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Title: Photography in the Studio and in the Field - A Practical Manual Designed as a Companion Alike to the - Professional and the Amateur Photographer
Author: Estabrooke, Edward M.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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TRANSCRIBER'S NOTE.

Original spelling and formatting has been mostly retained. Further
details are provided in the TRANSCRIBER'S ENDNOTE.
 *       *       *       *       *



--Anthony's Photo. Series, No. 20.--

PHOTOGRAPHY

--IN--

THE STUDIO AND IN THE FIELD,

--BY--

E. M. ESTABROOKE,

_Author of_

"_THE FERROTYPE AND HOW TO MAKE IT._"

A PRACTICAL MANUAL DESIGNED AS A COMPANION ALIKE
TO THE PROFESSIONAL AND THE AMATEUR
PHOTOGRAPHER.

NEW YORK:
E. & H. T. ANTHONY & CO.,
591 BROADWAY.
1887.



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1886, by
E. & H. T. ANTHONY & CO.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C.



  CONTENTS.
                                                     PAGE

  INTRODUCTION,                                         7


  PART I.

  GLASS,                                               10
    Quality--Preparation--Albumenizing.

  COLLODION,                                           14
    Positive Process--Formula for Positive--How to
    Coat Plates With--Exposure of the Plates--
    Development of Plates--Developer--
    Fixing Solution--Dry Plate Ferrotypes.

  COLLODION PROCESS FOR NEGATIVES,                     24
    Negative--Formula A--Formula B--Formula C.

  COLLODION COTTON,                                    28
    Formula for Making Collodion with Above.

  NEGATIVE SILVER BATH,                                29
    Preparation of--Contaminations of--Renovating,
    &c.

  THE NEGATIVE DEVELOPER,                              33
    Formulæ for Developing Solution.

  FIXING SOLUTIONS FOR NEGATIVES,                      35

  INTENSIFYING NEGATIVES,                              36

  THE BROMO ARGENTIC DRY PLATE PROCESS,                37

  GELATINO EMULSION,                                   38
    Emulsion A, Paget Prize--Emulsion B,
    Jarman--Emulsion C, Ever--Emulsion D,
    Ever--Apparatus for Making--Preparation of
    Glass--Coating Plates.

  APPARATUS USED IN MAKING EMULSIONS,                  44
    Cooling Table--Drying Room.

  DEVELOPING ROOM FOR DRY PLATES,                      48

  DEVELOPMENT OF DRY PLATES,                           54

  DRY PLATE DEVELOPERS,                                55
    Alkaline Pyro--Developer, a Sal Soda.

  FIXING SOLUTION,                                     57

  CLEARING SOLUTION,                                   58

  DRY PLATE DEVELOPMENT,                               58
    Ferrous Oxalate--Ammonia Pyro--
    Intensification--Solution A--Solution B.

  PRACTICALITIES,                                      63

  RETOUCHING NEGATIVES,                                63
    Apparatus Furniture.

  SILVER PRINTING,                                     70
    Printing Room--Silvering Room--Silver Solution
    for Paper--Sensitizing Paper--Fuming
    Paper--Toning the Prints--Toning
    Solution--Fixing the Prints--Mounting the
    Prints--Spotting the Prints--Preparation for
    Burnishing.

  THE PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO,                             80

  THE CAMERA LENSES,                                   84
    Optics of Photography.

  CAMERA BOXES,                                        99
    For Positives, the Multiplyer--For Negatives,
    Wet or Dry.

  THE BENSTER PLATE HOLDER,                           109

  CAMERA BOXES,                                       110
    For Copying and Enlarging--For Viewing and
    Out-Door Work--The Novel View Camera--The
    Klauber Camera.

  CAMERA STANDS,                                      116
    The Lever Stand--The Knickerbocker Stand--The
    Balance Stand--The Bowdish Stand--The
    Automatic Stand--The Gem City Stand--The Handy
    Stand--The Magic Stand--The Iron Centre Stand.

  PNEUMATIC SHUTTERS,                                 124
    The Cadett Shutter--The Lightning Shutter--The
    Garland Shutter--The Invisible Shutter.

  HEAD RESTS,                                         130
    Success Head Rests--The Rigid--The Spencer.

  POSING CHAIRS,                                      133
    The Bowdish Chair--Other Chairs.


  PART II.

  FIELD PHOTOGRAPHY,                                  140
    Amateur Outfit--Constituents of Viewing
    Outfit--Dry Plates--Handling Dry Plates--Dry
    Plate Holder--View Cameras--Detective
    Camera--Satchel Detective Camera--Bijou
    Camera.

  AMATEUR EQUIPMENTS,                                 153
    Equipment No. 1--The Fairy Camera--The Novel
    Camera--The Novelette Camera.

  THE VIEW LENS,                                      157
    Single Combination Lenses--Double Combination
    Lenses--The Platyscope--Dallmeyer's Rapid
    Rectilinear--Wide Angle Lenses--Dallmeyer's
    Wide Angle.

  THE TRIPOD OR VIEW CAMERA STAND,                    162

  THE INSTANTANEOUS SHUTTER,                          164
    The Drop Shutter--The Prosch Shutters.

  THE CARRYING BOX,                                   167

  DEVELOPING OUTFIT FOR AMATEURS,                     167
    Chemical Constituents of--Ferrous Oxalate
    Development--Cooper's Developer.

  EASTMAN'S IMPROVED NEGATIVE PAPER,                  179

  THE ROLL HOLDER,                                    181
    How to Use them.

  THE ROCHE PAPER FILM,                               187

  ENLARGING AND DUPLICATING SMALL NEGATIVES,          188
    The Copying and Duplicating Camera--Duplicate
    Negatives by Contact.

  PRINTING PROCESSES,                                 192
    On Anthony's Gelatino Bromide Paper--Anthony's
    Collodio Chloride.

  THE ENLARGING CAMERA,                               203

  PRINTING WITHOUT SALTS OF SILVER,                   207
    The Blue Process--Another--The Cyanotype
    Process with Salts of Uranium--Process for Red
    Pictures--Process for Green Pictures--Process
    for Violet Pictures.

  TRANSPARENCIES ON GLASS OPAL,                       212
    Development of--Ferrous Oxalate
    Development--By Wet Collodion.

  BICYCLE CAMERA,                                     222

  PHOTO MICROGRAPHY,                                  224

  *       *       *       *       *                           [p007]



INTRODUCTION.

 *       *


The most important improvement in photographic processes that has
been introduced since Maynard first made collodion, and Archer
discovered its adaptability to the production of photographic
negatives, is the gelatine bromide dry plate.

Wet plate photography had reached its utmost point of adaptability
to the demands of the times.

A few men of marked ability, and the skill of long study and
practice, had reached the point of highest excellence in working
with collodion, and the great multitude were pressing on toward that
designated height to which it was given to but few to attain.

It had been demonstrated that wonderfully beautiful effects could be
produced by the collodion process, but that there was a limit beyond
which progress could not be made. The great range of subjects in
still and animate life requiring very rapid exposures, were
practically out of the power of collodion, to compass satisfactory
results. At this time, when there seemed to be a very constant and
increasingly urgent demand for more rapid acting lenses and for
"lightning processes," there appeared the wonderful argentic bromide
Gelatine Emulsion, which, in four short years, has superseded the
collodion process almost, if not altogether, and besides
(notwithstanding the opposition of the elite of the profession, whom
for a time it [p008] leveled with the rest of the workers, but
who were quick to see and acknowledge the extraordinary merits of
the new candidate) it has caused such a quickening of the pulses of
the business, and such an increase in its range and adaptability as
never before was known, and which, in the year or two past, has
caused such an activity in invention and in other ways, as to make
that period of time so remarkable for the many new things that have
been brought out, and the many new processes that have been adopted,
as to render a detailed account of such for the profession, and also
for the amateur, most desirable.

It is with such a view that this book is offered to the photographic
public, and that numerous and still increasing army of amateurs, who
have taken up photography as an amusement, to while away a leisure
hour.

For to these latter a few hours' study of a good hand-book is about
all that is necessary to enable them to expose and develop a dry
plate, a little practice only being requisite to the successful
performance of the same.

There may be many, however, who, having made a promising
commencement, would like to proceed farther and acquire a knowledge
of former photographic processes, as well as those which succeed the
making of the negative, such as printing, toning, fixing, etc., and
in fact, learn how to make a finished photograph.

To such, particularly, and to all photographers, this book is
offered, in full confidence that it will be a useful companion in
the studio and in the field.

To accomplish this end we will take the reader as an apprentice, and
commencing at the beginning, instruct him in that knowledge he would
have to acquire were he an actual apprentice in a photographic
studio, [p009] working the wet collodion process, after which an
equally full course of instruction will follow for the dry plate and
other new processes, both for negative making and for printing.

In the following pages, also, will be found many useful formulæ that
have been carefully culled from a mass of published contributions,
from many of the leading spirits in photography, most of which have
been verified practically by the author, and others bear on their
faces so plainly the impression of their practicability as to need
no assurance that they are reliable.

In getting up this work I have availed myself of information from
any and all sources at my command, giving credit where possible, and
endeavoring to make everything clearly understandable, and
neglecting no details necessary to the successful working of every
formula, even by the youngest learner. [p010]


GLASS.


QUALITY OF GLASS SUITABLE FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC PURPOSES AND HOW TO
PREPARE IT.

Mr. Hardwick, than whom there can be no more faithful or competent
guide, says that much care should be taken in the selection of glass
to be used in the production of photographic negatives.

Window glass is always unsuitable, because of its inferior quality,
having scratches upon its surface and air bubbles in its substance,
each of which causes irregularities, as well in the negatives as in
the subsequent printing; also the squares are seldom flat so that
they do not lie true in the holder, and hence a part of the image
may be out of focus; and also they are extremely liable to be broken
by compression in the printing frames.

Formerly many photographers used a thin plate glass of very fine
quality, but of late years the great demand for glass suitable for
such purposes has made it possible for the manufacturers to prepare
a cheaper quality, well adapted to the uses of photography.


TO PREPARE THE GLASS FOR USE.

Before proceeding to wash the glass, each square should have its
edges roughened, by means of a file or a coarse stone, or the edges
of two pieces of glass may be abraded against each other in such a
manner as to remove the sharpness, which is so liable to injure the
fingers in the various manipulations.

In the process of cleaning the glass it is not sufficient [p011]
to wash it with water. Other means are necessary to remove grease,
rust and dirt, which would not yield to the influence of water
alone, and for this purpose a solution of caustic potash is most
generally used.

The glass is immersed in the potash solution, each piece separately,
and when the dish is full, it should be left not longer than is
necessary for the potash to have its proper action, for when left
for a considerable time the solution of potash (if strong) will
attack the surface of the glass, to its injury.

When a suitable time has elapsed (which in the case of new glass
should not be more than one day or night, and in the case of old
negatives not longer than to cause the film to slip off), the glass
should be removed and washed with water, after which it should be
immersed in the same manner, in a solution composed of four parts of
water to one of commercial nitric or sulphuric acid, or the two
mixed, as may be the most convenient.

This latter solution removes rust or other metallic blemishes, that
have not been affected by the potash, and also effectively
neutralizes all traces of the potash that have remained on the
surfaces of the glass.

The glass may be permitted to remain in the acid an indefinite time,
as it can have no injurious effect on it, as might the potash, and
when required for use, it should be carefully washed and immediately
albumenized and set up in racks to dry.


ALBUMENIZING THE GLASS.

While the glass is still wet from the washing, after being taken
from the acid, it should be coated with a preparation of albumen,
prepared as follows: [p012]

To the albumen or white of a fresh egg, add eight ounces of water;
put it in a bowl and thoroughly beat it with an egg beater, or in
any manner that may be convenient, until the fibre or structure is
completely destroyed, when it should be filtered through loose
cotton, and after the addition of a few drops of strong ammonia, it
is ready for use.

Many prefer to beat up the albumen before adding the water, in which
case it should be beaten into a stiff froth, when the proper amount
of water is added, and after the froth has subsided the whole is
filtered and the ammonia put in last.

The albumen being prepared and the glass ready, a square is taken in
the left hand, and clean water flowed over it, until no particle of
dust can be seen adhering to either surface, when a small portion of
the albumen is flowed on it, and after covering every part of the
surface the excess is allowed to drain off the right hand lower
corner, after which, if running water is at hand, the back of the
same portion of the plate should be passed under the faucet, and the
water will carry off any excess of albumen which might return or
crawl, as it is termed, up the back of the plate from the point
where it is drained.

The greatest care should be taken to avoid dust settling on the
plate during the coating and afterwards while drying, and after the
glass has been coated, if it is found that any dust adheres to the
albumenized surface, it should be again washed and recoated.

It is important that the back of the glass should be kept free from
the albumen, so that when the plate is afterward collodionized and
immersed in the silver solution, there should be no albumen
uncovered to [p013] contaminate the bath, and as most of the
glass used has some slight inequalities of surface, the albumen
should always be flowed on the concave side, for two reasons:

The first is, that when sensitized and placed in the holder, the
pressure, being against the convex side, may have a tendency to
counteract the curve and make the plate flatter and more perfectly
adjusted to the focus.

The other reason is that the pressure of the printing frame has a
less tendency to break the glass when against the concave side.

The amount of glass required having been albumenized and set up in
racks, it should be carefully covered with paper to exclude dust,
and it should be set away to dry, after which it should be placed in
its proper receptacle in the dark room, ready for use.

The reasons for albumenizing the glass are important.

Before this process was adopted, all glass used for photographic
purposes, after being subjected to the action of potash or acid, or
both, had to be finely polished with rottenstone or some other
polishing substance, to render its surface sufficiently free from
all traces of acid, organic matter, rust, etc., which would
injuriously affect the collodion or the deposit of silver iodide
derived from the bath.

This polishing was very laborious, and in consequence it was often
very imperfectly done, causing much loss of time and material; also
the glass thus prepared did not offer to the collodion a surface to
which it could adhere with much tenacity, and in consequence it
would frequently slip from it in the subsequent manipulations. [p014]

The first reason for Albumenizing then, is to cover the surface with
a substance chemically pure, and when dry of a crystaline nature and
impervious to, or at least not soluble in the silver solution, thus
saving the labor of polishing.

Another reason is that the albumen offers a surface to which the
collodion will adhere with extreme tenacity, thus saving and
preventing the film from slipping.


COLLODION.

"The discovery that explosive cotton was soluble in ether, was made
by Mr. Maynard, who gave it the name of Collodion, and later, in
1848, published in the American Journal of Medical Science the
formula for its preparation."

"This ethereal solution, having a certain proportion of alkaline
iodides, and iodides of silver added thereto, constituted the
collodion first employed by Mr. Archer," who thus shares with Mr.
Maynard, and with a Mr. Legray (who first published an account of
its use as a photographic agent) the honor of having given to the
world the collodion process in photography.

The progress that has been made since Mr. Archer's time in
perfecting the adaptability of collodion to photographic uses could
not be better illustrated than by comparing the formulæ for
collodion first published with those in use at this time.

The practice of photography in the present day by the collodion
process is divided into two branches, the positive and the negative.

In the first the object is to obtain in the camera a [p015]
direct image, which is to be viewed by reflected light, and as it is
desired that the pictures so produced should possess pure blacks and
whites, certain modifications of the collodion, silver solution and
developer are resorted to, which cause these preparations to differ
somewhat from those prepared for the production of superior
negatives, consequently the formulæ given hereafter will be
designated as positive or negative.

These modifications, however, are not of such a character as to
render either of the solutions prepared for one process totally
unfit to be used for the other, for in fact, many photographers at
this day use the same collodion bath and developer for making both
positives and negatives.


THE POSITIVE COLLODION PROCESS.

In the first place, we will take up for consideration the positive
process.

The first positives on glass were called ambrotypes, and were the
successors to the daguerreotype, which they superseded and displaced
by the superior facility of their production.

For the same reason the ambrotype was succeeded by the ferrotype,
which was a positive collodion picture, made on a thin iron plate
with a black japanned surface.

The ferrotype or tintype is now about the only product of the
positive collodion process of considerable importance, and is the
only one that will receive consideration in these pages.

Ferrotype plates are sold by all dealers in photographic materials;
they are mostly manufactured by two large concerns in Worcester,
Mass. [p016]


COLLODION FOR POSITIVES.

As has before been stated, to produce the finest results in positive
photography requires certain modifications of the collodion bath and
developer, which, while not unfitting them altogether for negative
work, yet would render them quite unsuitable for high class work.

The formula for positive collodion here given has many merits, and
among those is a certain quality of film, which might be termed
opacity, but not in the strict sense of the word; it is that quality
in the film which enables it to cover up any small scratch or water
mark on the surface of the plate that would infallibly spoil the
picture, if almost any other collodion were used.

This quality, with great clearness or transparency in the shadows,
and a beautiful gradation of light and shade, make it unique as a
positive collodion.

There may seem to be a contradiction between the terms opacity and
great transparency of shadows, which may need further explanation.
As the shadows of a positive collodion picture are produced by the
black surface of the plate showing through the collodion, any defect
on that portion of the surface would be expected to show very
plainly, and it does so with the use of the ordinary collodions sold
by the dealers, but not so with the collodion under consideration,
which may be because it is less permeable by the silver solution,
and that consequently the deposit of iodide of silver lies more on
the surface and less within the texture of the film, and is thus
kept from contact with organic matter or other defects on the
surface of the plate; in some such manner only, can I account for a
very valuable quality that has saved thousands of [p017] plates,
that would under other usage have been thrown away.

This formula has never before been published, and must be prepared
as directed.

Alcohol and ether equal parts; gun cotton sufficient to make a
moderately thick film, say 5 or 6 grains to the oz.; put the cotton
in the ether first; when it is well saturated, pour in the alcohol.
To which add:

  Iodide of Ammonium       4 grains to oz.
  Iodide of Cadmium        2    "    "  "
  Bromide of Cadmium       1    "    "  "
  Bromide of Copper        1    "    "  "

The latter ingredient can only be had in aqueous solution, I
believe, and requires close calculation to get at the right
quantity.

This formula gives 8 grains of salts to the ounce of collodion, and
would require a silver solution of 50 grains to the fluid ounce to
balance properly.

The silver solution may be prepared as per directions on page 29,
under the heading--The Negative Bath.


HOW TO COAT PLATES.

The ferro-plate is held between the thumb and first two fingers of
the left hand. The collodion bottle is held in the right hand, and
the collodion is poured on the right upper end of the plate, flowed
to the left upper corner, by deflecting the plate in that direction,
and then down the left side toward the hand, and the excess run back
into the bottle from the right lower corner, when it has all run
off, the plate should be gradually brought to a perpendicular
position and rocked from right to left, that is, perpendicular to
the end, [p018] then to the side, until the film has set or
become fixed, which may be ascertained by touching the film at the
lower corner of the plate, when, if it breaks and does not run
farther, it has set and should, without delay, be immersed in the
silver solution, where it should remain until it has become fully
sensitized, which will be in from 2 to 5 minutes.

The plate should be lowered into the bath by one continuous motion;
any stoppage will cause a line and spoil the plate.

The plate is sensitized when on removing it from the bath it
presents a smooth, yellowish surface; if it shows lines as of water
running off a greasy surface, it is not coated; return it to the
bath.


EXPOSURE OF THE PLATE.

The plate having become sufficiently coated is taken from the bath,
well drained, and placed in the holder or shield, and a piece of
glass of the same size put behind it, which is to receive the
pressure of the spring on the door of the holder, and force the
plate into its proper position evenly, so that all parts will be in
focus.

The holder containing the plate is then taken to the studio, or
light room, where the subject, we will say, has already been posed;
the camera set and focused, the exposure is then made, after which
it is returned to the dark room for development.


DEVELOPER AND DEVELOPMENT.

In the preparation of a developing solution for plate pictures, we
must consider that we desire to produce a picture, which, to be
admired, must have [p019] pure whites, clear shadows, be full of
detail and have an easy gradation of light and shade.

That you may succeed in this object, use the following formula, and
persist until you have learned its every modification:


DEVELOPER.

  Water                                      64 ounces f.
  Protosulphate of iron                       4     "
  Acetic acid                                 4     "
  Alcoholic solution of tannin, 10 grains
    to the ounce                              4     "

The four ounces of iron should be dissolved in the sixty-four ounces
(fluid) of water, and the acetic acid and tannic alcohol added.

In using this solution, develop your plate over a large filter,
which will receive all your surplus developing solution, and conduct
it into a bottle for use again; drain the plate into this filter
before washing, wash carefully and then place it into the fixing
solution--the developing solution which has filtered through into
the bottle is afterwards used in the proportion of one-half of old
to one-half of the new or fresh solution. This greatly improves the
high lights of the picture, and by using more or less of the old
solution, effects can be produced that are impossible by any other
means.

Great care should be taken to cause the developing solution to flow
evenly and with one sweep, as it were, over the whole surface, so
that the action may be as near as possible equal on all parts of the
surface.

In a very few seconds after the action of the developer has
commenced the picture will show up. The plate meanwhile should be
kept in motion and the [p020] solution caused to flow from side
to side and from one end to the other, in order that the development
may progress evenly and with the same speed on all parts.

The picture will gradually grow and brighten, until all the detail
that might be expected is seen in the shadows; then pour off the
remaining solution into the filter and proceed to wash the plate
until all traces of greasiness disappear; when the plate is
sufficiently washed and is ready to be fixed or cleared. Another
developing solution is prepared as follows:

Make a 64-ounce saturated solution of protosulphate of iron, into
which drop tannin solution enough to cause a precipitate, which
remains undissolved after shaking, then add drop by drop pure nitric
acid, until the precipitate is taken up and the solution becomes
clear. To one ounce of this add water, until it tests 18 to 20
grains to the ounce by the hydrometer, then add one ounce acetic
acid, which perfects the formula and constitutes the developer.


FIXING SOLUTION.

The solvent most generally used for fixing or clearing positives is
cyanide of potassium.

By the term "fixing" is meant the dissolving from the collodion film
all the iodide of silver not acted on by the developer; the
remaining portion of the silver is in a metallic state and
constitutes the image; the cyanide very readily dissolves the
iodide, but acts very slowly on the metallic silver.

This fixing solution should be contained in a glass upright dish,
enclosed in a wood case, with a tight or close-fitting cover, this
in order that as little exposure to the air as possible may be had,
as the fumes [p021] arising from the evaporation of the solution
are injurious.

Two ounces of cyanide to 64 ounces of water will make a suitable
fixing solution for plate pictures; if, however, its action is
thought to be too slow, add more.

The plate picture having now been developed and fixed, it only
remains that it should be dried, varnished, cut into shape, placed
in the proper envelopes and it is ready for delivery.

Those desiring more extended instructions in the making of plate
pictures are referred to the work on that subject, entitled, "The
Ferrotype and How to Make it," published by E. & H. T. Anthony &
Co., of New York.


ARGENTIC DRY PLATES FOR POSITIVES.

The Phenix Plate Co., the largest manufacturers of ferrotype plates
in this country, and whose name is familiar with every ferrotypist,
as well as most photographers, have lately placed on the market
ferrotype plates, with surfaces coated or sensitized with gelatine
emulsion, which they, offer as a substitute for the ordinary
collodion positive or tintype.

The plates are cut to sizes and packed in much the same manner as
the Stanley or any other dry plates are, and being extremely
sensitive to light, they must be handled with the same care.

The manufacturers claim, that "the 'Argentic Dry Plate' will be
found far superior to any other form of positive plate, giving as it
does the maximum of beautiful effects with a minimum of labor,
producing a rich and brilliant picture with a rapidity and
cleanliness never before attained, doing away as they do [p022]
with the use of the silver bath and all its concomitant evils,
pinholes, stains, fog, etc., not forgetting the vast saving in time
and temper. The argentic plate is always ready-at-hand, and the
working of it is simplicity itself. Their permanency and reliability
is beyond question. These plates are extremely rapid. An exposure of
from 1 to 3 seconds will suffice with a good light, 2 minutes to
develop, 3 to fix, wash, dry and varnish, and the operation is
complete, ready within ten minutes for delivery. For out-door views
these plates work well with a drop shutter exposure, and the
results, both for portrait and view work, are remarkable for
fullness of detail, and great delicacy and softness of tone."

While these plates may be developed by the common ammonia pyro
developer, the manufacturers claim, that "much finer effects may be
produced by using the Phenix Stock Solution," that accompanies the
plates, put up in 12 oz. bottles. By its use, greater rapidity of
development, purer white, extreme brilliancy and finer detail can be
obtained, the result being far superior to that produced by any
other developer.

The following formula can be relied on to give excellent results,
and by simply modifying the proportions, to "suit circumstances,"
will answer every purpose. As these plates are very rapid, six times
more rapid than wet plates, guard well against white light.

Formula for development:

  NO. 1.

  Pyrogallic Acid           1 oz.
  Water                    12 oz.
  Citric Acid              20 grs.   [p023]

  NO. 2.

  Phenix Stock Solution.
  Keep the Stock Solution securely corked.

  NO. 3.

  Bromide Potass.           1 oz.
  Water                    12 oz.


DEVELOPER.

  Water                     4 oz.
  No. 1                     4 drams.
  No. 2                     4 drams.

If the plate be over exposed, add a few drops of No. 3. Should the
plate, however, be under exposed, add one dram more of No. 2. When
the plate is placed in the developer, the image will begin to appear
in from 5 to 10 seconds. Continue the development until the details
are all out. _But be careful not to over-develop_, and thereby
obscure the shadows. Wash thoroughly after development, and fix in
the following solution:


FIXING SOLUTION.

  Cyanide of Potass.      120 grains.
  Water                    10 oz.

"Let the plate remain in the fixing basin until every trace of
Bromide of silver disappears. Wash well after fixing, and dry with a
gentle heat or flow the plate with alcohol for a few seconds. Set it
aside, and it will dry in a few minutes without the aid of heat. For
varnishing any good negative or positive varnish will answer. Apply
a little heat to prevent chilling."

Directions accompany each box. [p024]


THE COLLODION PROCESS FOR NEGATIVES.

We now take up that more important branch of the collodion process,
vis., that for negatives.

The formulæ and instructions already given for positives might
enable one to make a negative, but the negatives so made would bear
even a remoter relation to one made by the formula about to be given
than would a positive made according to these formulæ bear to a good
one made by the appropriate means. Important modifications are
necessary to reach the highest excellence in either process.


NEGATIVE COLLODION.

To produce a good negative a collodion is necessary, the film of
which is more permeable than that for positives, so that a heavier
deposit of iodide of silver may be carried in the film, to the end
that in the development a denser deposit of metallic silver may be
secured on all parts of the image, but especially on the high
lights, which should be sufficiently dense to prevent the
transmission of light almost altogether, or at least to exclude the
light sufficiently to allow the shadows and intermediate shades to
print to the proper depth, while the high lights of the face and
such parts of the clothing as are white shall be only slightly
discolored.

There are very many formulæ for such collodions, some of which have
proved to be eminently satisfactory, and among the best are classed
the following:


NEGATIVE COLLODION. A.

Ether and alcohol, equal parts. Climax cotton (Anthony's), 3 grains
to the oz. Negative cotton [p025] (Anthony's), 1 grain to oz.
Place the cotton in the ether first, then add the alcohol and
sensitize with

  Iodide of Ammonium        3 grains to ounce
  Iodide of Lithium         1 "       "   "
  Bromide of Cadmium        2 "       "   "

Collodion prepared after this formula gives very pleasing results
and is rather more rapid than the average.

In many cases it is well to have two samples of collodion differing
in formulæ, mixing them in varying proportions, according to the
effect desired.

A good formula for mixing with the above is as follows. It can be
used separately if desired, but is not primarily intended to be used
alone:

Plain collodion, prepared as in the preceding formula, but with a
different cotton, Anthony's snowy Cotton, for instance, to each
ounce of the plain collodion add:

  Iodide of Potassium       2-1/2 grains
  Bromide of Cadmium        2       "
  Iodide of Cadmium         2-1/2   "

The iodide of potassium is insoluble in absolute alcohol and ether,
therefore it must be first dissolved in the smallest quantity of
water possible and then added to the collodion. A portion will even
then most probably be precipitated; if it is not, it would be an
indication that the alcohol or ether used were either one or both of
a higher specific gravity than they should be.

It is more important that the ether should be pure than the alcohol,
as the former is often contaminated or adulterated with water as
well as with alcohol, and sometimes contains impurities of an acid
nature.

Ether, for photographic purposes, should not have a [p026] higher
specific gravity than 720, and the alcohol should never be used for
collodion when below 95 per cent., as the presence of water in the
collodion makes the film weak and glutinous.

Most formulæ for collodion prescribe alcohol and ether in equal
parts, but these may be varied with advantage during the hot season;
for instance, the alcohol may be used in somewhat larger proportion,
as the tendency to evaporation is much more with a high temperature,
and alcohol evaporates less rapidly than ether. Consequently the
flowing quality of the collodion and the evenness of the film would
be promoted by a not too rapid congelation or setting of the film.
And again, during the cold season, the ether may be used in larger
proportion, to promote a more rapid evaporation and setting of the
film. By a moderately close observation of the action of collodion
under varying temperatures, the operator might soon learn how to
modify his formulæ to suit all conditions of heat and cold.

It should be mentioned that it would not be correct to vary the
proportions of ether and alcohol very greatly, as an over proportion
of alcohol would render the collodion weak and glutinous, and, being
very soluble in water, would the sooner injure the silver solution.
On the other hand too great a proportion of ether would make the
collodion less sensitive.


NEGATIVE COLLODION. B.

Alcohol and ether, equal parts.

  Anthony's Negative Cotton       3 grains to ounce
  Anthony's Climax Cotton         1   "     "   "

Put the cotton into the ether and let it become saturated, then add
the alcohol. Excite with [p027]

  Iodide of Ammonium        3-1/2 grains to ounce
  Iodide of Cadmium         2       "     "   "
  Bromide Cadmium           2-1/2   "     "   "

Collodion sometimes, from long keeping, loses sensitiveness and
becomes of a deep red color. When such is the case, it should be set
aside and fresh samples prepared, which would be improved in working
quality by the addition of small quantities of the old, and thus old
stock may be used up without deterioration in the work.

Negative collodion should not be so heavy bodied or thick as that
for positives; neither should it be so highly excited. Good positive
collodion should have as many as 8 grains of the iodides and
bromides to the ounce, requiring a silver solution not lower than 50
grains strong and going somewhat higher in cold weather.

The standard silver solution for negatives is 45 grains of silver
nitrate to the ounce of water and the collodion from 5-1/2 to 6-1/2
grains to the ounce, with a tendency to less in cold weather.

Collodion for negatives should be permitted to ripen a day or two
before using, unless it is brought to that state by mixing with old.


NEGATIVE COLLODION. C.

