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Title: Hints on cheese-making - for the dairyman, the factoryman, and the manufacturer
Author: Curtis, Thomas Day
Language: English
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HINTS ON CHEESE-MAKING,

FOR THE

DAIRYMAN, THE FACTORYMAN,

AND THE MANUFACTURER.

BY T. D. CURTIS.

UTICA, N. Y.

ROBERTS, PRINTER, MORNING HERALD ESTABLISHMENT.

1870.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by

THOMAS DAY CURTIS,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Northern District of
New York.



INTRODUCTORY.


The following pages comprise the series of articles which appeared,
during the last season, in the columns of the UTICA MORNING and WEEKLY
HERALD. It is not claimed that they exhaust the several questions
discussed; but it is believed that they constitute the most practical
treatise on cheese-making that has yet appeared, and that they embrace
the leading features and indicate the more advanced methods of the art
as practiced by the best manufacturers. Every experienced cheese-maker
may find something in them to object to and criticise, as there is
diversity of opinion on many, as yet, not definitely settled questions.
The writer would not check honest and intelligent criticism, if he
could, but, on the contrary, encourage it. Nor would he have others
adopt any of the suggestions, methods or practices herein mentioned, if
they think they have better of their own. He would rather stimulate
independent thought and action, and urge each to observe closely,
experiment thoroughly, and be guided by his own experience. Beginners,
without a complete knowledge of all the branches of cheese-making, it is
believed, will be able to glean from these pages what will afford
valuable assistance to them; but they should accept nothing as
conclusive. There is much to be discovered and learned about
cheese-making. Those who have worked at the business for years, without
material progress, are not as likely to make important discoveries or
improvements as those who now or may hereafter come to a knowledge of
the subject with fresh minds and faculties newly stimulated. They will
begin where the old cheese-makers leave off, and ought to be able to
make advances in the work thus far developed by their predecessors. That
each may keep his wits about him and add something valuable to our
present stock of knowledge in regard to cheese-making, is the earnest
wish of

THE AUTHOR.

UTICA, January, 1870.



CONTENTS.

                              PAGE.
INTRODUCTORY,                     5

BUILDING CHEESE FACTORIES,        9

PRODUCTION OF MILK,              14

COMPOSITION OF MILK,             18

TAINTS AND ODORS,                23

COOLING MILK,                    27

DELIVERING MILK,                 31

RECEIVING MILK,                  36

BIG AVERAGES,                    40

CONDUCTORS, STRAINERS, &C.,      45

COLOR,                           49

RENNETS,                         55

PREPARING RENNET,                60

SETTING,                         64

CUTTING CURDS,                   68

HEAT,                            73

ACID,                            79

DIPPING CURDS,                   84

SALTING CURDS,                   87

TAINTED MILK,                    91

CURING,                          93

GREASING CHEESE,                 95

SKIPPERS,                        99

CHEDDAR PROCESS,                102



HINTS ON CHEESE-MAKING.



CHAPTER I.

BUILDING CHEESE-FACTORIES.


We frequently receive inquiries from parties who contemplate building
cheese-factories, regarding certain details which none but those who
have actual experience can readily carry out. For the benefit of all
needing such information, we have taken pains to prepare the following:

Small or medium-sized factories now seem to be in order. People do not
like to carry milk long distances, and this fact undoubtedly accounts
for the tendency to small factories, conveniently located. We will give
the size of a building suitable for a dairy of 300 to 500 cows. Let it
be 80 by 26 feet, with 16 feet posts and two floors. From one end of the
lower story take 24 feet for a make room, leaving the remainder for a
curing room. Should more than one vat be used, the make room will need
to be about six feet larger one way. It may be made so by taking the
space off from the curing room, or by putting a projection on the side.
The upper story will be used for curing, but should be partitioned off
the same as the lower story. The room over the make room should be
lathed and plastered, and provided with heating apparatus, so as to make
a suitable place for curing early and late made cheese. The building may
be cheap, or as expensive as desired.

Either setters and ranges, or the old style tables, may be used. The
latter, since small-sized cheeses have come in fashion, are the more
common. They are quite as cheap and convenient, and by using them,
factorymen avoid the annoyance consequent upon the pretended patent
right which is claimed on the rails and turners.

We shall not recommend any particular style of vat, since by doing so we
should seem to condemn others. But we will mention the fact that for
small factories, vats with self-heaters are preferable and the more
economical. A self-heater can be set up and run anywhere, with a piece
of stove-pipe to conduct off the smoke, and the expense of boilers,
mason-work, etc., is avoided. Five or six cords of maple stove-wood,
split fine and well seasoned, will run a good self-heater through the
season.

The appearance of a dairy depends very much on the trueness, as well as
uniformity in hight, of the cheeses. Good presses and hoops are
therefore essential, and save a great deal of trouble as well as give a
great deal of satisfaction. The press, therefore, needs to be made heavy
and strong, so as not to spring or warp. Let the sill be 14 by 4 inches;
the beam, 10 by 6 inches; posts, 4 by 14 inches, slanted from the sill
upward to 10, the width of the beam. The sill and beam should be boxed
into the posts three-fourths of an inch, and the posts should extend
above the beam some 4 inches or more. The top of the sill should stand
about 2 feet from the floor. The space between the sill and beam should
be 2 feet 4 inches. The lateral space allowed for each hoop should be 2
feet; and in each space between the hoops the sill and beam should be
held in place by seven-eighths inch rods of iron. In the first space
from either end, a single rod is sufficient; the next should have two
rods, and so on, alternately. The single rod should extend through the
middle of the sill and beam, and have heavy washers attached to each
end, to prevent the head or nut from settling into the wood. The double
rods should go through the edges of the beam and sill, and through heavy
washers of iron on the bottom of the sill, and through strong straps
extending across the top of the beam. The presses should be made for
pressing four or six cheeses, and be made of hard, seasoned timber. The
screws should be 1¾ inch. Of the various kinds of screws introduced, we
know of none better than the old-fashioned ones, with holes through them
to receive the bar.

The curd-sink is an important thing in a factory. Its construction is
always a matter of considerable speculation and perplexity. We will give
dimensions for one suitable for a factory of the size we have indicated.
It should be 16 feet long, 2 feet 10 inches in width inside, and 1 foot
deep. The bottom should be 1½ inch thick, and the sides 1 inch thick.
The legs should be 3 feet high, extending up the sides, so that the top
of the sink will be 3 feet from the floor. The sink should be made of
clear, seasoned pine, and the legs be well braced, with cross and side
pieces connecting them about 6 inches from the floor. Backs and a cloth
strainer may be used, or a false bottom with perforated tin strainers
may be substituted.

The proper hight of the weighing can, of the dumping window from the
ground, and the best apparatus for unloading, are generally matters
quite perplexing. The proper hight of the receiving can is that which
gives a gentle slope to the conductor, as too much current not only
causes the milk to slop over the sides of the strainer, but drives the
dirt through the strainer. With vats 3 feet 2 inches high, the platform
for the scales should be 3 feet 8 inches from the floor.

Of the many appliances used for unloading, none is simpler, cheaper or
more satisfactory than the crane. Make it of scantling 4 by 4 inches,
the upright 8 feet long, and the arm 7 feet. Hang it as you would a
barn-door. Fasten one end of a strong half or three-quarter inch rope to
the end of the arm; run it through a pully to which is attached the
tongs; then over a 4 inch pully above, near the end of the arm; run it
back over a similar pully next to the upright, then down to a 3 inch
roller, with a crank, at a convenient hight for turning. One end of the
crank must be sustained by a strong iron strap, bowing outward, in the
direction of the arm, to admit the roller (about 6 inches long)
lengthwise, and fastened to the upright above and below.

The window-sill should be not more than two or three inches above the
edge of the receiving-can, which should stand close to the window, just
clearing the sill. The road should be eighteen inches below the platform
on which stand the scales and weighing can. Then the can, when raised
just enough to clear the wagon-box and wheels, will be of the right
hight for dumping when swung round to the window. Many make the mistake
of getting the road too low, which causes the unnecessary work of
raising the milk 3 or 4 feet by hand before it can be dumped, and wastes
strength and time, both in raising the can and lowering it back again
into the wagon after it is emptied.

In building a factory, every provision should be made for cleanliness.
It should be located near a living spring of water, ranging in
temperature somewhere between 45° and 55°. There should be sufficient
water to fill, at all times, an inch pipe, and care should be taken to
secure a fair head--enough to carry the water above the vats, at least.
The water should be carried in pipes under the building, along by the
ends of the vats where it is wanted, with penstocks rising from the
pipe, to furnish water for each vat. The faucets in the penstocks should
be all of the same hight--if any difference is made, the one farthest
from the head might be a quarter or half an inch the lowest. Outside
should be a penstock, to carry off the superfluous water. The outlet to
this should be a few inches higher than the faucets in the penstocks for
supplying the vats with water. This is necessary to secure a flow of
water in the factory. In freezing weather, and during the winter, the
penstocks in the factory can be removed, until needed for use, and the
holes in the pipe beneath plugged up. An extra faucet in one of the
penstocks at the ends of the vats, inserted high enough from the floor
to set a pail under, will supply all the necessary water for cleaning
and other purposes.



CHAPTER II.

PRODUCTION OF MILK.


The requisites of good milk have been so frequently and fully discussed,
that we need not more than briefly advert to them now. The importance of
good milk, for either cheese or butter, will be conceded, and therefore
the question need not be argued.

The first requisites of good milk are good cows. But these will
disappoint their owners if they have not good keep. Plenty of good clean
hay and pure water, with warm quarters, are indispensable. The
old-fashioned method of allowing cows, or other cattle, to weather all
kinds of storms, with a snow-bank for a bed at night, we believe is
pretty effectually done away with. It has been found that it does not
pay. It is not yet quite so universally admitted that generous feeding
is equally advantageous, nor that a warm stable is as much an advance on
an open, cold one, where the cows stand and shiver throughout the
twenty-four hours, as a common shelter is an improvement on no shelter.
Yet, a warm stable, which may be had for a small expense, is decided
economy, in the saving of food, as well as a comfort to the cows; and
generous feeding will be found a profitable investment, both by the
increased flow of milk and by its increased richness. A poorly-kept cow
will give less milk than a well-kept one, and its poorer quality will be
more manifest than the diminution in quantity. When turned out to grass,
if the feed should prove good, it will take the cow weeks to build up
her system and get in the condition she should have been in at the
start; and though the quantity and quality of her milk will improve,
she will reach the time when the mess naturally begins to shrink before
she will have thoroughly recuperated. After this, the richness of the
milk will probably be satisfactory. But in case the season should open
dry and cold, so that the grass starts slowly, and is then followed by
the hot dry weather of July and August, as is not unfrequently the case,
a cow that starts "spring poor" will scarcely get in good condition
before the grass is nipped by the fall frosts and it becomes necessary
to begin to fodder.

There is a marked difference in the quality of the messes of milk
delivered at a cheese-factory. The use of the lactometer and
cream-gauges will show this. It will be an interesting experiment, for
cheese-makers who never tried it, to test in this way the quality of the
milk delivered by the different patrons, and then ascertain the style in
which each keeps his cows, the character of the pastures of each, the
kind of water which the pastures afford--whether brook, river, swamp or
spring--and to note any other facts and conditions which may be apparent
or may suggest themselves. It will be found, we think, that bad
wintering and poor pastures have as much or more to do than anything
else with the production of poor milk. No breed of cows nor selection of
a dairy can wholly counteract these evils. The yield of milk will
undoubtedly be greater and better with some cows than with others; and
so with naturally good cows, good wintering and pasturing will show
quite as marked improvements.

We have in our mind an instance where, at the opening of a
cheese-factory, only a few of the farmers, having the largest dairies,
delivered milk. They were all men who fed their cows well during the
winter, and gave them meal before and after coming in. The result was
an astonishingly large yield of cheese from milk at that season of the
year. But as the messes increased, and milk from dairies poorly-kept
came in, the yield of cheese in proportion to the number of pounds of
milk steadily diminished. The lactometer and cream-gauges showed that
the poorest milk came from the poorest-kept cows.

The forepart of the season proved a cold and wet one, which made the
grass more juicy and less nutritious. This, with the accidental or
intentional watering which the milk got from the rain falling in the
cans, either at home or on the road, was also believed to decrease the
yield of cheese. It appeared that milk coming long distances through the
rain, other things being equal, showed more water than that brought
short distances. Manifestly, some sort of shelter to the cans should be
devised, to be used both at home and on the road, during rainy
weather--and the same for keeping off the rays of the sun, in fair
weather, is equally desirable.

All through the season, in the instance referred to, there was a marked
difference in the quality of the milk of the well-kept and of the
poorly-kept dairies. Swampy pastures also seemed to impoverish the milk.
Those pastures that were dry, with pure water accessible, appeared to
produce the richest milk. While the milk of the best dairies, on being
tested, would indicate a yield of a pound of cheese to eight or nine
pounds of milk, the milk of others would not yield a pound of cheese to
less than eleven or twelve pounds of milk. The average number of pounds
of milk for a pound of cheese, during the season, was about 9.9.

In the foregoing, will be seen a manifest objection to the factory
system, as at present conducted. The quality of the milk delivered is
nowhere taken into consideration. The man who has a well-selected dairy,
keeps it well, and delivers milk that will turn out, for the season, a
hundred pounds of cheese for every nine hundred pounds of milk, gets no
more returns for a given number of pounds of milk than the man who
delivers milk so poor that twelve hundred pounds of it will not make
more than a hundred pounds of cheese, or the same as the former's nine
hundred pounds. There is a difference of about twenty-five per cent, in
the quality of the milk turned out by the good and the poor dairies,
one-half of which the owner of the former loses, and the other half of
which the owner of the latter gains, by getting his milk made up at the
factory. Some means should be devised for remedying this piece of
injustice, if the better class of dairies is to be retained by the
factories.



CHAPTER III.

COMPOSITION OF MILK.


The composition of milk, though frequently discussed, is not generally
well understood. It is quite variable, not only in the milk from
different cows, but in that from the same cow at different times, and in
different conditions, but especially at different seasons of the year.
It is more buttery in winter, and more cheesy in summer. A cow milked
three times a day would give more in quantity but poorer in quality,
than if milked twice; while one milked twice a day will yield more milk
than if milked once a day, but one milking a day would be the richer.
The first milk drawn from the udder is more watery than what follows;
the last is the richest. The accumulation of milk in the cow's bag is
influenced by the law of gravitation. The water being the heaviest
ingredient, settles to the bottom, and is the first milked; the cream,
which is the lightest, rises, and is the last milked. That is to say, a
partial separation takes place in the udder, sufficient to make the
"strippings" some ten or twelve times as rich in butter as the first
milk drawn. We would, therefore, infer that the first third contains the
most water, the second third the most cheese, and the last third the
most butter. There is said to be a difference in the milk drawn from the
compartments of the udder of the same cow, or from different teats.

The variation in the composition of milk, of course, is indicated by
different chemical analyses, no two of which can be found to exactly
agree. We give an analysis by HAIDLEN. He found that the specimen
contained, in 1,000 parts, 873 parts of water, 30 of butter, 48.2 of
cheese, 43.9 of sugar of milk, 2.31 of phosphate of lime, .42 of
magnesia, .47 of iron, 1.04 of chloride of potassium, and .66 of sodium
and soda. Other chemists have found albumen among the constituents of
milk, and this ingredient is believed, by many, to be the one that first
commences decaying, in hot weather, and produces, "tainted" milk,
"floating" curds, and "huffy" cheese. Skimmed milk has been found, in
some instances, to contain as high as 97 parts of water in 100, and only
3 per cent. of solids, or cheesy matter. "Swill milk" has been found to
contain as low as 1½ per cent. of butter. An analysis of the first milk
taken from a cow's bag after calving, showed it to consist of 15.1 per
cent. of caseine, or cheese, 2.6 of butter, 2 of mucous matter, and 80.3
of water. Ordinary pure milk will average about 12½ per cent. of cream.
But it is not unfrequently found to yield 15 to 20 per cent., and even
as high as 25 per cent. of cream has been obtained. If milk yields less
than 10 per cent. of cream, it is below the average, and unprofitable
for butter-making.

We know of no single instrument that will at once indicate the quality
of milk. What is called the lactometer, but is properly a hydrometer,
will indicate the density of milk, and if its specific gravity in a pure
state be known, it will show the amount of water added, if any. On an
average, milk is about 4 per cent. heavier than water. That is, a
hydrometer with a scale graded at 100 for milk at 60° Farenheit, ought
to sink to 96 in water. The variation in the density of milk will be
shown by an experiment given by CHARLES L. FLINT, in his "Milch Cows and
Dairy Farming." He says:

"For the purpose of showing the difference in the specific gravity of
different specimens of pure milk, taken from the cows in the morning,
and allowed to cool down to about 60°, I used an instrument graduated
with the pure milk mark at 100, with the following results: The first
pint drawn from a native cow stood at 101. The last pint of the same
milking, being the strippings of the same cow, stood at 86. The mixture
of the two pints stood at about 93½. The milk of a pure bred Jersey
stood at 95, that of an Ayrshire at 100, that of a Hereford at 106, that
of a Devon at 111, while a thin cream stood at 66. All these specimens
of milk were pure, and milked at the same time in the morning, carefully
labeled in separate vessels, and set upon the same shelf to cool off;
and yet the variations of specific gravity amounted to 25, or, taking
the average quality of the native cow's milk at 93½, the variations
amounted to 17½."

It will be seen, by these experiments, that the richer the milk in
butter, the less the specific gravity, thin cream being 30° below the
water mark. The richer the milk in caseine, or cheese, the greater the
specific gravity, the milk of the Devon indicating 15° above the water
mark. Watering milk will of course reduce the specific gravity of milk
rich in cheese, and by this means it can be made to indicate the average
density of pure milk. In the same way, milk rich in butter may have its
specific gravity increased until it nearly reaches that of water, but no
amount of watering can make it indicate over 96°, which is the figure
given for pure water. A little salt, or other ingredient, may be added
to bring the density up to the pure milk mark. So the blueness of milk,
produced by either skimming or watering, may be removed by the use of
burnt sugar, which will give it a rich color. Or annotto may be used
for the same purpose. Many expedients have been resorted to, from time
to time, by the dishonest, for the purpose of disguising the
impoverishment of milk by skimming and watering.

"But," says some one, "why tell dishonest men how they can skim and
adulterate their milk?" We have not done so. We have told honest men
some of the practices of the dishonest, with the view of enabling them
to detect the fraud. True, the hydrometer is not an accurate or legal
test; but it shows the exact density of the milk tried, and this is a
very important point. When you have decided this, by the use of the
cream-gauges, you can determine the amount of cream; and if you let the
milk stand until it coagulates, and the cheese separates from the whey,
you can tell the relative proportion of water and cheese. This may be a
somewhat slow and clumsy process, but it is nevertheless decisive, and
often repays the trouble. Foreign substances, so far as not held in
solution by the water, or not entangled in the cheese or cream, will
settle at the bottom of the glasses. Besides, with these evidences to
start on, the ways of a suspected person can be watched, and he often be
caught in the very act of violating the law, which we quote below:


     § 1. Whoever shall knowingly sell, supply, or bring to be
     manufactured to any cheese manufactory in this State, any milk
     diluted with water, or in any way adulterated, or milk from which
     any cream has been taken, or milk commonly known as skimmed milk;
     or whoever shall keep back any part of the milk known as
     "strippings;" or whoever shall knowingly bring or supply milk to
     any cheese manufactory that is tainted or partly sour from want of
     proper care in keeping pails, strainers, or any vessel in which
     said milk is kept, clean and sweet, after being notified of such
     taint or carelessness; or any cheese manufacturer who shall
     knowingly use, or direct any of his employes to use, for his or
     their individual benefit, any cream from the milk brought to said
     cheese manufacturer, without the consent of all the owners thereof,
     shall, for each and every offense, forfeit and pay a sum not less
     than twenty-five dollars, nor more than one hundred dollars, with
     costs of suit, to be sued for in any court of competent
     jurisdiction, for the benefit of the person or persons, firm or
     association or corporation, or their assigns, upon whom such fraud
     be committed.



CHAPTER IV.

