers and
Tunis, mentions among the various Modes used at the present day a
peculiarly impressive one, called Asbein, which the Mohammedans believe
to have been especially appropriated by Satan for the purpose of
tempting man. They have a long story respecting its origin and demoniac
effects. The writer alluded to, a Frenchman, had the gratification of
hearing a piece or two played in this Mode by a musician, who had the
reputation of being one of the best performers in Tunis, and who used to
entertain the frequenters of a certain coffee-house in a suburb. To this
place the Frenchman repaired, and induced the musician to play in the
Mode Asbein. To surmise from his description of the performance, there
must have been something really frightful in the degree of ecstacy which
the player exhibited. But there is something funny in the Frenchman's
mode of reasoning, which deserves to be noticed, because it shows how
opinions like the above are sometimes adopted readily enough even by
professed sceptics. The Frenchman was a sceptic, and had made up his
mind before he proceeded to examine the matter, that the impression of
the Arabs respecting the Mode Asbein was due entirely to their religious
enthusiasm. They are, of course, Mohammedans. Now, after the
performance, the Frenchman accidentally learnt that the musician was a
Jew. Then he no longer doubted the demoniac power of the Mode Asbein.


WITCHES.

Respecting the music of witches, a few short remarks may suffice. Every
one knows that witches, at their meetings, amuse themselves especially
with music and dancing. In Germany, the largest assemblages of these
objectionable beings take place in the night of the first of May
(Walpurgis), and the most favourite resort for their festivities is the
summit of the Harz mountain, called Brocken, or Blocksberg. The
musicians sit on old stumps of trees, or on projecting rocks, and fiddle
upon skulls of horses.

Whoever desires to witness these ghastly scenes must provide himself
with the upper board of an old coffin in which a knot has been forced
out, and must peep through the hole.


THE CHANGELING.

According to an old superstition, which was widely spread during the
Middle Ages, the elves sometimes steal a handsome, new-born child from
its cradle, and substitute an ill-formed, ugly child of their own. The
little Irish prodigy who is the hero of an event which happened in the
county of Tipperary, was such a Changeling. The story told of him, it
will be seen, is stamped with the peculiar wildness of fancy which
generally characterizes Irish fairy-tales.

Mick Flanigan and his wife, Judy, were a poor couple, blessed with
nothing but four little boys. Three of the children were as healthy and
rosy-cheeked as any thriving Irish boy you can meet with; but the
fourth was a little urchin, more ugly than it is possible to imagine;
and, even worse, he was as mischievous as he was ugly. Innumerable were
the tricks which he played upon his brothers, and even upon his parents.
Although before he was a twelve-month old he had already grown a
formidable set of teeth, and ate like a glutton, he would nevertheless
lie constantly in his cradle near the fire, even after he had reached
the age of five years. Resting on his back, and half closing his little
eyes, he would observe everything which was going on in the room,
watching for opportunities to annoy the people.

Now, one afternoon it came to pass that Tim Carrol, the blind bagpiper,
an old friend of the family, called in and sat down near the fire to
have a bit of chat. As he had brought his bagpipe with him, they soon
asked him to treat them with a tune. So blind Tim Carrol buckled on his
bagpipe, and began to play.

Presently the little urchin raised himself in the cradle, moved his ugly
head to and fro, and evidently manifested excessive delight at the nasal
sounds. When the affectionate mother saw how eagerly the child stretched
out both its hands for the bagpipe, she begged old blind Tim Carrol just
to humour her little darling for a moment; and as blind Tim was not the
man to say "No," he mildly laid the bagpipe upon the cradle. But how
great was their astonishment when the urchin took up the instrument,
and, handling it like a practised bagpiper, played without the least
effort a lively jig, then another, even more lively, and several others,
in rapid succession.

The first thing the father did was to sell his pig and to buy a bagpipe
for his prodigy. It soon turned out that the rogue had a peculiar tune
of his own, which made people dance however little they might feel
disposed for dancing. Even his poor mother happening to come into the
room one day with a pailfull of milk, and hearing that bewitching tune,
must needs let the pail drop, spill all the milk, and spin round like a
very top.

About the time when the boy was six years old, the farmer of the
village, by whom Mick Flanigan was employed as day labourer, had
various mischances with his cattle. Two of his cows lost their appetite,
and gave little or no milk. A very promising calf stumbled, and broke
both its hind legs. And shortly afterwards one of his best horses
suddenly got the colic and died in no time. The people in the village
had long since settled among themselves that there was something not
right in Mick Flanigan's family; so it naturally occurred to the farmer
that the imp with the bagpipe must be the cause of all his misfortunes.
He therefore thought it wise to give warning at once to Mick Flanigan,
and to advise him to look out for work elsewhere. Fortunately, poor Mick
Flanigan soon succeeded in getting employment at a farmer's, a few miles
off, who was in want of a ploughman.

On the appointed day the new master sent a cart to fetch the few
articles of furniture which Mick Flanigan could call his own. Having
placed the cradle with the boy and his bagpipe at the top, the whole
family drove off to their new home. When they had got about half the
way, they had to cross a river. Slowly they drove upon the rickety
bridge, little anticipating the exciting scene which now occurred. The
boy had hitherto remained very quiet in the cradle, apparently half
asleep as usual. But, just when the cart had reached the middle of the
bridge, he raised his head, looked wistfully at the water, and then
suddenly grasping his bagpipe he jumped down into the river.

His terrified parents set up a cry of distress, and made some efforts to
save him, when, to their unspeakable astonishment, they saw him
swimming, diving and gamboling about in the water like a very otter.
Nay, he actually began to play on his bagpipe, shouting lustily all the
while and exhibiting other signs which clearly showed that he was now in
his right element. Soon he disappeared entirely. Then the poor people
became fully convinced that the boy was a Changeling, and had now gone
home to his own kinsfolk.[21]


THE VENDISH SORCERER.

The Vends are a Slavonic race inhabiting some districts in Lusatia,
Germany. Although living amidst Germans, they still preserve their own
language, as well as a considerable number of national songs and legends
of their own, some of which are very beautiful.

The Vendish Sorcerer, whose name was Draho, lived in a mountain, near
the town of Teichnitz, at the time when the Christian religion was just
beginning to take root in Lusatia. He was, of course, a pagan; and every
scheme he could devise to hurt the defenceless Christians living
scattered about the neighbourhood, he did not fail remorselessly to put
into action. Moreover, his great power he derived from a magic whistle,
by means of which he made certain mischievous spirits subservient to his
will.

This sorcerer had a disciple, who, becoming acquainted with the
blessings of Christianity, forsook his wicked master, and seizing a
favourable opportunity when the old rogue was taking a nap, possessed
himself of the magic whistle, and flew from the mountain into the valley
to his friends the Christians.

Now, when the people learnt that the sorcerer had been deprived of his
whistle, they knew that his power was gone, and that they might venture
to approach him without incurring much danger. So they went up to the
top of the mountain, provided with all kinds of arms, and soon succeeded
in capturing the old pagan. Having securely bound him, they made a large
fire of wood, upon which they placed him, and solemnly burnt him to
death. Meanwhile, the disciple, who had already received Holy Baptism,
stepped forward and threw the magic whistle into the flame, that it
might be consumed without leaving a trace.

Nevertheless, every year in the spring, on the eve of Oculi Sunday, the
old sorcerer appears on the top of the mountain, and in the night blows
a most frightful shriek upon his magic whistle. The people who go out at
midnight to listen for it have not long to wait before they hear the
awful sound. For, what people are bent upon hearing, they are sure to
hear, especially if it is something objectionable.


THE RAT-CATCHER OF HAMELN.

In the year 1284, the town of Hameln, situated on the river Weser, in
Germany, became awfully infested with rats and mice. All kinds of traps,
poisons, and other means employed to destroy the vermin proved of no
avail, and the harassed citizens were actually at their wits' end what
to do. The plague grew daily more formidable until the people had every
reason to fear that before long not only their victuals but they
themselves would all be devoured.

When the misery had reached a height positively frightful, there
appeared in Hameln a strange man with a queer-shaped hat, who offered to
deliver the town from the scourge for a stipulated reward. Some say the
reward he demanded was a round sum of money; others maintain that he
wanted to marry the burgomaster's pretty daughter. Whatever it may have
been, there is certainly no doubt that it was readily promised him.

As soon as the bargain had been struck, the strange man drew from his
pocket a small pipe, began to play and walked through the streets of the
town. Presently, all the rats and mice came running out of their holes
and followed him. Lustily playing he marched with his odd army out of
the town and into the river Weser, where every rat and mouse was
drowned.

Then the inhabitants of Hameln rejoiced greatly, as after a victory over
a powerful enemy. But, when the strange man came to claim the promised
reward, they withheld it from him, and treated him with derision.

However, a few days afterwards, how sorely were they punished for their
ingratitude!

The enraged rat-catcher unexpectedly appeared, this time dressed
entirely in red. Strange to say, even his face and hands seemed to be
quite red. He took his pipe and walked through the streets, playing as
before. Presently, all the little children of Hameln came running out
of the houses and followed him. He marched with them out of the town
into the mountains, where he vanished with them into a deep hole in a
rock.

Some persons believe that the children afterwards came to light again,
very far off in Transylvania. At all events, there are villages in that
country in which the people speak the same language as in Hameln.

The gate through which the strange man took the children is still
extant, and there are other evidences of similar importance to be found
in Hameln, which prove to the satisfaction of certain respectable
citizens that the story is quite true in all its details.

The earliest record of the Rat-catcher of Hameln written in English is
probably the quaint one contained in 'A Restitution of decayed
Intelligence in Antiquities by the studie and travaile of Richard
Verstegan,' Antwerp, 1605. Verstegan concludes his relation with the
statement: "And this great wonder hapned on the 22 day of July, in the
yeare of our Lord one thowsand three hundreth seauentie and six." The
brothers Grimm, however, than whom a better authority could not be
adduced, say that according to the old records preserved in the
town-hall of Hameln the memorable event occurred on the 22nd of June,
Anno Domini 1284, and that there was formerly on the wall of the
town-hall the following old and oddly-spelt inscription:

     Im Jahr 1284 na Christi gebort
     Tho Hamel worden uthgewort
     Hundert and dreiszig Kinder dasülwest geborn
     Dorch einen Piper under den Köppen verlorn.[22]

Which means in plain English--

     In the year 1284, after the birth of Christ,
     There were led out of Hameln
     One hundred and thirty children, natives of that place,
     By a Piper, and were lost under the mountain.

The reader will perhaps be surprised at the smallness of the number
recorded of the children lost. But, Hameln is not a large town, and was
most likely even less populous six hundred years ago than it is at the
present day.


THE EXQUISITE ORGAN.

The following story is told by the villagers in the Netherlands.

Once upon a time a countryman of the province of Hainault went on some
business matters to the village of Flobeck, which lies not far from
Krekelberg. When he was crossing the flat and lonely tract of land, some
miles south-east of Flobeck, he heard some distant music, which came so
sweetly through the air that he thought he would just take a few steps
in the direction whence it proceeded to ascertain its origin.

He had not gone far when he saw a beautiful palace, from which the
fascinating music evidently issued. This astonished him greatly; but he
was not one of those faint-hearted men who would have crossed themselves
and taken to their heels. Quite the contrary; he at once determined to
investigate the matter a little nearer. And so he entered the palace.

Having ascended the broad staircase leading to the principal rooms, he
opened the large door and paced from one hall to another. All were
splendidly decorated, and most richly furnished. But, nowhere did he
meet with any living being. Soon it became evident to him that the
inmates were feasting and dancing in an interior court of the palace.
Thither he bent his steps.

To be sure, there they were!--a large assemblage of odd-looking people
in high glee dancing to the performance of a musician, who had on his
lap an instrument in appearance not unlike a barrel-organ; for it had a
long handle which the player turned with all his energy.

Nov, when these strange people saw the countryman peeping in, they
beckoned him to come forward. He availed himself gladly of the
invitation, and took his seat by the side of the musician; for, no
music he had ever heard in his life appeared to him comparable to that
which the man produced on the admirable instrument with the long handle.
Sometimes it was very soft and deep-toned;--suddenly it rose up to a
high pitch, like an Æolian harp when a gust of wind passes over its
strings;--now it gradually diminished in power, and its sweetness
actually moved our countryman to tears;--now, again, it grew suddenly so
loud, as if a whole military band was playing, only that it was much
more beautiful.

The countryman expressed his admiration in the highest terms, adding
that nothing in the world could delight him more than to be permitted to
turn the handle of the exquisite organ for a little while. The musician
showed himself quite willing to afford him this pleasure, and placed the
instrument on his lap.

The delighted countryman turned the handle a few times round:--No sound
was forthcoming.--He turned again, more vigorously:--The delicious music
began.

"Oh! Ever-blessed Mother Mary! how exquisite!" exclaimed the enraptured
countryman.

Scarcely had he said the words when everything vanished, and he found
himself sitting in a fallow field, having on his lap a large cat whose
tail he had been wrenching so vehemently that poor puss was still mewing
from its very heart in most ear-piercing modulations. On the spot where
the palace had stood he saw a large dust heap, and that was all.[23]

[20] 'Sagen, Gebräuche, und Märchen aus Westfahlen, gesammelt von A.
Kuhn. Leipzig, 1859.' Vol. I., p. 175.

[21] 'Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland, by T.
Crofton Croker; London, 1862,' p. 22.--Compare also 'Hans mein Igel,' in
Grimm's Kinder und Hausmärchen.

[22] 'Deutsche Sagen, herausgegeben von den Brüdern Grimm; Berlin,
1816;' Vol. I., p. 330.

[23] 'Niederländische Sagen, herausgegeben von J. W. Wolf; Leipzig,
1843;' p. 464.



[Illustration]

ROYAL MUSICIANS.


A royal personage being a lover of music possesses many advantages for
attaining proficiency in this art, which are rarely at the command of a
poor musician, however talented he may be. The young prince has from the
beginning the best instruction, excellent instruments, and every
possible assistance in making progress. The most distinguished musicians
consider it an honour to play to him whenever he is disposed to listen
to them. If it affords him pleasure to be a composer, whatever he
produces, even if it is a large orchestral work, he can directly have
performed; and he is thus enabled to ascertain at once whether it sounds
exactly as he contemplated in composing it, and whether the peculiar
instrumental effects in certain bars, which he had aimed at producing,
really answer his expectation. Repeated rehearsals, and revisions of the
score, with the ready assistance of the most experienced professional
musicians in his service, enable him to improve his composition as long
as he likes. And should he be inclined to join the musicians with his
instrument in a performance,--to become for a little while, so to say,
one of them,--he may be sure that they will do everything to help him
through by covering his mistakes and giving him, if possible, the
opportunity of displaying his skill.

What can be more delightful for an influential amateur than to join with
first-rate professional players in practising the classical Quartets of
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven! All this, and more, is at the command of
the royal musician; and the poor striving disciple of the art may have
some excuse for envying him on this account.

However, if the poor disciple is a true artist, he will also duly
appreciate the disadvantage under which the royal musician labours for
attaining proficiency in the art. He will see how necessary it is for
the sake of progress to know exactly the truth about one's own powers
and requirements, and that in this respect even a musical beggar enjoys
an advantage above the King,--or rather, he has it, whether he enjoys it
or not; a candid opinion as to his musical accomplishments is
gratuitously offered him, and it is often a just one. If his music is
bad, he, instead of being deceived with fine words of flattery, will
simply be told: "Leave off! Begone!" If it pleases, he will be rewarded.
But the royal musician gets praise, however his music may be; there is
no distinction made between good and bad.

No wonder, therefore, that history records but few good royal musicians,
although many are known to have occupied themselves with music almost
like professional musicians. As an example of an estimable one may be
mentioned King David "the sweet singer of Israel," who, as a youth,
soothed the evil spirit of Saul by playing upon his _kinnor_; and who
later, as King, admonished his people in the psalms: "Praise ye the
Lord! Praise him with the sound of the trumpet; praise him with the
psaltery and harp. Praise him with the timbrel and dance: praise him
with stringed instruments and organs. Praise him upon the loud cymbals.
Praise him upon the high-sounding cymbals."

And in his religious fervour he joined his royal band in a procession
conveying the ark. On this occasion "David danced before the Lord with
all his might." The band consisted of vocal and instrumental performers.
"And David was clothed with a robe of fine linen, and all the Levites
that bare the ark, and the singers, and Chenaniah, the master of the
song with the singers: David also had upon him an ephod of linen. Thus
all Israel brought up the ark of the covenant of the Lord with shouting
and with sound of the cornet, and with trumpets, and with cymbals,
making a noise with psalteries and harps. And it came to pass, as the
ark of the covenant of the Lord came to the city of David, that Michal,
the daughter of Saul, looking out at a window, saw King David dancing
and playing: and she despised him in her heart." (II. Sam. chap. vi., I.
Chron. chap. xv.) Michal, Saul's daughter, was David's wife;
nevertheless, after the ceremony she upbraided him: "How glorious was
the King of Israel to-day, who uncovered himself in the eyes of the
handmaids, as one of the vain fellows who shamelessly uncovereth
himself!" If the musicians exhibited some vanity, they might, at any
rate, be more easily excused than many of the present day; for it was an
extraordinary honour for them to perform with a King who was certainly a
noble musician, and of whose companionship they could have been proud
even if he had not been a King. Moreover, he was, as is recorded in the
Bible, not only "cunning in playing," but also "a mighty and valiant
man, and a man of war, and prudent in matters, and a comely person, and
the Lord was with him." There are not many royal musicians of whom thus
much could be said without flattery.

The German common saying--

     Wo man singt da lass dich ruhig nieder,
     Böse Menschen haben keine Lieder;

is as untenable as Shakespeare's assertion--

     The man that has no music in himself,
     Nor is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds,
     Is fit for treasons, stratagems and spoils;

considering that the Italian banditti sing hymns to the Virgin Mary, and
that there are kind-hearted Englishmen who cannot distinguish between
the airs of 'God save the Queen' and the 'Old Hundredth.' Anyhow, it may
be doubted whether certain distinguished royal musicians had really
music in their soul. Take, for instance, the Emperor Nero, who lived
about the middle of the first century of our era. Some statements
transmitted to us, respecting the depravity of this cruel monarch may be
unfounded,--such as that the large conflagration of Rome, which
occurred in his reign, was the work of incendiaries secretly hired by
him, and that he amused himself with looking at the fire from the top of
a high tower, and singing to the accompaniment of the lyre the
destruction of Troy, of which he had read, and which he desired to see
represented in the spectacle before him. Some say that he played on the
bagpipe. His principal instruments, on which he practised assiduously,
were the lyre and the harp. His voice was weak and hoarse; nevertheless,
in contesting with the best singers of his time, he always, of course,
gained the prize. Foreign musicians streamed to Rome to hear him, and to
flatter him. About five thousand of them were successful in so far as
they obtained appointments in his service with high salaries. He
undertook a professional tour through Greece, to perform in public; and
as those of his audience who did not applaud him ran the risk of losing
their life, a brilliant success could not fail to be constantly the
result of his appearance as a musician. The surest means of obtaining
his favour was to praise his voice, to be enraptured by his singing, and
distressed when he took the whim that he could not sing. It gratified
him to be pressingly implored to sing. In short, he did not appreciate
music for the sake of its beauties, but because it appeared to him a
suitable means for flattering his excessive vanity.

Such miserable royal musicians would at the present day, fortunately,
not be tolerated. But a rather harmless vanity like that shown in the
following example is still not uncommon, and may easily be excused, as
it is not incompatible with a good heart.

Joseph Clemens Cajetan, Elector and Archbishop of Cologne, sent in the
year 1720, the following letter to the Jesuit Seminary in Munich. It is
here translated from the German.

                                               "Bonn, July 28th, 1720.

     Dear Privy Councillor Rauch!

     It may perhaps appear presumptuous that an Ignoramus, who knows
     nothing at all about music, ventures to compose. This applies to
     me, as I send you herewith eleven Motetts and other pieces, which
     I have composed myself. I have achieved this in a strange way,
     since I am not acquainted with the notes; nor have I the slightest
     understanding respecting the art of music. I am, therefore,
     compelled, when anything musical enters my head, to sing it to a
     musical composer, and he commits it to paper. However, I must have
     a good ear and good taste, because the public, when they hear my
     music, always applaud it. The method which I have prescribed to
     myself in composing is that of the bees, which extract the honey
     from the most beautiful flowers, and mix it together. Thus also I.
     Everything I have composed I have taken from only good masters
     whose works pleased me. I candidly confess my theft, while others
     deny theirs, as they want to appropriate whatever they have taken
     from others. No one, therefore, dares to be vexed if he hears old
     airs in my compositions; for, as they are beautiful, their
     antiquity cannot detract from their value. I have determined to
     present this work to the church Sti. Michaelis Archangeli, with the
     P. P. Societatis Jesu, wherein my grandparents founded a Seminarium
     Musicale; and I desire that this memorial of myself shall be
     preserved there for eternity, especially for the reason that I have
     composed most of this music in the time of my persecution. The
     causes which induced me to compose the several pieces I herewith
     add, thus:--

     No. 1. Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini;--I made when I had to
     suffer the greatest persecution, anno 1706.

     No. 2. Ne nobis Domine;--on account of obtained victories.

     No. 3. Tempus est;--on leaving the two towns, Rüssel and Valencien,
     in gratitude for the many kindnesses which I and my kindred
     received from the inhabitants of those towns.

     No. 4. Victoria;--after the battle of Belgrade against the Turks,
     in 1717.

     No. 5. Per hoc vitæ spatium;--when I was debating with myself what
     pursuit I should follow, whether I should become spiritual or
     remain secular.

     No. 6. Quare fremuerunt gentes;--for my own consolation at a time
     when I was unjustly persecuted to the utmost.

     No. 7. Quem vidistis Pastores;--for Christmas.

     No. 8. Parce Domine!--at Lent.

     No. 9. Maria Mater gratiæ;--to the honour of the ever-blessed
     Mother of God.

     No. 10. When my brother-in-law, the Dauphin, died, anno 1711.

     No. 11. On the death of the nephew of the Dauphin and his consort,
     in 1712; which composition I request the Seminary to have sung also
     for me after my death.

     I therefore desire you herewith to deliver the compositions, with
     this letter by my own hand, in my name, to the P. Magister Chori,
     and at the same time to assure him and the whole Seminary of my
     clemency. I attribute all this to Divine Grace which has
     enlightened me to accomplish thus much. I also assure you of my
     clemency.

                                                      JOSEPH CLEMENS."

For this present from the Elector, the Inspector of the Seminary in
Munich, the Jesuit Gregorius Schilger, thanked him in a letter written
in Latin, of which the following is a literal translation:--

     "Most Exalted and Serene Prince and Elector! Most
     Gracious Lord and Master!

     With most humble reverence, I kiss your gracious hand and your most
     valuable gift of your musical compositions, which to the great joy
     and with feelings of gratitude of us all, were handed to me, with
     your gracious letter, by your Serene Highness' Privy Councillor,
     Joannes Rauch. For, is it not a great blessing, not only to the
     Gregorian Institution of the Munich Seminary, but also to those on
     whom devolves the direction and management of it, that you so
     graciously remember them, and present them with a musical treasure
     so precious!

     We, therefore, throw ourselves at the feet of your Serene Highness,
     and before the Archipiscopal Pastoral Staff, and express as well
     as it is in our power our most dutiful thanks, with every devotion
     and reverence, as we are in duty bound to your sovereign clemency
     for ever.

     This memorial of your highest favour shall be permanently preserved
     in the archives of the Elector's church at Munich, to the
     everlasting glory of God, to the honour of the Holy Virgin and of
     the Holy Archangel Michael, and in memory of your gracious
     condescension.

     Moreover, we admire the very great merit of the music of your
     Serene Highness not only on account of the high position of its
     composer, but also on account of its very pleasing artistic effect,
     which has astonished every one, when the music had been carefully
     examined by all the Gregorian musicians we summoned to try it. We
     all--not only I, who consider myself the most insignificant, but
     also the Gregorian disciples--we all pray in deep humility that the
     kindly blessings of Heaven may for many years support your Serene
     Highness in your beneficent functions, for the advantage of the
     Church, and for the consolation of all good people, especially also
     for the benefit of your dependants, of whom the Gregorian disciples
     delight in being the most humble. Permit me to recommend especially
     these, together with myself, your most humble servant, in our
     deepest reverence, to your most gracious favour and benevolence. We
     thus continually pray with bended knees, venturing to hope with the
     most implicit confidence that Heaven's blessing will result to us
     from the Archipiscopal Mitre and Pastoral Staff, which we humbly
     reverence with our kisses.

               Your Serene Highness'
                         Most humble Servant,

                    GREGORIUS SCHILGER, Soc. Jesu,
                          Inspector of the St. Gregorian House.

     Munich, August 7th, 1720."

There are some touching instances on record of royal personages in
affliction finding relief and consolation in studying music. The last
King of Hanover had the misfortune of being nearly deprived of his
eyesight some time before he came to the throne. As Crown Prince he
published a pamphlet entitled 'Ideas and Reflections on the Properties
of Music,' from which a few short extracts may find a place here, as
they show how soothing a balm this art was to him:--

     "From early youth I have striven to make music my own. It has
     become to me a companion and comforter through life; it has become
     more and more valuable to me the more I learnt to comprehend and
     appreciate its boundless exuberance of ideas, its inexhaustible
     fulness, the more intimately its whole poetry was interwoven with
     my whole being.... By means of music, ideas, feelings, and
     historical events, natural phenomena, pictures, scenes of life of
     all sorts, are as clearly and intelligibly expressed as by any
     language in words; and we are ourselves enabled to express
     ourselves in such a manner and to make ourselves understood by
     others.... Of all the senses of man, sight and hearing are those by
     which most effect is produced upon mind and heart, and which are
     consequently the most powerful springs for the moral and rational
     feelings, actions, and opinions of men. But Hearing appears to be
     the most influential and operative of the two organs; for this
     reason, that by inharmonious discordant tones our feelings may be
     so shocked, even to their deepest recesses, and so painfully
     wounded as to drive us almost beside ourselves; which impression
     cannot possibly be produced in us by a bad picture, a dreary
     landscape, or a very faulty poem.... I have known persons whose
     spirits were broken, and their hearts rent by care, grief, and
     affliction. They wandered about, murmuring at their fate, absorbed
     in meditation, in vain seeking hope, in vain looking for a way to
     escape. But, the excess of their inward pangs needed alleviation;
     the heart discovered the means of procuring it: the deep-drawn
     sighs of the oppressed bosom were involuntarily converted into
     tones of lamentation, and this unconscious effusion was productive
     of relief, composure, and courageously calm resignation. Yes,
     indeed, it is above all in the gloomy hours of affliction that
     Music is a soothing comforter, a sympathizing friend to the
     sufferer; it gives expression to the gnawing anguish which rends
     the soul, and which it thereby mitigates and softens: it lends a
     tear to the stupefaction of grief; it drops mollifying healing
     balsam into every wounded heart. Whoever has experienced this
     effect himself, or witnessed it in others, will admit with me that
     for this fairest service rendered by the art we cannot sufficiently
     thank and revere it."

How sad and suggestive are these lines, penned by a royal musician!

Blind people delight in descriptive music depicting scenes which
painters might use as subjects for pictures. By the help of a lively
imagination, the ear to some extent serves also the purpose of the eye.
Thus may be explained the preference given by the Crown Prince to
certain compositions which are by no means of the highest class.
Speaking of Bellini's opera 'Norma,' he remarks: "In the Introduction
there is a most ingenious representation of a country. Commencing with
low tones, it unfolds itself in sombre harmony, and faithfully
reproduces the same impression that the darkness of the thick wood makes
upon the wanderer. Single, sliding, and abrupt notes seem to denote
lighter spots in the dark wood, and thus the first decoration of the
opera, the grove of sacrifice, is appropriately represented. The reader
will certainly be still more struck by the appositeness of this musical
picture, when I assure him that I know a blind person who, when he first
heard this introduction, immediately guessed that it was intended to
represent a scene in a wood."

Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony is, as might be expected, an especial
favourite with him, and he gives a detailed description of its several
movements, prefaced by the exclamation: "How clearly are the daily
occurrences and the individual scenes of rural life presented to the
hearer!"

Neither is it surprising that Haydn's 'Creation,' with its many
descriptive passages, should forcibly and very agreeably appeal to his
imagination. In commenting upon certain beauties in this oratorio, which
he especially admires, he remarks: "Above all, how strikingly has the
composer represented with all the powers of music the moment called
forth by the creative words 'Let there be light!' _and there was light_.
At these words the orchestra discharges itself in a truly electric
manner, so as absolutely to dazzle you. The hearer feels perfectly the
impression which the real occurrence of this adorable miracle of
Almighty power would make upon him; and in this delineation by tones is
exhibited to the sense of mortal man the only possible representation of
that sublime wonder in the most striking and convincing manner."

It not unfrequently happens to a musical composer that when a new idea
occurs to him while he is extemporizing, it appears to him at the first
moment more beautiful than he finds it to be on reconsideration. The
Prince, who enjoyed extemporizing on the pianoforte, kept in his service
a pianist, whose business it was to write down his inventions, which he
played repeatedly to the pianist to enable him to sketch at once as
faithfully as possible the chief ideas and modulations. These sketches
the pianist, who was a talented musician, had to take home in order to
work them out carefully according to the rules of musical composition.
Having accomplished his task, he attended at the palace with the
manuscript; and now it was his turn to play the new piece to his royal
master. But, however anxious he had been to preserve intact the original
ideas, he generally learnt to his concern that the music possessed no
longer those beauties which had been dictated to him.

Royal musicians who have studied Thorough Bass are sometimes formidable
critics. At any rate, it would appear so from some musical criticisms of
Frederick II., and of his sister the Princess Amalia. Frederick II.
(Frederick the Great) King of Prussia (born 1712, died 1786) was a
composer as well as a virtuoso on the flute. He regularly practised his
instrument daily. In earlier life it was his habit to play the scales
every morning as soon as he had risen from his bed; and he often
performed in the evening five concertos on the flute, which his royal
orchestra had to accompany. In composing he wrote down only the melody,
and he indicated with it in words how the bass and the other parts
should be contrived; for instance,--"Here the bass shall be in
Quavers;"--"Here the violins shall play alone," etc. These directions he
gave to his Kapellmeister Agricola, who then completed the score.

The musical pursuits of Frederick II. are interesting, but are too well
known to be here circumstantially recorded. Suffice it to mention his
singular behaviour on the occasion of the performance of Graun's 'Te
Deum,' after the termination of the Seven Years' War, in 1763. The
orchestra and singers who had assembled in the royal palace at
Charlottenburg punctually at the time at which they had been ordered to
appear, found to their surprise that there was no audience assembling.
After having waited for about half an hour in suspense, wondering
whether the performance of the 'Te Deum' was to take place, or whether
they had been summoned by inadvertence, they observed a side door being
opened at the end of the hall opposite to them, through which the King
entered quite alone, without any attendance. He sat down on a chair in a
corner, and made a sign to them to commence. At some of the full
choruses, when all the voices united, he held his hands before his eyes
to hide his tears. Several of the musicians who saw him became so much
affected that the tears rolled down their cheeks while they played. At
the end of the performance the King thanked them by a slight inclination
of his head, and retired through the side door through which he had
entered.

This noble royal musician was, however, so prepossessed by the
compositions of Graun, that hardly any composer, but such as wrote in
Graun's style, had a chance of finding favour with him. Kirnberger, the
celebrated theorist, in vain endeavoured to insinuate himself with the
King by submitting to "His Majesty's approval" a new treatise of his on
Thorough Bass. The treatise was soon returned to him with the following
letter:--

     "His Royal Majesty of Prussia, etc., our most gracious Lord, cannot
     persuade himself that the announced work of the Princely
     Chamber-musician Kirnberger, in Berlin, contains anything new, or
     particularly useful for the art of music, or for musical
     composition, considering that Thorough Bass was already brought to
     a certain perfection many years ago. This is, therefore, not to be
     withheld from the said Kirnberger, in reply to his solicitation of
     the day before yesterday.

                                                           FRIEDERICH.

     Potsdam, February 25th, 1781."

The Princess Amalia, a pupil of Kirnberger, was a great upholder of the
rules of Thorough Bass, and a sharp critic. As Gluck did not care much
about many of those dry rules, it is perhaps not surprising that the
Princess Amalia did not care much about Gluck. What she thought of him
she has expressed forcibly enough in the following extract from a letter
to Kirnberger, who had sent her the opera 'Iphigenia in Tauris':--

"Mr. Gluck will, in my opinion, never pass for a clever man in musical
composition. He has, firstly, not the least invention; secondly, a bad,
miserable melody; and thirdly, no accent, no expression,--it is all
alike. He is very different from Graun and Hasse, but very similar
to.... The introductory piece ought to be a kind of overture; but the
good man does not like Imitations, and he is right, for they require
labour. However, he is more fond of Transposition. This is not
altogether objectionable; for, if a bar is often repeated, the hearer
will all the more easily remember it; but Gluck appears to transpose the
same idea from want of a new one. Finally, regarded in its entirety, the
opera is very miserable. Now, this is in the new taste which has a great
many adherents. However, I thank you for having sent it me. Through the
faults of others one learns to know one's own. Be so kind as to procure
for me the words of the whole opera; but, as regards the musical
notation, I am not yet wise enough to find it beautiful."

If the letters of musicians to princes are often sadly devoid of
sincerity, those of princes to musicians possess generally at least the
negative merit of not containing intentional misrepresentations, since
a prince has seldom a motive for disguising his likes and dislikes in
music. Whether the estimable Kapellmeister Schulz had committed the
indiscretion of suggesting to Princess Amalia that she was still capable
of some improvement as a musical composer is uncertain, but appears
probable, to judge from the following letter which she wrote to him
after he had sent her the manuscript of his choruses to 'Athalia,' with
the humble request for permission to dedicate them to her,--or, as he
expressed himself, "to preface the work with the adorable name of so
illustrious a connoisseur."

The reply he received from her is here translated from the German as
literally as possible.

     "To the Kapellmeister Schulz in Rheimsberg.

     I surmise, Mr. Schulz, that by an oversight you have sent me,
     instead of your own work, the musical bungling of a child, since I
     cannot discover in it the least scientific art; on the contrary, it
     is throughout faulty from beginning to end, in the expression,
     sentiment, and meaning of the language as well as in the rhythm.
     The _motus contrarius_ has been entirely neglected; there is no
     proper harmony; no impressive melody; the interval of the Third is
     often entirely omitted; the key is never clearly indicated, so that
     one has to guess in what key the music is meant to move. There are
     no canonic imitations, not the least trace of counterpoint, but
     plenty of consecutive fifths and octaves! And this is to be called
     music! May heaven open the eyes of those who possess such a high
     conceit of themselves, and enlighten their understanding to make
     them comprehend that they are but bunglers and fumblers. I have
     heard it said that the work ought to praise the master; now-a-day
     everything is reversed and confused, the masters are the only ones
     who praise themselves, even if their works are offensive. Enough of
     this.

                                                               AMALIA.

     Berlin, January 31st, 1785."

The amiable and respected Kapellmeister Schulz, in mentioning to an old
friend the contents of this letter, merely added: "All this may be true;
but why tell it me so rudely?"[24]

No doubt the most praiseworthy royal musicians are those who make it
less their object to be accomplished players, composers, or theorists,
than to discover and to assist really talented professional musicians,
and thus to promote the advancement of the art. Prince Louis Ferdinand
of Prussia, who lost his life in the battle of Saalfeld in 1806, at the
age of 34 years, may be noticed as a remarkable exception. He was a
distinguished pianist; a fine composer,--perhaps the best of all the
royal musicians whose compositions have been published or are otherwise
known; and a true patron of the art,--which he showed by his cultivation
of classical music as well as by his kindness to Beethoven, Dussek,
Spohr, and other eminent composers. This is the prince of whom it is
told that Beethoven, on hearing him play, exclaimed with surprise: "Your
Royal Highness does not play like a Prince; you play like a musician!"

As a true patron of music, who in this capacity has been more useful to
the art than if he had composed operas and symphonies, must be mentioned
Rudolph, Archduke of Austria, the pupil of Beethoven. The subjoined
letter by him, translated from the German, speaks for itself:--

     "Dear Beethoven,

     I shall return to Vienna as early as Tuesday, August 5th, and I
     shall then remain in town for several days. I only wish that your
     health may permit you to come then to town. In the afternoon, from
     four to seven o'clock, I am generally at home.

     My brother-in-law, Prince Anton, has written to me already that the
     King of Saxony expects your beautiful Mass.

     Respecting D----r, I have spoken with our gracious Monarch, and
     likewise with Count Dietrichstein. I do not know whether this
     recommendation will be of use, as there is to be a competition for
     the appointment in question, in which any one wishing to obtain it,
     has to prove his fitness. It would be a gratification to me if I
     could be useful to that clever man, whom I heard with pleasure
     playing the organ last Monday in Baden,--especially as I am
     convinced that you would not recommend an unworthy person.

     I hope you have written down your Canon, and I pray you, in case it
     might be injurious to your health to come to town, not to exert
     yourself too soon out of attachment to me.

                            Your well-wishing

                                                          RUDOLPH.[25]

     Vienna, July 31st, 1823."

No doubt, there have been in olden time kings who, as history records,
possessed as much skill in music as their best bards or minstrels. If
Alfred the Great could enter and explore the Danish camp under the
disguise of a harper, his harp-playing must have been in the genuine
professional manner of his time, otherwise it would have revealed to the
Danish lovers of music that he was not what he pretended to be.

To become an eminent musician, one requires, besides an
extraordinary talent, much time, freedom from disturbance, and
perseverance,--conditions which are seldom at the command of royal
personages. The middle classes are in this respect the most
favoured,--as they are, in fact, in all intellectual pursuits. When King
Solomon says: "Give me neither poverty nor riches," (Proverbs, Chap.
XXX. v. 8), he speaks rather as a musician, or poet. A king requires
riches as necessarily as a musician requires talent.

[24] 'Tonkünstler-Lexicon Berlin's, von C. Freiherrn von Ledebur;'
Berlin, 1861; p. 6.

[25] 'Biographie von Ludwig van Beethoven, verfasst von A. Schindler;'
Münster, 1845; p. 141.



[Illustration]

COMPOSERS AND PRACTICAL MEN.


It is sad to think how some of our distinguished musical composers have
had to struggle with poverty, when with a proper attention to business
matters they might easily have been men of independent means. True, to
be what is called a practical man requires a talent very different from
that required by an artist; and an inferior artist may be,--nay, often
is a far more practical man than a superior artist. But a superior
artist is not necessarily devoid of the qualifications which constitute
a clever man of business. To maintain that a highly gifted musical
composer must needs be deficient in common sense as regards money
transactions would be as unwarrantable as to assert that a musician who
understands how to use the art as a milch-cow must necessarily be a bad
musician. His love for the art, and his desire to achieve something
great, not unfrequently animates the true artist to disregard, or even
to sacrifice for its sake, his property, health, and other advantages
which the practical man regards as the real happiness of life.

Whatever the composer produces less as a labour of love than for gain,
by command, according to a plan prescribed to him, and under similar
circumstances, is generally not the best he is capable of accomplishing.
An artist must be allowed to create unfettered the work with which he
feels the greatest inclination to occupy himself. But, if he possesses
no property, he may starve before his work is finished. There are some
painful instances on record of starving musical composers, who, with
their admirable talents, might have saved themselves and others much
trouble, if only they had thought it worth their while to be a little
more practical.

Composers generally receive their worst pay for their best works. Their
best works are generally those which made them celebrated; and when they
have become celebrated, they are often well paid for insignificant or
mediocre productions.

Composers sometimes appear to be much more unpractical than they really
are. This may, for instance, easily be the case with those who strike
out a new path in the art, or who aim at a reform, the disirableness of
which seems questionable to all but themselves. However, occasionally it
happens that an innovation, which is at first unpopular, comes by some
unexpected cause rather suddenly in vogue, or at least finds many
advocates; and in this case the originator of the innovation, who was
regarded as an unpractical man, may attain the reputation of being of a
remarkably practical turn of mind. When Richard Wagner, about thirty
years ago, as a poor and obscure musician in Paris, was arranging
operatic melodies for the cornet-à-piston to save himself from
starvation, his notions about the opera of the future appeared to those
few musicians to whom he communicated them, as a dream which to realize
would be as impossible as it would be undesirable. At the present day he
has many estimable musicians among his ardent admirers; he is honoured
by kings, leads the life of a prince, and probably there are but few
persons who would deny that he deserves to be called a practical man.

Several of our classical composers have shown that they could be shrewd
men of business at periods when the pressure of want, or the desire for
independence, urgently incited them to acquire property. Beethoven on
one or two occasions formed the resolution of making it his special
object to accumulate a sum of money, the possession of which would
enable him to compose without regard to publishers and mercantile
speculations. But the endeavour to carry out this resolution seems to
have been generally of but short duration. In the year 1821, the
music-seller Tobias Haslinger, in Vienna, compiled a tariff in which he
enumerated the different kinds of compositions with the prices he was
willing to pay for them, if Beethoven by signing the tariff would bind
himself to give all his new compositions to Haslinger for publication.
This tariff is so interesting that it shall be inserted here, although
Beethoven, who at first expected from it a golden future, was soon
dissuaded by his friends from entering into any contract of the kind.

INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC.

     Symphony for full Orchestra                     60-80 ducats.
     Overture for full Orchestra                     20-30   "
     Concerto for Violin with Orchestral
       accompaniment                                    50   "
     Octett for different instruments                   60   "
     Septett, ditto                                     60   "
     Sextett, ditto                                     60   "
     Quintett for 2 Violins, 2 Tenors, and
       Violoncello                                      50   "
     Quartett for 2 Violins, 2 Tenors, and
       Violoncello                                      40   "
     Trio for Violin, Tenor and Violoncello             40   "

FOR PIANOFORTE.

     Concerto for Pianoforte with Orchestral
       accompaniment                                    60   "
     Fantasia, ditto                                    30   "
     Rondo, ditto                                       30   "
     Variations, ditto                                  30   "
     Octett for Pianoforte with accompaniment
       of other instruments                             50   "
     Septett, ditto                                     50   "
     Quintett, ditto                                    60   "
     Quartett, ditto                                    70   "
     Trio for Pianoforte, Violin, and Violoncello       50   "
     Duett for Pianoforte and Violin                    40   "
     Duett for Pianoforte and Violoncello               40   "
     Duett for Pianoforte _à quatre mains_              60   "
     Grand Sonata for Pianoforte alone                  40   "
     Sonata for Pianoforte alone                        30   "
     Fantasia for Pianoforte                            30   "
     Rondo for Pianoforte                               15   "
     Variations for Pianoforte with accompaniment    10-20   "
     Variations for Pianoforte alone                 10-20   "
     Six Fugues for Pianoforte alone                 30-40   "
     Pieces, such as Divertimenti, Airs,
       Preludes, Potpourris, Bagatelles,
       Adagios, Andantes, Toccatas, Caprices,
       etc., for Pianoforte alone, each              10-15   "

VOCAL MUSIC.

     Grand Mass                                        130   "
     Smaller Mass                                      100   "
     Grand Oratorio                                    300   "
     Smaller Oratorio                                  200   "
     Graduale                                           20   "
     Offertorium                                        20   "
     Te Deum Laudamus                                   50   "
     Requiem                                           120   "
     Vocal pieces with Orchestral accompaniment         20   "
     An Opera Seria                                    300   "
     Six large Songs with Pianoforte accompaniment      20   "
     Six smaller Songs, ditto                           12   "
     A Ballad                                           15   "[26]

It must be borne in mind that these terms were offered to Beethoven at
the period of his life when he had already published his first eight
symphonies and almost all his famous pianoforte sonatas, and other
works, up to Op. 109, and when he therefore was in the zenith of his
reputation in the eyes of the daily increasing number of lovers of music
who were able to understand his genius. In fact, he afterwards received
higher prices; for instance, the publisher Schott, in Mayence, paid him,
in 1825, for the second Mass (D major) 1000 florins; for the ninth
Symphony, 600 florins; for the Quartett Op. 127, fifty ducats; and for
the Quartett Op. 131, eighty ducats. He was still better remunerated, on
a certain occasion, by the publisher Diabelli, in Vienna, who having
composed a Waltz for the pianoforte, wished Beethoven to write six or
seven variations upon it, for which he offered to give him eighty
ducats. Well, Beethoven sat down to compose seven variations. But, the
longer he wrote, the more new ideas occurred to him, and the seven
variations soon increased to ten, then to twenty, then to twenty-five.
When Diabelli learnt that Beethoven had written twenty-five variations
and was still continuing to add to their number, he became rather
alarmed lest the work should grow too voluminous for practical use.
However, he did not succeed in stopping the composer until after the
thirty-third variation. The entire set was published by Diabelli in
1823, under the title '33 Veränderungen über einen Walzer von A.
Diabelli, von Ludwig van Beethoven, Op. 120.'

What must one think of Beethoven's knowledge of money matters when in a
letter to a friend, in which he laments his reduced circumstances, he
asks for advice how he can obtain "money for a bank-note;" while all he
has to do is to cut off from his bond a coupon, and to have it cashed by
the nearest money-changer.[27] Beethoven, owing to his unpractical
habits, required much money, although he lived but frugally. For
instance, it happened that he had to pay rent for three or four
residences at a time, because he had neglected to give warning at the
old residence when he hired a new one. Fortunately for him, some of his
admirers among men of position and wealth interested themselves about
his personal comfort. In an honourable and delicate way they ensured him
an annual income in addition to the gains accruing to him by the sale of
his works. The result was that he actually left some money at his death.
He died (to use an English expression) worth one thousand pounds.

If the correspondence of some of our most celebrated composers with
their publishers were made known, we should probably find therein
unvarnished statements which would surprise us, inasmuch as they would
reveal disappointments which it is now difficult to reconcile with the
celebrity of those composers. The obstacles which some of our classical
composers have encountered in getting their works printed are very
remarkable. J. S. Bach himself engraved on copper-plates his esteemed
work 'The Art of Fugue;' only thirty copies were struck off, as
sufficient to supply the demand; and, after the death of the old master,
his exceedingly practical son, Emanuel, offered the plates for sale at
the value of the copper plates.[28] It is painful to reflect that some
composers who lived in straitened circumstances obtained little or
nothing for certain of their works which have enriched their publishers.
Franz Schubert had to struggle for his daily bread. When the 'Erl-King'
was sung by his friend Vogl for the first time in public, at a concert
in Vienna in the year 1821, it produced sensation, while other
compositions by Schubert which were performed on the same occasion, met
with a cool reception. Schubert published the 'Erl-King' at his own
expense, with the assistance of some friends. But, as his needy
circumstances soon compelled him to sell the copyright of this song,
which was then but little known, his gain was very small, even if
compared with the profits which some arrangers have derived from
transcribing the song for the pianoforte. Although the conditions which
he proposed to the publishers were always modest, they were generally
rejected as being exorbitant. How cautiously the publishers treated him,
may be seen from a letter which Peters, in Leipzig, wrote to
Hüttenbrenner, a friend of Schubert. As this letter is also interesting
inasmuch as it affords a glance into the speculations of a practical man
who makes the art his business, it deserves a place here, although it is
rather long. The translation, which is from the German, is as literal as
possible:--

     "Having been extremely busy since I received your letter of the
     18th of October, I trust you will excuse the tardiness of my reply.

     "I am very much obliged to you for your communication respecting
     Herr Schubert. Several of his vocal compositions are favourably
     known to me, and give me confidence in your recommendation of this
     artist. It will be a great pleasure to me to assist in a wider
     diffusion of the works of this composer than the Vienna
     music-sellers are capable of effecting. But, before I enter into
     any obligation, allow me to give you a little sketch of my business
     arrangements.

     "At the moment when I commenced my present business I resolved to
     distinguish myself advantageously as a publisher, never to print
     anything bad, but rather as much as possible to print only the
     best. It is impracticable to carry out this plan thoroughly; for I
     cannot obtain from the most distinguished artists alone as many
     manuscripts as I require. Besides, we publishers are also often
     compelled from policy to print many things which I at least would
     otherwise not print. Nay, we must publish even many slight works in
     order to provide for a certain public; for, if we confined
     ourselves to classical works only, we should have a very limited
     sphere of business; since, as is well known, the connoisseurs do
     not constitute the majority. Nevertheless, I have not been
     influenced by desire for gain to patronize the more lucrative but
     trashy fashionable trifles; I have always taken care that also the
     works for the great majority of the people should never be bad.
     Always keeping my favourite aim in view, I have chiefly striven to
     issue superior works; and this my endeavour will in future become
     more and more apparent, since every year increases the number of my
     valuable connections, which my financial resources permit me to
     maintain.

     "These observations lead me to mention two obstacles which often
     frustrate my plan. The first is want of time, which almost
     continually curbs me. In order to obtain as many good works as
     possible, I must seek after connections with good artists, and I
     must strengthen these connections not only by endeavouring to
     satisfy the artists, but also by proving myself a publisher always
     ready at their service,--a mutual understanding which is convenient
     to both parties. My connection with most of those of my authors who
     are valuable to me,--as for instance, Spohr, Romberg, Hummel,
     etc.,--has grown into a friendly relation. I am, therefore, doubly
     compelled to accept all that such friends and good artists send me,
     although there is often much among it of which I know at once that
     I shall gain nothing by it. These obligations take up much of my
     time, not only because those artists give me constant occupation,
     but also because I require leisure for examining such works of
     other authors as I receive unexpectedly, as is the case with the
     present ones. Thus, the time remaining to me is seldom sufficient
     to enable me to undertake the publication of more works than I have
     in hand; and I am continually prevented forming new connections
     with composers from want of time.