  Iodide Ammonium         192 grains
  Bromide Cadmium         128 "
  Bromide Potassium        96 "
  Ether and Alcohol        32 oz. each
  Cotton                  320 grains

The preceding formulæ are for portrait work in studio. For other
work, such as outdoor views, [p028] landscape or architectural,
or for copying engravings, etc., certain modifications of the
collodion, to produce greater intensity or more contrast, are
desirable. Collodion suitable for such purposes can always be
purchased from the photo stock dealer, in quantities desired, and
for that reason it is not best for the amateur nor the professional
photographer either, to prepare small samples for special purposes.
If it should, however, be found at any time necessary to prepare
such a collodion, the second formula of Negative Collodion A will be
found suitable for views of buildings, copies of engravings and such
like work.

It was at first thought to be unnecessary to give a formula for the
preparation of pyroxiline or gun cotton, as no individual not in the
business can possibly produce an article that can be in any way
compared to that made by manufacturers of skill and experience.

For the benefit of any one wishing to experiment, this formula is
given:


FORMULA FOR MAKING COLLODION COTTON.

  Sulphuric Acid           6 oz.
  Nitric Acid              4 "
  Water                    2 "

Mix and the temperature will rise to 170° F.

Inmerse dry cotton wool (best long fibre), be sure wool is dry, draw
it in long flakes and pull it under acids with a stout glass rod; do
not crowd in too much, take care that each tuft is well wetted with
the acids before putting in a fresh tuft. Carefully cover the vessel
and put it where any slight fumes may escape; leave it for at least
12 hours--20 hours will not spoil it. When ready, lift cotton out
and plunge it [p029] into a large quantity of water, quickly
separating the tufts with glass rods, wash in changes of water,
until no acid is left, then wring the cotton in a coarse towel until
dry as possible and pull it all apart and place in the air to dry.


COLLODION WITH ABOVE.

  Alcohol                              5 oz.
  Ether                               10 "
  Cotton                             100 grains

TO IODIZE:

  Alcohol                              5 oz.
  Iodide Ammonium                     60 grs.
  Iodide Cadmium                      30  "
  Bromide   "                         20  "

Dissolve the iodides in the 5 oz. alcohol or in the whole 10 oz., if
desired, then put in the 100 grains cotton, shake well, then add the
10 oz. ether and shake till the cotton is all dissolved; it will be
ready for use in a few hours, and will improve with age.


THE NEGATIVE BATH.

The silver solution for a negative bath is prepared in substantially
the same manner as for a positive.

Two thirds of the amount of silver nitrate intended to be used,
should be dissolved in the quantity of water required to make the
bath, and a grain or two of iodide of potassium added and placed in
the sunlight until the solution has changed color, become turbid,
and again clear and colorless. This change is caused by a minute
portion of the silver combining with the organic matter and with
other impurities in the water, if there are any; a molecular change
then takes [p030] places, oxygen is evolved and the infinitesimal
portion of silver changes to a metallic state and sinks to the
bottom, carrying with it the impurities, which induced the chemical
action or change.

The solution may now be filtered, the remaining portion of the
silver nitrate added, and with a few drops of pure nitric acid, the
solution will be ready for use. But if on trial it is ascertained
that it will not give satisfactory results, it will be found that it
has not been sufficiently excited, or an acid reaction has not been
induced.

If the first supposition is true, more iodide of potassium must be
used, as a silver solution must receive as much or nearly as much of
the iodide as it will hold in solution, before it will work
harmoniously with the collodion; the grain or two put in the
solution with the first portion of nitrate of silver have not been
sufficient.

A very little more may be added, which will combine with the silver,
forming a white curdy precipitate, which, on shaking the bottle,
will in a short time redissolve. If any remains, it should be
filtered out, as no more can be held in solution.

An other plan is rather more convenient, but requires more time. It
is to coat with collodion as large a plate as the bath will receive;
immerse it in the bath, leaving it there some hours, usually all
night.

After trying one of these remedies, if the bath refuses still to
yield good results, more nitric acid should be added, until the
solution will turn blue litmus paper slowly red.

I have never known a silver bath to fail to come to terms under this
treatment. [p031]

The silver solution, when in constant use, rapidly deteriorates, and
unless there is a very large quantity, it will soon become unfit for
use, and however much or little there may be, it is only a question
of time as to when it will cease to act satisfactorily.

This result is caused partly by the gradual contamination of the
solution by the alcohol and ether washed from the collodionized
plates that have been sensitized in it. When the bath is seriously
affected in this manner, it is indicated by the difficulty
experienced in getting the developer to flow evenly over the plate,
and also by the strong alcoholic odor of the silver solution.

The necessity for a change of the bath may be delayed for a time by
the addition of alcohol to the developer, which causes it to flow
more evenly.

Another source of evil to the bath is the continual absorption from
the surfaces of the plates immersed of minute portions of the salts
with which the collodion is excited. After the silver solution has
taken up all it can dissolve or assimilate, the surplus is held in
suspension and is called free iodide, which deposits itself on the
surfaces of the plates, and when in quantity causes the plate when
taken from the bath to appear as if fine sand had been sprinkled
over it. These small crystals prevent the action of the light on the
parts they cover, and when the plate has been developed and fixed,
every crystal has produced a small transparent spot or pinhole, as
it is termed, and many a lovely negative has been ruined by
pinholes.

This trouble may be cured by increasing the quantity of the solution
and adding more silver nitrate, which, if in sufficient quantity,
will dissolve the free [p032] iodide. But if it may not be
convenient to do this and no other solution is ready for use, then,
after immersing your plate, tip the bath dish back so that the face
of the plate may be inclined downwards, when the crystals will be
deposited on the back of the plate and do no harm.

The silver bath is also contaminated with organic matter, taken up
from the edges and backs of the many plates used, of which some
portion of the albumen is likely to be exposed to the action of the
solution, and also from dust, etc., falling into the bath dish,
which will be taken up and held in solution by the acid in the bath,
but when the acid can hold no more in solution, its presence will be
indicated by a greyish white vail forming on the surface of the
plate when developed; this is called fog, and may only partially
obscure the image, or it may completely veil it.

The fogging of the plates in this manner may be prevented for a time
by adding more nitric acid to the bath, which will dissolve the
organic matter and prevent its deposition on the plate.

When the silver bath has, from long or much use, become seriously
affected by any of these evils, it should be set aside and a fresh
bath put in use, until an opportunity offers to thoroughly cleanse
and renew the old solution, which can be done by one series of
manipulations, as thus:

Into a large bottle, which will hold the solution to be treated, and
somewhat more, put from a pint to a quart of water, according to the
quantity of the solution; into this bottle containing the pint of
water, pour in a small stream the whole of the old solution, when it
will be found to have turned to a milky whiteness [p033] or
opalescence, which is the iodide of silver set free by reducing the
strength of the solution; this must be filtered out, and the
solution neutralized with bi-carbonate of soda, which should be put
in, in small quantities until a deposit of carbonate of silver
begins to be formed; then place the solution in an evaporating dish,
and subject to heat until the bulk is reduced about one-half; test
it with litmus paper, and if acid, give it more bi-carbonate of
soda; add water and silver nitrate to bring to the required bulk and
strength, set in the sunlight for a time or until required for use,
then filter, and it will be found to be as good as new, but it may
require a few drops of nitric acid.

Pure water may be always had ready for use, by keeping a large
bottle full of the common water standing out-door in the sunlight,
adding a grain of silver from time to time as the bottle is emptied
and replenished.

The new "agate iron ware" pots are the best for use as evaporating
dishes. They will not break or crack, and they are not nearly so
expensive as porcelain dishes.


THE NEGATIVE DEVELOPER.

There are a thousand and one formulæ for developing solutions for
the wet plate, but they are all composed of protosulphate of iron or
a compound thereof, acetic acid, and water, with the addition of
some organic substance, such as sugar, rock candy, glycerine, etc.
etc.

The development of a negative is nothing more than the deposition of
metallic silver in a state of fine sub-division upon a base of the
same metal, which is the image latent in the collodion film after
exposure in the camera. And it is supposed that the finer the
deposit [p034] secured in the development the better will be the
chemical effect and printing quality of the resulting negative.
Therefore, the use of organic bodies in the developer is supposed to
effect or induce a finer deposit. The careful observer, however,
will soon discover that the success of the development depends more
on the time of exposure, the temperature of the developing solution
and the condition of the bath, than upon any adventitious aids, such
as rock candy, etc.

A developing solution, composed alone of an aqueous solution of
protosulphate of iron and acetic acid, can be made to produce the
finest effects possible to the process.


DEVELOPING SOLUTION

Half fill with protosulphate of iron a wide mouth 64 oz. bottle,
fill up full with water, set aside to dissolve, shaking the bottle
once in awhile, so that the water may become saturated. Put a small
glass funnel on a stand, so that you can place under it a 16 oz.
bottle; fill the 16 oz. bottle with water and enough of the strong
iron solution to make a twenty grain to the ounce solution, add one
ounce of acetic acid, pour all into the filter and place the bottle
beneath the funnel to receive it. This filtered solution is the
developer for negatives.

Some experience is necessary to enable one to develope a negative
properly and secure the best results.

Holding the plate in the left hand, take the developer bottle in the
right, hold it over the plate near the left hand, let the first
finger of the right hand rest against the edge of the plate, tilt
the bottle so that the developer will run on the plate; at the same
time move [p035] the right hand toward the other end of the plate
rather quickly, letting the developer run in a steady, but not
copious stream; deflect the plate with the left hand at the same
time, so that the solution will flow from you in such a manner that
the whole surface of the plate may be covered with the liquid at
nearly the same time as possible. Now set down the bottle and keep
the plate in motion, so as to cause the solution to have an equal
action on every part of the surface. Very soon the image will appear
and brighten, until every part of the detail comes out, and when it
begins to look as if fading away or becoming less distinct the
development is finished.

This can be ascertained with more certainty at this time by holding
the plate so as to be able to look through it toward the light, so
as to examine its density, remembering that the high lights should
be quite dense and the medium shadows be full of detail. One very
soon learns to know the proper density.

The plate should be now very thoroughly washed, to free the surface
from the iron before fixing.

Great care should be taken in this manipulation to cover the plate
quickly with the solution, holding it all on the plate. As the
development is made by the precipitation of the free silver on the
surface of the film upon the latent image, none of the free silver
should be washed from the plate by a flood of developing solution
carrying it off the surface.


FIXING SOLUTION

Hyposulphite of soda is generally considered to be the most suitable
fixing agent for negatives, although some prefer cyanide of
potassium. [p036]

The hyposulphite, however, is the safest, both for the plate and for
the operator. One pound of hyposulphite of soda to a gallon of water
will make a solution of a suitable strength to clear a negative as
rapidly as is necessary, and it should be contained in a flat dish.
When from much use the fixing solution becomes muddy, it should be
thrown into a suitable receptacle for liquid wastes, as it is rich
in silver.

Leave the negative in the fixing solution until all the iodide of
silver is dissolved from the film, and no trace of the yellowish
deposit can be seen by transmitted light.

When the negative is thoroughly cleared, if it is found that it
lacks density or, in other words, is not intense enough, wash it
very carefully to free it from every trace of the soda solution, and
then proceed to strengthen it in the following manner:


INTENSIFYING THE NEGATIVE.

Keep near at hand in a 64 oz. bottle this solution:

  Protosulphate of iron        2 oz.
  Citric acid                  1 "
  Water                       64 "

and in a small bottle a ten-grain-to-the-ounce solution of silver
nitrate.

When a negative is to be strengthened, from the large bottle take
enough of the solution to cover the surface; to this add a half dram
of the silver and flow it over the negative.

A change of color will at once take place in the film, which will
become darker as the silver deposit becomes heavier; if one
application is not enough to secure the required density, wash the
plate and proceed again, as before. [p037]

Negatives may be strengthened before fixing, if it is found
necessary, by flowing the surface with the weak silver solution and
afterwards using the ordinary developer.

When one has become accustomed to the work, and can tell that the
negative is not dense enough before fixing, it is the best plan to
re-develop before fixing.

The mercurial intensifying solution for dry plates is very nice for
wet plates.

Having described the positive and negative collodion process, there
remains to give an account of the latest and greatest achievement in
photographic progress.


       *       *       *       *       *


THE BROMO ARGENTIC DRY PLATE PROCESS.

The history of dry plate photography comes within the last ten or
fifteen years, and being so recent and so fully written up in
current photographic literature, space in this work will not be
taken for a full account of the rise and progress abroad and at home
of this wonderful improvement in photography, but instead will be
given some formulæ for the preparation of Gelatino Argentic
Emulsion, and the most approved methods of working it.

The shortening of the time of exposure for sittings in the studio
from one-tenth to one-twentieth of the time required for the old wet
plate process, at its best, has rendered the dry plate such a power
in the hands of the photographer as to have caused it to be almost
universally adopted in the studios of this country, and has
practically displaced the wet process in the field and for all
out-door photography. [p038]


GELATINE EMULSION.

Since the introduction of the new process into the United States,
the preparation of rapid dry plates has been and remains now in the
hands of certain prominent firms, who, from the skill they have
acquired and the advantages they derive from all the machinery and
conveniences that large capital enables them to procure, are enabled
to supply fully the demand with a much better article than could be
had were each consumer to manufacture for himself. In fact, if the
photographer were compelled to manufacture his own dry plates there
would be a very different condition of affairs at the present time.

Gelatine is a substance so susceptible to change from the action of
our climate, with its varying temperature, that of a large number
who have attempted to make dry plates for the trade, many have
completely failed, some of them after a partial success; and others
after spending thousands of dollars never could make two batches of
emulsion alike; and then again the keen competition of the
successful concerns has reduced the profits to not more than fair
returns to a precarious business.

There are many, no doubt, who would be glad to experiment in this
field, especially among amateurs, and it is for the benefit of such
that certain hints and formulæ are given in this connection to
enable them to make, if successful, their own plates.

The formulæ herewith given are selected from a large number
published in the German, English and American journals, and while
good dry plates may be made by either of them, yet it is doubtful if
the highest success would repay the outlay. [p039]

A careful study of the published formulæ and the current literature
on the subject of Gelatino-Bromide Emulsion will disclose the
general principles on which they are based.

A certain amount of bromide of ammonium or potassium (preferably
ammonium, on account of its greater uniformity and purity) and
nitrate of silver are dissolved separately, and mixed together in a
thin solution of gelatine, at a moderately warm temperature. Great
sensitiveness is obtained by a long exposure to the same warm
temperature, or by the addition of a small amount of ammonia, and
raising the heat to the boiling-point for from a half to a full
hour; when it is cooled more gelatine is added and the whole allowed
to congeal or set, when it is reduced to shreds, and washed in cold
water to remove the excess of the preponderate salt.

The sensitiveness of the emulsion is said to depend upon the
fineness of sub-division of the grain of the bromide of silver in
the presence of the gelatine. This extreme fineness is secured by
long emulsification, or by the use of ammonia and a boiling heat.

The strength and tenacity of the emulsion depend on the quality of
the gelatine, and its freedom from deterioration during the process
of emulsification and the subsequent washing. A soft gelatine is
suitable for the process of emulsification; afterwards a hard
quality is used to give body and resistance.

The presence of free bromide or of free nitrate of silver in the
finished emulsion would be fatal to its usefulness; therefore, as
both of those salts are easily soluble in water, they must be got
rid of by washing; consequently, before washing, the mass of jelly
should [p040] be induced by the use of a refrigerator to set firm
and hard, so that it may be broken up into shreds for washing, and
the smaller the shreds the less washing they will require.

Of the following formulæ the first two are copied from English
photographic year books, and are believed to be reliable; the others
are by Dr. Eder, the greatest German authority on gelatine emulsion,
and they are comparatively simple.

GELATINE EMULSION. A.

                                      PAGET PRIZE.

  NO. 1.

  Hydrochloric acid                   1 drachm
  Distilled water                    12-1/2 oz.

  NO. 2.

  Distilled water                     3 oz.
  Bromide Ammonium                  210 grains
  Gelatine                           50   "

Twenty minims of No. 1 solution are introduced into the whole of No.
2, and the Gelatine is left to swell.

In another glass vessel 330 grains of nitrate of silver are
dissolved in 3 ounces of distilled water; a small quantity, about
two fluid drachms, of the latter is poured into a test tube and
diluted with an equal bulk of distilled water.

The solution of the bromo-gelatine is then rendered complete by
immersing the bottle in hot water, and the dilute silver nitrate is
added all at once.

The bottle is then shaken and the remainder of the strong silver
solution added in quantities of half an ounce at a time, shaking the
bottle as before after each addition. [p041]

The emulsion is then boiled for fifty-five (55) minutes, and when
cooled down to 90 degrees F., one ounce of gelatine, which has been
previously swelled and dissolved in water so as to measure four
ounces, is added and put away in a cold place to set.

When set, squeeze through coarse canvas into cold water one half
gallon and 1/4 lb. salt; let it remain for five minutes, then wash
thoroughly.

The addition of two ounces of alcohol and enough water to make up to
twenty ounces completes the process.

In the preparation of this or any gelatine emulsion the work may be
carried on in daylight as far as the mixing of the bromide and
silver, which must be done in a dark room by the aid of a lamp or
gas light shaded by orange or ruby glass. Sufficient of this
non-actinic light may be admitted to enable the work of washing the
emulsion, and afterwards the coating of the plates, to be carried on
with ease and comfort, as the emulsion when wet is only half as
sensitive as when dry.

GELATINE EMULSION. B.

                                        JARMAN.

  Picked white Gum Arabic            75 grains
  Bromide Ammonium                  200   "
  Gelatine                          150   "
  Water                              10 oz.

  Nitrate of silver                 300 grains
  Water                               7-1/2 oz.

Dissolve in two jars in a vessel of water heated to 140 degrees F.,
stir each solution well with a separate rod or strip of glass, and
when equally heated to 140 [p042] degrees the silver may be
poured in a gentle stream into the gelatine gum solution by the aid
of a safe light.

When all has been mixed and thoroughly stirred, cover the top of the
dish and allow the temperature to be at 140 degrees for eight hours,
occasionally stirring the emulsion during that time, which should be
done in the dark.

At the end of that time there should be weighed out, of Nelson's
soft gelatine 250 grains, and of French hard gelatine 150 grains.

This 400 grains of gelatine must now be added to the emulsion, and
occasionally stirred until all of it is thoroughly dissolved and
incorporated with the emulsion, which will take about a quarter of
an hour; it is then poured out in a clean 12×10 deep porcelain dish
to set, and should be allowed to set for forty-eight hours, when it
may be wrung through a piece of coarse canvas and allowed to fall
into a solution of

  Common salt                   1/2 lb.
  Water                         1 gallon

Let it remain in this for five minutes, then strain through a horse
hair sieve and wash it well for an hour and a half. Allow the
shreddy emulsion to drain well in the sieve for about a quarter of
an hour; at the end of that time place it in a clean stone-ware jar
to melt, with the addition of four drachms of saturated solution of
nitrate of potash upon melting, which may be done by setting the jar
into a dish of water at a temperature of about 120 degrees F.

It will be found on measurement to be nearly 25 ounces of emulsion;
as soon as it is ready for filtering four ounces of methylated
spirit may be mixed with it, [p043] to which have been added four
drachms of an alcoholic solution of tannic acid, made by mixing ten
grains of tannic acid with one ounce of alcohol; this is to prevent
frilling.

The rapidity of the plates will be about eight times that of a wet
collodion plate, which for all ordinary purposes will be as rapid as
could be desired.

Dr. Eder, the distinguished German scientist (who is a great
authority on gelatine emulsions, and has published a book on this
subject), gives the two following formulæ:

GELATINE EMULSION. C.
                                              EDER.
  Bromide potassium      4 grams, equal to 61 grains.
  Gelatine      7-1/2 to 8 grams,      "  115   "
  Water                 50 c. c.       "    1 ounce.
  Nitrate of silver      5 grams,      "   77 grains.
  Water                 50 c. c.       "    1 ounce.

Dissolve the silver in water and precipitate it with ammonia.
Continue the addition a few drops at a time, until the brown oxide
of silver re-dissolves and the liquid looks as bright as pure water;
the strength of the ammonia is immaterial.

The nitrate of silver may be warmed to 93 degrees F., and poured
into the bromized gelatine a little at a time, continually stirring
with a glass rod. Rinse the silver bottle with 10 c. c. about 1-1/2
drachms of water and add it to the emulsion, place the bottle
containing the emulsion in a basin or saucepan of water heated to 90
degrees F., leave it therein from 15 to 30 minutes without further
heat; after 30 minutes the emulsion is ready to be congealed
previous to washing.

This emulsion never fogs, but it is imperative that [p044] in no
part of the progress the temperature should exceed 100 degrees F.,
and it is a safe rule not to go beyond 90 degrees F. It is
recommended to use French gelatine.

GELATINE EMULSION. D.
                                      EDER.
  Bromide of potassium            61 grains.
  Gelatine                       115   "
  Water                            1 oz. (plus)

The bromide of potassium must be pure and not alkaline, ditto the
gelatine.

The bromized gelatine must be melted at 140 to 160 degrees, and then
add 77 grains of silver nitrate in one ounce (plus) of water. The
silver may be warmed to the same temperature as the gelatine, but
this is immaterial. Rinse the silver bottle with three drachms of
water and add it to the emulsion. The bottle with the emulsion is
now put in a saucepan partly filled with hot water, covered to
exclude all light, and the water in the saucepan set boiling, which
should be continued for 25 to 30 minutes, then both water and
emulsion cooled down to 90 degrees F., then add 340 minims of
ammonia, stirring it thoroughly through the emulsion, which should
be left for from 30 to 40 minutes at a heat of 90 degrees F., then
it is ready to set and wash.

Dr. Eder says this last is quicker and better for portraits.


DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS USED IN MAKING AND WASHING EMULSIONS.


THE DARK CHAMBER.

Any form of room that has running water in it, if there is a window,
the better, unless the work is done [p045] at night. If in the
daytime, shade the window with heavy red orange paper; if gas is
used, shade the flame with a ruby globe or chimney, and cut a piece
of tin to fit in the pipe below the burner to cut off rays of light
falling through bottom opening of globe or chimney.

If there is no gas purchase a dry plate lantern.

Emulsion in the jelly and when wet on the plates is only half as
sensitive as when dry, so that it is not necessary to distress one's
self working in the dark.

When the silver and bromide are brought together and mixed, it
should be done in this dark room. The solutions are poured into a
glazed earthenware bottle, which can be tightly corked. When it is
required that the emulsion should be heated, put the bottle into a
tin pail, fill the pail with hot water and put on the cover and heat
in any convenient manner; when it is necessary to examine the
emulsion, remove the pail and contents to the dark room.

A thermometer for testing heat in liquids should be used to regulate
the temperature.

A deep porcelain tray is the best dish for holding the emulsion,
while it sets previous to washing. To prevent the emulsion from
adhering to the tray it may be waxed carefully, but leave no
surplus; when the emulsion has set as firmly as it will, it may be
cut up into very small squares for washing, but probably the best
way is to squeeze it through the meshes of very coarse canvas, such
as ladies use for embroidering on with wool. The shreds may be
permitted to fall into a fine horsehair sieve placed in a pan of
very cold water and allowed to soak for a time, when the sieve may
be raised, and the water will in a short time drain away [p046]
from the shreds. This may be repeated until the water, when tested
with silver solution, gives no precipitate of bromide.

After the emulsion is washed it must be melted and filtered before
it can be used to coat plates. These manipulations must be performed
in the dark room. For melting the emulsion use a small oil stove
placed in a tin box, the open side placed to the wall; set the dish
containing the emulsion on the tin box over the heat; or, a more
perfect arrangement is to take a tin or sheet iron bake-pan, make a
hole through the bottom near one end, and into the hole fix and
solder a tin funnel, into which you can put a glass funnel that will
hold a pint or more; set this pan on the tin box containing the oil
or gas stove, the end of the pan containing the funnel projecting
over the tin box towards you; fill the pan with hot water, which the
heat of the stove beneath will keep hot; into it set the dish
containing the emulsion to be heated or melted; when that has taken
place pour into the funnel to filter, through loose absorbent cotton
or a thin piece of chamois skin or flannel, as you prefer; the
funnel will be kept warm by the hot water in the pan surrounding it.

Filter into a pitcher with a lip suitable for pouring from, or a
small earthenware teapot would be better. You would be using the
emulsion from the bottom, and thus avoid air bubbles; when all is
filtered set the pitcher or pot into the hot water to keep of an
even temperature.


TO PREPARE THE GLASS.

Soak the glass in strong lye or potash for a time, then wash
carefully and put into acid, then wash [p047] again and
albumenize with the white of one egg to six ounces of water without
ammonia. The plates should be slightly warm when being coated.


COATING THE PLATES.

Hold the plate in the left hand, as you would for coating with
collodion, flow with emulsion as you would with collodion, letting
the surplus flow off the right hand lower corner, but do not let
more than the gross surplus run off; retain enough to make a rather
thick film; now move the plate so as to facilitate an even
distribution of the film, then set the plate on the leveled cooling
table.


THE COOLING TABLE.

This table should be a large slab of marble or slate with a
perfectly plain and level surface; before using it should be cooled
by placing ice or a refrigerating solution on it. The coated plates
are laid on this level table, where the cold soon chills the
emulsion, causing it to set, when they may be set up in racks and
placed in the drying room or box, where in the course of a few
hours, if the conditions are favorable, they will dry and are then
ready for use.


THE DRYING ROOM.

The drying room, or box, as the case may be, must be kept cool, and
if any current of air is induced it should be cool and constant, so
that the drying may proceed with perfect regularity until the
process is complete. Should the drying by any means be checked a
line will be formed on the plate, showing where the drying stopped
for the time.

Plates may be dried by a current of warm air, but [p048] they are
much more likely to frill during development; and a very little heat
will melt the coating.

If the plates are dried by an induced current of air, the process
may be hastened by placing dishes, filled with chloride of calcium,
in the air passage to the drying box or room. The chloride will
absorb all the moisture from the air passing over it, and the dry
air will take up the moisture from the plates.

When the chloride of calcium becomes too damp for further use, place
the dishes containing it in an oven and drive off the moisture by
heat, when the dry calcium may be again used. By employing such
means the plates may be dried in a few hours.

After the plates have become dry, they should be packed in good
light-tight boxes and kept in a dry room until wanted for use.


DEVELOPING ROOM FOR DRY PLATES.

Dry plates, ranging in rapidity from one-tenth to one-twentieth the
time necessary for a wet collodion plate, are now commonly used in
the studios of this country. Of course, plates of such extreme
sensitiveness require great care in handling, and absolute freedom
from any umpremeditated exposure to white light is necessary to
their successful use.

It is therefore necessary that the dark room should be remodelled to
suit the requirements necessary to the successful handling of such
extremely rapid plates, and in this connection it is proposed to
describe the necessary changes and alterations.

Any ordinary dark room may with little expense be fitted for dry
plate work. First see that every chink or crevice which might admit
white light is stopped or [p049] filled up, then fit the door or
doors so that they will shut tight and remain closed.

For convenience of access to the room while work is proceeding, and
for greater safety, it is well to erect a small porch or ante-room
at each door, the entrance to which should be at right angles with
the dark room door. The door to this porch and the dark room door
should be fitted with springs to keep them closed. With this
arrangement one can have access to the dark room at any time by
closing one door before opening the other.

If the dark room is lighted by a window, it should be glazed with
dark red orange glass, and if the exposure is toward the sun, it
should be shaded with a green or ruby colored shade on a spring
roller. If the sun never shines in the window, the shade is not
necessary.

If the room is lighted by artificial light, the best way is to cut
an opening in the wall or partition at the most convenient place,
make a frame to fit or cover this opening, that will raise or slide,
glaze it with red orange glass. On a shelf outside the opening place
your gas-burner or lamp, with a large reflector behind, so as to
reflect all the light through the glass into the room. If gas is
used on the outside an argand burner will be the best, with a common
white glass chimney for ordinary work, but for the most sensitive
plates a light green or thin ruby chimney will be absolutely safe.

If a kerosene lamp is used, the common white chimney with full flame
will be safe; and being outside, the room will not be heated by its
flame, nor rendered offensive by its smoke and odor.

In front of the window or of the artificial light, [p050] erect a
shelf or place a small table with a level top, which will support
the developing dishes and bottles of developing solution, and on
which the work of development may be carried on.

If the room is so situated that neither window nor gas may be used
in the manner suggested, then procure Carbutt's Developing Lantern,
which is a most convenient lantern, not only for developing, but for
other purposes. See figure.

The dark room should be supplied with running water, and the more
generous the supply, the better, as a dry plate requires much
washing, and a large stream will do the work much quicker than a
small one.

[Illustration: WASHING BOX.]

In many instances, however, where running water may not be had, the
washing box may be used with advantage. If running water is used, be
careful not to use too much pressure; by attaching a rubber hose to
the faucet and passing it over a nail or hook above, the pressure
may be reduced so that a full but gentle stream falls upon the
plate.

Safe closets should be provided to contain all sizes of plates; or
the new [p051] made by Anthony & Co., may be used instead, both
for unexposed and for exposed plates awaiting development.

[Illustration: NEGATIVE BOXES,]

[Illustration: JAPANNED IRON DEVELOPING TRAY,]

[Illustration: ANTHONY'S GLASS TRAYS,]

[Illustration: GLASS BOTTOM DRY PLATE DEVELOPING TRAYS.]

The dark room should be supplied with the necessary apparatus, such
as developing trays, which are of japanned tin, of glass or india
rubber; see cuts, JAPANNED IRON DEVELOPING TRAY, ANTHONY'S GLASS
TRAYS, or the patented article, the GLASS BOTTOM DRY PLATE
DEVELOPING TRAYS, [p052] and also the dishes to contain the
fixing solutions, which may be trays or upright, like silver-bath
dishes.

THE COMMON SENSE TRAY is a capital dish to contain the hypo and
clearing solutions and is not expensive, and can be had of all
sizes. All these dishes should be kept scrupulously clean when not
in use.

[Illustration: THE COMMON SENSE TRAY.]

[Illustration: TN: Graduate.]

There should be Graduates of the 16 oz. and the 8 oz. sizes, and
also a minim glass measuring up to [p053] one fluid ounce, also
one or more of Anthony's Combined Funnel and Filter, for filtering
the various solutions.

[Illustration: ANTHONY'S COMBINED FUNNEL AND FILTER.]

[Illustration: FOLDING NEGATIVE RACK.]

There should be glass-stoppered bottles for containing the
developing solutions, especially the pyro; also racks to hold the
plates while drying; one finely adjusted scale with apothecary
weights weighing to a 1/4 lb.; one camel's hair-brush, 3 inches
wide, for dusting the plates before [p054] putting them in the
holders for exposure, and also for removing sediment from the
surface of the film after fixing and washing.

[Illustration: CAMEL'S HAIR DUSTERS.]

Thus fitted and furnished, the dark room is ready and well adapted
for the most difficult dry plate work, and we will now proceed to
the consideration of the


DEVELOPMENT OF DRY PLATES.

Every manufacturer of dry plates encloses in each box of plates
packed for the market a formula for the development of the same.

The various manufacturers of dry plates, whose names will be found
in the advertising pages in this book, each have a formula which in
some respects differs from all the others, and it is but fair to the
maker of the plate, that his formula should be used, unless the
operator is of much experience and understands the requirements of
each particular kind of plate.