TAINTS AND ODORS.


Whatever be the grade of cows and the quality of milk, much depends upon
its management. A good deal of care and attention are requisite for the
attainment of the best possible results with such milk as we may have to
work up. But before we come to the process of milking, let us look a
moment at the effect of food in regard to taints and the flavor of milk.

It is now universally conceded, that the flavor as well as the quality
of the milk depends very materially upon the food of the cow. Coarse
swamp-grasses and weeds do not produce as rich or sweet milk as clover,
timothy and red-top, grown on dry upland soil; while swamp-water gives a
ranker flavor than the sweet spring and brook-water of hilly regions.
Leeks are not the only weeds which taint the milk before it is taken
from the cow. All rank vegetable growths lend a similar influence to
injure flavor. Indeed, that which the cow eats is what she makes the
milk of, and if these offensive things are taken into her system, she
cannot be expected to turn out milk that will not partake of their
qualities, any more than a man can be expected to make sweet cider of
sour apples by running them through the mill and press. Even the
atmosphere which the cows breathe affects the flavor of the milk.
Carrion in the lot where the cows feed has been known to impart its odor
to the milk of the dairy. Dirty stables and barnyards, the odor of which
is breathed by the cows, makes the milk "taste of the barnyard," as the
common expression goes.

It becomes of the greatest importance, therefore, that cows should have
clean, sweet pastures to feed in, and clear spring or brook-water to
drink; also, that they should have clean, well-ventilated stables to
stand in, and be milked in clean yards or stables, as free from all
taints and bad odors as possible. The cows should not be heated by
hurried driving with a dog, or by a man or boy on horseback, as this
fevers the milk, giving it an unwholesome quality, leading to rapid
decay as well as producing bad flavor.

And, if quantity as well as quality is to be attained, pastures must
contain plenty of feed, so that the cow can soon fill her stomach and
then lie down or stand in the shade and ruminate at ease, instead of
working constantly from morning to night to gather food enough to
satisfy her. She must have water handy, instead of away back in some
retired corner of a large pasture, as she naturally wants to drink a few
swallows quite often, in warm weather, but will go until she gets
excessively dry and feverish before she will travel a long distance to
get water. When thus very dry, she drinks an inordinate quantity, which
makes her feel heavy and uncomfortable--and whatever annoys a cow
lessens the flow and reduces the quality of the milk.

A little reflection must make these things apparent to every reasoning
mind. Cows must have plenty of clean, wholesome food and pure water, and
must be every way made comfortable and contented, if the largest flow
and best quality of milk is expected. The cow is sure to show, not only
her own naturally good or bad qualities, but her keep and care, in the
milk pail. There is no cheating her. She will make a corresponding
discount or dividend on every iota of ill or good treatment she
receives. In this, she is an exact accountant, and she will insist upon
keeping the account square.

Milk requires not only favorable conditions for its production, as above
indicated, but needs great care and cleanliness after it is drawn from
the cows. A foul yard or stable will impart its odors to the milk.
Uncleanliness in milking not only gets filth into the milk, but taints
and injures its flavor. Some, for this reason, recommend washing the
cow's bag before milking. But if this washing is done with cold water by
the milker, it is quite likely to consume time, cool the bag and cause
the cow to hold up a portion of the mess. Experience shows that the
quicker the milk can be drawn, after the operation is commenced, the
better the yield. If washing is done, it should be with warm or tepid
water, and be the work of one person, who should go through the whole
dairy in advance of the milkers. But, in our opinion, where the stable
or yard is kept clean, a careful brushing of the bag with the hands
before beginning, and care in holding the pail a little toward you from
under the teats, will obviate all the evils of uncleanliness from
milking; and, certain it is, where all the surroundings are dirty, no
amount of washing the cow's bag will get rid of the bad effects of the
odors arising from the filth. Clean quarters for milking are
indispensable to the furnishing of sweet, nice-flavored milk.

Cleanliness in all the pails, cans, strainers, and whatever comes in
contact with the milk, is equally necessary. Thorough washing, not
omitting the use of soap, scalding and airing, are the only things that
will keep them sweet and free from taint. All implements and utensils
should be as free from sharp corners as possible, as these are difficult
to clean, and taints are apt to be left in them to come in contact with
the new milk and infect it, as a small quantity of yeast leavens a batch
of bread. The milk will, therefore, soon begin to ferment, producing one
of the worst conditions which the cheese-maker has to contend with, and
rendering it impossible for him to make firm, clean-flavored cheese of
the milk. In no case should wooden vessels be used for milk. The wood
will absorb the milk, and no amount of washing and scalding will get it
entirely out. What remains will get frowy and impart its infection to
the warm milk and cause it to rapidly taint. Tin vessels are the best of
anything yet devised, and are recommended universally by the best
dairymen and by the American Dairymen's Association. Those with pressed
or round bottoms, having no inside angles for ferments to collect in,
are preferable. These can be obtained for a trifle if any more money
than common tin pails cost, and should receive the preference of
dairymen when purchasing.

In short, the greatest care should be taken to have all things strictly
clean--not only those that come in contact with the milk, but those
surrounding it. The milkers should be as clean, careful and expeditious
as possible, avoiding all unnecessary or unusual motions, and everything
calculated to alarm or excite the cows. Then, if the cows have had
proper food, drink, care and treatment, there is little reason to
apprehend anything objectionable in either the quantity or quality of
the milk.



CHAPTER V.

COOLING MILK.


The management of milk, when once obtained, is the great practical
consideration with the farmer and cheese-maker. But the first handling
and care devolve upon the farmer; the cheese-maker's duties begin with
the delivery of the milk at the factory. Much, very much, depends upon
the treatment of the milk after milking, and the consequent condition in
which it is delivered. We will therefore begin at the stable or yard and
follow the milk through all its stages, until it is run into the
weighing-can.

Previous suggestions as to cleanliness, etc., being adopted, we find the
hot milk in the pails ready to be strained into the can standing on the
platform or in the wagon. We say "strained," because this is necessary
to absolute cleanliness, which affects the flavor, though at some
factories the patrons are directed not to strain the milk, for the
reason that poor care is so often taken of the strainer, and the keeping
of the strainer drawn tight over the top of the can prevents cooling and
hastens taint. For this reason, we would recommend the use of
strainer-pails, unless the cloth strainer can be stretched above the can
so as to allow the heat to escape and the cool air to come in. These
precautions should be observed, most certainly, if no means is adopted
for cooling the milk before starting for the factory.

The subject of cooling and airing milk has long been earnestly
discussed, and the importance of cooling, at least, we believe is
universally conceded. But how is this end to be attained, with the
thermometer indicating an average temperature of 80°, and perhaps
higher? The first and simplest suggestion is to set the can in a tub of
cold water--cold spring or well-water, or iced water--and to give the
milk frequent agitation with a dipper or other convenient article, care
being taken to stir it from the bottom, as the cold milk naturally
settles, and of course the hot milk lies on the top. Gentle agitation
secures the advantage, also, of preventing the cream from rising. This
makes trouble, and consumes a little time, but we believe the result
will well repay both.

The milk-can should, by all means, be kept out of the sun's rays, and in
a clean airy place. As to the importance of airing milk, there is a
difference of opinion. Some assert that the airing is beneficial only so
far as it assists in cooling, and that if we can succeed in cooling the
milk down to 60°, or thereabouts, immediately after milking, we shall
attain all the good results apparent from exposure to the air. All the
"animal odors," they say, disappear. Be that as it may, it is scarcely
possible to cool milk without more or less exposure to the atmosphere,
and we have never heard it claimed that any bad consequences follow this
exposure. It is possible, however, that it may more rapidly absorb
oxygen, and thus sooner sour. The probability is, that any process which
will secure the proper cooling will also afford the necessary exposure
for the escape of all animal or other odors likely to pass off in the
form of gas. Therefore, practically, it is of very little importance
whether we consider the question of airing milk, in any of the stages of
its management. So we will first look after the processes which secure
known advantages.

Several inventions for the purpose of cooling milk have made their
appearance within the past year or two. Some for the use of factories,
which seem to work quite satisfactorily, and others for the use of
farmers, none of which, we believe, have yet been received with much
favor. They are mostly too complicated, if not too expensive, and too
difficult to keep clean, to ever become generally adopted. Yet, enough
has already been developed to convince us that the desideratum, of a
satisfactory apparatus for cooling milk as fast as, or soon after, it is
taken from the cow, can be realized. The great trouble is, to make
farmers use it faithfully, if at all.

The cooling of milk as fast as milked, or very soon afterward, is the
great question now presented to farmers and cheese-makers. It is of
quite as much and more consequence, than keeping it cool at the
factory--for milk is often so far advanced in decomposition, if not
actually sour or tainted, when received, that it is impossible to work
it up satisfactorily. Some Yankee must give us a simple and cheap
apparatus that will effect the desired result. Such an invention will
greatly improve the quality and increase the consumption and price of
American cheese. But, in the absence of anything better, the can set in
a tub of water and the milk frequently stirred, would be a great
improvement on starting for the factory with hot milk. If the water can
be made to constantly run into the tub, fresh and cool, as the warm
water runs out, so much the better. Another improvement would be some
kind of wagon-cover, permitting the air to pass under it, to keep off
the sun in clear weather and keep out the rain in wet weather. The hot
rays of the sun, pouring on a can of milk for the distance of two or
three miles, perhaps--especially if the milk is not cooled before
starting--cannot fail to do it serious injury. Milk thus exposed often
has a very offensive smell when it reaches the factory-door. This shows
that it is already tainted and in a condition to injure the good milk in
the vat into which it is run, and cause a porous or "huffy" curd.

The question as to the effect of suddenly cooling milk has been somewhat
discussed; also as to how low a temperature is beneficial. Experiments
are necessary to definitely and satisfactorily settle these questions.
Our impression is that, if ice is not used, there is no danger of
cooling milk too suddenly or of getting it too cool. But where ice is
used, especially if permitted to come in contact with the milk, or even
to be separated from it only by a thickness of tin, there is danger of
chilling the particles of milk in immediate contact with the cold
surface, and causing them to prematurely decay. This would, of course,
injure the keeping qualities of the rest of the batch. So far as the
suddenness of the operation is concerned, we doubt if it would have any
material effect, one way or the other. But where any portion of the milk
is chilled, whether the whole batch of milk be slowly or suddenly
reduced in temperature, we should expect it to injure the flavor and
keeping qualities of the cheese. Some experiments, like the one made and
related by Mr. FARRINGTON, of Canada, at the last Convention of the
American Dairymen's Association, would seem to favor the conclusion,
that suddenly reducing the milk to a low temperature is unfavorable to
the production of the best quality of cheese. More experiments, as we
have previously suggested, are necessary to finally settle these
questions. But of the importance of cooling milk down to as low a
temperature as 60° to 65°, there can be no doubt; and there need be no
fear of milk being cooled rapidly enough to injure it where only water
is used in the process of cooling.



CHAPTER VI.

DELIVERING MILK.


Very little attention is usually paid to carrying milk to the factory.
Too many pour the hot milk into a can standing on a wagon or platform,
in the broiling sun, put on the cover, which fits almost air-tight, as
soon as through, and then haul it in this condition, without any shelter
or protection from the sun's rays, to the factory. It is sometimes drawn
two or three miles in this way. Or, as is often the case, it is left
standing on the platform, covered air-tight, until the milk-wagon comes
along. Whether taken on the wagon at the beginning of the route, or left
standing on the platform at the last end of the route, it broils in the
sun an hour or two, with the animal heat all in it. If drawn a long
distance, it is pretty well churned, in addition, and thus a separation
of the butter takes place which no ingenuity of the cheese-maker can
remedy; but when the result is seen in the cream rising on the whey-vat,
anathemas are heaped on his head. Where the milk stands quiet on the
platform, the cream rises and forms an air-tight covering over the top
of the milk, which soon taints next to the cream. And whether standing
still or riding in a tight can, exposed to the sun's rays, without the
animal heat having been expelled, it is scarcely possible to avoid
taint.

In this way, the manufacturer is furnished with perhaps fifty or
seventy-five messes of milk, all more or less tainted, or at least
progressed in decomposition, whether any offensive odor is perceptible
or not. He has these to cool off and keep over night--often with poor
facilities for cooling--for proprietors of factories are too often
ignorant of the importance of providing ample means for cooling, or are
too eager for large profits on small investments, to furnish them. So
the operator dips and stirs away at the decomposing mass until ten or
eleven o'clock, if not later, and finally yields to "tired nature's
sweet restorer, balmy sleep," to rest his weary muscles and care-worn
brain--exhausted, perhaps, by months of incessant toil seven days every
week. By five the next morning he must be on hand, to receive the
scattering messes of milk. At seven or eight o'clock comes the rush.
Then the messes begin to drop off, and by half-past nine or ten o'clock
the last steaming batch, with an unmistakable rotten-egg smell, makes
its appearance.

Now, what has the cheese-maker got on his hands, some sweltering
morning, during the season when it is "too hot to make butter," and
people kindly draw their dairy liquids to the cheese-factory? Why, on
rising in the morning and rubbing open his eyes, he breaks the cream on
his milk. The under surface has a sickish, sour smell, which tells him
very plainly that it cannot be worked up too soon. But what is he to do?
The answer is plain enough: Run into this fermenting mass an equal
quantity of the same hot stuff which he received the night before! What
will be its condition by the time he gets through? No matter! It is his
business to make cheese of it. He is employed for that purpose. If the
cheese does not prove of the first quality, every patron who furnishes
him stinking milk will have strong suspicions that he does not
understand his business! And some even insist that the cheese-maker
shall pay for all the poor cheese! But any man who is fool enough to
make such an agreement, ought to suffer, at least one season. The
thought of it, however, is almost "enough to make a minister swear."
And, by the way, we have been told of one instance where a minister left
the pulpit and took to the cheese-factory--probably for the purpose of
practically learning a lesson of patience. He was simple-minded enough
to agree to pay for all the poor cheese. He soon found his salary was
not equal to such a demand. So he set himself about watching the
weighing-can, to keep out the bad milk. This was a Herculean task he had
not counted on. We are not informed whether he swore or not; but he
actually took his station outside, with a heavy rod of iron, which he
was compelled to use, on one or two occasions, to keep the patrons from
running rotten milk into the weighing-can! His experience was an
instructive one, and ought to be a warning to all ambitious clergymen,
as well as to innocent-minded cheese-makers!

We do not mean to say, that the patrons of all factories are as bad as
above indicated, nor that they are no better on an average. But we do
mean to say, that too many are very careless, and that almost every
factory has a few patrons whose milk is apt to be in a bad condition
when delivered. Besides, while we hear frequent complaints about bad
milk, we never hear of any one's delivering milk in too good a
condition. Patrons need have no fears of this, and may take it for
granted that they cannot take too much pains with milk, both in point of
cleanliness and of keeping it out of the hot sun and expelling the
animal heat. We should expect to find, if a careful investigation were
made, that the most unsuccessful factories are those where milk is
delivered in the worst condition, while the successful ones are those
where patrons are more careful and the milk received is generally good.
More often depends on the milk than on the cheese-maker. We have heard
it remarked, that "almost anybody can make good cheese of perfectly
sweet milk;" but it is a smart chap indeed who can make good cheese of
poor milk. Every cheese-maker will appreciate our remarks, and we hope
they may not be altogether lost on some patrons.

It will not, as a general thing, pay to draw milk over two or two and a
half miles, for two reasons: First, it consumes too much valuable time,
and next, it churns the milk too much and keeps it too long shut up
tight and exposed to the hot atmosphere, if not the sun. If milk,
however, were thoroughly cooled as soon as milked, and then carried on
easy springs over a smooth road, there is little doubt that it might be
drawn four or five miles without much injury, but the expense would be a
serious objection to going so long a distance.

Cans that hold over a barrel will be found inconvenient. It is better to
use two smaller ones, that can be easily handled, than one very large
one. They will cost but little more, and will last considerably longer,
as the strain on them will be less. A large can is made of the same
material, and is but little if any stronger from additional bracing and
staying, and is liable to spring aleak.

As to the use of faucets, it is generally objected to by cheese-makers,
as too little pains is taken by many to keep them clean. Their use is,
therefore, discarded as far as possible, and we believe cans are
generally made without them. Yet, some factories still continue
receiving milk through conductors, where, of course, faucets are
necessary. They are also a convenience to the patron, in many instances,
where the can may be used for other purposes than holding milk. It is,
therefore, not likely that their use will ever be entirely done away
with. But, if neatly and smoothly put in, and care is observed in
cleaning them, there can be no serious objection to them. Small faucets,
however, should never be tolerated. Nothing smaller than inch-and-a-half
or two-inch faucets should be put in. These are easy to clean, and
greatly facilitate emptying. A small spiteful stream is a nuisance, and
causes a waste of time at the factory door where expedition is what
everybody wants, and is what is needed. If you use a faucet, use a large
one, and keep it scrupulously clean.



CHAPTER VII.

RECEIVING MILK.


Most factories now unload milk by the use of cranes or some other kind
of tipping apparatus. Some of the older factories--there are no very old
ones--continue the use of conductors for transferring the milk to the
weighing-can. This is the easier but the slower way, and necessitates
the use of at least double the number of weighing-cans that are required
by the crane. Besides, in the use of conductors, there is the constant
inconvenience of standing out in the rain, in wet weather, to hold the
conductor, while there is more or less liability to accident from the
backing up or starting of the team. Conductors are mean, even
impossible, things to clean; and their use, when there is a rush of
teams, requires a second man or boy to hold them, while the first does
the weighing and makes the necessary entries on the milk-book. If sixty
to eighty messes are to be received, at least two weighing cans will be
necessary. But by the use of a crane, one weighing-can will do the same
work--always provided it has a faucet of not less than three inches in
diameter, so that the can may be emptied while a team is driving up and
the patron's can is being grappled and elevated ready for tipping. A
large faucet is of equal advantage when conductors are used, and, in
that case, every patron's can should be furnished with at least a
two-inch faucet, to facilitate the transfer of milk to the weighing-can.

The use of the crane is, of course, not entirely free from accident. The
strain on the can, when full, is very great, and it is liable to spring
aleak, unless well made. But cans made with reference to this use are
now furnished with crowning or with patent bottoms, and are so well
hooped and braced that no serious accidents of this kind are likely to
occur. A can-ear, or a rope long in use, may break. There may be
carelessness in hooking on to the can, and the milk may be slopped or
spilled by letting a full can turn over too soon, or by too suddenly
letting the milk dash into the weighing-can. All these operations
require care and experience; but, with proper management, the loss from
accident, during a season, will be very slight--perhaps nothing at all.

Great care should be taken in weighing milk, to not only weigh it right,
but to make the patron feel that his milk is honestly weighed, and that
he is likewise honestly credited on the milk-book. Much suspicion and
hard feeling are liable to spring up, if the man who weighs the milk has
the appearance of being hasty and careless--especially if he should be
ill-natured and disagreeable in his manners. And it may not be out of
place here to remark, that good manners and a spirit of accommodation
are no more out of place in a cheese-factory than anywhere else. Among a
large number of patrons, it would be strange if there were not
disagreeable, ill-mannerly men; but a man who retains his
self-possession and always acts fairly and talks reasonably, will seldom
fail to get along tolerably well and retain the good will of all. It is
the right of the patron to know that his milk is correctly weighed and
credited, and every reasonable facility should be afforded him to
satisfy himself that he is fairly dealt with.

It becomes the duty of one receiving milk to see that it is delivered in
proper condition. Experience, a good eye and a good nose, are all
useful assistants. Even with the use of all these, messes will sometimes
get into the vat that never ought to be there. But when a patron's milk
is found not to be right, it is not necessary to insult or abuse him,
nor to make a general exposure of him. Neither law nor duty requires
this. He should be kindly informed of the fact, told what the matter is
with his milk and what he had better do to remove the evil. If you do
not wish to take the mess, you can express your regrets at his
misfortune, and show him that it would cause great damage, some of which
must necessarily fall on himself. If the mess is objectionable, but will
pass, give him notice that you will be obliged to refuse it in future,
if not in a better condition. When you have done this, more words with
him are unnecessary, and you have all the advantage, for the law and the
community are on your side. But, with a reasonable man, it will not be
necessary to more than call his attention to the fact that his milk is
bad. The cause may be the result of accident or oversight on the part of
his help, and he will at once set himself to work to apply the remedy.
The importance of delivering milk in good condition is more and more
acknowledged every year, and not a few patrons pride themselves on
delivering as good milk as any of their neighbors. It is well to
encourage this feeling by giving every man credit who takes pains with
his milk. Nothing is worse than wholesale denunciation and fault
finding. It only discourages many, creates bad feeling, and makes an
up-hill road a rough one as well. A cheese-maker needs friends, if
anybody does; and if he does not get them among his patrons, he is not
likely to get them at all. In that case, his seven days a week of hard,
thankless toil and care are likely to weigh heavily on body and mind.