     "The second obstacle which renders a new connection difficult, and
     which proceeds from the facts above stated, is the novelty, and the
     name of a young composer unknown in my sphere of business. Very
     often I am reproached with not making known the works of new
     composers, and that a new composer cannot become known if the
     publishers do not undertake the publication of his works. This
     reproach is, however, quite undeserved as far as I am concerned;
     for I cannot do everything, and must keep to a fixed plan in order
     to succeed. My plan is to obtain the works of artists who are
     already celebrated. True, I print many other works besides; but if
     I can obtain enough of those, I must leave to other publishers the
     introduction to the public of new composers. These publishers are
     also able to do something, and many are glad to engage new
     composers, because they fear to pay the sums demanded by older and
     more valuable artists. But as soon as the new composer has obtained
     a name, and his works are known as being good, then I am his man;
     and then the publication of his works accords with my plan, which
     is calculated more with regard to honour than to gain. I will then
     rather pay a high price for his works than procure them in the
     beginning on low terms.

     "You see, therefore, that it is difficult for me to meet at once
     your proposal respecting Herr Schubert, especially as my time is so
     much taken up. However, my opinion of him makes me reluctant to
     disregard altogether the wish of this young artist. As a middle
     course, I would, therefore, propose that Herr Schubert should send
     me some of his works which he desires to have printed, so that I
     may examine them; for, without having previously seen the
     manuscript, I accept nothing from a young composer who is but
     little known. If a great and well-known artist produces something
     bad, the blame falls upon him, because his name is my guarantee;
     but if I bring out something by a new artist which is not liked,
     the blame falls upon me; for, who compels me to print a composition
     of the merit of which I am not convinced? Here the name of the
     composer is no protection to me. Herr Schubert may be sure that in
     trusting his manuscripts to me, he places them in safe hands; there
     will be no misuse made of them. In case that I find them
     satisfactory, I shall retain of them as many as I find convenient;
     on the other hand, Herr Schubert must not feel hurt if I do not
     like one or other piece. I shall be quite candid, for candour is
     the surest way to lead to a right understanding.

     "Furthermore, I must beg him to forward to me only his most
     successful works. True, he will not think of publishing anything
     which he does not consider a successful production. Be this as it
     may, a composer is always more successful with one work than with
     another; and I must have the best. I say I must have the best; not
     for the sake of gain, but for the sake of my reputation, when I
     introduce a composer to my public, which is very extensive. I have
     been very painstaking to make my establishment as complete as
     possible, and I now experience from many quarters the recompense
     that my firm enjoys in an extraordinary degree the confidence of
     others. People expect from me the publication of many good works;
     and if I bring out a new author, they soon give him their
     confidence, believing that he must be good because I had taken
     notice of him. No doubt, there have been mistakes; but I am
     becoming more and more cautious, in order that I may always ensure
     and strengthen my reputation, which to acquire I have taken so much
     trouble. For this reason I insist upon a new author giving me his
     best, in order that I may recommend him properly from the
     beginning, my recommendation being justified. Besides, the first
     impression often opens the road to the whole future; wherefore, to
     composers just beginning, the good advice to proceed with the
     publication of their works as cautiously as possible, cannot be too
     often repeated. They may venture much, but should have only little
     printed until their reputation is established.

     "Spohr has hitherto brought out only 58 works; Andreas Romberg, 66;
     Bernhard Romberg, 38; while now many other artists who are much
     younger have already had printed above a hundred. Those well-known
     composers have written much more, which, however, they thought
     advisable to withhold from publication. If, by way of
     contradiction, you point out to me the fertile, and nevertheless
     valuable Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, etc., I declare that such men
     are rare masters whom we ought certainly to regard as models, but
     that experience must first teach us whether the young aspirant is
     similarly gifted. Moreover, many of the earlier compositions of
     Mozart have never been printed.

     "Now, have the kindness to confer with Herr Schubert upon my
     communication to you, and decide what is further to be done. As
     regards the terms, I beg you to inform me of them, because it is
     disagreeable to my feelings to make an offer for an intellectual
     production. Most likely there will not be any difficulty about
     settling the conditions. The perseverance with which my authors
     stick to me, sufficiently shows that they do well with me; this I
     can assert of myself to my own praise. Besides, the conditions of a
     young artist cannot be so high that they could not easily be
     conceded to. I believe that, as you intimate, of a new work by Herr
     Schubert, perhaps 300 copies might be sold in Vienna alone. But
     then it must be printed in Vienna. I do not think that I should
     sell there 100 copies, although I am in connection with all the
     music-sellers of that town. You will understand this quite well,
     and I need not explain the cause, but you may believe me that it is
     so; experience confirms it, and the exceptions are rare indeed.

                     I remain, with high esteem, etc.,
                                                         B. V. PETERS.

     Leipzig, November 14th, 1822."

     "Should Herr Schubert send me vocal compositions, I should prefer
     songs, each with a name, like Beethoven's 'Adelaide,' or others of
     the kind. There are so many songs now published that no sufficient
     attention is given to them if they have no names."[29]

During the years 1826-28, Schubert had still trouble in getting his
compositions printed. This is evident from the tone of the replies to
his solicitations as well as from the conditions demanded by the
publishers. Probst, in Leipzig, in a letter to Schubert, dated August
26th, 1826, remarks:--"It was, no doubt, an honour to me, which I
appreciate, to make your acquaintance through your letter of the 12th
instant; and thanking you heartily for your confidence in me, I am quite
willing to contribute, as far as lies in my power, to the spread of your
reputation as an artist. I must, however, candidly confess that the
peculiar direction of your intellectual productions, which often shows
genius, but which is also sometimes rather strange, is not yet
sufficiently and generally understood by our public. I, therefore, pray
you to take this kindly into consideration when you send me manuscripts.
A selection of songs, and pianoforte compositions for two or four hands,
which are not difficult, and which are pleasant and easily
comprehensible, would appear to me suitable for attaining your aim and
my wish. When the way has been once opened, anything will do; but, in
the beginning one must in some measure comply with the public taste,"
etc.

In another letter to Schubert, by the same publisher, written in 1827,
he says: "However much pleasure it would give me to incorporate your
name in my catalogue, I must for the present renounce it, as I am
overwhelmed with work owing to the publication of Kalkbrenner's
_Oeuvres complètes_. I also confess that the honorarium of eighty
florins[30] for each manuscript seems to me rather high terms. I keep
the works at your disposal, and remain," etc.

A year later, in 1828, he writes more encouragingly: "I have been
sincerely grieved that a difference in our opinions, before my journey
to Vienna, frustrated your esteemed application for the publication of
your compositions through my firm.... Have, therefore, the kindness when
you have completed something which is a success, to send it
here--especially songs, ballads, romances, which, without being devoid
of originality, are easily comprehensible; also some pianoforte pieces
for two performers, written in the same style.... As regards the
honorarium, we shall readily come to an agreement, if you will only
treat with me on a moderate scale; and you will find me always in these
matters reasonable, provided the works are so that I can be pleased with
them. The prices of the Vienna publishers might here fairly serve as a
guide. Herr Lähne would pay you your honorarium in proper time
punctually. Moreover, I must beg you to examine beforehand carefully the
works which you intend me to have, and not to show them first to the
Vienna publishers. Such business transactions must remain entirely
between ourselves. I give you my solemn word that you shall never repent
it if you favour me with your friendly confidence, and if, by selecting
only such compositions for me in which you have been successful, you
afford me the opportunity of exerting myself for the sake of your
reputation."

Breitkopf and Härtel, the famous publishers in Leipzig, in a letter to
Schubert, dated September 7th, 1826, cautiously suggest: "We reply with
grateful thanks to your kind intention of sending us some compositions
for publication, and we assure you that it would give us much pleasure
to enter into a mutually advantageous business relation with you. But as
we are yet quite unacquainted with the mercantile result of your
compositions, and as we, therefore, cannot meet you by offering you a
fixed pecuniary remuneration,--which the publisher can only fix and
allow after the success of the work,--we must leave it to you whether
you will make an attempt to form a connection with us which may perhaps
be durable, and whether in order to facilitate this attempt you will be
satisfied with a certain number of copies as remuneration for the first
work, or works, which you may send us. We have no doubt that you will
agree to the proposal, since with you as well as with us the object is
less the publication of a single work, than the introduction to a
continued connection. In this case we propose that you should send us
first a few pianoforte pieces for one performer or for two. Should our
hope of a good result be realized, so that we may be enabled to offer
you for the subsequent works a proper remuneration in money, it will be
a pleasure to us to render thereby your connection with us agreeable to
you.

                We remain, with the highest esteem, etc.,

                                            BREITKOPF AND HÄRTEL."[31]

Somewhat later, when Schubert had become a little better known, he
received more favourable replies. Schott, in Mayence, offered to publish
several of his works, and to pay for them. In a letter dated April 28th,
1828, Schott, however, declined to accept the trio in E-flat major,
which Schubert had mentioned in his list of finished manuscripts: "The
trio," Schott remarks, "is probably large; and as we have recently
brought out several trios, we must postpone to a later period the
publication of compositions of this kind to avoid disadvantages for our
business; and the delay would be against your interest." This trio (Op.
100) was afterwards bought by Probst, in Leipzig, for about two pounds,
paid with a grumble, and with the insulting remark: "In any case, I hope
the Trio in question is not the 'Fantasia' which was performed on the
5th of February in Herr Slawick's concert at the Kärnthnerthor theatre;
for that composition was unfavourably criticized in the Leipzig Musical
Gazette, No. XIV., page 223."

Again, in a letter from Schott, dated October 30th, 1828, and received
by Schubert about three weeks before his death, he is told among other
business matters: "We shall soon print your Quintett;[32] but we must
remark that the price put on this little work is too high. The
pianoforte part takes up only six printed pages, and we surmise it to be
by an oversight that we are asked to pay sixty florins[33] for it. We
offer you thirty florins for it.... The pianoforte piece, Op. 101,
certainly would not be too dear for us; but its unsuitableness for our
sale in France is very vexatious. Should you compose occasionally
something less difficult and yet brilliant, and also in an easy key,
this you may send us, if you please, without further communication."[34]

Under these circumstances it is no wonder that after the death of
Schubert there should have been some difficulty in defraying the
expenses of his burial, which amounted to about seven pounds; while his
effects, consisting of his dress, a bed, and some old music-books, were
together valued at six pounds six shillings.

Mozart's pecuniary circumstances were scarcely more cheerful than
Schubert's, considering how highly Mozart was appreciated by many during
the last few years of his life. Having in his youth been guided by his
prudent father to be careful in the management of his gains and
expenses, he always wished to be careful, and sometimes troubled himself
much about being practical, but evidently found it very difficult. When
the publisher Hofmeister, in Leipzig, said to him: "Mozart, you must
make concessions to the popular taste, or I cannot buy anything more
from you for publication!" Mozart replied: "Well, I must write what I
think good, though I should starve." Some music-sellers, in an
inexplicable way, succeeded in procuring manuscripts of his, for which
they did not pay him anything.[35] His famous opera, 'Die Zauberflöte,'
he wrote with the object of benefiting his friend, the embarrassed
theatrical manager Schikaneder; and the statement of some writers, that
Mozart gained only fifty thalers (about £7 10s.) by this opera, may
therefore be correct. The King of Prussia offered him an appointment as
Kapellmeister in Berlin, with a salary of 3,000 thalers. Mozart
solicited an audience of his master, the Emperor Joseph II. and asked
for his dismission. "Dear Mozart, you will leave me?" said the emperor.
"No, your Majesty!" replied Mozart, touched by the hearty tone in which
the Emperor spoke to him: "No, your Majesty, I remain!"

A friend, to whom Mozart soon afterwards related this occurrence, said:
"But why did you not seize this favourable opportunity to ask for a
fixed income?"

Mozart replied: "How could I at that moment think of money matters!"

He subsequently received an annual pay of 800 florins, with the title of
Kapellmeister in the service of the Emperor. At his death, he left a
debt of 3,000 florins. The copyright of 'La Clemenza di Tito' was
offered to Breitkopf, in Leipzig, for sixteen ducats. Breitkopf having
declined the opera, it was bought by his apprentice, A. Böhme, who with
it laid the foundation of his prosperous publishing-house in Hamburg.

It must be admitted that among our modern composers several very
practical men could be pointed out. Some, who are the offspring of rich
bankers, may have inherited business-like habits in a natural course;
this appears all the more probable since they belong to a race which is
known to possess extraordinary talent for money-making.

It has long been a favourite project with distinguished musicians on the
continent to visit England, to be there extremely practical, in order to
accumulate as much money as they could in the shortest time possible,
and then to retire to the fatherland to be happy ever after. Possibly
the rumour concerning Handel's property, and his bequests, to which also
Mattheson alludes in his annotations to the 'Memoirs of the Life of
Handel,'[36] may have contributed to entice other continental musicians
to try to make their fortune in England; and many have shown common
sense enough in this attempt. Handel in London generally received for
the copyright of an oratorio twenty guineas. The wealthy publisher,
Walsh, gained £1500 by the publication of the opera 'Rinaldo,' a fact
which elicited from Handel the remark: "My dear sir, it is only right
that we should be upon an equal footing; _you_ shall compose the next
opera, and _I_ will sell it." At any rate, so the story goes. Handel,
after having lost, by his enterprise as manager of the Haymarket
Theatre, all the money he had gained during a residence in England of
about twenty-four years, which amounted to about £10,000, commenced
anew, exerting himself as a practical man in another and more successful
way. Handel died "worth" upwards of twenty thousand pounds.

Music-printing in the eighteenth century was not in the flourishing
state which it has now attained. The composers had other sources of
profit besides the sale of their manuscripts,--such as public
performances, dedications of works to wealthy patrons of the art, or by
having an appointment, with a fixed salary, in the service of a
sovereign. To judge correctly of the capacity for business of a
distinguished musician, it is necessary to take into consideration the
usages of his time.

Haydn, on his first visit to London, in 1791, was engaged by Salomon for
£500, for which sum he had to compose six symphonies, and personally to
direct the performance of them at the concerts; and to resign the
copyright of those six symphonies. Furthermore, £200 were guaranteed to
him by Salomon for a benefit concert.

That Rossini could be practical in England, is evident from the
following conversation of this composer with F. Hiller. It is given here
in translation from the German. By way of preface to it, may be
mentioned that Rossini, in Italy, received for an opera from twenty to
thirty pounds. However, for the 'Barber of Seville' he received about
eighty pounds.

_Hiller._ "Considering, Maestro, that you have grown up among singers
and actors, and that you possessed a fine voice, it seems almost
singular that you did not think of becoming an operatic singer."

_Rossini._ "I had no other intention, dear sir; but I also wished to
learn my art more thoroughly than most of the singers with whom I came
into contact at that time had learnt it. This was easy enough; at an
early period I already officiated as _Maëstro al Cembalo_; then there
came the period when the mutation of my voice interfered with my
singing; my attempts at composition found favourable reception; and thus
I fell almost accidentally into the career of the composer. I adhered to
it, although I had from the beginning the opportunity of observing how
incomparably better the singers are rewarded than we are."

_Hiller._ "Heaven knows! Beethoven has hardly received for all his works
as much as Cruvelli obtains annually at the Grand Opera."

_Rossini._ "It was not quite so bad at that time as it is now; but that
makes no difference. When the composer received fifty ducats, the singer
received a thousand. I confess that I never could help feeling vexed at
this injustice, and often have I given vent to my dissatisfaction in the
presence of the singers. You ignorant fellows, I said, you cannot sing
even so well as I can, and you gain more in one evening than I am paid
for a whole score! But, what was the use of talking thus. Neither do the
German composers get rich."

_Hiller._ "Certainly not, Maestro! But they obtain appointments which,
though they are not lucrative, ensure the most important necessities of
life. No German composer has ever gained so much by his operas that he
could live upon the proceeds. However, it appears to be now better in
this respect than it formerly was."

_Rossini._ "Incomparably better. The former Italian opera composers
could write Heaven knows how many operas, and had nevertheless to
struggle to make both ends meet. I was scarcely better off until I
obtained an appointment with Barbaja."[37]

_Hiller._ "Tancredi was the first of your operas which proved a decided
hit; how much did you get for it, Maestro?"

_Rossini._ "Five hundred francs. And when I composed my last Italian
opera, 'Semiramide,' and insisted upon having five thousand francs for
it, not only the theatrical manager, but the whole public regarded me as
a sort of highwayman."

_Hiller._ "You have the consolation of knowing that singers, managers,
and publishers have become rich through you."

_Rossini._ "A fine consolation! Except during my stay in England, I have
never gained by my art so much that I could lay anything by; and the
money which I made in London, I did not make as a composer, but as an
accompanist."

_Hiller._ "Yet it was because you were a celebrated composer."

_Rossini._ "That is what my friends said, to persuade me to take to the
new occupation. It may have been a prejudice with me, but I had a
dislike to being paid for accompanying on the pianoforte, and I have
submitted to it nowhere but in London. However, they were determined to
see my nose, and to hear my wife. I had fixed for our co-operation at
musical evenings the rather high terms of £50. We attended at about
sixty of such evenings, and the pecuniary result was certainly worth the
trouble. Moreover, in London the musicians will do anything to make
money. I have witnessed there, queer doings."

_Hiller._ "There one scarcely trusts one's eyes, still less one's ears."

_Rossini._ "Thus, for instance, when I accepted my first engagement as
accompanist at such a Soirée, I was told that Puzzi, the celebrated
virtuoso on the horn, and Dragonetti, the celebrated double-bass player,
would also be present. I thought they would play solo, but this was far
from being the case, they had only been engaged to assist me in
accompanying. Have you then written parts for all these pieces? I
asked--'Oh, dear, no!' they replied, 'but we get well paid, and so we
accompany with whatever comes into our head.' These attempts at
improvised instrumental performances appeared to me, however, too
venturesome; I therefore begged Dragonetti to restrict himself to
twanging occasionally some Pizzicatos, whenever I should wink my eyes to
him; and I suggested to Puzzi to fall in with his horn whenever a
cadence occurred, which he, as a good musician, easily accomplished.
Thus we went through it without very serious accidents, and everyone was
contented."

_Hiller._ "That is capital! But the English, it appears to me, have made
great progress in regard to music. They have at present much good music
well performed and attentively listened to; that is, in public concerts.
In the drawing-room, music is still painfully maltreated. Many persons
without the least musical talent parade themselves with an incredible
boldness, and give instruction in things of which they know little or
nothing."

_Rossini._ "I knew in London a certain X., who as teacher of the
pianoforte had amassed a large property. All he knew of music, however,
was that he blew the flute a little, and that quite miserably. Another,
who was greatly in demand as a teacher of singing, did not know even the
notes. He kept his own accompanist, whose business it was first to
hammer those pieces into his master, and afterwards to accompany him
when he taught the pieces to the pupils. This singer possessed however
a nice voice."[38]

For the sake of truth some business letters written by distinguished
German composers to English publishers must be noticed here, although
they redound to the honour of the writers as little as do some of the
letters of the German publishers just cited. Not that they reveal a
deficiency in common sense as regards business transactions; they
exhibit the writers as rather too practical. Among the letters which the
music-seller W. Forster, in London, received from Haydn, with whom he
kept up a correspondence about the purchase of manuscripts for
publication in England, the following, which was originally written in
German, is selected as a characteristic specimen. It dates from the year
1788, and was published by S. A. Forster, a son of the music-seller, in
his account of the correspondence which his father had with Haydn.

     "My dear Mr. Forster,

     Do not be annoyed with me that on my account you have had trouble
     with Mr. Longman. I will satisfy you another time on that point. It
     is not my fault, but that of the usurer Artaria. So much I promise
     you that so long as I live, neither Artaria nor Longman shall
     receive anything from me or through me. I am too honourable and
     upright to annoy or injure you. So much, however, you will yourself
     plainly understand that whoever will have six new pieces from me
     must give me more than twenty guineas. I did, in fact, some time
     ago conclude a contract with somebody who pays me for every six
     pieces one hundred guineas and more. Another time I will write you
     more; meanwhile I am with all respect,

                                             Your obedient servant,

                                                        JOSEPH HAYDN."

Still less creditable to the writer are the following extracts from
letters addressed by Beethoven to the publisher, R. Birchall, of London,
who had bought the copyright for Great Britain and Ireland of four
works by Beethoven, viz.:--The pianoforte arrangement of the Battle
Symphony, Op. 91; the pianoforte arrangement of the A major Symphony,
Op. 92; the Sonata for pianoforte and violin in G major, Op. 96; and the
B-flat major Trio for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, Op. 97. The
letters were originally written in English. They are too long for entire
insertion here. To render the extracts fully comprehensible, it is
necessary to state that Beethoven, after having received from Birchall
the sum agreed upon for those works, unexpectedly demanded five pounds
for the copying and postage of them; and when Birchall had shown him so
much consideration as to satisfy him also on this point, Beethoven wrote
to him as follows:--

                                           "Vienna, October 1st, 1816.

     "My dear Sir,

     I have duly received the £5, and thought previously you would not
     increase the number of Englishmen neglecting their word and honour,
     as I had the misfortune of meeting with two of this sort. In reply
     to the other topics of your favour, I have no objection to write
     variations according to your plan, and I hope you will not find £30
     too much; the accompaniment will be a flute, or violin, or a
     violoncello; you'll either decide it when you send me the
     approbation of the price, or you'll leave it to me.... Concerning
     the expenses of copying and packing, it is not possible to fix them
     beforehand; they are at any rate not considerable, and you'll
     please to consider that you have to deal with a man of honour, who
     will not charge one sixpence more than he is charged himself....
     With all the new works which you will have of me, or which I offer
     you, it rests with you to name the day of their publication at your
     own choice. I entreat you to honour me as soon as possible with an
     answer, having many orders for compositions, and that you may not
     be delayed....

                                Your most humble Servant,

                                                LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN."

These remarks of Beethoven elicited the following reply from Mr. C.
Lonsdale, the manager at R. Birchall's.

                                                "London, Nov. 8, 1816.

     "Sir,

     In answer to yours of the 1st October I am desired by Mr. Birchall
     to inform you he is glad to find you are now satisfied respecting
     the promise of paying you £5,--in addition to what you before
     received according to agreement,--but he did not think you would
     have delayed sending the receipt signed, after the receipt of the
     130 ducats, merely because you had not received the £5, which
     latter sum was not included in the receipt. Till it arrives, Mr.
     Birchall cannot at any rate enter into any fresh arrangement, as
     his first care will be to secure those pieces he has already paid
     for, and see how they answer his purpose as a music-seller; and
     without the receipt he cannot prevent any other music-seller from
     publishing them. In regard to the airs with variations, the price
     of £30, which it is supposed you mean for each, is considerably
     more than he could afford to give,--even to have any hopes of
     seeing them repay him; if that should be your lowest price, Mr.
     Birchall will give up his idea of them altogether.... I am sorry to
     say Mr. Birchall's health has been very bad for two or three years
     back, which prevents him from attending to business; and as there
     are, I fear, but little hopes of his being much better, he is less
     anxious respecting making any additions to his catalogue than he
     otherwise would have been. He is much obliged to you for the offer
     of the Sonata and the Trio; but he begs to decline it for the
     reasons before mentioned. Hoping to hear soon respecting the paper
     sent for your signature.

                             I am, Sir,

                                       For R. Birchall, etc.,

                                                         C. LONSDALE."

To this reasonable letter Beethoven replies (in English):

                                             "Vienna, Dec. 14th, 1816.

     "Dear Sir,

     I give you my word of honour that I have signed and delivered the
     receipt to the house Fries and Co., some day last August, who, as
     they say, have transmitted it to Messrs. Coutts and Co., where
     you'll have the goodness to apply. Some error might have taken
     place, that instead of Messrs. C. sending it to you they have been
     directed to keep it till fetched. Excuse this irregularity, but it
     is not my fault, nor had I ever the idea of withholding it from the
     circumstance of the £5 not being included. Should the receipt not
     come forth at Messrs. C., I am ready to sign any other, and you
     shall have it directly with return of post.

     If you find variations--in my style--too dear at £30, I will abate
     for the sake of your friendship one third, and you have the offer
     of such variations, as fixed in our former letters, for £20 each
     air.... I anxiously hope your health is improving. Give me leave to
     subscribe myself,

                            Dear Sir,

                                     Your very obedient Servant,

                                            LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN."[39]

Beethoven being unacquainted with the English language was obliged to
employ some person to write these letters for him. But, as he signed
them, he must be held answerable for their contents. Had he been able to
read them, he would probably have disapproved of the manner in which his
business transactions were conducted by his interpreter.

During the later years of his life it was a favourite idea with
Beethoven to visit England for the purpose of making money. In the year
1817 he corresponded (in German) with F. Ries, in London, on the
subject, in consequence of an invitation from the Philharmonic Society.
The conditions under which he was willing to accept the invitation he
carefully specified as follows:--

"1. I propose to be in London at the latest during the first half of the
month of January, in 1818.

2. I promise to bring with me two new large symphonies, which shall
become the exclusive property of the Philharmonic Society.

3. The Philharmonic Society pledges itself to pay me for the two
symphonies three hundred guineas, and for my travelling expenses one
hundred guineas. I expect that the journey will cost me much more than
the sum which I ask, because I shall necessarily require a travelling
companion.

4. In order that I may be enabled to occupy myself at once
uninterruptedly with composing those large symphonies, the Philharmonic
Society binds itself to pay 150 guineas of the above sum in advance, so
that I may procure without delay a travelling carriage and other
travelling equipments.

5. The conditions proposed by the Philharmonic Society as regards my
non-appearance in any other public orchestra than its own, about not
conducting the orchestra, and about suchlike matters for the advantage
of the Society, I consent to unreservedly. My feeling of honour would
have dictated them to me as a matter of course.

6. I dare to hope that the Philharmonic Society will oblige me with its
assistance in the preparation and promotion of one benefit concert, or
perhaps more....

7. I must beg that the conditions, or the agreement to the above, shall
be written in the English language, signed by three Directors of the
Philharmonic Society in the name of the Society, and forwarded to me."

Failing health prevented Beethoven from undertaking the journey. The
Philharmonic Society, believing him to be in want, which was far from
being the case, in a delicate way presented him with £100. Indeed,
Beethoven had every reason to feel gratified by the generous attention
shown to him by those Englishmen who were able to appreciate his merits.
In the year 1817, some of his London admirers gave him great pleasure by
sending him a new grand-piano of Broadwood's manufacture; and in 1826,
the kind-hearted Mr. J. A. Stumpff, in London, a German by birth, and a
harp-maker in by no means affluent circumstances, made him a present of
Arnold's edition of Handel's works, in forty volumes folio,--a gift
which was taken to the bedside of the dying composer, and which soothed
his last days of suffering.

Also Haydn received from England touching marks of veneration. Some
instances of homage offered by enthusiastic amateurs, must have caused
him amusement on account of their singularity, if for no better reason.
The worsted-spinner W. Gardiner, of Leicester, forwarded to him a
present of six pairs of cotton stockings in which he had worked the
notation of some popular melodies by Haydn,--such as the air "My mother
bids me bind my hair;" the theme of the Andante in the Surprise
Symphony; the tune of the Hymn "God preserve the Emperor," etc. W.
Gardiner was himself a musical composer, his mode of composing being
that of the Bavarian prince Joseph Clemens, who set about it "like the
bees which extract honey from the most beautiful flowers, and mix it
together."[40] Thus W. Gardiner "composed" a whole oratorio, which he
made up of choruses and airs borrowed from various masters, and more or
less distorted to suit them to their new place. Only the overture was
wanting. He wrote to Beethoven to induce him to compose one for this
oratorio, and offered to pay 100 guineas for it. Beethoven never
answered the letter.[41] Had he been really as greedy of gain as in his
correspondence with Birchall he appears to be, he would probably have
accepted the offer, which was rather liberal. Nevertheless, had he
accepted it, the result would very likely have proved the manufacturer a
more practical man than the composer. Be this as it may, it is quite
comprehensible that to Beethoven an attempt to associate him with
musical jobbery must have been especially repulsive.

Perhaps no opera composer had a better chance of becoming a rich man
than had Carl Maria von Weber. The success of 'Der Freischütz' was
immense. The fascinating melodies of this opera were sung, played and
whistled everywhere, by musical and unmusical people. It would be
difficult to point out a civilized country in which 'Der Freischütz' has
not been performed and listened to with rapture. Before the popularity
of the opera was fully established, Weber offered the pianoforte score
to the publisher Schlesinger, in Berlin, for sixty Frederick-d'ors
(£51). Schlesinger thought the demand exorbitant, and offered two
hundred and twenty thalers (£33), which Weber accepted.[42]
Nevertheless, in consequence of the many performances of 'Der
Freischütz' in various towns on the Continent, from which the composer
derived some pecuniary advantage, the opera proved rather lucrative to
him. Still, it was more remunerative indirectly than directly, inasmuch
as its universal success induced Charles Kemble, the manager of the
Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, to engage Weber to compose 'Oberon,' and
to visit London for the purpose of conducting the new opera. Thus Weber
had an excellent opportunity of exercising his aptitude for business.
How he acquitted himself of the task, may be gathered from his rejecting
at the outset the terms offered by Kemble,--which were £500, and all his
expenses paid,--and proposing his own terms, which, with the help of
some one acquainted with the English language, he had penned as
follows:--

"At my arrival at London I will first of all preside at the piano in six
representations of the 'Freischütz'; for the first five you will give me
every night a pecuniary compensation of two hundred pounds, and the
sixth as a benefit for me. During this time we will prepare 'Oberon' and
I will preside at the piano also the first six representations at the
same conditions. I must be assured that all this be settled in three
months, otherwise I should claim an adequate indemnification. The music
of 'Oberon' (Partition, and adapted by me for the Piano) is then your
property for Great Britain. The poem and the music are mine for all the
rest of Europe."

According to this proposal Weber would have realized in the course of
three months £2,400. But he soon experienced that one may also be too
practical. His shattered health rendered the journey to England
exceedingly fatiguing, and the trouble, excitement and disappointments
connected with the rehearsals and representations of 'Oberon,' and with
the necessary preparations for his concerts, accelerated his
dissolution. He died in 1826, when he had been about three months in
London, and the proceeds of his toil during the time amounted to about
£1,100, or less than half the sum which he at first demanded from
Kemble.

The musical student, in perusing the master-works in his art, has
continually occasion to admire the careful consideration which the
composers have given to every bar so as to produce great effects by
simple means, interesting variety in unity, thus achieving as nearly as
possible a perfect work of art. Also, their remarks upon their
compositions show how thoughtfully they laboured, considering and
reconsidering every step they took. It is unnecessary to illustrate this
fact by quotations, as instances will probably occur to the reader.
Suffice it to notice a remark by Mozart, which shows how cleverly he
contrived to make concessions to the popular taste, in as far as he
could accomplish this without deterioration to his compositions as works
of art. In a letter to his father, which he wrote from Paris, he thus
describes the performance of a new symphony, which he had been requested
to compose for the _Concert Spirituel_:--

"In the middle of the first Allegro is a passage of which I knew well
that it would please. All the auditors were transported by it, and there
was great applause. As I knew, when I wrote the passage, what its effect
would be, I introduced it once more towards the end of the movement.
Then they demanded a repetition of the entire Allegro. The Andante
pleased also; but especially the last Allegro. As I had been told that
it was the usual custom with the composers here in Paris to commence the
last Allegro of a symphony, like the first, with the full orchestra,
generally in unison, I commenced mine with only the first and second
violins, _piano_ through eight bars. Then came suddenly _forte_.
Consequently, the auditors made first, as I had expected,--hush! and
then the _forte_ surprised them so greatly, that they applauded as a
matter of course."

Is this not thoroughly practical in an artistic point of view?

[Illustration]

[26] 'Biographie von Ludwig van Beethoven, verfasst von A. Schindler;'
Münster, 1845; p. 246.

[27] 'Biographische Notizen über L. van Beethoven, von Wegeler und
Ries;' Coblenz, 1838; p. 34.

[28] 'Historisch-Kritische Beiträge zur Aufnahme der Musik, von F. W.
Marpurg.' Vol. II., Berlin, 1756; p. 575.

[29] 'Franz Schubert, von H. Kreiszle von Hellborn;' Wien, 1865, p. 272.

[30] £8.

[31] 'Franz Schubert, von H. Kreiszle von Hellborn;' Wien, 1865; p. 388.

[32] Op. 114.

[33] £6.

[34] 'Franz Schubert, von H. Kreiszle von Hellborn;' Wien, 1865; p. 442.

[35] 'Biographie W. A. Mozart's, von G. N. von Nissen;' Leipzig, 1828,
p. 584.

[36] See above, page 23.

[37] Barbaja, the Impressario of the San Carlo Theatre at Naples.

[38] 'Aus dem Tonleben unserer Zeit, von Ferdinand Hiller; Leipzig,
1868.' Vol. II., p. 22.

[39] 'Jahrbücher für Musikalische Wissenschaft, herausgegeben von F.
Chrysander.' Leipzig, 1863, p. 434.

[40] See above, p. 45.

[41] 'Music and Friends, by William Gardiner.' Vol. III., London, 1853,
p. 378.

[42] 'Carl Maria von Weber, ein Lebensbild,' von Max C. M. von Weber;
Leipzig, 1864. Vol. II., p. 270.



[Illustration]

MUSIC AND MEDICINE.


Music is capable of exercising a favourable influence upon health, but
it may also prove injurious. In order to know how to employ it with good
result in certain illnesses, an exact acquaintance with its various
effects is requisite. First of all, it ought to be borne in mind that
music may serve as a remedy either by directly affecting the mind, or by
acting primarily upon the body. In the former case its influence may be
called psychical; and in the latter, physical.

Considering how much in the cure of certain illnesses depends upon the
spirits of the patient, it will easily be understood that the affecting
power of music deserves special attention. There are illnesses in which
the attainment of a calm state of mind may be a most important condition
for the recovery of the patient,--nay, instances are conceivable in
which with this attainment the illness is already in a great measure
removed. Some persons are much more susceptible of music than others;
but there are few in whose heart it finds not some response, however
slight. Indeed, the beneficial influence of music is almost universally
felt, and is evidenced by examples the authenticity of which is
indisputable. No other art is so capable of easily moving man to tears
of grief, of exciting him in a moment to cheerfulness, of inspiring him
with courage, and of making him forget his real or imaginary troubles
and anxieties. Hence, with almost every nation we find the employment of
music resorted to on occasions of sadness and mourning, at solemn
celebrations and joyful festivities, in warlike exploits, in religious
worship,--in fact, wherever a definite direction of a certain feeling is
especially requisite.

Also the popular stories, of which a selection is given in the present
work, testify to the universally-felt power of music. In many of the
stories miraculous effects are ascribed to music. What stronger proof
can be cited of its intense impression upon the human heart than the
popularity of such conceptions traditionally preserved through
centuries!

But also the direct influence which the cultivation of music may
exercise upon the body is not insignificant, considered medically. Thus,
for instance, singing, if judiciously practised, is conducive to health,
inasmuch as it benefits the lungs and the chest; and the playing on
certain musical instruments is salutary, while on others it is
injurious. Moreover, in combination with dancing, music is likely to
prove in some complaints an efficacious remedy. Of course, everything
depends upon its judicious employment, if it is to serve medically. In
order exactly to ascertain its efficacy it is advisable to examine its
employment as we find it in different nations. Even the most uncivilized
tribes ought not to be ignored in this enquiry, because the dictates of
instinct are often not less suggestive than the speculations of reason.

Nations, or tribes, in a low state of civilization, as there are many
still existing at the present day, have generally so-called
"mystery-men," or "medicine-men," who combine in one person the
avocation of the priest, physician, and musician, and who are also
usually prophets, sorcerers, rain-makers, shrewd advisers,--in short,
men who by their comparatively superior knowledge and skill obtain
considerable influence over their ignorant and superstitious fellow-men.

The most ancient nations historically known were far more advanced in
civilization than these our contemporaries. However, we find with them
traces of the original existence of "mystery-men." With the Greeks,
music, or the art of the Muses, originally comprised, besides the
tone-art, several other arts and sciences; from which it may be
conjectured that the earliest Greek musicians practised also the healing
art like the mystery-men of our time. The ancient Egyptians, at an
early period, had attained a considerably higher stage of development in
the cultivation of music than many nations of the present day have
achieved. This assertion will not appear exaggerated to any musician who
has carefully examined the ancient representations of the
variously-constructed instruments which were in use with the Egyptians,
centuries before our Christian era. Equally suggestive is a statement of
Herodotus, indicating the progress which the Egyptians had made in the
healing art, nearly 500 years before our era. He remarks (Euterpe 84):
"The art of medicine is thus divided amongst them: each physician
applies himself to one disease only, and not more. All places abound in
physicians; some physicians are for the eyes, others for the head,
others for the teeth, others for the parts about the belly, and others
for internal disorders." Such a high degree of cultivation of an art or
science, in which each professor occupies himself especially with a
particular branch in order to achieve the utmost possible perfection in
it, is known at the present day only among the most civilized nations.

If, therefore, we desire to obtain an accurate idea of the primitive
treatment of diseases by means of music, a reference to the usages of
some rude tribes in uncivilized lands will be the proper step for
acquiring the information.

Considering that the mystery-men alluded to are, as a rule, mentally the
most gifted and the most crafty personages of the tribe to which they
belong, and that they are especially familiar with the views,
inclinations, customs, and weaknesses of their people, a detailed
account of the social position and doings of these extraordinary
individuals in different parts of the world might be very interesting.
It would, however, be out of place here to describe them further than as
they appear in their medical and musical capacities.

The mystery-men of the North American Indians, or the "medicine-men," as
they are more usually called, are acquainted with the medicinal virtues
of a great many different kinds of roots and herbs, of which they make
use in their prescriptions, and for which they are paid. Some of them
enjoy a high reputation on account of their skill; and in general the
medicine-man takes a high position among the people. Only when the
common remedies of roots and herbs have proved unsuccessful does he
resort to "medicine" or mystery. He arrays himself in a most grotesque
dress, and provides himself with a rattle, commonly made of a gourd,
which is hollowed and partly filled with pebbles. Thus equipped, he
approaches his dying patient to cure him by a charm. He dances about
him, singing songs of incantation, and producing a frightful noise by
shaking his rattle. Catlin records a scene of an attempted cure of this
description which he himself witnessed, as follows: "Several hundred
spectators, including Indians and traders, were assembled round the
dying man, when it was announced that the medicine-man was coming. We
were required to form a ring, leaving a space of some thirty or forty
feet in diameter around the dying man, in which the doctor would perform
his wonderful operations; and a space was also opened to allow him free
room to pass through the crowd without touching any one.... He
approached the ring with his body in a crouching position, with a slow
and tilting step. His body and head were entirely covered with the skin
of a yellow bear, the head of which--his own head being inside of
it--served as a mask; the huge claws of which also were dangling on his
wrists and ankles. In one hand he shook a frightful rattle, and in the
other he brandished his medicine-spear, or magic wand; to the rattling
din and discord of all of which he added the wild and startling jumps
and yelps of the Indian, and the horrid and appalling grunts, snarls,
and growls of the grizzly bear, in ejaculatory and gutteral incantations
to the Good and Bad Spirits, in behalf of his patient, who was rolling
and groaning in the agonies of death, whilst he was dancing around him,
jumping over him, and pawing him about, and rolling him in every
direction. In this wise the strange operation proceeded for half an hour
to the surprise of a numerous and death-like silent audience, until the
man died; and the medicine-man danced off to his quarters, and packed
up, tied and secured from the sight of the world his mystery dress and
equipments."[43] Should the exhausted patient unaccountably recover
after such a ceremony, the lucky medicine-man will be seen for several
days after the event on the top of a wigwam, extending his right arm,
waving it to the gaping multitude, and boasting of his skill.

With the Indian tribes in Columbia and Vancouver Island the
medicine-man, although he may become of great importance if he is
clever, is liable to be put to death if he fails to cure his patient; it
being presumed that he possesses the power, but not the wish, to cure. A
strange procedure of one of these fellows in trying to cure a female who
lay dangerously ill, was witnessed by an Englishman, who has given a
circumstantial description of it, from which the following extract will
suffice:--

"Towards night the doctor came, bringing with him his own and another
family to assist in the ceremony. After they had eaten supper, the
centre of the lodge was cleared and fresh sand strewed upon it. A bright
fire of dry wood was then kindled, and a brilliant light kept up by
occasionally throwing oil upon it. I considered this a species of
incense offered, as the same light would have been produced, if desired,
by a quantity of pitch-knots which were lying in the corner. The
patient, well wrapped in blankets, was laid on her back, with her head a
little elevated, and her hands crossed on her breast. The doctor knelt
at her feet, and commenced singing a song, the subject of which was an
address to the dead, asking them why they had come to take his friend
and mother, and begged them to go away and leave her. The rest of the
people then sung the chorus in a low, mournful chant, keeping time by
knocking on the roof with long wands they held.... As the performance
proceeded, the doctor became more and more excited, singing loudly and
violently, with great gesticulation, and occasionally making passes with
his hand over the face and person of the patient, similar to those made
by mesmeric manipulators."[44]

Likewise, in a cure effected in the case of a sick lad of the Wallawalla
Indians, Columbia river, which Mr. Drayton witnessed, there appears to
have been a kind of mesmerism used in combination with music. This case
is also noteworthy inasmuch as it shows that the Indians have female
physicians. The lad was lying on his back in a lodge and appeared to be
in a dying state. Over him stood an old haggard-looking squaw, who was
singing in great excitement, while about a dozen men and boys were
accompanying her with their voices in a sort of chorus, the rhythmical
effect of which they increased by striking sticks together at regular
intervals. The music thus produced sounded unearthly to the foreign
bystander. The squaw was all the time very busy about the lad, now
bending over him and making all kinds of grimaces, and now baring his
chest and pretending by her actions to be scooping out his disease, and
now again falling on her knees before him and striving to draw out the
evil spirit with both her hands. She blew into her hands and then moved
them over the patient in a peculiar manner as if she were tossing the
noxious spirit away into the air. Then again she would blow with her
mouth on his neck downwards, making a quick sputtering noise; and at
last she began to suck his neck and chest in different parts. Whatever
may be thought of this operation, the boy certainly soon got better.
Moreover, our informant concludes his account of the occurrence with the
statement: "One singular custom prevailing here (with the Indians of
Wallawalla) is that all the convalescents are directed to sing for
several hours during the day."[45]

The Indian tribes in Guiana have mystery-men, called Piatzas, or Piaies,
who constitute a powerful priesthood. In their incantations they use
rattles, and also drums and bells. When a person suffering from a
protracted illness finds the commonly-used medicines of no avail, his
refuge is to the Piatza, to induce him to drive out the evil spirit that
must be the cause of the mischief. The Piatza carries the patient into
the nearest forest, and having fastened his hammock to some tree across
a pass, he commences the incantations, which he accompanies with the
noise of his rattle. The rattle consists of a calabash partly filled
with small pebbles. During his incantations no one is permitted to
witness what he is doing, even the patient being enjoined to close his
eyes and to keep them shut until the end of the ceremony. The Piatza
draws a circle round the sick person and addresses the evil spirit.[46]

Again, the _Manchi_, or medicine-man of the Peguenches and other Indian
tribes in the Argentine Provinces, is skilled in the use of herbs. If
remedies of this kind prove ineffectual, mysterious ceremonies are
resorted to. A sheep and a colt are killed, and are placed with vessels
of a fermented liquor, called _chichala_, under trees close to a hut;
the patient is carried out of the hut and laid on the sunny side of the
trees. The _Manchi_ and the women now dance in a circle round the trees,
the animals, and the sick person. When the dancers are exhausted the
_Manchi_ fumigates the animals and the sick person three times, and then
sucks the diseased part of the man with such force as to draw blood.
After this, he sucks the heart of the colt and anoints the sick person
with the blood of the animal. At the conclusion of these disgusting
ceremonies, in the performance of which the _Manchi_ affects to be in a
trance, dancing is recommenced, and the patient is forced to join in it,
supported by his friends. A general feast, in which the people consume
the animals, concludes the ceremony.[47] The _Manchi_ generally uses a
kind of drum in his incantations.

The mystery-men of the Araucanian Indians are called _Gligua_, or
_Dugol_, and some of them are distinguished by the epithets
_Guenguenu_, _Genpugni_, and _Genpuri_ (_i. e._ "Master of the heavens,
of epidemic diseases, of worms and insects,") and are supposed to have
the power of curing every disease, of producing rain, and of preventing
the ravages of worms and insects. The real medicine-men are called
_Machi_,[48] and their method of curing is similar to that of the
_Manchi_ of the Argentine Provinces just described. The ceremony is,
however, always performed in the night. The hut in which the patient
lies is lighted with a great number of torches. In a corner of the room
is placed, among branches of laurel, a large bough of cinnamon, to which
is suspended the magic drum; and near to it is a sheep which is to be
killed for sacrifice. A number of women sing aloud and beat upon little
drums, while the _Machi_ proceeds, with frightful gesticulations and
horrible contortions of his body, to exorcise the evil spirit which is
supposed to be the cause of the malady.[49] Sometimes he will suddenly
exhibit in triumph a spider, a toad, or some other obnoxious animal,
which he pretends to have extracted from the body of the sufferer.[50] A
more detailed account of these impostors is unnecessary, especially as
the works are mentioned which contain full descriptions of them.

The largest Indian tribes in Patagonia, the Moluches and the Puelches,
have male and female sorcerers. Boys who suffer from epileptic fits, or
from the St. Vitus's dance, are selected for this office, and are
brought up in it. They have to adopt female apparel, which they continue
to wear when grown up. These men, dressed like women, are supposed to
have been destined for their profession by the demons themselves. They,
likewise, assume the power of curing disease by means of incantations
accompanied with the noise of rattles and drums.[51]

The close resemblance of certain practices of the medicine-men among
uncivilized nations in different parts of the globe, is especially
suggestive. Nor are the differences without interest.

Turning to Africa, we have musical-medical practitioners with the
Negroes and Kafirs, whose art must have originated quite independently
of that of the American medicine-men. The Negroes in Jamaica have
sorcerers and physicians, called Obeah-men, whose ceremonies are
probably of African origin, although they are in many respects similar
to those of the Indian medicine-men. The Obeah-men, being well
acquainted with the peculiar effects of the different poisonous plants,
it is said, often make bad use of their knowledge.[52] When attending a
sick person, the Obeah-man generally commences his cure with a dance,
and he administers a powder, or a liquor, to his victim.[53]

The Negroes in Western Africa have professional musicians or minstrels,
called in Senegambia, _Griots_; singing men, or bards, called
_Jillikea_; Fetish priests who drum and dance as if they themselves were
possessed of evil spirits; Priestesses of the Serpent worship, which has
its principal temples in Whydah; Rain-makers; Wizards, called
_Greegree-men_; and other "wise men," who are also physicians and
musicians. The _Ganga_, in Loango, South Western Africa, are, according
to the Abbé Proyard, priests as well as physicians: "When they come to a
patient, they ask him where his ailment lies. They blow on the part
affected: after that, they make fomentations, and tie up his limbs in
different places with bandages. These are the preliminaries used in all
diseases. They know nothing either of phlebotomy, or of medicine....
They know a very salutary remedy, in their opinion, for all diseases;
but this they only employ in favour of those who can afford the expense.
When they are called in to a rich man, they take with them all the
performers on musical instruments they can find in the country. They
all enter in silence; but, at the first signal which they give, the
musical troop begin their performance. Some are furnished with stringed
instruments, others beat on the trunks of hollow trees covered with
skin,--a sort of tabor. All of them uniting their voices with the sound
of the instruments round the patient's bed, make a terrible uproar and
din, which is often continued for several days and nights in
succession."[54]

The mystery-man in Benguela is called _Kimbanda_. He performs his
ceremonies in the forest, in the presence of the people. Before him
stands a calabash with a wide opening, in which are figures rudely
carved, of wood or bone, which represent different kinds of wild
animals. A rattle, which he holds in his hand, consists of a hollow
calabash containing pebbles. He shakes his rattle and addresses the
figures in a recitation, interspersed with questions concerning the
ailments of his patient. An assistant, who is hidden in the
neighbourhood of the figures, answers the questions in a hollow tone of
voice, as if it came from the figures. However, for the accomplishment
of the cure a sacrifice of a cow is generally demanded by those greedy
figures; or even more, according to the means of the patient. The
answers given by the figures are generally so indistinct that no one but
the _Kimbanda_ can understand them; and he communicates them to the
people.[55]

The Somali, in Eastern Africa, have similar mystery-men, called
_Tawuli_; and the natives of Zanzibar have the _Mganga_, who professes
to heal the patient by expelling the demon by means of his singing and
the shaking of his rattle. The mystery-man of the Kafirs of Natal
likewise accompanies his recitations with a rattle. He is an
extraordinarily dangerous and objectionable personage; for, when the
cattle fall sick, or some other mischief happens, he is apt to declare
that it has been caused by some evil-doer whom he can find out. He
sings and dances towards several individuals in succession, and affects
to examine them by his olfactory sense. Suddenly he touches one with the
gnu's tail which he carries in his hand. He leaps over the head of the
unhappy man, and points him out as the offender.[56] Also the Bechuana,
in fact every Kafir tribe, has one or more of such personages, who are
physicians and musicians, as well as priests, prophets, and rain-makers.

