Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Drake's Road Book of the Grand Junction Railway - from Birmingham to Liverpool and Manchester
Author: Drake, James
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Drake's Road Book of the Grand Junction Railway - from Birmingham to Liverpool and Manchester" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

JUNCTION RAILWAY***


[Picture: Vauxhall Station, Grand Junction Railway, Vauxhall, Birmingham]

       DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO THE CHAIRMAN AND DIRECTORS OF THE
                     GRAND JUNCTION RAILWAY COMPANY.

                                * * * * *



                                 DRAKE’S
                                ROAD BOOK
                                  OF THE
                          GRAND JUNCTION RAILWAY


                                   FROM
                 BIRMINGHAM TO LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER,
                            ILLUSTRATED BY AN
                  ACCURATE MAP, AND NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS:

                           To which is appended

                           THE VISITER’S GUIDE
                                    TO
                  BIRMINGHAM, LIVERPOOL, AND MANCHESTER.

                                * * * * *

                                  TO THE

                          CHAIRMAN AND DIRECTORS

                                  OF THE

                     GRAND JUNCTION RAILWAY COMPANY,

                                   THIS

                              Second Edition

                                    OF

                              THE ROAD BOOK,

                                   IS,

                  BY PERMISSION, RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

                                  BY THE

                                                     AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER.



ADVERTISEMENT
TO THE
SECOND EDITION.


THE courteous reception given to the First Edition of the Grand Junction
Road Book, and the substantial proofs of approbation which a rapid sale
has afforded, render it a duty as proper as it is pleasant, for the
Author and Publisher to return their joint thanks for the liberal
patronage already bestowed on their work; and to engage a continuance of
the same, by their assurances that in the present edition every possible
improvement has been carefully effected in its various departments.
Spirited wood and steel engravings {v} of the most important spots on the
line have been introduced, and much new and interesting matter supplied.
The whole of the information concerning fares, regulations, stations, and
accommodation in towns on the route, has been recast, corrected, and
enlarged; and a brief but comprehensive directory added, under the head
of “VISITER’S GUIDE,” page 97, containing lists of public buildings;
institutions of all kinds; places of worship of all denominations, with
names of the officiating ministers; principal show rooms and
manufactories; times of arrival and departure of mails at the post
office; hackney coach fares; bankers, inns, boarding houses, omnibus
offices, newspapers, canal conveyances, waggon warehouses, packets, &c.,
&c., for Birmingham, Manchester, and Liverpool.  The exceeding utility of
this new division of the volume will be obvious to every one.  The Map
has also been revised, and greatly improved; and the “GRAND JUNCTION ROAD
BOOK” again makes its bow to the public, in full expectation that its old
fame and new merits will be rightly appreciated.

                                * * * * *

_Birmingham_, _September_ 1, 1838.



SONNET
BY WORDSWORTH,
ON
STEAM BOATS, VIADUCTS, AND RAILWAYS.


    MOTIONS and means, on land and sea at war
    With old poetic feeling; not for this,
    Shall ye, by Poets even, be judged amiss!
    Nor shall your presence, howsoe’er it mar
    The loveliness of nature, prove a bar
    To the mind’s gaining that prophetic sense
    Of future change that point of vision, whence
    May be discover’d what in soul ye are.
    In spite of all that beauty may disown
    In your harsh features, Nature doth embrace
    Her lawful offspring in Man’s art; and Time,
    Pleased with your triumphs o’er his brother Space,
    Accepts from your bold hands the proffer’d crown
    Of hope, and smiles on you with cheer sublime.

        [Picture: Map of the route of the Grand Junction Railway]



CHAPTER I.
BIRMINGHAM.


NAME—HISTORY—MANUFACTURES—PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS, &c., &c.

OUR native town of BIRMINGHAM, of whose celebrity and importance we are
justly proud, demands our first attention in this our Itinerary; although
the numerous publications which give more circumstantial particulars
respecting it than the brief limits of the present work will admit,
render it an unnecessary task here to occupy many pages with our notice.

                                * * * * *

In our after topography and history of towns on the “Grand Junction”
line, we shall have occasion to allude to their several claims to the
honours of “hoar antiquity;” but none it would appear can boast of more
remote fame than our own brave old town of Birmingham, or, as it has been
variously written, _Bromycham_, _Bremecham_, _Bermyngham_, and
_Bromnsycham_, the etymology of which terms have served to puzzle the
learned in such lore for years gone by, and will do for years to come.
What never can be positively settled, always proves a most fascinating
subject for argument.  Mr. Hutton, the antiquary, imagines the derivation
to be this: _wich_, or _wick_, being used to signify a town or village,
and _brom_, from the _broom_ growing in the vicinity.  But we must leave
the subject for more voluminous writers.  The late Mr. Hamper, our
especial antiquary, traced the orthography through no less than _one
hundred and forty_ variations.  In proof of Birmingham being a place of
no very recent creation, the prodigious accumulation of scoria produced
by the smelting of iron, at Aston furnace, may be referred to; as also
the great number of exhausted coal mines, on a large common within a few
miles, called Wednesbury Old Field.  Both these must have been the work
of many centuries, as is proved by the fact, that in the former, the mass
of scoria has not perceptibly increased within the memory of that
remarkable individual, “the oldest inhabitant,” though constantly
receiving additions.  It appears that the Britons were acquainted with
the use and manufacture of iron previously to the Roman conquest, as they
are described with chariots armed with scythes.  It requires no very
great stretch of imagination to suppose Birmingham (the _Bremenium_ of
the Romans) to have been a chief station for the fabrication of such
weapons.  In Doomsday Book, “_Bermengeham_” is noticed; and the manor and
lordship were held by the De Birmingham family and their ancestors,
during the reigns from Henry I. to Henry VIII., when John Dudley,
afterwards Duke of Northumberland, being in possession of Dudley, and
desirous of adding to it the manor of Birmingham, contrived, by a series
of villanous artifices and perjury, to wrest it from Edward de
Birmingham, and add it to his own possessions.  On the attainder and
execution of the duke, in the reign of Mary, the manor escheated to the
crown; and in 1643 a descendant of the family, through the female line,
was raised to the peerage, by the title of Baron Ward, of Birmingham,
changed afterwards to Viscount Dudley and Ward, and Earl of Dudley.  The
remains of the ancient manor house have long been removed to make way for
improvements; its former name, “The Moat,” (now called Smithfield,) and
two neglected effigies in St. Martin’s church, of a crusader and an
ecclesiastic of the De Birmingham family, are all that remain to tell of
their former greatness.  Few historical events seem to have disturbed the
good people of Birmingham except the civil war of the seventeenth
century, when they proved themselves staunch adherents to the
parliamentarians, and did good service to their partizans, against Prince
Rupert and his troops, at which time some earth works thrown up at
Bordesley, conferred the name of Camp Hill on a part of it.  The prince
afterwards set fire to the town, but obligingly desisted from further
demonstration of such warm regard, on being handsomely bribed to that
effect.  The riots of 1791 are so frequently brought to the minds of our
town’s people by present allusions, that it needs not to dwell here on
the disgraceful theme.  Turning to a pleasanter topic, we will briefly
glance at the manufactures which made an anonymous poet formerly
exclaim,—

    “Europe’s grand toy-shop, art’s exhaustless mine—
    These, and more titles, Birmingham, are thine.”

It is amusing to look back to the condition of Birmingham in Leland’s
time, (Henry VIII.,) who describes it as inhabited only “by smithes that
use to make knives and all manner of cutting tools, and lorimers that
make bittes, and a great many nailors.”  Camden, in the reign of
Elizabeth, speaks of it as “swarming with inhabitants, and echoing with
the noise of anvils; but the upper part rising with abundance of handsome
buildings;” and his continuator, Bishop Gibson, in the reign of Anne,
mentions “its artificers in iron and steel, whose performances in that
way are greatly admired both at home and abroad.”  Prior to the
restoration of Charles II. the town only consisted of one long street,
extending from the hamlet of Deritend to the present Bull-street, and
contained barely 5,000 inhabitants.  _Now_, the probably correct amount
would stand thus: streets, 340; houses, 22,000; population, 200,000.
Birmingham was created a borough by the Reform Bill, and sends two
members to parliament.  The honours of a mayor and corporation are now
added to its civil dignities.

                                * * * * *

Among the almost innumerable branches of trade and manufacture at present
carried on, are light and heavy steel goods, (here called toys,) brass
and iron foundery, sadlery, military accoutrements, fire-arms, swords and
cutlery of various kinds; jewellery, gold, silver, and plated goods;
buttons, medals, japannery; gilt, silver, ivory, bone, and other toys;
glass, wood-turnery, metal-rolling, tools and implements of all kinds;
mill machinery of all sorts, and steam engines on every known principle.
Casting, modelling, die-sinking, engraving, and other processes connected
with the various manufactures have been brought to the greatest
perfection; also the cutting of glass, of which there are many brilliant
specimens in the show-rooms of the town, especially those of Messrs.
Rollason, Price, Henderson, Mrs. Bedford’s, &c.  The great establishment
at the Soho, near Birmingham, is intimately connected with its
manufacturing interests, as under the superintendence of Messrs. Boulton
and Watt, great improvements were effected in all kinds of machinery, and
the power of steam applied to every mechanical purpose.  From their
ingenious coining mill, the greater part of the copper money of George
III. was issued.  Mr. Boulton died in 1809, aged eighty-one, and Mr. Watt
in 1819, aged eighty-three.  They were both interred in Handsworth
church, where a marble bust commemorates the former, and a statue, by
Chantrey, the latter.

    In the magnificent show-rooms of Mr. G. R. Collis in Church-street,
    (formerly Sir E. Thomason’s,) splendid specimens of the chief native
    manufactures are collected, and their mode of manufacture shown to
    all respectable visitors.  Mr. Phipson’s pin manufactory, which in
    this seemingly small article employs so great a number as one
    thousand persons, is another large establishment; and the articles of
    oriental gorgeousness and diversity, displayed by Messrs. Jennens and
    Betteridge, at their japanned ware and papier maché manufactory, in
    Constitution-hill, are full of brilliant designs and adornment.  The
    show-rooms of Messrs. Mapplebeck and Lowe, Osborne, and others,
    contain a great variety of hardware and cutlery.

Of ponderous machinery, none perhaps is more interesting than that of the
metal rolling mills; there is positive grandeur in the great power
employed, and the accuracy with which it is adjusted to the end required.
The button manufacture is a principal source of wealth to the town, and
many of its chief families may trace back their origin (their
_honourable_ origin—far more truly honourable than the anxiety
occasionally shown by present full-blown importance to disguise it) to a
humble fabricator of these small and indispensable articles.  They are
made of all kinds and descriptions, to suit all markets; as were buckles
likewise, some years since; but fashion, that mighty revolutionist, has
driven them from their once prominent station in the toilet of the
exquisite of former days; and knees and shoes, and dainty spangled and
high heeled slippers, fit for feminine feet, have all laid by the buckles
which used to glitter in cut steel and silver delicately worked, or set
with brilliants; and of so comely dimensions, as well nigh to cover the
pretty insteps of our grandmothers.  As a source of great wealth to our
native town, we must regret the abolition of ornamental buckles.  Steel
tools, and lighter, tasteful articles, form another great branch.  The
first steel-house, or factory, gave the name “Steelhouse-lane” to the
street.  Guns were first made in the reign of William III., and in times
of war have constituted an important part of our trade.  Silver, brass,
and iron are all wrought to a great extent, in every known variety of
manufacture.  To enumerate _all_ the productions of Birmingham were
nearly an impossible task, had we space; as it is, we must rest here, and
proceed to notice a few of the chief buildings and institutions which
would attract the observation of a stranger.

                     [Picture: Birmingham Town Hall]

First, of the first class, ranks our noble and magnificent Town Hall, in
Paradise-street, a Grecian temple of the Corinthian order, standing on a
rustic basement, and built of marble from Anglesea.  It is of recent
erection; from the design, and under the direction of Mr. J. Hansom, of
Hinckley, and contains a splendid hall, 140 feet long, by 65 feet wide,
and 65 feet high, adapted for great public meetings, and for the
performances of music at the Triennial Festivals; {7} it also contains
spacious saloons, committee rooms, etc.  Its organ is the finest in the
kingdom.  The new Free Grammar School, in New-street, is a large and
handsome building, in the Gothic style, from a design by Mr. Barry, of
London.  The exhibition rooms of the Birmingham Society of Arts,
New-street, form a handsome building, admirably adapted for the purpose;
and the annual exhibition, of ancient and modern masters, is inferior to
no provincial one.  Another spacious suite of rooms was erected a few
years since, by a dissentient party of the artists; but, having returned
to the parent institution, their gallery since has been occupied by the
highly interesting, valuable, and well-arranged Museum of Natural
History, collected by Mr. Weaver, in the various branches of geology,
ornithology, entomology, mineralogy, conchology, &c.  The Royal School of
Medicine and Surgery, in Paradise-street, have now purchased this
splendid collection, which, joined to the one they already possess, will
form one of the finest Museums in the provinces.  It is liberally
supported and patronised by the neighbouring nobility and county
families.  The General Hospital, Blue Coat School, Dispensary, and
Asylums, are worthy of all praise for their essential utility as
charities.  The former is mainly supported by the proceeds of the
Triennial Festivals; the others by liberal subscriptions, with which the
inhabitants of Birmingham appear ever ready to increase the usefulness of
charities having for their end the alleviation of misery, in whatever
form it exists.  The new Market Hall, extending from the Bull-ring to
Worcester-street, is a spacious and commodious building, though the
internal arrangement might be greatly improved, by a little more
attention to order and neatness on the part of the various trades-people
who have stalls there.  The market having formerly been held in the open
street, may, in some degree, account for this.  Nearly opposite the hall
stands a statue of Lord Nelson, by Westmacott, with a miniature
man-of-war beside him, on a pedestal surrounded by an iron rail and
lamps.

                                * * * * *

The Churches most remarkable for architectural beauty, are, St. Philip’s,
in the Doric style, with a graceful tower and cupola: Trinity Church,
Bordesley, designed by Mr. F. Goodwin, much in the style of King’s
College Chapel, Cambridge; it is a fine example of the Ecclesiastical
Gothic: St. George’s, also Gothic, but of far inferior beauty; St.
Martin’s, which _has_ been a fine old edifice, with a tapering spire, but
is now disfigured by a brick shell: St. Paul’s, Christ Church, St.
Thomas’s, St. Peter’s, St. Bartholomew’s, St. Mary’s, All Saints’, and
others are of less striking appearance.  Many of the dissenting
congregations have handsome and spacious meeting-houses and chapels,
particularly the Catholic Chapels; Unitarian Meeting-houses; Independent
Meeting-house, Carr’s-lane; Mount Zion Chapel; Scottish Kirk, &c.
Schools are connected with all, and with the numerous National,
Lancasterian, Infant, and other schools, combine in distributing
knowledge, in however a small degree as yet, among the useful and
industrious classes.  The excellent school for the instruction of Deaf
and Dumb children is pleasantly situated at Edgbaston: there are also
various Asylums for the young, the helpless, and the immoral (repentant,
of course).

                                * * * * *

The Old Library, in Union-street, contains a valuable collection of
40,000 volumes, and commodious reading rooms.  The New Library, in
Temple-row, is a more recent and smaller establishment.  Divers
conglomerations of novels, called “Circulating Libraries,” also exist for
the benefit of the sentimental.  The Philosophical Institution has a
convenient Lecture-Theatre and Museum in Cannon-street, with a resident
Curator.  Subscribers have the privilege of introducing strangers to the
lectures.  The members of the Mechanics’ Institution at present have
lectures in the same building, until the erection of one suitable for
them.  Strangers are admitted to the Mechanics’ lectures on payment of
one shilling.  The Botanical and Horticultural Society have extensive
gardens and conservatories at Edgbaston, situated on rising ground, and
commanding a beautiful and richly-wooded expanse of scenery.  The
exhibitions of plants, fruits, &c., when a brilliant company generally
assembles, are scenes of great gaiety.

    The Conservatories and Greenhouses, are the erection of Mr. T. Clark,
    of Lionel-street, Birmingham, whose manufactory for Metallic
    Hothouses, &c., is very extensive.

A Cemetery has been recently laid out and planted on the north side of
the town, at Key Hill, where a large excavation in a hill of gravel
renders the spot striking and even picturesque: a neat Chapel is erected
for the performance of the funeral service.

                                * * * * *

In 1813 an Act of Parliament was obtained for the erection of a Proof
House for all fire-arms made in the town, which are subjected to a very
severe test.  The hall and other premises are in Banbury-street, and have
quite a military and formidable appearance.

                                * * * * *

The News Room, on Bennett’s-hill, and the different banking
establishments, are handsome buildings, many of them of considerable
architectural beauty.  The Theatre is large, and inferior to few out of
the metropolis, though the indifferent encouragement given to the drama
in Birmingham, causes it to be comparatively but little used.  It is
capable of accommodating 2,500 persons, and contains to the front, a
suite of Assembly Rooms, Billiard and Coffee Rooms, &c.  There were
formerly two smaller theatres, and an amphitheatre for equestrian
performances, all three of which have been converted from their dissolute
ways, and become pious and holy conventicles for divine worship.
Temporary amphitheatres have frequently been erected since, and a
permanent one is in progress.  For more circumstantial particulars and
descriptions of these and other edifices, we must refer our readers to
the “Picture of Birmingham,” {11} or other more lengthy histories.

                                * * * * *

The environs of the town, especially Edgbaston and Harborne, contain many
tasteful residences, erected by the wealthier merchants and tradesmen;
whose pretty suburban villas have all gardens and pleasure grounds
attached.  In the neighbourhood of Birmingham are many fine old houses,
or halls, as they are called, well deserving of a visit from the
antiquary or artist; and the far famed glories of Warwick, Kenilworth,
Shakespeare-sainted Stratford, Guy’s Cliff, and other places of renown,
are within a short drive.

                                * * * * *

In this brief survey of the past and present condition of Birmingham, it
will be seen how rapidly its greatness and importance have been achieved
by the perseverance, spirit, and ingenuity of its inhabitants.  We may
expect as rapid, and almost as great improvements from the additional
consequence and advantages it will receive from the great works now
nearly completed.  The finished line of railway from London to Liverpool
through this place, may, with confidence, be looked to as another great
era in its history, from whence to date still increasing wealth, power,
and intelligence.



CHAPTER II.
ROUTE.
BIRMINGHAM TO WOLVERHAMPTON,
Fourteen Miles.


BIRMINGHAM AND VAUXHALL STATION.


             Distance to Liverpool and Manchester, 97¼ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

          *** Those printed in small capitals are market towns.

  _Places W. of Station_.        _Places E. of Station_.
Edgbaston          2½ miles.  Erdington             3 miles.
Harborne                 4 —  Castle Bromwich           4½ —
HALESOWEN               8½ —  SUTTON COLDFIELD          6½ —
STOURBRIDGE            12½ —  Water Orton               6½ —
                              Curdworth                 7½ —
                              COLESHILL                 8½ —
                              Wishaw                     9 —
                              Middleton                 9½ —
                              Drayton Bassett          11½ —
                              TAMWORTH                  13 —

THE Birmingham Station of the Grand Junction railway, closely adjoins
that of the London and Birmingham, which greatly facilitates the
arrangements of travellers proceeding along the entire line.  Until the
completion of the permanent buildings, those at Vauxhall have been
temporarily used.  To a stranger coming into the station-yard for the
first time, the whole scene is one of great novelty: the long train of
treble-bodied coaches, waiting under a broad covered way for passengers
and baggage; the bustle and animation of the host of porters, guards,
conductors, &c.; the amazement depicted on some of the faces of the
lookers-on; the state of “intellectual complication” evinced by others,
especially those who, having various items of property to convey with
them, are tremblingly solicitous for the welfare of sundry “red-striped
carpet bags, trunks with wrappering over,” bandboxes which will be ruined
by a drop of rain, and fish-baskets which have a mortal antipathy to be
squeezed.  Other important-looking passengers make up their minds to take
things as a matter of course, and not betray any vulgar surprise; and
from their extremely over-done _nonchalance_, would fain persuade you
they had made a journey round the globe in a first-rate train, and
reached the antipodes by a tunnel.  These valiant and adventurous
individuals are by far the severest sufferers by the anti-cigar-act,
passed by the Company, for which the unsmoking part of the community,
especially the fair sex, are greatly indebted.  The traveller may refer
to the company’s regulations at full, in the appendix at the end of this
volume.  Supposing all preliminaries adjusted, we commence our journey.

                                * * * * *

Passing the station at Vauxhall, (closely adjoining to which are Vauxhall
Gardens,) the railroad proceeds by Duddeston, and passes over the
Coleshill road near Saltley Chapel, a small pigeon-house like edifice to
the E. of the line.  Aston Church soon appears on the W., above the rich
woods surrounding it; and the high chimney of the Birmingham Water Works
(lately established to supply the town) is passed on the E.  The steam
engines, Hercules and Atlas, erected here for pumping the water from the
reservoir, into the pipes for conveyance to Birmingham, are perhaps the
grandest and most perfect of their kind ever fabricated.  Yardley Village
and Perry Barr form the distant view.  The railroad now passes over the
Aston embankment, and a viaduct of ten arches, beneath which runs the
high road to Sutton, and the Fazeley Canal.  From this point the last
view is gained of the town of Birmingham, on the W.; and on the E. a
prospect of Gravelly Hill, now nearly levelled, and the village of
Erdington.  A short distance onwards the line passes the front of Aston
Hall, a fine old baronial residence in the Elizabethan style of
architecture, erected by Sir Thomas Holt in 1620, and in which he
entertained Charles I. previously to the battle of Edge Hill.  It is
situated in a fine park, richly ornamented with stately timber of ancient
growth, and thriving modern plantations.  All the views of this fine old
mansion are strikingly beautiful; but the one commanded from the railroad
line, looking up the avenue of lofty elms, (which the line crosses,) is
the most imposing.

    James Watt, Esq., the present proprietor, has, it is said, expended
    £10,000 in preventing the line of railroad from passing through his
    park, which the Company intended it to do; and in consequence of this
    opposition a great curve appears in the course of the line at this
    part.  Iron works in the neighbourhood have been in operation from
    remote antiquity. {14}

                          [Picture: Aston Hall]

The Church, which re-appears at several points of the line, is a
beautiful and venerable structure, with a fine tapering spire, and
remarkably musical bells, the sweet tones of which will scarcely reach
the ears of railroad travellers.  Part of the village of Aston is
observable from the railroad, and also the grounds and fish-pans of its
“Tavern,” a spot much frequented by tea (and ale) drinking parties from
Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

One very agreeable feature of the scenery on the line, is the unspoiled
freshness and verdure of the ground on either side.  The idea most
persons entertain respecting such astounding innovations on ancient
usages as steam carriages and railroads is, that they spread desolation
around their path, and that the track of a locomotive engine must
necessarily be as devastating in its effects as that of a lava course.
We candidly confess to something akin to this suspicion ourselves.  But
all “Grand Junction” patrons must be gratified to find such expectations
disappointed so pleasingly in the cheerful aspect of the fields, groves,
and “little running brooks,” closely bordering the excavations or
embankments.  Cattle are quietly feeding just on the other side the
fence, and gay wildflowers already enamel the newly-made banks.
Sometimes, certainly, a horse or cow may be abruptly interrupted in a
quiet meditation by the rapid rushing by of a “Centaur” or “Alecto,” with
its lengthened _tail_ of many ponderous joints; and one accident, very
singular, if true, occurred lately.  A certain luckless individual of the
pig family, having too far indulged an imprudent spirit of investigation
on the Bilston portion of the line, had his curly conclusion very
summarily amputated by a passing train:—he turned round briskly to
ascertain the extent of his calamity, when another train, whirling along
in an opposite direction, coming in contact with his head, put a period
to the enterprising animal’s existence by an instant decapitation.  We
might draw a wise and serious moral from this “cutting” event, but the
fact presents a sufficient warning to all persons inclined to incur the
penalty of two pounds in sterling coin, and limbs _ad libitum_, for the
sake of a promenade on the forbidden ground.  “Digression is a sin,”—on
the defunct pig’s head be ours!  But for his tragic history, we should,
ere this, have introduced the hill of these parts, Barr Beacon, to our
readers; it appears to the N.E., crowned with a dense grove of trees.
The intervening scenery is cheerful and cultivated, but not picturesque.
The village of Witton shortly appears to the E., with Barr lying on the
N.E.  The bridge here passed is on the boundary of Warwickshire and
Staffordshire, which latter county the line now enters.  Aston Hall and
Church again come in sight beyond Witton, and form a beautiful rear view,
which is soon shut out by the banks of the excavation, precluding all
prospect save of their own sloping sides, the pebbles and markings in
which are made, by the rapidity of passing, to appear like flying lines.



Perry Barr Station.


      Distance to Birmingham, 3½—Liverpool and Manchester, 94 miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

 _Places W. of Station_.       _Places E. of Station_.
Handsworth          1 mile  Perry                   ¾ mile
Aston                  1 —  Erdington             2¾ miles
Smethwick         4¼ miles  SUTTON COLDFIELD           5 —
                            Little Aston               6 —
                            Shenstone                 8½ —

                   [Picture: Aston Church and Viaduct]

At this station, the line makes a considerable curve in an opposite
direction to that hitherto followed, and passes Handsworth, (the church
appearing among wood on the W.,) also Lea Hall, on the W., and over two
bridges, named from J. Gough, Esq., through whose estate the line runs
for two miles.  Pleasant, quiet-looking scenery skirts the road for some
distance, and about a mile from the last bridge, a view is gained of
Perry Hall, seat of J. Gough, Esq., nearly encompassed by a grove of oak
trees.  At Hampstead Bridge, the old Walsall road crosses the line; and
on either side the prospect is pleasantly varied by wood and water.
Hampstead Hall, which lies near, is nearly concealed by its rich woods
from the passers on the railroad.  The line shortly enters a cutting, of
from sixty to seventy feet deep; emerging from which into the open
country, West Bromwich, and Sandwell Park, the seat of Earl Dartmouth,
appear on the W., and Barr on the E.  We now pass



Newton Road Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 6¾—Liverpool and Manchester, 90¾ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

  _Places W. of Station_.       _Place E. of Station_.
West Bromwich        2 miles  Great Barr        2½ miles
Oldbury                 3¼ —
Rowley Regis             5 —
HALESOWEN               7¼ —
Cradley                 7¼ —
The Lye                 8½ —

WEST BROMWICH has rapidly risen to importance from the rich iron and coal
mines which abound in its vicinity.  The great Gas Works are situated
here, which supply the chief part of Birmingham, Wednesbury, Dudley,
Bilston, Darlaston, and other places with gas; the main tubes extending
to the aggregate length of 150 miles.  There are two handsome churches,
the one ancient, the other modern.  Population, 15,330.

                                * * * * *

The site of the present splendid mansion of Sandwell, was, in the reign
of Henry II., occupied by a priory of Benedictine Monks.  Charley Mount,
pleasantly situated on a hill, appears W. of the line, Ray Hall and
Burslem, or Bustleholm Mill, on the E.  Before passing Tame Bridge, Barr
Beacon again appears, heading the distant view.  Friar Park is on the W.,
with the town and church of Wednesbury (usually pronounced Wedgebury),
towering above the trees.  Walsall appears from the same point, lying
N.E. of the line.

                                * * * * *

DUDLEY, a town in the centre of the mining district, lies 5½ miles W. of
the line.  Population, 23,050.  The ancient castle is a ruin of great
beauty and interest, situated on an eminence, and surrounded with fine
wood and beautiful walks.  Stupendous cavern-quarries, canals, and
labyrinthine excavations, extend under the Castle Hill.  The limestone is
remarkably rich in fossil treasures; trilobites, or, as they are vulgarly
called, “Dudley locusts,” have been found here in great variety, but from
the eagerness of collectors, and the inadequate supply of these ancient
creatures yielded by the rocks, they have become scarce and costly,
instead of “not particularly valuable,” as stated by a contemporary
before alluded to.

                                * * * * *

WEDNESBURY is a town of ancient origin, having been fortified against the
Danes by Ethelfleda, daughter of Alfred the Great, in 916.  Extensive
collieries enrich the vicinity, and tend greatly to darken the complexion
of both houses and inhabitants; the workers of the black diamond
hereabout being a marvellously murky fraternity.  Various manufactures of
iron are here carried on, and the air is generally redolent of the fumes
of coal-smoke in no small degree.  The market is on Friday, and fairs May
6, and August 3.

                                * * * * *

WALSALL boasts an equally ancient history with the former place, and was
fortified by the same princess.  It stands conspicuously on the summit
and acclivities of a limestone rock, which is crowned by the church, the
lofty spire of which forms a fine object.  Market on Tuesday; fairs
September 24, Whit Monday, and Tuesday before Michaelmas day.  Proceeding
onwards we pass under



Bescot Bridge Station.


      Distance to Birmingham, 9½—Liverpool and Manchester, 88 miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

  _Places W. of Station_.        _Places E. of Station_.
WEDNESBURY            1 mile  WALSALL               1½ mile
Tipton               4 miles  Rushall              2½ miles
DUDLEY                  5½ —  Over Stonnal             6½ —
Netherton               6¾ —  Lower Stonnal            7½ —
Brierley Hill           8¼ —  Shenstone                 9 —
King Swinford           8½ —  LICHFIELD                11 —
Wordesley               9¼ —
The Lye                 9¼ —
STOURBRIDGE             9¾ —
Old Swinford           10½ —

THE main road from Wednesbury to Walsall crosses this bridge; pass Bescot
Hall, (Mr. Marshall’s,) on the E., and reach



James’s Bridge Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 10¼—Liverpool and Manchester, 87¼ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

_Places W. of Station_.       _Places E. of
                                Station_.
Darlaston         ¾ mile  Walsall        1¾ mile
Coseley          3 miles

THE high road from Walsall crosses here to DARLASTON, (seen in the
distance on the W.,) another town in the iron and coal district, and,
according to tradition, the seat of Wulphere, king of Mercia, who put his
two sons to death for embracing Christianity.  On the hill at Berry Bank,
are the remains of a large castle and entrenchments, and near by, a
Barrow, which it were heresy to doubt were the residence and grave of
this redoubtable personage.  The chief manufactures of this, as of the
neighbouring towns, consist of various iron and steel goods.  The whole
district is abundantly traversed by canals, tram-roads, &c., for the
convenient conveyance of merchandise, and presents to the passing
traveller less subject for praise in point of beauty, than for admiration
and surprise, at the closely-placed engines, mills, coal-pits,
iron-mines, and factories, which greet him on all sides, with hissing,
curling volumes of white steam, or thick massy clouds of rolling smoke.
Should the traveller journey through this strange neighbourhood by night,
the novel and wild, not to say, grand, effect of the fires, must strike
him forcibly.  Huge furnaces glowing on the earth, from a dark wayside
forge; tall chimneys, themselves not seen in the gloom, vomiting forth
flames and fiery-coloured smoke, or a long range of glowing hillocks,
where flickering blazes play from the charcoal burning within: add to
these, the dusky figures of the men and boys employed in the works, and a
stranger will have a scene before him, in which the “fearsome” is oddly
enough blended with the grotesque.

                                * * * * *

In the distance, S.W. of the line, appear the Rowley Hills, a ridge of
trap or basaltic rock, which, at the time of its elevation, upheaved and
broke through the coal strata.  The stone being hard and compact, the
hills are quarried for paving flags, &c.

    “The principal mass of these (trap rocks) occurs in the southern part
    of the county, overlying the coal-field which surrounds the town of
    Dudley.  It there constitutes the material of a group of hills,
    beginning on the S. of that town, and terminating about half-way
    between Halesowen and Oldbury, a little beyond the village of Rowley.
    These hills consist of very pure basalt, which in the neighbourhood
    of Birmingham is called Rowley rag, because the village of Rowley is
    situated on one of these basalt hills; and this hill appears to the
    eye to be the highest of the whole range.  These hills are all
    covered with soil; but quarries have been opened in many of them, and
    the basalt of which they are composed is employed for mending the
    roads.  The streets of Birmingham are likewise paved with it.  The
    columnar structure, though very frequent, is far from universal in
    this trap, which very commonly occurs in large spherical masses,
    decomposing on the surface into concentric layers.  An amygdaloidal
    variety containing calcareous spar and zeolite occurs S. of Dudley.
    The highest point of the Rowley Hills is stated by Dr. Thompson to be
    900 feet above the Thames at Brentford.”—CONYBEARE AND PHILLIPS’S
    _Geology of England and Wales_.

Passing through a cutting of considerable depth, we arrive at



Willenhall Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 12—Liverpool and Manchester, 85½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

   _Places W. of Station_.     _Places E. of Station_.
   Bilston            1½ mile  Bloxwich        3 miles.
   Sedgley           4¼ miles  Pelsall             4¾ —
   Lower Gornal          5¾ —
   Himley                7¼ —

THE small town of Willenhall, at the period of the Norman survey, was
called _Winehala_, the Saxon term for victory, probably from the great
battle fought near it in 311.  The village began to flourish in the reign
of Elizabeth, when the iron manufacture was first established here: at
present, it is noted for its collieries and flourishing trade in locks,
and other articles of hardware.  Population, about 5,900.

                      [Picture: Wednesfield Tunnel]

Nothing of particular interest occurs on either side of the line, till,
in approaching the long Wednesfield tunnel, the geological traveller will
observe the remarkable section formed by the excavation through the
outcropping beds of coal, which in this part rise at a great angle
towards the surface, and are worked in the neighbourhood by open
cuttings.  The complete change which this abrupt ending of the coal-field
causes in the aspect of the country is very singular.  On one side all is
black and murky; on the other, green and bright.

                                * * * * *

The tunnel is 180 yards in length, and the effect of a long train of
carriages passing rapidly under, is novel and grand, nor less so the
appearance of their emerging from the dark archway, to the expectant
spectators at the



WOLVERHAMPTON STATION.


     Distance to Birmingham, 14¼—Liverpool and Manchester, 83¼ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

     _Places W. of Station_.          _Places E. of Station_.
WOLVERHAMPTON (Town)       1 mile.  Bushbury           1¾ mile.
Tettenhall                2 miles.  Wednesfield            1¾ —
Upper Penn                    3½ —
Codsall                       4½ —
Wombourne                     5¼ —
Himley                         6 —
Trysull                        6 —
Pattingham                    6½ —
Albrighton                     7 —
Donington                     7½ —
King Swinford                 7½ —
Bonningale                     8 —
BRIDGENORTH                   14 —
SHIFFNAL                      14 —

THE panting and smoking engine, like a huge beast, rushing along with
fiery jaws, and “such a length of tail behind,” might, in a dark night,
be easily suspected of being “no canny.”  Divers kinds of vehicles, from
post-chaises and landaus, to caravans and _omnibii_ (as a refined friend
of ours pluralizes these universal conveyances) are in attendance at this
station, to convey passengers to the town of Wolverhampton, one mile
distant, or to their future destination.

    WOLVERHAMPTON is a place of considerable antiquity, and was called
    Hanton or Hampton prior to the year 996, when Wulfrana, sister of
    King Edgar, and widow of Aldhelm, Duke of Northampton, founded a
    college here, endowing it with so many privileges that the town was
    called in her honour, _Wulfranis Hampton_, of which its present name
    is evidently a corruption.  The College continued till the year 1200,
    when Petrus Blesensis, who was then dean, after fruitless attempts to
    reform the dissolute lives of the brethren, surrendered the
    establishment to Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, and it was
    subsequently annexed to the deanery of Windsor.  In 1590, the greater
    part of the town was destroyed by a fire, which continued burning for
    five days.  In the parliamentary war, Wolverhampton aided the
    royalists, and Prince Rupert fixed his head-quarters here, while the
    king was encamped at Bushbury.

The town is situated on an eminence, on the N.W. side of the great
midland coal-district, and the neighbourhood abounds with iron, coal, and
limestone.  The manufacture of locks, forms here as in the other towns in
the vicinity, the staple trade, to which may be added, smith’s and
carpenter’s tools, machinery of all kinds, furnishing ironmongery, &c.
The modern streets are well-built and lighted, and contain many handsome
and substantial houses.  A public Subscription Library and News-room,
occupy the lower part of a commodious building, in which, assemblies and
concerts are likewise held.  A Literary and Philosophical Society is
established, but not yet supported in a manner at all proportioned to its
merits; a circumstance not reflecting much honour on the professedly
intelligent and “higher” classes of the inhabitants.  The Mechanics’
Institution is in a more flourishing condition, for obvious reasons,
being patronized by the more knowledge-loving part of the community.  The
Theatre is opened occasionally; it is a small and unpretending structure.
Races are annually held in August, in an extensive area near the town,
and are well attended.  In the centre of the market-place stands a
cast-iron column, forty-five feet high, surmounted by a large gas
lantern, which was intended by its sanguine projector to enlighten the
whole town and suburbs, but, alas for the great designs of short-sighted
humanity!—its sphere of usefulness is unfortunately restricted to the
attic and chamber windows of the houses immediately contiguous.

                                * * * * *

The Collegiate Church is an ancient and exceedingly beautiful cruciform
structure, in the early decorated style of architecture, with a handsome
square embattled tower rising from the centre.  It contains a curious and
elaborately-carved stone pulpit, formed of one entire block, an ancient
font, and several interesting monuments.  In the church-yard is a column,
twenty feet high, greatly enriched with sculpture of various designs,
supposed to be of either Saxon or Danish origin.  There are several other
churches in Wolverhampton, and many religious establishments belonging to
various sects of dissenters; also a Free Grammar School, Blue Coat
Charity, National, Sunday, and other Schools.  The population of
Wolverhampton is about 25,000; it has a market on Wednesday, and a fair
on July 10.



