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´╗┐Title: Memoirs of General Lafayette - With an Account of His Visit to America and His Reception By the People of the United States; From His Arrival, August 15th, to the Celebration at Yorktown, October 19th, 1824.
Author: Knapp, Samuel L. (Samuel Lorenzo), 1783-1838
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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{Illustration: Lafayette}


_District Clerk's Office_.

Be it remembered, that on the 2d day of November, A.D. 1824, in the
forty-ninth year of the independence of the United States of America,
E.G. House, of the said district, has deposited in this office the
title of a book, the right whereof he claims as proprietor, in the words
following, to wit--Memoirs of General Lafayette, with an account of
his visit to America; and of his reception by the people, of the United
States, from his arrival, Aug. 15. to the celebration at Yorktown, Oct
19, 1824.

In conformity to the act of the Congress of the United States entitled,
"an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of
maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies,
during the times therein mentioned:" and also to an act entitled "an
act supplementary to an act, entitled an act for the encouragement
of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books, to
the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein
mentioned; and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing,
engraving and etching historical, and other prints."

JNO. W. DAVIS, _Clerk of the Dist. of Mass_.


It is a poor apology to offer for any defect or omission in a work
intended for the information of the public, that it was prepared in
haste. Yet in the present case it can be offered with truth. The Editor
of this volume knew nothing of the plan, until it had been some time
proposed, and many subscribers obtained. The gentleman by whom it was
first intended to have been prepared, was suddenly taken away, without
writing, or even collecting any thing for the volume. It was undertaken
with reluctance, as it was known the public would he impatient for the
work, and as the publisher was also desirous it should be prepared in
a few weeks. It is only fifty days since the task was begun. It is
believed, however, that several documents, not yet published, will be
found in this volume; and that many events and incidents are preserved,
which would otherwise have been lost to the public.

Everything relating to the life and character of this extraordinary man,
is certainly worthy of remembrance by the benevolent and intelligent
through the civilized world, and especially by Americans, to whom he has
rendered the most essential services. The endeavour has been to avoid
panegyric; though in this case, a plain statement of facts may
be construed, by those ignorant of the life of Lafayette, into a
disposition to bestow extravagant praise.

It has been a source of much satisfaction to the Editor, to find so many
proofs of consistency and of principle, as well as of zeal in the cause
of rational liberty, which the life of this heroic and disinterested
personage affords. And if he shall appear in this hasty memoir, as the
ardent, undeviating, and sincere friend of civil freedom and of
the rights of man, it will be because he justly merits such a high

In the account of his reception by the people of this country, in
various places, during his present visit, it may be thought that we have
been too particular. It was promised, however, in the proposals for the
volume, that such relation would be given. It is believed that it
will be found to be interesting, and that it will be a satisfaction
hereafter, to recur to it. This account embraces the time which elapsed
after he landed at New-York, August 15, 1824, to the celebration of
the capture of the Brittish [sic] army at Yorktown, October 19. These
statements were, copied principally from the public newspapers; and it
was thought to be unnecessary to give credit for them, or to insert the
usual marks of quotation.

_Boston, Nov_. 1, 1824.


Introductory remarks

Birth and education of Lafayette

His purpose to visit America in 1777

His arrival and early service in America

Battle of Brandywine

Washington's attachment to him

Commands in northern department

Escape from British near Philadelphia

Battle of Monmouth

Brave conduct of Lafayette

A volunteer to R. Island

Journey to Boston

Proposal to visit France

Resentment of the conduct of British Commissioner

Visit to Boston

Embarks there for France

Resolve of Congress honorable to Lafayette

Letter of Franklin

Return to America in 1780

Services in France in behalf of America

Letter of Gen. Washington

Commands in Virginia in 1781

His services and bravery in that department

Escapes from Cornwallis

His troops deserting

Critical situation

His conduct approved by Washington

He applauds Gen. Wayne

Proposes to visit France again

Resolves of Congress approving his conduct

Letter to Congress

His letter to S. Adams

Mr. Adam's reply

Doings of Massachusetts

Details of service at Yorktown

Events on his return to France

Letter to Sir H. Clinton

Visit to America in 1784

Arrives in Boston

His reception

Honorable notice of his services, by Congress

His public conduct in 1786

Meeting of States' General, 1787

In favor of reform

New Constitution in 1789

Supported by Lafayette

Parties in France and civil commotions

Commands the Militia of Paris

The Parisian mob

Struggle for power between monarchists and reformers

Louis attempts to leave France

Jacobin clubs

Letter to Bouille

His enemies cabal

Commands part of the French army

Letter to the national assembly, June 1792

Letter to the King

Letter to the assembly

Opposed and denounced by the Jacobins

His firmness and patriotism

His address to the soldiers

Leaves France

Arrested and confined

Removed to prison at Olmutz

His letter

Washington seeks for his release

Fox and others intercede for his release

Bollman and Huger attempt his deliverance

Failure, and subsequent confinement

Madame de Lafayette

Her imprisonment

Lafayette released

Reply to Emperor of Austria

Proceeds to Holland

Return to France 1800

Offered a seat in the Senate by Bonaparte

His income and estates

His letter to the First Consul

Not a supporter of Bonaparte

Neglected by Napoleon

G. W. Lafayette

Death of Madame de Lafayette

Her character

Retirement of Lafayette

Louis XVIII restored

Lafayette desirous of constitutional liberty

His conduct after the battle of Waterloo and abdication of Napoleon

Retirement to private life

Correspondence with A. Hamilton

His family

Madame de Stael's opinion of him

Elected a member of assembly 1819

His efforts for constitutional liberty

His mode of life, and employment

His Benevolence

Gen. Washington's kindness to his son

Visit of Mr. Fox to Lafayette

Manners of Madame Lafayette

Religion of Lafayette

Charity among Christians

His character and opinions

His decision and consistency

Invitation of Congress, from Boston, &c.

His replies

His arrival at New-York

His reception in New-York

Journey to Boston

His arrival in Boston

Address of the Mayor

His answer

Address of Governer of Massachusetts

Address of Cincinnati

Answer to do.


Visited by Bostonians

Phi Beta Kappa

Visit to Charlestown and Bunker Hill

Bunker Hill Monument

Visit to Gov. Brooks

Evening Parties

Brattle Street Church

Visit to President Adams

Military parade

Apology for great rejoicings


Visit to Salem

Address of Judge Story

Visit to Ipswich, and Newburyport

To Portsmouth

Return to Boston

Visit to Lexington and Concord

Bolton, Lancaster

Visit to Worcester

Judge Lincoln's address

Journey to Connecticut

Reception at Hartford

Return to New-York

Lafayette's toasts

Visit to the schools

Grand ball at Castle Garden

Visit to West-Point

Visit to Newburgh

His visit to Hudson

Arrival at Albany

Kindness to soldiers, in 1777

Returns to New-York

Journey through New-Jersey




Governor's address

Reply to the same

Address of Mayor

The answer


Vindication of Quakers

Reply to Frenchmen

Capt. Barron's address

Answer to same

Journey through Delaware

Visit to Baltimore

Address of Cincinnati

Address of Gov. Maryland


Governor Sprigg

Visit to Washington

Reception by the President

Address of Mayor of Washington

Visit to Alexandria

To the tomb of Washington

Arrival in Yorktown

Jefferson's letter

Address of Committee of Virginia

Answer of Lafayette

Address of Governor of Virginia

Reply of Lafayette

His reception at Yorktown

Address of Col. Lewis

Answer to same

Parade and ceremonies, on 19th Oct.

Custis' address

Departure for Norfolk



Among the many great men who have distinguished themselves in the
present age, for their attachment and devotion to the cause of civil
liberty, general LAFAYETTE is one of the most eminent. During the
last fifty years, great changes have been made or attempted in human
governments, highly favourable to political freedom and the rights of
mankind. In some cases, indeed, revolutions have not been conducted upon
just principles nor by prudent councils; and the immediate results have
been disastrous rather than beneficial. Changes have taken place without
direct and visible improvement; and efforts to meliorate the condition
of man have produced a reaction in the adherents to patient arbitrary
systems, which have given occasion to much suffering and great excesses.

The struggle for freedom by the patriotic citizens of America, towards
the close of the last century, was successful; and has proved most
auspicious to human happiness. We have reason to hope, that its
blessings will not be confined to this western continent. A spirit
of enquiry, indeed, has gone abroad in the world. It is spreading in
Europe: and though we devoutly wish it may not prove the occasion of
bloody contests, we shall rejoice to trace its fruits in the gradual
destruction of old despotic systems, and in the general diffusion of
knowledge among the people, and the enjoyment of those equal and just
rights, which mild governments are calculated to secure.

In our own beloved country, we can boast of many sincere patriots and
heroes besides our 'paternal chief,' the revered WASHINGTON, "who was
first in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymen;"
others will be recollected, who devoted themselves to the cause of
liberty and their country, with a sincerity and zeal almost without a
parallel in the annals of history. Their memories will not cease to be
revered while Americans are distinguished for a love of civil freedom.

It must be acknowledged, however, that there was a _peculiar_
disinterestedness in the services and sacrifices of the Marquis
LAFAYETTE in defence of American independence. It was from a noble
and enthusiastic love of liberty, that he was induced to cherish and
advocate our cause. It was for strangers and in a foreign land, that
he went forth to defend the rights of man, assailed by the hand of
arbitrary power. He was not a desperate adventurer, without fortune, or
friends, or honors. He was surrounded with all these in his own country.
He belonged to very ancient and noble family, and inherited a large
estate. The original family name was Motier; but for several generations
back had assumed the addition of _Lafayette_. Some of his male ancestors
were distinguished for military, and some of the females for literary
talents. His income was 200,000 francs. His property and influence
were increased by a matrimonial connexion with a lady of the truly
illustrious house of NOAILES. He was married at the age of eighteen.

chateau de Chavagnac in the province of Auvergne, September 6th 1757.
The rank and affluence of his family secured for him the best education:
and this, according to the fashion of the times in France, was not
only in classical and polite literature, but united also a knowledge
of military tactics. At the age of sixteen, he was offered an honorable
place at Court, which he declined.

His mind was early imbued with an ardent love of freedom. It is not
known whether his study of English writers who were friendly to civil
liberty, or an eager curiosity to learn the merits of the dispute
between Great Britain and the American colonies, lead him first thus
to take a deep interest in favour of our independence. That controversy
excited the attention of statesmen on the continent of Europe as well
as in England. It has been said that he was acquainted with some
distinguished English characters in 1776, from whom he learnt the
situation of America, and the object of our revolution. In the latter
part of this year, he applied to SILAS DEANE, our agent then at Paris,
for information, and encouragement in his plan, already adopted, of
rendering his personal service to the cause of America. While he was
at Paris, (Dec. 1776) with these views, Dr. FRANKLIN arrived. The
intelligence, received from him respecting our situation and prospects
at that period, was of a nature to discourage any one, who had not
cherished the most enthusiastic and resolute purpose to engage in our
behalf. Our almost desperate condition seems only to have increased his
zeal and devotion to the interests of America. "Hitherto, said he, I
have only cherished your cause; I now go to serve it personally." He
believed our cause to be just. He considered it the cause of civil
liberty; and gloomy as was the prospect, hazardous as was the
enterprize, he was determined to support it at the risk of life itself.
In his situation, the privations and sacrifices to be made and endured
were incalculably great. It is indeed a singular instance of an heroic
enterprize for the good of mankind.

We cannot more justly describe his sentiments and views, than by
quoting his own language used at a subsequent period, in a letter to the
President of the Continental Congress--"The moment I heard of America, I
loved her; the moment I knew she was fighting for liberty, I burnt with
a desire to bleed for her." The sacrifices he made cannot be so well
otherwise estimated as by reflecting that he left an affectionate wife,
in whom he was most happy; and who, he was obliged to assure, that he
would speedily return, before she would consent to the enterprize.

When LAFAYETTE made known his purpose to embark for America, under all
the appalling circumstances of our country, our Envoys were still unable
to furnish a passage for him. They had no vessels at command; and they
were not then in a situation to purchase one. Loans were the object of
their mission; but as yet they had not succeeded in obtaining them. And
as the French court had not acknowledged our independence, or openly
espoused our cause, it would have been improper for them to furnish a
vessel for such purpose. What was then done for America must be effected
in secret; and at most, only connived at by the French government.
But the ardour of young LAFAYETTE was not to be checked by any such
considerations. He took council rather of his feelings, than of that
prudence by which ordinary minds are governed. He therefore immediately
engaged a vessel at his own charges, and sailed for the United States,
where he arrived in the month of January. He landed at Charleston, S.C.
and soon entered, as a volunteer, in the American army. Soon after his
arrival, he purchased clothing and arms for the troops under General
MOULTRIE in that quarter. He also early made an advance to General
WASHINGTON of 60,000 francs, for the public service.

For several months, he continued to serve in this capacity. His zeal and
services were early appreciated by Congress; and in July, 1777, he
was created a Major-General. But he did not, at once, act under that
commission. In the battle of Brandywine, in September of the same year,
although he distinguished himself by his activity and undaunted bravery,
it does not appear that he acted as Major-General. He received a wound
in his leg, in this engagement, and his services were highly applauded.
He remained in the field till the close of the battle, inspiring the men
by his presence and active courage. The wound was severe and required
attention; but before it was entirely healed, he joined the army again
under WASHINGTON. In November, at the head of some Jersey militia, he
attacked a body of 300 Hessians and defeated them. General GREENE
was engaged in the same affair, a part of the time; and said of young
LAFAYETTE, "that he seemed to search for danger." Soon after this
period, he had command of a division in the Continental army; and
frequently was appointed the chief officer in separate departments of
great importance and responsibility.

General WASHINGTON became greatly attached to him. He was an intelligent
judge of character; and was never known to bestow his confidence upon
those who were not worthy of it. He was so distinguished by the regard
of the Commander in Chief, that it became usual to call him "his adopted
son." WASHINGTON loved him for his goodness, and honored him for his
bravery and military talents. In the early part of 1778, when it was
proposed to make an attack upon Canada, and to endeavor to connect it
with the thirteen United States, Gen. LAFAYETTE was appointed to command
the troops collecting for that purpose at Albany. This plan originated
in Congress, and was said to be much favored by the French Ambassador;
but WASHINGTON ever doubted the propriety, or the feasibility of the
scheme, and eventually gave his opinion decidedly against it; and it was
not prosecuted. It was at this time, probably, that Brigadier General
STARK took the oath of fidelity to the American Congress and of
renunciation to the king and government of Great Britain, which had
then been recently required, before General LAFAYETTE; and which was
administered by the commanding officer in each separate Department. The
original certificate of this oath is said now to be in existence. It
is a singular fact, that a native American took this oath before a
foreigner: or perhaps even then, General LAFAYETTE had been declared
by Congress to be entitled to all the rights of a citizen of the United

In May 1778, while the British main army was in Philadelphia, and the
American troops at Valley Forge, he was detached with about two thousand
five hundred men under his command, to a position in advance of the
continental camp and near the city, for the purpose of watching the
motions of the enemy. The British endeavored to surround and surprise
him: but he had timely notice of their plan, and retired in safety to
the vicinity of WASHINGTON'S head-quarters. Had he been surprised in
this situation, the result would probably proved fatal to our cause. For
the continental troops under WASHINGTON were few in number and poorly
clothed and armed. But the Commander in Chief, doubtless, was fully
aware of the important and critical nature of the service, and
entrusted it to one, in whose judgment as well as bravery he had perfect

Soon after this, in the month of June, the British army left
Philadelphia, to return to New-York. It consisted of as large a number
of well disciplined troops, as they had in America at any one time; and
though they chose not to make a direct attack upon WASHINGTON, they seem
to have had no apprehensions of an attack from him. But he was resolved
to avail of the occasion of their march through the State of New Jersey,
to attack and annoy them. This he did on the memorable 28th of June,
near Monmouth court-house; and had his judicious plan been faithfully
executed, or his own personal activity and bravely been seconded by
General LEE, who had the command of the troops more immediately engaged
on that day, a great and decisive victory would in all probability have
attended the daring enterprize. General LAFAYETTE had a distinguished
command on that critical day. Lee, indeed, at first declined the command
of the advanced corps, detached by WASHINGTON to harass the rear of
the enemy while on their march; and it was given to the former: though;
afterwards, when it was found, that the enemy was preparing for a
general engagement, a reinforcement was ordered, and the whole placed
under the command of General Lee. In this whole affair, General
LAFAYETTE conducted with remarkable intelligence and bravery; and
received the entire approbation of the Commander in Chief.

In August of the same year (1778) when the enemy had a large force on
Rhode Island, and were supposed to be meditating an attack on some place
in the vicinity, Lafayette (with General Greene) offered his services as
a volunteer. The expedition was not attended with success: the British
troops then were more numerous than we could collect against them; and
what were mustered were principally militia. The continental regiments
were then all needed near New-York. But General Lafayette assisted in
conducting the retreat of our men, with much skill and effect; and his
behaviour on the occasion received the particular notice and approbation
of Congress.

About this time, with the knowledge and consent of Congress, Lafayette
made a visit to Boston. The particular object of this journey is not
known. It is evident, however, from the resolve of Congress on the
occasion, that it was not from merely personal or private views. It was,
no doubt, for some purpose of a public nature, and for the welfare of
the nation. The following is the resolve alluded to; and is proof,
that his visit at the time, was designed for the promotion of some plan
calculated for the prosperity of the country.

"In Congress, Sept. 9th, 1778. Resolved, That the President be requested
to inform the Marquis de Lafayette, that Congress have a due sense of
the sacrifice he made of his personal feelings, in undertaking a journey
to Boston with a view of promoting the interests of these States, at a
time when an occasion was daily expected of his acquiring glory in the
field; and that his gallantry in going a volunteer on Rhode Island, when
the greatest part of the army had retreated, and his good conduct
in bringing off the pickets and out sentries, deserves particular
approbation." This resolve was communicated to Lafayette by the
President of Congress, with a polite note; to which the Marquis replied
as follows:


"I have received your favour of the 13th instant, acquainting me of the
honor Congress has been pleased to confer on me by their most gracious
resolve. Whatever pride such approbation may justly give me, I am not
less affected by the feeling of gratitude, and that satisfaction of
thinking my endeavours were ever looked upon as useful to a cause in
which my heart is so deeply interested. Be so good, Sir, as to present
to Congress my plain and hearty thanks, with a frank assurance of
a candid attachment, the only one worth being offered to the
representatives of a free people. The moment I heard of America, I loved
her: The moment I knew she was fighting for liberty, I burnt with the
desire of bleeding for her: and the moment I shall be able of serving
her, in any time, or in any part of the world, will be the happiest
of my life. I never so much wished for occasions of deserving those
obliging sentiments I am honored with by these States and their
representatives, and that so flattering confidence they have been
pleased to put in me; which have filled my heart with the warmest
acknowledgments and most eternal affection.

"I pray you to accept my thanks for the polite manner in which you have
communicated the resolve of Congress; and I have the honor to be, &c.


During the year 1778, some propositions were made to Congress from the
British ministry, through three commissioners, who were sent over to
America. The object was to bring about a cessation of hostilities, and
peace, without acknowledging our Independence. They were, therefore,
immediately rejected. In the address of the commissioners to Congress,
the French King and ministers were mentioned with great disrespect,
and represented as secret enemies to America; and therefore, not to be
believed in their engagements and promises in our favour. The Marquis
de Lafayette highly resented this heavy charge against his king and
government; and wrote a very spirited letter on the subject, to Lord
Carlisle, the principal commissioner. He seemed ready to appear as the
champion of his abused Prince and country, in the chivalrous manner
such attacks were met in former ages, when disputes were settled between
nations by single combat. The indignation he expressed was honorable to
his patriotic feelings; but, probably, his maturer years and judgment
would have chastened and moderated it.

Early in the year 1779, after an absence from his beloved family and
country of more than two years, Lafayette visited France: not however,
without the consent of Congress and also of General Washington, and
a determination to return to America at a future day. He embarked at
Boston. In waiting for a passage to France, the Marquis was several
weeks in Boston; and here became acquainted with John Hancock,
Dr. Cooper, S. Breck, Esq. and others, to whose families he became
particularly attached. The hospitable attention of the Bostonians, was
not lost upon him. With warm feelings and elegant manners, he was well
qualified to appreciate their patriotism and politeness; and impressions
were made upon his generous mind, favourable to their characters,
which he has not forgotten to the present day. In no place in America,
perhaps, did he find the citizens more congenial to his ardour of
affection and devoted love for civil liberty.--It cannot be doubted,
that to a man of his amiable and tender feelings, the consideration of
meeting with his family and friends influenced him to this visit. But it
appears also, from his letters at that time, that he considered his
duty to his King and country required him to go to France. War was now
declared between France and England; and he believed himself bound to
give his personal services for the defence of his own nation. With
all his zeal in favour of liberty and of America, which he considered
engaged in its sacred cause against an arbitrary power, he acknowledged
his obligations to asset in protecting his native country. If his King
should consent, he engaged to return to America, and devote himself
again in support of her rights. The following letters will justify this
statement of his views, at the time of which we are speaking. The first
is from General Washington to the President of Congress.

"_Head Quarters, Oct. 13th_, 1778.


"This will be delivered to you by Major General, the Marquis de
Lafayette. The generous motives which first induced him to cross the
Atlantic, and enter the army of the united States, are well known to
Congress. Reasons equally laudable now engage him to return to France,
who, in her present circumstances, claims his services.

"His eagerness to offer his duty to his Prince and country, however
great, could not influence him to quit the continent in any stage of an
unfinished campaign; he resolved to remain at least till the close of
the present; and embraces this moment of suspense, to communicate his
wishes to Congress, with a view of having the necessary arrangements
made in time; and of being still within reach, should any occasion offer
of distinguishing himself in the field.

"The Marquis, at the same time, from a desire of preserving a relation
with us, and a hope of having it yet in his power to be useful as an
American officer, solicits only a furlough, sufficient for the purposes
above mentioned. A reluctance to part with an officer, who unites to all
the military fire of youth, an uncommon maturity of judgment, world lead
me to prefer his being absent on this footing, if it depended solely on
me. I shall always be happy to give such a testimony of his services, as
his bravery and good conduct on all occasions entitle him to; and I have
no doubt that Congress will add suitable expressions of their sense of
his merits, and their regret on account of his departure. I here the
honor to be, &c.


From the Marquis to Congress.

"_Philadelphia. Oct. 8th_, 1778.

"Whatever care I should take not to employ the precious instants of
Congress in private considerations, I beg leave to lay before them my
present circumstances, with that confidence which naturally springs from
affection and gratitude. The sentiments which bind me to my country, can
never be more properly spoken of, than in presence of men who have done
so much for their own. As long as I thought I could dispose of myself,
I made it my pride and pleasure to fight under American colours, in
defence of a cause which I dare more particularly call _ours_, because I
had the good fortune of bleeding for her. Now that France is involved
in a war, I am led by a sense of duty as well as by patriotic love to
present myself before my king, and know in what manner he judges proper
to employ my services. The most agreeable of all will always be such
as to serve the common cause among those, whose friendship I had the
happiness to obtain, and whose fortune I had the honor to follow in less
smiling times. That reason, and others, which I leave to the feelings of
Congress, engage me to beg from them, the liberty of going home for the
next winter.

"As long as there were any hopes of an active campaign, I did not think
of leaving the field. Now that I see a very peaceable and undisturbed
moment, I take this opportunity of waiting on Congress. In case my
request is granted, I shall so manage my departure, as to be certain
before going, the campaign is really over. Enclosed you will receive a
letter from his Excellency, General Washington, wherein he expresses his
assent to my obtaining leave of absence. I dare flatter myself, that I
shall be considered as a soldier on furlough, who most heartily wants
to join again his colours, and his most esteemed and beloved fellow
soldiers. Should it be thought I can be any way useful to America,
when I shall find myself among my countrymen, I hope I shall always be
considered as one most interested in the welfare of these United States,
and one who has the most perfect affection, regard and confidence for
their representatives. With the highest regard, &c.


"_In Congress, Oct_. 21. 1778.

"_Resolved_, That the Marquis Lafayette, Major General in the services
of the United States, have leave to go to France; and that he return
at such time as shall be most convenient to him,--Resolved, That the
President write a letter to the Marquis Lafayette, returning him the
thanks of Congress for that disinterested zeal which led him to America,
and for the services he hath rendered to the United States, by the
exertion of his courage and abilities on many signal occasions.

"_Resolved_, That the Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of
America, at the Court of Versailles, be directed to cause an elegant
sword, with proper devices to be made and presented in the name of the
United States, to the Marquis Lafayette."

The foregoing resolves were communicated to the Marquis in the following

"_Philadelphia, Oct_. 24, 1778.


"I had the honor of presenting to Congress, your letter, soliciting
leave of absence: I am directed by them, to express their thanks for
your zeal in promoting that just cause in which they are engaged, and
for the disinterested services you have rendered to the United States of

"In testimony of the high esteem and affection in which you are held by
the good people of these States, as well as an acknowledgment of your
gallantry and military talents displayed on many signal occasions, their
Representatives; in Congress assembled, have ordered an elegant sword
to be presented to you, by the American Minister, at the Court of
Versailles. Enclosed within the present cover, will be found an act
of Congress of the 21st instant, authorizing these declarations, and
granting a furlough for your return to France, to be extended at your
own pleasure. I pray God to bless and protect you; to conduct you in
safety to the presence of your Prince, and to the re-enjoyment of your
noble family and friends. I have the honor to be, &c.


To this note the Marquis made the following reply:

"_Philadelphia, Oct_. 26, 1778.


"I have received your excellency's obliging letter, enclosing the
several resolutions Congress have honored me with, and the leave of
absence they have been pleased to grant. Nothing can make me happier,
than the reflection, that my services have met with their approbation.
The glorious testimonial of confidence and satisfaction respectfully
bestowed on me, by the representatives of America, though much superior
to my merit, cannot exceed the grateful sentiments they have excited. I
consider the noble present offered me in the name of the United States,
as the most flattering honor. It is my most fervent desire, soon to
employ that sword in their service, against the common enemy of my
country and their faithful and beloved allies. That liberty, safety,
wealth and concord may ever extend and bless these United States, is the
earnest wish of a heart glowing with a devoted zeal and unbounded love
for them, and the highest regard, and most sincere affection for their

"Be pleased, Sir, to present my thanks to them, and to accept yourself
the assurance of my respectful attachment.


Letter of Dr. Franklin, to the Marquis Lafayette.

"_Passy, Aug_. 24, 1779.


"The Congress, sensible of your merit towards the United States, but
unable adequately to reward it, determined to present you with a sword,
as a small mark of their grateful acknowledgments. They directed it to
be ornamented with suitable devices. Some of the principal actions of
the battles, in which you distinguished yourself by your bravery and
good conduct, are therefore represented upon it. These, with a few
emblematical figures, all admirably well executed, make its principal
value. By the help of the exquisite artists France affords, I find it
easy to execute every thing, but _the sense we have of your worth, and
our obligations to you_. For this, figures and even words are found

"I therefore, only add, that, with the most perfect esteem, I have the
honor to be, &c.


The Marquis de Lafayette came again to the United States in April 1780,
and landed at Boston, though the vessel first touched at Marblehead on
its way to the former place. In his passage both to and from France,
he was in danger of capture from the British. The frigate, in which he
returned to this country, was chased by an English man of war; and when
it was supposed, they must come to action, LAFAYETTE was found at one
of the guns, preparing to act his part should they be attacked. In this
visit to France, he exerted himself with effect, to induce the Court
of Versailles to afford the United States more effectual aid; and
especially, to send over a large fleet, which rendered essential
service to the American cause. His great devotion to our interests would
certainly lead him to advocate any measures with his King, favourable to
our wishes: and his influence, considering his high rank and family, was
undoubtedly attended with beneficial results. His services in our behalf
were particularly noticed by Congress.

"When the Marquis de Lafayette obtained permission to revisit his native
country and offer his services to his sovereign, he retained, with his
rank in the American army, that ardent zeal for her interests, which the
affectionate attentions he had received, the enthusiasm of a soldier in
the cause of those for whom he had made his first campaigns and by whom
he had been highly distinguished, combined with a consciousness that he
was substantially promoting the permanent interests of France; were all
so well calculated to inspire in a young and generous mind, in favour
of an infant people struggling for liberty and self government, with the
hereditary rival of his nation.

"He was received at the Court of Versailles with every mark of favour
and distinction; and all the influence he had acquired was employed in
impressing on the cabinet the importance and policy of granting sucors
to the United States.

"Having succeeded in this favourite object, in which he was aided by
the representations of the former and present minister of France at
Philadelphia; and finding no probability of active employment on the
continent of Europe, he obtained permission to return to America,
with the grateful intelligence of the service he had rendered while in
France, to the country in whose cause his service had been first drawn.
He arrived at Boston in the month of April 1780, and hastened to Head
Quarters. He then proceeded to Congress with the information that the
King of France had consented to employ a large land and naval armament
in the United States, for the ensuing campaign. He was received by
WASHINGTON with joy and affection; and by Congress with those marks of
distinction and regard to which his _constant_ and _indefatigable_ zeal
in support of the American cause, as well as his signal service, gave
him such just pretnesions. The intelligence which he brought gave new
impulse both to Congress and to the State Legislatures. The lethargic
slumbers into which they seemed to be sinking yielded to resolutions of
the most vigorous character."--_Marshall_.

The letters below, with the resolve of Congress, will show the sense
WASHINGTON had of the services of his "_adopted son_," the Marquis
Lafayette, and the personal attachment which he cherished for him, as
well as the high estimation; in which the disinterested zeal of that
devoted friend of liberty was held by the grand Legislature of America.

"_Head Quarters, Morristown, May_ 13, 1780.

"The Marquis Lafayette does me the honor to take charge of this note. I
am persuaded Congress will participate in the joy I feel at the return
of a gentleman who has so signally distinguished himself in the service
of this country; who has given so many and so decided proofs of his
attachment to its interests; and who ought to be dear to it by
every motive. The _warm friendship_ I have for him conspires with
considerations of public utility to afford me a double satisfaction
in his return. During the time he has been in France he has uniformly
manifested the same zeal in our affairs, which animated his conduct
while he was among us; and has been, upon all occasions, an essential
friend to America. He merits, and I doubt not Congress will give him
every mark of consideration and regard in their power.

"I have the honour to be, &c.


"_To His Excellency the President of Congress_."

"_Philadelphia, May_ 16, 1780.

"After so many favors, which, on every occasion and particularly at my
obtaining leave of absence, Congress were pleased most graciously to
bestow on me, I dare presume myself entitled to impart to them the
private feelings, which I now so happily experience.

"In an early epoch in our noble contest, I gloried in the name of an
American soldier; and heartily enjoyed the honor I have of serving
the United States; my satisfaction is at this long wished-for moment
entirely complete, when putting an end to my furlough, I have been
able again to join my colours, under which I hope for opportunities
of indulging the ardent zeal, the unbounded gratitude, the warm, and I
might say, the patriotic love, by which I am forever bound to America.

"I beg you, sir, to present Congress with a new assurance of my profound
respect and my grateful and affectionate sentiments.

"I have the honour to be, &c.


In Congress, May 16, 1780. "Resolved, That Congress consider the return
of the Marquis LAFAYETTE to America, to resume his command in the army,
as a fresh proof of the distinguished zeal and deserving attachment
which have justly recommended him to the public confidence and applause;
and that they receive with pleasure, a tender of further services of so
gallant and meritorious an officer."

"Soon after his return to America the Marquis was entrusted with the
command of a select corps of the Light Infantry of the continental army.
This afforded him a new opportunity for the display of his munificence.
He presented each officer of the corps with an elegant sword; and the
soldiers were clothed in uniform, principally at his expense. He infused
into this corps a spirit of pride and emulation; viewing it as one
formed according to his own wishes and worthy of his entire confidence.
They were the pride of his heart, and he was the idol of their regard;
constantly panting for an opportunity of performing some signal
achievement worthy of his and their own character. The corps was
probably equal for discipline and bravery, to any in the world."

Early in the year 1781, LAFAYETTE was detached with about twelve hundred
troops to Virginia; with a view to co-operate with the French fleet
in checking the plundering expedition of General Arnold, who had then
recently landed there with a body of British troops from New-York. The
Marquis performed this long and difficult march with great dispatch.
Many of the soldiers under his command were deficient in clothing: and
it was by the personal responsibility of General LAFAYETTE that funds
were raised in Baltimore and vicinity to remedy this evil. The credit
of the continent was very low; and its means of immediate payment of the
public expenses known to be entirely inadequate. The generosity of
this distinguished friend of liberty was as remarkable as his personal
bravery. He was indeed, both as to life and estate, wholly devoted
to the cause of America; and difficulties and dangers served only to
manifest the sincerity and intenseness of his zeal in behalf of a people
struggling for freedom.

Soon after this, in the month of May, 1781, Lord Cornwallis, in his
progress from North Carolina into Virginia, formed a junction with the
British forces under Arnold and Phillips. His object was immediately to
crush the Americans under LAFAYETTE, then encamped near Richmond. The
experienced British Commander thought it would be an easy matter with
his superior numbers to secure the "Young Frenchman." But the youthful
soldier was not wanting in prudence and foresight, though ardour and
courage were his predominant qualities. In these traits of character, as
well as others, he was not unlike the "paternal chief" of the American
army. LAFAYETTE made good a retreat; and escaped the net Cornwallis had
prepared for him, with such confident hopes of success. He directed his
course northward; and soon effected a junction with General Wayne,
who had been ordered to reinforce him with eight hundred men of the
Pennsylvania line.

The Light Infantry under Lafayette were chiefly eastern troops, who
had great objections to a southern climate, and many deserted. In this
critical situation, the Marquis adopted the following expedient. He gave
out that an expedition of great difficulty and danger was to be soon
undertaken; and appealing to the generous feelings of his soldiers, he
expressed a hope that they would not forsake him. If, however, any were
desirous of returning to their regiments, he said, they should have
permission. The effect was as he had hoped. The troops had too much
honor and pride to desert their brave commander in such an exigency.

About this time, the main army of the British under Cornwallis, had
taken the precaution to cut off the direct communication between the
American troops and their stores, lately removed from Richmond to
Albemarle. The Marquis Lafayette, however, recrossing the Rappahannock,
by forced marches, arrived within a few miles of the British, when they
were yet two days march from Albemarle Courthouse; and opening in
the night a nearer road, which had been long disused, appeared the
following, lay, greatly to the surprise of Cornwallis, between the
British army and the continental stores. Thus disappointed in his plan
of possessing the American stores, the British commander retired to
Williamsburg. The Marquis followed the enemy at a prudent distance; and
was soon so fortunate as to form a junction with the Baron Steuben, who
had been detached into that quarter, to protect the public stores and
assist in the general defence of the country. The British forces, many
of which consisted of cavalry, were than very formidable in Virginia.

This was a very critical period in the affairs of America. Washington
was satisfied that some decisive blow must be struck; for our finances
were low: and many began to despond as to the result of the contest. The
British were very powerful and resolute. The plan of Washington finally
was to make it appear to the enemy that an attack was intended against
New-York; and at the same time prepare for a general expedition to
Virginia, and destroy the British army in that quarter. This plan
succeeded by the aid of the French fleet, though its Admiral came with
reluctance to the measure. Cornwallis and his army were captured in
October following; and the British ministry soon after consented to
listen to honourable terms of peace.

Major General Lafayette acted a gallant and distinguished part in this
whole campaign. We have already witnessed his activity, promptitude and
bravery in the early part of the season. His efforts continued, and were
conspicuous on various trying occasions. In the affair near Jamestown,
he was in great personal danger, and one of his horses was shot under
him. It was owing to the to his uncommon vigilance and activity, that
the American troops under his command were able to keep a large British
army in check; and when a detachment under the brave General Wayne were
in danger of being taken, they were rescued by the prompt and skillful
maneuvers of the Marquis. His spirit and firmness were attended with the
best effects upon the men under his command; and seemed to inspire them
with courage and confidence, at this period of great embarrassment and
gloom. He was distinguished for humanity as well as courage. The sick
and wounded were always sure to receive his generous attentions. In the
several engagements which took place, previously to the capture of Lord
Cornwallis, many of the American soldiers were wounded, and he made
immediate provision for their relief and comfort.

The military skill and bravery manifested by General Lafayette, and the
officers and men under his command in Virginia, at this period, will be
evident from his letters and orders here given. They speak particularly
of the courage and conduct of General Wayne, and his detachment; but
they also afford new proofs of the intelligence and activity of the
commanding officer.

Letter from General Lafayette, to General Greene.

_"Near James River, July_ 8, 1781.


"On the 4th, the enemy evacuated Williamsburgh, where some stores fell
into our hands, and retired to this place, under the cannon of their
shipping. The next morning we advanced, and a part of our troops took
post about nine miles from the British camp. The 6th, I detached
an advanced corps under General Wayne, to reconnoitre the enemy's
situation. Their light parties being drawn in, the pickets which lay
near their encampment, were gallantly attacked by some riflemen, whose
skill was employed to great effect.

"Having learnt that Lord Cornwallis had sent off his heavy baggage
under an escort, and posted his army in an open field, fortified by the
shipping, I returned to the detachment, which I found generally engaged.
A piece of cannon had been attempted by the vanguard, and the whole
British army advanced to the wood, occupied by General Wayne. His whole
corps did not exceed 800, part of which were militia, with three field
pieces.--But at sight of the British, the troops ran to the rencontre,
notwithstanding the very superior number of the enemy, and a short
skirmish ensued, with a warm, close and well directed fire. But, as both
the right and left of the enemy greatly out-flanked ours, I sent orders
to General Wayne, to retire to about half a mile, where Col. Vose
and Barber's light infantry battalions had arrived, by a most rapid
movement, and where I directed them to form. In this position, they
remained till some hours in the night. The militia under General Lawson
also advanced; but during the night, the enemy retired to the south of
the river.

"From all accounts, the enemy's loss is great. We had none killed, but
many wounded. Wayne's detachment suffered most. Many horses were killed,
which rendered it impossible to move the field pieces. But it is enough
for the glory of General Wayne, and the officers and men under
his command, to have attacked the whole British army, with only a
reconnoitering party, and to have obliged them to retreat over the
river. I have the honor to be, &c.


Under date of July 11th, an officer of rank gives some further account
of this affair. "The enemy had 300 men killed and wounded; and among
the latter were several officers. Their precipitate retreat the same
evening, to Jamestown Island, and thence to the other side of the river,
is a tacit acknowledgment, that a general action was not their wish.
We hear that the British officers are much mortified at the issue, and
confess they were out-generalled. Their numbers were far superior to
ours; and they had the advantage of a large corps of cavalry. We could
not have extricated ourselves from the difficulties we were in, but by
the maneuver we adopted; which, though it may have the appearance of
temerity, to those unacquainted with the circumstances, was founded upon
the truest military principles; and was a necessary, though a very bold
and daring measure."

Extract from the general orders of the Marquis Lafayette, July 8th,
1781, near James River.

"The General is happy to acknowledge the spirit of the detachment under
General Wayne, in their engagement with the whole of the British army,
of which he was an eye witness. He requests General Wayne and the
officers and men under his command, to accept his best thanks. The
bravery and destructive fire of the riflemen, rendered essential
service. The fire of the light infantry checked the enemy's progress
round our right flank. The General was much pleased with the conduct of
Captain Savage, of the artillery, and is satisfied, that nothing but
the loss of horses occasioned that of the two field pieces. The zeal of
Colonel Mercer's corps, is fully expressed in the number of horses he
had killed."

His conduct at the siege and capture of Cornwallis, at Yorktown,
received the particular approbation of the commander in chief. Perhaps
no officer in the American line, contributed more than he did to the
success which attended our arms on that memorable occasion. When the
British General was confident of seizing him and his little party by
stratagem, or of overpowering them by numbers, he was on his guard, and
had the good fortune to elude every effort to destroy him. And, during
the immediate siege of Yorktown, he occupied one of the most dangerous
posts, and was among the foremost in the many vigorous assaults made
upon the British army, before it was compelled to surrender. He had the
honor to be ranked with Lincoln, Greene, Knox, Wayne and others, in the
glorious exploits, which convinced the enemy of our persevering bravery,
and induced them at last to sue for peace.

In November following, the Marquis returned to France, having first
obtained the consent of Congress, and of the commander in chief. The
contest between Great Britain and the United States, was drawing to
a close. The former became satisfied of the impossibility of subduing
America: and the latter was anxious to terminate a war, which had
exhausted her finances, and occasioned an oppressive debt. The resolves
of Congress, with reference to the departure of General Lafayette at
this period, exhibits, in a very favorable light, the important services
he had rendered the country, in the critical situation in which it had
been placed.

In Congress, Nov. 1781. "Resolved, That Major General Lafayette have
permission to go to France, and to return at such time as may be most
agreeable to himself--that he be informed, that, on a view of his
conduct throughout the past campaign, and particularly during the
period, in which he had the chief command in Virginia, the many new
proofs which present themselves of his zealous attachment to the cause
he has espoused, and of his judgment, vigilance, gallantry and address
in its defence, have greatly added to the high opinion entertained by
Congress of his merits and military talents--that he make known to the
officers and troops whom he commanded during that period, that the
brave and enterprizing services, with which they seconded his zeal and
efforts, and which enabled him to defeat the attempts of an enemy,
far superior in numbers, have been beheld by Congress, with particular
satisfaction and approbation.--That the Secretary of foreign affairs
acquaint the Ministers Plenipotentiaries of the United States, that it
is the desire of Congress, that they confer with the Marquis Lafayette,
and avail of his information, relative to the situation of public
affairs in the United States--That the Secretary for foreign affairs,
further acquaint the Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of
Versailles, that he will conform to the intention of Congress, by
consulting with, and employing the assistance of the Marquis Lafayette,
in accelerating the supplies which may be afforded by his most Christian
Majesty for the United Stakes--That the superintendent of finance,
the Secretary for foreign affairs and the board of war, make such
communications to the Marquis, touching the affairs of their respective
departments, as will best enable him to fulfill the purpose of the
preceding resolutions--That the superintendent of finance, take order
for discharging the engagements entered into by the Marquis Lafayette,
with the merchants of Baltimore, when he borrowed money of them on his
own credit, to supply our troops with necessaries."