Considering the very low state of civilization of those natives of
Australia who have not come into contact with the European settlers, it
is especially interesting to learn their notions on the employment of
music in the cure of disease. These aborigines are divided into numerous
tribes, who have no chief, or leader properly speaking, except the
_Crodgy_, or "wise man," who, besides being a quack, is also the
conductor of their ceremonies. They not unfrequently suffer from
rheumatic pains in their limbs, which they believe to be caused by some
demon. To protect themselves against the demons, they carry about them
charms consisting of bits of rock crystal, called "mundy-stones," which
they value highly. They endeavour to drive away the demons by whirling
round their head an oval-shaped board, called _moor-y-umkarr_, which is
curiously ornamented, and is suspended to a string. It produces an
unearthly, humming sound, sometimes soft, sometimes loud and roaring,
according to the force with which it is whirled. The doctor, in curing a
sick person, proceeds much in the same manner as the medicine-man of the
North American Indians. He, however, uses no rattle; a bunch of green
reeds held in the hand and shaken serves the same purpose. The small-pox
is so greatly feared by the natives that they possess a special song,
called _nguitkurra_, by the singing of which the disease is believed to
be prevented, or checked in its progress.[57] A native from the
vicinity of Port Jackson, whose wife was complaining of a pain in the
stomach, was observed by a European traveller to cure her in the
following manner: "After blowing on his hand, he warmed it at a fire,
and then applied it to the part affected, beginning at the same time a
song which was probably calculated for the occasion. A piece of flannel
being warmed and applied by a bystander, rendered the warming his hand
unnecessary; but he continued his song, always keeping his mouth very
near to the part affected, and frequently stopping to blow on it, making
a noise after blowing, in imitation of the barking of a dog. But, though
he blew several times, he only made that noise once at every pause, and
then continued his song. The woman always made short responses whenever
he ceased to blow and bark."[58]

An English missionary in Tanna Island, New Hebrides, relates that when a
native of that Island is taken ill, his friends believe that his illness
is occasioned by some one burning his _nakah_ (_i.e._ "rubbish"). They
have "disease-makers" who are believed to have in their hands the power
of life and death, and who are consequently much feared. Every kind of
_nakah_ is carefully buried or thrown into the sea, lest the
disease-maker should pick it up, wrap it in a leaf, and burn it. When a
native is taken ill, his friends blow on a conch trumpet, which
signifies a supplication to the disease-maker to discontinue burning the
rubbish. If the sick man recovers, the disease-man receives a present
for having left off burning. The rubbish generally consists of some
refuse of food.[59] The New Zealanders had formerly similar
disease-makers, who were supposed to require a lock of hair, or some
nail-parings, of the person whom they intended to afflict with disease.

Let us now turn to some tribes in cold regions of the North, to compare
their musical ceremonies in the cure of illness with those in tropical
countries.

The natives of Kamtschatka have persons called _Shamans_, who profess to
be able to communicate with the spirits by arraying themselves in a
grotesque garment, chanting, beating a drum, dancing, and working
themselves up to a state of trance. They, on these occasions, drink an
infusion of a species of fungus, which has an intoxicating power, and
which sometimes makes them sleep afterwards for three or four days
without interruption. Its effect must therefore be similar to that of
opium. The Shamans of the Ostiaks, and of the Samoiedes, in Siberia,
suspend to their dress metal representations of strange birds, fishes,
and quadrupeds, with bones, teeth, and other frightful-looking things.
In their incantations they shake the dress so that the metallic
appendages produce clanging and tinkling sounds, the effect of which is
increased by the Shaman's beating a drum, of the tambourine kind. Also
the Laplanders, about a century ago, had such sorcerers, who used a drum
called _rune-bomme_, or _gobodes_, the parchment of which was marked
with mystic signs. The sorcerer was called _Noaaid_, or _Spagubbe_.
Besides his magic drum he had a magic chain, about twelve inches in
length, of tin and copper, which, when shaken, produced a shrill,
tinkling noise. No journey, no business transaction was undertaken by
the Lapp without his having previously consulted the Noaaid, who by
means of a ring placed on the parchment of his drum, predicted the
success of the undertaking. When he beat the drum, the vibration caused
the ring to move to one or other of the mysterious signs marked upon the
parchment; and from the position of the ring, he pretended to be able to
divine the future. Moreover, he cured diseases by beating his drum to
incantations and wild dancing. The Lapps believed that the defunct
relations of the sick person attempted to draw him over to them; it,
therefore, naturally suggested itself to his friends to engage the
interference of the Noaaid, who professed to have intercourse with the
spirits of the dead. The pagan Finns had the same notion, which is not
surprising, considering that they and the Lapps are of one race. The
sorcerers of the Finns recited songs, called _lugut_, when they
attempted to exorcise the evil spirit of the patient, or to remove the
witchcraft occasioning the mischief. These superstitions the Finnish
races probably brought with them originally from Asia, where we still
meet with them at the present day. It is remarkable that in time of
remote antiquity, the priests of certain Eastern nations used tinkling
instruments for the purpose of frightening away the demons. The ancient
Egyptians shook the Sistrum; and the priests of the Copts and of the
Abyssinian Christians observe still this very ancient custom. The Hebrew
priests, at the time of Moses, had little bells attached to their robes
for protection against evil influences; at any rate, it is recorded that
the sound of Aaron's bell was to be heard "that he die not." (Exod.
chap. xxviii., v. 35.)

A curious account of the employment of music in the cure of diseases in
Chinese Tartary is given by M. Huc. He says: "When illness attacks any
one his friends run to the nearest monastery for a Lama, whose first
proceeding upon visiting the patient is to run his fingers over the
pulse of both wrists simultaneously, as the fingers of a musician run
over the strings of an instrument.... After due deliberation the Lama
pronounces his opinion as to the particular nature of the malady.
According to the religious belief of the Tartars all illness is owing to
the visitation of a _Tchutgour_, or demon, but the expulsion of the
demon is first a matter of medicine. The Lama physician next proceeds,
as Lama apothecary, to give the specific befitting the case. The Tartar
pharmacopoeia rejecting all mineral chemistry, the Lama remedies
consist entirely of vegetables pulverized, and either infused in water
or made up into pills. If the Lama doctor happens not to have any
medicine with him he is by no means disconcerted; he writes the names of
the remedies upon little scraps of paper, moistens the paper with
saliva, and rolls them into pills, which the patient tosses down with
the same perfect confidence as though they were genuine medicaments."
When the invalid is a person of property, the Lamas make extraordinary
preparations for expelling the _Tchutgour_, for which the invalid has to
give them dresses and other presents. The aunt of Tokoura, chief of an
encampment, visited by M. Huc, was seized one evening with an
intermittent fever. "I would invite the attendance of the Lama doctor,"
said Tokoura, "but if he finds that there is a very big Tchutgour
present, the expense will ruin me." He waited for some days; but, as the
aunt grew worse and worse, he at last sent for a Lama. "His
anticipations," M. Huc relates, "were confirmed. The Lama pronounced
that a demon of considerable rank was present, and that no time must be
lost in expelling him. Eight other Lamas were forthwith called in, who
at once set about the construction, in dried herbs, of a great puppet,
which they entitled _The Demon of Intermittent Fevers_, and which, when
completed, they placed on its legs by means of a stick in the patient's
tent. The ceremony began at eleven o'clock at night. The Lamas ranged
themselves in a semi-circle round the upper portion of the tent, with
cymbals, conch-trumpets, bells, tambourines, and other instruments of
the noisy Tartar music. The remainder of the circle was completed by the
members of the family squatting on the ground close to one another, the
patient kneeling, or rather crouched on her knees, opposite the 'Demon
of intermittent fevers.' The Lama doctor-in-chief had before him a large
copper basin filled with millet, and some little images made of paste.
The dung-fuel (_argols_) threw, amid much smoke, a fantastic and
quivering light over the strange scene.[60] Upon a given signal, the
clerical orchestra executed an introductory piece harsh enough to
frighten Satan himself, the lay congregation beating time with their
hands to the charivari of clanging instruments and ear-splitting voices.
The diabolic concert over, the Grand Lama opened the Book of Exorcisms,
which he rested on his knees. As he chanted one of the forms, he took
from the basin, from time to time, a handful of millet, which he threw
east, west, north and south, according to the Rubric. The tones of his
voice, as he prayed, were sometimes mournful and suppressed, sometimes
vehemently loud and energetic. All of a sudden he would quit the
regular cadence of prayer, and have an outburst of apparently
indomitable rage, abusing the herb puppet with fierce invectives and
furious gestures. The exorcism terminated, he gave a signal by
stretching out his arms, right and left, and the other Lamas struck up a
tremendously noisy chorus, in hurried, dashing tones; all the
instruments were set to work, and meantime the lay congregation, having
started up with one accord, ran out of the tent, one after the other,
and, tearing round it like mad people, beat it at their hardest with
sticks, yelling all the while at the pitch of their voices, in a manner
to make ordinary hair stand on end."

Then they returned to the tent, and repeated the same scene. After they
had done this three times, they covered their faces with their hands,
and the Grand Lama set fire to the herb figure. "As soon as the flames
rose, he uttered a loud cry, which was repeated with interest by the
whole company.... After this strange treatment, the malady did not
return. The probability is that the Lamas, having ascertained the
precise moment at which the fever-fit would recur, met it at the exact
point of time by this tremendous counter-excitement, and overcame
it."[61]

The Burmese, especially those of the mountain region of south and east
Burmah, have priests and sorcerers, called _Wees_ and _Bookhoos_, who
"pretend to cure diseases, to know men's thoughts, and to converse with
the spirits. Their performances are fraught with awe and terror to a
superstitious people. They begin with solemn and mysterious movements;
at length every muscle is agitated, while with frantic looks and foaming
mouth they utter oracles, or speak to a man's spirit and declare its
responses."[62] In cases of severe illness which have resisted the skill
of native medical art, the physician gravely tells the patient and
relatives that it is useless to have recourse any longer to medicine.
An evil _Natch_ ("spirit") is the author of the complaint, and requires
to be expelled. This is accomplished by means of music and dancing,
while the physician gives to the patient some medicine, pointed out to
him as an infallible remedy by an accomplice in a kind of trance during
the ceremony.[63]

That in certain complaints it may be beneficial to the invalid to dance
to the sound of music, is owing to the exhilarating influence of the
music as well as to the bodily exercise of the dancing.

The treatment of the Tarantism, or the derangement of the system caused
by the bite of the Tarantula, a venomous spider in Apulia, Italy, has
been so often described by medical and musical men, that a detailed
account of it is hardly required here. Suffice it to notice the opinions
entertained by some careful medical inquirers, respecting the efficacy
of music and dancing in the cure of this illness. Nicolo Peroti, an
Italian Archbishop, who lived in the fifteenth century, is supposed to
have been the first who in his writings has drawn attention to the
symptoms attributed to the bite of the Tarantula. Achille Vergari, a
physician, in his treatise, entitled, 'Tarantismo, o malattia prodotta
dalle Tarantole velenose,' Naples, 1839, says that not all these spiders
are alike poisonous, but that some are so to a degree that a person
bitten by them is sure to die almost immediately, notwithstanding all
antidotes administered to him. According to Vergari, the Tarantula is
found not only in South Italy, but also in Sardinia, the Caucasus,
Persia, Abyssinia, Madagascar, the West Indies, and in several other hot
regions. The poison consists in a fluid secreted in glands, which, when
the spider bites, is pressed into the wound, and thus diffused
throughout the body. The poison is most virulent during the dog-days,
and during the period of breeding, especially if the spider is
irritated, and if the person bitten is particularly susceptible for the
action of the poison; under other circumstances it causes but little
injury, or none at all. The only specific cure for the bite is believed
to be music and dancing. The animating sound of the tune known as the
Tarantella subdues the depressing effect of the poison; the invalid
feels invigorated by the music; he raises himself and begins to move his
hands and feet to the time of it; and, be he old or young, though he may
never before in his life have danced, he is irresistibly forced to dance
until exhaustion compels him to desist. The dancing sometimes lasts
three hours without cessation, and is repeated for three or four
successive days. The most salutary time for it is the early morning, at
sunrise, when the patient usually perspires, sighs, complains, and
behaves like an intoxicated person. Occasionally, while dancing, he
takes in his hands green branches, or ribbons of some particular colour;
or he wants to be dressed in showy garments. The black colour he hates,
and the sight of a person dressed in black irritates him greatly. The
room in which the dancing takes place is ornamented with different
bright colours, green branches, and looking-glasses. Some insist upon
carrying weapons in their hands while dancing; others desire to be
beaten; or they beat themselves; and so on. The musical instruments
formerly used in playing the Tarantella are the violin, violoncello,
guitar, flute, organ, lute, cither, shalm, and tambourine. Some of these
instruments have now become obsolete; nor are the others always used in
combination, but more frequently singly.

These statements were collected by Vergari from the observations of the
most intelligent physicians and surgeons in Apulia, and other districts
of the former kingdom of Naples.

De Renzi, a distinguished physician of Naples, sent, in the year 1841,
to the 'Raccoglitore Medico,' published in Fano, the following account
of a Tarantism witnessed by Doctor Samuele Costa. Giuseppe Mastria, a
peasant from a small village in the southern district of the province
Terra d'Otranto, twenty years of age, of robust bodily constitution,
while mowing grass, in June, 1840, felt a sudden pain on his right arm,
near the insertion of the Deltoid muscle, and saw that he was bitten by
a speckled spider, the Aranea Tarantula. The wound having become livid,
enlarged and spread the pain over the arm and the back of the neck. He
was seized with anxiety and with pressure on the Præcordia, inclination
to vomit, faintness, cold skin, and weak pulse. After some time, the
warmth of the body increased, and the pulse became stronger. The patient
experienced great thirst, heavy breathing, restlessness, and the
impossibility of standing on his legs. When, however, the Tarantella was
played to him, he suddenly became convulsive, jumped out of the bed, and
danced briskly for nearly two hours. Tired and profusely perspiring, he
consequently slept quietly and uninterruptedly. After several
repetitions of the music in the course of three days, he entirely
recovered.[64]

Dr. Martinus Kähler, a Swedish physician, who visited Apulia in the year
1756, for the express purpose of investigating the Tarantism thoroughly,
came to the conclusion that it is not caused by the Tarantula, but that
it is a peculiar hypochondria with hysteria, to which the inhabitants of
the island of Taranto are especially subject on account of their mode of
living, and from their food consisting principally of green vegetables,
oysters, and periwinkles. Be this as it may, the complaint is, according
to medical opinion, curable by means of music and dancing.

Thomas Shaw, who visited the Barbary States about the year 1730,
mentions the _Boola-kaz_, a venomous spider in the desert of Sahara, the
bite of which is cured thus: "The patient lies sometimes buried all
over, excepting his head, in the hot sands, or else in a pit dug and
heated for the purpose, in order, no doubt, to obtain the like copious
perspiration that is excited by dancing in those who are bitten by the
Tarantula."[65]

The Tigretiya of Abyssinia is in some respects similar to the Tarantism;
it is, however, not caused by the bite, or sting, of any animal. The
Tigretiya has its name from occurring principally in the Abyssinian
district called Tigré. It is a kind of melancholy, the first symptoms
of which usually are a gradual wasting away of the attacked person.
Music and dancing are used as the most effective remedies for healing
the sufferer.

A strange illness of the natives of Madagascar is described by the
Missionary W. Ellis as "an intermittent disorder, with periods of
delirium, a species of hysteria readily infectious." The sufferers
perambulate in groups, singing, dancing, and running, accompanied by
their friends, who carry bottles of water for them, as they generally
complain of thirst,--which is not surprising, considering the state of
excitement to which they work themselves up. Their whims being
encouraged by the people, must rather impede the beneficial result which
they might derive from singing and dancing, as far as concerns the
restoration to a sound state of health. Their morbid affection of the
nervous system is, however, especially interesting if compared with a
similar derangement in European countries during the Middle Ages, of
which some account shall presently be given.

The exercise of dancing to the sound of cheerful music is universally
known to be, under certain circumstances conducive to the preservation
of health. Thus, the traveller, H. Salt, relates that the Negro slaves
in Mozambique "assembled in the evening to dance, according to the usual
practice, for keeping them in health."[66] The same means were formerly
resorted to by slave-owners in America. Likewise, during a voyage to the
Arctic Sea, it has been found useful to order the sailors occasionally
to dance on deck to the music of a barrel-organ, to keep them in health
and good spirits.

On the other hand, there are instances on record of music and dancing
having nourished morbid feelings and extravagant notions. At all events,
certain Terpsichorean performances of religious fanatics can only be
thus regarded. The most extraordinary exhibitions of this kind among
Christian sects occurred on the Continent during the Middle Ages, and
are described in an interesting little book, by J. F. C. Hecker,
entitled 'Die Tanzwuth, eine Volkskrankheit im Mittelalter; nach den
Quellen für Aerzte und gebildete Nichtärzte bearbeitet,' (The Dancing
Mania, an epidemic in the Middle Ages; compiled from original sources,
for medical men and intelligent non-medical men. Berlin, 1832.) The
author, a Doctor of Medicine, in Berlin, treats especially of the St.
John's Dance and the St. Vitus's Dance, which, during the fourteenth and
fifteenth centuries, were performed in Germany by perambulating fanatics
who, in some respects, resembled certain Revivalists of our days. He
carefully traces the origin of these morbid conceptions, the extravagant
practices to which they led, and their gradual discontinuance during the
seventeenth century. The persons afflicted with this nervous malady, men
and women, wandered in troops from town to town and danced to the sound
of musical instruments in the churches and streets. The authorities of
some of the towns were of opinion that music and dancing alone could
effectively cure this strange affection. They, therefore, hired
musicians in order to bring on the dancing-fits the more rapidly; and
they ordered strong, healthy men, to mix with the dancers with the
object of compelling them to continue their violent exertions until they
were quite exhausted,--a condition which was supposed to be a
preliminary step to their restoration to health. Of the magistrates of
Basle, for instance, it is recorded that in the sixteenth century they
engaged some strong men to dance with a girl afflicted with the dancing
mania, until she was recovered. One man substituted another, and this
strange cure they continued about four weeks with scarcely any
interruption, until the patient was exhausted and unable to stand on her
legs. She was then carried to an hospital, where she completely regained
her health.

The following miraculous occurrence, which is recorded in William of
Malmesbury's 'Chronicle of the Kings of England' as having taken place
in the year 1012, illustrates the fanaticism alluded to. The statement
is by one of the poor sufferers:--

"I, Ethelbert, a sinner, even were I desirous of concealing the divine
judgment which overtook me, yet the tremor of my limbs would betray me;
wherefore I shall relate circumstantially how this happened, that all
may know the heavy punishment due to disobedience. We were on the eve of
our Lord's nativity, in a certain town of Saxony, in which was the
church of Magnus the Martyr, and a priest named Robert had begun the
first mass. I was in the church-yard with eighteen companions,--fifteen
men and three women,--dancing and singing profane songs to such a degree
that I interrupted the priest, and our voices resounded amid the sacred
solemnity of the mass. Wherefore, having commanded us to be silent and
not being attended to, he cursed us in the following words:--'May it
please God and St. Magnus that you may remain singing in the same manner
for a whole year!'--His words had their effect. The son of John the
Priest seized his sister, who was singing with us, by the arm, and
immediately tore it from the body; but not a drop of blood flowed out.
She also remained a whole year with us dancing and singing. The rain
fell not upon us; nor did cold, nor heat, nor hunger, nor thirst, nor
fatigue assail us: we neither wore our clothes nor shoes, but we kept on
singing as though we had been insane. First we sunk into the ground up
to our knees; next to our thighs. A covering was at length, by the
permission of God, built over us, to keep off the rain. When a year had
elapsed, Herbert, bishop of the city of Cologne, released us from the
tie wherewith our hands were bound, and reconciled us before the altar
of St. Magnus. The daughter of the priest, with the other two women,
died immediately; the rest of us slept three whole days and nights. Some
died afterwards, and were famed for miracles; the remainder betray their
punishment by the trembling of their limbs.

"This narrative was given to us by the Lord Peregrine, the successor of
Herbert, in the year of our Lord 1013."

In our time, exhibitions of a morbid religious enthusiasm, called forth,
or promoted by music, are less common with Christians than with
Mohammedans. In the sacred dance of the Dervishes, the music, which is
soft and plaintive, represents the music of the spheres; while the
Dervishes turning in a circle round their superior, who sits quietly in
the centre, represent the planetary system in its relation to the sun.
So far, the procedures of these fanatics are intelligible enough; but
the words of their songs are so mystic that probably the Dervishes
themselves are unable to attach a reasonable meaning to them. Still more
extraordinary is the behaviour of the Aïssaoua, a kind of Mohammedan
fraternity in the Barbary States, who by means of music and dancing work
themselves up to a state of ecstasy, in which they fancy themselves to
be camels,--or, at any rate, in which they convey to others the
impression that they are brutes rather than reasonable beings. As
regards Christian sects, certain sacred evolutions of the Shakers, in
the United States of North America, are not less extravagant than those
of the Dervishes in Egypt or Turkey. Here too, music appears to have an
injurious effect upon the people, inasmuch as it excites their morbid
emotions.

Turning now to our literature on the medical employment of music, we
find a number of treatises, the most important of which shall be briefly
noticed by their titles. Of such only as are not easily attainable, some
account of their contents shall be added.

'Medica Musica: or, a Mechanical Essay on the effects of Singing,
Musick, and Dancing, on Human Bodies; Revis'd and corrected. To which is
annex'd a New Essay on the nature and cure of the Spleen and Vapours. By
Richard Browne, Apothecary, in Oakham, in the County of Rutland; London,
1729.'--This is the second edition, enlarged. The first edition was
published without the name of the author.

'Die Verbindung der Musik mit der Arzneygelahrtheit, von Ernst Anton
Nicolai.' (The Association of Music with the Science of Medicine, by E.
A. Nicolai; Halle, 1745.)--Nicolai was Professor of Medicine at the
University of Jena, in Germany.

'Reflections on Antient and Modern Musick, with the application to the
Cure of Diseases; to which is subjoined an essay to solve the question
wherein consisted the difference of ancient musick from that of modern
time;' London, 1749.--The author, Richard Brocklesby, was a physician
in London.--A circumstantial account of the contents of this treatise is
given in 'Historisch-Kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik, von F.
W. Marpurg;' Vol. II., Berlin, 1756; p. 16-37.

'Traité des Effets de la Musique sur le corps humain, traduit du Latin
et augmenté des notes, par Etienne Sainte-Marie;' Paris, 1803.--This is
an annotated translation of a dissertation written in Latin by Joseph
Ludovicus Roger, and published at Avignon in 1758.

Desbout (Luigi): 'Ragionamento fisico-chirurgico sopra l'effetto della
Musica nelle malattie nervose;' Livorno, 1780.--A French translation
appeared in the year 1784, in St. Petersburg, entitled: 'Sur l'Effet de
la Musique dans les Maladies nerveuses.'

Buc'hoz (Pierre Joseph): 'L'Art de connaître et de désigner le pouls par
les notes de la Musique, de guérir par son moyen la mélancolie, et le
Tarentisme qui est une espèce de mélancolie; accompagné de 198
observations, tirées tant de l'histoire que des annales de la médicine
qui constatent l'éfficacité de la musique, non seulement sur le corps
mais sur l'âme, dans l'état de santé, ainsi que dans celui de maladie.
Ouvrage curieux, utile et intéressant; propre à inspirer le goût de cet
art, qui est pour nous un vrai présent des cieux;' Paris, 1806.--A
treatise with a similar title, by F. N. Marquet, appeared at Nancy in
the year 1747.

Lichtenthal (Peter): 'Der musikalische Arzt; oder, Abhandlung von dem
Einflusse der Musik auf den menschlichen Körper, und von ihrer Anwendung
in gewissen Krankheiten,' (The Musical Physician; or, a Treatise on the
influence of music upon the human body, and on its application in
certain illnesses. Vienna, 1807.)--An Italian translation of this work
appeared in Milan in the year 1811.

Schneider (Peter Joseph): 'System einer medizinischen Musik; ein
unentbehrliches Handbuch für Medizin-Beflissene, Vorsteher der
Irren-Heilanstalten, praktische Aerzte, und unmusikalische Lehrer
verschiedener Disciplinen,' (A System of Medical Music; an indispensable
guide for Students of Medicine, Principals of Lunatic Asylums,
Practical Physicians, and unmusical teachers of different methods. Bonn,
1835.) This comprehensive work, in two volumes, contains much
information on the subject in question, interspersed with many remarks
and citations which have little or no bearing on music considered
medically. The last seventy-two pages of the second volume contain a
sort of autobiography of the author.

To musicians, the most useful books among this class of literature are
those which give good advice concerning the preservation of health.

F. W. Hunnius, a Doctor of Medicine in Weimar, wrote a book entitled
'Der Arzt für Schauspieler und Sänger' (The Physician for Actors and
Singers. Weimar, 1798,) which, no doubt, has been useful to many.
Another German publication of the kind, in which especial attention is
given to the practice of musical instruments in so far as it affects the
health, bears the title 'Aerztlicher Rathgeber für Musiktreibende'
(Medical Adviser for those who cultivate Music) by Karl Sundelin,
Berlin, 1832. The author, a Doctor of Medicine in Berlin, wrote his book
with the assistance of his brother, who was a professional musician in
the orchestra of the King of Prussia. This treatise is so noteworthy
that the following account of it will, it is hoped, be of interest to
the reflecting musician. Its table of contents is:--

"I. Of Singing. On the means of facilitating the practice of singing.
Dietary and general rules for male singers, and for female singers. Of
the different human voices.

II. Of the Clavier-Instruments, or Keyed-Instruments. The Pianoforte.
The Organ. The Harmonica with a key-board.

III. Of the Stringed Instruments. The Violin and the Viola (or Tenor).
The Violoncello. The Double Bass. The Guitar. The Harp.

IV. Of the Wind Instruments. Means for facilitating the practice and
dietary rules for players on wind instruments. The Flageolet and the
Czakan. The Flute. The Oboe and the English Horn. The Clarionet and the
Basset Horn. The Bassoon and the Contra-Fagotto. The Horn. The Trumpet.
The Trombone. The Serpent. General dietary and medical rules for those
who cultivate music. Of the disturbances and injuries to the nervous
system through disadvantageous influences by the practice of music. Care
and treatment of particular diseased parts and structures. Of the chest
and the lungs. The especial attention and care required by the organs of
the voice. Of the diseases to which the mouth is subjected. The Teeth.
The Lips. Of the Fingers. The Eyes and the Face. Prescriptions for some
of the medicaments alluded to in the preceding dissertation."

The author is of opinion that the practice of music may be in many ways
injurious to bodily health. However, he remarks, that since music is
capable of expressing emotions which cannot be expressed by words or
pictures, it relieves the heart of anything which is oppressive and
distressing, and thus through the mind generally acts beneficially upon
the body. He asserts that music has healed many a sufferer whose life
was embittered by the fetters of melancholia, or the tortures of
hypochondria. To persons suffering from indigestion and its harassing
effects, he recommends a daily practice on some instrument which
requires a rather fatiguing exertion of the body; such as the organ, on
which hands and feet are occupied. His remarks on singing are judicious;
but many of them would naturally suggest themselves to any thinking
musician. No doubt, moderation in eating and drinking is recommendable,
and the singer has to take care not to catch a cold; but it may be
useful to him to be told by a medical man what kind of food is most
conducive to the preservation of his voice, and how he can best protect
himself against the injurious effects of sudden changes from heat and
cold, to which professional singers are often exposed.

Pianoforte playing our medical adviser considers rather hurtful to
health. The exertion of the hands and arms, while the position of the
body remains nearly immovable, causes a stronger flow of blood to the
chest than is natural. The pressure of the points of the fingers, where
the nerves are especially sensitive, is apt to be injurious to the
nervous system. This is still more the case in practising on
instruments on which the strings are pressed down with the points of the
fingers, as for instance on the violin; and also, though in a less
degree, on instruments the strings of which are twanged with the
fingers, as they are on the harp. The practice, however, causes the skin
at the finger-ends to harden, and the touch becomes consequently less
sensitive. Decidedly hurtful to the nerves is the sensation produced by
the friction of the moistened fingers in playing the glass-harmonica and
similar instruments. Among the wind instruments blown by being placed to
the mouth, those which require a sudden and prolonged retardation of the
breath, or a forcible compression of the air in the lungs, are
especially liable, by constant practice, to prove injurious to health.
The author has much to say on this subject, and he particularly warns
against too continuous playing on the oboe, trumpet, horn, trombone, and
serpent. As regards the clarionet, its practice, he says, is likely to
be injurious on account of the quantity of air which it requires. The
player is often compelled to take a deeper inspiration than is natural,
and constantly to pay regard to being provided with a supply of air
compressed in his lungs. Furthermore, considering that musical
performances very frequently take place in artificial light, the
eyesight of the musician is apt to be disadvantageously affected. In
this respect also the playing on some instruments is more injurious than
on others. The Double Bass player, for instance, is compelled, from the
size of his instrument, to have the musical notation placed at a greater
distance before him than is naturally convenient for his sight, which
renders it necessary for him to exert his eyes in an extraordinary
degree. Thus much from Sundelin's 'Medical Adviser,' to which the
following remarks may be added.

The musical instruments used by our forefathers, two or three centuries
ago, were softer and more soothing in quality of sound than our present
ones; at any rate, this was the case with the stringed instruments, and
the wind instruments of the flute kind. Certain wind instruments of the
trumpet kind had a very harsh sound; but these were intended especially
to be played in the open air. Of the stringed instruments principally
favoured in family circles--such as the lute, cither, clavichord,
virginal, harpsichord, etc.,--almost all possessed a less exciting
quality of sound than our present substitutes for them. The same was the
case with the music composed for the instruments; it did not possess the
passionate modulations which characterize much of our music of the
present day. It was, therefore, evidently more conducive to social
comfort, and consequently to health, than is our modern music,
notwithstanding the progress which has been made in the cultivation of
the art. Martin Luther said to an old hypochondriac schoolmaster who
complained to him of his miserable feelings: "Take to the Clavichord!"
Everyone acquainted with the character of the clavichord will probably
admit that Luther's advice was judicious. The soft and unpretending
sound of the clavichord is so expressive that the instrument may be said
to respond to the sufferer as a sympathizing friend; while its
successor, the loud and brilliant pianoforte, is apt to convey the
impression of being cold and heartless, unless it is touched by a
master-hand. Thus also the "trembling lute," and some other antiquated
instruments appear to be remarkably suitable for consoling and calming
the anxious heart.

The glass-harmonica is evidently hurtful to the health of the performer.
We have seen that Sundelin attributes its injurious effect to the
friction of the fingers upon the bowls, which revolve on a spindle. But
it is a well-ascertained fact that the fascinating sound of this
instrument exercises a distressing influence also upon persons who do
not play it, but who often listen to it. Likewise, certain wind
instruments of a so-called reedy quality of sound, as, for instance, the
harmonium, are probably injurious rather than beneficial to the health
of the players. Sounds of this nature are generally very pleasant when
heard for a short time, but soon become harassing. They might be
compared with confectionery, a little of which may be very palatable and
innocuous, but which if made a meal of would probably produce sickness.

The effect of music upon animals is a subject for investigation so
closely connected with an inquiry into the influence of music upon the
human body, that some notice of it must not be omitted here. The
investigation requires far more discernment than would appear at a first
glance. Many of the anecdotes recorded respecting the effect of music
upon animals are not properly authenticated; or rather, they are
misrepresentations of facts not clearly understood by the observers. Nor
is it surprising that this should be the case, considering how difficult
it is to appreciate rightly the mental capacities even of our domestic
animals, which we have constant opportunity of watching. Nothing is more
common, even with intelligent observers, than to attribute to a dog
certain motives for certain actions, which may possibly be the real
motives, but which may also only appear to be the real ones. Acute and
thoroughly unbiassed investigators, such as was for instance Gilbert
White of Selborne, about a hundred years ago, are rare. At all events,
many of the anecdotes given in works on Natural History, as illustrating
the power of music upon animals, have evidently been copied by one
author from another without any one of them having taken the trouble to
ascertain by careful observation whether they are well founded. With
quadrupeds it is probably generally more the rhythmical effect of the
music than the tones which pleases them; while birds appear to be
pleased by the tones rather than by the rhythm. All this requires more
exact investigation than it has hitherto received; and surely it
deserves the consideration of a Darwin.

In conclusion, attention may be drawn to a curious fact which is perhaps
more interesting to musical antiquarians than to medical men. It is well
known that the barbers in England, about three centuries ago, generally
had some musical instruments in their shops for the amusement of their
customers. In Germany it is still not unusual to meet with a musical
barber. In former times the barbers were also surgeons and physicians to
some extent. It would be interesting to trace the origin of their habit
of cultivating the art of music. It is probably of high antiquity. May
it not date from a remote period in which the physicians of European
nations resorted to music and incantations like the medicine-men of
uncivilized tribes of whom an account has been given in the beginning of
this essay?

[Illustration]

[43] 'Illustrations of the Manners, Customs and Condition of the North
American Indians, by G. Catlin.' London, 1848; Volume I., p. 40.

[44] 'Four Years in British Columbia and Vancouver Island, by R. C.
Mayne.' London, 1862; p. 261.

[45] 'Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition during the
years 1838-42, by Charles Wilkes.' London, 1845; Vol. IV., p. 399.

[46] 'Missionary Labours in British Guiana,' by the Rev. J. H. Bernau;
London, 1847. p. 55.

[47] 'Two Thousand Miles' Ride through the Argentine Provinces,' by
William MacCann; London, 1853. Vol. I., p. 111.

[48] _Machi_ is evidently identical with _Manchi_.

[49] 'The Geographical, Natural, and Civic History of Chili,' by the
Abbé Don J. Ignatius Molina; London, 1809. Vol. II., p. 105.

[50] 'The Araucanians,' by E. R. Smith; London, 1855; p. 235.

[51] 'A Description of Patagonia and the adjoining parts of South
America,' by Thomas Faulkner; Hereford, 1774; p. 115.

[52] 'Journal of a Residence among the Negroes in the West Indies,' by
M. G. Lewis; London, 1845; p. 158.

[53] The word _Obeah_ is probably identical with _Piaie_, mentioned
above, page 89.

[54] 'History of Loango,' by the Abbé Proyard; Paris, 1776. 'A General
Collection of Voyages and Travels,' by John Pinkerton; London, 1808;
Vol. XIV., p. 572.

[55] 'Reisen in Süd-Africa,' von Ladislaus Magyar; Pest, 1859; Vol. I.,
p. 26.

[56] 'The Kafirs of Natal and the Zulu Country,' by J. Shooter; London,
1857; p. 173.

[57] 'Outlines of a Grammar, Vocabulary, and Phraseology of the
Aboriginal Language of South Australia.' By G. C. Teichelmann and C. W.
Schürmann. Adelaide, 1840; part II.

[58] 'An Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and
Norfolk Islands.' By John Hunter. London, 1793; p. 476.

[59] 'Nineteen Years in Polynesia.' By the Rev. G. Turner. London, 1861.

[60] Dried dung, which constitutes the chief, and indeed in many places
the sole fuel in Tartary, is called _argols_.

[61] 'Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China, during the years 1844-46,'
by M. Huc; Vol. I., p. 76.

[62] 'Travels in South-eastern Asia,' by H. Malcom; Boston, 1839; Vol.
II., p. 197.

[63] 'Six Months in British Burmah,' by C. F. Winter; London, 1858; p.
161.

[64] 'Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung;' Leipzig, 1841, No. 17.

[65] 'Travels and Observations relating to Barbary,' by Thomas Shaw. 'A
General Collection of Voyages and Travels,' by J. Pinkerton; London,
1808; Vol. XV., p. 635.

[66] 'A Voyage to Abyssinia, etc.' By Henry Salt. London, 1814; p. 33.



[Illustration]

POPULAR STORIES WITH MUSICAL TRADITIONS.


The intelligent reader need hardly be reminded that an insight into the
peculiar notions respecting the beauty and power of music current among
different nations may be of valuable assistance in the study of national
music, inasmuch as it tends to throw light upon questions which appear
obscure and inexplicable.

The following popular stories, like those which have previously been
given in this work, are told exactly as they are heard from the mouth of
the people. It is necessary that this should be mentioned by way of
introduction to the stories, because the degree of interest which they
may possess depends almost entirely upon the faithfulness with which
they are recorded. For the same reason it must be stated that, although
additions have been carefully avoided, it is otherwise with omissions,
since it appeared desirable to abridge several of the stories by
excluding passages which do not touch upon the subject of music. Should
the reader find among the stories an old acquaintance with a somewhat
different face than is familiar to him, he will, it is hoped, bear in
mind that, just as there are varieties of a popular tune to be found in
different districts of a country, so there are also different readings
of a popular tale. Even the degree of education attained by the
narrator, his personal character, and his peculiar views, will tend in
some measure to modify the features of a story, although nothing
extraneous may have been admitted into the incidents recorded.


THE ROYAL MUSIC-MASTER.

The modern Greeks have a long story, said to have been derived from Asia
Minor, the substance of which is as follows:--

A mighty king in a distant land had a son who was an excellent flute
player, but a bashful youth, and a woman-hater. The king, considering it
all-important that his dynasty should be preserved, sends the young
prince in a ship to a foreign court, to find, if possible, among the
princesses a wife to his liking. The ship is wrecked, and all on board
are drowned except the prince, who is thrown by the waves upon the shore
of a beautiful island. Having dried himself, he meets a poor fisherman,
with whom he changes clothes. Hiding his luxuriant hair under a
bladder-cap, he sets out to the residence of the king of the island,
into whose service he is taken by the master of the horse as a
stable-boy. His chief occupation now is to fetch water for the horses
from a spring in the garden of the palace. In the evening, when he is
alone in the garden, he plays upon his flute so enchantingly that even
the nightingales become silent in admiration. The King's daughter hears
him, comes down into the garden, and, with the consent of her father,
makes him her music-master. When he perceives that she really loves him,
he loves her too, discloses to her that he is a King's son, and soon
makes her his queen in his own dominions.[67]


THE HANDSOME MINSTREL.

The following story is told in Germany:--

A handsome minstrel plays under a window of the King's palace upon a
golden instrument. His music is so alluring that the King, yielding to
the entreaties of his daughter, invites the handsome minstrel to come
up to him in his palace. The King's daughter soon learns to play on the
instrument, and longs to possess a similar one. All the goldsmiths of
the kingdom are applied to; but not one of them is able to construct
such an artistic work. Thereupon the King's daughter becomes greatly
dejected; and when the handsome minstrel learns the cause of her sadness
he tells her that if she will marry him she shall have the golden
instrument. But she rejects the offer with scorn.

Some days afterwards the handsome minstrel appears again under the
window, playing on an instrument still more precious, and producing
sounds most ravishing. The King's daughter is enchanted beyond measure;
but the goldsmiths of the kingdom are still less capable of constructing
such a wonderful work of art.

Then the handsome minstrel offers to give her both instruments if she
will marry him. She cannot resist, and says, "Yes!" After the
celebration of the wedding the handsome minstrel conducts his bride to
his house, deep in the forest. The house is so small and poor, that the
King's daughter, when she sees it, is overwhelmed with pride and
remorse, and faints away. When she recovers she finds herself lying on a
magnificent bed, and the handsome minstrel is a King.


THE DAISY LADY.

Among the Fairy Tales of the Hindus we meet with a story entitled 'Brave
Seventee Bai,' which seems to contain the original key-note of the
German 'Trusty Ferdinand.'[68] Seventee Bai (_i.e._ "The Daisy Lady") is
the daughter of a Rajah. Bent upon roving about in the world, she
assumes the dress and manners of a youth. Her rambles lead her into the
garden of a beautiful enchantress whose name is Hera Bai (_i.e._ "The
Diamond's Daughter.") This beautiful enchantress is described as being a
child of the Great Cobra, a serpent which plays an important part in
many of the Hindu traditions. Here are to be found some striking
coincidences between the superstitions respecting serpents popular among
the country people in Germany and in Hindustan.

Well, Hera Bai, the beautiful enchantress, falls in love with Seventee
Bai, who successfully maintains her disguise as a youth, but who cannot
be prevailed upon to remain in the garden, averring that an important
mission must be accomplished before the marriage takes place. The
enchantress, finding persuasion unavailing, gives Seventee Bai a small
golden flute. "Take this flute," she says; "whenever you wish to see me,
or are in need of my aid, go into the jungle and play upon it, and
before the sound ceases I will be there; but do not play it in the
towns, nor yet amid a crowd." Seventee Bai puts the golden flute into
the folds of her dress and proceeds on her wanderings. Sometime
afterwards, when she is in need of assistance, she goes into the jungle,
draws out of her dress the golden flute and plays. The beautiful
enchantress appears, swinging in a silver tree, just as she appeared in
the garden.

Again, on another occasion the beautiful lady immediately comes at the
sound of the flute, inquiring, "Husband, what can I do for you?"[69]

In the Scandinavian Fairy Tales, collected by Asbjörnsen and Moe, we
have a story entitled 'East o' the Sun and West o' the Moon,' in which a
young country lass is taken into the cave of a shaggy White Bear, who
afterwards turns out to be a lovely prince. When the White Bear has
carried the lass to his home, which gleams with silver and gold, he
gives her a silver bell and politely tells her that whenever she wants
anything she has only to ring the bell, and her wishes shall be at once
fulfilled.[70]

How effectively the magic flute and magic bells have been introduced
into Mozart's opera 'Il Flauto Magico' is well known to lovers of good
music,--or, which is the same, to admirers of Mozart.


THE INVISIBLE FLUTE-PLAYER.

A strange story is told by the peasants in Holstein of an invisible
flute-player, who is said to have haunted, about fifty years ago, a
farm-house situated near the river Elbe. Some of the children of the
farmer who owned the house are still alive.

The mysterious affair commenced in a cabbage garden behind the house.
There the people often heard flute-playing, but no one could make out
whence it came. Gradually the invisible flutist intruded into the house.
More and more frequently he came, until at last he took up his abode in
the house altogether. Sometimes he played his flute in the sitting-room;
sometimes in one of the bedrooms; at other times in the cellar, or in
the garret. Occasionally also he paid a visit to a neighbouring house.
The people on the farm became quite used to him; and when the children,
or the servant lads and lasses, were disposed to enjoy a little dancing,
they would just name a certain tune, or sing a bar or two of it, and ask
him to play it; and directly they heard the desired tune. When the
milkmaid was occupied in the dairy, she sometimes took an apple in her
hand, for fun, and said: "Now, my boy, play me a nice air, and thou
shalt have an apple!" In a moment the apple vanished out of her hand,
and the music commenced.

In the course of time, however, the invisible flutist became very
intrusive, and at last he proved quite a nuisance. One night he would
amuse himself by breaking all the windows in the house; another night he
had his gambols in the kitchen, turning everything topsy-turvy; and at
mid-day, when the family had sat down to dinner, it sometimes happened
that the large dish of stew before them, from which all were eating, was
emptied in an instant by invisible hands. They would then jump up and
run about the room, beating the air with their spoons. When they thought
they had at last driven the fellow into a corner of the room, suddenly
they heard him spitefully playing his flute in another corner.

In short, the annoyance became quite unbearable. There was no peace in
the house. The farmer everywhere expressed the wish that he could find
somebody who had the power to expel the invisible flute-player; he did
not mind the expense. At last there came a clever man from the
neighbouring town, who offered to settle the matter; he only wanted to
know beforehand whether he should show and banish the flutist in his
real figure, or in the figure of a poodle.

The farmer said: "I would rather not see him at all! Here are ten
Thalers; all I want is to get rid of him, and to have peace in my own
house."

By means of queer rhymes, and smoke, the clever man from town actually
succeeded in driving out the troublesome guest, and no mysterious
flute-playing has been heard since on the farm.[71]


THE BANISHED MUSICIAN.

At the bottom of the lake called "Das Langholter Meer," in the vicinity
of the river Weser, south of Bremen, lives, according to popular
tradition, a skilful musician who was banished there by a Pastor; but,
the reason why he was banished to this place,--and indeed, why he was
banished at all,--is not exactly known.

One day, in the winter, when the lake was all frozen over, two young
lads happened to be keeping sheep in the neighbourhood; and when they
saw the smooth ice, the tallest said to the other: "Come, let us not
stand shivering here; let us go on the lake, and the musician shall play
to us."

Having said this, he went to the ice; his companion followed him, and
they amused themselves for a while with sliding. It then occurred to
them again that there was a musician at the bottom of the lake, and they
called out in high glee: "If thou art still there below, old fellow,
just strike up a tune, and we will dance to it."

But, how terrified they were when suddenly there arose from the bottom
of the lake music such as they never had heard in all their life. It was
the most ravishing music in the world!--Of course, they thought no
longer of dancing, but left the lake as quickly as they could slide.[72]


THE WALRIDERSKE.

According to a tradition current in Northern Germany, especially near
Holland, the Walriderske is a kind of a witch. Assuming the figure of
some rough-haired animal, she visits the sleeper in the night, and
presses herself upon his chest so as to prevent his moving any part of
his body, scarcely permitting him to breathe. She creeps up to the
sleeper from below, gradually crawling over his whole body. First he
feels a pressure on his feet; then on his stomach; and at last on his
chest. Meanwhile the tortured victim is unable to move even a finger.
All he can do is to sigh and groan in almost intolerable anguish.

The apparition sometimes resembles a poodle, sometimes a cat, and at
other times a strange-looking unknown beast particularly repulsive. Its
colour is most commonly black; there are, however, also brown, and even
white ones. Not unfrequently the sleeper feels the pressure without
seeing the figure. In short, this unwelcome visitor is as bad as the
worst nightmare, if not worse.

But, occasionally the Walriderske appears in the shape of a beautiful
girl, and sings more charmingly than can be described. Indeed, from the
oldest traditions still extant may be gathered that the Walriderskes
ought to be regarded as superhuman beings; for, although they
occasionally appear in human shape, and are in many ways like human
beings, they live subject to other laws, and are endued with powers
other than ours. It admits of no doubt that in the traditions respecting
them much is to be found which has been derived from the pagan mythology
of our ancestors relating to the Walküren, who rode or sailed in the
clouds. The Walriderskes are frequently described as floating through
the air and singing most sweetly. In Ostfriesland, England is the home
assigned to these charming singers. They come from far over the sea to
seek their sacrifice. Their boat is a sieve, such as the peasants in
Ostfriesland use for straining milk, and which is called _Tähmse_. Their
oars are human shoulder-blades.

A peasant of Barssel once, while on a moonlight night he was mowing his
corn, towards midnight, became tired and threw himself down under a
sheaf to sleep. He had not lain long when he heard at a distance a
melodious song, which gradually came nearer and nearer until it was
above the field where he lay. He looked up and saw sailing in the air a
Walriderske who had come over from England. She descended, hid her
_Tähmse_ and oars under a sheaf, and went away in the direction towards
Barssel. The peasant lost no time in appropriating to himself the things
which the Walriderske had hidden. Towards morning she returned; and when
she missed her _Tähmse_ and oars, she began to sing so dolefully that
the peasant felt sorry for her, and gave her back the things.

In the following night, when curiosity led him to go again to the place
where this had happened, he found there, to his surprise, a large piece
of the finest linen, evidently a present of the Walriderske. He took it
home, and had it made into shirts. He wore the shirts without
experiencing any harm; although his neighbours had warned him that he
exposed himself to great danger by keeping the linen.[73]


THE JEW IN THE THICKET.

Many popular tales could be noticed of instrumental performers who
possess the power of making everyone dance. Not only men, but animals,
and sometimes even inanimate objects are compelled to wheel around. Take
for instance the following German tale, known as 'The Jew in the
Thicket.'

Once upon a time there lived in a small village a poor peasant lad whose
name was Heinrich, but whom his neighbours used to call Honest Heinrich,
because he was as honest as he was poor. Whether he was so poor because
he was so honest, or whatever else was the cause of his poverty, would
now be useless to speculate upon. Enough that he found it expedient to
improve his circumstances; and for this purpose he set out on a journey
into the world, with only a few copper coins in his pocket.

After a while, his way led him to a lonely place near some hills. He
thought he was quite alone, when unexpectedly a little grey man, very
old-looking, accosted him and solicited alms. "Give me whatever thou
hast in coppers," said the grey man, "and thou shalt have no cause to
repent thy generosity; thou seest, I am old and infirm; but thou art
young and robust, and wilt easily make thy way in the world."

When Honest Heinrich heard the grey man speak thus, it went to his
heart, and he put his hand into his pocket, took out the copper
coins,--which, in fact, constituted all the property he possessed in the
world,--and gave them to the old beggar. Then cheerfully whistling he
resumed his journey.

"Hallo! just wait a bit, my lad!" cried the grey man: "I know thou art
an honest fellow, and deservest a helping hand to push thee on in the
world; so thou mayst have three wishes, and they shall be granted to
thee."

Then Honest Heinrich saw at once that he had to do with an Onnerersk, as
the little folks are called who dwell under ground in golden halls deep
in the mountains; so, having bethought himself for a moment, he touched
his cap and said:

"Well sir, let me have a fiddle which when I play upon it makes everyone
dance. And let me have a blow-pipe with which I am sure to hit
everything I want to shoot. And my third wish shall be, if you please,
that whenever I ask a favour of anybody, it will not be refused me."

All these wishes were readily conceded to Honest Heinrich, and it may
easily be imagined what great advantages he now possessed in his
endeavours to make his fortune in the world. The third wish especially
proved invaluable to him. Neither was the fiddle to be despised; nay, it
actually saved him from the gallows! and how this happened to come to
pass, shall now be related.

After Honest Heinrich had proceeded on his way a mile or two, he came
beside a thicket of thorns, in the middle of which sat a lovely little
bird that sang even more beautifully than it was beautiful to look at.
And near the thicket stood a Jew counting a bag of money, which was not
exactly his own, for he had taken it from somewhere, so to say, without
asking permission. Now, the Jew was in an awkward fix, for he could not
move from the spot where he stood, because the lovely little bird had
enchanted him with his melodious music. He had, however, a particular
reason for moving on as quickly as possible, since it was not at all
unlikely that somebody might follow him, overtake him, and say, "you are
wanted; just come back with me to town!" Therefore, when he saw Honest
Heinrich carrying a blow-pipe, he called out to him:

"A good piece of money I would gladly part with if thou couldst procure
for me that charming bird."