CHAPTER III.
WOLVERHAMPTON TO STAFFORD,
Fifteen Miles.


                   [Picture: Bushbury Hill and Church]

ON quitting the station at Wolverhampton a good view is obtained of the
town and fine old Church, with the hills of Rowley Regis in the distance.
Tettenhall Wood and the Clee Hills soon add to the beauty of the
southward view; and the line is skirted by fine trees and fresh verdant
meadows, over which a peep of the distant landscape is gained at
intervals.  Show Hill, and Low Hill houses are pleasantly situated on the
ridge of a hill to the E., and beyond them appears Bushbury Hill, a point
of the same elevation, with its old village Church, built about 1460;
this is perhaps the most pleasing part of the line we have yet traversed.
The Wrekin appears in the distance to the W., and nearer, the lofty and
tapering spire of Brewood (or Brood) Church, rises from its girdling
woods.  Moseley Court, the ancient seat of J. G. Whitgreave, Esq., lies
E. of the line, whence but little of the house is visible, being
surrounded by stately oak groves.  In this venerable mansion, Charles II.
was temporarily concealed, when on his way to Bentley.  Wrottesley Park,
seat of Sir John Wrottesley, Bart., Chillington Park and Hall, the noble
residence of T. W. Giffard, Esq., and the village of Codsall, form
portions of the scenery to the S.W.  All this part of the line from
Wolverhampton is on an embankment, which, however, does not exceed
fifteen feet at the highest point.  On the E. appears Hilton Park, seat
of H. E. C. V. Graham, Esq., and on the W., Pendeford Hall.  The villages
of Shareshill and Featherstone, lie E. of the line.  A bridge here
crosses it, bearing the felicitous name of “Paradise;” happy mortals, to
reach such blessed bourne!  But our stay is brief indeed; Paradise is
left far behind, and we pass onwards under and over many a bridge of
great and small degree; for the railroad even renders a common dirty
gutter, a thing of so great importance, that a stately and ponderous arch
must be erected for its insignificant accommodation!  Verily, we grow
aristocratic in our indignation at such upstart doings.  The honourable
fraternity of Ditch, Gutter, and Co., may, with a good grace, quote the
old fable, and exclaim, “How we apples swim;” they are marvellously
promoted since “an hundred years ago.”  The Stafford Canal passes under,
and the railroad over, a handsome iron bridge, between the village of
Coven on the W., and Aspley on the E. side of the line.

                                * * * * *

The wide moorland called Cannock Chase, lies E., and is for some distance
seen from the line.  It was in earlier times, a forest or chase belonging
to the Mercian kings.  In one part, Castle Hill, now enclosed by the
boundary of Beaudesert Park, seat of the Marquis of Anglesea, is an
ancient British encampment, surrounded by a double trench, occupying
about fourteen acres.  Near it are the remains of a moat, enclosing an
oblong square of three acres, called the Old Nunnery, where a Cistercian
Abbey was founded in the reign of Stephen, which was shortly after
removed to Stoneleigh, in Warwickshire.  Cannock Chase, or Heath,
contains upwards of 25,000 acres; in some parts, containing extensive
sheep walks.



Four Ashes Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 20—Liverpool and Manchester, 77½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

_Place W. of Station_.     _Place E. of Station_.
Brewood        2 miles.  Shareshill        2¾ miles.

IF the reader be a passenger in a mixed train, the diminished speed will
here allow him a better chance of observation; and a fine view may be
enjoyed on the eastward, of Cannock Chase, with its undulating scenery;
and westward, Summerford Park, seat of the Hon. E. Monkton, the little
town of Brewood, and the Wrekin.  Passing on, nothing of interest occurs
until the arrival at the next, the



Spread Eagle Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 21½—Liverpool and Manchester, 76 miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

     _Places W. of Station_.        _Places E. of Station_.
Stretton                  2 miles.  CANNOCK        4½ miles.
Lapley                         3 —  Norton              6¼ —
Wheaton Aston                 4¼ —
Weston-under-Lizzard           7 —
Blymhill                       7 —
Tong                          8½ —
Sheriff Hales                10½ —
Woodcote                      11 —
SHIFFNAL                      12 —
WELLINGTON                    17 —
SHREWSBURY                    29 —

HERE the railroad crosses the old Roman road called Watling-street; the
ancient prætorian highway, reaching from Dover, by St. Albans, Dunstable,
Towcester, Atherstone, Shrewsbury, &c., to Cardigan; in many places it is
scarcely perceptible, while in others it continues firm for several
miles.  And who can pass such a junction of roads, without a backward
glance at past years and events? without a thought of the thousand
“changes of time and tide” that this ancient track has witnessed: the
millions of human footsteps it has received:—the proud and victorious
Roman, exulting in his country’s greatness and conquests, and
contemptuously spurning the savage natives, whose natural rights he
invaded:—the rapacious and desolating Dane:—the wily Saxon:—the
adventurous Norman: and now the compound people, we English, who, not
content with the ways of our fathers, must needs cross them with our
refined and scientific innovations.  In sooth, this ancient road were a
fitter subject for an epic poem, than a guide-book gossip.

Passing the Spread Eagle station, the villages of Water Eaton and
Stretton, are seen on the W., and Rodbaston Hall, with Cannock Chase
behind, on the E.  The turnpike road here runs parallel with the line for
some distance.  At Quarry Bridge, a short distance from Penkridge, is a
fine quarry of red sandstone, which has furnished a handsome material for
several bridges in the vicinity.  From hence the church of Penkridge, and
the next arch over the line, forms an interesting picture, to which the
near arch of Quarry Bridge serves as framework.

              [Picture: Penkridge Church from Quarry Bridge]

The church is shortly after passed, on the E., and arriving at the bridge
over the river Penk, a lovely view of the surrounding scenery presents
itself.  The river appears on both sides, winding gracefully along,
between meadows and groves; on the E. is the Old Bridge, beyond which
appears Teddesley Park and Hall, the seat of Lord Hatherton, with our old
friend Cannock Chase in the distance.  Westward the eye ranges over the
near objects to Preston Hill and Longridge, altogether forming a
delightful prospect.

                           [Picture: Penkridge]



Penkridge Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 24—Liverpool and Manchester, 73½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

   _Places W. of Station_.         _Places E. of Station_.
Bradley             3¾ miles.  Dunstan               2¼ miles.
Church Eaton             5¼ —  Acton Trussel              2¾ —
                               Bednall                    3½ —
                               CANNOCK                     5 —
                               RUGELEY                     8 —
                               Armitage                  10½ —
                               Malvesyn Ridware           11 —
                               Longdon                   11½ —

    PENKRIDGE is supposed by Camden to have been the Roman Pennocrucium;
    its modern name seems derivable from the river Penk, on which it
    stands.

The town, from its low situation, is liable to frequent inundations.  It
has no market-day, but two great cattle fairs are held here, on April 30,
and first Monday in September.  The Church was made collegiate by King
John.  Penkridge contains about 3,000 inhabitants.  Quitting Penkridge,
the villages of Thickerscote and Silkmoor appear in the distance; and
shortly after leaving Acton Trussel to the E., and Levedale on the W.,
Dunstan Church, appears above the bank of the railway, on the E.  The
next object of interest is Stafford Castle, the tower of which is seen
just before arriving at



STAFFORD STATION.


     Distance to Birmingham, 29¼—Liverpool and Manchester, 68¼ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

   _Places W. of Station_.           _Places E. of Station_.
Castlechurch          1 mile.  Baswick or Berkswick       1½ mile.
Coppenhall          2½ miles.  Marston                   3¼ miles.
Houghton                  4 —  Tixall                          4 —
Gnosnal                   7 —  Ingestre                        4 —
NEWPORT                  12 —  Weston                         4½ —
                               Sandon                          5 —
                               Gayton                         5½ —
                               Stowe                          6¾ —
                               Colwich                        6¾ —
                               Milwich                         7 —
                               Fradswell                      7½ —
                               Hilderston                      8 —
                               RUGELEY                         9 —
                               Gratwich                       11 —
                               ABBOTS BROMLEY                 11 —
                               UTTOXETER                      14 —
                               LICHFIELD                      17 —

    STAFFORD is a borough and market town; contains 8,512 inhabitants.
    This place, which is of great antiquity, was anciently called
    _Stadeford_, from the Saxon Stade, signifying a place on a river, and
    the _trajectus_, or ford, across the river Sow, on which it is
    pleasantly situated, about six miles from its confluence with the
    Trent.

The entrance from the London road, is by a neat bridge over the river,
near which was one of the ancient gates.  The houses are in general
well-built, and many of them are handsome and modern erections; the
streets well paved, and the environs of the town abound with elegant
mansions and villas.  Assemblies are held in a suite of rooms in the Town
Hall, and races take place annually in May.  The chief branch of
manufacture is that of shoes, and the tanning of leather is carried on to
a considerable extent.  Stafford is also renowned for its ale, in common
with the surrounding neighbourhood.  The market is held on Saturday, and
fairs on April 5, May 14, June 25, October 3, and December 5.

                        [Picture: Stafford Castle]

From the year 700, this place has been gradually acquiring importance,
and castles have been built and rebuilt by successive princes and
possessors.  In 705, it is said to have been the residence of the pious
St. Bertalin, son of a Mercian king, and we may well imagine a _royal_
hermitage to have formed an attractive nucleus for a future city.
Ethelfleda, Countess of Mercia, erected a castle here in 913, and
fortified the town with walls and a fosse.  It appears to have increased
greatly in extent and importance, and is in Doomsday Book called a city,
in which the king had eighteen burgesses in demesne, and the Earl of
Mercia twenty mansions.  William the Conqueror built a castle here, to
keep the barons in subjection, and appointed as governor, Robert de
Toeni, the progenitor of the house of Stafford.  It was rebuilt in the
reign of Edward III., and in the parliamentary war was garrisoned for the
king, but taken by the parliamentary troops, and finally demolished.  The
lover of picturesque relics of the olden time, must regret the utter
destruction of this, and many other strong holds; but the knowledge, that
the iron-handed tyranny upheld by these feudal dens, is for ever gone by
with their departed strength, is a glorious and surpassing compensation.
Where would be our railroads, if moss-trooping barons and slavish serfs
formed, as they once did, the population of England?

                                * * * * *

The castellated building which now forms so prominent a feature in the
landscape on approaching Stafford, is a modern erection, on the ancient
site, commenced by Lord Stafford, (then Sir George Jerningham); only one
front, flanked by two round towers was completed; these now contain some
ancient armour and other curiosities.  The County Hall is a spacious and
handsome building of stone, occupying one side of the Market-place.  The
County Gaol is also a large and modern erection, well adapted for the
classification of prisoners, who are employed at their trades, and
receive a certain portion of their earnings on discharge.

                                * * * * *

The Church, dedicated to St. Mary, formerly collegiate, is an ancient and
spacious cruciform structure, in the early style of English architecture,
with a lofty octagonal tower rising from the intersection.  The north
entrance is richly ornamented, and the interior beautifully arranged, the
piers and arches are of the early English, passing into the decorated
style.  The east window is an elegant specimen of the later English.  In
the north transept is an ancient font of great beauty, highly ornamented
with sculptured figures and animals.  There are many ancient monuments;
amongst the most conspicuous, are those of the family of Aston, of
Tixall.  There are two other Churches, one, St. Chadd’s, originally in
the Norman style, but much and incongruously altered; also, places of
worship for the Society of Friends, Independents, Wesleyan Methodists,
and Roman Catholics.  The Free Grammar School was refounded by Edward
VI.; there are also National and other Schools, and a variety of Public
Institutions, among which the Infirmary, and Lunatic Asylum are the
chief.

                                * * * * *

In olden times, a Priory of Black Canons existed here, founded in 1151; a
small part of whose ruined abode remains, in the shape of a farm house,
two miles east of the town.  There were likewise, a House of Friars
Eremites; a Priory of Franciscan Friars, and other monastic
establishments, all dismantled at the dissolution.  The most celebrated
native of Stafford, is Isaac Walton, the angler, a name well-beloved by
all votaries of the (so called) “_gentle_ sport,” though there are and
have been many who rather think with the Poet, that

    “The quaint, old, cruel coxcomb, in his gullet
    Should have a hook, and a small trout to pull it.”

                                                                    BYRON.



CHAPTER IV.
STAFFORD TO WHITMORE,
Fourteen Miles.


IN leaving Stafford station, the Castle appears to the W. and the Town,
E. of the line.  Beacon Hill is seen immediately over the latter.  On
proceeding a short distance through a flat country, the little village of
Aston is passed on the W., and Creswell Hall, (Rev. T. Whitley,) on the
E., which, encompassed by richly wooded grounds, and overlooking the
meanderings of the little river Sow, forms a fine object in the general
landscape.  The house is a plain, neat structure.  Much of the ground
here is marshy, and abounds with willows, whose light silvery foliage
agreeably diversifies the meadow and woodland scenery; amid which, on the
W., peeps the pretty tower of Seighford Church.

                                * * * * *

Passing two successive cuttings of no great depth, and through a marshy
district adorned by poplar and willow trees, we arrive at



Bridgeford Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 32¾—Liverpool and Manchester, 64¾ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

 _Places W. of Station_.
Seighford          1 mile.
Ranton           2¾ miles.
Ellenhall              3 —
Norbury               7½ —

On the E. is Bridgeford Hall, the estate of J. Reynolds, Esq., formerly a
Convent.  Some remains of the ancient buildings still exist in different
parts of the hall and garden.

    A story of a subterranean passage also belongs to this relic of olden
    times, which passage, says tradition, leads to Ellenhall, about two
    miles distant; and we have been told that in digging a well a few
    years since the passage was discovered.

A picturesque Mill stands near the Hall.  Passing Chebsey W., and
Whitgreave on the E., we reach Shallowford, where a few scattered
cottages represent the honours of the Village, and the Sow, which almost
emulates the winding propensities of the fair river Wye, meanders quietly
among the meadows.  At Shallowford Bridge, which is chiefly built for the
convenience of farmers, whose cattle and teams are constantly traversing
it, a person is generally stationed with a red flag to give a signal for
trains to slacken their speed at this part, if cattle are passing at the
time.

A pleasant but not very interesting portion of the line brings us to



Norton Bridge Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 35—Liverpool and Manchester, 62½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

  _Places W. of Station_.      _Places E. of Station_.
Chebsey             1¼ mile.  STONE             3 miles.
ECCLESHALL         2½ miles.  Swinnerton            4½ —
Standon                  5 —  Hilderston            6¼ —
High Oftley             6½ —  Barlaston             6½ —
Adbaston                6½ —  Fulford               7½ —
Cheswardine             9½ —  Trentham               8 —
Hinstock                13 —  Draycott              9½ —
                              LANE END              10 —
                              CHEADLE               14 —

    TWO miles and a half W. of this station lies the small town of
    Eccleshall, which at the time of the Conquest belonged to the See of
    Lichfield.  In 1200, Bishop Muschamp obtained a licence from King
    John, to embattle the episcopal residence; which was much repaired,
    or rebuilt, by Bishop Langton in 1310.  During the parliamentary war
    it was so much damaged in a siege, previously to being taken by the
    parliamentarians, as to be unfit for the further residence of the
    church-militant commanders-in-chief, until Bishop Lloyd rebuilt it in
    1695; since which time it has continued to be the episcopal palace of
    the See of Lichfield and Coventry.  The grounds and woods belonging
    to the palace are pleasant and extensive.  The church was the
    sanctuary of Queen Margaret, after Lord Audley’s defeat by the Earl
    of Salisbury, at Blore Heath.  It is a spacious structure, in the
    ancient English style of architecture, and contains several
    monuments.

    The town of Stone lies three miles E. of the line, and is not seen
    from it; the name is traditionally derived from a monumental heap of
    stones, which, according to the custom of the Saxons had been placed
    over the bodies of the princes Wulford and Rufinus, who were here
    slain by their father king Wulphere, on account of their conversion
    to Christianity.  [_See page_ 20.] The king himself becoming
    subsequently a convert, founded, in 670, a college of Secular Canons,
    dedicating it to his children, in expiation of his crime: and to this
    establishment the town is supposed to owe its origin.  The prevailing
    manufacture is that of shoes.  Population, 7,808.

Although none of the towns in the great district called the Potteries,
are upon or even seen from the line of route, yet they lie so near, that
it would scarcely be well to omit all mention of this great manufacturing
neighbourhood, which encloses about ten square miles of country, covered
with scattered villages, and containing about 20,000 inhabitants.
Although the making of articles of pottery has been carried on here from
a remote period, yet the manufacture was of inferior importance, until
the great improvements effected by Mr. Wedgewood in the latter part of
the last century; since which time the excellence and beauty of the
wares, have produced a most extensive traffic both in England and abroad.
The exports of earthenware and china to the United States alone, amount
to 60,000 packages annually.  The several species of ware invented by Mr.
Wedgewood, varied by the industry and ingenuity of the manufacturers into
an infinity of forms, and differently painted and embellished, constitute
nearly the whole of the fine earthenwares at present manufactured in
England, which are the object of a very extensive trade.  The chief towns
and villages in the Pottery district are, Stoke-upon-Trent, Hanley,
Burslem, Lane End, Shelton, Etruria, Tunstall, Lane Delph, and others.

                                * * * * *

Proceeding from Norton Bridge, through some pretty, common-place country,
we pass Baddenhall, Field Cross, and Brockton-house on the W., and
Coldmese on the E., and soon gain a view of Swinnerton Park and Hall,
seat of T. Fitzherbert, Esq., which, with the small grove-like woods
scattered through the landscape, forms, as the quaint Dugdale would say,
“a verye faire prospect.”  The next small representation of a village is
Mill Meese, with its old Hall standing close beside the line; the
water-mill wheel, formerly accustomed to have no rival sound interrupt
its rumbling, splashing solo, now seems wofully outdone by the rapidly
rolling trains, and lifts up its unheard voice in vain.  The river Sow
still flows close to the line.  Westward lie the villages of Walford and
Aspley, but too much concealed by wood to be discovered in passing.
Trentham Park, seat of the Marquis of Sutherland, is perceived on the
N.E.  The mansion is a modern structure; the surrounding grounds are very
extensive, abound with fine timber, and greatly adorned by lakes, formed
by the river Trent, which flows through the park.

                                * * * * *

Standon Church, with the richly wooded country round, forms a pleasing
object W. of the line.

                        [Picture: Standon Church]

Passing on, another Swinnerton Park appears on the E., there being two of
that name.  Hill Chorlton and Chapel Chorlton, with the picturesque
church tower of the latter, appears W. of the traveller.  A short
distance of pretty wooded scenery intervenes, and then a shallow cutting,
passing which, Maer Wood is seen on the W.  Maer Hall, seat of J.
Wedgewood, Esq.

                                * * * * *

Shortly after, the line enters a deep cutting, which ends at



WHITMORE STATION.


     Distance to Birmingham, 43¼—Liverpool and Manchester, 54¼ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

      _Places W. of Station_.             _Places E. of Station_.
Maer                       1¾ mile.  NEWCASTLE-UNDER-         5 miles.
                                     LYME
Chapel Chorlton            3 miles.  Trentham                      5 —
Ashley                         3½ —  Wolstanton                   6½ —
Standon                         5 —  Shelton                       7 —
Broughton                      5½ —  STOKE                         7 —
Mucklestone or Muxton           6 —  BURSLEM                      7½ —
Norton                         7½ —  HANLEY                       7½ —
MARKET DRAYTON                 10 —  Tunstall                     8½ —
                                     LANE END                     8½ —
                                     Norton-on-the-Moor            9 —
                                     LEEK                         16 —

CHAPTER V.
WHITMORE TO CREWE,
Ten and ¾ Miles.


AN extensive heathy bog is traversed by the line, after leaving Whitmore
station, and, as we have heard an ancient tradition anent it, will tell
the tale for the edification of our readers, “extenuating nothing.”

    Once upon a time there was a large forest in this part, and when the
    Romans were amusing themselves with hunting our worthy ancestors, a
    large body of the ancient Britons took refuge therein.  In order to
    come at them these terrible Romans set fire to the forest, which
    burnt in a very fearful and dreadful manner; but our information does
    not extend to the exact measure of scorching endured by the miserable
    prisoners within this fiery fence, or whether they escaped by flight,
    or were consumed wholesale in the burning forest, which, with the
    accumulation of vegetable matter during past ages, has formed the
    bog, now “passed with the swiftness of tornado-blast,” by “Wildfires”
    and “Rockets.”

Opposite the Bog-house is one of the highest points of the line, the road
inclining towards Liverpool one way, and towards Birmingham the other.
Snape Hall is prettily situated among rich woods on the E. of the line;
and a short distance farther Barr Hill appears on the W.  It is a
considerable elevation, and on a clear day, Liverpool may be seen from
it.  Madeley Parks and Manor House lie W. of the line.  The latter is the
seat of Lady Cunliffe, daughter of Lord Crewe, to whose family, the
adjoining land, formerly a fine deer park, anciently belonged.  Hay
House, a small, old, brick building, stands close to the line of railway
on the E.  One cannot help feeling an odd sort of commiseration for these
ancient abodes of the last generation, which have stood, and grown old
and grey, in the once quiet and out-of-the-world nooks where the
convenience of the farmer, or the retired taste of the small country
squire, had located them; and now, to see the iron ribs of the innovating
railroad carried up to their very threshold, has something of sadness in
it, even in the midst of our modern pride and gratulation.  It is like
pert youth, exhibiting and vaunting of its strength and valorous deeds,
to decrepid and helpless age.  But what have we to do with such dreams?
“Locomotives” wait for no man’s fancies, and we must e’en follow their
course.  Soon after passing which, we reach



Madeley Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 46—Liverpool and Manchester, 51½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

      _Places W. of Station_.          _Places E. of Station_.
Woore                      2½ miles.  Betley           3 miles.
Norton                          5½ —  NEWCASTLE             5 —
Mucklestone or Muxton           5½ —
Audlem                           7 —
Adderley                        9½ —
Burley Dam                      11 —
WHITCHURCH                      15 —

THE village, which is rather eastward of the line, consists chiefly of
cottages and farm houses in the Elizabethan style.  The Church is an
ancient and interesting structure, with a fine set of bells.  An
eccentric, named Samuel Stretch, noted for his penurious habits,
bequeathed, in 1804, a great bell, to be tolled every night at eight
o’clock, as a guide to persons wandering about at such late and improper
hours; he having accidently fallen into a ditch, the consequences of
which disaster eventually caused his death.  The small town of Woore lies
three miles W.  Passing several slight cuttings, and again gaining the
open country, a fine prospect appears, including Checkley Wood,
Doddington Park, on the W., Heighley Castle on the E., and the Welsh
Hills in the distance.  Doddington Hall, seat of Lieut. Gen. Sir John
Delves Broughton, Bart., is a splendid mansion of comparatively modern
erection.  A fortified house was erected here in 1364, by Sir John
Delves, the venerable ruins of which still remain.  The park is finely
wooded, and includes a very noble avenue of ancient oaks.  Heighley
Castle partakes the traditionary honour so lavishly bestowed on such
places, of having been “battered down” by Cromwell.  It has been said,
“no man can be in two places at once, unless he be a _bird_.”  And our
renowned Oliver must needs have been wonderfully endowed with this
ornithological ubiquity, if we are to allow a shade of credence to the
countless and unaccountable stories of his sieges in _propria personá_.
A lofty embankment and two viaducts carry the line through the pretty
valley of Wrinehill; the Hall and Mill forming very pleasing objects in
the scene.  The line here enters Cheshire.  Betley and Betley Mere form
the next view, after emerging from a short excavation, called Bunker’s
Hill.  Betley Court, the residence of J. Twemlow, Esq., with its
surrounding woods and fields, and the pretty mere or lakelet in front,
afford a very pleasing view.

                                * * * * *

In the rear distance, S.E., is a fine view of Boond Hill and Mow Copp, on
the round summit of the latter is a stone monument, distinctly seen.
These hills, which lie at a considerable distance, join in the landscape
for some space.  Chorlton is the first village we pass in Cheshire, and
Wybunbury, a place of much more importance, is concealed by the woods
about the former, except the Church, which peers above them.  This Church
was rebuilt in 1595; it is a spacious structure, with carved wooden
ceilings, and a lofty pinnacled tower, which leaned so much to the N.E.,
that a few years since it was found requisite to place it erect, when
some alterations were made in the body of the Church.  To the W. is
Basford Hall, soon after passing which, we arrive at



Basford Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 52—Liverpool and Manchester, 45½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

 _Places W. of Station_.       _Place E. of Station_.
Hough              ½ mile.  Betley               2 miles.
Wybunbury             1¼ —  Barthomley                3 —
Walgherton        2 miles.  Audley                    4 —
Doddington            2½ —  Alsager                   5 —
NANTWICH               4 —  Talk                      6 —
Audlem                 5 —  Church Lawton             6 —
Burley Dam             7 —
Baddiley               7 —
Wrenbury               9 —

CREWE HALL, the mansion of Lord Crewe, which appears E. of the line, is a
large and handsome quadrangular structure of red brick, surrounded by
finely undulating grounds, and a lake of considerable extent.



CREWE STATION.


     Distance to Birmingham, 54—Liverpool and Manchester, 43½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

_Places W. of Station_.     _Places E. of Station_.
NANTWICH        4 miles.  Haslington          2 miles.
Acton               5¼ —  SANDBACH                 5 —
Baddiley            7½ —  Astbury                 10 —
Wrenbury             9 —  CONGLETON               11 —
MALPAS              17 —  Gawsworth              13½ —
                          MACCLESFIELD            19 —

NANTWICH, four miles W. of Crewe, contains 5,350 inhabitants, and has a
market on Saturdays, and fairs, chiefly for cattle, on March 26, second
Tuesday in June, September 4, and December 4.

    Previously to the Conquest, the wealth of this place consisted in its
    numerous brine springs.  Its origin is attributed to the Britons; and
    its name appears to be derived from the British word _Nant_, a brook
    or marsh, and the Saxon _vic_, by corruption _wich_, a vill, or
    settlement.  The latter term seems generally attached to the names of
    towns where salt is made.  This town has had its full share of
    plague, pestilence, and war, in times past, and twice suffered
    greatly from fire, in the years 1438 and 1583.  During the civil war
    it staunchly supported the parliament.

The town is situated on the banks of the river Weaver, in a level and
fertile tract of country.  Most of the houses are of timber and brick,
covered with plaster, with projecting stories, and large bay-windows.
There is a small Theatre and Assembly-room.  In the time of Henry VIII.,
there were three hundred salt works; this number has been gradually
reduced, in consequence of superior mines and springs being discovered
elsewhere, and now only one spring remains.  Shoes, gloves, and cotton
goods are the chief manufactures now, and cheese the principal
agricultural produce.  The Church is a spacious and venerable structure,
in the decorated and later English styles, comprising a nave, with
lateral aisles, a chancel, transepts, and an ornamented octagonal tower,
rising from the intersection.  There are Meetings and Chapels for
Dissenters, and various Schools.  John Gerarde, whose fine old work,
called Gerarde’s Herbal, is familiar to every botanist, was a native of
Nantwich, born in 1545.



CHAPTER VI.
CREWE TO HARTFORD,
Eleven and ¾ Miles.


QUITTING the Crewe station, around which is little to attract the
traveller’s notice, the line proceeds nearly without a curve, and for
some distance enables the passengers of one train, to observe the
approach of another.  A branch railway is in progress from Crewe, to
Manchester on one side, and to Chester on the other.  The tower of
Coppenhall Church is the first object on the W.  This Church is an old
wood and plaster structure, of the style prevalent in the reign of
Elizabeth, and looking almost as if modern times had forgotten it, so
quaint and old it is.

                                * * * * *

Passing the Church and Village, we arrive at



Coppenhall Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 56—Liverpool and Manchester, 41½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

   _Places W. of Station_.        _Places E. of Station_.
Minshull Moss        2 miles.  Coppenhall Moss       1 mile.
Lea Green                 2 —  Warmingham           3 miles.
Leighton                 2½ —  SANDBACH                  5 —
Church Minshull          3½ —
Worleston Green          4½ —
Acton                    5½ —

THE country near the line in this part becomes flat, boggy, and
uninteresting; for though an ancient moss is a scene of uncloying
interest to a naturalist, and contains many a treasure to reward the
patient seeking of the botanist; yet, in the cursory glance of a railroad
traveller, its sombre, and, as he perhaps thinks, unprofitable waste, is
a scene gladly exchanged for verdant pastures and waving corn fields.
Here is a whole family of mosses, all lying closely contiguous, and
quaking under the foot of the pedestrian wanderer among their heathy
labyrinths, “like a great jelly bag,” as the graphic authoress of “Wood
Leighton,” that most graceful, good, and womanly book, quaintly describes
a like spot.  Coppenhall Moss, Leighton Moss, Warmington Moss, and, for
aught we know, half a score more, compose the near view, with the welcome
variety afforded by Warmingham Wood in the distance.

                                * * * * *

The towns of Sandbach and Congleton lie on the E., but are not seen from
the line.  The former contains about 7,200 inhabitants.  The market is on
Thursday, and fairs on Easter Tuesday and Wednesday, and the first
Thursday after September 11; and a cattle and pleasure fair on December
27, for cattle and wearing apparel.  In the market-place are some ancient
crosses, repaired in 1816.  The church is in the later English style.
There are Dissenting Chapels, and several Schools.  Congleton contains
9,352 individuals.  It is an ancient place, and is called _Cogletone_ in
Doomsday Book, but its origin has not been clearly ascertained.  The town
is situated in a valley, embosomed in richly wooded hills: the eastern
part is old and irregularly built; the western is modern.  In the
environs, especially on the banks of the river, are many elegant mansions
and villas.  The market is on Saturday; the fairs on the Thursday before
Shrovetide, May 12, July 12, and December 22.  The Market-house,
containing a handsome Assembly-room, was built in 1822, at the sole
expense of Sir E. Antrobus, Bart.



Minshull Vernon Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 58¾—Liverpool and Manchester, 38¾ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

   _Places W. of Station_.       _Places E. of Station_.
Church Minshull      2 miles.  Warmingham        2½ miles.
Bunbury                  6¾ —  SANDBACH                5 —
Tattenhall               12 —
Harthill                12¼ —

HERE the scenery becomes more interesting, from the distant view afforded
on the W. of Beeston Castle Hill, and the high lands in Cheshire and
Wales.

                         [Picture: Beeston Hill]

    Beeston Castle was founded by Ranulph de Blundeville, about 1220, and
    was made a royal garrison, in the war between Henry III., and the
    confederate Barons.  In 1643, Beeston Castle was held by a detachment
    of the Parliamentarian forces, then taken by the Royalists, who were,
    after a long siege in 1645, compelled, from want of provisions, to
    surrender it; and the Parliamentarians dismantled it early the
    following year.  The ruins consist of part of a tower which guarded
    the principal entrance to the inner court, flanked by semi-circular
    bastions, and surrounded by a moat, excavated in the solid rock.  The
    outer walls were defended by eight round towers, irregularly placed,
    and are now covered with ivy.

On the N.W. appears Delamere Forest, which continues to form part of the
railroad prospect for some space.  This tract, which includes the ancient
and royal forest of Delamere, was uninclosed till 1812, when it was
erected into a parish by act of parliament.  It was formerly a dreary
waste, but is now rapidly improving in fertility and increased
population.  On its enclosure, it first gave the title of Baron Delamere
of Vale Royal, to Thomas Cholmondeley, Esq., the proprietor of the
ancient possessions of the Cistercian monks of Vale Royal, whose
sumptuous Abbey was completed in 1330, by Edward I., and cost £32,000.
There are races in March, called the Tanfield Hunt.

    Delamere Forest, comprising about 10,000 acres, once contained a
    great number of red and fallow deer: it exhibits a pleasing variety
    of well-wooded hills, rich valleys for pasturage, waters affording
    plenty of fish and water-fowl; and mosses, producing an abundance of
    peat and turf for fuel.  Upon the highest hill stood the Saxon
    fortress of Finborrow, and near it the city of Eadesbury, both of
    which are said to have been founded by Ethelfleda, daughter of Alfred
    the Great.  The ancient residence of the Chief Forester is all that
    now remains; this house is called the Chamber of the Forest; and at
    convenient distances around it are neat lodges for the keepers of the
    several walks.  Five thousand acres of the forest have been planted
    with forest trees within the last twenty years.  The remaining
    portion is sold or allotted to private individuals.

Journeying on, we pass Lea Hall, a plain, old-fashioned building, close
to the line, and can just perceive Over Church above the trees; this part
of the line being more clothed with wood than that we have recently
described.  Here the Middlewich Canal is crossed, and is seen on the E.,
in which direction, two miles from the line, lies the town of Middlewich,
containing about 4,800 inhabitants, with a market on Thursday, and fairs
on Holy Thursday, Aug. 25, and Oct. 29.  The name of this town is derived
from its central situation with respect to the Wiches, or Salt Towns.  A
Roman station is supposed to have existed here, from the remains of a
Roman road, and an intrenched camp.  The Royalists were defeated here
during the civil war, and the same fortune befel the Parliamentarian
forces subsequently.  The town is divided by the Grand Trunk Canal, here
crossed by the river Dane; and the rivers Weyer, Croco, and Whelock, also
run through the parish.  The chief trade consists in salt obtained from
powerful brine-springs: there are also some silk manufactories.  The
church, being built at various periods, presents an assemblage of
different styles of architecture: it has a handsome tower.  Here are also
dissenting meetings, and a free school, which, like many like
establishments, fulfils, but in a very limited degree, the intentions of
its founders.  Delamere Forest and Over Church again form the westerly
view.

The small straggling town of Over lies about a mile W. of the line; it
contains 2,930 inhabitants; has no market, but fairs on May 15 and Sept.
25.  The church was re-built in 1543, by Hugh Starkey, Gentleman Usher to
Henry VIII., in the later English style of architecture.  An effigy of
brass in the interior of the church, perpetuates the memory of the pious
Hugh; a curious font, and some other antiquities, may also be seen.  Salt
is the chief manufacture.  In the extreme distance on the S.E., a clear
day allows a tolerable view of the Derbyshire hills from this part of the
line; Stanthorne Hall, seat of Richard Dutton, Esq., also E., is passed
immediately before reaching the



Winsford Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 61¼—Liverpool and Manchester, 36¼ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

   _Places W. of Station_.           _Places E. of Station_.
Over                 2 miles.  MIDDLEWICH                  2 miles.
Little Budworth          5¼ —  Brereton cum Smethwick          7½ —
TARPORLEY                8½ —  Swettenham                      9½ —
Waverton                 15 —  Nether Alderley                14½ —

BOSTOCK HALL, seat of James France France, Esq., and Wharton, _would_ be
seen E. from the railroad after leaving the station, but that the line
enters a shallow cutting; the banks of which hide the view “just at the
very time when they should not.”  An opening gives a glimpse of the woods
about the house, and that is all.  The next peep is westward again, at
Moulson: and after passing another cutting (this word _cutting_ is an
inelegant term, which does not fall into our prose with ease; but we
cannot avoid it, belonging, as it does, to railroad phraseology) we gain
a view of Vale Royal Park and New Park on the W., the pleasant woodland
glades of which are soon shut out by another cutting which takes us
through Eaton, and by Eaton Hall, seat of Sir E. Antrobus.  We now
approach one of the most magnificent parts of the railway, and of the
scenery skirting it; the Vale Royal Viaduct, over which the line passes
for five hundred feet, and beneath which the river Weaver winds through
the vale in graceful sweeps, girt with verdant meadows; on the E. it is
crossed by the simple old bridge, now looking very humble, in the
presence of its magnificent neighbour.  The viaduct consists of five
arches of immense span, it is built of a reddish stone, and is a noble
erection.  The traveller will do well to be alert and on the “look out”
in this part, or the view will escape him.  Westward lies Vale Royal
Park, rich in the grandeur of its ancient woods, and nearly hidden among
them is Delamere Abbey, the old and venerable seat of Lord Delamere.
Little remains now of the ancient building, which was not, as described
by Warton in his Elegy, seen “high o’er the trackless heath,” but was
seated in a deep valley on the banks of the river Weaver.  The present
mansion consists of a centre and two wings of red stone.  The great hall
is a magnificent apartment.

                      [Picture: Vale Royal Viaduct]

    The marvellous enlightenment of the 19th century, great as we deem
    it, has not yet penetrated those holes and corners of prejudice and
    credulity, which serve for the hiding places of superstition, for
    even in the eye of the Railroad itself are those living who speak
    with awe of the so-called prophecies, said to be made by the poor
    driveller Robert Nixon, the Cheshire sage.  It so happens, very
    oddly, that predictions are sometimes remembered _when_ verified, and
    not before.  So was the curious and very oracular one of the past
    year, so often quoted,—

    “A summer without a spring,
    And an autumn without a king,”

    which no one can deny was very remarkable indeed—only it was too
    disloyal to be circulated till certainty had secured its truth.  Poor
    Nixon wishing, doubtlessly, to compliment his patrons, the
    Cholmondeley family, with a “May-the-king-live-for-ever” kind of
    benediction, promised that till certain stones or rocks near
    Warrington came to Vale Royal, the prosperity of their family should
    continue.  Unluckily, stones have grown locomotive of late, and
    “Birnam Wood doth come to Dunsinane,” for the fatal rocks have become
    part of the grand viaduct, which, far from bringing ill to the noble
    Delamere, is a link in the mighty chain now weaving, which shall bind
    together art, science, talent, wealth, and greatness, for the good of
    all who are so blessed as to live in the age of RAILROADS.

The line passes through a deep cutting before arriving at the



HARTFORD STATION.