The greatest difficulty is usually experienced in old factories, where
the conveniences are not generally up to the more modern mark, and
patrons fell into bad habits before experience had developed a better
knowledge of the requirements of cheese-making. New patrons will submit
to be trained, and a sensible cheese-maker, who knows what he wants, can
generally get them to do almost anything at the opening of a new
factory. In this way, he can discipline them and get them in the habit
of taking good care of their milk. But, in an old factory, where
everything started off badly, the old adage, that "it is hard to learn
old dogs new tricks," is apt to be exemplified. They dislike
innovations, think a new man, who wants to be particular, wishes to put
them to useless trouble, and they are not disposed to gratify him, but
rather to growl at him, and feel that what was good enough for others is
good enough for him. Such conduct is all wrong, and those who are guilty
of it stand in their own light.



CHAPTER VIII.

BIG AVERAGES.


It is the custom in many factories to balance the scales so that a pound
or so is taken out of each mess, in order to help make "a big average"
for the season. That is, every mess is made to weigh a pound or so less
than its actual weight, and is so entered on the book. In this way, if
sixty or seventy messes are received, the cheese-maker has that number
of pounds of milk more to make up than is charged against him. This
amount twice a day would enable him to turn out some twelve or fourteen
pounds of cheese more than he ought to if he received no more pounds of
milk than he gives credit for on the milk-book. Thus he makes it appear
to the patrons, and publishes it ultimately to the world, that he uses
less pounds of milk in making a pound of cheese than is the actual fact.
In common phrase, he "makes a big average."

Let us illustrate a little. Suppose ten hundred and ten pounds of milk
are delivered in ten messes. The entry on the book is one thousand
pounds. Out of this he makes one hundred and one pounds of cured cheese.
If the milk had been correctly weighed, the fact would appear that he
made one pound of marketable cheese for every ten pounds of milk. But it
really appears that it took a fraction less than ten pounds of milk, or
9.9 pounds, for a pound of cheese. This is the advantage which he has,
in the eyes of the community, over the maker who gives honest weight.
This is the reward of his petty dishonesty.

In justification of this, it is argued that it keeps up not only the
reputation of the maker but the reputation of the factory, while it
wrongs no one, since the patrons get all the cheese, or its equivalent
in money, and all are served alike. We admit that the patrons get all
the products of the milk, but let us see for a moment whether all are
treated fairly. Every patron has a pound of milk deducted from each
mess. SMITH brings a hundred pound mess, and is therefore docked one
hundredth part of it. JONES, with only one cow, delivers a ten pound
mess, and is docked one-tenth of it. Thus, at the end of thirty days,
each has delivered sixty messes. SMITH has delivered 6,000 pounds and
been credited for 5,940. JONES has delivered 600 pounds, and got credit
for 540. If ten pounds of milk make one pound of cheese, the account
ought to stand thus:


     Smith, 6000 lbs. milk,    600 lbs. cheese.
     Jones,  600 lbs. milk,     60 lbs. cheese.
                               ---
       Total,                  660


But, under the system of deducting a pound from each mess, in order to
show a "big average," the account really stands thus:


     Smith, 5,940 lbs. milk,   605 lbs. cheese.
     Jones,   540 lbs. milk,    55 lbs. cheese.
                               ---
       Total,                  660


At twenty cents a pound for cheese, JONES, because he is poor and
delivers a small mess, loses just one dollar on his month's milk, and
SMITH, because he is better off and has a bigger mess, gets the dollar
added to his profits. This, in plain figures, is the result of deducting
weight in order to show a "big average." Let no one who reads this do it
again. He can no longer plead ignorance, and continue to rob PETER for
the benefit of PAUL, under the supposition that he is treating all alike
and fairly.

Unquestionably, something should be allowed for the difference between a
dry and a wet can. The amount is trifling, and can be got at by
balancing the scales immediately after running out a can of milk. But,
when the scales are balanced with a wet can, they will not balance
exactly when the can is dry; and whoever delivers the first mess and
wets the can will suffer a slight loss, unless care is taken to give
good weight. The variation will generally not be more than a quarter of
a pound or so, and can be nearly enough approximated by attention to the
fractions of a pound denoted by the scales.

Of course, in weighing milk, only the full pounds can be counted and
credited, the fractions going to make up full weight. As quick weight is
demanded in selling cheese, milk when received should be weighed in the
same way. This is fair, and ought to be satisfactory to all. But whether
quick or slow weight is given, let it be honest. In the long run,
"honesty is the best policy" in weighing milk as well as in other
transactions; and, in this case, it is absolutely essential to justice.
A little deduction or variation on a single mess, is of small
consequence; but "many mickles make a muckle," and when the variation
from a correct standard is constantly in one direction, after a while it
amounts to a noticeable quantity.

Occasionally a mess of milk will get run into the vat without weighing,
by the weigher forgetting to close the gate or faucet. When an accident
of this kind happens, there is no fairer way than to give credit for an
average mess as compared with the messes at the same time of day
previously. If the patron is a fair man, there will be little trouble in
hitting upon a satisfactory figure. If disposed to make the most of a
mistake, he will be likely to tell you that he thought he had a larger
mess than usual, and crowd you up to as high a figure as possible. But
one has to exercise his best judgment, and give such credit as he thinks
will wrong no one. Such mistakes, though almost unavoidable, are
unpleasant to one who is sensitive and wishes to keep the good side of
all; and not only care should be taken, but every precaution should be
used, to prevent them. The handle or lever for closing the gate should
be in full sight, and one should acquire the habit of working
systematically, so that he may instinctively do what is necessary, even
though his attention be for the moment diverted from his business.

Great care is required, too, in making the entries in the milk book. A
mess, by carelessness, may be credited to the wrong man; but when the
man to whom the credit is wrongfully given presents himself, the mistake
is likely to be discovered, though you may not be able to determine at
once to whom the credit belongs. In such case, preserve the figures, and
when your messes are all in, turn over the leaves of the book and see
who is without credit. The size of the mess is generally some
indication. One is liable, too, to make a mistake of fifty or a hundred
pounds in looking at the scales. But the habit of comparing every entry
with the previous ones as you make it, will show the discrepancy. Where
such variation is noticed, of course another glance at the weight will
determine whether it is a mistake or not. It is a very good practice to
call out the weight of each mess. This affords satisfaction to the
patron as well as guards against allowing errors to pass. But, under
all circumstances, too much attention cannot be paid to keeping the
milk-book correctly. It is the only guide to the distribution of the
proceeds of the factory, and the thought of even a possible mistake
ought to give an honest man a strong sense of responsibility. No bank
book is of more importance.



CHAPTER IX.

CONDUCTORS, STRAINERS, ETC.


When treating of receiving milk, we spake of conductors as difficult to
clean. We consider them an abomination in a cheese factory; yet almost
every factory uses them. We believe there are some, however, arranged
for delivering and receiving milk by driving through one end of the
factory. The milk is brought in small cans, out of which it is poured
into the weighing-can by hand. The weighing-can is on a truck running on
a railway along the sides or ends of the vats, into which the milk is
readily emptied by tipping. This does away with both faucets and
conductors, and the idea is worthy the attention of all factorymen.

When cranes are used in receiving milk, the outside conductors are not
needed, but there are two or three long conductors, inside the factory,
used for running the milk from the weighing-can into the vats. Sometimes
we see one of these tin tubes ten or fifteen feet long. It is impossible
to keep such a thing clean. A peep into this, or shorter ones, will show
that they are not kept clean. Take as much pains as the hands may to
clean them with a swab on a long stick, they will soon get coated over
inside by the milk drying on; and, unless extra pains is taken, they
will be lined with a beautiful coating of green and gold! They are used
at night, and, unless the weather is very bad--and many pay no attention
to the weather--they are allowed to stand over night where used, ready
for the next morning. The milk and cream get dried on the inside
surface, and nobody has the time, if the disposition, to soak it off.
Further, tin conductors will get dents in them. The milk will collect
and dry in the angles made by these dents. How, in the name of common
sense, can any one get at them to clean them, in a tube ten or even four
feet long? It is an impossibility. The milk collects, from day to day,
until the conductor is full of foul ferments, through which all the milk
of the factory is run and tainted. It is no fault of the cheese-maker,
because he can't help it, if he employs a hand constantly on these
abominable tubes. He may use a swab with strong ley, or salt and water,
or both, and run hot water through the tubes till the patrons begin to
come with their milk, but the "damned spots" will not "out." Of course,
he will somewhat neutralize their active properties as ferments, but he
does not altogether get rid of them. The only way in which he can do it,
is to pitch the nasty things out of the window.

If conductors must be used--and their use seems to be a foregone
conclusion--let them be made in the form of open spouts. A foot or so
next to the head, is all the tube that is needed--and this should be
large enough to readily admit the hand for the purpose of washing. The
rest should be an open spout, which can be easily and speedily cleaned
and scalded. Many owners of factories, however, are too penurious to
spend a few dollars in order to get rid of this nuisance of long tin
conductors. They would rather lose--or, at least, run the risk of
losing--five hundred dollars on the sale of their cheese, than spend
five dollars for the purpose of avoiding this fruitful source of taint.
If the cheese is poor, the blame can be laid on the cheese-maker; or, if
the taint is too manifest in the vat of milk or curd, it can be charged
upon the carelessness of the patrons.

There is another source of trouble, which lies entirely with the
cheese-maker, or with the hands under him whom he trusts. This is the
strainer. In cool weather, perhaps there will be no difficulty, if the
strainer is properly washed, scalded and dried each morning after the
milk is all in. But in hot weather, especially if the atmosphere is damp
and steamy, if a strainer is left over night without rinsing, it is sure
to sour. Yet, the strainer, like the conductor, is often left at night
just as used, ready for the reception of the next morning's milk. Both
are likely to be sour. The milk in the vat is "old," especially next the
cream, which acts as an air-tight covering. Now, run hot milk through
the sour can, conductor and strainer, into this mess of changed milk,
and any one, with even but a modicum of brains, can see what is likely
to be the consequence. It will be a batch of sour, leaky cheese.

Where an agitator is used, the trouble of milk souring or tainting
beneath an air-tight covering of cream, is obviated. Washing cans,
conductors and strainers at night, gets rid of the difficulty from these
sources--that is, as far as the can and strainer are concerned, and
partially as regards the conductor. A thorough rinsing in cold water,
immediately after the last mess is run in, will be found to answer the
purpose. It is usually late, and there is no hot water for regular
washing and scalding. But a few moments' work will complete the rinsing
in cold water, and this will not be found a very hard task for even the
jaded hands of a cheese-factory. During all the hot weather, this should
be strictly attended to. It will pay in a double sense--it will prevent
sourness, and make the can, conductor and strainer easier to wash the
next day.

The old-fashioned thermometer is also a source of annoyance, if care is
not taken in cleaning it. It will fill up with ferments between the face
and back, in an astonishingly short space of time, during hot weather.
In short, there is no way of keeping it perfectly clean, except by
slipping the thermometer out of the back or case, and carefully washing
and scalding it--and in doing this, it is exceedingly liable to get
broken. We are therefore glad to notice the introduction of a new
thermometer for dairy purposes. It is simply constructed, plain, easy to
clean, and no more expensive than the common kind now in use. Those in
need of thermometers will find this style much better adapted to their
uses. The glass is fastened to a plain plate of metal, the two edges of
which are bent forward to give it the requisite stiffness.

Of course, agitators, dippers, rakes, &c., need to be carefully cleaned.
But we have before spoken of the importance of the most scrupulous
attention to cleanliness throughout, on the part of the cheese-maker as
well as of the patron. Cleanliness is an indispensable virtue in all
departments of dairying.



CHAPTER X.

COLOR.


One would hardly think of associating cheese-making with the fine arts;
yet, in what other light can we view the subject of color? It adds
nothing to the quality of the cheese, but rather detracts from it. It is
expensive and troublesome, and grows more so every year, as the demand
for annotto runs up the price and leads to adulteration. But as long as
we make cheese for a foreign market, we must adapt our goods to the
tastes of that market, whether they be physical or mental. Our home
market would, perhaps, not suffer from the omission of color; but the
English market demands, to a large extent, highly-colored cheese. The
Liverpool market will take a small quantity of pale cheese, but it does
not equal more than one-fifth of the demand of the English market. A few
factories, which sell exclusively to buyers who supply the Liverpool
demand for pale cheese, may safely omit the color; but all which depend
on the general market cannot safely do so. The London market specially
demands a high color, and it is no less exacting now than it has been
heretofore. The cry of buyers generally is, "Keep up the color!" The
exceptions to this are few, and are confined to those who have special
orders for pale cheese to supply the demand above indicated.

The English consumer acquired his taste for golden-hued cheese before
the American make found any considerable market abroad--indeed, before
we had much cheese to sell. The first object in coloring seems to have
been to give a rich butter color. In this way, cheese was made to
appear rich whether it really was so or not. But the shade has been
considerably intensified and the English eye is best pleased with the
color produced by the use of prime annotto, with which it has become
familiar. This may be a prejudice, but it is a comparatively harmless
one; and since our customer is willing to pay for it, there seems to be
no good reason why it should not be gratified. It is for our interest to
please the eye as well as the appetite of so large a buyer of our
products as England. She wants about four-fifths of her cheese highly
but nicely colored.

The complaint among buyers generally is, that color is too low. In reply
to suggestions about the fact, makers often say that they never used
more coloring, but it does not produce the desired effect. They have
paid a high price for what was supposed to be prime annotto, but it
proves to be extensively adulterated, and therefore weak. This is not
the complaint of all, but of many. Some have adopted the use of prepared
annotto, and find it cheaper and more satisfactory. When prime annotto
could readily be had, it was cheaper to buy the basket and prepare it
themselves. But now, one poor basket, during a season, imposes a loss
greater than the difference in price between the prepared and the
unprepared.

There is another evil about the use of poor annotto. It is not only
expensive and does not give the desired color, but what color it does
give fades out with age, and leaves the cheese with a cloudy, mottled
appearance, which is very offensive to the eye of our best customers.
Again, where poor annotto is bought in the basket and prepared at the
factory, it contains a large amount of sediment, and this sediment,
often containing deleterious substances, too frequently gets into the
cheese. The liquid is not properly settled and racked off. This affords
another argument in favor of buying prepared annotto, which, if properly
put up, is free from sediment.

Those who prefer to buy the basket annotto and prepare it themselves,
should buy only on the warrant of the dealer that it is what it is
recommended to be. The dealer should test a sample of his annotto,
before offering it for sale, and know precisely what he is selling.
Buyers by thus purchasing only of well-known dealers, who sell upon
honor, will discourage rascality. This is the only method we see for
keeping the spurious article out of market, and securing satisfactory
results in coloring.

We would suggest to those who prepare their own annotto, that they use
concentrated ley or potash. By doing so, they will secure just as good a
shade as they can by using ley from wood-ashes, and not only save the
trouble of bothering with a leach, but secure uniform strength. Two
leaches will seldom turn out ley of the same strength. Sometimes it will
be strong and satisfactory. But if you happen to get a lot of soft wood
ashes in your leach, the ley will be weak, imperfectly dissolve the
annotto, and materially injure the liquid.

In fact, it is difficult to get your coloring twice alike by the use of
a common leach. But with concentrated ley or potash, the same quantities
or proportions of materials, mixed in the same way, will produce the
same result. You can therefore keep your color even, and will not be
called upon to experiment and change your hand every time you prepare a
new batch of annotto. The difference in expense will be trifling, and
rather in favor of the use of potash, if time and trouble are counted of
any value.

The prepared annotto ought to be kept in a stone jar, as the ley
operates injuriously upon wood, and is liable to leave a tub in a leaky
condition as the liquid is used out and the tub dries. Where annotto is
purchased already prepared, of course it comes in vessels suitable to
keep it in; but when prepared at the factory, a receptacle has to be
provided, and nothing is better than stone or earthen-ware. In hot
weather, the liquid is liable to smell badly from the action of the heat
on it. A little salt stirred in will be found useful as a preventive
against this.

It is not necessary to discuss at length the question of the effect of
coloring on the quality of the cheese. The introduction of a strong
alkaline preparation cannot be without some effect; and when that
happens to be adulterated with some vile substance, the effect cannot be
otherwise than injurious. The annotto itself is generally conceded to be
harmless; and the ley is, at most, but a neutralizer of the lactic acid,
but the quantity is not sufficient, perhaps, to produce any perceptible
result. At all events, color is demanded; annotto, prepared with ley or
potash, is the accepted material; so we have only to color with annotto
to suit the taste of our customer.

We are assured that nicely colored cheese will bring from a cent to a
cent and a half a pound more than the same quality of cheese will bring
when pale. Buyers in some instances advise the making of pale cheese
because they have a special order for it; but they usually expect to get
it a little under the highest market quotations, and factorymen who
allow themselves to drop the color on the advice of an interested buyer,
because it is easy and costs nothing directly to do so, run the risk of
being caught and of losing a great deal more than they can save by
omitting the coloring. We never heard of a lot of cheese being condemned
because it was too nicely colored; but we frequently hear of complaints
and losses because cheese is too pale. The chances are at least four to
one in favor of high-colored cheese; and even the fifth chance is not
positively against color, though the other four are strongly against
_lack_ of color. He who wishes to have the widest range of markets, and
to command the best markets, must pay strict attention to color--not
only must he color, but color well and evenly.

We have an objection to color, for reasons satisfactory to ourselves;
and buyers can have no interest in inducing makers to color their
cheese, beyond the fact that it makes it more marketable--and in this,
patrons and factorymen have a much greater interest than dealers can
have. The market demands a rich, even color, and will not be satisfied
without it. We say, therefore, _as a matter of dollars and cents_--not
of taste, choice or convenience--_keep up the color_.

We will give two recipes for preparing annotto: 1. To five pounds of
prime annotto put five gallons of strong ley, made from wood ashes;
gradually heat up and dissolve the annotto, care being taken to not
scorch it on the bottom of the kettle. Of course thorough stirring is
essential. When the annotto is all dissolved, add five pounds of sal
soda and five gallons of soft water. Then gently boil the whole for
twenty or thirty minutes. This makes about ten gallons of prepared
coloring. If boiled away to less, add sufficient ley and soft water, in
equal quantities, to make that amount. Some omit the sal soda; but it is
generally believed that it not only adds strength to the preparation,
but improves the color by giving it more of a rich, buttery hue, instead
of a red. The whole, when sufficiently cooled to handle safely, should
be set in a tub, with a faucet two or three inches from the bottom, to
settle. When settled, it can be drawn off, and is ready for use.

2. Mix in the proportion of five quarts of water to half a pound of
concentrated ley, and one pound of prime annotto. First dissolve the ley
in the water, by heating and stirring, and then add the annotto, and
dissolve it. Boil gently for half an hour. Care, as with the other
preparation, should be taken not to burn it. Settle and rack off. Then
your liquid is ready for use.

The second recipe is the one most used, and is easiest to prepare, as it
avoids the labor, perplexity and risk of making the ley, which may not
always be of the desired strength, as the ashes may not be the same. But
if ashes are used, hot water is best to leech through them. A quart of
salt to ten gallons of preparation will improve its keeping qualities.



CHAPTER XI.

RENNET.