Then Honest Heinrich took his blow-pipe, aimed, and hit the little bird:
he only said "There!" and the charming little songster fell down into
the thicket. Directly the Jew worked himself among the thorn bushes to
take the bird out; meanwhile he made all kinds of excuses for not giving
the piece of money which he had promised.

"O ho!" said Honest Heinrich, "that matter we shall easily settle!"
Presently he took up his fiddle to try its effect upon the Jew. One
stroke of the bow, and the Jew began to wabble;--another stroke, and he
lifted up his right leg;--a third stroke, and the dancing began in
earnest.

"O dear me!" cried the Jew, "leave off that confounded fiddling! The
thorns hurt me dreadfully! Upon my honour, I shall be a dead man before
I am safely out of the thicket!" But, Honest Heinrich was becoming warm
with trying his newly-acquired instrument; so he only replied: "Never
mind the thorns; all right!" and struck up a quicker tune. "O torture!"
cried the perspiring dancer, "I am a ruined man! Here,--here is my whole
bag of money,--all genuine coins,--take it,--only cease that fiddling!"

Honest Heinrich made what musicians call a brilliant cadence, which
caused the Jew to throw a few somersaults, and then gave the finishing
stroke, or in other words, the concluding chord. The Jew crept out of
the thicket, handed over the bag to the fiddler, and made off as rapidly
as he could into the wide world.

Honest Heinrich, on the other hand, took the direction towards the town
with the intention of restoring the bag of money to its rightful owner.
He was soon met by a man dressed in an unpretending kind of uniform,
who, seeing the bag, in a friendly and almost playful way, gave Honest
Heinrich a little tap on his shoulder, and said: "You are wanted; you
must come with me to town." Then Honest Heinrich was taken to prison;
and when the judge asked him about the bag of money, and he replied, "A
Jew gave it me," the judge smiled and said, "A Jew? you will never make
me believe that!" In short, Honest Heinrich was found guilty of robbery,
and the judge sentenced him to be hanged.

There prevailed a strange taste in the town where this occurred.
Whenever an execution took place, the people had a kind of festival.
Days, nay, even weeks, before the interesting event, the wretched
culprit was considered almost as a martyr. Whatever he said was
carefully recorded, and made publicly known. Men of rank felt honoured
when he shook hands with them; and when the awful hour for his execution
had arrived, and he stood under the gallows, he would address the throng
of people assembled as spectators. The women, of course, relished the
exciting scene even more than the men, and cried with all their heart.
Now, as Honest Heinrich was innocent, he did not like to have any fuss
made about him; so, when he stood under the gallows, he only asked that
he might be permitted to play a "Last Farewell" upon his dear fiddle.
The judge said he would not deny the last request of a dying sinner.
"Pray, your worship!" cried the Jew, who had mingled with the
spectators, and who rejoiced in his heart at the turn which the money
affair had taken, "Pray, your worship, do not allow him his fiddle; his
music will do us mischief!" But the judge took no notice of the Jew, and
said, "Play, my lad, but make it short; we have not much time to lose."

Then Honest Heinrich took his fiddle and played. One stroke with the
bow, and all the people began to wabble. Another stroke, and every one
lifted up his right leg. A third stroke, and the dancing began in
earnest. The judge, the clergyman, the doctor, the hangman, the Jew,
women with their babies in their arms, ladies with their
smelling-bottles in their hands; in short, every one present, old and
young, danced with the utmost exertion. Even the very dogs which had
followed their masters, raised themselves upon their hind-legs and
danced, profusely perspiring like all the people.

"Hold! stop! hold!" cried the exhausted judge, "Thy life is spared; only
put aside that dreadful fiddle!"

As soon as Honest Heinrich heard the judge's promise of acquittal he
ceased playing and came down the steps from the gallows. At the foot of
the steps he found the Jew lying prostrate on his back. "Confess
directly," said Honest Heinrich, "how you came by the bag of money, or I
shall give you a little private performance, with a brilliant cadence at
the end, you know!" In a moment the alarmed Jew stood upon his legs
again, and exclaimed, "Upon my honour, I stole it!"

Then they hanged the Jew upon the gallows. As for Honest Heinrich, he
continued his wanderings in the world, and soon made his fortune. When
he had become rich, he went home again to his village, and courted his
neighbour's daughter, who had formerly jilted him when he was poor, but
who loved him now dearly, not because he was rich (she said) but on
account of his former poverty. Soon they married, and were happy ever
after.


THE POPE'S WIFE.

There are several modifications current of the story of the Jew in the
Thicket just told. A similar story which in olden time was popular in
England, is given under the heading 'A Mery Geste of the Frere and the
Boye,' in Ritson's Pieces of Ancient Popular Poetry, London, 1791.
Again, a somewhat similar story is current in Greece. A lad has a flute
given to him by some superhuman being. He goes to the market-place of
the town, where piles of crockery are exhibited for sale. As soon as he
begins to play, all the pots, jugs and basins fly about in the air and
clash against each other until they are broken to pieces. The personage
whom he compels to dance in the thorns is a priest.[74]

Perhaps the most tragic incident of this kind is the sad fate of the
Pope's wife, related by the Wallachians. It need scarcely be said that
it does not concern the Pope of Rome, who, as everyone knows, has no
wife. But in Wallachia the common village priest of the Greek Church is
called Pope, and may marry. He generally avails himself of the
permission.

As regards Bakâla, whose music, as we shall presently see, killed the
Pope's wife, various tricks of his are on record, which clearly show
that he was a great fool, somewhat resembling the German Till
Eulenspiegel, who had perhaps more happy ideas than many persons who
have passed for wise.

Well, Bakâla, one fine day, took it into his head to ascend a high
mountain, merely for pleasure, and for the sake of boasting. Arrived at
the top of the mountain he was fortunate enough to make the
acquaintance of a well-disposed spirit, who offered him a present from
the clouds. The articles from which Bakâla was invited to select a
keepsake looked mean and shabby, like those which people generally
consign to the lumber-room. Bakâla, however, examined them carefully,
and chose an old and dusty bagpipe; for he imagined, as some people are
apt to do, that he was madly fond of music. Moreover, the sound of the
bagpipe--this Bakâla soon discovered--had the power of making everyone
dance.

When Bakâla had come down from the mountain he engaged himself as
shepherd to a village Pope in the valley. Every day he led the sheep
into the fields, and blowing his bagpipe he made them caper and jump
into the air like grasshoppers. And when, one morning, his master had
sneaked out before him into the fields, and had hid himself in some
bushes of sloes and dog-roses to watch his servant's strange
proceedings, Bakâla made the Pope dance as well as his flock.

The Pope was a soft-hearted sort of man. Quietness he loved above all
things in the world; for its sake no sacrifice appeared to him too
great. As to his wife, she was of a different disposition. To say the
truth, she was just the reverse of her husband. She had more courage in
her little finger than he had in all his limbs. His _Yes_ was her _No_,
and when he called a thing white she was sure to declare that she had
long since found it to be very black indeed. Neither would she believe
in the power of Bakâla's bagpipe. When the poor Pope, after his return
from the sloes and dog-roses, showed her his tattered clothes and
scratched limbs, all the sympathy he got from her was, "Tush! tush!
nonsense! If I were as soft-hearted as some people are said to be, I
might perhaps pity you."

"Well, my dear," replied the cowed husband, "you shall hear him
to-night. I want to convince you"----

"Convince me?" cried the Pope's wife: "Fudge! I to be frightened by a
bagpipe? Let him come on!"

Then the Pope thought that it was time to withdraw for the sake of
quietness. But in the evening he took Bakâla aside, and desired him
just to serenade their mistress for a little while under the window.

Before Bakâla commenced playing the Pope sat down on the ground and
bound two heavy stones to his feet by way of precaution, while his wife
busied herself in the upper story of the house. No sooner had Bakâla
begun his performance than she danced so furiously that she made the
whole house shake. Bakâla played faster and faster; her stamping grew
louder and louder. She danced until she had actually stamped a hole in
the floor, through which she descended into the lower story. The Pope
peeped into the room; and when he saw what had happened he felt sorry,
and he beckoned Bakâla to leave off playing. But, alas! he beckoned too
late! The poor lady had danced herself to death.

Now, one might have thought the Pope would have dismissed Bakâla,
telling him that his services were not any further required. But this is
just precisely what he did not do. On the contrary, he kept Bakâla in
his service, and treated him even better than before.[75]


THE TWO HUNCHBACKS.

The story of the two Hunchbacks is widely diffused. It is told in
Ireland as well as in Germany and Italy; moreover it is said to be also
current in Spain. There are, of course, many varieties of it in these
countries. Compare, for instance, the Irish narrative of Lusmore, in
'Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland, by T. Crofton
Croker,' with the one given here, which has been obtained from the
country people in Rhenish Prussia.

On St. Matthew's day, in the year 1549, a poor hump-backed musician was
returning late at night to Aachen[76] from a village where he had been
playing at a wedding. Being in a half drowsy state, he took but little
heed of time or place, and so he passed the Minster without concerning
himself about anything particularly, just as the large clock in the
tower boomed midnight. The sound startled him, especially as at the same
time there arose in the air a strange whirring like the unearthly sound
of owls and bats on the wing. It now occurred to him that this was the
night of quarter-day, and he quickened his steps to escape the terrors
of the ghost's hour and of apparitions. Nervously he turned into the
Schmiedstrasse (Smith-street) as the nearest way to his home, which was
in the Jakobstrasse (James-street). But on reaching the Fish
Market,--what did he see! All the stalls glistened with innumerable
lights, and about them were seated a large party of richly-dressed
ladies, feasting on dainty viands served in golden and silver dishes,
and drinking sparkling wine from crystal goblets. The musician, much
frightened, endeavoured to hide himself in a corner; for, he had not the
least doubt that he saw an assemblage of witches. But it was too late;
one of the ladies nearest him had already observed him, and she
conducted him to the table.

"Don't be frightened!" said the lady to the musician, who stood before
her with chattering teeth and trembling knees: "Don't be frightened;
but, play us some merry tunes, and thou shalt be paid for it."

The poor hunchback had no choice but to take up his violin, and to amuse
the strange company as long as they pleased. Having quickly set aside
the stalls with everything upon them, the witches--among whom the poor
hunchback thought he recognised several ladies of high position from the
town--whirled round in pairs to the sound of his fiddle. But the
strangest thing was that the longer the fellow continued to play, the
finer and fuller his performance appeared to him; so that he really
thought he must be either dreaming, or there must be a whole band of
violins and flutes placed behind him which joined in his performance.

Now the Minster clock struck a quarter to one; all the dancers
instantaneously stopped, visibly exhausted, and everything was
reinstated in its former order. Hesitating, the musician looked on,
uncertain whether he ought to stay any longer, or whether he might go;
when the lady who had engaged his services came up to him and said:
'Brave musician! thou hast done thy work to our content, and shalt now
receive thy recompense."

While saying the words she pulled off his jacket, and, before he was
aware of it, she had slipped behind him, and at one grasp relieved him
of his hump. Who so happy as the disburthened fiddler? In thankfulness
he was just going to throw himself on his knees before his
benefactress,--when the clock struck One, and in a moment, ladies,
lights, and dishes were gone, and the musician found himself at dark
night standing alone in the middle of the Fish Market. Bewildered, he
put his hand to his back, doubting lest the adventure had been merely a
confused dream. But, no; it was reality! The hump was gone, and the
happy fellow rejoiced in feeling as upright as man can be. Moreover, his
joy was still increased when he took up his jacket, which lay before him
on the ground. Perceiving it to be unaccountably heavy, and thrusting
his hands into the pockets to ascertain the cause, he found that both
pockets were filled with money. Doubly happy, he hastened home, and in
thankfulness he made the next morning an offering of his fiddle to his
Patron Saint, under whose image in the church he hung it as a glorious
relic to be venerated by his children and his children's children for
ever.

Now, the marvellous affair created, as may easily be understood, an
immense sensation in the town. People went to the church to look at the
fiddle; and whenever the lucky musician showed himself in public, a knot
of curious idlers hovered around him, anxious to get a peep at his back.
Moreover, his good fortune, as may likewise be easily understood,
aroused the envy of his rivals in his profession.

The most envious of these professional brothers possessed himself a
tolerably respectable hump, which annoyed him all the more, since he was
not less vain than envious. His estimation of his personal appearance
was, however, exceeded by that of his musical accomplishments.

"How surprised they will be!" said he to himself: "If that wretched
scraper could please them, I am sure I have only to treat them with a
few of my inimitable flourishes, and I shall be a straight man and a man
of property in no time!"

It was at midnight of St. Gerhard's day when the vain virtuoso repaired
to the Fish Market. The old clock of the Minster had already boomed the
last stroke announcing the twelfth hour, when he arrived at the place.
He actually found there a large party of ladies, just as he expected,
and they invited him to play. Confidently he stepped forward, and having
bowed with a smile which he was wont to assume whenever he appeared
before the public, he threw his fiddlestick across the strings and
extemporized a few rapid passages up and down, to show at once his
superior skill. But, how wretchedly provoking! Never in his life had he
produced such miserable tones; they sounded so execrably thin and poor,
as if the strings had been stretched over a piece of solid wood instead
of a violin. Enraged, he renewed his exertions, but only to render the
matter worse; for, now he produced a noise so horribly ear-piercing that
he thought there must be standing behind him a whole chorus of whistling
and screeching sneerers accompanying his performance.

Highly exasperated, he tucked his violin under his arm, and walked up to
the dancing witches. Then boldly addressing one of the richly-attired
ladies, in whom he believed he recognised the wife of the burgomaster of
the town, he said:--

"Ah, Madam! I wonder what your husband, our respected burgomaster would
say if he knew of your night-excursions on the broom-stick! But that is
your own affair. All I care for is my due reward, if you please."

With these words he threw off his jacket and turned round. The lady
quickly uncovered a silver dish, from which she took the hump of the
former musician, and before the vain virtuoso was aware of it, she had
pressed it on his back beside the other hump.

The clock had struck One, and the witches were already on their
broom-sticks riding through the air homewards, when the musician
recovered from his shock. He slowly put his hand to his back, hoping
that perchance he might only have had a bad dream. But no! it was all
right,--or rather all wrong. There remained now nothing for him to do
but to take up his jacket and make the best of his way home. But the
jacket felt so unusually heavy;--could there, perhaps, be gold in it to
make up in some measure for the cruel infliction? Eagerly he rummaged
the pockets; but what should he find? A few heavy stones and
rubbish.[77]


THE PARSON'S ADVICE.

This tale of the Manx people is almost literally copied from 'The
History and Description of the Isle of Man, by George Waldron, London,
1744.'

"A man, one day, was led by invisible musicians for several miles
together; and not being able to resist the harmony, followed till it
conducted him to a large common, where a great number of people were
sitting round a table, and eating and drinking in a very jovial manner.
Among them were some faces which he thought he had formerly seen; but he
forbore taking any notice, or they to him; till, the little people
offering him drink, one of them whose features seemed not unknown to
him, plucked him by the coat, and forbade him, whatever he did, to taste
anything he saw before him. 'For, if you do,' added he, 'you will be as
I am, and return no more to your family.'

The poor man was much affrighted, but resolved to obey the injunction.
Accordingly, a large silver cup, filled with some sort of liquor, being
put into his hand, he found an opportunity to throw what it contained on
the ground. Soon after, the music ceasing, all the company disappeared,
leaving the cup in his hand; and he returned home, though much wearied
and fatigued. He went the next day and communicated to the minister of
the parish all that had happened, and asked his advice how he should
dispose of the cup: To which the parson replied, he could not do better
than devote it to the service of the church. And this very cup, they
say, is that which is now used for the consecrated wine in Kirk
Merlugh."


RELICS OF THE GOBLINS.

The old tradition embodied in the preceding story from the Isle of Man,
is also current,--with various modifications,--in the north of Germany,
in Denmark, and in Sweden. Afzelius, in his interesting account of
Swedish popular superstitions, mentions some curious notions on this
subject. The country people in Sweden still preserve an old belief that
if a person drinks of the contents of a beaker, offered to him by the
goblins inhabiting the mountains, he loses all recollection of the past,
and must become one of them. Several cups are said to have been
purloined from these mysterious beings by persons who stealthily avoided
partaking of the proffered liquor. Some are still shown in churches, to
which they were presented by the purloiners; and it is asserted that
these oddly-shaped vessels were formerly used in the Communion Service.

The goblins in Sweden have their principal meetings at midnight before
Christmas, and their amusements consist chiefly in music and dancing.
They generally assemble in those isolated spots among the mountains
where are found large stones resting on pillars, around which they
delight to dance. It is considered decidedly dangerous to encounter them
at their pastimes on Christmas Eve.

Many years ago,--some say it was so far back as in the year 1490,--a
farmer's wife in Sweden, whose name was Cissela Ulftand, distinctly
heard, on Christmas Eve, the wild music of the goblins who had assembled
not far from her house. The farm in which the good woman lived is called
Ljungby, and the group of curiously-placed stones around which the
goblins had congregated is well known to many people; indeed, almost
everyone in Sweden knows the Magle-Stone.

Well, when Mistress Ulftand heard the music, she spoke to one of her
farm-servants, a strong and daring young fellow, and induced him to
saddle a horse and to ride in the direction of the Magle-Stone, that he
might learn something about the mysterious people, and tell her
afterwards all he had seen. The lad rather liked the adventure; he lost
no time in mounting his horse, and was soon galloping towards the scene
of the music and rejoicing. In approaching the Magle-Stone, he somewhat
slackened his speed; however, he drew quite near to the dancers.

After he had been gazing a little while at the strange party, a handsome
damsel came up to him and handed him a drinking-horn and a pipe, with
the request that he would first drink the health of the King and then
blow the pipe. The lad accepted both, the drinking-horn and the pipe;
but, as soon as he had them in his hands, he poured out the contents of
the horn, and spurring his horse he gallopped off over hedges and
ditches straight homewards. The whole company of goblins followed him in
the wildest uproar, threatening and imploring him to restore to them
their property; but the fellow proved too quick for them, and succeeded
in safely reaching the farm, where he delivered up the trophies of his
daring enterprise to his mistress. The goblins now promised all manner
of good luck to the farmer's wife and her family, if she would return to
them the two articles; but she kept them, and they are still preserved
in Ljungby as a testimony to the truth of this wonderful narrative.

The drinking-horn is of a metallic composition, the nature of which has
not been exactly ascertained; its ornaments are, however, of brass. The
pipe is made of the bone of a horse. Moreover, the possession of these
relics, we are told, has been the cause of a series of disasters to the
owners of the farm. The lad who brought them to the house died three
days after the daring enterprise, and the day following, the horse
suddenly fell down and expired. The farm-house has twice burnt down,
and the descendants of the farmer's wife have experienced all kinds of
misfortunes, which to enumerate would be not less laborious than
painful. It is only surprising that they should still keep the unlucky
horn and pipe.


THE GOLDEN HARVEST.

This is a genuine Dutch story. A long time may have elapsed since the
hero of the event recorded was gathered to his fathers. Howbeit, his
name lives, and his deeds will perhaps be longer retained by the people
in pleasant remembrance than the deeds of some heroes who have made more
noise in the world.

An old village crowder, whose name was Kartof, and who lived in
Niederbrakel, happened once, late in the night, to traverse a little
wood on his way home from Opbrakel, where he had been playing at a dance
during the wake. He had his pockets full of coppers, and felt altogether
mighty comfortable and jolly; for the young folks in Opbrakel had
treated him well, and the liquor was genuine Old Hollands. But, there is
nothing complete in this world, as the saying is, and as old Kartof was
presently to experience to his dismay, when he put his hand into his
pocket for his match-box. Had he not just filled his old clay pipe in
the pleasant expectation, amounting to a certainty, that he should
indulge in a comfortable smoke all the way home? And did he not feel,
with a certain pride, that he deserved a good smoke after all his
exertions with the fiddlestick? But what use was it to rummage his
pockets for the match-box! It certainly was not there, and must have
been lost or left behind somewhere.

"The deuce!" muttered old Kartof, "If I had only a bit of fire now to
light my pipe, I should not care for anything else in the world, I am
sure!"

Scarcely had he said these words, when he espied a light gleaming
through the bushes. He went towards it, but it was much further off than
it at first appeared to him; indeed, he had to go more than a hundred
yards into the brush-wood before he came up to it. He now saw that it
was a large fagot burning, around which a party of men and women, joined
hand in hand, were dancing in a circle. "How odd!" thought old Kartof;
but being a man accustomed to genteel society, he was at no loss how to
address them politely; so, taking off his hat, he said:--

"Ladies and Gentlemen! Excuse me. I hope I am not intruding too much if
I ask the favour of your permission to help myself to a little fire to
light my pipe."

He had not even quite finished his speech, when several of the dancers
stepped forward and handed him glowing embers in abundance. Now, when
approaching him they perceived that he carried a violin under his arm,
they importuned him to play for them to dance, intimating that he should
be well rewarded for his services. "Why not?" said old Kartof: "It is
only about midnight, and I can sleep to-morrow in the day-time; it will
not be the first time that I have gone to bed in the morning."

While talking in this way, he tuned his instrument; and soon he struck
up his best tunes, one after the other. But, though he played ever so
much, he could never play enough, the dancers were so insatiable!
Whenever his arm sank down from sheer fatigue, they threw a golden ducat
into the sound-hole of his violin, which pleased him immensely, and
always animated him to renew his exertions, especially also as they did
not neglect to refresh him occasionally with a remarkably fine-flavoured
Schiedam, from a bottle so oddly-shaped that he had never seen anything
like it, so funny it was. He could not help smiling whenever he looked
at the bottle.

Gradually his violin became heavier--of course, that was from the golden
ducats which the dancers continually threw into it. But also his arm
became heavier, and at last old Kartof felt altogether too heavy, sank
softly down, and fell asleep.

How long he lay in this state no one knows, nor is ever likely to know.
But, thus much is certain, when old Kartof awoke the day was already far
advanced, and the sun shone brightly upon his face. He rubbed his eyes
and looked about, doubtful whether he was a man of property or whether
he had only dreamt of golden ducats. There was the violin lying in the
grass near his feet. He hastily took it up;--it felt as light as usual.
He shook it;--no rattling of ducats. He held it before his face and
peeped into the sound holes;--to be sure, there was something in it,
yellow and glittering like gold. He shook it out on the grass;--what
should it be?--a score or two of decayed yellow birch-leaves.

Disappointed, old Kartof rose to his feet to look around whether he
could not find the place where the fire had been.

Yes, there it was! Some embers were still glimmering in the ashes. This
appeared to him more odd than anything else he had experienced. But old
Kartof, after all, took the matter quietly enough. He lighted his pipe,
and taking up his violin set out on his way home, resolving as he went
never to go to that confounded place again after twelve o'clock at
midnight.[78]


GIPSIES.

There prevails in popular traditions much mystery respecting gipsies. No
wonder that this should be the case, since these strange vagabonds are
in most countries so very different from the inhabitants in their
appearance and habits; and their occupations are often so well
calculated to appeal to the imagination of superstitious people, that a
gipsy is regarded by them almost as a sorcerer. His better-half not
unfrequently pretends to be a soothsayer, and he is often a musician.
However different the gipsy hordes which rove about in European
countries may be from each other in some respects, they are all fond of
music, magic, and mysterious pursuits. Among the gipsy bands in Hungary
and Transylvania talented instrumental performers are by no means rare;
and in Russia, the gipsy singers of Moscow enjoy a wide reputation for
their musical accomplishments. It is told,--not as a myth but as a
fact,--that when the celebrated Italian singer Signora Catalani heard in
Moscow the most accomplished of the gipsy singing-girls of that town,
she was so highly delighted with the performance that she took from her
shoulders a splendid Cashmere shawl which the Pope had presented to her
in admiration of her own talent, and embracing the dear gipsy girl, she
insisted on her accepting the shawl, saying that it was intended for the
matchless cantatrice which she now found she could not longer regard
herself.

There is a wildness in the gipsy musical performances, which admirably
expresses the characteristic features of these vagrants. Indeed theirs
is just the sort of music which people ought to make who encamp in the
open air, feed upon hedgehogs and whatever they can lay hand on, and
profess to be adepts in sorcery and prophecy.

The following event is told by the peasants in the Netherlands as having
occurred in Herzeele. A troop of gipsies had arrived in a valley near
that place. They stretched a tight rope, on which they danced, springing
sometimes into the air so high that all who saw it were greatly
astonished. A little boy among the spectators cried: "Oh, if I could but
do that!"--

"Nothing is easier," said an old gipsy who stood near him: "Here is a
powder; when you have swallowed it, you will be able to dance as well as
any of us."

The boy took the powder and swallowed it. In a moment his feet became so
light that he found it impossible to keep them on the ground. The
slightest movement which he made raised him into the air. He danced upon
the ears of the growing corn, on the tops of the trees,--yea, even on
the weather-cock of the church-tower. The people of the village thought
this suspicious, and shook their heads, especially when they furthermore
observed a disinclination in the boy to attend church. They, therefore,
consulted with the parson about the boy. The parson sent for him, and
got him all right on his legs again by means of exorcism; but it was a
hard struggle to banish the potent effects of the gipsy's powder.[79]

The gipsies were formerly supposed to be descendants of the ancient
Egyptians. The German peasants call them Taters,[80] a name indicating
an Asiatic origin; and it has been ascertained that they migrated from
Western India. The roving Nautch-people in Hindustan are similarly
musical and mysterious.


THE NAUTCH-PEOPLE.

The Nautch-people in Hindustan are not only singers and dancers who
exhibit their skill before those who care to admire and to reward them;
but they possess also dangerous charms.

In a popular story of the Hindus, called 'Chandra's Vengeance' we are
told of a youth who, on hearing the music of the Nautch-people at a
great distance, is irresistibly compelled to traverse the jungle in
search of them. When, after twelve days' anxious endeavour to reach
them, he discovers their encampment, Moulee, the daughter of the chief
Nautch-woman, approaches him singing and dancing, and throws to him the
garland of flowers which she wears on her head. He feels spell-bound,
and the Nautch-people offer him a drink which, as soon as he has tasted
it, makes him totally forget his family and his dear home. So he remains
with the Nautch-people, and wanders with them about the country as one
of the company.

Again, in a Hindu story called 'Panch-Phul Ranee,' a Rajah, or King, is
enchanted by the Nautch-people, so that he finds his happiness in roving
with them from place to place, and in beating the drum for the dancers.
His enchantment is accomplished in this way: He had set out on a
journey, leaving his wife and infant son behind. One day he happened to
fall in with a gang of Nautch-people, singing and dancing. He was a
remarkably handsome man, and the Nautch-people, on seeing him approach,
said to each other "How well he would look beating the drum for the
dancers!" The Rajah was hungry and told them that he required some food;
whereupon one of the women offered him a little rice, upon which her
companions threw a certain powder. He ate it, and the effect was that it
made him forget his wife, child, rank, journey, and whatever had
happened to him in all his life. He willingly remained with the
Nautch-people, and wandered about with them, beating the drum at their
performances, full eighteen years. His son, the prince, being now grown
up, could no longer be detained from setting out in the world in search
of his beloved father. After many fruitless attempts the prince
discovered his father among the Nautch people,--a wild, ragged-looking
man whose business it was to beat the drum. The joyful prince summoned
the wisest doctors in the kingdom to restore the Rajah to his former
consciousness; but their exertions did not at first prove at all
successful. In vain did they assure the old drummer that he was a Rajah,
and that he ought to remember his former greatness and splendour. The
old man always answered that he remembered nothing but how to beat the
drum; and, to prove his assertion, he treated them on the spot with a
tap and roll on his tom-tom. He really believed that he had beaten it
all his life.

However, through the unabated exertions of the doctors, a slight
remembrance came gradually over him; and by-and-by his former mental
power returned. He now recollected that he had a wife and a son. He also
recognized his old friends and servants. Having reseated himself on the
throne, he governed as if nothing had ever occurred to interrupt his
reign.[81]


THE MONK OF AFFLIGHEM.

The aim of the present series of popular stories demands that some
notice should now be taken of such musical legends as breathe a thorough
Christian spirit. Several of these are, as might be expected, very
beautiful; but they are familiar to most readers. One or two which are
less well known may, however, find a place here.

The legend of the Monk of Afflighem bears some resemblance to the
beautiful tradition of the Seven Sleepers. If it fails to interest the
reader, the cause must be assigned to the simple manner in which it is
told rather than to the subject itself.

Towards the end of the eleventh century occurred in the Abbey of
Afflighem, in Dendermonde, East Flanders, a most wonderful event, the
pious Fulgentius being at that time the Abbot of the monastery.

One day, a monk of very venerable appearance, whom no one remembered to
have seen before, knocked at the door of the monastery, announcing
himself as one of the brotherhood. The pious Abbot Fulgentius asked him
his name, and from what country he had come. Whereupon the monk looked
at the Abbot with surprise, and said that he belonged to the house.
Being further questioned, he replied that he had only been away for a
few hours. He had been singing the Matins, he said, in the morning of
the same day in the choir with the other brothers. When, in chanting,
they came to the verse of the ninetieth psalm, which says: "For, a
thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday!" he pondered upon it
so deeply that he did not perceive when the singers left the choir, and
he remained sitting alone, absorbed by the words. After he had been a
while in this state of reflection, he heard heavenly strains of music,
and on looking up he saw a little bird which sang with a voice so
enchantingly melodious that he arose in ecstasy. The little bird flew to
the neighbouring wood, whither he followed it. He had been only a little
while in the wood listening to the heavenly song of the bird; and now,
in coming back he felt bewildered,--the appearance of the neighbourhood
was so changed he scarcely knew it again.

When the pious Abbot Fulgentius heard the monk speak thus, he asked of
him the name of the Abbot, and also the name of the King who governed
the country. And after the monk had answered him and mentioned the
names, it was found to the astonishment of all that these were the names
of the Abbot and the King who had lived three hundred years ago. The
monk startled, lifted up his eyes, and said: "Now indeed I see that a
thousand years are but as one day before the Lord." Whereupon he asked
the pious Abbot Fulgentius to administer to him the Holy Sacraments; and
having devoutly received them, he expired.[82]


THE PLAGUE IN GOLDBERG.

The inhabitants of Goldberg, a town in Germany, observe an old custom of
inaugurating Christmas, which is peculiar to themselves. Having attended
divine service, which commences at midnight on Christmas Eve, they
assemble at two o'clock to form a procession to the Niederring, a hill
situated close to the town. When the procession has arrived at the top
of the Niederring, old and young unite in singing the Chorale _Uns ist
ein Kindlein heut geboren_ ("For us this day a child is born"). As soon
as this impressive act of devotion is concluded, the town band stationed
in the tower of the old parish church performs on brass instruments the
noble Chorale _Allein Gott in der Höh sei Ehr_ ("All glory be to God on
High"), which in the stillness of the night is heard over the whole
town, and even in the neighbouring villages.

The origin of this annual observance dates from the time when the town
of Goldberg was visited by a deadly plague called _Der schwarze Tod_
("The black Death"). According to some accounts the awful visitation
occurred in the year 1553; at all events this date appears to have been
assigned to it on an old slab embedded in the wall of the parish church
of Goldberg; but the inscription has become so much obliterated in the
course of time, that no one can make out the year with certainty. Thus
much, however, is declared by all to be authentic: The plague spread
throughout the town with frightful rapidity. The people died in their
houses, in the streets, everywhere, at night, and in the day-time. Some,
while at their work, suddenly were stricken and fell down dead. Some
died while at their meals; others while at prayers; others in their
endeavours to escape the scourge by hastening away from the doomed town.
Indeed, it was as if the Angel of Death had stretched out his hand over
the place, saying "Ye are all given up to me!"

The plague raged for some weeks, and then quietness reigned in Goldberg.
The few survivors had shut themselves up solitarily in their houses, not
knowing of each other; for, no one now ventured into the street; neither
did anyone open a window, fearing the poisonous air; for the corpses
were lying about, and there remained none living to bury the dead.

Such was the condition of Goldberg in the month of December, just before
Christmas. On Christmas Eve one of the solitary survivors, deeply
impressed with the import of the holy festival, attained the blessing of
a firm trust in the wisdom of the inscrutable decrees of Providence. He
thought of the happy time of his childhood when his parents lighted up
for him the glorious Christmas tree; and this recalled to his mind the
simple and impressive Christmas hymn which his mother had taught him to
recite on the occasion. Strengthened by devout contemplation, he
ventured to open the window. The night was beautiful, and the air wafted
to him so pure and delicious that he resolved to leave his prison. At
the second hour after midnight he went out of the house, and bent his
steps through the desolated streets towards the Niederring. Arrived at
the top of the hill he knelt down and sang from the depth of his heart
the Christmas hymn.

His voice was heard by another solitary survivor, who perceiving that he
was not, as he had supposed, the only person still living in Goldberg,
gained courage and likewise from his hiding place repaired to the
Niederring, and kneeling down joined the singer with sincere devotion.
Soon a third person made his appearance, slowly drawing near like one
risen from the grave. Then a fourth, a fifth, until the number of them
amounted to twenty-five; and these were all the inhabitants of Goldberg
who had escaped the ravages of the Black Death.

[Music:

     Uns ist ein Kind-lein heut ge-born, Gott mit
     uns! Von ein'r Jung-frau aus-er-korn. Gott mit
     uns! Gott mit uns! Wer will seyn wi-der uns!
]

The Christmas Chorale sung in the refreshing mountain air wonderfully
invigorated their desponding spirits. They arose and solemnly vowed
henceforth to unite in Christian fellowship, with reliance upon the
wisdom of the divine ordinances. The next day they buried their dead;
and when their vow became known in the neighbourhood, many good people
were drawn to Goldberg. The town soon revived, and prospered more than
ever.

The inhabitants have not forgotten the visitation which befel their
forefathers, but remember it in humiliation; and this is a lasting
blessing.[83]


FICTIONS AND FACTS.

Knowledge is, of course, to superstition as light is to darkness; still,
some nations endowed with a lively imagination, although they are much
advanced in mental development, cling to the superstitions of their
forefathers, since the superstitions accord with their poetical
conceptions, or are endeared to them by associations which pleasantly
engage the imaginative faculties.

Besides, in countries where the inhabitants frequently witness grand and
awful natural phenomena, their poetical conceptions are likely to be
more or less nourished by these impressive occurrences, however well
acquainted they may be with their natural causes.

It is therefore not surprising that many superstitious notions, such as
have been recorded in the preceding stories, should be found in
civilized nations.

Moreover, in some countries, a more careful research into the old
traditions harbouring among the uneducated classes of the people has
been made, than in other countries. It would, therefore, be hasty, from
the sources at present accessible, to judge of the degree of mental
development attained by individual nations. The Germans are not less
rational than the English; nevertheless, a far greater number of Fairy
Tales have been collected in Germany than in England.

An enquiry into the musical traditions of the different European races
is likely to increase in interest the more we turn to the mythological
conceptions originally derived from Central Asia, and dispersed
throughout Europe at a period on which history is silent, but upon which
some light has been thrown by recent philological and ethnological
researches.

A word remains to be said on the musical myths of modern date. We read
in the biographies of our celebrated musicians facts which would almost
certainly be regarded as fictions, were they not well authenticated. On
the other hand, it would not be difficult to point out modern myths
referring to the art of music. Tempting as it might be to cite the most
remarkable examples of this kind, and anecdotes relating to musicians in
which fiction is strangely mingled with fact, it is unnecessary to
notice them here; for, are they not written in our works on the history
of the art and science of music?

[Illustration]

[67] 'Griechische und Albanische Märchen, gesammelt von J. G. v. Hahn.'
Leipzig, 1864; Vol. I., p. 273.

[68] See above, Vol. I., p. 84.

[69]'Old Deccan Days; or Hindu Fairy Legends, current in Southern
India.' Collected from oral tradition by M. Frere. London, 1868; p. 25.

[70] 'Popular Tales from the Norse, translated by G. W. Dasent.'
Edinburgh, 1859; p. 27.

[71] 'Sagen, Märchen und Lieder der Herzogthümer Schleswig, Holstein und
Lauenburg,' von Karl Müllenhoff; Kiel, 1845; p. 336.

[72] 'Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Herzogthum Oldenburg, herausgegeben
von Strackerjan;' Oldenburg, 1867; Vol. I., p. 190.

[73] 'Aberglaube and Sagen aus dem Herzogthum Oldenburg, herausgegeben
von Strackerjan;' Oldenburg, 1867; Vol. I., p. 375.

[74] 'Griechische und Albanische Märchen, gesammelt von J. G. v. Hahn;'
Leipzig, 1864; Vol. I., p. 222, and Vol. II., p. 240.

[75] 'Wallachische Märchen, herausgegeben von A. Schott;' Stuttgart,
1845, p. 228.

[76] Aix-la-Chapelle.

[77] 'Deutsche Märchen and Sagen, gesammelt von J. W. Wolf.' Leipzig,
1845; p. 472.

[78] 'Niederländische Sagen, herausgegeben von J. W. Wolf;' Leipzig,
1843; p. 466.

[79] 'Niederländische Sagen, herausgegeben von J. W. Wolf;' Leipzig,
1843; p. 648.

[80] _Taters_ is evidently synonymous with _Tartars_.

[81] 'Old Deccan Days; or Hindu Fairy Legends, current in Southern
India.' Collected from oral tradition, by M. Frere. London, 1868; pp.
139, 273.

[82] 'Niederländische Sagen, herausgegeben von J. W. Wolf;' Leipzig,
1843. p 230.

[83] 'Deutsche Volksfeste, von F. A. Reimann;' Weimar, 1839; p. 218.



[Illustration]

DRAMATIC MUSIC OF UNCIVILIZED RACES.


The first music of a dramatic kind originated probably in the passion of
love. Savages, unacquainted with any other dramatic performances, not
unfrequently have dances representing courtship, and songs to which
these dances are executed. However rude the exhibitions may be, and
however inartistic the songs may appear,--which, in fact, generally
consist merely of short phrases constantly repeated, and perhaps
interspersed with some brutish utterances,--they may nevertheless be
regarded as representing the germ from which the opera has gradually
been developed. Dancing is not necessarily associated with dramatic
music; the dances of nations in a low degree of civilization are,
however, often representations of desires or events rather than
unmeaning jumps and evolutions.

Even in the popular dances of nations in an advanced state of
civilization love is generally the most attractive subject for
exhibition by action and music. The Italian national dances,--the
_Saltarello_, the _Monferrino_, and several others,--have an
unmistakable meaning; or, as Mac Farlane says, "there is a story in them
which at times is told in a very broad, significant, and unsophistical
way. The story is a sort of primitive courtship, varied by the coyness
or coquetry of the female dancer, and animated by the passion and
impatience of the wooer."[84] The same may be said of the Spanish Bolero
and Fandango.

The excitement of the chase appears to be another cause of the origin of
dramatic music. The savage, in pursuing the animals which he requires
for his subsistence, experiences successes and disappointments which are
to him highly interesting, and the recollection of which he enjoys. He
naturally feels proud of results which he could not have achieved
without agility and shrewdness, and he delights in showing to his
friends how he proceeded in accomplishing his feat. Besides, savages
have a strong instinct for imitation, almost like monkeys. Hence their
fancy for counterfeiting the habits of certain animals which they chase
and with the peculiarities of which they are generally well acquainted.

The aborigines of Australia have a dance in which they imitate the
movements of the Kangaroo. The women sing, and produce a rhythmical
accompaniment by beating two pieces of wood together; while the men, who
represent the Kangaroos, produce sounds peculiar to these animals. The
North American Indians have an Eagle Dance, a Bear Dance, and even a Dog
Dance. The natives of Kamtschatka have a dance in which they cleverly
imitate, not only the attitudes and tricks of the Bear, but also its
voice. The peasants in Finland, in the beginning of the present century,
still occasionally performed a similar dance, or rather action. The
Aleutian Islanders, who have various pantomimic dances executed with
masks frightfully ugly, have also a favourite representation in which a
sportsman shoots a beautiful bird, and afterwards cries for grief at
having killed it; when, suddenly, the beautiful bird revives, changed
into a beautiful woman. The sportsman, of course, falls over head and
ears in love with her, and thus all ends well.[85] This story is enacted
with recitations accompanied by some musical instruments.

Next to love and the chase, it is probably war which elicited the first
attempts at dramatic music. To recall to the memory by a lively
description with gesticulations, the valiant deeds, clever stratagems,
and glorious achievements of the warriors after the battle, must have
been always a fascinating entertainment to the victorious combatants.
The Dyaks in Borneo, who preserve the heads of their slain enemies
suspended near their hearths as ornamental trophies, perform a war-dance
in which some of the combatants, gaily decorated, cleverly act a scene
by seizing swords and handling them in various expressive ways. The
Scalp-Dance of the North American Indians, performed in celebration of a
victory, may be described as a kind of histrionic entertainment, which
generally takes place at night by torchlight. The singular procedure of
the Maori warriors in New Zealand in a certain dance, of projecting all
of them their tongues simultaneously at fixed intervals, appears to be a
pantomimic expression of defiance or contempt for the enemy.

The Corroborie Dance of the natives of Australia had perhaps also
originally reference to warlike exploits, although this does not appear
at once evident to European witnesses. Twenty or more men paint their
naked dark bodies to represent skeletons, which they accomplish by
drawing white lines across the body with pipe-clay, to correspond with
the ribs, and broader ones on the arms, legs, and the head. Thus
prepared they perform the Corroborie at night before a fire. The
spectators, placed at some distance from them, see only the white
skeletons, which vanish and re-appear whenever the dancers turn round.
The wild and ghastly action of the skeletons is accompanied by vocal
effusions and some rhythmical noise which a number of hidden bystanders
produce by beating their shields in regular time.

Traces of dramatic music in its most primitive condition may also be
discovered in representations of occurrences and scenes like the
following:

Wilhelm Steller, in his 'Description of Kamtschatka' (published in the
German language in the year 1774), says that the inhabitants of that
country possess an astounding talent for imitating the manners and
conduct of strangers whom they happen to see. During their long evenings
one of their chief amusements consists in acting extempore comedies, in
which the habits of any foreigners with whom they have become
acquainted, are cleverly mimicked and ridiculed.

The missionary W. Ellis remarks of the Polynesian Islanders that "they
had songs which, when recited on public occasions, were accompanied with
gestures and actions corresponding to the events and scenes described,
and which assumed in this respect a histrionic character. In some cases,
and on public occasions, the action represented a kind of
pantomime."[86] Other travellers have given more detailed accounts of
these performances. During Captain Cook's first voyage round the world,
Banks and Solander, who accompanied him, witnessed in one of the Society
Islands, in the year 1769, a comedy with music and dancing, performed by
the natives, the subject of which was the adroitness of a thief, and his
subsequent capture. At Cook's second circumnavigation, during the years
1772-75, he was treated by the Society Islanders with a somewhat similar
comic opera called _Teto_ (_i.e._ "The Thief"). G. Forster, who was with
Cook, remarks that the dialogue, which of course he was unable to
understand, seemed to be closely connected with their actions. One of
them kneeled down, and another beat him and plucked him by the beard.
Then two others were treated by the torturer in the same unceremonious
manner; until one of them seized a stick and gave him a sound thrashing
in return. This formed the conclusion of the first act, and the players
withdrew. The commencement of the second act was announced by the
musicians beating their drums. There were actresses as well as actors
engaged in the performance.[87] A more detailed account of the dramatic
attempts of the Polynesian Islanders is given by W. Mariner, who, during
his sojourn with the natives, had the best opportunity of becoming
acquainted with their customs and amusements. His observations, which
refer especially to the Tonga Islanders, show that the actors recite
sentences which are answered by a chorus of singers. There is a great
variety in their movements and groupings. Occasionally they sing slowly,
and afterwards quickly for about a quarter of an hour. Sometimes they
form a semi-circle, assume a bending position, and sing in a subdued
tone of voice a soft air; which is soon again followed by a loud and
vehement recitation.[88]

Grotesque dresses and adornments are, of course, an essential attribute
in these entertainments. Neither are buffoons wanting. According to B.
Seeman, the entertainment called _Kalau Rere_, which he witnessed in the
Fiji Islands, "with its high poles, streamers, evergreens, masquerading,
trumpet-shells, chants and other wild music, is the nearest approach to
dramatic representation the Fijians seem to have made, and it is with
them what private theatricals are with us. They are also on other
occasions very fond of dressing themselves in fantastic, often very
ridiculous costume; and in nearly every large assembly there are
buffoons. Court fools, in many instances hunchbacks, are attached to the
chief's establishment."[89]

Also the Negroes in Senegambia and Upper Guinea have buffoons, who
delight the people with their antics and acting in processions and
public festivities. Buffoons are popular even in Mohammedan countries,
where dramatic performances are generally considered objectionable.
Morier states that in Persia the princes, governors of provinces, etc.,
as well as the King, have a band of _Looties_, or buffoons, in their
pay, who are looked upon as a necessary part of Persian state. They
attend at merry-makings and public festivals, and some of them are
endowed with great natural wit. This was, for instance, the case with a
certain buffoon named Looti Bashee. "His dress, when he came to the
ambassador, was composed of a felt hat, the crown of which was made like
ours, but with two long ears projecting before, and two behind. Others
of his troop were dressed in the same way; all looked grotesque, and I
conjectured that nothing could give one a better idea of Satyrs and
Bacchanalians, particularly as they were attended by a suite of monkeys
headed by a large ape, which were educated to perform all sorts of
tricks. They carried copper drums slung under the arm, which they beat
with their fingers, making a noise like castanets; others played the
tambourine; and when all this was put into motion, with their voices
roaring in loud chorus, the scene was unique."[90]

Sir Robert Ker Porter witnessed at Bagdad, in the beginning of the
present century, a kind of musical drama performed by men and boys, the
latter being dressed like females. "This amusement," he remarks, "is the
only one of a theatrical complexion known among the people. It is often
called for by the female part of the inhabitants; but I am told that
with the men it is now very rare, the Pasha so setting his face against
it as to forbid the avowed existence of hirable dancing-boys in his
capital."[91] There is a Turkish theatre at Pera in which Turkish plays,
adapted from the Italian, are acted by Turkish actors, and Turkish women
appear unveiled upon the stage.[92] The women in the hareem, who in
their diversions are only permitted to employ slaves of their own sex,
occasionally make them act melodramas, the subject of which is generally
a love story.

The Indians in Mexico have some characteristic dances in which scenes
are pantomimically enacted referring to Montezuma and to the conquest of
Mexico by the Spaniards.

In most of the entertainments, of which examples have just been given,
the music must necessarily partake of a dramatic character. Generally,
the tunes are not selected at pleasure, but certain tunes belong to
certain representations. The dramatic effect of the music depends,
however, chiefly upon its execution, which naturally changes according
to the action which it accompanies. Thus, if the actors represent a
sentimental or heart-rending scene, their vocal effusions will naturally
be in a subdued tone, and the sympathizing musicians will touch their
instruments delicately and slowly. If, on the other hand, the actors
represent some exciting or heart-stirring scene, they will naturally
raise their voices, and the musicians will play louder and faster as a
matter of course. In fact, when their pulse beats quicker, the
rhythmical flow of their music, however rude and inartistic it may be,
becomes more animated unpremeditatedly. Such is the most primitive
condition, or the commencement of the development of dramatic music. Let
us now examine it in a somewhat more advanced stage of cultivation.

The Javanese, who among the islanders of the Indian Archipelago are
renowned for their skill in the dramatic art, generally use fabulous
traditions from their own history, or Hindu legends, as subjects for
their performances, which are acted exclusively by men. A full band of
musicians generally accompanies the drama. The instruments mostly belong
to the class called Instruments of Percussion, but several of them are
constructed with plates of metal which produce a series of sweet tones,
arranged according to the pentatonic scale. Some of the Javanese airs,
which have been collected by Europeans, are very expressive, and it
might be instructive to musical enquirers, if some really musical
European visitor in Java would faithfully commit to notation the
orchestral accompaniments of some of the most popular Javanese dramas.
Madame Ida Pfeiffer relates that she was treated in the house of a
Rajah, at Bandong, with a kind of pantomime in three acts, the third of
which represented a combat. "The music that accompanied the combat," she
remarks, "was very noisy and discordant; but, on the defeat of the one
party, a soft plaintive melody arose at some distance off. The whole
performance was really pretty and expressive."[93] Sir Stamford Raffles,
and other travellers, give similar descriptions, and have besides much
to say about the clever puppet-shows of the Javanese, in which the
characters of dramas are represented by puppets, or by their shadows.

The Siamese are fond of theatrical performances. According to Turpin's
history of Siam, published in the year 1771, "whenever they burn the
body of a minister or great man, a theatre is erected on the side of a
river, where the actors appear habited according to their parts; and
during three days they never quit the scene from eight in the morning
till seven at night." De La Loubère, who visited Siam in the year 1687,
says that the subjects of the dramas are "historical, in verse, serious,
and sung by several actors who are always present, and who only sing
reciprocally. One of them sings the historian's part, and the rest sing
those of the personages which the history makes to speak; but they are
all men that sing, and no women." About a century ago it appears to have
been the custom to employ only men as actors, although there were female
dancers. But, at the present day there are actresses, at any rate in the
palace of the King, where Sir John Bowring saw them perform on several
occasions. In one of these entertainments "the actors were all females,
almost all girls. A few matrons, however, took the part of warriors,
monkeys, priests; and the three manageresses, or prompteresses, were not
only old and ugly, but seemed very spiteful, and on several occasions
scolded and slapped the ladies who required correction. One of them had
the drama written on black sheets in white letters before her, from
which she prompted the singers of the recitative. The story began by the
appearance of a monster monkey in a forest, which is visited by a number
of ladies of rank, one of whom, after an unsuccessful struggle, the
others having managed to escape, the monster monkey contrives to carry
off. She is redeemed by the interference of a priest, whose temple is in
the forest. Afterwards we are introduced to a sovereign Court, where all
the ceremonies are observed which are practised in daily life, the
dresses being those ordinarily worn, and most gorgeous they are....
There is a battle, and rewards to the victors, and a crowning of a
king's son in recompense for his valour, and offerings to Buddha, and a
great feast, etc."[94] The principal performers act, but do not speak.
The tale is told in recitative by a body of singers, accompanied by
various instruments. The band assisting generally consists of about
twenty members who play on wind instruments of the oboe kind, gongs,
large castanets above a foot in length, and several sonorous instruments
of percussion constructed with slabs of wood, or plates of metal,
somewhat similar to those of the Javanese before mentioned.