At the same time, Congress ordered that a conveyance be provided for
General Lafayette, in a public vessel, whenever he should choose to
embark; and voted to send a letter by him, to the King of France.

The following is the reply of the Marquis, to the president of Congress,
who forwarded him the resolves.


"I have been honored with the resolutions which Congress have been
pleased to pass in my favor. Testimonies of their esteem and their
confidence that are so very flattering to me, could not but excite
those exalted sentiments of gratitude, which I am unable sufficiently to
express.--My attachment to America, the sense of my obligations, and the
new favors conferred upon me, are so many everlasting ties that devote
me to her. At all times, and in every part of the world, my heart
will be panting for opportunities to be employed in her service. With
unspeakable pleasure, I shall transmit the resolve of Congress to the
brave and virtuous troops, whom it has been my happiness to command.

"I have the honor to be, &c.


When he transmitted the foregoing resolve of Congress, to the troops
he had lately commanded, he observed to them, "In the moment the Major
General leaves this place, he wishes once more to express his gratitude
to the brave corps of light infantry, who, for nine months past, have
been the companions of his fortunes. He can never forget, that, with
them alone, of regular troops, he had the good fortune to maneuver
before an army, which, after all its reductions, was still six times
more numerous than the regular force he had under command."

The interest taken in favour of our country by General Lafayette, and
the anxiety he felt upon all occasions for the success of our contest
with England, are so strongly evinced by his letter to the Hon. Samuel
Adams, that we feel bound in justice to the character of this zealous
apostle of liberty, to present it to our readers, with the reply of Mr.
Adams. It shows, indeed, not only the disposition of Lafayette, in every
possible way, to rapport the cause of America; but his great knowledge
of human nature, and his regard for the honorable feelings of soldiers.

The letter was written at Morristown, May 30, 1780, soon after the
Marquis returned from his visit to France, where he exerted himself with
the French Ministers to grant aid and supplies to the United States.

"_Dear Sir_,--Had I known that I would have the pleasure of meeting you
at Boston, and holding confidential conversations with you on public
and private matters, I should have anticipated the uneasiness I was put
under by the obligation of secrecy, or previously obtained the leave
of breaking that so strict law in your favor. Now, my dear sir, that
Congress have set my tongue at liberty, at least for such men as Mr.
Samuel Adams, I will, in referring you to a public letter from the
committee of Congress, indulge my private feelings in imparting to you
some confidential ideas of mine on our present situation.

"As momentary visits did not entirely fulfill the purpose of freeing
America, France thought they would render themselves more useful, if a
naval and land force were sent for co-operating with our troops, and by
a longer stay on the coast of the Continent, would give to the states, a
fair opportunity of employing all their resources. The expectations are
very sanguine at Versailles, and ought to be more so, when that letter
shall be received, by which you know _Congress engaged to furnish on
their part, five and twenty thousand Continental troops, that are to
take the field by the beginning of the spring_.

"On the other hand, my dear sir, all Europe have their eyes upon us:
They know nothing of us, but by our own reports, and our first exertions
which have heightened their esteem, and by the accounts of the enemy, or
those of some dissatisfied persons, which were calculated to give them
a quite different opinion: so that, to fix their own minds, all the
nations are now looking at us; and the consequence of America, in the
eyes of the world, as well as its liberty and happiness, must depend
upon the ensuing campaign.

"The succour sent by France, I thought to be _very important_ when at
Versailles: now that I am on the spot, I know it was _necessary_; and
if proper measures are taken, I shall more heartily than ever, enjoy
the happiness I had of being somewhat concerned in the operation. But
if things stood as they now do, I confess that whether as an American
soldier, whether as a private man that said a great deal, and knows
Congress have ordered much more to be said on the future exertions of
America,--who took a particular delight in praising the patriotic spirit
of the United States, I would feel most unhappy and distressed, were
I to tell the people that are coming over full of ardour and sanguine
hopes, that we have no army to co-operate with them, no provisions to
feed the few soldiers that are left, &c. But I hope, my dear sir, it
will not be the case; and more particularly depending upon the exertions
of your state, _I know Mr. Samuel Adams' influence_ and popularity will
be as heretofore employed, in the salvation and glory of America.

"If proper measures are taken for provisions, if the states do
_immediately_ fill up the continental battalions by good drafts, which
is by far the best way; if all the propositions of the committee are
speedily complied with, I have no doubt, but that the present campaign
will be a glorious, decisive one, and that we may hope for every thing
that is good: if on the contrary, time be lost, consider what unhappy
and dishonorable consequences would ensue from our inability to a

"Your state began the noble contest, it may be gloriously ended by your
state's exertions, and the example they will once more set to the whole
continent. The reception I met with at Boston, binds me to it by the
strongest ties of a grateful affection. The joy of my heart will be
to find myself concerned in an expedition that may afford peculiar
advantages to them; and I earnestly hope it will be the case, in the
course of this (if proper measures are taken) glorious campaign.

"I flatter myself you will be yet in Boston, and upon this expectation,
I very much depend for the success of the combined expeditions. Such a
crisis is worth your being wholly engaged in it, as it will be glorious,
important; and I may say it now, because necessary for the support of
the great cause in which you acted so early and decisive a part. What
you mentioned confidentially to me at Boston, I have duly noticed, and
shall ever remember with the attention of a friend. For fulfilling the
same purpose, I wish we may be under particular obligations to you on
this occasion.

"Give me leave, my dear sir, to suggest to you an idea which I have
lately thought of: all the continental officers labor under the most
shameful want of clothing. When I say shameful, it is not to them, who
have no money to buy--no cloth to be bought. You can conceive what may
be theirs and our feelings, when they will be with the French general
and other officers; and from a general idea of mankind and human honor
it is easily seen how much we should exert ourselves to put the officers
of the army in a more decent situation.

"I beg, my dear sir, you will present my respects to your family, and
believe me most affectionately,



"_Boston, June_, 1780:

"My Dear Marquis,

"Yesterday your very obliging letter of the 30th May was brought to me
by Mons. Guinard.

"The succour coming from France will be so seasonable and important,
that if America is not wanting to herself, she will have it in her power
by the blessing of heaven, to gratify the utmost of her wishes. His
most Christian Majesty's expectations from us must needs be great; and
gratitude to so generous an ally as well as a due attention to our own
safety, interest and honor, lay us under the strongest obligations to be
in readiness to co-operate with the greatest advantage. I have long been
fully sensible of your most cordial and zealous attachment to our great
cause; and to your personal representation to his Majesty, in addition
to the benevolence of his royal heart, I will take the liberty to
attribute his design to afford us such aid and for so long a time as may
put it in our power to employ all our resources against the enemy.

"It fortunately happened that the General Assembly of this state was
sitting when the letter and inclosures from the committee of Congress
came to the President of the Council.--They were immediately laid before
the Assembly and I have the pleasure to assure you that the filling our
battalions by an immediate draft, furnishing the army with provisions,
and every other measure for the fulfilling of the just expectations of
your sovereign and of Congress, on this most important occasion, are the
objects of their closest attention. I had for several months past been
flattering myself with the prospect of aid. It strongly impressed my
mind from one circumstance which took place when you was at Philadelphia
the last year. But far from certainty, I could only express to some
confidential friends here, a distant hope, though as I conceived, not
without some good effect: at least it seemed to enliven our spirits and
animate us for so great a crisis.

"If it were possible for one to be forgetful of our all important cause
for a moment, my particular friendship _for you_ would be a prevailing
inducement with me, to make my utmost feeble exertions to prevent your
disappointment after the great pains you have taken to serve us. I have
endeavored, and shall continue those endeavors while I stay here, to
brighten the dark side of the picture which your imagination has painted
in one part of your letter before me--God forbid that we should be
obliged to tell our friends when they arrive, that we have not a
sufficient army to co-operate with them, nor provisions to feed the few
soldiers that are left. I think I may venture to predict that this
state will comply with the requisition upon her to give the utmost
respectability to our army on so promising an occasion. I was in the
Council Chamber when I received your letter, and took the liberty to
read some parts of it to the members present. I will communicate other
parts of it to some leading members of the House of Representatives as
prudence may dictate, particularly what you mention of the officers'
want of clothing.

"I thank you my dear sir for the friendly remembrance you had of the
hint I gave you when you was here. Be pleased to pay my most respectful
compliments to the Commander in Chief, his family, &c. and be assured of
the warm affection of your obliged friend and very humble servant,


Marquis De Lafayette.

The Legislature of Massachusetts did immediately, viz, on June 5, 1780,
pass a resolve for raising four thousand men as a reinforcement of the
continental army. The preamble to the resolve was as follows;--"Whereas
a requisition has been made to this court for a reinforcement to the
continental army, in order that it may be able to act vigorously the
ensuing campaign, and the present situation of affairs requiring
the utmost exertions at this period, and affords the most flattering
prospect of putting an end to this distressing war, if the army is
reinforced at this juncture, and enabled to improve the great advantages
offered." To carry this resolve into effect, the Brigadier Generals
through the State were directed immediately on receipt of the resolve,
to issue orders for calling the companies together, and raising the men
required from each town, by voluntary enlistments, or by drafting them,
on failure of a full number being otherwise raised. Those thus drafted
were to be fined if they refused to march; but, a very generous bounty
was granted, to induce men to enlist voluntarily. The Selectmen were
required to furnish the men with clothes and traveling expenses; and
both the Selectmen and Brigadier Generals were liable to a heavy fine,
if they neglected their duty. The patriotic efforts of the Legislature,
thus drawn into action, in consequence of the pressing letter of
Lafayette, and their own sense of the necessity of the case, were
every where met by a corresponding zeal on the part of the people
of Massachusetts; and the men were soon raised, and sent on to the
headquarters of the continental army, to fill the regular regiments of
this State, then in the service.

At the siege of York-Town, where Lord Cornwallis with a large British
army was attacked and taken by the Americans, Lafayette was particularly
distinguished for activity and courage. And a more minute account of
this affair is necessary, in recording the useful and brilliant services
of this youthful hero in the cause of America, which her sons wish most
gratefully to recollect.--General Washington in person commanded the
American army on this occasion, in pursuance of a plan he had adopted,
as already mentioned. He proceeded to the camp in the vicinity of
York-Town, where Cornwallis was posted, the last of September. He was
assisted by Major Generals Lincoln, Steuben, Lafayette. Knox, &c. The
French troops, who composed a part of the army engaged in the capture of
Cornwallis were under command of Count Rochambeau, who had the character
of an intelligent and brave officer. The whole number of troops, both
American and French, was estimated at twelve thousand. To them, however,
were occasionally added small detachments of the militia from the
vicinity. The British troops were computed to be about seven thousand,
and their commander had been strengthened in his situation by
fortifications, hoping to defend himself till he might receive succors
from New-York. The allied army was supported in this expedition by a
large French fleet which was in the Chesapeake. This afforded great
confidence to the Americans, for they had just then defeated the British
fleet in those waters, and thus effectually cut off all communication
between Lord Cornwallis and the British army in New-York.

The French admiral had been determined to proceed at this time, to a
station in the West Indies, agreeably to orders which he had received
from the King his master, some weeks before. He was requested to
remain, and co-operate in this expedition, by Count Rochambeau, and by
Washington himself; but they could not prevail with him to relinquish
his proposed departure for the West Indies; and it was only through
the most zealous and repeated solicitations of Lafayette, with a solemn
promise that he would justify the measure to the Court of France, that
the admiral, Count de Grasse, was induced to continue on the station, by
which the capture of the British army was greatly facilitated.

Under all these favourable circumstances, it is not unreasonable to
suppose, that the allied army cherished a strong confidence of success
in their enterprize. Washington had planned this expedition with great
intelligence and foresight; for he had been resolved to attempt some
decisive and effectual blow against the enemy. He had, however, to
engage a body of well disciplined and regular troops under an officer of
great experience and bravery; and all his own resources, together
with the courage and activity of the officers under his command
were necessary to ensure success. The American chief lost no time in
preparing for a vigorous attack upon the British. They were soon obliged
to abandon their redoubts and advanced posts, and to retire within the
town. The light infantry, under General Lafayette, and a party of the
French troops, were ordered to advance, and to take possession of the
places they had abandoned, that they might cover those of the besieging
army who were engaged in throwing up breast works. These advanced
parties were much annoyed by a heavy cannonade from the besieged;
and Colonel Scammel, the officer of the day, while viewing the ground
recently left by the British, was surprised by a party of their cavalry;
and, after he surrendered, received a mortal wound, which terminated his
life in a few days. Scammel was a brave and accomplished officer,
and eminent as a disciplinarian. He was a native of Massachusetts, a
gentleman of public education, of elegant manners, and most honorable
character. He was greatly lamented by Washington, and by all the
officers of the American army.--Those who had been particularly
associated with him, long cherished the highest respect for his memory.

Redoubts were thrown up by our advanced parties, for several successive
nights; and on the evening of the 7th of October, a large detachment
under General Lincoln were ordered out, to open entrenchments near the
lines of the British. Lafayette had an important command also in the
enterprise. The great interest felt for him by the Americans was shown
by a request of the Surgeon General, "that if the Marquis should be
wounded, he might receive immediate attention."

The duties of our troops, at this time, were very arduous; but they were
most vigilant and active; and by the 9th several batteries were prepared
to open upon the town, in which the British General was besieged.
General Washington himself put the match to the first gun, and a furious
cannonade immediately followed, which was a serious salutation to

From the 10th to the 15th the siege was prosecuted with great vigor; an
incessant fire was kept up by the allied armies; and the enemy were not
backward in returning it. The Americans made further approaches to the
town and threw up other batteries in a second parallel. Many of our men
were killed and wounded in these operations. The enemy had two redoubts,
several hundred yards in front of their principal works, which greatly
impeded the approaches of the Americans. It became important to obtain
possession of them by assault. The one on the left of the enemy's
garrison was given to General Lafayette, with a brigade of light
infantry of American troops. The other redoubt was attacked by a
detachment of French troops under commanded of Baron de Viominel. The
assailants, both on the right and left, exhibited the greatest ardor
and bravery. Powerful resistance was made by the enemy; but was soon
overcome by our gallant troops, inspirited by their still more gallant
officers; though with the loss of many of our men. Two field officers
were wounded in this affair; one of whom was Major Gibbs from
Massachusetts, who then belonged to the guard of the commander in
chief. The advanced corps of the detachment on the left, under General
Lafayette, was led on to the assault by the intrepid Colonel Hamilton,
who during this campaign had command of a regiment of light infantry.
Our troops entered the redoubt with charged bayonets, but without firing
a gun. The Marquis was indefatigable in pushing forward his men, and was
constantly in situations of great peril. Some of the American soldiers
were ready to take the lives of the captured after they had possession
of the fort, in revenge for the barbarous conduct of the British towards
many of our men, and especially for the mortal wound inflicted upon the
brave and amiable Scammel, after he had surrendered. General Washington
with Lincoln, Knox, and their aids were in the vicinity of this action,
in very exposed situations. The Americans under Lafayette, carried the
redoubt which they attacked, before the French made their assault upon
the other. The latter also, suffered a greater loss of men than the
former. When the fort was taken by the troops under the Marquis, he sent
his aid, through the fire of the whole British line, to give notice to
Baron Viominel, "that he was in his redoubt, and to enquire where the
Baron was." The Baron returned for answer, "that he was not yet in his,
but should be in five minutes."

General Washington expressed his sense of this brilliant affair in
his orders of the 15th, Head Quarters, before York-Town. "The Marquis
Lafayette's division will mount the trenches tomorrow. The commander in
chief congratulates the allied army on the success of the enterprise,
last evening, against the two important redoubts on the left of the
enemy's works. He requests the Baron Viominel who commanded the French
grenadiers, and the Marquis Lafayette, who commanded the American Light
Infantry, to accept his warmest acknowledgments for the excellence of
their dispositions, and for their own gallant conduct on the occasion.
And he begs them to present his thanks to every individual officer and
to the men of their respective commands, for the spirit and rapidity
with which they advanced to the points of attack assigned them, and for
the admirable firmness with which they supported them, under the fire
of the enemy, without returning a shot. The General reflects with the
highest pleasure on the confidence which the troops of the two nations
must hereafter have in each other: assured of mutual support, he is
convinced there is no danger which they will not cheerfully encounter;
no difficulty which they will not bravely overcome."

If the Marquis de Lafayette was animated by an ardent love of civil
liberty, when he first came to America, his attachment to its principles
must have become more firm and settled, if not more intense, after
an acquaintance of five years, with the patriots and heroes of our
revolution. He had become acquainted with our institutions, and with
the principles of our government; and was probably led to believe that
systems equally free might be maintained in other countries. He was so
enamoured, not only with the theory, but with the practical effects, of
republicanism, that he felt it a duty to recommend systems of government
more consonant to the rights of mankind. We know not, if he justly
appreciated the importance of the general diffusion of knowledge among
all classes of people, to ensure such a happy state of society. It
was probably owing to this consideration, however, that he did not
immediately attempt the reformation of the political system under
which his own nation had long been oppressed. That Louis XVI. was mild,
humane, and anxious for the good of his subjects, we are not disposed
to doubt. But the ancient regime was unquestionably despotic; and in the
hands of ambitious or selfish ministers, liable to be an instrument of
injustice and oppression. And those who have long been accustomed to
govern, without being accountable for their conduct, will not easily be
induced to relinquish power, from any considerations of abstract right,
or a belief that others will be more just.

We will here present a letter of Lafayette, directed to Sir H. Clinton;
to show his regard to truth, and to his own reputation suffering in some
measure by a statement which had been publicly made by that military

"Paris, April 29, 1783.--Sir, Upon a perusal of your printed
correspondence, I must beg leave to trouble you with an observation; not
that I have claims to set forth, or relations to criticise. A sentence
in your letter of ---- is the only one I intend to mention. "Having said
to Lord Cornwallis, that he may be opposed by about 2000 continentals;
and, as Lafayette observes, a body of ill-armed militia," you are
pleased to add, "as spiritless as the militia of the southern provinces,
and without any service;" which reads as if it was a part of my letter.
How far your description is undeserving, I think experience has
proved; and that it came from me, no American will believe. But your
correspondence is so public that with full reliance on your candour and
politeness I have taken the liberty to transcribe the passage, and to
return it to you, Sir, as its true author. At the same time permit me to
assure you, &c.


The reply of Sir H. Clinton.

"_London, May_ 29, 1783.

"Sir, In consequence of the letter you have done me the honor to write
me, I have read over the publication in question; and I confess the
remark alluded to, from the manner in which it is introduced, appears
to make a part of your letter. You have, certainly, Sir, a right to this
acknowledgment, and permit me, at the same time, to add the assurances,


In the summer of 1784, the Marquis de Lafayette once more visited
America. He came to witness the prosperity and improvements of the
country; and to enjoy the society of those brave and honorable men,
with whom he had been associated in fighting the battles of liberty.
Associates in danger form an attachment for each other, which time does
not usually destroy. And when they have long struggled together for
just and generous purposes, the attachment must be strong and permanent
indeed. The heroic actors in our glorious revolution were linked
together by the most disinterested ties. They will never forget each
other's services and virtues: And we trust, their children will never
cease to venerate their characters, or to acknowledge their exalted

When General Lafayette visited the United States in 1784, he was
received with an affectionate welcome, little less enthusiastic and
splendid, than that with which he has been lately greeted on landing
again on our shores, after a lapse of forty years. He then also arrived
at the port of New-York; and in October following made a visit to
Boston, where he had so many particular friends ready to receive him
with the most cordial greetings. He was met at Watertown by the officers
of the (then) late continental army, and addressed by his ardent friend,
General Knox, in behalf of the whole body, and a public dinner was
provided for him on the occasion. The feelings excited by the visit
of their beloved fellow officer, will be best described by giving the
address; which was as follows:

"We, the late officers of the Massachusetts line of the continental
army, embrace the first moment of your arrival, to welcome you with all
the sincerity and ardour of fraternal affection: an affection commenced
in the dark hour of our conflict, elevated and perfected through the
successive vicissitudes of the war.

"We beg leave to observe, that we have had repeated occasions to witness
the display of your military talents, and of joining in the approbation
and applause which our beloved Commander in Chief so often expressed of
your conduct. We are deeply impressed, with a sense of the various and
important services you have rendered our country; and it will be the
pride of some patriotic and enlightened historian to enumerate your
actions in the field, and to illustrate your incessant efforts to
promote the happiness of the United States.

"We shall ever retain a lively gratitude for the interposition of your
august sovereign and nation, at a time when America was oppressed by a
formidable enemy. By his influence and the powerful assistance afforded
by his land and naval forces, the war has been happily terminated, and
the independence of the United States firmly established, at a period
much earlier than the most sanguine patriot could have expected.

"A mind like yours ennobled by a generous attachment to the rights of
mankind, must enjoy the highest pleasure in viewing the people, to whose
cause you so zealously devoted yourself; in full possession of that
peace, liberty and safety, which were the great objects of their

"Animated by virtue and the auspices of your own fame, may you go on to
add to the splendor of your character, and heighten the glory of your
country, by placing the name of Lafayette on the same list with Conde,
Turenne and her other immortal heroes.

"In behalf of the officers of the Massachusetts line.

"H. KNOX."

Reply of the Marquis.

"From the instant of our parting, Gentlemen, I have been eagerly looking
forward to this period. How far my pleasure is completed by your kind
welcome, I leave, my beloved friends, to your own hearts to determine.

"While your affection and confidence ever made me happy, let me
gratefully acknowledge, that, for the marks of our beloved General's
approbation, I felt myself wholly obliged to the gallant troops I
commanded. Could my conduct, in any degree justify your partiality, it
will be the pride of my heart to think the American camp was my school,
every one of you my brothers, and that I was adopted as a disciple and
son, by our immortal Commander in Chief.

"In the interposition of my Sovereign and nation, I enjoyed more than I
could express; every French citizen felt with a patriotic King in this
happy alliance; and from those troops who shared in our dangers, you
meet with a peculiar regard and attachment.

"During my absence, gentlemen, my heart has been constantly with you.
As an army, we are separated. But forever, I hope, shall unite in a
brotherly affection: and now that a glorious peace has terminated your
labours, I rejoice to find your attachment to those principles for which
you have conquered, ranks you among the most virtuous citizens of the


At the public dinner given by the officers of the late army to this
distinguished friend of American Independence, were also invited the
Governor and Council, and many others of high rank and distinction. It
may be gratifying to some who peruse this volume to know the sentiments
offered as toasts on the joyful occasion. The following are selected:

The United States--His most Christian Majesty.

General Washington--The Cincinnati.

The asserters and supporters of the rights of mankind through the world.

May America never forget in prosperity those what were her fast friends
in adversity.

May our country be as famed for justice and honor as she is for valour
and success.

The Legislature of the State being in session, ordered, that the Marquis
de Lafayette be invited by the President of the Senate and the Speaker
of the House of Representatives together with the Supreme Executive to
meet the two Houses of Assembly in the Senate room "to congratulate him
on his safe arrival in the United States, after the final establishment
of peace, to which his friendly influence in Europe had largely
contributed." The Marquis attended accordingly, when the Governor
congratulated him in terms of the highest respect and affection; to
which the Marquis made a polite and suitable reply. But Lafayette
was too much beloved and his eminent services in our cause too highly
appreciated by the people of the patriotic town of Boston, not to meet
with a more general welcome. A dinner was given him at Faneuil-Hall by
the citizens; at which were present the Governor and Council, President
of the Senate and Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Clergy
and other distinguished gentlemen, and seventy five officers of the late
continental army. When General Washington's name was given for a toast,
the Marquis rose from his seat, and with a tear starting in his eye,
began the act of applause, which was continued and repeated again and
again by the whole company.

In other places, the Marquis also met a cordial and distinguished
reception. His ardent attachment to America and his great services in
her cause, were still fresh in the recollection of all. It was known,
that he had advocated our independence in Europe, and exerted his
influence with his generous Prince to aid in its support. It was
remembered, "that in the moment of our greatest misfortunes, he espoused
the cause of America," that his military talents and the ardour of his
virtuous mind had been devoted to our interest: and "while gratitude
should be accounted a virtue, the name of Lafayette," it was said,
"would not cease to be dear to Americans."

When about to leave the United States and return to France, Dec. 1784,
the Marquis de Lafayette addressed a note to Congress, and expressed
a desire to take a respectful leave of that body, before his final
departure. A committee was appointed on this request of the Marquis,
of which the Hon. Mr. Jay was chairman, and whose report was as
follows--"That the merit and services of General Lafayette render it
proper that such opportunity of taking leave of Congress be afforded,
as may strongly manifest their esteem and regard for him."--Whereupon it
was resolved, "That a Committee to consist of a member from each states
be appointed to receive the Marquis, and in the name of Congress to
take leave of him--that they be instructed to assure him, that Congress
continue to entertain the same high sense of his abilities and zeal to
promote the welfare of America, both here and in Europe, which they have
frequently expressed and manifested on former occasions, and which the
recent marks of his attention to their commercial and other interests
have perfectly confirmed. That as his uniform and unceasing attachment
to this country has resembled that of a patriotic citizen, the United
States regard him with particular affection, and will not cease to feel
an interest in whatever may concern his honor and prosperity, and that
their best and kindest wishes will always attend him."

It was also resolved by Congress, at the same time; "That a letter be
written to his most Christian Majesty, and signed by the President of
Congress, expressive of the high sense which the United States
entertain of the real talents and meritorious services of the Marquis de
Lafayette, and recommending him to the particular favor and patronage of
his Majesty."

The committee received the Marquis in Congress Hall, and took leave of
him in the name of that honorable body, agreeably to the instructions
given there. They communicated to him the resolves before mentioned; to
which he replied--

"While it pleases the Congress of the United States so kindly to receive
me, I want words to express the feelings of a heart, which delights in
their present situation and in the public marks of their esteem.

"Since I joined the standard of liberty to this wished for hour of my
personal congratulations, I have seen such glorious deeds performed and
virtues displayed, by the sons of America, that in the instant of my
first concern for them, I had anticipated but a part of the love and
regard which devote me to this rising empire.

"During our revolution, I obtained an unlimited, indulgent confidence,
which I am equally proud and happy to acknowledge; it dates with the
time, when an inexperienced youth, I could only claim my respected
friend's paternal adoption. It has been most benevolently continued
throughout every circumstance of the cabinet and the field; and in
personal friendships I have often found a support against public
difficulties. While on this solemn occasion, I mention my obligations to
Congress, the States, and the people at large, permit me to remember
my dear military companions, to whose services their country is so much

"Having felt both for the timely aid of my country, and for the part
she, with a beloved king, acted in the cause of mankind, I enjoy an
alliance so well riveted by mutual affection, by interest and even
local situation. Recollection ensures it. Futurity does but enlarge the
prospect: and the private intercourse will every day increase, which
independent and advantageous trade cherishes, in proportion as it is
justly understood.

"In unbounded wishes to America, I am happy to observe the prevailing
disposition of the people to strengthen the confederation, preserve
public faith, regulate trade; and, in a proper guard over continental
magazines and frontier posts, in a general system of militia, in
foreseeing attention to the navy, to ensure every kind of safety. May
this immense temple of freedom ever stand a lesson to oppressors, an
example to the oppressed, a sanctuary for the rights of mankind! And may
these happy United States attain that complete splendor and prosperity,
which will illustrate the blessings of their government, and for ages to
come, rejoice the departed souls of its founders.

"However unwilling to trespass on your time, I must yet present you with
my grateful thanks for the late favours of Congress; and never can they
oblige me so much, as when they put it in my power, in every part of
the world, and to the latest day of my life, to gratify the attachment,
which will ever rank me among the most zealous and respectful servants
of the United States."

On the return of the Marquis de Lafayette to his native country in
1785, he spent some time in the bosom of his amiable family. With an
affectionate wife, of cultivated mind and accomplished manners, with
a circle of literary friends, and enjoying a high reputation for his
heroic services in America, he must have possessed all the ingredients
of human happiness. He received the smiles of the King and Court; was
caressed by the gay and chivalrous; and had the esteem and friendship
of the first literary characters in France. He was fond of agricultural
pursuits; and as his estates were extensive, he devoted a considerable
portion of his time to the cultivation and improvement of his lands.
During this time his hospitable attentions were shown to American
travelers, who were always sure of his friendly reception.

The legislature of Virginia, in 1786, conferred upon Lafayette, an
honorable tribute of regard, in recollection of his very important
services in defence of American Independence; and particularly of
his brave and successful efforts during the campaign of 1781, against
Cornwallis. This was a resolution to place his bust in their capitol.
Mr. Jefferson, then in France, was authorized to have the like work of
honor fixed in Paris, with consent of the municipal authority of
that city and accordingly, another bust of Lafayette; was placed,
by approbation of the King and of the Provot of Paris, in one of the
galleries of the city hall.

In 1786, he traveled through various parts of Germany, and visited the
courts of Vienna and Berlin. He became acquainted with Frederick II.
the greatest royal tactician of Europe; and probably availed of the
opportunity of attending his reviews, to increase his knowledge of
military discipline. Soon after his return to France, we find him
uniting his influence and efforts with the celebrated philosopher,
Malesherbes, who was zealously engaged in favour of the French
protestants. At this time, also, he joined a society in Paris, whose
object was the gradual emancipation of the unfortunate Africans: so
generous and active are the principles of liberty, that they never cease
to urge those, who yield to their influence, to deeds of benevolence and
humanity. In 1787, he was chosen a deputy to the assembly of the States
General, by the nobility of Auvergne, his native province; and at this
time he shared largely in the popular favour. But, although subsequently
found among the most zealous for a new constitution, by which the
power of the monarch was greatly curtailed, he now voted with the
other members of the order of nobles, and contended for their distinct

At this meeting of the States General, however, he was active in
procuring a favorable decree for the protestants, and was the first
to raise his voice for the suppression of "_lettres de cachet_." This
convocation of the States General, composed of separate chambers or
orders, had not been long in session, when great difficulties arose in
consequence of various plans, and the conflicting opinions of different
factions, (for factions were now beginning to appear;) and it was
proposed to call a "National Assembly." It does not appear, that this
was a favorite measure of Lafayette; though, from his avowed sentiments
respecting the equal rights of man, it cannot be doubted, that he
approved of the plan. For in 1789, he became a member of this celebrated
assembly, whose acts not only laid the foundation, for a radical change
in the government of France, but tended directly to destroy the whole
power of the monarch. Even here, indeed, he appeared as the friend and
advocate of Louis; and however ardent he was for an amelioration of the
condition of the people, by rendering the civil government more mild,
than heretofore, he was sincere and active in providing for the personal
safety of his Prince, and for the honor of his crown, conformably to his
views of political liberty.

He had, in truth, a most difficult part to act. He was ardently attached
to the cause of freedom, and wished the people should have the public
enjoyment of their just and national principles. And he was equally
desirous, that his royal master should still retain such a portion of
authority, as would be requisite to the dignity of the first magistrate
of a great nation.--But the accomplishment of such generous sentiments
was utterly impossible. Neither Louis, nor his courtiers could consent
to the limitations of the royal authority, proposed by the reformers,
and which were necessary to a just exercise of power in the people,
whose representatives should share in the administration of the
government. And many of the leaders in the revolution, even in its
incipient stage, on the other hand, had such ambitious views, or
visionary projects, that nothing would satisfy them, but an entire
relinquishment of power long claimed and exercised by the Kings of this
ancient nation.

In 1789, the new constitution was proposed by the National Assembly,
by which the distinct and independent power of the monarch was almost
annihilated; and the whole legislative authority was given to the
representatives of the people. That Lafayette, and some others who
advocated this instrument, were actuated by a disinterested love of the
people, and believed that sufficient power was reserved to the King to
secure respect for him, as the political head of the nation, cannot be
doubted. We have only to lament, that subsequent events afforded proofs
of the unfitness of the French people, at that period, for the blessings
of a more popular government. It must also be admitted, that many who
professed republicanism, and boasted of their regard to the people's
rights were unprincipled and ambitious men, whom power had intoxicated,
or who entertained views of government utterly inconsistent with the
just authority of the laws, and the safety of individuals. Lafayette
offered the declaration of the rights of man, at this period, for
the sanction of the assembly: And though he was accused by the
anti-revolutionists, as the author of all the excesses and cruelties
which followed, for this proposition, it may justly be said in his
behalf, that it contained no other axioms, than are admitted, by all
impartial writers, as essential in free governments. The King and his
courtiers condemned them; and jacobins and demagogues afterwards abused
them, in their wild notions of republicanism, or their selfish projects
of personal aggrandizement.

Lafayette was charged with indiscretion and want of judgment, for the
active and zealous part which he took in the revolution, not only
by bigoted monarchists, but by some who were friendly to republican
institutions. He is said to have declared, "that when oppression
and tyranny were at their height, insurrection became a duty." This
declaration, however, when candidly considered, implies no more, than
was frequently expressed by the patriots of America, when opposing the
arbitrary power of the British ministry, and advocating independence
as the only remedy. The ardour and enthusiasm of Lafayette, probably,
betrayed him into some practical errors, and led him to utter
expressions, which were capable of being pressed into the service of
jacobins and anarchists. We only contend, that he had no selfish views
to accomplish--and that he was really friendly to the welfare and honor
of his Prince, as well as to the liberty and happiness of the French

This is fully established by the fact, that, at this period and
afterwards, when jacobin clubs were formed and acted as dictators to
the National Assembly, he became obnoxious to them, for his firmness in
adhering to constitutional principles; and, though generally censured
by the royalists as an advocate for liberty and reform, was hated and
opposed by the factions, with the pretence of his being still attached
to the ancient regime. He retained his hold on the affections of the
people for some time, and enjoyed also, more of the confidence and
regard of the King, then any other who had favored the revolution. The
court found him, at least, candid and sincere; and he often exposed
himself to imminent danger in their defence. As proof of the former, he
was chosen Vice President of the national assembly, in the absence
of the aged President, July 1789; and appointed to the command of the
citizens of Paris, to quell the riots, and to restore tranquility to
the city, when an alarming tumult existed, in consequence of the want of
bread among the lower classes. As evidence of the latter, the King often
consulted him in cases of difficulties and danger; and entrusted his
person and family to his custody, when threatened by a lawless mob,
though he well knew the sentiments of Lafayette, on the great question
of royal authority.

When he was appointed to the command of the Parisian militia,
(afterwards denominated the national guard,) which had been promptly
organized according to a plan of his suggesting, it was a time of
great confusion and tumult. He accepted the appointment from the most
patriotic motives. Drawing his sword before an immense concourse of
citizens then assembled, "Lafayette made a vow to sacrifice his life, if
necessary, to the preservation of that precious liberty which had been
entrusted to him." It was then too, at the moment of his "brightest
popularity," that he exhorted those who pressed around him, "to love
the friends of the people; but, at the same time, to maintain an entire
submission to the laws, and to cherish a zeal for liberty."

He manifested the highest respect for the civil power, even when he
commanded the national guard and Parisian militia, though with this
immense military force, and with his unbounded popularity, he might have
safely followed his own wishes. The Parisians were eager to march to
Versailles, where the King and court resided, to demand an immediate
supply of bread. The mob proceeded thither in great numbers, and still
greater tumult. He declined marching the military, until he had the
express consent and order of the National Assembly. And on his arrival,
he immediately joined with the king's body guard, in suppressing the
riotous proceedings of the promiscuous multitude, who had previously
reached the place, and were committing depredations even in the royal
palace. This was a scene of great confusion and alarm; and violence and
bloodshed ensued. The enemies of Lafayette pretended, that he might have
prevented the mischief, by timely and decisive measures. But impartial
witnesses testified, "that, from the first moment of the alarm, he
had even exceeded his usual activity." He appeared in every quarter.
"Gentlemen," said he to the Parisian soldiers, "I have pledged my word
and honor to the King, that nothing belonging to him shall receive
injury. If I break my word, I shall no longer be worthy of being your
commander." The people insisted, that the King should go to Paris; and
on consulting with the Marquis, who gave assurances of protection and
respect, he proceeded to the city, accompanied by his family, and was
received with great acclamations of _vive Le Roi_.

Lafayette still retained his great popularity and influence. The Court
party had perfect confidence in his integrity and honor, though they
did not approve of his revolutionary principles. And the friends of the
constitution found in him one of their most zealous and able supporters.
These, however, soon become divided into clubs and parties; some of whom
were aiming at more power for the representatives of the people, and for
divesting Louis of every thing but the name of King. To this description
of politicians, Lafayette, and others who constituted the majority of
the National Assembly at this time, were opposed. They considered the
King as still the fountain of all executive authority, and were
willing that he should also have a _veto_ upon their legislative
proceedings--His person, they declared, was inviolable, and his crown
hereditary. Put the more violent revolutionists, who soon became known
by the distinctive appellation of _Jacobins_, formed themselves into a
club; where extravagant measures were proposed and then presented to
the assembly; and frequently were adopted, through intrigue and threats,
when a majority of the members were dissatisfied with them.

Attached to the constitution, a friend to justice and order, and an
advocate for the dignity and authority of the monarch, as limited and
defined by the constitution, Lafayette was among the most open and
decided in counteracting the views of the Duc de Orleans, Mirabeau,
Petion, Brissot, Robespeirre, and others of the jacobin faction, who
aimed at further changes to fulfill their own selfish and ambitious
designs. Orleans was an unprincipled and dangerous nobleman; of royal
blood and cousin to Louis: But his object was to bring about an entire
revolution, and place himself on the throne of France. He, therefore,
hated and feared Lafayette; who, he knew, was too honest to further
his plans, and too powerful to allow him to succeed: Orleans became
obnoxious and was persuaded to leave the kingdom. But he soon returned;
and promoted or approved the shocking excesses which were afterwards

During the years 1790 and 1791 great agitations existed in Paris, on
various occasions, through the changing opinions of political leaders,
and the collisions of individuals, who were rivals for power. The grand
confederation took place in July 1790, when the constitution received
the sanction of all classes; and when Lafayette, at the head of the
national guards, attracted as much notice and possessed as great
influence as the king himself. His popularity seemed unbounded; nor did
he commit any act of cruelty or injustice to injure his high reputation.
He could not, in all instances, command the military or restrain the
mob; but he had the merit of using his greatest efforts to preserve
order, and to maintain the authority of the laws. When the King proposed
to visit St. Cloud, he was opposed by the populace and the Jacobin
clubs, under the pretence that he intended to leave the kingdom.
Lafayette attempted to disperse them and to remove all obstructions to
the intended visit of Louis. The troops were disobedient to his
orders, and refused to favor the King's journey. Mortified by their
insubordination, Lafayette resigned his command, but afterwards resumed
it, through the solicitations of the National Assembly, and of the
guards themselves, who regretted their disobedience of his orders.

On the attempt of the King, soon after, to depart from France, who had
become disgusted with the conduct of the revolutionists, and was in fear
of his personal safety, Lafayette was charged with being privy to
the plan, and subjected himself to the popular displeasure on this
suspicion. That he promoted the plan, was never proved, and is not
probable. That he had intimations of it, is possible; but that he gave
strict orders to the officers about the king's palace to guard against
such an event is most certain. He discharged his duty as a public agent;
and it is not improbable he might have supposed the king in immediate
danger, and that by a temporary absence from the capital, the ferment
would subside, and he might return in safety. No one, for a moment,
believed that he wished, with the emigrants and other enemies of the
revolution, to have Louis surrender himself to the hostile powers of the
coalition, for the purpose of bringing a foreign army to enslave France.
He was, indeed, anxious for the safety of his Prince; but he would never
have compromitted the liberties of his country, even for such an object.

From this period, the Jacobin clubs became more popular, and had the
chief direction of all political affairs. In their desire to lesson
the authority of the King, and to secure power, they hesitated at no
measures, however unjust; and the new constitution, even which they
had sworn to support, was grossly violated in the prosecution of their
selfish views. The influence of Lafayette was rapidly undermined by
these artful demagogues. He was sincerely attached to the constitution;
and was desirous of maintaining inviolate; the power of the monarch
which it guaranteed. He was the friend to law, and opposed all his
influence to riots and excesses. He became an object of dread to the
Jacobins, and they resolved to destroy him. But for a long time, the
majority of the National Assembly supported him. In attempting to
suppress a dangerous riot, by which many of the citizens were alarmed
and threatened, when he commanded the military in 1791, he was shot
at by one of the mob. The man was taken, and he forgave him--But the
National Assembly decreed the death of the culprit, who had attempted
the life of "the hero of the day." And the municipality of Paris, also
had a gold medal struck off, in honor of Lafayette, and presented him
with a bust of Washington in approbation of his conduct.

He was repeatedly denounced by individuals of the violent party, before
they succeeded in rendering him obnoxious to popular displeasure. And
this was finally effected, through misrepresentations and false reports.

Letter of Lafayette, Feb. 1791, to M. de Bonille, one of the court, but
not then at Paris.

"Paris is divided by factions, and the kingdom oppressed by anarchy.
The violent aristocrats dream of a counter revolution--the clergy concur
with them. The impartial monarchists are looking for a part to play,
without the means of doing it. Among the friends of the revolution, you
have many honest men, some lose themselves in speculations--and some
Jacobins, whose leaders spread trouble everywhere. As to the ministers,
they are merged in the revolution; and have no rule, but to yield to
the popular voice. The Queen is resigned to the revolution,--hoping that
opinions will soon change. The King wishes the happiness of the people,
and the general tranquility, to begin his own. As to myself, I am
attacked by all the party leaders, who consider me an obstacle not to be
overcome or intimidated. Add to this, the hatred of the aristocrats
and of the Orleans party; of the Lameths, with whom I was formerly
connected; of Mirabeau, who says I despise him; the money distributed,
the libels, the dissatisfaction I give those whom I prevent from
pillaging Paris-and you will have the sum of all which is going on
against me. But except a few ardent heads who are mislead, the well
meaning, from the highest to the lowest, are for me.