An indispensable requisite in making cheese is good rennet. Nothing else
will answer the purpose. Different substitutes have from time to time
been tried, but all have met with indifferent success, or absolutely
failed. Acids will produce coagulation, but they spoil the quality of
the cheese. It was once supposed that the gastric juice of the calve's
stomach was acid, and produced coagulation by souring. But it has been
demonstrated that good curd can be produced from sweet new milk, by the
use of rennet, without the development of acid in either the curd or the
whey. How or why the principle obtained by soaking the calve's stomach
produces coagulation has not yet been discovered. What the principle
_is_, is not even known. It appears to be contained in the gastric juice
secreted by the inner membranes of the stomach, and a small quantity of
rennet, stirred into a vat of milk, seems to coagulate it in the same
manner that milk taken into the calve's stomach is coagulated. We all
know the fact that by the use of rennet we can make cheese. Beyond this,
we have little knowledge; so far as we are aware, scientific men are
just as much in the dark as the cheese-maker.

As the stomach of the calf is bifold, we have seen the mistake
frequently made of saving the wrong one. But we presume patrons are
generally well informed on this point now, after so many years'
experience. Where the stomach is not entirely empty, the presence of
curd is a sure guide. Always save the stomach that contains the curd,
and no mistake will be made. If the stomach is empty, save the one that
has a smooth inside surface. The one that has a rough, honey-comb-like
inside surface is worthless for cheese-making, and should, of course, be
rejected.

There are three or four ways of preserving the rennet or stomach, for
future use. Only two, we believe, are generally practiced in America. In
all cases, the rennet is to be turned wrong side out, all its contents
being thrown away, and the inner surface carefully cleaned by picking
off all hairs and bits of grass, hay or other substance which the calf
may have taken into its stomach. But the rennet should never be washed,
and great care should be taken not to remove any of the inner membrane
of the rennet, as in this membrane resides all its strength. Washing
would rinse out the gastric juice, and weaken the rennet; and much
washing would render it nearly or quite worthless.

When properly cleaned, the rennet should be thoroughly rubbed with salt,
outside and in, turned the right side out, stretched on a crotched stick
or on a hoop, and hung up in a cool, dry place, to cure. In private
dairies, the farmer's wife, after salting the rennet, sometimes spreads
it on an earthen plate and sets it away to dry, frequently turning it on
the plate. Rennets dried in this way are nice, but it is too much work
to tend to them for a general adoption of this method of drying. Drying
on a stick or a hoop is the common way, and answers the purpose very
well. The only trouble is to find a place both dry and cool. It is
generally conceded, we believe, that heat injures the strength of the
rennet. Hence the importance of curing it in a cool place. Freezing is
thought by many to add to or develop the strength of the rennet. Be this
as it may, old rennets, that have hang up in the dry-house or some
other convenient place through the winter, will go much further in
cheese-making than new rennets.

Another method of preserving rennets is by packing them into salt. This
is quite common, and is practiced by some of our best factories. It is
less troublesome than drying them, and is a sure preventive against
moths, which are apt to get into dried rennets. By salting them down,
there is less trouble to find a cool place in which to keep them during
the summer. But care should be taken to use only the purest salt in
packing rennets. Salt not fit to salt curd with is not fit to pack
rennets in, for when the rennets are used, the salt will be in the
liquid and find its way into the mass of curd. Besides, pure salt is
much the better preservative, and will keep either meat or rennets
sweeter than impure salt.

Some think rennets preserved in this way are not as strong as those that
are dried. We do not quite see the philosophy of this, since by packing
in salt, none of the virtues of the rennet can escape by evaporation,
and must be retained either in the rennet or in the salt. It may be said
that the salt injures the strength of the rennet. If so, why does it not
prove equally injurious when the rennet is dried? In both methods of
preserving, salt is freely used--generally all that the rennet will
absorb. A batch of dried rennets may go farther than the same number
packed in salt, and _vice versa_; but this does not prove that the
_same_ rennets would not have equal virtues preserved by either method.

The German method of preserving rennets is by blowing them up like a
bladder, and drying them. This is the way in which the Bavarian rennets,
which reach this country, are preserved. We believe no salt is used.
The method is simple, and if it answers the purpose equally well, we see
not why it may not be adopted in this country. We understand that the
Bavarian rennets give very good satisfaction. But, as we have never used
them, nor seen them used, we cannot speak from positive knowledge.

Veal rennets are generally supposed to be better than deacon rennets.
Certain it is that the stomach of a calf that never sucked the cow is
not worth much in cheese-making. It is both small and weak. It seems to
be necessary that the process of digestion should go on for a while, at
least, that all the functions of the animal may become active and a full
secretion of gastric juice take place. Some are of the opinion that the
rennet is best when the calf is from three to five days old, as at that
age it is not likely to have taken anything but milk into its stomach,
which is best prepared for digesting that kind of food, the first
process of which is coagulation. Veal calves are apt to get hold of
other food, and the stomach is therefore less exclusively adapted to a
milk diet. Hence, it is argued, if the veal rennet is better than the
deacon, the stomach of the cow or ox ought to be better than that of the
veal calf. Whatever may be the conclusion, we have, and shall probably
continue to have, both deacon and veal rennets, both kinds of which have
been found to work satisfactorily.

Much seems to depend on the condition of the calf when killed. If it
goes too long without food, the stomach gets inflamed and is not only
deprived of its strength, but is partially diseased, and, therefore,
unfit for cheese-making. This is the condition of most of the rennets
taken from calves killed in our larger cities, the calves going without
food sometimes two or three days. On the other hand, when the calf has a
full stomach, the juices seem to be absorbed in the food, and the rennet
is, therefore, weak. The best time for killing the calf appears to be
just after the stomach has emptied itself, when the appetite of the calf
begins to be sharp and the secretions of gastric juice are copious. This
will generally be found from twelve to eighteen hours after eating. If
fed at night, it may be killed any time the next forenoon.



CHAPTER XII.

PREPARING RENNET.


The process of preparing rennet for use is very simple, and so generally
understood that we need not more than give a few hints on the subject.
In putting rennets to soak, care should be taken not to allow any
tainted ones to get into the batch. When they are packed in salt, it is
not difficult to make a selection. If the poor rennet does not smell, it
will be pretty likely to be discolored and unhealthful looking, instead
of having a whitish, wholesome appearance. All rennets thus discolored
should be thrown away as worse than useless--as positively injurious. If
the rennets are dried, it may not be so easy to detect the poor ones
before putting them to soak. After soaking, their quality will be quite
apparent; but much of their injurious effect may be avoided by promptly
rejecting them without rubbing. It is generally, and we believe
correctly, understood that diseased or tainted rennets produce both
huffy and bad-keeping cheese, by the introduction of decayed animal
substances. It certainly cannot improve the quality of the cheese to mix
with it the broth of carrion.

Clear whey is the common and best liquid for soaking rennets. Water was
once and is now sometimes used, but it needs to be very soft and pure,
and is improved by boiling. We have never tried water, but it is
asserted by those who have used it for soaking rennets that a batch
prepared with it will not keep sweet as long as one prepared with whey,
but that boiling the water keeps it sweet longer than it will keep if
not boiled. We think the purer the whey the better, and therefore
prefer that which first separates from the curd after setting. Some are
not particular, and some prefer the salt whey that runs from the
presses. There is a saving of salt in this, but we think this liquid
cannot be as good to introduce into milk as that containing less cheesy
and buttery particles. Boiling the whey and skimming it, afterward
allowing it to cool and settle, that the sediment may also be excluded,
is said to be a great improvement, and we can easily believe this to be
true. It is not only free from impurities, but it forms a sharp acid
that acts readily upon the rennets and extracts more completely the
pepsin, gastric juice, or whatever it may be that coagulates the milk.
It is said that quite a saving in rennets can be effected by using
scalded whey for soaking them.

Twenty or twenty-five prime rennets put into a half barrel of whey will
make a good preparation. It can be made stronger, of course, by the
addition of more rennets, or pouring in a less amount of whey; but it is
questionable if the entire strength can be extracted by using a less
quantity of whey in proportion to the number of rennets. They need to be
rubbed at least three times, each time in a new batch of whey. The
second time the preparation will be found about as strong as the first.
The third rubbing and rinsing may be in fresh whey to be used for
soaking a new batch of rennets. We like to have two tubs or jars for
soaking the rennets, one for the first and the other for the second
rubbing, alternately. After rubbing the second time, put the rennets in
a sack made of strainer cloth, to keep them separate, and soak them with
the batch intended for the next second rubbing. In this way the strength
of the preparation from the batch may be kept equal to that from the
first. Rub the third time, and rinse in fresh whey, as before indicated,
when the strength will be found pretty completely extracted. If dried
rennets are used, it will be necessary to add salt to the whey when the
batch is put to soak. Every time new whey is added, more salt will be
required. Where the rennets are packed in salt there will usually be
salt enough for the first soaking adhering to them; if not, it may be
increased in quantity by a few handfuls of that loose in the barrel in
which they have been packed. As the rennets will float on the whey, they
should be thoroughly stirred up as often as night and morning, and a
little salt sprinkled over those left on the top.

We prefer stone jars, both for soaking rennets and to keep the prepared
rennet in, because they are so much more easily kept sweet than wooden
tubs can be. Of all things, we detest a stinking rennet tub or jar.
Frequent scalding, when emptied, is necessary. When the preparation is
kept in a tub, it will be advantageous to rub a little salt, each
morning, on the sides of the tub left exposed to the air, after setting
the milk, by the lowering of the liquid. By all means, do anything and
everything that may be necessary to keep the rennet tubs or jars from
stinking so badly that the stench will nearly suffocate one on
uncovering them. A sweet rennet tub is the evidence of important
qualities in a cheese-maker--care and cleanliness.

Of course, there are various ways of managing, as regards quantity,
convenience's sake, and so on, but we do not believe the principles
involved in the process of selecting and preparing rennets for use, as
we have given it, can be violated or neglected without loss in some
manner. The importance of properly-prepared rennet, and of keeping it
sweet and clean, cannot be too highly estimated. "Bad luck" in
cheese-making might not infrequently be traced to the rennet tub; while
"good luck" may be as often traced to the same source. Look out for your
rennets and take care of your rennet-tubs or jars. They may make or mar
your fortune.



CHAPTER XIII.

SETTING.


The temperature of 82° to 86° is generally considered the best for
setting--the former in hot and the latter in cold weather. This gives an
average of 84° for mild weather. Perhaps this point is as good as any
for setting. But it is worth bearing in mind that the milk will
coagulate sooner, after adding the rennet, at a high than at a low
temperature. The same milk will set quicker at 86° than at 82°, and at
the points in the vat where the heat is greatest, or the milk cools
least by radiation, the curd will become tough and difficult to cut,
while other parts of the mass will remain tender and cut easily. This
not only demonstrates the greater activity of the rennet at a higher
heat, but the importance of an even heat throughout, and of keeping it
from falling. Some throw a cloth over the vat, after the milk begins to
thicken and agitation is no longer necessary to keep the cream from
rising. This is a good practice, we believe, as it retards the reduction
of temperature by radiation, and keeps the heat more equalized. This
will secure a more uniform action of the rennet, and render the cutting
less difficult and less liable to cause waste.

When the rennet is once added and thoroughly incorporated with the milk,
we believe it would be better if the mass could have perfect rest until
the curd is ready to cut. We think the curd is more likely to be spongy
in consequence of the continued or frequent agitation kept up to prevent
the cream from rising. All know that a stir too much after the milk
begins to look thick, and roll heavily, prevents the formation of a
solid curd. It refuses to unite in one uniform mass, and remains in
small, separate particles. But, when the milk is all right, observation
will show that such a curd makes fine cheese, though there is great
waste from the fine particles floating off with the whey. And why will
it make fine cheese? Because it is in small particles, gets thoroughly
and evenly cooked, and the butter is equally distributed through it.

But the difficulty of preventing the cream from rising and forming a
cream-curd, that will float on the whey, if it does not waste, needs to
be overcome before we can allow the milk perfect rest after
incorporating the rennet. We are not aware of any method for
accomplishing this. Agitation of the surface, at least, seems necessary
to retain the cream; but if the surface only is agitated, manifestly the
cream will escape from the bottom of the mass and impoverish it while
enriching the top. A thorough stirring of the whole mass, therefore,
will keep the cream more equally distributed, and it will also secure a
greater uniformity of temperature. The cheese must be of evener texture
than if made of curd of different degrees of richness mixed together.

It is a question for debate as to whether the cream which rises on milk
is thoroughly incorporated with it by stirring. That butter is wasted in
making cheese, is a fact that cannot be denied. Some think that nearly
all the cream that rises on the vat during the night is floated off in
the whey. We cannot indorse this conclusion, although it is asserted
that where agitators are used, and the cream is thus prevented from
rising, there is a great saving of the butter. But one fact is worth a
thousand fictions in the practical affairs of life, whatever it be in
romance. Cream will mix with the milk by stirring, and go to enrich the
cheese, as is proved in the manufacture of the English Stilton cheese.
In the manufacture of this, the cream of the night's milk is taken off
and added to the morning's milk, which is worked up separately. The
cheese is greatly enriched thereby. How much the waste of butter is
increased, we are unable to say. We know from our own experience, that
skimming the night's milk, instead of stirring in the cream, makes a
marked difference in the yield and quality of the make.

The first thing in setting, when a vat of milk is raised to the proper
temperature, is to add the coloring. This is a strong alkaline
preparation, and must have a tendency to retard the development of the
lactic acid, if it does not combine with it in forming a neutral salt.
If no effect is perceptible, beyond the color it imparts, it is simply
because the quantity is so small. Probably the effect of the alkali in
the annotto is more than counteracted by the acid in the rennet.

Nothing as good as clear whey has been found for soaking rennets. Some
think the acid an advantage in the working of the milk, and others go so
far as to add, in cold weather, a quantity of sharp whey to the milk
along with that in the prepared rennet. This, of course, hastens the
development of acid throughout the mass. But we cannot say that we
approve of doing anything to change the milk, and thus sour the curd
before cooking. We prefer to have the milk as sweet as possible when
set, and to keep the curd sweet until it is cooked. Then we would
develop the acid in the whey. For this reason, if sour whey is to be
added, we should add it after the curd is cooked, for the purpose of
hastening the development of the lactic acid in the whey. This seems to
us to be the most rational course, from what our experience has taught
us. If fair experiment should demonstrate that we are in error as to
when and where the development of the acid should take place, we shall
be willing to yield the point.

The amount of prepared rennet that it is necessary to add to the milk,
depends upon its strength, which can be determined only by experiment.
Sufficient should be used to coagulate the milk in ten or fifteen
minutes, and render it fit to cut in thirty or forty minutes. If the
milk is "old," the same quantity of rennet will cause it to work sooner,
as it should. Some would add less rennet. We would not. The milk needs
to work faster, and the acid, although it coagulates the milk, will not
supply the place of the rennet. The rennet ought to be strong enough to
require not more than a quart to a thousand pounds of milk.



CHAPTER XIV.

CUTTING CURDS.


Cheese-making was once carried on without cutting the curd; and even
since the introduction of the factory system, there have been those who
denounced the idea of using a cutting instrument. Breaking up the curd
with the hands was considered the better method as incurring less waste,
both of butter and cheese. Such ideas, though entertained but a few
years ago, are obsolete. Cutting curds is now universal, certainly in
America. The only questions are as to the time, manner and extent of
cutting.

When should the curd be cut? Practically, there is little difference of
opinion on this question. Some may cut a little sooner or later than
others, and even the same person may not always be precise as to the
time of cutting. But all will agree that a curd should not be cut before
it is firm enough to break square and smooth over the finger without
whitening the whey; and they will also agree that it should be cut
before it gets tough enough to drive along ahead of the knife. We would
cut it as soon as it can be done without waste, while the curd is
tender; and we would do all the cutting at once. There is no sense in
running the knife through the curd one way, and then letting the curd
stand and toughen before cross-cutting and completing the operation. If
it is fit to partly cut, it is fit to wholly cut; and the sooner the
cutting is done with, the better. Time for the separation of the whey
can be given after the cutting is done, and before the heat is further
raised.

The cutting should be done as carefully as possible and as evenly as
possible. The fewer the motions, the better. If it could be done
instantaneously and uniformly, without agitation, it would be an
advantage. At the right time, we would like to have the entire vat of
curd instantaneously separated into pieces of uniform size. This is the
end to be aimed at. We are far from reaching it with present appliances.
We can only approximate it as nearly as possible. A knife, therefore,
with blades near together is preferable to one with blades farther
apart.

As to the extent of the cutting, there is more difference of opinion,
though the difference has much diminished since the mania for coarse
curds ran its course. A few yet cling to this exploded notion; but the
great majority choose a medium degree of fineness. It has been found
that the large pieces do not sufficiently cook, especially if the milk
is old enough to work quick. The consequence is an uneven texture, and a
deteriorated flavor. Sufficient whey remains in the centers of the large
lumps to ferment and give the cheese the smell of the whey-vat, if it
does not sour and cause the cheese to become leaky and dry. Possibly, if
the weather be favorable for curing, the whey may collect in pungent
drops throughout the cheese, showing themselves when cut somewhat as
they do in the Limburger. Such cheese, we think, is likely to ultimately
approximate the Limburger in both odor and flavor. It will please some
tastes, but will not answer for the best markets.

Medium curds are now the rule. As cheese-makers have approximated fine
curds, they have improved the quality of their cheese. We believe still
finer cutting will prove a further advantage. We will give our reasons
for thinking so, and will add that our experience, as far as it goes,
corroborates the idea. It secures a more uniform action of the heat and
separation of the whey, and therefore an evener texture and better
flavor, with correspondingly improved keeping qualities.

What is the object and advantage of cutting at all? Why not let the curd
remain in one unbroken mass? We cut the curd for the purpose of
facilitating the separation of the fluids from the solids by the
combined action of the rennet and heat. Is it not desirable that this
action should be uniform on every particle of curd? We think this
question will be generally answered in the affirmative. If so, then it
must be conceded that the finer the curd is cut the more nearly the
desired result will be attained. If it could be separated particle from
particle, without waste, would not the action of the heat and rennet be
more perfect still? When in lumps, the externals of them must
necessarily be cooked more than the centers, and the evil of
over-cooking--if there is such an evil with a blood heat temperature--is
illy counteracted by the mixture of curd cooked to different
degrees--some overdone and some underdone. It should all be cooked
alike, to whatever degree the cooking may be carried. This will secure
uniformity of texture and quality, and also clean flavor, if the cooking
is complete.

But, of course, in cutting a curd fine there is danger of waste--waste
of curd, but not necessarily waste of butter, unless the curd is sour.
Then it is impossible to avoid waste of butter by any process that we
are aware of--and with a sour curd there is all the more necessity for
cutting fine and cooking rapidly and thoroughly. With proper care, the
evil of sour milk can be avoided. With good sweet milk and proper
management, there is very little danger of waste of any kind, cut as
fine as we can with the common knife.

We would cut so that the pieces when cooked should not be larger than
kernels of corn; and though many object to it, we should not, if the
pieces were as small as buckwheat--and as regular in size. We would not
use a knife with the blades more than a quarter of an inch apart. Though
we have never used a knife for cutting horizontally, the idea commends
itself to our judgment. We would carefully cut first with the horizontal
knife, leaving the thin slabs of curd lying one upon the other. Then,
without waiting for the whey to rise or the curd to sink, we would use
the perpendicular blades lengthwise of the vat, reducing the slabs to
long square strips, and follow this with the cross-cutting until the
pieces were at least as small as beechnuts. After this, the curd may be
allowed to stand a few minutes, for the whey to separate, before
starting the heat--provided the milk is sweet enough to permit of delay.
But if the milk should give any indication of being old, we would begin
at once to gradually raise the heat; if quite old and changed, we would
crowd the heat as fast as practicable.

To sum up in brief, we would cut a curd and complete the cutting as soon
as it can be done without waste; we would cut it as expeditiously as
possible and with as few motions; we would cut it as fine as care
against waste would warrant; we would raise the heat as gradually and
evenly as circumstances would permit; we would cook as thoroughly and as
evenly as possible; we would keep up the heat until the curd is done; we
would then let the acid develop in the whey until it is plainly changed;
we would dip as warm as convenient, drain and salt, cool to at least
80°, and then put to press. With good milk, good rennet and a good
place to cure the cheese in, we should expect in this way to turn out a
tip-top article.



CHAPTER XV.

HEAT.