The Cochin-Chinese are remarkably fond of dramatic entertainments, which
are generally of an operatic character commemorating historical events.
An English gentleman who witnessed the performance of some of these
plays remarks of the actors: "Their singing is good, when the ear has
become accustomed to it; and the modulation of voice of the females is
really captivating."[95] Sir George Staunton was evidently surprised to
find that a kind of historical opera, which he heard in the town of
Turon (called by the natives Hansán) contained recitatives, airs, and
choruses, which were, he says, "as regular as upon the Italian stage."
He adds: "Some of the female performers were by no means despicable
singers. They all observed time accurately, not only with their voices,
but every joint of their hands and feet was obedient to the regular
movement of the instruments."[96] The band consisted of stringed
instruments, wind instruments, and instruments of percussion. Sir John
Barrow describes the theatre at Turon as "a shed of bamboo." He relates:
"In the farther division of the building a party of comedians was
engaged in the midst of an historical drama when we entered; but, on our
being seated they broke off, and, coming forward, made before us an
obeisance of nine genuflexions and prostrations, after which they
returned to their labours, keeping up an incessant noise and bustle
during our stay. The heat of the day, the thermometer in the shade
standing at 81 deg. in the open air, and at least 10 deg. higher in the
building, the crowds that thronged to see the strangers, the horrible
crash of the gongs, kettle-drums, trumpets, and squalling flutes, were
so stunning and oppressive that nothing but the novelty of the scene
could possibly have detained us for a moment. The most entertaining, as
well as the least noisy part of the theatrical exhibition, was a sort of
Interlude, performed by three young women for the amusement, it would
seem, of the principal actress, who sat as a spectator in the dress and
character of some ancient Queen, whilst an old eunuch, very whimsically
dressed, played his antic tricks like a scaramouch or buffoon in a
Harlequin entertainment. The dialogue in this part differed entirely
from the querulous and nearly monotonous recitation of the Chinese,
being light and comic, and occasionally interrupted by cheerful airs
which generally concluded with a chorus. These airs, rude and unpolished
as they were, appeared to be regular compositions, and were sung in
exactly measured time. One in particular attracted our attention, whose
slow melancholy movement breathed the kind of plaintiveness so peculiar
to the native airs of the Scotch, to which indeed it bore a close
resemblance."

Probably the air was founded on the pentatonic scale, which is common in
the music of the Chinese and Javanese, and of which traces are to be
found in the Scotch popular tunes.

"The voices of the women are shrill and warbling, but some of their
cadences were not without melody. The instruments at each pause gave a
few short flourishes, till the music gradually increased in loudness by
the swelling and deafening gong. Knowing nothing of the language, we
were of course as ignorant of the subject as the majority of an English
audience is of an Italian opera."[97]

A curious mode of paying the actors, which prevails in Cochin-China, may
be mentioned here. An Englishman who was present at a theatrical
performance in the town of Kangwarting, relates that the Quong, or
governor of the province, bore the expense of the entertainment. The
musical drama was performed in a large shed before a great concourse of
spectators. "The Quong was there squatted on a raised platform in front
of the actors with a small drum before him, supported in a diagonal
position, on which he would strike a tap every time any part of the
performance pleased him; which also was a signal for his purse-bearer to
throw a small string of about twenty cash to the actors. To my taste,
this spoiled the effect of the piece; for, every time the cash fell
among them there would be a silence, and the next moment a scramble for
the money; and it fell so frequently as almost to keep time with the
discordant music of the orchestra. The actors were engaged by the day,
and in this manner received their payment, the amount of which entirely
depended upon the approbation of the Quong and the number of times he
encored them by tapping his drum. I could see that many of them paid far
more attention to the drum than they did to their performance; though I
suppose, the amount thrown to them is equally divided. Sometimes the
string on which the cash was tied, unluckily broke, and the money flew
in all directions; by which some of the bystanders profited, not being
honourable enough to hand it up to the poor actors."[98]

The Burmese have dramas performed by men, and also comedies represented
by means of marionettes, or puppets. In the latter entertainments the
figures are cleverly managed by persons situated beneath a stage which
is hidden by a coarse curtain. The dialogues between these figures are
much relished by the common spectators. At any rate, as they are apt to
elicit uproarious mirth, they may be supposed to be often irresistibly
comic. The real dramatic performances of the Burmese are acted by
professional players, generally in the open air. The principal
characters of the piece usually consist of a prince, a princess, a
humble lover, a slave, and a buffoon. The female characters are
represented by boys dressed in female attire. The dresses are handsome
and gorgeous. However, the best theatrical performances take place in a
building. On these occasions, there are two musical bands, one being
placed on each side of the scene. The principal musical instruments of
such an orchestra are of the percussion kind, containing a series of
sonorous slabs of wood, or plates of metal, and somewhat resembling the
Javanese instruments, but being attuned according to a diatonic order of
intervals, instead of the pentatonic order. Also a curious contrivance,
consisting of a set of drums suspended in a frame, each drum having a
fixed tone, is used on these occasions. Moreover, the Burmese orchestra
generally contains several wind instruments of the oboe and trumpet
kind, as well as cymbals, large castanets of split bamboo, and other
instruments of percussion, which serve to heighten the rhythmical effect
of the music. The story of the drama is usually taken from ancient
Burmese history. Captain Henry Yule, who has given a more detailed
account of the Burmese plays than any previous traveller, remarks that
when he was at Amarapoora he procured copies of some of the plays which
he saw acted, from which it was evident to him that, while the general
plan of the drama, comprising the more dignified and solemn part of the
dialogue, was written down at considerable length, the humorous portions
were left to the extempore wit of the actors. The following scenes are
from a drama commemorating an episode from the life of Oodeinna, King of
Kauthambi, a country in India. This drama, which was obtained by Captain
Henry Yule, is a translation from the Pali, and the whole is in Burmese
verse of four syllables.

(The scene opens in the Capital of Kauthambi. The king is seated on his
throne, with his courtiers around him.)

_King._--(_Addresses them_) "Great nobles and chiefs!"

_Nobles._--"Phra, (Lord)!"

_King._--"Are my subjects happy and prosperous?"

_Nobles._--"Since Your Majesty's happy reign began, religion has shone
forth with splendour; the seasons have been propitious; the earth has
been bountiful; the rich and the poor, men and women, have enjoyed peace
and prosperity, and the happy years have been to them as water to the
lotus."

                                                       (_Scene closes._)

              _Himalaya Mountains.--Enter a Nát._[99]

_Nát._--"Now I am a Nát! When, and in what body was I before? Ah!
looking with a Nát's eyes and understanding, I perceive I was a hermit
in these wilds. My companion, Alakappa, is still here. I will seek my
friend."

                                                  (_Approaches a cave._)

_Hermit._--"Who art thou that comest suddenly to my cell in the garb and
appearance of a Nát, with the nine jewels in thy crown?"

_Nát._--"O holy Hermit, of a good lineage, who ever livest in the
forest, tell me all thou desirest, so that nought may remain unsaid!"

_Hermit._--"O Nát, who by stupendous merit has reached the exalted
abode! I have nothing particular to ask; but numerous elephants come
around my cell and do great damage. Be pleased to forbid this for the
future."

_Nát._--"O holy Hermit! I will give thee a golden harp, and by the
virtue of its sounds, and thy songs accompanying, elephants will come or
go as thou commandest."

From this passage it is evident that the Burmese ascribe to music a
great power, and the same is also indicated in several other remarks
occurring in the drama. It is, however, unnecessary here to give the
entire drama, which the reader will find in the interesting book above
alluded to.[100] Suffice it to notice the following passages from a
subsequent scene.

(_The young Prince Oodeinna enters. The Hermit presents him with the
golden harp and teaches him a tune and song. The Prince retires to a
tree, ascends it, and plays. The wild elephants of the forest come
around him, and are obedient to his voice and harp, etc._--)

Captain Yule remarks that "the comic stage-effects of the characters
addressing the orchestra is very frequent," and there are several
indications of the kind in the present drama. Take, for instance, the
following:--

(_Scene in the solitary wilds of Himalaya_).

                        _Enter an immense Bird._

BIRD (speaks).--"From the beginning of the world there have been
numerous sorts of birds: cranes, ducks, crows, peacocks, and others. I
am not of their sort. My power would extinguish them all. My home is
amidst vast mountains and pathless forests, and ever and anon I descend
from them. I will now go to the country of Kauthambi to seek for food.
So now (_to the band_), as I am about to fly, strike up a victorious
melody, O leader of the orchestra!"

_The bird commences his flight, and, soaring aloft, says_:--

"This is a beautiful country, and full of golden palaces, and lovely
gardens with gorgeous-coloured flowers and shrubs. Nevertheless, I must
look out for something to eat. Thus, turning north and turning south,
looking up and looking down, I spy outside the King's palace a piece of
flesh, red, red as blood. It is mine, sure as the food in a monk's
begging-dish; it cannot escape. I will stoop at it, seize it, and fly
away; and now that I may easily reach the large tree in my own mountain
from this country of Kauthambi, play a soft and simple air, O leader of
the orchestra!"

     (_The bird seizes the Queen, mistaking her red mantle for flesh,
     flies away with her to the mountains, and deposits her in a tree.
     The bird comes as if to devour her, when the Queen claps her hands
     at him, which frightens the bird, and he flies away_).

This scene shows that the Burmese employ in their dramas loud and soft
music, according to the events represented; and that the orchestra is
conducted by a leader or music-director. The following example, from
another scene, indicates the employment of the full orchestra
_fortissimo_ in conformity with the action.

                           _Forest. A Hunter._

HUNTER.--"I and my dog will now go and kill whatever enemy appears. With
my bow and my dog I care not what I encounter, elephants, deer, or what
not; so come along (_to his dog_) brave Tiger. (_To the band._) Now as I
go on a grand expedition, burst forth like thunder!"

A detailed description of a kind of opera which was performed at
Singapore is given by Charles Wilkes;[101] but, as the actors were
transient visitors to Singapore, who came from the neighbourhood of
Madras, their play must have been a specimen of the popular Hindu
dramas. Its title was 'The Results of Misplaced Friendship;' the words
were recited in a "monotonous recitative," accompanied by a band of
instrumental performers. As regards the plot of the piece, suffice it to
say that it had a moral aim, and that a Brahmin and a clown were the
most amusing characters of the Dramatis Personæ. The clown displayed
much cleverness in mimicking a European in his dress and manners. The
'Select Specimens of the Theatre of the Hindus,' translated from the
original Sanskrit, by R. H. Wilson, London, 1835, contain but few
allusions to music; but these are ancient dramas, and the Hindus
possess, as R. H. Wilson in his interesting Introduction points out,
different kinds of theatrical entertainments. There was in former time
no building appropriated to the public performance of dramas. The Kings
had in their palaces a kind of music hall, called _Sangita Sálá_, in
which were given entertainments consisting principally of music and
dancing, and occasionally of dramatic representations.

Turning to Thibet, we meet with actors who are also singers, dancers,
and acrobats. They perform in the streets, courtyards, and other open
places of the towns, and their entertainments are enlivened by a musical
band, and by the witticisms of their clowns. The actors generally wear
masks.[102]

In China, dramatic performances, enacted by itinerant players, take
place not unfrequently in the Joss-houses, or houses of religious
ceremonies. The plays generally have reference to some remarkable event
in the lives of the earliest Chinese Emperors, and almost always combine
the comic with the tragic. The musical band occupies the back part of
the stage behind the actors. The expenses of the entertainment are
sometimes defrayed by private persons. Thus, on a certain occasion three
performances were given in a town daily, for three days in succession,
in honour of "The Mother of Heaven," a goddess who presides over the
welfare of sailors, the defrayers of the entertainment being three
merchants who had just received the returns of a lucky venture.[103]
Female characters are represented by boys and eunuchs. The plot of a
Chinese drama, which was performed at Tien-sing before the English
Ambassador, in a temporary theatre erected opposite to his yacht, is
described by Sir G. Staunton, as follows:--

"An Emperor of China and his Empress are living in supreme felicity,
when on a sudden his subjects revolt. A civil war ensues, battles are
fought; and, at last, the arch-rebel, who is a General of cavalry,
overcomes his sovereign, kills him with his own hand, and routes the
imperial army. The captive Empress then appears upon the stage in all
the agonies of despair naturally resulting from the loss of her husband
and her dignity, as well as the apprehension of that of her honour."

How interesting would it be to the student of National Music to possess
an exact notation of the music belonging to this scene, and to ascertain
in what manner the intense emotions and vehement passions represented
are expressed in the Chinese musical compositions!

"Whilst she is tearing her hair, and rending the skies with her
complaints, the conqueror enters, approaches her with respect, addresses
her in a gentle tone, soothes her sorrows with his compassion, talks of
love and adoration, and like Richard the Third with Lady Anne, in
Shakespeare, prevails in less than half-an-hour on the Chinese Princess
to dry up her tears, to forget her deceased consort, and to yield to a
consoling wooer. The piece concludes with a wedding and a grand
procession."[104]

The Japanese are fond of dramatic representations, and have special
buildings for their performances. Captain Golownin describes the theatre
in Matsmai, the capital city of the island of Yesso, as "a large and
pretty high building. At the back is the stage, which, as with us, has a
raised floor. From the stage to the front wall, where the entrance is
situated, two rows of seats are placed for the spectators. In the
middle, where we have the pit, there is a vacant space in which straw
mats are laid down for the spectators. As this space is much lower than
the stage, those in front do not intercept the view from those behind.
There is no orchestra, either because the Japanese perform no music in
their theatres, or because the musicians are reckoned among the actors."

The place for the orchestra was probably at the back of the stage, as in
the Chinese theatre. Captain Golownin visited the building only in the
day-time, and when the house was empty, the permission to see a piece
performed having been refused to him by the government of the capital.

"Opposite the stage, where in our theatres are the Emperor's box and the
galleries, there are only a bare wall and the door for the entrance.
There were no ornaments in the interior; the walls were not even
painted. The dresses and decorations are kept in a separate building.
The subjects of their plays are chiefly memorable events in Japanese
history; but they have also other representations which are of a comic
nature, and which serve to amuse the public."[105] Moreover, the
Japanese have annual religious festivals in which scenic representations
take place, and which are very popular. The dramas usually commemorate
the deeds of ancient heroes or a myth; some have for their subject a
fanciful love-story; and some are especially designed to enforce a
certain moral precept. According to Siebold and Fisher, many of the
Japanese plays are very instructive and moral. They are often so
constructed that not more than two actors appear on the stage during a
scene. There are no actresses, the female characters being represented
by boys. It is not unusual for the actors to pass through the pit on
their way to the stage, in order to give the audience an opportunity to
admire their appearance and costume as closely as possible.

Such dramatic music of extra-European countries as has been derived from
Europe does not come within the scope of our present inquiry. It
happens, however, not unfrequently that the European music is to some
extent modified, by being interspersed with national tunes of the
extra-European country into which it has been introduced, or by being
performed in a peculiar manner. Whenever this is the case, it deserves
the special attention of the student of national music.

The Tagals, or the aborigines of the Philippine Islands, have theatrical
performances in bamboo buildings. The characters consist principally of
fairies, demons, and other supernatural creatures; but, the musical
part of these entertainments is said to contain much which has been
borrowed from the Spaniards. Probably this is especially the case in
Manilla. Besides the principal theatre, in which the actors are
Spaniards, Manilla has two theatres of the natives. In South America we
find, as might be expected, Spanish and Italian operas. In Lima the
orchestra is deficient; Spanish dances, as the Bolero, Fandango, Don
Mateo, are often performed instead of our ballets. At the theatre in
Mexico, Spanish dances are frequently introduced between the plays. The
Teatro de Tacon in Havana, said to be one of the finest edifices of the
kind in the world, has singers who perform Italian operas, as in Europe.
The female spectators sit in places separate from those of the men.

There can hardly be a doubt that many operatic entertainments, which are
now secular, had originally a sacred character. The ancient nations
performed religious dances with pantomimic representations. Also the
Chinese at the time of Confucius thus enhanced their sacred ceremonies.
The Burmese, at the present day, sing and dance by the coffin of a
deceased priest. They are Buddhists. Funeral dances are common with
several uncivilized races. Our Christian ancestors, during the earlier
centuries of the Middle Ages, performed sacred dances in the church. The
Christian priests of the Abyssinians still dance at certain religious
ceremonies. In the Cathedral of Seville, boys, from the age of twelve to
seventeen, dressed in an old Spanish costume, annually execute a ballet
every evening during the Ottave del Corpus. Again, sacred dances with
recitations, dialogues, and hymns are performed in several European
countries during Christmastide. The Mysteries, Miracle Plays, or
musical-dramatic entertainments on biblical subjects, so popular during
the Middle Ages, have not entirely fallen into disuse. Passion-Plays are
still occasionally performed by the peasantry in Bavaria, in the Tyrol,
and in Moravia. The "Mayings," or popular rejoicings with music,
dancing, and processions, remains of which are still to be found in
England as well as on the Continent, had probably in pagan time also a
religious character, as they were intended to welcome the approach of
the sunny season. Turning to America, we meet in Peru with musical
entertainments which were introduced among the Indians by the Spanish
monks, who accompanied Pizarro's army, and who dramatized scenes in the
life of Christ, and had them represented to facilitate by this
attractive means the conversion of the heathen aborigines. These plays
are no longer performed in the larger towns of Peru, but are still kept
up by the villagers of the Sierra. Good Friday especially is celebrated
by them in this manner; and on Palm Sunday an image of the Saviour
seated on an ass is paraded through the principal streets of the town or
village.[106] In Brazil we find on Hallelujah Saturday (between Good
Friday and Easter Sunday) the popular ceremony of burning effigies of
Judas Iscariot, the traitor, in company with dragons, serpents and
demons; and there are besides several other religious celebrations in
which music is employed in combination with fire-works and dramatic
representations.

Comic scenes were not excluded from the old Mysteries of mediæval time.
On the contrary, they appear to have been highly relished by the
worshippers, and contributed much to the popularity of the
entertainments. In Paris a building was erected, in the year 1313,
principally for dramatic performances relating to the Passion of Christ
and the Resurrection, enacted with music and dancing. Soon, attempts
were made to vary these entertainments by the occasional introduction of
some play founded on a myth, or on a wonderful event recorded in secular
history, or also by the admission of profane comedies and farces.
Although music, instrumental as well as vocal, did not constitute the
chiefest point of attraction in these plays, it certainly contributed
much to the impressiveness of the whole.[107] During the second half of
the thirteenth century, Adam de la Hale wrote dramatic plays with songs,
founded on secular subjects. These plays, called Gieux (_jeux_), might
perhaps be called operettas, since they contained dialogues interspersed
with songs. In fact, although our opera may be said to date from about
the year 1600, secular plays in which music and poetry were intimately
associated were known long before that time. The ancient Greeks used in
their dramas the vocal music of choruses and the instrumental
accompaniment of flutes and other instruments, in close connection with
the poetry. The latter art was, however, the principal one, while in our
present opera _music_ is the principal art.

As regards the secular dances of the ancient Greeks, it may be observed
that some of them were similar to the pantomimic exhibitions which are
still relished by several nations. The Pyrrhic dance, which was executed
according to fixed rules, to the sound of the flute, depicted a combat
of warriors. Lord Broughton, during his stay in Albania, was struck with
the resemblance between some of the dances of the Albanians and those of
the ancient Greeks. He notices especially the Pyrrhic dance.[108] The
war-dance of the Jajis, a wild and hostile tribe in the mountainous
districts of Afghanistan, is probably quite as picturesque and exciting
as was the Pyrrhic dance. A European eye-witness of the war-dance of the
Jajis states that it is performed by about twelve or fifteen men placed
in a ring before a number of spectators who are arranged in a
semi-circle. "The performers commenced chanting a song, flourishing
their knives overhead, and stamping on the ground to its tones; and then
each gradually revolving, the whole body moving round together and
maintaining the circle in which they first stood up. Whilst this was
going on, two of the party stepped into the centre of the ring and went
through a mimic fight, or a series of jumps, pirouettes, and other
movements of a like nature, which appeared to be regulated in their
rapidity by the measure of the music; for, towards the close of the
performance the singing ceased, and the whole party appeared twirling
and twisting about in a confused mass amidst the flashing of their drawn
knives, their movements being timed by the rapid roll of their drums.
It was wonderful that they did not wound each other in these intricate
and rapid evolutions with unsheathed knives. On the conclusion of the
dance the whole party set up a shrill and prolonged yell, which
reverberated over the hills, and was caught up by those in the
neighbouring heights and thus prolonged for some minutes. Whilst all
this was going on upon the heights around our camp, several parties of
armed Jajis ranged in columns, three or four abreast, and eight or nine
deep, followed each other in succession round and round the skirt of our
camp, all the time chanting an impressive and passionate war-song in a
very peculiar sonorous tone that seemed to be affected by the acoustic
influences of the locality, which was a deep basin enclosed for the most
part by bare and rocky eminences and hills."[109]

Not less characteristic, and equally descriptive, are the sword-dances
of the Anazehs, in Syria, and of the warriors in Little Thibet, which
are not unfrequently acted with too much reality, since the performers,
having worked themselves up to a state of frenzy, are apt to forget that
they ought only to feign fighting.

Some of the sword-dances still in use in European countries represent
scenes with poetry and music. There is, for instance,--or, at any rate,
there was still in the eighteenth century,--an ancient sword-dance
occasionally performed in some villages of North Germany, in which the
principal dancer, or "The King," addresses the people in a speech.[110]
Here may also be noticed the "Fool Play" still popular in some villages
of Northern England, which is described as "a pageant that consists of a
number of sword-dancers dragging a plough, with music, and with one,
sometimes two, in very strange attire; the Bessey, in the grotesque
habit of an old woman; and the Fool, almost covered with skins, a hairy
cap on, and the tail of some animal hanging from his back." And the
sword-dance performed in the North Riding of Yorkshire, from St.
Stephen's Day till New Year's Day. "The dancers usually consist of six
youths dressed in white ribands, attended by a fiddler, a youth with the
name of Bessey, and also by one who personates a Doctor. They travel
from village to village. One of the six youths acts the part of the King
in a kind of farce which consists chiefly of singing and dancing, and
the Bessey interferes while they are making a hexagon with their swords,
and is killed."[111]

The Cavalcade, or procession on horse-back, is supposed to have been
originally connected with the Mysteries of the Middle Ages. It is still
occasionally performed in Belgium, and its Flemish name is 'Ommegang.' A
number of persons dressed in historical and fanciful costumes ride on
horse-back and drive in carriages through the principal streets of the
town in which the Cavalcade takes place, with the object of representing
scenes from sacred or profane history, or allegorical subjects. The
procession is made imposing by the splendid dresses of the principal
characters, by the gorgeous gildings of their carriages, and the display
of baldachins and flags. This show is supposed to have been introduced
into the Netherlands by the Spaniards during their former possession of
the country. At a certain religious festival, held in Malines in the
year 1838, the entire Litany to the Virgin Mary was represented, each
Invocation being written on a beautiful flag, carried by a beautiful and
richly-dressed young girl, who was riding on a gorgeously-caparisoned
horse led by men. The Invocations: "Queen of the Angels!" "Queen of the
Patriarchs!" etc.,--were depicted by groups of characters in open
carriages; each carriage, splendidly decorated, having the Virgin Mary
seated on a high throne, while at her feet were placed picturesquely on
steps the angels, patriarchs and prophets, all of whom were dressed in
their appropriate costumes, and provided with their requisite
attributes. Again, at a festival which was held at Brussels, in
September, 1839, two parishes of the town arranged a grand Cavalcade,
in which a scene was represented commemorating a political event from
the history of Belgium. Many of the riders were dressed in mediæval
costume, while some appeared in Oriental dresses. The sons and daughters
of the most influential citizens generally undertake the representation
of the principal characters in these processions. Music is, of course,
an indispensable assistance for the solemnity of such pageants. However,
as recitations are of secondary importance in them, or are even entirely
omitted, the first attempts at dramatic music are less traceable in
these remains of mediæval entertainments than they are in the rude
amusements of savages noticed in the beginning of this survey.

It has probably already occurred to the reader that the "Opera of the
Future," aimed at by Wagner, will be in some respect a return to the
opera in its infancy, inasmuch as it will be devoid of the various
artistically-written forms of composition which greatly contribute to
the clearness and impressiveness of the music, and which Mozart has
developed in his operas to the highest degree of perfection. Much might
be said on this subject, were here the proper place for it. Enough if
the facts which have been noticed convince the reflecting musician that
the contemplated innovations alluded to might as well be termed
retrocessions. Gluck was also a reformer of dramatic music, who aimed at
truth in its noble simplicity; but, his objection to anything artificial
in the opera did not mislead him to disregard the artistic beauties
dependent upon form, which ensure the impressive total effect essential
to a true work of art.

Furthermore, the examples given in the preceding pages will probably
have convinced the reader that the origin of the opera can be traced
more minutely in the first dramatic attempts of uncivilized races of the
present time, than by a reference to the theatrical performance of the
ancient nations. At any rate, the latter research does not render the
former superfluous; they should go hand-in-hand.

[84] 'Popular Customs, etc., of the South of Italy,' by Charles
Mac Farlane, London, 1846; p. 68.

[85] 'Voyage pittoresque autour du Monde, par M. Louis Choris;'
Paris, 1822; p. 9.

[86] 'Polynesian Researches,' by William Ellis; London, 1827.
Vol. I., p. 285.

[87] 'A Voyage round the World, in His Britannic Majesty's
Sloop "Resolution," commanded by Captain James Cook, during the years
1772-75;' by George Forster; London, 1777. Vol. I., p. 398.

[88] 'An Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands, in the
South Pacific Ocean, compiled and arranged from the extensive
communications of Mr. William Mariner, several years resident in those
Islands, by John Martin;' London, 1817. Vol. II., p. 309.

[89] 'An Account of a Government Mission to the Fiji Islands, in the
years 1860-61;' by Berthold Seeman; Cambridge, 1862. p. 116.

[90] 'A Second Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, etc.,'
by James Morier; London, 1818. p. 104.

[91] 'Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, etc.,' by Sir Robert Ker
Porter; London, 1822; Vol. II., p. 272.

[92] 'Travels in Greece, Russia, etc.,' by Bayard Taylor; London, 1859;
p. 282.

[93] 'A Lady's Second Journey round the World,' by Ida Pfeiffer; London,
1855; Vol. I., p. 211.

[94] 'The Kingdom of Siam.' By Sir John Bowring. London, 1857; Vol. II.,
p. 325.

[95] 'A Voyage to Cochin-China.' By John White. London, 1824; p. 302.

[96] 'An Authentic Account of an Embassy from the King of Great Britain
to the Emperor of China,' etc. By Sir George Staunton. London, 1797;
Vol. I., p. 344.

[97] 'A Voyage to Cochin-China in the years 1792 and 1793,' by John
Barrow. London, 1806; p. 295.

[98] 'A Seaman's Narrative of his Adventures in Cochin-China,' by Edward
Brown. London 1861; p. 221.

[99] '_Náts_' are sprites corresponding to the Hindu _Dewas_ whose place
they take in the Burman Buddhist system. They are supposed to have been
the objects of Burman worship in pre-Buddhistic times.

[100] 'A Narrative of a Mission, sent by the Governor-General of India
to the Court of Ava, in 1855,' by Captain Henry Yule. London, 1858; p.
368.

[101] 'Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, during the
years 1838-42,' by Charles Wilkes; London, 1845; Vol. V.; p. 389.

[102] 'Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China, during the years,
1844-46,' by M. Huc; Vol. II.; p. 238.

[103] 'Twelve Years in China,' by a British Resident, (John Scarth),
Edinburgh, 1860; p. 56.

[104] 'An Authentic Account of an Embassy from the King of Great Britain
to the Emperor of China, etc., taken chiefly from the papers of His
Excellency the Earl of Macartney,' by Sir George Staunton; London, 1797.
Vol. II.; p. 31.

[105] 'Japan and the Japanese,' by Captain Golownin (of the Russian
Navy); London, 1853. Vol. II.; p. 149.

[106] 'Travels in Peru, by J. J. von Tschudi.' London, 1847; p. 377.

[107] 'Wesen und Geschichte der Oper, von G. W. Fink.' Leipzig, 1838; p.
53.

[108] 'Travels in Albania, etc., by the Right Hon. Lord Broughton.'
London, 1855; Vol. I., p. 145.

[109] 'Journal of a Political Mission to Afghanistan, by H. W. Bellew.'
London, 1862; p. 143.

[110] 'Das deutsche Volk, geschildert von Eduard Duller.' Leipzig, 1847;
p. 183.

[111] 'Observations on Popular Antiquities, by John Brand, revised by
Henry Ellis.' London, 1813; Vol. I., pp. 396, 401.



[Illustration]

A SHORT SURVEY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC.


The perusal of Chronological Tables illustrating the history of music
must appear to many readers a dry occupation. Still, it enables the
lover of music to obtain in a short time a comprehensive and clear view
of the gradual development of the art from the earliest period of its
cultivation recorded in history to the present day. Perhaps a coloured
chart contrived like the "Stream of Time," which at a glance shows the
great events in universal history, might answer the purpose even better.
There is no disconnection in the progress of an art, though certain
occurrences may appear to the superficial observer as being entirely
accidental. A musical "Stream of Time" might exhibit in various colours
the natural connection between the several branches of the art of music,
and their modifications conspicuous in its history.

Or, this might be achieved by the representation of a tree. As in the
genealogical tree which has been published of Johann Sebastian Bach the
proper relation of the numerous members of his family is at once brought
clearly before the eyes of the inquirer, so might the growth and spread
of the different branches of the art of music be indicated, exhibiting
distinctly their highest degree of culture, as well as their infancy and
decay.

Diagrams of this kind are, however, only suitable for a very condensed
historical survey. More detailed information is better conveyed by means
of chronological tables, such as Carl Czerny has compiled in his 'Umriss
der ganzen Musik-Geschichte' ('A Sketch of the whole History of
Music'), published at Mayence, in the year 1851. Carl Czerny, of Vienna,
was a very industrious man, who, although he gave pianoforte lessons
during the whole day, nevertheless found time to write above nine
hundred compositions, not to mention his innumerable arrangements of
operas, oratorios, symphonies, and overtures. That he could engage in
such laborious research as the preparation of his chronological tables
must have required is certainly surprising, especially as he was a very
practical man with regard to money-making, and there is probably no
musical occupation less likely to yield pecuniary advantage than is the
compiling of chronological tables. It used to be said of Czerny that he
was in the habit of composing while he was giving pianoforte lessons. If
this is no false rumour, it perhaps accounts for the enormous number of
his compositions, as well as for the slight merit of most of them. But,
chronological tables he may have compiled in this way without detriment
to them, since they do not require to be written with feeling, even less
with inspiration, but merely with careful discernment, and with
perseverance. Be this as it may, he certainly was an eminent pianoforte
teacher, as is proved by his having instructed Liszt, Döhler, and other
distinguished pianists. His finger-exercises, or pianoforte-studies,
have outlived his other compositions, and his chronological tables will
probably be used for reference long after his finger-exercises have been
supplanted by more modern ones.

As the object is to supply the lover of music with an historical survey,
similar to that of Czerny, but on a smaller scale,--it may be useful to
notice the plan adopted by Czerny.

He has divided his work into two Sections. The first Section records the
ancient traditions respecting the origin of music, and gives an account
of the music of the nations before the Christian era, of the music of
our forefathers during the Middle Ages, and of the rise of our modern
tone-art. This Section is arranged in eighteen Periods, thus:--

_First Period._--The primitive Music of the Greeks until the time of the
Trojan War (B.C. 2000-1200). Mythic and mythic-heroic Age. Beginning of
the public games and contests.

_Second Period._--From the Trojan War until Pythagoras (B.C. 1200-584).
Gradual development of singing associated with poetry. Invention and
improvement of different Stringed Instruments, Wind Instruments, and
Instruments of Percussion. Encouragement given to artists by the
bestowal of great honours.

_Third Period._--From Pythagoras until Aristoxenus of Tarentum (B.C.
584-340). Highest development of all the Arts in Greece. The Art of
Music founded on fixed rules.

_Fourth Period._--From Aristoxenus until the Birth of Christ (B.C.
340-A.D. 1). New Musical System. Decay of the Arts.

_Fifth Period._--From the Birth of Christ until Hucbald (A.D. 1-900).
Gradual decay of the Ancient Music. Origin of the Christian Church-song.

_Sixth Period._--From Hucbald until Franco of Cologne (A.D. 900-1200).
The first attempts in Polyphonic Harmony. Invention of Musical Notation
and Measure of Time.

_Seventh Period._--From Franco of Cologne until Dufay (A.D. 1200-1380).
Invention and development of Counterpoint.

_Eighth Period._--From Dufay until Ockeghem, or Ockenheim (A.D.
1380-1450). The elder Netherlandish School. Developed Regular
Counterpoint. Musical Notation fixed. Composers according to the new
system of Harmony.

_Ninth Period._--From Ockeghem until Josquin des Prés (A.D. 1450-1480).
The newer or second Netherlandish School. Artificial Counterpoint.
Beginning of the reputation of the Netherlandish masters. In Italy and
Germany executive artists on the Organ, Clavichord, and other
instruments, make their appearance.

_Tenth Period._--From Josquin des Prés until Willaert (A.D. 1480-1520).
Commencement of the flourishing, state of the Netherlandish masters,
and their influence upon all European countries. Masters in Counterpoint
arise in Germany. Meritorious teachers in Italy. French musicians attain
reputation in other countries besides in France.

_Eleventh Period._--From Willaert until Palestrina (A.D. 1520-1560). The
Netherlandish masters institute Schools in Italy and develop the art of
music with great success in that country. The Madrigal becomes the
favourite kind of composition of the Venetian School.

_Twelfth Period._--From Palestrina until Monteverde (A.D. 1560-1600).
Commencement of the flourishing state of the Italian musical artists.
Conclusion of the great Netherlandish epoch. Refinement of the stiff
Netherlandish style. Romish School. Church Music of a high degree of
perfection.

_Thirteenth Period._--From Monteverde until Carissimi (A.D. 1600-1640).
Commencement of Operatic Music. First attempts in the Recitative style,
in the melodious song for a single voice (Monody) and in the Concertante
style.

_Fourteenth Period._--From Carissimi until Alessandro Scarlatti (A.D.
1640-1680). Improvements in the Recitative and in the Dramatic Melody.
Origin of the Cantata and the Oratorio. Introduction of Concertante
Instruments to the song. Neapolitan School.

_Fifteenth Period._--From Alessandro Scarlatti until Leo and Durante
(A.D. 1680-1720). Essential improvement in the Recitative and in
Dramatic Music. Increase of the Orchestral Instruments. Development of
Instrumental Music. Rise of great Composers in Germany.

_Sixteenth Period._--From Durante until Gluck (A.D. 1720-1760).
Flourishing state of the Neapolitan School. Reform in Melody. The
highest art in Counterpoint in Germany. Oratorios. German Composers
study in Italy, and write Italian Operas.

_Seventeenth Period._--From Gluck until Haydn and Mozart (A.D.
1760-1780). Reform in the style of the Opera. Introduction of the
Ensemble pieces and the Finales. Rise of the French Opera. Development
of Instrumental Music.

_Eighteenth Period._--From Mozart until Beethoven and Rossini (A.D.
1780-1820). Great improvement of the Orchestra, and of Instrumental
Music in general. Development of the German Operatic Style. Tone-artists
of the Vienna School. Beginning of the popularity of the Pianoforte.
Beethoven brings Instrumental Music to the highest degree of perfection.
Flourishing state of the French Opera. With Rossini commences a new and
effective epoch in Italian Operatic Music. Numerous Virtuosos on
instruments. In the Opera, amalgamation of different styles. In the most
recent time, an undecided direction.

Thus much about the Eighteen Periods noticed in Section I. of Czerny's
work. Only the first seven periods are fully treated in this Section;
the others form the subject of Section II., which is divided into Three
Principal Epochs, thus:--

_First Principal Epoch._--From the establishment of our Theory of
Harmony until the commencement of the Opera (A.D. 1400-1600). Separation
of the four chief nations: 1, France (with the Netherlands); 2, Italy
(with Spain and Portugal); 3, England; 4, Germany (with Bohemia,
Hungary, Poland, Sweden, and Denmark).

_Second Principal Epoch._--From the commencement of the Opera until the
development of Instrumental Music and Chamber Music (A.D. 1600-1700).
Division of the Art of Music into Church Music and Operatic Music. First
appearance of some distinguished performers on instruments. 1, Italy
(with Spain and Portugal); 2, France (with the Netherlands); 3, England;
4, Germany (with Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Sweden, and Denmark).

_Third Principal Epoch._--From the development of Instrumental Music
until the end of the Eighteenth Century (A.D. 1700-1800). Division of
Church Music, Operatic Music, and Instrumental Music. 1, Italy (with
Spain and Portugal); 2, France (with the Netherlands); 3, England; 4,
Germany (with Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Sweden, and Denmark).

After these Divisions and Sub-divisions follows an
alphabetically-arranged Register of the names of the musicians who are
mentioned in the different Periods and Epochs. But also here we have
Divisions and Sub-divisions, so that the Register, in fact, consists of
six Indices, each containing the musicians of a certain epoch or a
certain country, from A to Z. The author says that the plan of the work
renders this arrangement necessary; but, as he does not prove his
assertion, students using the work for reference will probably arrive at
the conviction that one general Index, containing all the names in
alphabetical order, would be more convenient. Another disadvantage is
that the Indices are entirely restricted to the names of musicians, no
reference being made to important events relating to the history of
music. In fact, the chief aim of the work is to notice a great many
musicians. The number of composers, theorists, and performers entered
amounts to 1713, of whom 236 belong to the ancient Greeks and Romans,
132 to the Middle Ages, and 1345 to European nations from A.D. 1400 to
1800. Many of these musicians have left no mark upon the history of
their art, and their names have justly fallen into oblivion. These might
better have been omitted. Of what use, for instance, can it be to the
student to be supplied with the names of the musicians who played before
Alexander the Great on the occasion of his marriage with Roxanen, at
Samarkand, in the year B.C. 328? Especially among the 1345 composers who
distinguished themselves during the four centuries from A.D. 1400 to
1800 are many who might now as well have been left at rest. What
possible advantage can the student derive from a record of mediocre
pianoforte composers whose productions were not held in much esteem even
during their lifetime? On the other hand, it was prudent in the author
not to extend his list beyond the year 1800. The distinguished musicians
of the present century are known to readers who take an interest in the
history of the art, and who are most likely to use the book. Anyhow, it
would be a delicate task to admit the names of living musicians, some of
whom may still become more celebrated than they are, while others may
show that they really are not so clever as they at first appeared to be.
It is impossible to assign his proper place in the history of his art to
an artist before he is dead.

Czerny has had the happy thought of placing in a column before each
chronological table short memoranda of the events in general history of
the time when the composers lived. Nothing can be more advisable to a
professional musician than to make himself familiar with this column of
facts bearing directly upon his art. There can hardly be a doubt that
other artists,--especially painters and sculptors,--generally possess
more historical knowledge than musicians. Perhaps their occupation
suggests to them more forcibly the value of such information. Be this as
it may, the music of an intelligent musician is better than that of an
ignorant, narrow-minded one; even for this reason, musicians ought to
study universal history, were it not on account of the intimate
connection of the cultivation of the arts with the progress of
civilization.

Moreover, if we are exactly acquainted with the political and social
conditions of the time in which a distinguished artist lived, we are the
better able to appreciate his merits. Unfortunately, Czerny records the
musicians under the date of their birth. Thus, many are mentioned in the
century previous to that in which they flourished. Take for instance
Handel and Sebastian Bach: both were born in the year 1685, and produced
their great works during the first half of the eighteenth century. Now,
if the plan of recording the musicians under the date of their birth had
been throughout adhered to, the student might, as a general rule,
surmise the time of their activity to have been about half a century
later. But, of several celebrities the date of whose birth is unknown,
Czerny gives some year in which they are known to have distinguished
themselves, and this deviation from the plan leads to confusion in the
chronological arrangement. True, it is impossible to determine exactly
the year in which the musician in his lifetime exercised the greatest
influence upon his art; but, this can be done as nearly as possible by
adopting his fortieth or fiftieth year as that of his best period.
Those who did not attain that age might be noticed under a date
referring to the period when they most distinguished themselves, which
was generally the case during the last few years of their life.

Again, the mention of the musicians of each country separately has too
little advantage to justify the inconvenience thereby occasioned to the
student. Cherubini, like Bellini and Donizetti, is classed with the
Italian composers; he would, however, have been more properly placed
with the German composers. Rossini, when he wrote 'Guillaume Tell,' was
more German than some musicians born in Germany. Lulli, the founder of
the old French opera is certainly more properly mentioned with the
French musicians than with the Italian. Other examples could be pointed
out which evoke the question whether such a complicated classification
really serves a scientific purpose.

In the 'Chronology of the History of Music' offered in the following
pages, in which Czerny's tables have been of great assistance, the aim
has been to avoid the defects just noticed. It will be seen that only a
brief survey of the most important events in the history of music has
been attempted. When the student has ascertained these, he will probably
choose to refer to some treatise on the history of music instead of a
more extensive chronological table. But the latter may afterwards be of
use to him inasmuch as it will assist him in recalling to his memory in
proper order those facts with which he has become more minutely
acquainted by reading the treatise.

As some account of the mythological traditions respecting the origin of
music has already been given in the present work,[112] there is no
necessity to advert to them here.

The recorded dates of the Greek music with which the survey commences
must not be taken as authentic until we arrive at about the seventh
century before the Christian era.

[112] Vol. I., p. 74.



[Illustration]

CHRONOLOGY OF THE HISTORY OF MUSIC.