"I stand well with the National Assembly, except a few disreputable
Jacobins. I have little connexion with the court, for I can derive no
use from it to my country; and yet I am aware advantage is taken of my
neglect to intrigue. Some friends are at work with me, upon a plan of
conduct, by which the revolution will be consolidated, the good basis
of the constitution established, and public order restored. The chief
talents of the assembly, Mirabeau himself, cannot but support this plan.
Here then are courts established, and juries are decreed; this is the
moment to let our voice be heard with force, propriety and utility.

"You have accepted the coalition which my heart and my patriotism have
offered you. You lately said to one of my friends, "If Lafayette and I
understand each other well, we shall establish a constitution."

"My first wish is to finish the revolution speedily and well, to secure
the constitution on solid foundations, to employ for that purpose, all
I possess of national confidense and personal means; and then to be
nothing more in France, than an active citizen. Adieu,


But after he was persecuted by the Petions and Robespieres of the day,
because of his moderation, loyalty and attachment to the constitution,
he was held in high esteem by the friends of rational freedom, and
still enjoyed the confidence both of Louis and of the National Assembly.
Toward the close of the year 1791, by request of the King, he was
appointed to command the army of the centre, to oppose the foreign
troops then invading France. When he accepted the appointment, he
assured the National Assembly of his "determination to support the
constitution." The President replied, "the French nation, who have sworn
to conquer and to live free, will always, with confidence, present to
their foes and to tyrants, the constitution and Lafayette."

As commander in chief of that department of the French army entreated to
him, he was assiduous to maintain proper discipline and order; a matter
of great difficulty, as a revolutionary spirit pervaded all ranks, and
the soldiers were disposed to insubordination, especially under a leader
not belonging to the popular party. He had several engagements with the
enemy, in which he was successful. But his operations and those of
the other generals, who commanded in other departments of the northern
armies of France, were greatly impeded by the injudicious and variable
plans of the assembly, then torn by factions, and disgraced by low
intrigues. The evil spirit extended to the military; and each faction
had its partizans among the soldiers. Lafayette saw and lamented this
disastrous state of things; and he dared to oppose his single efforts
to avert the impending ruin. It was at this time, that he wrote his
celebrated letter to the National Assembly, of June 16, 1792, in which
he exposed the violence and the cabals of the Jacobins, and conjured
the moderates to cling to the constitution, as the only means of safety.
This letter is so important, in developing the views and sentiments of
Lafayette, and in detecting the causes of the excesses, which eventually
disgraced the French revolution of that period, that it will be proper
to record it in this connexion. He wrote to the King at the same time,
expressing great anxiety for his safety, and declaring his wish to
maintain the constitution.

Lafayette's letter to the Legislative body.

"_At the entrenched camp of Maubeuge_, 16_th June_, 1792.


"At the moment, perhaps too long deferred, in which I am about to call
your attention to the highest public interests, and to point out among
our dangers, the _conduct of a ministry_, whom I have for a long time
censured in my correspondence, I learn that, unmasked in consequence of
its own divisions, it has fallen a sacrifice to its own intrigues.
[This was the Brissotin ministry.] It is not enough however, that
_this branch_ of the government has been delivered from its disastrous
influence. The public welfare is in peril--The fate of France depends
principally on its representatives--The nation expects from them its
security. But in giving them a _constitution_, France has prescribed to
them the _only_ means by which she can be saved.

"Persuaded, gentlemen, that as the rights of man are the law of
every constituent assembly, a constitution ought to be the law of the
legislators, which that constitution shall have established. It is to
you that I ought to denounce the too powerful efforts which are making,
to induce you to depart from that course which you have promised to

"_Nothing shall deter me from the exercise of this right of a free man,
to fulfill this duty of a citizen_; neither the momentary errors of
opinion; for what are opinions when they depart from principles: nor
my respect for the _representatives_ of the people; for I respect still
more the _people_, whose sovereign will it is to have a constitution:
nor the benevolence and kindness which you have constantly evinced for
myself; for I would _preserve_ that as I _obtained_ it, by an inflexible
love of liberty.

"Your situation is difficult--France is menaced from without, and
agitated within. Whilst foreign powers announce the intolerable
(inadmissible) project of attacking our national sovereignty, and avow
it as a principle! at the same time the enemies of France, its interior
enemies, intoxicated with fanaticism and pride, entertain chimerical
hopes, and annoy us with their insolent malevolence. You ought,
gentlemen, to repress them; and you will have the power so to do, _only
when_ you shall become _constitutional_ and _just_. You wish it, _no
doubt_; but cast your eyes upon all that passes within your own body and
around you. Can you dissemble even to yourselves, that a _faction_, (and
to avoid all vague denunciations) the _jacobin faction_, have caused all
these disorders? It _is that which I boldly accuse_--organized like
a separate empire in the metropolis, and in its affiliated societies,
blindly directed by some ambitious leaders, this sect forms a
_corporation entirely distinct_ in the midst of the French people,
whose powers it usurps, by tyrannizing over its representatives and
constituted authorities.

"It is in that body, in its public meaning, the _love_ of the laws is
denounced as aristocracy, and their _breach_ as patriotism. _There_ the
assassins of Dessilles receive their triumphs, the crimes of Jourdan
find panegyrists. There, the recital of the massacre which has stained
the city of Metz, has also been received with _infernal_ acclamations!
Have they become sacred because the emperor Leopold has pronounced their
name? And because it is our highest duty to combat the _foreigners_,
who mingle in our domestic quarrels, are we at liberty to refrain from
_delivering_ our country from domestic tyranny?

"Of what importance is it, as to the fulfillment of this duty, that
strangers have their projects; and their connivance and concert with our
internal foes? It is I, who denounce to you this sect [the jacobins]; I,
who, without speaking of my past life, _can reply_ to those who
suspect my motives--"Approach, in this moment of awful crisis, when
the character of each man must be known, and see which of us, more
inflexible in his principles, more obstinate in his resistance, will
more courageously overcome, those obstacles, and those dangers, which
traitors to their country conceal, and which true citizens know how to
appreciate, and to brave for her."

"And how could I delay longer to fulfill this duty, whilst every
successive day weakens still more the constituted authorities,
substitutes the spirit of party for the will of the people; whilst
the audacity of the agitators, [the disorganizers] imposes silence
on peaceable citizens, throws into retirement useful men, and whilst
_devotion_ to the _sect_ or _party_ stands in the place of _public_ and
_private_ virtues, which, in a free country, ought to be the austere
[severe, or strict] and only means of attaining to public office.

"It is, after having opposed to all the obstacles, and to all the
snares, which were laid for me, the courageous and persevering
patriotism of an army, sacrificed perhaps to conspiracies against its
commander, (Lafayette was the commander) that I now oppose to this
faction the _correspondence_ of a _ministry, worthy_ representative of
its _club_--a correspondence, the calculations of which are false, its
promises vain and illusory--its information deceitful or frivolous--its
advice perfidious or contradictory--correspondence, in which _after_
pressing me to advance without precaution--to attack _without
means_--they finally began to tell me that _resistance_ was
_impossible_, when I indignantly repelled the cowardly and base
assertion. What a remarkable conformity of language, gentlemen, between
the factions whom the _aristocracy_ avow, and those who _usurp_ the
_name_ of _patriots_! They both wish to overthrow our laws, rejoice in
our disorders, array themselves against the constituted authorities,
detest the national guards (the militia)--preach insubordination to the
army--sow, at one moment, distrust, at another, discouragement.

"As to myself, gentlemen, _who embraced the American cause at the
moment when its ambassadors declared to me that it was perilous or
desperate_--who from that moment have devoted my life to a persevering
defence of liberty and of the sovereignty of the people--who, on the
14th of July, 1789 after the taking of the Bastille, in presenting to
my country a declaration of rights dared to say "that in order that a
nation should be free, it is only necessary that it should _will_ so
to be." I come, this day, full of confidence in the justice of our
cause--of contempt, for the cowards who desert it, and of indignation
against the traitors who would sully or stain it with crimes; I am
ready to declare that the French nation, if it is not the vilest in
the universe, can and ought to resist the conspiracy of kings who have
coalesced against it!

"It is not in the midst of my brave army that timid counsels should be
permitted.--Patriotism, discipline, patience, mutual confidence, all the
military and civil virtues I find here. Here the principles of liberty
and equality are cherished, the laws respected, property held sacred.
Here calumnies and factions are unknown. And when I reflect that France
has many millions who can become _such_ soldiers, I ask myself, to
what a degree of _debasement_ must such an immense people be reduced,
stronger in its natural resources than in its artificial defences,
opposing to a monstrous and discordant confederation, simple and
united counsels and combinations, that the cowardly, degrading idea
of sacrificing its soverignty, of permitting any discussion as to its
liberties, of committing to negotiation its rights, could be considered
among the _possibilities_ of a rapidly advancing futurity!

"But, in order that we, soldiers of liberty, should combat for her
with efficacy, or _die_ for her with any _fruit_ or advantage, it is
necessary that the number of the defenders of the country should be
promptly made in some degree proportionate to that of our opponents;
that the supplies of all descriptions should be increased so as to
facilitate our movements; that the comfort and conveniences of the
troops, their clothes and arms, their pay, the accommodations for the
sick, should no longer be subject to fatal delays, or to a miserable and
misplaced economy, which defeats its very end.

"It is _above all, necessary_ that the citizens rallied round their
constitution, should be assured that the rights which that constitution
guarantees shall be respected with a _religious_ fidelity; which will of
itself cause more despair to our enemies than any other measure.

"Do not repel this desire--this ardent wish. It is that of all the
sincere friends of your legitimate authority; assured that no _unjust_
consequence or effect can flow from a _pure_ principle--that no
tyrannical measure can save a cause, which owes its _force_, aye,
and its glory, to the sacred principles of liberty and equality. Let
criminal jurisprudence resume its _constitutional_ power. Let civil
equality--let religious freedom enjoy the application of their true
principles. In fine, let the reign of the _clubs_ be _annihilated_ by
you; let them give place to the laws--_their_ usurpations to the
firm and independent exercise of the powers of the constituted
authorities--their disorganizing maxims to the true principles of
liberty--their delirious fury to the calm and constant courage of a
nation which knows its rights, and is ready to defend them--in fine,
their sectarian combinations to the true interests of the country, of
the nation, which in a moment of danger ought to unite _all_, except
those, to whom its subjection and ruin are the objects of atrocious
pleasure and infamous speculation.


"_Camp of Maubeuge, June_, 16, 1792.

"SIRE--I have the honor to send your Majesty the copy of a letter to the
National Assembly, in which you will find expressed the sentiments
which have animated me all my life. The King knows with what ardour and
perseverance I have at all times been devoted to the cause of liberty
and to the principles of humanity, equality and justice. He knows,
that I have always been the adversary of _faction_, the enemy of
licentiousness, and that no power which I thought illegal has ever
been acknowledged by me. He is acquainted with my devotion to his
constitutional authority, and with my attachment to his person. Such,
Sire, were the grounds of my letter to the National Assembly; such shall
be those of my conduct to the nation and your Majesty, amidst the storms
raised around to by hostile or by factious combinations.

"It does not belong to me, Sire, to give greater importance to my
opinions and actions, than what is due to the individual conduct of a
simple citizen. But the expression of my thoughts was always a right,
and on this occasion becomes a duty; and though I should have performed
it sooner, if, instead of being in a camp, I had remained in that
retirement from which I was forced by the dangers of my country: yet I
do not think that any public employment or private consideration exempts
me from exercising this duty of a citizen, this right of a freeman.

"Persist, Sire, supported by the authority delegated to you by the
national will, in the noble resolution of defending constitutional
principles against all their enemies. Let this resolution, maintained by
all the actions of your private life, as well as by a firm and complete
exercise of the royal power; become the pledge of the harmony, which,
particularly, at this critical juncture, cannot fail to be established
between the _elected_ representatives of the people and their
_hereditary_ representative. It is in this resolution, Sire, that glory
and safety will be found for the country and for yourself. With this
you will find the friends of liberty, all _good_ Frenchmen ranged
around your throne, to defend it against the plots of rebels and the
enterprizes of the factious; and I, Sire, who in their honorable hatred
have found the reward of my persevering opposition; I will always
deserve it, by my zeal in the cause to which my whole life has been
devoted, and by my fidelity to the oath I have taken to the nation, to
the law and to the King. Such, Sire, are the unalterable sentiments I
present to your Majesty, with my respect.


Letter of Lafayette on leaving Paris to join his army, after having
appeared at the bar of the National Assembly, and protested against
their proceedings, the last of June.

"Gentlemen--In returning to the post where brave soldiers are ready to
die for the constitution, but ought not and will not lavish their blood
except for that, I go with great and deep regret in not being able to
inform the army, that the National Assembly have yet deigned to come to
any determination on my petition. [Alluding to the request in his letter
to the assembly a short time before, to suppress the Jacobin clubs.]
The voice of all the good citizens of the kingdom, which some factious
clamours strive to stifle, daily call to the elected representatives of
the people, that while there exists near them a sect who fetter all the
authorities, and menace their independence; and who, after provoking
war, are endeavoring, by changing the nature of our cause, to make
it impossible to defend it; that while there is cause to blush at the
impunity of an act of treason against the nation, which has raised
just and great alarms in the minds of all the French, and universal
indignation; our liberty, laws and honor are in danger. Truths like
these, free and generous souls are not afraid of speaking. Hostile to
the factious of every kind, indignant at cowards that can sink so low
as to look for foreign interposition, and impressed with the principle,
which I glory in being the first to declare to France, _that all illegal
power is oppression, against which resistance becomes a duty_, we are
anxious to make known our fears to the legislative body. We hope that
the prudence of the representatives of the people will relieve our
minds of them. As for me, gentlemen, who will never alter my principles,
sentiments or language, I thought that the National Assembly,
considering the urgency and danger of circumstances, would permit me to
add my regrets and wishes to my profound respect."

Noble and generous sentiments, worthy of the disciple of our great
Washington--'worthy of the philanthropic hero and firm friend of civil
liberty'--worthy of the adopted citizen of free and independent America!
Such were the opinions and sentiments of Washington and his friends,
in 1794, when our republic was assailed by foreign emissaries, and
convulsed by secret associations at home, who through ignorance or
design were advocates for measures which would have thrown our country
into a state of anarchy and misrule.

There was still a small majority in the National Assembly who were the
friends of constitutional liberty, and advocates of Lafayette. But
the Jacobins were every day increasing; and they felt confident of
the popular favor. Enraged at his bold and independent conduct, and
suspecting, perhaps that he was a secret supporter of all the wishes
of the King, they denounced Lafayette as a traitor and an enemy to
the republic. In this state of extreme ferment, while he was openly
threatened and every attempt was making to render him odious to the
populace, he had the courage (some might say, the rashness) to proceed
to Paris, and present himself to the bar of the National Assembly. Few
men, in such a situation, would have thus hazarded their lives; but he
was strong in conscious rectitude. He appeared before his enemies with
dignity and firmness. "He entreated the assembly to come forward
and save the country from ruin, by dissolving the factious clubs and
inflicting exemplary punishment on the authors of the late disgraceful
riots." His friends were numerous in the Assembly, and probably the
greater number condemned the violent transactions, against which he
raised his voice in the legislative hall of the nation. The national
guards in Paris, also, manifested their attachment to Lafayette. They
assembled before the hotel in which he lodged; and planting a tree of
liberty before the door, which they decorated with ensigns and ribbons,
they greeted him with enthusiastic applause. But he was destined to
suffer a reverse of fortune, and to be the subject of the most unjust
and cruel persecution. The violent party prevailed: Lafayette and
constitutional liberty, were proscribed; and the spirit of anarchy and
misrule dictated the violent proceedings which deluged France in blood.

Lafayette, finding all his attempts to restore order and to maintain the
constitution in vain, speedily returned to the army on the frontiers.
This must have been a moment of great anxiety and suspense. Some suppose
that, attached as most of the military were to him and supported by his
friends of the moderate party, if he had marched his troops to Paris he
might have defended the King from indignity, and restored the reign of
law. But this is doubtful. The probability is, that with his love of
justice and his correct principles, he could not persuade himself "that
the end would justify the means;" and that he chose rather to submit
to a cruel destiny, than to violate the constitution he had sworn
to support, by resorting to physical force for the accomplishment of
honorable purposes, and to be the occasion even indirectly of increasing
the misery, in which his unhappy country was involved. He was, indeed,
accused by his enemies of a design to march to Paris with his troops and
to force the assembly into a compliance with his views. But this was a
most unfounded calumny. When the minister for the home department wrote
to him on the subject, in the name of the Assembly he replied--"If
I were questioned respecting my principles, I should say, that as
a constant proclaimer and defender of the rights of man, and the
sovereignty of the people, I have every where and always resisted
authorities which liberty disavowed and which the national will had not
delegated; and that I have every where and always obeyed those, of
which a free constitution had fixed the forms and the limits. But I am
questioned respecting a fact--Did I propose to Marshal Luckner to march
to Paris with our armies? To which I answer in four words--_It is not

Under the pretence that General Lafayette was meditating some plan
hostile to the cause of liberty, or designed to aid the King in
another attempt to escape from France, three commissioners were sent to
counteract his movements. But he was notified of their appointment, and
ordered their arrest before they reached his army. He knew they were
deputed by a faction, and hoped the assembly would return to more
moderate and just views. He addressed the following letter to the troops
under his command. "It is no longer time to conceal from you what is
going forward. The constitution you swore to maintain is no more;
a troop of factious men besieged the palace of the Tuilleries; the
national and Swiss guards made a brave resistance, but they were obliged
to surrender, and were inhumanly murdered. The King, Queen and all the
royal family escaped to the National Assembly; the factious ran thither,
holding a sword in one hand and fire in the other, and forced the
legislative body to supersede the King, which was done for the sake of
saving his life. Citizens, you are no longer represented; the National
Assembly are in a state of slavery; Petion reigns; the savage Danton and
his satellites are masters. Thus it is for you to determine whether you
will support the hereditary representative of the throne, or submit to
the disgrace of having a Petion for your king."

The appeal was in vain. Though a momentary respond was given by the
soldiers to the sentiments of their magnanimous commander, the baleful
influence of faction had corrupted many of them; and finding himself
robbed of the confidence of the army, as well as of the assembly, and
thus deprived of all hope of being useful to his country, he quitted
France, with an intention of retiring to America, where he had just
reason to expect a grateful reception.

Thus terminated the revolutionary career of Lafayette; through the whole
of which he appears to the impartial observer to have acted an honorable
and disinterested part. If he committed faults, they were those of
opinion or judgment; in sincerity and in zealous devotion to the liberty
of his country, he was exceeded by none. He may justly be considered
"an illustrious confessor of regulated liberty." His great object was to
reform existing abuses, to lay the foundation of constitutional freedom:
and with all his zeal for the recognition and the support of the rights
of man, he was desirous of preserving a just measure of authority in
the crowns and maintaining a sacred regard to law and justice. That he
failed in his wishes of introducing into France a more mild and popular
government, is matter of regret with the friends of civil liberty in
America. But he cannot justly be censured by them for the failure of his
object, or for the excesses which attended the revolution. The violent
proceedings of the jacobins, which excited so much horror among the
friends of regulated liberty in other countries, were opposed by him
personally with singular firmness and constancy. He distinguished, with
great accuracy, between the will of the people and the clamours of a
faction; and between the deliberate acts of the legislature sanctioned
by the constitution, and the hasty sentence or orders of a party,
adopted without the usual forms of law, so necessary to the order and
welfare of society.

Lafayette was arrested by an Austrian General, and delivered over to the
King of Prussia, who ordered him to be confined in a prison at Wesel
and at Magdeburg. Here he suffered some time, when he was removed to the
fortress of Olmutz. In this place he was kept under the most rigorous
confinement--enduring the privations and severity fit only to be
inflicted on the greatest criminals.

After a close confinement of several weeks in the common prison at
Wesel, he was removed to Magdeburg, and thence to Olmutz. At Magdeburg
he was confined for a year, in a dark and solitary dungeon; during which
he was offered his liberty, on condition of his joining with the enemies
of France. He spurned the proposal with indignation; and preferred
imprisonment and indignity, to treachery or hostility to his own
country. When first taken into custody, he was treated with insult
by the people of some places through which he was conducted; but
afterwards, a deep interest was manifested in his behalf, and the
warmest sympathy was expressed for his unfortunate condition.

The following is an extract from a letter of Lafayette in 1793, while
confined at Magdeburg.

"Since my captivity, but one political paper has reached me, and that is
yours for February. I appreciate, with deep sensibility, the justice you
render my sentiments, and the approbation you bestow upon my conduct.
Your commendations are greatly beyond my deserts; but your kind
exaggerations contain, at this moment, something so generous, I cannot
withhold from you my thanks, that you have enabled me to hear the voice
of liberty honoring my tomb. My situation is peculiarly strange. I have
sacrificed my republican partialities to the state and wishes of the
nation: I obeyed the sovereign power where I found it vested, in the
constitution. My popularity was as great as I could desire; for the
legislative body defended me better on the 8th of August, than it
defended itself on the 10th. But I became obnoxious to the _Jacobins_,
because I reprobated their aristocracy, which aimed at usurping all
legitimate authority.

"From Constantinople to Lisbon, from Kamschatka to Amsterdam, every
bastille is ready to receive me. The Huron and Iroquois forests are
peopled with my friends; the despots and the courts of Europe, they
are the only savages I fear. I am aware that the laws of England would
protect me, though the court of St. James is opposed to me: but I cannot
seek protection in a country at war with my own. _America_, the country
of my heart, would welcome me with joy. Yet my fears for the future
destiny of France, induce me to give the preference to Switzerland, at
least for the present."

After this, he was confined about four years in the prison of Olmutz,
when Henry Bollman, a young German physician, and Francis Huger, an
American, (son of Colonel Huger, of South Carolina, who had first
received Lafayette when he arrived in the United States, in 1777,) made
great personal sacrifices, and exposed themselves to imminent dangers to
effect his escape. General Washington also, then President of the United
States, repeatedly solicited his release, on the ground of his being an
American citizen, as he really was by a legal adoption. But his requests
were vain. It was not consistent with the policy of the "Legitimates" of
Europe, to show any favor to such a friend of liberty as Lafayette, or
to listen to the honorable application of the chief magistrate of the
American republic.

We have already seen frequent proofs of the peculiar regard which
Washington cherished for Lafayette. He did not forget him when immured
in the prison at Olmutz. Such was the state of political affairs in
Europe, such the suspicions both of the jacobins in France, and the
advocates for monarchy in the surrounding nations, that a formal and
public request for the release of Lafayette, would have been of no
avail. It would probably have added to the severity of his treatment
by his implacable enemies. The American ministers residing at foreign
courts were instructed, however, to suggest on proper occasions, the
wishes of the President of the United States, for his enlargement. A
confidential person was sent to Berlin to solicit his discharge. But
Lafayette had been placed in the custody of the Austrian cabinet, before
the messenger arrived. The American envoy at the court of St. James,
exerted himself in favour of the heroic friend of Washington, but
without effect. As the last resource, the President wrote directly to
the Emperor of Germany on the subject. Justice both to Washington and
Lafayette requires the recital of the letter.

"It will readily occur to your majesty, that occasions may sometimes
exist, on which official considerations would constrain the chief of a
nation to be silent and passive in relation even to objects which affect
his sensibility, and claim his interposition as a man. Finding myself
precisely in this situation at present, I take the liberty of writing
this private letter to your majesty, being persuaded that my motives
will also be my apology for it.

"In common with the people of this country, I retain a strong and
cordial sense of the services rendered to them by the Marquis de
Lafayette; and my friendship for him has been constant and sincere. It
is natural, therefore, that I should sympathize with him and his family
in their misfortunes; and endeavour to mitigate the calamities they
experience, among which his present confinement is not the least

"I forbear to enlarge on this delicate subject. Permit me only to submit
to your majesty's consideration, whether his long imprisonment and the
confiscation of his estate, and the indigence and dispersion of his
family, and the painful anxieties incident to all these circumstances,
do not form an assemblage of sufferings which recommend him to the
mediation of humanity? Allow me, Sir, on this occasion to be its organ;
and to entreat that he may be permitted to come to this country, on such
conditions as your majesty may think it expedient to prescribe.

"As it is a maxim with me not to ask what, under similar circumstances,
I would not grant, your majesty will do me the justice to believe that
this request appears to me, to correspond with those great principles of
magnanimity and wisdom, which form the basis of sound policy and durable
glory."--But his imperial majesty was either destitute of the _humanity_
and _magnanimity_, to which Washington appealed; or was prevented
granting the request, through some promises to an "_holy alliance_,"
which even then existed among the princes of Europe.

Several members of the British Parliament made an effort, at this time,
for the enlargement of Lafayette and his three friends from the dungeon
of Olmutz. General Fitzpatrick moved for an address to his majesty,
stating "that the detention of Lafayette and others by order of the King
of Prussia and Emperor of Austria, was dishonorable to the cause of the
allies, and praying him to interfere for their release." In support of
his motion, he remarked, that although Lafayette was imprisoned by the
allied powers on the continent, yet the government of Great Britain
would be implicated in the cruel act, unless it should attempt his
liberation, as it had now become a member of the coalition against the
anarchical conduct of the French. He contended that justice and humanity
required them to intercede in behalf of this oppressed and injured man.
The generous Briton insisted, that Lafayette, though a friend to civil
liberty, was a firm advocate for constitutional principles, and was
in favor of the power of the King as in a limited monarchy: and made a
powerful appeal to the generosity and honor of his countrymen, to unite
in soliciting for the freedom of Lafayette. Colonel Tarlton, then a
member of Parliament, who had been opposed to Lafayette in America, in
the campaign of 1781, supported the motion of his military friend; and
with great eloquence, urged the propriety and justice of his liberation.
Mr. Fox also spoke in favor of an address to the King, for this humane
purpose. But their arguments and their eloquence were vain. It did not
consist with the existing policy of the British cabinet, to listen to
the proposition. The motion was lost by a large majority.

Bollman proceeded to Olmutz, and thence to Vienna, where he was so
fortunate as to meet with young Huger; and they cordially united in the
humane and chivalrous project of rescuing the generous Lafayette, They
both repaired immediately to Olmutz, and there became acquainted with
two other gentlemen, who favoured their benevolent scheme. But the
difficulty of effecting it can be easily imagined. A physician of Olmutz
was engaged to make known the plan to Lafayette, when he visited him in
prison, then in reality, or apparently in a debilitated state of health.
He had, in fact, been attacked with fever at Magdeburg, which at one
time was feared would terminate his valuable life, and from the effects
of which he had not fully recovered. By him a note was communicated
to Lafayette, which he answered with his blood. In a short time, the
physician prevailed on the governor of the city to permit his prisoner
to take an airing, occasionally, in a coach, attended by a guard. It
was concerted, that in one of his short excursions with the governor, he
should leave the carriage under some pretence, when he was to be joined
by Bollman and Huger, and immediately conducted under cover of a dark
night, to the confines of Silesia, beyond the territory of the Emperor
of Austria. He alighted from the carriage, near a small wood, and his
generous friends, who were ready to protect him, immediately attempted
to convey him away on horseback; but the guard, which accompanied the
carriage, suspecting some design, pushed forward into the wood,
and attempted to seize the noble prisoner, and his brave friends. A
desperate struggle ensued, in which the Marquis was wounded; but they
succeeded in escaping from the guard. Huger was seen and followed
by some of the peasantry; and after a long pursuit was overtaken and
secured. The governor and his guard returned to Olmutz; alarm guns were
immediately fired, and the whole population for several miles was soon
engaged in search of Lafayette and Bollman. They were taken in the
course of the evening, at the distance of about ten miles from Olmutz,
and conveyed back to the prison, where a most rigorous confinement
awaited them. Lafayette was put in irons, and suffered the most
excruciating torture. He was in a feeble state, overcome by fatigue,
and suffering greatly from the bruises and wounds received in his late
attempt to escape. "His anxieties, his anguish (and despair we may
almost say,) at finding himself again in the power of his unrelenting
jailor, so affected his nerves, that his fever returned with increased
and alarming violence. In this state he was allowed nothing but a little
damp and mouldy straw; irons were put round his feet, and round his
waist was a chain, fastened to the wall, which barely permitted him to
turn from one side to the other. No light was admitted into his cell;
and he was refused even the smallest allowance of linen.

"The winter of 1794-95 was very severe, but his inhuman jailors did
not relax from the rigour of prescribed and systematic oppression. It
seemed, indeed as if their object was to put an end to their victim's
existence by this ingenious device of incessant cruelty. Worn down by
disease and the rigour of the season, his hair fell from his head, and
he was emaciated to the last degree. To these physical distresses were
soon super added those mental anxieties, which perhaps, were still more
difficult to endure. The only information he could obtain respecting the
fate of his wife and children, for whom he felt the greatest solicitude,
was, that they were confided in the prisons of Paris: and in reply to
his enquiries concerning his most generous friends, Bollman and Huger,
he was informed by his unfeeling tormentors that they were soon to
perish by the hands of the hangman."

Bollman and Huger were kept in close confinement in the prison at
Olmutz, for some time, for having attempted to rescue Lafayette from his
cruel imprisonment. The keepers of the prison were unfeeling men; and
instead of slowing any favour to their prisoners, who ought to have
received their admiration, subjected them to unnecessary severity. They
were subjected to strict examination, after a long confinement, and the
sentence of their judges was in favour of their liberation, on paying
a large amount to government. By the aid of some generous friends, they
were furnished with the requisite sums, and discharged from the prison.
But Lafayette was still detained in prison, and in the same suffering
and shameful condition as before mentioned. It was several months before
his irons and chains were removed; which was effected through the very
benevolent individuals, who had secretly favoured his recent attempt to
escape; but who, happily both for him and themselves, were not suspected
of any agency in the plot: these were an opulent Jewish merchant, and
the chief surgeon to the prisoners. They prevailed also with the civil
authority to grant permission to the Marquis to walk an hour each day,
in front of the prison, though in custody of a strong guard of soldiers,
and no one was allowed to speak to him.

Unutterably painful and distressing must have been the situation
of Madame Lafayette ever after the fatal day, when her beloved and
affectionate husband felt it his duty to depart from France, and leave
her and their three children unprotected, and subject to the insults
and severities of an enraged and lawless mob. She and her two daughters,
then about fifteen and twelve, were cast into prison in Paris. The
family estates were confiscated, and most of his particular friends
fell by the stroke of the guillotine. In this agonizing condition, she
maintained the most wonderful fortitude and patience; without uncommon
firmness and sincere trust in providence, she must have sunk under such
deep and complicated distress. While she was in prison, she was often
found in a retired spot, engaged in holy and humble supplication to
heaven. When she was released from the prison, after about twenty months
of degrading confinement, her constitution was greatly enfeebled, and
her friends and physician advised her to seek repose at some retired
place in the country. But she refused, and feeble and emaciated as she
was, she resolved to proceed immediately to Olmutz, and to bury herself
in prison with her husband, unless she could possibly procure his
liberation. With this purpose in view, she went first to Vienna, to
endeavour to concilitate the favor and influence of the Emperor. Through
the friendly interposition of two noble females, acquainted at court,
she was admitted to an audience with the Emperor.

He received her graciously, and professed a desire that her request
might be fulfilled; but gave no positive orders for the liberation
of Lafayette because his _political_ engagements with other courts
prevented it. He, however, consented that she might visit her husband.
She accordingly repaired to Olmutz, to minister, as an angel of light,
to his comfort, though not clothed with power to give him that liberty,
which they ardently hoped. She and her daughters shared with him the
confinement of a dreary prison, for nearly two years. It was not until
1797, that they were set at liberty: and this was immediately owing to
the influence of General Bonaparte, on his victories over the Austrians
in that year. Lafayette expressed his gratitude for this generous
interference; but he made no sacrifice of principle, and was never his
admirer or supporter.

While confined in the prison of Olmutz, with her husband, Madame
Lafayette, whose health was much impaired by her sorrows and suffering,
requested leave to visit Vienna for a week. She was informed her request
would be granted on condition, that her daughters should be kept in a
separate apartment from their father, and that she herself would never
again enter the prison. She declined the offer, with indignation. Her
letter on the subject, concludes thus-"Whatever may be the state of my
own health and the inconvenience attending the stay of my daughters in
this place we will most gratefully take advantage of the goodness his
imperial majesty has expressed towards us, by the _permission to share
in the miseries of this captivity_."

When the Emperor of Austria agreed to his liberation, he proposed
certain conditions, to which Lafayette refused his assent. One was that
he should immediately leave Europe and embark to America. "This", said
the noble-minded Marquis, "has often been my desire and intention: but
as my consent to this proposition, at the present moment, would be an
acknowledgment of his right to impose such a condition, I cannot comply
with the demand."--The other was, that as the principles which Lafayette
professed were supposed to be incompatible with the safety of the
Austrian government, the Emperor could not consent that he should again
enter his territory without a special permission. To this Lafayette
replied, "that there already existed antecedent obligations, of which
he could not divest himself; partly towards America, but chiefly towards
France; and that he could not engage to do any thing, which should
interfere with the rights of his country to his personal services. With
these exceptions, he assured the Emperor's ambassador, that it was
his firm resolution not to set foot again on any part of his Majesty's

When he was set free from the long and severe incarceration at Olmutz,
Lafayette proceeded to the neutral city of Hamburg, with his family;
where he received the kindest and most respectful attentions from
some American gentlemen, then in that place, and also from many of
the distinguished citizens, who cherished the highest regard for his
character, and his meritorious services in the cause of liberty. It
was at this time, that his son, George Washington Lafayette, joined the
family, on his return from the United States, where he had just then
passed several years. After a short residence in Hamburg, Lafayette
accepted the invitation of an Hanoverian nobleman, and passed some
time at his elegant chateau in Holstein, where his eldest daughter
was married to Latour Maubourg, a brother of one of the Marquis' staff
officers, who retired with him from France, August 1792; and had shared
with him the severities of the prison of Magdeburg and Olmutz. He then
resided some time in the family of a French emigrant, living in that
vicinity, and who was a distant relative of Madame Lafayette. In this
situation he studied the agriculture of Holstein; and gave particular
attention to the raising of merino sheep, an object in which he was also
engaged after his return to La Grange, his country seat near Paris.

In 1800 a new revolution took place in the French government. The
Directors were found to be incompetent to the support of order; cabals
and factions still existed, and confusion prevailed through the
nation. General Bonaparte, who had led the armies to victory in several
campaigns, was ambitious of the sole direction of public affairs. The
executive power, by the new constitution, was to be placed in three
Consuls, of whom Napoleon was elected chief. A Conservative Senate, so
called, was to constitute a part of the Legislature and to be joined
with the Consuls also in providing for the public welfare in cases of
particular emergency. By the constitutionalists and those opposed to the
violent factions, by which France had been long agitated and disgraced,
this change was considered as auspicious to the cause of rational
liberty. They hoped that a more stable government would be now formed,
and that their country would enjoy a season of repose. Lafayette seized
this favorable moment to return to France, after an absence of nearly
eight years. His patriotic feelings had not abated, though he had
suffered so long and so intensely from the hatred of those who directed
the destinies of his country. His love of liberty was not weakened,
though many of his countrymen, with its sacred name on their lips,
had committed excesses almost without a parallel in the most despotic
governments. The First Consul incited Lafayette to take a seat in the
Conservative Senate; but he declined; by which he gave new proofs of his
disinterested and sincere attachment to the constitutional liberty and
the rights of the people. After several conversations with Bonaparte,
he was satisfied of the ambitious views of this military adventurer.
He perceived that the constitution was to serve as an apology for
the exercise of unlimited power in the First Consul; and that
representatives and senators were to be the humble ministers of his
will. He saw that the constitution did not emanate from the will of
the people; and was not calculated to secure and promote their welfare.
Bonaparte also had discernment to learn, that Lafayette was too sincere
a friend to civil liberty and to the interests of the people, to support
his purposes, or to submit to his plans of personal aggrandizement.

We shall have a more just estimation of the noble sentiments with which
Lafayette was animated, in declining the generous offers of the First
Consul, when it is considered, that, in addition to his self-banishment
to private life, he also refused an honorable salary of 7000 dollars,
when the estates which remained in his possession yielded only
2000 dollars. He had a grant of land from the American Congress, in
consideration of his important services in the revolution, estimated to
be worth 100,000 dollars. Before the revolution, his income was 50,000
dollars: but the most valuable of his patrimonial property, as well
as that which accrued to him in consequence of his marriage, had been
seized by the lawless robbers of the revolution.

It was in conformity to the principles, which he had long professed
and by which he was constantly guided, that he soon after opposed the
election of Bonaparte as Consul for life. He would have consented,
perhaps, to the claims of the aspiring Napoleon to be the First
Magistrate of France, under a constitution, which expressly defined
and restricted his power, and at the same time provided a sufficient
guaranty of the liberties of the people.

On this occasion he wrote thus to the First Consul--"When a man, who is
deeply impressed with a sense of the gratitude he owes you, and who is
too ardent a lover of glory to be indifferent to yours, connects his
suffrage with conditional restrictions, those restrictions not only
secure him from suspicion, but prove amply, that no one will more gladly
than himself behold in you the chief magistrate for life, of a free and
independent republic.

"The eighteenth Brumaire saved France from destruction and I felt myself
reassured and recalled by the liberal declarations to which you have
connected the sanction of your honor. In your consular authority there
was afterwards discerned that salutary dictatorial prerogative, which
under the auspices of a genius like yours, accomplished such glorious
purposes--yet less glorious, let me add, than the restoration of liberty
would prove.

"It is not possible, general, that you, the first among that order of
mankind, which surveys every age and every country, can desire that a
revolution, marked by an unexampled series of stupendous victories and
unheard of sufferings, shall give nothing to the world but a renovated
system of arbitrary government. The people of this country have been
acquainted with their rights too long, to forget them forever: but
perhaps they may recover and enjoy them better now than during the
period of revolutionary effervescence. And you, by the strength of your
character and the influence of public confidence, by the superiority
of your talents, your power, and your fortunes, in re-establishing the
liberties of France, can allay all agitations, calm all anxieties and
subdue all dangers.

"When I wish, then, to see the career of your glory crowned by the
honors of perpetual magistracy, I but act in correspondence with my
own private sentiments, and am influenced exclusively by patriotic
considerations. But all my political and moral obligations, the
principles which have governed every action of my life, call on me to
pause before I bestow on you my suffrage, until I feel assured that your
authority shall be erected on a basis worthy of the nation and yourself.

"I confidently trust, general, that you will recognize here, as you
have done on all other occasions, a steady continuance of my political
opinions, combined with the sincerest prayers for your welfare, and the
deepest sense of all my obligations towards you."

Here closed all connexion between Lafayette and Bonaparte. The First
Consul not only avoided all intercourse with one so sincerely devoted
to the cause of liberty; but he treated him with that studied neglect,
which was little short of persecution. There was indeed nothing
congenial either in the character or principles of these two
distinguished men. The one was aiming at power by any means, without
regard to the rights or happiness of his fellow men; the other was
anxious for the permanent establishment of a mild government in his
native country, for the true welfare and liberty of the people; and
was willing to make every sacrifice for the attainment of such great

The unfriendly feelings of Bonaparte were extended even to the younger
Lafayette. This patriotic youth, with much of the public spirit of
his noble father, engaged in the service of his country soon after his
return from America. He was an aid of the brave Grouchy, general of
division; an active, intelligent, meritorious officer, and distinguished
on various occasions. But he received neither advancement nor
distinction from the Emperor. It was, on the contrary, the wish of
Napoleon, that young Lafayette would send in his resignation, and retire
from the army. When this was made known to him, he observed, "that as
long as his country was involved in war, he should not disgrace himself
by a resignation; and that he should be ashamed to think of it, while
his companions were daily exposing themselves to danger. It was true, he
was an American citizen, but he was first of all a Frenchman and a loyal

G. W. Lafayette was much esteemed by the officers who knew him, of all
ranks; and they frequently solicited his promotion; but the Emperor
disregarded alike the merits of the youthful hero and the entreaties
of his military friends. He continued in the army until the treaty of

To a man of his great sensibility and warmth of affection, the severest
affliction which Lafayette has been called to endure, great and various
as have been his sufferings, now awaited him. His amiable, his attached
and devoted wife was torn from him, in his retreat, within a few years
after his return to France; when he more than ever, perhaps, needed
her company and solace, to fortify his mind under the multiplied
disappointments from the world.

She had never enjoyed perfect health after her imprisonment at
Olmutz. But possessed of uncommon fortitude and imbued with religious
sentiments, she was still instrumental in promoting the happiness of
her husband and family. Her patience, her equanimity, her sweetness of
temper never forsook her. But her constitution was broken, and a sudden
paralysis deprived her of her physical strength and almost of speech.
At the urgent request of her husband, though with reluctance, she was
conveyed to Paris for medical assistance; but it proved in vain. She
died in December 1807.

While Madame de Lafayette was in the prison in Paris, though treated
with the greatest severity by Robespierre and his party, she had the
consolation of sharing in the sympathetic kindness and assistance of
many individuals, who were willing to expose themselves to the hatred
of her cruel persecutors for her relief. A gentleman from Boston,
Joseph Russel, Esq. then a resident in Paris, made great efforts for her
liberation; although by this generous interference he hazarded his
own life. It was through his friendly assistance, that her son G. W.
Lafayette, then about fourteen years of age, was conveyed to the United
States, where he remained till the discharge of his parents from the
dungeons of Olmutz.

About this period, and soon after the death of his amiable wife, General
Lafayette received a severe fracture in one of his legs, by a fall,
which occasioned his confinement for nearly twelve months, and was the
cause of his present lameness. He had been transacting business with the
minister of the marine; and in going from the office to his carriage, a
distance of two hundred paces, late in the evening, after a heavy rain
and sleet, which had rendered it dangerous walking, he fell suddenly and
broke a bone.