Therefore, while formulæ are given in this connection, although they
are known to be of the best, yet in the hands of inexperience they
may result to no better advantage than the formula appropriate to
the plate used; consequently, we do not urge their use above any
other, but rather that to which the operator is most accustomed.

The alkaline pyro developer is now in general use among professional
photographers in this country, and there remains no doubt that it is
the best developing agent for dry plates that has yet been brought
into use.

This developer is composed of pyrogallic acid and [p055] an
alkali, either ammonia, sal soda, or carbonate of potash, which, in
solution and of proper strength, forms the medium through which the
pyro is applied.

To these is added bromide of potassium or ammonium, which is the
restrainer, and occupies about the same position or performs the
same function as acetic acid in the wet plate developer, and besides
being a restrainer it greatly aids in securing intensity and
printing quality; and when plates are overtimed in exposure its
prompt use may result in securing a good negative.

Some plates require double the quantity of pyro that others do to
produce the same quality of negative. After ascertaining the normal
amount of pyro necessary to develop plates of a certain make, if it
is desired to increase intensity add more pyro, if your plate is
developing too intense or hard add more of the alkali.


DRY PLATE DEVELOPER, A.

  No. 1.

  Carbonate of Soda (Sal)         1 lb.
  Carbonate of Potash             1 lb.
  Yellow Prussiate of Potash      1 oz.
  Bromide of Ammonium             1 oz.
  Water                          64 oz.

  No. 2.

  Pyrogallic Acid                         1 oz.
  Saturated Solution Sulphite Soda       15 oz.

Keep No. 2 in glass-stoppered bottle.

To develop one 8×10 plate, take of

  No. 1                          1 dr.
  No. 2                          1/2 dr.
  Water                          6 oz.

Put the exposed plate into the developing tray and [p056] pour
the solution upon it, making sure that all parts of the plate are
covered, and no air bubbles fixed to the surface; keep the dish in
motion and in a short time the image will begin to appear; if
properly timed the high lights will show up promptly, and in due
time all parts will appear, and when detail is seen in the shadows
take the plate from the dish and examine it by transmitted light.
Note the gradations of light and shade; if they appear properly
balanced, the plate has been properly timed in exposure. Return the
plate to the dish and let the development proceed until the image
sinks well into the film and you see nothing very clearly as it lies
but the blacks.

Time is necessary in this process to secure enough intensity, and
this stage is the most difficult in the process, there being no
means by which to judge with any degree of certainty the density of
the image before you. It is better then to proceed too far than not
far enough, as a slow printing negative is far better than one that
is too thin and weak.[1]

[1] These directions apply to all dry plates except the Stanley,
which can be developed to any required density at sight, and loses
none in the fixing solution.

When the image has sunk pretty well into the film examine it again
by looking through it, and note well its appearance, so that if it
is about right when fixed you may remember how it appeared if you
wish to increase or diminish the intensity of your next plate.

If the plate has been overtimed it will show up quickly, almost at
once; when such is the case quickly pour off the developer and flow
the plate with water, washing it well, then prepare more developer
with nearly double the amount of pyro and a few drops of a [p057]
strong solution of bromide of ammonium, which add to the 6 oz. of
water and pour on the plate; then take half the usual quantity of
the No. 1 solution in a graduate and pour it, a few drops at a time,
into the developing tray, watching the action closely and keeping
the solution in motion.

The negative at this time probably shows all the detail of the
subject, but without any gradation of intensity. If the changes just
described have been made promptly you will soon observe that the
high lights will begin to gain in strength. Keep up the action by
adding more of the alkali, drop by drop, until you can proceed no
farther.

The chances are that you will secure a printable negative, but not a
very good one; and if it is a portrait the best thing to do is to
throw it away and make a new one.

The plate should now be very carefully washed previous to fixing.

Should the film show signs of loosening from the edges of the glass
and swell so as to form folds or frills, take it from the water and
immerse it in a solution of alum, which will harden the film and
stop the frilling. Then wash the film again and put it in the


FIXING SOLUTION.

  Hyposulphite of Soda            1 lb.
  Alum                            1/4 lb.
  Water                           1 gal.

When the soda and alum are dissolved let it stand until all sediment
settles to the bottom, then pour off the clear solution and use it
to fix until from much use it becomes black and turbid, then make up
and use a fresh solution. [p058]

The plate should be left in the fixing solution for fully five
minutes after it appears thoroughly cleared, then take it out and
wash until all traces of hypo are removed.

If the plate has not previously been in the alum solution it may now
be put in the


CLEARING SOLUTION.

  Alum                            1/2 lb.
  Citric Acid                     2 oz.
  Water                           1/2 gal.

Keep this solution in a flat dish, and after the plate has been
washed from the hypo put it in this solution for two or three
minutes; if there are any remaining traces of hypo in the film it
will be decomposed, the film will be hardened and freed from color;
when this is accomplished wash again and set the plate up to dry.

While the alkaline pyro developer is the best and gives the finest
printing quality to negatives, there are many who prefer (for other
reasons) the


FERROUS OXALATE DEVELOPER.

  No. 1.

  Neutral oxalate of potash               1 lb.
  Water                                   5 pints.

Acidify with oxalic acid and filter.

  No. 2.

  Protosulphate of iron                   1 lb.
  Water                                   2 quarts.

Filter and add 60 drops sulphuric acid.

  No. 3.

  Bromide of Ammonium                     1 oz.
  Water                                  10 oz.

The developer is prepared by mixing together in a [p059] graduate
the quantity necessary to cover the plate in the following
proportions:

  Oxalate solution                        3 parts.
  Iron solution                           1 part.
  Bromide solution                        1/8 part.

For instance, it will take about 8 ounces to cover an 8x10 plate in
a flat dish; to make this quantity take of the

  Oxalate                                 6 oz.
  Iron                                    2 oz.
  Bromide                                 2 drs.

Always pour the iron into the oxalate solution, then add the
bromide, and having placed the exposed plate in the dish pour the
developer upon it, covering the surface of the plate as quickly as
possible and removing any air bells that may stick to the surface.

Keep the solution in motion on the surface of the plate and in a
short time the image will begin to appear, the high lights first,
then the intermediate shades, last of all detail will be seen in the
shadows. Now pour the developer off, take the plate out of the tray
and look at the back of it. If the subject or image can be
distinctly seen it may be considered finished and only needs to be
washed and fixed.

If the plate has been over-exposed, which will be indicated by the
image appearing quickly, wash off the developer with water, add more
bromide to the solution and immerse the plate again.

If, on the contrary, the plate has not had enough time, it will be
indicated by developing very slowly and with a very thin and weak
image; when such is the case add more of the iron solution, however,
not more than to make the proportion of the iron nearly [p060]
one-fourth of the whole solution. More than this proportion will
cause a yellow precipitate, which will settle on the surface of the
film and destroy it. If by this course you succeed in securing
sufficient detail in the shadows, the negative may afterwards be
strengthened.

It is as well, however, when a plate is found to be undertimed (and
it is possible to make another from the same subject) to throw it
away; it will scarcely repay further attention.

It will be seen that a considerable margin in time of exposure can
be allowed and provided for. Yet none the less it is of the utmost
importance to learn to give the correct and proper exposure to
secure the finest results.

This, it is true, is not always possible, and as an under-exposed
plate is lost, any error in exposure would better be in too much
rather than in too little time.

It is said by some that by the use of citrate of soda almost any
degree of over-exposure may be remedied, but there remains the fact
that for a restraining agent to be of any value its application to a
negative in development must be almost instantaneous upon the
earliest discovery of the over-exposure.

When a large number of plates have been exposed and the first
developed indicates that all have been overtimed, then a 50 per
cent. solution of citrate of soda, used with judgment, might result
in saving the lot.

When over-timing makes itself visible unexpectedly and it is feared
that the development will have proceeded too far before the retarder
can act, a good plan is to take the plate out of the dish and flow
over it a solution of citric acid, containing a little chrome alum,
[p061] which will immediately stop the action of the developer and
give time to make other arrangements.


AMMONIA PYRO DEVELOPER.

  No. 1.

  Pyrogallic acid                         1 oz.
  Alcohol                                 4 oz.

  No. 2.

  Water                                  60 oz.
  Bromide of ammonium                    60 grs.
  Strong liquor ammonia                   2 drs.

To use, take of

  No. 1 or pyro solution                  1 dr.
  No. 2 or ammonia solution              10 oz.

This will be enough to develop three or four 8×10 plates, if they
are properly timed.

The above is one of the best forms of ammonia pyro developer; it
gives negatives of very fine quality.

Many dry plates, on development with ammonia and pyro, show a green
fog by reflected light, and a pink or red fog by transmitted light;
this fog does not materially injure the printing quality of the
plate, but spoils its appearance to the eye, and for that reason
many establishments have given up the use of ammonia and in its
place use soda or potash.


INTENSIFICATION OF DRY PLATE NEGATIVES.

From the difficulty of judging when the development has reached the
right point, in consequence of the opacity of the gelatine film,
many negatives are finished before they have acquired sufficient
density in development. As a result of this, much attention has been
given to the discovery and preparation of redeveloping or
intensifying solutions, many formulæ [p062] for which have been
published; among the best are the following:


INTENSIFYING SOLUTION. A.

  Bichloride of Mercury                 120 grains.
  Dissolved in hot water                 16 oz.

Add to this a strong solution of Iodide of Potassium drop by drop,
until the red precipitate begins to redissolve, then add a few
grains of hyposulphite of Soda, or enough to clear the liquid.

When required for use pour part of this solution into a tray of a
suitable size for the plate, add an equal amount of water, then
immerse the plate and keep the solution in motion. You will
immediately notice a change in the color of the film; take the plate
out, and if it has gained enough strength, wash it and set it up to
dry; if not, give it more.

It is proper to state that this process is more effective if the
plate has been dried after development.

When the plate has been thoroughly fixed and fully washed, it will
intensify by this method, without change of color by transmitted
light, and it will have secured a lovely printing quality rarely
seen even in the most perfect negatives.

This solution may be used until it is exhausted.


ROCHE'S INTENSIFIER. B.

  Water                                  10 oz.
  Sulphate of Copper                    100 grains.
  Bromide of Potassium                  100   "

When dissolved, this solution is ready for application and can be
used repeatedly.

The negative, after fixing and washing, is immersed in the solution
until it turns white. [p063]

Now remove it and wash slightly, then immerse it in old ferrous
oxalate developer and allow it to remain until it becomes black
entirely through the film. This method gives fine results and good
printing color.


PRACTICALITIES.

Form the habit of noticing carefully the intensity of the
illumination of the subject on the ground glass of the camera, so as
to judge correctly the time of exposure, as much of the successful
working of dry plates depends on the exposure; for although slightly
under-exposed or much over-exposed plates may by suitable
modification of the developer be saved and print good pictures, yet
they will lack the glow and balance that are characteristic of the
most perfect work.

Use a flat camel's-hair brush to remove any dust from the plate,
before putting it in the shield for exposure.

Always keep your developing solution in motion on the plate.

Fix your negative very thoroughly; leave it in the hypo 5 or 6
minutes longer than it is apparently necessary.

Never use hypo after it becomes discolored or turbid and deposits a
sediment.

Develop longer than you think necessary; a slow printing negative is
preferable to a weak one.

Keep your dark room and its contents very clean and free from dust,
and well ventilated.


RETOUCHING, OR STIPPLING THE NEGATIVE.

No photographic establishment in these days is considered to be well
equipped that does not employ a skillful retoucher and provide all
the apparatus and [p064] conveniences for the proper performance
of this very important branch of the art.

It is within the memory of many photographers when this work of
retouching was done on the positive, and some establishments were
compelled to employ a large force of skilled hands to work up and
finish the crude productions of the camera and the printing frame.

After the introduction of the carte de visite portrait, and later
the Imperial card, and the consequent reduction in price, the
expense of this work became such a burthen to photographers that
they were compelled to perfect their mechanical operations to the
utmost extent, and by every means to endeavor to avoid it.

It occurred then to some one of the retouching artists to do this
work upon the negative once for all, and from this beginning the art
of retouching the negative has reached its present high position.

Retouching, like stippling or hatching in miniature, is a work of
art, skill in which is gained only by assiduous practice controlled
by good taste, and it is the special work of the artist and not of
the photographer.

While then it is not considered wise for the photographer to be his
own retoucher any more than it is for every man to be his own lawyer
or doctor, yet every photographer should know enough about the art
and practice of retouching to appreciate good work and to detect the
bad. And for that reason he should make a study of it both from the
artistic and the mechanical points of view.

By such a course of study he will learn to produce that quality of
negative that will require the least amount of improvement at the
hands of the retoucher. [p065]

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

The work of retouching requires certain appliances to facilitate it,
and its own special room or atelier. A small well-ventilated room
having a window with a northern exposure is the best adapted for
this work. This room should be supplied with the necessary
conveniences, such as the retouching stand or frame, which in its
earlier form is as represented in Fig 1, but which, after a time,
became much improved upon; one form of improvement is shown in Fig.
2, but neither of these forms became universally used, as many
artists fashioned their stands or frames to suit their individual
[p066] taste or the requirements of their room or light. The march
of improvement, however, is never delayed by such a condition of
affairs, and was not in this case.

It became necessary on the part of those interested in the
manufacture of such apparatus to produce something that should meet
all requirements, and this has indeed been accomplished by the
production of the desk represented in Fig 3, which is called the
Novel Retouching Desk and is suitable for any size of negative under
25×30; it has a false top which can be pulled down to darken the
space in front of the ground glass cut out.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

The bed on which the negative is laid can be set at any inclination
to suit the convenience of the artist.

By means of the slide-rest the negative may be moved up or down to
any desired position.

It is handsomely made in hard wood, and would be quite an ornament
to any retoucher's room. [p067]

Next in importance would be a varnishing table, a small table or
bench supplied with a gas or oil stove. See Figs. 4 and 5.

[Illustration: FIG. 4. COMMON GAS STOVE]

[Illustration: FIG. 5. OIL STOVE.]

Also Anthony's retouching varnish and varnish pot. See Fig 6, page
68.

A tin pot as shown in cut, with a filter and funnel in top; rubber
stopper in spout.

The retoucher's room should also be supplied with

    Faber's Siberian leads, full set,
    Eagle lead pencils,
    Metallic leads,
    Camel's hair pencil brushes,
    Camel's hair blender,
    Guenther Wagner's retouch colors,
    India ink,
    Water colors, blue, white and red,
    A coarse sharpening stone,
    Fine emery paper. [p068]

The principal work of retouching, the stippling of the face, neck
and shoulders when bare, and the hands, is done with Graphite or
metallic leads, and directly upon the varnished or film surface.

[Illustration: FIG. 6. PEERLESS VARNISH POT AND FILTERER.]

The gelatine emulsion film is strong enough to take the pencil
without varnish, and many prefer to retouch and even to print them
before varnishing; but it is pretty generally conceded that
gelatine negatives will receive the pencil better when varnished.
[p069]

Before varnishing a gelatine plate, heat it as much as it will
bear, so as to drive off all moisture from the film, then let it
cool to the proper temperature before applying the varnish.

If the varnish used is too smooth or hard to take the pencil, a
better tooth may be given it by the application delicately, to the
parts to be retouched only, of a solution of rosin in turpentine,
which should be allowed to stand and dry an hour or so before the
retouching is done.

The work of retouching is very trying to the eyes; great pains
should therefore be taken to ascertain the most favorable
conditions of light and distance under which to work.

A negative should be kept at one angle and stationary while being
retouched.

There should be as little lead used on a negative as is consistent
with good work; make every touch tell to some purpose.

Note carefully the way the subject is lighted, and let the effect
of the stippling be in that direction; you will thus be less
likely to change the character or likeness of the face.

The lights and shadows should be caused to blend imperceptibly;
this will give a harmonious effect.

Let the grain or stipple be seen in all parts suitable in fineness
to the size of the head.

The refinements of negative retouching cannot be taught in books,
although much has been written concerning the same.

Try to light your subject and develop your negative so as to get
the utmost roundness or relief; then be careful not to destroy
this modeling, but improve [p070] it by retouching, only doing
so much work as to give a soft, clean-looking complexion.

Patient perseverance, close observation and trying again, will
bring a certain degree of success, and while only the few can
become first-class retouchers all may learn to improve their work
by this great help to photography.


SILVER PRINTING.

It was long ago said that silver printing was doomed, that in a
few more years it would be among the things that were.

Other processes have been introduced, have had their little day
and have passed off, some of them of much merit, and, it was
supposed, possessed of every element of permanency, but they were
found wanting in some very important respect, and so not being
able to hold their ground they passed into the limbo of neglected
things.

Silver printing, however, still maintains the field against all
comers, and does so by its intrinsic merits alone. No other
process has equalled it in ease of production and in beauty of
finish, and it is doubtful if any process has results of greater
permanence, taking the best products of the process as samples.

The one defect of the process is the possibility of its products
fading, but we must not judge of a process by its poorest
examples, but rather by its best; if such should be the decision,
there are at this day thousands of silver prints that are
co-existent with the process and remain as perfect as it is
possible for anything on paper to be after such a lapse of time.

A process that is so simple and easy that it can be [p071]
acquired in a few hours, is predestined to careless working,
slovenly manipulation, and to endless scamping at the hands of
careless workers. What wonder then if prints fade which were only
half made.

Suffice it that the process, intelligently and conscientiously
worked, would never suffer from such an imputation.


THE PRINTING ROOM.

All professional photographers practice the silver printing
process with more or less of success, as they bestow care and
intelligence in the working and are zealous for the reputation of
their work.

The proper handling of a negative by the printer requires as much
study and skill on his part as does the posing and lighting of the
subject in the studio; and the printing room should be as replete
with every convenience for forwarding and improving the operations
therein conducted, as any other department of the establishment.

This room is generally situated at the top of the house, and
wherever situated, should be so arranged that the east, south and
west sides may be opened to the sun, that his direct rays may be
utilized from the earliest to the latest working hours. Part of
the room should be partitioned off in such a manner, and
illuminated in such a moderate degree, that the sensitized paper
may not suffer from excess of light while the frames are being
filled and the changes made.

The printing room outfit consists of the various sizes of printing
frames, cardboard, tissue paper and cotton-wool for vignetting,
and knives, long-blade scissors, and glass forms for cutting the
paper to various sizes, [p072] light tight drawers to hold the
prepared paper, shelves, and racks for the negatives.

Mucilage or paste and brushes.

Flat brushes for removing dust from negatives.

India ink and Opaque, with pencil brushes and lead pencils for
spotting negatives.


THE SILVERING ROOM.

The silvering room may be also used for other manipulations in the
process, such as fuming the paper and washing the prints, and
should be furnished with all the conveniences for such work, which
consist of

  Nitrate of Silver.

  Albumenized and plain paper.

  A flat dish to hold the silver solution, of the size of
  the largest paper to be floated.

  A fuming box.

  A bottle of concentrated Ammonia.

  A gas or oil stove for drying the paper.

  A dozen or more of Lockwood's patent photo clips.
  Bi-Carbonate of Soda.

  An Argento meter.

  A 16 oz. Graduate.

  A clock.

  One agate evaporating dish, and 2 or 3 wide-mouth
  glass bottles, that will hold the full quantity of silver
  solution in use.


THE SILVER SOLUTION FOR PAPER.

A plain silver solution, of a strength of 30 grains of nitrate of
silver to the ounce of water in hot weather, increasing to 60
grains in the coldest, with enough bi-carbonate of soda added from
time to time to keep a small sediment of carbonate of silver in
the bottom of [p073] the bottle or dish, is all that can be
desired as a silvering solution for albumen paper. It only needs
to be kept up to the proper strength by the addition of silver
nitrate and water, when required; and when it shows signs of
discoloration a little more soda and an hour's sunlight will keep
it in good order the year round.


TO SILVER THE PAPER.

Albumen paper is sensitized by being floated for a time on the
surface of this silver solution, albumen side down. For this
purpose it is necessary that the solution should be held in a flat
dish, like a tray, with sides from 1-1/2 to 2 inches high, and of
a size suitable to the size of the sheet of paper to be floated;
if a full sheet, then the dish should be 19×24, and may be of
porcelain, agate ware, hard rubber, or any other kind that will
resist the corrosive action of the silver solution.

Pour the silver solution into the dish; there should be enough to
give a depth of at least half an inch. If there is any scum or
dust on the surface after the air bubbles have subsided, take a
long strip of tissue paper and draw the edge over the surface of
the solution, which will remove the scum or any floating dust or
air bells that may remain.

Place your paper on a bench or table, albumen up, and with a large
tuft of cotton rub the surface, using a light friction over the
whole; then turn the sheet of paper over and take between the
thumb and first finger of each hand opposite corners diagonally
across the paper, holding the corners up and near together; let
the sag of the paper sink one end first, until it touches the
solution, which can be plainly seen; then let the hands fall until
the other end has reached the [p074] surface of the silver;
then lower the corners gradually, until the paper lies flat on the
solution, care being taken that none of the silver solution runs
over the edge of the paper to the back.

The corners of the paper may now be gently raised to see if any
air bubbles have attached themselves to the surface of the paper;
if so, remove them and let the paper fall again to the solution.
It will now be seen that the edges of the sides of the paper will
begin to curl back, as if repelled from the solution. This may be
permitted to a certain extent, but not so far as that the wet
surface shall curl over against the back of the sheet. After a
short time this action ceases and the rolled edges unroll and fall
again upon the solution, which, when they have reached and lie
flat, may be taken as an indication that the paper is sufficiently
silvered, when it should be removed. With a small pointed stick
raise the left corner farthest from you from the solution, take it
between the thumb and first finger of the left hand and raise it
very slowly, until the right hand far corner is off the solution.
Take that corner between the right hand thumb and finger and
continue to raise the paper, still very slowly, until it is clear
of the solution; then hang it up to dry in a moderately dark
place, or better still, place it face down, on a sheet of clean
blotting paper, put another sheet over it and on that the next
sheet that is silvered, and so on alternate sheets, until you have
floated as many sheets as may be needed.

When this is done turn the papers over, bringing the sheet first
silvered to the top, which on removing the blotting paper will be
found surface dry at least, and may now be completely dried by
artificial heat, or by [p075] hanging it up two sheets
together, back to back, on lines with spring clips, until they dry
spontaneously, when they are ready to be fumed.


FUMING THE PAPER.

The fuming box is usually a light-tight box with two compartments;
the upper part has a door and should be sufficiently large to hold
the amount of paper necessary for a full day's work, without
crowding the sheets together or preventing a free circulation of
the fumes between their surfaces.

The paper is taken from the lines, each two sheets back to back,
the corners fastened with clips and set up on end in this
compartment or hung on lines, as the case may be. When all the
paper is in, shut and fasten the door and into the bottom
compartment (which is usually a shallow drawer, and separated from
the upper only by a lattice work of wood) place a saucer
containing an ounce or two of strong liquor of ammonia, push the
drawer in, thus closing the compartment, and leave for fifteen or
twenty minutes, or until you are ready to use the paper.

When you remove the paper from the fuming box do not expose it to
strong light until you have it in the printing frames, nor after
that, until you have toned and fixed it. Take the spent ammonia
from the box and pour it into a bottle; it is useful for other
purposes. Many printers cut the paper to size before printing,
others simply tear each sheet into halves, quarters, eighths or
twelfths, and print them thus, trimming them afterwards, some
before toning, others after they are finished and before wetting
them for mounting. The most economical method is to trim before
printing; [p076] all the trimmings should be carefully saved
for the silver they contain.


TONING THE PRINTS.

A toning solution is composed of chloride of gold in water with
enough carbonate of soda to make it slightly alkaline, and a pinch
of common salt. The action of toning is merely the deposition upon
the metallic silver in the print of a certain minute quantity of
metallic gold from the solution, which deposit causes the change
of color that may be seen while the toning is taking place.

The normal toning solution is varied endlessly by the addition of
acetates, chlorides and nitrates of various metals and salts and
of borax and chalk and such, the object being to produce unusual
tones, such as sepia, blue, blue-grey, brown and black, but the
richest and most agreeable tones may be produced as well by the
simplest means.


THE TONING SOLUTION.

  Water                   1 quart.

Into this put half as many grains of pure chloride of gold as you
have sheets of paper to tone; after adding the gold make the
solution alkaline by adding enough of a strong solution of a
carbonate or bicarbonate of soda to turn red litmus paper just
blue; then add a pinch of salt, and the toning solution is ready
for use. When half your prints are toned, or the toning proceeds
too slowly, add more gold, allowing not over 1 grain of gold for
each sheet of paper. When all the prints are toned, put the toning
solution into a bottle to keep for the next time, when it will
probably work better than at first; [p077] use it until it
becomes badly discolored, then put it into a large bottle to save
the waste gold.

The toning must be done in a flat dish that is as large as the
largest print that requires to be toned.

Your toning solution being ready, the prints are now to be
prepared for toning by being deprived of all excess of silver and
free chloride not acted on by the light; in order to do this, put
them one by one in a large dish full of water, in this dish keep
them in motion for some little time, then prepare another dish
containing the same amount of water slightly acidified with acetic
acid, and remove the prints into this one by one as before,
keeping them in motion; they will at once commence to turn red,
and when they are so they may be taken out, the waters of these
two washings must be saved for the silver contained therein.

The prints require two more waters after the acid, when they are
ready for toning.

Immerse half a dozen or more of the prints, one at a time, in the
toning solution and watch the change of color.

They may at first become a little redder from the action of the
salt in the solution, but they will soon change to a brown and
then to a bluish or grey brown. And when the faces have become as
clear and white as to suit as finished pictures, remove them to
fresh water and proceed with another batch until all are done.


FIXING THE PRINTS.

Hyposulphite of soda, about 1 lb. to a gallon of water,
constitutes the fixing solution; its function is to dissolve all
the chloride of silver that may remain in the prints after their
previous washing and toning. [p078]

The prints should be immersed one at a time, and kept in motion so
that the solution may have an equal action. When there are a large
number of prints the dish containing the fixing solution should be
correspondingly large, so that the prints may not be massed
together but kept separate and free for the more perfect action of
the fixing solution; they should be kept in motion until the
fixing is completed, which will be in about 15 or 20 minutes. Some
printers ascertain that the action is complete by holding the
print up and examining it by transmitted light; if it looks
mottled and uneven it is not fixed, but if you can see the fibre
of the paper and all is clear, then remove the prints from the
hypo into a dish containing brine or common salt and water, one by
one as before, and keep them in motion in this brine until all are
well saturated with it; then let fresh water run into the dish,
which will gradually change the brine to clear water.

The prints are put into the brine, and this gradually changed to
clear water to prevent blisters or a separation of the albumen
from the paper in the form of blisters. The water may be allowed
to run into the dish, the prints being kept in motion, and in the
course of an hour they will be sufficiently washed; they may then
be taken out and placed between the sheets of blotting paper to
remain until next morning, when they can be overlooked, the
blemished prints thrown out, and the perfect may be mounted.

The fixing solution should not be used a second time, but should
be thrown into a large barrel with the washings, that at some
future time the silver may be recovered; when the barrel becomes
full, a small amount of saturated solution of protosulphite of
iron [p079] may be thrown in, the water stirred well, and when
the sediment has settled to the bottom the clear liquid may be
drawn off and the barrel is ready to receive the next washings of
hypo.


MOUNTING THE PRINTS.

The selected prints are again placed in water and permitted to
remain until they become saturated; in the meantime some starch
paste should be prepared. The prints are then removed from the water
and placed on a sheet of glass, face down; when all are thus placed,
squeeze out all the water and they are ready to mount. Now with a
wide bristle brush spread the paste evenly on the back of the print,
carefully removing any lumps or dust or fibre of any kind, then
insert under the edge of the print the point of a knife-blade, raise
it until you can take it in the fingers, then place it pasted side
down on the face of your mount, adjust it evenly and lay it on the
table; now cover it with a piece of clean white paper, and with the
palm of the hand rub it down until all parts are in contact and all
air is expelled from between the print and mount. As the prints are
mounted they should be placed in rows on clean white or blotting
paper, one layer over the other; on the top place a clean sheet of
paper and over that a board of the proper size with a weight on it
to press the mounted picture flat; in the course of an hour they
will be dry enough to spot.


SPOTTING THE PRINTS.

With a fine pencil brush and Indian ink, go over the prints and
carefully touch up all the white spots and other blemishes that may
be found on the surface, so that they harmonize in color with the
surrounding [p080] parts. When this is done the pictures may be
lubricated for burnishing.


LUBRICATING THE PRINTS.

Make a pad of Canton flannel, get a piece of white castile soap, rub
the pad on the soap until it is well covered, then with this soaped
pad rub the surface of each print separately, carefully covering
every part of the surface; keep the pad well soaped by rubbing it on
the soap after every 2 or 3 prints. While this is being done the
burnisher may be heated; when the tool is hot enough to hiss when
touched by a wet finger, proceed to burnish. Do not use much
pressure; too great pressure will degrade the whites of the picture.

When they are all burnished go over them again with a moderately
soft lead pencil, touching up and blending any streaks or spots that
may be found; if any streaks or dirty lines are discovered in the
direction of the draw of the burnisher, they may be removed by light
friction with a piece of Canton flannel moistened with alcohol. This
completes the photograph.


THE PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO.

Mr. Ernest Lacan, a prominent artist of Paris, France, about ten
years ago, wrote for the _Philadelphia Photographer_ an account of
some of the prominent studios of that great city, from which I take
a description of the studio and establishment of the celebrated
Reutlinger.

This establishment comprises the fifth and sixth stories of a fine
house on the Boulevard Montmartre.

A handsome and wide stairway leads to the studio. The first thing
that strikes you on entering the ante-chamber, [p081] which is
transformed into an office, is the lowness of the ceiling and the
want of light. On the right is a room, larger and better lighted,
for the sale of choice specimens of his work. On the left are the
exhibition and waiting rooms, which are of medium size and whose
principal ornaments are the framed pictures, which cover the walls.
A small door leads to the skylight, of which the diagram at the head
of this article is a correct view as taken from a photograph.

[Illustration: THE PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO.]

The view is taken from the door at which you enter. This gallery is
formed of two mansards, which have been united by removing the
partition; is 39 feet [p082] long by 13 in breadth; its height to
the top of the upper sash is about 16 feet; the light comes from the
north. It is by means of an ingenious combination of white and blue
shades, that the artist succeeds in obtaining the charming effects
so much admired in his productions. At the end of the gallery is a
small room for ladies. The door which is seen on the left leads to
the laboratory, which is divided into three small apartments. The
first is used for cleaning plates, the second for their preparation,
and the third for developing negatives.

[Illustration: TN: Diagram of Loescher & Petsch.]

This is a diagram of the studio of the famous [p083] Loescher &
Petsch, of Berlin, who became so well known, some years ago, through
the style of picture called "Berlin Heads," which were among the
first samples of fine photographs from retouched negatives brought
to this country, and which certainly created a sensation.