     -----------------------+------+---------------------------------------
                            | B. C.|
     Cadmus, from           | 2000 |   Music, with other arts and sciences,
      Phoenicia, and        |      | is introduced into Greece from Western
      Cecrops, from         |      | Asia and Egypt.
      Egypt, settle in      |      |
      Greece.               |      |
     Abraham (1900).        | 1750 |   The Jews have vocal music with
     Joseph (1750).         |      | instrumental accompaniment (Gen.,
     Moses (1550).          |      | Chap. xxxi., v. 26, 27).
                            |      |
     The oracle of          | 1500 |   Hyagnis, in Greece, improves the
      Delphi.               |      | flute and invents the Phrygian Mode.
                            |      |
     Daedalus, Grecian      |      |   Marsyas, a distinguished
      sculptor              |      | flute-player, invents a new species of
      and architect,        |      | flute made of metal.
      invents the sails     |      |
      of ships, &c.         |      |   Linus ventures upon a musical
                            |      | contest with Apollo, and is killed
                            |      | by him.
                            |      |
                            |      |   "Then sang Moses and the children
                            |      | of Israel." (Exod. xv.)
     The Argonauts,         | 1300 |   Orpheus, lyrist, singer, poet, and
      led by Jason,         |      | law-giver, composes hymns.
      sail to Colchis.      |      |
     Hercules.              |      |   Amphion, lyrist, singer, and
     Theseus.               |      | composer, improves the Grecian lyre.
     Triptolemus introduces |      |   Musæus, lyrist, sets music to the
      agriculture           |      | words of the oracles.
      into                  |      |
      Greece.               |      |
     Castor and Pollux,     |      |   About this time the Greeks
      Grecian               |      | instituted most of their public games
      heroes.               |      | in which musical contests formed part.
                            |      |
     Tyrus, on the          | 1250 |   Olympus of Mysia, a celebrated
      coast of Phoenice,    |      | flutist. Daphnis of Sicily. To him is
      founded               |      | ascribed the invention of the
      by a colony of        |      | chalumeau, and of the bucolic poetry.
      Sidonians.            |      |
     Adrastus celebrates    |      |   Thamiris, singer and player on the
      the first             |      | kithara, a species of lyre, is chosen
      Pythian Games         |      | by the Scythians for their King on
      in honour of          |      | account of his musical
      Apollo.               |      | accomplishments.
                            |      |
     Amazons, or            | 1240 |   Euneus, a distinguished singer and
      female warriors,      |      | kithara-player of Greece. His
      from the              |      | descendants remain during many
      Caucasus, invade      |      | generations the privileged
      Greece.               |      | kithara-players at the
                            |      | public festivities in Athens.
                            |      |
     Troy taken by          | 1200 |   Agias, a celebrated Greek musician
      the Greeks            |      | about the time of the destruction of
      (1184).               |      | Troy.
                            |      |
     Grecian heroes:        |      |   The invention of the Dorian Mode is
      Menelaus,             |      | ascribed to Lamyras of Thracia; the
      Agamemnon,            |      | invention of the Lydian Mode, to
      Achilles,             |      | Carius; and the invention of the
      Ulysses.              |      | Ionian Mode, to Pythermus.
                            |      |
     Trojan heroes:         |      |   Celmis, a priest of Creta, invents
      Priam, Hector,        |      | (or probably improves) several
      Paris, Æneas.         |      | instruments of percussion.
                            |      |
     Codrus, the last       | 1100 |   Ardalus, of Troezen, invents a new
      King of Athens        |      | species of flute for accompanying
      (1070). Abolition     |      | vocal music.
      of Royalty.           |      |
     King Saul.             |      |   The Greeks about this time possessed
     Cheops, the            |      | various kinds of stringed instruments
      builder of the        |      | and wind instruments, and the names
      greatest Pyramid      |      | of several musicians are recorded who
      in Egypt.             |      | improved the instruments, or
                            |      | introduced innovations in the
                            |      | construction of the popular ones.
                            |      |
                            | 1050 |   David, King of Judah, musician and
                            |      | poet. Psalms.
                            |      |
     King Solomon           |      |   King David institutes in Jerusalem a
      (1010-975).           |      | School for vocal and instrumental
                            |      | music (I. Chron., Chap. xv., v. 16).
     Dido builds the        | 1000 |   Bardus, a King of Gallia, is said to
      city of Carthage      |      | have introduced music into Western
      on the                |      | Europe, and to have been the first of
      north coast of        |      | the singers known as the Bards.
      Africa.               |      |
     Development of         |  900 |   Homer, singer and poet, born
      the Republics         |      | probably in Chios. Iliad and Odyssey.
      in Greece.            |      |
     Lycurgus reforms       |  850 |   Hesiodus, singer and poet, born in
      the Republic of       |      | Boeotia. Simmicus, inventor of an
      Lacedæmonia,          |      | instrument with thirty-five strings,
      and gives laws        |      | called Simmikon or Simmicium.
      to the Spartans.      |      | Thaletas, of Creta, musician and poet,
                            |      | composes in Sparta, under Lycurgus,
                            |      | the laws and war-songs for the voice.
                            |      | Phoecinus, of Greece, sketches the
                            |      | first musical rules.
                            |      |
     Rome founded by        |  800 |   Olympus, of Phrygia, flutist,
      Romulus (754).        |      | invents the Enharmonic scale.
                            |      |
                            |  720 |   Archilochus, of Paros, singer, poet,
                            |      | and instrumentalist.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Important improvements in the music
                            |      | of the Greeks.
                            |      |
                            |  700 |   Tyrtæus, of Athens, poet, singer,
                            |      | and trumpeter, composes war-songs for
                            |      | Sparta against Messenia.
                            |      |
                            |  650 |   TERPANDER, of Lesbos, lyrist,
                            |      | flutist, and composer. Important
                            |      | progress in the music of the Greeks.
                            |      |
     Circumnavigation       |  625 |   Arion, of Lesbos, kithara-player,
      of the coast of       |      | singer and poet, invents the
      Africa under          |      | Dithyrambs, or hymns of Bacchus, and
      Necho, King           |      | improves the chorus-singing. He is
      of Egypt (615).       |      | recorded to have healed sick persons
                            |      | by means of music. The same is also
                            |      | recorded of Menias, a Greek musician,
                            |      | who lived about this time.
                            |      |
     Nebuchadnezzar,        |  600 |   Stesichorus, of Sicily, composes
      King of Babylon,      |      | choruses with instrumental
      carries the           |      | accompaniment, besides airs to his
      Jews into captivity.  |      | poems.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Alcæus, of Mytilene, singer, lyrist,
                            |      | and poet.
                            |      |
     Solon, law-giver,      |      |   Sappho, of Mytilene, female singer,
      in Athens.            |      | lyrist, and poetess. To her is
                            |      | ascribed the invention of a stringed
                            |      | instrument called Barbitos.
                            |      |
     The seven sages        |  570 |   The Romans, under the King Servius
      of Greece:--Solon,    |      | Tullius, introduce trumpets and horns
      Thales,               |      | of metal into their army.
      Periander,            |      |
      Cleobulus,            |      |
      Pittacus, Bias,       |      |
      Chilo.                |      |
     Cyrus conquers         |  550 |   About this time was performed in
       Lydia and dethrones  |      | Athens, under Thespis, the first
       Croesus.             |      | tragedy with choruses set to music.
                            |      |
     Confucius, Chinese     |      |
       philosopher.         |      |
                            |      |
     Zoroaster in           |      |
       Persia.              |      |
                            |      |
     Tarquinius Superbus,   |  530 |   PYTHAGORAS, of Samos,
       the                  |      | philosopher, studies music in Egypt,
       last King of         |      | founds in Greece a great School of
       Rome, is expelled.   |      | music based upon mathematical
                            |      | principles; invents the monochord for
     Rome becomes a         |      | measuring the sound; ascertains the
       Republic (510).      |      | harmonious Triad, the diatonic
                            |      | intervals, etc.
     Cambyses conquers      |      |
       Egypt (509).         |      |
                            |  500 |   Lasus, of Achaia, writes treatises
                            |      | on the theory of music.
                            |      |
     Battle of Marathon,    |      |   Æschylus, born at Athens about
       in which the Greeks, |      | 525, singer and writer of Tragedies.
       commanded by         |      |
       Miltiades, defeat    |      |   Simonides, of Ceos, born in 557,
       the Persians (490).  |      | died 468, lyrist and poet.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Pindar, born at Thebes, in Boeotia,
     Xerxes invades         |      | about the year 520, flutist, lyrist,
       Greece (487).        |      | poet, and composer. Many hymns, odes,
                            |      | etc.
                            |      |
     Battle of Salamis      |      |   Corinna, of Tanagra, in Boeotia,
       in which             |      | female singer and poetess. Several
       Themistocles         |      | times gains the victory in contest
       defeats the          |      | with Pindar at the public games at
       Persians (480).      |      | Thebes.
                            |      |
     Leonidas.              |      |   Anacreon, of Teos, lyric poet and
                            |      | musician. To him is attributed the
     Themistocles           |      | invention of several stringed
       banished from        |      | instruments.
       Athens (471).        |      |
                            |      |
     Cimon defeats          |      |   The Greeks had about this time
       the Persians         |      | several accomplished players on the
       (466).               |      | kithara, flute, and other instruments,
                            |      | who introduced new and brilliant
                            |      | passages and embellishments into their
                            |      | performances.
                            |      |
     Pericles, Greek        |  450 |   The highest degree of perfection of
       General and          |      | the dramatic art in Greece through
       orator.              |      | Æschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and
     Herodotus, historian.  |      | through the musical composer Damon,
                            |      | the singer Agathon, etc., at Athens.
                            |      |
     Phidias, sculptor.     |      |   Democritus, of Abdera, philosopher,
     Hippocrates,           |      | writes seven books on music.
      physician.            |      |
     Commencement           |  430 |   Lysander, of Sycion, invents a more
      of the Peloponnesian  |      | artistic instrumental accompaniment to
      war                   |      | vocal music.
      between the           |      |
      Athenians and         |      |
      Spartans which        |      |   Alexandrides extends the compass of
      lasts twenty-seven    |      | the Greek wind instruments.
      years                 |      |
      (431).                |      |
                            |      |
     Socrates (469-399).    |  400 |   Timotheus, of Miletus, Asia Minor
     Alcibiades.            |      | singer, kithara-player and poet,
                            |      | composes many works, and improves the
                            |      | lyre.
                            |      |
     Brennus, Chief of      |      |   Plato, philosopher, in his works
      the Gauls,            |      | treats also on music.
      burns & sacks         |      |
      Rome (390).           |      |
     Demosthenes            |  360 |   About this time, the first dramatic
      (384-322).            |      | performances with music in Rome.
                            |      |
     Diogenes (350).        |  350 |   Aristoteles, of Stagira, born in
     Alexander, the         |      | 384, philosopher and musician. In his
      Great, son of         |      | works much about music.
      Philip of Macedonia   |      |
      (333).                |      |
     Ptolemy I., King       |  310 |   ARISTOXENUS, of Tarentum, born in
      of Egypt, encourages  |      | 340, philosopher and musician, founds
      the                   |      | a new School of music which is in
      cultivation of        |      | opposition to the teaching of
      sciences and          |      | Pythagoras, generally accepted until
      arts in his kingdom,  |      | that time. He writes many treatises
      & founds              |      | on music. Division of the musicians
      a library in          |      | into Musici, or the followers of
      Alexandria.           |      | Aristoxenus, who derive the rules of
                            |      | music from its effect upon the
                            |      | ear,--and Canonici, or the followers
                            |      | of Pythagoras, who derive them from
                            |      | mathematical laws.
                            |      |
     Pyrrhus, King of       |  300 |   About this period the Greeks made
      Epirus, is defeated   |      | many improvements in the construction
      by the                |      | of their musical instruments.
      Romans (275).         |      |
                            |      |   Euclides, of Alexandria, born in
                            |      | 323, died 283, mathematician, writes
                            |      | on the theory of music and acoustics.
                            |      |
     The first Punic        |  250 |   Archimedes, of Syracuse, born in
       war (264-241).       |      | 287, died 212, mathematician, is said
     The second Punic       |      | to have invented the hydraulic organ.
       war (218-202).       |      |
                            |      |
     Scipio defeats         |      |   Ctesibius, of Alexandria, improves
       Hannibal in          |      | the pneumatic organ and alters it into
       Africa (202).        |      | a hydraulic organ. His son Hero still
                            |      | further perfects the instrument and
                            |      | describes it.
                            |      |
     The first Macedonian   |  200 |   Aristeas, of Greece, a
       war (200).           |      | kithara-player, writes a treatise
                            |      | on kithara-playing.
     The first library      |      |
       at Rome (167).       |      |
                            |      |
     Corinth and Carthage   |  150 |   Polybius, of Megalopolis in Arcadia,
       destroyed            |      | born about the year 204, historian,
       by the Romans        |      | writes a treatise on the influence of
       (146). Greece        |      | music upon civilization.
       and North            |      |
       Africa become        |      |
       Roman provinces.     |      |
                            |      |
     Civil war in Rome      |  100 |   Alypius, of Alexandria, writes on
       (88).                |      | musical notation by means of the
                            |      | letters of the Greek alphabet.
     The Romans             |      |
       under Julius         |      |
       Cæsar invade         |      |
       Britain (55).        |      |
                            |      |
     Julius Cæsar           |   50 |   Hermogenes (Marcus Tigellius),
       assassinated in      |      | singer and instrumentalist of Greece,
       the Senate-house     |      | settles in Rome.
       (44).                |      |
                            |      |
     Cicero killed (43).    |      |
                            |      |
     Virgilius.             |      |
                            |      |
     Antonius and           |      |
       Cleopatra defeated   |      |
       (31).                |      |
     Augustus, Roman        |   30 |   Diodorus Siculus, of Agyrium in
       Emperor (30).        |      | Sicily, historian, gives some account
                            |      | of the oldest music of the Egyptians
     Horace.                |      | and Greeks.
                            |      |
     Mæcenas.               |      |
                            |      |
     Titus Livius,          |   10 |   Vitruvius (Pollio M.), born in
       historian.           |      | Italy, architect, writes on musical
                            |      | subjects.
     Ovidius, poet.         |      |
                            | A. D.|
     Hermann in Germany     |    1 |   Gradual decay of the Greek Music.
      defeats               |      |
      Varus (9).            |      |
     The Romans             |      |   The first Christian hymns (St.
      under the Emperor     |      | Matthew, chap. XXVI., v. 30; St.
      Claudius              |      | Mark, chap. XIV., v. 26; I Corinth.,
      invade England        |      | chap. XIV., v. 15; Ephes., chap. V.,
      (40).                 |      | v. 19; Coloss., chap. III., v. 16; St.
     London founded         |      | James, chap. V., v. 13, etc.).
      by the Romans         |      |
      (49).                 |      |
                            |   50 |   Pliny the Elder, born at Verona in
                            |      | the year 27, died in 79. Several books
                            |      | on music.
                            |      |
     Destruction  of        |   60 |   Nero, Roman Emperor from A.D. 54
      Jerusalem by          |      | to 68, musician, singer, flutist,
      Titus (70).           |      | lyrist. He sings and plays in public,
     Herculaneum            |      | and is said to have maintained 5000
      and Pompeii           |      | musicians in his pay.
      destroyed by          |      |
      an eruption of        |      |
      Vesuvius (79).        |      |
     Tacitus, historian.    |   80 |   Plutarchus, born at Chaeronea in
     Juvenal, poet.         |      | Boeotia, about the year 40, biographer
     Martialis, poet.       |      | and philosopher. Several musical
     Pliny the              |      | essays.
      Younger.              |      |
     Trajan, Roman          |      |
      Emperor (98).         |      |
                            |  100 |   Ptolemaeus (Claudius) born at
                            |      | Pelusium in Egypt, about the year 70,
     Introduction of        |      | mathematician, geographer, astronomer,
      Christianity into     |      | and musician. In his writings
      Ireland by St.        |      | he endeavours to reconcile the musical
      Patrick (110).        |      | theories of Pythagoras and
                            |      | Aristoxenus. He reduces the fifteen
                            |      | Modes of the Greeks to seven.
     Fingal (Ossian) in     |  200 |
      Scotland (200).       |      |
     Persecutions of        |      |   From about the year 150 to 200,
      the Christians        |      | above a dozen authors are known in
      during the third      |      | whose works some account is given of
      century.              |      | the music of the ancients.
     Artaxerxes, king       |      |
      of Persia, conquers   |      |
      the Parthians, &      |      |
      founds                |      |
      the dynasty of        |      |
      the Sassanidæ         |      |
      (226).                |      |
     Probus, Roman          |  250 |   The Fathers of the Church who give
      Emperor,              |      | the first account of the sacred songs
      causes the vine       |      | of the early Christians are
      to be planted         |      | Tertullian, Clemens of Alexandria,
      on the banks          |      | and Origen. Their writings date from
      of the Rhine          |      | the first half of the third century.
      and  the Moselle      |      | The Christian communities had already
      (276).                |      | during the first century in their
                            |      | religious observances, which in the
                            |      | beginning were held secretly, hymns
                            |      | sung alternately by a single voice
                            |      | and a chorus in unison. The melodies
                            |      | of the hymns were probably similar
                            |      | to those of the Greeks. At all
                            |      | events, the Modes in which they
                            |      | were sung, and the notation by letters
                            |      | of the alphabet, had been derived from
                            |      | the Greeks.
                            |      |
     Constantine, Emperor,  |  330 |   Silvester I., Pope, institutes in
      is converted          |      | Rome the first school for Church-song.
      to Christianity,      |      |
      and                   |      |
      transfers the         |      |
      seat of his empire    |      |
      from Rome             |      |
      to Byzantine,         |      |
      henceforth            |      |
      called Constantinople |      |
      (330).                |      |
                            |      |
     Division of the        |  350 |   Damasus, Bishop of Rome, born at
      Roman Empire          |      | Madrid in the year 314, introduces in
      into Eastern          |      | Church the antiphonal singing of the
      and Western           |      | Psalms by two choirs, and regulates
      (364).                |      | the intoning of the Mass.
                            |      |
     Kingdoms formed        |      |   St. Basilius (died 379) promotes
      by the Ostrogoths     |      | sacred song in the Eastern
      and Visigoths.        |      | (Greek-Christian) Church, and
                            |      | describes the Church-music of his
     The Huns migrate       |      | time.
      from                  |      |
      Asia to Europe,       |      |
      and come in           |      |
      collision with        |      |
      the Goths             |      |
      (375).                |      |
     Theodosius the         |  380 |   ST. AMBROSE, Bishop of Milan, from
      Great, Emperor        |      | 374 to 397, born about 333 in Gallia,
      of the Eastern        |      | died in 398. Introduces the Ambrosian
      Empire                |      | Song of Praise (Te Deum laudamus),
      (379).                |      | composes several hymns, and promotes
                            |      | the singing of the Psalms, in
                            |      | opposition to the old Greek music.
                            |      |
     The Visigoths, or      |  400 |   St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, born
      Goths of the          |      | 354 at Tagasta, in Africa, died 430.
      West, under           |      | In his works, writes much about music,
      Alaric, invade        |      | and especially recommends
      Italy (400).          |      | Psalm-singing.
                            |      |
     Rome is sacked         |      |   The Fathers of the Church, St.
      and burnt by          |      | Chrysostom, Cyprian, and Hieronymus,
      Alaric (410).         |      | with others, uphold the cultivation of
                            |      | Church-song, which is discouraged by
                            |      | many.
                            |      |
     The Anglo-Saxons       |  420 |   Macrobius writes on music according
      arrive                |      | to the system of Pythagoras.
      in Britain            |      |
      (449).                |      |
     The Anglo-Saxon        |      |
      Heptarchy in          |      |
      Britain (457).        |  500 |   Boethius, born 470 in Rome, died
                            |      | 526; writes several treatises on the
                            |      | music of the Ancients.
                            |      |
     Silkworms are          |  550 |   Cassiodorus (Magnus Aurelius) born
      introduced into       |      | 480, died 575; musical author.
      Europe from           |      |
      China (550).          |      |
     The Picts are          |  590 |   GREGORY THE GREAT, Pope, 590 to
      converted to          |      | 604, collects the Christian hymns,
      Christianity          |      | fixes the employment of them, improves
      (565).                |      | the Singing Schools, appoints
                            |      | Cantores, Precentors, etc. The
     The Visigoths, or      |      | Gregorian Church-song used in place of
      Goths of the          |      | the Ambrosian.
      West, conquer         |      |
      the greater           |      |
      part of Spain         |  596 |   ST. AUGUSTINE, first Bishop of
      (580).                |      | Canterbury, usually called the Apostle
                            |      | of the English, introduces into
     Foundation of the      |      | England with the Christian religion,
      Kingdom of            |      | the Church-song.
      Mercia by Crida       |      |
      (582).                |      |
     Mohammed,              |      |   Church-music contributes much to
      founder of a          |      | the diffusion of Christianity in
      Religion (604).       |      | heathen countries.
                            |      |
     The Pope in            |  600 |   St. Isidore, Archbishop of Seville,
      Rome acknowledged     |      | in Spain, born at Carthagena about
      as the                |      | 570, died 636. Promotes the
      head of the           |      | improvement of Church-music, and
      Church (607).         |      | writes treatises on music.
     University of          |      |
      Cambridge             |      |
      founded (631).        |      |
     Conquests of the       |  650 |   Jacob (Deacon), Stephan Eddi, Putta,
      Arabs in Asia,        |      | Maban, and Acca (Bishop), were
      as far as Hindustan.  |      | distinguished church-singers in
     Jerusalem is           |      | England during the period from 620
      taken by them         |      | to 700.
      (637).                |      |
     The Caliph Omar        |      |
      burns the Alexandrian |      |
      library               |      |
      (640).                |      |   Vitalianus, Pope, from 657 to 672,
     The Danes invade       |  660 | introduces the hydraulic organ into
      England               |      | the Church for sounding the first
      (660).                |      | tone of the Chorale as a guide to
                            |      | the singers. He sends two
     The Britons are        |      | accomplished Roman singers to
      driven into           |      | Gallia (France) for the purpose
      Wales (685).          |      | of improving the Church-song in
                            |      | that country.
                            |      |
     Conquests of the       |  676 |   Johannes Damascenus, born at
      Arabs in North        |      | Damascus. Introduces in Church
      Africa (688).         |      | hymns, the melodies of which differ
                            |      | from the old Grecian.
                            |      |
     The Saracens in        |  700 |   BEDA VENERABILIS, born 673, died
      Spain (713).          |      | 735; an English Monk, to whom are
     Glass-painting &       |      | attributed two important treatises on
      Mosaic in Italy       |      | music.
      (750).                |      |
     Pepin, King of         |      |   Benedict, an English Abbot,
      the Franks            |      | introduces chanting in choirs.
      (752-768).            |      |
                            |      |
     The Danes invade       |  780 |   Alcuinus, or Albinus, an English
      England               |      | Prelate, born 736, died 814; promotes
      (783).                |      | Church-music.
     Harun al-Raschid,      |      |
      Caliph of Bagdad.     |      |
      Flourishing           |      |
      state of the          |      |
      sciences with         |      |
      the Arabs (786).      |      |
                            |  800 |   Charlemagne, Emperor of Germany,
                            |      | introduces the Gregorian Church-song
     Division of the        |      | into all his dominions, and orders a
      Monarchy of           |      | collection to be made of the popular
      Charlemagne (843).    |      | secular songs.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Church organs come gradually into
                            |      | use.
                            |      |
     Alfred the Great       |  850 |   Notker, a Benedictine Monk of St.
      defeats the           |      | Gallen, in Germany, composes sacred
      Danes in England      |      | songs called Sequentias Missales,
      (880).                |      | which are introduced in the churches.
                            |      |
                            |  886 |   Friar John of St. David's, the first
                            |      | Professor of Music at the University
                            |      | of Oxford, appointed by Alfred the
                            |      | Great.
                            |      |
     Foundation of the      |  900 |   HUCBALD, Monk of St. Amand, in
      University of         |      | Flanders, born about 840, died 932.
      Oxford by             |      | First attempt to accompany an air
      Alfred the            |      | with several voices in harmony.
      Great (900).          |      | Notation, consisting of the syllables
                            |      | of the words placed in different
     Foundation of          |      | positions between lines. The signs
      the Kingdom           |      | used for the words placed in different
      of Hungary by         |      | positions between lines. The signs
      the Magyars           |      | used for the purpose during the
      (about 900).          |      | three preceding centuries were
     University of          |      | called Numæ.
      Cambridge             |      |
      restored (915).       |      |
     Institution of         |      |
      Free-Masons           |      |
      in England            |      |
      (924).                |      |
                            |      |
     The Russians,          |  950 |   St. Dunstan, Archbishop of
      under Wladimir        |      | Canterbury, introduces organs into
      the Great,            |      | English churches.
      embrace Christianity  |      |
      (988).                |      |
     Poland becomes         | 1030 |   GUIDO OF AREZZO, a Benedictine
      a Kingdom             |      | Monk at Pomposa, born about 990 in
      (1000).               |      | Arezzo, died 1050. Improves the method
                            |      | of singing in use at his time, and the
     William of Normandy    |      | notation of Hucbald; designates the
      invades               |      | tones by the letters of the alphabet.
      England (1066).       |      | He is supposed to be the inventor of
                            |      | the Solmisation of the Hexachord, or
     The Moors in           |      | scale of six sounds, etc.
      Spain (1091).         |      |
     Peter the Hermit.      |      |
      The first             |      |
      Crusade (1095).       | 1100 |   NOTATION.--During the
                            |      | twelfth century originated our musical
     War between            |      | notation, the inventor of which is
      England and           |      | unknown. The first attempts in
      France (1113).        |      | Counterpoint led to the employment
                            |      | of notes of different value
     Frederick I.,          |      | (Mensural and Figural Notes).
      called Barbarossa,    |      | However, these innovations did not
      in Germany            |      | come into general practical use until
      (1152).               |      | about the year 1200.
     The Sultan Saladin     |      |
      conquers              |      |
      Egypt (1187).         |      |
     Magna Charta,          | 1200 |   The most popular instruments of
      or the Charter        |      | the Middle Ages were the Psalterium,
      of English            |      | Harp, Rotta, Viol, Lute, Organistrum,
      Liberty (1215).       |      | Regals, Recorder, Sackbut, Shalm, etc.
                            |      |
     Distinguished          | 1207 |   Contest of the Minnesänger at the
      Troubadours and       |      | Wartburg, in Saxony.
      Minnesänger during    |      |
      the twelfth and       |      |   The Minnesänger, who flourished in
      thirteenth            |      | Germany, especially during the twelfth
      centuries:--          |      | and thirteenth centuries, were
                            |      | identical with the Troubadours, or
     Guillaume IX., Count   |      | singers of secular, amorous, and
      of Poitou; Blondel,   |      | martial ditties, which they
      with Richard Coeur    |      | accompanied with the harp, cither,
      de Lion; Sordello     |      | guitar, or some other instrument.
      of Mantua, Peyrols,   |      | The original home of the Troubadours
      Bertrand de Lorm,     |      | was Provence, in the South of France,
      Arnold of Maraviglia, |      | where they originated about the
      Heinrich von Veldeck, |      | beginning of the eighth century.
      Wather von der        |      | Subsequently, at the time of the
      Vogelweide, Reimar    |      | German Minnesänger, there were also
      der Aeltere, Reimar   |      | Troubadours in Italy, Spain and
      der Zweter, Ulrich    |      | England. Among them were many
      von  Lichtenstein,    |      | noblemen, and even princes.
      Heinrich von          |      |
      Morungen, Wolfram von |      |
      Eschenbach, Hartmann  |      |
      von der Aue,          |      |
      Gottfried von         |      |
      Strassburg, Conrad    |      |
      von Würzburg,         |      |
      Johann Hadlaub.       |      |
                            |      |
     The Kingdom            | 1220 |   FRANCO OF COLOGNE, the first
      of Granada            |      | known musical author who treats
      founded by the        |      | circumstantially on the new theory of
      Moors in Spain        |      | Harmony, and who, by expounding it
      (1238).               |      | systematically, greatly contributes to
                            |      | its diffusion. (Forkel, Fétis, and
     Foundation of          |      | some other musical historians,
      the University        |      | maintain that Franco of Cologne lived
      of Vienna             |      | during the second half of the eleventh
      (1237).               |      | century.)
                            |      |
     Cimabue, Giotto,       | 1240 |   Odington (Walter), an English monk,
      Italian painters      |      | writes on music in a manner similar to
      (1240).               |      | that of Franco of Cologne, in Germany.
     Termination of         |      |
      the Crusades          |      |
      (1248).               |      |
     Parliament of          | 1260 |   Hieronymus von Mæhren, in France,
      Great Britain.        |      | writes on the theory of music.
      First assembly        |      |
      of the Commons        | 1280 |   ADAM DE LA HALE, of Arras, in
      as a confirmed        |      | France, writes compositions in
      representation        |      | four-part harmony, dramatic pieces,
      (1265).               |      | with songs, etc. He lived in Provence.
     Venice and Genoa       |      |
      are powerful.         |      |
     Invention of Gunpowder | 1290 |   Ægidius, of Zamora, a Spanish monk,
      (1292).               |      | writes on the invention of musical
     Italian poets and      |      | instruments.
      authors: Dante        |      |
      Alighieri (1265-1321);|      |
      Petrarca              |      |
      (1304-1374);          |      |
      Boccaccio             |      |
      (1313-1375).          |      |
     Disunion in the        | 1300 |   Gradual diffusion of the theory of
      Church. Popes         |      | Harmony, especially through Marchetto
      in Avignon            |      | di Padua, about 1310, in Italy;--and
      (1378).               |      | through Jean de Muris, about 1325, in
                            |      | France.
                            |      |
     The Turks victorious   | 1390 |   Gerson (Johannes), a French monk,
      in Hungary            |      | born 1363, died 1429. Musical author.
      (1396).               |      |
                            |      |   Commencement of the period in which
                            |      | appeared numerous sacred vocal
                            |      | compositions, viz: Masses, Motetts
                            |      | (English Anthems), Offertories, Hymns,
                            |      | Psalms, Madrigals, etc. The Madrigals
                            |      | were in the form of the Motett,
                            |      | but often had secular words.
                            |      | Instrumental music was still
                            |      | insignificant.
                            |      |
     Masaccio, Fiesole,     | 1400 |   DUFAY (GUILLAUME), born about
      Italian               |      | 1350 at Chimay, in Belgium, died 1432.
      painters (1400).      |      | The first Contrapuntist, properly
      Conquest of           |      | speaking. Purer harmony than
      France by             |      | previously. Application in the
      Henry V., King        |      | notation of the White notes, which had
      of England            |      | been already invented before his time.
      (1420).               |      | Many Church compositions.
     Charles VII., of       |      |
      France (1422-1461).   |      |
                            |      |
     Jeanne d'Arc           |      |   Binchois (Egide), born in Picardy,
      burnt (1430).         |      | contributes to the improvement of
     England loses all      |      | harmony and of musical notation.
      her possessions       |      | Composes much vocal music.
      in France, except     |      |
      Calais                |      |
      (about 1440).         |      |
     Invention of           |      |
      Printing (1440).      |      |
                            |      |
     Constantinople         | 1450 |   Dunstable (John), born about 1400
      taken by the          |      | in Scotland, died 1458. Improves the
      Turks (1453).         |      | harmony and the musical notation.
                            |      |
     Watches invented       | 1470 |   OCKEGHEM, or OCKENHEIM (Johann),
      at Nürnberg           |      | born about 1430 in Hainault, Belgium;
      (1477).               |      | died 1513. Founder of the newer
     Inquisition in         |      | Netherlandish School, improver of
      Spain (1480).         |      | harmony, and composer of Church music.
                            |      |
     Burgundy and           |      |   Obrecht, or Hobrecht (Jacob), born
      Provence incorporated |      | about 1430 in Holland. Many
      with France (1481).   |      | compositions for the Church.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Bernhard, a German residing in
     The Medici govern      |      | Venice, is said to have invented the
      in Florence;          |      | organ pedal.
      flourishing           |      |
      growth of the         |      |
      arts & sciences       |      |
      (1402-1537).          |      |
     America discovered     | 1490 |   DÉPRÉS (Josquin des Prés), born
      by Columbus           |      | about 1450 in France, died about 1521.
      (1492).               |      | Pupil of Ockeghem. Many Masses and
     Macchiavelli,          |      | other compositions for the Church.
      historian (1469-1527).|      |
                            |      |   Tinctor (Jean), born about 1450 at
     Ludovico Ariosto,      |      | Nivelles, died about 1520. Founder of
      poet (1474-1533).     |      | a School in Italy. Many Church
                            |      | compositions.
     Leonardo da            |      |
      Vinci, painter        |      |   Gafforio (Franchino), born 1451 at
      (1444-1519).          |      | Lodi, died 1522. Writer on the theory
     Tiziano Vecelli,       |      | of music, and promoter of new rules
      painter (1477-1576).  |      | of harmony.
                            |      |
     Rafael Sanzio,         |      |   Adam von Fulda, born about 1450 in
      painter (1483-1520).  |      | Germany. Writes a treatise on the
     Correggio (1494-1534). |      | newly-established theory of music, and
     Albrecht Dürer         |      | composes music for the Church.
      (1471-1528).          |      |
                            |      |   Towards the end of the fifteenth
                            |      | century Chairs of Professorship for
     Newfoundland,          |      | music were instituted in different
      the first British     |      | towns of Italy, especially in Milan
      Colony in America,    |      | and Naples.
      discovered            |      |
      by Cabot              |      |
      (1497).               |      |
     Copernicus, astronomer |      |   In the beginning of the sixteenth
      (1473-1543).          |      | century the Netherlandish music
     Zwingli in Switzerland | 1500 | attains its highest reputation in
      (1519).               |      | Italy (at the time of the Popes Julius
     Gustav Wasa,           |      | II. and Leo X.), in Spain, France, and
      King of Sweden        |      | Germany.
      (1523).               |      |
                            |      |   Petrucci (Ottaviano), of Fossombrone
     Henry VIII., King      | 1502 | in Italy, invents the printing of
      (1509-1547).          |      | musical notation with movable types.
                            |      |
     The highest degree     | 1520 |   WILLAERT (HADRIAN), born about
      of perfection         |      | 1490, in Flanders, died 1563. Lived
      of the                |      | in Rome and Venice. Founder of the
      art of painting       |      | Venetian School. Composer of the first
      in Italy.             |      | Masses for six and seven different
                            |      | voices, of Masses for two and three
                            |      | choruses, etc.
                            |      |
     The Netherlandish      | 1530 |   Aaron (Pietro), born about 1480 in
      School of             |      | Florence. Contrapuntist, writer on the
      Painting,             |      | theory of music, and composer of
      founded by            |      | Church music.
      Johann van            |      |
      Eyk, about            |      |   Luther (Martin), born 1483 at
      1350:--Floris,        |      | Eisleben, in Germany, died 1546.
      Stradan, De           |      | Composes Chorales, and promotes
      Vos, Spranger,        |      | congregational singing.
      Peter & Franz         |      |
      Porbus, Steenvyk,     |      |   Alterations in the old Church-songs
      Vanbort,              |      | for the Reformed Church. Introduction
      P. & J. Breughel,     |      | in German Churches of Chorales in the
      Rubens                |      | German language.
      (1577-1640).          |      |
      Snyders, Momper,      |      |   Walther (Johann), born about 1490
      David                 |      | in Saxony, died about 1555. German
      Teniers, De           |      | Mass, many Chorales, etc.
      Crayer, Gerhard       |      |
      & Daniel              |      |   Senfl (Ludwig), born about 1490, at
      Segers, Jordans,      |      | Basle in Switzerland, died about 1560.
      Rombouts,             |      | Masses, Motetts, Chorales, etc.
      Anton                 |      |
      van Dyk (1598-1641).  |      |   Agricola (Martin), born 1486 in
                            |      | Silesia, died 1556. Many vocal
                            |      | compositions, and a treatise on
                            |      | musical instruments.
                            |      |
     The Dutch School       |      |   Luscinius (Ottomar), properly
      of Painting,          |      | Nachtigall, born 1487 at Strassburg,
      founded by Lucas      |      | died about 1540. Treatises on music
      of Leyden,            |      | and on the musical instruments of his
      born 1494:--Van       |      | time.
      Veen,                 |      |
      Bloemart, Poelenburg, |      |   Glarean (Heinrich Lorit), born 1488
      Wynants,              |      | in Switzerland, died 1563. Many
      Vertange,             |      | essays on the History and Theory of
      Hanesberge,           |      | Music.
      etc.                  |      |
                            |      |   Festa (Costanzo), born about 1490
                            |      | at Rome. Many Motetts and other
     Roman School           |      | Church music. Regarded as the
      of Painting;          |      | precursor of Palestrina.
      pupils of Rafael:--   |      |
      Giulio Romano,        | 1540 |   Berchem (Jacob), called Giachetto di
      Penni il Fattore,     |      | Mantua, born 1499 at Antwerp, died
      Bagnacavallo, Del     |      | about 1580. Many Masses, Motetts,
      Vaga, Caravaggio,     |      | etc.
      Gemigniani,           |      |
      Garofalo,             |      |   Gombert (Nicolas), born about 1500
      etc.                  |      | in the Netherlands, died about 1570.
                            |      | Many Masses, Motetts, and other sacred
     Venetian School        |      | and secular compositions for four,
      of Painting;          |      | five, and six different voices.
      pupils of             |      |
      Titian:--Del          |      |   Arcadelt (Jacques), born about 1500
      Piombo, Palma         |      | in the Netherlands, died about 1570.
      Vecchio, Lotto,       |      | Teacher in Rome. Many Masses,
      Bordone, Pordenone,   |      | Motetts, Madrigals, etc.
      Schiavone,            |      |
      Bassano,              |      |   Clement (Jacques), called Clemens
      Tintoretto,           |      | non Papa, born about 1500 in Flanders,
      Poalo Veronese.       |      | died 1566. Masses and other sacred
                            |      | compositions.
     Florentine School      |      |
      of Painting;          | 1550 |   Goudimel (Claude), born 1510 in
      pupils of Da          |      | Flanders, died about 1572. Many
      Vinci:--Luini,        |      | Psalms, Motetts, and other sacred
      Salaino, Melzo,       |      | compositions, and
      Fra Bartolomeo,       |      | also secular music. Much
      Del Sarto,            |      | progress in Harmony. Founder of a
      Peruzzi, Razzi,       |      | Music School in Rome.
      Michel-Angelo.        |      |
                            |      |
     The Order of           |      |
      Jesuits founded       |      |
      by Ignaz Loyola       |      |   Morales (Christoforo), born about
      (1540).               |      | 1510 at Seville in Spain, lived in
                            |      | Rome. Many Masses, etc.
     The Turks conquer      |      |
      Tripoli               |      |
      (1551).               |      |   Est (Michael), born about 1510 in
                            |      | England. Many Psalms and Madrigals.
     Death of Rabelais      |      |
      (1553).               |      |
                            |      |   Tallis (Thomas), born 1520 in
     Philip II., King of    |      | England, died about 1585. Many sacred
      Spain (1556).         |      | compositions.
                            |      |
     Foundation of the      |      |   Lossius (Lucas), born 1508 in
      University of         |      | Germany, died 1582. Many Chorales, a
      Jena (1558).          |      | treatise on music, etc.
                            |      |
     Holbein, painter       |      |
      (1494-1554).          |      |
                            |      |
     Calais is lost to      |      |
      England in the        |      |
      reign of Mary         |      |
      (1558).               |      |
                            |      |
     Queen Elizabeth        | 1560 |   Rore (Cyprian), called Vanrore, born
      (1558-1603).          |      | 1516 at Malines, died 1565. Pupil of
                            |      | Willaert, in Venice. Many sacred and
     English authors:       |      | secular vocal compositions.
      Spenser, poet         |      |
      (1553-1598).          |      |   Waelrant (Hubert), born 1517 in the
                            |      | Netherlands, died 1595. Many Church
     Francis Bacon          |      | compositions. Improvement in the
      (1561-1626).          |      | Solmisation.
                            |      |
     Shakespeare            |      |   LASSUS (ORLANDUS), properly Roland
      (1564-1616).          |      | de Latre, born 1520 at Mons, in
                            |      | Hainault, died 1594. A great number
     Marlow, Green,         |      | of Church compositions of every kind,
      Beaumont, Fletcher,   |      | of which 1572 are known.
      Massinger:--          |      |
      Dramatic poets        |      |   Kerle (Jacob), born about 1520 in
      and contemporaries    |      | Flanders. Many Masses, etc.
      of Shakespeare.       |      |
                            |      |   Zarlino (Giuseppe), born 1519 at
                            |      | Venice, died about 1590. Many Church
                            |      | compositions. Great progress in
     Calvin in Geneva       |      | Harmony. Several treatises on the
      (1565).               |      | Theory of Music.
                            |      |
     Hans Sachs,            |      |   PALESTRINA (GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DI),
      Meistersänger         |      | born 1524 in Palestrina, died 1594.
      (1494-1576).          |      | Reform of the Italian Church music by
                            |      | means of purer harmony. Ennobling of
     Tycho Brahe,           |      | the rude Netherlandish style. Many
      Astronomer            |      | Masses, Hymns, Motetts, Litanies,
      (1546-1601).          |      | Offertories, etc.--Palestrina's
                            |      | celebrated Mass, known as Missa Papæ
     The Counts Egmont      |      | Marcelli, which was performed in Rome
      & Horn                |      | in the year 1565, had the effect of
      beheaded at           |      | altering the opinion of many of the
      Brussels (1568).      |      | ecclesiastics who at the Council of
                            |      | Trent, in 1562, advocated the
                            |      | banishment of all Figural music from
                            |      | the Church.
                            |      |
     The first Puritans     | 1570 |   Faber (Heinrich), born 1525 at
      and Presbyterians     |      | Brunswick, in Germany, died 1598.
      (1571).               |      | Church compositions, and a treatise on
                            |      | music.
                            |      |
     Massacre of St.        |      |   Lejeune (Claude), born about 1540
      Bartholomew           |      | in the Netherlands, died about 1600.
      (1572).               |      | Masses, Psalms, etc.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Nanini (Giovanni Maria), born about
     First circumnavigation |      | 1540 at Vallerano, in Italy, died
       of the               |      | 1607. Teacher of Counterpoint; many
      world, by Drake       |      | Motetts for eight different voices,
      (1577).               |      | and other Church compositions.
                            |      |
     North-America          | 1580 |   Morley (Thomas), born about 1540
      English.              |      | in England, died 1604. Madrigals and
                            |      | other vocal compositions. Instruction
     Walter Raleigh         |      | book on music.
      (1584).               |      |
                            |      |   OPERA.--About the year 1580, a
     Portugal is conquered  |      | number of professional musicians and
      by the                |      | amateurs associated in the house of
      Spaniards in          |      | Giovanni Bardi, Count of Vernio, at
      1581, and remains     |      | Florence, with the object of reviving
      a Spanish             |      | in the drama the musical declamation
      Province until        |      | of the ancient Greeks. To this
      1640.                 |      | association belonged the composers
                            |      | Emilio del Cavalieri, Giacomo Peri,
     The Netherlands        |      | Giulio Caccini, and the poet Ottavio
      become independent    |      | Rinuccini. Their exertions resulted in
      (1581).               |      | the production of the first Lyric
                            |      | Opera, called 'Dafne,' the poetry of
     The Gregorian          |      | which was by Rinuccini, and which was
      Calendar introduced   |      | performed at Florence in the year
      into all              |      | 1594. Soon followed the first
      the Roman             |      | Tragic Opera, 'Euridice,' the poetry
      Catholic States       |      | of which being by Rinuccini, and
      of Europe             |      | the music by Peri and Caccini. The
      (1582).               |      | next Operas were 'Il Satiro' and 'La
                            |      | Disperazione di Filano,' both with
     Elizabeth, Queen       |      | music by Cavalieri. Meanwhile, Orazio
      of England,           |      | Vecchi attempted to compose a kind of
      causes Mary,          |      | Comic Opera, entitled 'L'Anfiparnasso,
      Queen of Scots,       |      | Commedia Armonica,' which was
      to be beheaded        |      | performed at Modena in the year 1594.
      at Fotheringay        |      | The songs of these operas partook of
      Castle (1587).        |      | the character of the recitative, and
                            |      | they were accompanied by a few
     Defeat of the          |      | instruments.
      Spanish Armada        |      |
      in the                |      |
      English Channel       |      |
      (1588).               |      |
                            |      |
     Janson, of Middlebourg,| 1590 |   Gabrieli (Giovanni), born about 1550
      invents               |      | at Venice, died 1612. Many Church
      spectacles            |      | compositions.
      and telescopes        |      |
      (1590).               |      |
                            |      |   Marenzio (Luca), born about 1550 at
                            |      | Brescia, died 1594. Motetts,
     Torquato Tasso         |      | Madrigals, etc.
      (1544-1595).          |      |
                            |      |   Bird (William), born 1546 in
                            |      | England, died 1623. Masses, Graduales,
                            |      | Madrigals.
                            |      |
     First Edition of       |      |   Weelkes (Thomas), born about 1550
      Bacon's 'Essays'      |      | in England. Madrigals and other vocal
      published             |      | compositions.
      (1597).               |      |
                            |      |   Eccard (Johann), born about 1545 in
                            |      | Thuringia, Germany. Pupil of Orlando
                            |      | di Lasso. Many Church songs.
     Edict of Nantes.       |      |
      Religious Liberty     |      |
      (1598).               |      |   Gallus (Johann Peter), properly
                            |      | Händl, born about 1550 at Krain, in
                            |      | Austria, died 1591. Many sacred songs.
                            |      |
     Incorporation by       | 1600 |   Vittoria (Tomaso Ludovico della),
      Royal Charter         |      | born about 1560 in Spain, died about
      of the English        |      | 1608. Many Church compositions.
      East India            |      |
      Company               |      |   Dowland (John), born 1562 in
      (1600).               |      | England, died 1615. Virtuoso on the
                            |      | lute. Many vocal compositions.
     Lopez de Vega,         |      |
      dramatic poet,        |      |   Bull (John), born 1563 in England,
      in Spain (1562-1635). |      | died 1622. Organist. Vocal
                            |      | compositions and Organ pieces.
     James VI. of           |      |
      Scotland, son         |      |   Vulpius (Melchior), born about 1560
      of Mary Stuart,       |      | in Germany, died 1616. Chorales and
      succeeds Queen        |      | other sacred songs.
      Elizabeth of          |      |
      England as            |      |
      James I. (1603).      |      |   Calvisius (Sethus), born 1556 in
                            |      | Thuringia, Germany, died 1615. Many
     First French           |      | Church compositions, and also
      Colony in             |      | theoretical works.
      Canada (1604).        |      |
                            |      |   Schultz (Hieronymus), called
     First permanent        |      | Prætorius, born 1560 at Hamburg, died
      British settlement    |      | 1629. Motetts, etc.
      in North              |      |
      America, formed       |      |   From about 1600 to 1725, the
      by "the               |      | celebrated Violin Makers of Cremona,
      London Company"       |      | in Italy:--Amati, Guarneri,
      under                 |      | Stradivari, etc.
      charter from          |      |
      James I. (1607).      |      |
                            |      |
     Bacon publishes        |      |   The most popular instruments about
      his Advancement       |      | the year 1600 were: The lute, cither,
      of Learning           |      | spinet, virginal, clavichord,
      (1605).               |      | flûte-à-bec, cornet, etc.
                            |      |
     Guy Fawkes             | 1605 |   Viadana (Ludovico), born 1560 in
      Gunpowder             |      | Italy, died 1625. Many Church
      Plot (1605).          |      | compositions, and the first Church
                            |      | concertos and Solo songs for the
     Third recorded         |      | Church. Viadana is said to have
      appearance of         |      | invented, in the year 1605, the
      the comet afterwards  |      | thorough-bass, or indication of the
      known                 |      | Harmony by marking the bass with
      as Halley's           |      | figures; but this invention is also
      Comet (1607).         |      | ascribed to Ottavio Catalano, born
                            |      | about 1595 in Sicily.
                            |      |
     Thermometers           | 1610 |   MONTEVERDE (CLAUDIO), born 1565
      are invented          |      | at Cremona, died 1649. Masses,
      about this time       |      | Madrigals, and also secular songs. The
      by Drebbel, of        |      | most important steps towards the
      Alkmaer, Paulo        |      | development of the modern music by new
      Sarpi, and Sanctorio. |      | licenses in the Harmony. Invention of
                            |      | the Tremolo of the violins, etc.
     Cervantes, author      |      |
      of Don Quixote,       |      |
      etc. (1547-1616).     |      |   Cerone (Dominico Pietro), born 1566
                            |      | at Bergamo, died 1620. Many
     English poets:--Milton,|      | theoretical treatises.
      Dryden,               |      |
      Butler,               |      |   Prætorius (Michael), born 1571 in
      Otway, Prior,         |      | Thuringia, Germany, died 1621. Many
      Cowley, Denham.       |      | Masses, Psalms, Hymns, and a musical
                            |      | treatise.
                            |      |
     The telescope is       |      |   Walliser (Christoph Thomas), born
      first applied to      |      | about 1571 at Strassburg, died 1648.
      astronomical          |      | Church compositions, and a treatise on
      purposes by           |      | Harmony and on the Fugue.
      Galileo, at Padua.    |      |
      Discoveries           |      |
      of the satellites     | 1620 |   Frescobaldi (Gieronimo), born about
      of Jupiter,           |      | 1580 in Italy, died 1640. Organist.
      and the spots         |      | Many Church compositions, Madrigals,
      in the sun (1610).    |      | Organ compositions, Fugues, Ricercari,
                            |      | etc.
                            |      |
     Tea is brought         |      |   Vieira (Antonio), born about 1580 in
      from India by         |      | Portugal, died in 1650. Many Church
      the Dutch; it         |      | compositions for eight different
      is introduced         |      | voices.
      into England in       |      |
      1666.                 |      |   Allegri (Gregorio), born about 1580
                            |      | at Rome, died 1652. Many Church
                            |      | compositions. The Miserere of the
                            |      | Vatican.
                            |      |
     The present authorized |      |   Carissimi (Giacomo), born about 1582
      English               |      | at Padua, died about 1673. Many
      version of            |      | Masses, some of which are for twelve
      the Bible is          |      | different voices, and other Church
      published, and is     |      | compositions. Improver of the
      called "King          |      | Recitative. The first important
      James's Bible"        |      | Oratorios and Cantatas in Italy.
      (1611).               |      |
                            |      |   Kapsberger (Johann Hieronymus),
     Settlement of          |      | born about 1575 in Germany, died 1650.
      New York, in          |      | Lived in Italy. Church compositions,
      North America,        |      | and Instruction books for playing the
      by the Dutch          |      | Lute and the Guitar.
      (1614).               |      |
                            |      |   Gibbons (Orlando), born 1583 at
     Emigration of          |      | Cambridge, died 1625. Many Church
      the Puritans to       |      | compositions, Anthems, Madrigals, etc.
      New England;          |      |
      they found            |      |
      New Plymouth          |      |
      (1620).               |      |
                            |      |
     Charles I. succeeds    | 1627 |   Schütz (Heinrich von), called
      James I.,             |      | Sagittarius, born 1585 in Germany,
      King of England,      |      | died 1672. Many Motetts, Psalms, and
      after the             |      | also Operas. In the year 1627 the
      death of the          |      | Opera Dafne, by Rinuccini (see above,
      latter, in 1625.      |      | date 1580), having been translated
      Disputes between      |      | into German by Opitz, and composed
      King                  |      | anew by Schütz, was performed in
      Charles I. and        |      | Dresden as the first German Opera.
      his Parliament.       |      |
      Civil war begins      |      |   Mazzocchi (Domenico), born about
      in 1642. Last         |      | 1590 at Castellana, in Italy.
      general assembly      |      | Oratorios, Madrigals for five
      of the Hanseatic      |      | different voices with instrumental
      cities of             |      | accompaniments. Introduced signs of
      Germany. Lübeck,      |      | expression in the notation.
      Hamburg               |      |
      and Bremen            |      |
      continue united.      |      |
                            |      |
     Kepler, Astronomer     | 1630 |   Mazzocchi (Virgilio), brother of the
      (1571-1630).          |      | preceding, born about 1595, died 1646.
                            |      | Many Church compositions. The first
     Gustavus Adolphus      |      | development of the melody in the
      dies on               |      | present sense.
      the battle-field      |      |
      at Lutzen             |      |   Doni (Giovanni Battista), born 1593
      (1632).               |      | at Florence, died 1674. Treatises on
                            |      | the music of the ancient Greeks and on
     Wallenstein            |      | that of his time.
      assassinated at       |      |
      Eyer (1634).          |      |   Jenkins (John), born 1592 in Kent,
                            |      | England, died 1678. Virtuoso on the
     Rubens, Vandyck,       |      | Viola da Gamba. Many compositions
      Domenichino,          |      | for his instrument and also vocal
      painters (1620).      |      | music.
                            |      |
     Ben Jonson, dramatist  |      |
      (1620).               |      |
                            |      |
     Lope de Vega,          |      |   Schein (Johann Hermann), born 1586
      Spanish writer        |      | in Germany, died 1630. Chorales,
      (1620).               |      | Madrigals, Secular Songs, etc.
                            |      |
     Galileo is condemned   |      |   Scheidt (Samuel), born 1587 at
      by the                |      | Halle, in Germany, died 1654.
      Inquisition of        |      | Contrapuntist. Many Church
      Rome as guilty        |      | compositions as well as pieces for the
      of heresy for         |      | Organ and Clavichord.
      upholding the         |      |
      Copernican            |      |   Mersenne (Marie), born 1588 in
      system, and           |      | France, died 1640. Treatises on
      compelled to          |      | Harmony, Acoustics, and Musical
      abjure it (1633).     |      | History.
                            |      |
     Richelieu founds       |      |
      the French Academy    |      |
      (1635).               |      |
                            |      |
     Death of Cardinal      | 1640 |   Lawes (Henry), born 1600 in England,
      Richelieu (1642).     |      | died 1662. Psalms and Secular
                            |      | songs.
     Louis XIV. (styled     |      |
      _Dieu-donné_),        |      |
      King of France        |      |
      (1643-1715).          |      |
                            |      |
     The Pendulum is        |      |   Kircher (Pater Athanasius), born
      applied to            |      | 1602 at Fulda, in Germany, died 1680.
      clocks by             |      | Several treatises on music.
      Richard Harris        |      |
      and the younger       |      |
      Galileo               |      |
      (1641).               |      |
                            |      |
     Charles I. beheaded    | 1645 |   The first Italian Opera in Paris,
      (1649).               |      | ordered from Italy by Cardinal
                            |      | Mazarin.
     Oliver Cromwell,       | 1650 |   Sabattini (Galeazzo), born about
      Protector of          |      | 1610 in Italy. Litanies, Madrigals,
      the Commonwealth      |      | and other vocal music.
      (1653).               |      |
                            |      |
     Portugal takes         |      |   Dumont (Henri), born 1610 at Liége,
      possession of         |      | Belgium, died 1684. Masses and other
      the Brazils           |      | Church compositions. Innovation of
      (1654).               |      | the employment of instrumental
                            |      | accompaniments to the Mass.
     Calderon de la         |      |
      Barca, dramatic       |      |   Child (William), born 1608 at
      poet in               |      | Bristol, in England, died 1696. Psalms
      Spain (1601-1687).    |      | and other sacred vocal music, and
                            |      | secular songs.
     Dutch and Flemish      |      |
      Painters:--Eykens,    |      |   Simpson (Christopher), born about
      Sachtleven,           |      | 1610 in England, died about 1670.
      Rembrandt,            |      | Instruction book on the Viola da
      Douw                  |      | Gamba, on the Theory of Music, etc.
      Swanevelt,            |      |
      Wouvermann,           |      |
      Berghem, Paul         |      |
      Potter, etc.          |      |   Hammerschmiedt (Andreas), born
     Restoration of         |      | 1611 in Bohemia, died 1675. Many
      Charles II.           |      | Masses and other sacred compositions.
      (1660).               |      |
                            |      |   Cesti (Marc-Antonio), born in 1620
     Spain takes possession |      | at Florence, died 1681. Nine Operas.
      of Havannah           |      | Progress in the development of
      (1662).               |      | operatic music.
                            |      |
     The French, commanded  |      |   Eccles (John), born about 1620 in
      by                    |      | England. Several Operas, songs, etc.
      Turenne, victorious   |      |
      upon                  |      |   Lock (Matthew), born about 1620 in
      the Rhine             |      | England, died 1677. Sacred music and
      (1663).               |      | dramatic compositions.
                            |      |
     Plague in London       |      |
      (1665).               |      |
                            |      |
     Great fire of London   |      |
      (1666).               |      |
                            |      |
     Flourishing state      | 1670 |   Stradella (Alessandro), born 1645 at
      of France             |      | Naples, died 1678. An Oratorio and
      owing to her          |      | some Operas.
      industry & commerce   |      |
      (1670).               |      |   Kerl (Johann Caspar von), born about
                            |      | 1625 in Saxony, died about 1690.
     The Turks in           |      | Masses and organ compositions.
      Hungary invade        |      |
      Poland                |      |   Meibom (Marcus), born 1626 in
      (1670).               |      | Schleswig, died 1711. Many Treatises
                            |      | on the Music of the Ancient Greeks.
                            |      |
     Death of Molière       | 1672 |   LULLI (GIOVANNI BATTISTA), born
      (1673).               |      | 1633 at Florence, died 1687 at Paris.
                            |      | Founder of the older French operatic
     De Ruyter, the         |      | music. Composed 19 Operas and 26
      Dutch Admiral,        |      | ballets. His first French Opera was
      dies (1675).          |      | performed at Paris in the year 1672.
                            |      |
     William Penn           | 1680 |   Frohberger (Johann Jacob), born 1637
      founds Pennsylvania   |      | at Halle, Germany, died 1695.
      (1681).               |      | Organist. Many compositions for the
                            |      | organ and the clavichord.
     Vienna is besieged     |      |
      by the                |      |   Buxtehude (Dietrich), born about
      Turks (1683).         |      | 1640 in Germany, died 1707. Many
                            |      | Organ compositions.
     Death of Corneille     |      |
      (1684).               |      |   Gasparini (Michael-Angelo), born at
                            |      | Lucca, in Italy, during the second
     The Huguenots          |      | half of the seventeenth century, died
      expelled from         |      | in 1732. Many Operas. Founder of a
      France (1685).        |      | School of Singing at Venice.
                            |      |
     Peter the Great,       |      |   Steffani (Agostino), called Gregoria
      Czar of Russia        |      | Piva, born about 1650, at Venice, died
      (from 1682 to         |      | 1730. Masses and other sacred
      1725).                |      | compositions, Operas, vocal duets.
                            |      |
     William III.,          | 1690 |   Baj (Tomaso), born about 1650, at
      Prince of             |      | Bologna, died 1714. Many sacred
      Orange, and           |      | compositions. A Miserere for the
      Mary (daughter        |      | Vatican, which is sometimes performed
      of James I.) his      |      | instead of that by Allegri.
      wife, declared        |      |
      King and Queen        |      |   Corelli (Arcangelo), born 1653 at
      of England            |      | Fusignano, in Italy, died 1713.
      (1688).               |      | Violinist. Many concertos, etc.
                            |      |
     Charles XII. King      |      |   Blow (John), born 1648 at
      of Sweden from        |      | Nottingham, died 1708. Many anthems,
      1697 to 1718.         |      | psalms, etc.
                            |      |
     Alsace becomes         |      |   Purcell (Henry), born 1658 in
      French (1697).        |      | London, died 1695. About 17 English
                            |      | Operas, secular songs, anthems and
     Death of Racine        |      | other sacred compositions.
      (1699).               |      |
                            |      |   Krieger (Adam), born 1646 at
     Locke, philosopher,    |      | Nürnberg, died 1725. Operas, etc.
      English               |      |
      (1632-1704).          |      |
                            |      |
     Charles XII.,          | 1700 |   SCARLATTI (ALESSANDRO), born 1659
      King of Sweden,       |      | at Trapani, in Sicily, died 1725.
      at war                |      | Composed 115 Operas, 200 Masses,
      with Denmark,         |      | several Oratorios, many sacred and
      Poland, and           |      | secular cantatas, etc. Invention of
      Russia. He            |      | the Recitative with orchestral
      forces the King       |      | accompaniment; of a greater
      of Denmark to         |      | combination of orchestral instruments
      conclude a            |      | than hitherto; of the Da-Capo,
      peace with him,       |      | or repetition of the theme; and of
      and defeats the       |      | several other essential innovations.
      Russians on the       |      |
      banks of the          |      |   Desmarets (Henri), born 1662 at
      Narva (1700).         |      | Paris, died 1741. About 8 Operas.
                            |      |
     Queen Anne             |      |
      (1702).               |      |
                            |      |
     Battle of Blenheim,    |      |   Brossard (Sébastien de), born 1660,
      or Höchstadt,         |      | probably at Strassburg, died 1730.
      gained by             |      | Many Masses, a Dictionary of Music.
      the Duke of           |      | Brossard's Dictionary, which was
      Marlborough &         |      | published in 1703, is generally
      Prince Eugene         |      | regarded as the earliest work
      over the French       |      | of its kind. Tinctor,
      and Bavarians         |      | however, already in the
      (1704).               |      | fifteenth century compiled
                            |      | a collection of the definitions
     Gibraltar taken        |      | of the musical terms in use at his
      by the English        |      | time; and Janowka published at Prague
      (1707).               |      | a Musical Dictionary in Latin, two
     Union of England       |      | years previous to the appearance of
      and Scotland          |      | Brossard's work, which is in French.
      by Treaty             |      |
      (1707).               |      |   Fux (Johann Joseph), born 1660 in
                            |      | Austria, died about 1732. Composed
     Peter the Great        |      | 17 Operas, 26 Masses, 3 Requiems, 1
      defeats Charles       |      | Stabat Mater, 10 Oratorios, above 170
      XII. at Pultowa       |      | other sacred compositions; likewise,
      (1709).               |      | instrumental pieces, a work on the
                            |      | theory of music (Gradus ad
                            |      | Parnassum), etc.
                            |      |
     Herculaneum discovered | 1710 |   Gasparini (Francesco), born about
      (1711).               |      | 1665 at Lucca, died 1727. Many
                            |      | Operas, Cantatas, etc. Teacher in
     Peace of Utrecht       |      | counterpoint of Domenico Scarlatti
      (1713).               |      | and Marcello.
                            |      |
     Death of Fénélon       |      |   Lotti (Antonio), born about 1665 at
      (1715).               |      | Venice, died 1740. Nineteen Operas,
                            |      | many church compositions and
     Defoe, author of       |      | madrigals.
      'Robinson Crusoe.'    |      |   Vivaldi (Antonio), born about 1670
                            |      | at Venice, died about 1743. Twenty-six
     Saunderson and         |      | Operas, violin concertos, and many
      Brook Taylor, English |      | other instrumental pieces.
      mathematicians.       |      |
                            |      |   Bononcini (Giovanni), born about
     Prior, Congreve,       |      | 1672 at Modena, died 1750. Composed
      and Parnell,          |      | about 23 Operas. For a time rival of
      English Poets.        |      | Handel in London.
                            |      |
     George, Elector        |      |   Couperin (François), born 1668 at
      of Hanover,           |      | Paris, died 1733. Organist. Many organ
      becomes King          |      | and clavecin (harpsichord)
      of England, as        |      | compositions.
      George I.             |      |
      (1714).               |      |   Keiser (Reinhard), born 1673 at
                            |      | Leipzig, died 1739. Many Operas, many
                            |      | Oratorios and other sacred
     Prince Eugene          |      | compositions, etc. He is said to have
      defeats the           |      | composed 116 Operas, partly to German,
      Turks at              |      | and partly to Italian words.
      Peterwardein in       |      |
      Austrian Slavonia     |      |   Pepusch (Johann Christoph), born
      (1716).               |      | 1667 at Berlin, died 1732. Cantatas
                            |      | and other sacred music.
     Prince Eugene          |      |
      defeats the           |      |   Leveridge (Richard) born 1670 in
      Turks at Belgrade     |      | London, died 1758. Operas and songs.
      (1717).               |      |
                            |      |
     Charles XII.,          | 1720 |   Caldara (Antonio), born 1678 at
      King of Sweden,       |      | Venice, died 1763. Sixty-seven Operas,
      is killed at          |      | many Masses and other sacred
      the Siege of          |      | compositions.
      Frederickshall,       |      |
      in Norway             |      |   Astorga (Emanuale), born 1681 at
      (1718).               |      | Palermo, Sicily, died 1736. Several
                            |      | Operas, a Requiem and many other
                            |      | sacred compositions.
     English authors:       |      |
      Pope (1688-1744);     |      |
      Swift                 |      |   Geminiani (Francesco), born 1680 at
      (1667-1744);          |      | Lucca, died 1762. Violinist. Many
      Young (1684-1765);    |      | compositions for his instrument.
      Thomson               |      |
      (1700-1748);          |      |   Scarlatti (Domenico), son of
      Fielding              |      | Alessandro Scarlatti, born in 1683 at
      (1707-1754);          |      | Naples, died about 1760.
      Johnson (1713-1784);  |      | Clavicembalist. Many compositions for
      Goldsmith             |      | his instrument.
      (1728-1774);          |      |
      Sterne                |      |   Rameau (Jean Philippe), born 1683 at