One of the most important elements in cheese-making is heat; but we do
not believe the importance of its proper regulation is sufficiently
understood by our cheese-makers. We are aware that cheese can be made
without the use of artificial heat. It is not such an article, however,
as would meet with a ready sale, or be likely to increase the
consumptive demand for cheese. A good-keeping, mild and nutty-flavored
cheese cannot readily be produced, if at all, with a temperature lower
than 96°; nor can a rich, buttery article be made with a temperature
over 102°. We consider 6° the widest allowable range of heat, and think
98° to 100°, or full blood-heat, the best temperature.

Evenness and steadiness of temperature are two important points. That
apparatus is best which heats the milk throughout the vat the most
evenly--leaves it the freest from hot places and cold places, at the
sides, ends, or on the bottom. A perfect apparatus would raise the
temperature of every particle of milk at the same time and at the same
rate; and retain this perfectly even heat at the desired point until the
cooking is completed.

The difficulty, with most or all heating apparatus, is to raise the heat
of the entire mass to the required temperature, without submitting some
particles to a greater degree of heat than is necessary, or heating them
in advance of the rest, to be stirred in and partially cooled again.

We believe that an even cook or scald is of the utmost importance, and
that everything that can be should be done to secure that end. If
thoroughly accomplished, with sweet milk to begin with, we have no fears
as to the richness, fine flavor and good keeping qualities of the
cheese. There is no other thing, in our opinion, which will go so far
toward securing these three desirable qualities.

Another thing, as before indicated, we consider of great importance in
securing a thorough cooking and proper separation of the whey from the
curd. We refer to steadiness of temperature. It seems to us a great
mistake, when the temperature is once up, to not keep it there, without
rising or lowering. It seems a misapplication of terms to speak of
cooking or scalding at a temperature of 98 or 100 degrees; yet, we all
know that blood-heat is all that is required for cheese-making. This
heat seems necessary. Perhaps it is because nature designed the gastric
juice from the rennet to operate at the temperature. It is a well
established fact that digestion will not go on when the temperature of
the stomach is below that of blood-heat. We presume a much higher
temperature is equally detrimental. This may account for the fact that
blood-heat is the best for cheese-making, as at that temperature the
rennet is most active. Be this as it may, we are satisfied that the
process is retarded and the curd deteriorated by allowing the
temperature to fall during the time it is in the scald. Instead of
cooking, and condensing, as it should, in order to expel the whey, it is
only soaking and souring. The moment the acid is sufficiently developed,
though the curd be yet soft and raw, the whey is drawn, the curd is
further cooled and soaked, and then dipped, drained, salted and put to
press. A leaky cheese is the result. If the weather is cool and bad for
curing, a sour cheese follows. But whatever the weather may be, we doubt
if a leaky cheese ever yet turned out all right in flavor and quality.
It can never have that nutty, new-milk flavor which belongs to cheese
properly cooked. We presume there are those who will differ with us in
opinion, but we should demand the positive evidence of at least four
senses before believing we are wrong.

We say, therefore, raise your temperature gradually and evenly, to full
blood-heat, and there retain it until your curd is ready to dip. Then we
believe it would be an advantage to dip and drain, without cooling more
than what cannot be avoided, and salt warm. But of salting, we will
speak more at length some other time. We are now discussing the question
of heat. Let us give a little every-day illustration. Suppose the
housewife were to put her potatoes for dinner in a kettle of water, run
the heat up to 212°, and then allow it to cool by radiation until the
potatoes are done. What kind of a dish would they make? Or, after she
had cooked her potatoes, suppose she should let them stand and soak
until they are cool enough to handle without danger of burning or
scalding any one. Who would want to eat the watery things? The truth is,
212° is the proper temperature for boiling potatoes, and the sooner and
hotter you can get them out of the water, the better. So, in our
opinion, blood-heat, or 98° to 100°, is the proper temperature for
cooking cheese curd, and that after the curd is done, the sooner and
warmer it is dipped, the better for the curd--the sweeter,
richer-flavored and better grained (not pasty, but more of the
consistency of hard, well-made butter, which shows the batter globules
whole) will be the cheese, and its keeping qualities will be
correspondingly improved. It may be a little more work to cool the curd
in the air, and harder keeping it from packing; but if dipped warm, the
whey will the sooner drain off, and the salt can be the sooner thrown
on, when it will penetrate quicker, season the mass more evenly, and
form a coating to the particles of curd, which will keep them from
packing together.

But whether the curd is cooled before dipping or not, we maintain that
it is a great advantage to keep the temperature up to blood-heat during
the entire process after the heat is once raised. With self-heating
apparatus, this can be done by keeping a very little fire going--just
enough to supply the loss of heat from radiation. Where the heating is
done by running warm water around the milk-vat, a current of the proper
temperature can be kept up. If steam is used, perhaps a small jet can be
kept pouring into the space around the vat. But in all these cases, the
danger is that too high a temperature will have to be kept up at the
point of applying the heat, in order to prevent the temperature of the
whole mass from falling. This is a decided objection, and necessitates a
great deal of stirring, which is only a palliative of and not a remedy
for the evil.

Of course we write with reference to the management of heat with milk
that is sweet and in proper condition for cheese-making. Where it is
"old," or tainted, to begin with, it is necessary to hurry the heat, and
every operation connected with the process of making it up. A higher
temperature and less time will be found to produce a very similar effect
to a lower temperature and more time. But, in all cases, an even, steady
heat should be aimed at and maintained to the end.

We never could quite understand the philosophy of cooking less in the
spring and fall than in the summer. The idea that it makes the cheese
more buttery to dip the curd raw, seems to us very absurd. If there is
any time when a curd needs to be thoroughly cooked, it is when the
weather is cool and unfavorable for curing. If the whey is not properly
expelled by the action of heat, it has got to either dry out or leak
out, or both. If there is too much left in the curd to dry out, long
before it can leak out, your cheese will be sour, with a puckered face,
and sundry ugly cracks. Even when the cheese does not absolutely drip,
if the curd is dipped while underdone, it will sour, the face will have
a corrugated appearance, and the cheese will "try" crumbly and sour. The
color will also be paler than in those that are properly cooked, the
general look will be clammy, and no rind will form that will be
satisfactory. Even when well-cooked and well-made, if a cheese does not
have sufficient warmth, it will sour on the ranges and spoil; and it
stands to reason that cheese made from a curd insufficiently cooked must
work a great deal worse under unfavorable conditions for curing. Our
experience is, that a curd needs more cooking in the spring and fall
than will answer in hot, dry weather. If we must have a curd dipped soft
at any season of the year, we say let it be at that season when the
weather is best for drying and curing. A cheese that would become
worthless on the ranges in cold, wet weather, may turn out pretty fair
in "dog days." But we do not believe in undercooking at any time. Food,
of all kinds, needs as much cooking one season of the year as another.
It is quite likely, however, that a degree or two lower heat will answer
in cool weather, for the reason that milk keeps better then, and the
curd remains longer in the scald before taking on acid. In this case, we
have a lower heat for a longer time, which will produce the same result
as a higher heat for a shorter time. But in both cases the curd ought to
be cooked the same. Whatever degree of heat is decided upon, let it be
kept up, steady and uniform throughout the mass, and at all seasons of
the year let the curd be cooked done. This is specially important when
the conditions for curing are unfavorable. You must do, then, in the vat
part of the work which can be done on the ranges when the weather is
favorable.



CHAPTER XVI.

ACID.


Another important agent in cheese-making is acid. This you are pretty
sure to have, at some stage of the process, and the chief question seems
to be as to _when_ you will have it. It is said that milk fresh from the
cow manifests the presence of lactic acid. The quantity is very slight,
however, and under favorable circumstances the development is slow.
Where milk is properly cooled immediately after being taken from the
cow, and the factoryman has good facilities for keeping it cool, it will
be found, when the time comes to begin the process of working up, what
is called "sweet." It will not taste as fresh and clean as when first
cooled after milking; but no acid will be perceptible to either taste or
smell--not even enough to make it what is termed "old."

Some think age makes the milk all the better for cheese-making, and we
believe it is generally understood that milk fresh from the cow does not
work quite satisfactorily. However, we place no great stress on this
opinion. Old milk will work quicker than new milk; the acid will develop
sooner to the point desired by the cheese-maker, and this saving of time
doubtless has something to do with the decision in favor of age in milk
for the purpose of cheese-making.

Our impression is, that milk cannot be too sweet when the rennet is
added, and that if sufficient time is taken to develop the acid in the
whey before dipping, the fresh milk will be found to turn out the
finest-flavored and best-keeping cheese. The acid is not wanted in the
_curd_, but in the _whey_. If the milk is sour, to begin with, or quite
advanced toward sourness, the lactic acid must pervade every particle of
the whole mass. Now, it strikes us that the correct idea is to expel the
whey from the curd, as far as possible, before the acid makes its
appearance, and let the acid develop in the whey afterward, so as to
furnish a sort of pickle. The acid will develop sharply at some stage in
the process; and, as we have before said, the question to be decided
seems to be as to what point it is best to have it develop at.

We say, with the light we at present have before us, we think the acid
should never be allowed to develop much before the curd is cooked and
the whey is properly expelled; then let the whey take on acid to quite a
perceptible degree before dipping the curd. We doubt if it makes much
difference whether the acidulation takes place while the curd is
floating in the whey, or after the whey is drawn off and while the curd
stands and drains. There is rather more convenience in handling to leave
the whey on and stir the curd sufficiently to keep it from packing; but
the "cheddar" cheese, which is generally considered the best of any, is
made by stacking the curd, after cooking, and allowing the whey that
clings to it to take on acid. But where the milk is all right, to begin
with, and the curd is properly managed and cooked, we doubt if it makes
any material difference which process is adopted for allowing the acid
to develop. With such a curd, there is little danger of its being
injured by the acid, as any one can demonstrate by allowing curd to
stand unpressed over night, as is often done with small remnants, when
the pieces will be found covered with an almost vinegar-sour acid. Grind
this curd and put it to press, and there will be no signs of sour
cheese.

The development of the acid is absolutely necessary to secure good
keeping qualities and a mild, clean flavor. Dip a curd before the whey
has become perceptibly acid, or is on the verge of "changing," and we
think that a rank, bitter flavor will be sure to follow. The absence of
sufficient lactic acid leaves the albumen in a condition likely to
decompose, while the butyric acid develops itself, as in rancid butter,
and the two combine to make a very unpalatable flavor to one nice about
the taste of his cheese. Some prefer strong cheese. To such, the nearer
the flavor approaches that of smoked herring and tobacco, the greater
the gustatory gratification.

The principal difficulty in working up sour milk is to get sufficient
action of the rennet and heat on the curd to properly condense it and
expel the whey. It is a mistake, therefore, to dip a curd soft because
it is sour. Run your heat up to 104° or even 106°, as soon as possible,
and keep it there until your curd is cooked. It is sour, and nothing but
cooking will save it, if anything will. The whey must and will come out.
If you do not expel it from the particles of curd in the vat, you will
not be able to press it out sufficiently to keep it from working and
leaking out while the cheese stands on the ranges.

If anything will prevent sour milk from making leaky cheese, it is
thorough cooking. This process you should hurry up as much as
possible--always having an eye to keeping the heat even, and preventing
waste of butter. The acid, acting on the butter globules, makes their
coatings tender. Therefore, handle the curd as carefully as possible,
cool well before putting to press, and press gently, increasing the
pressure gradually. But, if you have succeeded in getting your curd
properly cooked, you have done one of the best things possible to
retain the butter. If, when you put the curd to press, you find you have
more than the usual bulk of curd, filling the hoops fuller and refusing
to yield readily to the pressure of the screw--as is generally the case
with sour milk, as managed in most factories--you may know that you have
not done your work thoroughly, and therefore look out for leaky, sour,
poor cheese. On the other hand, if you have condensed the curd to the
usual bulk, so that it works well under the screw, you may hope for a
fair cheese, that may pass muster when the buyer comes along.

We often hear the remark, when anything is said about developing the
acid, "No sour cheese for me; I prefer to dip my curd sweet." People who
talk in this way either make bitter, bad-flavored cheese, or else get on
more acid than they are aware of, in consequence of having dull taste
and smell. They judge by the _appearance_ and _feel_ of the curd when it
is in condition to dip, and may succeed in hitting the right point. In
hot weather, it is hardly possible not to develop the acid sufficiently.
But if they really dip the curd sweet, we do not believe it possible
that their cheese can be up to the standard demanded by the best
markets, though they may succeed in getting a fair price for it. Not all
buyers are really good judges, and fewer still know what the matter is
with a cheese that is imperfectly made. They know, perhaps, that there
is something wrong about it; but what, they are unable to say. Further,
we believe the average price of American cheese lower than it should be,
in consequence of so little really prime cheese, and of the large amount
of second-rate; and that, as yet, our buyers are not sufficiently
discriminating in their purchases and prices, though they are yearly
growing more so. Both buyers and cheese-makers need more experience and
a better understanding of what is requisite in the manufacture of a
prime article.



CHAPTER XVII.

DIPPING CURDS.


There is nothing so difficult in cheese-making as to determine the exact
point when a curd ought to be taken out of the vat and salted. A slight
variation either way from this point makes an uneven lot of cheese, and
much variation spoils the batch, so that it will not pass for "prime."
Every cheese-maker has felt the want of some test whereby the exact
point, when a curd is sufficiently "done" to dip, can be determined with
certainty. Neither the sense of smell, the sense of taste, nor the sense
of touch is infallible. The evidence of this fact can be seen in any
factory during the season of cheese-making. A simple test of acidity,
which is claimed to be conclusive, is the application of a hot iron to a
lump of curd. The iron wants to be searing hot--not red hot, but hot
enough to toast cheese. Take up a small handful of curd, squeeze the
whey out of it, and touch the hot iron to it, holding it there for a
moment, or until it adheres and begins to melt or toast the cheese. Then
pull the iron gently away from the curd. If the curd is raw and sweet,
it will break short off from the iron and appear crumbly. If slightly
acid, it will slightly pull out in threads, but not very long ones. As
the acid develops, the stringiness increases. At a certain point, the
curd will cling to the iron and pull out in numerous fine threads an
inch or two long. Beyond this point, the threads grow longer but fewer,
until there will be only one, which will draw out a foot or so, and then
break, recoiling somewhat like India-rubber. Indeed, the curd grows
tougher and more stringy from the time it begins to take on acid
perceptibly, until it finally ends in stringing indefinitely, like wax,
having passed the point of breaking and flying back. The successive
stages of development are gradual, but very marked, and cannot fail to
be recognized after a few experiments.

Thus having obtained a means of telling the degree of acid developed, it
only remains to be decided at what point to dip the curd. It is claimed
that the proper one is where the threads are the finest and most
numerous. Beyond this point, the threads diminish in number but increase
in length, which is an indication of too much acid. It is asserted that
the hot iron test is uniform and reliable, besides being easy of
application. Cheese-makers can make their own experiments, and we advise
them to try the hot iron to their own satisfaction. If it should prove
as conclusive as good judges think it will, it will be of immense value
to our dairymen.

This test reminds us of the test used by maple-sugar makers to determine
when the batch has reached the point where it will "grain" and "cake"
well. They make a small bow of a twig, dip it into the sugar, which
adheres to and fills it, and then they blow through the bow. If no
bubble forms and floats off like a soap-bubble, the batch is not done.
But if they can blow a string of bubbles, or one long bubble, it is time
to remove the heat. The stringing of the cheese-curd, on the application
of the hot iron, seems to afford a very similar test for the
cheese-maker.

It is not claimed that the use of the hot iron will necessarily insure
the making of good cheese. It only determines the degree of acidity,
which is one very important point. Other things are requisite to the
manufacture of a prime article, and the same care, attention, and
labor, in other matters, will remain just as essential. By using the hot
iron, however, it is claimed that the cheese-maker can tell, every time,
just how sour his curd is.



CHAPTER XVIII.

SALTING CURDS.


We believe there is not much controversy on the question of salting
curd. One says, salt it hot, and another says, cool it first. But the
variation in temperature is but a few degrees, and can hardly be
supposed to have much effect. On the whole, we prefer salting as warm as
practicable, as the curd then takes the salt better and the seasoning is
likely to be evener. But the sooner the salt is thrown on, the greater
the waste will be from running off in the whey. If the curd were
thoroughly drained, or pressed out, as it is by the English in the
manufacture of cheddar cheese, before the salt is added, considerable
less would be needed. Some salt the curd in the vat, while it is yet
covered with whey, and think this the better way. We opine, however, it
matters but little when the salt is added, if it be distributed evenly
throughout the mass of curd and is used in the proper quantity. The
common method is to salt in the curd-sink, while the curd is
draining--generally as soon after it is dipped as it can be stirred into
a loose condition suitable for evenly mixing the salt.

We have heard the opinion expressed that it matters not whether the curd
is well separated after salting, or left in coarse chunks with the salt
adhering to their surfaces when put to press, as salt is very
penetrating and the pressing drives the salt whey all through the
cheese. But the common practice is not based on such a conclusion, and
we think it well that it is not. Even salting we consider as essential
in cheese-making as in butter-making.

The amount of salt used at the different factories varies from four
ounces to five ounces for a hundred pounds of milk, or from two pounds
and a half to three pounds and an eighth for a thousand pounds of milk,
or a hundred pounds of curd. The higher rate of salting is thought to
somewhat retard the curing, but it will help the keeping qualities of
the cheese.

For convenience sake, and to save time and the liability to mistakes
when in a hurry, we would recommend the making of a scale or table,
based on the rate of salting adopted, ranging from twenty or twenty-five
pounds up to a hundred, and then for the hundreds up to the capacity of
the vat. It takes but a little while, during some leisure hour, to make
such a tabular scale. When made and stuck up in some convenient
place--say, over the salt barrel, or over the balances--it will enable
any one not familiar with or quick in figures to see at a glance how
much salt is needed for the curd of a given amount of milk. It is a
convenience, too, that will last as long as the factory, if taken care
of.


For the benefit of whom it may concern, we give the following tables:


TABLE

FOR SALTING AT THE RATE OF 2 LBS. 8 OZS. TO 1,000 LBS. OF MILK.


     -----------+---------------++---------+---------------
         MILK.  |     SALT.     ||   MILK. |     SALT.
     -----------+-------+-------++---------+-------+-------
         lbs.   |  lbs. |  ozs. ||   lbs.  |  lbs. |  ozs.
          25    |   0   |   1   ||  1,000  |    2  |   8
          50    |   0   |   2   ||  2,000  |    5  |   0
          75    |   0   |   3   ||  3,000  |    7  |   8
         100    |   0   |   4   ||  4,000  |   10  |   0
         200    |   0   |   8   ||  5,000  |   12  |   8
         300    |   0   |  12   ||  6,000  |   15  |   0
         400    |   1   |   0   ||  7,000  |   17  |   8
         500    |   1   |   4   ||  8,000  |   20  |   0
         600    |   1   |   8   ||  9,000  |   22  |   8
         700    |   1   |  12   ||         |       |
         800    |   2   |   0   ||         |       |
         900    |   2   |   4   ||         |       |
     -----------+-------+-------++---------+-------+-------


TABLE

FOR SALTING AT THE RATE OF 3 LBS. 2 OZS. TO 1,000 LBS. OF MILK.


     -----------+---------------++---------+---------------
         MILK.  |     SALT.     ||   MILK. |     SALT.
     -----------+-------+-------++---------+-------+-------
         lbs.   |  lbs. |  ozs. ||   lbs.  |  lbs. |  ozs.
          20    |   0   |   1   ||  1,000  |   3   |    2
          40    |   0   |   2   ||  2,000  |   6   |    4
          60    |   0   |   3   ||  3,000  |   9   |    6
          80    |   0   |   4   ||  4,000  |  12   |    8
         100    |   0   |   5   ||  5,000  |  15   |   10
         200    |   0   |  10   ||  6,000  |  18   |   12
         300    |   0   |  15   ||  7,000  |  21   |   14
         400    |   1   |   4   ||  8,000  |  25   |    0
         500    |   1   |   9   ||  9,000  |  28   |    2
         600    |   1   |  14   ||         |       |
         700    |   2   |   3   ||         |       |
         800    |   2   |   8   ||         |       |
         900    |   2   |  13   ||         |       |
     -----------+-------+-------++---------+-------+-------


We presume the method of using these tables will be plain enough to
most cheese-makers. But we will give a single illustration. Supposing
the batch of milk to be 4,640 pounds, if we wish to salt at the rate of
3 lbs. 2 ozs. to the 1,000 pounds of milk, we look at the column
indicating the quantity of salt for a given number of thousands, and
find that 4,000 pounds of milk require 12 lbs. 8 ozs. of salt. Referring
to the other column, we find 400 pounds of milk require 1 lb. 4 ozs.
salt, and 40 pounds, 2 ozs. Add these together, and we have 13 lbs. 14
ozs. as the quantity of salt required for 4,640 lbs. of milk. If
desired, a table can be made out, with little trouble, that will show
the quantity of salt required for any given number of hundreds of pounds
of milk likely to be contained in a single vat.