     Distance to Birmingham, 65¾—Liverpool and Manchester, 31¾ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

   _Places W. of Station_.          _Places E. of Station_.
Newchurch            2¼ miles.  Davenham              1½ miles.
Little Budworth           5½ —  NORTHWICH                   2 —
TARPORLEY                  8 —  Great Budworth              6 —
Tarvin                    10 —  NETHER KNUTSFORD            9 —
Great Barrow              11 —  Rostherne                 10½ —
Guilden Sutton            13 —  Mobberley                 11½ —
Waverton                 13½ —  Wilmslow                  15½ —
Christleton              13½ —
CHESTER                   16 —

CHAPTER VII.
HARTFORD TO WARRINGTON,
Twelve and ¼ Miles.


PROCEEDING from the Hartford station, the banks of the cutting conceal
much of the scenery.  The small and scattered village of Gorstage appears
on the W.  From Hartford station to Acton station the evenness of the
ground renders a train visible to a spectator, at either place, the
entire distance.

    The town of Northwich lies two miles E. of the railway; has a market
    on Friday, and fairs on April 10, for cattle only, August 2, and
    December 6.  Camden is of opinion, that the brine springs here were
    used by the Romans, and says, the town was anciently called
    Hellah-Du, or the Black Salt Town.  The town has a very antique
    appearance, and contains a church very remarkable for its
    semi-circular choir, and for the curious decorations of the roof of
    the nave, which consist of numerous figures of wicker baskets,
    similar to those used in the process of salt-making.  The commercial
    prosperity of Northwich, is entirely dependent upon its numerous
    brine springs and extensive mines of rock salt; in which article the
    trade is so great, as to produce an annual export of 100,000 tons
    from the springs alone.  They were discovered at a very early period,
    and are usually more than one hundred yards in depth.  The brine,
    being raised by pumps set in motion by steam-engines, is conveyed by
    pipes into pans, thirty or forty feet square: these are fixed over
    furnaces, the heat arising from which, causes the water to evaporate,
    and the salt to crystallise; it is then drained and dried, and is fit
    for sale.  The mines of rock salt were discovered in 1670, the upper
    stratum, lying about sixty yards below the surface of the earth, is
    ten yards thick.  About 1772, a second stratum, ten feet thick, and
    of superior quality, was discovered, at the depth of one hundred and
    ten yards, the intermediate space being occupied by a solid mass of
    stone.  This latter bed alone is worked by the following process:—A
    shaft is sunk, and on reaching the mine a roof of salt is left,
    supported by pillars of the same material.  As the excavation
    proceeds, the fragments are raised in buckets by means of
    steam-engines.  The pits form an area of two, three, or four acres,
    and when illuminated, present a singularly beautiful and magnificent
    appearance; the light being reflected from all points in every
    variety of hue, as from a promiscuous assemblage of mirrors and
    prisms.  This fairy palace was the scene of an elegant entertainment,
    given by the spirited proprietors, to about a hundred of the members
    of the British Association, during the meeting at Liverpool, in 1837.

    From an account published in 1818, it appeared that 200,000 tons of
    manufactured salt, and upwards of 40,000 tons of rock salt, were
    landed at Liverpool during the preceding year, and that upwards of
    280,000 bushels are annually sold for internal consumption, by far
    the greatest proportion having been obtained in this neighbourhood;
    since that period the business has materially increased.  The river
    Weaver and the Grand Trunk Canal afford great facilities for
    water-carriage from Northwich; and three hundred vessels are employed
    in the salt trade alone, which return laden with coal.

Passing through one or two slight cuttings, the line commands a fine view
of Grange Hall, which stands on a well-wooded hill, near to the railway
on the W.  Eastward, is the village of Weaverham, and Winnington Hall,
and, in the distance, the Overton Hills.  The cutting at Acton Heath
terminates near the



Acton Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 68¼—Liverpool and Manchester, 29¼ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

   _Places W. of Station_.        _Places E. of Station_.
Crowton              1½ mile.  Weaverham             1 mile.
Cuddington               1¾ —  Barnton              3 miles.
Kingsley             3 miles.  Great Budworth            5 —
Delamere House           3½ —
Tarvin                  10¼ —

HAVING left Acton, the prospect is much impeded for some distance by the
frequent cuttings through which the line passes; in the intervals, the
Overton Hills appear on the W.  Aston Hall (seat of the late H. C. Aston,
Esq.) and grounds are shortly seen on the E., and immediately in front
lies Dutton Wood.  The traveller now approaches the magnificent viaduct
crossing the river Weaver and the valley of Dutton.

    This gigantic structure exceeds in magnitude anything of the kind yet
    accomplished in this country, or perhaps in Europe, not even
    excepting the Menai Bridge.  The Viaduct is of the Gothic order,
    formed of red sand-stone procured from the neighbourhood of Bolton
    and Runcorn; it consists of twenty arches, of sixty feet span, and
    sixty feet in height, and the battlements add twelve feet more to the
    height; the whole length is 1,400 feet: 700,000 cubic feet of stone
    have been used in the work—the whole cost was £50,000.

The grandeur of this stupendous work is greatly enhanced by the richness
and beauty of the adjacent country.

                        [Picture: Dutton Viaduct]

    _Completion of the Dutton Viaduct_.  On Friday, January 9, 1837, was
    performed the ceremony of laying the last, or key stone, of the
    magnificent viaduct across the Weaver, at Dutton.  A party of the
    directors from Liverpool attended, and were met by Mr. Locke, the
    engineer, and the resident engineers and contractors on the line.
    Mr. Heyworth, as the senior director present, after placing the last
    stone in its bed, addressed the party.  He congratulated the workmen
    (of whom about one hundred and fifty were present) on their steady
    perseverance and diligence in bringing to perfection so noble a work:
    he rejoiced to find, that, in the erection of this, the greatest and
    first structure of its kind in the kingdom, no life or limb had been
    sacrificed.  Mr. Locke, the engineer, and the Rev. W. Stanhope, also
    addressed the meeting.  The health of the workmen was then given by
    Mr. Locke, amid hearty cheers.  In the evening, the viaduct was
    illuminated with torches, and fireworks were displayed in great
    abundance; during which time the workmen were regaled with a good
    dinner and excellent cheer.—_Chester Courant_.

The traveller who would enjoy glimpses of railroad views, must bear in
mind the velocity of his conveyance, and prepare to “see whatever can be
seen,” or the most important objects will have glanced by the windows of
his comfortable locomotive arm-chair coach, before any second person can
warn him of their presence.  Emerging from a cutting, which immediately
succeeds the viaduct, Dutton Hall is observed on the E. backed by wood.
A short distance farther, a fine rear-view is obtained (only by outside
passengers we fear) of the Weaver, the vale of Dutton, Cogshall Park
beyond, and in the distance the range of Derbyshire Hills.  Passing
between Bird Wood and Dutton Wood, we reach the tunnel at Preston Brook,
110 yards in length, over which the Chester road passes.



Preston Brook Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 72½—Liverpool and Manchester, 25 miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

     _Places W. of Station_.
FRODSHAM                 3 miles.
Ince                         9½ —
Plemondstall                10½ —
Thornton Le Moors           11½ —
Guilden Sutton              11½ —
Stoak or Stoke              12½ —
Chester                      13 —
Backford                     14 —

PRESTON, though a small place, is one of considerable traffic, from its
vicinity to the salt districts, and to the Grand Trunk Canal.

    Frodsham lies three miles W. of the line at this part; it has a
    market on Saturday, and fairs on May 15, and August 21.  The
    principal branch of trade is salt refining, besides which, there are
    flour mills and cotton factories.  This place is mentioned in
    Doomsday Book, as being the property of the Earl of Chester.  The
    town, situated on an eminence on the banks of the Weaver, near its
    confluence with the Mersey, consists of a broad street, a mile in
    length; at the E. end is a bridge of four arches over the Weaver, and
    at the W. end anciently stood a Norman castle; another street leads
    to the Church, an ancient structure, partly in the Norman style of
    architecture.

Norton Priory, the residence of Sir Richard Brooke, Bart., is seen on the
W.  A religious establishment formerly existed here, some ancient parts
of which are included in the present mansion.  The Duke of Bridgewater’s
canal runs through the park.  In the rear of Norton Priory, as seen from
the railway, is the now busy and important town of Runcorn, containing
10,326 inhabitants.

    In 915, Ethelfleda, sister to King Edward the Elder, widow of
    Ethelred, King of Mercia, built a town and castle near the river
    Mersey, at this place, some traces of which are still visible.  In
    1133, William Fitz Nigel founded here a monastery of canons regular,
    which, in the reign of Stephen, was removed to Norton Priory above
    mentioned.

Runcorn is a place of considerable resort for bathing, and has been
recently much enlarged, and improved by handsome buildings, &c.  The
township abounds with fine stone quarries, from which great quantities
are sent by water to Liverpool, Manchester, &c.  Here are extensive
chemical and soap works, in connexion with which a chimney of 273 feet in
height, and of great beauty, has recently been erected.  The church is in
the early and later styles of English architecture.  Near Runcorn are the
fine ruins of Halton Castle, situated on a steep eminence, and commanding
an extensive and beautifully varied prospect, including the Mersey
estuary, the Welsh mountains, and richly-wooded scenery in Cheshire and
Lancashire.  This fortress was demolished during the civil wars.
Eastward, passing Keakwick, and Daresbury, where is a fine old church,
The Elms appear.  Passing which we arrive at



Moore Station.


     Distance to Birmingham, 75—Liverpool and Manchester, 22½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

   _Places W. of Station_.        _Places E. of Station_.
Halton               3½ miles.  Daresbury          1¼ mile.
Lower Runcorn              4 —  Hatton                 2¼ —
Higher Runcorn            4½ —  Stretton               3¾ —
Weston                     5 —  Grappenhall            4½ —

THE pretty village of Moore is not seen from the line.  Richly-wooded
country lies on either side the road now, and occasionally peeping
through the trees, the masts of vessels passing on the Mersey may be
observed.  The Mersey Viaduct is next traversed.  This, though far less
grand in appearance than the Dutton Viaduct, is a fine erection of 200
yards in length, consisting of twelve arches, nine being small, and three
of larger span, beneath which the river Mersey, and the Mersey and Irwell
Canal pass.  Shortly after leaving the viaduct the town of Warrington is
seen on the E., and westward lies Penketh, and the small white buildings
at Fiddler’s Ferry.



WARRINGTON STATION.


     Distance to Birmingham, 78—Liverpool and Manchester, 19½ miles.

      DISTANCES BY ROADS FROM THIS STATION TO THE FOLLOWING PLACES:—

  _Places E. of Station_.
Grappenhall        3½ miles.
Lymm                    5½ —
Warburton                8 —
Bowdon                 11¾ —
ALTRINGHAM              12 —

WARRINGTON forms a pleasing view from the approaching trains.

    It contains 19,155 inhabitants, and is by some writers supposed to
    have been originally a British town, and on the invasion of the
    Romans under Agricola, in 79, to have been converted into a Roman
    station.  This supposition rests chiefly on the circumstances of
    three Roman roads tending hitherwards to a ford over the Mersey; the
    vestiges of a castrum and fosse, still discernable; and the discovery
    of Roman coins and other relics near the ford.  On its occupation by
    the Saxons, it obtained the name of _Weringtun_, from _Wæring_, a
    fortification, and _tun_, a town.  The river was passed by ford till
    1496, when Thomas, first Earl of Derby, erected a stone bridge in
    compliment to Henry VII., when on his visit to Latham and Knowsley.
    In the reign of Henry VIII., Leland, speaking of Warrington, says,
    “It is a pavid towne of prety bignes, the paroche chirce is at the
    tayle of the towne; it is a better market than Manchestre.”  In the
    civil wars of 1643, the Royalists of the place betook themselves to
    the _church_, which they fortified, but the Parliamentarian battery
    dislodged them from their military sanctuary.  The town is pleasantly
    situated on the Mersey; the streets are chiefly narrow, but contain
    some good buildings.

Prior to the construction of the railroad between Liverpool and
Manchester, seventy stage-coaches passed through Warrington daily; now
only _four_ run.  The manufactures comprise muslin, calico, velveteen,
sailcloth, (which was formerly the staple trade,) pins, files, hardware,
glass, malt, soap, and ale of strength and quality renowned.  Railways,
rivers, and canals, facilitate trade materially.  The market days are
Wednesday and Saturday; the fairs commence July 18 and November 30,
continuing ten days.  There are cloth halls, and various public
buildings, and a fine old church, dedicated to St. Helen; the
architecture exhibits traces of various styles and periods.  Two ancient
sepulchral chapels remain, and contain some magnificent monuments of the
Boteler, Massey, and Patten families.  There are two other churches, and
various dissenting chapels and meetings, Free Grammar School, Blue Coat
School, and many others, also Hospitals and other excellent institutions.



CHAPTER VIII.
WARRINGTON TO NEWTON JUNCTION,
Four and ¾ Miles.


PASSING on from Warrington, the line commands a view W. of Busey Hall,
(seat of Lord Lilford,) a fine old mansion, surrounded by wood; a little
farther, is Burton Wood and Bold Heath and Park, (seat of Sir Henry
Houghton,) also on the W., Orford Hall (seat of Hon. Mrs. Hornby) on the
E., and Billinge Beacon Hill N.W.  The spire of Winwick Church is seen
shortly before arriving at



Winwick Station,


which, though not mentioned in the Company’s list, has, since the opening
of the railway, been used as a station, for the accommodation of persons
in the vicinity.

                        [Picture: Winwick Church]

    Winwick Church is a beautiful and ancient edifice, with a lofty
    spire; and is said to be coeval with the establishment of the
    Christian religion in this country.

                        [Picture: Winwick Church]

    Winwick Hall, residence of the Rector and Lord of the Manor, the Rev.
    J. J. Hornby, is near the church.  This living is one of the
    wealthiest in the kingdom.  Between the village of Winwick and town
    of Newton, is an elevated piece of ground, called Red Bank, from its
    having been, in 1648, the scene of a battle between Oliver Cromwell
    and the Scots, when the latter were defeated with great slaughter.

A short distance brings us to the

                             Newton Junction.



CHAPTER IX.
NEWTON JUNCTION TO LIVERPOOL.
Fourteen and ¾ Miles.


HAVING to describe the railroad branches to Liverpool and Manchester, we
shall now continue our account along the Liverpool part of the line, and
in the next Chapter take the “Newton to Manchester” portion.  Leaving the
Newton Junction, and turning to the left, the E. becomes North, and the
W. we must call South.  The constant traffic on the Liverpool and
Manchester line, and the numerous trains journeying to and fro, render it
a much more busy and stirring scene than the Birmingham railroad is at
present.

    The Grand Junction Company rent the use of this Liverpool and
    Manchester railway at 20,000 per annum.  The exact length of the
    Liverpool and Manchester railway, from the station, Lime-street,
    Liverpool, to Water-street, Manchester, is thirty miles and three
    quarters, and thirty yards.

A short distance from the Junction is the Sankey Viaduct, a grand and
stupendous work; the arches are nine in number, and fifty feet span; the
embankments leading to and from it, are from sixty to eighty feet above
the level country.  Newton Common and Race-ground, the stand on which is
a conspicuous object, lie to the N., with the Billinge hills behind,
Burton Wood S., and the Sankey Canal winds along from either side.  After
passing



Collin’s Green Station


Bold Hall (seat of Sir Henry Houghton) appears to the S., and we soon
enter on the Parr Moss, passing the Sutton copper works on the N.



St. Helen’s and Runcorn Junction Station.


HERE the St. Helen’s line branches to the N., and the Runcorn Gap
Railway, S.  Shirley Hall lies on the N. side.  On the S., is the
Engine-house, where an engine is stationed to assist trains in ascending
the Sutton inclined plane.  Proceeding through the Sutton cutting, and
under several fine arches, the



Lea Green Station, (top of Sutton incline,)


at the summit of the elevation, is gained, and Rainhill level entered
upon.  The village of Sutton and Grove Hall are nearly hidden from view
by the surrounding trees.



Kendrick’s Cross Station, Rainhill.


FROM Rainhill station the line passes through a short cutting, and then
descends the Whiston inclined plane.  Prescot Church is on the N. side,
with Ellsby Hills and Halton Castle on the S.

                    [Picture: Prescot Town And Church]

The town of Prescot, one mile N. of the line, lies principally on a
substratum of coal, several mines of which are excavated to its very
edge.  The district has long been noted for the superior construction of
watch tools and motion-work.  The drawing of pinion-wire originated here;
and small files, considered to be of great excellence, are made and
exported in large quantities.  Coarse earthenware, especially sugar
moulds, are here made from the clay of the neighbourhood, which is
particularly adapted to the purpose.  The plate-glass works at Ravenhead
are very extensive and celebrated.  The concave and convex mirrors, and
large plate-glass, being equal, if not superior to any produced on the
Continent.  The Church is ancient; the spire, which was rebuilt in 1789,
is 156 feet high, and is a fine object from the railroad.  In the Church
are several monuments, one by Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A., is of great
beauty.  John Philip Kemble, the tragedian, was born at Prescot, in 1757.
The view of the Cheshire hills in the southward distance, is rich and
extensive.

    Knowsley Park, seat of the Earl of Derby, appears on the N.  The
    mansion has evidently been erected at different periods; its most
    ancient part is of stone, and is said to have been raised by the
    first Earl of Derby, for the reception of his son-in-law, King Henry
    VII., in whose honours the Earl had been mainly instrumental.  Great
    enlargement and decoration of the mansion took place on occasion of
    this royal visit: a handsome stone bridge was thrown across the
    Mersey at Warrington, and an embankment or causeway thrown up across
    the marshes to the rising ground on the Cheshire side.  Many valuable
    and interesting pictures adorn the mansion, which is surrounded by a
    beautiful park.

Several coal, lime, and marble works are passed on either side; and while
traversing the Huyton embankment, Preston church, the Hazels, seat of
Joseph Birch, Esq., and the church and village of Huyton are observed on
the N.  On the S. appears Childwall park, hall, and church; beyond, is
Woolton hall, seat of N. Ashton, Esq.; the whole scene finely wooded.



Huyton Gate and Roby-lane Gate Stations


are shortly passed; the village of Roby lies S. of the line, and closely
adjoining it.  Proceeding onwards, along a pleasant but not very
interesting part, Summer-hill house is seen, the seat of Thomas Case,
Esq.; also, the little church of Notting Ash and Childwall hall, a seat
of the Marquis of Salisbury.



Broad Green Station.


A FEW yards from the station, on the N. side, is a place for the landing
of cattle, sheep, &c.  The line now enters the Olive Mount excavation,
which is an immense chasm, cut in the solid rock, to the depth of from 50
to 70 feet, the precipitous rock forming a grand wall on either side.
The village of Wavertree lies S. of the line, after emerging from the
Olive Mount ravine; Spekelands, the residence of Mrs. Earle, lies also on
the S., and on the N. is the residence of C. Lawrence, Esq. Here the
Liverpool tunnels commence; one, for conveying passengers, &c., into the
Company’s station-yard in Lime-street, turns off on the right hand, and
is 2,230 yards long, 25 feet wide, and 17 feet high.  The other, for the
conveyance of goods, direct to the docks, in a straighter continuation of
the line, is 2,250 yards long, 22 feet wide, and 16 feet high.  Engines
are stationed on each side of the line at this part, each of forty-horse
power, to draw the trains up the inclined plane of the tunnel, in coming
out of Liverpool, and let them down on their arrival from Birmingham.
The locomotive engines being attached to and detached from the trains at
this station.

                                * * * * *

“A Friend to Railways,” in a letter to the Editor of the Railway
Magazine, May 1838, thus describes the mode of drawing the trains up the
inclined plane:—

    “At the upper end of the tunnel, which is 2,250 yards long, there is
    one pair of engines on each side of the road; it being found that a
    much more regular motion is given by this means to the carriages.
    The engines are high-pressure, with side-levers, similar to marine
    engines; the connecting-rods, however, are reversed, and work the
    crank downwards, and are connected to a horizontal shaft of great
    strength running across and under the road in a tunnel, upon which
    shaft a large drum-wheel is placed that works the rope.  In each
    engine-house is a raised platform, upon which the man stands who
    works the engines; this platform leads to a balcony on the outside of
    the engine-house, from which the man can look down the mouth of the
    tunnel; a signal is given by means of an air-pipe running through the
    tunnel, so formed at the upper end as to produce a sound when the air
    is forced into it from the lower extremity.  This, I believe, is the
    invention of Mr. King, of Liverpool.  The engine-man on hearing the
    signal, opens the steam-cock, and the engines start instantly.  This
    work was designed by Mr. Grantham, of the foundery of Messrs. Mather
    and Dickson, of Liverpool, where the machinery was constructed.”

Having now given an account of the whole journey, we must proceed to a
brief history and memoir of Liverpool itself.



CHAPTER X.
LIVERPOOL.


LIVERPOOL is an ancient sea-port, borough, and market town, 205 miles
from London, containing 205,964 inhabitants, exclusive of 10,000 seamen.

    Of its remote antiquity but little can be asserted, amidst the great
    contrariety of opinion which is held on this subject.  Liverpool is
    not noticed in any of the Roman Itinera, neither does the name occur
    in the Norman survey.  After the conquest it was granted by William,
    to Roger de Poictiers, together with all the land between the Ribble
    and the Mersey, and subsequently forfeited.  It was thereupon granted
    to the Earls of Chester; and on forfeiture by their descendants, to
    Edmund, son of Henry III., as parcel of the honour of Lancaster; and
    it remained an integral part of the duchy possessions, until its
    alienation by Charles I., in 1628.

    Various opinions have been hazarded regarding the etymology of the
    name, without reference to the most ancient documents in which it has
    been discovered.  John, whilst Earl of Moreton, and in possession of
    the honour of Lancaster, confirmed a grant made by his father, Henry
    II., to Warin de Lancaster, of _Liverpul_, with other places, under a
    certain _reddendum_.  In subsequent records it is written _Lyrpul_,
    _Lythyrpul_, &c., signifying, probably, in the ancient dialect of
    this country, the “lower pool.”  Some deduce its etymology from a
    pool frequented by an aquatic fowl, called a “Liver,” or from a
    sea-weed of that name; others, and with much more reason, from the
    ancient British word _Lir_, “the sea,” and a spreading water or pool,
    viz., the sea pool, or sea-water pool.

    Camden says the Castle was built by Roger de Poictiers, in 1089; it
    certainly was erected at a very early period.  In October, 1323,
    Edward II. dates his orders, &c., from Liverpool Castle; and in
    April, 1358, Henry, Duke of Lancaster, resided there for a month.  It
    was demolished by order of Parliament, during the commonwealth, and
    in 1715, its site was granted by Queen Anne, to the corporation, who
    built St. George’s Church upon it.  On King John ascending the
    throne, at his brother’s death, he again came into possession of the
    honour of Lancaster, and granted a charter to the town of Liverpool,
    which Henry III., in 1229, confirmed, made the town a free borough,
    instituted a guild merchant, and granted additional privileges.
    These charters have been confirmed, and further ones granted by
    succeeding sovereigns.  The several mandates for fitting-out and
    providing vessels for the royal service, addressed by Edward II. and
    III., and subsequent kings, afford proof of its then being a place of
    extensive trade at this early period; and the fact of the royal order
    for the prohibition of the export of grain, in the time of Richard
    III., being transmitted to Liverpool only, is also a proof of its
    then being the only shipping port in the country.  Leland, in 1558,
    described it thus: “_Lyrpole_, alias _Lyrpoole_, a pavid towne, hath
    but a chapel, Walton, a iiii miles off, not far from the se, is
    paroche chirche.  The king hath a castell there, and the Earle of
    Darbe hath a stone house there.  Irisch marchants cum much thither,
    as to a good haven.  After that Mersey water cumming towards Runcorne
    in Cheshire liseth among the commune people the name, and is Lyrpole.
    At Lyrpole is smaule costume payid that causith merchants to resorte.
    Good marchaundis at Lyrpole, and much Irisch yarn that Manchester men
    do by ther.”  Liverpool appears to have declined, probably from the
    baneful influences of the wars of York and Lancaster, until the
    latter part of the reign of Elizabeth, when, in a petition from the
    inhabitants to the Queen, it is described as “Her Majesty’s poor
    decayed town of Liverpool.”  Its poverty may be understood from the
    fact, that when Charles I. levied his iniquitous and despotic tax of
    ship money, this town was rated at £26 only, while Bristol was rated
    at £1,000.  In the civil war Liverpool was alternately held by the
    Parliamentarians, taken by Prince Rupert, and retaken by the
    Parliament.  In the reign of William III., that monarch, with part of
    his train, embarked at this port for Ireland, previously to the
    battle of the Boyne; and regiments and privateer vessels were here
    equipped against the Pretender and the French.

    Times and manners are somewhat changed here since 1617, when one of
    the orders of the common-council demanded, “that every council-man
    shall come to council _clean-shaved_, and in his long clothes.”
    Slander and gossip were very severely punished by the civic
    dignitaries, it being a law, “that if any man speak ill of the mayor,
    he shall lose his freedom.”

The most important feature in the history of this place, is the
extraordinary rapidity with which it has risen into a degree of splendour
and importance, without example in the history of any commercial country.
Among the causes which have produced its elevation to a rank but
partially inferior to the metropolis, are, its situation on the shore of
a noble river, which expands into a wide estuary; its proximity to the
Irish coast; its central position with respect to the United Kingdom; its
intimate connexion with the principal manufacturing districts, and with
every part of the kingdom, by numerous rivers, canals, and railroads, and
the persevering industry and enterprising spirit of its inhabitants.
Without the romance, we may see among them the reality of the
merchant-nobles of Genoa and Venice; and the grandeur which pervades the
modern buildings of our English port may scarcely be outvied in
stateliness, and certainly not in fitness and utility, by any palace-city
of the past.

As we passed along the busy quays of these crowded docks, and thought of
the wealth conveyed by the winged couriers of the ocean there
congregated, the following gorgeous lines in Marlow’s Jew of Malta,
occurred to us: perhaps the expectant owners of argosies bound
hitherward, deal not quite so largely as the poet’s Croesus, in jewelled
treasures; but we cannot very honestly change amethysts into tobacco, nor
bags of fiery opals into bales of cotton wool; the circumstances of the
case may therefore be allowed to vary a little, without our transposing
the terms:—

    “As for those Samnites, and the men of Uzz,
    That bought my Spanish oils, and wines of Greece,
    Here have I purst their paltry silverlings,
    Fie! what a trouble ’tis to count this trash!
    Give me the merchants of the Indian mines,
    That trade in metal of the purest gold;
    The wealthy Moor, that in the eastern rocks
    Without control can pick his riches up,
    And in his house keep pearls like pebble stones;
    Receive them free, and sell them by the weight:
    Bags of fiery opals, sapphires, amethysts,
    Jacinths, hard topaz, grass-green emeralds,
    Beauteous rubies, sparkling diamonds,
    And seld’ seen costly stones of so great price,
    As one of them, indifferently rated,
    And of a caract of this quality
    May serve, in peril of calamity
    To rescue great kings from captivity.
    This is the ware wherein consists my wealth,
    And thus methinks, should men of judgment frame
    Their means of traffic from the vulgar trade,
    And as their wealth increaseth, so inclose
    Infinite riches in a little room.
    But now—how stands the wind?
    Into what corner peers my halcyon’s bill?
    Ha! to east? yes:—see how stands the vane?
    East and by south, why then I hope my ships
    I sent from Egypt, and the bordering isles,
    Are gotten up by Nilus’ winding banks:
    Mine argosies from Alexandria,
    Loaden with spice and silks, now under sail
    Are smoothly gliding down by Candy shore
    To Malta, through our Mediterranean sea.”

We have, ere this, noted many a merchant (not of Venice) to whom we have
mentally applied Salarino’s words to Antonio; and few will grudge the
space we here occupy, by a quotation so apt and beautiful:—

    “_Salorino_.  Your mind is tossing on the ocean;
    There, where your argosies with portly sail,
    Like seigniors and rich burghers of the flood,
    Or, as it were, the pageants of the sea,—
    Do overpeer the petty traffickers,
    That curtsey to them, do them reverence,
    As they fly by them with their woven wings.
                   —My wind, cooling my broth,
    Would blow me to an ague, when I thought
    What harm a wind too great might do at sea.
    I should not see the sandy hour-glass run,
    But I should think of shallows and of flats,
    And see my wealthy Andrew docked in sand,
    Vailing her high-top lower than her ribs,
    To kiss her burial.  Should I go to church,
    And see the holy edifice of stone,
    And not bethink me straight of dangerous rocks?
    Which touching but my gentle vessel’s side,
    Would scatter all her spices on the stream,
    Enrobe the rolling waters with my silks,
    And, in a word, but even now worth this,
    And now worth nothing.  Shall I have the thought
    To think on this; and shall I lack the thought
    That such a thing be-chanced, would make me sad?
    But, tell not me; I know, Antonio
    Is sad to think upon his merchandise.
    _Antonio_.  Believe me, No; I thank my fortune for it,
    My ventures are not in one bottom trusted,
    Nor to one place: nor is my whole estate
    Upon the fortune of this present year:
    Therefore my merchandise makes me not sad.”

                                                               SHAKSPEARE.

    The commerce of the port may be divided into three branches: first,
    the trade with Ireland, whence a variety of produce, chiefly grain,
    cattle, &c., is imported, the gross value of which has amounted
    annually to £4,497,708, exclusive of linen and manufactured wares.
    Liverpool enjoys about two-fifths of the Irish trade.  The chief
    exports are British manufactured goods, salt, coal, and general
    merchandise.  The second principal branch of trade is that with the
    United States of America, of which it engrosses more than
    three-fourths of the whole commerce of the kingdom.  The chief import
    is cotton wool, and from this port Manchester and the manufacturing
    districts are supplied with the raw material.  Tobacco is also
    imported to an _alarming_ extent.  The average quantity annually
    introduced for the contamination of our atmosphere, being 7,623
    _hogsheads_—what a fearful store of materials for smoking the brains,
    and dusting the nostrils of our fellow-creatures!  A great quantity
    of American flour is also imported.  The third branch of the trade is
    that with the West Indies, which commenced about the middle of the
    seventeenth century, and which was previously engrossed by London and
    Bristol.  Sugar, rum, and coffee, are the chief luxuries we receive
    thence through the other ports.  The trade with the East Indies is
    smaller; the imports are cotton, indigo, hides, ginger, pepper, and
    sugar.  With the ports of the Mediterranean and Levant seas,
    Liverpool has considerable traffic, importing wine, fruits, lemon and
    lime juice, olive and other oils, barilla, and brimstone.  From Egypt
    is brought cotton; and from the Baltic sea-ports, timber, tallow, &c.
    The gross receipts of the customs at this port alone, exceed the sum
    derived from the nine other principal ports of the three kingdoms
    (London excepted), viz., Bristol, Hull, Newcastle, Leith, Glasgow,
    Greenock, Dublin, Belfast, and Cork.  Vessels from, and bound to, all
    parts of the globe, are congregated here; and there is scarcely a
    place in the world accessible to the British flag, to which a ready
    conveyance is not afforded from this enterprising port.

The harbour is capacious and secure: at the entrance of the river is the
Black Rock Lighthouse, erected on a point of rock on the western coast.
A floating light is also placed eleven miles seaward from the mouth of
the river.

For the security of the shipping in the port, and for the greater
facility of loading and unloading merchandise, immense ranges of docks
and warehouses, extending upwards of two miles along the eastern bank of
the river, have been constructed, on a scale of unparalleled
magnificence; and forming one of those characteristics of commercial
greatness in which this town is unrivalled.  The docks are of three
kinds:—the wet docks, which are chiefly for ships of great burden,
employed in the foreign trade, and which float in them at all states of
the tide, the water being retained by gates; the dry docks, so called
because they are left dry when the tide is out, are chiefly appropriated
to coasting vessels; and the graving docks, which admit or exclude the
water at pleasure, are adapted to the repair of ships, during which they
are kept dry, and when completed are floated out by admitting the tide.
The Canning Dock is chiefly occupied by sloops from the north coast,
which import corn, provisions, and slate, and convey back the produce of
the Mediterranean, the West Indies, Portugal, and the Baltic: it has a
quay 500 yards in length.  The Salthouse Dock is for vessels in the
Levant, Irish, and coasting trades: the quay is 759 yards in extent.
George’s Dock has a quay 1001 yards in length.  The King’s Dock is
appropriated to vessels from Virginia and other parts, laden with
tobacco; which article is exclusively landed here, and occupies a range
of warehouses 575 feet in length, and 239 in depth.  The Queen’s Dock,
470 yards long, with a spacious quay, is chiefly occupied by vessels
freighted with timber, and by those employed in the Dutch and Baltic
trades.  The Brunswick Dock is larger than any of the preceding, and
receives vessels laden with timber.  Prince’s Dock is 500 yards in
length, with spacious quays, and along the west side is a beautiful
marine parade, 750 yards long, and eleven wide, defended by a stone
parapet wall, from which is a delightful view of the river and the
shipping: it is much frequented as a promenade.  To the westward of these
are the Clarence Dock and Basin, appropriated solely to the use of the
steam vessels trading to and from the port: there are several smaller
docks, and considerable additions are contemplated.  When these are
completed, the whole range of docks will be two miles and 820 yards in
length, exclusively of the openings to the several docks: the total area
of water space contained in them is upwards of ninety statute acres, and
the extent of the quays in lineal measure is 12,511 yards, or upwards of
seven miles; yet spacious as they are, they are still considered
inadequate to the increasing commerce of the port.  Several ranges of
commodious baths are situated in the vicinity of the docks; there are
hot, cold, floating, and medicated vapour baths.

                                * * * * *

The new Custom-house is a superb and beautiful edifice, in the Grecian
style of architecture, 454 feet in length, 224 in depth, with three
principal fronts of great magnificence.  The Exchange buildings, erected
by the late Mr. John Forster, form sides of a quadrangular area, in the
centre of which is a monument to the memory of Lord Nelson.  The north
front of the Hall forms the fourth side of this square.  This is a
stately and magnificent structure in the Grecian style, with four elegant
fronts, and contains on the ground floor a council-room, and apartments
for the mayor, town clerk, pensioners, and corporation.  The grand
staircase leads into a spacious saloon, splendidly decorated with royal
portraits by Lawrence, Hopner, Phillips, &c.  Two spacious ball-rooms,
and two richly furnished drawing rooms, decorated with marble pillars,
chandeliers, &c., are entered from the saloon.  A grand banquet-room,
refectory, &c., &c., fitted up with great taste and splendour, are also
comprised in this grand suite of apartments.  The Public Subscription
Libraries are numerous and well selected.  The Athenæum contains a
news-room and an extensive library.  The Lyceum is a handsome edifice of
the Ionic order; contains a library, coffee-room, lecture, and
committee-rooms.  The Union News-room, Exchange News-room, Medical and
Law Libraries, are all well supported.  The Royal Institution is a
spacious and handsome edifice, containing on the ground floor, lecture,
reading, and school-rooms; on the first floor, a large room for the
Literary and Philosophical Society, a library, museum, spacious
exhibition rooms for the Liverpool Academy of painting, &c.  On the roof
is an observatory, and behind are a laboratory and a theatre for chemical
and philosophical experiments.  This institution was formed in 1814, for
the advancement of literature, science, and the arts; and the members
were incorporated by royal charter, in 1822.  Professors, lecturers, and
masters are appointed by the society.  The Botanic Gardens near Edge
Hill, and the Zoological Gardens, are valuable additions to the rational
and profitable amusements of the inhabitants.  There is a Theatre,
Amphitheatre, and Circus, the former for the drama, the two latter for
equestrian performances and pantomimes.  The Wellington Rooms, for balls,
are admirably adapted for such gay scenes.  The summer races in July
continue four days, the course lies five miles to the N.E. of the town.
The grand stand is capable of accommodating 2,000 persons.  The chartered
market days are Wednesday and Saturday, and for corn, Tuesday and Friday.
The Market-houses are numerous, handsome, and commodious.

                                * * * * *

The corporation of Liverpool have an income of above £100,000 per annum,
a great portion of which is expended in the improvement of the port and
embellishment of the town.  The Churches of the Establishment are about
twenty-four in number, some of them of great architectural beauty.  In
addition to the Churchyards, there are two extensive Cemeteries, one near
Edge-hill; the other occupying a large tract of ground, excavated as a
quarry for stone used in the building of the docks, and converted into a
depository for the dead, at an expense of £21,000; it is tastefully laid
out, and has a suitable chapel for the performance of the funeral
service.  The buildings dedicated to religious purposes by the several
sects of Dissenters, are about forty in number, some of them of
considerable beauty.  The Public Schools are very numerous, and so well
supported as to render them valuably and most extensively useful.  That
for the indigent blind, was established in 1791; 120 pupils now receive
instruction in various branches, and are taught spinning, basket-making,
the weaving of linen, sacking, carpeting, the making of list shoes,
twine, worsted rugs, and other trades, by which they may earn a
livelihood; they are also instructed in music.  Asylums and Institutions,
too numerous to be here enumerated; Hospitals, Infirmaries; Societies for
the assistance and relief of aged seamen, and other humane and admirable
purposes, are, by the munificence of the inhabitants, all enabled to
administer in no small degree to the wants and misfortunes of suffering
fellow-beings.