The shades are arranged so as to show how some of the most charming
effects of illumination are produced. The room is filled with
diffused light, with a ray of direct light falling so as to produce
a clear high light on the prominences of the head of the sitter.

The next diagram is one of the Biglow studios. Mr. Biglow is the
author of a book on lighting and posing, which had a large sale, and
is a valuable book for positionists.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

These three views represent forms of skylight and side-light with
north exposure, by which all the finest effects possible are
obtained, but other forms of exposure are capable of being utilized
with fine success.

The studio of Sarony, of New York, is lighted with a top light
similar to the top light of the Biglow studio, and without any side
light at all.

A prominent artist of Brooklyn produces very fine [p084] work
under an east light, or rather a light a little south of east, which
to the ordinary photographer would be considered a very difficult
light to work. Good effects can be produced, however, under any form
of light by the use of shades, screens and reflectors, so that no
photographer need regret a favorable location, because unable to
have a northern exposure for his light.

The studio should be furnished with every requisite for the
production of the finest work, such as

  Lenses and Camera boxes,

  Camera stands,

  Pneumatic shutters for the lenses,

  Scenic grounds; interior and exterior accessories, such as
  balustrades, rocks, grass-mats, flowers, tables, chairs, draperies,
  rugs, etc.; head-rests, screens, reflectors, and all such articles
  as can be advantageously introduced in a picture to improve and
  embellish.

All these things are of importance, but should be used with taste
and judgment. The photograph should never be a picture of a piece of
furniture, with a figure thrown in, but rather the accessories
should be used only to improve the figure and make it more prominent
by increasing the perspective, when possible or allowable.


CAMERA LENSES.


THE OPTICS OF PHOTOGRAPHY.

A solar beam of light is a bundle of rays; a ray being the smallest
portion of light which can emanate from a luminous body.

Each of these rays possesses distinctive characters, both as regards
their chemical functions and colors.

Sir Isaac Newton proved that the white light emitted [p085] by
the sun is not so simple as it appears, but is composed of vivid
colors, as shown by his beautiful experiment, the Analysis of Light,
which is exemplified by the use of a glass prism. (See fig. 1.)

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

The ray of light A, E, being admitted into a darkened room through a
hole A, in the shutter, would fall upon the wall at E. As soon as
the prism, B, C, is placed in the path of the sunbeam so as to allow
it to fall on one of its angles B, the ray will be refracted, or
bent out of its course so as to pass through the prism (as in the
line D) and not in the same line, A, E, that it would have done had
the prism not been interposed.

Another effect also takes place; the ray of white light is
decomposed into its component colors, and if you stand at a short
distance from the prism, you will see that these colors are spread
out in a triangular form, the base of which is on the wall and the
apex at the angle C of the prism. Remove the prism and it is seen
that the splendid display of colors upon the wall has disappeared,
and a round spot of white light, E, is seen below the place occupied
by the spectrum.

The colored image on the wall is called the prismatic or solar
spectrum, which, according to Sir Isaac Newton, is composed
of seven different colors. The color at the lowest portion of
the image is red and the one at the other end is violet, the
intermediate parts being occupied by five other colors, and
the whole arranged [p086] according to the table below, the
proportion of each color having been measured by Fraunhofer with
the greatest care, with the results placed opposite to each,
corresponding with the 360 degrees of a circle, the red ray being
the least and the violet the most refracted of this chromatic
image.

  TOP.

  Violet         109
  Indigo          47
  Blue            48
  Green           46
  Yellow          27
  Orange          27
  Red             56
                 ---
                 360

The sunbeam, the ray of white light, contains powers within it of
which the earlier philosophers had but a faint idea, besides its
accompanying heat. There is a principle associated intimately with
it, which has the power of decomposing and of determining the
decomposition of chemical compounds.

This principle is "Actinism" and is as perfectly distinct in the
nature of its properties from light, as light is from the principle
of heat, with which it is also closely connected.

Actinism may then be considered as the fundamental principle, on
which photography is based, and its power is exerted in forming the
image on the sensitized plate in the Camera, as well as subsequently
in forming or causing the impression on the sensitized paper exposed
to the light beneath the negative.

In this connection we have only to consider the [p087]
application of this Actinism through the medium of a combination of
lenses to form an image on a sensitized plate in the Camera.

It has been shown that when light passes through a prism of glass
its colors are separated; this separation is caused by the unequal
refrangibility of the different colored rays, the violet being the
most and the red the least refrangible of the seven rays.

A ray of light passing through a vacuum progresses in a perfectly
straight line, but all matter, however attenuated it may be, has the
property of refracting or bending the ray of light.

The refractive power of some substances is immense, while that of
others is very trifling. The mode of the refraction depends on the
comparative density or rarity of the respective media. If the medium
which the rays enter be denser, they move through it in a direction
nearer to the perpendicular drawn to its surface; on the contrary,
when light passes out of a denser into a rarer medium, it moves in a
direction farther from the perpendicular. This refraction is greater
or less, that is the rays are more or less bent or turned from their
straight course, as the second medium through which they pass is
more or less dense than the first.

We next study the utilization of this power of refraction in the
manufacture of lenses to overcome the unequal refrangibility of the
colored rays of light.

A lens for use in photography is made of glass as pure and as
colorless as can be procured, and is ground into such a form as to
collect or disperse the rays of light which pass through it. Lenses
are of different shapes, and thence receive different names.  [p088]

[Illustration: FIG. 2 E. 1. Double convex. 2. Plano-convex. 3.
Concavo-convex. 4. Double concave. 5. Plano-concave. 6. Meniscus.]

The figures 1 to 6 represent sections of the variously shaped lenses
which are combined for use in photography.

The design in forming lenses is to procure a medium through which
the rays of light from any object may pass and converge to a
corresponding point beyond; the manner in which the rays proceed
through the lens, and then centre in a focal point, will depend on
the form of the lens, its capacity for refraction and the distance
of the object.

The double convex lens may be viewed as a portion cut out of the
side of a sphere. Here, as in all cases of convexity, the focus of
the parallel rays passing through the lens is at the centre of the
sphere. (See fig. 3.)

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

A plano-convex has only half of the refractive power of the double
convex; the parallel rays, falling on the convex side of the lens,
would converge at the distance of the whole diameter of the sphere.
Thus the focal point at which the rays of light converge is always
regulated by the degree of curvature of the lens. Thus the double
convex lens has the greatest power of converging the rays of light;
the plano-convex has only half the power of the former. Both these
lenses have also the power [p089] of magnifying the image of an
object seen through them in the same proportion.

The double concave and the plano-concave have the power of
dispersing the rays of light and of diminishing the image of an
object seen through them in the same proportion.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

The meniscus lens has but a very slightly dispersive power, and the
concavo-convex merely separates the parallel rays to the thickness
of the lens and sends them on parallel as they entered.

All these lenses, having something of the prism in their shape, have
the power to a greater or lesser extent of decomposing the light
that passes through them. This is called chromatic aberration,
because the colored rays do not all converge to the same focus; thus
the image seen through them is surrounded by a fringe or border of
color.

Single lenses lack the power of producing a straight image of a
straight object; the image will have the curve of the lens through
which the light passes to form it; a double convex lens will give a
greater curve than a plano-convex. This is called spherical
aberration.

The main object to be considered in the manufacture of a lens for
photographic purposes is to produce one with the least spherical and
chromatic aberration.

Spherical aberration is overcome to a great extent by the use (in
connection with the double convex) of a meniscus lens.

Chromatic aberration is overcome by the use of two glasses of
unequal density in forming one lens; thus [p090] the front lens
of the portrait combination is composed of a double convex of crown
glass and plano-concave or meniscus of flint glass, which two
glasses are sealed together with Canada balsam.

The forms of lenses which are corrected for chromatic and spherical
aberration will be seen in Fig. 5.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

These lenses are termed achromatic, and, although each is formed of
two kinds of glass, they are sealed together so as to be practically
one lens.

Every manufacturer of portrait or view lenses, uses the six forms
shown in the diagram (Fig. 2), in some manner peculiar to himself,
but of the six, four will be found in every combination in general
use, varied in radii, construction and dimension, according to the
use for which they are intended.

Formerly the photographer's choice of lenses was restricted to two
combinations, the double combination for portraits and the single
for views. There have of late years been invented a great variety of
lenses, among which and in the order of invention, probably are
Petzval's Orthoscopic, Harrison's Globe, Ross's Doublet, Darlot's
Wide Angle and Rectilinear Hemispherical, Steinheil's Aplanatic,
Voightlander's Euryscope, [p091] and greatest of all, Dallmeyer's
Patent Portrait, Wide Angle and Rapid Rectilinear Lenses.

The combinations of lenses are three, the single, double and triple;
the latter is now no longer in use, or if so, its use is greatly
restricted. The single combinations have greater focal length than
the double, and consequently at the same diameters larger pictures
are obtainable, and they are principally used for landscape or view
work.

The double combinations, so called from having a second pair of
lenses behind the first, which have the effect of shortening the
focus about one-half, whereby the action of the light is
accelerated, and both the spherical and chromatic aberrations more
perfectly corrected, which result in an image more delicate in
definition and more rotund in form, thus peculiarly qualifying them
as portrait lenses.

In the selection of lenses for studio or view work, the intending
purchaser, if desirous and pecuniarily able to avail himself of the
best, will naturally inquire what make of lenses is the most widely
known and used, and it will not take much time to procure a
satisfactory answer to the question.

It has been conceded now for some years, both in Europe and in
America, that the lenses manufactured by J. H. Dallmeyer, of London,
England, are superior to all others, not only for their fitness for
the work for which they are specially constructed, but for their
adaptability to work beyond anything claimed for them by the maker,
and also for a certain undefinable and æsthetic quality inherent in
the negative made by these lenses.

The fact that there is not in the wide world a photographic [p092]
establishment of any note that does not possess one or more of
these lenses is strong evidence of their superiority. In the quality
of the glass used, in the perfection of finish and adjustment, in
softness, crispness and depth, in rapidity, illumination and every
quality that recommends a lens, the Dallmeyer lenses are unrivalled.

The portrait combination now in general use, was first constructed
from calculations made by Professor Petzval, of Vienna. Its optical
components are, a front crown lens of unequal convex curves to which
is cemented a double flint lens of unequal concave curves. The back
combination is a crown lens of unequal convex curves and a
concavo-convex flint lens at a little space from it. (See Fig. 6.)

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

For more than a quarter of a century this form of lens had been used
without material change in its construction, until Mr. Thos. Ross,
by a modification of the curves, succeeded in flattening the field
and increased its rapidity by shortening the focus, but left it with
the peculiar shallowness of focal depth, especially in the larger
sizes, which has been the torment of photographers to this time.

Mr. Dallmeyer was the first to improve upon the [p093] original
portrait combination, and in his new Patent Portrait Lens he has
most ingeniously obtained a diffusion of focus at the will of the
operator. By a quarter or half turn of the cell of the back
combination the focus is diffused, giving an agreeable softness in
place of the shallow plane of excessive and wiry definition so
familiar to the photographer.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

The diagram, Fig. 7, shows a section of Mr. Dallmeyer's New Portrait
Lens. There are two actinic combinations, of which the front
resembles the Petzval lens; the back combination differs as regards
the ratio of radii of the lenses used, the crown being a deep
meniscus and the flint a deep concavo-convex, with their adjacent
surfaces dissimilar; their positions also are reversed, the
concavo-convex of flint occupies the external position, instead of
as in the Petzval, and this lens being mounted in a cell capable of
being unscrewed supplies the means of regulating the spherical
aberration of the system at will. The lower portion of the diagram
[p094] exhibits a plan of the mount of the back flint glass lens;
this cell admits of being unscrewed, one or more parts of
revolutions of the screw indicated by an index and divisions; with
this back lens screwed home this combination has all the good
qualities of the old form of portrait lens, but with a flatter field
and wider illumination.

There are three distinct classes of portrait lenses. The first are
lenses of large diameter and aperture compared with their short
focal length. In this class the greatest rapidity is obtained at the
sacrifice of flatness of field. Of this class are the B and C lenses
of Dallmeyer.

The second class are lenses of equal diameter and aperture with
those just described; but with about double their focal length, and
therefore less rapid, but with more field and wider illumination; of
this class are the A series.

In the third class are long focus lenses, which, at three inches
diameter have fifteen inches focal length; with the result of a
larger and flatter field; they are, however, necessarily slow, but
well calculated for out-door views, groups and copying. Of this
class are the D series, which, since the introduction of the rapid
dry plate, have become available for ordinary portrait work in the
studio.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.]

Fig. 8 represents the Dallmeyer Wide Angle Rectilinear Lens. It
consists of two cemented combinations, [p095] each composed of a
deep meniscus crown and a deep concavo-convex flint glass lens;
between the two, dividing the space in the proportion of their
respective diameters, is placed a revolving diaphragm, the largest
aperture of which is f/15; the position of the stop being nearer the
back combination avoids the central spot or flare.

This lens embraces an angle of 90 to 100 degrees; it is quite free
from distortion, and particularly adaptable for taking views in
confined situations, such as interiors, views in narrow streets, &c.
Being a double combination its work is more finished and round than
that by the single lens.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

Probably the two greatest rivals to the Dallmeyer Wide Angle Lens
are the Actinic Doublet of Ross (Fig. 9), and the Steinheil
Aplanatic (Fig. 10). The Ross Doublet consists of a crossed crown
lens, cemented to its correcting flint lens, which is a crossed
concave, the whole forming a deep meniscus the focus of which is
equal to the back combination or about double that of the equivalent
focus of the complete instrument, the posterior meniscus combination
consists of a meniscus crown lens cemented to a concavo-convex flint
lens. The two combinations are mounted rigidly with a rotating disk
of [p096] diaphragms or stops placed midway between the lenses.

The Steinheil consists of a front and back corrected combination of
precisely the same shape, mounted rigidly and having a rotating disk
of apertures placed midway between the lenses.

These are three distinct types of view lenses of wide angle, and a
comparison of the diagrams will show the wide difference in the
construction of the two latter from the Dallmeyer; and while they
stand unrivaled for the perfection and beauty of their work, which
is about equal, the Dallmeyer obtains a great advantage over the
others in the thinness of its lenses, which enables it to work with
greater rapidity, and indeed it has been used with great success
with the drop-shutter for photographing moving objects and other
similar out-door work.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

While the possession of a wide angle lens is indispensable in the
varied selection of out-door subjects, yet for many purposes it has
been found they are unsuitable; and to meet this want Mr. Dallmeyer
has constructed a modification of the wide angle, which he calls
Rapid rectilinear. Its construction is shown in Fig. 11. The lenses
of the front and back combination have the same general form as
those of the wide angle, but they are of smaller diameter, being
constructed for angles of 60 to 70 degrees only. It is four times as
rapid, and is in fact an aplanatic and symmetrical lens, and may be
regarded [p097] as the most perfect lens extant. As it admits of
the use of a larger aperture it is well adapted for interiors, where
there is space for its use, and for almost every purpose of out-door
photography, requiring short exposure and no greater angle.

The use of this lens has been greatly extended since the
introduction of the rapid dry plate, which admits of its employment
as a portrait lens in the studio, and in fact it has become a very
popular instrument for portrait work, especially for the larger and
life sizes, so that there is a strong probability that before many
years the Rapid rectilinear and the D series of lenses of Dallmeyer
will be the most useful and the most profitable lenses for portrait
work in the studio that have ever been constructed, unless the near
future shall give us something not now thought possible in optics.

Dallmeyer lenses are sold only by E. & H. T. Anthony & Co., who are
the agents in this country, and as these lenses are quite expensive,
and are indeed beyond the means of many, the Messrs. Anthony keep
other and cheaper lenses, which are good of their kind, both for
portrait and for out-door work, among which are the E A lenses for
portraits, and the Platyscope and other lenses for views, etc.

To those desiring advice on the choice of a lens, this much may be
said. If it is intended to procure a Dallmeyer, it is only necessary
to know the limit in size of the work to be done. If in portraiture,
you select a lens that will cover the size of plate you intend to
use. If in landscape, or architectural work, or copying, consult the
catalogue and order the lens that meets the requirements of the
case. There is said to [p098] be no difference in these lenses;
that is, all lenses of the same series and size are exactly alike,
the glass is of the same density, ground to the same curve, and
polished to the same degree of fineness, so that each one is as good
and no better than any of the others of the same kind and size. It
is the same with the view lenses; one may order with confidence, and
not be disappointed by receiving an inferior lens, while expecting
the best in the world.

It is not so, however, with any other make of lenses; at least I
have never heard such a claim made on the part of any other maker,
hence for the selection of a lens by any other maker, some thought
and experiment are justifiable and even necessary. Under such
circumstances, the following method of testing a lens will be found
useful.

When of several lenses of the same size it is desired to select the
best, attach one to a camera box and focus it on some long object
placed parallel with the axis of the lens; adjust the focus so that
the part of the object nearest the lens shall be in focus, but near
that point where it would begin to lose sharp definition. Mark the
position of the carriage on the rail, then turn the focus forward so
that the same point will be as near the other extremity of sharp
definition, then mark the position of the carriage on the rail and
note the distance between the two marks, which will indicate the
depth of sharp focus. Now stretch a line across the room and focus
the instrument on the centre of the line, and note to what distance
on each side of the centre sharp definition extends; this will
indicate the flatness of the field. Try all the lenses in the same
manner, and secure the one that has the greatest [p099] depth of
focus and the greatest extent of sharp definition on the horizontal
line.

Expensive lenses should be treated with much carefulness. They
should be kept free from dust and dampness, and should never be
cleaned or rubbed with cloth or the handkerchief; nothing but fine
chamois should be used to clean a lens, the fine polish of which
(one important factor in its usefulness and value) is so easily
injured by abrading its surface with anything of a fibrous or gritty
nature.

The lens should always be covered when the day's work is done and
while the studio is being cleaned up, to exclude dust, etc., from
the glasses.

Examine the lens every morning to see if the glasses are at all
dimmed by damp or dust, and if so, use the chamois. You must not
expect good work from lenses whose surfaces are in any way dimmed.

Study your lens with care, and learn all its good and weak points,
and so enable yourself to take every advantage of instrument, light
and pose in making a sitting.


CAMERA BOXES.

The camera box and lens in the hands of the competent photographer
are what the brush and colors may be in the hands of the portrait
painter. They are the means whereby he produces his portrait and
stamps his individuality upon his work. Therefore, when we look back
and consider the rude implements the pioneers in our art had to work
with, we are often surprised that the work they produced was so
really respectable in point of finish and excellence as it was.

Starting from a cigar box and a burning glass, not 50 years ago, the
progress made, as represented by [p100] the instruments in use at
this day, would seem to be fully equal to the advance from Fox
Talbot's paper negative to that made on the Gelatine Dry plate.

As late as 25 years ago the box in general use consisted of two
sections of square wooden tube, one sliding inside the other, in
telescopic style; to the front of the smaller section was attached
the lens, and the focusing glass fitted into a groove in the rear of
the larger section. The lens afforded the means of adjusting the
focus in its rack and pinion movement, and the ground glass had to
be removed from its groove before the plate holder could be put in
place.

This rude apparatus was considered in its time to be a very
ingenious construction, but if the shades of Morse and Draper could
contemplate the objects of art that have supplanted the rude
constructions they were so familiar with and knew so well how to
use, they might well wish themselves back among the living for the
pleasure of working with one of the latest camera boxes.

The cameras of the present time seem constructed to meet every
requirement of the most exacting intelligence. They are light, yet
firm and durable, they are rigid as wood and metal can make them,
and yet they are fitted to focus sharply all positions of the human
form. They are complicated, yet extraordinarily convenient, and they
are made in forms and sizes adapted to every possible use or demand.

There are four principal varieties of camera boxes in general use,
viz:

The camera for positives, which includes the multiplier. The camera
for negatives, wet or dry, for portraiture. The camera for copying,
and the camera for [p101] viewing and out-door work; descriptive
accounts of the several varieties will be given under their
appropriate heads.


THE CAMERA BOX FOR POSITIVES AND THE MULTIPLIER.

These boxes are usually made for use with four or more lenses in a
block, by which at one exposure as many pictures are made as there
are lenses.

The size represented by Figs. 1 and 2 is usually employed for work
in tents or portable houses, on fairgrounds and places of resort at
the seaside and elsewhere during the summer season.

Fig. 1 shows the front, with the method of attaching the four
lenses, which are of the 1/4 size, and they make four pictures on a
5×7 plate.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. CLIMAX.]

Fig. 2 shows the back of the same box with the ground glass
reversed, and the plateholder partly pushed into position; there are
shown also the openings through which the various sizes of pictures
are made. This box can also be used with one lens for making two
cartes de visite or one cabinet on the 5×7 plate. [p102] The same
style may be had with the ground glass hinged to the box.

[Illustration: FIG. 2. CLIMAX.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

This same style of box is made also of larger sizes, to be used with
one or more lenses, of which Fig. 3 represents the size for 8×10, by
which with one lens can be made 4 cartes de visite or 2 cabinets on
8×10 [p103] or 7×10 plates, and with 4 lenses 8 cartes de visite
on the same size plate, or with 9 lenses 18 large gems are made by
two exposures.

[Illustration: FIG. 4. N CAMERA, REAR VIEW.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

For gallery work, however, the Figs. 4 and 5 represent [p104] the
most useful form of multiplying camera, as by their aid everything
that would be called for in a ferrotype gallery can be made.

With one lens can be made on 8×10 plate: 2 cabinets, 2 cartes de
visite or 1 large picture. With 4 lenses can be made on 8×10 plate
by 2 exposures: 8 cartes de visite, and on 5×7 plates by one
exposure, 4 cartes de visite.

With 9 1/9 lenses on 7×10 plate can be made with two exposures: 18
gems; with 4 exposures, 36 gems; and with 8 exposures, 72 gems; on
5×7 plate with 1 exposure, 9; 2 exposures, 18; and with 4 exposures,
36 gems.

The carriage and plate holder of these boxes move vertically and
horizontally, thus giving the operator the power of making a great
variety of sizes and of using any size of plate from 1/4 upwards to
8×10. On the 1/4 plate can be made with one exposure, 4 1/9 gems; 8
of the next smaller size by 2 exposures; and 16 of the smallest
size, by 4 exposures, thus bringing into use only 4 of the 9 lenses;
the second size is made by placing the lenses horizontally, also the
openings in the back of the box, the plate also is laid on its side
in the holder.

These boxes are finished in a variety of styles, plain or
ornamental, and are fitted with holders for negatives as well as the
usual rabbeted holders for ferrotypes, and by their use all the work
of a small establishment might very easily be done, as all the sizes
of ferrotypes are made from 16 gems on 1/4 plate to 72 of the same
size on 7×10 plate, and by one lens everything, positive or
negative, from 1/4 to 8×10 size, are made without difficulty. [p105]


THE CAMERA FOR NEGATIVES, WET OR DRY.

CLIMAX IMPERIAL CAMERAS.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

For the gallery making no pictures larger than 8×10, the above,
figure 6, represents the camera box that is the best fitted in every
respect. It is light, compact and durable, and it is most accurately
adjusted for cartes de visite, cabinets, 4×4 or 8×10 pictures in
every style, full length, half lengths or heads. It has the double
swing back, with the tangent movement, and is fitted with the
Benster holder, which is represented in the cut.

This style can be had in every variety of finish, from the plain to
the most ornamented, in mahogany or ebonized wood, with brass
fittings or nickel or silver-plated, as may be most desired.

For galleries where larger work is called for, figure 7 represents a
box that is made in all the sizes from 11×14 to 25×30, and it is
fitted with an attachment (see Fig. 8 for 8×10 to 1/4 plate), thus
enabling the photographer with one box to fill every order for
pictures, from a card to a life-size portrait. [p106] This box is
fitted with the double swing back, tangent [p107] movement, the
telescope bed, which renders it very compact, and with the Benster
holders.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

[Illustration: CLIMAX ROYAL CAMERA.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.] [p108]

[Illustration: THE M SUCCESS WITH TANGENT MOVEMENT. FIG. 11.]

Figs. 10 and 11 represent varieties of cameras of a highly
ornamental kind. They are made of hard wood, ebonized, and with
nickel-plated fittings. Fig. 10 has the Wright's patent metallic
swing, Fig. 11, the tangent movement.

The "Benster" Plate-holder (see page 109) is intended to, and will
undoubtedly, supersede the Bonanza holder for wet plate work, as it
is a more perfect silver saver than the Bonanza, while its easy
adjustability to every size of plate places it away ahead of
anything known or in use heretofore. The operator who has ever used
this holder will never consent to go back to any of the old styles
while he can procure the Benster. The plate rests on pure silver
wire, and there is a trough with large bottle [p109] beneath,
into which all the silver waste readily finds its way. As the trough
is raised, the upper ledge descends, so that the centre of the plate
is at all times in the centre of the holder, no matter what size is
used. This obviates the use of inside kits, and adapts itself at
once to _any size of plate_, from the largest the holder will admit
to one not under three inches square. This is unquestionably the
best gallery plate-holder made. By a recent improvement, the
horizontal bars may be instantly fastened for plates of any size,
and there is also an attachment for the vertical adjustment. For
_dry plate studio_ work it is the holder _par excellence_.

[Illustration: THE "BENSTER" PLATE-HOLDER. FIG. 12.] [p110]

CAMERA BOXES.

THE COPYING AND ENLARGING AND REDUCING CAMERA.

[Illustration: THE COPYING AND ENLARGING AND REDUCING CAMERA. FIG.
13.]

Copying constitutes a large portion of the business of every
gallery, and a camera for that purpose is almost indispensable, as
the portrait camera is entirely unfitted for a major portion of the
copying work that comes.

The copying camera requires no swing back, but does require great
length of bellows and bed, which has often to be supplemented by the
cone when a very small picture is to be enlarged to a great size.

A special form of copying camera is adapted to enlarging and
reducing negatives, and for making transparencies. This form, Fig.
14, can be so arranged as to render it possible to remove the lens
from the position as seen in Fig. 14 to the front, so that the two
[p111] forms, Figs. 13 and 14, might be combined in one for
copying and making transparencies.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]


THE CAMERA FOR VIEWING AND OUT-DOOR WORK.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.]

The Success Camera, for viewing, Figs. 15 and 16, [p112] is an
instrument calculated in every way to meet the requirements of
professional out-door work. It is made in a form to secure the
utmost rigidity and strength with the least weight. The bellows is
conical, the bed is folding, the double swing back is convenient and
easy of adjustment. In front, below the lens, is a small recess, or
closet, in which extra tubes, flanges, screws, screwdriver, etc.,
may be safely carried; when folded, its bulk is small and occupies
but little space. From the front to the outside surface of the bed,
as folded, is only six inches, and the weight for 11×14 box, with
ground glass and plate-holder, is only twenty-two pounds. By
referring to the cut, 16, the compactness of this camera may be
realized.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.]

From the mode of construction the bed is rendered peculiarly rigid,
and in their attachment and arrangement the brass guides are
protected from injury. In case that, through accident, any part
should get broken, it can readily be replaced without returning the
camera.

[Illustration: THE NOVEL VIEW CAMERA. FIG. 17. REPRESENTING THE
CAMERA WHILE BEING REVERSED.]

The Novel View Camera is the latest response to the demand for
something that shall be very light and very convenient. Its
construction is the result of a series of experiments entered into
with a view to obtaining an instrument in the make up [p113] of
which there shall be no unnecessary weight, and combining easy
adjustment with great rigidity. It being absolutely necessary that a
view camera shall permit the use of the plate both horizontally and
vertically, all the older forms of view cameras were built square,
to permit the shifting of the plate, thus adding very much to the
weight of the instrument. In this instrument, however, all that is
possible has been done to reduce the bulk and weight; in doing so
several new [p114] improvements have been adopted. The box itself
is very little larger in outside measurement than the largest plate
it will take, and the double holder is so perfect as to be very
little if any heavier than the glass plates it is intended to
contain. The greatest improvement is the revolving bellows, the
front end of which is fastened in the light frame-work in such a way
that when the back is detached from the bed the whole bellows
revolves, instead of requiring to be unbuttoned, as heretofore,
making a great saving in time. The back is held to the bed by metal
plates having slotted holes, which permit the passage of round
screw-heads, which slide over the slots and thus hold very firmly.
The back may be detached and changed from a vertical position to a
horizontal in so short a space of time as two seconds, by the watch.

These boxes are made with a double swing, the combination of the two
swings making it possible to avoid all distortion of lines.

These cameras are made in all sizes from 4×5 to 18×22, and they are
decidedly the camera of the period. The 3 suitable sizes are fitted
with partitions, and extra fronts for stereoscopic work.

The novel dry plate holders for these cameras are stripped of every
unnecessary bulk and weight; each will contain two plates, except
the sizes above 8×10, which are fitted with a patent shield, each
one of which has two slides working in the end and in the side of
the shield, therefore the slide can be withdrawn from the side of
the shield, no matter in what position the camera is placed. These
shields are single for one dry plate only. All the sizes of Novel
Cameras above 8×10 are made with the ground glass of the same focus
[p115] as for wet plate holders; if desired wet plate holders can
be furnished to order.


THE KLAUBER CAMERA.

A new idea has been perfected and carried out in connection with the
Novel Camera, making it a combination View and Portrait Camera with
the above name. See Cuts 18 and 19. A portrait attachment has been
constructed to fit the back of the larger sizes of the Novel Camera,
which can be attached or detached in a few seconds, thus rendering
it unnecessary that there should be two large and expensive cameras
in one gallery. This is an exceedingly valuable improvement for the
larger sizes in more than one particular. The 18×22 size, with
ground glass and two plate holders, weighs only 50 lbs.; the
measurement of this size outside is 11×22×30-1/4 inches only.

[Illustration: FIG. 18. KLAUBER CAMERA, VIEW PART ONLY.] [p116]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.]

Thus it will be seen that every variety of work in the gallery may
be done with two or at the most three Cameras.

The Climax Imperial Cameras for work up to 8×10; a Klauber Camera
for portrait and view work from 8×10 to any size desired, together
with a Copying Camera, would make a superb outfit for any gallery.


CAMERA STANDS.

A stand or support for the camera box and lens, by means of which
the box and lens can be raised or lowered or moved about the room
with facility.

The stand best suited for the purpose is one that is strong, and
heavy enough to be very rigid and firm, but not so heavy as to be
cumbersome and difficult to move. For raising and lowering the
camera, which in some cases is quite heavy, there are several
appliances, such as levers, screws, weights, &c., &c., and [p117]
the different styles of camera stands may be designated by the name
of the mechanical power which is applied for that purpose, viz:

Lever Stands, Screw Stands, Balance Stands.


THE LEVER STAND.

The Lever Stand, Fig. 20, is one of the oldest forms of camera
stand, and is still used in many establishments. The method of
raising the top may be seen in the cut. There are two levers, one
for each end, by means of which the camera may be inclined upwards
or downwards. The levers are held in place by means of springs which
press a beveled edge steel plate--attached to the levers near the
handles--against a serrated plate of steel, attached vertically
between the handles. (See cut.)