For six or seven years, till 1814, when Louis XVIII. returned to France
to mount the throne of the Bourbons, Lafayette resided at his chateau
of La Grange, an inactive spectator of the political changes which
took place. No doubt he had a sufficient apology for this inaction and
voluntary retreat from public affairs. He was too honest and too candid,
too much an enemy to the anarchy of the jacobin factions, and to the
despotism of the Emperor, to support either, or to be received into
their confidence. He would probably have been satisfied with the
restoration of a Bourbon to the throne, if the throne could be founded
in a constitution, admitting the representatives of the people to a
share in legislation, and defining the extent and the measure of
the executive authority. He was animated by the same principles and
sentiments which governed him in the part he acted in 1789 and 1792: and
although he might acquiesce in a different government, either under
the First Consul, or under Louis XVIII. he could not, consistently,
and therefore he chose not to forward their views by his own personal
influence and support. He was still calumniated by some agents of the
Bourbons, yet he declared, on the return of Bonaparte from Elba, to gain
the throne of France, "that in all measures, which should promote or be
consistent with the liberties of the people, he would aid the cause
of the legitimate heir of the crown." The views of Louis' friends and
allies were too arbitrary to lead them to expect his approbation and

Louis XVIII. had not been long in France, before great discontent was
manifested among the citizens at the prospect of his being placed on the
throne of his brother. Napoleon and his friends took advantage of this
state of things: he left his retreat in the Island of Elba, and returned
to Paris. Louis was obliged to retire. Bonaparte, through his brother
Joseph, the ex-king of Spain, solicited of Lafayette to accept of a
peerage. But he promptly declined; but observed, "that if there should
be a convocation of a chamber of representatives," which he strenuously
urged, "he would consent to take a part in public affairs, should he
be elected." His independence and his want of faith in Napoleon, were
preserved, notwithstanding the urgent advances of the latter; and he
resolutely refused to go near him till after his final abdication.
Yet even at this time, Lafayette thought he might rely on "his cordial
opposition to all foreign invasion and influence, and to any family or
party which should avail itself of such assistance in order to attack
the independence and the liberties of France." Much as he distrusted the
views of Bonaparte, and desirous as he was of some explicit guaranty,
from him and his supporters, for the liberty of the French people, he
would not unite with the Bourbons, who were resolved to place Louis
XVIII. firmly on the throne of his ancestors, by any means in their
power, and who had collected an army of one million two hundred thousand
foreigners to accomplish their object, at the risque of a civil war,
and a general slaughter, similar to that with which the unprincipled,
revolutionary Jacobins had before afflicted the nation.

Lafayette was now elected a member of the chamber of deputies from his
own department, though he had protested against the articles of the
constitution of the empire, and of the additional act which conspired
against the _sovereignty_ of the people, and the rights of the citizens.
This was a strong proof of the sense the people had of his integrity
and his patriotism. After the battle of Waterloo, Napoleon returned to
Paris, in consternation, and undecided as to the course he would pursue
on this signal reverse of fortune. Some of his friends advised him again
to abdicate the office of Emperor, which he held by so precarious a
tenure; others suggested decisive and bold measures, with a view to
fortify himself in power, even in apposition to the will and wishes of
the deputies. He attempted to prorogue the chamber of representatives,
and have himself proclaimed perpetual dictator. Lafayette was then
present in the chamber; and with his usual independence and energy, made
the following observations.

"When, for the first time for many years, I raise my voice; which the
old friends of liberty will recognise again, I feel constrained to
address you, gentlemen, on the imminent danger of the country, which you
alone are able to prevent.

"Disastrous reports have been circulated and are now unhappily
confirmed. Now is the time to rally round the old tri-coloured standard
of 1789, of liberty, of equality, and of public order. It is this alone
which we are bound to defend against foreign pretensions and domestic
factions. Allow a veteran in this holy cause, who has always been an
enemy to the baneful spirit of dissension, to submit the following
preliminary resolutions" of which I hope you will admit the necessity.

"_First_. The Chamber of Representatives declare that the independence
of the nation is endangered.

"_Second_. The Chamber declare themselves in continued session--That
every attempt to prorogue the Chamber shall be considered high
treason--That any one guilty of such an attempt shall be deemed a
traitor to his country, and be instantly proceeded against as such.

"_Third_. The army of the line and the national guards, who have fought
and are still fighting for the independence of France, deserve the
gratitude of their Country.

"_Fourth_. The minister of the interior is directed to assemble the
general staff, the commandants and majors of the legion of the national
guard of Paris, to consult on the means of supplying them with arms, and
to render complete this citizen-guard; whose zeal and patriotism having
been proved for twenty-six years, offer a sure guaranty of the
liberty, the property and the tranquility of the capital, and of the
inviolability of the representatives of the nation.

"_Fifth_. The ministers of war, of foreign relations, of the interior
and of the police, are invited to attend the assembly immediately."

When the Emperor was informed that Lafayette was in the tribune, and
engaged in the discussions on the proposition of constituting him
dictator for life, he expressed great alarm and anxiety. He knew the
sentiments of Lafayette too well, not to feel assured of his opposition
to such a measure. For this consistent and zealous advocate for the
rights of the people had always been hostile to a chief magistrate,
under any title, who should possess absolute power; and contended for
a constitution to limit and define the executive authority. It was then
that. Bonaparte exclaimed, "Lafayette in the tribune!" and his great
agitation betrayed the belief, that his power was at an end. In this
situation, his armies defeated, and the representatives of the people
opposed to his wishes of a _perpetual_ dictatorship, he gave formal
notice of his purpose to abdicate the imperial authority. Lafayette
was at the head of the deputation appointed by the chamber of
representatives, to wait on the Emperor, to accept and thank him for his
abdication, A few days before this, when the deputies were accused of
being capricious and ungrateful, by a friend of Napoleon, Lafayette
observed, in reply, "go tell him that we can trust him no longer; we
ourselves will undertake the salvation of our country."

Although he opposed the ambitious views of Bonaparte, and boldly and
decidedly remonstrated against his intention of again assuming absolute
power, yet he moved in the chamber of Representatives, at this time,
that the liberty and person of the late Emperor Napoleon should be
placed under the protection of the French nation; expecting, probably,
that the allied princes of Europe, already in the vicinity of Paris with
powerful armies, would take his life, or cause him to be imprisoned.

Lafayette was one of the Commissioners appointed by the Chamber of
Deputies to propose to the allied powers a suspension of hostilities.
His object was to provide for the liberty of the people and to exact a
promise of some limitations and restrictions to the royal authority.
But the friends and supporters of the Bourbon dynasty, the hereditary
princes of Europe, had a powerful army in the suburbs of Paris, and they
refused to make any terms with the most moderate and honorable advocates
of popular rights. Though one tyrant was overthrown; another was to be
_forced_ upon them: not precisely an usurper indeed; but who, without
a constitution for his guide, and surrounded by men of arbitrary
principles might be instrumental in their oppression and degradation.
When he returned to Paris, he found the invading armies in possession
of the city. Napoleon escaped, and _nominal_ tranquility was restored to
the capital of France. But it was a tranquility produced by a military
force; and not that which is the effect of a wise and energetic
government founded in the will of the people. The doors of the assembly
were closed against the representatives of the people, by the _gens
d'armes_, the agents who restored the Bourbon dynasty. Many of the
deputies then assembled at the house of Lafayette; at whose instance
they repaired to the President's to record their testimony to this
forced and unjust exclusion, and to sign the _proces verbal_.

As he alike disapproved of Louis or Napoleon assuming the power of King
or Emperor, without a bill of rights securing the privileges of the
people, and a constitution as the rule and measure of executive acts, it
was no longer in his power to render service to his country is a public
station: nor did the favorites of Louis XVIII. invite him to take part
in the administration of government, which they proposed to establish.
It may appear surprising, on the first view of the subject, that the
friends of a monarch of the reputed mild character of Louis, who must
wish the greatest happiness of his subjects, should refuse to such men
as Lafayette, all share in the government; and at the same time,
take into their employment and confidence, many of the creatures of
Bonaparte, who were destitute alike of principle and patriotism. But it
is often found to be the fact, that the sincere and honest, who will not
flatter, and do not approve all the projects of an ambitious aspirant,
or an arbitrary Prince, are less courted, than those who have no settled
principles, or one ever ready to support the successful candidate for

Except the short and occasional engagements in political concerns, just
above related, Lafayette, after his return to France in the year 1800,
generally remained at his estate, about thirty miles from Paris. But
though retired from the more active scenes of public life, he enjoyed
the friendship of several eminent characters in his own country; and was
visited by all distinguished Americans, and many British statesmen and
scholars, whose business or amusement led them to travel through France.
He was always particularly desirous to learn the affairs of America, his
adopted country; and was careful to procure all the publications from
the United States. Besides literary pursuits, he was occasionally
occupied in attending to the cultivation and improvement of his family
estate. Such has frequently been the employment and solace of eminent
men, when they have retired from high public stations, in which their
services and exactions have met the mistaken censure or the neglect of
the world. During several of the first years of this retirement, he was
blessed with the society of an amiable and affectionate wife. And after
her much lamented death, which has been before noticed, he still enjoyed
the pleasure of being surrounded by his children and grand children,
in whose education and improvement he always took a truly paternal

At the time the federal constitution was in discussion by conventions
in the several states, and when it first went into operation, Alexander
Hamilton, who was its zealous advocate, corresponded with Lafayette on
the subject. The letters have not been published; but it is probable
they would be highly interesting to the politician and statesman,
and serve fully to develop the views of both these eminent men on
the science of civil government. This was about the period of the
commencement of the French revolution. The particular extent of
the change in the monarchical government of France, contemplated by
Lafayette, may appear by this epistolary discussion. If not wholly
confidential, it may be expected, that the letters will be given to the
American public.

His second daughter, Virginia, married Monsieur de Lasteyrie, a young
gentleman of eminent literary attainments; and who distinguished
himself, also, as an officer in the French army, during the reign of
Napoleon; particularly in the campaign of Jena, Eylau, Friedland, &c.
But this brave and meritorious officer shared, with his brother-in-law,
G. W. Fayette, the constant neglect and hatred of Bonaparte. G. W.
Fayette was married to a daughter of Count de Tracy, one of the party of
moderates, or liberals, as often denominated, and sometime a member of
the conservative senate. The son and sons-in-law of General Lafayette,
reside at the same chateau with their father; which is sufficiently
spacious, not only for the respectable accommodation of the four united
families, the father, son and two sons-in-law; but for the reception and
occasional residence of family or other particular friends, who often
pass much time in this hospitable mansion. Monsieur de Maubourg, an old
and intimate friend of General Lafayette, with his lady, usually spend
the greater part of the year at the chateau of La Grange. The son, and
eldest daughter, who married Charles Latour Maubourg, have each several
children, who are peculiar objects of affection and interest with their
respected grandsire:

The following remarks of Madame de Stael, who personally knew much of
General Lafayette, [Footnote: She was also an intimate friend of Madame
de Lafayette. They were accused, in the days of suspicion and terror,
of being too much engaged in political affairs.] and who was well
acquainted with characters and events connected with the French
revolution, are deemed worthy of being presented to the reader of these
hasty memoirs.

"M. de Lafayette, having fought from his early youth for the cause of
America, had early become imbued with the principles of liberty, which
form the basis of that government. If he made mistakes with regard to
the French revolution, we are to ascribe them all to his admiration
of the American institutions, and of Washington, the hero citizen, who
guided the first steps of that nation in the career of Independence.
Lafayette, young, affluent, of noble family, and beloved at home,
relinquished all these advantages at the age of nineteen, to serve
beyond the ocean in the cause of that liberty, the love of which has
decided every action of his life. Had he had the happiness to be
a native of the United States, his conduct would have been that of
Washington: the same disinterestedness, the same enthusiasm, the same
perseverance in their opinions, distinguished each of these generous
friends of humanity. Had General Washington been, like the Marquis de
Lafayette, commander of the national guard of Paris, he also might have
found it impossible to control the course of circumstances; _he_ also
might have seen his efforts baffled by the difficulty of being at once
faithful to his engagements to the king, and of establishing at the same
time, the liberty of his country.

"M. de Lafayette, I must say, has a right to be considered a true
republican: none of the vanities of his rank, ever entered his head:
power, the effect of which is so great in France, had no ascendancy over
him: the desire of pleasing in a drawing room conversation, did not
with him influence a single phrase: he sacrificed all his fortune to his
opinions, with the most generous indifference. When in the prisons of
Olmutz, as when at the height of his influence, he was equally firm in
his attachment to his principles. His manner of seeing and acting,
is open and direct. Whoever has marked his conduct, may foretell with
certainty what he will do on any particular occasion. His political
feeling is that of a citizen of the United States; and even his person
is more English than French. The hatred, of which M. de Lafayette is the
object, has never embittered his temper; and his gentleness of soul is
complete: at the same time nothing has ever modified his opinions; and
his confidence in the triumph of liberty, is the same as that of a
pious man in a future life. These sentiments, so contrary to the selfish
calculations of most of the men who have acted a part in France, may
appear pitiable in the eyes of some persons--"it is so silly" they
think, "to prefer one's country to one's self; not to change one's party
when that party is worsted; in short, to consider mankind, not as
cards with which to play a winning game, but as the sacred objects of
unlimited sacrifices." If this is to form the charge of silliness, would
that it were but once merited by our men of talents!

"It is a singular phenomenon, that such a character as that of M. de
Lafayette, should have appeared in the foremost rank of the French
_noblesse_; but he can neither be censured nor exculpated with
impartiality, without being acknowledged to be such as I have described
him. It then becomes easy to understand the different contrasts which
naturally arose between his disposition and situation. Supporting
monarchy more from duty than attachment, he drew involuntarily towards
the principles of the democrats, whom he was obliged to resist; and
a certain kindness for the advocates of the republican form, was
perceptible in him, although his reflection forbade the admission of
their system into France. Since the departure of M. de Lafayette for
America, now forty years ago, we cannot quote a single action or a
single word of his, which was not direct and consistent. Personal
interest never blended itself in the least with his public conduct:
success would have displayed such sentiments to advantage; but they
claim the attention of the historian in spite of circumstances, and in
spite of faults, which may serve as a handle to his opponents."

M. Lafayette was returned a member of the chamber of deputies from
his own department, in 1819, though his election was opposed by the
ministerial party. Some members rejoiced to see again among them, the
"friend and disciple of Washington;" while others, the adherents of
monarchy, viewed him with distrust and jealousy, as "the veteran general
of the revolution." He was not a very active member of this legislative
body; for he was convinced it would be in vain to attempt restoring the
constitution of 1789. He seldom attended the assembly: but on several
questions, when he was present, discovered the same political sentiments
which directed his conduct in the early days of the revolution. The
minister offered a proposition for establishing a censorship over the
public journals, and for arresting persons suspected of being inimical
to the restoration of the Bourbons. Lafayette spoke against the proposed
law, "as subversive of all order, of all right, and of the natural and
just privileges of the citizens." He referred to the evils consequent
upon all arbitrary proceedings against persons merely suspected of being
unfriendly to the government, and to the probable mischiefs which would
arise from a severe restriction upon the liberty of the press. The
minister himself acknowledged, that the proposition was not wholly
consistent with the national rights of the citizens; but insisted upon
its expediency in the present state of the nation. At this time, also,
he reminded the ministers of promises, which had been made by the
political friends of Louis XVIII. in favor of the liberties of the
people. He "conjured them to maintain the liberties of France, within
the limits prescribed by the constitution." "To violate it," said he,
"is to dissolve the mutual guarantees of the nation and of the throne;
it is to give ourselves up to a total primitive freedom from all duties
and all laws." This discussion was unusually animated, and Lafayette was
very decided in his opposition to the measure. The course pursued by the
court was condemned; and some severity of remark was indulged in, as
to the designs of ministers. The ministerial party obtained but a small
majority in favor of the law; and some fermentation was excited in
Paris in relation to this subject. The _liberals_, or the friends of
constitutional freedom, were insulted, and the life of Lafayette was
openly menaced.

This year, a society was formed among the friends of constitutional
freedom, for the relief of those, who were arrested on mere suspicion,
or on a charge of violating the restrictions on the press; but who
were believed to be unjustly suspected, and who had been found entirely
innocent, even in the eye of the law, rigid as were its provisions. This
was a numerous society; consisting of fifty four members of the chamber
of deputies, and many other opulent and literary citizens; at the head
of which we find the name of M. Lafayette.

The distinguished Americans and Englishmen who have visited Lafayette,
at his family mansion of La Grange, describe his residence and its
inmates as most beautiful and interesting. "It is situated in the
fertile district of La Brie, thirty miles from Paris, remote from any
common road, and far distant from the bustling world. In the midst of
a luxuriant wilderness, rising above prolific orchards and antiquated
woods, appears the five towers of La Grange, tinged with the golden rays
of the declining sun. The deep moat, the draw bridge; the ivied tower
and arched portals, opening into a large square court, has a feudal and
picturesque character; and the associations which occur, on entering the
residence of a man so heroic, so disinterested, so celebrated, fill the
mind with peculiar admiration, and excite the most lively interest." The
family party, partaking more of patriarchal than of courtly manners, is
composed of individuals mutually attached, and anxious only for mutual
improvement and happiness. It represents the younger members, as
employed in their studies or engaged in innocent recreations so salutary
to the youthful temper and constitution: and the older, as occupied
in useful and literary pursuits, or devoted to the more enlivening
pleasures of conversation.

"The venerable head of this happy family, at the age of sixty seven, is
in the full possession of every talent and faculty. His memory has all
the tenacity of youthful recollection. On his person, time has yet made
little visible impression. Not a wrinkle furrows the ample brow; and his
unbent and noble figure is still as upright, bold and vigorous, as the
mind which informs it. Grace, strength and dignity still distinguish the
fine person of this extraordinary man; who, though more than forty years
before the world, engaged in scenes of strange and eventful conflict,
does not yet appear to have reached his grand climactic. Active on his
farm, graceful and elegant in his _salon_, it is difficult to trace, in
one of the most successful agriculturists, and one of the most perfect
fine gentlemen of France, a warrior and a legislator. But the patriot is
always discernible. His conversation is enriched with anecdotes of all
that is celebrated in character or event, for the last fifty years.
His elegant and well chosen collection of books, occupies the highest
apartments in one of the towers of the chateau; and, like the study of
Montaigne, hangs over the farm yard of the philosophical agriculturist.
It frequently happens, said M. Lafayette, to one of his visitors as they
were looking from a window on some flocks, which were moving beneath,
that my merinos and my hay carts dispute my attention to Hume or

Of the benevolent affections of Lafayette, his whole life affords
abundant proofs. He was possessed of the most patriotic and generous
feeling. Numerous instances are also related of his kindness to
individuals, and of his private benefactions. The children of his
tenants, and neighbours were objects of his generosity and complacency.
And those who are unjustly oppressed or defrauded, were sure to find
in him, an able advocate. The widow of an American officer, of French
parentage, who was left destitute at the death of her gallant husband,
had a claim for patrimonial estates in France. The legal evidence to
substantiate her claim was exceedingly difficult to be procured. The
case was made known to Lafayette, and he never ceased his exertions
until he recovered the greater part of the estate.

Soon after the arrival of young Lafayette in Boston, 1795, he wrote to
General Washington, then President of the United States, informing him
of his situation, and requesting advice and counsel from the friend of
his father. As the chief magistrate of the nation, it would not
have been prudent in Washington, publicly to interfere in his
behalf--Lafayette, at this period, was almost equally obnoxious to the
rulers of France, as any one of the royal family. He had, indeed, been
most _unjustly_ denounced and proscribed by the dominant party; but they
pretended he was attached to a monarchy; and a public official act
of patronage in the President, towards young Lafayette, would have
furnished a pretext for complaint against the government. Washington
had already given proof, that he did not approve of the conduct of the
French Directory, nor of the proceedings of their minister in America.
But though a prudent policy forbid all official attention and aid to the
son of Lafayette the generous & noble feelings of Washington induced him
to give assurances of personal regard, and of a readiness to afford all
proper assistance towards the education and support of this youthful
subject of political persecution. He wrote to his friend, Hon. George
Cabot, stating the reasons for declining to act officially or publicly
in the case; but requesting Mr. C. to assure young Lafayette that he
might consider him as a father, a friend and protector. Washington
expressed a desire in this letter, that he should become a member of the
university in Cambridge, if qualified for admission, where he would be
under the inspection and tuition of excellent men; for he was aware that
want of employment would lead to dissipation; and that the season of
youth was to be diligently improved for the cultivation of the mind. He
desired Mr. C. to call on him to meet any expenses which might accrue
in his education and support. The French tutor, who attended young
Lafayette, chose to have him under his own private instruction; and he
did not enter the university. The kindness and generosity of Washington
were not the less meritorious in the appeal made to him by the son of
his own, and of his country's friend.

Among the many eminent characters by whom General Lafayette was visited
in his retirement at La Grange, after his return to France, (in 1800)
was CHARLES J. FOX, the celebrated British statesman. The family of
Mr. Fox, for several generations, was ranked among the whip party in
England, and firm friends of the glorious revolution of 1689; when
the House of Stuart was excluded from the throne, and William and Mary
acknowledged as the legitimate sovereigns. Mr. Fox was of the same
political school with the elder PITT, whose powerful talents were
successfully exerted for the glory of Great Britain, in the latter part
of the reign of George II. and who was a firm and decided advocate for
the rights of the British colonies in 1775. When Lafayette and family
were confined in the dungeons at Olmutz, Mr. Fox, with others, then
members of the British Parliament, pleaded the cause of these unhappy
sufferers, with great eloquence, but without effect. He had been
personally acquainted with the celebrated French philanthropist, before
this period; and was attached to his character and principles, as a
zealous friend of civil liberty. The interview between these two
highly distinguished reformers is represented to have been peculiarly
interesting. Perhaps, the plans of reform proposed by Mr. Fox, could
not have been carried into effect, at that time, without danger to the
stability of the British government; but the general character of Fox,
gave evidence of the sincerity of his upright purposes; and of the
purity of the motives by which Lafayette was actuated, in the course he
pursued in France, in 1789, and subsequently, cannot be justly doubted,
though the revolution did not result in the political benefits he had

When Mr. Fox was in Paris, some time in 1802, Lafayette hastened from
his retired residence, at La Grange, to call on him. The writer, who
gives an account of this meeting, observes, "that a stranger of an
interesting and graceful figure, came gently in," where he and Mr. Fox
were sitting, at the hotel in Paris, "advanced rapidly; and, embracing
Mr. Fox, showed a countenance full of joy, while tears rolled down his
cheeks; Mr. Fox testified equal emotion. It was M. de Lafayette, the
virtuous and unshaken friend of liberty. He had come from the country
to see Mr. Fox, and to invite him to his house. In a few moments their
sentiments were interchanged. The review of the past was taken in a
moment; and they soon appeared to be affectionate friends, who having
parted for a few days, were now reunited. Lafayette viewed the new
state of things with regret; not from any personal dislike of the first
consul, but from a rooted and principled conviction, that arbitrary
power is injurious to the happiness of mankind.

"In his retirement, and filled with gloomy prospects of the republic, he
lived in the most private and simple manner. In the bosom of an amiable
and affectionate family, he found every consolation. He frequented no
place of amusement; and, with a very limited fortune, exhibited the
bright example of a public man, content with a little, free from all
envious and angry feelings: and willing to live in dignified silence,
when he had not the power or influence to do good."

The visit of Mr. Fox and his friend to La Grange, is thus
described--"The towers and wood of the chateau appeared in peaceful
repose, as we drove near; and when we gained a full view of the
building, I felt great emotion; it was the residence of a great and good
man--a patriot and friend of mankind, whose life had been consecrated
to virtue and liberty; the family came to the hall to meet us, happy in
themselves, and rejoicing to see the illustrious friend of Lafayette!
I cannot forget that moment--no silly affectation, no airs of idle
ceremony were seen at the residence of him, who had gloriously struggled
for America, and had done all he could for France.

"M. de Lafayette and Madame received Mr. and Mrs. Fox with the heartiest
welcome. The family consisted of two daughters, and a son and his wife,
all young and elegant; all living with M. de Lafayette, as a brother
and friend. His graceful and manly form, his benevolent countenance, his
frank and warm manners, which made him almost adored by his family, and
a placid contentedness, nearly allied to cheerfulness; altogether had
an irresistible effect, in gaining the affections and esteem of those
admitted to his more intimate society.

"Madame de Lafayette, of the noble family of Noailes, was a superior
and admirable woman, possessing the high polish of the ancient nobility,
eloquent and animated. Fondly attached to M. de Lafayette and her
family, she regretted nothing of past splendor; she possessed an
affectionate husband, and was happy in retirement. The son was a
pleasing young man, and his wife engaging and interesting; the daughters
were charming women, entirely free from the insipid languor or
wretched affectation, which in young ladies of fashion so much destroys
originality of character, and makes us find, in one of the fashionables,
the prototype and pattern of thousands. In a word, this amiable and
happy family seemed united by one bond of affection, and to desire
nothing beyond the circle of their own tranquil mansion.

"The chateau and estate of La Grange, which Madame, who was an heiress,
had brought with her, was all that remained of his fortune. He had lost
every thing besides in the madness of revolutionary confiscation; and
had not yet been able to procure restitution or compensation. To add to
the interest of the scene, General Fitzpatrick who had known Lafayette
in America, and had vainly attempted, in the British house of Commons,
to rouse the ministry to a sense of humanity and justice for him, joined
the party at La Grange, at this time. That accomplished man was an
addition to our society, and was received most affectionately by the
family of Lafayette. I have often contemplated with great pleasure, Mr.
Fox, General Fitzpatrick and M. de Lafayette walking in the long shady
grove near the chateau, speaking of past times, the war in America, and
the revolution in France. The rare sight of three such characters was
grateful to any one who felt friendly to the cause of civil liberty, and
valued men for their services to humanity, rather than for successful

"Lafayette spoke a good deal of America; and we learnt from him
something of his various and useful services for that country, at the
court of Louis, as well as of his personal efforts, during the struggle
for independence. His political career in France had not the same happy
result, as in America; but it should be considered, that his situation
in the former was arduous beyond measure. A friend to limited monarchy,
and to the legitimate rights of the people, at a time when the support
of one was deemed hostility to the other, he found it impossible,
consistent with his principles, to follow the mania of the nation. A
king of integrity and firmness, with Lafayette as his counselor, might
have been safe, even in the tumultuous times preceding the seizure of
civil power by sanguinary demagogues. But Louis, it is feared, wanted
both these qualities; certainly the latter. Lafayette failed, therefore,
in his patriotic views; not as Bonaparte is said to have insinuated,
because he aimed at what was impracticable; but because those whose
interest it was to second his views, did not support him. A ruined
throne and desolate country subsequently attested the purity of his
principles, and the soundness of his judgment."

General Lafayette is of the _Catholic_ religion, which has been long
established, and is still generally professed, in France. But he
discovers nothing of that exclusive and intolerant spirit which has
distinguished the church of Rome, more especially in ages past. He took
an active part in favor of the proposition, in 1789, for securing the
rights of conscience and the privileges of worship to the protestants
of France, according to, their own particular belief. It was not to
be supposed that one of his enlightened views, and knowledge of human
nature, would be a bigot in religion; or would attach undue importance
to the external forms and the mere ceremonies of worship. He is
not, however, to be classed with many learned men in Roman Catholic
countries, in modern times, who merely _profess_ the papal system
because it is the religion of the state, while they are real infidels;
or skeptical as to the essential doctrines of christianity. It is not
improbable that his intercourse with liberal and candid yet pious men
is America, in his early years, served to produce in his mind charitable
sentiments toward those who were educated in a system differing somewhat
from that which he had been taught to revere, in its ceremonies and even
in some of its dogmas. He was several years intimately acquainted with
Washington, Lincoln and other military characters, who were men of
sincere, though of unostentatious piety; as well as with many of the
clergy of our country, whom he could not but esteem and respect; and the
natural effect of such intercourse would be a liberality of opinion on
religious subjects. It is, indeed, a consideration, creditable, in
some measure, to those who admit it, and tending also to prove that
christianity is calculated and designed to be an universal religion,
that intelligent men of different countries and sects unite in receiving
all the essential and practical doctrines of revelation. In a word,
"that God is no respecter of persons; but that in every nation he who
_feareth_ him and _worketh righteousness_ is accepted of him."

Having followed Lafayette through many years of an active and
eventful life, and having witnessed his course in various critical and
responsible situations, we may be prepared to form a correct estimate
of his talents, his wisdom and his virtues. It is far from our wishes to
pronounce an unqualified or exaggerated panegyric on his character.
But for the honor of our species and in justice to this eminent
philanthropist, it is proper that his heroic and generous actions, and
his firmness and perseverance of purpose in the cause of civil liberty
and of the rights of mankind, should be duly appreciated. And when
we reflect upon the ardour and constancy of his efforts in favour of
American Independence; upon his personal sacrifices and exposure
to danger in our behalf, in the field, and his solicitations as our
advocate at the court of Louis; upon his warm attachment to Washington,
and to the other patriots and heroes of our glorious revolution; upon
his attempts afterwards to improve the government of his own country and
to place some check upon the despotic power of a selfish, calculating
ministry; upon his uniform resolute, and fearless opposition to the wild
projects of factious men, who obtained ephemeral influence in France,
but whose conduct was equally hostile to the rights and welfare of the
people as that of the agents of an absolute monarch; upon his steady and
firm support of the constitution, formed by the deputies of the people,
and designed to guarantee their liberties; upon his desire to support
the dignity of the monarch, in unison with the rights of the citizens,
and his wishes to afford security to the person of Louis; and upon his
efforts to restore related and constitutional liberty, at the time
the present king returned to France, and when Napoleon was aiming
at unlimited power as perpetual dictator, are we not obliged to
acknowledge, that few men; very few, indeed, have done so much for the
social happiness of their fellows; that very few deserve the gratitude
and applause, which may be justly claimed for this very eminent asserter
of the rights of man. Success is too often made the criterion of human
merit. It is matter of great congratulation, that our revolutionary
struggle was successful; and it is believed, that Lafayette, by his
influence in France, and his personal exertions here, contributed very
much to its happy termination. In his own country, afterwards, he was
not so fortunate in attaining and securing the object at which he aimed.
But to the accurate and deep observer of character and events, it
will probably be apparent, that no one, however resolute, could have
established a government in France in 1790, upon the just recognition
of the rights of man, and the exercise of power, (even limited power) in
the reigning Prince. That Lafayette was upright and disinterested in his
purpose, perhaps, no candid impartial man will deny; that any one could
have produced a more fortunate issue, is at least very doubtful. He did
not want decision, or energy. He often acted with great promptness, and
gave proof of ready mental resources. He was also brave, and fearless of
personal danger. Other men might have conducted with more energy; but
it would have been at the hazard of a thousand lives and in violation
of constitutional principles. That Lafayette was not more efficient, or
more despotic, when he commanded the national guards, and the populace
of Paris went to Versailles and insulted the royal family; or when
the Jacobin faction, in June 1792, were ready to denounce him and
to prostrate the constitution, did not argue want of energy but the
influence of principle and a salutary love of order.

When it is recollected what important and disinterested services the
Marquis de Lafayette had performed for America, in the most critical
periods of our revolutionary war, and how active and uniform he had
been, through all the changes and excesses in his own country for
upwards of thirty years, it cannot be thought unreasonable, that the
citizens of the United States held his character in high estimation, and
were desirous of greeting him once more, on their own territory, which
he had assisted by his zeal and valour to defend. In his letters to
his friends here, and in the interviews, which he had with American
gentleman at his own hospitable mansion, he frequently expressed a wish
and an intention of again visiting this favored land of liberty. He
cherished precious recollections of the times, long since past, when
he joined with many brave and honorable spirits in the sacred cause of
freedom. To the patriots and heroes who achieved our independence, he
had a most sincere and cordial attachment; and his military associates
who survived, and their children, who had often heard of his heroic and
generous deeds, were eager on their part to welcome him to their country
and their affections; and to show to him and to the world, that they
entertained a high sense of his sacrifices and efforts in securing to
them the privileges and blessings they so richly enjoy.

The feelings of General Lafayette will appear by the letters he wrote
to his friends in this country, when he was expecting to make his
long-intended visit. The following is an extract from one addressed to
an old revolutionary friend, who had previously written to Lafayette.
"I am deeply affected by your kindly remembrance. No one among the
survivors, who sharedin our glorious cause and military fraternity, can
be attached more than I am, to the memory of our departed brethren, and
to the ties which bind together the surviving American companions in
arm. Since our youthful revolutionary times, many vicissitudes have
passed over our heads. But in every situation, I have enjoyed, with
great delight, the recollection of our struggle so glorious and so pure;
of our Columbian country, so excellent and promising; of our brotherly
army, so gallant, so virtuous and so united. How happy for us to see the
present prosperous result of the contest, which our toils and our blood
have shared the honor to support."

In January 1824, when it was known, that General Lafayette proposed to
take passage for the United States, the Representatives of the nation,
in Congress assembled, requested the President "to offer him a public
ship for his accommodation; [he declined this offer, and chose to embark
in a private vessel;] and to assure him, in the name of the people
of this great Republic, that they cherished for him a grateful and
affectionate attachment."

The Legislature of Massachusetts also, at its session in June last,
adopted a resolve, "requesting the Governor to make such arrangements,
as would secure to this distinguished friend of our country, an
honorable reception, on the part of this State, and authorising him
to draw any sum from the public treasury to meet the expenses arising

The Society of Cincinnati of Massachusetts, at their anniversary meeting
on the fourth of July, it being then expected that General Lafayette
would soon visit the United States, unanimously passed the following
vote. "It being reported, that General Lafayette, an original member
of the Society of Cincinnati, intends visiting the United States in
the course of the present year, voted, that a Committee be appointed to
consider what measures it will be proper for this Society to adopt on
the arrival of this our distinguished brother; whose meritorious and
disinterested services to our country, in the war of the revolution,
cannot be too highly appreciated, and whose whole life has been devoted
to the vindication of the rights of man." A committee was then appointed
for the purpose, of which Hon. John Brooks (late Governor) was the

Letters were written to General Lafayette, before he left France by
several distinguished individuals, and by the Mayor of New-York and
of Boston, in the name and behalf of those corporations, expressing
a strong desire, that he would visit America, as it was reported he
intended, and informing him of the universal and sincere disposition of
the citizens, to present him a tribute of esteem and gratitude.

In a letter dated at Paris, May 26, in reply to the invitation of the
citizens of Boston, communicated to him by the Mayor, in their name,
under date of March 20th, 1824, he observed, "that amidst the new and
high marks of benevolence which the people of the United States and
their Representatives had lately deigned to confer upon him, he was
proud and happy to recognize those particular sentiments of the citizens
of Boston, which had blessed and delighted the first years of his public
career, the grateful sense of which had ever been to him a most valued
reward and support." "I joyfully anticipate the day," he added, "not
very remote, thank God, when I may revisit the cradle of American,
and in future, I hope, of _universal_ liberty. Your so honorable and
gratifying invitation would have been directly complied with, in
the case to which you are pleased to allude. [Footnote: This was the
particular request that he would land at Boston, if he did not come in
a public ship, and feel obliged to arrive at Washington.] But while I
profoundly feel the honor intended by the offer of a national ship,
I hope I shall incur no blame, by the determination I have taken, to
embark as soon as it is in my power, on board a private vessel. Whatever
port I first attain, I shall with the same eagerness hasten to Boston,
and present its beloved and revered inhabitants, as I have now the
honor to offer it to the City Council and to yourself, the homage of my
affectionate gratitude and devoted respect."

When this letter of Lafayette was communicated to the Common Council of
the city, a large and respectable committee was chosen "to make suitable
arrangements for his reception, should he first arrive at the port of
Boston; and that on his visiting this city, should he disembark at
some other place in the United States, the committee provide for his
accommodation, during his residence here; and to adopt all such measures
as they might deem proper, to extend to him the hospitality of the
city, and to exhibit the feelings of gratitude, which the whole body
of citizens entertain for the splendid services, ardent patriotism and
private worth of the illustrious visitor."

Hon. Mr. Lloyd, Senator from this State in the Congress of the United
States, and particularly attached to Lafayette from family alliances, on
hearing of his intended visit to America, also addressed a friendly note
to him, at an early day, requesting the honor of receiving him at his
hospitable mansion. But the city authorities were desirous, that General
Lafayette, who might be justly considered the guest of the people and of
the nation, should be accommodated by the city in a more public manner:
and Mr. Lloyd, with his usual courtesy and regard to public opinion,
resigned his particular claims, although he was among the first and most
eminent of the citizens of Boston, to show peculiar and distinguished
attention to the favorite of the American people.

In his answer to the letter of Mr. Lloyd, he says, "in whatever part of
the United States I shall find myself, on reaching the beloved shore of
America, I shall lose no, time in my eagerness to revisit the city of
Boston, and answer the flattering invitation I have received. You do
justice to the delight I shall feel, at the sight of the felicity and
prosperity, which is the reward of a virtuous revolution, founded on the
principles of true liberty and self-government."

       *       *       *       *       *




His arrival was anticipated with great interest and impatience.
Preparations were in contemplation, particularly in New-York and Boston,
several weeks before he arrived, to receive him with such public marks
of veneration and joy, as were justly due to one so distinguished by an
ardent love of liberty, and by meritorious exertions for the welfare of
our country.

General Lafayette arrived in the harbour of New-York on the morning of
the 15th of August, accompanied by his son, George W. Lafayette, and his
friend, M. Le Vasseur. A steam boat was in waiting, at the entrance of
the harbour, and they were immediately conducted to Staten Island, the
residence of the Hon. Mr. Tompkins, Vice President of the United States,
where he passed the remainder of the day, being Sunday. This is but a
short distance from the city of New-York: here many public characters
and other distinguished citizens repaired; on the day of his arrival,
to offer him their respectful salutations. The next day he entered this
populous city; and his reception was most splendid and cordial. Perhaps
no hero of ancient or modern times, if we except the respectful and
universal attention paid to Washington, when he made the tour of
the United States in 1789, was ever greeted with such a sincere and
enthusiastic welcome.

"At an early hour, the whole city was in motion; almost every man, woman
and child was preparing to witness the landing of their much respected
guest. The shops and stores were closed, and all business was suspended
for the day. The ringing of bells, the roar of cannon, and the display
of the national flag, at all public places and on board the shipping,
proclaimed that it was a day of joy, in which all were anxious to
partake. Before 12 o'clock, the battery, the adjoining wharves and every
place commanding a view of the passage from Staten Island, were crowded
to excess. It was supposed there were nearly 50,000 persons upon
the battery, including the troops. This elegant promenade, since
its enlargement, is said to be capable of holding nearly the whole
population of the city, (130,000) but a large portion of the front
was occupied by the brigade of artillery and other troops. The castle
garden, almost contiguous to the battery, and its gallery, were also
crowded by the citizens.

"Between 10 and 11 o'clock, a large steam ship, manned with about 200
United States seamen, and decorated with the flags of every nation,
sailed for Staten Island. She was followed by six large steam boats, all
crowded with passengers, decorated with flags, and enlivened by bands of
music. In one of them, which exhibited only flags of the United States
and of the State of New-York, proceeded the committee of, arrangements
of the city, the officers of the United States army and navy, the
general officers of the militia, the committee of the Society of
Cincinnati, &c. On board this steam boat, General Lafayette embarked at
Staten Island, for the city, at about one o'clock. This was announced by
a salute from the largest steam ship, manned by the national troops,
and from fort Lafayette. The procession then moved for the city, and
presented to its inhabitants, a most beautiful and magnificent scene.
About two o'clock the General landed at the battery, where he was
received by a salute from the troops, and the hearty and reiterated
cheers of the immense throng which had assembled to welcome him to our

"It is impossible fully to describe the enthusiasm of joy which pervaded
and was expressed by the whole multitude. Here the General had a fair
specimen of the affection and respect, which is felt for him by every
individual of this extended country. He seemed much moved by these
expressions of attachment, and bowed continually to the people who
pressed about him. After resting a few moments at the castle garden, he
proceeded in an elegant barouche drawn by four horses, escorted by the
dragoons and troops, through Broadway to the City Hall. The windows,
balconies, and even the roofs of the houses were filled with ladies,
all welcoming the General as he passed, by their smiles and waving of

"At about 4 o'clock, the procession arrived at the City Hall, where
General Lafayette was received by the Mayor and Common Council, and
formally welcomed and congratulated on his safe arrival in the country.
After receiving the marching salute of the troops in front of the
City Hall, he was conducted to the City Hotel, where he dined with the
members of the corporation. In the evening, the front of the City Hotel,
and many other adjoining buildings, were handsomely illuminated. The
theatres and public gardens displayed transparencies; fire-works and
rockets in honor of the occasion."--The committee of the Cincinnati
waited on General Lafayette, at Staten Island; and were received by him
with peculiar marks of affection and friendship. The committee consisted
of several field officers of the revolutionary army, some of whom were
upwards of eighty years of age.

The following is the address of the Mayor of New-York, to General
Lafayette, when he arrived at the city Hall:

"In the name of the municipal authority of the city, I bid you a sincere
welcome to the shores of a country, of whose freedom and happiness you
will ever be considered one of the most honored and beloved founders.
Your contemporaries in arms, of whom indeed but few remain, have not
forgot, and their posterity will never forget the young and gallant
_Frenchman_, who consecrated his youth, his talents, his fortune and his
exertions to their cause; who exposed his life, who shed his blood,
that they might be free and happy. They will recollect with profound
emotions, so long as they remain worthy of the liberties they enjoy, and
of the exertions you made to obtain them, that you came to them in the
darkest period of their struggle; that you linked your fortune with
theirs, when it seemed almost hopeless; that you shared in the dangers,
privations and sufferings of that bitter struggle; nor quitted them for
a moment till it was consummated on the glorious field of Yorktown. Half
a century has elapsed since that great event, and in that time your name
has become as dear to the friends, as it is inseparably connected with
the cause of freedom, both in the old and in the new world.