                                * * * * *

Among the distinguished natives of the town may be noticed Jeremiah
Horrox, the astronomer, born 1619, at Toxteth Park, near Liverpool.  He
is supposed to have been the first person who ever predicted or observed
the transit of Venus over the sun’s disk.  He died on the 3rd of January,
1641, a few days after completing his treatise on the transit which took
place in the November preceding.  George Stubbs, the animal painter, born
1724.  William Sadler, who invented the application of copper-plate
prints to the embellishment of earthenware.  William Roscoe, author of
the lives of Lorenzo de Medici, and of Leo X.  He died in 1831, aged
seventy-nine, equally beloved and regretted for his excellence as a man,
and for his ability as an author.  The Rev. William Shepherd, author of
the life of Poggio Brachiolini, &c., an elegant writer, and earnest
reformer.  Dr. Currie, the intelligent biographer of Burns, was also a
native of Liverpool, as was the gentle-minded and truly feminine poet,
Felicia Hemans.

                                * * * * *

The manufactures of Liverpool, are chiefly such as are connected with the
port and the shipping, the promotion of its commerce, and the supply of
its inhabitants.  There are several very large sugar refineries,
extensive potteries, glass-houses, breweries, tanneries, salt and
copperas works, iron and brass foundries, foundries for cannon, anchors,
chain-cables, and steam engine machinery, manufactories for
steam-boilers, engines, also guns, small arms, sails, cordage, watches,
tobacco, snuff, and soap.  There are numerous mills for grinding corn,
mustard, colours, and dye-woods: the manufacture of soap exceeds that of
any place in England.  The average number of watches made annually, is
11,500, a number greater than any town, except London.  Ship-building is
carried on to a great extent; several men-of-war have been launched from
the dock-yards; and in the building of steam vessels, Liverpool takes the
lead of all other ports.  The trade of the town is greatly facilitated by
the extensive inland navigation in every direction, by which it is
connected with the manufacturing districts and chief towns in the
kingdom.  No less than five water conveyances fall into the Mersey, viz.,
the Mersey and Irwell Navigation, Duke of Bridgewater’s Canal, Sankey
Canal, Chester and Ellesmere Canal, and Weaver Navigation, opening
communication with Manchester, Bolton, Hull, South Lancashire,
Birmingham, Worcestershire, South of England, and Wales.

    The information required by the traveller respecting inns,
    coach-offices, &c., will be found in the Appendix; together with a
    list of places of amusement and interest, worthy the attention of a
    stranger in this great and truly splendid sea-port.



CHAPTER XI.
NEWTON JUNCTION TO MANCHESTER,
Fourteen and ¾ Miles.


ON leaving the Newton (or, as it is called in the neighbourhood,
Warrington) Junction, the neat little town of Newton is seen N. of the
line, not far from the Legh Arms Hotel, a comfortable and reasonable
house.

                        [Picture: Town of Newton]

Opposite, lying S. of the line, we again see the spire of Winwick Church,
Mow Copp, and the Cheshire and Rivington hills appear in the distance.



Park Side Station.


HERE the machine and apparatus for supplying the engines with fuel and
water is well worth observing, though with great caution, as there are
five lines of rails in this place; and the difficulty of escaping from a
coming train is no small one to a stranger, who, standing upon, or among
them, would find himself greatly bewildered in any emergency.  The
horrible death of Mr. Huskisson, from the injuries he received at this
very spot, may be a salutary warning to the adventurous.  A white marble
slab in the wall commemorates the awful event, which it is useless to
allude to further, the particulars being so well known.  The Wigan
Junction Line branches off a short distance from this point.  Passing a
short cutting on Highfield Moor, we reach the most considerable one on
the Manchester and Liverpool line, the Kenyon excavation, the materials
taken from which contributed mainly towards the adjacent embankments.
The Bolton Junction line turns N. from this part, at which is



The Bolton Junction Station.


WE now enter on the Brossley embankment, and observe Culcheth Hall, S.,
and Hurst Hall, N. of the line; the former the residence of T. E.
Withington, Esq., the latter of T. Molineux Steel, Esq.



Bury-Lane Station


closely adjoins the Chat Moss tavern, near which the line crosses the
little stream Glazebrook.  S. is a farmhouse, called Light Oats Hall.
Here commences an embankment planted with trees; passing which we enter
on the famed Chat Moss, formerly a barren and cultureless waste; but at
length yielding to agricultural skill and industry, several portions
having already been drained and successfully cultivated.

                           [Picture: Chat Moss]

The road traverses this immense bog for a distance of four miles and
three quarters.  S. of the line is a fine view of the Cheshire and
Derbyshire hills, with the village of Astley and Tildsley Church spire.
Rivington Pike, and the Billinge Beacon lie on the N., and the Chat Moss
all around.  Immense labour and perseverance were required to achieve the
great work of forming a firm and durable road over this swampy tract,
which varies in depth from ten to above thirty feet.

                                * * * * *

Several neat habitations are now erected on the farmlands redeemed from
the swamp: of these, Barton Moss Farm is the chief.  N. of the Moss lies
Worsley Hall, seen from the line, on an eminence.  Botany Bay, a place of
singularly ill-omened name, is also on the left, or N. side.  The hills
before mentioned still form the back ground of the views on either side.
Leaving the Chat Moss by the Barton embankment, the line passes



Patricroft Station;


Near to this are large iron foundries and silk works.  The Bridgewater
Canal passes under, and the turnpike-road over, the line.  Monton Church
and village appear N. of the road; and shortly after, the village and
Church of Eccles are seen on the S.

                         [Picture: Eccles Church]

This small place has achieved fame by two means: the death of Mr.
Huskisson, which took place at the house of the Rev. Mr. Blackburn; and
by its cakes, which the traveller is invited to purchase by a board over
the door of a house close by the station, on which is inscribed, “This is
the noted Eccles cake shop.”  Passing



Waste Lane Station


some cottages and factories, and the city of chimneys, Manchester, appear
in view.  The village of Tinker’s Hollow, and



Cross Lane Bridge Station


being passed, also sundry arches and bridges across the river Irwell, and
the engine, trains, and travellers, are received into the Company’s yard
in Manchester.



CHAPTER XII.
MANCHESTER.


THE town of Manchester, including Salford, contains 270,960 inhabitants,
and is distant from London 186 miles, and from Liverpool thirty-one by
the railroad.

    The origin of this town, which is remarkable for the extent of its
    trade, and the importance of its manufactures, may be traced to
    remote antiquity.  In the time of the Druids, it was distinguished as
    one of the principal stations of their priests, and celebrated for
    the privilege of sanctuary attached to its altar, which, in the
    British language, was called _Meyne_, signifying a stone.  Prior to
    the Christian era, it was one of the principal seats of the
    Brigantes, who had a castle or stronghold, called _Mancenion_, or the
    place of tents, near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell,
    the site of which, still called the “Castle Field,” was selected as a
    station by the Romans, on their conquest of this part of Britain
    under Agricola, about the year 79, and called by them _Mancunium_,
    whence the Saxon _Manceastre_, and our _Manchester_.  The Romans
    occupied this station during nearly four centuries, and formed roads,
    branching off to their surrounding settlements.  Various antiquities
    have been from time to time discovered in the neighbourhood.  After
    the departure of the Romans, a party of Saxons took the fort from the
    Britons, to whom the garrison afterwards surrendered.  In 620, it was
    captured by Edwin, King of Northumbria.  In 627, the inhabitants were
    converted to Christianity, by Paulinus, a missionary from Gregory I.
    Manchester having been taken by the Danes, was wrested from their
    possession, about 920, by Edward the Elder, who rebuilt and fortified
    the town and castle.  For some time it continued prosperous, but
    suffered greatly in the wars between the Danes and Northumbrians.
    The early history of all ancient towns, chiefly “pertains to feats of
    broils and battles;” castles founded, demolished, and rebuilt, to be
    destroyed again; baronial feuds and fierce invasions; with the faint
    and fruitless struggles of _right_ against _might_, make up the dark
    and bloody record.

                                * * * * *

    After the twelfth century, a calmer period arrived; and, though
    occasionally troubled by the pest of war, the fortunes of the now
    wealthy town of Manchester, have been progressively increasing.  From
    the year 1352, we may date the commencement of its manufacturing
    celebrity, when a kind of woollen cloth, made from the fleece, in an
    unprepared state, called “Manchester cotton,” was introduced; and
    some Flemish artisans, invited into England, by Edward III., settled
    in the town, and brought the woollen manufacture to a considerable
    degree of perfection.  At the time of the Reformation, an
    ecclesiastical commission was established at Manchester, and
    exercised great intolerance, imprisoning and executing numbers of
    popish recusants; another of the black and by-gone deeds of our past
    “dark ages.”  During the Parliamentary war, the head-quarters of the
    Parliamentarian army, in Lancashire, were fixed at Manchester, which
    was fortified and defended too well for the Royalist forces to be
    successful in any of their repeated attacks.  In 1652, the walls were
    thrown down, the fortifications demolished, and the gates carried
    away and sold.  The good town of Manchester had grown great and
    wealthy; but we much doubt if it had become particularly grave or
    wise, since we know that extravagant rejoicings, accompanied by every
    splendour of pomp and ceremony, took place at the restoration of the
    not-too-excellent King Charles II., in whose honour, and to the
    glorification of the thirsty woollen-weavers, the public conduits
    flowed with streams of wine, instead of water; a celebration worthy
    of the “merry monarch.”

                                * * * * *

    In 1745, Prince Charles Edward entered Manchester with his army, and
    took up his abode in the house of Mr. Dickenson, in Market-street,
    when he levied money, raised men and horses for his service, and
    after marching about the country, made a rapid retreat into Scotland,
    before the army of the Duke of Cumberland.  The officers of the
    Manchester regiment, were tried for high treason, and executed on
    Kennington Common, two of the heads being placed on Temple Bar, and
    two on the Exchange, Manchester.  With this inhuman and disgraceful
    event, the record of the “fortunes of war,” connected with this
    place, ends,—we will trust for ever.

The various manufactures carried on in Manchester, would occupy a
descriptive work of no small extent, in themselves; and the account which
so small a volume as the present can find space for, must be brief
indeed.  The staple trade is the cotton manufacture, which, in all its
branches, is carried on to an almost incredible extent.  From the time of
Edward III., when the “Manchester cottons” were first introduced, this
branch of trade has been increasing in importance.  About the year 1740,
cotton was manufactured by the spindle and distaff in the cottages of the
workmen, chiefly into fustians, thicksets, dimities, and jeans, to which
other kinds of goods were shortly added.  About the year 1760, these
goods, hitherto made only for home consumption, formed a market on the
continent of Europe and America, and in consequence of the increased
demand, recourse was had to the aid of machinery.  The spinning jennies,
invented by Messrs. Kay and Highs, have been introduced, and greatly
improved by Mr. Hargreaves, whose success, exciting the apprehensions of
the hand-workmen, caused the destruction of his machinery, and his
retreat to Nottingham, where he died in indigence.  Sir Richard
Arkwright, the late Sir Robert Peel, and others, have improved and
invented other machines, which, aided by the power of the steam-engine,
have prodigiously increased the quantity and variety of the goods
manufactured in this town.

                                * * * * *

In the spinning department alone, there are in the town and vicinity 114
factories, worked by 118 steam-engines, the aggregate power of which is
equal to that of 3,981 horses; by this machinery, 2,182,350 spindles, and
6,926 power-looms are set in motion.  The power-looms, a recent
invention, originating with the Rev. Mr. Cartwright, of Holland House,
Kent, were not proved finally successful till 1806.  The factories, in
several of which the whole process of the manufacture, from the
introduction of the raw material, to the completion of the fabric, is
carried on, are immense ranges of building, from six to eight stories in
height, some employing 2,000 persons each, and the whole affording
employment to upwards of 30,000 persons.  The principal articles at
present manufactured are velvets, fustians, jeans, ticking, checks,
ginghams, nankeens, diaper, quilting, calico, muslins, muslinets, cambric
handkerchiefs, small wares, silks, and, in fact, every variety of cotton
and silk goods.  There are also extensive bleaching grounds, works for
printing and dyeing, and all other departments of the manufacture.
Extensive forges, foundries, &c., for the machinery used, laboratories
for chemical productions used in the trade, and mills for the manufacture
of all descriptions of paper; engraving, as connected with the printing
of cotton and muslin goods, is carried on to a great extent; and there
are hat manufactories, and saw mills on a very large scale.  It is
needless to inform the reader, that an inspection of some of these
immense hives of labour and invention, will well repay the trouble of a
visit.  It is a proud feeling to an Englishman to know, that the
productions of the thousand busy hands and whirling wheels around him,
are destined to increase the comfort, refinement, or splendour of
nations, spread far and wide over the globe: and it is a joyful thing to
compare present greatness and secure freedom, with the long past years
when a little bristling fortress and a tented field, scenes of barbaric
bloodshed and grovelling slavery, occupied the spot of earth now devoted
to usefulness, industry, and knowledge.

                                * * * * *

Manchester is situated on the banks of the river Irwell; (which here
receives the tributary streams of the Irk and the Medlock;) on the N.W.
bank lies the newly erected borough of Salford, connected by means of
five bridges with Manchester, of which it forms an integral part.  In
various parts of the town there are altogether nearly sixty bridges.  The
town is well paved, and lighted with gas; and the inhabitants are
supplied with water by the Manchester and Salford Water Company.  The
environs, in many parts, particularly in Broughton, Ardwick-green, and
Gibraltar, are pleasant, and present many ranges of handsome residences,
tasteful villas, and cottages.  In the older parts of the town are
several ancient houses, interspersed with modern dwellings, and, except
where recent improvements have been made, the streets are inconveniently
narrow; the accommodation of trade being more studied here than elegance
and symmetry of appearance.

                                * * * * *

The public buildings and institutions of Manchester are well worthy of
its wealth and importance.  The Exchange and Commercial Buildings, facing
the Market-place, form a spacious handsome edifice, built of Runcorn
stone: containing the News-room, Exchange, Library, Post-office, Chamber
of Commerce, a spacious Dining-room, and other apartments.  The members
of the Literary and Philosophical Society have a suitable building for
their meetings, and have published many volumes of Transactions in the
English, French, and German languages, which are much circulated on the
continent.  The Royal Institution, embracing a variety of objects
connected with literature, science, and the fine arts, has a fine
building in the Grecian style, from a design by Mr. Barry, forming a
splendid addition to the architectural ornaments of the town.  The centre
comprises the Hall and Lecture Theatre, lighted by a lantern from the
ceiling, which may be darkened instantaneously at the will of the
lecturer.  One of the wings is appropriated as the Academy of the Fine
Arts, with Exhibition-rooms, and the other as a Museum of Natural
History.  The whole cost of this elegant pile was estimated at £50,000.
The Town Hall is a noble edifice, from a design by Mr. F. Goodwin, after
the model of the Temple of Erectheus, at Athens, with a beautiful tower
and dome in the centre, resembling the Tower of Andronicus, called “The
Temple of Winds:” it contains various apartments for transacting the
public business of the town, and one splendid room, 132 feet long,
decorated with great elegance.  The Town Hall at Salford is a handsome
and commodious stone edifice by the same architect.  The Society for
promoting the study of natural history, has a valuable and extensive
Museum also; and the town possesses flourishing Mechanics’ Institutions,
Philological Society, Agricultural Society, Botanic Garden, several
Libraries, two Theatres, Assembly-rooms, Concert-rooms, Annual Races, and
Triennial Musical Festivals.  There are twenty-six churches and chapels
belonging to the Establishment, and more than fifty places of worship for
the various denominations of Dissenters.  The windows of St. John’s
Church, in Byrom-street, contain some very ancient and beautiful stained
glass, brought from a convent in Rouen; also, pictures in the vestry, and
a fine piece of sculpture, by Flaxman.  The Free Grammar School, founded
in the 7th of Henry VIII., has a revenue of £4,000, and the number of
scholars is from 150 to 200.  The Blue Coat, St. Paul’s, Lancasterian,
National, and Infants’ Schools, are all highly useful, and well-supported
establishments; and the various Sunday Schools instruct as many as 30,000
children.  The Hospitals and other Charitable Institutions are equally
extensive in their sphere of usefulness, and together with the
establishments before mentioned, worthy of the wealth, intelligence, and
liberality of this great and important town.

                                * * * * *

Among the distinguished natives of Manchester, or persons who have been
otherwise connected with it, may be enumerated, William Crabtree, an
astronomical writer, and inventor of the micrometer, born at Broughton
and killed at the battle of Marston Moor in 1644; John Byrom, a poet, and
author of a system of shorthand; John Ferriar, M.D., author of
Illustrations of Sterne, &c.; Thomas Barritt, the antiquary and
heraldist; Thomas Faulkner, an enterprising traveller, who published the
earliest account of Patagonia, and died in 1774; the Rev. John Whittaker,
the Manchester historian; and others of less renown.  Manchester gives
the title of duke and earl to the family of Montague.  The market days
are Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday; fairs on Easter Monday and Tuesday,
and October 1 and 2.  Salford fairs begin on Whit Monday, for twenty-one
days; and on November 17, for the same time.

                                * * * * *

The information required by the traveller respecting inns, places of
public resort, &c., will be found in the Appendix, under the head of
Manchester.

                                * * * * *

                            END OF THE ROUTE.



REGULATIONS OF THE GRAND JUNCTION AND LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY
COMPANIES.


                      [Picture: Train of the Period]



_REGULATIONS OF THE GRAND JUNCTION RAILWAY COMPANY_.


TIME OF DEPARTURE.—The doors of the Booking Office are closed precisely
at the time appointed for starting, after which no passenger can be
admitted.

BOOKING.—There are no Booking Places, except at the Company’s Offices at
the respective Stations. Each Booking Ticket for the First Class Trains
is numbered to correspond with the seat taken.  The places by the mixed
Trains are not numbered.

LUGGAGE.—Each Passenger’s Luggage will, as far as practicable, be placed
on the roof of the coach in which he has taken his place; carpet bags and
small luggage may be placed underneath the seat opposite to that which
the owner occupies. No charge for _bona fide_ luggage belonging to the
passenger under 100lb. weight; above that weight, a charge is made at the
rate of 1d. per lb. for the whole distance.  No kind of merchandise
allowed to be taken as luggage.  The attention of travellers is requested
to the legal notice exhibited at the different stations, respecting the
limitation of the Company’s liabilities to the loss or damage of luggage.
All passengers by Railway will do well to have their luggage distinctly
marked with their names and destination.

GENTLEMEN’S CARRIAGES AND HORSES.—Gentlemen’s carriages and horses must
be at the Stations at least a quarter of an hour before the time of
departure.  A supply of trucks are kept at all the _principal_ Stations
on the line; but to prevent disappointment it is recommended that
previous notice should be given, when practicable, at the Station where
they may be required.  No charge for landing or embarking carriages or
horses on any part of the line.

ROAD STATIONS.—Passengers intending to join the Trains at any of the
stopping places are desired to be in good time, as the train will leave
each Station as soon as ready, without reference to the time stated in
the tables, the main object being to perform the whole journey as
expeditiously as possible.  Passengers will be booked only conditionally
upon there being room on the arrival of the Trains, and they will have
the preference of seats in the order in which they are booked.  No
persons are booked after the arrival of the Train.—All persons are
requested to get into and alight from the coaches invariably on the left
side, as the only certain means of preventing accidents from Trains
passing in an opposite direction.

CONDUCTORS, GUARDS, AND PORTERS.—Every Train is provided with Guards, and
a Conductor, who is responsible for the order and regularity of the
journey.  The Company’s Porters will load and unload the luggage, and put
it into or upon any omnibus or other carriage at any of the Stations.  No
fees or gratuities allowed to be received by the Conductors, Guards,
Porters, or other persons in the service of the Company.

SMOKING, SELLING OF LIQUORS, &c.—No smoking is allowed in the
Station-houses, or in any of the coaches, even with the consent of the
passengers.  A substantial breakfast may be had at the Station-house at
Birmingham, by parties, going by the early train; but no person is
allowed to sell liquors or eatables of any kind upon the line.—The
Company earnestly hope that the public will co-operate with them in
enforcing this regulation, as it will be the means of removing a cause of
delay, and will greatly diminish the chance of accident.

Goods sent to Birmingham, Manchester, or Liverpool, by the evening
Trains, are generally delivered early on the following morning.



CONVEYANCES TO LOCAL TOWNS FROM STATIONS.


BESCOT BRIDGE.


Conveyance.—A light Van runs from this Station to Walsall for the
conveyance of passengers.


WOLVERHAMPTON.


Conveyances.—Two Omnibuses from the town meet all the Trains.  Coaches to
Shrewsbury, through Shiffnal and Wellington, from the New Hotel:—Royal
Mail, 7½ a.m.; Swallow, 8½ a.m.; *Prince of Wales, 12¾ p.m.; Wonder, 7¼
p.m.  To Shrewsbury, from the Crown and Cushion:—Salopian, 3¼ p.m.,
through Shiffnal, Madeley and Ironbridge.  To Shrewsbury, from the
Railway Station:—An Omnibus, 3 p.m., through Shiffnal and Wellington.  To
Dudley 6¾ a.m.; *1½ p.m.; *4½ p.m.; *6½ p.m.  To Bridgenorth, 4 p.m.

                  Marked thus (*) do not run on Sundays.


STAFFORD.


Conveyances.—Omnibuses are in attendance to convey passengers to any part
of the town.  Coaches to Burton-on-Trent, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, &c., 12½
p.m.  Rugeley and Lichfield, 3¾p.m.  Stone and Newcastle, 4½ p.m.  Stone
and Potteries, 7 p.m.


WHITMORE.


Conveyances.—Coaches daily to Shrewsbury, through Market Drayton.  A
Coach through Newcastle to the Potteries daily.  The Pottery Company and
Green’s Omnibuses daily to Newcastle and Potteries.


BASFORD AND MADELEY STATIONS.


Conveyances.—Conveyances are in waiting at these Stations to take
passengers and goods to Newcastle, the Potteries, or any other place.


CREWE.


Conveyances.—A Coach from Macclesfield, through Congleton and Sandbach,
to Crewe Station, twice daily.  A Coach to Whitchurch, daily.  An Omnibus
from Nantwich to Crewe, to meet all the Trains, and convey passengers to
Nantwich.


HARTFORD.


Conveyances.—Adams’ Omnibus (with the letter bags) to Northwich and
Knutsford, morning and evening.  Mail to Chester and Tarporley, daily.
From Chester there are Coaches to all parts of North and South Wales.


PRESTON-BROOK.


Conveyances.—Leaves Wilson’s Hotel, Runcorn, morning and afternoon, to
meet the Trains, and return on the arrival of the Trains at this station.


WARRINGTON.


Conveyances.—Omnibuses are in attendance to convey passengers to any part
of the town.  Chaises, Cars, or Gigs, to be had in a few minutes’ notice.
Coaches to Macclesfield, Stockport, Liverpool, Carlisle, Edinburgh, and
all parts of the North.



TABLE OF FARES AND DISTANCES.

BIRMINGHAM       BIRMINGHAM
Perry Barr             3¼        Perry Barr.
                    1 6  1 0
Newton Road            6½              3½        Newton Road.
                    1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
Bescot Bridge          9¼              6               2¾        Bescot Bridge.
                    2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
James’s Bridge         10              6¾              3½              ¾         James’s Bridge.
                    2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6 1 0          16  10
Willenhall            11¾              8½              5¼              2½              1¾        Willenhall.
                    2 6  2 0        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
WOLVERHAMPTON         14¼             10¾              7½              4¾              4               2¼        WOLVERHAMPTON.
                    3 0  2 6        2 6  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
Four Ashes             20             16½             13¼             10½              9¾              8               5¾        Four Ashes.
                    4 0  3 0        3 6  3 0        3 0  2 6        2 6  2 0        2 6  2 0        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0
Spread Eagle          21½              18             14¾              12             11¼              9½              7¼              1½        Spread Eagle.
                    4 6  3 6        4 0  3 0        3 6  2 6        3 0  2 0        2 6  2 0        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
Penkridge              24             20½             17¼             14½             13¾              12              9¾              4               2½        Penkridge.
                    5 0  4 0        4 6  3 6        4 0  3 0        3 6  2 6        3 0  2 6        3 0  2 0        2 6  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
STAFFORD              29¼             25¾             22½             19¾              19             17¼              15              9¼              7¾              5¼        STAFFORD.
                    6 0  5 0        5 6  4 6        5 0  4 0        4 6  3 6        4 6  3 6        4 0  3 0        3 6  2 6        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0         16 10
Bridgeford            32½             29¼              26             23¼             22½             20¾             18½             12¾             11¼              8¾              3½        Bridgeford.
                    7 0  5 6        6 0  5 0        6 0  4 6        5 6  4 0        5 0  4 0        5 0  3 6        4 6  3 0        2 6  2 0        2 6  2 0        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0
Norton Bridge          35             31½             28¼             25½             24¾              23             20¾              15             13½              11              5¾              2¼        Norton Bridge.
                    7 6  6 0        6 6  5 0        6 0  5 0        6 0  4 6        5 6  4 6        5 6  4 0        5 0  3 6        3 6  2 6        3 0  2 6        2 6  2 0        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
WHITMORE              43¼             39¾             36½             33¾              33             31¼              29             23¼             21¾             19¼              14             10½              8¼        WHITMORE.
                    9 6  8 0        8 6  7 0        8 0  6 6        7 6  6 0        7 6  6 0        7 0  5 6        6 6  5 0        5 0  4 6        4 6  4 0        4 0  3 6        3 0  2 6        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0
Madeley                46             42½             39¼             36½             35¾              34             31¾              26             24½              22             16¾             13¼              11              2¾        Madeley.
                   10 0  8 6        9 0  7 6        8 6  7 0        8 0  7 0        7 6  6 6        7 6  6 0        7 0  5 6        6 0  5 0        5 6  4 6        5 0  4 0        4 0  3 0        3 0  2 0        2 6  1 6        1 6  1 0
Basford                51             47½              44             41½              41              39              37              31              29              27              22              18              16              8               5         Basford.
                   12 0  10 6      10 6  9 6       10 6  8 6       10 0  8 6       10 0  8 0        9 6  7 6        9 0  7 0        7 6  6 0        7 0  5 6        6 6  5 6        5 0  4 6        4 6  4 0        4 0  3 6        2 6  2 0        1 6  1 0
CREWE                  54             50½             47¼             44½             43¾              42             39¾              34             32½              30             24¾             21¼              19             10¾              8               3         CREWE.
                   12 0  10 6      10 6  9 6       10 6  8 6       10 0  8 6       10 0  8 0        9 6  7 6        9 0  7 0        7 6  6 0        7 0  5 6        6 6  5 6        5 0  4 6        4 6  4 0        4 0  3 6        2 6  2 0        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
Coppenhall             56             52½             49¼             46½             45¾              44             41¾              36             34½              32             26¾             23¼              21             12¾              10              5               2         Coppenhall.
                   12 6  10 6      11 6  9 6       11 6  9 0       10 6  9 0       10 0  8 6       9 6   8 0        9 0  7 0        7 6  7 0        7 6  6 6        6 6  6 0        5 6  5 0        5 0  4 6        4 6  4 0        2 6  2 0        2 0  1 6        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0
Minshull              58¾             55¼              52             49¼             48½             46¾             44½             38¾             37¼             34¾             29½              26             23¾             15½             12¾              8               4¾              2¾        Minshull Vernon.
Vernon             13 0  11 0      12 6  10 6      11 6  10 0      11 0  9 6       11 0  9 0       10 6  8 6       10 0  8 0        8 6  7 0        8 6  7 0        8 0  6 6        6 6  5 6        5 6  5 0        5 6  4 6        3 6  3 0        3 0  2 0        3 0  2 0        1 6  1 0         16 10
Winsford              61¼             57¾             54½             51¾              51             49¼              47             41¼             39¾             37¼              32             28½             26¼              18             15¼              10              7¼              5¼              2½        Winsford.
                   13 6  11 6      12 6  11 0      12 0  10 6      11 6  10 0      11 0  9 6       10 6  9 6       10 0  9 0        9 0  8 0        8 6  7 6        8 6  7 0        7 0  6 0        6 6  5 0        6 0  5 0        4 6  3 6        3 0  2 6        3 0  2 6        1 6 1 0         1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
HARTFORD *            65¾             62¾              59             56¼             55½             53¾             51½             45¾             44¼             41¾             36½              33             30¾             22½             19¾              15             11¾              9¾              7               4½        HARTFORD.
                   14 0  12 0      13 6  11 6      13 0  11 0      12 0  10 6      11 6  10 0      11 0  9 6       10 6  9 0       10 0  8 6        9 6  8 0        9 0  7 0        7 6  6 6        7 0  6 0        6 6  5 6        5 0  4 0        4 0  3 0        4 0  3 0        2 6  1 6        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
Acton                 68¼             64¾             61½             58¾              58             56¼              54             48½             46¾             44¼              39             35½             33¼              25             22¼              17             14¼             12¼              9½              7               2½        Acton.
                   15 0  12 6      14 6  12 0      14 0  11 6      13 6  11 0      13 0  11 0      12 6  10 6      12 0  10 0      10 6  9 0       10 0  8 6        9 6  8 0        8 6  7 6        8 0  6 0        7 6  6 0        5 6  4 6        5 0  4 0        5 0  4 0        3 0  2 6        2 6  2 0        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
Preston Brook         72½              69             65¾              63             62¼             60½             58¼             52½              51             48½             43¼             39¾             37½             29¼             26½             21½             18½             16½             13¾             11¼              6¾              4¼        Preston Brook.
                   15 6  13 6      15 0  13 0      14 0  12 6      13 6  12 0      13 6  12 0      13 0  11 6      12 6  11 0      11 0  9 6       11 0  9 6       10 6  9 0        9 6  8 0        8 6  7 0        8 6  7 0        6 6  5 6        5 6  5 0        5 6  5 0        4 0  3 6        3 6  3 0        3 0  2 6        2 6  2 0        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
Moore                  75             71½             68¼             65¼             64¾              63             60¾              55             53½              51             45¾             42¼              40             31¾              29              24              21              19             16¼             13¾              9¼              6¾              2½        Moore.
                   16 0  14 0      15 6  13 6      14 6  13 6      14 0  12 6      13 6  12 6      13 0  12 0      12 6  11 6      11 6  10 6      11 0  10 0      10 6  9 6       10 0  8 6        9 0  7 6        9 0  7 6        7 0  6 0        6 0  5 6        6 0  5 6        4 6  4 0        4 0  3 0        3 6  3 0        3 0  2 6        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
WARRINGTON             78             74½             71¼             68¼             67¾              66             63¾              58             56¼              54             48¾             45¼              43             34¾              32              27              24              22             19¼             16¾             12¼              9¾              5½              3         WARRINTON.
                   17 0  14 0      16 0  14 0      15 6  13 6      15 0  13 0      14 6  12 6      14 0  12 6      13 6  12 0      12 0  11 0      12 0  10 6      11 6  10 0      10 6  9 0        9 6  8 0        9 0  8 0        7 6  6 0        6 6  5 6        6 6  5 6        5 0  4 6        4 6  4 0        4 0  3 6        3 6  3 0        2 6  2 0        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
Newton                82¾             79¼              76             73¼             72½             70¾             68½             62¾             61¼             58¾             53½              50             47¾             39½             36¾              32             28¾             26¾              24             21½              17             14½             10¼              7¾              4¾        Newton Junction.
Junction           18 0  15 0      17 6  14 6      16 6 14 6       16 0  14 0      15 6  13 6      15 0  13 6      15 0  13 0      14 0  12 0      13 6  11 6      13 0  11 0      11 6  10 0      11 0  9 0       10 6  8 6        8 0  7 0        7 6  6 6        7 6  6 6        6 0  5 0        5 6  4 6        5 0  4 6        5 0  4 0        3 6  3 0        3 0  2 6        2 0  1 6        1 6  1 0        1 6  1 0
MANCHESTER            97¼              94             90¼              88             87¼             85½             83¼             77½              76             73½             68¼             64¾             62½             54¼             51½             46½             43½             41¼             38¾             36¼             31¾             29¼              25             22½             19½             14¾                 MANCHESTER.
                   21 0  17 0      21 0  17 0      21 0  16 6      19 6  16 0      19 6  16 0      19 0  15 6      19 0  15 0      16 6  14 0      16 6  14 0      16 0  13 6      15 0  12 6      14 0  12 0      13 6  11 6      12 0  10 0      11 0  9 6       11 0  9 6        9 6  8 0        9 0  7 6        8 0  7 0        7 6  6 6        7 0  6 0        6 0  5 6        5 6  4 6        5 0  4 0        4 0  3 6        4 0  3 6
LIVERPOOL             97¼              94             90¾              88             87¼             85½             83¼             72½              76             73½             68¼             64¾             62½             54¼             51½             46½             43½             41¼             38¾             36¼             31¾             29¼              25             22½             19½             14¾              30         LIVERPOOL.
                   21 0  17 0      21 0  17 0      21 0  16 6      19 6  16 0      19 6  16 0      19 0  15 6      19 0  15 0      16 6  14 0      16 6  14 0      16 0  13 6      15 0  12 6      14 0  12 0      13 6  11 6      12 0  10 0      11 0  9 6       11 0  9 6        9 6  8 0        9 0  7 6        8 0  7 0        7 6  6 6        7 0  6 0        6 0  5 6        5 6  4 6        5 0  4 0        4 0  3 6        4 0  3 6        6 0  4 6

_Explanation_.—To find the fare and distance from one station to
another—say Stafford to Wolverhampton.  Find Stafford in the first
column, carry your eye along the column opposite to which it is placed
until you arrive at Wolverhampton placed in the slanting column, and
there the fare and distance will be found.

***  The figures at the top of each square denote the distance, those on
the left hand the fare by the _first_ class carriages, (_whether in first
class or mixed class trains_) and those on the right hand the fare by the
_second_ class carriages.

                     [_Entered at Stationer’s Hall_.]

* The Fares from Stations above Hartford, to Stations on the Manchester
and Liverpool Line, are the same as to Manchester and Liverpool.  But the
Fares from Hartford, Acton, Preston Brook, Moore, and Warrington, to the
Stations on the Manchester and Liverpool Line, are in proportion to the
distance.

The Fare from Birmingham to any Station on the Liverpool and Manchester
Line is in proportion.

N.B.—The Mixed Trains also take up and set down Passengers _to or from
any part of the Grand Junction Railway_, at all the usual Stopping Places
on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.—An allowance is _included_ in
the above Tables of five minutes for _all_ the Trains at the _principal_
Stations, and of three minutes for _the Mixed Trains_, at the
intermediate stopping places.—No Fare is less than One Shilling by the
principal Trains.—The Fare between the intermediate Stopping Places is at
the rate of about 2½d. per mile for First, and 1½d. for Second Class
Passengers.  Tables of which are kept at each of the Stations.

Parties arriving at Birmingham by the early Trains, can go on in the same
carriage to the London and Birmingham Railway Station, and so proceed by
the London Train.


Departures

       FROM LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER TO BIRMINGHAM.
       3 A.M.  First, joins London Train at       8 30 A.M.
    6 30 A.M.  Mixed ,,                          12 30 P.M.
    9 15 A.M.  1st Class ,,                       2 30 P.M.
   11 30 A.M.  1st Class ,,                       4 30 P.M.
    4 30 P.M.  Mixed
       6 P.M.  1st Class ,,                      11 30 P.M.

                                * * * * *

      FROM BIRMINGHAM TO LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER.
       3 A.M.  First              2 30 P.M.  1st Class
       6 A.M.  Mixed Train           4 P.M.  Mixed
   11 30 A.M.  1st Class             5 P.M.  1st Class

The 3 A.M. Train from Liverpool starts from the Station, Edge Hill, to
which place any Passenger wishing to go by this Train must proceed to
take his place.


On Sundays.

       FROM LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER TO BIRMINGHAM.
       3 A.M.  First, joins London Train at       8 30 A.M.
    7 30 A.M.  Mixed ,,                           1 30 P.M.
   11 30 A.M.               ,,
       6 P.M.               ,,                   11 30 P.M.
       FROM BIRMINGHAM TO LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER.
       3 A.M.
    7 30 A.M.  Mixed
   11 30 A.M.  Mixed
       5 P.M.               ,,

         The Trains on Sundays stop at First Class Stations only.

  By the Trains at  A.M.
                 3
              9 15  A.M.     on week            3  A.M.         on
                             days, and
                             at
             11 30  A.M.                     7 30  A.M.      Sundays
             and 6  P.M.                    and 6  P.M.

First Class Passengers, Horses, and Carriages will, if required, be
booked throughout from Liverpool and Manchester only, to London, (but not
to any other place on the London and Birmingham Line for the present,)
without change of Carriage at Birmingham. A certain number only can be
booked by each train in this manner.

No Horses can be booked further than Birmingham, unless they belong to a
Carriage or Passenger accompanying one of the above-mentioned Trains.

Horses and Carriages should be at the Stations and booked at least a
quarter of an hour before the time of departure.


Fares.