[Illustration: FIG. 20.]

This style of camera stand is more used for very large and heavy
cameras than for the smaller kind. They are very firm and rigid, and
exceedingly durable, being made of hard wood, well seasoned, and
they are consequently not at all liable to get out of order; in
fact, a well made stand would last a life-time, if one cared to have
a camera stand last so long. The next style in order is the


SCREW STAND,

which is a very popular stand, and its most popular form is that
called the Knickerbocker Stand, which is made in 4 or more sizes and
has 2 styles of [p118] tops; the top seen in Fig. 21 has the name
of the inventor of the stand and is called the Stoddard Top; the
other, No. 22, is the Acme Top. This form of stand is better adapted
for light camera boxes, and is therefore preferred in small
establishments and tintype galleries to the other styles, which take
up more room and are not so portable.

[Illustration: THE KNICKERBOCKER STAND. FIG. 21.] [p119]

[Illustration: FIG. 22. THE ACME TOP.]


THE BALANCE STAND.

This style comprises a greater variety of forms than all the others
combined, it requiring the least exertion to move the box up or
down. The weight of the camera box when placed on the stand top is
counterbalanced by weights which rest upon a shelf attached to
cords, which pass over pulleys and downwards, to be fastened to
uprights which support the top; when properly balanced it requires
only a touch of the hand to raise the box or to lower it.


THE BOWDISH STAND.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.]

The most popular form of this stand is the Bowdish. See cut 23. The
description will be rendered quite intelligible by observing the
weights which are in the centre, between the three legs, and the
cords which pass over the pulleys to the three supports of the top.
From the peculiar construction of this stand it has the most simple
[p120] means of adjustment; it is raised or lowered by touch, and
a binding screw serves to keep it immovably in position.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--THE AUTOMATIC STAND.]

Another form of this stand is the Automatic, Fig. 24, which is a
later form than the Bowdish, and has several improvements not yet
applied to the latter. It is entirely new in shape and principle; it
is very light and simple. The various changes are made quicker and
easier than with any other stand. A coil spring bears most of the
weight in raising and lowering, and self-acting [p121] stops hold
the centre frame and bind it firmly at any height desired by the
operator, no set-screw being required to make it rigid. It has also
a new and superior device for tilting the top. Another form of this,
very popular stand is the Gem City Stand, see Fig. 25, [p122]
which in some respects is even better than the Automatic; beside the
weight balancing the camera box it has a crank in common with the
Automatic for raising and lowering. It also has a very convenient
arrangement for copying, which is an extension which moves under the
top of the stand and holds an upright support for the picture to be
copied; this is a very convenient arrangement for galleries where
there is not enough copying done to require a special copying box.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--THE GEM CITY STAND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--THE HANDY CAMERA STAND.]

There is another form of stand in use, in which the balancing weight
is replaced by a crank and pulley; of this kind is the Handy Camera
Stand.

Of this style there is another form that has advantages of its own,
which would seem to render it peculiarly a useful and appropriate
stand for light boxes; it is the Magic Camera Stand. [p123]

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--MAGIC CAMERA STAND.]

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--IRON CENTRE STAND.]

All these various styles of stands are made in sizes to suit cameras
from 8×10 to 25×30.

Fig. 28 represents a style of stand which does not classify, but
which is a useful stand in a portable gallery or tent. [p124]


THE PNEUMATIC SHUTTER FOR THE CAMERA.

This device for making exposures in the photographic studio has
proved to be so useful and popular as to have secured almost general
recognition and adoption among the photographers of America.

The possibility of making exposures in the studio, unknown to the
subject, placed a very decided advantage in the hands of the
operator, who, standing at any point, could watch the expression of
the subject and seize the right moment to secure the impression
desired; so that the pneumatic shutter seemed to be the proper
complement to the lightning dry plate.

There is a great variety of these shutters exhibited and for sale,
and the number continually increases.

The earliest example of this style of shutter that we know of is the
Cadett, an English invention, which, in its introduction into this
country, served as a stimulus to the inventive genius of Americans,
and, as a consequence, we have the great variety that now may be
selected from. An effort was made to apply electricity to use in
working a shutter, but it did not succeed, and so the rubber tube
and bulb became the accepted means for applying the force necessary
to open and shut the slides or doors constituting the shutter.

An attempt has been made to apply a time regulator to the pneumatic
exposer that shall keep the lens uncovered for a period of time at
the will of the operator, which shall be regulated by an index
pointing at a figure representing a definite period of time. By
turning the index to any figure, from 1 to 20 or more, representing
seconds, the shutter is held open for that time, and then closes
automatically. This shutter is opened, in the first instance, by
pressure upon a bulb, [p125] in the same manner as any of the
pneumatic devices. We may enumerate, among the various shutters,
those giving the most satisfaction in use,


CADETT'S PATENT PNEUMATIC PHOTOGRAPHIC SHUTTER.

It has often been remarked by eminent photographers that the
arrangement is a most useful one which enables persons to be
photographed without being aware of it. The efforts in this
direction necessitated the operator being close to the camera; here
we have an instrument which permits him to be at any part of the
studio he pleases.

[Illustration: TN: Cadett's Pneumatic Shutter.]

Many have experienced the difficulty of taking children's portraits
with the proper amount of profile; with the above device all
difficulty vanishes--the operator may be by the side of the child
and attract its attention to any direction, and he has the means of
exposing and capping the lens with far greater rapidity than with
the usual method.

DIRECTIONS.--After the day's work is done the rubber tubing should
be taken off the instrument; this will prevent a partial vacuum in
the bellows and tube, which would otherwise ultimately occur. These
instruments are now constructed for application either inside or
[p126] outside the camera. Its use is very simple--squeeze the
ball end of the tube and the shutter opens.

This instrument no sooner made its appearance than Yankee ingenuity
set to work to improve on it, or at least to produce something
similar that might not infringe on the patent.

[Illustration: TN: Using the Pneumatic Shutter to Photograph a
Child.]

The first effort was to bring electricity into use to move a shutter
inside the camera box, and a very good device was perfected and sold
to numbers who were convinced of the usefulness of the idea, but
were unwilling to pay the price demanded for the English instrument.
This electrical apparatus, however, soon played out, and few
operators had the time or knowledge necessary to keep the battery in
order; and in many instances after the sittings had been made it was
found, on attempting to develop the plate, that no exposure had
taken place, hence these electrical shutters were soon relegated to
the limbo of played-out photographic apparatus, of which every
gallery of any standing has one. [p127]

[Illustration: THE "ECLIPSE" INSTANTANEOUS SHUTTER.]

For simplicity of construction and operation, for reliability and
good results obtained with it, the "Eclipse" Shutter has gained an
enviable reputation. It is safe to say that no shutter is better or
more favorably known.

The "Eclipse" is made wholly of metal, and is finely finished. It
attaches over hood of lens by a velvet-lined collar, and has a clamp
to securely hold it in place. It is made in five standard sizes,
collars for hoods of lenses being attached to a shutter of the most
suitable size.

When the shutter is in a locked position ready for an exposure, the
right-hand leaf of fly covers the aperture of lens. When released,
the fly revolves, uncovering the aperture, which is again covered by
the left-hand leaf.

When the shutter is in the position shown in cut, less illumination
is given to the foreground; but by [p128] adjusting the shutter
in different positions any part of the view may be favored.

The hair trigger release may be operated either by hand, by a cord,
or by a pneumatic device. The pneumatic apparatus costs $1.00 extra.

The speed of the shutter is perfectly controlled by moving the
spring on back of shutter from notch to notch on the curved arm.

[Illustration: PROSCH'S "DUPLEX" PHOTOGRAPHIC SHUTTER.
 FOR TIMED OR INSTANTANEOUS WORK. PERFECT IN BOTH.]

With this shutter, the latest production of the inventor of the very
popular "Eclipse" shutter, exposures can be made of any desired
duration. It is equal [p129] to any requirement for the most
rapid work, and as a time shutter, exposures can be made as quick as
two pulsations can be given to air bulb (about one-tenth of a
second) or of minutes' duration.

"Duplex" Shutters work perfectly, with even the very largest lenses,
up to their full capacity; and several lenses can be used with the
same shutter. The shutter gives a full opening; but yet, by the
peculiar opening in the exposure slides, any part of the picture can
be favored with more or less illumination by turning the shutter,
sometimes even inverting it.

The illustration gives a front view of the shutter, one-half size of
No. 2, which is suitable for an 8×10 lens, or even larger, as it has
an opening at the diaphragm of 1-1/8 inches.

Inclosed in metal casing are two pivoted slides, which move, in
unison, in opposite directions, and make the exposure in one
continuous movement without the slightest jar, even when worked at
its greatest rapidity. The motive spring is on the back of the
shutter, and is of coiled wire; a perfectly reliable spring. Its
tension is regulated by moving it along a series of notches. The
exposure slides are moved by a stud on the lever shown on front,
which passes through the shutter and a slot in each slide, and
engages with the spring on the back. On the end of the lever are two
notches hidden by the secondary lever. When the lever is fully
depressed, the release catches in the upper notch and locks the
slides closed. A slight pressure on the air bulb or a trip to the
projecting end of the release, frees the slides, and they make an
instantaneous movement or exposure. If the secondary lever has been
brought into play, by a turn or [p130] two of a milled-head nut,
the release will catch in the second or lower notch and hold the
slides at a full opening, in which position they remain until a
second pressure is given to the bulb, or the release is tripped by
hand.

The shutters are made in standard sizes, having narrow threaded
collars on each side, to which can be adapted tubes to receive
lenses, which are to be transferred from regular lens tubes. Any
intelligent instrument maker or machinist can adapt such tubes to
lenses; the original tube is not used.


HEAD-RESTS.

It might have been thought that the rapid dry plate, by shortening
the time of exposure so much, would have done away with the
necessity for using head-rests; and many old photographers whose
backs have often ached from handling the "Wilson," the "Spencer" and
other enormously heavy head-rests, thanked their stars that a time
of relief seemed to be at hand. But not so. The head-rest is just as
necessary as ever, and the heavy ones are as advantageous now as
before. The most important use of the head-rest is to keep the head
in the position required. That the head should be immovable is
necessary during the time of exposure. Many people are quite able to
keep still enough for photographic purposes without a rest for the
head, but very few are able to keep the head in the position desired
by the operator without some assistance; hence the necessity for the
use of the head-rest for even the shortest exposure. One benefit,
however, has been derived from the advent of short exposures; there
seems no necessity for the use of the extremely heavy varieties.
[p131] The lighter rests would seem to be capable of fulfilling
all the requirements of a head-rest.

[Illustration: SUCCESS HEAD-REST]

[Illustration: CENTENNIAL HEAD-REST.]

The Success head-rest is one variety of the lighter kinds, of which
another is the Centennial. These are very useful in the studio, more
particularly in posing a group, when it is necessary to have a
head-rest for each one of the party; they are also sufficiently
rigid for single sitters. They are in all sizes, short for children
and long for adults, and if any part should be broken or get out of
order duplicates can be had at trifling expense. [p132]

[Illustration: THE RIGID HEAD-REST.]

[Illustration: SPENCER HEAD-REST.]

The Rigid head-rest is of a heavier kind, and is a favorite with
many who prefer a medium weight. It sets firmly on its base and can
be quickly and easily adjusted to either sitting or standing
figures.

The Spencer head-rests are examples of the heavier kind; they are
very firm and rigid, and heavy enough to suit the most exacting
gymnast or athlete. There are many other varieties of the light,
medium and heavy kinds, but the cuts show the best of the various
weights, and a selection can be made from these without fear or
hesitation.

A gallery should have half a dozen head-rests at [p133] least,
and while the majority should be of the lighter, there should be a
sample of the medium and heavier, kinds, so that no important aid to
good work should be lacking.


POSING CHAIRS.

Much attention has been bestowed upon the posing chair since 1865,
when Sarony introduced into the country the posing apparatus which
first brought his name permanently before the American photographers
and the public.

The Sarony posing chair, table, rest, etc., has, however, passed,
and remains among the things that were, and many other styles of
chair since have had their brief day and are gone.

[Illustration: THE BOWDISH CHAIR.] [p134]

Among those that still remain in use this continues to be popular,
and indeed it is a very useful and elegant article of furniture for
the studio; and from the ease with which it can be converted from a
high back chair for standing figures, to a posing chair for sitters,
it will probably continue to be, as it always has been, the most
useful accessory in the photographic studio.

[Illustration: THE BOWDISH CHAIR WITH REVOLVING CIRCULAR ARM.]

These chairs are so pre-eminently superior in all desirable
qualities that it is only necessary that their perfection of
manufacture and ingenious plan of construction be seen to be
commended by every one. Made of solid walnut, secured by means of a
patented iron frame, they unite unusual strength with graceful
outline and richness of effect. The quality of materials used, also,
has always been of the best; and the constant aim is to make them
excel in each and every [p135] particular. They have no uncertain
joints, no clumsy and unsightly proportions, no "fixings" to become
detached or render the chair useless when broken. They are better
adapted to the varied requirements of a modern photographic
gallery--better suited to the prevailing styles of portraiture, and
more in consonance with modern studio accessories.

[Illustration: THE BOWDISH CHAIR WITH SOFA ATTACHMENT.]

In short, the Bowdish chair combines the advantages and uses of all
the various chairs in market, comprising--

_First._--A chair with high back, with or without arms.

_Second._--A chair with a revolving circular arm. This is an
advantage over the ordinary chair with circular arm, which has only
the vertical movement.

_Third._--A lounge attachment, which is invaluable for infants and
children. [p136]

[Illustration: THE NEW PATENT NOVEL CHAIR.]

For sitting positions, vignettes, etc., the Novel chair is the best
out for low bust and vignette pictures. The back is peculiarly well
adapted; it gives support without the back becoming conspicuous in
the picture. This chair is a valuable piece of furniture for any
gallery, and many prefer it to the old-established favorite Anthony'
Position Chair, which has been for many years the useful chair of
the studio. [p137]

[Illustration: ANTHONY'S POSITION CHAIR.]

[Illustration: ANTHONY'S SLIDING-BACK POSITION CHAIR]

ANTHONY'S SLIDING-BACK POSITION CHAIR has been found to be just the
thing for many positions, [p138] such as half lengths, full
lengths and even sittings, and also for babies, as the back and arms
are movable.

For some years past the little folks, babies and infants, have
become a large part of the most profitable clientage of the photo
studio, and much attention has been bestowed on the furniture and
accessories suitable for them and their pictures. Among such, the
QUEEN ANNE CHILD'S LOUNGE is a novelty itself, indispensable to any
photographic studio; the opening between seat and back is an
advantage for posing children. (Also made with hole in centre of the
high back.)

[Illustration: QUEEN ANNE CHILD'S LOUNGE]

These two forms of lounge are very useful and popular, having been
adopted in many studios doing a large business with the little
folks.

An extra cushion is now made for the Child's chair. This, placed in
a semicircle under the knees, ensures the favorite pose of babyhood.

Two forms of chairs for babies are very popular with the average
photographer, being neat in design and finely finished, greatly
adding to the effect of a good photograph of a pretty baby. [p139]

[Illustration: THE BABY CHAIR.]

The Baby Holder is not a chair, but a holder, and can be placed in
any chair or on a table, It can be adjusted to any angle, to hold
the baby securely in position.

These baby lounges and chairs should be raised on a platform, when
in use. The platform should be from 6 to 12 inches high and on
large, easy casters, so that it can be easily moved about the room.
Such a platform is a great convenience for all sitters, the subject
can so readily be moved without being put to the inconvenience of
rising from the seat. With these chairs certain little cushions for
the back and seat are very useful, and are supplied when required.
[p140]



PART SECOND.


FIELD PHOTOGRAPHY.

That the thousands who formerly practiced photography in the fields,
as an amusement and recreation, took great delight in it and found
it to be an extremely fascinating pursuit, there can be no denial.
When we think of the difficulties that were continually being
encountered, and the trials of patience and temper that had to be
submitted to--to say nothing of the disagreeable nature of the many
solutions that were necessary, the stains on the hands and clothing
incidental to the use of nitrate of silver and the solution of iron,
and the heavy and bulky nature of the apparatus--we are constrained
to believe that the rewards must have been more than commensurate to
the fatigue incurred, to the disappointment occasioned by frequent
failures, and to the dislike of dirty hands and stained and spoiled
clothing.

[Illustration: AMATEUR APPARATUS.
 Apparatus set up, consisting of camera box, lens, carrying case and
 tripod.]

Now, however, by the introduction of the new process of dry plate
work, all that was disagreeable has been done away with. The
collodion, the silver-bath, the developer and fixing solutions--as
things to be carried with you--are now of the past, and even the
glass plates will soon be known no more as impedimenta to the
amateur. In place of the heavy Camera and [p141] plate-holders,
we have now feather-weight constructions, that are no more a burden,
but rather, ornamental objects, the possession of which and their
use is more of a pleasure than otherwise. It is not surprising,
then, that in view of these wonderful changes, the thousands who
formerly practiced photography for amusement have increased to tens
of thousands. And the dry plate equipment for viewing has become a
part of the impedimenta of the summer tourist, as well when he or
she travels by land as when they voyage by sea. The bicyclist, too,
goes out with a Camera, that may be attached to his wheel, and makes
instantaneous views as he spins along the road, or dismounts and
takes in some beautiful bit of scenery.

The boys, and also the girls, have seized upon this fascinating
pursuit, and the gardens and conservatories have been converted into
studios, where every member of the family, including the baby and
the pet animals, have been posed, and their pictures bear witness to
the triumph and delight of the young artists. Amateur photographers,
male and female, may be found during the season at the summer
resorts by the sea or at the breezy mountain house; wherever the
well-to-do citizen takes his family for rest and recreation during
the "dog days," there will the tripod be set up and the Camera will
record the topography of the vicinity.

For every one of these thousands of amateurs there [p142] is
something to learn before he or she can succeed in producing a
picture; to know how to make a photograph never comes by intuition,
but must be acquired by study and practical experiment. This need
not be prolonged or difficult, and the purpose of these pages is to
afford the beginners that instruction, which will enable them to
surmount the difficulties of a new and untried pursuit; to open up
to them the knowledge that will enable them to bring the little dry
plate and the quantum of pyro together, so that they may tell a
story, the constantly varying changes of which will afford ever
renewing delight, a pleasure gained without undue fatigue and never
followed by regret or pain. One little gem of a negative or
transparency will afford the maker more real pleasure, than many a
costlier amusement.

[Illustration: TN: Outdoor Scene with Amateur Photographer, Dog and
Children.]


THE AMATEUR OUTFIT.

The number and variety of outfits manufactured for the use of
amateurs are so great that the question of selection becomes one of
more than ordinary interest and importance. Indeed, this fact is
impressed upon the mind and fully established when one undertakes
[p143] to inspect and examine the variety exhibited by one house
alone, but when one has seen the stock of all the different large
concerns and has examined the bewildering variety, he becomes aware
of the immensity of the demand that has brought into existence such
an enormous supply; for here, beside the toy outfit for the child of
ten or twelve years, he will see the perfect equipment for the
professional photographer, and every possible grade between, in
every style of finish and ornamentation, and all supplied with so
many appliances for easy handling and accurate adjustment as to
astonish one at the amount of skill and ingenuity exhibited by the
makers.

It is not the intention of the writer of these pages to describe
this great variety of apparatus; having himself used with success
and pleasure the instruments of the great house of E. & H. T.
Anthony & Co., he will merely point out some of the advantages of
and the valuable improvements lately added to their amateur
photographic equipments.

The amateur preparing for the field will find it necessary to
provide himself first with the apparatus necessary to the making of
negatives; these articles constitute the viewing outfit. Having made
himself familiar with the use of the camera and lens, he may next
provide himself with the chemical constituents of the developer and
proceed to develop his own plates. These chemicals and the necessary
dishes, etc., constitute the developing outfit.

It is recommended that the beginner confine himself at first to the
preliminary of selecting his views and making the exposures, taking
his plates to some photographic establishment to be developed, where
he [p144] may learn as to the correctness of exposure, and
receive such information in connection therewith as may be of
benefit afterwards.

Having made himself somewhat proficient in exposing, he may then
take up the development and enjoy the true delight of the amateur in
witnessing the growing of the picture upon his developing plate.

With this end in view, then, we will proceed to consider, describe
and explain the apparatus of an outfit, the construction thereof,
and how to use the same.


THE VIEWING OUTFIT CONSISTS OF:

  Sensitive dry plates and
  Plate holders or shields,
  The Camera box,
  The view lens,
  The tripod or Camera stand,
  The instantaneous shutter,
  The focussing cloth, and a
  Carrying box to contain the whole.

It is necessary that the beginner should receive some instruction in
the use of each of these articles, and for that purpose we will
consider them in the order above given.


DRY PLATES.

The manufacture of dry plates has now reached such a state of
perfection that the purchaser may procure them of every grade of
sensitiveness, each of the several grades of a perfect uniformity
and all of them very free from imperfections and blemishes. And also
the prices have been so reduced of late that the incentive to
manufacture on the part of individuals for their own use is almost
entirely lacking. However, there may be found [p145] a certain
interest and fascination in preparing plates for one's own use,
which would prompt some to incur the outlay and trouble incidental
to such a course, and for those full instructions and formulæ may be
found in the first part of this book.

It will, however, be found, after due trial, that for work of
importance, and where certainty of results is desired, it will be
better to procure the plates of some maker of established
reputation, and of such a grade of sensitiveness as will be most
suitable for the work in hand.

Certain makers of dry plates use the Sensitometer to ascertain the
degree of rapidity of each and every emulsion produced in their
works. The ascertained degree of rapidity is indicated on each box
of plates by the Sensitometer number--the higher the number, the
more sensitive the plate. The highest numbers attained up to this
time are from 20 to 25, and these numbers would indicate a very high
degree of sensitiveness, such as render plates of 23 to 25 quite
suitable for work requiring the shortest possible, in fact,
instantaneous, exposures, such as bodies in motion across the plane
of focus. Views of still life are better made with plates of a
lesser degree of rapidity.

The handling of dry plates of such extreme rapidity requires great
care. The boxes should never be opened, even the outer wrappings
should not be removed, except in the darkened room and by such a
light as that produced by Carbutt's dry plate lantern or some
similar device. When plates are taken from the boxes for the purpose
of fitting the holders, they will be found to have one clear, smooth
and shining surface. This is the back of the plate and is clear [p146]
glass; the other surface is of the same color, but of a mat or
dead color, not reflecting so much light. This is the sensitive
surface, and before being placed in the holder or shield it should
be brushed with a soft, flat camel's hair blender, to remove any
dust that may be attached to the surface. This brush should be used
for no other purpose; and should be used without pressure, merely
touching the surface of the plate. The plate may then be put in the
plate carrier of the shield, with the sensitive surface outward, and
when the carrier is run into its place in the holder, the sensitive
surface is next the slide or door. It is of some importance that
attention should be given to this manipulation, as it not
unfrequently occurs that the wrong side of the plate is turned
outward and the image, when the plate is exposed, is made through
the glass and against the back of the film, and is reversed and thus
rendered worthless, even should a good impression have been secured.

The holders or shields for dry plates for out-door work are
always--except in the largest sizes--made double, each holder
containing two plates.

[Illustration: ANTHONY'S PATENT PERFECT DOUBLE DRY PLATE HOLDERS OR
SHIELDS.] [p147]

The diagram exhibits the plate holder, 3, with the plate carrier, 1,
partly drawn out; the slide or door corresponding to 2 is withdrawn
to show the interior of the holder, 3, and the spring that presses
the plate into focus, when pushed into the carrier, 1. This carrier
presents the same appearance on the other side and will hold two
plates. When filled with plates, it is pushed into its place in the
holder, 3, and the brass loops or fasteners, 4, are pressed down
flat, thus securely holding it in place. When the holder is put in
place at the back of the Camera the slide, 2, next the box, is
pulled out quickly and in a perfectly level position, so that the
spring shut-off may close instantly and permit no light to enter the
opening. The lens must be covered before the slide is pulled out.
The exposure is then made and the slide is returned to its place in
the same manner, carefully observing that one corner is not entered
first, but the end must be inserted into the groove squarely and
pushed quickly home. If another exposure is to be made immediately,
the holder is removed and the opposite side placed next the box, and
the same process is repeated, covering the lens, removing the slide,
make the exposure by removing the cover of the lens and replacing
it, then return the slide to its place. When a second exposure is
not made at once, with a pencil or in some other manner mark the
side that has been exposed, to prevent any mistake. When both plates
are exposed, return the holder to the carrying case and take the
next, if you carry more than one. Usually a half dozen holders are
carried, which gives command of one dozen plates, which should be
quite enough for one outing. [p148]

Having exposed the plates, the holders are returned to the carrying
case, and should not be removed therefrom until they are taken into
the dark room for development, when, by the aid of some safe light,
they may be removed from the holders, one at a time, and developed,
or all taken out and put into a negative box, to be ready for
development when convenient.


THE VIEW CAMERA FOR AMATEURS.

In an article on Cameras, in the first part of this work, we have
given a very accurate description of the View Camera for
professional photographers.

The View Camera, as manufactured for amateurs, is smaller, lighter
and more compact, and, in many cases, more highly finished and
ornamented than those made to stand the rough usage of hard work.

Beginning with the smallest, we have the


DETECTIVE CAMERA.

[Illustration: SCHMID'S PATENT DETECTIVE CAMERA.
 Patented January 2d, 1883.]

This Camera is focussed once for all by means of a ground glass
which slides in the place to be afterwards [p149] occupied by the
double dry-plate holder, for objects of various distances, and the
position of the focussing lever on top of the Camera is marked for
each distance. After this the ground glass may be entirely dispensed
with, as it is then only necessary to estimate the distance of the
object to be photographed, and move the focussing lever to the mark
corresponding to that distance, when the Camera will obviously be in
focus.

The small lens in the upper left-hand corner serves to throw the
picture on a piece of ground glass on the top of the Camera, thus
showing the position of the image on the plate. When the picture
appears in proper position on this ground glass, it is only
necessary to touch the button on the right of the Camera, and the
exposure of the plate is instantly made, its development being
afterward accomplished in the ordinary manner.

The slide is then replaced in the plate-holder, which, being
reversed, the shutter reset and the other slide drawn out,
everything is ready for the next shot.

This Camera is made to carry in the hand, and is held against the
side under the arm while exposures are made. A tripod or stand is
not required. The plate-holders are carried in a small satchel, with
a strap passing over the shoulder. The new sensitive paper film,
however, obviates the necessity of carrying more than one holder,
which will contain a band on which may be made 24 exposures, and
which is of no greater weight than one of the double holders when
filled with 2 glass plates.

This Camera is calculated to make pictures 3-1/4 by 4-1/4 inches in
size, and they are technically called quarter plate size. [p150]


THE PATENT BIJOU CAMERA.

[Illustration: For 3-1/4×4-1/4 Plate.]

This little Camera is the neatest, nattiest and altogether nicest
Camera of its kind ever made. When folded it measures 5×5×3-1/2
inches, and can readily be put in an ordinary hand-grip, or may even
be carried in the overcoat pocket. It weighs only 14-1/2 ounces, and
the holders are correspondingly light and compact.

It has a sliding front, hinged ground glass, and folding bed, which
is provided with a novel arrangement for fixing it in position,
enabling the operator to adjust it in a few seconds. It is made of
mahogany, with a new hard finish, flexible bellows and brass
mountings, making a remarkably elegant little instrument.

As the plate is the same size as those used with magic lanterns,
slides may be made from them by contact printing in an ordinary
printing frame. By using rapid printing paper in connection with the
enlarging lantern, the pictures may be made as large as desired. For
tourists, to whom weight and bulk are objections, this Camera is of
especial value.

The introduction of the Schmid Detective Camera was a pronounced
success. The popular favor with which it was received stimulated the
manufacturers to [p151] greater exertions to supply a perfect and
effective instrument, against which no objections whatever could
possibly be raised. With this object in view, they have placed on
the market


ANTHONY'S PATENT SATCHEL DETECTIVE CAMERA.

[Illustration: TN: Anthony's Patent Satchel Detective Camera.]

In outward appearance, and to the ordinary observer, this latest
modification of the Detective Camera looks exactly like an alligator
hand-satchel that is carried by a shoulder-strap at the side of the
pedestrian. Upon closer observation, one sees that it consists of an
artfully concealed Detective Camera, in which all the various
movements to secure a picture are situated upon the under side. For
use, the Camera is held so that the base of the satchel rests
against the body of the operator. By means of a brass pull at the
side the shutter is set. A plate in the regular holder is placed in
position at the back cf the Camera, and the slide is drawn ready for
exposure. The release of a short catch exposes the front of the
shutter ready for action, [p152] and by raising a small
leather-covered lid the little camera obscura, called the finder, on
the (now) upper side of the Camera, shows the position that the
object will occupy on the plate. The slightest touch upon a small
brass button releases the shutter, and the exposure is made.
Replacing the slide in the plate-holder, reversing the holder, and
setting the shutter again, leaves the apparatus in readiness for
another shot, when the plate-holder slide is withdrawn as before.

By removing a screw that takes the place of the spring lock of an
ordinary satchel, the Camera proper can be removed from its cover,
and a tripod screw serves to attach the Camera to a tripod for
ordinary use.

[Illustration: TN: Anthony's Detective Camera Proper.]

This last form of the Detective Camera allows the operator to carry
with him twelve plates in the interior of the apparatus, and so
carefully packed away that no light can strike them. It is also
furnished with an [p153] ingenious attachment by which the speed
of the shutter can be regulated to suit the speed of the object,
moving with greater or less velocity; while, by simply releasing a
catch, time exposures can be made at the will of the operator. In
fact the whole affair is the latest achievement in ingenious and
compact light photographic apparatus.

[Illustration: CAMERA SHOWING THE DETACHMENT OF SATCHEL.]


AMATEUR EQUIPMENTS FOR FIELD WORK.

The manufacturers of these goods, for the convenience of those at a
distance who might desire to order by [p154] mail, have
classified and catalogued these outfits of the various sizes as view
equipments, and have numbered them from 1 upwards.

[Illustration: EQUIPMENT NO. 1.]

Stained Camera, for making pictures vertically or horizontally,
measuring 4×5 inches, with one double dry-plate holder, fine single
achromatic lens, improved tripod, and carrying case.

This is called the $10 equipment, and by which very beautiful and
perfect work may be done, examples of which, as negatives and
transparencies, may be seen at the warerooms, and only need to be
seen to be admired. For a complete descriptive catalogue of these
goods, send to Messrs. E. & H. T. Anthony & Co.


THE FAIRY CAMERA.

There has long been a demand on the part of the public for a
Camera that would at once embrace these most necessary
requirements--portability, compactness and strength, combined with
beauty and accuracy of working.

Hitherto the nearest approach to this has been the "Novel" Camera,
which for a time seemed to be everything [p155] that could be
desired. But urgent calls for something still better were frequently
made, and the result is the Fairy Camera, by far the most attractive
and elegant piece of apparatus of its kind ever offered. In
presenting it, attention is invited to the following advantages it
possesses over all others.