CHAPTER XIX.

TAINTED MILK.


The most abominable of all things in a cheese-factory is tainted milk.
It means floating curds, "huffy" cheese, bad flavor and poor prices.
Yet, as milk is now managed, most factories will, in hot weather, get
occasionally caught with a mess of tainted milk. There are hard work,
anxiety and unsatisfactory results in it for the cheese-maker, and
dissatisfaction and small profits for the patron. Such things never
ought to be; but, when such a catastrophe happens, like other
disagreeable things, it has to be borne and the best made of it that
circumstances will permit.

We know of no way to make good cheese out of tainted milk, and have had
comparatively little experience with it--though quite as much as we
desire. But from our own knowledge and what we can learn from the
experience of others, if we had a tainted mess of milk to work up, we
should heat it up as soon as possible, cut the curd fine, cook it
thoroughly and develop the acid as much as we thought the curd would
bear and stick together so as to bandage well. If we had another batch,
in which the whey was all right, we would draw off the whey from the
tainted batch as early as possible and add whey from the sweet batch to
the tainted curd, to cook it in. If not, as soon as cooked, we would
draw off the whey and allow the acid to develop in the curd. We presume
sour whey added to the batch would be an advantage in developing the
acid, and acid is what seems to be needed to check the decomposition and
further tainting of the curd. An extra quantity of salt would doubtless
be an advantage in stopping further taint. The curd should be cooled to
the temperature of the atmosphere, and well aired before being put to
press, and the pressing should be thorough.

Old cheese-makers have told us that they thought they found an advantage
in washing and cooling a tainted curd with ice water--that is, by
chilling it. It seems to us that, though this might check taint for the
time being, it would hasten it when the cheese warmed up in curing, as
butter or meat will spoil rapidly after having come in contact with ice,
if exposed to the atmosphere.

Prime cheese never can be made of bad milk. But, if milk is not too
badly tainted, a mess managed on the principles we have indicated will
make a fair cheese--one that will suit many palates. A curd made of sour
milk may be improved by washing out some of the acid by the use of warm
water. With such a curd, extra cooking is an important point; but
generally there is less cooking, owing to the hurry to get the curd out
of the sour whey. It is in almost the opposite condition, so far as acid
is concerned, of curd made from tainted milk. The latter has too little
acid; the former too much. We therefore want to develop the acid in a
tainted curd, and to retard or diminish it in a sour one.



CHAPTER XX.

CURING.


There is no part of the process of making up milk and getting the
product ready for market which requires more care and judgment, as well
as some hard work, than curing. Few rooms are properly prepared for the
purpose. They are left too open and barn-like, with no means of
controlling the temperature. Factorymen generally seem to think that if
the cheese is only made and put on the ranges, there is little or no
need of making any further provision. We have seen cheese, which we
believe had deteriorated from one to two cents a pound in value, because
the curing process had not gone on properly. The curing rooms were full
of cracks which let in the wind, cold or hot, dry or damp, as it might
be, and the cheese stood on the ranges in the cold, damp atmosphere,
turning to swill--to hog feed, instead of human food. The faces were
cracked; the flavor was bad; "too much acid," the buyers said; the
makers were perplexed, and quite sure they had not changed their hands
from what they were when they made a good reputation; the patrons were
dissatisfied, and the committeemen grumbled. There might have been other
failings; but we are quite sure that no one has a right to expect prime
cheese where there are not the proper facilities for curing. If the
weather happens to be right, a barn may answer the purpose. But no one
has a right to presume on always having favorable weather; and it is the
part of wisdom to make preparations for all sorts of contingencies.

A curing-room should be made with a wind-proof wall. This would guard
against sudden changes of weather, by keeping out both heat and cold.
Sufficient air can be introduced through the windows, which should be
made to open easily, and be provided with blinds. There should also be
provision for supplying artificial heat, equally distributed throughout
the building, and not from a red-hot stove set in the middle, or in one
end or corner, where it will toast the cheeses near it, and leave those
farther off to chill in the cold weather of spring and fall. If steam is
used, the heating apparatus may be made to do the double work of cooking
the curd, and warming the drying-room. This may be done by means of
hot-air tubes, or by the use of steam-pipes running round the room. Of
course it would cost a little at the beginning; but a curing room once
properly fitted up would soon pay the extra expense in the saving of
time, labor, care, vexation and money. A thousand and one annoyances
would be guarded against, and the proprietor would have the satisfaction
of knowing that he had got a good thing, which would insure the most
that could be expected from the product of the cheese-vat, and build up
a first-class reputation and a permanent business.

A curing-room should not only be kept at an equable temperature of 70°
to 80°, but be well ventilated. The gases constantly emitted by the
curing process should have a chance to freely escape and leave the
atmosphere as pure and sweet as possible. There is no more sense in
supposing that a cheese can cure properly and have a clean, wholesome
flavor, if kept in a close, unventilated room, than that a human being
can retain his health in impure air. The curing-room must be kept clean
and sweet, dry and airy--not by allowing the wind to whistle through it
as it listeth, but by a judicious system of heating and ventilating,
which will allow the hot and chill blasts to blow harmlessly by.



CHAPTER XXI.

GREASING CHEESE.


When a cheese is first removed from the hoops, care should be taken that
its face be not allowed to dry and crack before it is greased with hot
whey-butter. Nothing has been found so good as whey-butter for the
purpose of greasing cheese, and it should be applied hot, and as soon
after the cheese is set on the range as possible. If it dries at all, we
think it injurious to the formation of a smooth, glassy face; and if it
dries much, the face is sure to check and present an unsatisfactory
appearance, besides furnishing convenient places for the cheese-fly to
deposit its eggs.

A very convenient thing for applying the hot butter is a paint-brush. It
is much handier and better every way than a swab. But care must be
taken, or the bristles of the brush will get scorched. This can be
avoided by removing the brush from the dish when through using it, and
not putting it in the grease again until you are ready to grease the
faces of your cheeses.

A pressed iron dish with a handle riveted on, is handy for melting the
grease. There is no danger of melting out the bottom, or melting off the
handle, and you are less liable to burn yourself or spill your grease
than you are if you melt the whey butter in an old basin, which very
soon gets burnt and leaky.

Little conveniences, like the iron dish and brush we have mentioned,
help a great deal, in the course of a season, about cheese-making; and a
cheese-maker had better furnish them at his own expense, if his
employers are too stingy to do it, than not to have them. There are
many such little things that greatly assist in doing work easily and in
keeping neat and tidy. One can do without them, on the principle that a
farmer can hoe his corn without a cultivator, but it does not pay.

If a cheese cannot be greased as soon as taken out, spread a cloth or
put a turner over it, or both. This will keep the moisture from escaping
and the air from immediate contact with the face of the cheese.

As whey-butter is the best and nearly the only material used for
greasing the faces of cheeses, it will not be amiss and may be of use to
inexperienced cheese-makers, to say a few words on the mode of trying
out the whey-butter. Prepare a skimmer with a long handle, which may be
cheaply made by punching the bottom of an old tin-pan full of holes and
fastening a wooden handle to it with bits of wire. A shrub five or six
feet long and of suitable size, with a short crook at the larger end, is
convenient. It can be split at the crooked end, slipped on the edge of
the pan and wired there without much trouble.

Hang a large kettle--a cauldron is best--in a convenient place, and fill
it about two-thirds fall of the grease and scum which you skim off from
the vat. It is yeasty stuff, and requires a good deal of room, at first,
to swell in when the heat is started. Keep up a moderate fire, so as to
boil it gently without scorching, and continue the boiling until the
cheesy portion is sufficiently cooked to sink to the bottom. Then allow
the batch to rest and cool down. Dip off the butter, while still warm
and oily, and carefully strain it into a clean tub. When cooled
sufficiently to begin to thicken somewhat, a little salt sprinkled on
the surface and thoroughly stirred in, as the farmers' wives sometimes
salt their lard, will help prevent it from getting rancid and stinking.
Set it in a cool place, and keep it covered tightly. Near the close of
the fall's operations, a nice tub of whey butter should be thus prepared
and set by for use the next spring--for, in the cold spring weather,
when cheese-making first commences, very little cream will rise on the
whey-vat, and it will take some time before a batch can be procured.

In applying the whey-butter to the face of the cheese, no more should be
used than the surface of the cheese will absorb and leave it moist and
shiny. If enough is put on so that it will cool in streaks and stick to
whatever it touches, it should be wiped off, or it will daub the turner
or bench, and not only make unnecessary work in cleaning, but prevent a
hard, smooth rind from forming. Many give themselves a good deal of
annoyance by putting on too much grease.

The next morning after the cheese has been set on the range, and had its
upper face greased with hot whey-butter, it should be turned over, when
a similar application of hot butter should be made to the other face. If
the cheese is well made and of good milk, and properly greased, as we
have indicated, more greasing will seldom be needed. A little care will
determine when more is needed, if at all. If the face begins to look dry
and feel harsh, in spite of thorough rubbing with the hands, call the
grease-brush into requisition again. In hot, dry weather--especially if
the air is allowed to strike the face of the cheese--a timely
application of more whey-butter may keep the face from cracking and save
considerable trouble.

The cheeses should be regularly turned, for the first fortnight, every
day, and have their faces thoroughly rubbed and polished with the naked
hand. Nothing else will do so much to help form a satisfactory rind. A
cloth carried along should be used to wipe off any surplus grease on the
bench or turner, so as to prevent its daubing the next cheese and making
additional work. This same cloth, thus made greasy, will answer the
additional use of wiping off any mould that may be found collecting on
the bandage.

In this way, a lot of cheese, with comparatively little additional work
and trouble, but a trifle more attention, can be kept looking clean and
wholesome; and if this neatness does not actually help improve the
quality of the cheese--we think it does--it will so much improve the
appearance, that you will not only be rewarded by the satisfaction
afforded, but can safely count on a fraction more from the buyer--enough
to more than pay for all the labor bestowed in curing.



CHAPTER XXII.

SKIPPERS.


One of the most annoying things in the drying-room is the cheese-fly. It
is very small but very effective in its way; and as it has the power to
so rapidly increase its numbers, it sometimes gives a good deal of
trouble. To a beginner, its ways seem almost past finding out, yet its
path often becomes disgustingly visible.

We know of no sovereign remedy for these pests of the drying-room. The
best preventive is perfect cleanliness in all the surroundings. No pools
of whey or slops of any kind in, under or around the building, should be
allowed to furnish the first broods. But few factories are so arranged
as to leave no putrid whey-spouts or other receptacles for the eggs of
the fly. When hot weather comes on, the flies, therefore, swarm all
around the building; and most curing-rooms are so open as to afford them
easy access. Once in the room, the trouble and warfare begin, and cease
not until the dog-star no longer rages.

The cheese-fly is not very particular where it deposits its
eggs--whether in the cracks in the benches or turners, in wrinkles in
the bandage, in the checks in the rind of the cheese, or on the smooth
face. If the weather is warm enough and there is the least bit of
moisture, the eggs will hatch anywhere around the cheese. As soon as
hatched, instinct leads the skipper to burrow in the cheese at once. It
is a mistaken idea, we think, that the fly inserts the eggs. It drops
them in clusters, wherever it is convenient. It may be on a turner,
which is standing idle. It is taken up thoughtlessly, clapped over a
cheese, which is turned on it, nicely covering the eggs, which hatch
between it and the rind, and the brood is soon found thriving nicely in
the cheese. Perhaps the eggs are laid on the smooth face of the cheese,
in plain sight, if one looks carefully enough for them. The next time
the cheese is turned, the eggs are in the same situation as those laid
on the turner. They may be laid on the bench, and the cheese set on
them. A careful hand, who is used to hunting eggs as well as skippers,
will look closely for them everywhere, and be sure that the face of no
cheese that has them on is turned down, and that no turner is used
containing them. In all these cases, care and neatness have their
advantages, and pay.

If a cheese is leaky, look out for it. We have seen the eggs of the
cheese-fly deposited on the best cheeses; but sour, stinking, leaky
cheeses attract them most. Here they are in their natural element. The
eggs dropped on the moist cheese anywhere, even on the bandage, will do
remarkably well. They no sooner hatch, than the tiny worm works its way
through the bandage or rind into the cheese, and there he feasts,
fattens and grows.

It is almost traditional that a skippery cheese is invariably a good
one. We admit that good cheese may be skippery--it is so, sometimes; but
the leaky, greasy, rank smelling and strong-tasting cheese, is the
skipper's delight. In such a cheese, he luxuriates in all his disgusting
glory.

When skippers get into a cheese, we know of no better way than to dig or
cut them out as soon as possible. Their presence is at once indicated by
a moist spot, when the bottom face of the cheese is first turned up.
Greasing a piece of paper over the hole in the cheese, which is the
entrance of the skipper, will bring him to the surface after air, but it
does not kill him nor free the cheese from skippers. We say, cut them
out. Cut freely, and make sure work. If the spot is near the edge, a
wedge-shaped piece may be cut out, and a piece of another cheese--there
is usually one cut for patrons of a factory--can be fitted in, a second
bandage drawn over, and the cheese slipped into a hoop, when a little
pressing will smooth down all roughness and heal all scars.

Some put cayenne pepper in whey-butter used for greasing cheeses. But,
though it may help keep flies off, it will not prevent trouble. They
will work their way wherever there is a chance for them. Dryness,
cleanliness and watchful care, are the only sure preventives of
skippers, in hot weather. To one who has had experience, it is not so
very difficult to guard against serious loss from skippery cheese. But
beginners need to be put on their guard--and for their benefit we have
penned this article on skippers.



CHAPTER XXIII.

CHEDDAR PROCESS.


During the summer of 1869, we had the pleasure of visiting the Spring
Creek and Slate Hill factories, in Montgomery county, under the charge
of Mr. ALEXANDER MACADAM. Mr. MACADAM'S father is an old cheese-maker,
who learned the Cheddar process from the celebrated English dairyman,
Mr. JOSEPH HARDING, of Somerset, about 1855. The son has had all the
advantages of the father's experience, and, in addition to an active,
inquiring and practical turn of mind, has had experience in one of the
heaviest cheese houses in London. If any one knows what good cheese is,
and what is required by the English taste, as well as by the American
market, we think Mr. ALEXANDER MACADAM does. He is, besides,
intelligent, free and communicative--ready to impart any information
within his knowledge. We propose to give as intelligible an account of
his process as we were able to pick up in our brief visit. But, as he
adopts in part the American method, and humors considerably American
ideas, we will first give a brief description of the real Cheddar
process, as explained in a pamphlet written by Mr. ROBERT MACADAM, of
Gorsty Hill Dairy, Crewe, who is the father of our host:


     In describing the process of cheese-making, it is necessary to keep
     in view some definite size of dairy; and for this reason, we will
     allude in the present section to one making cheese from the milk of
     60 cows.

     As detailed in the paragraph on the morning's operations, the
     evening's milk having cooled down to 62°, is lifted and sieved into
     the cheese tub, and the morning's milk added to it, as it comes
     from the cow-house. If the temperature of the milk, when thus
     mixed, be under 78°, it must be raised to that degree of warmth, as
     from 78° to 80° is the best temperature at which milk can be set
     for coagulation. This may be effected either by warming a portion
     of the milk among hot water to any temperature not above 150°, or,
     when the cheese-tub is double-bottomed, by introducing a jet of
     steam, or allowing the hot water to circulate. The quantity of milk
     in the cheese-tub being one hundred and sixty-five gallons, the
     requisite quantity of annotto is now added, and carefully mixed, to
     produce a rich straw or cowslip color. Five quarts of sour whey
     being added, and a quantity of rennet sufficient to coagulate the
     mass of milk in sixty minutes, the whole is gently stirred and
     completely mixed, covered over with a clean cloth, and allowed to
     stand for coagulation. After the milk has stood for fifteen
     minutes, the top or surface should be gently stirred, to prevent
     the cream from ascending, and this must be repeated if the curd is
     long in beginning to form. Hence it is preferable that the
     coagulation should be completed in from fifty to sixty minutes, as
     otherwise a waste of richness is likely to ensue. When the cream
     shows a decided tendency to rise to the surface, it is advisable to
     skim it off, previous to lifting the evening's milk, and warm it to
     a temperature of 95°, as this prevents it from ascending, and
     causes it to amalgamate more completely with the mass of milk set
     for coagulation. In stirring the milk to prevent the cream from
     ascending, the strictest attention should be observed to abstain
     from doing so if the slightest degree of coagulation is perceived.
     As soon as the curd has acquired a moderate degree of firmness, the
     operation of breaking-up should be at once commenced, and must be
     performed carefully, gently and minutely. This may be accomplished
     by one person in about thirty minutes, when the revolving knife
     breaker is employed, or by two persons in about the same time, when
     the shovel or wire-breakers are used. Before this operation is
     finished, a quantity of whey must be taken from the cheese-tub,
     heated to 150°, and again poured upon the mass, stirring being
     actively kept up beneath the stream, to prevent any portion of the
     curd from being scalded. The quantity thus heated must be
     sufficient to raise the temperature of the contents of the
     cheese-tub to 80°, and the whole must be carefully and completely
     mixed. The addition of warm whey raises the temperature, and
     consequently hastens the separation of the whey from the curd, and
     assists in promoting the necessary acidity. [If, however, the
     presence of acidity can be detected by the smell or taste, no warm
     whey should be used at this stage of the process.] The curd being
     broken to a sufficient degree of fineness, it is allowed to remain
     undisturbed for one hour, except when the acid exists in too great
     a degree, in which case it should only stand during the time
     occupied by warming the whey for scalding. The whey-separator is
     then inserted, and the liquid allowed to run off until the surface
     of the curd appears among the whey, after which the separator is
     taken out, and the curd properly broken up with the shovel-breaker.
     But before breaking up the curd, a quantity of whey should be
     heated to 150°, for the purpose of scalding it. One person pours a
     portion of this hot whey over the curd, while another stirs
     actively beneath the stream with a shovel-breaker. The hot whey is
     poured cautiously over the mass at intervals, and the stirring is
     kept up gently but briskly, until the temperature is raised
     gradually to 98° or 100° Fah. The stirring is continued, and the
     temperature maintained, until the curd acquires a certain degree of
     firmness and consistency, which it is difficult to describe, but
     which the intelligent cheese-maker soon learns to recognize by its
     appearance, and by its peculiarly elastic feel when handled. It is
     therefore of the utmost importance to possess the discrimination
     and tact necessary for discerning when the proper degree of
     firmness and consistency has been attained. When the curd is
     sufficiently "cooked," it is in small granular particles, firm and
     elastic to the touch, and when a portion is taken in the hand and
     squeezed, it does not readily adhere, but separates into particles.
     The stirring must be continued till this peculiar consistency is
     attained, without any regard to the length of time, but should on
     no account be farther prolonged, because the cheese will then have
     a tendency to be hard and stiff, and will require a longer time to
     mature in the cheese-room. The length of time required for stirring
     varies according to the previous condition of the milk, being from
     twenty to thirty minutes when the acid exists in a sufficient
     degree, or even double that time when the natural process of change
     in the milk has been slow. This process of saturating the curd with
     heated whey has the effect of completely separating the solid and
     fluid parts, the only moisture left being that which adheres to the
     particles, and which comes away under pressure. But when the
     temperature is raised in this manner, or by heat from the bottom of
     the cheese-tub, the utmost care is necessary to keep the curd from
     being over-scalded, as, when the temperature is too suddenly
     raised, part of buttraceous matter may be lost, and the small pulpy
     particles get skinned over, inclosing a quantity of the whey, which
     it is extremely difficult again to separate. If the milk has been
     in proper condition to begin with, and the process carried on in
     the manner thus detailed, the curd will retain all the natural
     richness of the milk, and the cheese produced will have that rich
     creamy taste and sweet milky flavor, something like the odor of new
     milk, known as the _Cheddar flavor_. When the curd is raised (in
     the manner described above) to the natural heat of the milk (98°,)
     or only one or two degrees above it, all the butter is retained and
     fixed in the curd; for although subjected even at first to a
     pressure of half a ton, little or no trace of butter will appear.
     This is unquestionably a more rational and far superior method of
     separating the whey from the curd than that of heating beside a
     fire or in a furnace, with its attendant skewerings and changings.