   BETWEEN LIVERPOOL OR MANCHESTER AND          FROM LIVERPOOL OR
               BIRMINGHAM.                 MANCHESTER TO LONDON, WHEN
                                           BOOKED THROUGHOUT AS ABOVE
                                £.     s.
Six Inside 1st Class Coach       1      1
Second Class Closed              0     17          Day Trains.
Carriages
Third Class Open Carriage        0     11  6 Inside Coach, G.J. 21s.
by 6½ a.m. Train from                      London £1. 10s. = £2. 11s.
Liverpool or Manchester,
and by 6 a.m. Train from
Birmingham
Passengers booked by this conveyance for   4 Inside Coach, G.J. 23s.
the entire distance only.                  London £1. 10s. = £2. 13s.
Children under Ten Years of age Half              Night Trains.
Price. Ditto in arms free
                                           6 Inside Coach, G.J. 21s.
                                           London £1. 12s. 6d. = £2.
                                           13s. 6d.
                                           4 Inside Coach, G.J. 23s.
                                           London £1. 12s. 6d. = £2.
                                           15s. 6d.
One Horse                        2      0  G.J. £2        £4.      10s
                                           London
                                           £2. 10s =
Two Horses, if one               3      0  ,,   £3         £8
property and in one box.                   ,,   £5
                                           =
Three do do                      4      0  ,,   £4        £10
                                           ,,   £6
                                           =
Dogs each                        0      3
Gentlemen’s Carriages,           3      0  ,,   £3        £6.     15s.
four wheels                                ,,   £3.
                                           15s =
Do   do   two wheels             2      0  ,,   £2        £5.     15s.
                                           ,,   £3.
                                           15s =
Passengers in Private            0     17  ,,  17s.       £1.     17s.
Carriages                                  Lond.
                                           (20s. Day
                                           25s.           £2.      2s.
                                           Night
Servants                         0     14  ,,  14s.       £1.     14s.
                                           ,,  20s.
                                           Day
                                           25s.           £1.     19s.
                                           Night
Grooms in charge of              0     14
Horses, if riding with
them in the box.
Servants, in attendance on       0     17
their Employers, may ride
outside, if there be room,
by First Class Trains, at
Second Class Fares.

For intermediate distances all Carriages, whether on two or four wheels,
will be charged alike.

Passengers are particularly requested to see that their Luggage is safely
loaded on the Carriages before starting, and that it is legibly directed
with the Owner’s name, address, and destination.


Officers of the Grand Junction Railway:—


JOHN MOSS, Esq., OF LIVERPOOL, CHAIRMAN.

C. LAWRENCE, Esq., OF LIVERPOOL, DEPUTY CHAIRMAN.

J. R. CHORLEY, Esq., OF LIVERPOOL, TREASURER.

MR. S. EBORALL, CHIEF AGENT AT BIRMINGHAM.

MR. G. BAKER, CHIEF AGENT AT MANCHESTER.



GRAND JUNCTION RAILWAY.—CONVEYANCE OF MERCHANDISE.


The rates for the conveyances of Merchandise from Liverpool and
Manchester to Birmingham, and from Birmingham to Liverpool and Manchester
respectively, for the present, are as follows:—

1st Class—Heavy hardware, 1s 6d. per cwt.  No charge less than 1s. 6d.

2nd Class—Bale goods, fruit, grocery, shoes, shell fish, wines and
spirits in casks, &c., &c., 2s. per cwt.

3rd Class—Silk goods, light trusses, toys, wines and spirits in bottles
packed, fish, furniture, wool, tea, &c., &c., 2s. 6d. and 3s. per cwt.

4th Class—Hats, light glasses in crates, and milliner’s boxes, &c., 7s.
per cwt.



Charge for Parcels to date from Oct. 1st, 1838, between Liverpool and
Manchester and Birmingham.

                                                     s.      d.
                      Under 18lbs. weight.
For any distance under 35 miles                         0       6
      ,, ,, above 35, and not exceeding 50 miles        1       0
Entire distance                                         1       6
                      Above 18lbs. weight.
For any distance under 35 miles                       ½d. per lb.
      ,, ,, above 35, and not exceeding 50 miles           ¾d. ,,
      ,, ,, ,, 50, to the entire distance                 1d.  ,,
            From Liverpool and Manchester to London.
15 lbs. and under                                     2s.     6d.
Above 15 lbs.                                         2d. per lb.

Large light packages will be charged according to the bulk, &c., at the
discretion of the Company.  Any person sending a parcel is authorised to
require its being booked in his presence, as the Company will not be
answerable for any parcels that are not entered in their books.



LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY.


Travelling by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, 1838.—The following
are the Times of Departure both from Lime Street Station, Liverpool, and
from Liverpool Road Station, Manchester.

First Class, 7, 9, 11, a.m., and 2, 3, 7, p.m.

Second Class, 7¼, 10, 12, a.m., and 3, 5½, 7, p.m.—Stopping only at
Newton, except on Tuesdays and Saturdays, when the evening Second Class
Train from Manchester starts at 6, instead of 5½ o’clock.



On Sundays.


First Class, 8 a.m. and 5 p.m.—Second Class, 7 a.m. and 5½ p.m.


Fares.

                                                         s.     d.
By First Class train—Four inside—Royal Mail               6      6
         ditto—Six  inside—Glass Coach                    6      0
By 2nd Class train—Glass Coaches                          6      0
         ditto—Open carriages                             4      6
Charge for the conveyance of Four-wheeled carriages      20      0
         ditto—Two-wheeled ditto                         15      0
Horses—For One horse 10s. —Two horses 18s. —Three horses 22s.

N.B.—All Horses must be embarked at the Company’s Station, EDGE HILL,
(Wavertree-lane,) unless accompanying Carriages to which they belong; in
which case they may be embarked at LIME STREET.


Luggage.


NOTICE.—To prevent loss or mistake of Luggage, Passengers are requested
to keep charge of their small Packages, by placing them under their
Seats, instead of on the Roof of the Coach.—The Weight allowed for each
Passenger is 60lb., beyond which a Charge will be made at the rate of 3s.
per cwt.



Liverpool and Manchester to Wigan.


By the First Class train 7 a.m.—2nd Class trains 10, 12, a.m. and 5½ p.m.


On Sundays.


               By the 2nd Class Trains 7 a.m., and 5½ p.m.

FARES.—From Liverpool or Manchester, 1st Class 5s.; 2nd Class 3s. 6d.



Liverpool and Manchester to Bolton.


By the 1st Class Train 9 a.m.—2nd Class Trains 7¼, 12, a.m., and 5½ p.m.


On Sundays.


                By the 2nd Class Trains 7 am., and 5½ p.m.

FARES.—From Liverpool, In. 5s. 6d., Out. 4s.; and from Manchester, 2s.
6d. and 2s.



Liverpool and Manchester to St. Helens.


By the 2nd Class Trains, 7¼, 10, 12, a.m., and 3, 5½, p.m.


On Sundays.


               By the 2nd Class Trains 7 a.m., and 5½ p.m.

FARES.—From Liverpool In. 2s. 6d. Out 2s.; and from Manchester, 3s. 6d.
and 2s. 6d.



Liverpool and Manchester to Runcorn Gap.


               By the 2nd Class Trains 7½ a.m., and 3 p.m.


On Sundays.


                By the 2nd Class Trains 7 a.m. and 5½ p.m.

FARES.—From Liverpool, In. 3s., Out. 2s. 6d.; and from Manchester 4s. and
3s.

                                * * * * *



THE VISITER’S GUIDE TO BIRMINGHAM, {97a} LIVERPOOL, AND MANCHESTER.


BIRMINGHAM.


PUBLIC BUILDINGS.


The Town Hall, {97b} situate at the top of New-street; open to strangers.

The Free School, New-street.

Market Hall, High-street.

Royal School of Medicine and Surgery, Paradise-street, opposite the Town
Hall, where an extensive Museum is at all times open to the public.

The Society of Arts, New-street.  Exhibition of Paintings open in the
Autumn.

Nelson’s Monument, High-street.

The Theatre Royal, New-street.

News Rooms, Bennett’s Hill.

Public Office, Moor-street.


PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS.


Post Office, situate at the bottom of Bennett’s Hill.

Stamp Office, Colmore Row.

Assay Office, Cannon-street.

The Cemetery, Hockley.

Proof House, Banbury-street.


LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS.


The Society of Arts, New-street.  Exhibition of Paintings open in the
Autumn.

Philosophical Institution, Cannon-street.

Mechanic’s Institution, Cannon-street.

Botanical & Horticultural Society.  The Gardens are at Edgbaston.
Strangers are admitted by a subscriber’s order.

Old Library, Union-street.

New Library, Temple Row West.

Law Library, Waterloo-street.

Medical Library, at the Royal School of Medicine, Paradise-street.


PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS.


Theatre Royal, New-street.

Ryan’s Amphitheatre, Bradford-street.

Billiard Rooms, Waterloo-street, adjoining the News Room; New-street,
adjoining the Theatre; and Cannon-street.


PUBLIC CHARITIES.


General Hospital, Summer Lane.

Dispensary, Union-street.

Asylum, (for Destitute Children,) near to Aston Park.

Workhouse, Lichfield-street.

Magdalen Asylum and Chapel, Islington.

Infirmary for Diseases of the Eye, Cannon-street.


SCHOOLS.


Free Grammar School, New-street.

Blue Coat School, east side of St. Philip’s Church Yard.

Infant Schools, Ann-street and Cherry-street.

National Schools, Pinfold-street.

Lancasterian School, Severn-street.

Protestant Dissenters’ Charity School, for females, Park-street.

Deaf and Dumb Institution, Edgbaston.


MISCELLANEOUS.


Barracks, Great Brook-street, Ashted.

Court of Requests, High-street.

Duddeston Hall Lunatic Asylum, Duddeston.

Old Gas Works, Broad-street.

The Baths, (swimming, and hot and cold private Baths,) at Lady Well, near
the bottom of Worcester-street.

Vauxhall Gardens, Ashted.


PLACES OF WORSHIP.

Church of England.

Churches and Chapels.   Ministers, with their     Services commence.
                             Residences.
St. Martin’s,           Rev. T. Moseley,        ½ past 10, 3, ½ past
Bull-ring               M.A., Bath-row,         6.
                        Rector; Rev. M. W.
                        Foye, A.M.,
                        Exeter-row, Curate;
                        Rev. C. Arnold, A.M.,
                        Sandpits, Lecturer.


St. Philip’s, Temple    Rev. L. Gardner,        ½ past 10, ¼ past 3.
row                     D.D., Rectory,
                        Rector; Rev. J. W.
                        Downes, M.A.,
                        Colmore-row,
                        Lecturer; Rev. B.
                        Spurrell, M.A. 36 St.
                        Paul’s-square,
                        Curate.
St. George’s, St.       Rev. John Garbett,      ¼ before 11, ½ past
George’s                M.A., Hockley-hill,     3, and ½ past 6;
                        Rector; Rev. Layton     Wednesday, ¼ past 7.
                        Irwen, Gt.
                        Hampton-street,
                        Curate.
St. Thomas’s,           Rev. Wm. Marsh, M.A.,   ½ past 10, 3, and ½
Holloway-head           Hagley-row, Rector;     past 6; Tuesday, 7,
                        Rev. Charles Lowe,      prayer meeting;
                        B.A., Bedford-place,    Sunday, 7; Friday, ½
                        Bristol-road, Curate.   past 7.
All Saints’, Hockley    Rev. S. F. Morgan,      ½ past 10, 3.
                        M.A., Grosvenor-row,
                        Birmingham-heath,
                        Rector.
Christ Church,          Rev. J. G. Breay,       ½ past 10, ½ past 6;
Paradise-street         B.A., Crescent,         Thursday, 7.
                        Minister; Rev. Daniel
                        Ledsam, B.A.,
                        Summer-hill, Curate.
St. Bartholomew’s,      Rev. Thomas Nunns,      11, ½ past 6.
Bartholomew-square      M.A., Crescent,
                        Minister.
St. Mary’s, St.         Rev. J. C. Barratt,     ½ past 10, 3, ½ past
Mary’s square           M.A., St. Mary’s-row,   6.
                        Minister; Rev. E.
                        Hall, M.A.,
                        Summer-hill, Curate.
St. Paul’s, St.         Rev. Rann Kennedy,      ¼ before 11, ½ past
Paul’s square           M.A., The Hollies,      6.
                        Hall Green, Minister;
                        Rev. William Wenman,
                        St. Paul’s-square,
                        Curate.
St. Peter’s, Dale-end   Rev. Charles Craven,    11, ½ past 6.
                        M.A., Edgbaston,
                        Minister.
Bishop Ryder’s,
Stafford-street
St. John’s, Deritend    Rev. E. Palmer,         11, ½ past 6.
                        High-gate, Minister;
                        Rev. J. Collisson,
                        B.A., Camphill,
                        Curate.
St. James’s, Ashted     Rev. Josiah Allport,    ½ past 10, ½ past 6.
                        Ashted, Minister.
Trinity, Bordesley      Rev. S. Crane, B.A.,    ½ past 10, ½ past 3;
                        Bordesley, Minister.    in winter 3.
Aston Church, Aston     Rev. G. O. Fenwicke,    11, 3.
                        M.A., Vicarage,
                        Vicar; Rev. Horace
                        Chavasse, Curate.
Edgbaston Church,       Rev. Charles Pixell,    11, ½ past 3.
Edgbaston               M.A., Vicarage,
                        Vicar.
St. George’s,
Calthorpe-street,
Edgbaston
Handsworth Church,      Rev. John Hargreaves,   11, 3.
Handsworth              M.A., Rectory,
                        Rector; Rev. D. N.
                        Walton, M.A.,
                        Heathfield-lane,
                        Curate.
Magdalen Chapel,
Islington

Dissenters.

 Chapels and Meeting     Ministers, and their     Services commence.
       Houses.               Residences.
                      _Association Methodists_.
Newhall street,         Mr. J. Handley,         ½ past 10, 6;
                        Minister.               Wednesday, ¼ past 7.
                             _Baptists_.
Cannon-street           Rev. T. Swann,          ½ past 10, 3, and ½
                        Wheeley’s Lane,         past 6; Monday and
                        Edgbaston.              Thursday, ½ past 7.
Bond street             Rev. T. Morgan,         ½ past 10, ½ past 6;
                        Regent place,           Monday and Wednesday,
                        Harper’s hill.          ½ past 7.
Graham-street           Rev. J. Hoby, D.D.,     ½ past 10, ½ past 6;
                        Camden-hill.            Monday and Wednesday,
                                                ½ past 7.
Newhall-street          Rev. J. Ham,            ½ past 10, 3, and ½
                        Bath-street.            past 6; Monday and
                                                Wednesday, ½ past 7.
Lombard street          Rev. G. Cheatle,        11, 3, and ½ past 6;
                        Lombard-street.         Monday and Wednesday,
                                                ½ past 7.
                            _Calvinists_.
Bartholomew-street      Rev. Mr. Telford,       ½ past 10, 6; Monday
                        Bordesley-place.        and Wednesday, ½ past
                                                7.
Zoah Chapel,            Rev. James Jay.         ½ past 10, and ½ past
Cambridge-street                                6; Wednesday, ½ past
                                                7.
Lawrence-street         Rev. Thomas             ½ past 10, 3, and
                        Buckingham.             half past 6; Monday
                                                and Thursday, ½ past
                                                7
                       _Dependent Methodists_.
Buck-street             Various Preachers.      ½ past 10, 2, & 6;
                                                Tuesday, ½ past 7;
                                                Thursday, 8.
                 _Holy Catholic & Apostolic Church_.
Newhall-street,         Mr. Barclay.            6, 10, 2, ½ before 4,
                                                5, ½ past 6; also
                                                daily, 6, and 5.
                           _Independents_.
Carr’s lane             Rev. J. A. James,       ½ past 10, ½ past 6;
                        Edgbaston.              Monday and Wednesday,
                                                ½ past 7.
Steelhouse-lane         Rev. T. East,           11, ½ past 6; Monday
                        Sparkbrook.             and Wednesday, ½ past
                                                7.
Livery-street           Rev. J. Allsop, 7,      ¼ before 11, ½ past
                        Newhall-hill.           6; Monday and
                                                Thursday, ¼ past 7.
Legge-street            Messrs. Clay and        ½ past 10, ½ past 6;
                        Derrington, alternate   Tuesday & Thursday, ½
                        Preachers.              past 7.
Great Barr-street       Various Preachers.      ½ past 10, ½ past 6.
Union Chapel,           Rev. J. Hammond,        11, 3, and ½ past 6.
Handsworth              Union Row,
                        Handsworth.
Saltley, near the       Various Preachers.      ½ past 10, and 3.
Railway
                          _Jews’ Synagogue_.
Severn-street           Rev. Mr. Chapman,       On Saturday at ½ past
                        Smallbrook-street,      8, during the winter
                        Reader.                 months, & 8, Summer
                                                months; 1, and at
                                                sunset.
                         _Lady Huntingdon’s_.
King-street             Rev. John Jones,        ½ past 10, 3, & ½
                        Bristol Road.           past 6; Monday,
                                                Wednesday, and
                                                Friday, ½ past 7.  A
                                                Welsh service at 2
                                                every Sunday
                                                afternoon.
                       _New Jerusalem Church_.
Summer Lane             Rev. E. Madeley,        ¼ before 11, & ½ past
                        Summer-lane.            6.
                     _New Connexion Methodists_.
Oxford-street           Rev. J. Curtis,         ½ past 10, ½ past 2,
                        Ravenhurst street.      & 6; Tuesday &
                                                Friday, ½ past 7.
                       _Primitive Methodists_.
Inge-street             Various Preachers.
Bordesley-street        Various Preachers.
                          _Roman Catholics_.
St. Chad’s,             Rev. E. Peach and       ¼ past 8, ½ past 9, ½
Shadwell-street         Rev. J. Abbott.         past 10, ½ past 3,
                                                and ½ past 6.
St. Peter’s, St         Rev. T. M. McDonnell,   9, ½ past 10, ½ past
Peter’s place           St. Peter’s place.      3, & ½ past 6.
                        _Society of Friends_.
Bull-street                                     10, 3, in Winter, and
                                                6 in Summer;
                                                Wednesday, 10.
                           _Scotch Church_.
Broad-street            Rev. Robert Wallace,    11 & ½ past 6.
                        M.A., No. 1,
                        Summer-hill Terrace,
                        Sandpits.
                            _Unitarians_.
Old Meeting-house,      Rev. Hugh Hutton,       11 & ½ past 6.
Grub-street             Edgbaston.
New Meeting-house,      Rev. John Kentish,      11 & 3.
Moor street             Bourn-brook,
                        Bristol-road; Rev. S.
                        Bache,
                        Frederick-street,
                        Edgbaston.
Thorp-street            Various Preachers.      11, ½ past 6;
                                                Wednesday, ½ past 7.
Cambridge-street,       Various Preachers.      11, 3.
Crescent
                      _Birmingham West Circuit_.
Cherry-street           Rev. G. B. McDonald,    ½ past 10, 3, and 6;
                        45, Newhall-street.     Tuesday and Thursday,
                                                ¼ past 7.
Wesley Chapel,          Rev. T. Dicken, 17,     ½ past 10, 3, and ½
Constitution-hill       Vittoria-street.        past 6; Tuesday, ¼
                                                past 7.
Islington Chapel        Rev. J. Lomas, Hagley   ½ past 10, ½ past 2,
                        Road.                   and 6; Wednesday, ¼
                                                past 7.
Bristol-road            Rev. J. P. Haswell,     ½ past 10, ½ past 2,
                        Wellington-road.        and 6; Tuesday; ¼
                                                past 7.
                      _Birmingham East Circuit_.
Belmont-row             Rev. D. Walton,         ½ past 10, ½ past 2,
                        Belmont row.            and 6; Wednesday ¼
                                                past 7.
Bradford-street         Rev. J. Barton,         ½ past 10, ½ past 2,
                        Camphill.               and 6; Wednesday, ½
                                                past 7.
New-town Row            Rev. W. Griffith,       ½ past 10, ½ past 2,
                        Jun.                    and 6; Thursday, ½
                                                past 7.

PRINCIPAL SHOW ROOMS AND MANUFACTORIES. {106}


Soho, Handsworth.


BRASS FOUNDERS.


Anderton, W. and Sons, 6, Whittall-street.

Barber, J., and Green, 15, Newhall-street.

Bourn, John, 31, Lionel-street.

Docker, Thomas, and Sons, Whittall-street.

Heaton, Ralph, 70 and 71, Bath-street.

Horn, Thomas, Temple-row.

Lingham Brothers, 170, Little Hampton-street.

Messenger, Thomas, and Sons, 22, Broad-street.

Ratcliff, J. and E., St. Paul’s Square.

Simcox, Pemberton, and Co., 42, Livery-street.

Smith, Timothy, and Sons, 4, Bartholomew-street.

Standley, James, 43, Staniforth-street.

Swift, James, 7, Whittall-street.

Winfield, R. W., Cambridge-street.


BRITISH PLATE MANUFACTURERS.


Brown & Ball, Paradise-street.

Evans & Askin, George-street, Sand Pits.

Merry & Co., Cherry-street.

Sturges & Son, 26, Lichfield-street.


BUTTON MANUFACTURERS.


Armfield, Edward, Newhall-street.

Aston, J., St. Paul’s Square.

Bartleet, T., and Sons, 126, Great Charles-street.

Elliott, W., Frederick-street, Regent-street.

Hammond, Turner, and Sons, Snowhill.

Hardman, J., and Co., 12, Paradise-street.

Jennens and Co., Old Meeting-house-yard, Deritend.

Ledsam, Thomas, and Sons, 10, Great Charles-street.

Smith, C. F., 14, Newhall-street.

Steadman, R., Jun., 35, Edmund-street.


CUT AND PLAIN GLASS MANUFACTURERS.


Bedford, Sarah, & Co., 16, New-street.

Henderson, (Stainer of Glass,) New-street.

Price, High-street.

Rollason, Thomas, (Manufacturer to the Royal Family,) Steel-house Lane.

Osler, F. & C., Broad street.


GLASS WORKS.


Bacchus and Green, Union Glass Works, Dartmouth-street.

Gammon, W. & Co., Belmont Glass Works, Great Brook-street.

Goold & Co., Ætna Glass Works, Broad-street.

Harris, Rice, Islington Glass Works, Sheepcote-street, Broad-street.

Thomson and Shaw, Bagot-street.


GUN AND PISTOL MAKERS.


Busby, J., 30½, New-street.

Dugard, R., 29, Whittall-street.

Jones, Charles, 16, Whittall-street.

Meredith, H., and Son, 48, St. Paul’s Square.

Powell, W., 49, High-street.

Pritchard, W., 135, New-street.

Redfern, B., Caroline-street.

Richards, Westley, 82, High-street.

Sargant and Son, 74, Edmund-street.

Wheeler, R., and Son, 27, Snow-hill.


HOTHOUSE AND HORTICULTURAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTORS—METALLIC AND COPPER SASH
MANUFACTURERS.


Clark, Thomas, jun., 55, Lionel-street.

Daft, Thomas, & Son, Town Hall Foundry, Paradise-street.


IRON FOUNDERS.


Boulton, Watt, & Co., Soho.

Capper, Charles Henry, Broad-street.

Jones, George, Phoenix Foundry, Snowhill.

Jones, Thomas, & Sons, Bradford-street.

Mole, T. & W., Pagoda Works, Bordesley.—Show Rooms, Smithfield.

Smith & Hawkes, Eagle Foundry, Broad-street.


JAPANNERS.


Bill, R. & G., 14, Summer Lane.

Jennens & Bettridge, (Paper Tray Makers to her Majesty,) 99, Constitution
Hill.

Lane, Thomas, Great Hampton-street.

Room, James, 28, Summer Row.


JEWELLERS, SILVERSMITHS, AND EMPORIUMS FOR EVERY DESCRIPTION OF CUTLERY,
PLATED WARES, &C.


Soho Plate Company, Handsworth.

Collis, G. R., Church-street.

Edwards, Ball, & Co., 82, High-street, where may be seen a very extensive
stock of silver goods and jewellery.

Mapplebeck & Lowe, Bull Ring.


LAMP, CHANDELIER, CANDELABRA, LUSTRE, &c., MANUFACTURERS.


Aspinall, T., 33, Lower Temple-street.

Blakeway, John, Edgbaston-street.

Blakeway, Thomas William, Broad-street.

Messenger, Thomas, & Sons, Broad-street.

Osler, Follett, Broad-street, Islington.

Phipson & Evans, Newhall-street.

Ratcliff, John & Charles, 140, Suffolk-street.

Salt, Thomas Clutton, 17 & 18, Edmund-street.

Smith, Timothy, & Sons, 4, Bartholomew street.


METAL ROLLERS.


Cooke, Roome, & Harley, Fazeley-street.

Muntz, George Frederick, Water-street.

Phipson, William, Fazeley-street.

Union Rolling Mills, Cambridge-street.


PIN MAKERS.


Phipson, T., & Sons, Broad-street.

Latham & Kilmister, Lancaster-street.


PLATERS, AND MANUFACTURERS OF SILVER AND PLATED WARES.


Baker, W. T., 42, Paradise-street.

Collis, G. R., Church-street.

Dixon, Matthew, 137, Snow-hill.

Kirkham, T., 13, Cherry-street, Union-street.

Parker, J., & Sons, 23½, Summer-row.

Parker, John Frederick, 72, High-street.

Ryland, William, 167, Great Charles-street.

Soho Plate Company, Soho.

Spooner, Painter, & Co., 12, New Market-street, Great Charles-street.

Waterhouse & Son, 22, Hill-street.

Wilkinson, Thomas, & Co., 15, Great Hampton-street.

Willmore & Co., Bread-street.


STEAM ENGINE MANUFACTURERS.


Boulton & Watt, Soho, Handsworth.

Capper, C. H., Broad-street.

Donaldson & Glasgow, 53, Suffolk-street.

Smith & Hawkes, Eagle Foundry, Broad-street.

Jones, George, Phoenix Foundry, Snow-hill and Lionel-street.

Penn, Samuel, Great Lister-street Steam Mill.

Tongue, W., 95, Bordesley-street.


SCREW MANUFACTURERS.


James, J., Bradford-street.

Ledsam, Messrs., Edmund-street.

Ryland, H., Oozell-street, Broad-street.


MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURERS, &c.


Knight, Henry, Machinist, 15, Ann-street.

Middlemore, —, Holloway-head, Saddlers’ Ironmonger.

Room, W. & F., Parade, Wholesale Saddlers and Bridle Makers.

Rodgers & Co., Broad-street, Brace and Belt Manufacturers.


POST OFFICE, BENNETT’S HILL.


_The following Statement shows the time of Arrival and Departure of the
various Mails_.

    ARRIVALS.                                         DEPARTURE.
    4 25  A.M.     Bristol                             9 20     P.M.
    5 48  ,,       London                              8 50       ,,
       7  ,,       Sutton Messenger                    7 15     A.M.
    7 50  ,,       Banbury                             6 50     P.M.
   10 23  ,,       Chipping Norton                        3       ,,
   11 30  ,,       First G. J. Railway                 5 45     A.M.
      Noon         Bilston Messenger                   2 30     P.M.
    4 30  P.M.     Second G. J. Railway               11 15     A.M.
    4 30  ,,       Sheffield                           5 30       ,,
    5  2  ,,       Yarmouth                            7 45       ,,
    5 35  ,,       Leamington                             7       ,,
    5 15  ,,       Oldbury Messenger                   7 15       ,,
       6  ,,       Halesowen / Castle Bromwich /       7 15       ,,
                   Great Barr
    6 45  ,,       London {110}                        7 38       ,,
    6 20  ,,       Tamworth                               7       ,,
    7 55  ,,       Worcester                              7       ,,
    8 30  ,,       Stourport                           6 30       ,,
    8 31  ,,       Holyhead                            6 23       ,,
    8 40  ,,       Third G.J. Railway                  2 15     P.M.
   11 45  ,,       Fourth G.J. Railway                 6 45       ,,

A second bag for London is despatched by the midnight Mail, and arrives
there in time for an afternoon delivery.

On Tuesdays and Fridays a Foreign Bag is forwarded to London by a mail
which leaves Birmingham at ½ past 12 at noon.

The Letter Box closes at 6½ a.m., for the despatch of the mails to
Holyhead, Yarmouth, Worcester, Leamington, and Stourport; at 8 p.m. for
the despatch of the London and Bristol mails, and half an hour previous
to the departure of any of the other mails.

The delivery of Letters from the office window commences at ½ past 7
a.m., with the letters brought by the Bristol and London mails.  Letters
by the other mails are ready for delivery in 30 Minutes after their
arrival until 8 p.m., at which period this window is closed.  At ½ past 8
p.m. it opens again for the delivery of letters brought by the Worcester,
Stourport, Third Railway, and Holyhead mails, and it continues open until
10 p.m.

There are two general deliveries by letter-carriers within the town, the
first commencing at ½ past 7 a.m., and the second at about a ¼ after 5
p.m., except on Sundays, when there is no afternoon delivery.

When any delay occurs in the arrival of the mails, a corresponding delay
will necessarily occur in the delivery.

              RECEIVING HOUSES FOR GENERAL POST OFFICE.
Mr. W. Hewitt, Grocer,              Mr. J. White, 235,
Hagley-row.                         Bristol-street.
Mr. E. Gunn, 1, Kenyon-street.      Miss Davies, Lower Terrace, Sand
                                    Pits
Mr. W. Drury, 30,                   Mrs. Wood 172, High Street,
Lancaster-street.                   Deritend
Mr. T. Ash, Druggist,
Prospect-row.

HACKNEY COACH FARES.


DRAWN BY TWO HORSES.  Not exceeding half a mile, 1s.—ditto one mile, 1s.
6d.—ditto one mile and a half, 2s.—ditto two miles, 2s. 6d.—ditto three
miles, 3s. 6d.—ditto four miles, 5s.

DRAWN BY ONE HORSE.—Not exceeding one mile, 1s.—ditto one mile and a
half, 1s. 6d.—ditto two miles, 2s.—ditto two miles and a half, 2s.
6d.—ditto three miles, 3s.—ditto three miles and a half, 3s. 6d.—ditto
four miles, 4s.

Returning with the same Fare, half the foregoing charges.

TIME.  Between the hours of nine in the morning and twelve at
night—twenty minutes, 6d.—forty minutes, 1s.—every twenty minutes above
forty, 6d., for being detained.

TIME.  Between twelve at night and six in the morning—double the
foregoing fares.

PENALTY.  Not exceeding twenty shillings, for every offence, in case any
driver shall refuse to show a list of the above fares, if required.


BANKERS,
WITH THE HOUSES WHICH THEY DRAW UPON IN LONDON.

Taylor and Lloyds, Dale-end.        Hanburys, Taylors, & Lloyds.
Attwoods, Spooner & Co., New        Spooner, Attwoods & Co.
street.
J. L. Moilliet & Son, Cherry        Sir. J. W. Lubbock & Co.
street.
Birmingham Banking Co.,             Jones, Lloyd & Co.; & Glyn,
Bennett’s-hill.                     Halifax & Co.
Birmingham Borough Bank, Bull       Prescott, Grote & Co.
street.
Nat. Prov. Bank of Birm.            Hanburys, Taylors & Lloyds.
Bennett’s-hill.
Birm. Town & Dist. Bank,            Barclay, Bevan & Co.
Colmore-row.
Birm. & Mid. Banking Co.,           Williams, Deacon & Co.
Union-street.
Branch Bank of England,
Bennett’s-hill.
Savings’ Bank, Temple-row, open on Monday and Thursday, from Twelve
till Two o’clock.

INNS.

The Royal Hotel         Temple Row              The principal Family
                                                Houses.
New Royal ditto         New-street
Stork                   Old Square              Family & Commercial
Hen and Chickens        New-street              Coach, Family, and
                                                Commercial.
Swan                    High-street & New-st.
Albion                  High-street
Nelson                  High-street
Castle                  High-street
Saracen’s Head          Bull-street
St. George’s Tavern     High-street
Union                   Union-street            Chiefly Commercial.
White Hart              Digbeth
George                  Digbeth
Woolpack                Moor-street
King’s Head             Worcester-street

COMMERCIAL BOARDING HOUSES.


J. Jones, 12, Union Passage;

Misses E. & C. Puddicombe, (Private & Commercial,) 3, Colmore-row;

J. Smith, 72, Newhall-street;

Glover, 118, New-street.


OMNIBUS OFFICES.


High-street; Bull-street, and Snow-hill.


LIST OF NEWSPAPERS.—_July_ 31, 1838.

_Monday_     ARIS’S GAZETTE—General and Commercial Advertising Paper,
             established nearly a century.  Average weekly
             circulation, 3,250 copies.
_Thursday_   THE MIDLAND COUNTIES’ HERALD—A general business Paper,
             circulated to a considerable extent, gratuitously, and
             containing commercial and other information, but no
             political discussions.  The guaranteed circulation is
             5,000 copies weekly.
     —       BIRMINGHAM ADVERTISER—Tory.  Circulation, 1,750 copies
             weekly.
_Saturday_   BIRMINGHAM JOURNAL—Radical and intelligent.
             Circulation, 2,500 copies weekly.

CANAL CONVEYANCE.


Bird, G. R., & Son, Crescent; all parts.

Crowley, Hicklin, Batty, & Co., Crescent; all parts.

Danks, J., Broad-street; Liverpool, Manchester, Hull, and all places on
the eastern coast.

Danks, J., Great Charles-street; Bristol and the West of England.

Greaves, Broad-street; Stratford-on-Avon, &c.

Pickford & Co., Fazeley-street and Worcester Wharfs; all parts of the
kingdom.

Partridge, W. & Co., No. 5, Warehouse, Worcester Wharf; Worcester,
Gloucester, and Bristol.

Partt, C., Jun., Crescent; Stratford-on-Avon.

Shipton & Co., Broad-street; Liverpool, Manchester, and all parts of the
North of England.

Smith, Great Charles-street.

Swain & Co., Friday Bridge; Hull, the North, and Sheffield.

Sturland, Thomas, Crescent; Bristol, Liverpool, Manchester, and all parts
of the North.

Southan, Worcester Wharf; Bristol and Wales.

Smith & Wilkinson, 161, Great Charles-street; Walsall.

Wheatcroft & Sons, Crescent; all parts North and East.

Whitehouse & Sons, Crescent, all parts.

Worthington & Co., Great Charles-street; Liverpool, Manchester, and all
parts of the North.


WAGGON WAREHOUSES.


John Shackel, 52, Dale-end; London and all parts.

G. Swain & Co., Friday Bridge; Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Carlisle, Durham,
York, Hull, &c.

Mead, 138, Moor-street; all parts.

W. Ashmore, Edgbaston-street; Bristol and the West, and all parts of
Norfolk.

Jolly, Bromsgrove-street; London.

Wheatcroft & Sons, Crescent; Leeds, Sheffield, and the North, Bristol,
and all parts of the West.

Haines & Co.’s Fly Vans, White Horse, Moor-street; London and Bristol.

J. Butler, 88, Coleshill-street; Staffordshire and the Potteries.

Wade & Co., Bordesley-street; Bristol and the West, Sheffield, and the
North.

Red Lion, Park-street, Digbeth; London, Bristol, and all parts.


PLACES OF NOTE ADJACENT TO BIRMINGHAM.


The tourist will find the following places well deserving his attention,
and to which coaches are daily passing.  The figures denote the miles
distant from Birmingham.

The Ruins of Kenilworth Castle, 18.

The Ruins of Dudley Castle, 9.

Warwick Castle, 20.

Guy’s Cliff, near Warwick, 21.

Lichfield Cathedral, 17.

Leamington Spa, 22.

Hagley Park, 12.



LIVERPOOL


PUBLIC AMUSEMENTS.


Theatre Royal, East Williamson Square.

Royal Amphitheatre, Great Charlotte-street.

The Liver Theatre, at the top of Church-street.

Queen’s Theatre, or Circus, Christian-street.

Sans Pareil, Great Charlotte-street.


PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND OBJECTS OF ATTRACTION.


Botanical Gardens, Edge Lane; admittance by ticket, to be obtained at all
the Hotels.

Custom House, Excise, Dock Office, Post Office, under the same roof,
South Castle-street.

Cemetery, St. James’s, top of Duke-street.

— Necropolis, Low Hill.

Exchange, Castle-street.

House of Industry, Brownlow Hill.

Infirmary, Dover-street.

Lunatic Asylum, Brownlow Hill.

Pistol Gallery, Tarlton-street, Williamson Square.

Sessions House, situate at the West of the Exchange.

Statue of George the Third, bottom of Pembroke Place, in London Road.

Telegraph, bottom of Chapel-street.  May be visited on application to
Lieut. Watson, at the Office.

Town Hall, Castle-street.

Wellington Rooms, Great Orford-street.

Zoological Gardens; an order, which may be obtained at any of the
respectable Hotels, will, on the payment of a shilling, admit a stranger.


BATHS.


The New Baths, West side of St. George’s Dock.

Whitlaw’s Vapour Baths, Renshaw-street.

Sadler’s Baths, Hanover-street.

The Floating Bath, Prince’s Parade.


THE DOCKS.


Clarence Dock, for steam packets.

Prince’s Dock, American ships.

George’s Dock, in which is moored the Floating Church, for the
convenience of seamen.

The King’s Dock; vessels from Virginia and other ports, laden with
tobacco.

The Waterloo Dock, Victoria Dock, and Trafalgar Dock, communicate with
each other.

Canning Dock; vessels from the Northern ports, and in the coasting trade.

Salt-house Dock, for ships in the Levant and Irish trade.

Duke of Bridgewater’s Dock, for boats called flats, in the canal trade.

Queen’s Dock, for timber ships from America and the Baltic.

Brunswick Dock, vessels laden with timber.

GRAVING DOCKS. Nos. 1, 2, and 3, communicate with the Canning Dock; Nos.
4, 5, and 6, lie between the Queen’s Dock and the river; two Graving
Docks are attached to the Brunswick Dock.


THE MARKETS.


St. John’s Market, Great Charlotte-street.

New Fish Market, opposite St. John’s Market.

The North Market, Scotland-street.

St. James’s Market, Great George-street.

Islington Market, top of Shaw’s Row.

Cattle Market, three miles on the London Road.

Corn Exchange, Brunswick-street.


LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS.


The Royal Institutions, Colquitt-street.

Philosophical and Literary Society; meetings held at the Royal
Institution.

Apothecaries’ Hall, Colquitt-street.

Mechanics’ Institution, Mount-street.