"The people of the United States look up to you as to one of their most
honored parents--the country cherishes you as one of the most beloved
of her sons. I hope and trust, Sir, that not only the present, but the
future conduct of my countrymen, to the latest period of time, will,
among other slanders, refute the unjust imputation, that republics are
always ungrateful to their benefactors.

"In behalf of my fellow citizens of New-York, and speaking the warm and
universal sentiments of the whole people of the United States, I repeat
their welcome to our common country."

To this address, General Lafayette replied as follows:--


"While I am so affectionately received by the citizens of New-York
and their worthy representatives, I feel myself overwhelmed with
inexpressible emotions. The sight of the American shore, after so long
an absence; the recollection of the many respected friends and dear
companions, no more to be found on this land; the pleasure to
recognize those who survive; the immense concourse of a free republican
population, who so kindly welcome me; the admirable appearance of the
troops; the presence of a corps of the national navy; have excited
sentiments, to which no language is adequate: You have been pleased,
Sir, to allude to the happiest times, the unalloyed enjoyment of
my public life. It is the pride of my heart to have been one of the
earliest adopted sons of America. I am proud, also, to add, that upwards
of forty years ago I was honored with the freedom of this city. I beg
you, Sir; I beg you; gentlemen, to accept yourselves, and to transmit
to the citizens of New-York, the homage of my profound and everlasting
gratitude, devotion and respect."

On the two following days after his arrival in New-York, General
Lafayette received the gratulations of a great number of the citizens;
and on the latter, was addressed by committees of the society of
Cincinnati, and of the Historical Society; and also visited the navy
yard of the United States. On board of the ship Washington, of 74 guns,
his reception was very splendid, and a sumptuous repast was provided. On
Thursday, deputations from the Frenchmen resident in the city, and from
the gentlemen of the Bar, waited on him, and presented congratulatory

In his answer to the committee of the Historical Society, he
observed,--"The United States are the first nation on the records
of history, who have founded their constitution upon an honest
investigation and clear definition of their natural and social rights.
Nor can we doubt, but that, notwithstanding the combinations made
elsewhere by despotism against the sacred rights of mankind, immense
majorities in other countries will not in vain observe the happiness and
prosperity of a free, virtuous and enlightened people."

To the gentlemen of the Bar, he replied--"Testimonies of esteem from so
respectable a body as the Bar of New-York, are highly flattering. I most
deeply sympathize, gentlemen, in your regret for the friend (Hamilton)
whose prodigious talents made him as eminent in your profession, as he
had been is our military, when he deserved Washington's most intimate
confidence. The truly republican form of the American constitutions,
cannot but endear them to every citizen of the United States. Yet,
to any one, who with an American heart, has had opportunities of a
comparison with other countries, the blessings of these institutions
must appear still more conspicuous."

The address of the French gentlemen in New-York, was very affectionate
and respectful, referring, in highly complimentary style, to the
services of Lafayette both in France and America. His reply is
indicative, at once, of patriotism, of attachment to the cause of
rational freedom, and of his regard for the United States, the land of
his adoption. "It is a great happiness for me, on my arrival in this
land of liberty, to receive the congratulations of my countrymen. At the
moment of my departure, the testimonials of affectionate attachment
of many of my fellow citizens, the parting accents from the shores
of France, left in my heart the most grateful emotions. I delight to
participate with you the feelings which I experienced in this happy
American land, to which I am bound by so many ties. We also, patriots of
1789, sought to establish the national dignity, the security of property
and the happiness of our beautiful France, upon the sacred foundations
of liberty and equality. Notwithstanding our misfortunes, the
cotemporaries of that epoch will inform you, that the revolution of
1789, has greatly ameliorated the condition of an immense majority of
the people. Do not let us despair of the cause of liberty: It is still
dear to the hearts of Frenchmen; and we shall one day have the felicity
of seeing it established in our beloved country."

During the four days he remained in New-York, all gentlemen and ladies
of the most respectable families were individually introduced to him;
and he manifested great pleasure at the cordial welcome, with which he
was universally greeted. Splendid evening parties were given in honor of
the "nation's guest," at which he met many individuals whom he had
known more than forty years before. His interviews with "the war-worn
veterans," with whom he had been associated in times of danger, for the
liberties of the country, were peculiarly interesting and affecting. He
embraced them; but his feelings were so powerful, that he could not give
utterance to his sentiments for many minutes.

After his arrival at New-York, he early announced his intention to
visit Boston, where he had been particularly invited by distinguished
individuals, and by the city authorities; especially as the commencement
at the University in Cambridge, the literary jubilee of the State,
was to be celebrated in a few days. While in New-York, he received
invitations by committees or letters from Philadelphia, Albany,
New Haven and some other cities, to make a visit to those places
respectively; but his desire was first to visit Boston, if possible.
Accordingly, he left New-York, where his reception had been so very
gratifying to his feelings, and where the citizens were still eager to
show him honorable civilities, on Friday morning, for Boston, through
New Haven, New London and Providence. He was attended by a committee
of the Common Council, the Major General of militia and his suite,
the General and field officers of the artillery and infantry, and by
strangers and citizens of distinction on horseback, and escorted by the
Huzzars of the 2d and 14th regiments, to Harlem, where he was saluted
by the 3d regiment of infantry. On leaving this place, he was saluted
by the Lafayette guards of the 2d regiment. The principal part of
the troops then returned; and the first regiment of horse artillery
continued the escort to the line of Connecticut. A salute was fired at
a place called Putnam's hill, on account of the memorable feat performed
there by General Israel Putnam, in the revolutionary war. The suite of
Lafayette consisted of his son and M. Le Vasseur, who accompanied him in
his voyage from France, and four of the Aldermen of New-York. The city
corporation had provided an elegant carriage to accommodate him in his
journey to Boston, and deputed four of their number to attend him in his
route. He traveled with great rapidity, passing the distance of thirty
miles in three hours. He appeared perfectly capable of enduring fatigue,
and discovered the activity and sprightliness of vigorous manhood.

They reached New Haven about midnight, on his approach to which he was
met by the governor's guard, and escorted into that city. Most of the
buildings on the principal streets were illuminated, and a national
salute was fired. "The night was almost turned into day, and the scene
was very brilliant and impressive." He was detained at all the villages
on the road from New-York to New Haven, through the eagerness of the
citizens, to see and be introduced to this distinguished hero of the
revolution. The public road was thronged with multitudes of both sexes
and youth, who greeted him with reiterated acclamations; and continued
"welcome, welcome." They prepared sincere, though simple offerings
of respect to the man, "who fought not for honor or for pay;" but in
imitation of his political, American parent, was devoted, life and
property, to the cause of our country's freedom. After a public
breakfast, a visit to the college, and calls upon Mrs. Trumbull, the
widow of the late governor of the state, Hon. Mr. Daggett, senator in
Congress, and some other eminent characters, he left New Haven, for New
London, Saturday morning, attended by the city authorities and escorted
by a company of cavalry, a part of the distance, until met by another
troop of horse, by which General Lafayette and suite were then attended
to Saybrook, on Connecticut river, about forty miles from New Haven.
Part of the Sabbath was passed in New London; and at this place, he
attended public worship. He expressed a desire to avoid traveling on
that day, as much as possible. At New London, and at most other places
on his journey, he met some of his old revolutionary companions, who
were delighted to see again in their own free and happy country, a man
who had devoted his earliest days and zealous efforts to secure its

He reached Providence on Monday, the 23d, at 12 o'clock, having been
met at an early hour, on the boundary line between Connecticut and Rhode
Island, by the aids of the Governor of the last named state. When he
arrived at the limits of the town of Providence, an immense crowd of
citizens were assembled to bid him welcome, and to offer him their
hearty gratulations. The houses and streets in the western part of the
town, where he entered, were filled with citizens, who greeted him as
he passed with reiterated cheers. "When he arrived in front of the State
House, he alighted, and was received in a very interesting manner. The
avenue leading to the building was lined with female youth, dressed in
white, holding in their hands branches of flowers, which they strewed in
his path, at the same time waving their white handkerchiefs. Lafayette
appeared much gratified and affected by this simple, but touching
arrangement. In the senate chamber, he was introduced to the Governor
and many other distinguished characters; among whom were several
late officers of the revolutionary army. These he embraced with much
affection; and his emotions were so great, he was unable to address
them. He recognized Captain Olney, the moment he saw him, among a crowd
of citizens. This gentleman commanded a company under General Lafayette,
at the siege of Yorktown, and was the first to force the redoubts thrown
up by the British troops, and carried by our light infantry, in a most
brilliant manner, when led on to the assault by their commander in
person. At this interview, so affecting and interesting, a thrill ran
through the whole assembly, and not a dry eye was to be found among
the throng of spectators; while the shouts of the multitude, at first
suppressed, and then uttered in a manner tempered by the scene, evinced
the deep fueling and proud associations it had excited." Another
respectable veteran, of eighty-five years of age, was found among the
multitudes assembled to render their affectionate homage to Lafayette.
He was a volunteer in the expedition on Rhode Island, in the autumn
of 1778, and assisted in conducting the retreat from that place; under
direction of the Marquis, when the militia were in great danger from the
superior number of the British forces. The aged patriot was overwhelmed
with joy, on beholding once more, his beloved general.

On account of a previous engagement to be in Boston, Monday night,
or early on Tuesday morning, General Lafayette was obliged, though
reluctantly, to leave Providence the afternoon of the day he arrived
there. As he left the town he walked some distance, in order to view the
troops, which were drawn up in the public street leading towards Boston;
and then entered his carriage, accompanied by the Governor and several
other public characters; and amidst the cheers of the people proceeded
on his journey. He was also attended by the society of Cincinnati of the
State of Rhode Island, as far as Pawtucket river, the southern bounds of
Massachusetts. When some one expressed an apprehension, that he might be
_fatigued_ by his rapid traveling and the various scenes through
which he passed in the course of the day, he quickly replied, that he
experienced too great pleasure, to be sensible of any fatigue.

At Pawtucket, he was met by the aids of Governor Eustis, the Chief
Magistrate of the State of Massachusetts, who had been dispatched,
the day before, to receive him at the line of the Commonwealth, and to
escort him on his way to the capital. Although it was now evening, at
several places on the road, large bodies of the militia were collected
to salute him; and assemblies of ladies and gentlemen were occasionally
met, who offered this illustrious stranger, but respected friend of
their country, their tribute of applause and affection. He was too
sensible of their sincerity and warmth of their felicitations, not to
delay his journey at several villages, and to reciprocate their kind and
cordial salutations. It was nearly midnight when he reached the town of
Dedham, about ten miles from Boston. Most of the houses in this
pleasant village were handsomely illuminated; and a great number of the
inhabitants of both sexes were assembled to greet him. During the
short pause he was able to make here, he was introduced to many of the
principal citizens of the town and vicinity, who had been anticipating
his arrival for some hours. When he passed through Roxbury, at about
1 o'clock, he was accompanied by a large cavalcade of citizens of that
place and from Boston; and a salute was fired by the Roxbury corps of
artillery. His arrival here was also announced by the ascent of rockets
from an eminence in the centre of the town; and the note of preparation
was thus given for the parade and pleasure of the succeeding day, which
had been anticipated with uncommon interest and delight. Lafayette and
suite proceeded to the mansion of his Excellency the Governor, to
which they had been invited; and the meeting between them was truly
affectionate and cordial.

On Tuesday the 24th the inhabitants of Boston hailed the morning light
with peculiar emotions, and were abroad at an early hour, preparing for
the general testimonies of gratitude and respect to be presented to
the "nation's guest." Many of the older citizens recollected him in his
youthful days; when he visited the town, _forty-six_ years ago, at the
request of Congress and Washington, to prevail on the French admiral to
co-operate with his fleet in some contemplated attack upon the British
Forces. They had not forgotten his zeal and ardor in the cause
of America. They knew his great attachment to and respect for the
_immortal_ chief of the American army, and the confidence, which
Washington cherished for Lafayette. Here too were many revolutionary
officers and soldiers, who had often witnessed his unwearied activity
and personal courage in seasons of difficulty and danger. The Society
of Cincinnati in this State contained many of his personal friends, who
shared with him in the toils and honors of the war of independence; they
had assembled, also, to offer the hand of friendship and affection to
their distinguished brother in arms; and to tell him of the happiness
which he had been instrumental, with others, in securing to _ten
millions_ of freemen. The curiosity of the young was awakened to hear of
the generous deeds and meritorious services of this celebrated visitor
from the old world. They were eager to learn his worth and, his virtues.
For they knew their grave and sober sires would not be so greatly moved
by the approach of any ordinary character, whatever might be his title
or his fame. The sensibility of the female breast was excited to a
lively glow, in reflecting upon the character of this eminent foreigner,
who had not only given proofs of great devotion to the cause of America,
and to the interests of civil liberty, but whose moral and social
virtues claimed for him the respect and admiration of all those who
loved innocence or commiserated distress. And all classes, without
intending to lessen the pre-eminent services and virtues of Washington,
who, under providence was the great and chief agent in achieving
our independence, and in preserving it, after it had been once
established--or to undervalue the important efforts and courage of many
other revered heroes and patriots, too numerous to be here named. All,
all, were eager to join in the spontaneous offering of gratitude and
affection to one so justly celebrated and so _greatly beloved_.

He entered the city, the capital of the state, about 11 o'clock; "and
his reception was a triumph and a jubilee. The day was as bright as his
laurels, and as mild as his virtues. The various bodies designated to
compose the procession, and perform the honors of the day, assembled at
an early hour, and at the time appointed." The cavalcade was formed in
Common street, at 9 o'clock. It was very numerous, and consisted of the
citizens of Boston, of all ranks and classes, on horseback. Proceeding
to the extreme southerly part of the city, near the line of Roxbury,
they were joined by the Mayor and Aldermen, and members of the Common
Council, the Society of Cincinnati, a great number of public civil
characters and strangers of distinction, all in carriages; by the
general and field officers of the first division of militia, and
officers of the army and navy of the United States. An innumerable
concourse of people on foot lined the side walks of the spacious street,
where the procession was to be formed, the entrance to the city from
Roxbury, and fortunately named WASHINGTON-STREET. The cavalcade then
proceeded to the mansion of Governor Eustis, which is a short distance,
within the town of Rosbury, and escorted General Lafayette and suite to
the line, where the city authorities and others, who were to compose the
procession, were in waiting to receive him. Here he was greeted by
the immense assemblage of citizens, with repeated and enthusiastic
acclamations, for several minutes, when the mayor welcomed him with much
feeling, in the following speech.

"SIR--The Citizens of Boston welcome you on your return to the
United States; mindful of your early zeal in the cause of American
Independence, grateful for your distinguished share in the perils and
glories of its achievement.--When urged by a generous sympathy, you
first landed on these shores, you found a people engaged in an arduous
and eventful struggle for liberty with apparently inadequate means, and
amidst dubious omens. After a lapse of nearly half a century, you find
the same people prosperous beyond all hope and all precedent; their
liberty secure; sitting in its strength; without fear and without

"In your youth you joined the standard of three millions of people,
raised in an unequal and uncertain conflict. In your advanced age you
return and are met by ten millions of people, their descendants, whose
hearts throng hither to greet your approach and rejoice in it.

"This is not the movement of a turbulent populace, excited by the fresh
laurels of some recent conqueror. It is a grave, moral, intellectual

"A whole people in the enjoyment of freedom as perfect as the condition
of our nature permits, recur with gratitude, increasing with the daily
increasing sense of their blessings, to the memory of those, who, by
their labors, and in their blood, laid the foundation of our liberties.

"Your name, sir,--the name of LAFAYETTE, is associated with the most
perilous, and most glorious periods of our Revolution;--with the
imperishable names of Washington, and of that numerous host of heroes
which adorn the proudest archives of American history, and are engraved
in indelible traces on the hearts of the whole American people.

"Accept, then, sir, in the sincere spirit in which it is offered, this
simple tribute to your virtues.

"Again, sir, the citizens of Boston bid you welcome to the cradle of
American Independence, and to scenes consecrated with the blood shed by
the earliest martyrs in its cause."

General Lafayette then rose in his carriage, and in a most interesting
and felicitous manner, replied as follows:--

"The emotions of love and gratitude, which I have been accustomed
to feel on my entering this city, have ever mingled with a sense of
religious reverence for the cradle of _American_, and let me hope it
will hereafter be said, of _Universal_ Liberty.

"What must be, sir, my feelings, at the blessed moment, when, after so,
long an absence, I find myself again surrounded by the good citizens of
Boston--where I am so affectionately, so honorably welcomed, not only by
old friends, but by several successive generations; where I can witness
the prosperity, the immense improvements, that have been the just reward
of a noble struggle, virtuous morals and truly republican institutions.

"I beg of you, Mr. Mayor, Gentlemen of the City Council, and all of you,
beloved citizens of Boston, to accept the respectful and warm thanks of
a heart, which has, for nearly half a century, been particularly devoted
to your illustrious city."

The reply of the General was received with new plaudits of the assembled
people; and "welcome, welcome Lafayette! friend of Washington! friend
of America! Friend of liberty!" was repeated again and again; and the
heights of Dorchester and Roxbury echoed with the joyful acclamation.

The procession was then formed, and passed through Washington, Milk,
Broad, State, Court and Common-streets; to Boylston-street, adjoining
the south part of the Common, in the following order--"Three marshals,
the Boston corps of Light Dragoons, a battalion of Light Infantry,
composed of the Fusiliers, Boston Light Infantry, Winslow Blues,
Washington Light Infantry, New-England Guards, Rangers, and City Guards;
and a full band of music. Then followed the chief marshal, attended
by aids; members of the City Council, Committee of Arrangements, the
President of the Common Council and senior Alderman, all in carriages.
Here was placed another marshal, immediately preceding the elegant
barouche, drawn by four beautiful white horses, in which rode the
distinguished GUEST of the city and of the nation, accompanied by
the mayor, with marshals also on either side. The son and friend of
Lafayette, and gentlemen aldermen from New-York, next followed in
carriages; and these were succeeded by the society of the Cincinnati,
public characters, Judges and Legislators, and distinguished strangers,
in carriages also. Immediately after, two marshals; field and staff
officers of the militia, mounted on horseback, and followed also by two
marshals. The cavalcade of citizens, of all ranks and in great numbers,
with marshals attending, closed the voluntary but triumphant procession."

The dwelling houses and stores on the streets through which the
procession was conducted, were crowded with inhabitants in every part.
The ladies thus situated, caught the enthusiasm of the occasion, waved
their white handkerchiefs, and, with smiles and gladness, greeted
the veteran hero, who appeared affected and delighted by these
demonstrations of a joyful welcome. The moment Lafayette arrived at
the line of the city, the bells struck, and rang merry peals, while the
procession was passing through the streets.

Excepting the cavalcade, the procession passed through the Common from
Boylston to Park street, on the eastern margin, and between too lines
of children of both sexes, belonging to the several schools in the city.
Their ages were from about eight to twelve, and nearly three thousand in
number. Their dress was neat and uniform; the misses in white, and the
masters in white pantaloons and blue spencers. They also wore ribbons
in their breasts, stamped with a miniature likeness of Lafayette. As
the carriage, in which the general rode, was passing, one of the misses
darted from the line where she was standing, and begged to speak with
him. She was handed into the carriage, and by the Mayor presented
to Lafayette, who pressed an affectionate kiss on her blooming, yet
blushing cheek. She had confidence, however, to address him, and to
place a wreath of flowers, which she held, on his head. He made her a
short but affectionate reply, and placed the wreath on the seat of the
carriage. Attached to the wreath of flowers was a small piece of paper,
carefully folded, which contained these lines: said to be composed by
the mother of the child.

  "An infant hand presents these blushing flowers,
  Glowing and pure as childhood's artless hours,
  Where roses bloom, and buds of _promise_ smile,
  Repaying with their charms the culturers toil.

  Oh! _take them_ FATHER, they were culled _for you_!
  (Still bright with warm _affection's_ sacred dew--)
  O let them _live_ in thy benignant smile,
  And o'er thy _brow of glory_ bloom awhile!
  'Twined with the _laurel_ Fame on thee bestowed
  When thy _young heart_ with patriot ardor glow'd;

  _Self exiled_ from the charms of _wealth_ and _love_,
  And, _home_, and _friends_, thou didst _our champion
  And, by the side of Glorious WASHINGTON,
  Didst make our grateful country _all thine own_!

  Go, fragile offering, speak the ardent joy
  Our bosoms feel, which _Time_ can ne'er destroy!"

Arches were thrown across several of the principal streets, through
which Lafayette was conducted, covered with evergreens and flowers, and
containing appropriate mottos. There were two in Washington-street, the
largest, and part of the distance, the widest street in the City.--On
one of these was very legibly written--"1776--WASHINGTON and LAFAYETTE.
_Welcome Lafayette--A Republic not ungrateful_." On the other


  "The Fathers in glory shall sleep,
  Who gather'd with thee to the fight;
  But the sons will eternally keep
  The tablet of gratitude bright.
  We bow not the neck
  And we bend not the knee,
  But our hearts, LAFAYETTE,
  We surrender to thee."

The lines were from the pen of a citizen of Boston, whose poetic talents
had often delighted the public, and who had received the highest praise
from those capable of appreciating the productions of genius.

When the possession arrived at the steps of the State House, near the
head of Park Street, salutes were fired by a battalion of artillery on
the eminence on the western part of the Common, and at the Navy Yard at
Charlestown. Salutes were also fired by a battalion of artillery, placed
on the heights of Dorchester, (now South Boston,) when General Lafayette
reached the line of the city, at 11 o'clock. The President of the
United States had caused an order to be issued, on the first arrival of
Lafayette, at New-York, requiring, that he be received by the military
officers of the nation, at all public posts, with the salutes and honors
due to one of the highest rank in the army.

The Governor and Executive Council of the Commonwealth, were assembled
in the spacious Senate Chamber to receive Lafayette in the name of the
Representatives of the people, and in pursuance of their resolve of June
preceding, as well as in accordance with their own personal feelings
and wishes. His Excellency the Governor, here addressed him with great
feeling, [Footnote: Governor Eustis was so affected, that he had to
call on one of the aids to read the greater part of the address.] in the
following concise and pertinent speech:


"In the name of the government, and in behalf of the citizens of
Massachusetts, I have the honor to greet you with a cordial, an
affectionate welcome.

"We thank God, that he has been pleased to preserve you through
the scenes of peril and of suffering, which have distinguished your
patriotic and eventful life, and that we are indulged with this occasion
of renewing to you our grateful acknowledgements for the important
services which you have rendered to our common country.

"In the last surviving Major General of the American revolutionary army,
we recognize a benefactor and friend, from a distant and gallant nation;
who, inspired by a love of liberty, subjected himself in his youth,
to the toils and hazards of a military life, in support of our rights.
Under our illustrious Washington, you were instrumental in establishing
the liberties of our country, while your gallantry in the field, secured
to yourself an imperishable renown.

"With the enjoyment of the blessings of independence, we shall never
cease to associate the name of Lafayette, and our prayer to heaven will
be for his health and prosperity."

To which the General, with much animation, replied:--


"When, in the name of the people and government of this State, your
Excellency is pleased so kindly to welcome an American veteran, I am
proud to share the honors and enjoyments of such a reception with my
revolutionary companions and brother soldiers. Sir, I am delighted with
what I see, I am oppressed with what I feel; but I depend upon you, as
an old friend, to do justice to my sentiments."

Afterwards, a great number of gentlemen were introduced to Lafayette, in
the Senate Chamber; of whom were the Judges and other public officers of
the United States, of the State and of the City; members of the society
of Cincinnati, with their venerable and distinguished President, Hon.
John Brooks, late Governor of the Commonwealth. Lafayette recognized his
old military and personal friend, at the first sight, and embraced
him with great cordiality and affection. Some other veterans of
the revolutionary army, who were present, he also recollected; and
discovered strong emotions as they approached him and took his hand.
Indeed, he was so eager to meet them, that he very generally first
seized them, and clung to them with all the affection of a brother. The
scene was inexpressibly affecting. There was not a heart untouched--not
a cheek unmoistened by the falling tear. To weep then was not weakness;
it was proof of gratitude and of a generous feeling, which is an honor
to human nature.

By particular request, and to gratify the wishes of the people collected
in front of the State House, General Lafayette appeared in the colonnade
of this superb edifice, where he was greeted with loud and continued
cheers. He was then conducted by the committee of arrangements, to the
residence provided for him at the head of Park Street. A public dinner
was given by the city authorities, in honor of their noble guest; and
the invitation was extended to Senators and members of Congress, the
Governor and Ex-Governor of the Commonwealth, judicial and other public

A committee of the society of Cincinnati Called upon General Lafayette
at the residence of the Governor, in Roxbury, and before his entrance
into Boston. They were anxious to offer him their congratulations at the
earliest moment; and to bid him welcome to the land they had unitedly
struggled to defend. And a few days after his arrival, the whole society
waited on him, when their President made the following address:--


"The Society of Cincinnati of the State of Massachusetts seize the
earliest moment after your arrival in this city, of extending to you
the hand of friendship and affection. We offer you our most cordial
congratulations on your safe arrival again, after the lapse of forty
years, on the shores of our favored country, once the theatre of our
united toils, privations, and combats with a powerful foe, but now the
peaceful domain of a great, a free, and independent people. We hail
you, sir, in unison with the millions of our fellow citizens; most
respectfully hail you as a Statesman, as a Philanthropist, and as the
early, inflexible, and devoted friend, not only of our beloved country,
but of the sacred principles of civil liberty and human rights. But we
greet you under more tender and hallowed associations; in the endearing
relation of a brother-soldier, who, in the ardor of youth commenced in
the field with us your career of glory, in the holy cause of Liberty and
American Independence.

"But here recollections crowd upon our minds too powerful for utterance.
Words would but mock the deep emotions of our hearts should we attempt
to express them, in contemplating the character, attributes, and
services of the parental Chief, under whose auspices we trod together
the field of honor. To the profound veneration and love for his memory
that penetrates your bosom, we refer you as to a transcript of our own.
It would be vain to imagine the joy that would swell the great mind
of Washington, were he still living to recognize with our nation, the
generous disinterestedness, the glowing ardor, the personal sacrifices,
and the gallant achievements of his much loved Fayette. But it is
equally vain to endeavor on this occasion, to exclude such interesting
reflections from the mind, or to deny it the melancholy pleasure of
lingering on the solemn reality, that not a single individual of the
General Staff of the army of the American Revolution now survives to
participate in the joy that your presence in the United States has

"To us it is peculiarly grateful that you are permitted after a lapse of
so long a period, to witness the consummation of the principles of our
revolution. You will perceive, sir, that the hopes and predictions of
the wise and good men who were your particular associates in the arduous
struggle, have been fulfilled and surpassed. You will behold a great
people united in their principles of jurisprudence, cemented together
by the strong ties of mutual interests and happy under the fostering
influence of a free and energetic government.

"You will, therefore, allow us to reiterate our felicitations on your
safe arrival among us, and to welcome you once more to the good land
which your youthful valor contributed to elevate and distinguish.

"May your future life be as tranquil and happy as your past has been
useful, uniform, and glorious."

To which the General returned the following answer:

"Amidst the inexpressible enjoyments which press upon my heart, I could
not but feel particularly eager and happy to meet my beloved brothers in
arms. Many, many, I call in vain; and at the head of them, our matchless
paternal Chief, whose love to an adopted son, I am proud to say, you
have long witnessed--But while we mourn together, for those we have
lost, while I find a consolation, in the sight of their relations
and friends, it is to me a delightful gratification, to recognise my
surviving companions of our revolutionary army--that army so brave, so
virtuous, so united by mutual confidence and affection. That we have
been the faithful soldiers of independence, freedom, and equality,
those three essential requisites of national and personal dignity and
happiness; that we have lived to see those sacred principles secured to
this vast Republic, and cherished elsewhere by all generous minds, shall
be the pride of our life, the boast of our children, the comfort of our
last moments.--Receive, my dear brother soldiers, the grateful thanks,
and constant love of your old companion and friend."

On Wednesday was the anniversary of commencement in Harvard University,
at Cambridge. The corporation had requested the president, to send
a particular invitation to General Lafayette, to be present on the
occasion. He had expressed a wish, soon after his arrival at New-York,
to attend that literary anniversary. The corporation heard of his
intention with great satisfaction. They were sensible of his love of
literature, and of his attachment to this ancient seminary. And they
remembered, that the governors of the college appreciated his merits
_forty years_ before, by conferring upon him the highest honors they
could bestow. At a meeting of the corporation on the 21st of August, it
was voted--

"That the corporation learn with peculiar satisfaction, the intention
of General Lafayette to visit this part of our country, at the period of
the approaching commencement, and regard the event as auspicious to that
joyous and interesting anniversary; and respectfully request, that he
will favor the university with his company on that occasion; and thereby
afford to the members of the university, and to those who are candidates
for its honors, the opportunity of seeing and honoring the distinguished
patriot and soldier, whose willing sacrifices and valuable services
were devoted to the cause which has secured to the successive races of
American youth, the blessings of education in a land of freedom; and
whose virtuous and glorious career holds forth to the rising generation,
a bright example of the qualities which ought to adorn those, who aspire
to aid in the councils, or maintain the rights and interests of a free

General Lafayette was escorted from Boson to Cambridge, on Wednesday
morning, by a company of cavalry, and accompanied by the Governor
and Supreme Executive Council of the Commonwealth. In passing through
Cambridge Port, he was gratefully cheered by the assembled citizens, and
eloquently addressed by one of the most distinguished, in the name of
the whole. The reply of Lafayette was characteristic and affectionate.
He was met by the Corporation and Professors, on his arriving within the
precincts of the college, and thus addressed by the learned President

"We bid you welcome, General Lafayette, to the most ancient of the
seminaries of our land. The Overseers and Fellows of the University, the
Professors and other officers, the candidates for the academic honors
of this day, and the students, tender you their respectful, their
affectionate salutations. We greet you with peculiar pleasure, at
this literary festival, gratified that, you regard the occasion with
interest, and espouse the attachment, which as members of a republic, we
cannot fail to cherish to the cause of learning and education.

"As a man, sustaining his part through various scenes, prosperous and
adverse, of an eventful life, your character and course, marked by moral
dignity, have challenged particular respect and sympathy. As the patron,
the champion and benefactor of America, you have a relation to us, by
which we call you our own, and join gratitude and affection to exalted
esteem. The early and costly pledges you gave of devotion to the
principles and spirit of our institutions, your adoption of our perilous
and uncertain contest for national existence, your friendship in the
hour of our greatest need, have associated your name in the minds and
hearts of Americans, with the dearest and most affecting recollections.
The fathers teach their children, and the instructors their pupils, to
hold you in love and honor; and the history of these states takes charge
of your claims to the grateful remembrance of all future generations.

"It is a pleasing reflection attending the progress of these
communities, that it justifies our friends and supporters; and that the
predilections and hopes in our favor, which you indulged in the ardor
of youth, have been followed by good auspices till your advanced age.
We are, indeed, happy in presenting you the fruit of your toils and
dangers, in the kindly operation of the causes, which you did so much to
call into action, and we rejoice in every demonstration we are able
to give, that your care for us has not been vain. Knowing how you
feel yourself to have a property in our welfare, and sensible of the
enjoyment accruing to your generous spirit from our prosperity, we find
in these considerations, new motives to maintain liberty with ardor; and
in the exercise of our functions, feel bound to endeavour to send out
from our care, enlightened and virtuous men, employing their influence
to secure to their country the advantages, and prevent and remedy the
evils attending the wide diffusion among a people of political power.

"Accept our wishes and prayers for your health and happiness. May the
Invisible Hand which has been your safeguard thus far, continue its
protecting care. May the Supreme Disposer, the Witness and Judge of
character and conduct, having appointed you a long and tranquil evening
of days, receive you to the final and glorious reward of the faithful in
a perfect state."

The following is the substance of the General's reply:--

"It is with real pleasure, sir, that I find myself again at this
University, which I visited for the first time, more than forty years
ago. The great improvements which have been made here during the
interval, are striking evidences of the tendency of liberal political
institutions, to promote the progress of civilization and learning.
I beg, you to accept my warmest thanks for your kind expressions of
personal civility to myself, and my best wishes for the continued
prosperity of the valuable establishment over which you preside."

When he entered the place provided for the celebration of commencement,
where a numerous company of ladies and gentlemen had assembled, to
attend the ceremonies and literary performances of the day, there was
an instantaneous and universal acclamation; not stunning and boisterous;
but the decorous and chastened greeting of an intelligent audience. When
he, reached the stage, he bowed repeatedly to the assembly, with great
apparent sensibility. Several of the young gentlemen, alluded to him in
their orations; and some dwelt particularly on his early devotion to the
cause of America in the struggle for independence, with great effect.
These notices, though short and indirect, were calculated to excite the
grateful recollections of the audience; who responded to the sentiments
with enthusiastic acclamations.

Thursday and Saturday mornings, for several hours, he received the
personal compliments and congratulations of a great number of the
inhabitants of Boston and vicinity, of both sexes. They were presented
to him, on the spacious area of the ground floor of the State House.
The house provided for his residence while in the city, though unusually
large, was not well adapted for such crowds of visitors as pressed to
behold him. Many aged people were presented, who had served with him in
the revolutionary war, or recollected events of that period, which they
were desirous to relate. Some were on crutches, and others bared their
arms to show the honorable scars occasioned by the bayonet or ball of
the enemy, in the "glorious fight" for freedom. Some could boast of
having fought under his command, or by his side, at Brandywine and
Monmouth; and others, that followed in his path of peril and glory in
Virginia, in 1781, and assisted in successfully storming the redoubt at
Yorktown, on the memorable evening of the 15th of October, which decided
the fate of Cornwallis.

He seized the hands of these his old companions in arms, with great
eagerness and emotion; and while they, in the honest pride of their
souls related their "hair-breadth escapes," which led the spectators
almost to envy their claims to such honourable boasting, the veteran
hero exclaimed, "O my brave Light Infantry! My gallant troops!"--Several
aged citizens who were personally engaged in opposing the British forces
who marched to Lexington and Concord, for the purpose of destroying the
Provincial stores collected at the latter place, were present at this
interview. A gun was also shown to General Lafayette, from which was
fired the ball, which killed the first of the regular troops slain on
that memorable occasion. These meetings revived recollections important
to be preserved, and served to remind the rising generations of the
principles and deeds of their fathers. We trust they did not awaken any
angry or hostile feelings towards an ancient enemy; but served only to
kindle our gratitude to Almighty God, for his gracious interpositions in
our behalf, and to perpetuate our respect for the remains of those who
offered up their lives for our freedom and welfare.

On Thursday, by particular request of the literary society of "_Phi Beta
Kappa_," so called, in the university, General Lafayette attended
the celebration of their anniversary at Cambridge. It was never known
before, that any one, however distinguished either for literature or
virtue, was invited to dine with the society, unless a member of some
other branch of the association. The departure in this case, from the
invariable usages and rules of the society, is proof of the very high
estimation in which Lafayette is held, and of the disposition, in all
classes of citizens, to manifest their respect for his character. He
proceeded to the university, about 1 o'clock, when he was again greeted
with the hearty cheers of the citizens, as he passed the high-way,
and when he arrived. The public performances on this occasion, were an
oration and a poem. The latter was prepared at very short notice,
and had particular reference to the visit of the illustrious hero and
philanthropist, Lafayette. It purported to be the vision of the _Genius
of Liberty_. It was a felicitous effort of the poetic muse. The gradual
but certain dissolution of ancient despotic systems was predicted, as by
the spirit of inspiration; and the blessings and joys of well regulated
freedom were described with a masterly pencil, as extending and
spreading in all parts of the civilized world. It was the electrifying
voice of genius speaking to hearts full of gratitude and swelling with
joyous emotions.

The orator was not less happy in his subject, nor less ingenious and
eloquent in its illustration. His object was to present, in all its
force, the motive to intellectual and literary effort. He assumed the
progressive nature of the human mind; referred to the advances already
made in science and the arts, and in civil governments; noticed the
tendencies in society to higher improvements; and glanced at the
facilities for social happiness and intellectual and moral excellence,
in this western world, under our mild and republican institutions.
It was an uncommon display of talent and research, and of profound
observations on the present, improved and improving condition of man. He
pointed out the happy destiny which awaited the United States, which a
powerful imagination had predicted, but which sober facts also authorize
us to expect; and called upon the literary and patriotic youth of our
country to use all honorable efforts for hastening on this glorious
issue. In speaking of the wisdom, firmness and courage of our patriotic
fathers, by whom our liberties were secured, and our independence
established, he paid a just tribute to the disinterested and heroic
services of Lafayette, who cherished and aided our cause in the most
gloomy periods of the war. The reference was most appropriate; and the
statement of his zeal and efforts in our behalf, produced such a deep
conviction of his devotion to America, and of his influence in
obtaining the support of France, which, probably, saved our country from
subjugation, that a deep and strong emotion was produced in the whole
immense concourse; which, subdued as it was for a time, burst forth,
at last, in overwhelming and almost convulsive agitations. The orator
seemed not to aim at such an extraordinary impression. He reminded
his hearers indeed of "truths surpassing fiction;" he brought to their
recollection past scenes of danger endured, the generous and heroic
deeds performed--he spake of the "Paternal Chief," who was the guide
and support of other brave spirits, now laid low in the silence of
death--The effect was wonderful: the whole audience were melted into
tears of mingled gratitude and respect; gratitude for such patriotic
services, and of respect for the memories of men, who had secured the
blessings of civil liberty to the immense and increasing population of
this extensive country. Lafayette was very sensibly affected, by this
unexpected expression of gratitude for his early services, and by the
strong emotions manifested by the assembly, at the name of Washington.
The hours passed in the dining hall were consecrated to reminiscences of
the interesting events which occurred in the revolutionary contest, to
grateful recollections of the statesmen and heroes, who advocated and
defended the cause of freedom, and thus led the way in the glorious
march of human improvement and happiness, which the present generation
is so rapidly pursuing. Here were assembled the judges of the land, the
ministers of religion, the legislators of the state and nation,
several of the heroes of the revolution, and numerous eminent literary
characters from various parts of the United States, to unite with the
younger sons of Harvard, in offerings of affectionate gratitude to a
man, who had no gifts of power or titles of honor to bestow; but whose
useful services and uniform course of honorable and benevolent purpose,
in their estimation, claimed a higher tribute than was due to sceptered
princes, or the most renowned conquerors of ancient or modern times.

On Friday morning, committees from Portsmouth, Portland, Newport,
Haverhill, Newburyport, Plymouth, and from Bowdoin College, inviting him
to visit those respective places; where the people were desirous to see
him, and to offer personally their welcome salutations. He was unable to
comply with these flattering invitations, as he had engaged to return
to New-York, at an early day. But he received these testimonies of
attachment with great sensibility; and expressed a hope to visit them
before his final departure from the United States. He left his place of
residence in Boston at 10 o'clock, accompanied by Governor Eustis and
suit, Governor Brooks, the deputation from New-York, the Mayor and
committee of arrangements of Boston, and proceeded to Charlestown, which
he previously engaged to visit, at this time. As he passed through the
streets in the north part of the city, the people pressed around him,
testifying their regard, and cheering him on his way with repeated
acclamations. Raised arches, wreathes of evergreen, and variegated
colours added to the brilliancy of the scene. He was met at the
centre of the bridge, which is the dividing line between Boston and
Charlestown, by the Chief Marshal and his aids, and conducted to the
square, where a committee of the citizens of that town was in waiting to
receive him. A procession was then formed, headed by two marshals, and
escorted by a regiment of light infantry, and a battalion of artillery,
with martial music, consisting of the committee of arrangements, General
Lafayette, his son and friend who accompanied him from France; the
Governor and suite, Governor Brooks and General Dearborn, Judges of
the Courts and members of the Supreme Executive Council of the State;
deputation from New-York, Mayor and committee of Boston, officers of
the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the State;
strangers of distinction, and civil officers of the town of Charlestown.
It proceeded to Bunker Hill, where the chairman of the committee of the
town, addressed Lafayette as follows:--


"In behalf of the inhabitants of Charlestown, the committee of
arrangements present their respectful salutations to General Lafayette,
and bid him a cordial welcome to this town. This joyful occasion revives
high national feelings and recollections, and touches the springs of
gratitude by reminding us of that interesting period of our history,
which gave to our country a gallant hero, and to the rights of mankind a
steadfast champion. While we participate in the thrill of delight,
which every where hails the visit of our illustrious friend, we cannot
suppress the peculiar emotion of our hearts on receiving you, sir, on
the memorable heights of _Bunker_. On this holy ground, immortalized by
the dead, and sacred to the manes of revolutionary heroes: Over these
heights, liberty once moved in blood and tears;--her chariot on wheels
of fire. Now she comes to her car of peace and glory; drawn by the
affections of a happy people, to crown on these same heights, with civic
honors, a favorite son, whose early strength was given to her sacred
struggles, and whose riper years are now permitted to behold the
splendor of her triumphs. In the fullness of our hearts we give thanks
to Almighty God, who has guided and guarded your high career of peril
and renown.

"Permit us, beloved General, again to welcome you to our borders;--to
express our ardent hopes, that your valuable life may be prolonged to
the utmost limits of earthly happiness;--that the land which has been
enriched with the dew of your youth, may be honored as the asylum of
your old age;--that the country which now blends your fame with the
mild lustre of Washington, may henceforth hail you as a citizen of
Washington's country;--and that, during the residue of your years, you
may live amidst the attentions, as you will forever live in the hearts
of a grateful and admiring people."