_Strength._--They are put together as rigidly as wood and metal will
admit of, and are therefore _perfectly_ rigid.

_Compactness._--They occupy less space than any other view Cameras
of the same capacity, and the plate-holders actually require little
more than one-half the room of the lightest of any others in use.
The plate-holders are made of hard wood, with metal carriers for the
plates, and fitted with all the later improvements.

_Portability._--The small compass to which they may be reduced
renders them in this respect incomparably superior to any. They are
packed in canvas-covered wooden cases, and each double plate-holder
has its own compartment. The cover of its case telescopes over its
body.

Several new features have been availed of in the construction of
this Camera, to wit: The bed may be instantly rendered rigid,
_without the use of screws_, by means of a brace of hooks, that hold
the two sections of the bed with great firmness.

_Secondly._--The rabbet commonly found on the plate-holder is
dispensed with, and instead, it is placed on the Camera, thus saving
the otherwise additional weight rendered necessary for twelve such
rabbets when made on the plate-holders (two on each of the six
usually carried), and the not inconsiderable item of three-quarters
of an inch in bulk.

_Third._--The Camera is focussed with a long, continuous [p156]
metallic rack, cog-wheel and pinion, the latter being held firmly in
position by a binding screw.

The ground glass swings backward in its frame, like that in the
regular Novel Camera, and is held tightly in position by metallic
spring corners. When windy, this is a decided advantage.

The Fairy Camera is made in finely polished mahogany, the metal work
being nickel-plated, thus making it the most elegant and perfect
Camera known.

They are made with and without stereoscopic attachments. Naturally,
those without stereoscopic attachments are lighter and more compact
than those with, and may be preferred by persons desiring to make
single views or portraits only.

These Cameras are made in four sizes only--from 4-1/4×6-1/2 to 8×10.
Those desiring a larger Camera should procure the Novel Camera,
which is manufactured of all sizes up to 18×22.

[Illustration: THE NOVEL CAMERA WITH DOUBLE SWING BACK IN THE ACT OF
BEING REVERSED.] [p157]

An ingenious improvement has been introduced in connection with the
Fairy and Novelette Cameras, which is shown in the cut.

[Illustration: TN: Ingenious Improvement.]

It consists in the use, with a 5×8 Camera, an additional body and
bellows for 8×10, which can be attached to the front and bed of the
5×8 on removal of the 5×8 bellows to back. This substitution can be
made in a few seconds, giving the user the command of two Cameras at
small expense.


THE VIEW LENS.

(_See article on lenses in Part First._)

View lenses may be classed in two groups:

Single combination lenses and double combination lenses.

Single combination lenses are intended for producing pictures of
inanimate objects, in the production of which the time of exposure
is of minor importance. They are of greater focal length than the
double, and, on account of their simple form, are less expensive.

The combination consists of a meniscus, composed of two lenses, one
convergent, the other divergent. The two are cemented together, so
that only two surfaces are presented to reflect light. This lens is
well calculated [p158] for out-door work, but does not give such
roundness of form nor such delicacy and finish as may be obtained by
the double combination. But it has greater depth of focus, and,
having but two reflexive surfaces, fits it peculiarly for views of
foliage, and enables it to work into the green of the landscape more
completely and vigorously.

The single lens is not free from distortion. The marginal rays are
apt to give the barrel-shape figure to the view, but for landscapes
this is practically of little or no consequence.

The smaller sizes of single lenses are more effective than the
larger. They are quicker and have much less distortion, and when
stopped very small have practically none.


THE DOUBLE COMBINATION

is formed by reversing the single lens and making it the front lens
of the double combination, and adding a similarly constructed
achromatic lens to the rear. These lenses are indispensable for very
rapid work and for work requiring straight lines. As the double
combination is more perfectly corrected for spherical aberration, it
is better adapted for architectural and other work not admitting of
distortion. Of this class of lenses we would recommend ANTHONY'S
RAPID DRY PLATE LENS, [p159] which has a double achromatic
combination for making instantaneous views, portraits groups, etc.,
and will meet all the requirements of those who do not care to incur
the expense of a Dallmeyer or other first-class lens.

[Illustration: ANTHONY'S RAPID DRY PLATE LENS]

[Illustration: THE PLATYSCOPE LENS]

Of a higher class is THE PLATYSCOPE LENS, which is a rectilinear or
perfectly corrected lens of great working rapidity, and is well
suited for all the requirements of the amateur; and as to price, it
holds a middle place and next to the DALLMEYER'S RAPID RECTILINEAR
LENS, which is the most perfect instrument at present known to the
profession, and is almost universally used by professional out-door
photographers and by all amateurs who care to produce the finest
possible work. This lens might be considered indispensable for all
[p160] work requiring an instantaneous exposure, as by means of
the dry plate and the drop shutter some very remarkable pictures
have been made of bodies in rapid motion.

[Illustration: DALLMEYER'S RAPID RECTILINEAR LENS]


WIDE ANGLE LENSES.

There is another class of lenses of double combination, which are
called wide angle lenses. They are constructed to embrace an angle
of from 90 to 100 degrees, and are therefore indispensable for use
in confined situations, such as narrow streets and interiors. They
are also capable of being used with advantage for all the purposes
of a view-lens, their only disadvantage being that they are not so
rapid as lenses of a lesser angle. For certain subjects the back
lens of the combination may be removed and the front lens used in
the same manner as an ordinary landscape lens.

[Illustration: THE E. A. WIDE ANGLE-LENS]


THE E. A. WIDE ANGLE-LENS

is of this class, and being of short focus and made on the
rectilinear principle, it is a useful lens for all the purposes
already enumerated, and for architectural subjects, as well as for
copying of maps, drawings, printed matter, etc., etc.

Every amateur should possess one of these lenses, as [p161] well
as one of the more rapid-acting lenses for instantaneous work,
unless he can well afford to get the best.

[Illustration: DALLMEYER'S WIDE-ANGLE RECTILINEAR LENS]


DALLMEYER'S WIDE-ANGLE RECTILINEAR LENS

will completely fill the bill. This lens consists of two cemented
combinations, each composed of a deep meniscus crown and a deep
concavo-convex flint glass lens.

Unlike other lenses of this class the dense refracting medium--the
flint--is made to occupy the external position in both combinations,
and though both are deep menisci externally, and of nearly the same
focal lengths, the front combination is of larger diameter and
greater curvature than the back, and between the two, dividing the
space in the proportion of their respective diameters, is placed the
revolving diaphragm, with graduated openings, the largest of which
is F. 15.

An important characteristic of this instrument, besides the method
of achromatization, is the thinness of the lenses, thus offering
less obstruction to the passage of the light, constituting these
lenses the quickest acting of their kind.

The outfit, which includes a Dallmeyer wide angle and a Dallmeyer
rapid rectilinear, may be said to be prepared to do all work within
the range of photography.

Every outfit should include a piece of fine, soft chamois [p162]
skin for cleaning the lenses; it will often be found that moisture
and dust obscure the image in the ground glass; when such is the
case the lenses should be unscrewed and carefully cleaned with the
chamois. And when carrying, it would be well to wrap each lens in a
piece of chamois. Lenses thus carefully kept will repay the trouble
in fine, clear and incisive work.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]


[Illustration: THE FAIRY TRIPOD]


THE TRIPOD OR CAMERA STAND.

There are a variety of these stands manufactured, the two principal
of which are the Telescopic leg, Fig. 1, and the Folding leg, Fig.
2. Among the lighter stands or tripods [p163] THE FAIRY TRIPOD
deserves particular mention, being less than two pounds (2 lbs.) in
weight and folding to a length of 16 inches only. When placed in its
neat leather case, with shoulder-straps for carrying, it is the
smallest and lightest practical tripod that has yet been offered to
the public.

The tripod, when not in use, is taken apart, the top placed in the
carrying box, and the legs folded or telescoped and tied together.

When set up for work be sure to have the tripod top level, which may
easily be done by adjusting the legs to the inequalities of the
ground.

The Camera is fastened to the tripod top by a thumb-screw, which
passes up from beneath, through the tripod top, and into the leg of
the box. When adjusted tighten the screw firmly. [p164]


THE INSTANTANEOUS SHUTTER.

The rapid dry plate and the quick acting lens have created a
necessity for a shutter that would make an instantaneous exposure,
in order that sharp pictures might be made of objects in motion.

This has been accomplished in a variety of forms, the earliest and
simplest of which is


THE DROP SHUTTER,

which consists of two pieces of wood, each having a hole cut into
it, and so arranged that when one piece is placed upon the end or
hood of the lens (which fits into the circular opening), the other
piece can be made to slide up and down against it, thus for an
instant bringing the two openings opposite, and making the exposure
depend upon the rapidity with which one opening passes the other.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Fig. 1 represents the common form, in which the release is made by
the withdrawal of a metal catch, which fits the indent in the side
of the sliding upright piece. Fig. 2 represents an improved form, in
which the release is made by pressing a rubber bulb connected with a
rubber tube attached to a metal valve.

The action of both these styles of drop shutter may be hastened by
using rubber [p165] bands to quicken the fall of the sliding
piece, as represented in Fig. 2 by A and B. So that while a rapid
exposure might be made by the fall of the slide, by its own weight,
it would not be quick enough for an object moving across the plane
of focus, but might be sufficient for an object moving away from or
toward the lens. By the use of the rubber bands the exposure may be
made as quick as a flash, or the small fraction of a second, thus
enabling one to secure a sharp impression of the trotting horse, the
railroad train, the racing yacht, and many other interesting and
difficult subjects.

Another peculiarly effective form of shutter is that known as THE
PROSCH ECLIPSE SHUTTER, which is a small and compact instrument,
made of metal and rubber, by which an exposure of 1/200 part of a
second may be made, with the power of reducing the speed to about
one-half second.

[Illustration: THE PROSCH ECLIPSE SHUTTER] [p166]

A late and decided improvement on the Eclipse Shutter has been
produced by Mr. Prosch, which he has named the "Duplex."

[Illustration: TN: Prosch's Duplex Shutter.]

Prosch's Duplex Shutter is intended both for "timed" and
instantaneous exposures.

It is equal to any requirement for the most rapid work, and as a
time shutter, exposures can be made of from one-half second to any
duration required.

The peculiarity of this shutter is that the exposing slides are
placed between the front and back combinations of the lens,
necessitating a separation of the tube at the centre. [p167]

Mr. Prosch makes a special tube to which is affixed the apparatus of
the shutter. This special tube is of the exact size of that to which
the lenses belong, from which the lenses are taken and fitted to the
special tube. The other is kept for future use if necessary.


THE CARRYING BOX.

All this apparatus is, with the exception of the tripod, enclosed in
a neat carrying case, with a telescopic cover, and is carried with a
hand-strap. The box contains separate places for from one to six
double holders, as may be desired. And there is room for the
head-cloth, and an extra box of plates if necessary.

The head-cloth furnished with this apparatus is a light
rubber-covered muslin, about a yard or a yard and a quarter square,
and its principal use is to cover the head and exclude light from
the ground-glass while adjusting the focus. It may also be used to
cover the apparatus if caught out in a shower, or to wrap the
carrying case in under the same circumstances.


THE DEVELOPING OUTFIT FOR AMATEURS.

The amateur is recommended to get some experience in making
exposures before attempting to develop.

By taking plates to some photographic establishment for development,
and observing carefully the method of manipulating them, one will
soon learn about the proper exposure to allow; and then the advice
of the operator may be of some value.

There may, however, be some who are so situated as to be unable to
avail themselves of such an opportunity, and are compelled to rely
on printed instructions for all they have to do. To such we have
only to say, [p168]


DO NOT OVER-EXPOSE,

then go ahead and do the best you can.

The outfit for development would consist first of the apparatus or
dishes; second, of the chemical components of the developer, and the
clearing and fixing solutions.

  The dishes or apparatus are:

  Developing trays,

  Tray or dish for alum solution,

  Tray or dish for fixing solution,

  Washing box,

  Negative racks,

  Glass stoppered bottles,

  2 of 1 lb. each for pyro and soda,

  2 of 1/2 gallon each for oxalate and iron,

  2 of 1/2 gallon each for alum and hypo,

  Glass graduates,

  1 of 8 oz., 1 of 1 oz,

  Glass funnels,

  Filtering paper,

  A balance scales for weighing 1 grain to 1/4 lb.

The developing tray is made of japanned iron, of ebonite or of hard
rubber.

[Illustration: JAPANNED IRON DEVELOPING TRAYS.]

These are all made to suit the various sizes of plates in use; the
japanned iron trays are the cheapest, but they wear out rapidly; the
ebonite trays are rather [p169] higher in price, but they are
more durable, and have a clean polished surface. The hard rubber
dishes are the most expensive, and perhaps the most durable.

[Illustration: EBONITE TRAYS.]

[Illustration: ANTHONY'S GLASS BATHS IN BOXES.]

The amateur should procure his trays of a size suitable for the
largest plate he uses, and should have two or more on hand always
for developing purposes. These dishes are also suitable for the
clearing and fixing solutions; but for these solutions the upright
bath dish and dipper are better for several reasons; first, because
there is less evaporation; second, all sediment sinks to the bottom,
and the solution is always clean; and last, but not least, they take
up less room.


THE WASHING BOX.

The gelatine plate requires much and prolonged [p170] washing to
free it from the solutions by which it is developed and fixed, and
which, if not thoroughly washed from the film, would ultimately
injure and perhaps distroy it An apparatus has been devised for
washing dry plates, which may be adapted to any size plate from 4×5
to 8×10.

It has a perforated false bottom, the water is received into the box
beneath the bottom, passes up through the perforations and out
through a pipe at the side; the plates are placed in the grooves and
rest on the false bottom. The force of the water is checked in
passing through the false bottom and flows evenly up through the
plates. A half hour of washing in this box would be quite enough to
thoroughly cleanse the film from hypo, etc.

Another and very effective model is the ANTHONY SELF-CHANGING SHOWER
WASHING BOX.

[Illustration: ANTHONY SELF-CHANGING SHOWER WASHING BOX.] [p171]

The Anthony Self-Changing Shower Washing Box for dry plate negatives
is a nicely constructed and convenient apparatus. Made
substantially, and well japanned inside and out, it has interior
grooves in which either 5×8 or 8×10 negatives may be placed. When
the negatives are introduced, the hose is attached to a faucet; the
lid is now closed and locked if desired, and the water turned on.

It will be seen that the water enters the washer from above, and
that the inside of the lid is made in the form of a perforated
fountain, which discharges a spray over the plates. When the
negatives are entirely submerged, the water is all drawn off by
means of a self-acting syphon, and the process of showering is
repeated.

With this apparatus the hypo can be thoroughly eliminated from the
gelatine film in from fifteen minutes to half an hour. The change of
water is continuous.

When the plates are well washed they are removed from the washing
box and set up in


NEGATIVE RACKS,

where they will soon dry, and when dry they should be stored in
boxes to be kept free from dampness and dust.

[Illustration: ANTHONY'S FOLDING NEGATIVE RACK.] [p172]

[Illustration: NEGATIVE BOXES.]

These boxes are made of every size and are indispensable for the
proper preservation of dry plates.


CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF THE DEVELOPER.

The solutions for developments, both by the neutral oxalate and the
alkaline pyro processes, should be kept in air-tight glass-stoppered
bottles; in fact, rubber stoppers are superior to glass for keeping
out the air, and when they can be had should be preferred.

Glass funnels and filtering paper for filtering the various
solutions should always be kept handy for use.

Glass graduates are quite indispensable in preparing and mixing the
developing solutions.

A balance scale is equally necessary for the same purpose.

The chemical constituents of the developing outfit are:

  Neutral oxalate of potash,

  Protosulphate of iron, for oxalate development,

  Sulphite of soda,

  Sal-soda or carbonate of soda,

  Carbonate of potash, [p173]

  Bromide of ammonium,

  Concentrated ammonia,

  Pyrogallic acid, for alkaline pyro development, etc.,

  Alum and citric acid, for clearing solution,

  Hyposulphite of soda, for fixing solution.


THE AMATEUR DARK ROOM.

It is not necessary that the amateur should have a thoroughly
appointed dark room, although such a room is a great convenience and
not at all difficult to construct nor expensive to keep up.

Those desiring to construct a convenient and safe dark room should
consult the article on dark room in the first part of this book.
Such a room might be put up in an out-building where running water
could be had, but for occasional use the bath-room or any closet in
the house that contained running water and is large enough to hold a
small table would answer every purpose. It would be necessary to
stop every crevice that would admit white light, by covering such
places with heavy red orange paper. The window, if there is one, may
be covered with the same paper or a heavy shawl. The room may then
be lighted comfortably with Carbutt's Dry Plate Developing Lantern,
which may set upon the table with the developing tray before, as in
the cut.

When abroad making views it is sometimes necessary to change the
plates in the holders; for this purpose carry with you a ruby glass
gas burner chimney, which is a plain cylinder of ruby glass, about
one and a half inches in diameter and six to eight inches long.
Light a short piece of candle and set the chimney over it; this in
any small dark closet will give plenty of [p174] light for the
purpose, and indeed might do to develop by at a pinch.

[Illustration: LANTERN ARRANGED FOR DEVELOPING, AND AFTER FIXING,
EXAMINING NEGATIVES BY OPAL LIGHT.]


FERROUS OXALATE DEVELOPMENT OF DRY PLATES. (ROCHE.)

First make two stock solutions as follows:

No. 1. A saturated solution of oxalate of potash (a pint or quart)
and test with blue litmus paper. If it does not show an acid
reaction dissolve a little oxalic acid in water and add enough to
the solution to cause the blue test paper to turn red.

This solution should be filtered for use.

No. 2. Make a saturated solution of pure sulphate of iron, and to
one quart add three or five drops of sulphuric acid, to prevent
oxidation, and filter.

Now, to develop a 5x8 plate, take three ounces of No. 1 and to this
add one quarter of a dram of bromide of potassium solution (which is
water one ounce, bromide of potassium twelve grains), then add half
an ounce of No. 2; this forms the developer. [p175]

Then transfer the plate to a developing disk, and pour over it the
developer. If the picture comes out gradually and develops
sufficiently, it is good so far, but if from under-exposure the
details hang back and refuse to develop further, then add two drams,
or half an ounce, more of No. 2, which will bring out the picture
with full details, unless greatly under-exposed.

Never exceed one ounce of No. 2 (iron) to three ounces of No. 1
(potash), for if you do you will form a sandy deposit and
discontinue the action of the developer.

Always develop until the picture seems sunken into the surface. Do
not judge by looking through the negative only. Wash and fix in
hypo, 1 ounce; water, 8 to 10 ounces. After fixing, wash well.

For pictures taken instantaneously, use no bromide in the developer.


COOPER'S SODA DEVELOPER.

  No. 1. Anthony's Sodium Sulphite Crystals       3/4 lb.
         Distilled water                          2 qts.
         Anthony's Pyrogallic Acid                2 ozs.

  No. 2. Anthony's Sal Soda Crystals              1/2 lb.
         Water                                    2 qts.

To develop, take

  No. 1                                           2 ozs.
  No. 2                                           2  "
  Water                                           2  "

For restraining over-exposure use the above quantity of developer,
one-half to one dram of

  Bromide potassium                               1 oz.
  Water                                           6  "

"It is always advisable to use two developing trays, [p176] and
have the normal developer in one and the restrained developer in the
other. Then, by changing the plate from one tray to the other, the
character of the negative is under full control. Four to six plates
can be developed in one lot of developer.

"This developer can be used for a number of plates, and gives fine
negatives of good printing quality.

"After development, return your old developer to a stoppered bottle,
and keep for commencing development.

"The reason for doing this is as follows:

"As a rule, I give a little more time than necessary to make a
full-timed negative, and, by commencing with the old developer, give
the high lights a start of the shadows, which I can readily soften
afterwards by the use of a stronger developer at the finish, thus
obtaining the sparkling high lights so much admired in the wet
plate; and so seldom found in the average Dry Plate Pictures.

"This developer never becomes muddy, and may be used repeatedly with
fine effect.

"Always place plates in a strong solution of alum after developing
and rinsing, and before fixing. This gives brilliancy to the
negative and prevents the possibility of softening.

"In the use of the above formula it is important that the best
Chemicals be employed."

It is not necessary to make up the full amount of 2 oz. pyro at one
time.

In the foregoing two formulæ will be found all that is necessary for
making good negatives by either process.

Every box of plates that is put up for sale carries [p177] with
it the formula supposed to be best for that plate. There are other
forms of development that produce good work. The following is one of
them:


FERRO-CYANIDE OF POTASSIUM DEVELOPER.

Make a saturated solution of yellow prussiate of potassium and
dilute with an equal bulk of water; add 2 drops of ammonia and 2
grains of dry pyro to each ounce used.

The solution can be used repeatedly until exhausted. Four ounces of
this solution would contain 8 grains of pyro, which is enough to
develop 2 8×10 plates, or their equivalent of smaller plates. Mix
only the amount that will be used at one sitting.

It will be noticed in all the foregoing formulæ that the matter of
greatest uncertainty is the exposure of the plate; you never can
tell if your plate is properly exposed until you begin to develop,
and then if your picture flashes out at once it is too late to
correct by modifying the developer.

The theory of development is that the pyro is the developing agent
and gives the strength.

The soda, or ammonia, as the case may be, gives the detail. The
bromide is a restrainer, and to a certain extent will correct
over-exposure. Sulphite of soda, citric acid and sulphurous acid are
used to keep the pyro from oxidizing.

Therefore, when developing a plate, say a 5×7, put it in the tray
and pour over it the amount of pyro necessary to develop such a
plate, say two grains in four ounces of water, let the plate remain
in this solution for a short time, in the meantime take of your
alkaline solution the amount you would use for the [p178] same
size plate, but add only a small portion to the solution covering
the plate. To do this pour off the pyro solution into a graduate and
add a drop or two of the alkaline solution, soda, potash or ammonia,
whatever it may be, then turn the solution back on the plate and
watch for the effect; if in a few minutes there is no change, then
add more of the alkaline solution in the same manner, and in a short
time the image will begin to appear; if it comes up too slowly, give
it the remainder of the alkaline solution, and unless the plate has
been under-exposed the image will come out and strengthen gradually
until it has well sunken into the plate, when it may be removed and
washed.

If you use the oxalate developer, proceed upon the same plan;
oxalate in the place of pyro, iron in the place of alkali, but
always add the iron to the oxalate, not the reverse.

Do not be persuaded that the bromide is only a restrainer; it is
that and more too; it may greatly affect the quality of the
negative, making it much finer in grain and clearer in the shadows.

Under-exposed plates at best make but poor negatives, and it is
preferable to err, if at all, on the other side, but with the rapid
plates now made exposures are very seldom too short.

When the plate has been developed it must be washed and then placed
in the hypo solution to fix.

The most effective strength of hypo solution is half saturated. Make
a saturated solution of hypo and dilute it with an equal bulk of
water. The plate should lie in this solution until it appears
perfectly clear, and about five or ten minutes longer, then it
should be [p179] taken out and well washed. It should then be put
in the


CLEARING SOLUTION.

  Water,            1/2 gal.
  Alum,             1/4 lb.
  Citric acid,      2 oz.

Allow the plate to remain in this solution a few minutes and it will
be found to have been greatly improved, having lost the color and
cleared the shadows. This solution, besides clearing the negative,
decomposes the hypo remaining in the film, and a short wash after
being taken from it is sufficient.


EASTMAN'S IMPROVED NEGATIVE PAPER.

The Eastman Dry Plate and Film Co., of Rochester, N. Y., exhibited
at the P. A. of A. Exhibition, at Buffalo, N. Y., in July, 1885, a
very remarkable display of photographs, the negatives of which were
made on gelatinized paper and called the Eastman flexible negative
support. They gave a demonstration of their process at the same
time, and also explained the working of their new holder for a
continuous web or band of paper.

The sensitive gelatine emulsion is prepared in the same manner as
for glass plates, and it is spread by means of ingenious machinery
on continuous bands of paper, which bands are afterwards cut into
sizes, or rolled on spools which will contain enough paper to make
from 24 to 40 views or portraits, according to size.

They have invented a very neat apparatus to hold the paper when cut
into sizes so that it may be inserted in the common dry-plate
holder. [p180]

They have also invented and patented a roller holder which may be
made to fit any camera, in which is inserted a spool of the paper,
and by means of ingenious devices it may be drawn across a flat
table and wound upon another roller with an apparatus to register
each length of paper as an exposure is made. This apparatus is
absolutely correct in operation, and the proper length of paper is
infallibly transferred from the table to the roller by simply
turning the roller with a key from the outside.

By this invention the viewist is given command of as many as 24
exposures, with no greater weight to carry than one double dry-plate
holder when filled with glass, thus reducing his "tote" the weight
of five double dry-plate holders and ten glass plates, and his
resources are increased two-fold.

The exposures having been made the holder is taken to the dark room,
the paper unwound from the spools, cut at the register marks and
developed in the same manner as glass plates, but with the
difference that several pieces may be developed at the same time in
the same manner that paper prints are toned, thus securing a uniform
intensity to the negatives; the fixing and washing are performed in
the same manner as silver prints and as easily.

The paper negatives after being washed are dried between blotters,
or in any other preferred manner, and they are then saturated with
castor oil and ironed with a hot flat-iron, to make the oil more
effectually permeate the fibre of the paper.

These negatives are more perfectly susceptible of being retouched
and worked up than those on glass.

They are printed from the gelatine side, and when [p181] the
prints are made the negatives are stored in portfolios. If after a
time it is found that the oil has dried out of the film, they may be
again oiled the same as at the first.

The roller holders are made for every size and style of camera box
from the Detective and the Bijou pocket apparatus, up to the 20×24
mammoth size Novel Camera.


HOW TO USE THE EASTMAN-WALKER ROLL-HOLDER.

The Eastman paper films for the roll-holder are prepared in
continuous bands, and are rolled up on wooden spools and neatly
packed in paper boxes.

The spool may be removed from its box and placed in the holder in
daylight, at the expense of the outside roll or length of paper
necessary to extend from the spool to the winding-reel, so that if
one were so situated as to find it necessary to change rolls in the
field, the loss would be trifling--being at the utmost not more than
would be required for two exposures from each spool.

The proper course, however, is to charge the holder with its spool
of film in the dark room before going abroad.

In doing this it is necessary that the light in the room should be
strong enough to enable the operator to see comfortably; but of such
a quality as not to injure the paper, which is at least 25 per cent.
more sensitive than the same emulsion would be if on glass instead
of paper.

Figure 1 gives a general idea of the shape of the holder, with the
slide partly drawn to show a portion of the film. Also may be seen
the brass loops or clamps [p182] which hold the cover securely
over the working parts, and the key at the bottom which turns the
reel to which the loose end of the paper is attached.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

The working parts are fastened to a light metal frame, and consist
of a spool of film at the right end, and the winding reel at the
left, as seen in Figure 2. Both the spool and the reel are provided
with spring brakes, that prevent the uncoiling or unrolling of the
paper from either the spool or reel. The milled [p183] heads of
the chucks which hold the near ends of the spool and reel are
provided with pawls, which, while permitting them to turn easily in
the right direction, prevent the possibility of turning the other
way.

When the cover, as seen in Fig. 2, is to be removed, the keyhole
guard and the indicator knob are pulled out as far as they will
come, the two loops on each side are turned down, the cover lifted
off, leaving the working parts exposed, attached to the back of the
holder by spring bolts, two at each end of the frame. Now, with the
thumb and fore-finger of the right hand, press these bolts, and thus
release the right end of the framework, which you may turn up, as
seen in Fig. 3, which is the position for removing and replacing the
roll of film.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.] [p184]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

The proper method of doing this is more particularly shown in Fig.
4. With the left hand you hold the roll of film and draw back the
spring brake; now press the end of the roller that has the saw-cut
or groove across it against the chuck, as seen on the left, while
the right hand unscrews the pivot or support for the other end of
the roller, which is then placed in position; the pivot is inserted
and screwed home.

This completes the operation of placing the roll of film in
position. The frame is then turned down and secured by the two
bolts, the paper band on the roll of film is torn off, and the end
of the film is carried beneath the guide roller and over it and
across the exposing table to the other end, which is next released
and raised to a perpendicular position. The end of the film is now
brought over the guide roller and attached to the winding reel, as
shown in Fig. 5. [p185]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

The paper is fastened to the winding reel by a metallic clamp, which
is pivoted to the ends of the winding reel. Now see that the film
occupies a central position across the table and over the guide
rolls, and then take up the slack by means of the milled head
tension screw or chuck at one end of the reel. The pawls should now
be adjusted on the milled heads of the chucks, the cover replaced
and fastened by raising the loops or clamps over the pins in the
side of the cover, and you are ready for work.

For the purpose of indicating plainly where the first exposure will
be, insert the key and screw it home then turn it slowly until you
hear a sharp click, then pull out the slide and draw a pencil across
the film at each end of the holder, then return the slide.

When about to make another exposure, note the position of the
indicator at the right end of the holder, then turn the key slowly;
the proper length will be [p186] indicated both by the sound of
the sharp click within and by the position of the indicator on the
outside of the holder. At every turn of the guide-roll the paper is
punctured by a sharp point which occurs simultaneously with the
sound of the click. For the smaller sizes, three clicks and three
punctures will surely indicate that the proper length of paper has
been replaced on the exposing table. For the medium sizes four
clicks and punctures are required. And for the larger sizes, as many
as six or eight may be necessary. The proper information is given
with the holder.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

When the exposures are made, and it is desired to remove the paper
from the winding reel and cut it for development, proceed as before,
and remove the cover from the holder; then, with a sharp
knife-blade, cut the paper, as shown in Fig. 6, by drawing the blade
over the paper and in the tin-lined groove in the guide-roll Then
release the spring pawl at the reel end and [p187] draw the paper
from the reel across the table, then cut by measurement, or by
counting the punctures.

The directions for developing and preparing the films for printing
accompany each package of the paper.


THE ROCHE FILM.

The year 1885 has been remarkable for the great importance of the
numerous improvements in photographic processes that have been
brought before the profession, and for the great impetus thereby
given to the extension of the uses of the art.

The substitution of paper for glass as a vehicle for sustaining the
sensitive film has long been an aspiration of the progressive
photographer; and this year has witnessed the perfection of at least
two paper film processes that may be said to be perfect.

The Eastman paper film has already established itself as a practical
success, and now we have a new candidate for photographic favor in
the Roche Film, just perfected and patented by that able
experimentalist, and assigned to Messrs. Anthony & Co.

This Roche Film is remarkable for the ingenious manner by which the
disagreeable necessity for oiling the paper is avoided.