      (1713-1768);          |      | Dijon, died 1764. Composed 36 Operas,
      Hogarth, painter      |      | many motetts and other sacred vocal
      (1698-1764).          |      | compositions, as well as pieces for
                            |      | the organ and for the clavecin
     Death of the           |      | (harpsichord). Several theoretical
      Duke of Marlborough,  |      | works. A new System of Harmony.
      born                  |      | Progress in operatic music.
      1650 (1722).          |      |
                            |      |   Mattheson (Johann), born 1681 at
     Death of Peter         |      | Hamburg, died 1764. Seven Operas, 24
      the Great             |      | Oratorios, several other sacred
      (1725).               |      | compositions, and a great many works
                            |      | on the theory and history of music.
     George II., King       |      |
      of Great Britain,     |      |   Telemann (Georg Philipp), born 1681
      succeeds              |      | at Magdeburg, in Germany, died 1767.
      his father,           |      | Composed 44 Operas, many Oratorios
      George I., who        |      | and other sacred compositions, secular
      died, aged 68         |      | instrumental pieces, etc.
      (1727).               |      |
                            |      |   Heinichen (Johann David), born
     Fahrenheit, improver   |      | 1683 in Saxony, died 1729. Operas,
      of the                |      | sacred and secular compositions.
      thermometer           |      | Treatise on the Theory of Music.
      (1724).               |      |
                            |      |
     Réaumur, improver      |      |
      of the                |      |
      thermometer           |      |
      (1731).               |      |
                            |      |
     The Jesuits are        |      |   Walther (Johann Gottfried), born
      expelled from         |      | 1684 at Erfurt, died 1748. Organ
      China (1724).         |      | compositions, chorales, and a Musical
                            |      | Dictionary.
     Isaac Newton           |      |
      (1642-1727).          |      |
                            |      |
     Swift publishes        |      |   About this time, the first
      his 'Gulliver's       |      | Pianofortes were constructed by
      Travels' (1726).      |      | Christofori, in Italy, and by
                            |      | Schröter, in Germany.
                            |      |
     Pope publishes         | 1730 |   Marcello (Benedetto), born 1686 at
      his 'Essay on         |      | Venice, died 1739. Composed fifty
      Man' (1729).          |      | Psalms, several Oratorios, Masses,
                            |      | etc.
                            |      |
     Thomson publishes      |      |   Porpora (Nicolo), born 1687 at
      his 'Seasons'         |      | Naples, died 1767. Great singing
      (1730).               |      | teacher. Composed fifty Operas, many
                            |      | Masses, etc.
     Arbuthnot and Sir      |      |
      Hans Sloane,          |      |   Tartini (Giuseppe) born 1692 at
      English physicians    |      | Pirano, died 1770. Violinist and
      (1730).               |      | composer. Author of a Treatise on
                            |      | Harmony.
                            |      |
     Le Sage, author of     |      |   Leo (Leonardo), born 1694 at Naples,
      'Gil Blas' (1730).    |      | died 1756. Composed forty-eight
                            |      | Operas, several Oratorios, Masses, and
     Jonathan Swift,        |      | other sacred music. He wrote for his
      Dean of St.           |      | Operas larger overtures than previous
      Patrick's, poet       |      | composers had done.
      and miscellaneous     |      |
      writer (1730).        |      |   Carey (Henry), born about 1690 in
                            |      | England, died 1743. Many songs. He
     Harrison, an           |      | is supposed to have composed in the
      Englishman,           |      | year 1740 the English national air of
      constructs            |      | 'God save the King.'
      a chronometer of      |      |
      great precision       |      |   HANDEL (GEORG FRIEDRICH), properly
      (1735). His           |      | Händel, born 1685 at Halle, died 1759
      fourth chronometer    |      | in London. Composed fifty-one Operas
      is used at sea        |      | (forty-three having Italian words
      in 1764, and he       |      | and eight having German words), twenty
      receives a reward     |      | English Oratorios, many cantatas,
      of £20,000.           |      | motetts, anthems, a Mass, four Te
                            |      | Deums, concertos, instrumental
                            |      | compositions for the organ,
     Frederick III.,        |      | harpsichord, etc.
      Elector of            |      |
      Brandenburg, and      |      |   The concertos of that period
      Duke of Prussia,      |      | consisted of orchestral pieces with or
      in an assembly of     |      | without an organ concertante; or of
      the states, puts      |      | violin-quintetts with double-bass;
      a crown upon his      |      | or also of pieces for the
      own head, and         |      | harpsichord accompanied
      upon the head         |      | by a quartett of stringed
      of his consort,       |      | instruments, etc.
      and is proclaimed     |      |
      King of Prussia,      |      |
      by the title of       |      |
      Frederick             |      |
      I. (1701).            |      |
                            |      |   During the eighteenth
     German poets and       |      | century, most of the German
      authors:--            |      | Opera composers of distinction
      Elias Schlegel,       |      | wrote chiefly to Italian words.
      Gellert, Hagedorn,    |      | Every German town in which
      Rabener,              |      | a Sovereign resided had an
      Rammler, Kleist,      |      | Italian Opera. The German art of
      Weisse, Bürger,       |      | singing began to flourish
      Hölty, Stollberg,     |      | only about the year 1760. Even
      Voss,                 |      | Mozart wrote but two Operas to German
      Gleim, Jacoby,        |      | words. The German composers
      Uz, Gerstenberg,      |      | (Handel, Gluck, Hasse, Mozart, etc.)
      Gotter,               |      | studied dramatic music in Italy.
      Claudius, Gessner.    |      |
                            |      |   BACH (JOHANN SEBASTIAN), born
     Frederick William I,   |      | 1685 at Eisenach, in Germany, died
      King of Prussia,      |      | 1750 at Leipzig. Composed several
      son of                |      | Oratorios, many Masses, a great many
      Frederick I.          |      | motetts, cantatas, chorales, etc.;
      (1713).               |      | many compositions for the organ,
                            |      | clavichord, clavicembalo
     First attempt of       |      | (harpsichord), and for the orchestra.
      Steam Navigation,     |      | The first book of his Preludes
      by Jonathan           |      | and Fugues for the clavichord,
      Hulls                 |      | entitled 'Das Wohltemperirte Clavier,'
      (1736).               |      | dates from the year 1722, and the
                            |      | second book from the year 1740. He
     John Wesley,           |      | composed the Passion according to
      founder of the        |      | St. Matthew, about the year 1728; the
      sect of Methodists    |      | great Mass in B minor, about 1734;
      (1730).               |      | the Art of Fugue, in the year 1748.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Stölzel (Gottfried Heinrich), born
     George Whitfield,      |      | 1690 in Bohemia, died 1749. Several
      founder of the        |      | Operas, Oratorios, Masses, and
      sect of Calvinistic   |      | Treatises on the Theory and History of
      Methodists,           |      | Music.
      preaches in           |      |
      London in the         |      |
      open air (1738).      |      |
                            |      |
     The Methodist          |      |
      Society is fully      |      |
      established           |      |   Pergolesi (Giovanni Battista), born
      (1740).               |      | 1710 at Jesi, died 1736. Composed 7
                            |      | Operas, a Stabat Mater, several
     Italian Painters of    | 1740 | Masses, offertories, etc.
      this period:--Rotari, |      |
      Casanova,             |      |   Durante (Francesco), born 1693 at
      Landi,                |      | Naples, died 1755. Composed Masses
      Grassi, Appiani,      |      | and other sacred music, secular
      Bossi, Sabatelli,     |      | madrigals, pieces for the
      Ermini, Alvarez,      |      | clavicembalo, etc.
      Camoccini,            |      |
      etc.                  |      |   Durante, was with Leo, the founder
                            |      | of the famous Neapolitan School.
                            |      |
     Frederick II.,         |      |   Feo (Francesco), born 1699 at
      King of Prussia       |      | Naples. Operas, Oratorios, Masses,
      (from 1740 until      |      | Psalms. Feo is especially remarkable
      1786).                |      | for being regarded as the master whom
                            |      | Gluck particularly admired and
     First Silesian         |      | studied.
      war (1740-1742).      |      |
                            |      |   Greene (Maurice), born 1698 in
                            |      | London, died 1755. Many sacred
     Second Silesian        |      | compositions and some English Operas.
      war (1744-1745).      |      |
                            |      |
     Maria-Theresa,         |      |   Quanz (Johann Joachim), born 1697 at
      Empress of            |      | Hanover, died 1773. Flute-player, and
      Germany,              |      | teacher of Frederick II. of Prussia.
      Queen of Hungary      |      | Many compositions, and an instruction
      and Bohemia           |      | book for the Flute.
      (1740).               |      |
                            |      |   Graun (Carl Heinrich), born 1701 in
     Francis I., Duke       |      | Saxony, died 1759. Composed 30 Operas,
      of Lorraine,          |      | several Oratorios, Masses, cantatas,
      marries               |      | etc.
      Maria-Theresa, and is |      |
      elected Emperor       |      |   Hasse (Johann Adolf), born 1699 at
      of Germany            |      | Hamburg, died 1783. Composed 52
      (1745).               |      | Operas, 11 Oratorios, several Masses,
                            |      | a Requiem, 4 Te Deums, various other
     During the reign       |      | sacred compositions, symphonies,
      of Frederick II.      |      | sonatas for the clavichord, concertos,
      or 'Frederick         |      | etc.
      the Great,' the       |      |
      Prussian monarchy     |      |   Galuppi (Baldassaro), born 1703 at
      is made               |      | Venice, died 1785. Composed 55
      to rank among         |      | Operas, several Masses, motetts, and
      the first powers      |      | other sacred music.
      in Europe.            |      |
                            |      |   Sammartini (Giovanni Battista), born
     Battle of Dettingen    |      | about 1700 at Milan, died 1775. Many
      gained                |      | Masses and other Church music, many
      by George II.         |      | symphonies, quartetts, trios, and
      over the              |      | other instrumental compositions of
      French (1743).        |      | every kind. Sammartini wrote about
                            |      | 2,800 works, and his style is
     The electric           |      | considered as being the precursor of
      shock is discovered   |      | that of Joseph Haydn.
      at Leyden             |      |
      (1745).               |      |   From about the middle of the
                            |      | eighteenth century, the sonata-form
     German poets:          |      | in instrumental compositions (sonatas,
      Salis, Matthison,     |      | symphonies, quartetts, etc.) becomes
      Pfeffel,              |      | much developed, especially through
      Kind, Langbein,       |      | Joseph Haydn.
      Seume,                |      |
      Schubert,             |      |
      Tiedge, etc.          |      |
                            |      |
     Lima and Callao        |      |
      are destroyed         |      |
      by an earthquake      |      |
      which                 |      |
      buries 18,000         |      |
      persons in the        |      |
      ruins (1746).         |      |
                            |      |
     Linnæus, naturalist    | 1750 |   The flourishing period of the
      (1750).               |      | Italian operatic music dates from
                            |      | about the year 1700 to 1780. The most
     The Academy of         |      | celebrated writers of libretti were
      Sciences at           |      | Apostolo Zeno and Metastasio. The most
      Stockholm,            |      | celebrated female singers: Faustina,
      and the Royal         |      | Cuzzoni, Mattei, Scotti, Grassi,
      Society at Göttingen, |      | Gabrieli, Agujari, Danci, Allegrante,
      are founded (1750).   |      | Storace, etc. The most celebrated
     Samuel Johnson         |      | male singers: Lovattini, Guarducci,
      commences the         |      | Farinelli, Nicolini, Guadagni,
      publication of        |      | Millico, Pacchiarotti, Morelli,
      his 'Rambler'         |      | Marchesi, Salimbeni, Crescentini, etc.
      (1750).               |      |
                            |      |
     Lady W. Montague,      |      |   Martini (Giovanni Battista), Padre,
      and Lord              |      | born 1706 at Bologna, died 1784.
      Chesterfield,         |      | Many sacred compositions, History of
      miscellaneous         |      | Music, School of Harmony, and other
      writers (1750).       |      | literary works on music.
                            |      |
     New style introduced   |      |   Perez (Davide), born 1711 at Naples,
      into                  |      | died 1778. Composed 31 Operas.
      England (1752).       |      |
                            |      |   Jomelli (Nicolo), born 1714 at
     Death of Montesquieu   |      | Aversa, died 1774. Composed 40 Operas,
      (1755).               |      | 4 Oratorios, several Masses, Requiems,
                            |      | etc.
     Great earthquake       |      |
      at Lisbon (1755).     |      |   Rousseau (Jean Jacques), born 1712
                            |      | at Geneva, in Switzerland, died 1778.
     Voltaire at the        |      | Author. Some French Operas. Many
      Court of Frederick    |      | Treatises on Music. Musical
      of Prussia            |      | Dictionary. Invention of the melodrama
      (from 1750 until      |      | ascribed to him.
      1753).                |      |
                            |      |   Arne (Thomas Augustus), born 1710
     Benjamin Franklin,     |      | in London, died 1778. Composed 23
      in America,           |      | Operas, 3 Oratorios, and many other
      invents the           |      | vocal pieces, etc.
      lightning conductor   |      |
      (1755).               |      |   Boyce (William), born 1710 in
                            |      | England, died 1779. Organist. Several
                            |      | dramatic compositions, an Oratorio,
                            |      | sacred songs, many organ pieces.
                            |      |
     Conquest of            |      |   Bach (Friedemann), son of J. S.
      India under           |      | Bach, born 1710 at Weimar, died
      Colonel, afterwards   |      | 1784. Compositions for the organ,
      Lord,                 |      | clavichord, and harpsichord.
      Clive (1757).         |      |
                            |      |   Bach (Carl Philipp Emanuel), son of
     Death of General       |      | J. S. Bach, born 1713 at Weimar,
      Wolfe at the          |      | died 1788. Oratorios, cantatas, sacred
      Battle of Quebec      |      | songs, many compositions for the
      (1759).               |      | clavichord. Instruction Book for
                            |      | playing the clavichord.
                            |      |
     The Seven Years'       | 1760 |   Fiorillo (Ignazio), born 1715 at
      War in Germany        |      | Naples, died 1787. Several Operas, an
      (1756-1763).          |      | Oratorio, a Requiem, Masses.
                            |      |
     George III., King      |      |   Alembert (Jean-le-Rond d'), born
      of Great Britain,     |      | 1717 in Paris, died 1783. Author of a
      grandson of           |      | System of Composition, and of other
      George II.            |      | theoretical works on music.
      (1760).               |      |
                            |      |   Marpurg (Friedrich Wilhelm), born
     Moses Mendelssohn,     |      | 1718 in Prussia, died 1795. Organ and
      philosopher.          |      | clavichord compositions. Treatises
                            |      | on the Theory of Music.
     Winckelmann,           |      |
      antiquarian.          |      |   Mozart (Leopold), father of the
                            |      | great Mozart, born 1719 at Augsburg,
     Garrick, actor.        |      | died 1789. Composed 4 Operas, 12
                            |      | Oratorios, many symphonies, and other
     Joseph II., Emperor    |      | instrumental and vocal music. Also a
      of Austria            |      | Violin School.
      (1765).               |      |
                            |      |   Gerbert (Martin), Abbot, born 1720
     Mesmer, a German       |      | in Austria, died 1792. History of
      physician,            |      | sacred music.
      publishes his         |      |
      'Theory of            |      |
      Animal Magnetism'     |      |
      (1766).               |      |
                            |      |
     Blackstone publishes   |      |   Benda (Georg), born 1721 in Bohemia,
      his 'Commentaries     |      | died 1795. Composed 14 Operas,
      on                    |      | some melodramas, cantatas, and
      the Laws of           |      | instrumental music.
      England' (1767).      |      |
                            |      |   Kirnberger (Johann Philipp), born
     Corsica becomes        |      | 1721 in Thuringia, Germany, died 1783.
      French (1768).        |      | Composed fugues and other pieces
                            |      | for the clavichord and pianoforte.
     Napoleon Buonaparte    |      | Author of several works on the
      born at               |      | theory of music.
      Ajaccio, in Corsica   |      |
      (1769).               |      |
                            |      |
     Death of Emanuel       | 1770 |   The Pianoforte begins to supersede
      Swedenborg,           |      | the clavichord and clavicembalo
      founder               |      | (English harpsichord).
      of a new religious    |      |
      sect                  |      |   Piccini (Nicolo), born 1728 at
      (1772).               |      | Naples, died 1800. Composed above 130
                            |      | Operas, several Oratorios, psalms,
                            |      | etc.
     Sheridan publishes     |      |
      his first             |      |   GLUCK (CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD VON),
      drama, 'The           |      | born 1714 at Weidenwang, Germany, died
      Rivals' (1775).       |      | 1787. Composed 21 Operas, 8 of which
                            |      | are to Italian words, and 13 are to
     Pestalozzi founds      |      | French words. A De Profundis, a Ballet
      the Reformatory       |      | entitled 'Don Juan,' some secular
      School at             |      | songs, a few instrumental pieces, etc.
      Neuhoff, in           |      |
      Switzerland           |      |
      (1775).               |      |
                            |      |
     Adam Smith             |      |   Sarti (Giuseppe), born 1730 at
      publishes his         |      | Faenza, died 1802. Composed 44
      'Wealth of            |      | Operas, and several sacred pieces.
      Nations' (1776).      |      |
                            |      |
     Necker, Minister       |      |   Lolli (Antonio), born about 1730 at
      of Finance in         |      | Bergamo, died 1802. Violinist. Many
      France (1777).        |      | compositions for his instrument.
                            |      |
     The Sandwich           |      |   Majo (Francesco de), born 1745 at
      Islands are           |      | Naples, died 1774. Composed 13 Operas,
      discovered by         |      | many Masses, Vespers, etc.
      Captain Cook          |      |
      (1778).               |      |   Arteaga (Steffano), born about 1730
                            |      | at Madrid, died 1799. Author of a
     Death of William       |      | History of the Italian Opera.
      Pitt, first Earl      |      |
      of Chatham            |      |   Philidor (François André), born 1727
      (1778).               |      | at Dreux, died 1795. Composed 22
                            |      | Operas, of which 11 are to Italian
     Captain Cook is        |      | words, and 11 to French words.
      killed by the natives |      | Philidor is also celebrated as a
      of Owyhee             |      | chess-player.
      (1779).               |      |
                            |      |   Monsigny (Pierre Alexandre), born
                            |      | 1729 at St. Omer, died 1817. Composed
     J. Priestley,          |      | 17 Operas, ballets, etc.
      chemical philosopher  |      |
      (1733-1804).          |      |   Gossec (François Joseph), born 1733
                            |      | at Hainault, died 1829. Composed 28
     Hunter, surgeon        |      | Operas, and many sacred compositions.
      (1728-1793).          |      |
                            |      |   Hawkins (John), born 1720 in
     Sir W. Jones,          |      | England, died 1791. Author of a
      orientalist           |      | History of Music.
      (1746-1794).          |      |
                            |      |   Burney (Charles), born 1726 at
     Horace Walpole         |      | Shrewsbury, died 1814. Author of a
      (1717-1797).          |      | History of Music, and some other
                            |      | works.
     Boswell, biographer    |      |
      of Dr.                |      |   Abel (Carl Friedrich), born 1725 at
      Johnson.              |      | Köthen, in Germany, died 1787 in
                            |      | London. Viola-da-Gambist and composer.
     Cowper, poet.          |      |
                            |      |
     Bacon, sculptor.       |      |
                            |      |
     Josiah Wedgewood,      |      |   Hiller (Johann Adam), born 1728 in
      improver              |      | Lusatia, Germany, died 1804. Composed
      of pottery            |      | 18 Operettas, many psalms,
      manufacture           |      | sacred and secular songs, symphonies,
      (1730-1795).          |      | sonatas, and musical treatises.
                            |      |
     Alfieri publishes      |      |
      his first tragedy     |      |
      'Cleopatra'           |      |
      (1773).               |      |   HAYDN (JOSEPH), born 1732 at
                            |      | Rohrau, in Austria, died 1809.
     Benjamin Franklin,     |      | Composed 24 Operas (10 with German
      American              |      | words, and 14 with Italian words), 4
      philosopher           |      | Oratorios, 19 Masses, several Te
      and statesman         |      | Deums, a Stabat Mater, Salve Regina,
      (1706-1790).          |      | many motetts and other sacred music,
                            |      | 118 symphonies, 83 quartetts, 44
     Pope Clement           |      | sonatas, and many other instrumental
      XIV. suppresses       |      | and vocal compositions.
      the Order of the      |      |
      Jesuits, founded      |      |
      in the year           |      |
      1540 (1773).          |      |   J. Haydn wrote in 1783 the Oratorio
                            |      | The Seven Words, for Cadix; in 1800,
     The Jesuits were       |      | The Creation; in 1803, The Seasons;
      expelled from         |      | in 1791 and 1793; the twelve so-called
      England in            |      | English symphonies, in London.
      1604; from            |      |
      France, in            |      |
      1764; from            |      |   Kittel (Johann Christian), born 1732
      Spain, in 1767.       |      | at Erfurt in Germany, died 1809.
      The Order was         |      | Many organ compositions.
      restored by           |      |
      Pope Pius VII.        | 1774 |   GLUCK in Paris, from 1774 to 1779.
      in 1814.              |      | Representations of his Operas. Reform
                            |      | of the French dramatic music. Rivalry
     Death of Lord          |      | between Gluck and Piccini in Paris.
      Clive (1774).         |      | First performance of Orpheus and
                            |      | Euridice, Vienna 1762; of Alceste,
     The American           |      | Vienna, 1767; of Iphigenia in Aulis,
      Colonies deny         |      | Paris, 1774; of Armida, Paris, 1777;
      the right of the      |      | of Iphigenia in Tauris, Paris, 1779.
      British Parliament    |      |
      to tax                |      |
      them (1774).          |      |
                            |      |
     The first battle of    |      |
      the American          |      |   The Operas by Gluck are the noblest
      war at Lexington      |      | musical dramas in existence. They
      (1775).               |      | have served as models for the most
                            |      | eminent operatic composers whose
     Voltaire (1694-1778).  |      | works have been written subsequently
                            |      | to those of Gluck.
     W. Herschel,           |      |
      astronomer            |      |
      (1738-1822).          | 1780 |   Sacchini (Antonio Maria Giuseppe),
                            |      | born 1735 at Naples, died 1786.
     W. Herschel discovers  |      | Composed 50 Operas, several Oratorios,
      the                   |      | Masses with double choruses, a
      planet Uranus,        |      | Miserere, several other sacred
      or Georgium           |      | compositions, sonatas, violin-trios,
      Sidus (1781).         |      | etc.
                            |      |
     Mail Coaches are       |      |   Anfossi (Pasquale), born about 1736
      first set up at       |      | at Naples, died 1797. Many Operas
      Bristol by Mr.        |      | and sacred compositions.
      Palmer, and are       |      |
      soon in use all       |      |   Traetta (Tomaso), born 1738 at
      through England       |      | Naples, died 1786. Operas and Church
      (1784).               |      | music.
                            |      |
     The Crimea is          |      |   Sabbatini (Luigi Antonio), born 1739
      given up by           |      | at Albano, died 1809. Church music
      Turkey to             |      | and several theoretical works.
      Russia (1784).        |      |
                            |      |
     The power-loom         |      |   Boccherini (Luigi), born 1740 at
      for weaving is        |      | Lucca, died 1806. Many symphonies,
      invented by E.        |      | quintetts, quartetts, sonatas, and
      Cartwright            |      | other instrumental compositions.
      (1785).               |      |
                            |      |
     Watt greatly           |      |   Paesiello (Giovanni), born 1741 at
      improves the          |      | Taranto, died 1816. Composed 94
      Steam Engine          |      | Operas, an Oratorio, a Requiem,
      (1736-1819).          |      | many Masses, a Te Deum, and other
                            |      | sacred music.
     Watt's double          |      |
      Steam Engine          |      |   Great popularity of the Operas by
      (about 1780).         |      | Paesiello, Cimaroso, Sacchini,
                            |      | Piccini, etc.
     The Steam              |      |
      Engine is             |      |   Langlé (Onorio Francesco), born
      applied to            |      | 1741 at Monaco, died 1807. Composed
      cotton spinning       |      | 8 Operas (with French words), and
      (1785).               |      | wrote several theoretical works on
                            |      | music in French.
     Lessing (1729-1781).   |      |
                            |      |   Grétry (André-Ernest-Modeste), born
     The United             |      | 1741 at Liége, died 1813. Composed
      States of             |      | 59 Operas, several Masses, motetts,
      America declare       |      | symphonies, quartetts,
      their                 |      | pianoforte-sonatas, etc. Also Essays
      independence          |      | on Music.
      (1776).               |      |
                            |      |   Battishill (Jonathan), born 1738 in
                            |      | London, died 1801. Many sacred vocal
     Alliance between       |      | compositions, and some Operas.
      France and            |      |
      the United            |      |   Arnold (Samuel), born 1740 in
      States (1778).        |      | London, died 1802. Composed 40
                            |      | Operas and Operettas (with English
     Spain and              |      | words), 7 Oratorios, etc.
      Holland in            |      |
      favour of the         |      |   Bach (Johann Christian), son of J.
      United States.        |      | S. Bach, born 1735 at Leipzig, died
      (1779).               |      | 1782 in London. Composed 15 Operas
                            |      | (with Italian words), 18 concertos for
     United States of       |      | the harpsichord, sonatas, trios, and
      North America         |      | other instrumental pieces.
      independent.          |      |
                            |      |   Albrechtsberger (Johann Georg), born
     Washington their       |      | 1736 in the neighbourhood of Vienna,
      President             |      | died 1809. Composed 26 Masses, 43
      (1783).               |      | graduales, 34 offertories, and other
                            |      | sacred compositions, many
     Washington             |      | organ-fugues, etc. Author of a work on
      (1732-1799).          |      | the Theory of Music.
                            |      |
     Frederick-William      |      |
      II.,                  |      |
      King of Prussia,      |      |
      nephew of             |      |
      Frederick the         |      |
      Great (1786).         |      |
                            |      |
     The Quakers at         |      |   Haydn (Michael), brother of Joseph
      Philadelphia          |      | Haydn, born 1737 in Rohrau, died 1806.
      emancipate            |      | Many Masses, Offertories, Te Deums,
      their slaves          |      | etc.
      (1788).               |      |
                            |      |
     First English          |      |   Dittersdorf (Carl Ditters von), born
      settlement in         |      | 1739 at Vienna, died 1799. Composed
      Australia, at         |      | 37 Operas, 41 symphonies, many
      Botany Bay            |      | concertos and other instrumental
      (1788).               |      | pieces.
                            |      |
     Invention of the       |      |   André (Johann), born 1741 at
      balloon, and          |      | Offenbach, in Germany, died 1799.
      ascent by             |      | Composed about 30 German Operettas.
      Montgolfier, in       |      |
      Paris (1783).         |      |
                            |      |   Naumann (Johann Gottlieb), born
     Blanchard and          |      | 1741 in Saxony, died 1801. Composed
      Jefferies cross       |      | 26 Operas, 13 Oratorios, many Masses,
      the English           |      | psalms, cantatas, and other vocal
      Channel in a          |      | music, many symphonies, concertos,
      balloon (1785).       |      | and other instrumental pieces.
                            |      |
     Diderot (1713-1784).   | 1784 |   Martini (Johann Paul Egydius),
                            |      | properly Schwarzendorf, born 1741 in
                            |      | Germany, died 1816. Composed 12
     Buffon (1707-1788).    |      | Operas (with French words), a Requiem,
                            |      | Masses, a Te Deum. Wrote several
     Herschel completes     |      | theoretical works on music.
      his great             |      |
      forty-foot telescope, |      |   Festival in commemoration of Handel,
      discovers             |      | in London. Mara (Gertrude Elizabeth),
      volcanic mountains    |      | the celebrated German singer (born
      in the                |      | 1749 at Cassel, died 1833), visits
      moon, etc.            |      | London, and sings at the Festival.
      (1787).               |      |
                            |      |
     The French             |      |   Origin of the English Musical
      Revolution            |      | Festivals, in which the principal
      (1789).               |      | performers are mostly foreigners.
                            |      |
     Death of Mirabeau      | 1790 |   Salieri (Antonio), born 1750 at
      (1791).               |      | Legnano, died 1825. Composed 41
                            |      | Operas, a Requiem, many
     Royalty abolished      |      | vocal-canons, and other vocal pieces.
      in France             |      |
      (1792).               |      |   Zingarelli (Nicolo), born 1752 at
                            |      | Rome, died 1837. Composed 22 Operas,
     Louis XVI. beheaded    |      | 38 Masses with organ, 45 other Masses,
      (1793).               |      | 4 Requiems, and many other sacred
                            |      | compositions.
                            |      |
     Marat stabbed by       |      |   CLEMENTI (MUZIO), born 1752 at Rome,
      Charlotte             |      | died 1832. Pianist and founder of
      Corday (1793).        |      | pianoforte-playing. Composed above
                            |      | 60 sonatas for pianoforte alone, many
     Robespierre            |      | others with accompaniments, fugues,
      guillotined           |      | studies (Gradus ad Parnassum),
      (1794).               |      | symphonies. Also an instruction book
                            |      | for the pianoforte.
     Netherlandish          |      |
      Painters:--           |      |
      Van Os, Vanloo,       |      |   Clementi and Beethoven, by their
      Van Spaendonk,        |      | compositions for the pianoforte,
      Scheffer,             |      | especially promoted the perfecting and
      Pienemann,            |      | the popularity of the pianoforte.
      Hodges, Kuipers,      |      |
      Ommegang,             |      |   Viotti (Giovanni Battista), born
      Wonder,               |      | 1753 at Piedmont, died 1824.
      etc.                  |      | Violinist, and founder of a new school
                            |      | of violin-playing. Many concertos and
     French Painters:--     |      | other instrumental compositions.
      Joseph Vernet         |      |
      (1714-1789),          |      |
      Greuze, Vien,         |      |   Cimarosa (Domenico), born 1754 at
      David, Isabey,        |      | Naples, died 1801. Composed 75
      Drouais, Gerard,      |      | Operas, a Requiem, Masses, etc.
      Gros, Ingres,         |      |
      Regnauld,             |      |   Dalayrac (Nicolas), born 1753 in
      Guerin, Horace        |      | Languedoc, France, died 1809. Composed
      Vernet (born          |      | 56 Operas.
      1789), etc.           |      |
                            |      |   Shield (William), born 1754 in
     Denmark sets the       |      | London, died 1829. Composed Operas,
      example of            |      | canzonets, instrumental trios. Author
      abolishing the        |      | of a Treatise on Harmony.
      slave trade           |      |
      (1791).               |      |   Storace (Stephan), born 1763 in
                            |      | London, of Italian origin, died 1796.
     France abolishes       |      | Composed 14 Operas with English words.
      slavery in her        |      |
      colonies (1794).      |      |   Gerber (Ernst Ludwig), born 1746 in
                            |      | Saxony, died 1819. Author of two
     Abolition of the       |      | biographical Dictionaries of
      slave trade by        |      | Musicians, and of some books of
      the English           |      | instruction on music.
      Parliament            |      |
      (1807).               |      |   Schulz (Johann Peter), born 1747 at
                            |      | Lüneburg, in Germany, died 1800.
     Vaccination is         |      | Several Operas, Oratorios, choruses,
      introduced by Dr.     |      | etc.
      Jenner (1796).        |      |
                            |      |
     Lithography is         |      |   Neefe (Christian), born 1748 in
      invented by           |      | Saxony, died 1798. Composed 10
      Alois Sennefelder     |      | Operas. Teacher of Beethoven, in
      (1796).               |      | Bonn.
                            |      |
     Hahnemann,             |      |   Stadler (Maximilian), Abbé, born
      founder of            |      | 1748 in Austria, died 1833. An
      Homoeopathy           |      | Oratorio, Masses, psalms, and other
      (1796).               |      | sacred vocal music, compositions for
                            |      | the organ and the pianoforte.
     In the year 1792       |      |
      the French            |      |
      nation adopted        |      |   Vogler (Georg Joseph), Abbé, born
      a new Calendar        |      | 1749 at Würzburg, in Germany, died
      founded on            |      | 1814. Composed 5 Operas, several
      philosophical         |      | Masses, many other sacred
      principles. It        |      | compositions, symphonies, organ
      remained in           |      | pieces, etc. Author of several
      use until the         |      | theoretical works on music.
      end of the year       |      |
      1805, when the        |      |
      Gregorian             |      |   Forkel (Johann Nikolaus), born 1749
      mode of calculation   |      | at Coburg, in Germany, died 1818.
      was restored          |      | Wrote a History of Music, and several
      at the                |      | other musical treatises.
      instance of Napoleon. |      |
      The                   |      |   Koch (Heinrich Christoph), born
      public feasts or      |      | 1749 at Rudolstadt, Germany, died
      "Sansculottides,"     |      | 1816. Instruction books on harmony,
      fixed in              |      | and a Musical Dictionary.
      the Revolutionary     |      |
      Calendar,             |      |   Kauer (Ferdinand), born 1751 in
      were dedicated        |      | Moravia, died 1831. Above 200 Operas
      to Les Vertus,        |      | of a light and popular character.
      Sept. 17; Le          |      |
      Génie, Sept.          |      |
      18; Le Travail,       |      |   Reichardt (Johann Friedrich), born
      Sept. 19;             |      | 1752 at Königsberg, in Prussia, died
      L'Opinion,            |      | 1814. Composed 30 Operas, some
      Sept. 20; Les         |      | Oratorios, hymns, secular songs.
      Recompenses,          |      | Author of several Treatises on Music,
      Sept. 21.             |      | etc.
                            |      |
     Revolution in Poland:  |      |   Knecht (Justin Heinrich), born 1752
      Kosciusko,            |      | at Bieberich, in Germany, died 1817.
      in the beginning      |      | Masses, cantatas, and other sacred
      successful,           |      | music, and an instruction book on
      is later              |      | harmony.
      defeated. Suwarrow    |      |
      storms                |      |
      Warsaw (1794).        |      |   Türk (Daniel Gottlieb), born 1756 in
                            |      | Saxony, died 1813. An Oratorio,
     The third division     |      | motetts, many pieces for the
      of Poland between     |      | clavichord and the pianoforte, a
      Russia,               |      | Treatise on Thorough-bass, etc.
      Austria, and          |      |
      Prussia (1795).       |      |
                            |      |   MOZART (WOLFGANG AMADEUS),
     La Place,              |      | born 1756 at Salzburg, died 1791.
      mathematician and     |      | Composed 6 great Operas with Italian
      astronomer (1796).    |      | words, 2 great Operas with German
     Stereotyping invented  |      | words, 8 earlier Italian Operas, 2
      by Ambrose            |      | German Operettas, several cantatas, a
      Didot, of             |      | Requiem, many Masses, graduales,
      Paris (1797).         |      | offertories, hymns, a Te Deum, and
                            |      | other sacred compositions, about 33
     Frederick William      |      | symphonies, 23 pianoforte concertos,
      III., King            |      | some concertos for other instruments,
      of Prussia            |      | 6 violin quintetts, 26 violin
      (1797).               |      | quartetts, 31 pianoforte sonatas with
                            |      | and without accompaniments, many other
     Buonaparte  in         |      | instrumental compositions, many songs,
      Egypt and             |      | etc.
      Syria (1798).         |      |
                            |      |
     Buonaparte, in         |      |
      France, is declared   |      |
      First                 |      |
      Consul (1799).        |      |
                            |      |
     The English take       | 1800 |   Mozart composed, in 1780, the Opera
      possession of         |      | 'Idomeneo' for Munich; in 1781, 'Die
      most of the           |      | Entführung aus dem Serail' (his first
      French and            |      | Opera with German words) for Vienna;
      Dutch dominions       |      | in 1785, 'Le Nozze de Figaro' for
      in America            |      | Vienna; in 1787, 'Don Giovanni' for
      (1803).               |      | Prague; in 1790, 'Cosi Fan Tutte' for
                            |      | Vienna; in 1791, 'La Clemenza di Tito'
     Napoleon, Emperor      |      | for Prague, and 'Die Zauberflöte' (his
      of France             |      | second Opera with German words) for
      (1804).               |      | Vienna. In the same year, 1791, he
                            |      | wrote also his Requiem.
     Kant, philosopher      |      |
      (1724-1804).          |      |
                            |      |
     Death of Nelson        |      |
      (1805).               |      |
                            |      |
     Death of Pitt          |      |   Righini (Vincenzo), born 1756 at
      (1806).               |      | Bologna, died 1812. Composer of 20
                            |      | Operas, several Masses and other
     Wieland (1733-1813).   |      | sacred music.
                            |      |
     Napoleon arrives       |      |
      at Elba               |      |   CHERUBINI (LUIGI), born 1760 at
      (1814).               |      | Florence, died 1842. Composer of
                            |      | 29 Operas, some ballets, 4 great
     Napoleon defeated      |      | Masses, 2 Requiems, many other sacred
      at Waterloo           |      | pieces, violin quartetts and other
      (1815).               |      | instrumental music. Author of a
                            |      | Treatise on Musical Composition.
     The "Holy Alliance"    |      |
      concluded             |      |
      at Paris              |      |
      (1815).               |      |
                            |      |
     The Jesuits expelled   |      |   Gervasoni (Carlo), born 1762 at
      from                  |      | Milan, died 1819. Instruction books
      Russia (1816).        |      | and historical Treatises on Music.
                            |      |
     The foreign            |      |
      troops evacuate       |      |   Mayer (Simon), born 1763 in Bavaria,
      France                |      | died 1845. From his early youth lived
      (1818).               |      | in Italy. Composer of 77 Operas, many
                            |      | Oratorios, Masses, psalms, and other
     Death of Marshal       |      | sacred music.
      Blücher,              |      |
      aged 77 (1819).       |      |
                            |      |
     Captain Ross           |      |   MEHUL (ETIENNE HENRI), born 1763
      makes a voyage        |      | at Givet, died 1817. Composed 42
      of Discovery          |      | Operas, many hymns, cantatas, etc.
      in the                |      |
      Polar Sea             |      |   Lesueur (Jean François), born 1764
      (1818).               |      | at Abbeville, died 1837. Composed 10
                            |      | Operas, 33 Oratorios, several Masses
     Klopstock (1724-1803). |      | and motetts.
                            |      |
     Herder (1744-1803).    |      |   Rouget de Lille (Claude Joseph),
                            |      | born 1760 at Lons-le-Saulnier, died
     Winsor, a German,      |      | 1836. Composer of romances, and of
      obtains in            |      | the Marseillaise.
      England a patent      |      |
      as the inventor       |      |
      of gas                |      |   Attwood (Thomas), born 1767 in
      for the purpose       |      | England. Many Operas and sacred
      of illumination.      |      | compositions.
      He makes his          |      |
      first experiment      |      |   Winter (Peter von), born 1755 at
      at the Lyceum         |      | Mannheim in Germany, died 1825.
      in the                |      | Above 30 Operas, many Ballets,
      Strand (1804).        |      | Oratorios, Masses, motetts, hymns,
                            |      | cantatas, etc.
     Schiller (1759-1805).  |      |
                            |      |
     Schiller's 'The        |      |   Pleyel (Jgnaz), born 1757 near
      Robbers' appeared     |      | Vienna, died 1831. Composed 29
      in 1781;              |      | symphonies, many violin-quartetts,
      Don Carlos,           |      | pianoforte-sonatas, etc.
      about 1785;           |      |
      Wallenstein,          |      |   Preindl (Joseph), born 1758 in
      1799; Maria           |      | Austria, died 1823. Many Masses, a
      Stuart, 1800;         |      | Requiem, and other church music.
      William Tell,         |      | Instruction books for thorough-bass,
      1804.                 |      | for singing, etc.
                            |      |
     Painters:--David,      |      |
      Fuseli, G. F.         |      |   Zelter (Carl Friedrich), born 1758
      Morland, Stothard,    |      | in Berlin, died 1832. Many vocal
      Benjamin              |      | compositions, and some literary
      West, Northcote,      |      | productions. Zelter founded, in 1808,
      etc.                  |      | the first German Liedertafel, or
                            |      | society of male singers. Similar
     Actors:--J. P.         |      | societies have subsequently become
      Kemble, Mrs.          |      | popular in Germany and other
      Siddons, Talma.       |      | countries.
                            |      |
     First meeting of       |      |
      the Imperial          |      |
      Parliament of         |      |   Zumsteeg (Johann Rudolph), born
      Great Britain         |      | 1760 at Sachsenflur, in Germany, died
      and Ireland           |      | 1802. Composed 8 Operas, many
      (1801).               |      | ballads, and other vocal music.
                            |      |
     Jefferson, President   |      |
      of the                |      |   Dussek (Johann Ludwig), born 1761
      United States         |      | in Bohemia, died 1812. Pianist and
      (1801).               |      | composer for his instrument. Wrote
     Institution of the     |      | 13 concertos, 53 sonatas, several
      Legion of             |      | piano-forte-quartetts, etc. Also an
      Honour in             |      | Opera.
      France (1802).        |      |
                            |      |   Kunzen (Friedrich), born 1761 at
     Men of Science         |      | Lübeck, died 1817. Composed 9 Operas
      born about this       |      | (8 of which are with Danish words, and
      time:--               |      | one is with German words), 3
                            |      | Oratorios, several cantatas, and other
     Sir D. Brewster,       |      | sacred music.
      philosopher,          |      |
      born 1781.            |      |   Gyrowetz (Adalbert), born 1763 in
                            |      | Bohemia, died 1850. Above 30 Operas,
     G. B. Airy, astronomer,|      | many Ballets and Entr'actes, sacred
      born                  |      | vocal music, many symphonies,
      1801.                 |      | quartetts, pianoforte compositions,
                            |      | songs, etc.
     Baron Liebig,          |      |
      chemist, born         |      |   Steibelt (Daniel), born about 1764
      1803.                 |      | at Berlin, died 1823. Pianist.
                            |      | Composed 6 pianoforte concertos, 46
     R. Owen, comparative   |      | solo sonatas and many other
      anatomist,            |      | compositions for the pianoforte,
      born 1804.            |      | studies for the pianoforte, and an
                            |      | instruction book for that instrument;
     Brassey, engineer,     |      | also 4 Operas.
      born 1805.            |      |
                            |      |
     Lesseps, French        |      |
      engineer, born        |      |
      1806.                 |      |
                            |      |
     J. Stuart Mill,        |      |
      philosopher,          |      |
      born 1807.            |      |
                            |      |
     Longfellow,            |      |
      American poet,        |      |
      born 1807.            |      |
                            |      |
     Lyon Playfair,         | 1810 |   Paer (Ferdinando), born 1771 at
      chemist, born         |      | Parma, died 1839. Composer of 51
      1819.                 |      | Operas, 11 cantatas, and other vocal
                            |      | music.
     J. Tyndal, chemist,    |      |
      born 1820.            |      |   Berton (Henri Montan), born 1767
                            |      | in Paris, died 1844. About 50 Operas,
     Death of Sheridan      |      | several Oratorios, cantatas, and
      (1816).               |      | Treatises on the Theory of Music.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Baillot (Pierre), born 1771 at
     Iffland, German        |      | Passy, died 1842. Violinist. Concertos
      actor and dramatic    |      | and other compositions for the violin,
      writer                |      | an instruction book for the violin,
      (1759-1814).          |      | etc.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Choron (Alexandre Etienne), born
     Thorwaldsen,           |      | 1772 at Caën, died 1834. Many
      Danish sculptor       |      | theoretical works. A Musical
      (1770-1844).          |      | Dictionary.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Catel (Charles Simon), born 1773 at
     Béranger, French       |      | L'Aigle, died 1830. Composed 10
      poet (1780-1857).     |      | Operas, many instrumental and vocal
                            |      | pieces. Author of a Treatise on
     Arago, French          |      | Harmony, etc.
      Savant (1786-1835).   |      |
                            |      |   Rode (Pierre), born 1774 at
     C. Babbage,            |      | Bordeaux, died 1830. Violinist. Many
      philosophical         |      | concertos, quartetts, and other
      mechanist             |      | compositions.
      (1792-1871).          |      |
                            |      |   Cramer (John Baptiste), born 1771 at
     Sir Charles Lyell,     |      | Mannheim, in Germany, but living from
      geologist             |      | early childhood in England, died 1858.
      (1797-1875).          |      | Pianist. Pianoforte studies, 105 solo
                            |      | sonatas, and 7 concertos for the
     Statesmen born         |      | pianoforte. Also a pianoforte school,
      about this time:      |      | etc.
      Gladstone born        |      |
      1809.                 |      |   Weigl (Joseph), born 1766 at
                            |      | Eisenstadt, in Hungary, died 1846.
                            |      | About 30 Operas, 14 ballets, 21
     Baron Beust,           |      | Oratorios and cantatas, 10 Masses, and
      born 1809.            |      | other sacred music.
                            |      |
     Bismarck-Schönhausen,  |      |   Weber (Bernhard Anselm), born 1766
      born 1813.            |      | at Mannheim, died 1821. Several
                            |      | Operas, melodramas, and Entr'actes.
     Count Cavour,          |      |
      born 1810.            |      |   Romberg (Andreas), born 1767 in
                            |      | Vechte, near Münster, in Germany, died
     Cobden, born 1804.     |      | 1821. Composed 7 Operas, a Te Deum,
                            |      | psalms and other sacred compositions,
     John Bright, born      |      | many symphonies and other instrumental
      1811.                 |      | music, secular songs, etc.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Romberg (Bernhard), brother of
     Sculptors born         |      | Andreas Romberg, born 1770 near
      about this time:--    |      | Münster in Germany, died 1841.
                            |      | Violoncellist. Composed 3 Operas, many
     Marochetti, born       |      | concertos and other pieces for the
      1805.                 |      | violoncello, quartetts, etc.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Müller (Wenzel), born 1767 in
     Kiss, born 1802.       |      | Moravia, died 1835. Above 200 Operas
                            |      | of a light popular character,
     Powers, born 1805.     |      | pantomimes, etc.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Nägeli (Johann Georg), born 1773
     The Jesuits are        |      | near Zurich, in Switzerland, died
      expelled from         |      | 1836. Promoter of popular singing
      Prussia (1817).       |      | societies, composer of vocal music,
                            |      | and author of instruction books on
     The Mahratta           |      | singing, etc.
      war in Hindustan.     |      |
                            |      |
     Steam applied to       |      |
      printing in the       |      |
      _Times_ office        |      |
      (1814).               |      |
                            |      |
     The Marquess of        |      |
      Hastings renders      |      |
      British               |      |
      influence universal   |      |
      in India (1817).      |      |
                            |      |
     The Island of          |      |
      Singapore is formed   |      |
      into a British        |      |   BEETHOVEN (LUDWIG VAN), born
      settlement by Sir     |      | 1770 at Bonn, died 1827. An Opera,
      Stamford Raffles      |      | 2 dramas with music, a melodrama,
      (1818).               |      | several single dramatic choruses and
     Reunion of the         |      | songs, an Oratorio, 2 Masses, 9
      Lutheran and          |      | symphonies, 11 overtures, a septett, 7
      other reformed        |      | concertos for pianoforte, a violin
      forms of worship      |      | concerto, 2 violin quintetts, 17
      in several            |      | violin quartetts, 5 violin trios, 35
      parts of Germany      |      | solo sonatas for the pianoforte, 10
      (1818).               |      | sonatas for pianoforte and violin, 6
                            |      | sonatas for pianoforte and
     Voyage to the          |      | violoncello, 7 trios for pianoforte,
      Polar Sea by          |      | violin, and violoncello, a pianoforte
      Parry (1819).         |      | quintett, a great many other
                            |      | pianoforte compositions, cantatas,
     Parry undertakes       |      | songs with pianoforte accompaniment,
      another voyage        |      | etc.
      to reach              |      |
      the North Pole        |      |   In 1793 Beethoven came to Vienna as
      (1820).               |      | Virtuoso on the pianoforte, and
                            |      | distinguished himself by his
                            |      | improvisations; in 1795 he published
     George IV., King       |      | his first important work, the three
      of Great              |      | pianoforte trios, Op. 1; in 1799
      Britain, son of       |      | appeared his first symphony; in 1804
      George III.           |      | his Opera 'Leonore' (Fidelio); in 1809
      (1820).               |      | his symphony in C Minor and his
                            |      | pastoral symphony; in 1814 his A Major
     Guizot, French         |      | symphony; in 1818 his ninth symphony.
      statesman and         |      |
      historian             |      |   Reicha (Anton), born 1770 at Prague,
      (1787-1874).          |      | died 1836. Four Operas, symphonies,
                            |      | quartetts, sonatas, etc., and several
     Revolution  in         |      | Treatises on Harmony and Composition.
      Spain; King           |      |
      Ferdinand VII.        |      |   Tomaschek (Johann Wenzel), born
      swears to the         |      | 1774 in Bohemia, died 1850. An Opera,
      constitution of       |      | several cantatas, a Requiem, a Te
      the Cortes (1820).    |      | Deum, Masses, and other sacred
                            |      | compositions, secular songs,
     Mexico separates       |      | symphonies, quartetts, pianoforte
      from Spain            |      | pieces.
      (1820).               |      |
                            |      |   Kiesewetter (Raphael Georg), born
                            |      | 1773 in Moravia, died 1850. Many
     Insurrection  in       |      | dissertations relating to the history
      Portugal (1820).      |      | of music.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Weyse (Christoph Ernst Friedrich),
     Revolution  in         |      | born 1774 at Altona, in Germany, died
      the  Brazils;         |      | 1842. Several Operas with Danish
      King John VI.         |      | words, symphonies, sonatas and other
      returns to Portugal,  |      | instrumental pieces. He lived in
      and his               |      | Copenhagen.
      son, Dom Pedro,       |      |
      is made               |      |
      Regent of the         |      |
      Brazils (1820).       |      |
                            |      |
     Peru declares herself  |      |
      independent (1820).   |      |
                            |      |
                            | 1820 |   Baini (Giuseppe), Abbate, born 1775
     Napoleon dies at       |      | at Rome, died 1844. Many sacred
      St. Helena            |      | compositions and historical Treatises
      (1821).               |      | on Music. Author of the 'Life of
                            |      | Palestrina.'
     Union of the           |      |
      Greeks in one         |      |   Generali (Pietro), born 1783 in
      confederate           |      | Piedmont, died 1832. About 50 Operas.
      state (1822).         |      |
                            |      |   Paganini (Nicolo), born 1784 at
     Dr. T. Young,          |      | Genoa, died 1840. Violinist. Concertos
      natural               |      | and other compositions for his
      philosopher, and      |      | instrument.
      discoverer of         |      |
      the hieroglyphic      |      |   Spontini (Gasparo), born 1784 at
      alphabet.             |      | Rome, died 1851. Composer of about
                            |      | 26 Operas.
                            |      |
     Sir Humphry            |      |   Isouard (Nicolo), born 1775 in
      Davy, chemist,        |      | Malta, died 1818. Composed 42 Operas,
      inventor of the       |      | several Masses, cantatas, etc.
      safety-lamp,          |      |
      etc.                  |      |   Boieldieu (François Adrien), born
                            |      | 1775 at Rouen, died 1834. Composed
     Macadam, improver      |      | 23 Operas.
      of                    |      |
      roads.                |      |   Lafont (Charles Philippe), born 1781
                            |      | in Paris, died 1839. Violinist. Many
     Francis Douce,         |      | compositions for the violin, and many
      antiquarian.          |      | romances.
                            |      |
     Cuvier, naturalist.    |      |   Onslow (Georges), born 1784 at
                            |      | Clermont, in France, died 1852.
     Channing               |      | Composed 3 Operas, several symphonies,
      (Unitarian            |      | many violin quintetts, quartetts,
      Preacher), Sir        |      | trios, 2 pianoforte sextetts, and
      R. Phillips, W.       |      | other pianoforte music.
      Hazlitt,              |      |
      Charles               |      |   Auber (Daniel François Esprit), born
      Lamb, miscellaneous   |      | 1782 at Caën, in France, died 1871.
      writers.              |      | Above 30 Operas.
                            |      |
     P. B. Shelley,         |      |   Fétis (François Joseph), born 1784
      James Hogg            |      | at Mons, in Belgium, died 1872.
      (the "Ettrick         |      | Dictionary of Musicians, historical
      Shepherd"),           |      | Treatises on Music, etc.
      Reginald              |      |
      Heber, Robert         |      |   Castil-Blaze (François Henri
      Southey, Sir          |      | Joseph), born 1784 at Cavaillon, in
      Walter Scott,         |      | France, died 1857. Several Treatises
      poets.                |      | on Music, a Musical Dictionary, etc.
                            |      |
     Charles X., King       |      |   Bishop (Henry Rowley), born 1782
      of France             |      | in London, died 1855. Composed 63
      (1824).               |      | Operas and other dramatic pieces,
                            |      | songs, etc.
                            |      |
     Burmese war.           |      |   Field (John), born 1782 at Dublin,
      Capture of            |      | died 1837 at Moscow. Pianist. Pupil
      Rangoon by            |      | of Clementi. Pianoforte concertos,
      the British           |      | notturnos, etc.
      (1824).               |      |
                            |      |   Hummel (Johann Nepomuk), born
     Denham and             |      | 1778 at Pressburg, died 1837. Pianist.
      Clapperton's          |      | Composed 5 Operas, several ballets, 2
      exploring             |      | cantatas, many pianoforte concertos,
      expedition to         |      | trios, sonatas, 2 pianoforte septetts,
      Central Africa        |      | etc. Also a pianoforte school.
      (1824).               |      |
                            |      |   Neukomm (Sigismund), born 1778 at
     Bowdich, on an         |      | Salzburg, died 1858. Pupil of J.
      expedition to         |      | Haydn. Composed 10 Operas, many
      explore the           |      | cantatas, 7 Oratorios, 15 Masses, many
      interior of Africa,   |      | psalms, symphonies, quartetts,
      died at               |      | sonatas, etc.
      the mouth of          |      |
      the Gambia            |      |   Logier (Johann Bernhard), born 1777
      (1824).               |      | at Kaiserslautern, in Germany, died
                            |      | 1846. A new method of teaching the
                            |      | pianoforte and the Theory of Music.
     Death of Lord          |      |
      Byron (1824).         |      |   Diabelli (Anton), born 1781, near
                            |      | Salzburg, died 1858. Many Masses
     Nicholas I., Emperor   |      | and other Church music, pianoforte
      of Russia             |      | compositions and songs.
      (1825).               |      |
                            |      |   Kreutzer (Conradin), born 1782 at
     Death of John          |      | Möskirch, in Germany, died 1849.
      VI., King of          |      | Composed 24 Operas, an Oratorio,
      Portugal (1826).      |      | several Masses and other Church
                            |      | music, many instrumental pieces and
     Don Pedro I.,          |      | songs.
      Emperor of            |      |
      Brazil, son of        |      |   Spohr (Louis), born 1784 at
      John VI.,             |      | Brunswick, in Germany, died 1859.
      renounces the         |      | Violinist. Composed 8 Operas, several
      Portuguese            |      | Oratorios, psalms, and other sacred
      crown in favour       |      | music, symphonies, many violin
      of his daughter,      |      | quartetts, quintetts, concertos,
      Maria da Gloria,      |      | and other compositions for the violin,
      aged seven            |      | etc. Also a violin school.
      years. The Infanta    |      |
      Isabella              |      |   Ries (Ferdinand), born 1784 at
      governs as Regent     |      | Bonn, died 1838. Pupil of Beethoven.
      till the              |      | Pianist. Composed 2 Operas, some
      year 1828             |      | sacred and secular vocal music,
      (1826).               |      | pianoforte concertos, quartetts,
                            |      | trios, sonatas, etc.
     Canova, Sculptor       |      |
     ( 1757-1822).          |      |
                            |      |
     Charles X. expelled    |      |
      from                  |      |
      France, retires       |      |
      to England in         |      |
      the year 1830.        |      |
                            |      |
     Jean Paul, Friedrich   |      |   Kalkbrenner (Friedrich), born 1784
      Richter               |      | at Cassel, in Germany, died 1849.
      (1763-1825).          |      | Pianist. Many pianoforte compositions,
                            |      | and a pianoforte school.
                            |      |
     First Steam Voyage     |      |   Kuhlau (Friedrich), born 1786 at
      to India,             |      | Uelzen, in Germany, died 1832, in
      by Captain            |      | Denmark. Composed 5 Operas with
      Johnston in the       |      | Danish words, and many compositions
      'Enterprise'          |      | for the flute, the pianoforte, and for
      (1825).               |      | other instruments.
                            |      |
     Athens, besieged       |      |   WEBER (CARL MARIA VON), born
      by the Turks,         |      | 1786 at Eutin, in Germany, died 1826,
      is forced to          |      | in London. Composed 8 Operas, several
      surrender (1826).     |      | dramatic scenes, Masses, hymns,
                            |      | overtures, pianoforte concertos,
     Russia at war          |      | clarionet concertos, pianoforte
      with Persia           |      | sonatas, songs, etc.
      (1827).               |      |
                            |      |   In 1821, first performance of 'Der
     Russia makes           |      | Freischütz' at Berlin; in 1823,
      peace with            |      | 'Euryanthe' at Vienna; in 1826,
      Persia and            |      | 'Oberon' in London.
      increases her         |      |
      possessions in        |      |   Fesca (Friedrich Ernst), born 1789
      the south             |      | at Magdeburg, died 1826. Some Operas,
      (1828).               |      | many psalms and other sacred music,
                            |      | symphonies, quintetts, many quartetts,
     Russia at war          |      | etc.
      with Turkey           |      |
      (1828).               |      |   Schneider (Johann Christian
                            |      | Friedrich), born 1786 in Saxony, died
     The Turks are          |      | 1858. About 9 Oratorios, several
      conquered by          |      | Masses, hymns, cantatas, instrumental
      the Russian           |      | compositions, songs, etc.
      General Diebitch      |      |
      (1829).               |      |   SCHUBERT (FRANZ), born 1797 in
                            |      | Vienna, died 1828. Several Operas,
     Turkey acknowledges    |      | Masses and other Church music,
      the independence      |      | symphonies, quartetts, trios, and
      of                    |      | other instrumental pieces, sonatas,
      Greece (1829).        |      | fantasias, etc. for the pianoforte, a
                            |      | great many songs with pianoforte
                            |      | accompaniment.
                            |      |
     Charles X., King       | 1830 |   Carafa (Michele), born 1785 at
      of France, deposed    |      | Naples, died 1872. About 30 Operas.
      (1830).               |      |
                            |      |
     Göthe (1749-1832).     |      |   ROSSINI (GIOACHINO ANTONIO), born
                            |      | 1792 at Pesaro, died 1868. About 40
     William IV., King      |      | Operas, a Stabat Mater, some other
      of Great Britain,     |      | sacred vocal music, several secular
      brother of            |      | cantatas, orchestral pieces, etc.
      George IV.            |      |
      (1830).               |      |   Bellini (Vincenzo), born 1802 at
                            |      | Catania, in Sicily, died 1835.
     Louis-Phillipe,        |      | Composed 10 Operas, some sacred music,
      King of France        |      | symphonies, overtures, etc.
      (1830).               |      |
                            |      |   Herold (Louis), born 1791 in Paris,
     Cholera Morbus,        |      | died 1833. Composed 16 Operas and
      its first appearance  |      | several ballets.
      in England            |      |
      (1831).               |      |   Lindpaintner (Peter Joseph), born
                            |      | 1791 at Coblenz, died 1856. About 25
     Death of Sir           |      | Operas, 9 ballets, Oratorios, Masses,
      Walter Scott (1832).  |      | motetts, symphonies, etc.
                            |      |
     Slavery abolished      |      |   Mayseder (Joseph), born 1789 in
      throughout the        |      | Vienna, died 1863. Many compositions
      British Colonies      |      | for violin, quintetts, quartetts,
      (1834).               |      | pianoforte trios, sonatas, etc.; also
                            |      | a Mass.
                            |      |
     Wilhelm von            |      |   Moscheles (Ignaz), born 1794 at
      Humboldt, philologist |      | Prague, died 1870. Pianist. Many
      (1767-1835).          |      | pianoforte compositions; also some
                            |      | symphonies, etc.
     Alexander von          |      |
      Humboldt, naturalist  |      |   Klein (Bernhard), born 1794 at
      (1769-1859).          |      | Cologne, died 1832. About 3 Operas,
                            |      | 4 Oratorios, a Stabat Mater, and other
     Edmund Kean,           |      | sacred music.
      English actor         |      |
      (1787-1833).          |      |
                            |      |   Meyerbeer (Jacob), born 1794 in
     The first great        |      | Berlin, died 1864. Composed 16 Operas,
      English railway       |      | an Oratorio, a Stabat Mater, a Te
      by steam              |      | Deum, a Miserere, many psalms and
      engines is the        |      | other sacred music, secular songs,
      Liverpool and         |      | etc.
      Manchester Railway,   |      |   Czerny (Carl), born 1791 in Vienna,
      opened in 1830.       |      | died 1857. Many Pianoforte pieces;
                            |      | also Masses, Te Deums, and other
     Queen Victoria born    |      | sacred music; theoretical works.
      in 1819, ascends the  |      |
      throne (1837).        |      |
                            |      |
     Marriage of            | 1840 |   Hauptmann (Moritz), born 1794 at
      Queen Victoria        |      | Dresden, died 1868. Several sacred
      with Prince Albert    |      | compositions, quartetts, sonatas,
      of Saxe-Coburg        |      | secular songs, and theoretical works.
      (1840).               |      |
                            |      |   Pacini (Giovanni), born 1796 at
                            |      | Syracuse, died 1867. Composed 34
                            |      | Operas.
                            |      |
     Prince of Wales        |      |   Donizetti (Gaetano), born 1797 at
      born (1841).          |      | Bergamo, died 1848. Above 70 Operas,
                            |      | a Miserere, and other sacred music,
     Frederick William      |      | many romances and other songs.
      IV., King             |      |
      of Prussia            |      |
      (1840).               |      |
                            |      |   Mercadante (Saverio), born 1797 at
     Pius IX., Pope         |      | Altamura, in Italy, died 1870. Above
      (1846).               |      | 30 Operas.
                            |      |
     G. C. Prichard,        |      |   Panseron (Auguste), born 1796 in
      English ethnologist   |      | Paris, died 1859. Some Operas, a
      (1786-1848).          |      | Requiem, 3 Masses, other sacred music,
                            |      | many romances, an instruction book
     Revolution in          |      | on singing, etc.
      France (1848).        |      |
                            |      |   Halévy (Jacques), born 1799 in
     The Monarchy           |      | Paris, died 1862. Above 20 Operas.
      abolished in          |      |
      France.               |      |   Marschner (Heinrich), born 1795 at
                            |      | Zittau, in Saxony, died 1861. Many
     Louis-Phillipe,        |      | Operas, Masses, secular songs, etc.
      King of France,       |      |
      deposed (1848).       |      |   Reissiger (Carl), born 1789 near
      He dies in            |      | Wittemberg, in Germany, died 1859.
      exile, in England     |      | Ten Operas, many Masses, symphonies,
      (1850).               |      | quartetts, pianoforte trios, songs,
                            |      | etc.
                            |      |
     New Republic in        |      |   Marx (Adolph Bernhard), born 1799
      France. Louis         |      | at Halle, died 1866. Two Oratorios and
      Napoleon              |      | some other compositions; a work on
      Charles Buonaparte    |      | musical composition, and several other
      (son of               |      | treatises on music.
      Louis Buonaparte,     |      |
      for a                 |      |   Lvoff (Alexis), born 1799 at Reval,
      short time King       |      | died 1870. Violinist. Composer of the
      of Holland, and       |      | Russian National Hymn, and of other
      nephew of Napoleon    |      | music.
      I.) is                |      |
      elected President     |      |   Löwe (Johann Carl), born 1796 near
      of the Republic       |      | Halle, died 1869. Many ballads and
      (1848).               |      | other songs, also several Operas,
                            |      | Oratorios, and pianoforte
                            |      | compositions.
                            |      |
     Botta & Layard         | 1850 |   Beriot (Charles Auguste de), born
      excavate the          |      | 1802, at Louvain, died 1870.
      Assyrian              |      | Violinist. Concertos and other
      mounds (about         |      | compositions for the violin. A violin
      1840-1850).           |      | school.
                            |      |
                            |      |   Berlioz (Hector), born 1803, at La
     Death of Wordsworth    |      | Côte Saint-André, in France, died
      (1850).               |      | 1869. Requiem, symphonies, overtures,
                            |      | other orchestral works with and
     Great Exhibition       |      | without vocal music. A Treatise on
      in London             |      | Instrumentation, and many Musical
      projected by          |      | Essays.
      Prince Albert         |      |
      (1851).               |      |
                            |      |
     Death of the Duke      |      |   Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (Felix), born
      of Wellington         |      | 1809 at Hamburg, died 1847. Composed
      (1852).               |      | two Oratorios, other sacred
                            |      | compositions, 2 Operas, other dramatic
     The Prince President   |      | music, symphonies, overtures, ottett,
      of the                |      | quintetts, quartetts, etc., organ
      French Republic       |      | compositions, pianoforte concertos,
      is declared           |      | sonatas, etc., 'Songs without Words'
      Emperor of the        |      | for the pianoforte, secular songs for
      French and assumes    |      | a single voice, and for several
      the title             |      | voices, etc.
      of Napoleon           |      |
      III. (1852).          |      |
                            |      |
     Historians:--Thos.     |      |   Chopin (Frederic François), born
      Carlyle,              |      | 1810 near Warsaw, died 1849, in Paris.
      Macaulay, Guizot,     |      | Pianist. Many pianoforte compositions,
      Thiers, Rotteck,      |      | studies, etc.
      etc.                  |      |
                            |      |
     Painters: Rosa         |      |   Schumann (Robert), born 1810 at
      Bonheur,              |      | Zwickau, in Saxony, died 1856. Operas,
      Cooper, Landseer,     |      | symphonies, quartetts, etc. Pianoforte
      Millais,              |      | compositions, songs. Essays on
      W. von Kaulbach,      |      | Music.
      etc.                  |      |
                            |      |   Thalberg (Sigismund), born 1812 at
     Novelists: Chas.       |      | Geneva, died 1871. Pianist.
      Dickens, W.           |      | Compositions for the pianoforte,
      M. Thackeray,         |      | mostly on themes of other composers.
      Lytton Bulwer,        |      | Also two Operas, etc.
      George Eliot,         |      |
      (Mrs. Lewis),         |      |   Bennett (William Sterndale), born
      Victor Hugo,          |      | 1816 at Sheffield, died 1875. Some
      Alexandre Dumas,      |      | sacred compositions, overtures,
      etc.                  |      | pianoforte music, songs, etc.
                            |      |
     Michael Faraday,       |      |
      chemist.              |      |
                            |      |
     Charles Darwin,        |      |   During the first half of the present
      philosopher           |      | century great progress in the
      and naturalist.       |      | construction of musical instruments,
                            |      | especially of wind instruments.
     Helmholtz, German      |      |
      philosopher           |      |   Innumerable celebrated pianists,
      and writer            |      | violinists, flutists, etc.
      on acoustics.         |      |
      Important discoveries.|      |   Celebrated female singers: Catalani,
                            |      | Malibran, Grisi, Persiani, Pasta,
     Alfred Tennyson,       |      | Pauline Viardot, Henriette Sontag,
      Poet Laureate.        |      | Sophie Löwe, etc.
                            |      |
     Livingstone,           |      |   Celebrated male singers: Lablache,
      African traveller.    |      | Rubini, Tamburini, Braham, Wild,
                            |      | etc.
     Bismarck, German       |      |
      statesman.            |      |   Monster Concerts.
                            |      |
     Moltke, German         |      |   Attempt of a reform of the Opera.
      General.              |      |
                            |      |
     Great progress in      |      |   There are among our living musicians
      sciences relating     |      | so many celebrated ones that it would
      to natural            |      | really be difficult to make a
      philosophy, and       |      | satisfactory selection of them for
      in practical          |      | incorporation into a concise
      arts. Gradual         |      | Chronology. Fortunately, the plan
      dying out of          |      | adopted in the compilation, as
      many old              |      | previously explained, renders this
      superstitions and     |      | delicate task unnecessary.
      prejudices.           |      |
      However, in           |      |   As standard works on the history of
      some countries        |      | music, easily accessible, may be
      attempts to return    |      | recommended the treatises by Forkel,
      to a Mediæval         |      | Kiesewetter, Bellermann, Ambros,
      state of              |      | Burney, Hawkins, Fétis, and
      civilization.         |      | Coussemaker.