To this address the General replied--

"With profound reverence, sir, I tread this holy ground, where the blood
of American patriots--the blood of Warren and his companions, early and
gloriously spilled, aroused the energy of three millions, and secured
the happiness of ten millions, and of many other millions of men
in times to come. That blood has called both American continents to
republican independence, and has awakened the nations of Europe to a
sense, and in future, I hope, to the practice of their rights. Such
have been the effects of a resistance to oppression, which was, by many
pretended wise men of the times, called rashness; while it was duty,
virtue;--and has been a signal for the emancipation of mankind.

"I beg you, sir, and the magistrates, and the citizens of Charlestown,
to accept the homage of my gratitude for your kind welcome, and of those
sentiments of affection and respect, which, for so many years, I have
cherished toward their town."

While on this memorable eminence, he was informed by Governor Brooks, of
the recent association for erecting a monumental pillar on that hallowed
spot, to perpetuate the remembrance of the justly celebrated battle of
the 17th of June, 1775; when a few regiments of undisciplined militia,
made a brave stand against a large regular British force, commanded by
generals of great experience and courage. This great event, so important
in the annals of our country, as it convinced the English government
of the resolution of the colonies to maintain the liberty which they
claimed, and of the daring courage of the American people. This event is
to be commemorated in June next, when fifty years will be completed,
by an oration, and other public appropriate services and ceremonies.
General Lafayette expressed great satisfaction of the proposal. He
requested that he might be considered a subscriber for the monument; and
assured the gentlemen present, that it would be his wish and endeavour
to attend the celebration.

General Lafayette availed of this opportunity to visit the navy yard,
in Charlestown, belonging to the United States, in compliance with a
previous invitation from the officer commanding on the station: and he
appeared highly gratified with the establishment in all its departments.
He agrees entirely with those enlightened politicians of our own
country, who have always considered a naval force of great advantage to
America, if not absolutely necessary to our Independence. He dined
this day with his Excellency the Governor, in company with several
revolutionary veterans, and a large number of public characters of this
and the neighbouring states, who were then on a visit to the capital.

Saturday, after receiving the salutations of the citizens, who were
desirous of being presented to him, he set off for Medford, to visit
his particular and valued friend, Governor Brooks. His reception in this
beautiful village, is represented as very interesting. The citizens had
comparatively short notice of the visit to that place; but they greeted
him with great cordiality, and the honors bestowed were not unworthy
of their distinguished guest. The main streets and the houses which he
passed before he reached the mansion of Governor Brooks, were filled
with children and people, who repeatedly bid him welcome, with great
cordiality, and expressed their gratitude and joy on beholding the man,
who they had learned, had done so much for their beloved country;
and who was the respected friend of one among them, whom they always
delighted to honor. A company of artillery fired a salute, as he entered
the village; and several arches were thrown across the street, decorated
with flags, and wreaths of flowers and evergreens. Under one of them he
was met by the selectmen, one of whom thus addressed him--


"The selectmen of Medford, as the representatives of the town, deem it a
grateful and honorable part of their duty to bid you welcome.

"They are proud, sir, that Medford is the birthplace of one of your
companions in arms--a man, who by his bravery in the field, his
patriotism and civic virtues, contributed to acquire as much glory to
our country, as honor to himself.

"We rejoice, sir, that you both live to meet again, and to enjoy
together the consolations fairly derived from your virtuous and heroic

"The minds of our countrymen traced your course with anxious solicitude,
through the French revolution, from your first success in the cause of
liberty, until the spirit of oppression confined you to a dungeon; and
their hearts were gladdened, when, by the influence of our great and
good Washington, their friend was at last set free. In the rich harvest
you are now gathering of the expressions of esteem and gratitude of
this numerous people, whose freedom and happiness your exertions
so essentially contributed to establish, we hope you will find some
compensation for all your trials, sacrifices and sufferings; and we feel
much complacency, that, in this respect you have gained so complete a
triumph over the monarchs of the world.

"Again sir, we bid you a most cordial welcome; and hope, the
testimonials of approbation you are receiving from every heart and
every tongue, will forever retain an instructive lesson to mankind,
that patriots who endure faithfully to the end, shall not lose their

The General said in reply--"I am most happy in visiting my old brother
soldier and friend, General Brooks, to be received with so kind a
welcome: You speak of _compensation_, sir; the smallest part of the
delight which I have experienced in America, would more than repay me
for all my services and all my sufferings."

Several evening parties were given in honor of Lafayette, while he
was in Boston, by some of its most distinguished citizens. On these
occasions, he manifested great pleasure on meeting the children or
relatives of the patriots of our revolution, with many of whom he had a
personal acquaintance. It was delightful to observe the eagerness with
which the ladies, old and young, pressed around him and the pride with
which they boasted of hawing taken his hand. His countenance and manner
discovered the joy which filled his heart, in cherishing recollections
of past services, which he might indulge without vanity; and in
perceiving the gratitude, which a deep sense of those services excited
among all classes. He manifested a desire to attend the religious
service of the Sabbath at the church in Brattle-street, where he had
formerly joined in worship with Bowdoin, Hancock and Cooper; he was
accordingly conducted there, accompanied by the Mayor of the City and
Chief Justice of the State. The sermon, by the learned and pious pastor
of that Church, which was an occasional one, was happily calculated
to direct and chasten the feelings of the audience. He inculcated the
sacred duty of confidence and joy in the providence and moral government
of God, and of gratitude to those who had been raised up to be
instruments of extensive blessings to our country. The most ardent
were gratified, while the more sober and devout were pleased, that no
complimentary panegyric was pronounced incompatible with the solemnity
of the place and day. In the afternoon he visited. Hon. John Adams at
Quincy; the truly venerable patriot of 1775; a decided, zealous advocate
for independence in 1776; the able and faithful minister of the nation,
at foreign courts; and sometime President of the United States.
Mr. Adams is eighty-eight years of age, and his constitution much
debilitated within a few years. But his powerful mind is still bright
and vigorous; and he dwells with great enthusiasm upon the glorious
prospects of our rising empire. His highly valuable services to the
country can never be forgotten. For no one, if Washington be excepted,
among the many firm asserters of our rights in the struggle for
independence, could justly claim a greater portion of gratitude and
praise from the present generation.

Desirous of offering all due honors to General Lafayette, and knowing
his taste for military exhibitions, the Governor ordered the militia of
Boston, which constituted a brigade, of the first division, and an equal
number from Essex and Middlesex, which included the second and third
divisions, to assemble on the Common in the city of Boston, on Monday,
the 30th of August; This was really a proud day, particularly for the
citizen soldiers of Massachusetts; but _all_ classes of the people
enjoyed this imposing and honorable display. For our militia are justly
considered the ornament as well as the defence of the republic.
Citizens of all professions take an interest in their appearance, their
discipline and their reputation. The ranks are composed of our valuable
and industrious population; and their officers are to be found among
our respectable mechanics, merchants and professional gentlemen. The
exhibition was the most splendid of the kind recollected by the oldest
inhabitants. There were above five thousand men armed and equipped, and
their appearance and movements would have done credit to regular troops.
Their officers are men of talents and ambition. The impression made upon
the minds of a great concourse of distinguished citizens, in the civil
department, who were present, was highly creditable to our military
system, and to those, whose duty it is to attend to the execution of
laws on the subject. The Governor, as Commander in Chief, had ordered a
spacious marque to be erected, where upwards of fifteen hundred people
were accommodated in partaking of an abundant collation; rations were
also dealt out to all the troops on duty at the expense of the State.
The spectacle was most magnificent. The officers and soldiers did
themselves and the State great honor by their exact discipline and
soldierly appearance; and by the promptness and regularity of their
movements. The illustrious visitor was highly pleased, the strangers
were gratified; and the militia themselves felt a conscious pride, in
having an opportunity to offer appropriate salutations to one who was
both a soldier and a philanthropist.

Should it be supposed by the sober citizens of other countries, or
by those in our own, who did not join in these offerings of grateful
admiration to Lafayette, and who therefore could have felt nothing of
the enthusiasm which such scenes are calculated to produce; that there
was too much parade or an undue measure of sensibility manifested on
this occasion; it may be proper to observe, that no conclusion is to be
drawn from this great rejoicing, that the people of Boston, or in fact
of the United States, are disposed to pay higher regard to eminent
men of the military than in the civil department; or that they have
so little discrimination, as to bestow applause upon merely splendid
achievements. It is believed to be a fact, that the most intelligent and
sober part of the community were as ready to engage in these processions
and ceremonies as those of the more common and uninformed class of
citizens. How could it be otherwise? These are convincing proofs of the
zeal, disinterestedness and devotion of General Lafayette to the
cause of American liberty and independence--of his bravery, activity,
judgment, constancy and fidelity--of his attachment to Washington and
other patriots, and of their regard for him; and of his uniform support
of regulated liberty in his own country. In his early days, he had
risked every thing and had done every thing which an individual could
possibly endure or attempt, in our behalf. He had now in advanced life,
left his own beloved retirement in a distant hemisphere, to visit this
land of liberty, and of his affections; to behold the prosperity,
order, enjoyment and felicity of a great people. His character, too, is
unstained by bloodshed and crime; it is consecrated on the contrary by
the prayers, and tears and benedictions, of all good men in America and
Europe. Who then will censure or wonder, that he should be received
by the moral and sober people of America, with all that cordiality and
enthusiasm, which were discovered on his arrival among us? We do not
forget Washington; our beloved, and almost adored Washington--nor are
we insensible to the merits and virtues of other statesmen and heroes
of our own country. But, surely we may be allowed to greet this old
distinguished benefactor, with a cordial welcome, without subjecting
ourselves to the charge of extravagance or caprice.

The character of the militia in Boston, and generally through the state,
has been much improved within the last fifteen years. They have recently
adopted a cheap uniform; and great improvements have been made in
adopting the modern system of tactics. The independent companies
need not decline a comparison with regular troops; and, what is very
important to the respectability of the militia, their officers are
intelligent and ambitious, and actuated by a patriotic spirit, which
is a pledge of fidelity and a stimulus to honorable exertion. The high
praise bestowed upon the militia at this review, was justly merited.

General Lafayette left Boston on Tuesday morning for Portsmouth, in the
state of New Hampshire, intending to pass through Marblehead, Salem and
Newburyport, on his way to the former place. A number of distinguished
citizens, and a Committee of the City Council accompanied him to the
northern line of the city; and the governor's aids attended him to the
extreme part of the state adjoining New Hampshire. On his route, he was
greeted by the inhabitants of Chesea, Lynn and Marblehead, with great
feeling and respect, alike honourable to themselves and gratifying to
the friend and guest of the nation. Addresses were also made to him, in
these several towns, expressive of their gratitude for his services,
and of the lively sense they had of his present visit to the country. He
took breakfast at Marblehead, where almost the whole population of this
industrious and patriotic town were presented to him. He also met here,
some gentlemen celebrated for their naval exploits in the war of the

His reception at Salem was very distinguished and splendid. At the
entrance of the town, he was met by the selectmen and committee, a
numerous cavalcade, and a large body of citizens in carriages, and
received a salute of artillery; on advancing a short distance within
the bounds of the town, the bells commenced ringing, and the escort was
joined by a battalion of light infantry, and a body of seamen, of about
two hundred, in blue jackets and white trousers, with ribbons on their
hats, stamped with the name of Lafayette.

"With the hearty cheers of these hardy sons of Neptune, the General
appeared to be peculiarly impressed. Over South Salem bridge were
two tastefully decorated arches--one bearing the inscription "WELCOME
ILLUSTRIOUS CHIEF! _Receive the pledges of thy Children to sustain
with fidelity the principles that first associated_ LAFAYETTE _with
the destinies of America_." These arches were surrounded by an immense
number of citizens, who made the air ring with their huzzas and
welcomes. The figure of an Indian Chief characteristically dressed, bore
labels inscribed "_Lafayette and Liberty. Welcome generous Lafayette_."

"The procession passed through the principal streets, which were
thronged with spectators; while the windows of the houses were crowded
with females, all eager to see and welcome the heroic visitor.

"Civic Arches, historical and patriotic Inscriptions, memorable eras,
wreaths of flowers and evergreens, banners and flags, were displayed
in many of the streets, enlivening the scene, animating the cheers, and
affording grateful recollections.

"Central street was gaily dressed in colours, and on an elegant arch
were inscribed the names of distinguished patriots of the revolution,
crowned with those of WASHINGTON and LAFAYETTE. In North-street a
similar arch bore the inscription:--"_Honor to him who fought and bled
for the peace and happiness we now enjoy_." On an arch at Buffum's
corner, was inscribed, "LAFAYETTE, _the friend of Liberty, we welcome
to the land of liberty. He did not forget us in our adversity--In our
prosperity we remember his services with gratitude_." Near the above,
another arch bore a likeness of Lafayette, surmounted by an eagle.

"Near the avenue leading to the bridge at which, in February, 1775,
Col. LESLIE, with a detachment of the British 64th regiment, met with a
repulse in an attempt to carry off some canon deposited in the vicinity,
were banners, with the following inscription:--

  _"Leslie's Repulse_, 1775.
  _Lafayette's Renown_, 1824."

"In Winter-street an arch bore the following inscription on American
duck, made at the factory in Salem--


  "While winds shall blow, and seas shall roll,
  While aught remains that's good and great,
  Our _Native Duck_, from pole to pole,
  Shall waft the fame of Lafayette."

"Washington-square was decorated with two arches, tastefully ornamented,
one bearing the name of the General in oaken characters and the second a
bust of Washington.

"On Washington-square the General passed between two lines of
boys, about one thousand in number, arrayed under their respective
instructors, all bearing Lafayette badges. One of the gates of the
square bore this inscription.--"_The children welcome with joy, the
illustrious benefactor of their fathers_." And as the General passed,
they shouted "_Welcome Lafayette_."

"Notwithstanding the heavy rain, this youthful band could not be
prevailed upon to leave the ground, but remained bravely at their post
until they had shared with their parents in the honor and happiness of
greeting the nation's guest.

"From Washington-square the procession passed to the Coffee-House, now
named _Lafayete Coffee-House_ (late _Essex;_) where, on a temporary
stage, erected in front of the house, the Committee of Arrangements
received their illustrious guest, and Judge Story, the president of the
day, in the most interesting and eloquent manner, welcomed him in the
following address:--


"SIR--Forty years have elapsed since the inhabitants of this town had
the pleasure to welcome you within its limits. Many, who then hailed
your arrival with pride and exultation, have descended to the grave,
and cannot greet you on your long desired, return. But, thanks to a good
providence, many are yet alive, who recollect with grateful sensibility,
the universal joy of that occasion. Your disinterested zeal in embarking
is a cause, deemed almost hopeless--your personal sacrifices in quitting
a home, endeared by all the blessings with which affection and virtue
can adorn life--your toils and perils in the conflicts of war, and
the vicissitudes of a discouraging service--your modest dignity and
enthusiasm on receiving the homage of a free people--these were all
fresh in their memories, and gave an interest to the scene, which cannot
be described, but which time has hallowed with his most touching grace.
I stand now in the presence of some, venerable in age and character, who
were the delighted witnesses of that interview, and whose hearts again
glow with the feelings of that happy day.

"To us of a younger generation--the descendants of your early friends
and companions in arms, a different but not less interesting privilege
belongs. We are allowed the enviable distinction of meeting in his riper
years, one, whom our fathers loved in their youth. We welcome you to our
country, to our homes, to our hearts. We have read the history of your
achievements, your honors, and your sufferings! They are associated
with all that is dear to us--with the battle-grounds, consecrated by
the blood of our heroes--with the tender recollections of our departed
statesmen--with the affectionate reverence of our surviving patriots.
Can we forget that our country was poor and struggling alone in the
doubtful contest for Independence, and you crossed the Atlantic at the
hazard of fortune, fame and life, to cheer us in our defence? That you
recrossed it to solicit naval and military succors from the throne
of France, and returned with triumphant success? That your gallantry
checked in the southern campaigns, the inroads of a brave and confident
enemy? That your military labours closed only with the surrender at
Yorktown, and thus indissolubly united your name with the proud events
of that glorious day? We cannot forget these things if we would--We
would not forget them if we could. They will perish only when America
ceases to be a nation.

"But we have yet higher sources of gratification on the present
occasion. You have been not merely the friend of America, but of France,
and of liberty throughout the world. During a long life in the most
trying scenes, you have done no act for which virtue need blush or
humanity weep. Your private character has not cast a shade on your
public honors. In the palaces of Paris and the dungeons of Olmutz, in
the splendor of power, and the gloom of banishment, you have been the
friend of justice, and the asserter of the rights of man. Under every
misfortune, you have never deserted your principles. What earthly prince
can afford consolation like this? The favor of princes, and the applause
of senates, sink into absolute nothingness, in comparison with the
approving conscience of a life devoted to the good of mankind. At this
very moment you are realizing the brightest visions of your youth, in
the spectacle of ten millions of people prosperous and happy under
a free government, whose moral strength consists in the courage and
intelligence of its citizens.--These millions welcome your arrival to
the shores of the west with spontaneous unanimity; and the voice which
now addresses you, feeble as it is, repeats but the thoughts that are
ready to burst from the lips of every American."

The General's reply was in his usual manner.--It was brief,
affectionate, and full of feeling.

An impressive circumstance occurred in the delivery of the
address.--When the Judge came to that part which says, "_We could not
forget them if we would; we would not forget them, if we could_;" the
spontaneous assent of the assembled people to the sentiment, was given
by "_No, never_;" repeated by thousands of voices, and accompanied by
deafening shouts of applause.

A great number of introductions to the General took place. Of them, were
several revolutionary officers and soldiers.

At Beverly and Ipswich he received from the assembled inhabitants, the
same cordial welcome with which he had been greeted in other towns,
through which he passed. The selectmen of these places waited on him,
and offered him the congratulations of their fellow citizens; the people
greeted him with repeated cheers of "_welcome, welcome Lafayette_;" and
arches were erected at several public places, containing appropriate
mottoes. The houses of the villages through which he passed, after the
evening set in, were brilliantly illuminated.

It was evening when he arrived at Ipswich, and the weather was very
inclement. The inhabitants had, therefore, assembled in the meeting
house to receive him. Thither he was conducted by a committee of the
town; and on his entrance, he was greeted with great exultation and joy.
One of the committee addressed him as follows:--


"Accept from the people of Ipswich, their cordial congratulations on
your arrival in their country and within their own borders. To this
ancient town, sir, we bid you a joyful welcome.

"Having devoted to our beloved country, in her weak and critical
situation, the vigor of your youth and the resources of a mind intent
on the cause of freedom and humanity, and committed to a common lot with
her, your own destinies,--that country can never forget the services
you rendered, and the sacrifices you incurred, for her defence and
protection, when assailed by overbearing power.

"We rejoice in having an opportunity of presenting ourselves in this
house, consecrated to the worship of the God of our fathers, who has
kindly raised up friends and patrons of the cause of our country and of
liberty, to pay to you our grateful respect for your eminent labours.

"Most of those who acted in, or witnessed the great scenes in which you
bore so conspicuous a part, have now descended to the tombs of their
fathers. The present generation can rehearse only what they have heard
with their ears, and their fathers have told them. But the name of
Lafayette is not confined to any generation. While the liberties of
America shall endure, it will descend from father to son, associated
with those of the immortal Washington, and other heroes and sages of our
revolution, as the friend of our country, of liberty, and of man.

"Illustrious benefactor--may the blessing of Heaven ever attend you, and
may your remaining days be as happy, as your past have been perilous,
useful and honorable."

To which the General made the following reply:--


"The attentions paid me by my American friends, I receive with
inexpressible gratitude. I regret that so many of my friends here,
should be exposed on my account to this storm. I have ever considered it
my pride and my honor, that I embarked in the cause of Independence in
this country; and I rejoiced when I found myself again landed on the
American shores. You, kind sir, the people of this town, and all who are
assembled in this solemn place, will please to accept my thanks for
this expression of your attachment, and receive my best wishes for your
individual prosperity and happiness."

He reached Newburyport a little past ten o'clock, where he passed the
night. His lodgings were the same which Washington occupied, when he
made his tour through the northern states, in 1789, the first year of
his presidency. The following address was made to him, by the chairman
of a committee of that town:--


"The citizens of Newburyport are happy in this opportunity of greeting,
with the warmest welcome, a distinguished benefactor of their country.

"The important services, which you rendered this people in the day of
their distress; the devotedness which you manifested in their perilous
cause, and the dangers which you _sought_ for their relief, are
incorporated in our history, and firmly engraved upon our hearts.

"We would lead you to our institutions of learning, charity and
religion; we would point you to our hills and valleys covered with
flocks, and smiling in abundance, that you may behold the happy effects
of those principles of liberty, which you was so instrumental in

"Our children cluster about you to receive a patriot's blessing. Our
citizens press forward to show their gratitude. Our nation pays you a
tribute, which must remove the reproach that republics are ungrateful.

"As the zealous advocate for civil liberty, we bid you welcome; as
the brave defender of an oppressed people, we make you welcome; as the
friend and associate of our immortal Washington, we bid you welcome."

General Lafayette replied in his usually courteous and animated manner,
and evincing his great sensibility to the kind and friendly greetings
with which he had been received. He here also met several veterans of
the revolutionary army; a gratification which he enjoyed in almost every
place he visited. Though the number is rapidly lessening, a few remain
in most of the populous towns of the Commonwealth.

He left Newburyport Wednesday morning for the capital of New-Hampshire.
The escort contemplated to have attended on his way to the bounds of
the state, was prevented by the heavy rain. It was at his urgent
request that it was dispensed with. The committee of the town however,
accompanied him to Hampton; where he was met by a deputation from
Portsmouth, and conducted on his intended route. When passing through
Greenland, a procession of the citizens was formed, by which he was
attended through the villages. Here he was welcomed also by salutes from
an artillery company, by civic arches and repeated acclamations of the
assembled people. One of the arches was supported by two young ladies,
representing LIBERTY and PEACE. One presented him a wreath, adorned with
flowers, and said, "_Venerable sire, condescend to receive this emblem
of the hero's glory, as the token of a nation's gratitude and love_."
The other presented him the olive branch, saying, "_Good and faithful
servant, peace and happiness await you_." He received these with
complacency, took each young lady by the hand, and made an affectionate

He then proceeded to Portsmouth, where he arrived about noon. He was
conducted into this town by an escort on horseback, and a procession
of carriages, (the whole extending two miles) composed of the civil,
judicial and legislative authorities; officers of the United States
and of New-Hampshire, &c. &c. The margins of the avenue leading to the
centre of the town, was lined with children, with the inhabitants of
both sexes in the rear; who greeted him with their cordial welcomes and
repeated acclamations. Salutes were fired, and the bells rang a joyous
peal; and the streets through which the procession passed, were crowned
with arches, decorated with wreaths of evergreen and garlands of
flowers. The procession moved through several streets to Franklin Hall:
and here, when General Lafayette alighted, the chairman of the selectmen
addressed him thus:--


"The selectmen of Portsmouth, in behalf of their fellow citizens, most
respectfully and heartily bid you welcome.

"Enjoying, as we do, the happiness of a free government, we cannot but
feel grateful to all, by whose exertions it was obtained. Those intrepid
men among ourselves, who in the hour of danger stood forth in defence
of their country's rights, have a lasting claim upon our regard. But
in contending for the liberty of their country, they were striving to
secure their own happiness, and the prosperity of their children. _They_
found a motive for exertion in their own interest; which, while it
derogates nothing from the value of their services, places in a strong
light, the pure zeal and contempt of private advantage, which led _you_
to our aid, from the shores of a foreign land. _Their_ love of liberty
was necessarily the sentiment of patriotism; _yours_ was an ardent
desire for the general welfare of mankind.

"After an absence of forty years from our country, most of which have
been passed in scenes of unexampled excitement and perplexity, it gives
us peculiar pleasure to find you still the firm and consistent friend of
liberal principles. We have watched the progress of your eventful
life, with unaffected sympathy; and whether at the head of the National
Guards, in the dungeons of Magdeburg and Olmutz, or in the Chamber of
Deputies, we have found nothing to lessen our esteem for _the early
friend of America_.

"Permit us then to receive you as our guest; and to pay you such honors
as are in our power to bestow. They are the voluntary tribute of warm
and grateful hearts. We wish our children to learn, that eminent virtue
affords the highest claim to honorable distinction; and that among a
free people, merit will not fail of its appropriate reward.

"We beg you to accept our sincere wishes for your health and happiness,
and our prayers will be offered, that your example may animate the wise
and good in every nation, to contend manfully and perseveringly for the
freedom and happiness of the world."

To which the General made the following reply:--


"It would have been to me an inexpressible gratification on this first
visit to the eastern parts of the Union, after so long an absence, to
have been able to present the several towns of New-Hampshire with my
personal respect, and to have witnessed the great improvement of
a State, to which I am bound by early sentiments of attachment and

"Obliged as I find myself, to take a southern course towards the seat
of government, at Washington, I am happy to revisit at least the town
of Portsmouth, where the remembrance of past favors, mingles with
most grateful feelings for your present affectionate and flattering

"I thank you, gentlemen, for your constant concern in my behalf, during
the vicissitudes to which you are pleased to allude. The approbation of
a free, virtuous and enlightened people, would be the highest reward
for any one who knows how to value true glory; still more so, when it is
bestowed on an adopted son.

"To the citizens of Portsmouth and their worthy selectmen, I offer my
most respectful and affectionate acknowledgments."

Gov. Morril gave him the hearty welcome of the State, in the following


"Forty years have rolled away since you left this asylum of liberty,
for your native country. During this eventful period our cities have
advanced, and villages have been reared; but our Langdon, our Cilley,
our Poor, our Sullivan, and our Washington have passed from the stage of
human action, and are gone to the land of their fathers. Although they
are gone, their sons survive, and the patriotism and love of liberty
which animated their breasts and excited them to those glorious acts,
during our revolution, in which you, sir, shone so conspicuously, are
now cherished in the bosoms of their posterity;--and we rejoice to
be numbered among them;--and in the name of the patriotic citizens of
New-Hampshire generally, allow me to say, that it is with no ordinary
emotions we receive and welcome you to our State.

"We receive you, sir, as the friend of our nation, of liberty, and the
rights of man.

"We welcome you as the magnanimous hero, who in early life, from the
most pure and disinterested motives, quitted your native country,
and repaired to these Colonies, then the seat of war, (contending for
Independence) to embark in the struggle for the preservation of those
rights, and the achievement of those privileges, which are more precious
to the patriot than life itself. And, sir, it is our ardent desire, that
the gratitude of Republics, but more especially of the Republic of the
United States, and the smiles of Heaven, may rest upon you to the last
period of your life."

The General, in his characteristic reply, alluded very affectionately
to his departed associates; and the interesting changes which have taken
place since he left the country. It is not necessary to add, that he
expressed with emotion his acknowledgments for the cordiality of his

There was a very splendid ball in the evening, in honor of Lafayette,
which he attended, and where a great number of ladies were presented
to him. He left Portsmouth, 11 o'clock at night, to return to Boston,
having engaged to be there on Thursday morning. While at Portsmouth he
received pressing invitations to visit Exeter and Dover, but was obliged
to decline them. He reached Boston about 7 o'clock, Thursday morning;
and after taking some necessary repose, he received a number of
revolutionary officers and soldiers; and deputations from several towns
in the interior, lying on his rout to Connecticut. He then repaired to
the Council Chamber, and took leave of the Governor and other members of
the Supreme Executive: and afterwards set off for Lexington and Concord,
and thence to Boston on his way to Worcester. He left Boston at about
two o'clock, in a carriage provided by the State for his accommodation,
and attended by the committee of arrangements of the city, and by the
Governor's aids, who waited on him to the bounds of Connecticut. When
he left the City, he expressed the gratification and delight he had
experienced from the interesting recollections which had occurred to his
mind, and from the great cordiality and affection with which he had been
received. The Mayor assured him, that he and others were happy in the
opportunity they had to manifest their attachment and respect to the
early and faithful friend of the nation, and the firm and uniform friend
of civil liberty.

When he passed through West Cambridge, the whole population of the
town were assembled to honor the friend and guest of the nation, and
to gratify their patriotic feelings by beholding this justly celebrated
personage. Artillery corps stationed on the eminences adjoining the
public road saluted him as he passed; and the country rung with loud
huzzas and joyful acclamations. At the line of Lexington, he was
received by a troop of horse and cavalcade of citizens, who conducted
him into that ancient town. On his way, he passed under an arch, bearing
this inscription--"_Welcome, friend of America, to the birth place of
American liberty_." Salutes were again fired, and he was then conducted
to the monument erected in memory of the attack of the British troops
upon the militia of that place, April 19, 1775. He was here welcomed
and addressed by one of the citizens in behalf of the town. Near the
monument, he was introduced to _fourteen_ of the militia company, which
had assembled at that time, and on whom the regular troops fired, when
eight of the number were slain.

After this very interesting scene, General Lafayette proceeded to
Concord, and was met at the line between that place and Lexington, by
a committee of the town and a respectable cavalcade of the intelligent
yeomanry of the vicinity; there was also an escort composed of several
companies of militia. The procession, thus formed, moved forward to the
village, and the distinguished visitor was conducted to a spacious bower
prepared for his reception, and tastefully decorated with evergreens and
flowers by the ladies of Concord. As he entered the village, he received
a salute from the artillery corps, and the vocal salutations of the
inhabitants of both sexes, who had assembled to present him their
grateful offerings. The peals of the village bell prolonged the
acclamations of the admiring throng. The following inscription was to
be seen in a conspicuous place in the arbor--"_In 1775, the people
of Concord met the enemies of liberty; In 1824, they welcome the bold
asserter of the rights of man, LAFAYETTE_." A sumptuous repast was
provided for the occasion; and the tables were covered with all the
delicacies the season and country could afford.

When General Lafayette had entered the arbor, one of the citizens
addressed him by the following speech:--

"The inhabitants of Concord, by this delegation, welcome you, General,
to their village. We thank you for affording us an opportunity here to
offer our humble tribute of gratitude for services long since rendered,
but still held in lively recollection. You, sir, now behold the _spot
on which the first forcible resistance_ was made to a system of measures
calculated to deprive the whole people of these States of the privileges
of freemen. You approved this resistance. A just estimate of the
value of rational liberty led you disinterestedly, to participate with
strangers in the toils, the privations, and the dangers of an arduous
contest. From the 19th day of April, 1775, here noted in blood, to the
memorable day in Yorktown, your heart and your sword were with us. Ten
millions of grateful people now enjoy the fruits of this struggle.
We can but repeat to you, sir, the cordial, affectionate, respectful
welcome offered to you at your first arrival on our shores, and which we
are assured will be reiterated wherever you move on American ground."

The General was, as usual, extremely happy in his reply, and alluded
with sensibility to the memorable scenes of April 19, 1775.

The ladies of Concord and vicinity were present at this civic and
patriotic repast; and it added much to the interest and splendour of the
scene. Coffee was served up, as a counter-part of the entertainment; and
Lafayette appeared to be highly pleased with the hearty reception which
he met in this hospitable town. Some revolutionary characters called
upon him here, who had not before seen him since he arrived; and were
received with great cordiality. He spoke of the gun which had been shown
him in Boston, by an inhabitant of Concord or vicinity, and which was
first fired against the ministerial troops of Britain. He said, "it was
the alarm gun to all Europe and to the world. For it was the signal,
which summoned the civilized world to assert their rights, and to become

The visit at Concord was necessarily short as he had engaged to pass the
night at Bolton, about twenty miles distant. He left Concord at sun-set;
and was escorted on his route to Bolton, by a company of cavalry and
several gentlemen of distinction belonging to that place and vicinity.
He was every where greeted by the people, who collected in companies
at various places, to offer him their hearty welcome. The houses on the
road were illuminated, and bonfires were kindled on the adjoining hills.
The militia of Bolton were assembled to receive him, though it was
late in the evening when he arrived. The selectmen offered him their
salutations and welcome in the name of the town. He passed the night at
the hospitable mansion of Mr. W----, where taste, variety and elegance
contributed to render his reception very distinguished. Mr. W---- had
resided much in France, and was particularly acquainted with Lafayette
and family. Committees from Lancaster and Worcester waited on him at
Bolton, to learn his plans and the probable hours of his being in those
places, and to communicate the desires of the people to present him
their tribute of affection and regard. He visited Lancaster early on
Friday morning, where all classes of the inhabitants were assembled to
bid him welcome, and to express the affectionate sentiments by which
their glowing bosoms were animated. A corps of cavalry still escorted
him--a national salute was fired--and the turnpike gate, at the entrance
of the village, was ornamented with garlands of flowers and evergreens,
and displayed this inscription, "_The_ FREE _welcome the_ BRAVE." He
was conducted through lines formed by the citizens of both sexes, to an
elevated platform, prepared in the centre of the village, and near the
church; where he was addressed by the Reverend Pastor--


"In behalf of the inhabitants of Lancaster, I offer you their cordial
congratulations on your arrival in a country, whose wrongs you felt and
resented; whose liberties you valiantly defended; and whose interests
and prospects have always been dear to your soul.

"We all unite with the few surviving veterans, who were with, loved, and
respected you on the high places of the field, in giving you a welcome
to this village, once the chosen residence of savages, and the scene
of their most boasted triumph; and rejoice that you visit it under the
improvements of civilized life, in prosperity and peace.

"It gladdens us, that we and our children may behold the man, whom we
have believed, and whom we have taught them to believe, was second only
to his and our friend, the immortal Washington. We participate in your
joy, on beholding our institutions in vigor, our population extended, so
that, since you left us, from a little one we have become millions, and
from a small band a strong nation; that you see our glory rising, our
republic placed on an immoveable basis, all of which are in part, under
Providence, to be ascribed to your sacrifices, dangers and toils.

"We wish you health and prosperity. We assure you that wherever you
shall go, you will be greeted by our fellow countrymen, as one of the
chief deliverers of America, and the friend of rational liberty, and
of man. It is especially our prayer, that on that day in which the
acclamations and applauses of dying men shall cease to reach or affect
you, you may receive from the Judge of character and Dispenser of
imperishable honors, as the reward of philanthropy and incorruptible
integrity, a crown of glory which shall never fade."

It is unnecessary to add, that this eloquent and pious greeting excited
strong emotions in the General, and had an impressive effect on the
assemblage who heard it.

The following is a report of General Lafayette's reply:--

"Accept my thanks, sir, for the kind welcome you have offered me in the
name of the inhabitants of Lancaster. In returning to this country after
so long an absence; in receiving such proofs of gratitude and affection
wherever I go; in witnessing the prosperity of this land,--a prosperity
you are pleased to say, I have been instrumental in promoting;--I feel
emotions for which no language is adequate. In meeting again my former
friends, in seeing the children and grand children of those who were my
companions in the war of the revolution, I feel a gratification which
no words can express. I beg you to accept, sir, and to offer to these
people, my grateful, my affectionate acknowledgments."

In passing through Sterling and Boylston, he was saluted by the
artillery companies in those respective towns, and hailed by the cordial
salutations of the people, who crowded from the neighbouring country to
behold the man, whom all delighted to honor. The whole population seemed
to be in motion; and both old and young were eager to offer him their
personal greetings. Several arches were thrown across the public road,
at short notice; but indicative of the grateful dispositions of the
citizens. This motto was observed on one of them--"_Welcome_ LAFAYETTE,
_friend of_ WASHINGTON, _and adopted son of America_."

His _entree_ and reception at Worcester was highly interesting. He
remained in this village several hours. The taste and wealth and
patriotism of this flourishing _shire_ town were unitedly and
spontaneously put in requisition to prepare due honors for the "nation's
guest." The number and neatness of the military, arches spacious
and highly ornamented, extensive lines of the citizens and of youth
expressing their gratitude in frequent and loud acclamations--all
conspired to render the scene particularly brilliant. Here, as in other
places, the ladies were eager to manifest the high estimation, in which
they held the character of this eminent friend of liberty and virtue.
He was addressed with great eloquence and feeling, by Judge Lincoln, in
behalf of the citizens of the town and county of Worcester.


"The citizens whom you see assembled around you, have spontaneously
thronged together, to offer you the tribute of their affection, their
respect, their gratitude.

"In the name of the inhabitants of Worcester, the _shire_ of an
extensive county of more than 75000 population, in behalf of all who are
present, and in anticipation of the commands of those, whom distance
and want of opportunity occasion to be absent from this joyous scene, I
repeat to you the salutations, which elsewhere have been so impressively
offered upon your arrival in this country, and your visit to this
Commonwealth. Welcome, most cordially welcome, to the presence of those
who now greet you!

"Your name, sir, is not only associated with the memorable events of
the American revolution, with the battle of Brandywine, the retreat from
Valley Forge, the affair near Jamestown, and the triumph at Yorktown;
but the memorials of _your_ services and _our_ obligations exist, in the
Independence of the nation which was accomplished, in the government of
the people which is established, in the institutions and laws, the arts,
improvements, liberty and happiness which are enjoyed. The _sword_ was
beaten into the _ploughshare_, to cultivate the soil which its temper
had previously defended, and the hill-tops shall now echo to the sea
shore the gratulations of the independent proprietors of the land, to
the common benefactor of all ranks and classes of the people.

"Wherever you go, General, the acclamations of Freemen await you--their
blessings and prayers will follow you. May you live many years to enjoy
the fruits of the services and sacrifices, the gallantry and valor of
your earlier days, devoted to the cause of freedom and the rights of
man; and may the bright examples of individual glory and of national
happiness, which the history of America exhibits, illustrate to the
world, the moral force of _personal_ virtue, and the rich blessings of
civil liberty in republican governments."

The General, in reply, said in substance, "That he received with
much sensibility, the expressions of kind attention with which he was
received by the inhabitants of the town and county of Worcester; that he
was delighted with the fine country which he had seen, and the excellent
improvement and cultivation which he witnessed; that he saw the best
proofs of a great, prosperous and happy people, in the rapid advancement
of the polite and useful arts, and in the stability of our free
institutions; that he was especially much gratified in the great
improvements of the face of the country, because he was himself a
farmer; that he felt happy to observe such decided proofs of industry,
sobriety and prosperity.--He begged the citizens to be assured of his
affectionate and grateful recollection of their reception of him; he
thanked them for all they had manifested towards him, for the kind
expressions; which had been offered him by the committee, and, in a
feeling impressive manner, reciprocated their good wishes."

Speaking to an individual of the attentions he had received, he
observed. "It is the homage the people pay to the _principles_ of the
government, rather than to myself."

The inhabitants of Sturbridge and other places through which General
Lafayette passed, on his way to Hartford, in Connecticut, assembled
in their respective towns, and presented him the ready homage of
affectionate and grateful hearts. Companies of artillery fired salutes;
ladies and gentlemen gathered round him to bid him welcome to America,
and to express their deep and lively sense of his past services; and
many veterans of the revolutionary army pressed upon him, without
ceremony or introduction, expecting, as they found, a friendly and
cordial reception.

General Lafayette was received at Hartford, in Connecticut, where he
arrived on Saturday morning, with similar marks of affection and esteem
to those so cordially bestowed on him in the towns he had already
visited. He was expected by the citizens on Friday evening, and
arrangements were made for a general illumination. He was escorted
into the city by the military, and a large procession of the citizens
received him soon after he entered within its bounds, and conducted him
to the State House, where he was addressed by the Mayor of the city, who
assured him of the affectionate welcome, with which the people received
him, and referred to the past services of Lafayette, which were still
highly appreciated. And he expressed great happiness in beholding so
many proofs of the prosperous state of the country, and in witnessing
the invaluable effects of our free institutions. The greater part of the
inhabitants of both sexes were personally presented to him; and there
was an assemblage of children of about eight hundred, the misses all
dressed in white, wearing badges with the motto, "_Nous vous aimons_
LAFAYETTE." A gold medal was presented him by one of the children, which
was enclosed in a paper containing these lines.

  Welcome thou to freedom's clime,
  Glorious Hero! Chief sublime!
  Garlands bright for thee are wreath'd,
  Vows of filial ardour breathed,
  Veteran's cheeks with tears are wet,
  "_Nous vous aimons_ LAFAYETTE."

  Monmouth's field is rich with bloom,
  Where thy warriors found their tomb.
  Yorktown's heights resound no more,
  Victor's shout or cannon's roar.
  Yet our hearts record their debt,
  "_We do love you_ LAFAYETTE."

  Brandywine, whose current roll'd
  Proud with blood of heroes bold,
  That our country's debt shall tell,
  That our gratitude shall swell,
  Infant breasts thy wounds regret,
  "_We do love you_ LAFAYETTE."

  Sires, who sleep in glory's bed,
  Sires, whose blood for us was shed,
  Taught us, when our knee we bend,
  With the prayer thy name to blend;
  Shall we e'er such charge forget?
  No!--"_Nous vous aimons_ LAFAYETTE."

  When our blooming cheeks shall fade,
  Pale with time, or sorrow's shade,
  When our clustering tresses fair
  Frosts of wintry age shall wear,
  E'en till memory's sun be set,
  "_We will love you_ LAFAYETTE."

In comparison with the population of Hartford, a greater portion of his
revolutionary companions were here presented to him than in any place
he had visited. The number was nearly one hundred. These marched before
him, in the procession, in a connected column and attended by their own
music. It is hardly necessary to say, that their beloved general gave
them a most cordial greeting. By one of the citizens, a sash and pair of
epaulets were produced, which were worn by Lafayette when he entered the
American army. The _sash was stained with blood_ from his wound received
in the battle of Brandywine. He left Hartford late in the afternoon, and
proceeded to Middletown, where he embarked in a steam boat for New-York.
The citizens of this place regretted, that he could not pass some time
with them; and receive the attentions, which their grateful feelings
would induce them to bestow on a zealous and able friend of American


General Lafayette reached New-York on the following day, about noon; and
was conducted to the City Hotel by the committee of arrangements, who
were in waiting to receive him, when he arrived at the wharf. Multitudes
assembled, who greeted his return, and renewed their joyful acclamations
on meeting him again as a guest of their city. On Monday, the Cincinnati
of the State of New-York gave a public dinner, in honor of "their old
companion in arms," at which were also present several other persons
of distinction, and the members of the City Council. This was the
anniversary of the birth of Lafayette; and the circumstance increased
the interesting associations of the interview. The hall of meeting was
richly decorated with appropriate emblems, and portraits of some of the
heroes of the revolution, and bearing the hallowed name of Washington.
In the toasts given on this occasion, were illusions to the important
events which occurred in the war of the revolution, and to many of
the distinguished characters, who conducted it to a successful
issue--Washington, Greene, Lincoln, Steuben, Knox, Gates, Clinton,
Kosciusco, De Kalb, Hamilton and others.