This particular improvement consists in coating both sides of the
paper with the same sensitized gelatine emulsion, which has the
effect of preventing any trace of the fiber of the paper showing,
from the fact that the light penetrating the front film has
sufficient power to impress an image on the back film as well, the
interstices between the fibres of the paper permitting a more
energetic action of the light on the back film than through the
fibre, equalizes the intensity and thus prevents [p188] the fibre
showing in the negative when examined by transmitted light, or
leaving any impression on prints made therefrom. The double
impression has also the power of giving a more plucky or bolder
character to the prints, and greatly enhancing the atmospheric
effect and beauty of both portraits and landscape pictures. Also
other imperfections, either in the front film or in the body of the
paper, are corrected by the back coating, as neither the fibre of
the paper nor any imperfection therein can have any effect on the
front coating, but both the fibre and any spots, either opaque or
transparent, in the paper or front film will affect the back image
in the exact ratio of the opacity or transparency of the spots or
imperfections.

In other words, all the imperfections of the paper and front film
will be corrected by the back, rendering the double negative quite
smooth and even, whatever the character of the texture of the paper
may have been. This special paper offers other advantages. It will
stand a protracted washing without weakening, and does not easily
tear or crack from handling in the water, and when dried it will not
curl, but remains flat, ready for immediate use.

Directions for development accompany each package.


ENLARGING AND DUPLICATING SMALL NEGATIVES.

Many amateurs have of late discarded their larger equipments, and
for general work use the smallest sizes, such as the Detective
Camera and the Bijou or Novelette, which are of the smallest sizes,
such as 3-1/4×4-1/4 and 4×5.

It is contended on their part that these small outfits, which are so
light and portable as to give the minimum [p189] of trouble in
their use, give also (when good lenses are used) the most brilliant
and perfect negatives, which are capable of being enlarged to any
desirable size. Indeed, the copying and duplicating apparatus may be
found in the rooms of many of the leading amateurs. And by its use
many valuable negatives are duplicated, and secured against loss by
breakage; others are enlarged to more useful sizes, and most
beautiful transparencies are made.


THE COPYING AND DUPLICATING CAMERA.

[Illustration: THE COPYING AND DUPLICATING CAMERA.]

This apparatus, as will be seen in the engraving, is a camera with
an unusually long bed-rail and bellows. It has a central frame which
supports a lens, and a front frame supporting a negative, so placed
for duplicating or enlarging, which is done by transmitted light.

The front is fitted with a kit of frames for the various sizes of
negatives, from 3-1/4×4-1/4 to 8×10, or the largest size the box is
capable of producing.

For copying by reflected light the lens is removed from the central
frame and adjusted or attached to the front, where the negative is
seen in the cut; and the picture to be copied is attached to an
upright support (which is usually a part of the copying table or
stand) [p190] and exposed to the strongest diffused light
available, the camera being adjusted squarely in front of it.

For duplicating or enlarging negatives the adjustment of the
apparatus is as shown in the engraving. Such work being done by
transmitted light. The negative to be enlarged is placed in the
appropriate sized frame in front and the lens in the middle frame,
which is placed nearer to the negative than to the ground glass. The
conjugate focus is then found by drawing out the rear or ground
glass focussing screen until the image is sharply defined on the
glass. When the subject is sharply in focus, if the image is found
to be too small the frame supporting the lens is pushed a little
nearer the front; on the contrary, if the image is too large the
lens is drawn back from the front.

For all such work the camera should be directed toward a window
commanding a clear view of the sky, or if trees or buildings
intervene then a sheet of tissue paper or a square of ground glass
should be placed immediately in front of the camera and against the
window. It will be found that Anthony's "mineral paper" is superior
to either tissue paper or ground glass for this purpose, and should
be used when it can be procured.

When it is desired to make a duplicate negative it is necessary
first to produce a dia-positive or transparency; this is merely a
copy of the negative (by transmitted light, or light passing through
the negative to the lens) with its lights and shadows transposed or
reversed. Great care must be taken to have this transparency in
sharpest focus, and full-timed in exposure to secure line detail.

When a suitable positive has been secured it should [p191] be
dried and set up in the place occupied by the negative from which it
was made, and with the film side toward the lens.

The process is now repeated, but with a shorter exposure, and the
resulting picture is a negative (if well done) identical with the
original.

The adjustment for size is, as before mentioned, effected by moving
the lens support. If it is desired to enlarge, the lens is moved
nearer the subject; if to reduce, move the lens back from the front.
If the duplicate negative is to be of the same size as the original,
the lens is moved to the position near the centre between the front
and back, which will give the image on the ground glass the same
dimensions by measurements as the original.

It will be observed that as there are two plates to be used the
utmost care must be taken in the adjustment of the focus and in
timing the exposure in both instances, to avoid loss of definition
or quality.

Duplicates and enlargements of negatives made by this process and
with dry plates need be in no particular inferior to the originals,
if care and skill are exercised in their production.


DUPLICATE NEGATIVES BY CONTACT.

When it is not desired either to enlarge or reduce the size of the
duplicate, a more direct and simple method is to make the positive
by contact printing.

Place the negative in a printing frame, and upon it lay a dry plate
so that the two film surfaces are together; use a thick pad and see
that the pressure is strong enough to force the two surfaces into
intimate contact; now expose to a gas flame for four to six [p192]
seconds and develop. This will make an admirable positive or
transparency if properly done. The same process repeated, serves to
make a duplicate negative from the transparency.

It is advisable to make a positive by this method from every
valuable negative. This positive will serve to make duplicates from,
should the original be lost or broken.

Enlarged prints from small negatives can be made by the use of
Anthony's enlarging camera, and their gelatino-bromide paper by
artificial light, so that when one or more or only a few large
prints are required from a small negative it would perhaps be more
advantageous to make them direct from the original negative by the
use of this instrument than by making an enlarged negative and
printing by contact. However, the latter method would be the best in
cases where many prints are required.


PRINTING PROCESSES.

The amateur who has secured a fine negative of some choice bit of
scenery, or has made a "hit" on any subject interesting or
beautiful, will naturally desire to secure prints or impressions
from it, that he may gratify his friends with a copy or supply the
demand for exchanges with the members of his camera club.

The accomplishment of this desire is neither difficult nor
expensive, as there are several processes by which the amateur may
print for himself as many impressions as will suit his purpose. If
silver prints are preferred, any photographer will produce them at
small expense; or if the amateur is sufficiently posted in this
branch of the art, and has the facilities, he can easily [p193]
make them himself. The matter is much simplified by procuring from
the nearest stock dealer or photographer, ready sensitized paper.
Few amateurs, however, I imagine, would care to incur the expense of
a silver-printing outfit. Those who would will find in the first
part of this book full instructions in the article on silver
printing.

The processes by which the amateur may most easily produce prints
from his own negatives by his own skill and labor are:

The Gelatino bromide paper process.

Anthony's collodio-chloride process.

Ferro-prussiate or blue process.

Transparencies in glass or opal.


PRINTING ON ANTHONY'S GELATINO BROMIDE PAPER.

This paper is prepared with a sensitive surface, similar to the dry
plates commonly used, and must be handled with the same care and
subject to the same conditions of light; consequently the printing
must be done by artificial light only.

The paper being cut to the sizes desired, should be kept in a
light-tight box, and in a dark room. When about to print, place the
negative in a printing frame in the same manner as for silver
printing, lay the paper with the gelatine surface down upon the
negative, place a cloth pad upon the paper, then press the frame
back firmly down to secure even contact of the paper with the
negative.

All this should be done in a dark room by the aid of a non-actinic
light, and for this purpose Anthony's Climax Dark-Room Lantern,
Patented, as shown in the following cut, [p194] would seem to
fulfil every requirement. A more expensive, but very convenient
instrument, however, is CARBUTT'S MULTUM IN PARVO DRY PLATE
LANTERN, [p195] which has proved to be most suitable for this
particular purpose.

[Illustration: TN: Anthony's Climax Dark-Room Lantern.]

[Illustration: CARBUTT'S MULTUM IN PARVO DRY PLATE LANTERN]

The paper having been placed in the printing frame, the frame is set
up, as seen in the [TN: following] cut, and the door in the side of
the lantern opened, which permits the white light from the lamp to
fall upon the surface of the negative; an exposure of from 5 to 10
seconds is all that will be necessary, even in case the negative is
quite dense; a thin negative will print with less exposure, say 3 to
5 seconds, at a distance of from 12 to 15 inches from the light.

[Illustration: Lantern arranged for making positives by contact.]

The paper when taken from the frame presents no change of surface,
and must be developed in the same manner as a dry plate, to bring
out the picture.

Previous to developing, lay the paper in a dish of clean water for a
short time, and then transfer it to the developing tray. [p196]

The developing is done by the ferrous oxalate process. Solutions as
follows:

  Saturated solution oxalate potash     3 oz.
  Saturated    "    photosulphate iron  1/2 oz.
  Bromide      " (12 grains bromide of
      ammonium to 1 oz. water)          1/4 dram.
  Saturated solution tartaric acid      2 drops.

This developer can be used several times successively until it
becomes turbid. The best way is to first print and develop one
print, to ascertain the proper time of exposure. Then make as many
prints as are necessary, and develop them all together in a dish
large enough, and with sufficient of the solution to cover them
nicely. Observe carefully not to develop too far, as the resulting
prints will be too dark. When the prints are developed, wash them
well and fix them in a new solution of

  Hyposulphite of soda       1 ounce.
  Water.                     8   "

The fixing will require from five to ten minutes; then wash and pass
the prints through a clearing solution consisting of

  Alum       2 ounces.
  Water      6   "

then wash again and hang up, or place between clean blotters to dry.

It is necessary that the hands be free from any trace of silver or
hypo when handling these prints while developing, or afterwards when
wet, to avoid stains, etc. The same precautions as to the relative
proportions of the oxalate solution and the iron are to be observed
as for the development of negatives. [p197]


THE MAGIC LANTERN AND ITS USE

The Magic, or, more properly, the Projecting lantern, is an optical
instrument, consisting of a case of wood or metal, enclosing a lamp
or other illuminating agent, the light of which being gathered and
condensed by a suitable condensing lens, and directed upon a small
transparent picture, so powerfully illuminates it that its image,
brilliantly lighted and greatly magnified, may be projected upon a
distant screen by means of an objective--a combination of lenses in
a tube--similar or identical in construction with a photographic
portrait lens.

The modern projecting lantern, now a scientific instrument, bears
very little if any resemblance to the earlier magic lantern, which
was a rude construction, and, as its name implies, was first used by
magicians, or professors of the magic arts, as a means of imposing
upon the ignorance and superstition of their times. Later it became
a toy for the amusement of young people. And occasionally it
furnished amusement for popular assemblies, at what were called
Magic lantern exhibitions, usually the projection upon a screen of
greatly enlarged images of a series of comic pictures painted in
brilliant colors upon glass.

The perfected instrument is now used in advanced schools and
colleges for illustrating scientific lectures, and more popularly by
public lecturers to illustrate by luminous projection scenes and
incidents of travel, etc., without which the mere narrative would be
exceedingly dry and devoid of interest.

Since dry plate photography became a popular amusement, the
projecting lantern has greatly increased in public favor, and the
members of the amateur [p198] photographic societies and camera
clubs throughout the country are interested and engaged in the
production, as slides for the lantern, of views of almost everything
in animate or inanimate life.

The projecting lantern, in its highest development, is a complicated
and costly instrument, the different designs and constructions of
which have received, each, a long and high-sounding name, the
antepenultimate of which is usually of Greek or Latin origin, such
as panopticon, sciopticon, stereopticon, etc., etc., and requiring
such powerful illumination as can only be furnished by the
oxy-hydrogen or calcium lights or electricity.

A new instrument, however, suitable both in cost and in means of
illumination for amateurs and amateur societies, has lately been
introduced by Messrs. E. & H. T. Anthony & Co., which, to be in the
fashion, has received the name Triplexicon.

The Triplexicon is the perfection of oil-burning lanterns; in it
refined petroleum oil is burned in a burner having three wicks; the
centre wick being opposite the centre of the condensing lens, and in
its optical axis, entirely removes the most objectionable fault of
such lanterns, the central shadow or flare.

The Triplexicon, therefore, being of its class the most perfect
instrument, and requiring little if any skill to manage it, becomes
the appropriate instrument for the amateur photographer whereby to
exhibit in a very acceptable manner the trophies of his skill in the
use of the camera and alkaline pyro.

[Illustration: TN: Triplexicon Lantern.]

A gentleman thoroughly familiar with all the various modifications
of the magic lantern, in describing the Triplexicon says of it:

"We have seen many lanterns in our time, and in [p199] several
respects this eclipses them all, especially those for use with
kerosene oil only. The lamp itself is completely shielded with a
well-made hood of Russia iron, and is provided with the patent
triplex wick, which affords the utmost illumination obtainable with
any oil light. The back and front of the hood are closed interiorly
by glass plates, specially annealed to withstand extreme heat, and
the rear one is again closed by perforated sheet iron, covered
interiorly with a highly polished metallic reflector, back of which
is inserted an eye piece of ruby glass. The latter enables one to
always observe the condition of the flame and wicks, and regulate
them without disturbing or discontinuing the action of the
instrument. The chimney is made telescopic, to pack more compactly."

"The diffusing lens, specially constructed for the purpose, is
mounted on a cylindrical slide to extend, if [p200] necessary,
the focal distance, while the condensing lenses, which are of four
inch diameter and can be separated for cleaning, are inserted in a
corresponding slide within the wooden case.

"The case itself is quite compact, and appears very ornamental in
its highly polished mahogany, with its little bronzed ventilators on
either side at the bottom. The metal front is burnished and has a
spiral spring adapter for the admission of the slides. A substantial
wooden box contains all, and serves also as a table for the
instrument while in use. Altogether this is the finest example of
its kind we have yet seen; it will also serve admirably for
enlargements with the gelatino-bromide paper."


LANTERN SLIDES.

The pictures prepared for projection by the magic lantern are made
on glass of one size, invariably 3-1/4×4 inches, and are copies of
negatives made by transmitted light and by two methods. When the
negative is made by the detective, or pocket cameras and on plates
3-1/4×4-1/4, the positives or slides may be made by contact
printing; that is, the prepared plate is placed in contact with the
negative, film sides together or touching in a printing frame, the
back pressed closely down and the plate exposed to the light of a
gas or lamp flame--daylight is too strong--for from five to ten
seconds, according to the density of the negative; the plate is then
developed perfectly with ferrous oxalate until the picture is seen
clearly on the surface; when the shadows have become sufficiently
dense, or before there is any discoloration of the high lights,
remove and wash and fix in hypo and alum. (See Roche's formula
[p201] in article on Transparencies.) Remember that all parts of the
pictures that represent the whites should be clear glass.

When the negative is larger than the slide, then the copy must be
made in the Camera. (See article on transparencies.)

It is claimed by some that slides made by the collodion process are
superior to those made on dry plates, but in my own personal
experience I have found Anthony's transparency dry plates superior
to all others and better than collodion.

To protect the film surface of the slide, thin, clear glass of a
corresponding size is placed against the film surface with a paper
mat (the opening of which should closely correspond with the outline
of the picture) between, and the two bound together neatly with
adhesive paper.


PRINTING BY ANTHONY'S COLLODIO CHLORIDE.

Collodio chloride is a collodion emulsion, consisting of plain
collodion and silver chloride. It is a grayish-white substance in
liquid form, and being quite sensitive to light, it must be kept in
a covered bottle.

Anthony's collodio chloride is supplied in 8-ounce or larger
bottles, and will keep indefinitely. The formula for its preparation
is not known, but it is sold at a price that renders its preparation
by individuals unprofitable.

The following formula will give a superior quality of collodio
chloride to those wishing to make their own.

FORMULA FOR COLLODIO CHLORIDE.

  No. 1. Nitrate silver      1 drachm.
         Water               1 dram. [p202]

  No. 2. Chloride of calcium      64 grains.
         Alcohol                   2 oz.

  No. 3. Citric acid              64 grains.
         Alcohol                   2 oz.

To 2 oz. plain collodion add of

  No. 1                           30 drops.
  No. 2                            1 dram.
  No. 3                            1/2 dram.

By the use of this emulsion most beautiful pictures may be made on
paper and upon porcelain, opal, stoneware, and other plain white
surfaces.

When paper or any other flexible surface is to be used, it is simply
coated with the emulsion. First place the paper flat upon a square
of glass and pour upon it the emulsion, causing it to flow evenly
over the whole surface and the excess to flow back into the bottle
from the lower corner. This must be done in a subdued light, but not
necessarily in a dark room or by non-actinic light, as in the case
of the use of gelatine bromide paper.

When the paper is coated it should be placed in a closet or some
dark place to dry, and when dried it is printed in the same manner
as silver paper, by placing it in a printing frame in contact with a
negative. It is printed by sunlight, and may be examined while
printing, to see the progress made. The printing should be carried a
shade or two beyond the color suitable for a finished print, and
when done should be washed in clean water and toned with gold, and
afterwards fixed in hyposulphite soda and again well washed in the
same manner as for silver prints.

Flat porcelain or other enameled surfaces, before [p203] being
coated with the emulsion should be albumenized in the same manner as
glass plates for the collodion process.

The white of an egg to 6 ounces of water, well beaten, will be the
most suitable proportion for this purpose.

For printing on porcelain or other enamel plane surfaces, specially
prepared printing frames are necessary in order that the progress of
the printing may be ascertained.

All articles with uneven surfaces, such as plaques, plates, saucers,
of porcelain china or stoneware, that cannot be placed in printing
frames, may have pictures printed on them by the aid of the Solar
Camera or by Anthony's Enlarging Camera, and the lime or the
magnesium light.

See Anthony's Enlarging Camera.


THE ENLARGING CAMERA

Method of making large pictures from small negatives.

[Illustration: TN: The Enlarging Camera.] [p204]

The prevalent use of the Detective Camera, and other cameras, for
making pictures on small plates, has caused a demand for an
apparatus whereby large pictures may be produced from such
negatives.

This demand has been met by the production of Anthony's New
Enlarging Camera in connection with the Gelatino bromide papers.

This enlarging box is at once simple and effective. It consists of a
black wooden box containing a good kerosene lamp. The sides of the
box have a number of grooves that carry a slide holding a large
condensing lens, O, while another slide holds the negative, N, that
is to be printed.

[Illustration: TN: Schematic of the Enlarging Box.]

To the outside of one end of the box is attached a sliding bellows,
and an objective, E, by which the picture is enlarged and thrown
upon any white surface. In a few words, the enlarging box is a small
solar camera, but using artificial light instead of the sun's rays;
or it is a magic lantern so arranged that no light can come out of
it except that which passes through the objective. [p205]

The use of the instrument is as simple as its construction. The lamp
is lighted, and then adjusted in the box so that a shadowless circle
of light is projected upon a white wall or other surface, all the
light being utilized by means of the reflectors situated back of the
lamp. This adjustment is effected by moving the condensing lens and
the lamp nearer or farther apart. It is perhaps best to place the
condenser in a groove near the objective, but sufficiently far from
the end of the box to allow the slide containing the negative to be
inserted. Having obtained a good circle of light, now place the
negative in the slide and adjust the slide in the box so that it is
between the condensing lens and the objective, and as close to
former as may be. By means of the objective a good focus is now
obtained, and we are ready for an enlargement.

With this apparatus and an artificial light, of course rapid
printing paper is necessary. The cap is placed on the objective, and
by the aid of red light a piece of the gelatino bromide paper is
adjusted on the surface where the image was projected from the
enlarging box. This part of the operation maybe assisted by removing
the cap from the objective and placing a piece of ruby glass before
it, allowing the image to fall on the paper through the ruby glass.
A simple and effective way of holding the paper is to tack two
common wooden laths upon a board in such a way that they will serve
to hold the paper along two of its longer sides, in which case the
board must be used to focus upon.

The exposure necessary will depend upon the density and character of
the negative. With a medium density in a portrait negative, one
minute appears sufficient, but something also depends upon the
paper [p206] used, those of English manufacture being rather
slow. With a little care and this little contrivance much pleasure
and success are attainable in enlarging pictures from small
negatives.

The use of the new "tooth" surface printing paper admits of the
application of crayons to the enlargements.

By substituting the lime or the magnesium light for the kerosene
lamps, pictures may be printed by the collodio chloride process upon
a variety of uneven surfaces, such as plaques, plate, saucers, pots,
etc., etc.

In fact, this instrument might very easily be converted into a solar
camera by fixing it in a window and adjusting a mirror outside that
would reflect the sun's rays into the condenser within the box.


TO ENLARGE NEGATIVES BY THE REVERSING ACTION OF LIGHT.

Having coated a plate with the common negative collodion and excited
it in the usual nitrate of silver negative bath, expose it to the
light for about a second at the door of the dark room, wash it and
then apply to the surface as a wash a solution of

  Iodide of potassium       16 grains.
  Bromide of potassium       8    "
  Water                      1 ounce.

The plate is now ready for exposure in the enlarging camera; the
lime or the magnesium light being sufficiently powerful for the
purpose. On its removal from the camera the plate is washed,
immersed for a brief period in the nitrate of silver bath, or
otherwise treated with a solution of this salt, after which the
image is developed by the ordinary developing solution [p207] for
wet plates. In this way is obtained an enlarged negative from a
small one without the necessity of an intermediary transparency.


PRINTING WITHOUT SALTS OF SILVER, FROM THE "SILVER SUNBEAM."

The discovery that certain of the per salts of iron when exposed to
light undergo decomposition and are reduced to proto salts, is
attributed to Sir John Herschell. But we are indebted to Poitevin
for numerous interesting developments in this department.

For instance, the per-chloride so exposed becomes reduced to the
proto-chloride; or, as Von Monckhoven more appropriately remarks, to
the state of oxy-chloride. For this purpose the sesqui-chloride must
be quite neutral. The ammonia tartrate, potassa tartrate and the
ammonia citrate of iron are much more sensitive to light than the
sesqui-chloride, and the latter salt (ammonia citrate) most of all.

The image formed by means of these salts is much fainter than that
with the chloride of silver; but it can be intensified by the
application of other metallic salts.

The mode of operation consists in floating the paper on the
solutions in question in the dark room, in allowing them to dry, and
then exposing them afterward beneath a negative, as usual with paper
prepared with chloride of silver.


THE FERRO-PRUSSIATE, OR BLUE PROCESS.

The preparation of the paper by this process is very simple, and
requires very few manipulations, while the results, when prints are
made, are pleasing and lasting. Prints in blue are so easily made as
to be [p208] extremely convenient for making proofs from
negatives, and they are well adapted for mottoes, plans, drawings,
manuscript, circulars, and for representations of scenery, boats,
machinery, etc., etc., and for engravers' use.

Ferro-prussiate paper can be procured from E. & H. T. Anthony & Co.,
or can be easily made by the following formula:

Float the paper until it lies quite flat upon a solution prepared as
follows:

  1. Water                          2 ounces fluid.
     Red prussiate of potash      120 grains.

  2. Water.                         2 ounces.
     Ammonia citrate of iron      140 grains.

When these two are dissolved, mix them together and filter into a
clean bottle.

The solution should not be exposed to a strong light, and the paper
must be floated on it in a very subdued light, and in the same
manner as paper is floated on a silver solution. When it no longer
curls, but lies flat on the solution, take it by the corners and
raise it slowly from contact, and hang it up to dry in a dark place.
When dry, it can be used at once, or may be kept for future use by
rolling it, prepared surface in, and placing it in a tin box or
other receptacle, free from light and dampness.

To make a print on this paper, place the prepared surface in contact
with the negative in a printing frame and expose to sunlight.

The time of exposure will vary according to the density of the
negative and the intensity of the light. The rule is to allow the
light to act long enough for the portions which first turn blue to
become gray, with [p209] a slight metallic luster. At this point
remove the paper from the frame and place it in a dish of clean
water.

It now gradually becomes a rich blue throughout, except the parts
which should remain white. Change the water from time to time, until
there remains no discoloration in the whites; dry, and the picture
requires no further treatment.

The blue color may be totally removed at any time by placing the
print in ammonia water.

This is the standard formula.


ANOTHER PROCESS FOR BLUE PRINTS.

Float the paper for a minute in a solution of

  Ferridcyanide of potash      1 ounce.
  Water                        5 ounces.

Dry in a dark room, and then expose beneath a negative until the
dark shades have assumed a deep blue color, then immerse the print
in a solution of

  Water                        2 ounces.
  Bichloride mercury           1 grain.

Wash the print, and then immerse it in a hot solution of

  Oxalic acid                  4 drachms.
  Water                        4 ounces.

Wash again, and dry.


ANOTHER PROCESS--THE CYANOTYPE.

Float the paper on a solution of the sesqui-chloride of iron. Dry
and expose, afterwards wash the prints, and then immerse them in a
bath of ferrid cyanide of potash. The picture will appear of a blue
color in all those places where the sun has acted. [p210]


PROCESS WITH SALTS OF URANIUM.

The paper, without having undergone any preceding preparation,
except that of having been excluded from the light for several days,
is floated on a bath of the nitrate of uranium as follows:

  Nitrate of uranium         2 drachms.
  Distilled water           10 drachms.

The paper is left on the bath for four or five minutes, it is then
removed, hung up and dried in the dark room. So prepared, it can be
kept for a considerable time.

The exposure beneath a negative varies from one minute to several
minutes in the rays of the sun, and from a quarter of an hour to an
hour in diffused light. The image which is thus produced is not very
distinct, but comes out in strong contrast when developed as
follows:

NITRATE OF SILVER DEVELOPER.

  Distilled or rain water      2 drachms.
  Nitrate of silver            7 grains.
  Acetic acid                  a mere trace.

The development is very rapid in this solution. In about half a
minute it is complete. As soon as the picture appears in perfect
contrast, the print is taken out and fixed by immersion in water, in
which it is thoroughly washed.


CHLORIDE OF GOLD DEVELOPER.

This is a more rapid developer than the preceding. The print is
fixed in like manner by water, in which it must be well washed, and
afterwards dried. When dried by artificial heat, the vigor of the
print is increased. [p211] Prints that have been developed by the
solution of nitrate of silver may be immersed in the gold bath,
which improves their tone.

The picture may be developed, also, by immersing the prints in a
saturated solution of bichloride of mercury and afterwards in one of
nitrate of silver. In this case, however, the times of exposure must
be increased.

Pictures may be obtained, also, by floating the papers on a mixture
of equal quantities of nitrate of silver and nitrate of uranium in
about six times their weight of water.

When dry, they are exposed beneath a negative. In this case the
image appears, as in the positive printing process, with chloride of
silver, being effected by the decomposition of the nitrate of
uranium, which, reacting on the nitrate of silver, decomposes this
salt and reduces the silver. These prints require fixing in the
ordinary bath of hyposulphite of soda, and then washing, as usual.


PROCESS FOR RED PICTURES.

Float the papers for four minutes in the preceding bath of nitrate
of uranium, drain and dry. Next, expose beneath a negative for eight
or ten minutes, then wash and immerse in a bath of

  Ferridcyanide of potash      30 grains.
  Water                         3 ounces.

In a few minutes the picture will appear of a red color, which is
fixed by washing thoroughly in water.


PROCESS FOR GREEN PICTURES.

Immerse the red picture, before it is dry, in a solution of [p212]

  Sesqui-chloride of iron      30 grains.
  Distilled water               3 ounces.

The tone will soon change to green; fix in water, wash and dry
before the fire.


PROCESS FOR VIOLET PICTURES.

Float the paper for three or four minutes on a bath of:

  Water                    2 ounces.
  Nitrate of uranium       2 drachms.
  Chloride of gold         2 grains.

Afterward take them out and dry. An exposure of ten or fifteen
minutes will cause the necessary reduction; the picture has a
beautiful violet color consisting of metallic gold. Wash and dry.


TRANSPARENCIES ON GLASS AND OPAL.

Photography, throughout its varied range, produces no more charming
or satisfying picture than the transparency, whether it is on glass
for the window, or on porcelain or opal for the lamp.

The beautiful and sparkling gradation of light and shade, the
variety and depth and richness of tone and color inherent in a fine
example of this picture, renders it most positively "a thing of
beauty and a joy forever,"

It is a picture made by a peculiarly simple and easy process, the
most exalted expressions of which have always commanded the popular
favor and a high price, and the working of which has, both for the
amateur and the professional photographer, the highest interest and
attractiveness. By no other method or process can the amateur
succeed in producing pictures of [p213] equal excellence, with
the same outlay of time and skill, which is a peculiarly fortunate
circumstance, as the tendency among amateurs at this time is to form
themselves into clubs and societies for the exchange of their most
beautiful and successful efforts as picture makers. And an exchange
in the form of a transparency enables the receiver to command all
other styles of pictures, through the negative that may be produced
from it.

The production of these pictures has assumed such importance already
as to have called forth a special dry plate for making
transparencies, to say nothing of the other special goods for the
same line, such as metal frames, ground, engraved and etched glass
for mounting, the beautiful borders of which greatly enhance the
beauty and elegance of the finished picture.

Transparencies are adaptable for the exhibition of every kind of
picture that can be copied; paintings, engravings, portraits,
landscapes, all become equally acceptable when skilfully finished
and properly displayed.

By this process, also, the amateur is enabled to provide himself
with slides for his magic lantern and to have the satisfaction of
exhibiting to his friends the trophies of his own skill in the use
of the camera and the developing solution.

The amateur, in order to succeed in producing high class work,
should possess himself of one of Anthony's duplicating and copying
cameras, so that he may be enabled to avail himself of both methods
of work; that is to say, by the camera and by contact printing, as
by the latter method he is restricted to the range and size of his
negatives, while by aid of the camera he is enabled to copy all
kinds of pictures to acceptable sizes, [p214] and he can make his
transparencies of equal size with his negative, or vary the size to
suit the requirements of the case.

The use of the duplicating and copying camera is fully detailed in
the article on Duplicating Negatives. By its use the amateur is
enabled to work by the wet collodion process, which has many
advantages, or by the dry plate process, using Anthony's
transparency plates or the gelatino albumen plates made in
Philadelphia. If he confines himself to contact printing, he is
restricted to the use of dry plates only.

The outfit of goods for making and finishing transparencies consists
of:

  Transparency frames, common and patented, made with rings for
  hanging horizontally or vertically.

  Ground glasses, with borders.

  Etched glasses, with borders.

  Anthony's transparency plates.

  Gelatino albumen plates.

  Porcelain and opal plates for lamp shades, etc., etc.


FORMULA FOR DEVELOPING DRY PLATE TRANSPARENCIES.

When making transparencies by contact use artificial light, either
gas or a common lamp. A deep printing frame is the most suitable,
having a piece of thin plate glass in it to support the negative.
Lay the negative down with the film side up, place upon it the dry
plate, put in the back and press firmly down with the springs;
expose to gas light from six to ten seconds at a distance of twelve
to fourteen inches; expose longer to lamp light, say from ten to
twenty seconds, or the duration of time that may be considered
sufficient, judging from the density of the negative in use. [p215]

The time of exposure and the strength of the developers are the most
important factors in determining the quality and tone of the
resulting transparency. Giving a short exposure and using a strong
developer will ensure a vigorous picture with a rich velvety black
tone. A long exposure, necessitating a weak developer, will produce
fine gradation of light and shade, clear shadows and a warm brown
tone.