Athenæum, Church-street.

Lyceum, Bold-street.

Apprentices’ (Male and Female) Library, School Lane.

Law Library, Clarendon Buildings.

Union News Room, Duke-street.


PUBLIC CHARITIES.


Alms Houses, St. Mary’s Lane.

Blue Coat Hospital, School Lane.

Blind Asylum, London Road.

Bethel Union Ship, King’s Dock.

Charity Institution House, Salter-street.

Charity, (the Ladies’,) for Relief of Women in Childbed.

Dispensaries; Vauxhall Road and Upper Parliament-street.

Female School of Industry, Heathfield-street.

Female Penitentiary, Crabtree Lane.

House of Recovery, Workhouse.

Infirmary, Brownlow-street.

Institution for Diseases of the Ear, Duke-street.

Infant Schools, numerous.

Lunatic Asylum, Ashton-street, Brownlow Hill.

Marine Society, Mariners’ Church.

Marine Humane Society.

Mariner’s Church Society, Ship in St. George’s Dock.

Naval Bible Society, Mariners’ Church.

Ophthalmic Institution, Slater’s Court.

Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, Ranelagh-street.

Society for bettering the Condition of the Poor, Savings Bank,
Bold-street.

Stranger’s Friend Society.

School for the Deaf and Dumb, Wood-street.

Theatrical Fund, Theatre Royal Office.

Welsh Charitable Society, Russell Place.


PLACES OF PUBLIC WORSHIP.


_Church of England_—twenty-four in number; the most worthy of notice
being, St. Paul’s, St. Paul’s Square; St. George’s, Lord-street; St.
Peter’s, Church-street; St. Luke’s, Bold-street; St. Nicholas’,
Chapel-street; St. Catherine’s, Abercromby-square; The Blind Asylum,
Duncan-street East.

_Roman Catholics_—St. Mary’s, Lumber-street; St. Patrick’s, Toxteth Park;
St. Nicholas’, Blake-street; St. Peter’s, Seal-street; St. Anthony’s,
Scotland-road.

_Scotch Churches_—St. Andrew’s Church, Rodney-street; Oldham-street
Church; Scotch Baptist Church, Hunter-street; Scotch Secession Church,
Mount Pleasant, and Russell-street.

_Unitarians_—two in number; one in Paradise-street, and one in
Renshaw-street.

_Independents_—Bethesda, Duncan-street, London-road; Toxteth Park Chapel;
Great Crosshall-street Chapel; Renshaw-street Chapel; Gloucester-street
Chapel; Great George-street Chapel.

_Baptists_—Lime-street; Great Crosshall-street; Russell-street;
Cockspur-street; Comus-street; Byrom-street.

_Methodists_—Leeds-street; Pitt-street; Mount Pleasant; Stanhope-street;
Moss-street; London-road; and Bend’s Garden Chapel.

_Friends’ Meeting House_, Hunter-street.

_Jew’s Synagogue_, Seel-street.


TIME OF STARTING BY THE RAILROAD.


Travelling by the _Liverpool and Manchester Railway_, 1838.—The following
are the Times of Departure both from Lime-street Station, Liverpool, and
from Liverpool Road Station, Manchester.

FIRST CLASS—Seven, nine, eleven, two, five, and seven o’clock.

SECOND CLASS—Quarter past seven, ten, twelve, three, half-past five, and
seven o’clock, stopping only at Newton.

Except on Tuesdays and Saturdays, when the Evening Second Class Train
from Manchester starts at six, instead of half-past five o’clock.

ON SUNDAYS—First Class, eight in the morning, and five in the
evening.—Second Class, seven in the morning and half-past five in the
evening.


FARES.

                                                       s.     d.
By First Class Train—Four Inside—Royal Mail               6      6
   Ditto—Six Inside—Glass Coach                           5      6
By 2nd. Class Train—Glass Coaches                         5      6
   Ditto—Open Carriages                                   4      0
Charge for the conveyance of Four-wheeled Carriages      20      0
   Ditto  Two-wheeled  ditto                             15      0

HORSES—For one horse 10s.—two horses 18s.—three horses 22s.

N.B.—All Horses must be embarked at the Company’s Station, Edge Hill,
Wavertree Lane, unless accompanying Carriages to which they belong; in
which case they may be embarked at Lime-street.


LUGGAGE.


NOTICE.—To prevent loss or mistake of Luggage.—Passengers are requested
to keep charge of their small Packages, by placing them under their seats
instead of on the roof of the coach.—The weight allowed to each passenger
is 60 lbs., beyond which a charge will be made at the rate of 3s. per
cwt.


LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER TO WIGAN.


By 1st Class Train, 7 a.m.—2nd Class Trains, 10, 12, a.m., 5½ p.m.

SUNDAYS.—By the Second Class Trains, 7 a.m., and 5½ p.m.

FARES.—From Liverpool or Manchester, 1st. Class. 5s.; 2nd Class 3s. 6d.


LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER TO BOLTON.


By 1st Class Train, 9 a.m.—2nd Class Trains, 7¼, 12 a.m., 5½ p.m.

SUNDAYS.—By the Second Class Trains, 7 a.m., 5½ p.m.

FARES.—From Liverpool, Inside, 5s. 6d., Outside, 4s.; and from
,, Manchester, ,, 2s. 6d. ,, and 2s.


LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER TO ST. HELEN’S.


By the Second Class Trains, 7¼, 10, 12, a.m.; 3, and 5½, p.m.

SUNDAYS.—By the Second Class Trains, 7, a.m., and 5½, p.m.

FARES.—From Liverpool—Inside, 2s. 6d.  Outside, 2s.; and from Manchester,
3s. 6d. and 2s. 6d.


LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER TO RUNCORN GAP.


By the Second Class Trains, 7¼, am., and 3, p.m.

SUNDAYS.—By the Second Class Trains, 7, a.m., and 5½, p.m.

FARES.—From Liverpool—Inside, 3s.  Outside, 2s. 6d.; and from Manchester,
4s. and 3s.


INNS.


Adelphi Hotel, Ranelagh-street; Albion, Ranelagh-street; Angel,
Dale-street; Blue Bell, London Road; Bull, Clayton Square; Commercial,
Dale-street; Castle Hotel, Clayton Square; Feathers, Clayton Square;
George Inn, Dale-street; Grecian Hotel, Dale-street; King William,
Williamson Square; King’s Arms, Castle-street; Neptune, Clayton Square;
Royal, Dale-street; Saracen’s Head Inn, Dale-street; Star and Garter
Tavern, Paradise-street; Union Hotel, Clayton Square; Waterloo,
Ranelagh-street; Wellington, Dale-street; York, Williamson Square.


FOREIGN PACKETS.


NEW YORK, on the 1st and 16th of every month, Baring Brothers and Co.;
8th, Thomas and Joseph Sands and Co.; 16th, W. and J. Brown and Co.; and
24th, Wildes, Pickersgill, and Co.

BOSTON, on the 5th and 20th of each month during the spring and fall of
the year, at other times occasionally, Maury, Latham and Co., and Baring
Brothers and Co.

PHILADELPHIA, on the 8th of every month, and at stated periods, W. and J.
Brown and Co.

CALCUTTA direct, the 20th of each month, W. and J. Tyrer, Old Churchyard.

RIO DE JANEIRO, on the 1st and 16th of every month, W. and J. Tyrer; J.
Holliwell; and Ashley Brothers.

LISBON, on the let of every month, J. Bibby and Co., Duke’s Place; on the
10th of every month, Vianna and Jones; and on the 20th of every month,
Cotesworth and Smith.

GENOA and LEGHORN, on the 1st of every month, J. Bibby and Co., Duke’s
Place; and on the 16th, Vianna and Jones, Chapel-street.

GENOA and LEGHORN, a conveyance once a month, John Rothwell, 2,
Liver-court, South Castle-street.

MESSINO and PALERMO, once a month, John Rothwell, 2, Liver-court, South
Castle-street.

BAHIA.—A regular line of Packets sails at periods, as stated in the
newspapers, Cotesworth and Smith; W. and J. Tyrer; John Holliwell; Kers,
Imrie and Co., and R. Tanton.

OPORTO, every three weeks, Geo. Highfield, Oldhall-street; Thos. Martin,
Salthouse Dock; Ormerod, Heyworth, and Co., Water-street; J. Bibby and
Co.

MONTE VIDEO and BUENOS AYRES.—Line of Packets to sail at stated periods,
which are duly announced through the newspapers, W. and J. Tyrer, and
Ashley Brothers.

HAVANNAH, on the 5th of every month punctually.  Ashley Brothers.

PERNAMBUCO.—A line of Packets sails at periods which are duly announced
through the newspapers, Cotesworth and Smith; W. and J. Tyrer; John
Holliwell; Kers, Imrie and Co.; R. Tanton, and Geo. Highfield.

WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA.—Valparaiso every six weeks; Arica, Islay,
and Lima, every four months; Lima direct every twelve weeks, W. and J.
Tyrer; Ashley Brothers; and James Aikin.

ST. THOMAS.—Line of Packets to sail at stated periods, which are
announced through the newspapers, Kers, Imrie, and Tomlinson.


STEAM NAVIGATION.
ON THE RIVER.


EASTHAM.—The William Stanley, Sir Thomas Stanley, and Lady Stanley, five
times a day.—Dodd’s Chester and Eastham Packet House, 32, James-street.

RUNCORN and WESTERN POINT, a steam packet every day.  Office, No. 19,
Mann’s Island.

RUNCORN.—The Old Quay or Mersey and Irwell Navigation Company now conduct
their vessels to and from Runcorn by steam power, and speed vessels are
sent daily to and from Manchester, without stoppage, with goods requiring
despatch.  Agent, William Guyton, Manchester Dock.

To ROCK FERRY, BIRKENHEAD, MONK’S FERRY, and WOODSIDE, packets are plying
every half hour from George’s Dock, Pierhead; to SEACOMBE, from the south
end of the Prince’s Parade; and to EGREMONT FERRY and NEW BRIGHTON, from
the Pierhead, north of George’s Dock Basin.


IRELAND, &c.


ARDGLASS and STRANGFORD LOUGH.—The Victoria, every Tuesday.  Crozier and
Co., Agents, 13, Goree Piazzas.

BELFAST. The City of Dublin Steam Packet Company sail a vessel every
Wednesday.  John M‘Cammon, 27, Water-street.

BELFAST.—The Falcon and Corsair, every Monday and Friday.  Lanktrys and
Co., 30, Water-street.

CORK, &c.—The St. George Steam Packet Company’s Packets sail regularly to
Cork, Waterford, Dundalk, Newry, and Beaumaris; and between Dublin and
Glasgow; Dublin and Bristol; Dublin and Cork; Cork and Bristol; London,
Portsmouth, Plymouth, Falmouth, and Cork; London and Exeter; London and
Boston; London and Stockton; Hull and Leith; Hull and Hamburgh; Hull and
Rotterdam; and Lubeck and Stockholm.  J. R. Pim, Agent, 21, Water-street,
and Clarence Dock.

CORK.—The John M‘Adam, every Thursday.  J. A. and R. Forshaw, 6, Goree
Piazzas.

DROGHEDA.—The Green Isle, Town of Drogheda, Fair Trader, Irishman, and
Grana Uile, sail four times a week.  W. Splaine, 20, Water-street.

DUBLIN.—Her Majesty’s packets sail every afternoon, at five o’clock,
(without reference to the time of high water,) with the mail and
passengers.  Captain Chappell, R. N., Agent, 33, Water-street.

DUBLIN.—The City of Dublin Steam Packet Company’s vessels, the Hibernia,
City of Dublin, Shamrock, Commerce, Britannia, Liffey, Leeds, Birmingham,
Mersey, Nottingham, Ballinasloe, Kingstown, Huskisson,  City of Limerick,
Athlone, Duchess of Kent, Queen Victoria, Royal William, and Royal
Adelaide, sail daily.  Samuel Perry, 27, Water-street.

LONDONDERRY.—The Isabella Napier sails every Tuesday, and the Robert
Napier every Friday.  J. R. Pim, Agent, 21, Water-street.

NEWRY.—George the Fourth.  J. R. Pim, Agent, 21, Water-st.

PORT RUSH and LARNE.—The Coleraine, every Saturday.  J. A. and R.
Forshaw, 6, Goree Piazzas.


TO THE ISLE OF MAN, SCOTLAND, &c.


DOUGLAS.—The Queen of the Isle and the Mona’s Isle sail daily during the
summer, and twice a week in the winter, with the mail, goods, and
passengers.  Moore and Christian, Agents, 23, Redcross-street.

DOUGLAS.—The Monarch sails three times a week during the summer.  T.
Blackburn, 9, Dale-street.

GLASGOW.—The Unicorn, Eagle, Manchester, and Ailsa Craig sail three times
a week, with goods and passengers.  Martin and Co., 34, Water-street.

GLASGOW direct.—The Vulcan, City of Glasgow, and Commodore, sail each
once a week.  David M‘Iver and Co., 34, Water-street.

DUMFRIES and WHITEHAVEN.—The Nithsdale, once a week, Robert Sproat, 20,
Water-street.


NORTH WALES.


The Air, with goods and passengers, for Beaumaris, Bangor, and Carnarvon.
J. R. Pim, Agent, 21, Water-street, and Clarence Dock.

The Countess of Glasgow sails from George’s Dock, Pierhead, for Rhyl,
Voryd, Abergele, &c., every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday.  Joseph
Humphries, 33, Water-street.

The St. Mungo and Snowdon, every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, for
Rhyl, Rhydland, and Abergele.  St. Mungo’s Office, 23, Water-street;
Snowdon’s Office, 33, Water-street.

The Conway Castle, every Wednesday and Saturday, during the winter
months, for Conway.  J. T. Raines and Co., 19, James-street.


COASTWISE.


CARLISLE and ANNAN.—The Newcastle sails every Tuesday and Thursday.  H.
Halton, 21, Water-street.

CARLISLE and ANNAN.—The City of Carlisle and Royal Victoria three times a
week.  J. D. Thomson, Agent, 13, Water-street.

LANCASTER.—The John O’Gaunt.  John Hadwen, Atherton’s Buildings,
Dale-street.

WHITEHAVEN.—Steam packets sail three times a week during the summer
months, and twice a week during the winter months, with passengers and
goods.  W. Dowson, Agent, 8, Goree Piazzas.

WORKINGTON and MARYPORT.—The Union sails once a week during the winter,
and twice a week during the summer months.  J. D. Thomson, Agent, 13,
Water-street.


POST OFFICE.


DELIVERY OF LETTERS.—The First Delivery commences at 8 a.m., and the
Office continues open till the arrival of the London Mail, (per Grand
Junction Railway,) 10.55 a.m.  The letters comprised in this delivery are
those of the over-night Birmingham Mail (with a bag from Manchester and a
foreign bag from London); the Holyhead and Carlisle Mails (with bags from
Edinburgh and Glasgow); and the Dublin Packet.

2nd DELIVERY—Commences about 9 a.m., with the first Manchester Mail per
Railway; bringing also bags from Rochdale, Halifax, Bradford, Leeds, and
York.

3rd DELIVERY—Commences about 10.45 a.m., and includes the letters by the
2nd Manchester Mail per Railway, with a bag from Newton.

4th DELIVERY—Commences about 12 noon, (and continues until about 3.40
p.m.,) in which are included bags from Birmingham, Walsall,
Wolverhampton, Penkridge, Stafford, Newcastle, Nantwich, Middlewich,
Northwich, Preston Brook, Warrington, Eccleshall, Stone, Towcester,
Northampton, London, Bristol, Exeter, Falmouth; and the letters from
Portugal, North and South America, and the West Indies, are also included
in this delivery.

5th DELIVERY—Commences about ¼ past 1, p.m., and includes the letters
brought by the Bristol Mail.

6th DELIVERY—Commences about 4 p.m., and includes letters brought by the
3rd Manchester Mail, per Railway.

7th DELIVERY—Commences about 4.50 p.m., and includes bags from
Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Stafford, Warrington, Prescot.

8th DELIVERY—Commences ten minutes past 6 p.m., with the letters by the
Lancaster Mail, from Ormskirk and Maghull.

9th DELIVERY—Commences at ¼ past 7, p.m.  It includes the letters of the
4th Manchester Mail, per Railway, with Bags from York and Leeds.

10th DELIVERY—Commences about 7.30 p.m. and includes bags from
Birmingham, Walsall, Wolverhampton, Penkridge, Stafford, Newcastle,
Nantwich, Middlewich, Northwich, Preston Brook, Warrington, and Prescot.

_The Delivery closes finally at 9 p.m._; _on Sundays at 8 p.m._

There are Three Deliveries within the Town by Letter Carriers, every day
(except Sunday); the first delivery to commence about 8, a.m.; the second
about 12; the third about 5, p.m.  On Sundays, only the first, at 8, a.m.

When any delay occurs in the arrival of the Mails, a corresponding delay
will, of course, occur in the delivery.

The office is closed on Sundays from 9, a.m., until 1.30, p.m., and
finally at 8, p.m.


DESPATCH OF LETTERS.


The following are the hours at which the letter-box is closed for making
up the several Mails, and at which each mail is despatched:—

                                     Box closes at     Despatched at
                                         H. M.             H. M.
FIRST GRAND JUNCTION.—Bags made             6.0 a.m.         6.20 a.m.
up for Warrington, Preston-Brook,
Northwich, Middlewich, Nantwich,
Congleton, Market Drayton,
Stafford, Penkridge,
Wolverhampton, Walsall, and
Birmingham; and on Tuesdays and
Fridays a Foreign Bag to London.
The postage of Foreign Letters
can be paid from 5.30 to 6 a.m.,
and up to 9 o’clock the previous
evening.
FIRST MANCHESTER MAIL.—Bags for            6.30 a.m.         6.50 a.m.
Manchester, Bolton, Rochdale,
Leeds, and York.
CHESTER MAIL.—For Neston,                  7.30 a.m.         8.05 a.m.
Parkgate, and Chester.
LANCASTER MAIL.—For Maghull,                8.0 a.m.         8.15 a.m.
Ormskirk and Southport.
SECOND MANCHESTER MAIL.—A bag for          8.30 a.m.         8.50 a.m.
Prescot, and (per Railway to
Newton) bags for Newton, Wigan,
Chorley, Preston, Lancaster,
Carlisle, Glasgow, Edinburgh, and
Manchester.
SECOND GRAND JUNCTION.—Bags for            11.0 a.m.        11.20 a.m.
Warrington, Stafford,
Wolverhampton, and Birmingham.
THIRD MANCHESTER MAIL.—Blackburn,         11.30 a.m.        11.50 a.m.
Colne, Bury, and Manchester.
PENNY POSTS.—For Birkenhead,               11.0 a.m.        12.45 p.m.
Upton, Seacombe, New Brighton,
Crosby, Bootle, Walton, West
Derby, Old Swan, Woolton, and
Wavertree.
FOURTH MANCHESTER                          1.30 p.m.         1.50 p.m.
MAIL.—Manchester.
THIRD GRAND JUNCTION.—Bags for             1.45 p.m.         3.20 p.m.
Prescot, Warrington,
Preston-Brook, Northwich,
Middlewich, Nantwich, Newcastle,
Eccleshall, Stone, Stafford,
Penkridge, Wolverhampton,
Walsall, Birmingham, Towcester,
Northampton, London, and Bristol;
and letters for Portugal, North
and South America, and the West
Indies.  The letters for London
sent by this despatch will be
included in the first delivery
there the following morning.
CARLISLE MAIL.—For Ormskirk,                4.0 p.m.         4.30 p.m.
Preston, Chorley, Bury,
Blackburn, Haslingden, Lancaster,
Westmoreland, Cumberland, and all
Scotland.
FIFTH MANCHESTER AND THE YORK               4.0 p.m.         4.50 p.m.
MAILS.—For Manchester, Rochdale,
and the Counties of York,
Lincoln, and Durham (per
Railway).
BRISTOL MAIL.—Chester, South                4.0 p.m.          5.0 p.m.
Wales, and Bristol.
DUBLIN MAIL PACKET.—For Ireland.           4.30 p.m.          5.0 p.m.
BOLTON MAIL.—For Bolton.                   4.30 p.m.          5.0 p.m.
HOLYHEAD MAIL.—For Birkenhead,             6.30 p.m.          6.0 p.m.
New Ferry, Eastham, Chester,
North Wales.
FOURTH GRAND JUNCTION.—Bags for             6.0 p.m.         6.20 p.m.
Manchester, Warrington, Stafford,
Wolverhampton, Birmingham, and
London.  The letters for London
sent by this despatch will be
delivered there about 11 a.m.

INDIA.—Letters to and from the East Indies are regularly forwarded by
ships.  The postage must be paid when posted.

The Rate outward is two-pence per package under three ounces, and one
shilling per ounce above that weight.

Letters conveyed outward in sealed bags, are charged with 8d., _single_,
if sent by ship from the port at which they are posted; but if sent from
any inland town, or to another port, 1s., which must be paid when posted.

FOREIGN LETTERS.—No letters for Foreign parts, except British America,
the British West India Islands, and France, can be forwarded, unless
postage be first paid; in default, they are sent to the General Post
Office, London, opened, and returned back to the writers.


FOREIGN POST DAYS, at 3.20 P.M.


For Demerara, Jamaica, and the Leeward Islands, 1st and 15th day in every
month; North America and the Bahamas, the first Wednesday in every month.

For Carthagena, Mexico, Cuba, Honduras, and Havannah, 15th of every
month.

For Portugal, every Friday.

For South America, La Guara, Madeira, Gibraltar, and the Mediterranean,
the first day of every month.


HACKNEY COACH FARES,


_Which include a reasonable quantity of Luggage_.

                                                          s.     d.
Not exceeding 1,000 yards                                  1      0
Exceeding 1,000 yards, and not exceeding 1,700             1      6
And for each 700 yards, or any intermediate distance       0      6

                CAR FARES.—Two thirds of the above Fares.

N.B.—Carriages with two horses and two wheels, or one horse and two
wheels, or one horse and four wheels, are considered cars.  If a coach or
car be detained above ten minutes, to be allowed 6d. for every ten
minutes detained.

                                          s.     d.
Coach hired by the day                    18      0
Ditto by the hour, first hour              2      6
Ditto, and for every subsequent hour       1      6
Car hired by the day                      12      0
Ditto by the hour, first hour              1      6
Ditto, for every subsequent hour           1      0

Double fares to be paid after Twelve o’clock at night, except on public
ball nights; then at such public balls, One o’clock.

The driver has the option to be paid either time or distance.


BANKERS.

       _Liverpool Bankers_.            _Correspondents in London_.
Moss and Co., Dale-street.          Barclay and Co.
A. Heywood, Sons and Co.,           Denison and Co.
Brunswick-street.
Leyland and Co., 7, King-street.    Masterman and Co.
Central Bank of England, 12,        Esdaile and Co.
Temple-street.
Borough Bank, Water-street.         Glyn and Co.
Manchester and Liverpool District   Smith, Payne, and Smith.
Banking Co., 43, Castle-street.
I. Barned and Co., Lord-street.     Sir C. Price, Marryatt & Co. and
                                    Bult, Son, and Co.
Liverpool Commercial Bank,          Williams, Deacon, and Co.
High-street.
Bank of Liverpool, Water-street.    Glyn and Co.
Branch Bank of England, 55,         Bank of England.
Hanover-street.
Phœnix Bank, Dale-street.           Grote, Prescott, and Co.
Commercial Bank of England,         Barnet, Hoare, and Co.
Water-street.
Liverpool United Trades’ Bank,      Currie, Raikes, and Co., 29,
South Castle-street.                Cornhill.
Albion Bank, North John-street.     Grote, Prescott, and Co.
Union Bank, Water-street.           Cunliffes and Co.
North and South Wales Bank.         Robarts and Co.
Royal Bank, Water-street.           Robarts and Co.

LIST OF NEWSPAPERS.


Monday—ALBION—Whig.

   ,, —ADVERTISER—Commercial.

Tuesday—LIVERPOOL STANDARD—Conservative.

   ,, —MAIL—Conservative.

   ,, —TIMES—Whig.

Wednesday—COURIER—Conservative.

   ,, —TELEGRAPH—Whig.

Thursday—GORE’S GENERAL ADVERTISER—Commercial.

   ,, —LIVERPOOL MAIL—Conservative.

Friday—MERCURY—Radical.

   ,, —STANDARD—Conservative.

Saturday—MAIL—Conservative.

   ,, —CHRONICLE—Whig.

   ,, —JOURNAL—Radical.



MANCHESTER.


MANUFACTORIES.


The great centre of the cotton manufacture, Manchester, will be an object
of curiosity to the stranger on this account; and he will naturally be
desirous to view some of the processes and the operations of those mighty
agents, steam and machinery, which have added so much to the real wealth
and glory of England.

With suitable introductions, the inquiring visiter may visit the
following establishments, where he cannot fail to be astonished at the
vast scale on which the staple manufactures are conducted; and the
remarkable order, arrangement, and cleanliness maintained through all
their departments.  The immense spinning mills of Messrs. McConnel & Co.,
Henry-street, Ancoats, will furnish to the visiter an inspection of the
various processes to which the raw cotton is subjected in the course of
its manufacture into twist, or thread for weaving.

In the large manufactory of the Oxford-road twist company, in
Oxford-road, he would see the processes of weaving by means of the steam
loom.

In the patent card manufactory of Mr. J. C. Dyer, Stone-street,
London-road, he would observe the very curious mode of manufacturing the
cards used for teasing or carding the cotton; and in the large
establishments of Messrs. Sharp, Roberts, & Co., machinists and
engineers, Faulkner-street, he would see the various manufactures of
steam engines, both stationary and locomotive, boilers, steam looms, and
every other piece of machinery required for manufacturing purposes in
this part of the kingdom.

In another branch of manufacture, that of silk, which is of growing
importance and extent in Manchester, the visiter would be gratified by an
inspection of the silk mill of Messrs. Royle and Crompton, Great
Bridgewater-street.


PUBLIC BUILDINGS, LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS.


The Exchange and News Room, (now undergoing alteration and extension, for
which end, the Post Office, now at the back of the building, is to be
removed,) is situated at the foot of Market-street.  It is a
semi-circular building, with stone front, and the large room contains a
full length portrait of Colonel Stanley, many years member for the
county.

The Town Hall, in King-street, is a fine structure, founded in 1822; by
application to the porter, the stranger will obtain admittance to the
hall or “large room,” which is very handsomely decorated with fresco
paintings, and by rich mouldings, friezes, from the Elgin marbles, &c.

The Royal Institution in Mosley-street is open twice every year, during
the exhibitions of paintings; one being limited to those of old masters
and deceased artists; the other restricted to those of modern and living
artists.  The entrance hall and sculpture gallery are worth notice.
Admission a shilling.

Nearly adjoining, at the back of the Royal Institution, is the Manchester
Athenæum, now in process of erection, the members of which at present
occupy the lower wing of the Royal Institution, with an entrance in
Bond-street.  The front of the Athenæum is also in Bond-street, and when
it is finished the two buildings will form a very pleasing proof of the
architectural resources of Mr. Barry, the architect of the two new houses
of parliament.

The Manchester Mechanics’ Institution is a spacious brick edifice in
Cooper-street, with large lecture theatre, good library, and commodious
class rooms.  To the Athenæum and the Mechanics’ Institution there is no
difficulty of access.

The Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, one of the oldest
and most celebrated of provincial institutions, having been founded in
1781, has distinguished itself by its annual volumes of published
memoirs, and is now distinguished in the person of its President, the
venerable Dr. Dalton.  Its Hall is in George-street, nearly opposite St.
James’s Church; but as the sittings of the society are not daily, little
information can be given as to the admission of strangers.  Scientific
men would doubtless find no difficulty in obtaining an introduction.

The Museum and Hall of the Natural History Society, in Peter-street, can
only be entered on presenting an order from a subscriber.  The Museum is
very rich in almost every description of natural history; we believe in
ornithology it is particularly so; its collection of British birds is
said to be unequalled, and its entomological department is becoming
exceedingly extensive.

The Concert Hall, at the top of Lower Mosley-street, is an elegant
building, especially in the interior; having a neat stone front.

In Mosley-street are the Assembly and Billiard Rooms, with a plain and
somewhat dingy exterior; but the Ball Rooms are spacious and elegant.

Opposite is the Portico, so called from its large Ionic portico fronting
the street,—a Subscription Library and News Room.—There are two other
Subscription Libraries in the upper floors of the Exchange, and a fourth
in Newall’s Buildings, Market street, all of considerable extent.

In an old low building, (north of the Collegiate Church) to which
entrance is had by a small gate adjoining the Palatine Buildings, Hunt’s
Bank, the stranger will find what will amply repay even a hurried and
hasty visit.  This building is named the College; in it are educated a
number of boys who, from their dress, are distinguished as the Blue Coat
Boys.  In the upper floor of the building is a long corridor, traversing
three sides of the building, two of which are converted into a library,
the books generally being deposited in bays, or enclosed recesses, and
locked up.  This library, which contains upwards of 20,000 volumes, was
founded by Humphrey Cheetham, who lived in the 17th century, and is
wholly free; but the books are not to be removed from the place.  There
is a spacious reading room at the further extremity of the library, where
the student may take his worm-eaten folio, and seating himself in an old
carved chair, may easily transport himself in fancy, two centuries back;
for the room is of oak, panelled and carved, with old tables, chairs, and
other furniture corresponding to the period; and several old pictures of
the founder and other worthies.  In the library, above the books, are
suspended various specimens of stuffed reptiles, and other objects, which
are shown to the visiter by one of the blue coat boys, for a small
gratuity; the chief curiosity in the exhibition being the broad
Lancashire dialect, and strange mode of description, given by the little
showman.

To the Botanic Garden, Old Trafford, Stretford Road, (to which omnibuses
convey visiters to Market-street,) the admission is by an order from a
member or subscriber; the secretary is Mr. S. E. Cottam,
Brazennose-street.  The garden covers 17 acres, and contains in its noble
conservatories, some of the rarest and finest exotics and tropical plants
to be seen in the kingdom.

The Zoological Gardens are about a mile and a half on the new Bury road,
whither the stranger can be conveyed by omnibus from Market-street.  One
shilling procures admission to these gardens, which are as extensive as
those in Surrey, covering 15 acres of ground, and, although of recent
foundation, they already contain many very fine and rare animals,
including a rhinoceros, elephant, lion, tigers, &c., and a very good
collection of hardy plants.


PLACES OF WORSHIP.


_The Collegiate Church_.—The parish church of Manchester, and generally
called “The Old Church” by the inhabitants, is within a short distance of
the Exchange, at the foot of Market-street, whence the stranger, by
passing through the Market Place and Old Millgate, will find himself at
the principal gateway to the church-yard, which is always open.  The
church is a fine old edifice; in the choir are some curious carvings in
wood; the canopies for the stalls show the taste of the artist in
tracery.  The altar piece is a relic of the loom,—a faded pictorial
representation on tapestry, of which the colours and forms are now
obscured by the touch of time.  There are in the church several enclosed
chapels; amongst others, one of the Earls of Derby.  In the south
transept, near the entrance to the registry, is the spot where, for a few
short weeks, rested the remains of the gifted and hapless Malibran,—since
removed to the church of Lacken, near Brussels.  Passing thence to the
registry, is a mural monument, in white marble, by Chantrey.  Adjoining
the registry is the chapter-house,—the ecclesiastical government of the
parish being vested in a warden, and four fellows constitute the chapter,
and who will probably be appointed dean and canons, when the see of
Manchester is erected.  The parish of Manchester is of great extent,
including upwards of thirty townships.

Of the other churches in the town our limits admit but of a brief notice.

_St. Ann’s_, in St. Ann’s Square, is an example of the anomalies of some
ancient parishes,—it forms, with its grave-yard, a parish of itself; and,
we believe, though standing in the very heart of Manchester, it counts
but one house in its parish.

_St. Mary’s_, in St. Mary’s Street, Deansgate, has a very fine spire,
surmounted by a ball.  This was the scene of a feat of one of the
Woottons, the steeple climbers, who, by some simple apparatus, as ropes,
climbed up the giddy height, and removed the old ball and cross, which
had been damaged by lightning.

_St. Paul’s_, in Turner-street, has no architectural pretensions, or
other claims to special notice.

_St. John’s_, St. John’s Street, Deansgate, is a plain, brick edifice,
once the scene of the pastoral labours of the Rev. John Clowes, a
disciple of Emanuel Swedenborg.

_St. James’s_, St. James’s Street, is a brick building.

_St. Peter’s_, at the foot of Mosley-street, a handsome stone edifice,
resembling a Grecian temple.

_St. Michael’s_, Angel-street, _St. Clement’s_, Lever-street, and _St.
George’s_, St. George’s Road, have little to tempt the stranger to visit
them, for their external appearance.

_St. Matthew’s_, Camp Field, is a very handsome stone structure, in the
English style of architecture, erected in 1825; and the large area in
front gives the spectator room to see its form and proportions, unimpeded
by surrounding houses.

_St. Andrew’s_, Travis-street, London-road, is a neat Gothic structure of
stone, built in 1831.

_All Saints’_, in Grosvenor-square, Chorlton-on-Medlock, was erected in
1820: it is a stone building, standing in the midst of an enclosure, in
the centre of the Square.

_St. Saviour’s_, Plymouth Grove, Chorlton-on-Medlock, is a stone edifice,
which is intended to receive a tower at some future period.

In Salford, _Trinity Chapel_, Chapel-street, and _St. Stephen’s_, St.
Stephen’s Street, have little to interest the stranger.

_St. Phillip’s_, near the Adelphi, is a stone edifice, with a
semi-circular colonnade in front, and a circular tower and dome of
slender proportions, which have been compared to a pepper-box.

_Christ’s Church_, Acton-square, beyond the Crescent, Salford, is of
stone.  Its minister, the Rev. Hugh Stowell, M.A., is one of the most
popular preachers in the town.  Not a mile beyond this, is Pendleton
church,—a neat Gothic structure of stone, which from its position, is a
pleasing object from many points of view for miles round.

_St. George’s_, Hulme, is a specimen of the florid Gothic in some of its
architectural decorations.

_St. Luke’s_, Cheetham Hill, now in progress of erection, the first stone
being laid in June, 1836, is another Gothic edifice, of some pretensions.

Amongst the dissenting chapels and meeting houses, those of the
Methodists and Independents are the most prominent for their numbers and
size.  The Wesleyan Methodists have about a dozen; of which, the
principal are the chapels in Oldham-street, Grosvenor-street
(Chorlton-on-Medlock); and in Irwell-street, and Gravel-lane, Salford.
The New Connexion Methodists have two; the Primitive Methodists, four;
the Independent Methodists, two; and the Methodist Association, (the
seceders under Dr. Warren,) five or six chapels in the town and suburbs.

The Independents have seven or eight large chapels; the principal ones
are, that in Mosley-street, the scene of the late Rev. Dr. McAll’s
ministerial labours; that in Grosvenor-street, in which the late Rev. Mr.
Roby once ministered; and one in Rusholme-road,—the last being the only
one of handsome exterior.

The Particular Baptists have three chapels; the Society of Friends, a
very large, neat building, with stone front, in Dickenson-street; the
Scotch Church is a neat stone edifice, opposite St. Peter’s Church, St.
Peter’s Square; the Scotch Presbyterian, or Secession Church, in
Lloyd-street and Mount-street, is a plain brick building.

The Unitarians have four chapels; that in Cross-street, a large brick
building, was destroyed by a mob, in what were called the “Sacheverel
riots,” and parliament voted £1,500 towards its re-erection.  There is a
small chapel in Salford, in Dawson’s Croft, Greengate; a large and very
handsome stone-fronted edifice in Bridge-street, Strangeways; and a
beautiful and spacious structure, one of the purest specimens of the
English style of architecture in the town, nearly completed, in Upper
Brook-street, Chorlton-on-Medlock, for the congregation formerly
worshipping in the Mosley-street chapel.

The Swedenborgians have two chapels; one in Peter-street, Manchester, the
other in Bolton-street, Salford.  There are seven chapels for the Welsh,
of different denominations; three, severally called “Christ Church,” for
particular denominations of Dissenters; and the Jews have a synagogue in
Halliwell-street.


PLACES OF PUBLIC AMUSEMENT.

Royal Theatre,         Fountain-street.
Queen’s Theatre,       York-street.
Assembly Rooms,        Mosley-street.
Club House,            Mosley-street.
Concert Hall,          Lower Mosley-street.
Albion Club House,     King-street.
Billiard Room          Mosley-street.

BATHS.


Public Baths, situate at the entrance of the Infirmary Walks.

Adelphi Swimming Baths, Reservoir Terrace, Salford.

Dolphin Cold Baths, Horrock Red Bank.

Medicated Vapour Bath, No. 1, Lloyd-street.

Whitlow’s Vapour Baths, 35, George street.


CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS.


Manchester Royal Infirmary, Dispensaries, and Lunatic Asylum, Piccadilly;
Salford, and Pendleton Dispensary, 19, Bank Parade.

House of Recovery, Aytown-street.

Lying-in Hospital, Stanley-street, Salford.

Sick Hospital, 16, Bond-street.

Female Penitentiary, Rusholme-road.

Institution for curing Diseases in the Eye, 35, Faulkner-street.

The Humane Society’s Receiving Houses are four in number, viz., Lying-in
Hospital, Stanley-street; the Ardwick and Ancoats Dispensary; the
Lying-in Hospital, Salford; and the Salford and Pendleton Dispensary.

The Chorlton-on-Medlock Dispensary.

The Workhouse, Strangeways.

The Vagrant Office, ditto.

The Salford Workhouse, Green Gate.