The first volunteer toast was by the President of the Society, and was,
"_Our distinguished guest_;" when a transparent painting was suddenly
illuminated and unveiled, and displayed a "WELCOME;" and over the head
of Lafayette a beautiful wreath of flowers was suspended. He rose and
said,--"with inexpressible delight at our brotherly meeting, with my
affection to you all, my very dear friends and companions in arms, I
propose the following sentiment; The sacred principles for which we
have fought and bled--_Liberty, equality and national independence_; may
every nation of the earth in adopting them, drink a _bumper_ to the
old continental army." [Footnote: Some of the toasts given by General
Lafayette on other occasions are here recorded, as they are indicative
of the opinions and sentiments which probably predominate in his mind.
At the public dinner in Boston, on the day of his arrival--"The city of
Boston, the cradle of liberty; may its proud Faneuil Hall ever stand a
monument to teach the world that resistance to oppression is a duty,
and will, under true republican institutions, become a blessing." In
the College Hall at the dinner of the Society of _Phi Beta Kappa_--"_The
Holy Alliance_ of virtue, literature and patriotism: It will prove too
powerful for any _coalition_ against the rights of man." At the military
dinner on the Common in Boston, when the brilliant parade took place
before mentioned--"The patriotic troops who have paraded this day,
they excite the admiration of every beholder, and fill the heart with
delight." At the dinner given by the citizens of Salem--"The town of
Salem: may her increasing prosperity more and more evince the blessings
of popular institutions, founded on the sacred basis of natural and
social rights." And at Portsmouth, he gave that town, and added, "may
the blessings of republican institutions furnish a refutation of the
mistaken and selfish sophistry of European despotism."]

On the next day, he visited the public Schools, the College, the
Hospital, and Academy of Fine Arts; and on Wednesday, embarked in a
steamboat to view the fortifications in the harbor of New-York. In
the evening following, he attended the theatre, and was received with
universal and repeated acclamations. Many eminent persons from distant
parts of the United States visited New-York, at this time, for the sole
object of meeting the celebrated friend of America. Among these
were Mrs. Lewis, a niece of General Washington; and Mr. Huger of
South-Carolina, the brave and generous youth, who attempted the
liberation of Lafayette from the dungeon of Olmutz, at the imminent
hazard of his own life; and who suffered a long and severe imprisonment
for his disinterested interference. He also visited the widowed ladies
of Generals Montgomery and Hamilton. Of the latter general, he was the
personal and ardent friend.

A public dinner was given to Lafayette by the French gentlemen resident
in New-York; many of whom were among the constitutionalists in France
in 1783; and who manifested equal respect and veneration for this
distinguished confessor of regulated liberty, as the citizens of
America. Several of the Aldermen of the city also gave splendid
entertainments to the guest of the nation, who could justly claim to
have acted an important part in the establishment of our freedom and

He consented to attend the examination of several of the free
schools--and appeared highly gratified by the evidence given of the
improvement of the pupils. At one of the schools, consisting of 400
misses, after the examination, the following lines were chanted by the

  Welcome, Hero, to the West,
  To the land thy sword hath blest!
  To the country of the _Free_,
  Welcome, _Friend of Liberty_!

  Grateful millions guard thy fame,
  Age and youth revere thy name,
  Beauty twines the wreath for thee,
  Glorious _Son of Liberty_!

  Tears shall speak a nation's love,
  Whereso'er thy footsteps move,
  By the choral _paean_ met--
  Welcome, welcome, Lafayette!

The _African_ free school was not overlooked. While on his visit here,
one of the trustees announced, that General Lafayette had been elected a
member of the Manumission Society of New-York. The truly venerable John
Jay is President of this benevolent association. One of the children
stepped forward, and expressed their sense of the honor of the visit,
and of their satisfaction in reflecting, that he was friendly to the
abolition of slavery.

But the most splendid scene exhibited in this proud city, was the _fete_
at Castle-garden. This was an evening party and ball, at which _six
thousand_ ladies and gentlemen were present. It was the most brilliant
and magnificent scene ever witnessed in the United States. Castle-garden
lies at a very short distance from Battery-street, which is a spacious
and elegant promenade, on the south westerly part of the city. It was
formerly a fort, and is about one hundred and seventy feet in diameter,
of a circular or elliptical form. It has lately become a place of
great resort in the warm season of the year. Everything which labor and
expence, art and taste could effect was done to render it convenient,
showy and elegant. An awning covered the whole area of the garden
suspended at an altitude of seventy-five feet; the columns which
supported the dome were highly ornamented, and lighted by an _immense_
cut glass chandelier, with thirteen smaller ones appended.

The General, made his appearance about 10 o'clock; when the dance and
the song was at an end. The military band struck up a grand march, and
the Guest was conducted through a column of ladies and gentlemen to a
splendid pavilion. Not a word was spoken of gratulation--so profound,
and respectful, and intellectual was the interest which his presence
excited. The interior of the pavilion which was composed of white
cambric, ornamented with sky blue festoons, was richly furnished.
Among other interesting objects was a bust of Hamilton, placed upon a
Corinthian pillar and illuminated with a beautiful lamp. In front of
the pavilion was a triumphal arch, of about 90 feet span adorned with
laurel, oak, and festoons, based upon pillars of cannon fifteen feet
high.--A bust of Washington, supported by a golden eagle, was placed
over the arch as the presiding deity. Within the arch was a symbolic
painting nearly 25 feet square, exhibiting a scroll inscribed to
Fayette, with the words:--

  "_Honored be the faithful Patriot_."

Soon after the General entered, the painting just alluded to was slowly
raised, which exhibited to the audience a beautiful transparency,
representing La Grange, the mansion of Lafayette. The effect was as
complete as the view was unexpected and imposing. Another subdued
clap of admiration followed this tasteful and appropriate and highly
interesting display.

Universal harmony and good feeling prevailed; and about half past
one o'clock, the General left the Castle, and embarked on board the
steamboat James Kent, in his excursion up the North River, amidst
renewed and prolonged acclamations. Eighty sets of cotillions were
frequently on the floor at the same time.

A writer concludes the account of this fete thus; "Taking into view the
immense space of the area, the gigantic ceiling of which was lined with
the flags of all nations, festooned in a thousand varied shapes, and the
whole most brilliantly illuminated, we can safely assert that there was
never any thing to equal it in this country.

"The seats now erected around the area will accommodate about 3000

"There were 200 servants employed on this occasion, dressed in white
under clothes, and blue coats, with red capes and cuffs."

He did not arrive at West-Point until about noon, having been detained
some hours on the passage, by the steam boat getting on the flats in a
thick fog. Before he reached this memorable spot, and as he passed
near the banks of the Hudson, the people collected in great numbers,
at several places, tendering him the hearty _welcome_ of freemen, and
expressing, by loud and long acclamations, their joy at his presence. On
his arrival at West-Point, the whole establishment were in readiness to
greet him. He was received under a national salute. Generals Brown
and Scott of the army of the United States were also here, to bid him
welcome, and bestow those honors due to the highest general officer in
the national service, as well as to one who justly merited the nation's
gratitude. He passed several hours at this celebrated spot; highly
pleased with the appearance of the cadets, and with the evidences
exhibited of improvements in military science. The recollection of times
long since gone by gave a deep interest to the visit at this memorable
post, some time the Head-Quarters of the American army; and the place
where the infamous Arnold attempted to barter away the independence of
the country. Some of the cadets wear the swords presented by Lafayette
to a corps of American troops in the war of the revolution.

At a late hour in the afternoon, he proceeded up the river to Newburgh,
where nearly 20,000 people were collected to greet him. They had been
waiting his approach with great eagerness, and arrangements had been
made to receive him with due honors, and expressive of their unbounded
affection and regard. The lateness of the hour prevented their being
carried into full effect. A splendid ball was given, and a sumptuous
repast prepared; and he was addressed in behalf of the town, by one of
the principal citizens. Arches were thrown across the principal street,
and most of the buildings were illuminated. He regretted, that he had
not more time at Newburgh; for this, too, is memorable as the residence
of WASHINGTON, and a part of the continental army in 1781. He embarked
on board the steam boat, at twelve o'clock, and proceeded up the river,
on his way to Albany. He reached Poughkeepsie at the rising of the sun.
But the militia were assembled, the banks of the river, and the wharves
were crowded by a happy population, impatient to present their offerings
of gratitude and esteem to their heroic and benevolent visitor. Their
repeated cheers made the _welkin_ ring. When he landed, he was received
by a battalion of the militia, in full uniform. A procession being
formed, he was conducted through the most populous part of the town, to
the city hotel, receiving as he passed, the constant greetings of the

The spacious hall in which breakfast was provided for him, was
tastefully ornamented, and in various public places, inscriptions
and mottos were displayed, which were expressive of the affection and
respect of the inhabitants for their distinguished guest. A number of
his old companions in arms were presented to him, both at this place and
at Newburgh; among them was one who had served with much credit as an
officer through the war, who was _ninety-five_ years of age, with all
his faculties unimpaired.

The reception of Lafayette at Catskill, Hudson and Livingston's manor,
was highly gratifying to him, and honorable to the sensibility and
patriotism of the people. He was every where met with demonstrations of
joy. The overflowing gratitude, the sumptuous hospitality, the military
pride, which were manifested wherever he paused, if but for an hour,
were new proofs of one universal feeling of affectionate attachment to
the friend of WASHINGTON and adopted son of the nation.

Very splendid preparations were made in Albany for his reception: and a
great number of people had assembled from all the neighbouring towns.
He did not enter the city till evening, which prevented in some measure,
the brilliant honors which had been intended to be offered. A committee
proceeded to meet him several miles from the city, and to conduct him on
his way. They were attended by an escort of dragoons, and a great number
of the citizens in carriages. The roar of cannon announced his approach,
and the houses in the city were at once illuminated. The procession
moved on to the capitol, amidst the cheers and _welcomes_ of 40,000
people. General Lafayette was here addressed by the mayor of the
city; and being introduced to the governor, he also offered him the
salutations of the state. A number of the revolutionary officers and
soldiers were then presented to him. The interchange of greetings was
most affectionate between the parties, and most interesting to the
spectators. A standard of Gansevort's regiment, which had waved at
Yorktown, under the command of Lafayette, attracted particular attention
among the numerous decorations in the capitol. In the course of the
evening, he was conducted to the splendid ball room, where the ladies
appeared in all their attractions, and were anxious to show their
respect to the far-famed hero, who almost fifty years ago, had devoted
his life and his all, to the cause of America.

On the following day, many of the inhabitants of both sexes were
introduced to him, at the capitol. The old soldiers of the revolution
were among them. One, when he took his hand, said, "General, I owe my
life to you; I was wounded at the battle of Monmouth. You visited me in
the hospital--you gave me two guineas, and one to a person to nurse
me. To this I owe my recovery, and may the blessing of heaven rest upon

He afterwards visited Troy and the great canal, recently made in the
state of New-York, the commencement of which is not far from the city
of Albany. He was accompanied by the governor, Hon. De Witt Clinton, the
chief projector and patron of this great work, by a deputation of the
city council, and several other gentlemen of distinction. When passing
to the canal, he was greeted with repeated _welcomes_ by the people
who crowded the streets and the public roads. The steam boat which
he entered, was commanded by a captain of the revolutionary army. On
passing the arsenal, he was saluted by three field pieces captured
at _Yorktown_. Here he was also shown the field train taken from
_Burgoyne_, and some French field pieces which he was instrumental in
procuring to be sent to the United States, in 1779. At Troy, he was
received by a deputation of the city, and one of them addressed him in
the name of the inhabitants; referring to his meritorious services, and
declaring the joy they experienced in beholding him in this favoured
land of peace and freedom. He also received an affectionate address
from the Free Masons, and one still more affectionate from the ladies of
Troy. They bid him _welcome_, and acknowledged that to him, with others,
they were indebted for the blessings of social, and the joys of domestic
life. The misses of the academy were then presented to him, and sang a
hymn prepared for the occasion. He made a short reply, but was so much
affected, that it was not sufficiently understood to be preserved. He
then returned to Albany, followed by the cheers and blessings of the
people, who crowded about him on the water and on the land.

In the evening he embarked on board a steamboat for the city of
New-York, "amidst the melody of music, the shouts of the people, and the
roar of cannon." His departure excited deep regret, but it was matter
of joy, that they had had opportunity to present their offerings of
respect, to such a pre-eminent friend of America.

In the winter of 1777-8, General Lafayette was a short time at Albany,
as commander of the troops stationed in than quarter, after the capture
of Burgoyne. There was a plan in contemplation at this time, to make an
attack upon Canada, but it was not prosecuted. The recollection of this
circumstance, no doubt, added to the pleasure which swelled the joyful
hearts of the good people of Albany. For his conduct in that department,
as well as on all other occasions, manifested his great regard for the
comfort and the improvement of the soldiers. When he first arrived, he
was not very cordially received; he was young, being then only about
twenty; and they were full of respect also for their victorious general
Gates. But his attention was immediately given to improve the condition
of the troops; he was constant in his personal anxiety to provide
clothes, provisions and comfortable quarters for them, of which they
were sadly deficient. He visited the hospital, and furnished cordials
for the sick, from his own private resources; and was also duly careful
of the discipline and order of those, who were able to perform military
duty. The feeling of the soldiers was soon changed; they became
personally and warmly attached to him, in a short time, and many, at
this day, have a deep and grateful remembrance of his kindness as a man,
as well as of his fidelity and energy as an officer.

General Lafayette passed three days in the city of New-York, on his
return from Albany. The society of Free Masons gave him a public dinner,
which was uncommonly sumptuous and splendid, and the mayor of the city
entertained him with distinguished hospitality. Wherever he appeared,
many of the citizens attended him, and all expressed their joy at his
presence. One of them presented him a cane, worn by FRANKLIN, and left
in his will to Washington.

He left New-York on Thursday, the 23d of September, attended by a
deputation of the city and the Society of Cincinnati. When he reached
the shore of New Jersey, the Governor of that state was ready to receive
him. He bid him welcome in the name of the state, and offered him his
own cordial salutations. He was conducted on his way by squadrons of
horse, and a large cavalcade of the citizens, and his progress was
announced by frequent salutes. His reception at Newark was unusually
splendid; three thousand infantry and five hundred cavalry were paraded
and reviewed by him. A spacious bower was prepared to receive him, which
was highly ornamented, and he was addressed by the Attorney General
of the state. After partaking of a collation, he proceeded for
Elizabethtown, accompanied by the governor, with a military escort. A
procession of the citizens was formed to receive and conduct him into
the centre of the city; arches and bowers were erected, military parade
exhibited, salutes were fired, and bells were ringing; the people
cheered, the ladies welcomed him; collations were prepared, and public
officers were eager in their attentions and assiduities.

Pursuing his route towards Philadelphia, he reached _New Brunswick_ the
next day, and the day following, arrived at _Princeton_. He was detained
on his way, at several places, by the earnest solicitations of the
people, who were desirous of manifesting the grateful sense they
cherished of his meritorious services and exalted worth. At Princeton,
he was met by a deputation from _Trenton_, a place rendered memorable by
the victory which General Washington obtained over a large body of the
British troops in December, 1776, when he had under his command a much
smaller number, many of which were militia. He was escorted to that
place by the citizens and a company of cavalry, as in other parts of
his journey. When he arrived, he was addressed by the mayor, in a very
affectionate manner. We can only furnish the following extract:--

"To receive upon this spot, where your Friend, our illustrious
WASHINGTON, raised the first successful barrier against the relentless
tide of oppression, which, in the eventful period of seventy-six, was
rolling over our country; the hero who, in the succeeding stages of our
revolutionary struggle, acted so conspicuous a part, and contributed so
essentially to its glorious termination, cannot fail to awaken the most
agreeable sensations. Next to our beloved Washington, there is no
name entwined with deeper interest in the hearts of Jerseymen, than
LAFAYETTE--None, which they will transmit to their posterity, encircled
with a wreath of nobler praise, or embalmed with the incense of purer
love, than that of the interesting stranger who embarked his life and
fortune open the tempestuous ocean of our revolution--and who fought at
Brandywine, at Monmouth and at Yorktown, to procure for Americans, those
blessings you now see them so fully, and we trust, so gratefully enjoy."

The following is the General's answer to the address at Princeton:--


"While the name of this city recalls important military remembrance,
it is also connected with that of the illustrious college, which, in
diffusing knowledge and liberal sentiments, has greatly contributed to
turn those successes to the advantage of public liberty. Your library
had been destroyed; but your principles were printed in the hearts of
American patriots. I feel much obliged, sir, to your kind recollection
of the diploma, which the signature of my respected friend Doctor
Witherspoon, renders still more precious to me; and I beg you,
gentlemen, and you, interesting grand sons of my contemporary friends,
to accept my affectionate acknowledgments."

The civic arch reared at Trenton to his honor was the same, which
35 years before, was erected to receive the revered Washington.--A
sumptuous dinner was served up to him, his family, and the deputations
which attended on him. He spent the evening with his brother-soldiers of
the Cincinnati, and other revolutionary worthies.

On the Sabbath he attended divine service in the forenoon, and visited
Joseph Bonaparte in the afternoon. The latter apologized for not making
the first call, on the ground that it would necessarily involve him in
public associations, which it was his duty and his wish to avoid.--He
added, "_I am in adversity and misfortune--You, General, are full of
honor and glory, and deserving of both_."

After passing the Delaware, thirty miles from Philadelphia, he was met
by the Governor of Pennsylvania and suite, with an escort of two hundred
and fifty cavalry. For his accommodation, a splendid barouche was
provided, drawn by six cream coloured lofty steeds. "The guest of the
nation entered its former capitol" about noon, on Tuesday, the 28th
of September. When the Governor met Lafayette, as above mentioned, he
welcomed him to the State in the following address:--


"The citizens of Pennsylvania behold, with the most intense feeling and
exalted regard, the illustrious friend and companion of Washington.

"With sentiments of the highest veneration and gratitude, we receive
the early and great benefactor of the United States; the enlightened
statesman, philanthropist and patriot of both hemispheres.

"The sincere and universal joy which your arrival has diffused over
the nation, is no where more deeply or enthusiastically felt, than in
Pennsylvania; whose fields and streams are rendered memorable by your
achievements; whose citizens were the followers of your standard, and
the witnesses of your sacrifices and toils, in the defence of American
liberty. The eventful scenes of your useful life are engraved on our
hearts. A nation has rejoiced at your successes, and sympathized with
your sorrows.

"With ardent pleasure we have ever observed your strenuous exertions as
the friend of man; and whilst your great services, rendered in the cause
of humanity, have commanded our admiration, the purity of your motives
has insured the love and affection of Americans.

"With the best feelings of the heart we now approach you, with the
assurance that, if any thing could add to our happiness on this
interesting occasion, it would be the hope of enjoying the distinguished
honor of your permanent residence among us, and that a long and splendid
life of usefulness may be closed in the State, whose soil has been
moistened with your blood, generously shed in the cause of virtue,
liberty and independence."

Answer of General Lafayette.

"On the happy moment, long and eagerly wished for, when I once more
tread the soil of Pennsylvania, I find in her affectionate welcome, so
kindly expressed by her first magistrate, a dear recollection of past
favors and a new source of delightful gratifications. The very names of
this state and her capitol, recall to the mind those philanthropic and
liberal sentiments, which have marked every step of their progress.

"Pennsylvania has been the theatre of most important events; a partaker
in the arduous toils and meritorious sacrifices, which insured the
success of our glorious and fruitful revolution, I particularly thank
you, sir, for your gratifying mention of my personal obligations to the
Pennsylvanian line; nor will I ever forget, that on Pennsylvania ground,
not far from this spot, I enjoyed, for the first time, the delight
to find myself under American tents, and in the family of our beloved
commander in chief. Now, sir, Pennsylvania is in full possession, and
reaps all the prosperities and happy consequences of that great
national union, of those special institutions, which by offering in a
self-governed people the most perfect example of social order that
ever existed have reduced to absurdity and ridicule the anti-popular
arguments of pretended statesmen in other countries. In whatever way I
may be disposed of by the duties and feelings, in which you have
been pleased to sympathise, I shall ever rank this day among the most
fortunate of my life; and, while I beg you, sir, personally to accept
my cordial acknowledgements, I offer through you a tribute of profound
gratitude and respectful devotion to the citizens of Pennsylvania."

His entrance into the fair city, founded by the wise and benevolent
_Penn_, is described as most magnificent in all its accompaniments.
The population poured forth to meet him at an early hour. Carriages,
horsemen and pedestrians filled every avenue for a distance of five
miles; and the windows and stagings were thronged with ladies eager to
welcome him. Just at the entrance of the city, a division of militia,
composed of cavalry, artillery and infantry was drawn up in a hollow
square, on a piece of land of about forty acres, to receive the
Patriot Hero, whose approach was announced by a salute of 100 rounds
of artillery. Lafayette, uncovered and standing up in the barouche, was
seen by the whole field. The car of Saladin could not have exceeded that
of Lafayette. The troops were nearly six thousand. After the review,
which the general made on foot, he received the saluting honors in his

The line of march into the city was then taken up. It extended nearly
three miles, and passed through numerous streets. More than six hours
were consumed in proceeding from Frankfort to the State House, a
distance of about four miles. A full description of the procession, and
the decorated arches, &c. under which it passed, would occupy too
great a portion of this volume--we can only give the outline of the

A cavalcade of 100 citizens preceded; followed by 100 general, field
and staff officers. Then came a _square_ of cavalry; a band of music,
mounted, and a corps of 160 cavalry. Next a brigade of infantry, with
flank companies.

Committee of arrangements. General Lafayette and Judge Peters, in the
splendid barouche.

Then followed four other barouches, drawn by four horses each, with
Governors Shulze and Williamson, and suites, the general's family, and
distinguished individuals.

Then three cars, of large dimensions, containing 120 revolutionary
heroes and worthies, each car characteristically decorated; bearing on
their front "WASHINGTON," on the rear "LAFAYETTE," and on the sides,
_"defenders of our country," "The survivors of 1776_."

Then advanced 400 young men. After these the procession of trades, led
by a car, containing a body of printers at work at case and press--the
latter striking off, and distributing, copies of an ode on the
occasion--followed by the typographical society, with a banner, with
the inscription: "LAFAYETTE--_the friend of universal liberty, and the
rights of the press_."

Then followed 200 cordwainers (with banners, badges, emblems, &c. The
other trades were also decorated;)--300 weavers;--150 ropemakers;--150
lads, uniformly dressed;--100 shipbuilders;--700 mechanics of different
professions, not enumerated;--150 coopers, with a car containing a
cooper's shop, the workmen fitting staves and driving hoops:--Then came
150 butchers, well mounted and neatly dressed in their frocks;--then
260 carmen, mounted, with aprons trimmed with blue; and a body of 150
riflemen, in frocks, dressed with plaids, leopard skins, &c. A company
of artillery, with two pieces; a brigade of infantry and the New Jersey
cavalry. A body of 300 farmers closed the procession.

Besides the above, there were the Red Men of the state, the Lafayette
Association, the True Republican Society, the Washington and Lafayette
Society; and the German American Society.

The appearance of the whole of this truly grand procession was august
and imposing. As it passed, Lafayette! Lafayette! sprang from the voices
of a multitude that rolled on, and on, and on, like wave after wave
of the ocean, in numbers we shall not presume to name, (but which were
estimated at 200,000.) Lafayette beat in every heart--Lafayette hung on
every tongue--Lafayette glowed on every cheek--Lafayette glistened on
every swimming eye--Lafayette swelled on every gale. The whole city
and country appeared to have arrayed themselves in all their glory, and
beauty, and strength, at once to witness and adorn the majesty of the
spectacle; and the fashionable part of the community seemed determined
to exhibit the perfection of taste in the beauty of the decoration of
their persons, and the richness of their attire. In Chestnut-street
wreathes were cast into the barouche, as it passed, and many of them
were from the fairbands of Quakeresses.

After the procession had passed through the principal streets, the front
halted at the old State-House, which contains the hall in which the
_Declaration of Independence_ was signed in 1776.

Here the general alighted, passed under a most magnificent triumphal
arch, and was conducted to the hall, which is 40 feet square and was
decorated in the most splendid manner. Among the decorations was a
statue of Washington, and portraits of William Penn, Franklin, Robert
Morris, Francis Hopkinson, Greene, Wayne, Montgomery, Hamilton, Gates,
Rochambeau, Charles Carrot, M'Kean, Jefferson, Hancock, Adams, Madison,
Monroe, and Charles Thompson.--The portrait of Washington, by Peale,
occupied the first place, and was the most splendidly decorated. Here
were assembled the city authorities, the society of Cincinnati,
the judges, officers of the army and navy, and the committee of
arrangements, all seated on superb sofas.

The Governor of the State having been presented, General Lafayette,
Judge Peters, and George Washington Lafayette were introduced, the
company all standing. The Mayor of the city then welcomed the guest, in
the following address:--


"The citizens of Philadelphia welcome to their homes, the Patriot who
has long been dear to their hearts.

"Grateful at all times for the enjoyment of a free government, they are,
on this occasion, peculiarly anxious but unable to express a deep felt
sentiment of pure affection toward those venerated men whose martial
and civil virtues, under Providence, have conferred upon themselves and
their descendents, this mighty blessing.

"Forty-eight years ago, in this city, and in this hallowed hall,
which may emphatically be called the _birth place of independence_, a
convention of men, such as the world has rarely seen, pre-eminent for
talents and patriotism, solemnly declared their determination to assume
for themselves the right of self-government; and that they and their
posterity should thence forth assert their just rank among the nations
of the earth. A small, but cherished band of those who breasted the
storm and sustained the principles thus promulgated to the world, still
remains--In the front rank of these worthies, history will find, and
we now delight to honor, General Lafayette, whose whole life has been
devoted to the cause of freedom and to the support of the inalienable
rights of man.

"General--Many of your co patriots have passed away, but the remembrance
of their virtues and their services, shall never pass from the minds of
this people; their's is an imperishable fame, the property of ages yet
to come. But we turn from the fond recollection of the illustrious
dead to hail with heart-felt joy the illustrious living, and again bid
welcome, most kindly and affectionately welcome, to the guest of the
nation, the patriot Lafayette."

The general made the following answer:

"My entrance through this fair and great city, amidst the most solemn
and affecting recollections, and under all the circumstances of a
welcome which no expression could adequately acknowledge, has excited
emotions in my heart, in which are mingled the feelings of nearly fifty

"Here, sir, within these sacred walls, by a council of wise and devoted
patriots, and in a style worthy of the deed itself, was boldly
declared the independence of these vast United States, which, while it
anticipated the independence, and I hope, the _republican_ independence,
of the whole American hemisphere, has begun, for the civilized world,
the era of a new and of the only true social order founded on the
unalienable rights of man, the practicability and advantages of which
are every day admirably demonstrated by the happiness and prosperity of
your populous city.

"Here, sir, was planned the formation of our virtuous, brave,
revolutionary army, and the providential inspiration received, that gave
the command of it to our beloved, matchless Washington. But these and
many other remembrances, are mingled with a deep regret for the numerous
cotemporaries, for the great and good men whose loss we have remained to
mourn.--It is to their services, sir, to your regard for their memory
to your knowledge of the friendships I have enjoyed, that I refer the
greater part of honors here and elsewhere received, much superior to my
individual merit.

"It is also under the auspices of their venerated names, as well as
under the impulse of my own sentiments, that I beg you Mr. Mayor, you
gentlemen of both councils, and all the citizens of Philadelphia, to
accept the tribute of my affectionate respect and profound gratitude."

General Lafayette remained in Philadelphia a week; and the repeated and
constant attentions shown him by public societies and by distinguished
individuals, were such as might have been expected from the celebrated
hospitality and civism of that city, and such as was not unworthy
of their eminent guest. The governor of the state was attentive and
courteous to him during his whole visit; and other public functionaries,
both civil and military, were eager of the honor of manifesting their
great respect for his character. That portion of the citizens, who
belong to the religious society of Friends, appeared equally cordial
and happy in an opportunity to assure him of their esteem. It is not
consistent with their principles to make a great parade, or to prepare
expensive and useless ceremonies. They did not all approve of the plan
of illumination. In the wish to have it general, some ardent citizens
censured the _friends_ for declining to do it--But this was a mistaken
zeal. The religious opinions and conscientious scruples of all classes
of people are entitled to respect. It would have been altogether
unjustifiable, had there been an attempt to force the _friends_ into the
measure. They are a very respectable class of citizens; and we trust,
that for no purposes of parade or ceremony, they will ever be required
to violate their consciences, or be subjected to insult for any
non-compliance. The following lines were written by one of that
religious society, on the occasion, and cannot fail to be acceptable to
every liberal mind.


  O! think not our hearts void of gratitude's glow,
    For the friend of our country, for _liberty's friend_,
  Tho' we do not with others loud praises bestow,
    The kind hand of friendship we freely extend.

  We welcome thee back to the land where thy name,
    In boyhood we lisp'd, and in manhood revere;
  Tho' we bind not thy brows with the chaplet of fame,
    Accept, beloved guest, a warm tribute--a tear!

  Yes--a tear of affection which starts to the eye,
    When tracing thy storm-beaten pathway through life;
  That thy principles pure could ambition defy,
    Thy humanity prompt thee to stay the fierce strife.

  In thee we behold not the chieftain whose sword
    Delighting in bloodshed is ever unsheath'd;
  But the friend of mankind, whose mild actions afford
    A proof that his lips no hypocrisy breath'd.

  Then welcome once more to the land where thy name
    In boyhood we lisp'd, and in manhood revere;
  Tho' we twine not thy brows with the war-wreath of fame,
    Accept, beloved guest, a warm tribute--A TEAR.

While in Philadelphia, General Lafayette visited the navy yard. The
Governor accompanied him in this visit, and he was also attended by a
large escort and procession. He was addressed by commodore Barron, in
a very appropriate and feeling manner. A great number of ladies were
presented to him at the commodore's quarters. On his return, he attended
a splendid entertainment provided for him by the Free Masons. A ball was
also given in honor of Lafayette, while he was in Philadelphia, the
must brilliant and the most numerous ever known in the city. The Miss
Bollmans, daughters of Dr. Bollman, who generously attempted the rescue
of Lafayette from the prison at Olmutz, were present. On one day, 2000
children assembled at the State House to be presented to him; and one
of them addressed him. The scene was said to be uncommonly
interesting.--The following was his reply to the address of the
Frenchmen in Philadelphia:--


"Amidst the enjoyments with which my heart is filled in this happy
country, I experience a very great one in seeing myself surrounded by
the testimonies of your friendship. It was in the hall in which now
receive you, that the sacred sovereignty of the people was recognized by
a French Minister, eleven years before it was proclaimed on the 11th of
July, 1789, in the bosom of the Constituent Assembly. You are right
in thinking that this first impulse of 1789, has, notwithstanding our
misfortunes, greatly meliorated the situation of the French people.
I participate in your wishes and your hopes for the freedom of our
country. This hope is well founded, these wishes will be fulfilled. In
the mean while I am happy in tendering to you this day the expression of
my lively gratitude and tender affection."

We give here also the address of Captain Barron to Lafayette, when he
visited the navy yard near Philadelphia:--


"To receive you at this naval station with the highest honors, is
not less in obedience to our instructions, than to the impulse of our

"We rejoice in the opportunity of testifying to you, and to the world,
our gratitude to one distinguished among that band of glorious heroes,
to whom we are indebted for the privilege we now enjoy.

"You, sir, whose whole life has been devoted to the extension of civil
liberty, must at this period be enriched by feelings which rarely fall
to the lot of man.

"Turning from the old world, whose excesses have been almost fatal to
the cause of liberty, to the new, where that cause has prospered to
an unexampled degree, you see a proof, that political liberty is not

"The soldier will here behold the nation for which he has fought, not
exhausted by his triumphs, nor sacrificed to idle ambition, but raised
by his valor to liberty and independence; and while enjoying these
blessings themselves, securing them for the remotest posterity.

"The patriot will here see a people, not distracted by faction, nor yet
regardless of their political rights, making the most rapid strides
to true greatness, and displaying in their happiness and security, the
wisdom and power of institutions engraved on their hearts.

"To you, sir, the soldier and patriot, we offer this cheering picture;
and if ever you can be recompensed for your generous devotion to us in
our revolutionary struggle, it must be in the pleasure with which you
witness our national happiness.

"Permit me then, dear General, to assure you that among the ten millions
that bid you welcome, none do it with more sincerity than those of the

Answer of General Lafayette.

"The extraordinary honors of which an American veteran is now the
happy object, I consider as being shared in common with my surviving
companions; and for the greater part, bestowed as an approbation of the
principle, and a tribute of regard, to the memory of the illustrious
patriots with whom I have served in the cause of America and mankind.

"It is with the most lively feelings of an American heart, that I have
sympathised in all the circumstances relative to the United States'
Navy, and proudly gloried in the constant superiority of the American
flag over an enemy, justly renowned for bravery and maritime skill.

"I am happy, my dear Commodore, in your affectionate welcome; but
whatever may be my feelings of personal gratitude to the Navy of the
United States, I feel myself under still greater obligations to them,
for the honor they have done to the American name in every part of the

The 5th of October, Lafayette left Philadelphia, on this journey to the
south, by the way of Wilmington, Baltimore and Washington. He passed the
Brandywine, and entered Wilmington, the capital of Delaware, on the 6th
about noon. He was received with demonstrations of lively gratitude and
joy; and a sumptuous repast was provided for him. He then proceeded to
Newcastle in that state, and was present at the marriage of Colonel V.
Dupont, formerly one of his aids in France. From this place he proceeded
to Frenchtown, where he was received by the aids of the Governor of
Maryland, with a battalion of horse as an escort for their honorable
guest. He was waited on, also, by deputations both civil and military,
from the city of Baltimore, each of which offered him their cordial
salutations in the name of those whom they represented. General Harper
was at the head of the military deputation; and having given him a
hearty welcome, introduced his Brother officers, amounting to two
hundred. Several revolutionary officers and soldiers, who had repaired
to this place for the pleasure of an early meeting, were also introduced
to him. The joy of the meeting was reciprocal. Among the many former
personal friends, he met here with M. Du Bois Martin, who procured the
ship in which Lafayette first came to America in 1777. The interview
must have been extremely interesting.

Lafayette embarked at Frenchtown in the steamboat United States, for
Baltimore, furnished for his accommodation by that city. On his arrival
in the river, columns of smoke in the direction of Baltimore, announced
to those on board, the approach of a squadron of steam boats; and in
three quarters of an hour the Virginia, the Maryland, the Philadelphia,
&c. swept gallantly by, two on either side, crossed immediately under
the stern of the United States, and took their positions _en echellon_.
The Maryland and Virginia then came close along side, their decks
crowded with spectators, who saluted the General with continued shouts.
The whole fleet then proceeded slowly up the river, all elegantly
decorated with flags closed into the centre as it passed the narrows
opposite Fort M'Henry, and dropt anchor, forming a semi-circle near the
northern shore.

Just as the anchor was let go a signal gun was fired, and a squadron
of eight green and white barges, which had been awaiting the coming of
Lafayette, shot across the bows of the United States, and passing
round in regular order under the stern, came along side to receive the
passengers. The first was handsomely carpeted and cushioned, manned by
masters of vessels, and intended for Lafayette.

The General embarked in this boat amidst the repeated cheering of all
around, and pushing off made way for the others, which took on board the
committees and proceeded in order to the wharf.

The General was received on the way by the commander of the garrison,
and proceeded to the star fort. The Governor of the State was here
introduced to the General, who addressed him, to which the General made
a feeling reply. He was afterwards conducted to the tent of Washington
by Governor Stevens, within which he was received by the society of
Cincinnati. The scene was impressive. As soon as the first emotions
had subsided, the hero of the Cowpens, Colonel Howard, President of the
society, addressed the General, who, in reply, said language could not
express his feelings. He then embraced his old companions in arms. The
General and invited guests then retired to an adjoining marquee, and
took refreshments; after which he was seated in an elegant barouche,
attended by Mr. Carroll, and Generals Smith and Howard, drawn by four
black horses, with two postillions in white silk jackets, blue sashes
and black velvet caps, led by four grooms similarly dressed. At the
outer gate, the procession was received by about 1000 cavalry. On
passing Federal Hall, a salute was fired. Descending the hall, the
procession passed under an elegant arch, and another at the head of
Market-street, where his friends left the carriage, and the General
alone proceeded down the military line, in presence of thousands of both

After this he descended at the Exchange, where he was received by the
Mayor and Councils, with an appropriate address and answer. He thence
proceeded in his carriage to Light-street, across which, at the entrance
into Market-street, an elegant pavilion had been erected, and where
he was received by a fine military assemblage. Here there was a truly
splendid ceremony, in presentment by the Mayor, to the General, with
Pulaski's standard, made during the revolutionary war by a Moravian Nun,
at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, which belonged to Pulaski's legion, raised
in Baltimore in 1778. In 1779, Count Pulaski was mortally wounded at the
attack on Savannah; and these colors, at his decease, in 1780, descended
to the Major, who was sabred to death in South Carolina. The venerable
Paul Bentalou, Esq. now marshal of the district of Maryland, and at that
time captain of the first troop of light dragoons, and senior surviving
officer, inherited the standard of the legion, which he has preserved
with Great care to this day, with all the fond recollections and
attachments of the veteran soldier.

In the evening, the city was brilliantly illuminated, and many of the
public and private buildings exhibited appropriate transparencies.

On Friday, hundreds of citizens were presented to the General, in the
Hall of the Exchange; and in the afternoon he dined with the Mayor and
Corporation. In the evening, he attended the ball and supper given to
him by the citizens, which was truly splendid, and occupies many columns
in the description.

The General was also waited upon, and addressed in the most feeling
manner, by the French residents, to whom he replied in the most
affectionate manner.

At seven o'clock in the evening the General was received at Masonic
Hall, by the Grand Lodge of Maryland, in the presence of eight hundred
brethren, The General dined with the Cincinnati on Saturday. "On Monday
he was presented with a medal from the young men of Baltimore, with
inscriptions expressive of their gratitude. He afterwards presented
several colors to the fifth regiment, under Colonel Stewart, in his
behalf, which were received with the highest military honors. The
General then reviewed the regiment.--At eleven o'clock he left his
lodgings, and proceeded in his barouche to Whetstom Point, for the
purpose of reviewing the third division, under the command of Major
General Harper. He partook of a splendid military banquet. His honors on
leaving the city were magnificent as those of his reception. He departed
under escort on Monday, over the Washington turnpike. He was to pass the
night 30 miles from Baltimore, and enter Washington city on Tuesday at

In no city which General Lafayette visited, had he met with a more
cordial welcome, or a more splendid reception, than in Baltimore. All
were desirous to do him honor and to express their feelings of gratitude
and respect for the guest of the nation. Many interesting recollections
must have been brought to his mind when in this city. It was here he
passed some time in 1781, when he commanded the American light infantry
in that quarter--when the British had a large army in the vicinity,
and our troops were destitute of clothing, and in a state of great
despondence. By his own personal influence and responsibility, he
obtained a loan here for the use of his troops, which was necessary to
their comfort, and served to render them in a measure contented with
their situation. The address of his old friend Colonel Howard, in
behalf of the Cincinnati of Maryland, who were assembled in the Tent
of Washington to receive his adopted son, and their beloved brother
soldier, was as follows:--


"A few of your brother soldiers of Maryland, who remain after a lapse
of forty years, and the sons of some of them who are now no more, are
assembled in the Tent of Washington, to greet you on your visit to
the United States; and to assure you of their affectionate and sincere
regard. This Tent will call to your recollection many interesting
incidents which occurred when you associated in arms with Washington,
the patriot and soldier, saviour of his country, and friend of your

"Accept, General, our cordial sentiments of esteem for you, and of
gratitude for services rendered by you to our country--services which
will never be forgotten by the free and happy people of the United

To which General Lafayette replied--

"The pleasure to recognize my beloved companions in arms; the sound of
names, whose memory is dear to me; this meeting under the consecrated
_Tent_, where we so often pressed around our paternal commander in
chief; excite emotions which your sympathizing hearts will better feel
than I can express. This post also nobly defended in the late war, while
it brings the affecting recollection of a confidential friend in my
military family, associates with the remembrance of the illustrious
defence of another fort, in the war of the revolution, by the _friend_
now near me. [Colonel Smith.] It has been the lot of the Maryland line,
to acquire glory in instances of bad as well as of good fortune; and
to whom can I better speak of that glory, than in addressing Colonel
Howard? My dear brother soldiers, my feelings are too strong for
utterance. I thank you most affectionately."

The meeting of this Society was rendered peculiarly interesting,--there
being present, besides many other worthy veterans of the revolutionary
army, Colonel John F. Howard, the celebrated hero of the battle of
the Cowpens, January 1781, to whom Congress presented two medals, in
testimony of his singular bravery-General (formerly Colonel) Samuel
Smith, who bravely defended Mud-fort, and many years senator in
Congress; and Paul Bentalou, Esq. now marshal of Maryland district, who
was the senior captain of light dragoons, belonging to Pulaski's legion,
in 1778. Here also the very venerable Charles Carroll, one of the
signers of the declaration of independence, was introduced to Lafayette.