When making transparencies for the window, cut a mask, with an
opening, allowing for the border or margin on the ground glass it is
intended to use. A suitable paper for this purpose is of deep orange
color and moderately heavy; place the mask between the negative and
the dry plate to be acted on, and it will protect the margin from
the action of light, leaving it clear glass, and so exhibiting to
better advantage the ornamented border of the ground or etched
glass, which is placed against and covers and protects the film of
the dry plate. When making lantern slides the mask is not necessary.


FERROUS OXALATE DEVELOPER FOR TRANSPARENCIES.

  No. 1.

  Sulphate of iron (Anthony's)      2 ounces.
  Distilled or ice water           32   "
  Sulphuric acid                    8 drops.

  No. 2.

  Neutral oxalate of potassium      8 ounces.
  Warm distilled water             32   "
  Citric acid (or tartaric)        60 grains.
  Bromide of potassium            180   "

When about to use, mix equal parts of Nos. 1 and 2, always pouring
No. 1 into No. 2. [p216]

The exposure having been made in the camera or in the printing
frame, place the plate in the developing tray and pour upon it
sufficient of the developing solution, mixed as directed, to cover
the plate at once, and keep it in motion from time to time. Develop
until detail in the high lights is plainly visible. When this is the
case remove the plate, wash well and fix in hypo-solution.

  Water                     20 ounces.
  Hyposulphite of soda       6 ounces.

When the plate is quite cleared, of which it is better to make sure
by leaving the plate in the fixing solution for fully five minutes
after it first appears clear, remove it and wash again very
thoroughly, and then immerse it in the clearing solution.

  Water                20 ounces.
  Sulphuric acid        1/2  "
  Alum                  2    "

Leave the plate in the clearing solution two minutes or more, then
wash again, rubbing the surface lightly with a tuft of cotton to
remove any sediment that may adhere to the film, then set it up in a
rack to dry.


PORCELAIN AND OPAL TRANSPARENCIES

may be developed in the same manner until detail may be seen in the
face, if it is a portrait; then remove it and instantly flow with a
solution of bromide of ammonium to stop developing action, then
wash, fix and dry as before.

For portraits on porcelain or opal, to be viewed as positives by
reflected light, develop until the fine half-tones in the face are
visible. When they are for transparencies, [p217] either for
window or lamp shades, develop until the detail in the high lights
of portrait or landscape are well out. This may necessitate a longer
exposure by lamp-light.

Transparencies developed by other methods receive a stain or color,
which, in many cases, is not unpleasing; for instance, the following
formula will give a very beautiful yellowish color:

  Saturated solution yellow prussiate of potash,      4 ounces.
  Pyro                                                2 grains.
  Ammonia (conc.)                                     2 drops.

This will cover and develop one 8×10 plate, giving it an agreeable
color similar to that produced by development by sal soda and pyro,
but much more agreeable.

A very fine blue color is imparted to the plate when developed by
the following formula:

  Saturated solution sal soda             5 minims.
  Saturated solution potash               5   "
  Saturated solution ferrocyanide of
    potash                                5   "
  Bromide ammonium                        1 grain.
  Pyro                                    2 grains.
  Water                                   4 ounces.

From the fact that these different developments impart different
colors to the negatives, it might be inferred that the gelatine film
is susceptible of receiving color from a stain or dye; if such is
the case, transparencies may be made in every color of the chromatic
or solar spectrum. I have seen one of a beautiful rose color, and
was informed that the color was received in development. [p218]
This was possibly so, but it is very easily ascertained if the film
of the developed plate is capable of receiving a dye of any pleasing
color suitable to the subject.


TRANSPARENCIES BY WET COLLODION. _From the Photographic Times._

Transparencies for the decoration of windows, or gas shades, or for
examination in the stereoscope, differ from those intended for
lantern projection in being somewhat more intense. A lantern
transparency must have its high lights of pure glass; in the case of
the others, it is of less consequence, should they be slightly
shaded.

To produce a transparency by wet collodion, a camera is required the
body of which will be capable of extending to twice the focus of the
lens, although a still further extension is desirable. The reason
for this lies in the fact that when making a transparency the same
size as the negative, the sensitive plate must be withdrawn from the
lens to the extent of precisely twice the solar focus. It
occasionally happens that it is desirable to make the image in the
transparency on a scale a little larger than that in the negative.
To permit of this being done, it is necessary that the distance
between the sensitive plate and the lens be increased, for according
to this distance, so is the amount of enlarging.

The negative must be so arranged as to have a clear sky or a uniform
light behind it. If the work is to be effected at a south window
into which the sun is shining, the requisite uniformity of
illumination is obtained by placing a sheet of ground glass within a
few inches of the negative. Arrangements must be made by [p219]
which the negative may not only be held rigidly in an upright
position, but that such adjustments may also be made as will bring
it as near to or as far from the lens as will be found requisite,
and also as will permit of its being raised, lowered or having any
part far removed from the centre brought into the axis of the lens.
These conditions are fulfilled in all good transparency cameras. We
do not assert that a properly constructed camera for the special
purpose of making transparencies is an absolute necessity, seeing
that a light framework erected in front of the camera, and with
which it need not be connected with a bellows body, will suffice,
but the great convenience of a camera expressly for the purpose
cannot be overrated.

In order to ensure clearness of the high lights, the collodion
should be rendered of a dark sherry color by the addition of a few
drops of an alcoholic solution of iodine. The strength of the
solution is not of consequence, but enough must be added to the
collodion to render it of the color indicated. Collodion for this
purpose works rather better after it has been kept for a few weeks
or months than when it is quite new. No hints can here be given as
to the length of exposure requisite, but if the camera be pointed to
a moderately bright sky, the negative one of average density, and
the lens worked with a small diaphragm, an exposure of twenty-five
or thirty seconds may be given, and, by noting carefully the quality
of the resulting picture when finished, the data for a more accurate
timing of the exposure may be ascertained therefrom.

After developing the image with iron, if it should, upon examination
prove to be too thin, wash off the developer and apply pyrogallic
acid and silver and bring it up to the required intensity. Fix and
wash. [p220]

At this stage--that is, after fixing and previous to the plate being
dried--the image may be toned to almost any desired color. It is to
be regretted that some of the most desirable tones cannot be
recommended, on account of the want of permanence. A type of the
best of this class of toning agents is as follows: Make a saturated
solution of bi-chloride of mercury in hydrochloric acid and dilute
it with twelve volumes of water. Into this place the plate, after
having thoroughly removed the hyposulphite by washing. When it has
become quite bleached, wash carefully again and place in a bath
composed of a dram of sulphide of ammonium to a pint of water.

The image will soon acquire a rich dark brown color, and when this
is found to have penetrated the film, it may be washed, dried and
varnished.

A solution of sulphide of potassium imparts a good brown color.

Chloride of gold gives a tone which may be described as a neutral
black, that is both durable and very pleasing for quite a variety of
subjects.

A solution of chloride of platinum gives a tone which is very
permanent. It is essential when using either gold or platinum that
the toning solution be weak.

It is possible, however, so to develop a collodion transparency as
to obtain a rich purple black tone without any after toning. The
addition of a few drops of a saturated solution of citric acid per
ounce of developer effects this, but as it checks development at the
same time, the proportion of protosulphate of iron must be increased
to such an extent as to impart energy to the developer. [p221]

A few drops of a solution of gelatine in sulphuric acid is also of
great utility when added to an iron developer. It promotes clearness
of image and richness of tone.

[Illustration: ANTHONY'S BICYCLE CAMERA.] [p222]

How delightful a pleasure it is in the early morning, or of a fine
afternoon, to mount a bicycle and take a spin along the country
roads.

The bracing air, the easy motion, the sense of independence, so act
upon the mind as to make it keenly sensitive to the beauties of the
foliage and scenery that so swiftly pass before the eyes. Such must
have been the thought of him who penned the following:

"Most of us, no doubt, have experienced the desire, as our machines
have passed some pretty and specially picturesque bits of scenery,
to take away with us some memory, to be recalled at some future
time, of what we were then passing by. And most of us have also
experienced the difficulty, as one picturesque scene is replaced by
another, and so on to the end of our journey, of preventing the many
scenes getting somewhat blended in our minds, and an inability to
produce details with accuracy. To sit and sketch such scenes would
be to reduce the journey to a sketching tour, and the distance to be
covered must be reduced accordingly, thus depriving the 'cyclist' of
the usefulness of his machine.

"That which this tourist desires may be accomplished by the aid of
photography, and the whole addition to the impedimenta of the
'cyclist' can be so arranged as to be trifling.

       *       *       *       *       *

"The apparatus consists of a tripod, camera and case. My camera,
with leather case and provisions for exposing a dozen 5×4 plates,
weighs between fourteen and fifteen pounds.

       *       *       *       *       *

"I have endeavored to show in the brief space of time [p223] at
my disposal, how the enjoyment of a 'cyclist's' ramble may be
enhanced by that most wonderful combination of chemistry, optics and
mechanics, which has resulted in placing the science of photography
within the reach of the amateur.

"When we have imprisoned our sun pictures, and have them safe,
though latent and invisible, intangible and impalpable to any of our
senses, we may at our leisure (it may be months after), by means of
those marvelous chemical affinities which throw the haloid salts of
silver again into chemical life, produce on the film the pictures we
have so desired; and then again, by further use of the light, we
print our scenes on the sensitive paper. We have then a pictorial
history of our journey in our albums, which will recall the pleasant
memories of happy days spent long, long years ago.

  "FRANK COBB."

The amateur who wrote as above rode on a tricycle and carried a load
of apparatus for 4×5 plates, amounting to fourteen or fifteen
pounds, for a dozen pictures. That is the way it is done in England;
but in this country mechanical skill has reduced that load to less
than five pounds for two dozen pictures of the same size, and the
cyclist goes forth with a small camera and a roll-holder charged
with films for 24 exposures, which are carried in a small case
supported by a strap passing over the shoulder, and these films are
so sensitive that it is not necessary that he should dismount and
undergo the trouble of erecting a tripod, and attaching his camera
thereto. He has only to fix his camera by a universal joint to his
steering-bar and shoot as he flies, with the full confidence that at
the proper time [p224] he will find his bit of scenery spring
into beauty and brilliancy under the influence of the developing
solution. Or if the exigencies of the situation require that the
point of view would be better off the road, then the wheel is very
easily converted into a support for the camera by the little brass
telescopic rod which is adjusted against the pedal at the side of
the wheel by a strap, and lengthened to reach the ground, against
which the wheel may rest quite sufficiently steady for all purposes
in question.

The little camera, with double holder telescopic support for wheel
and the case, will weigh about two pounds, which may be carried by
means of a strap on the shoulder, or may be buckled to the saddle of
the machine.

The detective camera, also, is quite well suited for such a purpose,
with the roll-holders or otherwise, as may be desired; but the paper
films are more sensitive than the plate, and are, therefore, more
suitable for such rapid work as may be required.


PHOTO MICROGRAPHY.

If you place any natural object at a distance from a convex lens, a
much smaller image of the same will appear at the focus of the lens.
When this small image is reduced to that point that it cannot be
seen clearly with the naked eye, and is photographed, it may be
called a micro-photograph. On the contrary, if the object is a
microscopic one, and is placed at a point very near a convex lens,
an enlarged image may be found at a considerable distance from the
lens. A photograph of this enlarged image of a microscopic prepared
object, is termed a photo-micrograph. [p225]

Some confusion among so-called authorities on this subject renders
their definition of sufficient importance to be given in this
connection.

With the former we have nothing to do, as there can be very little
interest attaching to the production of pictures of any object on so
small a scale as to require a microscope to look at them.

With the latter, however, it is otherwise, for by the aid of
photo-micrography we are enabled to place in permanency for closer
study those enlargements of natural objects that are revealed to the
human eye by the microscope. The secrets of the composition of the
drop of water and a knowledge of its "monstrous and terrific
inhabitants," are thus made known.

Previous to the introduction of the sensitive dry plate the practice
of photo-micrography was confined almost wholly to those possessed
of leisure, and ample means to provide the expensive and complicated
instruments necessary, or to savants like Dr. Woodward, backed by
the resources of a liberal government supplying apparatus and
appliances far beyond the means of the ordinary student of natural
science.

The advent of the gelatine dry plate placed the workers in this
branch of scientific research more nearly on a level, at least as
far as the possession of suitable and efficient instruments are
concerned, and one of these workers has published for the
instruction of amateurs and others a very valuable article on
photo-micrography, from which we extract by permission a description
of the instruments necessary to the successful practice of this
interesting study.

Mr. Walmsley, in the article referred to, says: I will now describe
the apparatus I am using at present, [p226] passing unnoticed the
various stages by which its comparative perfection has been reached.
Four essential parts make up the complete outfit.

A microscope with its object glasses and other accessories.

A camera with long extension bellows.

A lamp for illumination.

A solid platform to carry the entire apparatus.

A microscope with a joint to the body permitting the same to be
inclined to a horizontal position may be employed, but the
essentials to accurate, comfortable work are as follows:

A heavy, solid stand, perfectly firm in all its positions, with a
short body (the 6-inch Continental model is admirable), good coarse
adjustment for focus, and a very delicate, fine one, the latter
controlled by a large milled head, in the periphery of which a
groove is turned to admit the focussing cord, hereafter to be
described. A solid, mechanical stage rotating in the optic axis, and
a sub-stage moved by rack and pinion, capable of carrying an
achromatic condenser, polariscope, etc., are almost indispensable.
The objectives should be the very best, especially corrected for
photography in all powers under the one-fifth of an inch and of
moderate angular aperture.

Perfect corrections of chromatic and spherical aberrations, with the
greatest penetrating and defining powers, are essential features in
objectives designed for photography.

       *       *       *       *       *

A binocular microscope can be used quite as well as a monocular, by
simply shifting the prism, but if an instrument is to be selected
purposely for photographing, [p227] the latter is recommended in
preference to the former. In either case, the tube is to be lined
with black velvet or flock paper, otherwise there will be a
reflection from its inner surface, which will cause a ghost in the
negative. An accurately centered double or triple nose-piece,
carrying as many objectives of different powers, will also be found
an immense convenience, saving much time and labor in choosing the
proper object glass for any particular object. I use a triple
nose-piece, upon which are always screwed a two-thirds, a
four-tenths, and a one-fifth inch objective, being the powers most
generally used. If the one-fifth is to be employed in making an
exposure, the object is readily brought into the centre of the field
under the two-thirds by a simple rotation of the nose-piece; the
one-fifth is now brought into position, when the object will be
found to occupy the centre of its field of view. Much valuable time,
which would otherwise be expended in finding a minute object under
so considerable a power, is thus saved.

Most chemical crystals being colorless and nearly invisible under
ordinary illumination, require to be examined and photographed by
polarized light. For this purpose, the polariscope prisms should be
of large size, and both mounted in revolving settings. The lower
prism should also fit into a sub-stage, capable of carrying an
achromatic condenser above, in order to properly illuminate the
field with any objective above the two-thirds inch. The achromatic
condenser itself should consist of at least two combinations of
different powers and of wide angular apertures. It is always
necessary to employ a condenser of greater power than the objective.
If a one-fifth is used, the [p228] illumination should be by a
four-tenths to get the best results, whilst a one-tenth should be
illuminated by a one-fifth. For lower powers, the ordinary
bull's-eye condenser, in connection with a diaphragm of varying
apertures, will be found all-sufficient.

For the great majority of workers the following powers of object
glasses are recommended: Two inch or one and one-half inch,
two-third inch, four-tenth inch, one-fifth inch and one-tenth inch,
the latter an immersion capable of being used with glycerine, since
water evaporates too rapidly for practical use. With these powers,
and a camera having thirty inches extension of bellows, a range of
powers from about ten to six hundred diameters may be obtained,
whilst the addition of an achromatic amplifier will increase the
power of the one-tenth to more than one thousand diameters, without
perceptible loss of light or definition.

All the foregoing features are combined in the microscope I am using
for this work, and, in enumerating them, I have but described that
very perfect and complete instrument. We pass now to the second part
of our outfit.


THE CAMERA.

Probably the most convenient and generally useful form of camera is
one with bellows extending some thirty inches, and capable of
carrying both quarter and half sized plates, horizontally or
vertically. My box is a square one, carrying plates from the 4-4
size (6-1/2×8-1/2 inches) down to 3-1/4×4-1/4. The bellows are in
three divisions, extending fully four feet, giving altogether nearly
six feet from the microscopic stage [p229] to the focussing
screen when fully drawn out. It is very carefully made of hard wood,
and the framework carrying the bellows moves with the utmost
smoothness upon its Λ-shaped runners. A short cone front receives
the microscope tube, and all extraneous light is shut out by a
wrapping of black velveteen around the opening, secured by a rubber
band. The focussing screen (which is only used for arranging the
object in the centre of the field or plate, and is entirely
removable) has a space of the precise size and shape of a lantern
slide pencilled in its centre, as a guide to the making of quarter
plate negatives. An object filling this space on the ground glass
will necessarily occupy the same position on the quarter plate when
the holder containing the latter is made to take the place of the
focussing screen.

As stated, the ground glass is used only for containing the object,
and for coarse adjustment of focus. It is impossible to grind it
finely enough to accurately focus any delicate tissue with high or
even moderate powers. Many suggestions have been made and devices
used, but all I have tried proved unsatisfactory, until the
following appeared in an English journal:

An evenly coated gelatine plate is to be exposed to a flood of white
light, developed to a very slight intensity--a mere smokiness--fixed
and washed as usual, then bleached with mercury, washed and dried.
The result is the most perfect focussing surface imaginable. To use,
remove the focussing screen from the camera and replace it with the
plate holder from which the slides have been removed. The bleached
gelatine plate (which of course must be of proper size to fit the
holder) is to be placed therein with the film side [p230] toward
the microscope. Now place a focussing glass against the back of the
plate, apply the eye to it and adjust the focus by a delicate pull
of the cord. Nothing can be more satisfactory. When the proper
adjustment is determined upon, secure it from possible change during
exposure, by winding the cord once or twice over the screw eye at
the rear of the camera frame.

The plate holder (single) opens at the back to receive the plate,
and being square, like the camera box, admits of the negative being
taken vertically or horizontally, as may be desired, a matter of no
small importance in many cases.

This feature, in connection with the revolving stage, enables one to
place any object upon the plate in the best position for printing.
The full size of the plate carried by my holders is 6-1/2×8-1/2
inches, but by the employment of removeable rabbett kits, plates
5×7, 4×5 and 3-1/4×4-1/4 can be used. It is desirable to have two or
three additional holders as time savers.

For our work to possess any real uniformity or value, it is
absolutely necessary that the magnifying power used with each
exposure should be ascertained and noted. To make measurements each
time would be a waste of that precious commodity, to avoid which I
have adopted the following device:

The bed or framework upon which the bellows extends, is divided into
spaces of one inch, and the same plainly marked thereon. Suppose
this extension is thirty inches, and that by means of the stage
micro-meter we find the one and one-half inch objective to magnify
twenty diameters with the bellows closed and fifty fully extended.
This gives the value of one diameter [p231] to each inch of
bellows drawn out, and if the magnified object reaches the desired
dimensions, at, say twenty inches extension, we at once know the
power to be forty diameters. Suppose, again, a power of one-fifth is
being used, magnifying 125 diameters with bellows closed, and 275
with the same extended thirty inches; this gives a value of five
diameters to each inch, and if the desired size is reached at
twenty-five inches extension, we have a power employed of 250
diameters. By making these measurements (closed and open) for each
objective habitually used, and recording the same in our note-book,
an accurate and readily adjustable table of measurements is ready
for all future work.

We now pass (thirdly) to the important subject of illumination, in
many respects the most important in photo-micrographic work.

It goes without saying that to the favored few, whose time and means
permit the harnessing of the sun's rays in their service, no
artificial light can be produced which will quite take the place of
the great luminary, but for the many, some other means must be
sought.

When the promised days arrive that are to place in every man's house
electric lights, cheaper than gas and as easily controlled, the
problem will be satisfactorily solved; but at present we must
content ourselves with prosaic kerosene, seeking only for the most
practical method of utilizing its brilliant light.

After many experiments I have settled upon a flat, broad-based lamp
of good oil-holding capacity, which is attached to a heavy retort
stand with movable arm, enabling it to be carried to any desired
height. A duplex burner and a tall chimney, producing perfect [p232]
combustion, afford a light of thirty candle power, rendering
possible the following average exposures with the plates I am now
using, the variation in time being caused by differing densities and
actinism of the tissues or substances to be photographed:

  1-1/2 inch objective 3 to 5 seconds.
  2/3 inch objective 7 to 90     "
  4/10 inch objective 1/2 to 3 minutes.
  1/5 inch objective 2 to 7      "
  1/10 inch objective 4 to 10    "

This lamp produces sufficient light for use with the highest powers,
requiring the employment of a diaphragm to reduce its intensity. Too
brilliant an illumination, flooding the field with diffusive rays,
will almost certainly produce a blurred and indistinct image.

Microscope, camera and lamp being ready for use, it becomes
necessary to provide a suitable support for each, in order to form a
complete working outfit. Some writers have described and illustrated
their apparatus as being carried upon two or more separate tables or
trestles. This I have found to be a most objectionable method in our
city houses, since the vibration produced by passing vehicles is
unevenly communicated to camera and microscope, producing inevitably
a disturbed or blurred image, especially when high powers are
employed. By adopting, however, a long, solid platform, carrying all
the separate parts of the apparatus, this objectionable feature is
removed, any vibration is communicated to camera and microscope
alike, and there is no blurring of the resulting image whatever. In
my apparatus this platform is about five feet in length, with a
raised portion at one end, [p233] upon which the camera is firmly
clamped by a milled head operated from beneath. The cone front
extends toward the platform, upon which the microscope (inclined
horizontally) is secured at such a height that its tube precisely
enters the middle of the cone. Thus, a straight line drawn from the
object upon the stage through the microscope tube and camera should
fall upon the centre of the focussing screen, and if all the parts
are properly put together this will be the result, and the whole
field will be equally illuminated when the lamp is placed in
position.

The stand of the latter is not secured to the platform, but is left
free to be moved about and placed nearer to or farther from the
microscope, as may be found necessary to secure the best results. A
bull's-eye condenser upon a movable stand placed between the lamp
and the stage of the microscope, is necessary to concentrate the
light upon the object, or upon the achromatic condenser when the
latter is used and to aid in the equal illumination of the field.
The latter is of great importance, since the result of an uneven
illumination will be a negative of differing densities in different
parts, marring its beauty, and at times rendering it utterly
worthless. Too much stress cannot be placed upon the necessity of
securing an even, brilliant light of proper intensity for the object
under examination.

The arranging of the object in the centre of the field (under a low
power) and the coarse adjustment of focus are done with the bellows
tightly closed, which brings the focussing screen so near to the
microscope that, whilst the operator sees the object thereon, his
hand can readily reach the milled head, controlling the [p234]
stage and other movements. But when the bellows is extended to the
length affording the desired magnification it will be found that the
object, whilst retaining its central position, has lost its
sharpness, necessitating a final and careful focussing which is no
longer possible in the same manner as before, since the ground glass
and microscope are so widely separated that the one cannot be
reached whilst looking into the others. Some special device becomes
necessary in this emergency, and many have been made, mostly
complicated and costly. The method I have adopted is the old and
simple one of a fine cord passing around the periphery of the milled
head controlling the fine adjustment, in a groove cut for that
purpose, thence through a series of screw eyes to the rear of the
frame-work carrying the bellows extension, where it is kept taut by
a couple of small leaden weights.

The slightest tension upon this cord causes a corresponding movement
of the fine adjustment, and nothing can exceed the delicacy of its
working or its freedom from derangement. A fine fishing, line makes
an admirable cord for this purpose.

Having sketched the various portions of the apparatus and brought
the whole together into complete form, a few random extracts from my
note-book may not prove uninteresting or valueless to some who are
working in this direction.

Gelatine plates for photo-micrography. The requisites of a perfect
plate are, great sensitiveness, combined with extreme latitude in
time of exposure, and density in development. It should be of a fine
texture, showing clearly the most delicate lines and markings, [p235]
evenly coated and free from spots or blemishes of any sort.[2]

[2] The Stanley dry plate has all these qualities in the highest
perfection.

It is most provoking to have an otherwise perfect negative marred or
ruined by opaque or transparent spots appearing in its most
important portions.

For development, ferrous oxalate or alkaline pyro are equally
useful, and either may be employed, as suits the fancy or
convenience of the operator. My own preference is for the latter,
and I always use it with ammonia well restrained, having had no
success with either soda or potash in this class of work. For all
objects possessing much color it is best to continue the development
until full density is obtained, but for very thin or transparent
subjects, such as diatones or unstained vegetable tissues, it is far
better to stop the development as soon as all details are out and
resort to after-intensification, for which purpose bleaching with
mercury followed by a ten per cent. bath of sulphite of soda will be
found eminently satisfactory. I always use the alum bath, and
invariably secure a clean negative of a cool gray color, resembling
iron development.

Printing. The best ready sensitized paper can be depended on for
producing satisfactory prints, showing the most delicate lines and
markings of diatones and turning to any desired shade. Avoid
over-printing, wash but slightly in two changes of water, the last
slightly acidulated with acetic acid, and use an acetate of soda
toning bath. Undesirable portions of the negative may be stopped out
with a mat of suitable [p236] shape. Any ordinary cabinet card
makes a neat mount of convenient size, upon which may be written the
name of the object or specimen objective and magnification employed,
and any other matter referring to print or negative which may be
necessary to note.

A carefully kept note-book is a most important aid to the worker in
photo-micrography, and it should contain all his failures and
successes alike. Notes should be made of the specimen objective,
magnification, exposure, plate and developer, which, carefully
studied, will almost certainly enable him to secure a success with
each exposure.

Lantern Slides.--It is well to make the negative as far as possible
of a suitable size for producing the positive by contact printing,
which is convenient and satisfactory, though there can be no doubt
that reproduction in the camera affords better results. Slow
gelatino bromide plates, such as Carbutt makes for this purpose,
produce very satisfactory work, but the chlorides are so far
superior that there can be little doubt of their being exclusively
employed for positives in future. There is a richness of tone,
combined with great transparency in the shadows and clear glass in
the high lights, quite unattainable with bromide emulsions, and
rivaling the best wet work.

       *       *       *       *       *

Opaque Objects.--These may be photographed by the light from a lamp
quite as well as transparent ones, through which the light is
thrown, a matter of which I have thus far spoken only. A strong
illumination must be obtained by the employment of a suitable
bull's-eye condenser or a silvered reflector. The [p237] most
satisfactory method, however, is by sunlight, allowing its direct
rays to fall upon the object without the intervention of any
condenser whatever. Very short exposures suffice with such
illumination, varied only by the reflecting capacities of the object
itself. A successfully exposed plate of this class of objects will
give a print of the subject, standing out most brilliantly upon a
black ground.

To secure the best results, most objects should be specially mounted
for photographing. Some are best in a resinous medium, such as
Canada Balsam, but most tissues are obscured or entirely obliterated
in this medium. So far as possible all preparations should be
mounted in a fluid of some description that will distinctly render
visible many tissues and markings which would be lost in balsam.
This subject, however, is one of so great extent that it would
require a special paper, and I merely refer to it now because of its
importance, hoping at some future time to enlarge more fully upon
it.

You will notice that my remarks have been confined to work that may
be done with objectives of low or moderately high powers, in no case
exceeding one thousand diameters, having preferred to speak only of
that which I have demonstrated by actual work as being practical.
From recent experiments I am fully convinced that the lamp light,
such as I have described, is capable of producing satisfaction, work
with very much higher powers, and shall hope, at no distant day, to
show prints made from magnification of not less than two thousand
diameters, that will be satisfactory in all respects.

  W. H. WAMSLEY.


[p238]


PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS.

When preparing for an outing, consider the kind of work you intend
to do and select your plates accordingly.[3] If it is intended to
make instantaneous exposures, get the most sensitive plates
possible; those of the highest sensitometer number should be
procured. For subjects from still life, inanimate objects,
landscapes, etc., etc., slower plates are preferable. When filling
your holders, carefully brush all dust from the surface of the
plates, ascertain that the lenses are clean, and wrap them in
chamois. Carry no useless weight.

[3] The Stanley lightning is particularly recommended to amateurs
for all quick work.

When you have selected your standpoint, plant the legs of the
tripod well apart to insure steadiness of support and make sure
that the camera is level and firmly screwed to the tripod. If you
use a drop shutter, slow exposures may be made by holding the
slide in the hand and passing it down slowly over the opening in
front of the lens. When using double holders mark the side exposed
as soon as made. Carry a piece of cetaceum paper, which may be
used as a substitute in case you break your ground glass. The head
cloth may be used as a changing box by covering the holder and box
of plates with it and folding the ends around the wrists, securing
them by rubber bands; then proceed by the sense of feeling. Before
exposing draw the slides, so that no light may enter the plate
holder.

Be sure you are right, then go ahead.

Before developing plates that have been exposed instantaneously,
let them soak a few minutes in water [p239] with a small
portion of soda or ammonia, then wash them and develop with the
normal developer. Mr. Inglis suggests that for extra rapid
exposures a very slow development with weak developer will give
better detail and strength.

The paper films must be developed always with a strong developer
to secure best results.



TRANSCRIBER'S ENDNOTE.

The headings in the Table of Contents do not necessarily correspond
to headings in the text. A few examples will be mentioned. There is
no heading for "PART I." in the text, though "PART II." is present.
There are two headings "CAMERA BOXES" in the Table of Contents, but
only one in the body. A second, matching one, has been added on page
110. The Table of Contents lists several types of pneumatic shutter
for pp 124-129 that do not appear in the text under the same names.

In the Table of Contents, under the level-three heading "GELATINO
EMULSION" at page 38, the two level-four headings "Preparation of
Glass" and "Coating Glass" occur in the text under a level-three
heading "DESCRIPTION OF APPARATUS USED IN MAKING AND WASHING
EMULSIONS." on page 44, which corresponds to a level-three heading
in the Table of Contents "APPARATUS USED IN MAKING EMULSIONS". This
heading seems to refer to the same section of text as the level-four
heading "Apparatus for Making" in the Table of Contents under page 38.

In the Table of Contents under heading at page 181, "How to Use the."
was changed to "How to Use them." A few other such simple printing
errors have been fixed silently.

Some captions of images or tables originally functioned in situ as
section headings; some of these have roughly corresponding entries in
the Table of Contents.

Originally, and in the html version of this ebook, section headings
or captions of images or tables may also function in situ as part of
the body text. In this text version, such captions and illustrations
have been retained. However, any images that were originally embedded
within paragraphs were moved out of paragraphs to between paragraphs,
and if necessary, the caption was then duplicated in the text. Some
illustrations that originally had no captions have been provided with
captions labeled with "TN:".

In the table on page 43, showing the formulæ for gelatine emulsion,
the fifth row duplicates the third row, probably erroneously.

The name "Ever" appears in the table of contents twice, in connection
with Emulsions C and D, under the section starting at p 38. This name
is spelled "Eder" on pp 43 and 44.





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