     The next step in the continuation of the process is to insert the
     separator, after the curd has been allowed to remain undisturbed in
     the scald for the space of thirty minutes. After the whey is run
     off, the curd is thrown up into a heap in the center of the
     cheese-tub, covered over with a clean cheese-cloth, and the whey
     allowed to drain away from it for another half-hour. At the end of
     that time the curd is cut across, turned over in square lumps,
     heaped up, covered as before, and then allowed to lie for half an
     hour longer. The curd is then taken from the cheese-tub, laid upon
     a cooler, split by the hand into thin flakes, and spread out to
     cool. The curd at this stage has a distinctly acid smell; it is
     slightly sour, and by no means palatable; and its taste and
     appearance are such as would lead a novice to think it unlikely to
     produce a fine cheese. When the curd has been exposed on the cooler
     for fifteen minutes, it is turned over, and allowed to lie for the
     same length of time. It is then packed into a cheese-vat, having a
     clean cloth under it, placed under the press for the space of ten
     minutes, and subjected to a pressure of half a ton. When taken out,
     it is ground in the mill, weighed, and returned to the cooler, and
     if the acid is sufficiently developed, it should be at once salted,
     cooled down to about 65°, and placed under pressure. The purest
     refined salt should be used, and should be weighed and carefully
     mixed with the mass, one pound of salt being sufficient for
     fifty-six pounds of curd.

     When the acid is found to be insufficiently developed in the
     previous stages of the process, the curd is allowed to lie
     unsalted, and is stirred up occasionally, until the necessary
     degree of acidity is acquired. The curd is then finally put into
     the cheese-vat, and at once put under pressure, at first under a
     weight of five or six cwt. The cheese is taken out of the press in
     the evening, and a clean cloth put upon it, and being turned in the
     vat, is subjected to a pressure of half a ton. Next morning, it is
     again taken out, wrapped in a dry cloth, reversed in the vat, and
     returned into the press with four cwt. additional pressure placed
     upon it. On the following morning it receives its third and last
     cloth, and when placed in the press, is now subjected to the
     pressure of 18 cwt. In the evening, it is once more removed from
     the press, gets a calico cap neatly stitched upon it, is reversed
     in the vat, placed under a pressure of one ton till the following
     morning, and is then finally taken from the press. The cheese is
     then tightly bandaged to preserve its proper shape, and being
     ticketed with its date and number, is carried to the cheese-room,
     where it must be turned every day until fully ripe for market.
     Cheeses may always be in the store-room in seventy-two hours after
     they are first put into the press, and, indeed, they might be
     placed there much earlier; only to insure consolidation, it is
     preferable to maintain the pressure during the time specified.

     A diary or register should be kept, into which the date and number
     of each cheese should be formally entered, together with such
     remarks as may be needful and proper concerning the condition of
     the milk, and the peculiarities of the curd, &c. The cheese-maker,
     when testing the quality of any cheese after it is ripe, may learn
     from the register the precise conditions of its manufacture, and
     will thus be assisted in attaining that degree of excellence which
     was laid down in the beginning of this work as a proper standard or
     quality.[A] It will also be found highly useful to note down many
     similar facts, such as the various yields of milk at particular
     seasons, and from different kinds of pasture or house-feeding, as
     the practice will not only give wide views of the subject, and
     correct information regarding it, but will also tend greatly to
     foster accurate and business-like habits.

     It is necessary to state distinctly the mode of procedure best
     adapted for this contingency because the over-acidity of milk when
     not detected and duly attended to in the process, produces a
     corresponding blemish in the cheese.

     In very warm weather, when the temperature of the evening's milk
     stands in the morning as high as 70° or upwards, every part of the
     process described in the previous section must be hastened. The
     curd is broken more speedily than usual, and whey is taken off as
     soon as possible, and quickly warmed for scalding. When the
     operation of breaking is concluded, an interval of only five
     minutes is allowed before the whey is run off. Scalding is then
     proceeded with, but, under these circumstances, the curd and whey
     should only be raised to the temperature of 98°. When the proper
     degree of firmness has been attained by stirring, the rest of the
     whey is run off after another interval of five minutes, and when
     the curd is heaped up, ten minutes only are allowed to elapse
     before it is cut across and turned over. At the end of other ten
     minutes, it is laid upon the cooler, in five minutes more it is
     turned over, and at the end of other five it is put into the vat
     and under the press. Having been subjected to pressure for five
     minutes, the curd is taken out, ground in the mill, put back into
     the cooler, and salted. It is then stirred up to cool, until the
     temperature of the mass is reduced to 65°, when it is placed in the
     vat, and subjected to the ordinary routine of pressure. It may be
     stated, in illustration of the time occupied by these operations,
     that if the curd be ready for breaking at eight o'clock, it may be
     milled and salted by eleven. By expeditiously conducting every
     stage of the process, excellent cheeses may be produced, even at
     the above temperature; but when the ordinary time is allowed to
     elapse before the curd is "cooked" and salted, the cheeses will
     likely be sour. These rules and statements are based on the safe
     ground of personal experience, for in a very warm season we have
     made upwards of forty tons of cheese without one being sour.

     In these days of dispatch and outward display, when men seek so
     eagerly for the shortest and easiest ways of doing things, some
     will doubtless be found to carp at the minuteness and extent of the
     foregoing details, and at the repeated injunction to strive after a
     clear and intelligent conception of the principles on which this
     branch of industry is founded. And many more, whose past experience
     has been little else than a slothful compliance with false rules
     and prejudices, may, perhaps, censure the system as too abstruse
     and complicated. But all such objections are refuted by the simple
     fact that no common product, made from raw material universally the
     same, varies more in quality and value than cheese, from the one
     cause of difference in the skill with which it is made. To attain
     to excellence in cheese-making, it is absolutely necessary that the
     hand and the head should work together.


The Cheddar process, as carried on at Spring Creek factory, is an
adaptation of the foregoing to American apparatus and implements, with
other variations. The milk is set in the usual manner, and at the usual
temperature--say, 82° to 84°. It is cut in the usual manner, and
gradually heated up to 98°. Then the whole is allowed to stand, with
occasional stirring, until the whey is perceptibly acid. The day we were
there, we found the curd in the whey, and as much changed as is
generally considered by Americans sufficient for dipping and salting.
But as soon as a slight change is perceptible--indeed, as soon as any
one of the hands fancies it is changed--the whey is drawn off. If the
whey should still be sweet and the curd soft, there is no harm in
drawing off the whey. Then one end of the vat is raised, the curd is
poked away from the lower end, and the whey is allowed to drain out. If
the curd is quite soft, the further separation of the whey is
facilitated by cross-cuttings with a large butcher or groceryman's
cheese-knife. If it is well "cooked," this is not necessary.

At the expiration of half an hour or so--provided the whey is not
rapidly taking on acid, in which case, at the expiration of five, ten,
or fifteen minutes, according to condition--the curd is cut into pieces
six or eight inches square, with the knife just mentioned; these pieces
are split laterally through the middle with the knife; the top and
bottom surfaces are put together, and the whole piled up along the sides
of the vat. The object of this operation is to get the cool surfaces
into the middle, to be influenced by the heat, and to give the already
heated center contact with the atmosphere. In a little while, the bottom
pieces are piled on top. The cutting and splitting operation may be
repeated at intervals of twenty or thirty minutes until the whey that
runs from the curd has much the taste of sour milk just before it begins
to lopper.

The whey looks white and rich, and is really so; but it is claimed, that
there is not as much waste as is caused by keeping the curd in the whey
and stirring it, when the butter and cheese that escape are so diluted
as not to be noticed.

When the whey draining from the curd has a decided sour-milk taste, the
accumulation is removed, the curd mill is set on the end of the vat, and
the large square pieces of curd thrown into the hopper and run through.
The mill tears them into pieces varying in size from that of a kernel of
corn to a butternut. When ground, two pounds and an eighth of salt are
sprinkled over the curd and stirred in. (Considering the dry state of
curd, this is really heavy salting--heavier than three pounds thrown on
the dripping curd, in the usual manner.) The salting done, the curd is
allowed to stand, with occasional stirring, as long as
convenient--indeed, the longer the better. It will take no harm after
being salted; and if a curd is at all tainted, or is made of sour-milk,
and is rather soft, it should be allowed to stand as long as possible,
and permit the hands to get it to press and ready to bandage the same
afternoon or evening.

This is the simple process, as we saw it at Spring Creek factory. The
pressing and curing are not essentially different from the common
methods. Thorough pressing, however, is considered essential; and so is
an equable temperature in the drying room--which, by the way, Mr.
MACADAM did not have the advantage of, as the building was erected on
economical principles, with a very primitive but thorough system of
ventilation--not under his direction or supervision, however.

With sour-milk, Mr. MACADAM hastens every stage of the process, up to
the time of salting. When the requisite degree of acid is developed,
even though the heat may not have gone above 90°, and the curd is very
soft, the whey is drawn off, and the curd repeatedly cut into small
squares with a knife, to facilitate the separation of the whey. The curd
is ground, and the salt thrown on--in less quantity--when the whey that
drains off has the proper sour milk taste. It is then allowed to stand
in the vat, and drain and harden, as long as the work of the factory
will permit. If it can remain a couple of days in the press, it is an
advantage.

The curds prepared in the manner we have been describing for good milk,
does not have a very promising look to an American cheese-maker. It is
tough and stringy, and quite elastic. At least, such was the appearance
of the curd which we saw. It is proper to state, however, that it was
made of tainted milk, and the taint was quite marked in the curd. This,
Mr. MACADAM told us, was the condition of most of the milk and curds for
some weeks past in that factory; yet, the taint did not show in the
cheese on the ranges, except in a few instances where the curd had been
salted a little too sweet, as he thought.

The great secret of his success, he seemed to think, was in getting rid
of the whey early, in allowing a good deal of acid to develop,
especially in tainted curds, in airing the curds and allowing the gases
to escape, and in salting well.

Mr. MACADAM'S cheese, as a general thing, tried splendidly. It was firm,
flaky, buttery and fine-flavored. His opinion is, that American cheese
is, as a general rule, salted too sweet and too low, for the purpose of
having it cure quick for market; but it lacks good keeping qualities,
and verifies the old adage, "Soon ripe, soon rotten." It is hard to
overcome this desire for quick returns; but he would recommend those who
wish to improve American cheese, to sour rather more, salt a little
more, and color a little less--as little as the market will allow--as
coloring is believed to be positively injurious to quality. The
_tendency_ should be in these directions, in order to make a slower
curing, better keeping and better flavored article.

But, it must be borne in mind, that Mr. MACADAM has in view his own
process of manufacture, and that allowances must be made for different
modes. Let each be ready to receive hints, make his own experiments, and
abide by his own decisions.

FOOTNOTE:

[A] "A good cheese is rich, without being greasy, with a sweet, nutty
flavor; clear, equal color throughout; of a compact, solid texture,
without being waxy; firm, yet melting easily in the mouth, and leaving
no rough flavor on the palate."



ADVERTISEMENTS


Utica Morning Herald

BOOK AND JOB PRINTING

ESTABLISHMENT,

No. 60 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y.,

Possesses EXTENSIVE MODERN FACILITIES for all kinds of

LETTER PRESS PRINTING,

And increased attention will be paid to this department, under the
direction of

R. W. ROBERTS.

NEW STYLES OF TYPE, BORDERS, &C.,

are provided as they appear in the Eastern cities, and the

Long Established Reputation

of the office will be maintained, for

THE BEST WORK AT THE LOWEST PRICES.

MANUFACTURERS,
LAWYERS,
AND BUSINESS MEN,

Will have their orders carefully and intelligently filled.

ELLIS H. ROBERTS, Proprietor.


Utica Morning Herald

AND DAILY GAZETTE,

NINE DOLLARS A YEAR IN ADVANCE, contains more reading matter than any
other daily published in Central New York, including the Fullest and
Latest

TELEGRAPHIC REPORTS,

CORRESPONDENCE

From the State and National Capitals,

and elsewhere, while especial attention is bestowed on

LOCAL AND GENERAL NEWS,

and a high Literary Standard is aimed at. An

AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT

is well maintained especially designed for the

Dairymen and Farmers

of the Central and Northern Counties.

The UTICA HERALD has by far the largest circulation in the City, and its

AGGREGATE CIRCULATION IS OVER 12,000.

ADVERTISE IN IT.


THE DAIRYMEN'S PAPER!

THE UTICA WEEKLY HERALD

has, since the first organization of the Dairymen's Association,
reported promptly and fully all of its proceedings and never more fully
and satisfactorily than the addresses and debates before the Convention
held in Utica in January, 1870.

The UTICA HERALD also devotes especial attention to everything connected
with the dairy interest; to

Diseases of Cattle and their Cure; The Manufacture of Butter and Cheese,
and to all Improved Processes and Apparatus.

The weekly edition every Tuesday contains the report of the

LITTLE FALLS MARKET OF THE PREVIOUS DAY.

The UTICA HERALD has made the dairy interest a specialty, and in its
weekly edition devotes to it

More Space and Attention than any other Paper in the Country.

At the same time, the UTICA WEEKLY HERALD aims to be in all respects a

FIRST-CLASS FAMILY PAPER.

Its Editorial Articles

are accepted and recognized as fitly speaking the Union sentiment, the
intelligent convictions, and the thoughtful aspirations of the million
of people which it represents.

The UTICA HERALD, in its weekly as well as its morning edition, is
pre-eminently

A NEWSPAPER.

By thorough classification and elaborate condensation it presents the
gist of all the news in the briefest space, and the person who reads no
other journal, will not be ignorant of the current of events, and the
movement of men and principles.

THE CORRESPONDENCE

weekly published in our columns, from Washington, New York, Albany and
elsewhere, is not inferior in literary or political interest to that of
any other journal in the country.

THE LITERARY DEPARTMENT

will receive during the coming year, increased attention, and we trust
will deserve in even a higher degree than heretofore the encomiums which
have been bestowed upon it.

ADVERTISE IN IT.

Manufacturers and merchants wishing to reach dairymen and producers of
butter and cheese, can do so in no other way so readily and so cheaply,
as through the columns of the UTICA WEEKLY HERALD.

THE TERMS.

The UTICA WEEKLY HERALD is published at the low price of

TWO DOLLARS A YEAR.

Payment is required in advance. Taking into account the size and
character of the paper--its political, news, literary and agricultural
merits--it is believed that this is

THE CHEAPEST PAPER PUBLISHED.

Now is the time to form clubs. Let the circulation be doubled during the
current year.

_Address, UTICA HERALD_,
60 Genesee Street, Utica, N. Y.


BOOK BINDING!

THE OLD ESTABLISHED

BOOK BINDERY,

No. 60 GENESEE ST., UTICA, N. Y.,

(_Morning Herald Block_,)

Has all the facilities for BINDING BOOKS, new and old, in as good style,
and at as low prices as can be obtained anywhere in New York or
elsewhere.

Many families may gather a respectable library by gathering up their

Magazines, Newspapers, and other Serials,

And we are prepared to bind in any desirable style

ATLANTIC MAGAZINE,
HARPER'S MAGAZINE,
KNICKERBOCKER MAGAZINE,
GRAHAM'S MAGAZINE,
PETERSON'S MAGAZINE,
HOME MAGAZINE,
LESLIE'S MAGAZINE,
BALLOU'S MAGAZINE,
LADY'S BOOK,
MUSIC,
LIBRARY BOOKS,
LAW BOOKS,
LESLIE'S PICTORIAL,
HARPER'S PICTORIAL,
BALLOU'S PICTORIAL,
ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS,
SPENCER'S HISTORY OF UNITED STATES,
TALLIS'S SHAKESPEARE,
JOHNSON'S SHAKESPEARE,
BOYDELL'S SHAKESPEARE,
IRVING'S WASHINGTON,
LOSSING'S WASHINGTON,
SCRIPTURE HISTORY,
LIFE OF CHRIST,
HARPER'S BIBLE,
BROWN'S BIBLE,
FLETCHER'S BIBLE,
VIRTUE'S BIBLE,
DOUAY BIBLE,
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ARTS AND SCIENCES,
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN,
HINTON'S HISTORY OF UNITED STATES,

And all newspapers, whether great or small, as well as collections of
Pamphlets, Manuscripts, or whatever else is worthy of preservation.

Books will be bound in any style to suit the taste of our customers in

Full Turkey Gilt,
Full Calf, Antique Finished,
Half Calf, or Half Turkey,

or in Full Sheep, Full or Half Cloth, with Edges Gilt, Marbled, or
Sprinkled, as may be desired.

Books sent by express or otherwise, will receive prompt
attention. Good Workmanship and Reasonable Prices warranted.


The Largest Fancy Goods House

IN CENTRAL NEW YORK,

W. M. STORRS,

71 Genesee Street, Utica,

--DEALER IN--

FOREIGN & DOMESTIC

FANCY GOODS,

Shot Guns, Rifles, Revolvers, Cartridges,
Ammunition, Fishing Tackle and
Sporting Apparatus of every
Description.

Wooden & Willow Ware,

HOUSE-KEEPING GOODS,

Farm Baskets, Pails, Churns, &c., &c.

CALL AND SEE MY IMMENSE STOCK.

W. M. STORRS,
UTICA, N. Y.


READY-MADE CLOTHING!

Every farmer in this and adjoining counties will find it to his
advantage to purchase his Clothing of

C. A. YATES & CO.,

AT THE

MARBLE BLOCK

CLOTHING STORE.

We pay particular attention to the quality of the Cloth, have every
garment substantially made, and guarantee durability. We also keep the

LARGEST STOCK OF CLOTHING

in this section of the country, and can therefore give the advantage of
an immense variety. Our prices will at all times be the lowest in the
market, and goods will be freely shown, whether for the purpose of
buying at the time or at some future time. We therefore _invite all to
call and see our store and stock, and to learn our prices_.

Particular attention paid to

Youth's and Boys' Clothing.

The most extensive assortment in the county can be found at our store.

When in search of Clothing, _Look for the Marble Block_,

No. 54 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y.

C. A. YATES & CO.


AMERICAN BUTTON HOLE,

OVERSEAMING AND SEWING MACHINE.

The cheapest as well as the best, since it combines a Button Hole,
Overseaming and Sewing Machine, in one simple form, making either the
Lock Stitch or Button Hole Stitch, as occasion may require; doing every
variety of sewing in a SUPERIOR MANNER, and in addition works a most
perfect Button Hole and Overseams nicely.

Received a _First Premium_ at the New York State Fair, and numerous
other Fairs throughout the United States and Canada.

[Illustration: LAMB KNITTING MACHINE]

Knits Hosiery of all sizes. _Sets up its own work._ Knits the Heel and
narrows off the Toe, and knits a pair of socks in thirty minutes.

The _only_ Knitting Machine in the world that can shape a stocking the
same as can be done when knit by hand.

Will make four distinct webs, thus enabling the operator to do a great
variety of FANCY WORK.

For samples of work, and circulars of both Sewing Machine and Knitting
Machine, address,

H. J. HILLIARD,

(BUTTERFIELD HOUSE.)      205 Genesee St., Utica.


HOWES & CLARK,

Real Estate Brokers,

178 GENESEE STREET,

Z. M. HOWES,}      UTICA, N. Y.
B. A. CLARK.}

Agents for Sale, Purchase, Leasing, Care, and Management of Real Estate.