[Illustration]



[Illustration]

THE MUSICAL SCALES IN USE AT THE PRESENT DAY.


In 'An Introduction to the Study of National Music' (London, 1866) I
have endeavoured to give some account of the musical scales of different
nations. The subject requires, however, fuller investigation than the
aim of that book would permit. The 'Introduction to the Study of
National Music' is intended to acquaint the student with the facts
respecting the music of foreign nations and tribes which have been
transmitted to us by travellers and through other sources. It can
therefore scarcely claim more than to be a collection of materials which
will prove useful for the erection of an edifice called the Science of
National Music, as soon as the necessary additional materials have been
obtained, without which it would be premature to design in detail the
plan of the edifice, and to determine precisely its dimensions and
internal divisions. The acquisition of useful materials will probably be
promoted by the step recently taken by the British Association for the
Advancement of Science.[113] There can be no greater mistake in such
pursuits than to form a theory before the examples which are to serve as
illustrations have been most carefully examined and verified. It is by
no means easy to commit to notation a popular tune of a foreign country
which possesses peculiarities with which we are unfamiliar. Even
musicians who have had experience in writing down national songs which
they happen to hear, find this difficult. How unreliable, therefore,
must be the notations of many travellers who know but little of music!
Still, the student of National Music, by careful attention and
comparison, is gradually enabled to discern what is genuine, and
valuable for his purpose. He knows that if there prevails a certain
peculiarity in the scale on which the tunes collected are founded, the
cause may be owing to want of musical experience in the person who wrote
the tunes down, or to an individual whim of the performer by whom they
were sung or played to the writer of the notation. But, supposing the
student examines several collections of popular tunes from the same
country, the collections having been formed by different persons
independently of each other, and he finds all exhibiting the same
peculiarity, he has no reason to doubt that it really exists in the
music of that country. Nothing gives to the popular music of a country a
more distinctive feature than the order of intervals on which it is
founded; when the scale has been clearly ascertained, such other
characteristics as the music possesses are generally soon discerned with
sufficient exactness to be definable by the experienced musical
inquirer.

The notations of musical scales of uncivilized nations emanating from
European travellers who have heard the people sing, are certainly to be
received with caution. Of this kind of communication is, for instance,
the notation of the vocal effusions progressing in demi-semitones of the
Marquesas Islanders at their cannibal feasts, written down by Councillor
Tilesius, and published in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, Leipzig,
1805; or the notation of songs of the New Zealanders containing smaller
intervals than semitones, which Mr. Davies has written down, and which
Sir George Grey has published in his 'Polynesian Mythology of the New
Zealand Race' (London, 1855). It is, however, often possible to
ascertain the musical scale of a nation with exactness by examining the
musical instruments appertaining to the nation. Thus, for instance, the
Chinese close some of the finger-holes of their flutes by sticking
pieces of bladder over them, in order to ensure the pentatonic scale;
the Javanese construct instruments of percussion with sonorous slabs of
metal or wood, arranged in conformity with the pentatonic scale; the
Arabs, and most Mohammedan nations who have cultivated their music
after the system of the Arabs, possess wind-instruments of the oboe kind
on which the finger-holes are placed in accordance with the division of
seventeen intervals in the compass of an octave; and also several
stringed instruments of the Arabs, which are supplied with frets made of
gut wound round the neck or finger-board, exhibit the same order of
intervals; again, certain stringed instruments of the Hindus contain a
number of little bridges, stuck with wax beneath the strings so as to
produce, on a string being pressed down on the bridges successively,
twenty-two intervals in the compass of the octave. Other instruments
have marks on the sound-board as a guide to the performer where he has
to press down the strings in exact conformity with the established
scale.

What we observe with different nations of the present day, respecting
the diversity of musical scales, might evidently also have been observed
in ancient time. The Greeks had several kinds of scales, the popularity
of which changed at different periods. So also had our forefathers
during the Middle Ages. There is no necessity to refer to the Tetrachord
of the ancient Greeks and the Hexachord of Guido Aretinus for evidences
of the mutability of taste in these matters, since it can be observed
sufficiently by referring to the music of nations around us. However,
the so-called Modes of our old ecclesiastical music require here, at any
rate, a passing notice.

Some theorists maintain that our diatonic major scale is alone a true
scale, and that any other regular succession of tones in which the two
semitones of the diatonic scale occur upon other intervals than 3-4 and
7-8 is, properly speaking, a Mode. According to this doctrine, which was
evidently suggested by the ecclesiastical Modes, our minor scale must be
called a Mode, and the scales with steps exceeding a whole-tone, of
which some examples will presently be given, are Imperfect Modes. It is
unnecessary to refute such pedantic definitions; suffice it to remember
that they exist.

Again, the diatonic major scale is regarded by many musicians as the
natural order of intervals on which the compositions must be founded
whenever the art of music has attained to a high degree of development,
and which will therefore be universally adopted in the course of time.
They form this opinion especially from the laws of Acoustics, since the
intervals constituting the diatonic major scale are those which as
harmonics stand in the most simple relation to the fundamental tone
produced by a vibrating body. Here, however, it must be observed that
the intervals of our diatonic scale are not all of them precisely the
same as those harmonics, but are "tempered;" since, did we tune them
pure, as nature gives them, we could not use our system of harmony as it
has been developed by our classical composers.

Moreover, if the diatonic major scale is thus suggested by nature, the
minor scale with its flat third must be more artificial, and less likely
to be universally adopted. Howbeit, the minor scale is especially
popular, not only with several uncivilized races, but also with several
who have cultivated the art of music to a high degree. Some of our most
eminent composers have written perhaps more beautiful music in minor
than in major keys.

Besides, certain deviations from the diatonic major scale, which we meet
with in the music of foreign nations, possess a particular charm, which
we are sure to appreciate more and more as we gradually become familiar
with them. This, for instance, is the case with the Superfluous Second
introduced as an essential interval of the scale. Many of our musicians
regard such intervals as whimsical deviations, which ought not to be
liked because they do not well agree with the rules laid down in our
treatises on the theory of music. To such learned Professors the scale
of the Arabs, with its seventeen intervals in the compass of an octave,
instead of twelve semitones, as in our own system, is of course a
flagrant misconception--not to speak of the twenty-two demi-semitones of
the Hindus, which ought to be twenty-four. Those nations have musical
systems very different from ours, for which their order of intervals is
well suited. Our rules of harmony and forms of composition are unknown
to them; still, their popular legends and traditions clearly prove that
they appreciate the beauty and power of music not less keenly than we
do; and they demonstrate the superiority of their scales with the same
confidence as any of our theorists are capable of displaying.

Could we trace our diatonic Major Scale in the songs of birds and in the
euphonious cries of certain quadrupeds, we should have a more cogent
reason for regarding it as the most natural scale than is afforded by a
comparison of the vibrations required for the production of its several
intervals. The songs of various birds have been written down in
notation, from which it would appear that these feathered songsters
possess an innate feeling for the diatonic major scale; but,
unfortunately, unless the melodious phrases, or passages, thus noted
down are distinguished by some remarkable rhythmical peculiarity, they
are seldom easily recognizable when they are played on a musical
instrument. There may be among the numerous birds a few which in their
natural song, untaught and uninfluenced in any way by man, emit a small
series of tones strictly diatonic; but no such musicians are to be found
among our own birds, although we have in Europe the finest singing birds
in existence. The nightingale, it is true, produces occasionally a
succession of tones which nearly corresponds with the diatonic Major
Scale in descending, and which might possibly be mistaken for it by a
listener charmed by the exquisite purity and sweetness of the tones
which he does not investigate with the ear of a pianoforte-tuner. Even
the two melodious sounds of the cuckoo cannot be properly written down
in notation; nor can they be rendered on the pianoforte, because they do
not exactly constitute a Major Third, for which they are generally
taken, and still less a Minor Third. A certain ape of the Gibbon family
is said to produce exactly the chromatic scale through an entire octave
in ascending and descending. Darwin, who in his work on 'The Expression
of the Emotions in Man and Animals' (London, 1872; p. 87) mentions the
astonishing musical skill of this ape, remarks that some quadrupeds of a
much lower class than monkeys, namely Rodents, "are able to produce
correct musical tones," and he refers the reader to an account of a
"singing Hesperomys" [a mouse] by the Rev. S. Lockwood, in the
'American Naturalist,' Vol. V., December, 1871; p. 761. Notwithstanding
the great authority of Darwin, the musical inquirer will probably desire
to ascertain for himself whether the "correct musical tones" are exactly
in conformity with our diatonic and chromatic intervals. However, even
if this should be the case in a few instances, it can only be regarded
as quite exceptional.

During the present century, our musical composers have so frequently
employed in the diatonic major scale the Minor Sixth instead of the
Major Sixth, that some theorists--among them Moritz Hauptmann--notice
this order of intervals as a new and characteristic scale, and desire to
have it as such generally acknowledged by musicians. A. Krauss, a
teacher of music in Florence, has recently published a pamphlet,
entitled 'Les Quatre Gammes diatoniques de la Tonalité moderne,' in
which he designates this new scale with the name 'La Gamme semimajeur'
(The Half-major Scale,) which is at any rate better than that suggested
by Moritz Hauptmann, in his 'Die Natur der Harmonik and der Metrik,'
which is 'Die Moll-Dur-Tonart' (the Minor-Major-Key, or scale).

We possess then, according to these theorists, now four diatonic scales,
namely:--

[Music: 1. THE MAJOR SCALE.]

[Music: 2. THE HALF-MAJOR SCALE.]

Or also with minor seventh in descending:

[Music: 3. THE MINOR SCALE.]

[Music: 4. THE HALF-MINOR SCALE.]

The Half-Minor Scale contains the Minor Third, while its other intervals
are identical with those of the Major Scale. This is the case in
descending, where the seventh and sixth are lowered, as well as in
ascending.

Furthermore, we have the Chromatic Scale, a regular progression in
semitones, which is much used by modern composers; and the Enharmonic
Scale, which may be said to exist only in notation, since it is not
executable on most of our musical instruments, but which is likely to
become important in the music of a future period when our instruments
have been brought to the degree of perfection which permits the most
delicate modifications in pitch by the performer, and which is at
present almost alone obtainable on instruments of the violin kind.

[Music: 5. THE CHROMATIC SCALE.]

[Music: 6. THE ENHARMONIC SCALE.]

Furthermore, we find at the present day the following scales in use
among foreign nations:--

[Music: 7. THE MINOR SCALE WITH TWO SUPERFLUOUS SECONDS.]

If the lover of music is acquainted with the popular songs and
dance-tunes of the Wallachians, or with the wild and plaintive airs
played by the gipsy bands in Hungary, he need not be told that the Minor
Scale with two Superfluous Seconds is capable of producing melodies
extremely beautiful and impressive. Indeed, it would be impossible to
point out more charming and stirring effects than those which
characterise the music founded on this scale.

[Music: 8. THE PENTATONIC SCALE.]

The Pentatonic Scale was in ancient times apparently more universally in
use than it is at present. It is still popular in China, in Malaysia,
and in some other Eastern districts. Traces of it are found in the
popular tunes of some European nations, especially in those of the
Celtic races. Its charming effect is known to most of our musicians
through some of the Scotch and Irish melodies. Also among the Javanese
tunes, which have been brought to Europe by travellers, and which are
generally strictly pentatonic, some specimens are very melodious and
impressive.

[Music: 9. THE DIATONIC SCALE WITH MINOR SEVENTH.]

The Diatonic Scale with Minor Seventh is likewise an Eastern scale.
Among European nations, the Servians especially have popular tunes which
are founded on this scale. The Servian tunes frequently end with the
interval of the Fifth instead of the First or the Octave. As the leading
tone of our diatonic order of intervals--the Major Seventh--is wanting,
our common cadence, or the usual harmonious treatment of the conclusion
of a melody to which our ear has become so much accustomed that any
other appears often unsatisfactory, cannot be applied to those tunes.
Nevertheless, they will be found beautiful by inquirers who are able to
dismiss prejudice and to enter into the spirit of the music. Although
the scale with Minor Seventh bears a strong resemblance to one of our
antiquated Church Modes, called Myxo-Lydian, it is in some respects of a
very different stamp, since its characteristic features would become
veiled if it were harmonised like that Church Mode.

In addition to the nine scales which have been enumerated, some others
could be pointed out which are popular in European countries; but, as
they resemble more or less those which have been given above, and as
they may be regarded as modifications, it will suffice here to refer to
them only briefly. There are, for instance, in the Irish tunes many of a
pentatonic character in which one of the two semitones of the diatonic
scale is extant, and the scale of which therefore consists of six
intervals, either thus

[Music: C, D, E, F, G, A, C], or thus [Music: C, D, E, G, A, B, C]

We also meet with a pentatonic order of intervals in which the Third is
flat like in our diatonic minor scale.

Again, some nations which have the diatonic order of intervals deviate
slightly from it by habitually intoning some particular interval in a
higher or lower pitch than it occurs in our tempered system. For
instance, careful observers have noticed that the Swiss peasants in
singing their popular airs are naturally inclined to intone the interval
of the Fourth sharper than it sounds on the pianoforte. Thus, in C-major
it is raised so as to give almost the impression of _F sharp_. This
peculiarity is supposed to have arisen from the Alphorn, a favourite
instrument of the Swiss, on which the interval of the Fourth, like on a
trumpet, is higher than it is in our Diatonic Scale. No doubt many
peculiarities of this kind are traceable to the construction of certain
popular instruments. This is perhaps more frequently observable among
uncivilized nations than with Europeans. Professor Lichtenstein, who,
during his travels in South Africa, in the beginning of the present
century, investigated the music of the Hottentots, asserts that these
people sing the interval of the Third slightly lower than the Major
Third, but not so low as the Minor Third; and the Fifth and Minor
Seventh likewise lower than in our intonation. He found that the same
deviations from our intervals exist on the _Gorah_, a favourite stringed
instrument of the Hottentots.

Other peculiarities of the kind are more difficult to explain. In the
Italian popular songs of the peasantry, for instance, we not
unfrequently meet with the Minor Second, where to an ear accustomed to
our Minor Scale it appears like a whimsical substitution for the Major
Second. It occurs, however, only occasionally. When it is used, the
scale is as follows; the Seventh being Major in ascending, and Minor in
descending:--

[Music]

In some instances such peculiarities have evidently been derived, as has
already been stated, from the series of tones produced on a popular
instrument. But there are many instances in which the tones yielded by
the instrument have been purposely adopted in the construction of the
instrument from the previously existing popular scale of the vocal
music. Thus, it may possibly be that, as some inquirers maintain, the
pentatonic character of certain Irish airs has its origin in the
primitive scale of the ancient rural bagpipe of Celtic races, or, as
others believe, in the simple construction of the ancient Irish
harp;--on the other hand, the Chinese and Javanese, as we have seen,
contrive in the construction of their instruments to obtain the
pentatonic scale on which their vocal music is usually founded.

Those theorists who regard our diatonic major scale as the most perfect
one, which ultimately must be universally accepted as the only true one,
will probably not admit that under certain circumstances the sounding of
one or other of its intervals a little "out of tune" may actually
increase the beauty of a musical performance. Such is, however,
unquestionably the case. To note a curious instance in proof of the
correctness of this assertion as afforded by the clavichord, a
contemporary of the harpsichord and predecessor of the pianoforte:--The
strings of the clavichord are not sounded by being twanged with quills,
as is the case in the harpsichord, but are vibrated by means of iron
pins, called tangents, which press under the strings when the keys are
struck. The pressure of the tangent lasts as long as the key to which
the tangent is attached is held down. The deeper the performer presses
the key down with his finger, the stronger is the pressure of the
tangent against the string, and the more the string is raised by it.
The raising of the string has the effect of slightly raising the pitch
of its tone. The performer, therefore, has it in his power to modify in
some degree the pitch of a tone, and by this means to distinguish any
tone to which he desires to give emphasis, or to render prominent in
expressing a melody, or in executing a passage with delicacy. The
aptness of the clavichord for yielding to these deviations from the
intonation of the intervals in which it is tuned, combined with its
aptness for producing with great delicacy different degrees of loudness,
constitute the principal charms of the instrument, and sufficiently
account for the love which our old classical composers,--Handel, Bach,
etc.,--bore for the clavichord.

A musical instrument containing all conceivable perfections for
performance, we do not yet possess. Such an instrument would be required
to yield not only Whole-Tones and Semitones, but likewise
Demi-semitones, Semidemi-semitones,--in short, every modification of an
interval which the performer desires. It must have the greatest compass
obtainable in tones. All its tones must be of equal power, sonorousness
and beauty. The sustaining, the increasing and decreasing in loudness,
must be possible with each tone separately, at the option of the
performer, even in harmonious combinations. Likewise the difference in
manner of expression, such as legato, staccato, etc., must be thus
obtainable. The greatest possible difference in the quality of sound
(_timbre_) must be at the command of the performer for any tone which he
wishes to be thus affected. The instrument must permit the simultaneous
sounding of as many of its tones as the performer desires, whatever
their distance from each other may be, and this must be achievable by
him with about the same facility as he requires for the production of a
single tone. The instrument must be playable by only one performer; it
must not present any extraordinary difficulty to musicians to play it
well; and it must permit being easily kept in tune. Perhaps the organ
approaches the nearest to this perfection, but is still far from it. The
violin and the violoncello are in some respects ahead of all--at any
rate, as regards delicacy of expression.

But, fascinating though it may be to depict such a nearly perfect
musical instrument of the Future, the real substitutes of our present
contrivances, a century or two hence, will probably be very different
from our ideal, especially if we found our speculation on the impression
that our Tonal System is the only right one, and that our diatonic major
scale will be as everlasting as a mathematical truth, or as the axiom
that two and two are four.

Indeed, the mutability of the musical taste of man appears to be
unlimited, and it is certainly possible that our children's children may
find decidedly objectionable some rule of musical composition which is
now thought highly satisfactory. Did not our ancestors at the time of
Hucbald relish consecutive Fifths and Octaves as an harmonious
accompaniment to a melody? A Chinese Mandarin, on hearing a French
Jesuit, at Pekin, play on a clavecin some _Suites de Pièces_ of a
celebrated French composer, endeavoured to convince the performer that
the Chinese music was the only true music "because," he said, "it
appeals to the heart, while yours makes only noise." When Villoteau,
during his residence in Egypt, investigated the Arabic music, his Arab
music-master at Cairo endeavoured to convince him that the division of
the Octave into seventeen intervals was more natural and tasteful than
the European division into twelve chromatic intervals. A Nubian
musician, on hearing Mr. Lane play the pianoforte, remarked: "Your
instrument is very much out of tune, and jumps very much." He evidently
missed the accustomed small intervals connecting the whole-tones in his
own music. Livingstone, in his 'Missionary Travels in South Africa,'
relates that on a certain occasion when an English missionary sang a
hymn to an assembly of Bechuana Kafirs, "the effect on the risible
faculties of the audience was such that the tears actually ran down
their cheeks;" and the same may have happened to the missionary when he
heard the Kafirs sing.

Many more examples from nations in different stages of civilization
could be cited evidencing the remarkable variety and instability of
musical taste. Much of our own music, which about a century ago was
greatly admired, appears now unimpressive; and great masters who
introduce important innovations are sure at first not to be understood
by the majority of musical people.

Instead of regarding our Tonal System as exhibiting the highest degree
of perfection attainable, and of repudiating musical conceptions which
reveal another foundation, as our musicians are apt to do, it would be
more wise in them to study the various systems on which the music of
different nations is founded, to acquaint themselves especially with the
characteristics of the various scales, and, by adopting them on proper
occasions, to produce new effects more refreshing than the hackneyed
phrases and modulations which usually pervade their works.

[Illustration: FINIS.]

[113] See above, Vol. I., p. 23.

NOVELLO, EWER & CO., PRINTERS, 69 & 70, DEAN STREET, SOHO.



Transcriber's Notes

Apparent printer's errors have been retained, unless stated below.

"_" surrounding text represents italics.

Punctuation, capitalization, accents and formatting markup have been
made consistent in the text. This excludes the footnotes due to several
inconsistencies.

Page 2, "Giques" changed to "Gigues". ('Pièces de Clavecin, en deux
Volumes, consistant des Ouvertures, Preludes, Fugues, Allemandes,
Courentes, Sarabandes, Gigues et Aires, composées par J. Mattheson,
Secr.--London, printed for J. D. Fletcher.')

Page 6, "I I" changed to "I". (I am sure if he reads this he will laugh
in his sleeve, for outwardly he seldom laughs.)

Page 58, "Quartett for 2 Violins, 2 Tenors, and Violoncello". Although
the instruments described constitute a quintett, this is how it appears
in the original.

Page 132, "unusally" changed to "unusually". (There remained now nothing
for him to do but to take up his jacket and make the best of his way
home. But the jacket felt so unusually heavy;)

Page 141, "ecstacy" changed to "ecstasy". (After he had been a while in
this state of reflection, he heard heavenly strains of music, and on
looking up he saw a little bird which sang with a voice so enchantingly
melodious that he arose in ecstasy.

Page 151, "semicircle" changed to "semi-circle" for consistency.
(Sometimes they form a semi-circle, assume a bending position, and sing
in a subdued tone of voice a soft air;)

Page 158, "Odeinna" changed to "Oodeinna" for consistency. (The
following scenes are from a drama commemorating an episode from the life
of Oodeinna, King of Kauthambi, a country in India.)

Page 174, "develope" changed to "develop". (The Netherlandish masters
institute Schools in Italy and develop the art of music with great
success in that country.)

Page 185, "Trojan" changed to "Trajan". (Trajan, Roman Emperor (98).)

Page 204, "Christofali" changed to "Christofori". (About this time, the
first Pianofortes were constructed by Christofori, in Italy, and by
Schröter, in Germany.)

Page 206, "harpischord" changed to "harpsichord". (many compositions for
the organ, clavichord, clavicembalo (harpsichord), and for the
orchestra.)

Page 219, "Manheim" changed to "Mannheim". (Weber (Bernhard Anselm),
born 1766 at Mannheim, died 1821.)

Footnote 15, "Crysander" changed to "Chrysander" for consistency. (See
G. F. Händel, von F. Chrysander, Leipzig, 1858, Vol. I., p. 139.)





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