We give also an extract from the address of Governor Stevens, to the


"In bidding you a hearty welcome to the state of Maryland, whilst I
gratify the feelings of my own heart, I express, though feebly, those
of the people, whom it is my pride and pleasure, on this occasion to
represent. Beneath this venerable canopy, many a time have you grasped
the friendly hand of our illustrious Washington, aided his council with
your animating voice, or shared with him the hardy soldier's meal. The
incidents which the association so forcibly recalls, however inspiring,
it were needless to dwell upon. The recollection of them fills the mind
with gratitude; a full measure of which is justly due to you, as the
generous companion of our fathers, the gallant and disinterested soldier
of liberty--You are about to enter the city of Baltimore, which you have
known in other days. In her growth and embellishment, you will behold
a symbol of our national prosperity, under popular institutions and a
purely representative government.--Welcome, thrice welcome, General, to
the soil of Maryland. Nothing which we can do, can too strongly express
to you the affection and respect which we entertain for your person and
your principles, or the joy with which we receive you among us, as a
long absent father on a visit to his children."

To this address Lafayette replied--

"While your Excellency is pleased so kindly to welcome me in the name
of the citizens of Maryland, the lively gratitude, which this most
gratifying reception cannot fail to excite, associates in my heart, with
a no less profound sense of my old obligations to this state, both as
an American General and a personal friend. I am happy, sir, to have the
honor to meet you in this fort, so gallantly defended in the late war,
in presence of the brave colonel of the worthy volunteers, whose glory
on that occasion I have enjoyed with the proud feelings of an American
veteran. It was by a Maryland colonel in the year 1777, that the British
received, in the gallant defence of an important fort, one of the first
lessons of what they were to expect from American valour and patriotism.
The Maryland line, sir, in the continental army has been conspicuous,
not only in days of victory, but on days either unfortunate or dubious.
This tent, under which I now answer your affectionate address; the
monument erected to the memory of our great and good commander in chief;
the column of a later date, bearing testimonies of a glorious event; my
entrance into a city long ago dear to me, and now become so beautiful
and prosperous; fill my heart with sentiments, in which you have had the
goodness to sympathize.

"Accept, sir, the tribute of my respectful and affectionate gratitude to
the citizens of the state, and their honored chief magistrate."

There was an incident connected with General Lafayette's escort to the
boundary of Baltimore, which deserves to be particularly noticed. The
cavalry troop was commanded by Samuel Sprigg, Esq. who, two years ago,
ended a full term of service in the capacity of Governor of the state
of Maryland, of which he was Captain-General and Commander in Chief.
Returned to private life, a wealthy planter, in the midst of all that
can render life easy and pleasant, he is proud of resuming his character
of a citizen, and becoming a member of a troop of horse, in which he
enrolls himself with his neighbours, who choose him their commander. In
that capacity, he has had the pleasure of receiving General Lafayette at
the boundary of his county, and escorting him through it. This incident,
we say, deserves to be noted as a fine practical illustration of the
principles of republican government.

General Lafayette arrived in the city of Washington, according to
previous arrangement, about 1 o'clock on Tuesday the 12th.

About 9 o'clock, on Tuesday morning, the General and suit left Rossburg,
and proceeded to the District of Columbia, at the line of which he was
met by the committee of arrangements from the city of Washington, and a
number of revolutionary officers, escorted by a handsome troop of city
cavalry, and a company of Montgomery cavalry. The meeting of the
General with his revolutionary compatriots, and with the committee, was
affectionate and impressive in the extreme. After many embraces were
exchanged, the General was transferred to the elegant landau provided
by the city for his use, drawn by four fine greys, in which he was
accompanied by Major General Brown and Commodore Tingey, members of the
committee; and his son George Washington Lafayette, his Secretary, Col.
Vassieur, and Mr. Custis, of Arlington, were placed in another carriage
provided for the purpose. The whole then advanced to the city, Capt.
Sprigg's company in front, the remaining companies proceeding and
flanking the carriages containing the General, his suite, the committee,
&c. On rising to the extensive plain which stretches eastward from the
capitol to the Anacosta river, the General found himself in front of the
most brilliant military spectacle which our city ever witnessed, being
a body of 10 or 1200 troops, composed entirely of volunteer companies of
the city, Georgetown, and Alexandria, some of them recently organized,
clad in various tasteful uniforms, and many of them elegant beyond any
thing of the kind we have before seen. Brigadier Generals Smith and
Jones were in the field with their respective suits and the field
officers of the first brigade. These troops, together with the large
body of cavalry, the vast mass of eager spectators which overspread the
plain, and the animation of the whole, associated with the presence of
the venerated object of so much curiosity and affection, gave a grandeur
and interest to the scene which has never been equaled here on any
former occasion. After the General had received the respects and welcome
of our military chiefs, the whole body of troops tools took up the
escort, for the capitol, wheeling into column, in East Capitol-street,
and then into line upon the leading division. The General and suite then
passed this line in review, advancing towards the capitol, and receiving
the highest military honors as he passed.

After the military procession had reached the east end of the market
house, on East Capitol-street, which was handsomely adorned with proper
emblems, and the Declaration of Independence, above which perched a
living eagle of the largest size, the committee of arrangements and
General Lafayette and suite alighted from their carriages and preceded
by the committee, the General and suite passed through the market house,
which on each side was lined with anxious and delighted spectators, to
the east entrance of the Capitol Square, over which was thrown a neat
arch, decorated with evergreens and other ornaments, with appropriate
labels, expressive of the esteem and gratitude of the citizens to the
national guest; on the pinnacle stood another eagle. On entering the
gate, the General was met by a group of 25 young girls, dressed in
white, intended to represent the 24 States and the District of Columbia,
each wearing a wreath of flowers, and bearing in her hand a miniature
national flag, with the name of one of the States inscribed upon
it; when the one representing the district advanced and arrested his
progress, and, in a short speech, neatly and modestly delivered their
welcome to the nation's guest. After which each of the young ladies
presented her hand to the General, which he received in the most
affectionate manner, and with the kindest expressions. He then passed
a double line of girls, properly dressed, from the schools, who strewed
his way with flowers. Leaving the girls, he passed lines of the students
of the colleges and seminaries, with their respective banners, and
a company of Juvenile Infantry, dressed in uniform, and armed in a
suitable manner; and then the younger boys from the schools. All these
formed a numerous and highly interesting assemblage. Arriving at the
north wing of the Capitol, the General was conducted by the committee
of arrangements through the great door, up the grand staircase, into the
central rotunda of the Capitol, which though of immense size, was filled
with ladies and gentlemen; and, through it, received, on every side,
demonstrations of the most ardent and grateful respect. On leaving the
rotunda, he passed under the venerable tent of Washington, also filled
with ladies, revolutionary officers, and other gentlemen, to the front
of the portico of the Capitol, neatly carpeted, on which was erected the
tent. He was introduced to the Mayor, who introduced him to the Mayor of
Georgetown, the members of the corporation, and other gentlemen present,
when advancing to the front of the portico, in the presence of many
thousand spectators, the Mayor delivered an address, to which the
General replied.

The General was then invited by the Mayor of Georgetown to visit that
town, in a chaste and neat address.

To which the General replied, in a few words, that Georgetown was an
old acquaintance of his, where he had found many valuable and esteemed
friends, and he would visit it with the greatest delight, and thank its
citizens for their kind regards.

After this, John Brown Cutting, Esq. at the request of the committee of
arrangements, and in behalf of himself and other revolutionary officers,
delivered a short address and complimentary poem, in a handsome and
appropriate manner.

After having made a reply to this address, the General was introduced to
some other gentlemen; and was then conducted by the Mayor, attended by
the committee of arrangements, in the way by which he had ascended,
to the front door of the north wing of the Capitol, where the military
passed in review before him, saluting as they passed. Immediately
after his reception in the portico, a grand salute was fired in the
neighborhood of the Capitol by a company of Alexandria artillery. The
review being finished, the Mayor ascended the landau with the General,
attended by Gen. Brown and Com. Tingey, and the procession was resumed
in the same order as before; and passing through Pennsylvania Avenue,
proceeded to the President's house. In this passage the streets were
lined with spectators; but the most pleasing sight was the windows on
each side of it filled with ladies, in their best attire and looks,
bestowing, with beaming eyes, their benedictions on the beloved Chief,
and waving white handkerchiefs, as tokens of their happiness.

On passing the centre market, another salute was fired from a battery
south of the Tiber, by a company of artillery.

The General, with his son, the Mayor, committee of arrangements, &c.
thus escorted, having reached the President's house, (distant from the
Capitol more than a mile) passed into the gate of the enclosure, and
thence to the portico of the mansion. The General, on alighting,
was there received by the Marshal of the District of Columbia, and,
supported by Gen. Brown and Com. Tingey, and accompanied by the Mayor
and others of the committee of arrangements, was, with his son conducted
into the drawing room where the President was prepared to receive him.

The President, stationed at the head of this circular apartment, had on
his right hand the Secretary of State and the Secretary of the Treasury,
on his left the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy, and,
ranged on each side the room, were the other gentlemen invited to be
present at this interview. The whole number of distinguished persons
present being fifty or sixty.

On the General's reaching the centre of the circle, the President
advanced to him, and gave him a cordial and affectionate reception, such
as might have been expected from the illustrious representative of the
American people, to one of those early friends of theirs, whom, like
himself, they delight to honor.

After the interchange of courtesies between the guest and the President,
he was welcomed by the Heads of Departments. Between him and Mr.
Crawford, with whom he had in France an intimate acquaintance, the
meeting was that of old and affectionate friends: and by all he
was respectfully and kindly greeted. Subsequently, the General was
introduced in succession, by the Chief of each Department of the
Government, to the officers attached to each. Liberal refreshments were
then offered to the company, and fifteen or twenty minutes were spent
in delightful conversation. After which the General took his leave, well
pleased with his reception, and, remounting the landau, proceeded to
rejoin his escort.

Retiring from this affecting scene, the General passed in review, and
was saluted by the whole body of troops, which had been wheeled
into line, and extended from the President's square to the General's
quarters. On his alighting, he expressed his thanks to them for the
honor bestowed on him, and then another grand salute was fired by a
company of artillery: after which, the military were dismissed. He
retired, for a short time, to his private room; and, when he returned
into public, was, with his suite; introduced to a great number
of citizens, anxious to express their heartfelt respect to the
disinterested champion of their country's liberty.

To an address from the Mayor, full of fine feeling, the General made the
following reply:--

"The kind and flattering reception with which I am honored by the
citizens of Washington, excite the most lively feelings of gratitude;
those grateful feelings, sir, at every step of my happy visit to the
United States, could not but enhance the inexpressible delight I have
enjoyed at the sight of the immense and wonderful improvements, so far
beyond even the fondest anticipations of a warm American heart; and
which, in the space of forty years, have so gloriously evinced the
superiority of popular institutions, and self government, over the too
imperfect state of political civilization, found in every part of the
other hemisphere. In this august place, which bears the most venerable
of all ancient and modern names, I have, sir, the pleasure to
contemplate, not only a centre of that constitutional Union so necessary
to these States, so important to the interests of mankind; but also a
great political school, where attentive observers from other parts of
the world may be taught the practical science of true social order.

"Among the circumstances of my life, to which you have been pleased to
allude, none can afford me such dear recollections, as my having been
early adopted as an American soldier; so there is not a circumstance of
my reception in which I take so much pride, as in sharing those honors
with my beloved companions in arms. Happy I am to feel that the marks of
affection and esteem bestowed on me, bear testimony to my perseverance
in the American principles I received under the tent of Washington, and
of which I shall, to my last breath, prove myself a devoted disciple. I
beg you, Mr. Mayor, and the gentlemen of the Corporation, to accept my
respectful acknowledgments to you and to the citizens of Washington."

To the address and poem presented by John Brown Cutting, Esq. the
General made the following reply:--

"While I embrace you, sir, and make my acknowledgments to those of our
revolutionary comrades, in whose name you welcome me to this metropolis,
be assured that I reciprocate those kind expressions of attachment,
which from them are peculiarly gratifying. And although, in doing this,
it cannot be expected that I should command such beautiful language as
you employ, yet I speak from the bottom of my heart, when I assure you
that the associations of time and place, to which you allude, exalt the
interest which I shall ever feel in your prosperity, and that of every
meritorious individual who belonged to the revolutionary army of the
United States."

After the ceremony of the procession, &c. a public dinner was provided,
at which the Mayor of Washington presided, assisted by the Presidents
of the boards of Aldermen and the Common Council; and at which were
present, the heads of departments, revolutionary officers, military and
naval officers of the United States, members of the City Council, and
many distinguished characters from different parts of the nation.

His reception by Mr. Monroe President of the United States, was most
cordial and honorable. He called on the President, the day of his
arrival in Washington, as before mentioned. The next day he was with Mr.
Monroe both at breakfast and dinner, and on Thursday, the President gave
a public dinner in honor of Lafayette, at which were present, the Heads
of Departments, many distinguished public characters from various parts
of the Unified States, and the principal officers of the army and navy.
While in Washington, he also visited the Secretaries of State, of the
Treasury, and of War, and Major General Brown, of the United States

Gen. Lafayette rode over to Georgetown, on Thursday, having been
earnestly invited by the Mayor and corporation to visit the city. And
the citizens demonstrated their gratitude and joy on the occasion, by a
military escort, and a respectable precession. But the most acceptable
offering was such as he had received in all other places, the
spontaneous and cordial salutations of the whole people. On Friday, he
visited the navy yard, by invitation of the veteran Commodore Tingey.
His reception here was remarkably brilliant and impressive; he was
accompanied by many distinguished citizens and public functionaries; and
the attentions of the naval veteran were honorable to himself and highly
gratifying to General Lafayette. He dined again, this day (Friday) with
President Monroe; and on Saturday proceeded on his proposed visit to
Alexandria, and Yorktown. He was accompanied as far as the Potomac by
the Mayor and committee of arrangements from Washington, escorted by the
Georgetown cavalry. On the south side of the river, he was received
by the deputation of Alexandria, attended by many other citizens, and
several officers of the army and navy of the United States. He was
received in Alexandria with the highest military honors, and escorted
through the town amidst the welcomes and shouts of many thousands of
inhabitants. A public dinner was given him; and the highest regard
manifested by all classes of people for this disinterested friend of
American freedom and independence.

Sunday morning he visited the tomb of Washington, at Mount Vernon,
accompanied by Mr. Custis, the nearest male relative of that most
distinguished patriot. Lafayette spent an hour at this hallowed spot,
where, were deposited the mortal remains of his most respected friend,
whom he loved, venerated and was ever desirous to imitate. It was a
moment of sacred recollection; and while the living patriot and hero
reflected with mingled emotions of joy and sadness at the grave of one
who was his leader and examplar, in youth, he could not but anticipate,
with deep solemnity, the approaching period of his own departure. Mr.
Custis here presented him with a ring containing some of the hair of
his immortal relative. General Lafayette then proceeded on his way
to Yorktown, where he arrived on Monday; and was received with great
demonstrations of respect and joy. A steamboat was dispatched from
Yorktown down the river to meet the United States steam boat, which had
Lafayette on board. He entered the former near the mouth of the river,
where he was received by the committee from Yorktown, and conveyed to
that place, attended by four other large boats, crowded with citizens
anxious to see and welcome "the guest of the nation." One of the
committee addressed him, in a very affectionate and impressive manner,
as soon as he came on board of the Virginia steamboat. A great concourse
of people from the neighbouring towns were collected, and many from far
distant places, together with the most distinguished public characters
in the whole state of Virginia. There were also present on this
occasion, many officers of high rank of the army and navy of the United

Great preparations had been made by the citizens of Virginia, and by the
state authorities, to celebrate the anniversary of the capture of the
British army, under Lord Cornwallis, at this place, on the 19th of
October, 1781; an event, in which Lafayette took a very active and
useful part; perhaps no general in the siege, under Washington, was
more active and useful--an event, also, which had great and immediate
influence with the English government, to acknowledge our independence
and offer terms of an honorable peace. General Lafayette had been
invited, some weeks before, to be present in Yorktown, at this time. The
Ex-Presidents Jefferson and Madison, were also invited to attend, but
they both declined. Mr. Madison's want of health prevented; and Mr.
Jefferson declined on account of age and infirmity. We give his letter
in reply to the invitation.

_"Monticello, Oct_. 9, 1824.


"I received, on the 2d instant, your favor of September 27, conveying to
me the obliging invitation of the volunteer companies of the state, to
meet them and their distinguished guest; Gen. Lafayette, at York on
the 19th instant. No person rejoices more than I do at the effusions of
gratitude with which our fellow-citizens, in all parts, are receiving
this their antient and virtuous friend and benefactor; nor can any other
more cordially participate in their sentiments of affection to him. Age
and infirmities, however, disable me from repairing to distant occasions
of joining personally in these celebrations; and leave me to avail
myself of the opportunity which the friendship of the General will give
by his kind assurance of a visit. He will here have the pleasure
of reviewing a scene which his military maneuvers covered from the
robberies and ravages of an unsparing enemy. Here, then, I shall
have the welcome opportunity of joining with my grateful neighbors in
manifestations of our sense of his protection peculiarly afforded to us
and claiming our special remembrance and acknowledgements. But I
shall not the less participate with my distant brethren by sincerely
sympathising in their warmest expressions of gratitude and respect to
their country's guest.

"With this apology for my inability to profit of the honorable
invitation of the volunteer companies, I pray you to accept for them and
yourself the assurance of my high respect and consideration.


Hon. Mr. Marshall, the Chief Justice of the United States, Major-General
Taylor of the Virginia militia, Mr. Bassett, many years a member of
Congress from the state, and a committee from Yorktown, went in
the steamboat to meet General Lafayette. The address of one of the
committee, on his entering the Virginia steamboat, was as follows:

"We are deputed by our fellow citizens now assembled at Yorktown, to
welcome you to Virginia.

"We will not recount, in your presence, the real services you have
rendered this republic, and the virtues that so endear you to us, lest
even the simple voice of truth might pain the delicacy of a mind
like yours. But the emotions we all feel, of gratitude, affection and
veneration for you; emotions rendered more intense in each, by the
universal sympathy of others; these we cannot suppress. In the numerous
assembly, now anxiously awaiting your arrival, they are swelling in
every bosom, and hanging on every tongue, and beaming from every eye.

"Yes, sir, you "read your history in a nation's eyes." A whole people
unite in one deep and glowing sentiment of respect and love towards you.
Wheresoever you go, the old greet you as their leader in arms, and their
companion in toil and danger; the partaker, too, of their triumph. The
young have been taught, from their earliest childhood, to honor and to
bless your name. The mothers and the daughters of the land shed tears of
joy at your approach. Your name is associated in the memory of us all,
with every name, and wish most of the events in our annals, dearest to
the American heart; with the illustrious and revered name of Washington,
and with the most glorious achievements of the revolution.

"But, of all the states in the Union--though we will not say that
Virginia is the most grateful--yet she certainly owes you the largest
debt of gratitude. This state was the chief scene of your services. In
the day of her greatest peril, in the darkest hour of her distress, when
invading armies threatened to overrun the country, and all the horrors
of war were pointed against our very dwellings; Washington selected you,
his youthful friend, for the chief command, and securely entrusted the
defence of his native state to your courage and conduct. How zealously
you undertook, how well you fulfilled the arduous part assigned you,
with what honor to yourself, and with what advantage to us, no time
shall obliterate the remembrance. The general of the enemy, in effect,
pronounced your eulogium, when conscious of his own abilities, and
confiding in the superiority of his forces, he vauntingly said, "The boy
cannot escape me." History records, not only that our youthful general
did escape him, but that he held safe the far greater part of the
country, in spite of his utmost efforts; and came at last to yonder
spot, to assist in the capture of his army; to witness the downfall of
his hopes, the humiliation of his pride, and the last effort of British
power against American freedom. And now, after the lapse of forty-three
years, he visits the name spot again--happy to renew there the glorious
recollections of the past; and yet, happier, we hope, to see how
dearly we appreciate the blessings of liberty and independence which he
assisted us to achieve.

"On that spot, sir, we are most proud to receive you. We hail you as the
hero of liberty and the friend of man. We greet you as the bosom friend
of Washington. We greet you as one of the father's of the republic."

General Lafayette answered--

"I am happy, sir, to find myself again, after a long absence, and to be
so kindly welcomed, on the beloved sail of the state of Virginia; that
state, to which I am bound by so many old ties of gratitude, devotion,
and mutual confidence. It is to the patriotic support I found in the
civil authorities of this state, whose generous spirit had already shone
from the beginning of the revolutionary contest; it is to the zeal, the
courage, the perseverance of the Virginia militia, in conjunction with
our small gallant continental army, that we have been indebted for the
success of a campaign arduous in its beginning, fruitful in its
happy issue. Nothing can be more gratifying to my feelings, than
the testimonies I receive of my living still in the hearts of the
Virginians; and I beg you, sir, to be pleased to accept, and transmit to
the citizens of this state, the cordial tribute of my grateful, constant
and affectionate respect."

The beach and the heights of Yorktown were filled with anxious
spectators: the anticipation was intense. The Governor and Council were
stationed on a temporary wharf, erected for the occasion, to receive
him. Judges, revolutionary patriots, officers of the army, invited
guests and citizens, were also in waiting, in a separate group.
Lafayette landed with his companions, and supported by Colonels Fassett,
Harvie, Peyton and Jones; who introduced him to the Governor of the
State. The latter received him with the following speech:--


"SIR--On behalf of the people of Virginia, I tender to you a most
cordial and hearty welcome to our State.

"In you we recognise the early, the steadfast, the consistent friend.
Whilst the United States in general, owe you so large a debt of
gratitude, for the liberal tender of your purse, your person and your
blood in their behalf, the state of Virginia, is, if possible, still
more deeply indebted to you.--You were her defender in the hour of her
greatest trial. At the early age of twenty four years, with an
army greatly inferior in numbers, and still more in equipments and
discipline, you conducted your military movements with so much judgment,
that the ablest officer of the British army could never obtain the
slightest advantage over you; and whilst that officer spent his time in
harassing our distressed state you maneuvered before him with the
most unceasing caution and vigilance, with a steady eye, to that grand
result, which brought the war to a crisis on the plains of York.

"Forty-three years from that period, we have the happiness to find you
in our country, the vast improvement of which is the most conclusive
evidence of the correctness of the principles for which you contended by
the side of Washington.

"I will conclude, sir, by the expression of a sentiment, which I believe
to be strictly true; It is, that no man, at any time has ever received
the effusions of a nation's feelings, which have come so directly from
the heart."

The General advanced, and grasping the Governor's hand, said,--"I am
gratified sir, most highly gratified, by the reception you have given
me on the part of the state of Virginia. The happy conduct and the
successful termination of the decisive campaign, in which you have the
goodness to ascribe to me so large a part, were attributable much more
to the constituted authorities and people of Virginia, than to the
general who was honored with the chief military command. I have the
liveliest recollection of all the scenes of my services in this state,
and of all the men with whom it was my happiness and honor to serve--and
happy as I was to assist and witness the accomplishment of American
liberty and independence, I have been yet happier in the assurance that
the blessings which have flowed from that great event, have exceeded the
fondest and most sanguine expectations."

The General was then successively introduced to the councilors, the
judges, the revolutionary officers, and a number of citizens. The
procession then advanced--Gen. Lafayette, the Governor, Chief Justice,
and Mr. Calhoun, the Secretary of War, seated in the barouche.
Next Lafayette's son and suite, and the Council, &c. &c. in regular
succession. It advanced (the General's head uncovered) amidst the
salutes from the artillery company stationed on the heights and from the
steamboats and small craft--and amid the full swell of music. It passed
through the long lines of citizens and old revolutionary soldiers
arranged in two columns. It wound up the hill; and finally terminated
at the General's quarters.--On entering the house (Gen. Nelson's) he was
cheered by a crowd of citizens.

The introduction of a number of ladies and citizens followed--receiving
all with interest and the quiet dignity of a spirit at peace within
itself, and pleased with all the world. The most interesting of these
interviews were with the soldiers of the revolution. One of them
advanced, seized the General by the hand, exclaiming, "I was with you at
Yorktown. I entered yonder redoubt at your side. I too was at the side
of the gallant De Kalb, your associate in arms, when he fell in the
field." The tears streamed from the veteran's eyes; and Lafayette showed
by his countenance the sympathy he felt. "Yes, my brave soldier, I am
happy to have lived, to meet you once more."

After a short time, Lafayette, respecting that inestimable spirit of
equality which pervades over free institutions, went forth to salute the
crowd of citizens who stood in the street. He was stationed at the gate,
and the long line of gratified spectators passed by him. Each person
seized his hand as he passed him. To all Lafayette extended some mark
of kindness and consideration. The spectacle was deeply impressive. The
variety of manners in the different spectators was singularly striking.
Some as they approached, fixed their eyes on his face, and lingered
after they had passed, as if to drink in the last expression of its
countenance. Others advanced with the deepest feelings of awe, with
their eyes cast upon the earth.

On Monday, Lafayette dined with a select company of some 20 or
30, consisting of the revolutionary officers, &c. At night, some
transparencies were exhibited over the door of his house, and under the
Richmond marquee."

In truth, the scene exceeded all rational expectation: The committee
of arrangements deserve much encomium for their enterprising spirit
and judicious efforts. It is a seem which no man who saw it will ever
forget. The Virginians appeared in their true colours.--The moral
effects of this spectacle were sublime. There was an effect in it,
which no words can describe, "tears streamed from an hundred eyes. The
sentiments it diffused through several thousands of spectators, were of
the loftiest character.

On this day, Monday 18th, the reception was purely civic, not a soldier
appeared under arms. But on the 19th the military spectacle was imposing
and brilliant. Soon after breakfast, Lafayette walked from his quarters,
to the tent of Washington, surrounded by the committee of arrangements
and others. Numbers were then introduced to him--many ladies, the
veteran soldiers of the revolution, citizens from other states and all
quarters of Virginia.

Col. Wm. I. Lewis, of Campbell, was introduced to him, and delivered the
following address:--


"The sons of the mountains join most cordially their low land brethren
in welcoming your return to this country, they are the more delighted at
this particular period, because after an absence of about forty years,
you will now be a witness of the happy effects of self government,
founded on the natural rights of man--rights, which you so nobly
contributed to establish. Little did you think when in youthful age, you
voluntarily put your life in your hand, and crossed the stormy billows
of the deep, to fight and bleed for the independence of America that
the results would have been so wonderful. At that period we were only
a handful of people, for in everything of military import, except an
invincible love and attachment for liberty--we fought, and thanks
to Lafayette and his native nation, we conquered!--Now we see the
result--we have nearly by the offspring of our own loins increased
to more than 10,000,000 of people cleared the immeasurable forests
of savages, and wild beasts, and in their places are cultivating rich
fields, building villages, towns, and cities; our commerce is spread
over every sea, and our navy rides triumphant on the ocean. Such are the
effects of free government, founded on equal rights, supported by wise
and merciful laws faithfully executed!--There is but one alloy to our
pleasure of meeting you--we dread your return to Europe. The despots of
that country envy your increasing glory, founded on virtue, which they
cannot imitate; and their political fears may again incarcerate you in
the grated walls of a dungeon! Stay then with us, Lafayette--stay
with us--here in every house you will find a home and in every heart a
friend--we will with filial affection rock with gentleness the cradle of
your declining age; and when it shall please the God of universal nature
to call you to himself, crowned with the blessings of at least one free
and mighty nation, we will then with holy devotion bury your bones by
the side of your adopted and immortal father, and moisten your tomb with
the tears of love and gratitude."

The costume and whole appearance of Col. Lewis were striking and
interesting; he had on the mountain dress. On the conclusion of the
address, the General grasped him with both hands, and in the most
touching manner, begged him to convey to his mountain friends his, most
affectionate acknowledgments for this testimony of their kindness. He
recounted the services which their gallantry had formerly rendered
him. He dwelt with delight upon the interest they now manifested in his

About 11 o'clock, the procession began to form for the triumphal arch,
erected on the ruins of the Rock Redoubt, standing within six yards of
the river's bank. The ceremony of the reception at that most interesting
point, was pathetic beyond expression. The old General advanced up
the hillock which leads to the redoubt, limping and supported by the
Governor, with his aids and members of the committee of arrangement. A
large column of officers and citizens followed them. When Lafayette had
reached the triumphal arch, General Taylor stepped from the semicircular
group, which was formed near the river's bank, saluted him with profound
respect, and addressed him in the following manner:


"On behalf of my comrades, I bid you welcome. They come to greet you,
with no pageantry, intended to surprise by its novelty, or dazzle by its
splendour: But they bring you. General, an offering which wealth could
not purchase, nor power constrain. On this day, associated with so many
thrilling recollections; on this spot, consecrated by successful valour,
they come to offer you this willing homage of their hearts.

"Judge, General, of their feelings at this moment by your own. Every
thing around them speaks alike to their senses and sensibilities. These
plains, where the peaceful plow-share has not yet effaced the traces of
military operations; these half decayed ramparts, this ruined village,
in which the bombs' havoc is still every where visible, tell us of past
warfare; and remind us of that long, arduous and doubtful struggle, on
the issue of which depended the emancipation of our country.

"On yonder hillock, the last scene of blood was closed by the surrender
of an army; and the liberty of our nation permanently secured. With what
resistless eloquence does it persuade our gratitude and admiration
for the gallant heroes, to whose noble exertions we owe the countless
blessings which our free institutions have conferred upon us?

"The spot on which we stand was once a redoubt occupied by our enemy.
With how rapid a pencil does imagination present the blooming chieftain,
by whom it was wrested from his grasp. Can we be here and forget, that
superior to the prejudices which then enchained even noble minds, he
perceived in the first and almost hopeless struggles of a distant and
obscure colony, the movement of that moral power, which was destined to
give an new direction and character to political institutions, and to
improve human happiness. Can we forget, that, deaf to the solicitations
of power, of rank, and of pleasure, with a noble prodigality, he gave to
our country his sword, his treasure, and the influence of his example.

"And when in the aged warrior who stands before us, we recognise that
youthful chieftain, with what rapidity does memory retrace the incidents
of his eventful life? With what pleasure do we see his manhood realize
the promise of his youth? In senates or in camps, in the palaces of
kings, or in their _dungeons_, we behold the same erect and manly
spirit. At one time tempering the licentiousness of popular feeling; at
another restraining the extravagance of power, and always regardless of
every thing but the great object of his life, the moral and political
improvement of mankind.

"General--In the brightest days of antiquity, no artificial stimulus of
rank or power, or wealth, was required to excite noble minds to acts of
generous daring, A wreath of laurel, or of oak, was at once the proof
and the reward of illustrious merit. For this, statesmen meditated,
warriors bled, and eloquence soared to its sublimest heights. The prize
was invaluable; for, it was won only by merit. It detracted, however,
somewhat from its worth, that it was conferred by the partiality of
compatriots, and in the fervor of admiration inspired by recent success.

"Your life, General, illustrious throughout, in this also is
distinguished.--Time which dims the lustre of ordinary merit, has
rendered yours more brilliant. After a lapse of nearly half a century,
your triumph is decreed by the sons of those who witnessed your

"Deign then, General, to accept the simple but expressive token of their
gratitude and admiration. Suffer their leader to place upon your veteran
brow the only crown it would not disdain to wear, the blended emblems
of civic worth and martial prowess. It will not pain you, General, to
perceive some scattered sprigs of melancholy cypress intermingled with
the blended leaves of laurel and oak. Your heart would turn from us
with generous indignation, if on an occasion like this, amid the joyous
acclamations which greet you, every where, were heard no sighs of
grateful recollection for those gallant men who shared your battles, but
do not, cannot share your triumph. The wreath which our gratitude has
woven to testify our love for you, will lose nothing of its fragrance,
or its verdure, though time hang upon its leaves some tears of pious
recollection of the friend of your early youth; In war the avenger, in
peace, the father of his country.

"In behalf then, of all the chivalry of Virginia; on this redoubt which
his valour wrested from the enemy at the point of the bayonet; I
place on the head of Major General Lafayette this wreathe of double
triumph:--won by numerous and illustrious acts of martial prowess, and
by a life devoted to the happiness of the human race. In their names,
I proclaim him alike victorious in arms and acts of civil polity. In
bannered fields, a hero--in civil life, the benefactor of mankind."

Lafayette was deeply affected. There was a solemn earnestness in his
manner, a touching sensibility in his whole countenance which most
deeply impressed every observer. Many wept--all were moved. When Gen.
Taylor had closed his address, he was about to fix the civic wreath upon
the General's head. But the considerate veteran, always himself, always
attentive to the slightest proprieties of word and action, caught the
hovering wreath as it approached his brow with his right hand, and
respectfully bowing, dropt it to his side, when he thus replied:

"I most cordially thank you, my dear general, and your companions in
arms, for your affectionate welcome, your kind recollections, and the
flattering expressions of your friendship. Happy I am to receive them on
these already ancient lines, where the united arms of America and France
have been gloriously engaged in a holy alliance to support the rights of
American Independence, and he sacred principle of the sovereignty of
the people. Happy also to be so welcomed on the particular spot where my
dear light infantry comrades acquired one of their honorable claims to
public love and esteem. You know, sir, that in this business of storming
redoubts, with unloaded arms and fixed bayonets, the merit of the deed
is in the soldiers who execute it, and to each of them, I am anxious to
acknowledge their equal share of honor. Let me, however, with affection
and gratitude, pay a special tribute to the gallant name of Hamilton,
who commanded the attack, to the three field officers who seconded him,
Gimat, Laurens and Fish, the only surviving one, my friend now near me.
In their name, my dear general, in the name of the light infantry, those
we have lost as well as those who survive, and only in common with them,
I accept the crown with which you are pleased to honor us, and I offer
you the return of the most grateful acknowledgements."

When he had closed, he gave a new proof of the rapidity of his
conceptions, the generosity of his soul, the uniform modesty of his
character. The very moment he concluded, (never having been prepared for
such a scene, never having seen the address, never having suspected the
presentation of the wreath) he turned round and drew Col. Fish to the
front. "Here," he exclaimed, "half of this wreath belongs to you." "No
sir, it is all your own." "Then." said Lafayette, putting it into Col.
Fish's hand, "take it and preserve it as our _common property_."

The whole scene was strongly marked by the moral sublime. This ceremony
over, the grand review commenced. Lafayette stood near the arch, and
the volunteer companies, and the U. S. troops passed him in regular
succession, with flags flying and music floating in the air. The troops
then formed themselves again in line, and Lafayette on foot, passed
down the line. He was carried to the obelisk, situated on the spot where
Vimionel had stormed the second redoubt.--The review over, and Lafayette
having seen and been seen by all the troops, he mounted his barouche in
company with the governor, and was followed by the other carriages. The
whole body of military and citizens then moved to the field, near to
which the British troops had grounded their arms in 1781. Between
these, and the amphitheatre, where at least one thousand ladies sat, the
barouche passed on near to the ladies, who continued to wave their white
handkerchiefs as he slowly moved on. "Ladies, receive my warm thanks for
your kind welcome," was constantly upon his lips.

The whole scene defies description. Here were the fields, which
forty-three years ago, had witnessed the tread of a conquered enemy!
A thousand associations of this description rushed upon the mind. Now,
filled with an animated and joyous throng of from 10 to 15,000 persons.
The spectacle surpassed all expectation; all expression.

When at the tomb of Washington, Mr. Custis addressed him as follows:--

"Last of the generals of the army of Independence! At this awful and
impressive moment, when forgetting the splendour of a triumph greater
than Roman consul ever had, you bend with reverence over the remains
of Washington, the child of Mount Vernon presents you with this token,
containing the hair of him, whom while living you loved, and to whose
honored grave you now pay the manly and affecting tribute of a patriot's
and a soldier's tear.

"The _ring_ has ever been an emblem of the union of hearts from the
earliest ages of the world; and _this_ will unite the affections of
all the Americans to the person and posterity of Lafayette, now and
hereafter. And when your descendants of a distant day shall behold
this valued relic, it will remind them of the heroic virtues of their
illustrious sire, who received it, not in the palaces of princes,
or amid the pomp and vanities of life, but at the laurelled grave of

"Do you ask--Is this the Mausoleum befitting the ashes of a Marcus
Aurelius, or the good Antonius? I tell you, that the father of his
country lies buried in the hearts of his countrymen; and in those of the
brave, the good, the free, of all ages and nations. Do you seek for the
tablets, which are to convey his fame to immortality? They have long
been written in the freedom and happiness of their country. These are
the monumental trophies of Washington the great; and will endure when
the proudest works of art have "dissolved and left not a wreck behind."

"Venerable man! will you never tire in the cause of freedom and human
happiness? Is it not time that you should rest from your labours, and
repose on the bosom of a country, which delights to love and honor you,
and will teach her children's children to bless your name and memory?
Surely, where liberty dwells, there must be the country of Lafayette.

"Our fathers witnessed the dawn of your glory, partook of its meridian
splendour; and oh, let their children enjoy the benign radiance of your
setting sun. And when it shall sink in the horizon of nature, here, here
with pious duty, we will form your sepulcher; and, united in death as
in life, by the side of the great chief you will rest in peace, till the
last trump awakes the slumbering world, and call your virtues to their
great reward.

"The joyous shouts of millions of freemen hailed your returning
foot-print on our sands. The arms of millions are opened wide to take
you to their grateful hearts, and the prayers of millions ascend to the
throne of the Eternal, that the choicest blessings of heaven may cheer
the latest days of Lafayette."

General Lafayette having received the ring, pressed it to his bosom, and

"The feelings, which at this awful moment oppress my heart, do not leave
the power of utterance I can only thank you, my dear Custis, for your
precious gift. I pay a silent homage to the tomb of the greatest and
best of men, my paternal friend."

General Lafayette was escorted to his quarters by the troops, and a
sumptuous dinner provided for him, and the distinguished civil and
military characters who were present on the occasion. The following
morning, the officers of the volunteer companies present, prepared a
military breakfast. The table was spread in the tent of Washington,
which was pitched at the volunteer's encampment. He left York Wednesday
afternoon, and reached Williamsburg in the evening, where he was
received with open arms by the citizens. Hence he proceeded to Norfolk,
where he had been previously invited, and where great preparations were
made to receive him according to his distinguished merit, and his highly
important services to the country. From Norfolk he was to proceed to
Richmond; and thence farther south through North and South Carolina, to
Georgia. Invitations have been given him to visit Kentucky, Tennessee
and Ohio; but it is probable he will decline them. For he intends
returning to Washington in December, and to spend most of the winter
season in that city. Early in the spring, he will probably visit the
northern states again; and embark for France at Boston, some time in
June or July.

There is a strong and very general desire that Lafayette should pass
the remainder of his life in the United States; and that the national
government should provide a respectable establishment for him and his
family in this country. That the representatives of the people will be
ready to grant an honorable stipend, there cannot be a doubt. But France
is his native country and his home. There are his children and his
grand children. There, it is natural, he should desire to pass his few
remaining years. And such an intention, we believe, he has expressed.
What will be his final resolution on the subject, we will not

       *       *       *       *       *

From the New-York Commercial Advertiser.


  O deep was the gloom on our sad land descending,
    And wild was the moan from the tempest's dread form,
  While the heroes and sires of our country were bending
    Their souls to their God, and their brows to the storm.

  Who bounds to the shore from the dark bosom'd ocean,
    In the sparkle and pride of his beauty and youth?
  His ardent mind burning, his soul all devotion,
    To the high cause of liberty, justice and truth?

  He joins the bold band, who, with spirits undaunted,
    Strive to guard and to win, all man's bosom holds dear;
  It is done! they have triumph'd! and heaven has granted
    Fair freedom to crown their majestic career.

  How lovely the land where the bright sun is flinging
    The purple and gold from his throne in the west!
  There millions of hearts in their gladness are singing,
    There finds the poor exile contentment and rest.

  The eagle that rush'd on a torn, bloody pinion,
    And soar'd to the sky 'mid the clamors of light,
  Now wings his proud way in untroubled dominion,
    While the nations all silently gaze on his flight.

  Who comes o'er the billow with head bent and hoary,
    With full throbbing heart, and with glistening eye
  Past years roll before him--the scene of his glory
    Fills his heart with emotions, deep, solemn and high.

  Great man! thy lov'd name to the skies is ascending,
    A name whose remembrance no time can destroy,
  While gladness and grief are within us contending,
    For all _thou_ hast suffer'd, and all _we_ enjoy.

  We will rank thee with him, who was sent us by heaven;
    Ye shall meet in our hearts as in glory ye met:
  Spread, ye winds, the glad news! to our wishes is given
    The friend of our WASHINGTON, brave LAFAYETTE.

       *       *       *       *       *


  We'll search the earth, and search the sea,
  To cull a gallant wreath for thee;
  And every field for freedom fought,
  And every mountain-height, where aught
  Of liberty can yet be found,
  Shall be our blooming harvest-ground.

  Laurels in garlands hang upon
  Thermopylae and Marathon;--
  On Bannockburn the thistle grows;--
  On Runnymead the wild rose blows;--
  And on the banks of Boyne, its leaves
  Green Erin's shamrock wildly weaves.
  In France, in sunny France, we'll get
  The Fleur-de-lys and mignonette
  From every consecrated spot,
  Where ties a martyr'd Huguenot;--.
  And cull _even here_, from many a field,
  And many a rocky height,
  Bays, that our vales and mountains yield,
  Where men have met to fight
  For law, and liberty, and life,
  And died in freedom's holy strife.
  Below Atlantic seas,--below
  The waves of Erie and Champlain,
  The sea-grass and the corals grow
  In rostral trophies round the slain;
  And we can add to form thy crown,
  Some branches worthy thy renown.
  Long may the chaplet flourish bright,
  And borrow from the heavens its light!
  As with a cloud that circles round
  A star, when other stars are set,
  With glory shall thy brow be bound,
  With glory shall thy head be crowned,
  With glory-starlike tinctured yet:--
  For air, and earth, and, sky, and sea,
  Shall yield a glorious wreath to thee.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Memoirs of General Lafayette - With an Account of His Visit to America and His Reception By the People of the United States; From His Arrival, August 15th, to the Celebration at Yorktown, October 19th, 1824." ***

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