Mortgages Negotiated and Investments Made.

FIRE, LIFE AND ACCIDENTAL INSURANCE IN FIRST CLASS COMPANIES.

_Deeds, Mortgages and Leases Drawn and Executed._


The Best Dairy Paper!

At a recent meeting of the Farmers' Club, of the American Institute, in
New York City, a correspondent asked for

"The Best Paper

IN THIS COUNTRY

DEVOTED TO THE DAIRY INTEREST?"

Mr. F. D. CURTIS, Vice President of the STATE AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY,
answered, and it went on record as the

SENTIMENT OF THE CLUB:

"THE UTICA HERALD."

THE UTICA WEEKLY HERALD

IS ONLY

TWO DOLLARS A YEAR, IN ADVANCE.


[Illustration: WOOD & MANN

STEAM ENGINE CO.,]

PORTABLE STEAM ENGINES,

From 4 to 20 Horse Power.

STATIONARY ENGINES,

From 4 to 500 Horse Power.

BOILERS OF ALL KINDS,

CIRCULAR SAW MILLS, &C.

Boilers Especially Adapted to Cheese Factories

On Hand or Furnished on Short Notice.

Having one of the Oldest, Largest and Most Complete Works in the United
States, especially adapted to the manufacture of Engines, Boilers, Saw
Mills, &c., we are able to furnish them, built of the very best
materials, and at the lowest prices at which work in any way equal, can
be obtained.

Prices furnished on application.

Wood & Mann Steam Engine Co.,
UTICA, N. Y.


WILLIAM RALPH & CO.,

173 & 175 Genesee St.,

WM. RALPH,  }      UTICA, N. Y.
JOHN CARTON.}

MANUFACTURERS OF AND DEALERS IN

CHEESE-FACTORY AND FARM

Dairy Apparatus,

TOOLS, IMPLEMENTS

AND

FURNISHING GOODS,

SUCH AS

CHEESE VATS FOR FACTORIES,
CHEESE VATS FOR DAIRIES,
FACTORY WARMING AND
VENTILATING APPARATUS, WATER-HEATERS,
WEIGHING CANS, CARRYING CANS,
CHEESE PRESSES, PRESS SCREWS,

WOOD PRESS HOOPS, METALLIC PRESS HOOPS,
MILK AGITATORS, "AMERICAN" CURD MILL,
CURD AGITATORS, LACTOMETERS,
MILK TEST GLASSES, CREAM GAUGES,
THERMOMETERS, STEEL CURD KNIVES,

DRAINING SINKS, MILK CONDUCTORS,
PLATFORM SCALES, IMPROVED TIN MILK PAILS,
DAIRY PAILS, DAIRY DIPPERS,
CURD SCOOPS, WHEY STRAINERS,
RENNET JARS,
PATENT MILK CAN HANDLES,

STENCIL PLATES, FACTORY MILK BOOKS,
ANNOTTA, SCALE BOARDS,
CHEESE BANDAGE, RENNETS,
MILK, WATER AND WHEY FAUCETS,
SINK CASTORS, CHEESE HOOPS,
HANDLES, &c., &c.

All articles in our line are of the best kinds and most
approved patterns, and our prices as low as first class goods can be
furnished.

Plans, Estimates, &c., for Cheese-Factories and Dairies,
together with other information pertaining thereto, will be cheerfully
furnished to parties interested, on application.


RALPH'S ONEIDA CHEESE VATS

For Cheese Factories & Farm Dairies.

ADAPTED TO ALL CLASSES, HOWEVER LARGE OR SMALL.

(_See cut of 600 gallon, factory size, on cover._)

This Cheese Vat is constantly growing in favor as its merits become
known; it is now used in about 500 Cheese Factories and 1400 Dairies.
From its construction and principle of operation--differing essentially
from all others,--a larger amount of cheese from a given amount of milk
can be made with it, with a much less consumption of fuel and labor. By
it _the heat is perfectly controllable, and distributed absolutely equal
in every part_, except that there is a slightly less amount at the
bottom of the Milk Vat; this is effected by the "EQUALIZER"--which is
not used in any other apparatus,--and is an advantage duly appreciated
by all good cheese-makers.

These Vats are complete and ready for use on attaching smoke pipe,
involving the use of _no steam-boiler or pipes, brick arches or other
expensive appertenance_; are quite simple in arrangement, strong and
durable in construction.

_Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List._

WM. RALPH & CO.,

UTICA, N. Y.


CHEESE FACTORY

WARMING & VENTILATING APPARATUS.

WE WOULD INVITE ATTENTION TO THIS ARTICLE:

It is admirably adapted to securing a proper condition of the atmosphere
in the curing-room to facilitate the curing of the cheese, particularly
in cool and damp weather, in spring and fall, giving

A Soft Genial Temperature Throughout the Building,

favorable to a rapid and proper ripening of the cheese; there being no
more heat near the heater than in remote parts of the room. By a
suitable inlet and ventiducts, air from the outside may be conducted to
the heater and from thence distributed to all parts of the curing-room,
expelling the old and perhaps tainted air from the building. For further
information address,

WM. RALPH & CO.,

UTICA, N. Y.


JONES & FAULKNER'S

Dairy Furnishing Store,

No. 141 GENESEE STREET,

UTICA, N. Y.

We beg leave to call your attention to our stock of Dairy Furnishing
Goods, being the only complete assortment in this line to be found in
the United States. Believing we can make it an object for you to
purchase of us, we earnestly solicit your patronage.

We shall issue our Price List about the 1st of March. Those sending
their names to us, will receive a copy of the same by mail.


CHEESE VATS.

WE SELL

Ralph's and O'Neil's Patent Vats, Bagg's, Miller's, and Schermerhorn's
Patent Heaters, at Manufacturers' prices.

HOOPS.

ALL SIZES.

Improved Hard Wood, Extra Hooped with Iron, Welded and Riveted Bands,
and Malleable Handles, also Galvanized Hoops.

SCREWS.

ALL STYLES AND SIZES.

Wrought Iron, and of superior manufacture.

BANDAGE.

ALL WIDTHS.

26, 28, 34, 36, 38 and 40 inch, Bleached and Unbleached.

Linen Strainer and Linen and Cotton Press and Cap Cloth, also Bleached
and Brown Sheetings.

STONE RENNET JARS.

Sizes 8, 10, 12, 15 and 20 gallons.

WEIGH and CARRYING CANS.

ALL SIZES.

With Patent Bottoms, and extra heavy Tin.

Burnap's Concave Can Bottoms and Convex Tops, best thing made.

DAIRY KNIVES.

Young's celebrated Two Edged, Cast Steel, best in use, all sizes, with
Perpendicular and Horizontal Blades.

ANNOTTO.

Common, Medium, and Extra Fine, also Liquid Annato.

RENNETS.

_American and Imported, of superior quality and strength._

MISCELLANEOUS.

Factory Account Books, all Sizes.
        Curd Scoops, wood and tin.
              Rubber and Tin Syphons and Strainers.
                      Rubber Mops and Aprons.
                              Improved Per Cent. Lactometers.
                                    Alkali and Spirit Meters.
Legal Instruments for detecting impurities in Milk.
        Glass Test Tubes. Cheese and Butter Tryers.
              Indelible Marking Paste, red, blue and black.
                      Stencil Plates and Brushes.
                              Factory Brands. Factory Slates.
                                    Factory Soldering Irons.
Weigh Can Gates, 3 in.                      Dairy Dippers.
        Milk and Hot Water Faucets, all sizes.  Conductor Heads.
              Scale Boards, all sizes.
                      Wood, Iron and Lead Water Pipes
                              and Steam Pipes.
Curd Sink Castors.                  McAdams' English Curd Mills.
        Platform Scales.  Potash and Concentrated Lye.
                              New Style Brass Thermometers.

Finally, every article used by Cheese Factory and Dairymen, pertaining
to the manufacture of Cheese.

We also sell the Annual Reports of the American Dairymen's Association,
and McAdams' explanation of the Cheddar System.

Factorymen wishing Cheese-Makers, will do well to apply to us, as we
have a list of First Class Makers desiring situations.

Cheese-Makers who are competent, and can give satisfactory references,
may do well to make application to us.

Goods ordered from us will be carefully packed and shipped as
directed to any part of the World.

JONES & FAULKNER,

No. 141 GENESEE STREET,

UTICA, N. Y.


GREAT REDUCTION IN THE PRICE OF CLOTHING!

Some of the BARGAINS to be found at the
GREAT WARDROBE.
CALL AND INSPECT THEM.

BLACK BROADCLOTH FROCKCOATS,                      Only Seven Dollars.
HEAVY BLACK DOESKIN PANTS,                         Only Four Dollars.
FINE BLACK DOESKIN VESTS,           Only Two Dollars and Fifty Cents.
HEAVY STOUT PANTS, (BLACK OR MIXED,)              Only Three Dollars.
HEAVY MOSCOW BEAVER OVERCOATS,                  Only Fifteen Dollars.
HEAVY AND WARM OVERCOATS,           Only Six Dollars and Fifty Cents.
GOOD ALL WOOL OVERCOATS,                          Only Seven Dollars.
HEAVY ALL WOOL SACKCOATS,                           Only Six Dollars.

A LARGE STOCK OF BOYS' CLOTHING,

A Good Share at Cost, and part Less than Cost.

A Splendid Assortment of
FURNISHING GOODS,
Cheaper than at any other Store.

The New and Elegant "IRVING" PAPER COLLAR,    Only Ten Cents per Box.
FINE LINEN COLLARS,         Only One Dollar and Fifty Cents per Dozen.
GOOD WHITE SHIRTS,                              Only One Dollar Each.
QUAKER CITY FINE SHIRTS, the Best Shirts in the United States.
  Those Made from New York Mills Muslin,     Only Three Dollars Each.
  From Wamsutta Muslin,      Only Two Dollars and Seventy-five Cents.
  Lower Grades of the same make, at Two Dollars and Fifty Cents and
                                                    Two Dollars Each.

Don't Fail to Examine these Shirts--It may be an Advantage to You.

FINE WHITE WRAPPERS AND DRAWERS,                Only One Dollar Each.
HEAVY MIXED WRAPPERS AND DRAWERS,              Only Fifty Cents Each.

CALL AT THE
GREAT WARDROBE
THE MODEL CLOTHING STORE,
110 & 112 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y.

CHARLES C. KINGSLEY.

Agents for the Double Warp Royal Standard Alpacas.
We Make a Specialty of Flannels and Blankets.

[Illustration]

AGENTS FOR MATIER & CO., OF BELFAST, LINEN MANUFACTURERS.
Agents for Williston's Combed Sea Island Machine Thread.

V. B. STEWART & CO.,
Manufacturers of and Dealers in
CLOAKS,
DRY & FANCY GOODS,
Silks, Shawls, Dress Goods, Cloakings,
CARPETS, OIL CLOTHS, MATS, &c.,
Nos. 166 & 168 Genesee Street, Utica, N. Y.


CHAMBERLAIN & CUSHMAN,
--GENERAL AGENTS FOR THE--
Singer's Sewing Machines
--AND--
BICKFORD FAMILY KNITTING MACHINE,

FOR THE COUNTIES OF

Chenango, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Oneida, Otsego
and St. Lawrence.

113 GENESEE ST., UTICA, N. Y.

The Celebrated Singer Family Sewing Machine, one of the oldest and most
reliable Sewing Machines in use. It has been very much improved in the
past year, making it the most quiet and easiest running shuttle machine
now in use. It is adapted to a greater range of work than any other one
machine, sewing from the finest tuck in Tarliton to a heavy Beaver coat.
Its Attachments for Hemming, Braiding, Cording, Tucking, Quilting,
Felling, Trimming, Binding, Ruffling and Embroidering, are novel and
practical, and have been invented and adjusted especially for this
Machine. There is now nearly 400,000 in use. There is now being made and
sold over 4,000 machines each week, which is one of its best
recommendations over other machines. It is perfectly simple and easy to
learn. Don't fail to see one before purchasing a machine.

THE BICKFORD KNITTING MACHINE

Will Knit 15,000 stitches or 18 inches of Perfect Work in a Minute.

Socks complete and whole with double heel and toe. Strips from 1 to 12
inches wide, with selvedge on each edge. Fringe of any length, Cord of
any size, and Tufting of any style.

PRICE 30 DOLLARS.


TAYLOR & CO.'S
Jewelry Establishment,
70 GENESEE ST., UTICA, N. Y.

AMERICAN WATCHES,
COMPRISING THE

[Illustration]

HOWARD WATCH,
WALTHAM WATCH,

ELGIN WATCH,
UNITED STATES WATCH,

ALL AT FACTORY PRICES,
In Gold and Silver Cases.

In SOLID SILVER WARE, of Gorham Manufacture, and in FINE SILVER PLATED
WARE, of Rogers & Bros. make, we have a great variety of the very best
patterns.

In ELEGANT JEWELRY we have the newest and most desirable patterns,
consisting of

Gold Chains, Sets--Pins and Ear-Rings, Finger-Rings,
Lockets, Bracelets, Sleeve-Buttons,
Studs, &c., &c.

Purchasers of any articles in our line are invited to give us a call.
All goods warranted.

W. S. TAYLOR & CO., 70 Genesee St.


THE GENUINE

OR,

Elias Howe Sewing Machine.

[Illustration: THIS MEDALLION IS EMBEDDED IN EVERY GENUINE HOWE SEWING
MACHINE]

Hemmer,
  Feller,
    Binder,
Braider,
  Quilter,
    Self-Baster,
Corder,
    (adjustable foot,)
  Embroidery
    Attachment,
      and Gage.

SOLD ONLY AT
87 GENESEE ST., UTICA.

OVERTON & BUCKINGHAM, Agents.

N. B.--None genuine without the Trade Mark, (Medallion Profile of ELIAS
HOWE, Jr.,) is imbedded in the Machine. This is the GENUINE HOWE. Prof.
"ELIAS HOWE, Jr., the inventor, has

+The Exclusive Right to Make and Sell this Machine+."

Decision, Judge INGRAHAM--May, 1867.

_Awarded the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor, the Grand Gold Medal
and a Silver Medal, Paris Exposition, 1867; the Grand Gold Medal,
London, 1862; Six First Premiums, N. Y. State Fair, 1867, on Machine and
Samples of Work._

Also, the following STATE FAIRS of 1868, have awarded this Machine the

FIRST PREMIUM:

New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts.
Vermont, New Hampshire, Wisconsin, Indiana.

At the County Fairs of Madison, Onondaga, Oswego, Wayne, Orleans,
Tompkins, Seneca, Monroe, Herkimer, Schuyler, Livingston and a host of
others, and Town Fairs too numerous to mention.

_Agents for the NEW WILLISTON THREAD, made of Combed Sea Island Cotton._


PECKHAM'S POPULAR COOKING STOVE.

[Illustration: P.P.C.]

A New Strictly First Class Cooking Stove,

_FOR COAL AND WOOD_.

Unequalled and Warranted

IN EVERY RESPECT.

The Success and Superiority of this new Stove is Established beyond a
doubt.

For its Economy of Fuel, Spacious Ovens, Splendid Baking Qualities,
Facilities for Keeping Fire for great length of time, Extra Weight and
Quality of Castings, and Superior Fitting of the Joints.

New Patent Movable Reservoir, New Patent Sectional Fire-Plate, New
Patent Sad Iron Heater, New Patent Roaster. _All Valuable Improvements._
Call and Examine the Stoves and get Circulars with Testimonials.

MANUFACTURED AND SOLD BY
J. S. & M. PECKHAM,
20 Catharine St., Utica, N. Y.


PECKHAM'S

NEW PATTERN

Agricultural Furnace & Boiler,

[Illustration]

Warranted to Boil with Less Fuel and in Less Time than any Boiler Made.

This Furnace is used to great advantage by _Cheese-Makers, Farmers,
Butchers, Bakers and Hotel Keepers_, and for various other Manufacturing
and Mechanical purposes.

The Flues of this Boiler are so constructed that the whole surface of
the Caldron is heated at the same time. They are portable, and require
only a few lengths of pipe to fit them for use, and possess great
advantages over Caldron Kettles set in brick.

J. S. & M. PECKHAM,
Sole Manufacturers, Utica, N. Y.


THE PREMIUM HARVESTER

OF AMERICA.

[Illustration: ON THE ROAD.]

THE ORIGINAL AND ONLY PREMIUM

BUCKEYE MOWER

AND COMBINED

SELF-RAKING REAPER.

Awarded the _Highest_ Premium both in _Mowing and Self-Raking_, at the
most important field trials ever held in _any_ country.

Over 125,000 now in use.

30,000 sold in a single season.

MANUFACTURED BY

ADRIANCE, PLATT & CO.,

FOR

J. M. CHILDS & CO., UTICA, N. Y.

Office, 121 Genesee Street.

Circulars forwarded by mail.


HINTS

ON

CHEESE-MAKING,

FOR THE

Dairyman, the Factoryman,

AND THE

MANUFACTURER.

BY T. D. CURTIS.

UTICA, N. Y.

ROBERTS, PRINTER, MORNING HERALD ESTABLISHMENT.

1870.


THE BEST DAIRY PAPER!

At a recent meeting of the Farmers' Club, of the American Institute, in
New York City, a correspondent asked for "THE BEST PAPER IN THIS COUNTRY

DEVOTED TO THE DAIRY INTEREST?"

Mr. F. D. CURTIS, Vice-President of the _State Agricultural Society_,
answered, and it went on record as the SENTIMENT OF THE CLUB:

"THE UTICA HERALD."

THE UTICA WEEKLY HERALD

Is Only Two Dollars a Year, in advance.


THE DAIRYMEN'S PAPER!

THE UTICA WEEKLY HERALD

has, since the first organization of the Dairymen's Association,
reported promptly and fully all of its proceedings and never more fully
and satisfactorily than the addresses and debates before the Convention
held in Utica in January, 1870.

The UTICA HERALD also devotes especial attention to everything connected
with the dairy interest; to

Diseases of Cattle and their Cure; The Manufacture of Butter and Cheese,
and to all Improved Processes and Apparatus.

The weekly edition every Tuesday contains the report of the

LITTLE FALLS MARKET OF THE PREVIOUS DAY.

The UTICA HERALD has made the dairy interest a specialty, and in its
weekly edition devotes to it

More Space and Attention than any other Paper in the Country.

At the same time, the UTICA WEEKLY HERALD aims to be in all respects a

FIRST-CLASS FAMILY PAPER.

Its Editorial Articles

are accepted and recognized as fitly speaking the Union sentiment, the
intelligent convictions, and the thoughtful aspirations of the million
of people which it represents.

The UTICA HERALD, in its weekly as well as its morning edition, is
pre-eminently

A NEWSPAPER.

By thorough classification and elaborate condensation it presents the
gist of all the news in the briefest space, and the person who reads no
other journal, will not be ignorant of the current of events, and the
movement of men and principles.

THE CORRESPONDENCE

weekly published in our columns, from Washington, New York, Albany and
elsewhere, is not inferior in literary or political interest to that of
any other journal in the country.

THE LITERARY DEPARTMENT

will receive during the coming year, increased attention, and we trust
will deserve in even a higher degree than heretofore the encomiums which
have been bestowed upon it.

ADVERTISE IN IT.

Manufacturers and merchants wishing to reach dairymen and producers of
butter and cheese, can do so in no other way so readily and so cheaply,
as through the columns of the UTICA WEEKLY HERALD.

THE TERMS.

The UTICA WEEKLY HERALD is published at the low price of

TWO DOLLARS A YEAR.

Payment is required in advance. Taking into account the size and
character of the paper--its political, news, literary and agricultural
merits--it is believed that this is

THE CHEAPEST PAPER PUBLISHED.

Now is the time to form clubs. Let the circulation be doubled during the
current year.

_Address_, _UTICA HERALD_,
60 Genesee Street, Utica, N. Y.


WILLIAM RALPH & CO.,

MANUFACTURERS OF

ONEIDA CHEESE VATS,

FOR CHEESE-FACTORIES AND DAIRIES.

(See Advertisements Inside.)

[Illustration]

Address, WILLIAM RALPH & CO., 173 and 175 Genesee St., Utica, N. Y.





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