The Pendleton Workhouse, Ford Lane.

Manchester and Salford District Provident Society, Office, 11, St.
James’s Square.

Besides the above, there are various sums bequeathed for purposes of
charity, amounting to the annual income of upwards of £5,000.


RAILROAD.


For time of Trains starting, &c., see page 118.


HOTELS, COACHES, AND COACH OFFICES.


Buck and Hawthorn, St. Anne-street; Buck, Hanging Ditch;

Bush Inn, Deans-gate; Eagle Inn, Market-street; Golden Lion, Deans-gate;
Hare and Hounds, Shude Hill; Lower Turk’s Head, ditto;

Mosley Arms, Piccadilly; Ditto, Shude Hill; New Boar’s Head, Hyde’s
Cross; Old Boar’s Head, ditto; Palace Inn, Market-street; Peacock, ditto;
Royal Hotel, corner of Mosely-street (the Mails start from here); Swan
Inn, Market-street; Swan, Whitley Grove; Talbot, Market-street; White
Swan, Shude Hill; Commercial, Market-street.


POST OFFICE.


_The following are the intended Arrivals and Departures of the principal
Mails at this Office_, _from the 6th of July_, 1837.

                    ARRIVAL.                                 DEPARTURE.
                H.         M.                      H.       M.
_London_               10          45  A.M.              3          15  P.M.—
                                                                        Principal
                                                                        London
                                                                        Mail.
                       11          45  P.M. with         6          15  P.M.—For
                                       Foreign                          a second
                                       Letters                          Delivery
                                       for the                          in
                                       first                            London.
                                       Morning
                                       Delivery
                                                         6          15  A.M.—for
                                                                        Foreign
                                                                        Letters
                                                                        on
                                                                        Tuesdays
                                                                        and
                                                                        Fridays.
_Bristol_              10          45  A.M.              3          15  P.M.
_Birmingham_           10          45  A.M.              6          15  A.M.
                        4          15  P.M.             11          15  A.M.
                        7          15  P.M.              3          15  P.M.
                       11          45  P.M.              6          15  P.M.
_Edinburgh_             5          25  A.M.              8          45  A.M.

_Glasgow_               3          40  P.M.              4          15  P.M.

_Carlisle_

_Preston_
_Liverpool_             8          35  A.M.              6          50  A.M.

                       10          35  A.M.              8          45  A.M.

                        2          10  P.M.              1          50  P.M.

                        3          35  P.M.              4          50  P.M.

                        6          35  P.M.
_Ireland_               8          40  A.M.              2          15  P.M.

                       or          or      or

                       10          40  A.M.

                                       According
                                       to the
                                       arrival
                                       of
                                       Packets.
_Leeds_                 5          45  A.M.              9           0  A.M.
_York_                  3          25  P.M.              8           0  P.M.
_Derby_                 3          45  P.M.              9           0  A.M.

_Nottingham_

_Leicester_

   By
_Buxton_.
   Ditto                3          45  P.M.              6          15  P.M.

   By
_Birmingham_

GENERAL DELIVERIES AT THE OFFICE.


The first, at eight until half-past eight in the morning, includes
Letters from London, Liverpool, Stafford, Wolverhampton, Birmingham,
Market Drayton, Warrington, Frodsham, Derby, Middleton, Bolton,
Stockport, and Macclesfield, the greatest part of Yorkshire, Lancashire,
Cambridgeshire, Herefordshire, Norfolk, Northumberland, Sunderland, and
Durham.

The second, at nine until a quarter before twelve in the morning, First
Liverpool, (per Railway,) includes Letters from Chester, the counties of
Shropshire, Hereford, Leominster, part of North Wales, and all Ireland,
Bolton, Blackburn, Bury, Burnley, Colne, Oldham, all Saddleworth,
Ashton-under-Line, Audenshaw, Stalybridge, Hyde, Denton, Gee Cross, and
Gorton.

The third, at eleven until a quarter to twelve in the morning, Second
Liverpool, (per Railway,) Preston, Newton-in-the-Willows, Eccles and
Kenyon.

The fourth, at twelve at noon, until half-past three in the afternoon,
includes Letters from London, Bristol, Falmouth, the counties of
Berkshire, Essex, Kent, Hants, Sussex, and Suffolk; part of North Wales,
Cornwall, Devonshire, Somersetshire, Oxfordshire, Warwickshire,
Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Cheshire, and all the West of England;
Walsall, Wolverhampton; Stafford, Stone, Shiffnall, Chester, Newcastle,
Lawton, Northwich, Knutsford, Middlewich, Nantwich, Preston-Brook,
Runcorn, Warrington, Frodsham, Penkridge, Eccleshall, Towcester,
Northampton, Altringham, Didsbury, Cheadle, and Wilmslow.

The fifth, at half-past two until half-past three in the afternoon, Third
Liverpool, (per Railway,) and Leigh.

The sixth, at a quarter-past four in the afternoon until nine at night,
includes Letters from York, Wetherby, Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield,
Halifax, Rochdale; parts of Suffolk, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire, and
Scotland, Derby, Ashbourn, Leek, Macclesfield, and Stockport; the
counties of Bedford, Hertford, Leicester, and Northampton; Disley,
Buxton, Bakewell, Matlock, Belper, Sheffield, &c.; Fourth Liverpool, (per
Railway,) Carlisle, the whole of Scotland, the counties of Westmoreland
and Cumberland, Ulverston, Lancaster, Preston, &c.

The seventh, at half-past seven until nine at night, Fifth Liverpool,
(per Railway,) includes Letters from Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Stafford,
Walsall, Shiffnall, Chester, Newcastle, Lawton, Middlewich, Northwich,
Warrington, Frodsham, Preston-brook, Runcorn, Penkridge, Knutsford,
Congleton, Stockport, Bolton, and Rochdale.

There are three deliveries by the carriers for the towns of Manchester
and Salford, daily, at 8 30, a.m., at 12 30, p.m., and 5, p.m., except on
Sundays, when there is only a morning delivery.  The deliveries, of
course, must be delayed, if any irregularity in the arrival of the Mails.
The letter carriers are at the office from 7 to 8 30, a.m., from 12 to 12
30, p.m., and from 4 to 5, p.m.; but no letters can be delivered by them
at the office, except to persons who have not been found when on their
rounds.

The Office continues open for strangers from 8 in the morning until 10 at
night.  On Sundays, the office is closed from half-past 10 till half-past
12, and from 3 till 5.


HACKNEY COACH FARES.

               DAY FARES.                  One Horse     Two Horse
                                             Coach         Coach
_These Fares are to be taken_, _either
for time or distance_, _at the option
of the driver_.
                                             s.     d.     s.     d.
Any distance not exceeding two thirds         1      0      1      0
of a mile, or 1172 yards.
Any distance exceeding two thirds of a        1      0      1      6
mile, and not exceeding 1 mile, or 1760
yards
And for every succeeding third of a           0      4      0      6
mile, or 586 yards
If for time, then for any time not            1      0      1      0
exceeding a quarter of an hour
For every succeeding quarter of an hour       0      4      0      6
For every stoppage to take up more than       0      4      0      6
once, and to set down more than twice,
an additional
For every quarter of an hour waiting          0      4      0      6
after being called

                                * * * * *

      FARES FROM ST. ANN’S SQUARE.         One Horse     Two Horse
                                             Coach         Coach
                                             s.     d.     s.     d.
_Stockport Road_—26 yards past                1      0      1      0
Lees-street (left)
   — 50 yards past Travis-street              1      0      1      6
(right)
_Cheetham Hill_—opposite further side         1      0      1      0
Johnson-st.
   — 83 yards short of lane on left,          1      0      1      6
near first mile stone
_Oldham Road_—27⅔ yards past                  1      0      1      0
Warwick-st. (left)
   — 18 yards past German-st. (right)         1      0      1      6
_Stretford Road_—23½ yds. past                1      0      1      0
Gaythorn-st. (right)
   — 31 yards short of Branch to New          1      0      1      6
Eccles Road
_Broughton Road_—2 yards past end of          1      0      1      0
Paradise-row
   — 3 yards short of first corner of         1      0      1      6
Broughton Bridge
_Bury New Road_—6½ yards past door of         1      0      1      0
Whitster’s Arms
   — 14 yards short of line of building       1      0      1      6
belonging to Mrs. Lomas
_Pendleton Road_—45½ yards short of           1      0      1      0
Irwell-street
   — 4 yds. short of Black Horse door         1      0      1      6
_New Eccles or Regent Road_—32⅓ yds.          1      0      1      0
past Collier-street, Liverpool-road
   — opposite end of New Quay Co.’s           1      0      1      6
yard

                                * * * * *

         FARES FROM PICCADILLY.            One Horse     Two Horse
                                             Coach         Coach
                                             s.     d.     s.     d.
_Stockport Road_—23 yards beyond              1      0      1      0
Russel-street
   — 52 yards short of centre of new          1      0      1      6
Sheffield-road
_Cheetham Hill_—7⅓ yds. short of toll         1      0      1      0
bar on bridge
   — 37 yds. beyond York-place on left        1      0      1      6
_Oldham Road_—3⅓ yards beyond                 1      0      1      0
Arundel-street
   — 10 yds. beyond Hall’s Place on           1      0      1      6
right
_Stretford Road_—7⅓ yards past Briton’s       1      0      1      0
Protection Inn, Bridgewater-street
   — 11½ yards past end of factory next       1      0      1      6
river Medlock on left
_Broughton Road_—25⅓ yards beyond             1      0      1      0
Bell’s Gates, Salford
   — 39 yds. short of Green Bk. Terrace       1      0      1      6
_Bury New Road_—2⅓ yards beyond               1      0      1      0
Backhouse and Hyde’s distillery
   — 52 yards past Nightingale-street         1      0      1      6
_Pendleton Road_—Opposite 1st corner of       1      0      1      0
Walker’s timber yard gates
   —3½ yards past Smith-st., Salford          1      0      1      6

Every person calling a coach, and not employing it to such call, shall
pay such sum as would have been due for carrying a fare from the stand to
the place where the driver was called to.

Carriages drawn by one horse to carry not exceeding four persons besides
the driver; and in carriages drawn by two horses, for every person above
four in addition to the driver, one fourth of the whole fare.

The above fares shall be deemed a sufficient compensation for any
reasonable luggage which the passengers may think fit to take.

When the fares for any carriage with two horses shall amount to four
shillings or upwards, or any carriage with one horse, three shillings or
upwards, it shall be at the option of the hirer to detain such carriage,
to return in the same, on payment of half fare, provided it be not
detained more than twenty minutes, and for which detention no additional
sum shall be demanded.

NIGHT FARES.—After 12 o’clock at night, or before 6 o’clock in the
morning, double the above fares are to be allowed; but when double fare
for distance is charged, single fare for waiting only to be allowed; or
if double fare for waiting is charged, only single fare for distance.

   [_Time of standing_, _from nine_, _morning_, _to twelve_, _night_.]

_Piccadilly Stand_.—3 pair-horse, 20 one-horse coaches.

_St. Ann’s Square_.—2 pair-horse, 15 one-horse coaches.

_Railway Station and St. Peter’s Square_.—2 pair-horse, and 7 one-horse
coaches, may stand at either of these places: they usually ply in
Liverpool Road, at the arrivals of the railway trains, and at other times
stand in St. Peter’s Square.

_Hunt’s Bank_, _by the Church Steps_.—2 one-horse coaches.

_Tame-street_, _opposite the Crescent_, _Ancoats_.—1 one-horse coach.


SALFORD.


_Front of New Bailey_.—Twelve coaches.


CHORLTON-ON-MEDLOCK.


_All Saints’ Church_.—Seven coaches.

_Upper Brook-street_.—Four coaches.

_Tuer-street_, _Oxford-street_.—Two coaches.


BANKERS.

         _Manchester Bankers_.            _Correspondents in London_.
Bank of England Branch Bank.              Bank of England.
Savings’ Bank, Mr. Jn. Atkinson, Agent,
1, Cross-street.
Cunliffes, Brooks, & Co.,                 R. Cunliffe, jun., & Co.
Market-street.
Daintry, Ryle, & Co., Norfolk-street.     Whitmore, Wells, & Co.
B. Heywood & Co., St. Anne-street.        Masterman & Co.
W. Jones, Lloyd, & Co., King-street.      Jones, Lloyd, & Co.
Scholes, Tetlow, & Co., Cannon-street.    Curries & Co.
Bank of Manchester, Market-street.        Denison & Co.
Manchester & Liverpool District Bank,     Smith, Payne, & Co.
Spring Gardens.
Northern and Central Bank,                Westminster Bank.
Crown-street.
Union Bank, Crown-street.                 Glyn & Co.
Commercial Bank of England,               Masterman & Co.
Mosley-street.
Manchester & Salford Bank, King-st.       Williams, Deacon & Co.
South Lancashire Bank, Crown-street.      Barclay & Co.

NEWSPAPERS.


There are five Newspapers in Manchester; four of them weekly, published
on Saturday; and the fifth, the Guardian, published twice a week,
Wednesday and Saturday.  We annex their names and politics, and their
circulation, as deduced from the stamp return for the three months ending
1st March, 1838:—

GUARDIAN, Whig                5050
ADVERTISER, Ultra Radical     3412
TIMES, Moderate Radical       2529
COURIER, Conservative         2824
CHRONICLE, Conservative       1382

*** For further particulars we refer the Stranger to the Manchester
Directory.


PRINCIPAL TOWNS NEAR MANCHESTER.


_Altringham_.  Its chief manufactures are yarn, cotton, and worsted.
Population, 2,302. 8 miles S.W. of Manchester.

_Ashton_.  Woollens.  Population, 9,222.  7 miles E.

_Bolton_.  Muslin, quilting, and dimity.  Population, 22,037. 11 miles
N.W.

_Bury_.  Cotton.  Population, 10,583.  9 miles N.N.W.

_Fairfield_.  A Moravian settlement.  4 miles E.

_Knutsford_.  Thread, worsted, and leather. Population, 2,753. 15 miles
S.

_Macclesfield_.  Silk.  Population, 17,746.  18 miles S.

_Middleton_.  Cotton.  Population, 12,793.  7 miles N.

_Newton_.  Fustian and cotton.  Population, 1,643.  16 miles W.

_Rochdale_. Woollen and strong cotton goods. Population, 61,011.  12
miles N.

_Stockport_.  Cotton.  Population, 21,726.  7 miles S.

_Warrington_.  Cotton.  Population, 13,570.  15 miles W.

_Wigan_.  Cotton and linen.  Population, 17,716.  18 N.W.



INDEX.


Acton station, 58.

Aston church, 13.

— hall, 14.

— viaduct, _ib._

                                * * * * *

Basford station, 45.

Barr Beacon, 16.

Beeston castle, account of, 51.

Bescot Bridge station, 19.

Birmingham, account of, 1.

— antiquity of, 2.

— bankers, 111.

— brass founders, 106.

— British plate manufacturers, _ib._

— button manufacturers, _ib._

— buildings and institutions of, 7, 9, 97, 98.

— canal conveyance, 113.

— commercial boarding houses, 112.

— cut and plain glass manufacturers, 107.

— etymology of, 1.

— glass works, 107.

— gun and pistol makers, _ib._

— hackney coach fares, 111.

— inns, 112.

— iron founders, 108.

— japanners, _ib._

— jewellers, silversmiths, and emporiums for every description of
cutlery, plated wares, &c., _ib._

— lamp, chandelier, candelabra, lustre, &c. manufacturers, 108.

— manufactures of, 4.

— manufacturers, miscellaneous, &c., 109.

— metal rollers, 108.

— newspapers, list of, 112.

— omnibus offices, _ib._

— pin makers, 109.

— places of note adjacent to, 114.

— places of worship, 8, 9, 99–105.

— platers, and manufacturers of silver and plated wares, 109.

— post office, 110.

— public amusements, 98.

— public charities, _ib._

— schools, _ib._

— screw manufacturers, 109.

— station house, 12.

— steam engine manufacturers, 109.

— waggon warehouses, 114.

— water works, 15.

Bolton Junction station, 85.

Bridgeford hall, 37.

— station, 36.

Broad Green station, 70.

Bury-lane station, 85.

Bushbury hill and church, 26.

                                * * * * *

Cannock Chase, 28.

Chat Moss, account of, 86.

Congleton, account of, 49.

Coppenhall station, 48.

Crewe station, 46.

Cross-lane Bridge station, 88.

                                * * * * *

Darlaston, account of, 20.

Delamere Forest, account of, 51.

Duddeston, 13.

Dudley, account of, 18.

Dutton viaduct, 58.

                                * * * * *

Eccles church, 87.

Eccleshall, account of, 38.

                                * * * * *

Four Ashes station, 28.

Frodsham, account of, 60.

                                * * * * *

Hampstead hall, 17.

Hartford station, 55.

Huyton Gate and Roby-lane Gate stations, 69.

                                * * * * *

James’s Bridge station, 20.

                                * * * * *

Knowsley Park, 69.

                                * * * * *

Liverpool, account of, 72.

— antiquity of, _ib._

— bankers, 128.

— baths, 116.

— buildings of, 79, 115.

— castle of, 73.

— commerce of, 77.

— distinguished natives of, 82.

— docks of, 78, 116.

— etymology of, 72.

— foreign packets, 120.

— harbour of, 77.

— importance of, 74.

— inns, 120.

— literary, and scientific institutions, 116.

— manufactures of, 82.

— markets, 116.

— newspapers, list of, 129.

— objects of attraction, 115.

— post office, 124–127.

— places of worship, 81, 118.

— public amusements, 115.

— public charities, 117.

— railroad regulations, 118.  See also sheet table.

— steam navigation, 121–124.

                                * * * * *

Madeley station, 43.

Manchester, account of, 89.

— bankers, 143.

— baths, 136.

— commencement of its manufacturing celebrity, 90.

— distinguished natives of, 96.

— etymology of, 89.

— hackney coach fares, 140–142.

— hotels, coaches, and coach offices, 137.

— manufactures of, 91, 130.

— newspapers, 143.

— origin of, 89.

— places of public amusement, 136.

— places of worship, 133–136.

— post office, 138–140.

— principal towns near, 144.

— public buildings and institutions of, 94, 131, 136.

— railroad, 137.

— situation of, 93.

Mersey viaduct, 62.

Middlewich, account of, 52.

Minshull Vernon station, 50.

Moore station, 61.

                                * * * * *

Nantwich, account of, 46.

Newton Junction, 65.

— town of, 84.

Nixon, Robert, account of, 54.

Northwich, account of, 56.

— brine springs, _ib._

Norton Bridge station, 37.

Norton priory, 60.

                                * * * * *

Old Roman Way, 29.

Over, account of, 53.

                                * * * * *

Parkside station, 85.

Patricroft station, 87.

Penkridge church, 30.

— station, 31.

Perry Barr station, 16.

— hall, 17.

Potteries, account of, 38.

Prescot, account of, 68.

Preston-Brook station,60.

                                * * * * *

Quarry Bridge, 30.

                                * * * * *

Rowley Hills, 21.

Runcorn, account of, 61.

                                * * * * *

Sandbach, account of, 49.

Sandwell Park, 17.

Spread Eagle station, 29.

Stafford, account of, 32.

— station, _ib._

Standon church, 40.

Stone, account of, 38.

                                * * * * *

Tunnel, Liverpool, 70.

— Wednesfield, 22.

                                * * * * *

Vale Royal viaduct, 54.

                                * * * * *

Walsall, account of, 19.

Warrington station, 62.

— account of, _ib._

Waste-lane station, 88.

Wednesbury, account of, 19.

West Bromwich, 17.

— gas works, _ib._

Whitmore station, 41.

Willenhall, account of, 22.

— station, _ib._

Winsford station, 53.

Winwick church, 64.

— hall, 65.

— station, 64.

Wolverhampton, account of, 24.

— station, 23.



NOTES.


{v}  The work is published either with or without the steel plates.

{7}  The proceeds of the Musical Festivals are for the benefit of the
General Hospital, and not given to the Dispensary, as is stated in Mr.
Lacy’s Liverpool Guide-book.

{11}  “The Picture of Birmingham,” published by J. Drake, New-street,
containing an historical and descriptive account of the town, with an
accurate map, and twelve views of the principal buildings, &c.

{14}  See page 2.

{97a}   For a detailed account of objects worthy the traveller’s notice,
see the “Picture of Birmingham,” published by J. Drake, 52, New-street;
W. Wood, 78, High street; and to be had of all booksellers.

{97b}  A correct view of the Town Hall, Free Grammar School, and Market
Hall, to be had on a sheet, the one shilling, at J. Drake’s, 52,
New-street, and of all booksellers.

{106}  The limits of this work would not admit of a more extensive list
of the manufacturers of Birmingham, which are exceedingly numerous.

{110}  With Foreign Letters, _via_ Birmingham and Chester to Holyhead.



ADVERTISEMENTS.


CLARK’S
METALLIC HOT-HOUSE MANUFACTORY,


                           _ESTABLISHED_ 1818,

                   FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND ERECTION OF

                             CONSERVATORIES,

                           HOT AND GREEN-HOUSES

                                   AND

                         HORTICULTURAL BUILDINGS

                          OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.

                                * * * * *

                  COPPER SASHES, FAN-LIGHTS, SKY-LIGHTS,

                               &c. &c. &c.

                                * * * * *

                               PROPRIETOR,
                        MR. THOMAS CLARK, JUNIOR,

                                 MANAGER,
                             MR. JOHN JONES.

                                * * * * *

                      64, Lionel-street, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *



W. AND T. AVERY,


                            ESTABLISHED 1730,

                      MANUFACTURERS OF ALL KINDS OF

                    SCALES, SCALE BEAMS, & STEELYARDS,

                                _TO WEIGH_

                  From 100th part of a grain to 20 tons;

                        PATENT WEIGHING MACHINES,

                       Screw Plates and Die Stocks;

                 ROAD MACHINES UPON THE BEST PRINCIPLES;

              Standard Scales and Weights for Corporations:

                           DIGBETH, BIRMINGHAM,

                      AND 32, HATTON GARDEN, LONDON.

                                * * * * *



JOSEPH STUBBS,


                                   LATE

                          RADENHURST AND STUBBS,

                            _MANUFACTURER OF_

                          WHIPS AND WHIP THONGS,

                        SADDLES, BRIDLES, HARNESS,

                                   &c.

                 13, Jamaica-row, Smithfield, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

                         [Picture: Coat of Arms]



EDWARDS, BALL AND CO.,


                       82, High-street, Birmingham,

                  JEWELLERS, SILVERSMITHS, CUTLERS, &c.,
                                 EMPORIUM

                         FOR THE MANUFACTURES OF

                 _BIRMINGHAM_, _SHEFFIELD_, _AND LONDON_.

                                * * * * *

                      Established nearly a century.

                                * * * * *

THIS spacious suite of Rooms offers to the inspection of the Visiter, an
extensive selection of fashionable Jewellery, Gold and Silver Plate; and
a large assortment of second hand Plate; Plated Wares of every variety;
Fancy Silver Goods; Gilt Jewellery and Trinkets; Gold and Silver Watches;
German Silver, and Plated on Steel Articles; Warranted Cutlery, Elastic
Razors, and Strops; Fancy Hearth Brushes; Papier Mâchée Trays and
Japanned Wares; Bronze Tea and Coffee Urns; Britannia Metal Goods; Bronze
and Or Molu Suspending and Table Lanps, Candelabra, Lustres, Inkstands,
&c.; Regulation and Dress Swords; Patent Corkscrews; Snuffers and
Polished Steel Articles of every description.

N.B. Canteens made and fitted to contain Plate. Livery Button Dies cut,
and Buttons made to order on the shortest notice. Medals and Seals for
Public Companies and Scientific Societies, Communion Services,
Presentation Plate, and Silver Cups designed and executed in the first
style of Art.

                    Arms, Crests, and Mottos Engraved.

                    FURNISHING IRONMONGERY IN GENERAL.

                                * * * * *


JAMES WARD,


                   No. 12, ST. MARY’S ROW, BIRMINGHAM,

                             MANUFACTURER OF

                           _GUN CLEANING RODS_,

                             WADDING PUNCHES,

               Cap’d and Common Worms, Lock Vices, Nipples,

                      _NIPPLE AND OTHER TURNSCREWS_,

                         BULLET AND SHOT MOULDS,

                                 &c. &c.

                      ENGRAVING AND LETTER-CUTTING;

 Letter Punches, Sheep, Bag, and Burn Marks; Door Plates and Seals neatly
               engraved; Artificial Flower Punches, &c. &c.

                                * * * * *


THOMAS ELKINGTON,


                         GOLD AND SILVER BEATER,

                          _WHOLESALE DEALER IN_

                       SILVER POWDER, BRONZE, &c.,

                     146, Lionel-street, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *


R. W. CHILD,


                             MANUFACTURER OF

                            _FANCY GILT TOYS_,

                             JEWELLERY, &c.,

                   36, Lench-street, St. Mary’s Square,

                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

                         [Picture: Coat of Arms]



MAPPLEBECK AND LOWE’S


                     EMPORIUM FOR THE MANUFACTURES OF

                    BIRMINGHAM, LONDON, AND SHEFFIELD
                MANUFACTURING AND FURNISHING IRONMONGERY,

                          Wholesale and Retail.

                                * * * * *

                             BY APPOINTMENT,
_Agents to Messrs. JOSEPH RODGERS and SONS_, _Sheffield_, _Cutlers to her
                                Majesty_.

THE Nobility, Gentry, and Strangers visiting Birmingham, are respectfully
invited to this Establishment, whether as Purchasers, or Parties in
search of amusement. The SHOW ROOMS, contain the finished articles for
Sale that are manufactured in this Town, London, and Sheffield—and are
open to all persons of respectability. Cards of admission, to inspect
some of the distinguished Manufactories, may be obtained at this
Establishment.


Cutlery Show Rooms,


Contains an elegant and splendid assortment of every description of
articles in Cutlery, and beautiful specimens from the Manufactory and
Show Rooms of Messrs. Rodgers and Sons, and various other articles which
present novelties of unusual taste and variety; also, an extensive
variety of rich _Sheffield Plated Wares_, (with strong Silver edges and
shields for engraving arms or crests upon,) _German Silver and Britannia
Metal Goods_.


Furnishing Show Room,


Contains splendid Patent Fire Places, elegant Bronzed Steel and Or-molu
Stove Grates, Fenders, Fire Irons and supports—Bronzed Tea and Coffee
Urns, Kettles on Stands, &c. &c., of the best manufacture, and entirely
new patterns.—A splendid assortment of the best Japanned Papier Machée
Trays and Waiters; also, Ladies’ Work Tables, Fire Screens, Card Racks,
and Cases from the first manufacturers.—Bronzed Inkstands, Lustres,
Thermometers, Card Racks, Wax Tapers, &c. &c.—Chandelier, Table, Hall,
Candle and other Lamps, and Candelabras in Bronze and Or-molu.


Establishment for Furnishing


Gentlemen’s Seats, Halls, Houses, &c., in the most complete manner and
first style of elegance: Kitchen Ranges, on most improved principles;
Economical Cooking Apparatus, with the latest improvements, and every
description of Ironmongery, and superior Braizery Goods; improved Shower
Baths, with Pump; Warm, Cold, Hip, and Feet Baths; Horticultural
Implements in great variety, viz., Tool Chests, Fumigating Bellows,
Scott’s Portable Garden Pumps, Engines, and Mennogrammes (or improved
Labels) for Flower Pots, &c., highly approved of by the first
Horticulturists.

 EXPERIENCED BELL-HANGERS AND LOCKSMITHS SENT TO ANY PART OF THE COUNTRY.

The Wholesale Ironmongery business connected with this Establishment, is
conducted at No. 1, GOLDEN COURT, adjoining.

*** _Goods for Exportation and Shipping Orders_, _executed on the most
advantageous terms_.

                        6, Bull Ring, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *



JOHN RODGERS AND SONS,


                             MANUFACTURERS OF

                      WOOLLEN GIRTH, ROLLER, BRACE,

                                   AND

                                BELT WEBS;

                        ELASTIC INDIA RUBBER WEBS,

                         AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF

                     BRACES, BELTS, MILITARY SASHES,

                    GIRTHS, SILK PURSES, WATCH GUARDS,
                                   &c.,

                         CHISWELL-STREET, LONDON,

                      And Broad-street, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *



THOMAS CLARK AND CO.,


                        JEWELLERS & SILVERSMITHS,

                           _GILT AND STEEL TOY_

                              MANUFACTURERS,

                                 &c. &c.,

                      53, Lionel-street, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

                    GOLD, SILVER, AND GILT JEWELLERY;

                               SNUFF BOXES,
                EVER POINTED PENCIL CASES, THIMBLES, &c.,

                    In great variety, always on hand.

                                * * * * *

                         [Picture: Coat of Arms]



JAMES BROWN,


                             MANUFACTURER OF

                          BRITANNIA METAL GOODS,

                       Paradise-street, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *



JOHN LILLEY, JUN.,


                             MANUFACTURER OF

                         SILVER AND PLATED WARES,

                         MILITARY ORNAMENTS, &c.,

                         _OF EVERY DESCRIPTION_,

                    23, St. Paul’s Square, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *



THOMAS HORTON, AND CO.,


                         MAKERS OF GERMAN SILVER,

                           AND MANUFACTURERS OF

                           SPOONS, FORKS, &c.,

                     _IN THE IMPROVED BRITISH PLATE_,

                      34, Lench-street, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *



SAMUEL RAWLINS & SON,


                      MANUFACTURERS OF ALL KINDS OF

                            Saddlery, Harness,

                        BRIDLES, SHOT-BELTS, &c.,

                             FOR EXPORTATION.

                        CURRIERS, LEATHER FACTORS,

                                   AND

                         FOREIGN HIDE MERCHANTS,

                         No. 100, WEAMAN STREET,
                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *



NEEDHAM’S


                             IMPROVED PATENT

                           MILITARY & PORTABLE

                               _BOX SPURS_,

                     AND SPURS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION,

                    FOR THE HOME AND FOREIGN MARKETS.

                    MANUFACTORY, 16, COLESHILL STREET,

                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

                         [Picture: Coat of Arms]



W. HOPKINS & SON,


                          (_Late James Barron_,)

                               PATENT BLIND

                              MANUFACTURERS,

                                   AND

                         GENERAL BRASS FOUNDERS,

                         25, LOWER TEMPLE-STREET,

                               Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

                  MAPS MOUNTED ON A SUPERIOR PRINCIPLE;

                      SPRING BLINDS FOR SHOP FRONTS,

                       ON AN IMPROVED CONSTRUCTION;

                            GAUZE WIRE BLINDS,

                     OLD BLINDS PAINTED AND REPAIRED,

                              &c., &c., &c.

                                * * * * *



SAMUEL BROWN,


                             MANUFACTURER OF

                    Pocket Books & Fancy Leather Cases

                            IN EVERY VARIETY.

                           UPPER GOUGH STREET,

                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *



FASHIONABLE
CLOTHING ESTABLISHMENT,
CURZON PLACE, NEW STREET, BIRMINGHAM.


                                * * * * *

                              W. B. REYNOLDS

Has much pleasure in announcing to his Friends and the Public generally,
that (in consequence of the decease of his late foreman) he has succeeded
in engaging from London a Gentleman of acknowledged taste, ability, and
experience, to superintend the cutting department of his business. He
therefore feels the fullest confidence in soliciting the continued
patronage of his Friends, the Gentry, and Inhabitants of Birmingham and
its vicinity, respectfully assuring them, that all orders with which he
may be favoured will be executed in a style of superiority and fashion,
not to be surpassed by any establishment at the West end of the
metropolis.

To the Ladies, W. B. R. requests particularly to observe, that, having
for five years had the management of a business in Bond Street, London,
in which

                           LADIES RIDING HABITS

formed a leading feature, and much conduced to its celebrity, he can
promise without reserve, that their commands in this department shall be
executed in a manner equal, if not superior, in taste and elegance, to
the most reputed houses in the kingdom.

                  LIVERIES, MACINTOSH GREAT COATS, &c.,
                            IN EVERY VARIETY.

                           FUNERALS FURNISHED.

                                * * * * *



No. 7, ST. PAUL’S SQUARE, BIRMINGHAM.


                                * * * * *

                            WILLIAM MITCHELL,

                        ORIGINAL GENERAL METALLIC

                                   PEN

                              MANUFACTURER,

MOST respectfully requests the notice of the Merchants, Dealers, and
Stationers, to his extensive Assortment of


STEEL PENS,


comprising every variety of the most approved general patterns,
manufactured of the best materials, and finished in a most superior
manner; also, with the above he particularly recommends his


VICTORIA PENS,


as combining in themselves all the best properties of the Quill, and
possessing, in a superior degree, the durability and beautiful equality
in the appearance of the writing, that the most elaborately finished
Steel Pens exhibit.

Sold Wholesale at the Manufactory, and at his Agents’, Messrs. Wood &
Son, No. 4, Newcastle-street, Farringdon-street, London; Mr. Simmons’,
No. 9, St. Ann’s Square, Manchester; Mr. Grafton’s, Civet Cat,
Lord-street, Liverpool, and retail by all Stationers.

                                * * * * *



CABINET,
UPHOLSTERY, AND PAPER HANGING
WAREHOUSE,


            16, WORCESTER-STREET, (OPPOSITE THE MARKET HALL,)
                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                J. WRIGHT,

VERY respectfully calls the attention of Families Furnishing, to his
extensive Stock, which will be found to consist of an unusually large
assortment of


CABINET FURNITURE:


comprising great varieties of every article of warranted manufacture, and
of the most seasoned materials, for every department of the dwelling,
manufactured consistently with the prevailing Metropolitan style and
taste, and with great regard to that desideratum of the day—_economy in
price_.


UPHOLSTERY, &c.


Damask and Plain Moreens, Chintzes, Trimmings, Floor Cloths,
Table-Baizes, &c. &c., of the first quality.


PAPER HANGINGS


In great variety, selected from the first houses in the Trade; and which
for style, quality, or price, he flatters himself cannot be excelled.

                                * * * * *



MENDEL’S
MANCHESTER AND LIVERPOOL
HOTEL,
BRIDGE-STREET, MANCHESTER.


                                * * * * *

                             EMANUEL MENDEL,

BEGS leave to inform Commercial Gentlemen and the Public generally, that
he has opened the above House, which is fitted-up in a superior manner,
and hopes, by attention and assiduity, to merit a share of public
patronage.

                                * * * * *

               WINES AND SPIRITS OF THE VERY BEST QUALITY.

                                * * * * *

            N.B.—EXCELLENT STABLING AND LOCK-UP COACH-HOUSES.

                                * * * * *

                         [Picture: Coat Of Arms]



ROYAL HOTEL,
_MAIL AND COACH OFFICE_.


                            FROM THIS OFFICE,

                                DEPART ALL

                        HER MAJESTY’S ROYAL MAILS,

                       (_Except the Burnley Mail_);

                         ALSO, A GREAT NUMBER OF

                               FIRST-RATE,

                        FAST, FOUR-HORSE COACHES:

                              THUS AFFORDING

                       OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRAVELLING

                     By Superior Conveyances, to the

                NORTH, INTO YORKSHIRE, AND TO ALL PARTS OF

                               THE KINGDOM,

                              ALMOST HOURLY.

                                                           LACY AND ALLEN,
                                                            _PROPRIETORS_.

                                * * * * *



YORK HOTEL


                                   AND

                              FAMILY HOUSE,

                               KING-STREET,

                               MANCHESTER.

                                * * * * *

                                R. SWYER.

                                * * * * *



TALBOT INN,


                              MARKET-STREET,

                               MANCHESTER,

                            AN OLD ESTABLISHED

                                  HOUSE.

                                * * * * *

                         [Picture: Coat of Arms]



COMMERCIAL AND FAMILY HOUSE,
KING’S ARMS
HOTEL,


                               JOHN ELTON,

                         KING-STREET, MANCHESTER.

                                * * * * *



MARY OGDEN,
COMMERCIAL INN,


                              MARKET-STREET,

                         CORNER OF BROWN-STREET,

                               MANCHESTER.

                                * * * * *



BEE COFFEE ROOMS,


                        UNDER THE LATE PALACE INN,

                        MARKET-STREET, MANCHESTER.

                                * * * * *

               THIS ESTABLISHMENT IS PECULIARLY ADAPTED FOR

                        STRANGERS AND TRAVELLERS,

                       FROM ITS CENTRAL SITUATION.

                                * * * * *

                Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner, Tea, And Supper,

                      SUPPLIED ON A MINUTE’S NOTICE,

                       AND AT VERY MODERATE PRICES.

                                * * * * *



H. P. THATCHER,


                     No. 19, King-street, Manchester,

                         LADIES’ AND GENTLEMEN’S

                         FASHIONABLE HAIR CUTTER

                               AND DRESSER,

                 DEPÔT FOR FOREIGN AND BRITISH PERFUMERY,

        Inventor of the much admired Sicilian Cream for the Hair.

                                * * * * *

  A good assortment of Hair, Tooth, Nail, and Clothes Brushes; Tortoise
             shell, Ivory, and Horn Combs, in great variety.

                                * * * * *


ST. GEORGE’S
INDEPENDENT COACH
AND
GENERAL OMNIBUS OFFICE,


                   (Opposite the End of Union-street,)

                         HIGH-STREET, BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

                  Coaches to most Parts of the Kingdom.

                                * * * * *

             Conveyance Company’s OMNIBUSES to the following
                                 Places.

  Wolverhampton—Stourbridge—Dudley—Walsall—Hagley—Bewdley—Kidderminster—
        Brierley Hill—West Bromwich—Wednesbury—Bilston—Hales Owen.

                                                       HENRY GENDERS & CO.

                                * * * * *



SWAN HOTEL.


                           THEODORE WAKEFIELD,

                       ORIGINAL POSTING AND FAMILY

                                  HOTEL,

                         HIGH-STREET, BIRMINGHAM.

T. W. begs to acquaint his Friends and the Public that his OMNIBUSES PLY
at the London and Birmingham and Grand Junction Railway Stations
constantly on the Arrival and Departure of the Trains.

                                * * * * *



W. TATEHAM,


                             32, TEMPLE-ROW,

                     (Three Doors from Bull-street,)

                               BIRMINGHAM,

         BEGS TO CALL THE ATTENTION OF LADIES & GENTLEMEN TO HIS

                                _IMPROVED_

                                METHOD OF

                              PERUKE MAKING,

          And to state the superiority of his System to that of
                           his Contemporaries.

His PERUKES are so constructed as to fit the Head with the greatest
Precision, and form exactly the natural angle on the Forehead, the
Artificial Hair being completely carried off the Temples.  He defies the
most proficient connoisseur to distinguish them from a perfectly natural
head of hair.

                                * * * * *


WILLIAM HORTON AND CO.,


                             MANUFACTURERS OF

                      NEEDLES, PINS, AND FISHHOOKS,

                        REDDITCH, WORCESTERSHIRE,

                                   AND

                    GREAT HAMPTON-STREET, BIRMINGHAM,

      By special appointment to Her Majesty the Queen, and Her Royal
                      Highness the Duchess of Kent.

            SOLE INVENTORS OF THE CELEBRATED VICTORIA NEEDLE.

                                * * * * *



H. AND J. GIBBS,


                   Platers on Steel and German Silver,

                             MANUFACTURERS OF

                       METAL AND JAPANNED BUTTONS,

          Cloak Clasps, Split Rings, Stay Holes, Fancy Gilt and
                           Steel Toys, &c. &c.

                        7, LITTLE CHARLES-STREET,

                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *



I. SHERWOOD,


                             MANUFACTURER OF

                    BRASS, COPPER, BLOCK TIN, AND IRON

                             GAS PIPING, &c.

                   _TENANT-STREET MILL_, _BIRMINGHAM_.

                                * * * * *

            N.B. Locomotive Engine Pipes of superior Quality.

                                * * * * *


ELIZ. STURGES AND SON,


                             MANUFACTURERS OF

                       PLATINA, BRITISH PLATE, AND
                          BRITANNIA METAL WARES,

                                  IN THE

              Greatest Variety of Form, Quality, and Price.

The Platina Tea and Coffee Sets were invented and are made only by ELIZ.
STURGES and SON, are warranted never to lose their original shape or
colour, and are sold at about the same price as Britannia Metal Sets.

                    26, LICHFIELD-STREET, BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *


ENGRAVING.


                     ADDRESS CARDS, BANKERS’ CHECKS,
                             AND BILL PLATES;

          Seal Stones, Gold and Silver Plate, Engraved equal to

                          _LONDON HOUSES_, _AT_

                               C. COBURN’S,

                         ENGRAVER AND STATIONER,

                   9, Ann-street, (near the Town hall,)

                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *


BACCHUS & GREEN,


                     PLAIN & CUT GLASS MANUFACTURERS,

                            UNION GLASS WORKS,

                              _BIRMINGHAM_.

      WAREHOUSE,
8, Tokenhouse Yard, LONDON.

                                * * * * *


WILLIAM CHAMBERS DAY,


                              IRON FOUNDER,
                       SUFFOLK STREET, BIRMINGHAM,

                             MANUFACTURER OF

Every Description of Weighing Machines, suitable for Railways, Road
Wagons, Wharfs, Corn Dealers, Woolstaplers, Curriers, Grocers, &c.
Scales, Scale Beams, Steelyards, Die Stocks, Screw Plates, Sugar Mills
and Straw-cutting Engines on an improved Principle, Mill Castings, &c.

              English and Foreign Weights in Iron or Brass.

              MANUFACTURER OF THE PATENT DEEP COPPER SCALES.

                                * * * * *


JOHN LAW,


                             MANUFACTURER OF

                        PATENT TACK AND CUT NAILS,

                          OF EVERY DESCRIPTION,

                         PAD BOX AND TRUNK LOCKS,

               Wrought Iron Hinges, Pressed Riveted Hinges,

                     HEAVY OR WEIGHTY BULWARK HINGES,

                 _HOOKS and HINGES_, _ROUNDS or WASHERS_,

                                BRACKETS,

                     CORNICE SLIDES, STAIR ROD EYES,

                                   AND

          Ironmongery of every Description suitable for Foreign
                          and Home Consumption,

                    47, COLESHILL-STREET, BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *


J. F. PARKER,


                             MANUFACTURER OF

                           SILVER PLATED WARES,

                       72, HIGH STREET, BIRMINGHAM.

   Candlesticks, Cruet and Liquor Frames, Tea Urns and Sets, Epergnes,
                             Dishes, &c. &c.

                                * * * * *



BIRMINGHAM COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE
BOARDING HOUSE,


                                 NO. 12,

                        Union Passage, New-street.

                                * * * * *

                           MR. AND MRS. JONES,

Respectfully inform their Friends and the Public, that Ladies and
Gentlemen visiting or passing through Birmingham, will meet with every
attention and comfort at this Establishment, at very reasonable charges.
The house is central and retired, and contiguous to the Post Office and
Principal Coach Offices.

                                * * * * *


EDWARD STUBS,


                           WHOLESALE AND RETAIL

                          MANUFACTURING FURRIER,

                                DEALER IN

                        TUSCAN AND STRAW BONNETS,

                                 19 & 22,

                         NEW-STREET, BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

             Furs Cleaned, Repaired, and Altered, with every
                 attention.—Bonnets Cleaned and Altered.

                       OLD FURS TAKEN IN EXCHANGE.

                                * * * * *


DAVID COPE & SON,


               Nos. 7 & 8, BARTHOLOMEW-STREET, BIRMINGHAM,

                             Manufacturers of

                          Plated Spoons, Forks,

                          SOUP AND PUNCH LADLES,

               ASPARAGUS TONGS, DECANTER CORKS AND LABELS,

          Sugar Tongs, Toast Racks, Knife Rests, Gilt and Plated
                     Egg Spoons, Sugar Crushers, &c.

                  BRITISH PLATE, SPOONS, FORKS, &c. &c.

                                * * * * *



T. FLETCHER,


                                   31,
                              _TEMPLE ROW_,
                               BIRMINGHAM,

                  (_Nearly opposite DEE’S Royal Hotel_,)

                         Has constantly on Sale,

                           PIANO FORTES, HARPS,

                            _GUITARS_, &c, &c.

                                * * * * *

         Piano Fortes, Harps, &c. lent on Hire, Exchanged, Tuned,
                              and Repaired.

                       IMPORTER OF FOREIGN STRINGS.

                                   ALL

                                New Music

                          AS SOON AS PUBLISHED.

                                * * * * *


GEORGE MINES,


                         STOCK AND SHARE BROKER,

                                   78,
                       Newhall-street, Birmingham,

          Begs to inform the Public he has commenced Business as

                         Stock and Share Broker,

And from 13 Years’ experience he has had in every branch of the Business,
he doubts not of giving perfect satisfaction to all who may favour him
with their Instructions.

*** He has a first rate Agency in _London_, _Liverpool_, &c., and has
Daily Information of the state of all the Markets.

                                * * * * *



TEMPERANCE ARMS


                        54, DALE END, BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

                               JOB WILKINS,

Through this medium, begs to acquaint the Public generally, especially
Friends of Temperance Travelling, either on business or pleasure, they
will find his Establishment comfortable and convenient, being between the
Birmingham and London and Grand Junction Railway Stations and the
principal Coach Offices, and within a few minutes’ walk of either.

                                * * * * *

      Tea, Coffee, Chops, and Steaks, at any hour of the day, but no
              Intoxicating Liquors allowed on the Premises.

                                * * * * *

            WELL AIRED BEDS, PRIVATE ROOMS: CHARGES MODERATE.

                                * * * * *

                 _Cars for Hire_, _with Careful Drivers_.

                                * * * * *


JOSEPH SHORE AND SONS,


                         IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN

                        Foreign Wines and Spirits;

                              11, Easy Row,

                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

                         [Picture: Coat of Arms]



JENNENS & BETTRIDGE,


                       Japanners and Manufacturers

                                    OF

                            PAPIER MÂCHÉE, &c.

                             TO HER MAJESTY,

    (_And to their late Majesties_, _George and William the Fourth_,)

                          99, CONSTITUTION HILL,

                               BIRMINGHAM,

                                   AND

                          3, HALKIN-STREET WEST,

                         BELGRAVE SQUARE, LONDON.

                                * * * * *

            _THIS ESTABLISHMENT IS OPEN TO THE INSPECTION OF_
                               _VISITERS_.

N.B. Cards of Admission to the principal Manufacturing Establishments and
Show Rooms in Birmingham, may be had of J. and B.

                                * * * * *


SILVER TEA URN,


                               9, DALE END,

              And New Market Place, Belmont Row, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

                         HENRY AND CHARLES GROVE,

                             GENERAL GROCERS,

          Tea Dealers, Coffee Roasters, Cheese & Butter Factors,

                            TOBACCONISTS, &c.

                         HOP AND SEED WAREHOUSE.
                  Agents to the Durham Mustard Company.

H. & C. GROVE embrace this opportunity of tendering their most grateful
thanks to their Friends and the Public, for the very distinguished
patronage their Establishments have been honoured with; and at the same
time beg to observe, that all Orders entrusted to them will be executed
under their own superintendence, and every effort exercised to strengthen
that confidence already shown by the very flattering encouragement they
have experienced.

            N.B. Orders from the Country promptly attended to.

                                * * * * *



SAMPSON ASTON,


              NO. 1, JENNENS’ ROW, ST. BARTHOLOMEW’S SQUARE,

                               BIRMINGHAM,

                             MANUFACTURER OF

                           BOX AND IVORY RULES,

              Routledge’s and Hawthorn’s Improved Locomotive
                            ENGINEERS’ RULES,
                  AND RULES OF EVERY OTHER DESCRIPTION.

                                * * * * *



PUMP COMMERCIAL TAVERN,


                        (OPPOSITE THE OLD CHURCH,)

                          BULL RING, BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

                              THOMAS EVANS,

              (Lately of Radenhurst’s Nelson Coach Office,)

Having succeeded to the Business of his late Father-in-law, the
Proprietor of the above Establishment, has made extensive arrangements of
the House; particularly by considerably enlarging his Coffee Room, and
making several new, and improving and refurnishing the former, Sitting
Rooms, Bed Rooms, &c. &c. The result of these Improvements is, that T. E.
is enabled to offer the accommodation of a Family Hotel on the most
reasonable Terms. Visiters to Birmingham will find at this House all the
convenience of their own residence, upon a scale of charges which must
ensure their approval. Commercial Gentlemen also will find increased
attention to their comforts.

                                * * * * *



W. REED,


               (From Hobson and Co.’s, Long Acre, London,)

                              COACH BUILDER,
                               BATH-STREET,

                               Birmingham.

Every description of Light Carriages, made on the most approved
Principle, and in the most fashionable Style, constantly on Sale.

                                * * * * *



LONDON COFFEE HOUSE,


                            10, PHILIP-STREET,

                       (Opposite the Market Hall,)

                               Birmingham.

DINNER commencing at One o’Clock, with a liberal Bill of Fare daily.

            Private Rooms and Dinners on the shortest Notice.

              London and Provincial Daily and Weekly Papers.

                             WELL AIRED BEDS.

                                * * * * *



DUDDESTON HALL
LUNATIC ASYLUM,


                             NEAR BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

                                MR. LEWIS

RESPECTFULLY informs the Public that he receives Patients, of either sex,
labouring under mental or nervous diseases, into his Establishment, on
terms which cannot fail to meet the approbation of persons desirous of
placing their friends, who may be so circumstanced, in so comfortable and
pleasing a retreat.

The well known beauty and variety of the Gardens and Pleasure Grounds,
and the entire adaptation of the House and Premises to the purposes of an
Asylum, render an elaborate description unnecessary; suffice it to say,
there is everything that can be desired of this nature.

The Proprietor resides in and conducts the Establishment with properly
qualified Assistants; the female department is under the superintendence
of Mrs. and Miss LEWIS, who devote all their time to the health and
comfort of the patients, and whose qualifications in this respect are
well known in Birmingham and its neighbourhood.

Dr. EVANS is the consulting Physician.  Mr. FREER and Mr. HEELEY,
Surgeons, one of whom visits the Patients daily.

The situation is extremely desirable, the Vauxhall Station of the Grand
Junction Railway being at the Lodge Gates, and the Railway itself
bounding the Premises.

                                * * * * *



THE
LONDON SILK WAREHOUSE,


                         61, AND 62, BULL STREET,

                               BIRMINGHAM,

                       PROPRIETOR, WILLIAM EDWARDS.

                                * * * * *

TO LADIES VISITING BIRMINGHAM:—

AT this House, (conducted upon the most equitable principles, and
established for a long time with yearly increasing patronage,) the old
system of trading is adopted; the price of each article being marked in
plain figures, from which no deviation is ever allowed.

Its claim upon the patronage of the Public, is the undeviating cheapness
at which all articles, whether of British, Continental, or Eastern
manufacture are offered to Purchasers.

The Inhabitants of the neighbouring counties, who make their purchases in
Birmingham, will at all times find a large and carefully chosen Stock of
the most substantial, well-manufactured

                           SILKS, SHAWLS, FURS,

                    BLANKETS, FLANNELS, COUNTERPANES,

                                 RIBBONS,

                     GENUINE IRISH LINENS AND LAWNS.

Where purchases are made by Gentlemen, or other Persons, for Friends in
the country, which fail to give satisfaction, the money is invariably
returned, excepting where an article is lessened in value, by being
separated from the piece.

                                * * * * *



HENRY GROVE,


                     (IMPORTER OF WINES AND SPIRITS,)

                         VICTORIA COMMERCIAL INN,

                            NEW MARKET PLACE,

                               BELMONT ROW,

                               Birmingham.

           (Within Two Minutes’ Walk of both Railway Stations.)

                                * * * * *

The airy situation of the above Inn, and its proximity to the Grand
Junction and London and Birmingham Railway Companies’ Offices, render it
most eligible for Commercial Gentlemen and others, and will be found to
possess the two important requisites of Comfort and Economy combined.

                                * * * * *

                             Well Aired Beds.

                          _EXCELLENT STABLING_,

N.B. OMNIBUSES to and from the principal Coach Offices, where places may
be secured by fast and well regulated Coaches to any part of the Kingdom.

                                * * * * *



CHARLES BROOKES,


                        WOOLLEN DRAPER AND TAILOR,

                             81, NEW-STREET,

                  (Nearly opposite the Society of Arts,)

                               Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

                             H. MICHAEL & CO.

                              MANUFACTURING

                       FURRIERS AND SKIN MERCHANTS,

                             115, NEW-STREET,

                    Corner of King-street, Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

N.B. Furs of all descriptions Cleaned, Repaired, and Altered to the
present Fashion.

                                * * * * *



WAGNER & COTTRELL,


                             MANUFACTURERS OF

                         PORTABLE WRITING DESKS,

Ladies’ Toilet and Gentlemen’s Dressing Cases, Mahogany, Rosewood, or
Russia Leather Travelling Cases, Medicine Chests, Copying Machines, and
every article in the Cabinet Case Business.

                          21, _PARADISE-STREET_,

                               Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

                         [Picture: Coat of Arms]

                         By Special Appointment.

                                * * * * *



T. J. MORRIS,


                           REPOSITORY OF ARTS,

                         COLMORE ROW, BIRMINGHAM,

                             MANUFACTURER OF

                    Superfine Water Colours in Cakes,

                                   AND

                            FINE HAIR PENCILS,

           In Ordinary to Her Most Gracious Majesty the Queen,
                      Her Majesty the Queen Dowager,
                                 and the
                             Duke of Sussex.

                 LONDON, and 28, Colmore Row, BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

Circulating Port Folios, consisting of the choicest Drawings, Flowers by
Holland and Edwards, Pole and Hand Screens, Card Racks, Gold Papers and
Borders, Screen Handles, White Wood-work for Painting, Ivory and British
Boards, and Fancy Stationery.

                   Papier Machee of every description.

Materials for Chinese Japan Painting, Hollands and Harding’s Colours,
Brookman and Langdon’s, and Banks’ Lead Pencils, Drawing Materials,
Varnishing in a Superior Style, Ivories for Miniatures, Prepared Canvass
and Bladder Colours.

              MORDAN’S EVER-POINTED PENCILS AND PEN HOLDERS.

                                * * * * *



R. SIMS,


            (TEN YEARS ASSISTANT TO MR. ENGLISH, COLMORE ROW,)

                             SURGEON DENTIST,

                                 NO. 13,

                      _UNION PASSAGE_, _NEW-STREET_,

                               BIRMINGHAM,

Returns his sincere acknowledgments to the Inhabitants of Birmingham and
its vicinity, for the liberal support that has been conferred upon him
since his commencing Practice, and trusts that his having had Ten Years’
experience with Mr. English, during which he had nearly the whole of the
Mechanical Department entrusted to his care, will still entitle him to
that support and patronage which has hitherto been awarded to him.

In consequence of some unskilful pretenders having put themselves forward
to public notice as adepts in the above art, he thinks it necessary to
state that he never ties in teeth, which is the most that these
pretenders can ever accomplish; his superior Gold Plates never in any
instance require the painful and most injurious operation of tying in;
and he assures them they will wear more years than the spurious bone
teeth, which they put forth to the public, will last months, at a less
charge, and with greater comfort to the wearer.

                                FEES.
                     £   _s._   _d._                   £   _s._   _d._
A Single Tooth       0     10      0  usually          1      1      0
                                      charged
A Complete Set      10      0      0  usually         20      0      0
                                      charged

Teeth stopped with Cement or Gold according to the cavity. Extracting,
Scaling, and every other operation upon the Teeth; and particular
attention paid to the regulation of Children’s Teeth upon equally
moderate charges.

                                * * * * *



TO NOBLEMEN, GENTLEMEN, SPORTSMEN, AND
GUN-MAKERS.


                                * * * * *

                                S. WALKER,

              Military Percussion Cap Maker to Her Majesty’s
                      Honourable Board of Ordnance,

Begs most respectfully to inform her numerous Friends, and the Public
generally, that she has dissolved Partnership with her Son, and that she
will continue to carry on the Percussion Cap Business in all its
Branches.

S. WALKER’S Caps have been known and approved of by the Sporting World
for more than sixteen Years, and she can with confidence assure them
every exertion shall be made, this seventeenth Season, to render them
still superior to any yet manufactured.

Sold in Boxes of 250 and 500 each, by most of the respectable Gun-makers
and Gunpowder Dealers throughout the Kingdom.

                     CHEMICALLY PREPARED GUN WADDING,

                 Manufactured upon an Improved Principle,

                              BY S. WALKER.

This Wadding will be found superior to any now in use, as it not only
cleans the barrel, every time it is used, but, through the Chemical
Properties of the oily Composition with which it is impregnated, the lead
is removed as quickly as deposited.

Sold in Bags, containing 500 each, price 5s., by all respectable Gun
Makers in the United Kingdom; where also may be had S. Walker’s Improved
Anti-Corrosive Percussion Caps.

                               MANUFACTORY,
                    No. 12, Legge-street, Birmingham.

Agents for Edinburgh—J. & R. Raines, Leith-Walk.

Agents for Dublin—J. H. and J. Perry, 27, Pill-lane; and Messrs. Saunders
and Gatchells, Gunpowder Office, 6 and 7, Mountrath-street, Dublin.

                                * * * * *



ABRAHAM ALLPORT,


                       WOOLLEN DRAPER, TAILOR, &c.

                       2, COLMORE ROW, BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

Clothes of every description made in the first style of Fashion on the
most reasonable Terms, and at the shortest Notice.

                                * * * * *



WILLIAM JACKSON & CO.,


                  GLASS, LEAD, ZINC, AND OIL MERCHANTS,

                             MANUFACTURERS OF

                      _COLOURS_, _VARNISHES_, _&c._

         Sheet Lead, Pig Lead, Lead Pipe, Block Tin, White Lead,
            Dry Colours, Oil Paints, Linseed Oil, Boiled Oil,
                 Tin Pipe, Turpentine, Putty, Sheet Zinc,
                             Glaziers’ Vices,

                         MANUFACTURED ZINC GOODS,

     Beer Machines, Water Closets, Lift Pumps, Brass Cocks, and every
                   Description of Plumbers’ Brass Work.

           WAREHOUSE, NO. 1, LITTLE CHARLES-STREET, BIRMINGHAM.

               VARNISH, COLOUR, AND ZINC WORKS, AT ASHTED.

N.B. Sole Agents for the Whiston Copper Company. (Messrs. Sneyd,
Kinnersley & Co.)

                                * * * * *



HATS.


                             75, HIGH-STREET.

                                   GOOD

                          FASHIONABLE GOSSAMERS
                           At 4s. 9d. to 10s.;
                       SUPERFINE SHORT-NAP STUFFS,
                       Best that can be made, 21s.;

                               TO BE HAD AT
                                 WALKER’S
                             CHEAP HAT DEPÔT.

Also a large assortment of Fashionable CAPS and GRASS HATS for Summer
wear.

                                * * * * *



JAMES GRUNDY,


                             MANUFACTURER OF

                    GAS & OIL LAMPS, CHANDELIERS, &c.

                           IN BRONZE & OR-MOLU.

                    GAS FITTINGS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.

                       No. 11, BARTHOLOMEW-STREET,

                              _BIRMINGHAM_.

                                * * * * *



JOHN GODFREY,


                    WORKING OPTICIAN, SILVERSMITH. &c.
                        NO. 93, COLESHILL-STREET,

Begs most respectfully to announce to the Nobility, Gentry, and
Inhabitants of Birmingham and its Vicinity, that he has, in addition to
his Wholesale Establishment, opened a Retail Shop as above, for the
purpose of supplying those who may in any way suffer from a defect of
sight, with spectacles suited to their various wants. Having been
practically engaged in the above business for more than forty years, he
trusts that his great experience will enable him to render all the
assistance required, so far as glasses, judiciously applied, are capable
of affording it.

Spectacles with shades of every description, particularly recommended to
persons travelling, or those who are affected with a weakness in the eye,
as they completely defend that tender organ from the bright glare of the
sun, and are extremely useful either in windy or snowy weather.

Spectacles in tortoiseshell, silver, or blued steel mountings, set with
either best Brazilian pebbles, or glasses accurately ground.

                Optical Instruments of every Description.

Spectacles of every description expeditiously and neatly repaired.
Pebbles or Glasses set in a few minutes.

                Every Article supplied on Moderate Terms.

J. G. hopes that the quality of the various articles supplied by him,
will, upon a fair trial, ensure him the patronage and support of those
who may honour him with their commands.

                                * * * * *



CAPTAIN HOSKINS,


                               IMPORTER OF

                        FOREIGN WINES AND SPIRITS,

                           LOWER TEMPLE-STREET,

                         (Corner of New-street,)

                               BIRMINGHAM.

                          IMPORTER OF LIQUEURS.

                                * * * * *



TEETH.


                                * * * * *

                              MR. E. JONES,

                                 DENTIST,

                       NO. 9, EASY ROW, BIRMINGHAM,

       Six Years Assistant with Mr. ANDREW CLARK, of Brook-street,
                           Bond-street, London,

Begs to say he will continue to supply ARTIFICIAL TEETH upon the same
principle as Mr. A. Clark, and the only one that will ensure ease,
articulation, and mastication.

E. G., having undertaken several cases that had been refused by other
Dentists as impracticable, can give the most satisfactory References as
to the beneficial results of his Practice.

                            EVERY OPERATION IN

                             DENTAL SURGERY,

                  Performed on the most moderate Terms.

                                * * * * *



PERMANENT ELASTIC SPRING HYGEIAN BEDS,
CARRIAGE, GIG, SOFA, AND CHAIR SEATS,


          Patronised by Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent.

                                * * * * *

                             RICHARD FARMER,
                              Manufacturer,

With the greatest deference submits to the attention of his Friends and
the Public the subjoined Documents, as flattering Testimonies of the high
estimation in which the above very superior and much approved Articles
are held:—

_From_ SIR JOHN CONROY, _Secretary to_ HER ROYAL HIGHNESS

                           THE DUCHESS OF KENT.

    “Sir John Conroy is honoured with the DUCHESS OF KENT’S command to
    acquaint Mr. Farmer, that he has permission to use Her Royal
    Highness’s Name and Arms, as Manufacturer of Permanent Elastic Spring
    Hygeian Beds to Her Royal Highness.

    “Malvern, Sept. 13, 1830.”

    “Sir John Conroy is to acknowledge the receipt of the Bed and
    Mattress of Mr. R. Farmer’s invention, which he has made for the
    PRINCESS VICTORIA; and Sir John is commanded by the DUCHESS OF KENT
    to express Her Royal Highness’s highest approval of the principle of
    his Mattresses, Cushions, &c.

    “Kensington Palace, Dec. 17, 1830.

    “_Mr. Richard Farmer_, _&c. &c._”

_From_ CONGREVE SELWYN, Esq. _Surgeon of the Ledbury Dispensary_.

    “Mr. CONGREVE SELWYN, Surgeon of the Ledbury Dispensary, begs to
    offer his Testimony of the value of Mr. Farmer’s invention of his
    Elastic Mattresses and Cushions. The one he has sent to Mr. Selwyn
    answers all the purposes for an Invalid, and is particularly
    serviceable where the patient suffers from hectic fever and night
    perspirations.

    “Ledbury, May 2, 1834.

    “_Mr. Richard Farmer_, _&c. &c._”

                    _From_ SIR WILLIAM B. CAVE, Bart.

                                     “Stretton, Atherstone, July 22, 1835.

    “Sir WM. B. CAVE has much satisfaction in informing Mr. Richard
    Farmer, that the Elastic Steel Spring Bed which he purchased from Mr.
    F. has fully answered every expectation he had formed of it. Sir. W.
    C. lay upon it for five months without ever being able to be moved in
    the least from it, and for the last six months has not been removed
    from it for more than two hours at a time, and it is now as perfect
    in the elasticity and strength of the springs as when he received it
    from Mr. Farmer. Sir W. Cave’s weight is sixteen stone and upwards.
    Dr. Palmer, of Birmingham, who has been in the habit of attending Sir
    W. Cave for many years, gave it as his opinion, that had he been
    lying on a bed of any other description, the consequences would have
    been very serious.

    “_Mr. Richard Farmer_, _&c. &c._”

                                * * * * *

Carpets, Paper Hangings, Oil-Cloths, Druggets, Crumb Cloths,
Double-stoved Feathers, &c. &c.—Upholstery and General Cabinet Business.

→ 11, NEW-STREET, (opposite the Hen & Chickens Hotel,) and 30, BATH ROW,
BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *



GEORGE RICHMOND COLLIS,


                _Late Sir EDWARD THOMASON’S Manufactory_,

                        CHURCH-STREET, BIRMINGHAM.

Manufacturer of Articles in the highest classes of the Arts, in Gold,
Silver, Plated, Bronze, and Or-Molu. In this Establishment is
manufactured Gold and Silver Plate, including Racing Cups, Dinner and Tea
Services, of various Patterns: COMMUNION PLATE and PRESENTATION PLATE,
made to descriptions given, or if required, a variety of elegant Designs
furnished for approval: Silver-mounted Plated Wares of every
denomination; Plated Cutlery upon Steel: Cut Glass, Or-Molu, Candelabra
and Lamps: Manufacturer of Medals in great variety adapted for Societies
and Institutions. Amongst the numerous series of Dies are the celebrated
Dassier Dies of the Kings of England: The Mudie Dies for the series of
grand National Medals, commemorative of the Victories of the late War:
Forty-eight Dies for Medals of the ELGIN Marbles. Also SIR EDWARD
THOMASON’S Splendid Series of One Hundred and Twenty large Medal Dies
Illustrative of the HOLY SCRIPTURES, and a series of sixteen Medals upon
Science and Philosophy, for Societies: Livery Button Dies cut, and the
Buttons made. Numerous Patent Mechanical Inventions in the Metals, and
Papier Machee: Brass and Bronze Staircases: manufacturer of fine Gold
Jewellery of the most splendid descriptions: Dealer in Diamonds, Pearls,
and fine Gems: Diamond Suits made to order, and altered to the present
Style, or if required, purchased, and payment, full value, in cash:
English and Foreign Money exchanged; Old Gold and Silver Articles
reworked as new, or purchased. Manufacturer of Sportsmen’s fine Fowling
Pieces upon an improved principle. Duelling Pistols, Rifles, Air Guns and
Canes, and Guns of every variety for Exportation.

These extensive Show Rooms and MANUFACTORY, are situate in CHURCH-STREET,
in the centre of the Town, adjoining St. Philip’s Church Yard. The Ware
Rooms contain the Finished Articles for sale, and are open to all persons
of respectability.

The FAC-SIMILE of the celebrated WARWICK VASE, of upwards of 21 feet in
circumference, was made in metallic Bronze at this Manufactory. The
Copper Bronze STATUE OF HIS LATE MAJESTY, GEORGE THE FOURTH, upwards of 6
feet in height, was modelled, cast, and sculptured at this Establishment:
as also a SHIELD in honour of the DUKE OF WELLINGTON’S VICTORIES. These
and numerous other Works are stationed in separate Rooms to exhibit the
progress of British Art.

Servants are appointed to conduct Visiters over the different Workshops,
to whom and to the Work-people the Visiter is requested to abstain from
giving any gratuity.

N.B. Mr. George Richmond Collis is Vice Consul for France, Russia, Spain,
Portugal, and Turkey, with the privilege of granting Passports to Persons
visiting France and its Dominions.

Strangers of Respectability are permitted to view the Show Rooms and
Manufactory.

                                * * * * *



THOMAS & JAMES UPFILL,


                        IRON AND STEEL MERCHANTS,

                        157, GREAT CHARLES-STREET,

                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

                             MANUFACTURERS OF

                          WROUGHT AND CAST IRON

                           GATES, PARK FENCING,

                                _HURDLES_,

                    INVISIBLE WIRE FENCE, HAIR FENCE,

                         RACKS, MANGERS, CHAINS,

                       NAILS, BOOK CASES, TIN, IRON
                                ARMS, &c.

                                * * * * *



THORNTON AND SON,
WHOLESALE IRONMONGERS,


                             MANUFACTURERS OF

                     WROUGHT IRON AND PRESSED RIVETED
                                 HINGES,

                                CUT NAILS,

Wood, Bed, and Machinery Screws, of every description; Iron Rim and
Mortice Locks, Sash Pulleys, Iron Bolts, Cast Butt Hinges, Norfolk and
Thumb Latches, &c. &c.

                     _BRADFORD-STREET_, _BIRMINGHAM_.

                                * * * * *

→ Redman’s Patent Rising Joint and Swing Hinges, Trough and Centre Hinges
of every kind.

                                * * * * *



F. KNIBB’S


                                COMMERCIAL

                         BOARDING ESTABLISHMENT,

                             15, BOLD-STREET,

                (Two Doors above the Palatine Club House,)

                                LIVERPOOL.

The situation is central, and without exception the pleasantest of any
establishment of the kind in Liverpool. The rooms are large and airy, and
no attention will be spared to render this establishment deserving the
patronage of Commercial Gentlemen and Families.

                                * * * * *



W. FLETCHER,


                             MANUFACTURER OF

                         _LAMPS_, _CANDLESTICKS_,

                        LUSTRES, INKSTANDS, VASES,

            And all kinds of Ornaments in Bronze and Or-molu,

                                   31,

                       LOVEDAY-STREET, BIRMINGHAM.

Manufacturer of Japanned Wood and Papier Maché Cruet, Liquor, and Pickle
Frames; Papier Maché and Metallic Miniature Frames, &c.

AGENT IN LONDON—C. JEPSON, 29, Thavies Inn, Lower Holborn.

                                * * * * *



NOW READY, PART I.


     (_To be completed in two Parts_, _demy_ 12_mo._, _price_ 17_s._)

                                   THE
                             LAW AND PRACTICE
                               RELATING TO
                          LANDLORDS AND TENANTS:
                                COMPRISING

The most approved modern Precedents, alphabetically arranged under
distinct and separate heads, with Notes, Illustrations, and Cases; to
which is prefixed a concise Treatise on the nature of Estates in general,
in accordance with the recent statutes relating to real property. The
whole adapted for the use of attorneys and solicitors; also landlords,
tenants, farmers, stewards, agents, and others concerned in the
management, sale, or letting of estates. BY R. SHIPMAN, Esq., Editor of
“Jones’s Attorney’s Pocket Book,” and Author of the “Attorney’s New
Pocket Book, Notary’s Manual, and Conveyancer’s Assistant.”

London: S. SWEET, 3, Chancery Lane; and J. DRAKE, 52, New-street,
Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

                    Also Ready, royal 12mo, price 7s.

                             A STEPPING STONE
                                  TO THE
                          LAW OF REAL PROPERTY:
                                 BEING AN
               Elementary Treatise on the Statute of Uses.

                            By HENRY SMYTHIES.

London: S. SWEET, 3, Chancery Lane; and J. DRAKE, 52, New-street,
Birmingham.

                                * * * * *

                 SHORTLY WILL BE PUBLISHED, BY J. DRAKE,

      _And sold by the Agents for this Work_, _and all Booksellers_,
 Dedicated by Permission to the Chairman and Directors of the London and
                           Birmingham Railway,

                            DRAKE’S ROAD BOOK,

                                  OF THE

                      LONDON AND BIRMINGHAM RAILWAY,

With _Views on the Line_, from Drawings by HENRY HARRIS; and a new and
beautifully engraved coloured MAP of the entire Route, extending many
miles on each side of the line.

*** To be completed in about five Parts, at 1_s._ per Part; a few copies
on India Paper at 1_s._ 6_d._ per Part.

                                * * * * *

                             JUST PUBLISHED,

                                 DRAKE’S
                              RAILROAD MAPS
                       OF THE ENTIRE LINE OF ROUTE
                                   FROM
                         LONDON TO LIVERPOOL AND
                               MANCHESTER,

                    BEAUTIFULLY ENGRAVED AND COLOURED,

            AND EXTENDING MANY MILES ON EACH SIDE OF THE LINE:

Ornamented with views of the Euston Grove Station, in London, and a
complete Train of Carriages. With the Rules, Regulations, Fares, Times of
Outset and Arrival of the Trains at the various Stations; together with
all requisite Information for Travellers.

         _Price_, _on Canvass_, _in a Case for the Pocket_, 2_s._

*** The Maps of the London and Birmingham and Grand Junction Railways
sold separately, done up in a similar manner, at 1_s._ 6_d._ each. On a
sheet, Coloured, 9_d._—Plain, 6_d._ each.

    “MR. DRAKE, of New-street, has just published in a neat pocket case,
    two well-engraved and coloured Maps of the London and Birmingham and
    Grand Junction Railways.  Each Map describes not only the course of
    the line and a section of its gradients, but the geographical
    position of various places for many miles on either side.  There are
    also annexed complete tables of fares and distances, the rules to be
    observed by travellers, the modes of conveyance to and from the
    hotels and inns to the stations on the line, with the regulations for
    luggage, merchandise, &c.  These maps and accompanying tables
    comprise much information in a small compass, which the railway
    traveller will have frequent opportunities, on his journey, of making
    a practical use of, and turning to good account.”—_Midland Counties’
    Herald_.

    “MR. DRAKE has just published Maps of the Grand Junction and of the
    London and Birmingham Railways, together with tables of distances,
    fares, and regulations. The Maps are done up in a case for the
    pocket, and will be found very portable as well as
    instructive.”—_Birmingham Journal_.

                                * * * * *



PRINTING OFFICE,


                      LAW STATIONERY, ACCOUNT BOOK,
                           AND PAPER WAREHOUSE,

                                   52,
                   NEW-STREET, (OPPOSITE THE THEATRE,)
                               BIRMINGHAM.

                                * * * * *

                               JAMES DRAKE,
               _LAW BOOKSELLER_, _STATIONER_, _AND BINDER_,

Takes this opportunity of presenting his grateful acknowledgments to the
Profession for their liberal support of his Establishment, and at the
same time he begs to assure them, that every article sold by him will be
found of superior quality and at reasonable prices, and will, he hopes,
induce a continuance of their esteemed favours.

J. D. takes this opportunity of calling the attention of the Profession
to his LAW STATIONERY BUSINESS, established more than twenty years, and
which is conducted by himself and competent assistants.


DEEDS AND WRITINGS


                Neatly and carefully Engrossed and Copied.

              DRAFTS DRAWN, AND TITLES CAREFULLY ABSTRACTED,

                        (FOR THE PROFESSION ONLY).

        Books Plainly and Elegantly Bound by Experienced Workmen.
                                LAW BOOKS,

   All the New Works kept in stock, or ordered on the shortest Notice,
               on the same terms of DISCOUNT as in London.

                          LAW REPORTS SUPPLIED.

                        BANKRUPTCY & OTHER FORMS,
                             WRITS, NOTICES,

       FORMS under the new Act for the abolishing Imprisonment for
         Debt; also for Justices of the Peace, Highway Act Forms,
                   Election Forms, &c., kept in Stock.

         *** _Orders from the Country executed with promptness_.

                                * * * * *

           BIRMINGHAM: Printed by James Drake, 52, New-street.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Drake's Road Book of the Grand Junction Railway - from Birmingham to Liverpool and Manchester" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home